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Sample records for fidelity susceptibility study

  1. Fidelity susceptibility as holographic PV-criticality

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Momeni, Davood, E-mail: davoodmomeni78@gmail.com [Eurasian International Center for Theoretical Physics and Department of General & Theoretical Physics, Eurasian National University, Astana 010008 (Kazakhstan); Faizal, Mir, E-mail: mirfaizalmir@googlemail.com [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Lethbridge, Lethbridge, Alberta T1K 3M4 (Canada); Irving K. Barber School of Arts and Sciences, University of British Columbia – Okanagan, 3333 University Way, Kelowna, British Columbia V1V 1V7 (Canada); Myrzakulov, Kairat, E-mail: kairatmyrzakul@gmail.com [Eurasian International Center for Theoretical Physics and Department of General & Theoretical Physics, Eurasian National University, Astana 010008 (Kazakhstan); Myrzakulov, Ratbay, E-mail: rmyrzakulov@gmail.com [Eurasian International Center for Theoretical Physics and Department of General & Theoretical Physics, Eurasian National University, Astana 010008 (Kazakhstan)

    2017-02-10

    It is well known that entropy can be used to holographically establish a connection among geometry, thermodynamics and information theory. In this paper, we will use complexity to holographically establish a connection among geometry, thermodynamics and information theory. Thus, we will analyze the relation among holographic complexity, fidelity susceptibility, and thermodynamics in extended phase space. We will demonstrate that fidelity susceptibility (which is the informational complexity dual to a maximum volume in AdS) can be related to the thermodynamical volume (which is conjugate to the cosmological constant in the extended thermodynamic phase space). Thus, this letter establishes a relation among geometry, thermodynamics, and information theory, using complexity.

  2. Fidelity susceptibility and long-range correlation in the Kitaev honeycomb model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Shuo; Gu, Shi-Jian; Sun, Chang-Pu; Lin, Hai-Qing

    2008-07-01

    We study exactly both the ground-state fidelity susceptibility and bond-bond correlation function in the Kitaev honeycomb model. Our results show that the fidelity susceptibility can be used to identify the topological phase transition from a gapped A phase with Abelian anyon excitations to a gapless B phase with non-Abelian anyon excitations. We also find that the bond-bond correlation function decays exponentially in the gapped phase, but algebraically in the gapless phase. For the former case, the correlation length is found to be 1/ξ=2sinh-1[2Jz-1/(1-Jz)] , which diverges around the critical point Jz=(1/2)+ .

  3. Holographic complexity and fidelity susceptibility as holographic information dual to different volumes in AdS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N.S. Mazhari

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The holographic complexity and fidelity susceptibility have been defined as new quantities dual to different volumes in AdS. In this paper, we will use these new proposals to calculate both of these quantities for a variety of interesting deformations of AdS. We obtain the holographic complexity and fidelity susceptibility for an AdS black hole, Janus solution, a solution with cylindrical symmetry, an inhomogeneous background and a hyperscaling violating background. It is observed that the holographic complexity depends on the size of the subsystem for all these solutions and the fidelity susceptibility does not have any such dependence.

  4. Holographic complexity and fidelity susceptibility as holographic information dual to different volumes in AdS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mazhari, N.S., E-mail: najmemazhari86@gmail.com [Eurasian International Center for Theoretical Physics and Department of General & Theoretical Physics, Eurasian National University, Astana 010008 (Kazakhstan); Momeni, Davood, E-mail: davoodmomeni78@gmail.com [Eurasian International Center for Theoretical Physics and Department of General & Theoretical Physics, Eurasian National University, Astana 010008 (Kazakhstan); Bahamonde, Sebastian, E-mail: sebastian.beltran.14@ucl.ac.uk [Department of Mathematics, University College London, Gower Street, London, WC1E 6BT (United Kingdom); Faizal, Mir, E-mail: mirfaizalmir@googlemail.com [Irving K. Barber School of Arts and Sciences, University of British Columbia - Okanagan, 3333 University Way, Kelowna, British Columbia, V1V 1V7 (Canada); Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Lethbridge, Lethbridge, Alberta, T1K 3M4 (Canada); Myrzakulov, Ratbay, E-mail: rmyrzakulov@gmail.com [Eurasian International Center for Theoretical Physics and Department of General & Theoretical Physics, Eurasian National University, Astana 010008 (Kazakhstan)

    2017-03-10

    The holographic complexity and fidelity susceptibility have been defined as new quantities dual to different volumes in AdS. In this paper, we will use these new proposals to calculate both of these quantities for a variety of interesting deformations of AdS. We obtain the holographic complexity and fidelity susceptibility for an AdS black hole, Janus solution, a solution with cylindrical symmetry, an inhomogeneous background and a hyperscaling violating background. It is observed that the holographic complexity depends on the size of the subsystem for all these solutions and the fidelity susceptibility does not have any such dependence.

  5. Fidelity Susceptibility Made Simple: A Unified Quantum Monte Carlo Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lei Wang

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The fidelity susceptibility is a general purpose probe of phase transitions. With its origin in quantum information and in the differential geometry perspective of quantum states, the fidelity susceptibility can indicate the presence of a phase transition without prior knowledge of the local order parameter, as well as reveal the universal properties of a critical point. The wide applicability of the fidelity susceptibility to quantum many-body systems is, however, hindered by the limited computational tools to evaluate it. We present a generic, efficient, and elegant approach to compute the fidelity susceptibility of correlated fermions, bosons, and quantum spin systems in a broad range of quantum Monte Carlo methods. It can be applied to both the ground-state and nonzero-temperature cases. The Monte Carlo estimator has a simple yet universal form, which can be efficiently evaluated in simulations. We demonstrate the power of this approach with applications to the Bose-Hubbard model, the spin-1/2 XXZ model, and use it to examine the hypothetical intermediate spin-liquid phase in the Hubbard model on the honeycomb lattice.

  6. Study fidelity spatial contours of industrial robots

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    A. V. Ivanova

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this paper to identify deviations fidelity spatial contours of industrial robots, determine the error pattern detected, and define the ways to solve the problem.The paper presents the research results of fidelity spatial contours done by Fanuc M- 710iC/50 industrial robot when moving along a predetermined path. The proposed method uses a QC20-W ballbar wireless system of Renishaw company, designed to diagnose the state of the measurement and playback linear and angular displacements of the CNC.The solutions to adapt the QC20-W ballbar system to the constructive peculiarities of industrial robots with five or more independently controlled axes are given. The stages of the preparation of diagnostic systems and software robot movements are described.According to study results of errors that arise while playing back the programmed motions of a fixed point of robot capture in three mutually perpendicular planes its practical accuracy has been defined when performing movements in a given region of the working area, thereby allowing us, eventually, to draw a conclusion on the possibility to use a robot in one technological process or another.The study has resulted in emerging the guidelines for the operation of industrial robots with five or more independently controlled axes. Using these guidelines enables us to increase the playback accuracy of the industrial robot to 0.01 mm.

  7. An empirical study of multidimensional fidelity of COMPASS consultation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Venus; Ruble, Lisa A; McGrew, John H; Yu, Yue

    2018-06-01

    Consultation is essential to the daily practice of school psychologists (National Association of School Psychologist, 2010). Successful consultation requires fidelity at both the consultant (implementation) and consultee (intervention) levels. We applied a multidimensional, multilevel conception of fidelity (Dunst, Trivette, & Raab, 2013) to a consultative intervention called the Collaborative Model for Promoting Competence and Success (COMPASS) for students with autism. The study provided 3 main findings. First, multidimensional, multilevel fidelity is a stable construct and increases over time with consultation support. Second, mediation analyses revealed that implementation-level fidelity components had distant, indirect effects on student Individualized Education Program (IEP) outcomes. Third, 3 fidelity components correlated with IEP outcomes: teacher coaching responsiveness at the implementation level, and teacher quality of delivery and student responsiveness at the intervention levels. Implications and future directions are discussed. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2018 APA, all rights reserved).

  8. Fidelity study of superconductivity in extended Hubbard models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plonka, N.; Jia, C. J.; Wang, Y.; Moritz, B.; Devereaux, T. P.

    2015-07-01

    The Hubbard model with local on-site repulsion is generally thought to possess a superconducting ground state for appropriate parameters, but the effects of more realistic long-range Coulomb interactions have not been studied extensively. We study the influence of these interactions on superconductivity by including nearest- and next-nearest-neighbor extended Hubbard interactions in addition to the usual on-site terms. Utilizing numerical exact diagonalization, we analyze the signatures of superconductivity in the ground states through the fidelity metric of quantum information theory. We find that nearest and next-nearest neighbor interactions have thresholds above which they destabilize superconductivity regardless of whether they are attractive or repulsive, seemingly due to competing charge fluctuations.

  9. A study of moult-site fidelity in Egyptian geese, Alopochen ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Little is known about moult and moult-site fidelity of African waterfowl. Satellite telemetry and uniquely engraved colour-rings were used to study moult-site fidelity of Egyptian geese marked at two sites in South Africa – Barberspan in the summer-rainfall region and Strandfontein in the winter-rainfall region. Twelve Egyptian ...

  10. Treatment Fidelity: Its Importance and Reported Frequency in Aphasia Treatment Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hinckley, Jacqueline J.; Douglas, Natalie F.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: Treatment fidelity is a measure of the reliability of the administration of an intervention in a treatment study. It is an important aspect of the validity of a research study, and it has implications for the ultimate implementation of evidence-supported interventions in typical clinical settings. Method: Aphasia treatment studies…

  11. Original Paper Multicenter study on antibiotic susceptibility ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Multicenter study on antibiotic susceptibility/resistance trends in the western region of Cameroon ... antibiotic era, IDs used to be serious threats because of lack or insufficient ...... antimicrobial use in livestock; AMR. Control., 116-122. Vandini ...

  12. Debriefing after High-Fidelity Simulation and Knowledge Retention: A Quasi-Experimental Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olson, Susan L.

    2013-01-01

    High-fidelity simulation (HFS) use in nursing education has been a frequent research topic in recent years. Previous research included studies on the use of HFS with nursing students, focusing on their feelings of self-confidence and anxiety. However, research focused specifically on the debriefing portion of HFS was limited. This quantitative,…

  13. An Assessment of Intervention Fidelity in Published Social Work Intervention Research Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corley, Nicole A.; Kim, Irang

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: Intervention fidelity is a critical strategy to help advance the usefulness and integrity of social work research. This study assessed the extent to which a selected sample of published social work intervention researchers reported its intervention protocols. Methods: Six core social work journals were reviewed in this analysis. The…

  14. Fidelity approach in topological superconductors with disorders

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tian, Wen-Chuan; Huang, Guang-Yao; Wang, Zhi, E-mail: physicswangzhi@gmail.com; Yao, Dao-Xin, E-mail: yaodaox@mail.sysu.edu.cn

    2015-03-20

    We apply the fidelity approach to study the topological superconductivity in spin–orbit coupling nanowire system. The wire is modeled as a one layer lattice chain with Zeeman energy and spin–orbit coupling, which is in proximity to a multi-layer superconductor. In particular, we study the effects of disorders and find that the fidelity susceptibility has multiple peaks. It is revealed that one peak indicates the topological quantum phase transition, while other peaks are signaling the pinning of the Majorana bound states by disorders. - Highlights: • We introduce fidelity approach to study the topological superconducting nanowire with disorders. • We study the quantum phase transition in the wire. • We investigate the disorder pinning of the Majorana bound states in the wire.

  15. Fidelity approach in topological superconductors with disorders

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tian, Wen-Chuan; Huang, Guang-Yao; Wang, Zhi; Yao, Dao-Xin

    2015-01-01

    We apply the fidelity approach to study the topological superconductivity in spin–orbit coupling nanowire system. The wire is modeled as a one layer lattice chain with Zeeman energy and spin–orbit coupling, which is in proximity to a multi-layer superconductor. In particular, we study the effects of disorders and find that the fidelity susceptibility has multiple peaks. It is revealed that one peak indicates the topological quantum phase transition, while other peaks are signaling the pinning of the Majorana bound states by disorders. - Highlights: • We introduce fidelity approach to study the topological superconducting nanowire with disorders. • We study the quantum phase transition in the wire. • We investigate the disorder pinning of the Majorana bound states in the wire

  16. A study on the usefulness of high fidelity patient simulation in undergraduate medical education

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    Bikramjit Pal

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Simulation is the imitation of the operation of a real-world process or system over time. Innovative simulation training solutions are now being used to train medical professionals in an attempt to reduce the number of safety concerns that have adverse effects on the patients. Objectives: (a To determine its usefulness as a teaching or learning tool for management of surgical emergencies, both in the short term and medium term by students’ perception. (b To plan future teaching methodology regarding hi-fidelity simulation based on the study outcomes and re-assessment of the current training modules. Methods: Quasi-experimental time series design with pretest-posttest interventional study. Quantitative data was analysed in terms of Mean, Standard Deviation and standard error of Mean. Statistical tests of significance like Repeated Measure of Analysis of Variance (ANOVA were used for comparisons. P value < 0.001 was considered to be statistically significant. Results: The students opined that the simulated sessions on high fidelity simulators had encouraged their active participation which was appropriate to their current level of learning. It helped them to think fast and the training sessions resembled a real life situation. The study showed that learning had progressively improved with each session of simulation with corresponding decrease in stress. Conclusion: Implementation of high fidelity simulation based learning in our Institute had been perceived favourably by a large number of students in enhancing their knowledge over time in management of trauma and surgical emergencies.

  17. A high-fidelity virtual environment for the study of paranoia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Broome, Matthew R; Zányi, Eva; Hamborg, Thomas; Selmanovic, Elmedin; Czanner, Silvester; Birchwood, Max; Chalmers, Alan; Singh, Swaran P

    2013-01-01

    Psychotic disorders carry social and economic costs for sufferers and society. Recent evidence highlights the risk posed by urban upbringing and social deprivation in the genesis of paranoia and psychosis. Evidence based psychological interventions are often not offered because of a lack of therapists. Virtual reality (VR) environments have been used to treat mental health problems. VR may be a way of understanding the aetiological processes in psychosis and increasing psychotherapeutic resources for its treatment. We developed a high-fidelity virtual reality scenario of an urban street scene to test the hypothesis that virtual urban exposure is able to generate paranoia to a comparable or greater extent than scenarios using indoor scenes. Participants (n = 32) entered the VR scenario for four minutes, after which time their degree of paranoid ideation was assessed. We demonstrated that the virtual reality scenario was able to elicit paranoia in a nonclinical, healthy group and that an urban scene was more likely to lead to higher levels of paranoia than a virtual indoor environment. We suggest that this study offers evidence to support the role of exposure to factors in the urban environment in the genesis and maintenance of psychotic experiences and symptoms. The realistic high-fidelity street scene scenario may offer a useful tool for therapists.

  18. A High-Fidelity Virtual Environment for the Study of Paranoia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew R. Broome

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Psychotic disorders carry social and economic costs for sufferers and society. Recent evidence highlights the risk posed by urban upbringing and social deprivation in the genesis of paranoia and psychosis. Evidence based psychological interventions are often not offered because of a lack of therapists. Virtual reality (VR environments have been used to treat mental health problems. VR may be a way of understanding the aetiological processes in psychosis and increasing psychotherapeutic resources for its treatment. We developed a high-fidelity virtual reality scenario of an urban street scene to test the hypothesis that virtual urban exposure is able to generate paranoia to a comparable or greater extent than scenarios using indoor scenes. Participants (n=32 entered the VR scenario for four minutes, after which time their degree of paranoid ideation was assessed. We demonstrated that the virtual reality scenario was able to elicit paranoia in a nonclinical, healthy group and that an urban scene was more likely to lead to higher levels of paranoia than a virtual indoor environment. We suggest that this study offers evidence to support the role of exposure to factors in the urban environment in the genesis and maintenance of psychotic experiences and symptoms. The realistic high-fidelity street scene scenario may offer a useful tool for therapists.

  19. [Acquiring skills in malignant hyperthermia crisis management: comparison of high-fidelity simulation versus computer-based case study].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mejía, Vilma; Gonzalez, Carlos; Delfino, Alejandro E; Altermatt, Fernando R; Corvetto, Marcia A

    The primary purpose of this study was to compare the effect of high fidelity simulation versus a computer-based case solving self-study, in skills acquisition about malignant hyperthermia on first year anesthesiology residents. After institutional ethical committee approval, 31 first year anesthesiology residents were enrolled in this prospective randomized single-blinded study. Participants were randomized to either a High Fidelity Simulation Scenario or a computer-based Case Study about malignant hyperthermia. After the intervention, all subjects' performance in was assessed through a high fidelity simulation scenario using a previously validated assessment rubric. Additionally, knowledge tests and a satisfaction survey were applied. Finally, a semi-structured interview was done to assess self-perception of reasoning process and decision-making. 28 first year residents finished successfully the study. Resident's management skill scores were globally higher in High Fidelity Simulation versus Case Study, however they were significant in 4 of the 8 performance rubric elements: recognize signs and symptoms (p = 0.025), prioritization of initial actions of management (p = 0.003), recognize complications (p = 0.025) and communication (p = 0.025). Average scores from pre- and post-test knowledge questionnaires improved from 74% to 85% in the High Fidelity Simulation group, and decreased from 78% to 75% in the Case Study group (p = 0.032). Regarding the qualitative analysis, there was no difference in factors influencing the student's process of reasoning and decision-making with both teaching strategies. Simulation-based training with a malignant hyperthermia high-fidelity scenario was superior to computer-based case study, improving knowledge and skills in malignant hyperthermia crisis management, with a very good satisfaction level in anesthesia residents. Copyright © 2018 Sociedade Brasileira de Anestesiologia. Publicado por Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights

  20. Acquiring skills in malignant hyperthermia crisis management: comparison of high-fidelity simulation versus computer-based case study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vilma Mejía

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction: The primary purpose of this study was to compare the effect of high fidelity simulation versus a computer-based case solving self-study, in skills acquisition about malignant hyperthermia on first year anesthesiology residents. Methods: After institutional ethical committee approval, 31 first year anesthesiology residents were enrolled in this prospective randomized single-blinded study. Participants were randomized to either a High Fidelity Simulation Scenario or a computer-based Case Study about malignant hyperthermia. After the intervention, all subjects' performance in was assessed through a high fidelity simulation scenario using a previously validated assessment rubric. Additionally, knowledge tests and a satisfaction survey were applied. Finally, a semi-structured interview was done to assess self-perception of reasoning process and decision-making. Results: 28 first year residents finished successfully the study. Resident's management skill scores were globally higher in High Fidelity Simulation versus Case Study, however they were significant in 4 of the 8 performance rubric elements: recognize signs and symptoms (p = 0.025, prioritization of initial actions of management (p = 0.003, recognize complications (p = 0.025 and communication (p = 0.025. Average scores from pre- and post-test knowledge questionnaires improved from 74% to 85% in the High Fidelity Simulation group, and decreased from 78% to 75% in the Case Study group (p = 0.032. Regarding the qualitative analysis, there was no difference in factors influencing the student's process of reasoning and decision-making with both teaching strategies. Conclusion: Simulation-based training with a malignant hyperthermia high-fidelity scenario was superior to computer-based case study, improving knowledge and skills in malignant hyperthermia crisis management, with a very good satisfaction level in anesthesia residents.

  1. The experiences of last-year student midwives with High-Fidelity Perinatal Simulation training: A qualitative descriptive study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vermeulen, Joeri; Beeckman, Katrien; Turcksin, Rivka; Van Winkel, Lies; Gucciardo, Léonardo; Laubach, Monika; Peersman, Wim; Swinnen, Eva

    2017-06-01

    Simulation training is a powerful and evidence-based teaching method in healthcare. It allows students to develop essential competences that are often difficult to achieve during internships. High-Fidelity Perinatal Simulation exposes them to real-life scenarios in a safe environment. Although student midwives' experiences need to be considered to make the simulation training work, these have been overlooked so far. To explore the experiences of last-year student midwives with High-Fidelity Perinatal Simulation training. A qualitative descriptive study, using three focus group conversations with last-year student midwives (n=24). Audio tapes were transcribed and a thematic content analysis was performed. The entire data set was coded according to recurrent or common themes. To achieve investigator triangulation and confirm themes, discussions among the researchers was incorporated in the analysis. Students found High-Fidelity Perinatal Simulation training to be a positive learning method that increased both their competence and confidence. Their experiences varied over the different phases of the High-Fidelity Perinatal Simulation training. Although uncertainty, tension, confusion and disappointment were experienced throughout the simulation trajectory, they reported that this did not affect their learning and confidence-building. As High-Fidelity Perinatal Simulation training constitutes a helpful learning experience in midwifery education, it could have a positive influence on maternal and neonatal outcomes. In the long term, it could therefore enhance the midwifery profession in several ways. The present study is an important first step in opening up the debate about the pedagogical use of High-Fidelity Perinatal Simulation training within midwifery education. Copyright © 2017 Australian College of Midwives. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. A Case Study with Green Dot Public Schools on Managing the Tension between Fidelity and Adaptation When Scaling-Up

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cevallos, Pedro F., Jr.

    2009-01-01

    This dissertation was a single case study with Green Dot Public Schools (GDPS) describing their rapid scale-up process. Specifically, it investigates the phenomenon of the inherent tension between maintaining the fidelity of the original model school's design, culture and values with local adaptation of the brand by stakeholders at the expansion…

  3. Fidelity and moderating factors in complex interventions: a case study of a continuum of care program for frail elderly people in health and social care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasson, Henna; Blomberg, Staffan; Dunér, Anna

    2012-03-22

    Prior studies measuring fidelity of complex interventions have mainly evaluated adherence, and not taken factors affecting adherence into consideration. A need for studies that clarify the concept of fidelity and the function of factors moderating fidelity has been emphasized. The aim of the study was to systematically evaluate implementation fidelity and possible factors influencing fidelity of a complex care continuum intervention for frail elderly people. The intervention was a systematization of the collaboration between a nurse with geriatric expertise situated at the emergency department, the hospital ward staff, and a multi-professional team with a case manager in the municipal care services for older people. Implementation was evaluated between September 2008 and May 2010 with observations of work practices, stakeholder interviews, and document analysis according to a modified version of The Conceptual Framework for Implementation Fidelity. A total of 16 of the 18 intervention components were to a great extent delivered as planned, while some new components were added to the model. No changes in the frequency or duration of the 18 components were observed, but the dose of the added components varied over time. Changes in fidelity were caused in a complex, interrelated fashion by all the moderating factors in the framework, i.e., context, staff and participant responsiveness, facilitation, recruitment, and complexity. The Conceptual Framework for Implementation Fidelity was empirically useful and included comprehensive measures of factors affecting fidelity. Future studies should focus on developing the framework with regard to how to investigate relationships between the moderating factors and fidelity over time. ClinicalTrials.gov, NCT01260493.

  4. Fidelity and moderating factors in complex interventions: a case study of a continuum of care program for frail elderly people in health and social care

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Background Prior studies measuring fidelity of complex interventions have mainly evaluated adherence, and not taken factors affecting adherence into consideration. A need for studies that clarify the concept of fidelity and the function of factors moderating fidelity has been emphasized. The aim of the study was to systematically evaluate implementation fidelity and possible factors influencing fidelity of a complex care continuum intervention for frail elderly people. Methods The intervention was a systematization of the collaboration between a nurse with geriatric expertise situated at the emergency department, the hospital ward staff, and a multi-professional team with a case manager in the municipal care services for older people. Implementation was evaluated between September 2008 and May 2010 with observations of work practices, stakeholder interviews, and document analysis according to a modified version of The Conceptual Framework for Implementation Fidelity. Results A total of 16 of the 18 intervention components were to a great extent delivered as planned, while some new components were added to the model. No changes in the frequency or duration of the 18 components were observed, but the dose of the added components varied over time. Changes in fidelity were caused in a complex, interrelated fashion by all the moderating factors in the framework, i.e., context, staff and participant responsiveness, facilitation, recruitment, and complexity. Discussion The Conceptual Framework for Implementation Fidelity was empirically useful and included comprehensive measures of factors affecting fidelity. Future studies should focus on developing the framework with regard to how to investigate relationships between the moderating factors and fidelity over time. Trial registration ClinicalTrials.gov, NCT01260493. PMID:22436121

  5. Fidelity and moderating factors in complex interventions: a case study of a continuum of care program for frail elderly people in health and social care

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hasson Henna

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Prior studies measuring fidelity of complex interventions have mainly evaluated adherence, and not taken factors affecting adherence into consideration. A need for studies that clarify the concept of fidelity and the function of factors moderating fidelity has been emphasized. The aim of the study was to systematically evaluate implementation fidelity and possible factors influencing fidelity of a complex care continuum intervention for frail elderly people. Methods The intervention was a systematization of the collaboration between a nurse with geriatric expertise situated at the emergency department, the hospital ward staff, and a multi-professional team with a case manager in the municipal care services for older people. Implementation was evaluated between September 2008 and May 2010 with observations of work practices, stakeholder interviews, and document analysis according to a modified version of The Conceptual Framework for Implementation Fidelity. Results A total of 16 of the 18 intervention components were to a great extent delivered as planned, while some new components were added to the model. No changes in the frequency or duration of the 18 components were observed, but the dose of the added components varied over time. Changes in fidelity were caused in a complex, interrelated fashion by all the moderating factors in the framework, i.e., context, staff and participant responsiveness, facilitation, recruitment, and complexity. Discussion The Conceptual Framework for Implementation Fidelity was empirically useful and included comprehensive measures of factors affecting fidelity. Future studies should focus on developing the framework with regard to how to investigate relationships between the moderating factors and fidelity over time. Trial registration ClinicalTrials.gov, NCT01260493.

  6. In Vitro Antibiotic Susceptibility Studies Of Bacteria Associated With ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In vitro tests of the susceptibility of isolates of bacterial keratitis pathogens to antibiotics were carried out in this study. Staphylococcus aureus was the most frequently isolated organisms followed by Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Streptococcus pneumoniae. Antibiotic sensitivity testing showed a high susceptibility to ...

  7. The measurement and effect of implementation fidelity in the multi component smoking intervention: The X:IT study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bast, Lotus Sofie

    2016-01-01

    -based smoking prevention programs have been launched over the past three decades, and generally multi component initiatives are recommended. The effects have been inconclusive, though, which may partly be due to lack of implementation, but little evidence exists on the implementation of school-based smoking....... Methods: My three papers were based on the school-randomized X:IT study, which tested a multi component intervention to prevent smoking among adolescents in 94 Danish elementary schools (51 intervention and 43 control schools). Participants were grade 7 pupils (mean age: 12.5 years). We collected data......Title: The measurement and effect of implementation fidelity in the multi component smoking intervention: The X:IT study Background: Careful measurement of implementation fidelity is crucial in the examination of whether an intervention worked as intended or not. A large number of school...

  8. AC susceptibility enhancement studies in magnetic systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mukherjee, S.; Ranganathan, R.; Chakravarti, A.; Sil, S.

    2001-01-01

    Enhancement of AC susceptibility has been observed for typical ferromagnets (Gd), reentrant spin glasses like (Fe 1.5 Mn 1.5 Si) and canted spin systems (Ce(Fe 0.96 Al 0.04 ) 2 ). The data have been interpreted with the help of a simulation model based on dry friction-like pinning of domain walls for systems having ferromagnetic domain structures. A strong pinning mechanism appears in the reentrant spin glass like and canted spin systems at low temperatures in addition to the intrinsic one in the ferromagnetic phase. The temperature variation of the pinning potential has been given qualitatively for the reentrant spin glass like systems

  9. Fluid/Structure Interaction Studies of Aircraft Using High Fidelity Equations on Parallel Computers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guruswamy, Guru; VanDalsem, William (Technical Monitor)

    1994-01-01

    Abstract Aeroelasticity which involves strong coupling of fluids, structures and controls is an important element in designing an aircraft. Computational aeroelasticity using low fidelity methods such as the linear aerodynamic flow equations coupled with the modal structural equations are well advanced. Though these low fidelity approaches are computationally less intensive, they are not adequate for the analysis of modern aircraft such as High Speed Civil Transport (HSCT) and Advanced Subsonic Transport (AST) which can experience complex flow/structure interactions. HSCT can experience vortex induced aeroelastic oscillations whereas AST can experience transonic buffet associated structural oscillations. Both aircraft may experience a dip in the flutter speed at the transonic regime. For accurate aeroelastic computations at these complex fluid/structure interaction situations, high fidelity equations such as the Navier-Stokes for fluids and the finite-elements for structures are needed. Computations using these high fidelity equations require large computational resources both in memory and speed. Current conventional super computers have reached their limitations both in memory and speed. As a result, parallel computers have evolved to overcome the limitations of conventional computers. This paper will address the transition that is taking place in computational aeroelasticity from conventional computers to parallel computers. The paper will address special techniques needed to take advantage of the architecture of new parallel computers. Results will be illustrated from computations made on iPSC/860 and IBM SP2 computer by using ENSAERO code that directly couples the Euler/Navier-Stokes flow equations with high resolution finite-element structural equations.

  10. Leveraging routine clinical materials and mobile technology to assess CBT fidelity: the Innovative Methods to Assess Psychotherapy Practices (imAPP) study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiltsey Stirman, Shannon; Marques, Luana; Creed, Torrey A; Gutner, Cassidy A; DeRubeis, Robert; Barnett, Paul G; Kuhn, Eric; Suvak, Michael; Owen, Jason; Vogt, Dawne; Jo, Booil; Schoenwald, Sonja; Johnson, Clara; Mallard, Kera; Beristianos, Matthew; La Bash, Heidi

    2018-05-22

    Identifying scalable strategies for assessing fidelity is a key challenge in implementation science. However, for psychosocial interventions, the existing, reliable ways to test treatment fidelity quality are often labor intensive, and less burdensome strategies may not reflect actual clinical practice. Cognitive behavioral therapies (CBTs) provide clinicians with a set of effective core elements to help treat a multitude of disorders, which, evidence suggests, need to be delivered with fidelity to maximize potential client impact. The current "gold standard" for rating CBTs is rating recordings of therapy sessions, which is extremely time-consuming and requires a substantial amount of initial training. Although CBTs can vary based on the target disorder, one common element employed in most CBTs is the use of worksheets to identify specific behaviors and thoughts that affect a client's ability to recover. The present study will develop and evaluate an innovative new approach to rate CBT fidelity, by developing a universal CBT scoring system based on worksheets completed in therapy sessions. To develop a scoring system for CBT worksheets, we will compile common CBT elements from a variety of CBT worksheets for a range of psychiatric disorders and create adherence and competence measures. We will collect archival worksheets from past studies to test the scoring system and assess test-retest reliability. To evaluate whether CBT worksheet scoring accurately reflects clinician fidelity, we will recruit clinicians who are engaged in a CBT for depression, anxiety, and/or posttraumatic stress disorder. Clinicians and clients will transmit routine therapy materials produced in session (e.g., worksheets, clinical notes, session recordings) to the study team after each session. We will compare observer-rated fidelity, clinical notes, and fidelity-rated worksheets to identify the most effective and efficient method to assess clinician fidelity. Clients will also be randomly

  11. Ensuring treatment fidelity in a multi-site behavioral intervention study: implementing NIH Behavior Change Consortium recommendations in the SMART trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robb, Sheri L; Burns, Debra S; Docherty, Sharron L; Haase, Joan E

    2011-11-01

    The Stories and Music for Adolescent/Young Adult Resilience during Transplant (SMART) study (R01NR008583; U10CA098543; U10CA095861) is an ongoing multi-site Children's Oncology Group randomized clinical trial testing the efficacy of a therapeutic music video intervention for adolescents/young adults (11-24 years of age) with cancer undergoing stem cell transplant. Treatment fidelity strategies from our trial are consistent with the National Institutes of Health (NIH) Behavior Change Consortium Treatment Fidelity Workgroup (BCC) recommendations and provide a successful working model for treatment fidelity implementation in a large, multi-site behavioral intervention study. In this paper, we summarize 20 specific treatment fidelity strategies used in the SMART trial and how these strategies correspond with NIH BCC recommendations in five specific areas: (1) study design, (2) training providers, (3) delivery of treatment, (4) receipt of treatment, and (5) enactment of treatment skills. Increased use and reporting of treatment fidelity procedures is essential in advancing the reliability and validity of behavioral intervention research. The SMART trial provides a strong model for the application of fidelity strategies to improve scientific findings and addresses the absence of published literature, illustrating the application of BCC recommendations in behavioral intervention studies. Copyright © 2010 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  12. Antimicrobial Susceptibility Pattern in Diabetic Foot Ulcer: A Pilot Study

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Antimicrobial susceptibility test was performed by disc diffusion techniques according to Clinical and. Laboratory Standards Institute guidelines. Results: Of the 108 ..... antibiotics tested. This was in accordance with multidrug-resistant. Acinetobacter isolates from Bansal, et al. study.[4] The main limitations of our study are a ...

  13. Assessing the link between implementation fidelity and health outcomes for a trial of intensive case management by community health workers: a mixed methods study protocol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, Barbara; Watt, Kerrianne; McDermott, Robyn; Mills, Jane

    2017-07-17

    Better systems of care are required to address chronic disease in Indigenous people to ensure they can access all their care needs. Health research has produced evidence about effective models of care and chronic disease strategies to address Indigenous health, however the transfer of research findings into routine clinical practice has proven challenging. Complex interventions, such as those related to chronic disease, have many components that are often poorly implemented and hence rarely achieve implementation fidelity. Implementation fidelity is "the degree to which programs are implemented as intended by the program developer". Knowing if an intervention was implemented as planned is fundamental to knowing what has contributed to the success of an intervention. The aim of this study is to adapt the implementation fidelity framework developed by Keith et al. and apply it to the intervention implemented in phase 1 of the Getting Better at Chronic Care in North Queensland study. The objectives are to quantify the level of implementation fidelity achieved during phase 1 of the study, measure the association between implementation fidelity and health outcomes and to explore the features of the primary health care system that contributed to improved health outcomes. A convergent parallel mixed methods study design will be used to develop a process for assessing implementation fidelity. Information collected via a questionnaire and routine data generated during phase 1 of the study will be used to explain the context for the intervention in each site and develop an implementation fidelity score for each component of the intervention. A weighting will be applied to each component of the intervention to calculate the overall implementation score for each participating community. Statistical analysis will assess the level of association between implementation fidelity scores and health outcomes. Health services research seeks to find solutions to social and technical

  14. Comparative study of genetic influence on the susceptibility of exotic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study investigated comparatively the genetic influence on the susceptibility of exotic cockerels, pullets and broilers to natural infection with infectious bursal disease (IBD) virus in a flock of 150 seven-week-old exotic breed of chickens comprising of 50 Black Harco cockerels, 50 Black Harco pullets and 50 White ...

  15. Annual survival estimation of migratory songbirds confounded by incomplete breeding site-fidelity: study designs that may help

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marshall, M. R.

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available Many species of bird exhibit varying degrees of site–fidelity to the previous year’s territory or breeding area, a phenomenon we refer to as incomplete breeding site–fidelity. If the territory they occupy is located beyond the bounds of the study area or search area (i.e., they have emigrated from the study area, the bird will go undetected and is therefore indistinguishable from dead individuals in capture–mark–recapture studies. Differential emigration rates confound inferences regarding differences in survival between sexes and among species if apparent survival rates are used as estimates of true survival. Moreover, the bias introduced by using apparent survival rates for true survival rates can have profound effects on the predictions of population persistence through time, source/sink dynamics, and other aspects of life–history theory. We investigated four study design and analysis approaches that result in apparent survival estimates that are closer to true survival estimates. Our motivation for this research stemmed from a multi–year capture–recapture study of Prothonotary Warblers (Protonotaria citrea on multiple study plots within a larger landscape of suitable breeding habitat where substantial inter–annual movements of marked individuals among neighboring study plots was documented. We wished to quantify the effects of this type of movement on annual survival estimation. The first two study designs we investigated involved marking birds in a core area and resighting them in the core as well as an area surrounding the core. For the first of these two designs, we demonstrated that as the resighting area surrounding the core gets progressively larger, and more “emigrants” are resighted, apparent survival estimates begin to approximate true survival rates (bias < 0.01. However, given observed inter–annual movements of birds, it is likely to be logistically impractical to resight birds on sufficiently large

  16. Effects of MRI Protocol Parameters, Preload Injection Dose, Fractionation Strategies, and Leakage Correction Algorithms on the Fidelity of Dynamic-Susceptibility Contrast MRI Estimates of Relative Cerebral Blood Volume in Gliomas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leu, K; Boxerman, J L; Ellingson, B M

    2017-03-01

    DSC perfusion MR imaging assumes that the contrast agent remains intravascular; thus, disruptions in the blood-brain barrier common in brain tumors can lead to errors in the estimation of relative CBV. Acquisition strategies, including the choice of flip angle, TE, TR, and preload dose and incubation time, along with post hoc leakage-correction algorithms, have been proposed as means for combating these leakage effects. In the current study, we used DSC-MR imaging simulations to examine the influence of these various acquisition parameters and leakage-correction strategies on the faithful estimation of CBV. DSC-MR imaging simulations were performed in 250 tumors with perfusion characteristics randomly generated from the distributions of real tumor population data, and comparison of leakage-corrected CBV was performed with a theoretic curve with no permeability. Optimal strategies were determined by protocol with the lowest mean error. The following acquisition strategies (flip angle/TE/TR and contrast dose allocation for preload and bolus) produced high CBV fidelity, as measured by the percentage difference from a hypothetic tumor with no leakage: 1) 35°/35 ms/1.5 seconds with no preload and full dose for DSC-MR imaging, 2) 35°/25 ms/1.5 seconds with ¼ dose preload and ¾ dose bolus, 3) 60°/35 ms/2.0 seconds with ½ dose preload and ½ dose bolus, and 4) 60°/35 ms/1.0 second with 1 dose preload and 1 dose bolus. Results suggest that a variety of strategies can yield similarly high fidelity in CBV estimation, namely those that balance T1- and T2*-relaxation effects due to contrast agent extravasation. © 2017 by American Journal of Neuroradiology.

  17. Effects of simulation fidelity on user experience in virtual fear of public speaking training - an experimental study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poeschl, Sandra; Doering, Nicola

    2014-01-01

    Realistic models in virtual reality training applications are considered to positively influence presence and performance. The experimental study presented, analyzed the effect of simulation fidelity (static vs. animated audience) on presence as a prerequisite for performance in a prototype virtual fear of public speaking application with a sample of N = 40 academic non-phobic users. Contrary to the state of research, no influence was shown on virtual presence and perceived realism, but an animated audience led to significantly higher effects in anxiety during giving a talk. Although these findings could be explained by an application that might not have been realistic enough, they still question the role of presence as a mediating factor in virtual exposure applications.

  18. Cognitive load, emotion, and performance in high-fidelity simulation among beginning nursing students: a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schlairet, Maura C; Schlairet, Timothy James; Sauls, Denise H; Bellflowers, Lois

    2015-03-01

    Establishing the impact of the high-fidelity simulation environment on student performance, as well as identifying factors that could predict learning, would refine simulation outcome expectations among educators. The purpose of this quasi-experimental pilot study was to explore the impact of simulation on emotion and cognitive load among beginning nursing students. Forty baccalaureate nursing students participated in teaching simulations, rated their emotional state and cognitive load, and completed evaluation simulations. Two principal components of emotion were identified representing the pleasant activation and pleasant deactivation components of affect. Mean rating of cognitive load following simulation was high. Linear regression identiffed slight but statistically nonsignificant positive associations between principal components of emotion and cognitive load. Logistic regression identified a negative but statistically nonsignificant effect of cognitive load on assessment performance. Among lower ability students, a more pronounced effect of cognitive load on assessment performance was observed; this also was statistically non-significant. Copyright 2015, SLACK Incorporated.

  19. Acquiring skills in malignant hyperthermia crisis management: comparison of high-fidelity simulation versus computer-based case study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vilma Mejía

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The primary purpose of this study was to compare the effect of high fidelity simulation versus a computer-based case solving self-study, in skills acquisition about malignant hyperthermia on first year anesthesiology residents. Methods: After institutional ethical committee approval, 31 first year anesthesiology residents were enrolled in this prospective randomized single-blinded study. Participants were randomized to either a High Fidelity Simulation Scenario or a computer-based Case Study about malignant hyperthermia. After the intervention, all subjects’ performance in was assessed through a high fidelity simulation scenario using a previously validated assessment rubric. Additionally, knowledge tests and a satisfaction survey were applied. Finally, a semi-structured interview was done to assess self-perception of reasoning process and decision-making. Results: 28 first year residents finished successfully the study. Resident's management skill scores were globally higher in High Fidelity Simulation versus Case Study, however they were significant in 4 of the 8 performance rubric elements: recognize signs and symptoms (p = 0.025, prioritization of initial actions of management (p = 0.003, recognize complications (p = 0.025 and communication (p = 0.025. Average scores from pre- and post-test knowledge questionnaires improved from 74% to 85% in the High Fidelity Simulation group, and decreased from 78% to 75% in the Case Study group (p = 0.032. Regarding the qualitative analysis, there was no difference in factors influencing the student's process of reasoning and decision-making with both teaching strategies. Conclusion: Simulation-based training with a malignant hyperthermia high-fidelity scenario was superior to computer-based case study, improving knowledge and skills in malignant hyperthermia crisis management, with a very good satisfaction level in anesthesia residents. Resumo: Introdução: O objetivo prim

  20. Ground-state fidelity in the BCS-BEC crossover

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khan, Ayan; Pieri, Pierbiagio

    2009-01-01

    The ground-state fidelity has been introduced recently as a tool to investigate quantum phase transitions. Here, we apply this concept in the context of a crossover problem. Specifically, we calculate the fidelity susceptibility for the BCS ground-state wave function, when the intensity of the fermionic attraction is varied from weak to strong in an interacting Fermi system, through the BCS-Bose-Einstein Condensation crossover. Results are presented for contact and finite-range attractive potentials and for both continuum and lattice models. We conclude that the fidelity susceptibility can be useful also in the context of crossover problems.

  1. Studies on maize inbred lines susceptibility to herbicides

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefanović Lidija

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the analysis of results obtained during long- term studies on the response of maize inbred lines to herbicides. Under the agroecological conditions of Zemun Polje the response (reaction of maize inbred lines to herbicides of different classes was investigated. Biological tests were performed and some agronomic, morphological, physiological and biochemical parameters were determined when the response of maize inbred lines to herbicides was estimated. The use of active ingredients of herbicides from triazine, acetanilide, thiocarbamate to new chemical groups (sulfonylurea etc., have been resulted in changes in weed suppression and susceptibility of inbred lines. Obtained results show that effects of herbicides on susceptible maize genotypes can be different: they can slowdown the growth and development and affect the plant height; they can also affect the stages of the tassel and ear development and at the end they can reduced grain yield of the tested inbreds. Numerous studies confirmed the existence of differences in susceptibility level of maize genotypes in relation to herbicides. According to gained results the recommendations for growers are made on the possibility of the application of new herbicides in the hybrid seed production.

  2. Quantum Fidelity and Thermal Phase Transitions in a Two-Dimensional Spin System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Bo; Kou Su-Peng; Huang Hai-Lin; Sun Zhao-Yu

    2012-01-01

    We investigate the ability of quantum fidelity in detecting the classical phase transitions (CPTs) in a two-dimensional Heisenberg—Ising mixed spin model, which has a very rich phase diagram and is exactly soluble. For a two-site subsystem of the model, the reduced fidelity (including the operator fidelity and the fidelity susceptibility) at finite temperatures is calculated, and it is found that an extreme value presents at the critical temperature, thus shows a signal for the CPTs. In some parameter region, the signal becomes blurred. We propose to use the 'normalized fidelity susceptibility' to solve this problem

  3. Fidelity study of the superconducting phase diagram in the two-dimensional single-band Hubbard model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jia, C. J.; Moritz, B.; Chen, C.-C.; Shastry, B. Sriram; Devereaux, T. P.

    2011-09-01

    Extensive numerical studies have demonstrated that the two-dimensional single-band Hubbard model contains much of the key physics in cuprate high-temperature superconductors. However, there is no definitive proof that the Hubbard model truly possesses a superconducting ground state or, if it does, of how it depends on model parameters. To answer these longstanding questions, we study an extension of the Hubbard model including an infinite-range d-wave pair field term, which precipitates a superconducting state in the d-wave channel. Using exact diagonalization on 16-site square clusters, we study the evolution of the ground state as a function of the strength of the pairing term. This is achieved by monitoring the fidelity metric of the ground state, as well as determining the ratio between the two largest eigenvalues of the d-wave pair/spin/charge-density matrices. The calculations show a d-wave superconducting ground state in doped clusters bracketed by a strong antiferromagnetic state at half filling controlled by the Coulomb repulsion U and a weak short-range checkerboard charge ordered state at larger hole doping controlled by the next-nearest-neighbor hopping t'. We also demonstrate that negative t' plays an important role in facilitating d-wave superconductivity.

  4. Finite perturbation studies of magnetic susceptibility and shielding with GIAO

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zaucer, M.; Pumpernik, D.; Hladnik, M.; Azman, A.

    1977-01-01

    The magnetic susceptibility tensor and proton and fluorine magnetic shielding tensors are calculated for F 2 and (FHF) - using an ab initio finite perturbation method with gauge-invariant atomic orbitals (GIAO). The discussion of the basis set deficiency shows that the calculated values for the susceptibilities are reliable. Simple additivity (Pascal rule) for the susceptibility is confirmed. (orig.) [de

  5. Implementation fidelity of self-administered transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation (TENS) in patients with chronic back pain: an observational study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pallett, Edward J; Rentowl, Patricia; Johnson, Mark I; Watson, Paul J

    2014-03-01

    The efficacy of transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation (TENS) for pain relief has not been reliably established. Inconclusive findings could be due to inadequate TENS delivery and inappropriate outcome assessment. Electronic monitoring devices were used to determine patient compliance with a TENS intervention and outcome assessment protocol, to record pain scores before, during, and after TENS, and measure electrical output settings. Patients with chronic back pain consented to use TENS daily for 2 weeks and to report pain scores before, during, and after 1-hour treatments. A ≥ 30% reduction in pain scores was used to classify participants as TENS responders. Electronic monitoring devices "TLOG" and "TSCORE" recorded time and duration of TENS use, electrical settings, and pain scores. Forty-two patients consented to participate. One of 35 (3%) patients adhered completely to the TENS use and pain score reporting protocol. Fourteen of 33 (42%) were TENS responders according to electronic pain score data. Analgesia onset occurred within 30 to 60 minutes for 13/14 (93%) responders. It was not possible to correlate TENS amplitude, frequency, or pulse width measurements with therapeutic response. Findings from TENS research studies depend on the timing of outcome assessment; pain should be recorded during stimulation. TENS device sophistication might be an issue and parameter restriction should be considered. Careful protocol design is required to improve adherence and monitoring is necessary to evaluate the validity of findings. This observational study provides objective evidence to support concerns about poor implementation fidelity in TENS research.

  6. Site fidelity, mate fidelity, and breeding dispersal in American kestrels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steenhof, K.; Peterson, B.E.

    2009-01-01

    We assessed mate fidelity, nest-box fidelity, and breeding dispersal distances of American Kestrels (falco sparverius) nesting in boxes in southwestern Idaho from 1990 through 2006. Seventy-seven percent of boxes had different males and 87% had different females where nest-box occupants were identified in consecutive years. High turnover rates were partly a result of box-switching. Forty-eight percent of males and 58% of females that nested within the study area in successive years used different boxes. The probability of changing boxes was unrelated to gender, nesting success in the prior year, or years of nesting experience. Breeding dispersal distances for birds that moved to different boxes averaged 2.2 km for males (max = 22 km) and 3.2 km for females (max = 32 km). Approximately 70% of birds that nested in consecutive years on the study area had a different mate in the second year. Mate fidelity was related to box fidelity but not to prior nesting success or years of nesting experience. Mate changes occurred 32% of the time when the previous mate was known to be alive and nesting in the area. Kestrels that switched mates and boxes did not improve or decrease their subsequent nesting success. Kestrels usually switched to mates with less experience and lower lifetime productivity than their previous mates. The costs of switching boxes and mates were low, and there were no obvious benefits to fidelity. The cost of "waiting" for a previous mate that might have died could be high in species with high annual mortality.

  7. Implementation fidelity trajectories of a health promotion program in multidisciplinary settings : Managing tensions in rehabilitation care

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoekstra, Femke; van Offenbeek, Marjolein A. G.; Dekker, Rienk; Hettinga, Florentina J.; Hoekstra, Trynke; van der Woude, Lucas H. V.; van der Schans, Cees P.

    2017-01-01

    Background: Although the importance of evaluating implementation fidelity is acknowledged, little is known about heterogeneity in fidelity over time. This study aims to generate insight into the heterogeneity in implementation fidelity trajectories of a health promotion program in multidisciplinary

  8. Prospective randomized study of contrast reaction management curricula: Computer-based interactive simulation versus high-fidelity hands-on simulation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Carolyn L., E-mail: wangcl@uw.edu [Department of Radiology, University of Washington, Box 357115, 1959 NE Pacific Street, Seattle, WA 98195-7115 (United States); Schopp, Jennifer G.; Kani, Kimia [Department of Radiology, University of Washington, Box 357115, 1959 NE Pacific Street, Seattle, WA 98195-7115 (United States); Petscavage-Thomas, Jonelle M. [Penn State Hershey Medical Center, Department of Radiology, 500 University Drive, Hershey, PA 17033 (United States); Zaidi, Sadaf; Hippe, Dan S.; Paladin, Angelisa M.; Bush, William H. [Department of Radiology, University of Washington, Box 357115, 1959 NE Pacific Street, Seattle, WA 98195-7115 (United States)

    2013-12-01

    Purpose: We developed a computer-based interactive simulation program for teaching contrast reaction management to radiology trainees and compared its effectiveness to high-fidelity hands-on simulation training. Materials and methods: IRB approved HIPAA compliant prospective study of 44 radiology residents, fellows and faculty who were randomized into either the high-fidelity hands-on simulation group or computer-based simulation group. All participants took separate written tests prior to and immediately after their intervention. Four months later participants took a delayed written test and a hands-on high-fidelity severe contrast reaction scenario performance test graded on predefined critical actions. Results: There was no statistically significant difference between the computer and hands-on groups’ written pretest, immediate post-test, or delayed post-test scores (p > 0.6 for all). Both groups’ scores improved immediately following the intervention (p < 0.001). The delayed test scores 4 months later were still significantly higher than the pre-test scores (p ≤ 0.02). The computer group's performance was similar to the hands-on group on the severe contrast reaction simulation scenario test (p = 0.7). There were also no significant differences between the computer and hands-on groups in performance on the individual core competencies of contrast reaction management during the contrast reaction scenario. Conclusion: It is feasible to develop a computer-based interactive simulation program to teach contrast reaction management. Trainees that underwent computer-based simulation training scored similarly on written tests and on a hands-on high-fidelity severe contrast reaction scenario performance test as those trained with hands-on high-fidelity simulation.

  9. Prospective randomized study of contrast reaction management curricula: Computer-based interactive simulation versus high-fidelity hands-on simulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Carolyn L.; Schopp, Jennifer G.; Kani, Kimia; Petscavage-Thomas, Jonelle M.; Zaidi, Sadaf; Hippe, Dan S.; Paladin, Angelisa M.; Bush, William H.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: We developed a computer-based interactive simulation program for teaching contrast reaction management to radiology trainees and compared its effectiveness to high-fidelity hands-on simulation training. Materials and methods: IRB approved HIPAA compliant prospective study of 44 radiology residents, fellows and faculty who were randomized into either the high-fidelity hands-on simulation group or computer-based simulation group. All participants took separate written tests prior to and immediately after their intervention. Four months later participants took a delayed written test and a hands-on high-fidelity severe contrast reaction scenario performance test graded on predefined critical actions. Results: There was no statistically significant difference between the computer and hands-on groups’ written pretest, immediate post-test, or delayed post-test scores (p > 0.6 for all). Both groups’ scores improved immediately following the intervention (p < 0.001). The delayed test scores 4 months later were still significantly higher than the pre-test scores (p ≤ 0.02). The computer group's performance was similar to the hands-on group on the severe contrast reaction simulation scenario test (p = 0.7). There were also no significant differences between the computer and hands-on groups in performance on the individual core competencies of contrast reaction management during the contrast reaction scenario. Conclusion: It is feasible to develop a computer-based interactive simulation program to teach contrast reaction management. Trainees that underwent computer-based simulation training scored similarly on written tests and on a hands-on high-fidelity severe contrast reaction scenario performance test as those trained with hands-on high-fidelity simulation

  10. Evaluating display fidelity and interaction fidelity in a virtual reality game.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McMahan, Ryan P; Bowman, Doug A; Zielinski, David J; Brady, Rachael B

    2012-04-01

    In recent years, consumers have witnessed a technological revolution that has delivered more-realistic experiences in their own homes through high-definition, stereoscopic televisions and natural, gesture-based video game consoles. Although these experiences are more realistic, offering higher levels of fidelity, it is not clear how the increased display and interaction aspects of fidelity impact the user experience. Since immersive virtual reality (VR) allows us to achieve very high levels of fidelity, we designed and conducted a study that used a six-sided CAVE to evaluate display fidelity and interaction fidelity independently, at extremely high and low levels, for a VR first-person shooter (FPS) game. Our goal was to gain a better understanding of the effects of fidelity on the user in a complex, performance-intensive context. The results of our study indicate that both display and interaction fidelity significantly affect strategy and performance, as well as subjective judgments of presence, engagement, and usability. In particular, performance results were strongly in favor of two conditions: low-display, low-interaction fidelity (representative of traditional FPS games) and high-display, high-interaction fidelity (similar to the real world).

  11. Trade Study for Neutron Transport at Low Earth Orbit: Adding Fidelity to DIORAMA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McClanahan, Tucker Caden [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Wakeford, Daniel Tyler [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2017-08-22

    The Distributed Infrastructure Offering Real-Time Access to Modeling and Analysis (DIORAMA) software provides performance modeling capabilities of the United States Nuclear Detonation Detection System (USNDS) with a focus on the characterization of Space-Based Nuclear Detonation Detection (SNDD) instrument performance [1]. A case study was done to add the neutron propagation capabilities of DIORAMA to low earth orbit (LEO), and compare the back-calculated incident energy from the time-of- ight (TOF) spectrum with the scored incident energy spectrum. As the scoring altitude lowers, the time increase due to scattering takes up much more of the fraction of total TOF; whereas at geosynchronous earth orbit (GEO), the time increase due to scattering is a negligible fraction of the total TOF [2]. The scattering smears out the TOF enough to make the back-calculation of the initial energy spectrum from the TOF spectrum very convoluted.

  12. An Experimental Study of Procedures to Enhance Ratings of Fidelity to an Evidence-Based Family Intervention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Justin D; Dishion, Thomas J; Brown, Kimbree; Ramos, Karina; Knoble, Naomi B; Shaw, Daniel S; Wilson, Melvin N

    2016-01-01

    The valid and reliable assessment of fidelity is critical at all stages of intervention research and is particularly germane to interpreting the results of efficacy and implementation trials. Ratings of protocol adherence typically are reliable, but ratings of therapist competence are plagued by low reliability. Because family context and case conceptualization guide the therapist's delivery of interventions, the reliability of fidelity ratings might be improved if the coder is privy to client context in the form of an ecological assessment. We conducted a randomized experiment to test this hypothesis. A subsample of 46 families with 5-year-old children from a multisite randomized trial who participated in the feedback session of the Family Check-Up (FCU) intervention were selected. We randomly assigned FCU feedback sessions to be rated for fidelity to the protocol using the COACH rating system either after the coder reviewed the results of a recent ecological assessment or had not. Inter-rater reliability estimates of fidelity ratings were meaningfully higher for the assessment information condition compared to the no-information condition. Importantly, the reliability of the COACH mean score was found to be statistically significantly higher in the information condition. These findings suggest that the reliability of observational ratings of fidelity, particularly when the competence or quality of delivery is considered, could be improved by providing assessment data to the coders. Our findings might be most applicable to assessment-driven interventions, where assessment data explicitly guides therapist's selection of intervention strategies tailored to the family's context and needs, but they could also apply to other intervention programs and observational coding of context-dependent therapy processes, such as the working alliance.

  13. Fidelity deviation in quantum teleportation

    OpenAIRE

    Bang, Jeongho; Ryu, Junghee; Kaszlikowski, Dagomir

    2018-01-01

    We analyze the performance of quantum teleportation in terms of average fidelity and fidelity deviation. The average fidelity is defined as the average value of the fidelities over all possible input states and the fidelity deviation is their standard deviation, which is referred to as a concept of fluctuation or universality. In the analysis, we find the condition to optimize both measures under a noisy quantum channel---we here consider the so-called Werner channel. To characterize our resu...

  14. A Study of Airline Passenger Susceptibility to Atmospheric Turbulence Hazard

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stewart, Eric C.

    2000-01-01

    A simple, generic, simulation math model of a commercial airliner has been developed to study the susceptibility of unrestrained passengers to large, discrete gust encounters. The math model simulates the longitudinal motion to vertical gusts and includes (1) motion of an unrestrained passenger in the rear cabin, (2) fuselage flexibility, (3) the lag in the downwash from the wing to the tail, and (4) unsteady lift effects. Airplane and passenger response contours are calculated for a matrix of gust amplitudes and gust lengths of a simulated mountain rotor. A comparison of the model-predicted responses to data from three accidents indicates that the accelerations in actual accidents are sometimes much larger than the simulated gust encounters.

  15. Fidelity in clinical simulation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Sanne; Nøhr, Christian; Rasmussen, Stine Loft

    2013-01-01

    Clinical simulation may be used to identify user needs for context sensitive functionalities in e-Health. The objective with this paper is to describe how user requirements and use cases in a large EHR-platform procurement may be validated by clinical simulation using a very low-fidelity prototype...... without any existing test data. Instead of using test scenarios and use cases, the healthcare professionals who are participating in the clinical simulation are generating both scenario and patient data themselves. We found that this approach allows for an imaginative discussion, not restricted by known...... functionalities and limitations, of the ideal EHR-platform. Subsequently, we discuss benefits and challenges of using an extremely low fidelity environment and discuss the degree of fidelity necessary for conducting clinical simulation....

  16. Fidelity of quantum interferometers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bahder, Thomas B.; Lopata, Paul A.

    2006-01-01

    For a generic interferometer, the conditional probability density distribution p(φ|m), for the phase φ given measurement outcome m will generally have multiple peaks. Therefore, the phase sensitivity of an interferometer cannot be adequately characterized by the standard deviation, such as Δφ∼1/√(N) (the standard limit), or Δφ∼1/N (the Heisenberg limit). We propose an alternative measure of phase sensitivity--the fidelity of an interferometer--defined as the Shannon mutual information between the phase shift φ and the measurement outcomes m. As an example application of interferometer fidelity, we consider a generic optical Mach-Zehnder interferometer, used as a sensor of a classical field. For the case where there exists no a priori information on the phase shift, we find the surprising result that maximally entangled state input leads to a lower fidelity than Fock state input, for the same photon number

  17. Semiclassical approach to fidelity amplitude

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    García-Mata, Ignacio; Vallejos, Raúl O; Wisniacki, Diego A

    2011-01-01

    The fidelity amplitude (FA) is a quantity of paramount importance in echo-type experiments. We use semiclassical theory to study the average FA for quantum chaotic systems under external perturbation. We explain analytically two extreme cases: the random dynamics limit - attained approximately by strongly chaotic systems - and the random perturbation limit, which shows a Lyapunov decay. Numerical simulations help us to bridge the gap between both the extreme cases. (paper)

  18. Physiological Based Simulator Fidelity Design Guidance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schnell, Thomas; Hamel, Nancy; Postnikov, Alex; Hoke, Jaclyn; McLean, Angus L. M. Thom, III

    2012-01-01

    The evolution of the role of flight simulation has reinforced assumptions in aviation that the degree of realism in a simulation system directly correlates to the training benefit, i.e., more fidelity is always better. The construct of fidelity has several dimensions, including physical fidelity, functional fidelity, and cognitive fidelity. Interaction of different fidelity dimensions has an impact on trainee immersion, presence, and transfer of training. This paper discusses research results of a recent study that investigated if physiological-based methods could be used to determine the required level of simulator fidelity. Pilots performed a relatively complex flight task consisting of mission task elements of various levels of difficulty in a fixed base flight simulator and a real fighter jet trainer aircraft. Flight runs were performed using one forward visual channel of 40 deg. field of view for the lowest level of fidelity, 120 deg. field of view for the middle level of fidelity, and unrestricted field of view and full dynamic acceleration in the real airplane. Neuro-cognitive and physiological measures were collected under these conditions using the Cognitive Avionics Tool Set (CATS) and nonlinear closed form models for workload prediction were generated based on these data for the various mission task elements. One finding of the work described herein is that simple heart rate is a relatively good predictor of cognitive workload, even for short tasks with dynamic changes in cognitive loading. Additionally, we found that models that used a wide range of physiological and neuro-cognitive measures can further boost the accuracy of the workload prediction.

  19. A study on model fidelity for model predictive control-based obstacle avoidance in high-speed autonomous ground vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jiechao; Jayakumar, Paramsothy; Stein, Jeffrey L.; Ersal, Tulga

    2016-11-01

    This paper investigates the level of model fidelity needed in order for a model predictive control (MPC)-based obstacle avoidance algorithm to be able to safely and quickly avoid obstacles even when the vehicle is close to its dynamic limits. The context of this work is large autonomous ground vehicles that manoeuvre at high speed within unknown, unstructured, flat environments and have significant vehicle dynamics-related constraints. Five different representations of vehicle dynamics models are considered: four variations of the two degrees-of-freedom (DoF) representation as lower fidelity models and a fourteen DoF representation with combined-slip Magic Formula tyre model as a higher fidelity model. It is concluded that the two DoF representation that accounts for tyre nonlinearities and longitudinal load transfer is necessary for the MPC-based obstacle avoidance algorithm in order to operate the vehicle at its limits within an environment that includes large obstacles. For less challenging environments, however, the two DoF representation with linear tyre model and constant axle loads is sufficient.

  20. A comparative study on the landslide susceptibility mapping using ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    from faults, lithology, normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI), sediment transport index (STI), stream power ... economic losses and creating high maintenance costs, are ..... evidence method to landslide susceptibility map- ping using ...

  1. Effect of High-Fidelity Simulation on Medical Students' Knowledge about Advanced Life Support: A Randomized Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Cortegiani

    Full Text Available High-fidelity simulation (HFS is a learning method which has proven effective in medical education for technical and non-technical skills. However, its effectiveness for knowledge acquisition is less validated. We performed a randomized study with the primary aim of investigating whether HFS, in association with frontal lessons, would improve knowledge about advanced life support (ALS, in comparison to frontal lessons only among medical students. The secondary aims were to evaluate the effect of HFS on knowledge acquisition of different sections of ALS and personal knowledge perception. Participants answered a pre-test questionnaire consisting of a subjective (evaluating personal perception of knowledge and an objective section (measuring level of knowledge containing 100 questions about algorithms, technical skills, team working/early warning scores/communication strategies according to ALS guidelines. All students participated in 3 frontal lessons before being randomized in group S, undergoing a HFS session, and group C, receiving no further interventions. After 10 days from the end of each intervention, both groups answered a questionnaire (post-test with the same subjective section but a different objective one. The overall number of correct answers of the post-test was significantly higher in group S (mean 74.1, SD 11.2 than in group C (mean 65.5, SD 14.3, p = 0.0017, 95% C.I. 3.34 - 13.9. A significantly higher number of correct answers was reported in group S than in group C for questions investigating knowledge of algorithms (p = 0.0001; 95% C.I 2.22-5.99 and team working/early warning scores/communication strategies (p = 0.0060; 95% C.I 1.13-6.53. Students in group S showed a significantly higher score in the post-test subjective section (p = 0.0074. A lower proportion of students in group S confirmed their perception of knowledge compared to group C (p = 0.0079. HFS showed a beneficial effect on knowledge of ALS among medical students

  2. Fidelity induced distance measures for quantum states

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ma Zhihao; Zhang Fulin; Chen Jingling

    2009-01-01

    Fidelity plays an important role in quantum information theory. In this Letter, we introduce new metric of quantum states induced by fidelity, and connect it with the well-known trace metric, Sine metric and Bures metric for the qubit case. The metric character is also presented for the qudit (i.e., d-dimensional system) case. The CPT contractive property and joint convex property of the metric are also studied.

  3. Study of the magnetic susceptibilities of some plutonium derivatives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raphael, G.

    1969-06-01

    We present a detailed description of an automatic recording apparatus for magnetic susceptibility measurement of radioactive samples in the temperature range 4 K - 1200 K. We have measured the magnetic susceptibility of various plutonium compounds: - PuO 2 , Pu 2 O 3 , PuO 2-x , - PuS, Pu 2 S 3 , Pu 3 S 4 , (U x Pu 1-x )S - PuN - PuC 1-x (N,O,H,vacancy), Pu 2 C 3 , (U 0.85 Pu 0.15 )C. The curves of susceptibilities versus temperature show many magnetic transitions. The interpretation of these results shows the existence of magnetic moments carried by the 5 f electrons and localized on the metallic sites as well as the great influence of the 'crystal field' in all these compounds. (author) [fr

  4. Quantitative susceptibility mapping of human brain at 3T: a multisite reproducibility study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, P-Y; Chao, T-C; Wu, M-L

    2015-03-01

    Quantitative susceptibility mapping of the human brain has demonstrated strong potential in examining iron deposition, which may help in investigating possible brain pathology. This study assesses the reproducibility of quantitative susceptibility mapping across different imaging sites. In this study, the susceptibility values of 5 regions of interest in the human brain were measured on 9 healthy subjects following calibration by using phantom experiments. Each of the subjects was imaged 5 times on 1 scanner with the same procedure repeated on 3 different 3T systems so that both within-site and cross-site quantitative susceptibility mapping precision levels could be assessed. Two quantitative susceptibility mapping algorithms, similar in principle, one by using iterative regularization (iterative quantitative susceptibility mapping) and the other with analytic optimal solutions (deterministic quantitative susceptibility mapping), were implemented, and their performances were compared. Results show that while deterministic quantitative susceptibility mapping had nearly 700 times faster computation speed, residual streaking artifacts seem to be more prominent compared with iterative quantitative susceptibility mapping. With quantitative susceptibility mapping, the putamen, globus pallidus, and caudate nucleus showed smaller imprecision on the order of 0.005 ppm, whereas the red nucleus and substantia nigra, closer to the skull base, had a somewhat larger imprecision of approximately 0.01 ppm. Cross-site errors were not significantly larger than within-site errors. Possible sources of estimation errors are discussed. The reproducibility of quantitative susceptibility mapping in the human brain in vivo is regionally dependent, and the precision levels achieved with quantitative susceptibility mapping should allow longitudinal and multisite studies such as aging-related changes in brain tissue magnetic susceptibility. © 2015 by American Journal of Neuroradiology.

  5. Multicenter study on antibiotic susceptibility/resistance trends in the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Culture, isolation, identification and susceptibility tests were conducted according to standard guidelines and assigned contamination rates. Seventeen antibacterial agents were chosen and included representatives of major families of antibiotics used in Cameroon. Analysis of 238 specimens revealed 90%, 86% and 92% ...

  6. A Comparative Study on the Antimicrobial Susceptibility Patterns of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... Laboratory of Lagos University Teaching Hospital (LUTH). Isolates were obtained from urine and swabs of wounds, ear, throat and eye. Identification was carried out by conventional methods and antimicrobial susceptibility was investigated by disk diffusion method. All isolates were tested for beta-lactamase production.

  7. Comparative drug susceptibility study of five clonal strains of Trichomonas vaginalis in vitro

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hemantkumar Somabhai Chaudhari; Prati Pal Singh

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To produce comparative data on a group of Trichomonas vaginalis clonal strains with varied drug responses using identical methods and materials. Methods: Five clonal strains of Trichomonas vaginalis were isolated from reference strain using agar plate technique. The variability of growth kinetic and susceptibility of clonal strain to metronidazole, tinidazole, satranidazole and nitazoxanide were observed in 96 well microtitre plate. Results: Among these clonal strains there was a good correlation between rates of growth with the relative susceptibility of the strains to drugs in vitro. Regarding metronidazole, tinidazole and satranidazole susceptibility, different degrees of susceptibility were determined. However, no difference in nitazoxanide susceptibility was found between the clonal strain tested and a reference strain.Conclusions: This is the first description of biological variability in clonal stock of Trichomonas vaginalis. Different degrees of drug susceptibility were determined among clonal strains tested. Further studies will be necessary to ascertain the importance of this variability in clinical infection.

  8. Emotional Autonomy versus Susceptibility to Peer Pressure: A Case Study of Hong Kong Adolescent Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Kwok-Wai; Chan, Siu-Mui

    2008-01-01

    A questionnaire consisting of two scales was administered to 550 Hong Kong secondary students to examine their emotional autonomy and susceptibility to peer pressure. Emotional autonomy was studied by the scale (EAS) developed by Steinberg and Silverberg (1986) and susceptibility to peer pressure was studied by the scale developed by Sim and Koh…

  9. Magnetic irreversibility in granular superconductors: ac susceptibility study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perez, F.; Obradors, X.; Fontcuberta, J.; Vallet, M.; Gonzalez-Calbet, J.

    1991-01-01

    Ac susceptibility measurements of a ceramic weak-coupled superconductor in very low ac fields (2mG, 111Hz) are reported. We present evidence for the observation of the magnetic irreversibility following a ZFC-FC thermal cycling by means of ac susceptibilty measurements. It is shown that this technique also reflect local magnetic field effects in granular superconductors, as previously suggested in microwave surface resistance and I-V characteristics. (orig.)

  10. On the relevance of the ac magnetic susceptibility on the study of superconductors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khoder, A.F.; Couach, M.; Barbara, B.

    1988-01-01

    It is shown that the ac susceptibility method allows to study in details the bulk superconductivity of as well homogeneous and inhomogeneous materials, such as high-T c superconductors. Shielding and Meissner effects at T c can be distinguished by a careful analysis of x' and x'' components of the susceptibility

  11. Fidelity and game-based technology in management education

    OpenAIRE

    Cornacchione Jr.,Edgard B.

    2012-01-01

    This study explores educational technology and management education by analyzing fidelity in game-based management education interventions. A sample of 31 MBA students was selected to help answer the research question: To what extent do MBA students tend to recognize specific game-based academic experiences, in terms of fidelity, as relevant to their managerial performance? Two distinct game-based interventions (BG1 and BG2) with key differences in fidelity levels were explored: BG1 presented...

  12. Study Finds Association between Biological Marker and Susceptibility to the Common Cold

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... W X Y Z Study Finds Association Between Biological Marker and Susceptibility to the Common Cold Share: © ... a cold caused by a particular rhinovirus. The biological marker identified in the study was the length ...

  13. High Fidelity BWR Fuel Simulations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoon, Su Jong [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    2016-08-01

    This report describes the Consortium for Advanced Simulation of Light Water Reactors (CASL) work conducted for completion of the Thermal Hydraulics Methods (THM) Level 3 milestone THM.CFD.P13.03: High Fidelity BWR Fuel Simulation. High fidelity computational fluid dynamics (CFD) simulation for Boiling Water Reactor (BWR) was conducted to investigate the applicability and robustness performance of BWR closures. As a preliminary study, a CFD model with simplified Ferrule spacer grid geometry of NUPEC BWR Full-size Fine-mesh Bundle Test (BFBT) benchmark has been implemented. Performance of multiphase segregated solver with baseline boiling closures has been evaluated. Although the mean values of void fraction and exit quality of CFD result for BFBT case 4101-61 agreed with experimental data, the local void distribution was not predicted accurately. The mesh quality was one of the critical factors to obtain converged result. The stability and robustness of the simulation was mainly affected by the mesh quality, combination of BWR closure models. In addition, the CFD modeling of fully-detailed spacer grid geometry with mixing vane is necessary for improving the accuracy of CFD simulation.

  14. Preliminary study of varietal susceptibility to sulfur dioxide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miller, J.E.; Xerikos, P.B.

    1976-01-01

    The injury response of plants to air pollutants, such as sulfur dioxide, is known to vary in severity and type for different varieties or cultivars of a species. Differences in the susceptibility of soybean varieties to sulfur dioxide have previously been noted, but sufficient information is not available concerning the sulfur dioxide resistance of varieties commonly grown in the Midwest. Results are reported from preliminary experiments concerning acute sulfur dioxide effects on 12 soybean varieties. The injury symptoms ranged from cream colored necrotic lesions (generally on younger leaves) to a reddish brown necrotic stipling (on older leaves). Differences in the severity of symptom development for the varieties was evident on both the younger and older leaves. No injury was apparent with three of the varieties

  15. Genetic architecture for susceptibility to gout in the KARE cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Jimin; Kim, Younyoung; Kong, Minyoung; Lee, Chaeyoung

    2012-06-01

    This study aimed to identify functional associations of cis-regulatory regions with gout susceptibility using data resulted from a genome-wide association study (GWAS), and to show a genetic architecture for gout with interaction effects among genes within each of the identified functions. The GWAS was conducted with 8314 control subjects and 520 patients with gout in the Korea Association REsource cohort. However, genetic associations with any individual nucleotide variants were not discovered by Bonferroni multiple testing in the GWAS (P>1.42 × 10(-7)). Genomic regions enrichment analysis was employed to identify functional associations of cis-regulatory regions. This analysis revealed several biological processes associated with gout susceptibility, and they were quite different from those with serum uric acid level. Epistasis for susceptibility to gout was estimated using entropy decomposition with selected genes within each biological process identified by the genomic regions enrichment analysis. Some epistases among nucleotide sequence variants for gout susceptibility were found to be larger than their individual effects. This study provided the first evidence that genetic factors for gout susceptibility greatly differed from those for serum uric acid level, which may suggest that research endeavors for identifying genetic factors for gout susceptibility should not be heavily dependent on pathogenesis of uric acid. Interaction effects between genes should be examined to explain a large portion of phenotypic variability for gout susceptibility.

  16. Family system characteristics and psychological adjustment to cancer susceptibility genetic testing: a prospective study.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oostrom, I.I.H. van; Meijers-Heijboer, H.; Duivenvoorden, H.J.; Brocker-Vriends, A.H.; Asperen, C.J. van; Sijmons, R.H.; Seynaeve, C.; Gool, A.R. van; Klijn, J.G.M.; Tibben, A.

    2007-01-01

    This study examined prospectively the contribution of family functioning, differentiation to parents, family communication and support from relatives to psychological distress in individuals undergoing genetic susceptibility testing for a known familial pathogenic BRCA1/2 or Hereditary nonpolyposis

  17. Family system characteristics and psychological adjustment to cancer susceptibility genetic testing: a prospective study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Oostrom, I.; Meijers-Heijboer, H.; Duivenvoorden, H. J.; Bröcker-Vriends, A. H. J. T.; van Asperen, C. J.; Sijmons, R. H.; Seynaeve, C.; van Gool, A. R.; Klijn, J. G. M.; Tibben, A.

    2007-01-01

    This study examined prospectively the contribution of family functioning, differentiation to parents, family communication and support from relatives to psychological distress in individuals undergoing genetic susceptibility testing for a known familial pathogenic BRCA1/2 or Hereditary nonpolyposis

  18. Family system characteristics and psychological adjustment to cancer susceptibility genetic testing : a prospective study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Oostrom, I.; Meijers-Heijboer, H.; Duivenvoorden, H. J.; Brocker-Vriends, A. H. J. T.; van Asperen, C. J.; Sijmons, R. H.; Seynaeve, C.; Van Gool, A. R.; Klijn, J. G. M.; Tibben, A.

    This study examined prospectively the contribution of family functioning, differentiation to parents, family communication and support from relatives to psychological distress in individuals undergoing genetic susceptibility testing for a known familial pathogenic BRCA1/2 or Hereditary nonpolyposis

  19. European surveillance study on antimicrobial susceptibility of Gram-positive anaerobic cocci

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brazier, J; Chmelar, D; Dubreuil, L

    2008-01-01

    Gram-positive anaerobic cocci (GPAC) are a heterogeneous group of microorganisms frequently isolated from local and systemic infections. In this study, the antimicrobial susceptibilities of clinical strains isolated in 10 European countries were investigated. After identification of 299 GPAC...

  20. Medium fidelity modelling of loads in wind farms under non-neutral ABL stability conditions – a full-scale validation study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Gunner Chr.; Larsen, Torben J.; Chougule, A.

    2017-01-01

    The aim of the present paper is to demonstrate the capability of medium fidelity modelling of wind turbine component fatigue loading, when the wind turbines are subjected to wake affected non-stationary flow fields under non-neutral atmospheric stability conditions. To accomplish this we combine......) in description of both large- and small scale atmospheric boundary layer turbulence is facilitated by a generalization of the classical Mann spectral tensor, which consistently includes buoyancy effects. With non-stationary wind turbine inflow fields modelled as described above, fatigue loads are obtained using...... the state-of-the art aeroelastic model HAWC2. The Lillgrund offshore wind farm (WF) constitute an interesting case study for wind farm model validation, because the WT interspacing is small, which in turn means that wake effects are significant. A huge data set, comprising 5 years of blade and tower load...

  1. Fidelity deviation in quantum teleportation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bang, Jeongho; Ryu, Junghee; Kaszlikowski, Dagomir

    2018-04-01

    We analyze the performance of quantum teleportation in terms of average fidelity and fidelity deviation. The average fidelity is defined as the average value of the fidelities over all possible input states and the fidelity deviation is their standard deviation, which is referred to as a concept of fluctuation or universality. In the analysis, we find the condition to optimize both measures under a noisy quantum channel—we here consider the so-called Werner channel. To characterize our results, we introduce a 2D space defined by the aforementioned measures, in which the performance of the teleportation is represented as a point with the channel noise parameter. Through further analysis, we specify some regions drawn for different channel conditions, establishing the connection to the dissimilar contributions of the entanglement to the teleportation and the Bell inequality violation.

  2. Using the Moon as a high-fidelity analogue environment to study biological and behavioral effects of long-duration space exploration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goswami, Nandu; Roma, Peter G.; De Boever, Patrick; Clément, Gilles; Hargens, Alan R.; Loeppky, Jack A.; Evans, Joyce M.; Peter Stein, T.; Blaber, Andrew P.; Van Loon, Jack J. W. A.; Mano, Tadaaki; Iwase, Satoshi; Reitz, Guenther; Hinghofer-Szalkay, Helmut G.

    2012-12-01

    Due to its proximity to Earth, the Moon is a promising candidate for the location of an extra-terrestrial human colony. In addition to being a high-fidelity platform for research on reduced gravity, radiation risk, and circadian disruption, the Moon qualifies as an isolated, confined, and extreme (ICE) environment suitable as an analog for studying the psychosocial effects of long-duration human space exploration missions and understanding these processes. In contrast, the various Antarctic research outposts such as Concordia and McMurdo serve as valuable platforms for studying biobehavioral adaptations to ICE environments, but are still Earth-bound, and thus lack the low-gravity and radiation risks of space. The International Space Station (ISS), itself now considered an analog environment for long-duration missions, better approximates the habitable infrastructure limitations of a lunar colony than most Antarctic settlements in an altered gravity setting. However, the ISS is still protected against cosmic radiation by the Earth magnetic field, which prevents high exposures due to solar particle events and reduces exposures to galactic cosmic radiation. On Moon the ICE environments are strengthened, radiations of all energies are present capable of inducing performance degradation, as well as reduced gravity and lunar dust. The interaction of reduced gravity, radiation exposure, and ICE conditions may affect biology and behavior - and ultimately mission success - in ways the scientific and operational communities have yet to appreciate, therefore a long-term or permanent human presence on the Moon would ultimately provide invaluable high-fidelity opportunities for integrated multidisciplinary research and for preparations of a manned mission to Mars.

  3. Intervention Fidelity in Special and General Education Research Journals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swanson, Elizabeth; Wanzek, Jeanne; Haring, Christa; Ciullo, Stephen; McCulley, Lisa

    2013-01-01

    Treatment fidelity reporting practices are described for journals that published general and special education intervention research with high impact factors from 2005 through 2009. The authors reviewed research articles, reported the proportion of intervention studies that described fidelity measurement, detailed the components of fidelity…

  4. Magnetic susceptibility measurements of boring cores obtained from regional hydrological study project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hasegawa, Ken

    2010-02-01

    We measured the magnetic susceptibility of boring cores obtained from the Regional Hydrological Study Project to interpret the aeromagnetic survey data which was carried out in Tono area with about 40km square surrounding Tono Geoscience Center. The result of measurements indicates that the magnetic susceptibility of the Toki Granite is not distributed uniformly and the maximum value becomes two orders in magnitude larger than its minimum value. (author)

  5. Quantitative susceptibility mapping (QSM) as a means to measure brain iron? A post mortem validation study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langkammer, Christian; Schweser, Ferdinand; Krebs, Nikolaus; Deistung, Andreas; Goessler, Walter; Scheurer, Eva; Sommer, Karsten; Reishofer, Gernot; Yen, Kathrin; Fazekas, Franz; Ropele, Stefan; Reichenbach, Jürgen R.

    2012-01-01

    Quantitative susceptibility mapping (QSM) is a novel technique which allows determining the bulk magnetic susceptibility distribution of tissue in vivo from gradient echo magnetic resonance phase images. It is commonly assumed that paramagnetic iron is the predominant source of susceptibility variations in gray matter as many studies have reported a reasonable correlation of magnetic susceptibility with brain iron concentrations in vivo. Instead of performing direct comparisons, however, all these studies used the putative iron concentrations reported in the hallmark study by Hallgren and Sourander (1958) for their analysis. Consequently, the extent to which QSM can serve to reliably assess brain iron levels is not yet fully clear. To provide such information we investigated the relation between bulk tissue magnetic susceptibility and brain iron concentration in unfixed (in situ) post mortem brains of 13 subjects using MRI and inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. A strong linear correlation between chemically determined iron concentration and bulk magnetic susceptibility was found in gray matter structures (r = 0.84, p < 0.001), whereas the correlation coefficient was much lower in white matter (r = 0.27, p < 0.001). The slope of the overall linear correlation was consistent with theoretical considerations of the magnetism of ferritin supporting that most of the iron in the brain is bound to ferritin proteins. In conclusion, iron is the dominant source of magnetic susceptibility in deep gray matter and can be assessed with QSM. In white matter regions the estimation of iron concentrations by QSM is less accurate and more complex because the counteracting contribution from diamagnetic myelinated neuronal fibers confounds the interpretation. PMID:22634862

  6. The Epidemiological And Susceptibility Study Of Inpatient Blood Cultures In Amir Alam Hospital 1998 - 2000

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karimi Shahidi M

    2002-07-01

    Full Text Available Sepsis is one of the most critical medical emergency situations. Treatment with anti microbial drugs should be initiated as soon as samples of blood and other relevant sites have been cultured. Available information about patterns of anti microbial Susceptibility among bacterial isolates from the community, the hospital, and the patient should be taken in to account. It is important, pending culture results, to initiate empirical anti microbial therapy."nMaterials and methods: In a descriptive study during 3 years (1377-1379, microbial and anti microbial susceptibility patterns evaluated in Amir alam clinical laboratory on 2000 specimen of blood culture received from 765 hospitalized patients at Amir Alam hospital wards."nResults: 113 specimens from 77 patient (10 percent were positive for microbial growth. Enterobacter, S. aureus, S.epidermidis, Pneumococci, Ecoli, and Pseudomonas were the most common isolated etiologic agents(80 percent . The most common organism was Entenobacter in 1377, S.aureus in 1378 and pseudomonas in 1379 There were significant change in patlern of organisms, increase resistance to some important available antibiotics and change in antibiotic susceptibility pattern during three years (disc diffusion method."nConclusions: According to Results of this study due to change in pattern of organism and their antibiotic susceptibility, dynamic microbiological study provide important data for Ordering empirical and culture oriented treatment of patients with bacteremia, Sepsis, anti microbial Chemotherapy, anti microbial susceptibility empirical anti microbial therapy, microbial pattern.

  7. Undergraduate nursing students' performance in recognising and responding to sudden patient deterioration in high psychological fidelity simulated environments: an Australian multi-centre study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bogossian, Fiona; Cooper, Simon; Cant, Robyn; Beauchamp, Alison; Porter, Joanne; Kain, Victoria; Bucknall, Tracey; Phillips, Nicole M

    2014-05-01

    Early recognition and situation awareness of sudden patient deterioration, a timely appropriate clinical response, and teamwork are critical to patient outcomes. High fidelity simulated environments provide the opportunity for undergraduate nursing students to develop and refine recognition and response skills. This paper reports the quantitative findings of the first phase of a larger program of ongoing research: Feedback Incorporating Review and Simulation Techniques to Act on Clinical Trends (FIRST2ACTTM). It specifically aims to identify the characteristics that may predict primary outcome measures of clinical performance, teamwork and situation awareness in the management of deteriorating patients. Mixed-method multi-centre study. High fidelity simulated acute clinical environment in three Australian universities. A convenience sample of 97 final year nursing students enrolled in an undergraduate Bachelor of Nursing or combined Bachelor of Nursing degree were included in the study. In groups of three, participants proceeded through three phases: (i) pre-briefing and completion of a multi-choice question test, (ii) three video-recorded simulated clinical scenarios where actors substituted real patients with deteriorating conditions, and (iii) post-scenario debriefing. Clinical performance, teamwork and situation awareness were evaluated, using a validated standard checklist (OSCE), Team Emergency Assessment Measure (TEAM) score sheet and Situation Awareness Global Assessment Technique (SAGAT). A Modified Angoff technique was used to establish cut points for clinical performance. Student teams engaged in 97 simulation experiences across the three scenarios and achieved a level of clinical performance consistent with the experts' identified pass level point in only 9 (1%) of the simulation experiences. Knowledge was significantly associated with overall teamwork (p=.034), overall situation awareness (p=.05) and clinical performance in two of the three scenarios

  8. Developing a tool for observing group critical thinking skills in first-year medical students: a pilot study using physiology-based, high-fidelity patient simulations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Khoa; Ben Khallouq, Bertha; Schuster, Amanda; Beevers, Christopher; Dil, Nyla; Kay, Denise; Kibble, Jonathan D; Harris, David M

    2017-12-01

    Most assessments of physiology in medical school use multiple choice tests that may not provide information about a student's critical thinking (CT) process. There are limited performance assessments, but high-fidelity patient simulations (HFPS) may be a feasible platform. The purpose of this pilot study was to determine whether a group's CT process could be observed over a series of HFPS. An instrument [Critical Thinking Skills Rating Instrument CTSRI)] was designed with the IDEAS framework. Fifteen groups of students participated in three HFPS that consisted of a basic knowledge quiz and introduction, HFPS session, and debriefing. HFPS were video recorded, and two raters reviewed and scored all HFPS encounters with the CTSRI independently. Interrater analysis suggested good reliability. There was a correlation between basic knowledge scores and three of the six observations on the CTSRI providing support for construct validity. The median CT ratings significantly increased for all observations between the groups' first and last simulation. However, there were still large percentages of video ratings that indicated students needed substantial prompting during the HFPS. The data from this pilot study suggest that it is feasible to observe CT skills in HFPS using the CTSRI. Based on the findings from this study, we strongly recommend that first-year medical students be competent in basic knowledge of the relevant physiology of the HFPS before participating, to minimize the risk of a poor learning experience. Copyright © 2017 the American Physiological Society.

  9. Susceptibility to Chronic Mucus Hypersecretion, a Genome Wide Association Study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dijkstra, Akkelies E; Smolonska, Joanna; van den Berge, Maarten

    2014-01-01

    by replication and meta-analysis in 11 additional cohorts. In total 2,704 subjects with, and 7,624 subjects without CMH were included, all current or former heavy smokers (≥20 pack-years). Additional studies were performed to test the functional relevance of the most significant single nucleotide polymorphism...... (SNP). RESULTS: A strong association with CMH, consistent across all cohorts, was observed with rs6577641 (p = 4.25×10(-6), OR = 1.17), located in intron 9 of the special AT-rich sequence-binding protein 1 locus (SATB1) on chromosome 3. The risk allele (G) was associated with higher mRNA expression...... of smokers develops CMH. A plausible explanation for this phenomenon is a predisposing genetic constitution. Therefore, we performed a genome wide association (GWA) study of CMH in Caucasian populations. METHODS: GWA analysis was performed in the NELSON-study using the Illumina 610 array, followed...

  10. Low-Fidelity Haptic Simulation Versus Mental Imagery Training for Epidural Anesthesia Technical Achievement in Novice Anesthesiology Residents: A Randomized Comparative Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Grace; Krohner, Robert G; Metro, David G; Rosario, Bedda L; Jeong, Jong-Hyeon; Sakai, Tetsuro

    2016-05-01

    There are many teaching methods for epidural anesthesia skill acquisition. Previous work suggests that there is no difference in skill acquisition whether novice learners engage in low-fidelity (LF) versus high-fidelity haptic simulation for epidural anesthesia. No study, however, has compared the effect of LF haptic simulation for epidural anesthesia versus mental imagery (MI) training in which no physical practice is attempted. We tested the hypothesis that MI training is superior to LF haptic simulation training for epidural anesthesia skill acquisition. Twenty Post-Graduate Year 2 (PGY-2) anesthesiology residents were tested at the beginning of the training year. After a didactic lecture on epidural anesthesia, they were randomized into 2 groups. Group LF had LF simulation training for epidural anesthesia using a previously described banana simulation technique. Group MI had guided, scripted MI training in which they initially were oriented to the epidural kit components and epidural anesthesia was described stepwise in detail, followed by individual mental rehearsal; no physical practice was undertaken. Each resident then individually performed epidural anesthesia on a partial-human task trainer on 3 consecutive occasions under the direct observation of skilled evaluators who were blinded to group assignment. Technical achievement was assessed with the use of a modified validated skills checklist. Scores (0-21) and duration to task completion (minutes) were recorded. A linear mixed-effects model analysis was performed to determine the differences in scores and duration between groups and over time. There was no statistical difference between the 2 groups for scores and duration to task completion. Both groups showed similarly significant increases (P = 0.0015) in scores over time (estimated mean score [SE]: group MI, 15.9 [0.55] to 17.4 [0.55] to 18.6 [0.55]; group LF, 16.2 [0.55] to 17.7 [0.55] to 18.9 [0.55]). Time to complete the procedure decreased

  11. A laboratory study of susceptibility of methicillin resistant staphylococcus aureus (MRSA)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bukhari, M.H.; Iqbal, N.; Naeem, S.; Qureshi, G.R.; Naveed, I.A.; Iqbal, A.; Khatoon, N.

    2004-01-01

    Objective: To study the mode of infection, incidence of methicillin resistant staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) and their susceptibility against glycopeptides and fucidic acid, so that awareness may be created for consultants against such notorious rapidly spreading bacteria and recommendation can be made for their prevention and control. Methods: The specimens from various infections suspected on clinical ground were processed by standard methods and antibiotic susceptibility testing of all the 350 S. aureus and 135 MRSA isolates was done by using modified Kirby Bauer Disc diffusion technique. Results: Of 350 positive S.aureus cultures, 135 were found to be Methicillin resistant (38.5%) which showed susceptibility 96%, 94% and 86% to Vancomycin, Teicoplanin and Fucidic acid respectively. Conclusion: This study showed a high incidence of MRSA at Mayo Hospital Lahore, Glycopeptides and Fucidic acid were found to be valuable antibiotics against MRSA. (author)

  12. Susceptibility to chronic mucus hypersecretion, a genome wide association study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akkelies E Dijkstra

    Full Text Available Chronic mucus hypersecretion (CMH is associated with an increased frequency of respiratory infections, excess lung function decline, and increased hospitalisation and mortality rates in the general population. It is associated with smoking, but it is unknown why only a minority of smokers develops CMH. A plausible explanation for this phenomenon is a predisposing genetic constitution. Therefore, we performed a genome wide association (GWA study of CMH in Caucasian populations.GWA analysis was performed in the NELSON-study using the Illumina 610 array, followed by replication and meta-analysis in 11 additional cohorts. In total 2,704 subjects with, and 7,624 subjects without CMH were included, all current or former heavy smokers (≥20 pack-years. Additional studies were performed to test the functional relevance of the most significant single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP.A strong association with CMH, consistent across all cohorts, was observed with rs6577641 (p = 4.25×10(-6, OR = 1.17, located in intron 9 of the special AT-rich sequence-binding protein 1 locus (SATB1 on chromosome 3. The risk allele (G was associated with higher mRNA expression of SATB1 (4.3×10(-9 in lung tissue. Presence of CMH was associated with increased SATB1 mRNA expression in bronchial biopsies from COPD patients. SATB1 expression was induced during differentiation of primary human bronchial epithelial cells in culture.Our findings, that SNP rs6577641 is associated with CMH in multiple cohorts and is a cis-eQTL for SATB1, together with our additional observation that SATB1 expression increases during epithelial differentiation provide suggestive evidence that SATB1 is a gene that affects CMH.

  13. Nuclear power plant training simulator fidelity assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carter, R.J.; Laughery, K.R.

    1985-01-01

    The fidelity assessment portion of a methodology for evaluating nuclear power plant simulation facilities in regard to their appropriateness for conducting the Nuclear Regulatory Commission's operating test was described. The need for fidelity assessment, data sources, and fidelity data to be collected are addressed. Fidelity data recording, collection, and analysis are discussed. The processes for drawing conclusions from the fidelity assessment and evaluating the adequacy of the simulator control-room layout were presented. 3 refs

  14. Genome-wide association study of classical Hodgkin lymphoma identifies key regulators of disease susceptibility

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sud, Amit; Thomsen, Hauke; Law, Philip J.

    2017-01-01

    Several susceptibility loci for classical Hodgkin lymphoma have been reported. However, much of the heritable risk is unknown. Here, we perform a meta-analysis of two existing genome-wide association studies, a new genome-wide association study, and replication totalling 5,314 cases and 16,749 co...

  15. Genome-wide association study of classical Hodgkin lymphoma identifies key regulators of disease susceptibility

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sud, A. (Amit); Thomsen, H. (Hauke); Law, P.J. (Philip J.); A. Försti (Asta); Filho, M.I.D.S. (Miguel Inacio Da Silva); Holroyd, A. (Amy); P. Broderick (Peter); Orlando, G. (Giulia); Lenive, O. (Oleg); Wright, L. (Lauren); R. Cooke (Rosie); D.F. Easton (Douglas); P.D.P. Pharoah (Paul); A.M. Dunning (Alison); J. Peto (Julian); F. Canzian (Federico); Eeles, R. (Rosalind); Z. Kote-Jarai; K.R. Muir (K.); Pashayan, N. (Nora); B.E. Henderson (Brian); C.A. Haiman (Christopher); S. Benlloch (Sara); F.R. Schumacher (Fredrick R); Olama, A.A.A. (Ali Amin Al); S.I. Berndt (Sonja); G. Conti (Giario); F. Wiklund (Fredrik); S.J. Chanock (Stephen); Stevens, V.L. (Victoria L.); C.M. Tangen (Catherine M.); Batra, J. (Jyotsna); Clements, J. (Judith); H. Grönberg (Henrik); Schleutker, J. (Johanna); D. Albanes (Demetrius); Weinstein, S. (Stephanie); K. Wolk (Kerstin); West, C. (Catharine); Mucci, L. (Lorelei); Cancel-Tassin, G. (Géraldine); Koutros, S. (Stella); Sorensen, K.D. (Karina Dalsgaard); L. Maehle; D. Neal (David); S.P.L. Travis (Simon); Hamilton, R.J. (Robert J.); S.A. Ingles (Sue); B.S. Rosenstein (Barry S.); Lu, Y.-J. (Yong-Jie); Giles, G.G. (Graham G.); A. Kibel (Adam); Vega, A. (Ana); M. Kogevinas (Manolis); Penney, K.L. (Kathryn L.); Park, J.Y. (Jong Y.); Stanford, J.L. (Janet L.); C. Cybulski (Cezary); B.G. Nordestgaard (Børge); Brenner, H. (Hermann); Maier, C. (Christiane); Kim, J. (Jeri); E.M. John (Esther); P.J. Teixeira; Neuhausen, S.L. (Susan L.); De Ruyck, K. (Kim); Razack, A. (Azad); Newcomb, L.F. (Lisa F.); Lessel, D. (Davor); Kaneva, R. (Radka); N. Usmani (Nawaid); F. Claessens; Townsend, P.A. (Paul A.); Dominguez, M.G. (Manuela Gago); Roobol, M.J. (Monique J.); F. Menegaux (Florence); P. Hoffmann (Per); M.M. Nöthen (Markus); K.-H. JöCkel (Karl-Heinz); Strandmann, E.P.V. (Elke Pogge Von); Lightfoot, T. (Tracy); Kane, E. (Eleanor); Roman, E. (Eve); Lake, A. (Annette); Montgomery, D. (Dorothy); Jarrett, R.F. (Ruth F.); A.J. Swerdlow (Anthony ); A. Engert (Andreas); N. Orr (Nick); K. Hemminki (Kari); Houlston, R.S. (Richard S.)

    2017-01-01

    textabstractSeveral susceptibility loci for classical Hodgkin lymphoma have been reported. However, much of the heritable risk is unknown. Here, we perform a meta-analysis of two existing genome-wide association studies, a new genome-wide association study, and replication totalling 5,314 cases and

  16. Recommendations on Model Fidelity for Wind Turbine Gearbox Simulations: Preprint

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guo, Y.; Keller, J.; La Cava, W.; Austin, J.; Nejad, A. R.; Halse, C.; Bastard, L.; Helsen, J.

    2015-01-01

    This work investigates the minimum level of fidelity required to accurately simulate wind turbine gearboxes using state-of-the-art design tools. Excessive model fidelity including drivetrain complexity, gearbox complexity, excitation sources, and imperfections, significantly increases computational time, but may not provide a commensurate increase in the value of the results. Essential design parameters are evaluated, including the planetary load-sharing factor, gear tooth load distribution, and sun orbit motion. Based on the sensitivity study results, recommendations for the minimum model fidelities are provided.

  17. Route Fidelity during Marine Megafauna Migration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Travis W. Horton

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The conservation and protection of marine megafauna require robust knowledge of where and when animals are located. Yet, our ability to predict animal distributions in space and time remains limited due to difficulties associated with studying elusive animals with large home ranges. The widespread deployment of satellite telemetry technology creates unprecedented opportunities to remotely monitor animal movements and to analyse the spatial and temporal trajectories of these movements from a variety of geophysical perspectives. Reproducible patterns in movement trajectories can help elucidate the potential mechanisms by which marine megafauna navigate across vast expanses of open-ocean. Here, we present an empirical analysis of humpback whale (Megaptera novaeangliae, great white shark (Carcharodon carcharias, and northern elephant seal (Mirounga angustirostris satellite telemetry-derived route fidelity movements in magnetic and gravitational coordinates. Our analyses demonstrate that: (1 humpback whales, great white sharks and northern elephant seals are capable of performing route fidelity movements across millions of square kilometers of open ocean with a spatial accuracy of better than 150 km despite temporal separations as long as 7 years between individual movements; (2 route fidelity movements include significant (p < 0.05 periodicities that are comparable in duration to the lunar cycles and semi-cycles; (3 latitude and bedrock-dependent gravitational cues are stronger predictors of route fidelity movements than spherical magnetic coordinate cues when analyzed with respect to the temporally dependent moon illumination cycle. We further show that both route fidelity and non-route fidelity movement trajectories, for all three species, describe overlapping in-phase or antiphase sinusoids when individual movements are normalized to the gravitational acceleration present at migratory departure sites. Although these empirical results provide an

  18. Genome-wide association studies on HIV susceptibility, pathogenesis and pharmacogenomics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Manen, Daniëlle; van 't Wout, Angélique B.; Schuitemaker, Hanneke

    2012-01-01

    Susceptibility to HIV-1 and the clinical course after infection show a substantial heterogeneity between individuals. Part of this variability can be attributed to host genetic variation. Initial candidate gene studies have revealed interesting host factors that influence HIV infection, replication

  19. Seven prostate cancer susceptibility loci identified by a multi-stage genome-wide association study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kote-Jarai, Zsofia; Olama, Ali Amin Al; Giles, Graham G

    2011-01-01

    Prostate cancer (PrCa) is the most frequently diagnosed male cancer in developed countries. We conducted a multi-stage genome-wide association study for PrCa and previously reported the results of the first two stages, which identified 16 PrCa susceptibility loci. We report here the results of st...

  20. Genome-wide Association Study Identifies Five Susceptibility Loci for Follicular Lymphoma outside the HLA Region

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Skibola, Christine F.; Berndt, Sonja I.; Vijai, Joseph; Conde, Lucia; Wang, Zhaoming; Yeager, Meredith; de Bakker, Paul I. W.; Birmann, Brenda M.; Vajdic, Claire M.; Foo, Jia-Nee; Bracci, Paige M.; Vermeulen, Roel C. H.; Slager, Susan L.; de Sanjose, Silvia; Wang, Sophia S.; Linet, Martha S.; Salles, Gilles; Lan, Qing; Severi, Gianluca; Hjalgrim, Henrik; Lightfoot, Tracy; Melbye, Mads; Gu, Jian; Ghesquieres, Herve; Link, Brian K.; Morton, Lindsay M.; Holly, Elizabeth A.; Smith, Alex; Tinker, Lesley F.; Teras, Lauren R.; Kricker, Anne; Becker, Nikolaus; Purdue, Mark P.; Spinelli, John J.; Zhang, Yawei; Giles, Graham G.; Vineis, Paolo; Monnereau, Alain; Bertrand, Kimberly A.; Albanes, Demetrius; Zeleniuch-Jacquotte, Anne; Gabbas, Attilio; Chung, Charles C.; Burdett, Laurie; Hutchinson, Amy; Lawrence, Charles; Montalvan, Rebecca; Liang, Liming; Huang, Jinyan; Ma, Baoshan; Liu, Jianjun; Adami, Hans-Olov; Glimelius, Bengt; Ye, Yuanqing; Nowakowski, Grzegorz S.; Dogan, Ahmet; Thompson, Carrie A.; Habermann, Thomas M.; Novak, Anne J.; Liebow, Mark; Witzig, Thomas E.; Weiner, George J.; Schenk, Maryjean; Hartge, Patricia; De Roos, Anneclaire J.; Cozen, Wendy; Zhi, Degui; Akers, Nicholas K.; Riby, Jacques; Smith, Martyn T.; Lacher, Mortimer; Villano, Danylo J.; Maria, Ann; Roman, Eve; Kane, Eleanor; Jackson, Rebecca D.; North, Kari E.; Diver, W. Ryan; Turner, Jenny; Armstrong, Bruce K.; Benavente, Yolanda; Boffetta, Paolo; Brennan, Paul; Foretova, Lenka; Maynadie, Marc; Staines, Anthony; McKay, James; Brooks-Wilson, Angela R.; Zheng, Tongzhang; Holford, Theodore R.; Chamosa, Saioa; Kaaks, Rudolph; Kelly, Rachel S.; Ohlsson, Bodil; Travis, Ruth C.; Weiderpass, Elisabete; Clave, Jacqueline; Giovannucci, Edward; Kraft, Peter; Virtamo, Jarmo; Mazza, Patrizio; Cocco, Pierluigi; Ennas, Maria Grazia; Chiu, Brian C. H.; Fraumeni, Joseph R.; Nieters, Alexandra; Offit, Kenneth; Wu, Xifeng; Cerhan, James R.; Smedby, Karin E.; Chanock, Stephen J.; Rothman, Nathaniel

    2014-01-01

    Genome-wide association studies (GWASs) of follicular lymphoma (FL) have previously identified human leukocyte antigen (HLA) gene variants. To identify additional FL susceptibility loci, we conducted a large-scale two-stage GWAS in 4,523 case subjects and 13,344 control subjects of European

  1. Genome-wide association study identifies FCGR2A as a susceptibility locus for Kawasaki disease

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Khor, Chiea Chuen; Davila, Sonia; Breunis, Willemijn B.; Lee, Yi-Ching; Shimizu, Chisato; Wright, Victoria J.; Yeung, Rae S. M.; Tan, Dennis E. K.; Sim, Kar Seng; Wang, Jie Jin; Wong, Tien Yin; Pang, Junxiong; Mitchell, Paul; Cimaz, Rolando; Dahdah, Nagib; Cheung, Yiu-Fai; Huang, Guo-Ying; Yang, Wanling; Park, In-Sook; Lee, Jong-Keuk; Wu, Jer-Yuarn; Levin, Michael; Burns, Jane C.; Burgner, David; Kuijpers, Taco W.; Hibberd, Martin L.; Lau, Yu-Lung; Zhang, Jing; Ma, Xiao-Jing; Liu, Fang; Wu, Lin; Yoo, Jeong-Jin; Hong, Soo-Jong; Kim, Kwi-Joo; Kim, Jae-Jung; Park, Young-Mi; Mi Hong, Young; Sohn, Sejung; Young Jang, Gi; Ha, Kee-Soo; Nam, Hyo-Kyoung; Byeon, Jung-Hye; Weon Yun, Sin; Ki Han, Myung; Lee, Kyung-Yil; Hwang, Ja-Young; Kuipers, Irene M.; Ottenkamp, Jaap J.; Biezeveld, Maarten; Tacke, Carline

    2011-01-01

    Kawasaki disease is a systemic vasculitis of unknown etiology, with clinical observations suggesting a substantial genetic contribution to disease susceptibility. We conducted a genome-wide association study and replication analysis in 2,173 individuals with Kawasaki disease and 9,383 controls from

  2. Genome-wide association study for ovarian cancer susceptibility using pooled DNA.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lu, Y.; Chen, X.; Beesley, J.; Johnatty, S.E.; Defazio, A.; Lambrechts, S.; Lambrechts, D.; Despierre, E.; Vergotes, I.; Chang-Claude, J.; Hein, R.; Nickels, S.; Wang-Gohrke, S.; Dork, T.; Durst, M.; Antonenkova, N.; Bogdanova, N.; Goodman, M.T.; Lurie, G.; Wilkens, L.R.; Carney, M.E.; Butzow, R.; Nevanlinna, H.; Heikkinen, T.; Leminen, A.; Kiemeney, L.A.L.M.; Massuger, L.F.A.G.; Altena, A.M. van; Aben, K.K.H.; Kjaer, S.K.; Hogdall, E.; Jensen, A.; Brooks-Wilson, A.; Le, N.; Cook, L.; Earp, M.; Kelemen, L.; Easton, D.; Pharoah, P.; Song, H.; Tyrer, J.; Ramus, S.; Menon, U.; Gentry-Maharaj, A.; Gayther, S.A.; Bandera, E.V.; Olson, S.H.; Orlow, I.; Rodriguez-Rodriguez, L.; MacGregor, S.; Chenevix-Trench, G.

    2012-01-01

    Recent Genome-Wide Association Studies (GWAS) have identified four low-penetrance ovarian cancer susceptibility loci. We hypothesized that further moderate- or low-penetrance variants exist among the subset of single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) not well tagged by the genotyping arrays used in

  3. Why Classroom Climate Matters for Children High in Anxious Solitude: A Study of Differential Susceptibility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hughes, Kathleen; Coplan, Robert J.

    2018-01-01

    The goal of the current study was to examine the complex links among anxious solitude, classroom climate, engagement, achievement, and gender. In particular, drawing upon the differential susceptibility hypothesis (Belsky, 1997), we investigated if children high in anxious solitude were particularly sensitive and responsive to the classroom…

  4. Genome-wide association study identifies multiple susceptibility loci for diffuse large B cell lymphoma

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cerhan, James R.; Berndt, Sonja I.; Vijai, Joseph; Ghesquières, Hervé; McKay, James; Wang, Sophia S.; Wang, Zhaoming; Yeager, Meredith; Conde, Lucia; De Bakker, Paul I W; Nieters, Alexandra; Cox, David; Burdett, Laurie; Monnereau, Alain; Flowers, Christopher R.; De Roos, Anneclaire J.; Brooks-Wilson, Angela R.; Lan, Qing; Severi, Gianluca; Melbye, Mads; Gu, Jian; Jackson, Rebecca D.; Kane, Eleanor; Teras, Lauren R.; Purdue, Mark P.; Vajdic, Claire M.; Spinelli, John J.; Giles, Graham G.; Albanes, Demetrius; Kelly, Rachel S.; Zucca, Mariagrazia; Bertrand, Kimberly A.; Zeleniuch-Jacquotte, Anne; Lawrence, Charles; Hutchinson, Amy; Zhi, Degui; Habermann, Thomas M.; Link, Brian K.; Novak, Anne J.; Dogan, Ahmet; Asmann, Yan W.; Liebow, Mark; Thompson, Carrie A.; Ansell, Stephen M.; Witzig, Thomas E.; Weiner, George J.; Veron, Amelie S.; Zelenika, Diana; Tilly, Hervé; Haioun, Corinne; Molina, Thierry Jo; Hjalgrim, Henrik; Glimelius, Bengt; Adami, Hans Olov; Bracci, Paige M.; Riby, Jacques; Smith, Martyn T.; Holly, Elizabeth A.; Cozen, Wendy; Hartge, Patricia; Morton, Lindsay M.; Severson, Richard K.; Tinker, Lesley F.; North, Kari E.; Becker, Nikolaus; Benavente, Yolanda; Boffetta, Paolo; Brennan, Paul; Foretova, Lenka; Maynadie, Marc; Staines, Anthony; Lightfoot, Tracy; Crouch, Simon; Smith, Alex; Roman, Eve; Diver, W. Ryan; Offit, Kenneth; Zelenetz, Andrew; Klein, Robert J.; Villano, Danylo J.; Zheng, Tongzhang; Zhang, Yawei; Holford, Theodore R.; Kricker, Anne; Turner, Jenny; Southey, Melissa C.; Clavel, Jacqueline; Virtamo, Jarmo; Weinstein, Stephanie; Riboli, Elio; Vineis, Paolo; Kaaks, Rudolph; Trichopoulos, Dimitrios; Vermeulen, Roel C H; Boeing, Heiner; Tjonneland, Anne; Angelucci, Emanuele; Di Lollo, Simonetta; Rais, Marco; Birmann, Brenda M.; Laden, Francine; Giovannucci, Edward; Kraft, Peter; Huang, Jinyan; Ma, Baoshan; Ye, Yuanqing; Chiu, Brian C H; Sampson, Joshua; Liang, Liming; Park, Ju Hyun; Chung, Charles C.; Weisenburger, Dennis D.; Chatterjee, Nilanjan; Fraumeni, Joseph F.; Slager, Susan L.; Wu, Xifeng; De Sanjose, Silvia; Smedby, Karin E.; Salles, Gilles; Skibola, Christine F.; Rothman, Nathaniel; Chanock, Stephen J.

    2014-01-01

    Diffuse large B cell lymphoma (DLBCL) is the most common lymphoma subtype and is clinically aggressive. To identify genetic susceptibility loci for DLBCL, we conducted a meta-analysis of 3 new genome-wide association studies (GWAS) and 1 previous scan, totaling 3,857 cases and 7,666 controls of

  5. Randomized Crossover Study of Training Benefits of High Fidelity ECMO Simulation versus Porcine Animal Model An Interim Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-02-25

    59 MDW/SGVU SUBJECT: Professional Presentation Approval 24 FEB 2017 1. Your paper, entitled Randomized C rossover Study of T raining Benefits of...have been the gold -standard for ECMO training due to their ability to replicate complex physiology and anatomic variation . Recently ECMO simulation

  6. Equation of motion for estimation fidelity of monitored oscillating qubits

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Bassa, H

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available We study the convergence properties of state estimates of an oscillating qubit being monitored by a sequence of discrete, unsharp measurements. Our method derives a differential equation determining the evolution of the estimation fidelity from a...

  7. High-fidelity quantum driving

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bason, Mark George; Viteau, Matthieu; Malossi, Nicola

    2011-01-01

    Accurately controlling a quantum system is a fundamental requirement in quantum information processing and the coherent manipulation of molecular systems. The ultimate goal in quantum control is to prepare a desired state with the highest fidelity allowed by the available resources...... and the experimental constraints. Here we experimentally implement two optimal high-fidelity control protocols using a two-level quantum system comprising Bose–Einstein condensates in optical lattices. The first is a short-cut protocol that reaches the maximum quantum-transformation speed compatible...

  8. Evolution Properties of Atomic Fidelity in the Combined Multi-Atom-Cavity Field System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Ju-Xia; Zhang Xiao-Juan; Zhang Xiu-Xing

    2015-01-01

    The atom fidelity is investigated in a system consisting of Mtwo-level atoms and M single-mode fields by use of complete quantum theory and numerical evaluation method. The influences of various system parameters on the evolution of atomic fidelity are studied. The results show that the atomic fidelity evolves in a Rabi oscillation manner. The oscillation frequency is mainly modulated by the coupling strength between atoms and light field, the atomic transition probabilities and the average photon numbers. Other factors hardly impact on the atomic fidelity. The present results may provide a useful approach to the maintenance of the atomic fidelity in the atom cavity field systems. (paper)

  9. Treatment fidelity of brief motivational interviewing and health education in a randomized clinical trial to promote dental attendance of low-income mothers and children: Community-Based Intergenerational Oral Health Study "Baby Smiles".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weinstein, Philip; Milgrom, Peter; Riedy, Christine A; Mancl, Lloyd A; Garson, Gayle; Huebner, Colleen E; Smolen, Darlene; Sutherland, Marilynn; Nykamp, Ann

    2014-02-24

    Fidelity assessments are integral to intervention research but few published trials report these processes in detail. We included plans for fidelity monitoring in the design of a community-based intervention trial. The study design was a randomized clinical trial of an intervention provided to low-income women to increase utilization of dental care during pregnancy (mother) or the postpartum (child) period. Group assignment followed a 2 × 2 factorial design in which participants were randomly assigned to receive either brief Motivational Interviewing (MI) or Health Education (HE) during pregnancy (prenatal) and then randomly reassigned to one of these groups for the postpartum intervention. The study setting was four county health departments in rural Oregon State, USA. Counseling was standardized using a step-by-step manual. Counselors were trained to criteria prior to delivering the intervention and fidelity monitoring continued throughout the implementation period based on audio recordings of counselor-participant sessions. The Yale Adherence and Competence Scale (YACS), modified for this study, was used to code the audio recordings of the counselors' delivery of both the MI and HE interventions. Using Interclass Correlation Coefficients totaling the occurrences of specific MI counseling behaviors, ICC for prenatal was .93, for postpartum the ICC was .75. Participants provided a second source of fidelity data. As a second source of fidelity data, the participants completed the Feedback Questionnaire that included ratings of their satisfaction with the counselors at the completion of the prenatal and post-partum interventions. Coding indicated counselor adherence to MI protocol and variation among counselors in the use of MI skills in the MI condition. Almost no MI behaviors were found in the HE condition. Differences in the length of time to deliver intervention were found; as expected, the HE intervention took less time. There were no differences between the

  10. Analysis of significance of environmental factors in landslide susceptibility modeling: Case study Jemma drainage network, Ethiopia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vít Maca

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Aim of the paper is to describe methodology for calculating significance of environmental factors in landslide susceptibility modeling and present result of selected one. As a study area part of a Jemma basin in Ethiopian Highland is used. This locality is highly affected by mass movement processes. In the first part all major factors and their influence are described briefly. Majority of the work focuses on research of other methodologies used in susceptibility models and design of own methodology. This method is unlike most of the methods used completely objective, therefore it is not possible to intervene in the results. In article all inputs and outputs of the method are described as well as all stages of calculations. Results are illustrated on specific examples. In study area most important factor for landslide susceptibility is slope, on the other hand least important is land cover. At the end of article landslide susceptibility map is created. Part of the article is discussion of results and possible improvements of the methodology.

  11. Genome-wide association study identifies novel breast cancer susceptibility loci

    Science.gov (United States)

    Easton, Douglas F.; Pooley, Karen A.; Dunning, Alison M.; Pharoah, Paul D. P.; Thompson, Deborah; Ballinger, Dennis G.; Struewing, Jeffery P.; Morrison, Jonathan; Field, Helen; Luben, Robert; Wareham, Nicholas; Ahmed, Shahana; Healey, Catherine S.; Bowman, Richard; Meyer, Kerstin B.; Haiman, Christopher A.; Kolonel, Laurence K.; Henderson, Brian E.; Marchand, Loic Le; Brennan, Paul; Sangrajrang, Suleeporn; Gaborieau, Valerie; Odefrey, Fabrice; Shen, Chen-Yang; Wu, Pei-Ei; Wang, Hui-Chun; Eccles, Diana; Evans, D. Gareth; Peto, Julian; Fletcher, Olivia; Johnson, Nichola; Seal, Sheila; Stratton, Michael R.; Rahman, Nazneen; Chenevix-Trench, Georgia; Bojesen, Stig E.; Nordestgaard, Børge G.; Axelsson, Christen K.; Garcia-Closas, Montserrat; Brinton, Louise; Chanock, Stephen; Lissowska, Jolanta; Peplonska, Beata; Nevanlinna, Heli; Fagerholm, Rainer; Eerola, Hannaleena; Kang, Daehee; Yoo, Keun-Young; Noh, Dong-Young; Ahn, Sei-Hyun; Hunter, David J.; Hankinson, Susan E.; Cox, David G.; Hall, Per; Wedren, Sara; Liu, Jianjun; Low, Yen-Ling; Bogdanova, Natalia; Schürmann, Peter; Dörk, Thilo; Tollenaar, Rob A. E. M.; Jacobi, Catharina E.; Devilee, Peter; Klijn, Jan G. M.; Sigurdson, Alice J.; Doody, Michele M.; Alexander, Bruce H.; Zhang, Jinghui; Cox, Angela; Brock, Ian W.; MacPherson, Gordon; Reed, Malcolm W. R.; Couch, Fergus J.; Goode, Ellen L.; Olson, Janet E.; Meijers-Heijboer, Hanne; van den Ouweland, Ans; Uitterlinden, André; Rivadeneira, Fernando; Milne, Roger L.; Ribas, Gloria; Gonzalez-Neira, Anna; Benitez, Javier; Hopper, John L.; McCredie, Margaret; Southey, Melissa; Giles, Graham G.; Schroen, Chris; Justenhoven, Christina; Brauch, Hiltrud; Hamann, Ute; Ko, Yon-Dschun; Spurdle, Amanda B.; Beesley, Jonathan; Chen, Xiaoqing; Mannermaa, Arto; Kosma, Veli-Matti; Kataja, Vesa; Hartikainen, Jaana; Day, Nicholas E.; Cox, David R.; Ponder, Bruce A. J.; Luccarini, Craig; Conroy, Don; Shah, Mitul; Munday, Hannah; Jordan, Clare; Perkins, Barbara; West, Judy; Redman, Karen; Driver, Kristy; Aghmesheh, Morteza; Amor, David; Andrews, Lesley; Antill, Yoland; Armes, Jane; Armitage, Shane; Arnold, Leanne; Balleine, Rosemary; Begley, Glenn; Beilby, John; Bennett, Ian; Bennett, Barbara; Berry, Geoffrey; Blackburn, Anneke; Brennan, Meagan; Brown, Melissa; Buckley, Michael; Burke, Jo; Butow, Phyllis; Byron, Keith; Callen, David; Campbell, Ian; Chenevix-Trench, Georgia; Clarke, Christine; Colley, Alison; Cotton, Dick; Cui, Jisheng; Culling, Bronwyn; Cummings, Margaret; Dawson, Sarah-Jane; Dixon, Joanne; Dobrovic, Alexander; Dudding, Tracy; Edkins, Ted; Eisenbruch, Maurice; Farshid, Gelareh; Fawcett, Susan; Field, Michael; Firgaira, Frank; Fleming, Jean; Forbes, John; Friedlander, Michael; Gaff, Clara; Gardner, Mac; Gattas, Mike; George, Peter; Giles, Graham; Gill, Grantley; Goldblatt, Jack; Greening, Sian; Grist, Scott; Haan, Eric; Harris, Marion; Hart, Stewart; Hayward, Nick; Hopper, John; Humphrey, Evelyn; Jenkins, Mark; Jones, Alison; Kefford, Rick; Kirk, Judy; Kollias, James; Kovalenko, Sergey; Lakhani, Sunil; Leary, Jennifer; Lim, Jacqueline; Lindeman, Geoff; Lipton, Lara; Lobb, Liz; Maclurcan, Mariette; Mann, Graham; Marsh, Deborah; McCredie, Margaret; McKay, Michael; McLachlan, Sue Anne; Meiser, Bettina; Milne, Roger; Mitchell, Gillian; Newman, Beth; O'Loughlin, Imelda; Osborne, Richard; Peters, Lester; Phillips, Kelly; Price, Melanie; Reeve, Jeanne; Reeve, Tony; Richards, Robert; Rinehart, Gina; Robinson, Bridget; Rudzki, Barney; Salisbury, Elizabeth; Sambrook, Joe; Saunders, Christobel; Scott, Clare; Scott, Elizabeth; Scott, Rodney; Seshadri, Ram; Shelling, Andrew; Southey, Melissa; Spurdle, Amanda; Suthers, Graeme; Taylor, Donna; Tennant, Christopher; Thorne, Heather; Townshend, Sharron; Tucker, Kathy; Tyler, Janet; Venter, Deon; Visvader, Jane; Walpole, Ian; Ward, Robin; Waring, Paul; Warner, Bev; Warren, Graham; Watson, Elizabeth; Williams, Rachael; Wilson, Judy; Winship, Ingrid; Young, Mary Ann; Bowtell, David; Green, Adele; deFazio, Anna; Chenevix-Trench, Georgia; Gertig, Dorota; Webb, Penny

    2009-01-01

    Breast cancer exhibits familial aggregation, consistent with variation in genetic susceptibility to the disease. Known susceptibility genes account for less than 25% of the familial risk of breast cancer, and the residual genetic variance is likely to be due to variants conferring more moderate risks. To identify further susceptibility alleles, we conducted a two-stage genome-wide association study in 4,398 breast cancer cases and 4,316 controls, followed by a third stage in which 30 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) were tested for confirmation in 21,860 cases and 22,578 controls from 22 studies. We used 227,876 SNPs that were estimated to correlate with 77% of known common SNPs in Europeans at r2>0.5. SNPs in five novel independent loci exhibited strong and consistent evidence of association with breast cancer (P<10−7). Four of these contain plausible causative genes (FGFR2, TNRC9, MAP3K1 and LSP1). At the second stage, 1,792 SNPs were significant at the P<0.05 level compared with an estimated 1,343 that would be expected by chance, indicating that many additional common susceptibility alleles may be identifiable by this approach. PMID:17529967

  12. School dropout susceptibility mapping with fuzzy logic – a study in the District of Purulia, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mukunda Mishra

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Multi-input prediction models are gradually finding their places in the arena of social and economic sciences to assess, locate and address the complicated socio-economic issues arising around the globe. These models treat the problems as the output aroused from a complex interaction between a range of variables linked with physical, socio-cultural, economic as well as ambient political systems. The discussion on dropout from the education system belongs to the core of the educational researchers. The researchers within this domain are attempting to develop the ‘tools and techniques’ for efficiently demarcating the space with a given degree of susceptibility. The scope is to drop out and examine the internal functions of the interactive variables associated with the process. In the present study, we try to apply the fuzzy logic in mapping the spatial variation of the susceptibility of school dropout in the district of Purulia, a backwards district in India regarding achieved level of human development. The training datasets for building the fuzzy model based on the available secondary data from different reports published by the Government and a range of primary data collected through a socio-economic survey. The model output is an index, namely the Index of Susceptibility of School Drop Out (ISDO which reflects the levels of susceptibility to school dropout at different parts of the study area. The proposed model should allow the success within the larger social and economic system.

  13. Fidelity for kicked atoms with gravity near a quantum resonance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dubertrand, Rémy; Guarneri, Italo; Wimberger, Sandro

    2012-03-01

    Kicked atoms under a constant Stark or gravity field are investigated for experimental setups with cold and ultracold atoms. The parametric stability of the quantum dynamics is studied using the fidelity. In the case of a quantum resonance, it is shown that the behavior of the fidelity depends on arithmetic properties of the gravity parameter. Close to a quantum resonance, the long-time asymptotics of the fidelity is studied by means of a pseudoclassical approximation introduced by Fishman et al. [J. Stat. Phys. 110, 911 (2003)]. The long-time decay of fidelity arises from the tunneling out of pseudoclassical stable islands, and a simple ansatz is proposed which satisfactorily reproduces the main features observed in numerical simulations.

  14. A study on the implementation fidelity of the performance-based financing policy in Burkina Faso after 12 months.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bodson, Oriane; Barro, Ahmed; Turcotte-Tremblay, Anne-Marie; Zanté, Nestor; Somé, Paul-André; Ridde, Valéry

    2018-01-01

    Performance-based financing (PBF) in the health sector has recently gained momentum in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs) as one of the ways forward for achieving Universal Health Coverage. The major principle underlying PBF is that health centers are remunerated based on the quantity and quality of services they provide. PBF has been operating in Burkina Faso since 2011, and as a pilot project since 2014 in 15 health districts randomly assigned into four different models, before an eventual scale-up. Despite the need for expeditious documentation of the impact of PBF, caution is advised to avoid adopting hasty conclusions. Above all, it is crucial to understand why and how an impact is produced or not. Our implementation fidelity study approached this inquiry by comparing, after 12 months of operation, the activities implemented against what was planned initially and will make it possible later to establish links with the policy's impacts. Our study compared, in 21 health centers from three health districts, the implementation of activities that were core to the process in terms of content, coverage, and temporality. Data were collected through document analysis, as well as from individual interviews and focus groups with key informants. In the first year of implementation, solid foundations were put in place for the intervention. Even so, implementation deficiencies and delays were observed with respect to certain performance auditing procedures, as well as in payments of PBF subsidies, which compromised the incentive-based rationale to some extent. Over next months, efforts should be made to adjust the intervention more closely to context and to the original planning.

  15. In vitro susceptibility of Candida spp. to fluconazole, itraconazole and voriconazole and the correlation between triazoles susceptibility: Results from a five-year study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lei, J; Xu, J; Wang, T

    2018-06-01

    Candida spp. is a common cause of invasive fungal disease. The aim of this study was to examine the susceptibility of Candida spp. to fluconazole, itraconazole and voriconazole and explore the correlation between triazoles susceptibility. The antifungal susceptibility in the present study was measured by ATB Fungus 3 method, and the potential relationship was examined by obtaining the correlation of measured minimal inhibitory concentrations (MICs) of Candida spp. isolates. A total of 2099 clinical isolates of Candida spp. from 1441 patients were analyzed. The organisms included 1435 isolates of Candida albicans, 207 isolates of Candida glabrata, 65 isolates of Candida parapsilosis, 31 isolates of Candida krusei, 268 isolates of Candida tropicalis. Voriconazole and itraconazole were more active than fluconazole and against Candida spp. in vitro. The fluconazole, itraconazole and voriconazole MIC 90 (MIC for 90% of the isolates) for all Candida spp. isolates was 4mg/L, 1mg/L and 0.25mg/L, respectively. There was a moderate correlation between the fluconazole MIC s for Candida spp. isolates and this for voriconazole (R 2 =0.475; P<0.01) and itraconazole (R 2 =0.431; P<0.01). Voriconazole MICs for the Candida spp. isolates also correlated with those for itraconazole (R 2 =0.401; P<0.01). These observations suggest that the in vitro susceptibility of Candida spp. to fluconazole, itraconazole and voriconazole exhibits a moderate correlation. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS.

  16. Risk factors for tobacco susceptibility in an orthodontic population: An exploratory study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jashinsky, Jared Michael; Liles, Sandy; Schmitz, Katy; Ding, Ding; Hovell, Melbourne

    2017-08-01

    Tobacco use is related to increased periodontal disease, tooth loss, and decreased success of orthodontic appliances, and it may inhibit orthodontic tooth movement. Most smokers start during adolescence. Since most cessation attempts fail, prevention appears necessary. A cross-sectional sample of orthodontic patients reported hypothesized risk factors for smoking and susceptibility to tobacco use initiation. Exploratory analyses regressed susceptibility to tobacco initiation on each hypothesized predictor variable in a separate logistic model that included a standard set of covariates. Significant odds ratios (OR) were found for the presence of a smoker in the home (OR, 2.168; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.144-4.107), a friend having no-smoking rules in his or her home and car (OR, 0.337; 95% CI, 0.128-0.886), having been offered a cigarette (OR, 4.526; 95% CI, 1.190-17.207), and exposure to tobacco advertisements (OR, 1.910; 95% CI, 1.044-3.496). Peer, family, and environmental factors appear to increase children's susceptibility to smoking in orthodontic populations. Attention to such factors could help dental clinicians to more effectively identify susceptible young patients in need of antismoking advice. Prospective and experimental studies are required to confirm the role that dental clinicians might play in youth smoking prevention. Copyright © 2017 American Association of Orthodontists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. High Fidelity Simulation of Atomization in Diesel Engine Sprays

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-09-01

    state Figure 5. Q criterion isosurface colored by streamwise velocity in the diesel spray injector as viewed from the nozzle exit. Figure 6. U contour...fidelity simulation approach was adopted to study the atom- ization physics of a diesel injector with detailed nozzle internal geometry. The nozzle flow...26; Stanford, CA 14. ABSTRACT A high fidelity numerical simulation of jet breakup and spray formation from a complex diesel fuel injector has been

  18. Fibrinogen concentrate as a treatment for postpartum haemorrhage-induced coagulopathy: A study protocol for a randomised multicentre controlled trial. The fibrinogen in haemorrhage of DELivery (FIDEL) trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ducloy-Bouthors, Anne-Sophie; Mignon, Alexandre; Huissoud, Cyril; Grouin, Jean-Marie; Mercier, Frédéric J

    2016-08-01

    Postpartum haemorrhage (PPH) remains the leading cause for maternal mortality worldwide. Hypofibrinogenaemia has been identified as a major risk factor for progress towards severe PPH. The efficacy of fibrinogen concentrate supplementation in PPH has been shown in various clinical settings but the level of evidence is not sufficient to prove the benefit, evaluate the risks, and determine the value, timing and dose of fibrinogen supplementation in PPH. The FIDEL trial objective is to evaluate the impact of a therapeutic strategy based on the early administration of human fibrinogen concentrate compared to the current practice based on late administration in severe PPH patients requiring second line uterotonics. This is a prospective multicentre, randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial. A total of 412 patients will be randomised if they meet the following criteria: female patients≥18 years old, vaginal delivery, PPH requiring IV administration of prostaglandins (sulprostone) after 20 to 30minutes of oxytocin failure. The participants are assigned to receive either fibrinogen 3g or placebo infusions. The primary endpoint is a composite endpoint defined as the percentage of patients losing at least 4g/dL of Hb, and/or requiring a transfusion of at least 2 units of packed red blood cells, within the 48hours following fibrinogen administration. The purpose of this study is to demonstrate the efficacy and safety of an early fibrinogen concentrate infusion in uncontrolled active PPH. Copyright © 2016 Société française d'anesthésie et de réanimation (Sfar). Published by Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  19. Fidelity and Game-based Technology in Management Education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edgard B. Cornacchione Jr.

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available This study explores educational technology and management education by analyzing fidelity in game-basedmanagement education interventions. A sample of 31 MBA students was selected to help answer the researchquestion: To what extent do MBA students tend to recognize specific game-based academic experiences, interms of fidelity, as relevant to their managerial performance? Two distinct game-based interventions (BG1 andBG2 with key differences in fidelity levels were explored: BG1 presented higher physical and functional fidelitylevels and lower psychological fidelity levels. Hypotheses were tested with data from the participants, collectedshortly after their experiences, related to the overall perceived quality of game-based interventions. The findingsreveal a higher overall perception of quality towards BG1: (a better for testing strategies, (b offering betterbusiness and market models, (c based on a pace that better stimulates learning, and (d presenting a fidelity levelthat better supports real world performance. This study fosters the conclusion that MBA students tend torecognize, to a large extent, that specific game-based academic experiences are relevant and meaningful to theirmanagerial development, mostly with heightened fidelity levels of adopted artifacts. Agents must be ready andmotivated to explore the new, to try and err, and to learn collaboratively in order to perform.

  20. Transmission of Multidrug-Resistant and Drug-Susceptible Tuberculosis within Households: A Prospective Cohort Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grandjean, Louis; Gilman, Robert H.; Martin, Laura; Soto, Esther; Castro, Beatriz; Lopez, Sonia; Coronel, Jorge; Castillo, Edith; Alarcon, Valentina; Lopez, Virginia; San Miguel, Angela; Quispe, Neyda; Asencios, Luis; Dye, Christopher; Moore, David A. J.

    2015-01-01

    Background The “fitness” of an infectious pathogen is defined as the ability of the pathogen to survive, reproduce, be transmitted, and cause disease. The fitness of multidrug-resistant tuberculosis (MDRTB) relative to drug-susceptible tuberculosis is cited as one of the most important determinants of MDRTB spread and epidemic size. To estimate the relative fitness of drug-resistant tuberculosis cases, we compared the incidence of tuberculosis disease among the household contacts of MDRTB index patients to that among the contacts of drug-susceptible index patients. Methods and Findings This 3-y (2010–2013) prospective cohort household follow-up study in South Lima and Callao, Peru, measured the incidence of tuberculosis disease among 1,055 household contacts of 213 MDRTB index cases and 2,362 household contacts of 487 drug-susceptible index cases. A total of 35/1,055 (3.3%) household contacts of 213 MDRTB index cases developed tuberculosis disease, while 114/2,362 (4.8%) household contacts of 487 drug-susceptible index patients developed tuberculosis disease. The total follow-up time for drug-susceptible tuberculosis contacts was 2,620 person-years, while the total follow-up time for MDRTB contacts was 1,425 person-years. Using multivariate Cox regression to adjust for confounding variables including contact HIV status, contact age, socio-economic status, and index case sputum smear grade, the hazard ratio for tuberculosis disease among MDRTB household contacts was found to be half that for drug-susceptible contacts (hazard ratio 0.56, 95% CI 0.34–0.90, p = 0.017). The inference of transmission in this study was limited by the lack of genotyping data for household contacts. Capturing incident disease only among household contacts may also limit the extrapolation of these findings to the community setting. Conclusions The low relative fitness of MDRTB estimated by this study improves the chances of controlling drug-resistant tuberculosis. However, fitter

  1. Evaluation of antibiotic susceptibility in wound infections: A pilot study from Bangladesh

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roy, Sushmita; Ahmed, Mejbah Uddin; Uddin, Bhuiyan Mohammad Mahtab; Ratan, Zubair Ahmed; Rajawat, Monali; Mehta, Varshil; Zaman, Sojib Bin

    2017-01-01

    Introduction: Infections due to antibiotic resistant bacteria have increased alarmingly in both developed and developing countries. Unrestrained and rapidly spreading bacterial growth has turned the management of wound infections into a serious challenge. This study aimed to determine the prevalence of different bacterial pathogens and their antibiotic susceptibility in various types of wound infections. Methods:  A cross-sectional study was conducted to collect 105 wound swabs. All isolated bacteria were identified based on colony characteristics, gram stain and standard biochemical tests, and antibiotic susceptibility testing (AST) with the disc diffusion method. Descriptive statistics were used to present the study findings, and all analyses were performed using Stata Version 13. Results:  The rate of isolation of bacteria was 92.3%. Staphylococcus aureus was found to be the most frequent isolate (55.7%), followed by Escherichia coli (23.7%), Pseudomonas spp. (8.2%), and Streptococcus pyogenes (7.2%). Gram-positive bacteria were mostly (60%) found sensitive to vancomycin, azithromycin, gentamicin, imipenem, cefixime, and ceftriaxone in this study. Among the Gram-negative bacteria, Escherichia coli (>60%) showed sensitivity to cefixime, azithromycin, cefuroxime, ceftriaxone, cefotaxime, gentamycin, and ceftazidime. Conclusions: The diversity of isolated bacteria and their susceptibility patterns signify a need to implement a proper infection control strategy, which can be achieved by carrying out antibiotic sensitivity tests of the isolates. PMID:29527295

  2. Risky business: a longitudinal study examining cigarette smoking initiation among susceptible and non-susceptible e-cigarette users in Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aleyan, Sarah; Cole, Adam; Qian, Wei; Leatherdale, Scott T

    2018-05-26

    Given that many adolescent e-cigarette users are never-smokers, the possibility that e-cigarettes may act as a gateway to future cigarette smoking has been discussed in various studies. Longitudinal data are needed to explore the pathway between e-cigarette and cigarette use, particularly among different risk groups including susceptible and non-susceptible never-smokers. The objective of this study was to examine whether baseline use of e-cigarettes among a sample of never-smoking youth predicted cigarette smoking initiation over a 2-year period. Longitudinal cohort study. 89 high schools across Ontario and Alberta, Canada. A sample of grade 9-11 never-smoking students at baseline (n=9501) who participated in the COMPASS study over 2 years. Participants completed in-class questionnaires that assessed smoking susceptibility and smoking initiation. Among the baseline sample of non-susceptible never-smokers, 45.2% of current e-cigarette users reported trying a cigarette after 2 years compared with 13.5% of non-current e-cigarette users. Among the baseline sample of susceptible never-smokers, 62.4% of current e-cigarette users reported trying a cigarette after 2 years compared with 36.1% of non-current e-cigarette users. Overall, current e-cigarette users were more likely to try a cigarette 2 years later. This association was stronger among the sample of non-susceptible never-smokers (AOR=5.28, 95% CI 2.81 to 9.94; pe-cigarette use may contribute to the development of a new population of cigarette smokers. They also support the notion that e-cigarettes are expanding the tobacco market by attracting low-risk youth who would otherwise be unlikely to initiate using cigarettes. Careful consideration will be needed in developing an appropriate regulatory framework that prevents e-cigarette use among youth. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2018. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless

  3. Experimental studies of susceptibility of Italian Aedes albopictus to Zika virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Luca, Marco; Severini, Francesco; Toma, Luciano; Boccolini, Daniela; Romi, Roberto; Remoli, Maria Elena; Sabbatucci, Michela; Rizzo, Caterina; Venturi, Giulietta; Rezza, Giovanni; Fortuna, Claudia

    2016-05-05

    We report a study on vector competence of an Italian population of Aedes albopictus for Zika virus (ZIKV). Ae. albopictus was susceptible to ZIKV infection (infection rate: 10%), and the virus could disseminate and was secreted in the mosquito's saliva (dissemination rate: 29%; transmission rate: 29%) after an extrinsic incubation period of 11 days. The observed vector competence was lower than that of an Ae. aegypti colony tested in parallel.

  4. Genome-Wide Association Study for Susceptibility to and Recoverability From Mastitis in Danish Holstein Cows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Welderufael, B. G.; Løvendahl, Peter; de Koning, Dirk-Jan; Janss, Lucas L. G.; Fikse, W. F.

    2018-01-01

    Because mastitis is very frequent and unavoidable, adding recovery information into the analysis for genetic evaluation of mastitis is of great interest from economical and animal welfare point of view. Here we have performed genome-wide association studies (GWAS) to identify associated single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and investigate the genetic background not only for susceptibility to – but also for recoverability from mastitis. Somatic cell count records from 993 Danish Holstein cows genotyped for a total of 39378 autosomal SNP markers were used for the association analysis. Single SNP regression analysis was performed using the statistical software package DMU. Substitution effect of each SNP was tested with a t-test and a genome-wide significance level of P-value mastitis were located in or very near to genes that have been reported for their role in the immune system. Genes involved in lymphocyte developments (e.g., MAST3 and STAB2) and genes involved in macrophage recruitment and regulation of inflammations (PDGFD and PTX3) were suggested as possible causal genes for susceptibility to – and recoverability from mastitis, respectively. However, this is the first GWAS study for recoverability from mastitis and our results need to be validated. The findings in the current study are, therefore, a starting point for further investigations in identifying causal genetic variants or chromosomal regions for both susceptibility to – and recoverability from mastitis. PMID:29755506

  5. Genome-Wide Association Study for Susceptibility to and Recoverability From Mastitis in Danish Holstein Cows

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. G. Welderufael

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Because mastitis is very frequent and unavoidable, adding recovery information into the analysis for genetic evaluation of mastitis is of great interest from economical and animal welfare point of view. Here we have performed genome-wide association studies (GWAS to identify associated single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs and investigate the genetic background not only for susceptibility to – but also for recoverability from mastitis. Somatic cell count records from 993 Danish Holstein cows genotyped for a total of 39378 autosomal SNP markers were used for the association analysis. Single SNP regression analysis was performed using the statistical software package DMU. Substitution effect of each SNP was tested with a t-test and a genome-wide significance level of P-value < 10-4 was used to declare significant SNP-trait association. A number of significant SNP variants were identified for both traits. Many of the SNP variants associated either with susceptibility to – or recoverability from mastitis were located in or very near to genes that have been reported for their role in the immune system. Genes involved in lymphocyte developments (e.g., MAST3 and STAB2 and genes involved in macrophage recruitment and regulation of inflammations (PDGFD and PTX3 were suggested as possible causal genes for susceptibility to – and recoverability from mastitis, respectively. However, this is the first GWAS study for recoverability from mastitis and our results need to be validated. The findings in the current study are, therefore, a starting point for further investigations in identifying causal genetic variants or chromosomal regions for both susceptibility to – and recoverability from mastitis.

  6. Multicenter study of antimicrobial susceptibility of anaerobic bacteria in Korea in 2012.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Yangsoon; Park, Yeon Joon; Kim, Mi Na; Uh, Young; Kim, Myung Sook; Lee, Kyungwon

    2015-09-01

    Periodic monitoring of regional or institutional resistance trends of clinically important anaerobic bacteria is recommended, because the resistance of anaerobic pathogens to antimicrobial drugs and inappropriate therapy are associated with poor clinical outcomes. There has been no multicenter study of clinical anaerobic isolates in Korea. We aimed to determine the antimicrobial resistance patterns of clinically important anaerobes at multiple centers in Korea. A total of 268 non-duplicated clinical isolates of anaerobic bacteria were collected from four large medical centers in Korea in 2012. Antimicrobial susceptibility was tested by the agar dilution method according to the CLSI guidelines. The following antimicrobials were tested: piperacillin, piperacillin-tazobactam, cefoxitin, cefotetan, imipenem, meropenem, clindamycin, moxifloxacin, chloramphenicol, metronidazole, and tigecycline. Organisms of the Bacteroides fragilis group were highly susceptible to piperacillin-tazobactam, imipenem, and meropenem, as their resistance rates to these three antimicrobials were lower than 6%. For B. fragilis group isolates and anaerobic gram-positive cocci, the resistance rates to moxifloxacin were 12-25% and 11-13%, respectively. Among B. fragilis group organisms, the resistance rates to tigecycline were 16-17%. Two isolates of Finegoldia magna were non-susceptible to chloramphenicol (minimum inhibitory concentrations of 16-32 mg/L). Resistance patterns were different among the different hospitals. Piperacillin-tazobactam, cefoxitin, and carbapemems are highly active beta-lactam agents against most of the anaerobes. The resistance rates to moxifloxacin and tigecycline are slightly higher than those in the previous study.

  7. Association Study between Polycystic Ovarian Syndrome and the Susceptibility Genes Polymorphisms in Hui Chinese Women.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lingxia Ha

    Full Text Available Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS is one of the most common endocrine-metabolic disorders. Evidence of familial aggregation analysis and different clinical traits among different regions and ethnicities indicated that the pathogenesis of PCOS is associated with multiple genetic and environmental factors. Our previous research had identified three susceptibility loci (rs2479106, DENND1A; rs13405728, LHCGR; rs13429458, THADA for PCOS in Han Chinese women. The overall aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between three susceptibility gene polymorphisms and PCOS in Hui ethnic women.151 patients with PCOS (case group and 99 healthy women (control group were recruited from the Reproductive Medicine Center of the General Hospital of Ningxia Medical University. Clinical data and serum hormone characteristics of case and control groups were collected and analyzed. The three susceptibility single-nucleotide polymorphisms have been replicated in both case and control groups. Gene polymorphisms were detected by direct sequencing after polymerase chain reaction.The Body Mass Index, LH, LH/FSH ratio and total testosterone were significantly elevated in PCOS patients compared to control group (P0.05.The present study suggested that the SNP rs13405728 in the LHCGR gene was associated with PCOS in Hui ethnic women, and its TT genotype characterized with higher level of TT, TG and LDL.

  8. Evaluation of landslide susceptibility mapping techniques using lidar-derived conditioning factors (Oregon case study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rubini Mahalingam

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Landslides are a significant geohazard, which frequently result in significant human, infrastructure, and economic losses. Landslide susceptibility mapping using GIS and remote sensing can help communities prepare for these damaging events. Current mapping efforts utilize a wide variety of techniques and consider multiple factors. Unfortunately, each study is relatively independent of others in the applied technique and factors considered, resulting in inconsistencies. Further, input data quality often varies in terms of source, data collection, and generation, leading to uncertainty. This paper investigates if lidar-derived data-sets (slope, slope roughness, terrain roughness, stream power index, and compound topographic index can be used for predictive mapping without other landslide conditioning factors. This paper also assesses the differences in landslide susceptibility mapping using several, widely used statistical techniques. Landslide susceptibility maps were produced from the aforementioned lidar-derived data-sets for a small study area in Oregon using six representative statistical techniques. Most notably, results show that only a few factors were necessary to produce satisfactory maps with high predictive capability (area under the curve >0.7. The sole use of lidar digital elevation models and their derivatives can be used for landslide mapping using most statistical techniques without requiring additional detailed data-sets that are often difficult to obtain or of lower quality.

  9. Association of common variants in mismatch repair genes and breast cancer susceptibility: a multigene study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Conde, João; Silva, Susana N; Azevedo, Ana P; Teixeira, Valdemar; Pina, Julieta Esperança; Rueff, José; Gaspar, Jorge F

    2009-01-01

    MMR is responsible for the repair of base-base mismatches and insertion/deletion loops. Besides this, MMR is also associated with an anti-recombination function, suppressing homologous recombination. Losses of heterozygosity and/or microsatellite instability have been detected in a large number of skin samples from breast cancer patients, suggesting a potential role of MMR in breast cancer susceptibility. We carried out a hospital-based case-control study in a Caucasian Portuguese population (287 cases and 547 controls) to estimate the susceptibility to non-familial breast cancer associated with some polymorphisms in mismatch repair genes (MSH3, MSH4, MSH6, MLH1, MLH3, PMS1 and MUTYH). Using unconditional logistic regression we found that MLH3 (L844P, G>A) polymorphism GA (Leu/Pro) and AA (Pro/Pro) genotypes were associated with a decreased risk: OR = 0.65 (0.45-0.95) (p = 0.03) and OR = 0.62 (0.41-0.94) (p = 0.03), respectively. Analysis of two-way SNP interaction effects on breast cancer revealed two potential associations to breast cancer susceptibility: MSH3 Ala1045Thr/MSH6 Gly39Glu - AA/TC [OR = 0.43 (0.21-0.83), p = 0.01] associated with a decreased risk; and MSH4 Ala97Thr/MLH3 Leu844Pro - AG/AA [OR = 2.35 (1.23-4.49), p = 0.01], GG/AA [OR = 2.11 (1.12-3,98), p = 0.02], and GG/AG [adjusted OR = 1.88 (1.12-3.15), p = 0.02] all associated with an increased risk for breast cancer. It is possible that some of these common variants in MMR genes contribute significantly to breast cancer susceptibility. However, further studies with a large sample size will be needed to support our results

  10. Quantitative Susceptibility Mapping Indicates a Disturbed Brain Iron Homeostasis in Neuromyelitis Optica - A Pilot Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas Martin Doring

    Full Text Available Dysregulation of brain iron homeostasis is a hallmark of many neurodegenerative diseases and can be associated with oxidative stress. The objective of this study was to investigate brain iron in patients with Neuromyelitis Optica (NMO using quantitative susceptibility mapping (QSM, a quantitative iron-sensitive MRI technique. 12 clinically confirmed NMO patients (6 female and 6 male; age 35.4y±14.2y and 12 age- and sex-matched healthy controls (7 female and 5 male; age 33.9±11.3y underwent MRI of the brain at 3 Tesla. Quantitative maps of the effective transverse relaxation rate (R2* and magnetic susceptibility were calculated and a blinded ROI-based group comparison analysis was performed. Normality of the data and differences between patients and controls were tested by Kolmogorov-Smirnov and t-test, respectively. Correlation with age was studied using Spearman's rank correlation and an ANCOVA-like analysis. Magnetic susceptibility values were decreased in the red nucleus (p0.95; between -15 and -22 ppb depending on reference region with a trend toward increasing differences with age. R2* revealed significantly decreased relaxation in the optic radiations of five of the 12 patients (p<0.0001; -3.136±0.567 s-1. Decreased relaxation in the optic radiation is indicative for demyelination, which is in line with previous findings. Decreased magnetic susceptibility in the red nucleus is indicative for a lower brain iron concentration, a chemical redistribution of iron into less magnetic forms, or both. Further investigations are necessary to elucidate the pathological cause or consequence of this finding.

  11. Study on hydrogen assisted cracking susceptibility of HSLA steel by implant test

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gopa Chakraborty

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available DMR-249A is an indigenously developed high strength low alloy steel for Indian ship building industry for making ship-hull and is extensively used in the construction of war ships and submarines. Welding electrodes conforming to SFA 5.5 AWS E8018 C1 has been indigenously developed for welding of this steel using shielded metal arc welding process. In the present study, susceptibility to hydrogen assisted cracking of DMR-249A steel welds made using this electrode has been assessed using implant test. Implant tests were conducted using this electrode at two different levels of diffusible hydrogen, measured using gas chromatography technique. It is observed that both the steel and the welding consumable are not susceptible to hydrogen assisted cracking even with a high diffusible hydrogen level of 9 mL/100g of weld metal. In implant tests, specimen did not fracture even after loading to stress levels higher than the yield strength of the base metal. The good resistance of this steel and the welding consumable, even with high levels of diffusible hydrogen, is attributed to absence of a susceptible microstructure in both the weld metal and heat affected zone. Hence, this study shows that, in the absence of a susceptible microstructure, hydrogen assisted cracking is unlikely to occur even if hydrogen level is high. It also confirms that in welding of DMR-249A with indigenously developed E8018 C1 electrode, hydrogen assisted cracking is not a concern and no preheating is required to avoid it during welding.

  12. Assessment of synthetic image fidelity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, Kevin D.; Moorhead, Ian R.; Gilmore, Marilyn A.; Watson, Graham H.; Thomson, Mitch; Yates, T.; Troscianko, Tomasz; Tolhurst, David J.

    2000-07-01

    Computer generated imagery is increasingly used for a wide variety of purposes ranging from computer games to flight simulators to camouflage and sensor assessment. The fidelity required for this imagery is dependent on the anticipated use - for example when used for camouflage design it must be physically correct spectrally and spatially. The rendering techniques used will also depend upon the waveband being simulated, spatial resolution of the sensor and the required frame rate. Rendering of natural outdoor scenes is particularly demanding, because of the statistical variation in materials and illumination, atmospheric effects and the complex geometric structures of objects such as trees. The accuracy of the simulated imagery has tended to be assessed subjectively in the past. First and second order statistics do not capture many of the essential characteristics of natural scenes. Direct pixel comparison would impose an unachievable demand on the synthetic imagery. For many applications, such as camouflage design, it is important that nay metrics used will work in both visible and infrared wavebands. We are investigating a variety of different methods of comparing real and synthetic imagery and comparing synthetic imagery rendered to different levels of fidelity. These techniques will include neural networks (ICA), higher order statistics and models of human contrast perception. This paper will present an overview of the analyses we have carried out and some initial results along with some preliminary conclusions regarding the fidelity of synthetic imagery.

  13. Susceptibility assessment of debris flows using the analytic hierarchy process method − A case study in Subao river valley, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xingzhang Chen

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Many debris flows have occurred in the areas surrounding the epicenter of the Wenchuan earthquake. Susceptibility assessment of debris flows in this area is especially important for disaster prevention and mitigation. This paper studies one of the worst hit areas, the Subao river valley, and the susceptibility assessment of debris flows is performed based on field surveys and remote sensing interpretation. By investigating the formation conditions of debris flows in the valley, the following assessment factors are selected: mixture density of landslides and rock avalanches, distance to the seismogenic fault, stratum lithology, ground roughness, and hillside angle. The weights of the assessment factors are determined by the analytic hierarchy process (AHP method. Each of the assessment factors is further divided into five grades. Then, the assessment model is built using the multifactor superposition method to assess the debris flow susceptibility. Based on the assessment results, the Subao river valley is divided into three areas: high susceptibility areas, medium susceptibility areas, and low susceptibility areas. The high susceptibility areas are concentrated in the middle of the valley, accounting for 17.6% of the valley area. The medium susceptibility areas are in the middle and lower reaches, most of which are located on both sides of the high susceptibility areas and account for 45.3% of the valley area. The remainders are classified as low susceptibility areas. The results of the model are in accordance with the actual debris flow events that occurred after the earthquake in the valley, confirming that the proposed model is capable of assessing the debris flow susceptibility. The results can also provide guidance for reconstruction planning and debris flow prevention in the Subao river valley.

  14. Acute effects of sex steroid hormones on susceptibility to cardiac arrhythmias: a simulation study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pei-Chi Yang

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Acute effects of sex steroid hormones likely contribute to the observation that post-pubescent males have shorter QT intervals than females. However, the specific role for hormones in modulating cardiac electrophysiological parameters and arrhythmia vulnerability is unclear. Here we use a computational modeling approach to incorporate experimentally measured effects of physiological concentrations of testosterone, estrogen and progesterone on cardiac ion channel targets. We then study the hormone effects on ventricular cell and tissue dynamics comprised of Faber-Rudy computational models. The "female" model predicts changes in action potential duration (APD at different stages of the menstrual cycle that are consistent with clinically observed QT interval fluctuations. The "male" model predicts shortening of APD and QT interval at physiological testosterone concentrations. The model suggests increased susceptibility to drug-induced arrhythmia when estradiol levels are high, while testosterone and progesterone are apparently protective. Simulations predict the effects of sex steroid hormones on clinically observed QT intervals and reveal mechanisms of estrogen-mediated susceptibility to prolongation of QT interval. The simulations also indicate that acute effects of estrogen are not alone sufficient to cause arrhythmia triggers and explain the increased risk of females to Torsades de Pointes. Our results suggest that acute effects of sex steroid hormones on cardiac ion channels are sufficient to account for some aspects of gender specific susceptibility to long-QT linked arrhythmias.

  15. Sobriety Treatment and Recovery Teams: Implementation Fidelity and Related Outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huebner, Ruth A; Posze, Lynn; Willauer, Tina M; Hall, Martin T

    2015-01-01

    Although integrated programs between child welfare and substance abuse treatment are recommended for families with co-occurring child maltreatment and substance use disorders, implementing integrated service delivery strategies with fidelity is a challenging process. This study of the first five years of the Sobriety Treatment and Recovery Team (START) program examines implementation fidelity using a model proposed by Carroll et al. (2007). The study describes the process of strengthening moderators of implementation fidelity, trends in adherence to START service delivery standards, and trends in parent and child outcomes. Qualitative and quantitative measures were used to prospectively study three START sites serving 341 families with 550 parents and 717 children. To achieve implementation fidelity to service delivery standards required a pre-service year and two full years of operation, persistent leadership, and facilitative actions that challenged the existing paradigm. Over four years of service delivery, the time from the child protective services report to completion of five drug treatment sessions was reduced by an average of 75 days. This trend was associated with an increase in parent retention, parental sobriety, and parent retention of child custody. Conclusions/Importance: Understanding the implementation processes necessary to establish complex integrated programs may support realistic allocation of resources. Although implementation fidelity is a moderator of program outcome, complex inter-agency interventions may benefit from innovative measures of fidelity that promote improvement without extensive cost and data collection burden. The implementation framework applied in this study was useful in examining implementation processes, fidelity, and related outcomes.

  16. Evaluation of shared genetic susceptibility loci between autoimmune diseases and schizophrenia based on genome-wide association studies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hoeffding, Louise K E; Rosengren, Anders; Thygesen, Johan H

    2017-01-01

    Background: Epidemiological studies have documented higher than expected comorbidity (or, in some cases, inverse comorbidity) between schizophrenia and several autoimmune disorders. It remains unknown whether this comorbidity reflects shared genetic susceptibility loci.  Aims: The present study a...

  17. RELAP5: Applications to high fidelity simulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnsen, G.W.; Chen, Y.S.

    1988-01-01

    RELAP5 is a pressurized water reactor system transient simulation code for use in nuclear power plant safety analysis. The latest version, MOD2, may be used to simulate and study a wide variety of abnormal events, including loss-of-coolant accidents, operational transients, and transients in which the entire secondary system must be modeled. In this paper, a basic overview of the code is given, its assessment and application illustrated, and progress toward its use as a high fidelity simulator described. 7 refs., 7 figs

  18. Magnetic susceptibility and magnetization studies of some commercial austenitic stainless steels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Collings, E.W.

    1979-01-01

    Results of magnetic susceptibility measurements using the Curie magnetic force technique are reported for six AISI 300-series alloys 310S, 304, 304L, 304N, 316, 316L as well as AWS 330 weld metal and Inconel 625. The temperature ranged from 5 to 416 0 K. Magnetization measurements over the temperature range 3 to 297 0 K, performed using a vibrating-sample magnetometer, are also reported. Alloy compositions and sample preparation procedures are discussed and numerical results of the study are presented. Magnetic characteristics of the four principal types of austenitic stainless steels studied are summarized

  19. THE CONCEPT OF FIDELITY IN COMICS TRANSLATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erico Assis

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The long-discussed – and frequently dismissed – concept of translation faithfulness or translation fidelity, though usually applied to literary texts, has its fair share of applications when considered for comics translation. In literary translation, non-linguistic portions such as illustrations are often considered addenda or “paratexts” relative to the main, linguistic text. Comics, by its turn, present a certain set of features which single them out as a form that demands a new concept of “text” and, therefore, of translation fidelity. The comic-reading process, as pertaining to cognitive apprehension, implies interpretative accords that differ from the ones in purely linguistic texts: each and every element of the comics page – non-linguistic (mainly imagetic signs, linguistic signs, panel borders, typography and such – are intertwined and should be perceived in regards to its spatial and topological relations. This approach to understanding comics is based on Groensteen (1999 and his concepts of arthrology, spatio-topia, page layout, breakdown and braiding. As for translation fidelity, we rely on authors such as Berman (1984, Guidere (2010 and Aubert (1993. On comics translation, Zanettin (2008, Rota (2008 and Yuste Frías (2010, 2011 are of particular interest. Based on various concepts of fidelity – supported by samples of translated comics with varied degrees of fidelity to the source text – we discuss the different grounds of source-text fidelity, target-reader fidelity and source-author fidelity in the following instances: linguistic sign fidelity, imagetic sign fidelity, spatio-topia fidelity, typographic fidelity and format fidelity.

  20. Adherence to hand hygiene guidelines - significance of measuring fidelity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korhonen, Anne; Ojanperä, Helena; Puhto, Teija; Järvinen, Raija; Kejonen, Pirjo; Holopainen, Arja

    2015-11-01

    The aim was to evaluate the usability of fidelity measures in compliance evaluation of hand hygiene. Adherence to hand hygiene guidelines is important in terms of patient safety. Compliance measures seldom describe how exactly the guidelines are followed. A cross-sectional observation study in a university hospital setting was conducted. Direct observation by trained staff was performed using a standardised observation form supplemented by fidelity criteria. A total of 830 occasions were observed in 13 units. Descriptive statistics (frequency, mean, percentages and range) were used as well as compliance rate by using a standard web-based tool. In addition, the binomial standard normal deviate test was conducted for comparing different methods used in evaluation of hand hygiene and in comparison between professional groups. Measuring fidelity to guidelines was revealed to be useful in uncovering gaps in hand hygiene practices. The main gap related to too short duration of hand rubbing. Thus, although compliance with hand hygiene guidelines measured using a standard web-based tool was satisfactory, the degree of how exactly the guidelines were followed seemed to be critical. Combining the measurement of fidelity to guidelines with the compliance rate is beneficial in revealing inconsistency between optimal and actual hand hygiene behaviour. Evaluating fidelity measures is useful in terms of revealing the gaps between optimal and actual performance in hand hygiene. Fidelity measures are suitable in different healthcare contexts and easy to measure according to the relevant indicators of fidelity, such as the length of hand rubbing. Knowing the gap facilitates improvements in clinical practice. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  1. A 9-year study of shigellosis in Northeast Malaysia: Antimicrobial susceptibility and shifting species dominance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banga Singh, Kirnpal-Kaur; Ojha, Suvash Chandra; Deris, Zakuan Zainy; Rahman, Rosliza Abdul

    2011-06-01

    AIMS: In Malaysia, Shigella spp. is the third most common bacterial agent responsible for childhood diarrhoea. This study was conducted to determine the prevalence and antimicrobial susceptibility patterns of Shigella spp. isolated from patients admitted to the Hospital Universiti Sains Malaysia from January 2001 to December 2009. SUBJECTS AND METHODS: A hospital-based retrospective study was used. Stool samples from patients were cultured using a standard culture method. Shigella spp. isolates were identified by biochemical and serological methods, and the antimicrobial susceptibility pattern was evaluated using the Kirby-Bauer disc-diffusion method. RESULTS: A total of 138 Shigella spp. were isolated from a total of 14,830 routine stool specimens, yielding an isolation rate of 0.93% that corresponded to 9.99% of the 1,381 bacterial pathogens isolated. Of these isolates, S. sonnei was the predominant species, followed by S. flexneri and S. boydii. Seasonal variation was noticed, and no significant differences were detected in the demographic data for S. flexneri and S. sonnei. The susceptibility of all isolated Shigella strains was tested against seven antibiotics. Ceftriaxone (99.1%), ciprofloxacin (98.4%), and nalidixic acid (93.8%) were effective against the Shigella strains, whereas tetracycline and trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole exhibited high frequencies of resistance (58.4% and 53.8%, respectively). CONCLUSION: This study is important for public health education aimed at reducing the morbidity and mortality associated with Shigella spp. infection. Our results also will be helpful for paediatricians and microbiologists in the selection of appropriate antibiotics for the management of diarrhoea.

  2. Antibiotic Susceptibility Evaluation of Group A Streptococcus Isolated from Children with Pharyngitis: A Study from Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sayyahfar, Shirin; Fahimzad, Alireza; Naddaf, Amir; Tavassoli, Sara

    2015-12-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the antibiotic susceptibility of Group A streptococcus (GAS) to antibiotics usually used in Iran for treatment of GAS pharyngitis in children. From 2011 to 2013, children 3-15 years of age with acute tonsillopharyngitis who attended Mofid Children's Hospital clinics and emergency ward and did not meet the exclusion criteria were enrolled in a prospective study in a sequential manner. The isolates strains from throat culture were identified as GAS by colony morphology, gram staining, beta hemolysis on blood agar, sensitivity to bacitracin, a positive pyrrolidonyl aminopeptidase (PYR) test result, and the presence of Lancefield A antigen determined by agglutination test. Antimicrobial susceptibility was identified by both disk diffusion and broth dilution methods. From 200 children enrolled in this study, 59 (30%) cases were culture positive for GAS. All isolates were sensitive to penicillin G. The prevalence of erythromycin, azithromycin, and clarithromycin resistance by broth dilution method was 33.9%, 57.6%, and 33.9%, respectively. Surprisingly, 8.4% of GAS strains were resistant to rifampin. In this study, 13.5% and 32.2% of the strains were resistant to clindamycin and ofloxacin, respectively. The high rate of resistance of GAS to some antibiotics in this study should warn physicians, especially in Iran, to use antibiotics restrictedly and logically to prevent the rising of resistance rates in future. It also seems that continuous local surveillance is necessary to achieve the best therapeutic option for GAS treatment.

  3. Assessing the quality of studies supporting genetic susceptibility and outcomes of ARDS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marialbert eAcosta-Herrera

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS is a severe inflammatory disease manifested as a result of pulmonary and systemic responses to several insults. It is now well accepted that genetic variation influences these responses. However, little is known about the genes that are responsible for patient susceptibility and outcome of ARDS. Methodological flaws are still abundant among genetic association studies with ARDS and here, we aimed to highlight the quality criteria where the standards have not been reached, to expose the associated genes to facilitate replication attempts, and to provide quick-reference guidance for future studies. We conducted a PubMed search from January 2008 to September 2012 for original articles. Studies were considered if a statistically significant association was declared with either susceptibility or outcomes of all-cause ARDS. Fourteen criteria were used for evaluation and results were compared to those from a previous quality assessment report. Significant improvements affecting study design and statistical analysis were detected. However, major issues such as adjustments for the underlying population stratification and replication studies remain poorly addressed.

  4. Boundary fidelity and entanglement in the symmetry protected topological phase of the SSH model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sirker, J; Maiti, M; Konstantinidis, N P; Sedlmayr, N

    2014-01-01

    We present a detailed study of the fidelity, the entanglement entropy and the entanglement spectrum, for a dimerized chain of spinless fermions—a simplified Su–Schrieffer–Heeger (SSH) model—with open boundary conditions which is a well-known example for a model supporting a symmetry protected topological (SPT) phase. In the non-interacting case the Hamiltonian matrix is tridiagonal and the eigenvalues and vectors can be given explicitly as a function of a single parameter which is known analytically for odd chain lengths and can be determined numerically in the even length case. From a scaling analysis of these data for essentially semi-infinite chains we obtain the fidelity susceptibility and show that it contains a boundary contribution which is different in the topologically ordered than in the topologically trivial phase. For the entanglement spectrum and entropy we confirm predictions from massive field theory for a block in the middle of an infinite chain but also consider blocks containing the edge of the chain. For the latter case we show that in the SPT phase additional entanglement—as compared to the trivial phase—is present which is localized at the boundary. Finally, we extend our study to the dimerized chain with a nearest-neighbour interaction using exact diagonalization, Arnoldi and density-matrix renormalization group methods and show that a phase transition into a topologically trivial charge-density wave phase occurs. (paper)

  5. Quantitative Susceptibility Mapping Indicates a Disturbed Brain Iron Homeostasis in Neuromyelitis Optica ? A Pilot Study

    OpenAIRE

    Doring, Thomas Martin; Granado, Vanessa; Rueda, Fernanda; Deistung, Andreas; Reichenbach, Juergen R.; Tukamoto, Gustavo; Gasparetto, Emerson Leandro; Schweser, Ferdinand

    2016-01-01

    Dysregulation of brain iron homeostasis is a hallmark of many neurodegenerative diseases and can be associated with oxidative stress. The objective of this study was to investigate brain iron in patients with Neuromyelitis Optica (NMO) using quantitative susceptibility mapping (QSM), a quantitative iron-sensitive MRI technique. 12 clinically confirmed NMO patients (6 female and 6 male; age 35.4y±14.2y) and 12 age- and sex-matched healthy controls (7 female and 5 male; age 33.9±11.3y) underwen...

  6. Staff turnover in statewide implementation of ACT: relationship with ACT fidelity and other team characteristics

    OpenAIRE

    Rollins, Angela L.; Salyers, Michelle P.; Tsai, Jack; Lydick, Jennifer M.

    2010-01-01

    Staff turnover on assertive community treatment (ACT) teams is a poorly understood phenomenon. This study examined annual turnover and fidelity data collected in a statewide implementation of ACT over a 5-year period. Mean annual staff turnover across all observations was 30.0%. Turnover was negatively correlated with overall fidelity at Year 1 and 3. The team approach fidelity item was negatively correlated with staff turnover at Year 3. For 13 teams with 3 years of follow-up data, turnover ...

  7. Ethical, social, and legal issues surrounding studies of susceptible populations and individuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soskolne, C L

    1997-01-01

    Calls for professional accountability have resulted in the development of ethics guidelines by numerous specialty and subspecialty groups of scientists. Indeed, guidelines among some health professions now address vulnerable and dependent groups: but these are silent on issues related to biomarkers. In parallel, attention has been drawn to human rights concerns associated with attempts to detect hypersusceptible workers, especially in democratic countries. Despite this, concern for vulnerable populations grows as advances in biomarker technology make the identification of genetic predisposition and susceptibility markers of both exposure and outcome more attainable. In this article, the principles derived from the ethical theory of utilitarianism provide the basis for principle-based ethical analysis. In addition, the four principles of biomedical ethics--respect for autonomy, beneficence, nonmaleficence, and social justice--are considered for biomarker studies. The need for a context in which ethical analysis is conducted and from which prevailing social values are shown to drive decisions of an ethical nature is emphasized; these include statutory regulation and law. Because biomarker studies can result in more harm than good, special precautions to inform research participants prior to any involvement in the use of biomarkers are needed. In addition, safeguards to maintain the privacy of data derived from biomarker studies must be developed and implemented prior to the application of these new technologies. Guidelines must be expanded to incorporate ethical, social, and legal considerations surrounding the introduction of new technologies for studying susceptible populations and individuals who may be vulnerable to environmental exposures. PMID:9255569

  8. Comparative assessment of landslide susceptibility. Case study: the Niraj river basin (Transylvania depression, Romania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    RoŞca Sanda

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available This study represents a comparison between two independent models used to evaluate landslide susceptibility in Romania: first, the model derived from the Romanian Governmental Decision no. 447/2003 (H.G. 447 and second, the bivariate statistical analysis. Considering the numerous objections to the first approach, which is also imposed by law, the accuracy of the results was analyzed using an alternative method which takes into consideration the reality from the field to a greater extent (the inventory of the existing landslides. The case study is focused on the Niraj catchment area (658 km2, a representative area for frequent landslide occurrence. The H.G. 447 model implies the estimation of the importance of eight factors involved in landslide occurrence: lithology, geomorphology, structure, hydro-climatic factors, hydrogeology, seismicity, forest cover and the anthropogenic factor. A thematic map was generated and analyzed for each one of the eight factors influencing slope instability and a specific coefficient was assigned. The statistical model, based on the bivariate probability analysis, was applied in order to predict the spatial distribution of the susceptibility classes. The probability of landslide occurrence was estimated based on the assumption that the prediction of the spatial distributions of landslides starts from the existing ones. In order to validate the model, the resulting maps were compared with the existing landslide maps: the relative landslide density index (R and the relative operation curve (ROC value were calculated, which indicate that the statistical model emphasizes a better correlation between the susceptibility classes and the active landslides (ROC value 0.972, the causative factors selected being relevant for the applied models.

  9. AFLP studies on downy-mildew-resistant and downy-mildew-susceptible genotypes of opium poppy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dubey, Mukesh K; Shasany, Ajit K; Dhawan, Om P; Shukla, Ashutosh K; Khanuja, Suman P S

    2010-04-01

    Downy mildew (DM) caused by Peronospora arborescens, is a serious disease in opium poppy (Papaver somniferum), which has a world-wide spread. The establishment of DM-resistant cultivars appears to be a sustainable way to control the In this paper, we present the results of a study aimed at the identification of amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP) markers for DM-resistance in opium poppy. Three opium poppy genotypes (inbred over about 10 years): Pps-1 (DM-resistant), Jawahar-16 (DM-susceptible) and H-9 (DM-susceptible) were crossed in a diallel manner and the F(1) progeny along with the parents were subjected to AFLP analysis of chloroplast (cp) and nuclear DNA with seven and nine EcoRI / MseI primer combinations, respectively. cpDNA AFLP analysis identified 24 Pps-1 (DM-resistant)-specific unique fragments that were found to be maternally inherited in both the crosses, Pps-1 x Jawahar-16 and Pps-1 x H-9. In the case of nuclear DNA AFLP analysis, it was found that 17 fragments inherited from Pps-1 were common to the reciprocal crosses of both (i) Pps-1 and Jawahar-16 as well as (ii) Pps-1 and H-9. This is the first molecular investigation on the identification of polymorphism between DM-resistant and DM-susceptible opium poppy genotypes and development of DM-resistant opium poppy genotypespecific AFLP markers. These AFLP markers could be used in future genetic studies for analysis of linkage to the downy mildew resistance trait.

  10. Quantum critical scaling of fidelity in BCS-like model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adamski, Mariusz; Jedrzejewski, Janusz; Krokhmalskii, Taras

    2013-01-01

    We study scaling of the ground-state fidelity in neighborhoods of quantum critical points in a model of interacting spinful fermions—a BCS-like model. Due to the exact diagonalizability of the model, in one and higher dimensions, scaling of the ground-state fidelity can be analyzed numerically with great accuracy, not only for small systems but also for macroscopic ones, together with the crossover region between them. Additionally, in the one-dimensional case we have been able to derive a number of analytical formulas for fidelity and show that they accurately fit our numerical results; these results are reported in the paper. Besides regular critical points and their neighborhoods, where well-known scaling laws are obeyed, there is the multicritical point and critical points in its proximity where anomalous scaling behavior is found. We also consider scaling of fidelity in neighborhoods of critical points where fidelity oscillates strongly as the system size or the chemical potential is varied. Our results for a one-dimensional version of a BCS-like model are compared with those obtained recently by Rams and Damski in similar studies of a quantum spin chain—an anisotropic XY model in a transverse magnetic field. (paper)

  11. Association study of prostate cancer susceptibility variants with risks of invasive ovarian, breast, and colorectal cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Song, H.; Koessler, T.; Ahmed, S.

    2008-01-01

    allele OR, 0.95; 95% CI, 0.91-0.99; P(trend) = 0.028). This association was somewhat stronger for estrogen receptor-positive tumors (OR, 0.92; 95% CI, 0.87-0.98; P = 0.011). None of these tag SNPs were associated with risk of colorectal cancer. In conclusion, loci associated with risk of prostate cancer......Several prostate cancer susceptibility loci have recently been identified by genome-wide association studies. These loci are candidates for susceptibility to other epithelial cancers. The aim of this study was to test these tag single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP) for association with invasive...... ovarian, colorectal, and breast cancer. Twelve prostate cancer-associated tag SNPs were genotyped in ovarian (2,087 cases/3,491 controls), colorectal (2,148 cases/2,265 controls) and breast (first set, 4,339 cases/4,552 controls; second set, 3,800 cases/3,995 controls) case-control studies. The primary...

  12. Genome-wide association studies of adolescent idiopathic scoliosis suggest candidate susceptibility genes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Swarkar; Gao, Xiaochong; Londono, Douglas; Devroy, Shonn E.; Mauldin, Kristen N.; Frankel, Jessica T.; Brandon, January M.; Zhang, Dongping; Li, Quan-Zhen; Dobbs, Matthew B.; Gurnett, Christina A.; Grant, Struan F.A.; Hakonarson, Hakon; Dormans, John P.; Herring, John A.; Gordon, Derek; Wise, Carol A.

    2011-01-01

    Adolescent idiopathic scoliosis (AIS) is an unexplained and common spinal deformity seen in otherwise healthy children. Its pathophysiology is poorly understood despite intensive investigation. Although genetic underpinnings are clear, replicated susceptibility loci that could provide insight into etiology have not been forthcoming. To address these issues, we performed genome-wide association studies (GWAS) of ∼327 000 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in 419 AIS families. We found strongest evidence of association with chromosome 3p26.3 SNPs in the proximity of the CHL1 gene (P protein related to Robo3. Mutations in the Robo3 protein cause horizontal gaze palsy with progressive scoliosis (HGPPS), a rare disease marked by severe scoliosis. Other top associations in our GWAS were with SNPs in the DSCAM gene encoding an axon guidance protein in the same structural class with Chl1 and Robo3. We additionally found AIS associations with loci in CNTNAP2, supporting a previous study linking this gene with AIS. Cntnap2 is also of functional interest, as it interacts directly with L1 and Robo class proteins and participates in axon pathfinding. Our results suggest the relevance of axon guidance pathways in AIS susceptibility, although these findings require further study, particularly given the apparent genetic heterogeneity in this disease. PMID:21216876

  13. Association of common variants in mismatch repair genes and breast cancer susceptibility: a multigene study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pina Julieta

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background MMR is responsible for the repair of base-base mismatches and insertion/deletion loops. Besides this, MMR is also associated with an anti-recombination function, suppressing homologous recombination. Losses of heterozygosity and/or microsatellite instability have been detected in a large number of skin samples from breast cancer patients, suggesting a potential role of MMR in breast cancer susceptibility. Methods We carried out a hospital-based case-control study in a Caucasian Portuguese population (287 cases and 547 controls to estimate the susceptibility to non-familial breast cancer associated with some polymorphisms in mismatch repair genes (MSH3, MSH4, MSH6, MLH1, MLH3, PMS1 and MUTYH. Results Using unconditional logistic regression we found that MLH3 (L844P, G>A polymorphism GA (Leu/Pro and AA (Pro/Pro genotypes were associated with a decreased risk: OR = 0.65 (0.45-0.95 (p = 0.03 and OR = 0.62 (0.41-0.94 (p = 0.03, respectively. Analysis of two-way SNP interaction effects on breast cancer revealed two potential associations to breast cancer susceptibility: MSH3 Ala1045Thr/MSH6 Gly39Glu - AA/TC [OR = 0.43 (0.21-0.83, p = 0.01] associated with a decreased risk; and MSH4 Ala97Thr/MLH3 Leu844Pro - AG/AA [OR = 2.35 (1.23-4.49, p = 0.01], GG/AA [OR = 2.11 (1.12-3,98, p = 0.02], and GG/AG [adjusted OR = 1.88 (1.12-3.15, p = 0.02] all associated with an increased risk for breast cancer. Conclusion It is possible that some of these common variants in MMR genes contribute significantly to breast cancer susceptibility. However, further studies with a large sample size will be needed to support our results.

  14. Malignant hyperthermia susceptibility in patients with exertional rhabdomyolysis: a retrospective cohort study and updated systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kraeva, Natalia; Sapa, Alexander; Dowling, James J; Riazi, Sheila

    2017-07-01

    Two potentially fatal syndromes, malignant hyperthermia (MH), an adverse reaction to general anesthesia, and exertional rhabdomyolysis (ER) share some clinical features, including hyperthermia, muscle rigidity, tachycardia, and elevated serum creatine kinase. Some patients with ER have experienced an MH event and/or have been diagnosed as MH susceptible (MHS). In order to assess the relationship between ER and MH further, we conducted a retrospective cohort study summarizing clinical and genetic information on Canadian patients with ER who were diagnosed as MHS. In addition, a systematic literature review was performed to compile further evidence on MH susceptibility and RYR1 and CACNA1S variants associated with rhabdomyolysis. Demographic, clinical, and genetic information was collected on Canadian MHS patients who presented with rhabdomyolysis. In addition, we performed a systematic review of the literature published during 1995-2016 on genetic screening of the RYR1 and CACNA1S genes in patients with ER. Retrospective data on Canadian MHS patients with ER showed that ten out of 17 patients carried RYR1 or CACNA1S variants that were either known MH-causative mutations or potentially pathogenic variants. The systematic review revealed 39 different rare RYR1 variants, including 13 MH-causative/associated mutations and five rare potentially deleterious CACNA1S variants in 78% of patients with ER. Findings from the Canadian patient cohort and the systematic review all signal a potential association between MH susceptibility and ER. The presence of MH-causative mutations and putative deleterious RYR1 variants in ER patients without a history of adverse anesthetic reactions suggests their possible increased risk for MH.

  15. Clinical and microbiologic characteristics of cefotaxime-non-susceptible Enterobacteriaceae bacteremia: a case control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noguchi, Taro; Matsumura, Yasufumi; Yamamoto, Masaki; Nagao, Miki; Takakura, Shunji; Ichiyama, Satoshi

    2017-01-07

    Cefotaxime plays an important role in the treatment of patients with bacteremia due to Enterobacteriaceae, although cefotaxime resistance is reported to be increasing in association with extended-spectrum β-lactamase (ESBL) and AmpC β-lactamase (AmpC). We conducted a case-control study in a Japanese university hospital between 2011 and 2012. We assessed the risk factors and clinical outcomes of bacteremia due to cefotaxime-non-susceptible Enterobacteriaceae (CTXNS-En) and analyzed the resistance mechanisms. Of 316 patients with Enterobacteriaceae bacteremia, 37 patients with bacteremia caused by CTXNS-En were matched to 74 patients who had bacteremia caused by cefotaxime-susceptible Enterobacteriaceae (CTXS-En). The most common CTXNS-En was Escherichia coli (43%), followed by Enterobacter spp. (24%) and Klebsiella spp. (22%). Independent risk factors for CTXNS-En bacteremia included previous infection or colonization of CTXNS-En, cardiac disease, the presence of intravascular catheter and prior surgery within 30 days. Patients with CTXNS-En bacteremia were less likely to receive appropriate empirical therapy and to achieve a complete response at 72 h than patients with CTXS-En bacteremia. Mortality was comparable between CTXNS-En and CTXS-En patients (5 vs. 3%). CTXNS-En isolates exhibited multidrug resistance but remained highly susceptible to amikacin and meropenem. CTX-M-type ESBLs accounted for 76% of the β-lactamase genes responsible for CTXNS E. coli and Klebsiella spp. isolates, followed by plasmid-mediated AmpC (12%). Chromosomal AmpC was responsible for 89% of CTXNS Enterobacter spp. isolates. CTXNS-En isolates harboring ESBL and AmpC caused delays in appropriate therapy among bacteremic patients. Risk factors and antibiograms may improve the selection of appropriate therapy for CTXNS-En bacteremia. Prevalent mechanisms of resistance in CTXNS-En were ESBL and chromosomal AmpC.

  16. Discovering susceptibility genes for allergic rhinitis and allergy using a genome-wide association study strategy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jingyun; Zhang, Yuan; Zhang, Luo

    2015-02-01

    Allergic rhinitis and allergy are complex conditions, in which both genetic and environmental factors contribute to the pathogenesis. Genome-wide association studies (GWASs) employing common single-nucleotide polymorphisms have accelerated the search for novel and interesting genes, and also confirmed the role of some previously described genes which may be involved in the cause of allergic rhinitis and allergy. The aim of this review is to provide an overview of the genetic basis of allergic rhinitis and the associated allergic phenotypes, with particular focus on GWASs. The last decade has been marked by the publication of more than 20 GWASs of allergic rhinitis and the associated allergic phenotypes. Allergic diseases and traits have been shown to share a large number of genetic susceptibility loci, of which IL33/IL1RL1, IL-13-RAD50 and C11orf30/LRRC32 appear to be important for more than two allergic phenotypes. GWASs have further reflected the genetic heterogeneity underlying allergic phenotypes. Large-scale genome-wide association strategies are underway to discover new susceptibility variants for allergic rhinitis and allergic phenotypes. Characterization of the underlying genetics provides us with an insight into the potential targets for future studies and the corresponding interventions.

  17. Why classroom climate matters for children high in anxious solitude: A study of differential susceptibility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hughes, Kathleen; Coplan, Robert J

    2018-03-01

    The goal of the current study was to examine the complex links among anxious solitude, classroom climate, engagement, achievement, and gender. In particular, drawing upon the differential susceptibility hypothesis (Belsky, 1997), we investigated if children high in anxious solitude were particularly sensitive and responsive to the classroom environment. Participants were N = 712 children in Grade 3, drawn from the National Institute of Child and Human Development (NICHD) Study of Early Child Care and Youth Development data set. Classroom climate and engagement were assessed using the Classroom Observation Scale (NICHD, 1998). Teachers completed the Teacher Report Form (Achenbach, 1991) as a measure of anxious solitude and the Academic Rating Scale (NICHD, 2010) as a measure of achievement. Hypothesized associations among variables were tested by way of a moderated-mediation model. Among the results, engagement was found to mediate the relation between classroom climate and achievement. In addition, anxious solitude and gender were found to moderate the relation between classroom climate and engagement. Support for the differential susceptibility hypothesis was found, suggesting that children high in anxious solitude may be more reactive (both positively and negatively) to elements of the classroom environment. In addition, gender differences were observed, indicating that boys may be more responsive to the classroom environment as compared with girls. Implications for future research and educational policies are discussed. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2018 APA, all rights reserved).

  18. A method of mapping sinkhole susceptibility using a geographic information system : a case study for interstates in the karst counties of Virginia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-02-01

    This study proposes the use of a geographic information system (GIS) to create a susceptibility map, pinpointing : regions in the karst counties of Virginia, in particular, along interstates, most susceptible to future sinkhole : development, determi...

  19. High fidelity simulation based team training in urology: a preliminary interdisciplinary study of technical and nontechnical skills in laparoscopic complications management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jason Y; Mucksavage, Phillip; Canales, Cecilia; McDougall, Elspeth M; Lin, Sharon

    2012-04-01

    Simulation based team training provides an opportunity to develop interdisciplinary communication skills and address potential medical errors in a high fidelity, low stakes environment. We evaluated the implementation of a novel simulation based team training scenario and assessed the technical and nontechnical performance of urology and anesthesiology residents. Urology residents were randomly paired with anesthesiology residents to participate in a simulation based team training scenario involving the management of 2 scripted critical events during laparoscopic radical nephrectomy, including the vasovagal response to pneumoperitoneum and renal vein injury during hilar dissection. A novel kidney surgical model and a high fidelity mannequin simulator were used for the simulation. A debriefing session followed each simulation based team training scenario. Assessments of technical and nontechnical performance were made using task specific checklists and global rating scales. A total of 16 residents participated, of whom 94% rated the simulation based team training scenario as useful for communication skill training. Also, 88% of urology residents believed that the kidney surgical model was useful for technical skill training. Urology resident training level correlated with technical performance (p=0.004) and blood loss during renal vein injury management (p=0.022) but not with nontechnical performance. Anesthesia resident training level correlated with nontechnical performance (p=0.036). Urology residents consistently rated themselves higher on nontechnical performance than did faculty (p=0.033). Anesthesia residents did not differ in the self-assessment of nontechnical performance compared to faculty assessments. Residents rated the simulation based team training scenario as useful for interdisciplinary communication skill training. Urology resident training level correlated with technical performance but not with nontechnical performance. Urology residents

  20. Physiotherapy education and training prior to upper abdominal surgery is memorable and has high treatment fidelity: a nested mixed-methods randomised-controlled study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boden, Ianthe; El-Ansary, Doa; Zalucki, Nadia; Robertson, Iain K; Browning, Laura; Skinner, Elizabeth H; Denehy, Linda

    2018-06-01

    To (1) assess memorability and treatment fidelity of pre-operative physiotherapy education prior to elective upper abdominal surgery and, (2) to explore patient opinions on pre-operative education. Mixed-methods analysis of a convenience sample within a larger parallel-group, double-blinded, randomised controlled trial with concealed allocation and intention-to-treat analysis. Tertiary Australian hospital. Twenty-nine patients having upper abdominal surgery attending pre-admission clinic within six-weeks of surgery. The control group received an information booklet about preventing pulmonary complications with early ambulation and breathing exercises. The experimental group received an additional face-to-face 30-minute physiotherapy education and training session on pulmonary complications, early ambulation, and breathing exercises. Primary outcome was proportion of participants who remembered the taught breathing exercises following surgery. Secondary outcomes were recall of information sub-items and attainment of early ambulation goals. These were measured using standardised scoring of a semi-scripted digitally-recorded interview on the 5th postoperative day, and the attainment of early ambulation goals over the first two postoperative days. Experimental group participants were six-times more likely to remember the breathing exercises (95%CI 1.7 to 22) and 11-times more likely (95%CI 1.6 to 70) to report physiotherapy as the most memorable part of pre-admission clinic. Participants reported physiotherapy education content to be detailed, interesting, and of high value. Some participants reported not reading the booklet and professed a preference for face-to-face information delivery. Face-to-face pre-operative physiotherapy education and training prior to upper abdominal surgery is memorable and has high treatment fidelity. ACTRN-12613000664741. Copyright © 2017 Chartered Society of Physiotherapy. All rights reserved.

  1. Implementation fidelity trajectories of a health promotion program in multidisciplinary settings: managing tensions in rehabilitation care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoekstra, Femke; van Offenbeek, Marjolein A G; Dekker, Rienk; Hettinga, Florentina J; Hoekstra, Trynke; van der Woude, Lucas H V; van der Schans, Cees P

    2017-12-01

    Although the importance of evaluating implementation fidelity is acknowledged, little is known about heterogeneity in fidelity over time. This study aims to generate insight into the heterogeneity in implementation fidelity trajectories of a health promotion program in multidisciplinary settings and the relationship with changes in patients' health behavior. This study used longitudinal data from the nationwide implementation of an evidence-informed physical activity promotion program in Dutch rehabilitation care. Fidelity scores were calculated based on annual surveys filled in by involved professionals (n = ± 70). Higher fidelity scores indicate a more complete implementation of the program's core components. A hierarchical cluster analysis was conducted on the implementation fidelity scores of 17 organizations at three different time points. Quantitative and qualitative data were used to explore organizational and professional differences between identified trajectories. Regression analyses were conducted to determine differences in patient outcomes. Three trajectories were identified as the following: 'stable high fidelity' (n = 9), 'moderate and improving fidelity' (n = 6), and 'unstable fidelity' (n = 2). The stable high fidelity organizations were generally smaller, started earlier, and implemented the program in a more structured way compared to moderate and improving fidelity organizations. At the implementation period's start and end, support from physicians and physiotherapists, professionals' appreciation, and program compatibility were rated more positively by professionals working in stable high fidelity organizations as compared to the moderate and improving fidelity organizations (p organizations had often an explicit vision and strategy about the implementation of the program. Intriguingly, the trajectories were not associated with patients' self-reported physical activity outcomes (adjusted model β = - 651.6, t(613)

  2. Genome-wide association study for ovarian cancer susceptibility using pooled DNA

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lu, Yi; Chen, Xiaoqing; Beesley, Jonathan

    2012-01-01

    stage 1 GWAS rather than due to problems with the pooling approach. We conclude that there are unlikely to be any moderate or large effects on ovarian cancer risk untagged by less dense arrays. However, our study lacked power to make clear statements on the existence of hitherto untagged small......Recent Genome-Wide Association Studies (GWAS) have identified four low-penetrance ovarian cancer susceptibility loci. We hypothesized that further moderate- or low-penetrance variants exist among the subset of single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) not well tagged by the genotyping arrays used...... in the previous studies, which would account for some of the remaining risk. We therefore conducted a time- and cost-effective stage 1 GWAS on 342 invasive serous cases and 643 controls genotyped on pooled DNA using the high-density Illumina 1M-Duo array. We followed up 20 of the most significantly associated...

  3. USING GIS TO IDENTIFY POTENTIAL AREAS SUSCEPTIBLE TO FLOOD. CASE STUDY: SOLONEŢ RIVER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. TIPLEA

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Using GIS to Identify Potential Areas Susceptible to Flood. Case Study: Soloneţ River. In this study, we aim to analyze the impact of different peak flows in territory and also a better understanding of the dynamic of a river flow. The methodology used for flood zone delimitation is based on a quantitative analysis model which requires the use of mathematical, physical and statistical operations in order to emphasize the relations between the different variables that were implied (discharges, grain size, terrain morphology, soil saturation, vegetation etc.. The results cannot be expected to be completely accurate but can provide a good representation of the process. Validation of results will inevitably be difficult and should be measured in the field. The information resulting from this study could be useful for raising awareness about both hazards and possible mitigation measure, a key component of disaster risk reduction planning.

  4. Genome-wide association studies on HIV susceptibility, pathogenesis and pharmacogenomics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    van Manen Daniëlle

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Susceptibility to HIV-1 and the clinical course after infection show a substantial heterogeneity between individuals. Part of this variability can be attributed to host genetic variation. Initial candidate gene studies have revealed interesting host factors that influence HIV infection, replication and pathogenesis. Recently, genome-wide association studies (GWAS were utilized for unbiased searches at a genome-wide level to discover novel genetic factors and pathways involved in HIV-1 infection. This review gives an overview of findings from the GWAS performed on HIV infection, within different cohorts, with variable patient and phenotype selection. Furthermore, novel techniques and strategies in research that might contribute to the complete understanding of virus-host interactions and its role on the pathogenesis of HIV infection are discussed.

  5. Assessment of Fidelity in Interventions to Improve Hand Hygiene of Healthcare Workers: A Systematic Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Musuuza, Jackson S.; Barker, Anna; Ngam, Caitlyn; Vellardita, Lia; Safdar, Nasia

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVE Compliance with hand hygiene in healthcare workers is fundamental to infection prevention yet remains a challenge to sustain. We examined fidelity reporting in interventions to improve hand hygiene compliance, and we assessed 5 measures of intervention fidelity: (1) adherence, (2) exposure or dose, (3) quality of intervention delivery, (4) participant responsiveness, and (5) program differentiation. DESIGN Systematic review METHODS A librarian performed searches of the literature in PubMed, Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health (CINAHL), Cochrane Library, and Web of Science of material published prior to June 19, 2015. The review protocol was registered in PROSPERO International Prospective Register of Systematic Reviews, and assessment of study quality was conducted for each study reviewed. RESULTS A total of 100 studies met the inclusion criteria. Only 8 of these 100 studies reported all 5 measures of intervention fidelity. In addition, 39 of 100 (39%) failed to include at least 3 fidelity measures; 20 of 100 (20%) failed to include 4 measures; 17 of 100 (17%) failed to include 2 measures, while 16 of 100 (16%) of the studies failed to include at least 1 measure of fidelity. Participant responsiveness and adherence to the intervention were the most frequently unreported fidelity measures, while quality of the delivery was the most frequently reported measure. CONCLUSIONS Almost all hand hygiene intervention studies failed to report at least 1 fidelity measurement. To facilitate replication and effective implementation, reporting fidelity should be standard practice when describing results of complex behavioral interventions such as hand hygiene. PMID:26861117

  6. Easy-going, rational, susceptible and struggling eaters: A segmentation study based on eating behaviour tendencies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pentikäinen, Saara; Arvola, Anne; Karhunen, Leila; Pennanen, Kyösti

    2018-01-01

    Eating behaviour tendencies, emotional eating (EE), uncontrolled eating (UE) and cognitive restraint (CR), are associated with various indicators of physical and mental health. Therefore, it is important to understand these tendencies in order to design interventions to improve health. Previous research has mostly examined eating behaviour tendencies individually, without considering typical combinations of these tendencies or their manifestation in well-being and food choices. This study aimed to understand the interactive occurrence of EE, UE and CR in two independent populations. Finnish (n = 1060) and German (n = 1070) samples were segmented on the basis of their responses to a modified Three-Factor Eating Questionnaire (TFEQ-R15). Well-being, coping strategies and food consumption habits of the segments were studied. Segmentation revealed four segments: "Susceptible", "Easy-going", "Rational" and "Struggling". These segments were similar in both countries with regard to well-being, coping strategies and food choices. EE and UE co-occurred, and these tendencies were mainly responsible for differentiating the segments. Members of the "Rational" and "Easy-going" segments, who had low scores for EE and UE, tended to experience vitality and positive emotions in life, and contentment with their eating. By contrast, the "Susceptible" and "Struggling" segments, with more pronounced tendencies towards EE and UE, experienced lower levels of vitality and less frequently positive emotions, applied less adaptive coping strategies and experienced more discontent with eating. The results of the current study suggest that it is possible to identify segments, with differing eating habits, coping strategies and well-being on the basis of the eating behaviour tendencies EE, UE and CR. We discuss possible viewpoints for the design of interventions and food products to help people towards psychologically and physiologically healthier eating styles. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier

  7. Neptunium tetrabromide: a Moessbauer and magnetic susceptibility study below 200K

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stevens, J.L.; Jones, E.R. Jr.; Stone, J.A.; Karraker, D.G.

    1974-01-01

    NpBr 4 was studied by 237 Np Moessbauer resonance from 4.2 to 20 0 K and by vibrating-sample magnetometer from 2.2 to 70.5 0 K. The magnetic susceptibility exhibits typical Curie-Weiss behavior about 20 0 K and displays a sharp peak at 12.5 +- 0.5 0 K indicating an antiferromagnetic transition. The Moessbauer spectrum at 4.2 0 K agrees with previous work by Stone and Pillinger [J.A. Stone and W.L. Pillinger, Sym. Faraday Soc., 1, 77(1967)]. At approximately 13 0 K, there is a small decline in H/sub eff/ with paramagnetic relaxation effects remaining at higher temperatures. (U.S.)

  8. Differential Susceptibility to the Environment: Are Developmental Models Compatible with the Evidence from Twin Studies?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Del Giudice, Marco

    2016-01-01

    According to models of differential susceptibility, the same neurobiological and temperamental traits that determine increased sensitivity to stress and adversity also confer enhanced responsivity to the positive aspects of the environment. Differential susceptibility models have expanded to include complex developmental processes in which genetic…

  9. The Psychosocial Experience of High School Girls Highly Susceptible to Stereotype Threat: A Phenomenological Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Picho, Katherine

    2016-01-01

    The author used phenomenology to explore the subjective experience of ninth-grade girls susceptible to mathematics-related stereotype threat in their authentic learning environments. The sample constituted students categorized as either having low or high susceptibility to stereotype threat (SST) enrolled in Honors mathematics classes at an urban…

  10. Genome-wide association study identifies novel breast cancer susceptibility loci

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Easton, Douglas F.; Pooley, Karen A.; Dunning, Alison M.; Pharoah, Paul D. P.; Thompson, Deborah; Ballinger, Dennis G.; Struewing, Jeffery P.; Morrison, Jonathan; Field, Helen; Luben, Robert; Wareham, Nicholas; Ahmed, Shahana; Healey, Catherine S.; Bowman, Richard; Meyer, Kerstin B.; Haiman, Christopher A.; Kolonel, Laurence K.; Henderson, Brian E.; Le Marchand, Loic; Brennan, Paul; Sangrajrang, Suleeporn; Gaborieau, Valerie; Odefrey, Fabrice; Shen, Chen-Yang; Wu, Pei-Ei; Wang, Hui-Chun; Eccles, Diana; Evans, D. Gareth; Peto, Julian; Fletcher, Olivia; Johnson, Nichola; Seal, Sheila; Stratton, Michael R.; Rahman, Nazneen; Chenevix-Trench, Georgia; Bojesen, Stig E.; Nordestgaard, Børge G.; Axelsson, Christen K.; Garcia-Closas, Montserrat; Brinton, Louise; Chanock, Stephen; Lissowska, Jolanta; Peplonska, Beata; Nevanlinna, Heli; Fagerholm, Rainer; Eerola, Hannaleena; Kang, Daehee; Yoo, Keun-Young; Noh, Dong-Young; Ahn, Sei-Hyun; Hunter, David J.; Hankinson, Susan E.; Cox, David G.; Hall, Per; Wedren, Sara; Liu, Jianjun; Low, Yen-Ling; Bogdanova, Natalia; Schürmann, Peter; Dörk, Thilo; Tollenaar, Rob A. E. M.; Jacobi, Catharina E.; Devilee, Peter; Klijn, Jan G. M.; Sigurdson, Alice J.; Doody, Michele M.; Alexander, Bruce H.; Zhang, Jinghui; Cox, Angela; Brock, Ian W.; MacPherson, Gordon; Reed, Malcolm W. R.; Couch, Fergus J.; Goode, Ellen L.; Olson, Janet E.; Meijers-Heijboer, Hanne; van den Ouweland, Ans; Uitterlinden, André; Rivadeneira, Fernando; Milne, Roger L.; Ribas, Gloria; Gonzalez-Neira, Anna; Benitez, Javier; Hopper, John L.; McCredie, Margaret; Southey, Melissa; Giles, Graham G.; Schroen, Chris; Justenhoven, Christina; Brauch, Hiltrud; Hamann, Ute; Ko, Yon-Dschun; Spurdle, Amanda B.; Beesley, Jonathan; Chen, Xiaoqing; Mannermaa, Arto; Kosma, Veli-Matti; Kataja, Vesa; Hartikainen, Jaana; Day, Nicholas E.; Cox, David R.; Ponder, Bruce A. J.

    2007-01-01

    Breast cancer exhibits familial aggregation, consistent with variation in genetic susceptibility to the disease. Known susceptibility genes account for less than 25% of the familial risk of breast cancer, and the residual genetic variance is likely to be due to variants conferring more moderate

  11. Further Evidence of Subphenotype Association with Systemic Lupus Erythematosus Susceptibility Loci: A European Cases Only Study

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Alonso-Perez, E.; Suarez-Gestal, M.; Calaza, M.; Ordi-Ros, J.; Bijl, M.; Papasteriades, Ch.; Carreira, P.; Skopouli, F.N.; Witte, T.; Marchini, M.; Migliaresi, S.; Santos, M.J.; Růžičková, Šárka; Pullmann, R.; Sebastiani, G.D.; Suarez, A.; Blanco, F.J.

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 7, č. 9 (2012), e45356 E-ISSN 1932-6203 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50520701 Keywords : GENOME-WIDE ASSOCIATION * GENETIC SUSCEPTIBILITY * DISEASE SUSCEPTIBILITY Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 3.730, year: 2012

  12. DNA fingerprinting and antimicrobial susceptibility pattern of clinical and environmental Acinetobacter baumannii isolates: a multicentre study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salimizand, Himen; Menbari, Shaho; Ramazanzadeh, Rashid; Khonsha, Masomeh; Saleh Vahedi, Mohammad

    2016-08-01

    The aims of this study were to establish antibiotic profile and the molecular epidemiology of Acinetobacter baumannii isolates, with considering the effectiveness of control infection measures across three hospitals in the Kurdistan, west part of Iran. Fifty-four A. baumannii isolates were collected from patients and environmental specimens. Antibiotic susceptibility patterns (Antibio-type) were evaluated for 17 different antibiotics and MIC for imipenem was done. Isolates were assessed for the presence of metallo-beta-lactamases (MBLs), class 1 and 2 integrons, and integrated gene cassettes and blaOXA-likefamilies genes. Repetitive-sequence-based PCR (REP-PCR) was done for analysing clonality and relativeness of isolates (REP-type). Antibiotic susceptibility patterns distinguished 11 distinct Antibio-types and REP-PCR showed three clusters with 20 subclusters, mostly belonged to two clonal subgroups, A1 and B1. blaOXA-51 and blaOXA-23 were detected in 100% (54/54) and 52% (28/54), respectively, while blaOXA-24-like and blaOXA-58 were not present in isolates. MBLs were not detected, but, however, high rate of imipenem resistance was observed (52%). MIC90 of imipenem was 16 mg/ml. Class 1 integrons were detected in 11% (6/54) of isolates followed by 24% (13/54) of class 2. Both classes of integron genes were detected in 15% (8/54) of isolates. Integrated gene cassettes were in low level (11% of class 1 harboring isolates). Two arrays of gene cassettes were revealed, dfrA5-like and dfrA17-aadA5. Infection control surveillance should be considered as a serious manner, even the superficial eradication of hospital acquired pathogens. MBL genes were not induced carbapenem resistance in studied hospital settings, but blaOXA-51 & 23 contributed in imipenem resistant. Integrons had a little share in resistance of A. baumannii isolates.

  13. Further Evidence of Subphenotype Association with Systemic Lupus Erythematosus Susceptibility Loci: A European Cases Only Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alonso-Perez, Elisa; Suarez-Gestal, Marian; Calaza, Manuel; Ordi-Ros, Josep; Balada, Eva; Bijl, Marc; Papasteriades, Chryssa; Carreira, Patricia; Skopouli, Fotini N.; Witte, Torsten; Endreffy, Emöke; Marchini, Maurizio; Migliaresi, Sergio; Sebastiani, Gian Domenico; Santos, Maria Jose; Suarez, Ana; Blanco, Francisco J.; Barizzone, Nadia; Pullmann, Rudolf; Ruzickova, Sarka; Lauwerys, Bernard R.; Gomez-Reino, Juan J.; Gonzalez, Antonio

    2012-01-01

    Introduction Systemic Lupus Erythematosus (SLE) shows a spectrum of clinical manifestations that complicate its diagnosis, treatment and research. This variability is likely related with environmental exposures and genetic factors among which known SLE susceptibility loci are prime candidates. The first published analyses seem to indicate that this is the case for some of them, but results are still inconclusive and we aimed to further explore this question. Methods European SLE patients, 1444, recruited at 17 centres from 10 countries were analyzed. Genotypes for 26 SLE associated SNPs were compared between patients with and without each of 11 clinical features: ten of the American College of Rheumatology (ACR) classification criteria (except ANAs) and age of disease onset. These analyses were adjusted for centre of recruitment, top ancestry informative markers, gender and time of follow-up. Overlap of samples with previous studies was excluded for assessing replication. Results There were three new associations: the SNPs in XKR6 and in FAM167A-BLK were associated with lupus nephritis (OR = 0.76 and 1.30, Pcorr = 0.007 and 0.03, respectively) and the SNP of MECP2, which is in chromosome X, with earlier age of disease onset in men. The previously reported association of STAT4 with early age of disease onset was replicated. Some other results were suggestive of the presence of additional associations. Together, the association signals provided support to some previous findings and to the characterization of lupus nephritis, autoantibodies and age of disease onset as the clinical features more associated with SLE loci. Conclusion Some of the SLE loci shape the disease phenotype in addition to increase susceptibility to SLE. This influence is more prominent for some clinical features than for others. However, results are only partially consistent between studies and subphenotype specific GWAS are needed to unravel their genetic component. PMID:23049788

  14. Potential predictors of susceptibility to occupational stress in Japanese novice nurses - a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okita, Shinobu; Daitoku, Satoshi; Abe, Masaharu; Arimura, Emi; Setoyama, Hitoshi; Koriyama, Chihaya; Ushikai, Miharu; Kawaguchi, Hiroaki; Horiuchi, Masahisa

    2017-04-04

    Occupational stress is a known factor behind employee resignations; thus, early identification of individuals prone to such stress is important. Accordingly, in this pilot study we evaluated potential predictors of susceptibility to occupational stress in Japanese novice nurses. Forty-two female novice nurses at Kagoshima University Hospital were recruited for the study population. Each underwent physical health and urinary examinations, and completed a lifestyle questionnaire at the time of job entry. Each also completed a Brief Job Stress Questionnaire (BJSQ), related to mental health status, at job entry and 5 months post-entry. Psychological stress, somatic symptoms, and combined BJSQ scores were determined for each time point. All three stress condition scores had significantly decreased at 5 months post-entry, suggesting occupational stress. Systolic blood pressure (r = -0.324, p stress condition scores were significantly low in subjects reporting substantial 1-year body weight change (≤ ± 3 kg) and short times between dinner and bedtimes (≤2 h), though baseline stress condition scores were not. Urinary sodium concentration, 1-year body weight change, and pre-sleep evening meals were then targeted for multivariate analysis, and confirmed as independent explanatory variables for post-entry stress condition scores. One-year body weight change, times between dinner and bedtimes, and urinary sodium concentration are promising potential predictors of susceptibility to occupational stress, and should be further investigated in future research. ISRCTN ISRCTN17516023. Retrospectively registered 7 December 2016.

  15. An Evolutionary Perspective on Family Studies: Differential Susceptibility to Environmental Influences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartman, Sarah; Belsky, Jay

    2016-12-01

    An evolutionary perspective of human development provides the basis for the differential-susceptibility hypothesis which stipulates that individuals should differ in their susceptibility to environmental influences, with some being more affected than others by both positive and negative developmental experiences and environmental exposures. This paper reviews evidence consistent with this claim while revealing that temperamental and genetic characteristics play a role in distinguishing more and less susceptible individuals. The differential-susceptibility framework under consideration is contrasted to the traditional diathesis-stress view that "vulnerability" traits predispose some to being disproportionately affected by (only) adverse experiences. We raise several issues stimulated by the literature that need to be clarified in further research. Lastly, we suggest that therapy may differ in its effects depending on an individual's susceptibility. © 2015 Family Process Institute.

  16. Evidence, Fidelity, and Organisational Rationales: Multiple Uses of Motivational Interviewing in a Social Services Agency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Björk, Alexander

    2016-01-01

    In discussions and empirical investigations of the implementation of evidence-based interventions there is often a narrow focus on treatment fidelity. Studying a social services agency trying to incorporate Motivational Interviewing (MI), commonly regarded as evidence-based, this paper problematises a one-sided attention to treatment fidelity by…

  17. Effect on High versus Low Fidelity Haptic Feedback in a Virtual Reality Baseball Simulation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ryge, Andreas Nicolaj; Thomsen, Lui Albæk; Berthelsen, Theis

    2017-01-01

    In this paper we present a within-subjects study (n=26) comparing participants' experience of three kinds of haptic feedback (no haptic feedback, low fidelity haptic feedback and high fidelity haptic feedback) simulating the impact between a virtual baseball bat and ball. We noticed some minor ef...

  18. Enhanced fidelity of an educational intervention on skin self-examination through surveillance and standardization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaber, Rikki; Mallett, Kimberly A; Hultgren, Brittney; Turrisi, Rob; Gilbertsen, Margaret L; Martini, Mary C; Robinson, June K

    2014-01-01

    Melanoma can metastasize but is often successfully treated when discovered in an early stage. Melanoma patients and their skin check partners can learn skin self-examination (SSE) skills and these skills can be improved by practice. The purpose of this study is to determine the degree of fidelity with which educational in-person SSE intervention can be delivered by trained research coordinators to patients at risk of developing another melanoma and their skin check partners. The in-person intervention was performed in two iterations. In phase 1 (2006-2008), the research coordinators were trained to perform the intervention using a written script. In phase 2 (2011-2013), the research coordinators were trained to perform the intervention with a PowerPoint aid. Each research coordinator was individually counseled by one of the authors (KM) to insure standardization and enhance fidelity of intervention delivery. Phase 1 and Phase 2 were compared on 16 fidelity components. Further, Phase 2 fidelity was assessed by comparing mean scores of fidelity across the five research coordinators who delivered the intervention. Phase 2, which utilized a PowerPoint aid, was delivered with a higher degree of fidelity compared to phase 1with four fidelity components with significantly higher fidelity than Phase 1: 1) Explained details of melanoma, χ 2 (1, n = 199)= 96.31, p 14) and there were no mean differences in fidelity across research coordinators, indicating consistency in fidelity. This can be attributed to the standardization and cueing that the PowerPoint program offered. Supervision was also a key component in establishing and maintaining fidelity of the patient educational process. This method of intervention delivery enables trained healthcare professionals to deliver an educational intervention in an effective, consistent manner.

  19. Roost temperature and fidelity of Wahlberg's epauletted fruit bat ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Generally,Wahlberg's epauletted fruit bat (Epomophorus wahlbergi) roost in trees or under the eaves of buildings. This study investigated the roosting dynamics of E. wahlbergi in the urban environment of Pietermaritzburg, South Africa. To determine roost fidelity bats were radiotracked to daytime roosts. Bats were found to ...

  20. Studies on the susceptibility of peas and field peas cultivars to Ascochyta pisi (Lib.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helena Furgał-Węgrzycka

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the work was to find the plants resistant to Ascochyta pisi causing leaf and spot-pot of peas and field peas. Fourty five cultivars of peas and field peas and 6 breeding materials were tested in field in the period 1975-1978. Cultivars: Bartel, Birte, Borek, Cebeco, Finale and Paloma were to be less susceptible. In laboratory and greenhouse conditions peas and field peas cultivares were examined for susceptible to pathotypes 2 and 4 of Ascochyta pisi. The results obtained proved that cultivars: Borel, cebeco, Finale and Paloma were to be less susceptible to two pathotypes of Ascochyta pisi.

  1. Fidelity imaging for atomic force microscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ghosal, Sayan, E-mail: ghos0087@umn.edu; Salapaka, Murti, E-mail: murtis@umn.edu [Nanodynamics Systems Laboratory, Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, Minnesota 55455 (United States)

    2015-01-05

    Atomic force microscopy is widely employed for imaging material at the nanoscale. However, real-time measures on image reliability are lacking in contemporary atomic force microscopy literature. In this article, we present a real-time technique that provides an image of fidelity for a high bandwidth dynamic mode imaging scheme. The fidelity images define channels that allow the user to have additional authority over the choice of decision threshold that facilitates where the emphasis is desired, on discovering most true features on the sample with the possible detection of high number of false features, or emphasizing minimizing instances of false detections. Simulation and experimental results demonstrate the effectiveness of fidelity imaging.

  2. A genome-wide association study identifies CDHR3 as a susceptibility locus for early childhood asthma with severe exacerbations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bønnelykke, Klaus; Sleiman, Patrick; Nielsen, Kasper

    2014-01-01

    Asthma exacerbations are among the most frequent causes of hospitalization during childhood, but the underlying mechanisms are poorly understood. We performed a genome-wide association study of a specific asthma phenotype characterized by recurrent, severe exacerbations occurring between 2 and 6......1RL1, were previously reported as asthma susceptibility loci, but the effect sizes for these loci in our cohort were considerably larger than in the previous genome-wide association studies of asthma. We also obtained strong evidence for a new susceptibility gene, CDHR3 (encoding cadherin......-related family member 3), which is highly expressed in airway epithelium. These results demonstrate the strength of applying specific phenotyping in the search for asthma susceptibility genes....

  3. Genome-wide association study identifies multiple susceptibility loci for pancreatic cancer

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Wolpin, B. M.; Rizzato, C.; Kraft, P.; Kooperberg, Ch.; Petersen, G. M.; Wang, Z.; Arslan, A. A.; Beane-Freeman, L.; Bracci, P. M.; Buring, J.; Canzian, F.; Duell, E. J.; Gallinger, S.; Giles, G.G.; Goodman, G. E.; Goodman, P. J.; Jacobs, E. J.; Kamineni, A.; Klein, A. P.; Kolonel, L. N.; Kulke, M. H.; Li, D.; Malats, N.; Olson, S. H.; Risch, H. A.; Sesso, H. D.; Visvanathan, K.; White, E.; Zheng, W.; Abnet, Ch. C.; Albanes, D.; Andreotti, G.; Austin, M. A.; Barfield, R.; Basso, D.; Berndt, S. I.; Boutron-Ruault, M. Ch.; Brotzman, M.; Büchler, M. W.; Bueno-de-Mesquita, H. B.; Bugert, P.; Burdette, L.; Campa, D.; Caporaso, N. E.; Capurso, G.; Chung, Ch.; Cotterchio, M.; Costello, E.; Elena, J.; Funel, N.; Gaziano, J. M.; Giese, N. A.; Giovannucci, E. L.; Goggins, M.; Gorman, M. J.; Gross, M.; Haiman, Ch. A.; Hassan, M.; Helzlsouer, K. J.; Henderson, B. E.; Holly, E. A.; Hu, N.; Hunter, D. J.; Innocenti, F.; Jenab, M.; Kaaks, R.; Key, T. J.; Khaw, K. T.; Klein, E. A.; Kogevinas, M.; Krogh, V.; Kupcinskas, J.; Kurtz, R. C.; LaCroix, A.; Landi, M. T.; Landi, S.; Le Marchand, L.; Mambrini, A.; Mannisto, S.; Milne, R. L.; Nakamura, Y.; Oberg, A. L.; Owzar, K.; Patel, A. V.; Peeters, P. H. M.; Peters, U.; Pezzilli, R.; Piepoli, A.; Porta, M.; Real, F. X.; Riboli, E.; Rothman, N.; Scarpa, A.; Shu, X. O.; Silverman, D. T.; Souček, P.; Sund, M.; Talar-Wojnarowska, R.; Taylor, P. R.; Theodoropoulos, G. E.; Thornquist, M.; Tjonneland, A.; Tobias, G. S.; Trichopoulos, D.; Vodička, Pavel; Wactawski-Wende, J.; Wentzensen, N.; Wu, Ch.; Yu, H.; Yu, K.; Zeleniuch-Jacquotte, A.; Hoover, R.; Hartge, P.; Fuchs, Ch.; Chanock, S. J.; Stolzenberg-Solomon, R. S.; Amundadottir, L. T.

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 46, č. 9 (2014), s. 994-1000 ISSN 1061-4036 Institutional support: RVO:68378041 Keywords : disease * variants * genetic susceptibility Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 29.352, year: 2014

  4. Circadian gene variants and susceptibility to type 2 diabetes: a pilot study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Ann Kelly

    Full Text Available Disruption of endogenous circadian rhythms has been shown to increase the risk of developing type 2 diabetes, suggesting that circadian genes might play a role in determining disease susceptibility. We present the results of a pilot study investigating the association between type 2 diabetes and selected single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs in/near nine circadian genes. The variants were chosen based on their previously reported association with prostate cancer, a disease that has been suggested to have a genetic link with type 2 diabetes through a number of shared inherited risk determinants.The pilot study was performed using two genetically homogeneous Punjabi cohorts, one resident in the United Kingdom and one indigenous to Pakistan. Subjects with (N = 1732 and without (N = 1780 type 2 diabetes were genotyped for thirteen circadian variants using a competitive allele-specific polymerase chain reaction method. Associations between the SNPs and type 2 diabetes were investigated using logistic regression. The results were also combined with in silico data from other South Asian datasets (SAT2D consortium and white European cohorts (DIAGRAM+ using meta-analysis. The rs7602358G allele near PER2 was negatively associated with type 2 diabetes in our Punjabi cohorts (combined odds ratio [OR] = 0.75 [0.66-0.86], p = 3.18 × 10(-5, while the BMAL1 rs11022775T allele was associated with an increased risk of the disease (combined OR = 1.22 [1.07-1.39], p = 0.003. Neither of these associations was replicated in the SAT2D or DIAGRAM+ datasets, however. Meta-analysis of all the cohorts identified disease associations with two variants, rs2292912 in CRY2 and rs12315175 near CRY1, although statistical significance was nominal (combined OR = 1.05 [1.01-1.08], p = 0.008 and OR = 0.95 [0.91-0.99], p = 0.015 respectively.None of the selected circadian gene variants was associated with type 2 diabetes with study-wide significance after meta-analysis. The nominal

  5. The spatial prediction of landslide susceptibility applying artificial neural network and logistic regression models: A case study of Inje, Korea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saro, Lee; Woo, Jeon Seong; Kwan-Young, Oh; Moung-Jin, Lee

    2016-02-01

    The aim of this study is to predict landslide susceptibility caused using the spatial analysis by the application of a statistical methodology based on the GIS. Logistic regression models along with artificial neutral network were applied and validated to analyze landslide susceptibility in Inje, Korea. Landslide occurrence area in the study were identified based on interpretations of optical remote sensing data (Aerial photographs) followed by field surveys. A spatial database considering forest, geophysical, soil and topographic data, was built on the study area using the Geographical Information System (GIS). These factors were analysed using artificial neural network (ANN) and logistic regression models to generate a landslide susceptibility map. The study validates the landslide susceptibility map by comparing them with landslide occurrence areas. The locations of landslide occurrence were divided randomly into a training set (50%) and a test set (50%). A training set analyse the landslide susceptibility map using the artificial network along with logistic regression models, and a test set was retained to validate the prediction map. The validation results revealed that the artificial neural network model (with an accuracy of 80.10%) was better at predicting landslides than the logistic regression model (with an accuracy of 77.05%). Of the weights used in the artificial neural network model, `slope' yielded the highest weight value (1.330), and `aspect' yielded the lowest value (1.000). This research applied two statistical analysis methods in a GIS and compared their results. Based on the findings, we were able to derive a more effective method for analyzing landslide susceptibility.

  6. The spatial prediction of landslide susceptibility applying artificial neural network and logistic regression models: A case study of Inje, Korea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saro Lee

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study is to predict landslide susceptibility caused using the spatial analysis by the application of a statistical methodology based on the GIS. Logistic regression models along with artificial neutral network were applied and validated to analyze landslide susceptibility in Inje, Korea. Landslide occurrence area in the study were identified based on interpretations of optical remote sensing data (Aerial photographs followed by field surveys. A spatial database considering forest, geophysical, soil and topographic data, was built on the study area using the Geographical Information System (GIS. These factors were analysed using artificial neural network (ANN and logistic regression models to generate a landslide susceptibility map. The study validates the landslide susceptibility map by comparing them with landslide occurrence areas. The locations of landslide occurrence were divided randomly into a training set (50% and a test set (50%. A training set analyse the landslide susceptibility map using the artificial network along with logistic regression models, and a test set was retained to validate the prediction map. The validation results revealed that the artificial neural network model (with an accuracy of 80.10% was better at predicting landslides than the logistic regression model (with an accuracy of 77.05%. Of the weights used in the artificial neural network model, ‘slope’ yielded the highest weight value (1.330, and ‘aspect’ yielded the lowest value (1.000. This research applied two statistical analysis methods in a GIS and compared their results. Based on the findings, we were able to derive a more effective method for analyzing landslide susceptibility.

  7. Severity and Susceptibility Beliefs Associated with Urban Air Pollution: Results of a Qualitative Study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oltra, C.; Sala, R.

    2015-01-01

    In this report we present the results of a qualitative study based on recombined focus groups with lay citizens. The main objective is to analyze individuals’ beliefs on urban air pollution and perceived benefits and barriers of some self-protective actions, such as using special masks, avoidance of polluted streets, etc. The analytical framework on which the study is based is the Health Belief Model, whose basic idea is that it is more likely that individuals take actions to protect themselves if they think they are potentially susceptible to a serious threat to your health, if they think adopting certain actions has advantages, and if they think there are no significant barriers for such conduct. A secondary objective is to explore the perception of different existing materials to inform the public about air pollution. The results of the study are intended to contribute to the design of interventions aimed at reducing health impacts of urban air pollution and, specifically, to the design of messages in the context of information campaigns on health and environmental risk.

  8. Comparing the Costs and Acceptability of Three Fidelity Assessment Methods for Assertive Community Treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rollins, Angela L; Kukla, Marina; Salyers, Michelle P; McGrew, John H; Flanagan, Mindy E; Leslie, Doug L; Hunt, Marcia G; McGuire, Alan B

    2017-09-01

    Successful implementation of evidence-based practices requires valid, yet practical fidelity monitoring. This study compared the costs and acceptability of three fidelity assessment methods: on-site, phone, and expert-scored self-report. Thirty-two randomly selected VA mental health intensive case management teams completed all fidelity assessments using a standardized scale and provided feedback on each. Personnel and travel costs across the three methods were compared for statistical differences. Both phone and expert-scored self-report methods demonstrated significantly lower costs than on-site assessments, even when excluding travel costs. However, participants preferred on-site assessments. Remote fidelity assessments hold promise in monitoring large scale program fidelity with limited resources.

  9. GIS-based debris flow source and runout susceptibility assessment from DEM data – a case study in NW Nicaragua

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. M. Vilaplana

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available In October 1998, Hurricane Mitch triggered numerous landslides (mainly debris flows in Honduras and Nicaragua, resulting in a high death toll and in considerable damage to property. The potential application of relatively simple and affordable spatial prediction models for landslide hazard mapping in developing countries was studied. Our attention was focused on a region in NW Nicaragua, one of the most severely hit places during the Mitch event. A landslide map was obtained at 1:10 000 scale in a Geographic Information System (GIS environment from the interpretation of aerial photographs and detailed field work. In this map the terrain failure zones were distinguished from the areas within the reach of the mobilized materials. A Digital Elevation Model (DEM with 20 m×20 m of pixel size was also employed in the study area. A comparative analysis of the terrain failures caused by Hurricane Mitch and a selection of 4 terrain factors extracted from the DEM which, contributed to the terrain instability, was carried out. Land propensity to failure was determined with the aid of a bivariate analysis and GIS tools in a terrain failure susceptibility map. In order to estimate the areas that could be affected by the path or deposition of the mobilized materials, we considered the fact that under intense rainfall events debris flows tend to travel long distances following the maximum slope and merging with the drainage network. Using the TauDEM extension for ArcGIS software we generated automatically flow lines following the maximum slope in the DEM starting from the areas prone to failure in the terrain failure susceptibility map. The areas crossed by the flow lines from each terrain failure susceptibility class correspond to the runout susceptibility classes represented in a runout susceptibility map. The study of terrain failure and runout susceptibility enabled us to obtain a spatial prediction for landslides, which could contribute to landslide risk

  10. Perfusion MRI of brain tumours: a comparative study of pseudo-continuous arterial spin labelling and dynamic susceptibility contrast imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jaernum, Hanna; Steffensen, Elena G.; Simonsen, Carsten Wiberg; Jensen, Finn Taagehoej [Aalborg Hospital/Aarhus University Hospital, Department of Radiology, Aalborg (Denmark); Knutsson, Linda [Lund University, Department of Medical Radiation Physics, Lund (Sweden); Fruend, Ernst-Torben [Aalborg Hospital/Aarhus University Hospital, Department of Radiology, Aalborg (Denmark); GE Healthcare - Applied Science Lab Europe, Aalborg (Denmark); Lundbye-Christensen, Soeren [Aalborg Hospital/Aarhus University Hospital, Department of Cardiology, Center for Cardiovascular Research, Aalborg (Denmark); Shankaranarayanan, Ajit [Global Applied Science Lab, GE Healthcare, Menlo Park, CA (United States); Alsop, David C. [Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center and Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA (United States); Larsson, Elna-Marie [Aalborg Hospital/Aarhus University Hospital, Department of Radiology, Aalborg (Denmark); Uppsala University Hospital, Department of Radiology, Uppsala (Sweden)

    2010-04-15

    The purpose of this study was to compare the non-invasive 3D pseudo-continuous arterial spin labelling (PC ASL) technique with the clinically established dynamic susceptibility contrast perfusion magnetic resonance imaging (DSC-MRI) for evaluation of brain tumours. A prospective study of 28 patients with contrast-enhancing brain tumours was performed at 3 T using DSC-MRI and PC ASL with whole-brain coverage. The visual qualitative evaluation of signal enhancement in tumour was scored from 0 to 3 (0 = no signal enhancement compared with white matter, 3 = pronounced signal enhancement with equal or higher signal intensity than in grey matter/basal ganglia). The extent of susceptibility artefacts in the tumour was scored from 0 to 2 (0 = no susceptibility artefacts and 2 = extensive susceptibility artefacts (maximum diameter > 2 cm)). A quantitative analysis was performed with normalised tumour blood flow values (ASL nTBF, DSC nTBF): mean value for region of interest (ROI) in an area with maximum signal enhancement/the mean value for ROIs in cerebellum. There was no difference in total visual score for signal enhancement between PC ASL and DSC relative cerebral blood flow (p = 0.12). ASL had a lower susceptibility-artefact score than DSC-MRI (p = 0.03). There was good correlation between DSC nTBF and ASL nTBF values with a correlation coefficient of 0.82. PC ASL is an alternative to DSC-MRI for the evaluation of perfusion in brain tumours. The method has fewer susceptibility artefacts than DSC-MRI and can be used in patients with renal failure because no contrast injection is needed. (orig.)

  11. Common genetic variation and susceptibility to partial epilepsies: a genome-wide association study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kasperaviciūte, Dalia; Catarino, Claudia B; Heinzen, Erin L; Depondt, Chantal; Cavalleri, Gianpiero L; Caboclo, Luis O; Tate, Sarah K; Jamnadas-Khoda, Jenny; Chinthapalli, Krishna; Clayton, Lisa M S; Shianna, Kevin V; Radtke, Rodney A; Mikati, Mohamad A; Gallentine, William B; Husain, Aatif M; Alhusaini, Saud; Leppert, David; Middleton, Lefkos T; Gibson, Rachel A; Johnson, Michael R; Matthews, Paul M; Hosford, David; Heuser, Kjell; Amos, Leslie; Ortega, Marcos; Zumsteg, Dominik; Wieser, Heinz-Gregor; Steinhoff, Bernhard J; Krämer, Günter; Hansen, Jörg; Dorn, Thomas; Kantanen, Anne-Mari; Gjerstad, Leif; Peuralinna, Terhi; Hernandez, Dena G; Eriksson, Kai J; Kälviäinen, Reetta K; Doherty, Colin P; Wood, Nicholas W; Pandolfo, Massimo; Duncan, John S; Sander, Josemir W; Delanty, Norman; Goldstein, David B; Sisodiya, Sanjay M

    2010-07-01

    Partial epilepsies have a substantial heritability. However, the actual genetic causes are largely unknown. In contrast to many other common diseases for which genetic association-studies have successfully revealed common variants associated with disease risk, the role of common variation in partial epilepsies has not yet been explored in a well-powered study. We undertook a genome-wide association-study to identify common variants which influence risk for epilepsy shared amongst partial epilepsy syndromes, in 3445 patients and 6935 controls of European ancestry. We did not identify any genome-wide significant association. A few single nucleotide polymorphisms may warrant further investigation. We exclude common genetic variants with effect sizes above a modest 1.3 odds ratio for a single variant as contributors to genetic susceptibility shared across the partial epilepsies. We show that, at best, common genetic variation can only have a modest role in predisposition to the partial epilepsies when considered across syndromes in Europeans. The genetic architecture of the partial epilepsies is likely to be very complex, reflecting genotypic and phenotypic heterogeneity. Larger meta-analyses are required to identify variants of smaller effect sizes (odds ratio<1.3) or syndrome-specific variants. Further, our results suggest research efforts should also be directed towards identifying the multiple rare variants likely to account for at least part of the heritability of the partial epilepsies. Data emerging from genome-wide association-studies will be valuable during the next serious challenge of interpreting all the genetic variation emerging from whole-genome sequencing studies.

  12. Study on the susceptibility of Enterococcus faecalis from infectious processes to ciprofloxacin and vancomycin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Genaro

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available Enterococcus faecalis is considered a pathogen responsible for hospital infections and, due to its frequent multi-resistant profile, has caused preoccupations among many medical authorities. The objective of this study was to determine the antimicrobial susceptibility of 74 strains isolated from blood cultures and purulent secretions to vancomycin and ciprofloxacin through the Minimum Inhibitory Concentration (MIC and Minimum Bactericidal Concentration (MBC by using the Microdilution test. The results showed a greater efficacy of vancomycin compared to ciprofloxacin (98.6% of the strains were inhibited by vancomycin at lower concentrations: 0.06 - 1 µg/ml. However, in the MBC analysis 73% of the strains showed a MBC of vancomycin only at high concentrations (equal to or higher than 64 µg/ml. For ciprofloxacin, the strains showed a broad sensitivity with MICs and MBCs distributed along all the MIC classes. Results also revealed a probability that some strains are tolerant to vancomycin, which indicates the need of other tests to confirm this characteristic.

  13. Astrobiology as a framework for investigating antibiotic susceptibility: a study of Halomonas hydrothermalis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrison, Jesse P; Angel, Roey; Cockell, Charles S

    2017-01-01

    Physical and chemical boundaries for microbial multiplication on Earth are strongly influenced by interactions between environmental extremes. However, little is known about how interactions between multiple stress parameters affect the sensitivity of microorganisms to antibiotics. Here, we assessed how 12 distinct permutations of salinity, availability of an essential nutrient (iron) and atmospheric composition (aerobic or microaerobic) affect the susceptibility of a polyextremotolerant bacterium, Halomonas hydrothermalis, to ampicillin, kanamycin and ofloxacin. While salinity had a significant impact on sensitivity to all three antibiotics (as shown by turbidimetric analyses), the nature of this impact was modified by iron availability and the ambient gas composition, with differing effects observed for each compound. These two parameters were found to be of particular importance when considered in combination and, in the case of ampicillin, had a stronger combined influence on antibiotic tolerance than salinity. Our data show how investigating microbial responses to multiple extremes, which are more representative of natural habitats than single extremes, can improve our understanding of the effects of antimicrobial compounds and suggest how studies of habitability, motivated by the desire to map the limits of life, can be used to systematically assess the effectiveness of antibiotics. © 2017 The Author(s).

  14. A method for assessing fidelity of delivery of telephone behavioral support for smoking cessation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lorencatto, Fabiana; West, Robert; Bruguera, Carla; Michie, Susan

    2014-06-01

    Behavioral support for smoking cessation is delivered through different modalities, often guided by treatment manuals. Recently developed methods for assessing fidelity of delivery have shown that face-to-face behavioral support is often not delivered as specified in the service treatment manual. This study aimed to extend this method to evaluate fidelity of telephone-delivered behavioral support. A treatment manual and transcripts of 75 audio-recorded behavioral support sessions were obtained from the United Kingdom's national Quitline service and coded into component behavior change techniques (BCTs) using a taxonomy of 45 smoking cessation BCTs. Interrater reliability was assessed using percentage agreement. Fidelity was assessed by comparing the number of BCTs identified in the manual with those delivered in telephone sessions by 4 counselors. Fidelity was assessed according to session type, duration, counselor, and BCT. Differences between self-reported and actual BCT use were examined. Average coding reliability was high (81%). On average, 41.8% of manual-specified BCTs were delivered per session (SD = 16.2), with fidelity varying by counselor from 32% to 49%. Fidelity was highest in pre-quit sessions (46%) and for BCT "give options for additional support" (95%). Fidelity was lowest for quit-day sessions (35%) and BCT "set graded tasks" (0%). Session duration was positively correlated with fidelity (r = .585; p reliably coded in terms of BCTs. This can be used to assess fidelity to treatment manuals and to in turn identify training needs. The observed low fidelity underlines the need to establish routine procedures for monitoring delivery of behavioral support. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved.

  15. A genome-wide association study identifies susceptibility loci for ovarian cancer at 2q31 and 8q24

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Goode, Ellen L; Chenevix-Trench, Georgia; Song, Honglin

    2010-01-01

    Ovarian cancer accounts for more deaths than all other gynecological cancers combined. To identify common low-penetrance ovarian cancer susceptibility genes, we conducted a genome-wide association study of 507,094 SNPs in 1,768 individuals with ovarian cancer (cases) and 2,354 controls, with foll...

  16. A prospective study of the impact of genetic susceptibility testing for BRCA1/2 or HNPCC on family relationships

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Oostrom, Iris; Meijers-Heijboer, Hanne; Duivenvoorden, Hugo J.; Brocker-Vriends, Annette H. J. T.; van Asperen, Chhstl J.; Sijmons, Rolf H.; Seynaeve, Caroline; Van Gool, Arthur R.; Klijn, Jan G. M.; Riedijk, Samantha R.; van Dooren, Silvia; Tibben, Aad

    This study assessed the impact of genetic testing for cancer susceptibility on family relationships and determinants of adverse consequences for family relationships. Applicants for genetic testing of a known familial pathogenic mutation in BRCA1/2 or a HNPCC related gene (N = 271) rated the

  17. A prospective study of the impact of genetic susceptibility testing for BRCA1/2 or HNPCC on family relationships

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Oostrom, Iris; Meijers-Heijboer, Hanne; Duivenvoorden, Hugo J.; Bröcker-Vriends, Annette H. J. T.; van Asperen, Christi J.; Sijmons, Rolf H.; Seynaeve, Caroline; van Gool, Arthur R.; Klijn, Jan G. M.; Riedijk, Samantha R.; van Dooren, Silvia; Tibben, Aad

    2007-01-01

    This study assessed the impact of genetic testing for cancer susceptibility on family relationships and determinants of adverse consequences for family relationships. Applicants for genetic testing of a known familial pathogenic mutation in BRCA1/2 or a HNPCC related gene (N=271) rated the

  18. A prospective study of the impact of genetic susceptibility testing for BRCA1/2 or HNPCC on family relationships.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oostrom, I.I.H. van; Meijers-Heijboer, H.; Duivenvoorden, H.J.; Brocker-Vriends, A.H.; Asperen, C.J. van; Sijmons, R.H.; Seynaeve, C.; Gool, A.R. van; Klijn, J.G.M.; Riedijk, S.R.; Dooren, S. van; Tibben, A.

    2007-01-01

    This study assessed the impact of genetic testing for cancer susceptibility on family relationships and determinants of adverse consequences for family relationships. Applicants for genetic testing of a known familial pathogenic mutation in BRCA1/2 or a HNPCC related gene (N=271) rated the

  19. Susceptibility Testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Marker Bicarbonate (Total CO2) Bilirubin Blood Culture Blood Gases Blood Ketones Blood Smear Blood Typing Blood Urea ... hours depending on the method used. There are commercial tests available that offer rapid susceptibility testing and ...

  20. Studies on the Identification of Constituents in Ethanol Extract of Radix Glycyrrhizae and Their Anti-Primary Hepatoma Cell Susceptibility

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jie Liu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this paper is to study the chemical constituents of Radix Glycyrrhizae and to apply the resulting natural products in the study of drug susceptibility of hepatoma cells so as to provide a scientific basis for quality standards and clinical application of medicinal Radix Glycyrrhizae. Chromatographic materials were used for isolation and purification; structural identification was performed based on physicochemical properties and spectral data. MTT colorimetry was used to detect the proliferation inhibition rate against primary hepatoma cells by natural products, and flow cytometry was used to detect the changes in cell cycle progression. Five compounds were isolated and identified, namely, liquiritigenin (1, liquiritin (2, isoliquiritigenin (3, betulinic acid (4, and oleanolic acid (5. In the study, 5-FU (5-fluorouracil is used as a positive control to the hepatoma cells. Primary hepatoma cells were highly susceptible to 5-FU and liquiritigenin, both of which markedly inhibited the proliferation of hepatoma cells; flow cytometry results showed an increase in G0/G1 phase cells, a decrease in S phase cells, and a relative increase in G2/M phase cells. Primary hepatoma cells are highly susceptible to liquiritigenin, a natural product; the testing of tumor cell susceptibility is of important significance to the improvement of therapeutic effect of cancer.

  1. Genome-wide Association Study for Ovarian Cancer Susceptibility using Pooled DNA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Yi; Chen, Xiaoqing; Beesley, Jonathan; Johnatty, Sharon E.; deFazio, Anna; Lambrechts, Sandrina; Lambrechts, Diether; Despierre, Evelyn; Vergotes, Ignace; Chang-Claude, Jenny; Hein, Rebecca; Nickels, Stefan; Wang-Gohrke, Shan; Dörk, Thilo; Dürst, Matthias; Antonenkova, Natalia; Bogdanova, Natalia; Goodman, Marc T.; Lurie, Galina; Wilkens, Lynne R.; Carney, Michael E.; Butzow, Ralf; Nevanlinna, Heli; Heikkinen, Tuomas; Leminen, Arto; Kiemeney, Lambertus A.; Massuger, Leon F.A.G.; van Altena, Anne M.; Aben, Katja K.; Kjaer, Susanne Krüger; Høgdall, Estrid; Jensen, Allan; Brooks-Wilson, Angela; Le, Nhu; Cook, Linda; Earp, Madalene; Kelemen, Linda; Easton, Douglas; Pharoah, Paul; Song, Honglin; Tyrer, Jonathan; Ramus, Susan; Menon, Usha; Gentry-Maharaj, Alexandra; Gayther, Simon A.; Bandera, Elisa V.; Olson, Sara H.; Orlow, Irene; Rodriguez-Rodriguez, Lorna

    2013-01-01

    Recent genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have identified four low-penetrance ovarian cancer susceptibility loci. We hypothesized that further moderate or low penetrance variants exist among the subset of SNPs not well tagged by the genotyping arrays used in the previous studies which would account for some of the remaining risk. We therefore conducted a time- and cost-effective stage 1 GWAS on 342 invasive serous cases and 643 controls genotyped on pooled DNA using the high density Illumina 1M-Duo array. We followed up 20 of the most significantly associated SNPs, which are not well tagged by the lower density arrays used by the published GWAS, and genotyping them on individual DNA. Most of the top 20 SNPs were clearly validated by individually genotyping the samples used in the pools. However, none of the 20 SNPs replicated when tested for association in a much larger stage 2 set of 4,651 cases and 6,966 controls from the Ovarian Cancer Association Consortium. Given that most of the top 20 SNPs from pooling were validated in the same samples by individual genotyping, the lack of replication is likely to be due to the relatively small sample size in our stage 1 GWAS rather than due to problems with the pooling approach. We conclude that there are unlikely to be any moderate or large effects on ovarian cancer risk untagged by the less dense arrays. However our study lacked power to make clear statements on the existence of hitherto untagged small effect variants. PMID:22794196

  2. Estimating the total number of susceptibility variants underlying complex diseases from genome-wide association studies.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hon-Cheong So

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Recently genome-wide association studies (GWAS have identified numerous susceptibility variants for complex diseases. In this study we proposed several approaches to estimate the total number of variants underlying these diseases. We assume that the variance explained by genetic markers (Vg follow an exponential distribution, which is justified by previous studies on theories of adaptation. Our aim is to fit the observed distribution of Vg from GWAS to its theoretical distribution. The number of variants is obtained by the heritability divided by the estimated mean of the exponential distribution. In practice, due to limited sample sizes, there is insufficient power to detect variants with small effects. Therefore the power was taken into account in fitting. Besides considering the most significant variants, we also tried to relax the significance threshold, allowing more markers to be fitted. The effects of false positive variants were removed by considering the local false discovery rates. In addition, we developed an alternative approach by directly fitting the z-statistics from GWAS to its theoretical distribution. In all cases, the "winner's curse" effect was corrected analytically. Confidence intervals were also derived. Simulations were performed to compare and verify the performance of different estimators (which incorporates various means of winner's curse correction and the coverage of the proposed analytic confidence intervals. Our methodology only requires summary statistics and is able to handle both binary and continuous traits. Finally we applied the methods to a few real disease examples (lipid traits, type 2 diabetes and Crohn's disease and estimated that hundreds to nearly a thousand variants underlie these traits.

  3. Soil and water pollution studies from a waste site deposit in Bantama, Kumasi, Ghana using magnetic susceptibility measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hadi, M.; Preko, K.; Ashia, T.

    2012-01-01

    The magnetic susceptibility of soil and water samples from around the Uadara barracks waste site deposit in Bantama, a suburb of Kumasi was measured with the aim of investigating the potential threat of pollution to the soil, streams, fish ponds and other water sources at the site around Armed Forces Senior High School campus which shares the same premises with the barracks. The studied soil samples were picked from the near surface (∼10 cm depth) along profiles taken from the waste site towards the stream and the ponds. Again, water samples were picked along the stream and from ten (10) ponds aligned along the stream. Laboratory measurements of the magnetic susceptibility were done using the Bartington MS2 metre and the MS2B dual frequency sensor for the soil samples, and the MS2G sensor for the water samples. The soil samples from the site registered an average magnetic susceptibility of 180. 04 x 10 -5 SI whereas the water samples recorded an average of -2.3 x 10 -6 SI showing a significant increment in comparison with the standard water magnetic susceptibility of -9.04 x 10 -6 SI. Thus, not withstand the lithology of the area studied, the presence of heavy metals and other chemical waste materials form the Uadara barracks garbage deposit site were found to greatly pollute the soil and particularly the water bodies around the Armed Forces Senior High School. (au)

  4. Genome-wide association study of susceptibility loci for breast cancer in Sardinian population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palomba, Grazia; Loi, Angela; Porcu, Eleonora; Cossu, Antonio; Zara, Ilenia; Budroni, Mario; Dei, Mariano; Lai, Sandra; Mulas, Antonella; Olmeo, Nina; Ionta, Maria Teresa; Atzori, Francesco; Cuccuru, Gianmauro; Pitzalis, Maristella; Zoledziewska, Magdalena; Olla, Nazario; Lovicu, Mario; Pisano, Marina; Abecasis, Gonçalo R; Uda, Manuela; Tanda, Francesco; Michailidou, Kyriaki; Easton, Douglas F; Chanock, Stephen J; Hoover, Robert N; Hunter, David J; Schlessinger, David; Sanna, Serena; Crisponi, Laura; Palmieri, Giuseppe

    2015-05-10

    Despite progress in identifying genes associated with breast cancer, many more risk loci exist. Genome-wide association analyses in genetically-homogeneous populations, such as that of Sardinia (Italy), could represent an additional approach to detect low penetrance alleles. We performed a genome-wide association study comparing 1431 Sardinian patients with non-familial, BRCA1/2-mutation-negative breast cancer to 2171 healthy Sardinian blood donors. DNA was genotyped using GeneChip Human Mapping 500 K Arrays or Genome-Wide Human SNP Arrays 6.0. To increase genomic coverage, genotypes of additional SNPs were imputed using data from HapMap Phase II. After quality control filtering of genotype data, 1367 cases (9 men) and 1658 controls (1156 men) were analyzed on a total of 2,067,645 SNPs. Overall, 33 genomic regions (67 candidate SNPs) were associated with breast cancer risk at the p <  0(-6) level. Twenty of these regions contained defined genes, including one already associated with breast cancer risk: TOX3. With a lower threshold for preliminary significance to p < 10(-5), we identified 11 additional SNPs in FGFR2, a well-established breast cancer-associated gene. Ten candidate SNPs were selected, excluding those already associated with breast cancer, for technical validation as well as replication in 1668 samples from the same population. Only SNP rs345299, located in intron 1 of VAV3, remained suggestively associated (p-value, 1.16 x 10(-5)), but it did not associate with breast cancer risk in pooled data from two large, mixed-population cohorts. This study indicated the role of TOX3 and FGFR2 as breast cancer susceptibility genes in BRCA1/2-wild-type breast cancer patients from Sardinian population.

  5. Genome-wide association study of susceptibility loci for breast cancer in Sardinian population

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Palomba, Grazia; Loi, Angela; Porcu, Eleonora; Cossu, Antonio; Zara, Ilenia

    2015-01-01

    Despite progress in identifying genes associated with breast cancer, many more risk loci exist. Genome-wide association analyses in genetically-homogeneous populations, such as that of Sardinia (Italy), could represent an additional approach to detect low penetrance alleles. We performed a genome-wide association study comparing 1431 Sardinian patients with non-familial, BRCA1/2-mutation-negative breast cancer to 2171 healthy Sardinian blood donors. DNA was genotyped using GeneChip Human Mapping 500 K Arrays or Genome-Wide Human SNP Arrays 6.0. To increase genomic coverage, genotypes of additional SNPs were imputed using data from HapMap Phase II. After quality control filtering of genotype data, 1367 cases (9 men) and 1658 controls (1156 men) were analyzed on a total of 2,067,645 SNPs. Overall, 33 genomic regions (67 candidate SNPs) were associated with breast cancer risk at the p < 10 −6 level. Twenty of these regions contained defined genes, including one already associated with breast cancer risk: TOX3. With a lower threshold for preliminary significance to p < 10 −5 , we identified 11 additional SNPs in FGFR2, a well-established breast cancer-associated gene. Ten candidate SNPs were selected, excluding those already associated with breast cancer, for technical validation as well as replication in 1668 samples from the same population. Only SNP rs345299, located in intron 1 of VAV3, remained suggestively associated (p-value, 1.16x10 −5 ), but it did not associate with breast cancer risk in pooled data from two large, mixed-population cohorts. This study indicated the role of TOX3 and FGFR2 as breast cancer susceptibility genes in BRCA1/2-wild-type breast cancer patients from Sardinian population. The online version of this article (doi:10.1186/s12885-015-1392-9) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users

  6. Experimentally Measured Susceptibility to Peer Influence and Adolescent Sexual Behavior Trajectories: A Preliminary Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choukas-Bradley, Sophia; Giletta, Matteo; Widman, Laura; Cohen, Geoffrey L.; Prinstein, Mitchell J.

    2014-01-01

    A performance-based measure of peer influence susceptibility was examined as a moderator of the longitudinal association between peer norms and trajectories of adolescents' number of sexual intercourse partners. Seventy-one 9th grade adolescents (52% female) participated in an experimental "chat room" paradigm involving…

  7. Experimentally measured susceptibility to peer influence and adolescent sexual behavior trajectories : A preliminary study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Choukas-Bradley, S.; Giletta, M.; Widman, L.; Cohen, G.L.; Prinstein, M.J.

    2014-01-01

    A performance-based measure of peer influence susceptibility was examined as a moderator of the longitudinal association between peer norms and trajectories of adolescents' number of sexual intercourse partners. Seventy-one 9th grade adolescents (52% female) participated in an experimental "chat

  8. A five year study on the susceptibility of isolates from various parts of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2008-10-06

    Oct 6, 2008 ... faecalis 200, Enterobacter aerogenes 175, Acinetobacter baumannii 150, Proteus vulgaris 110,. Providencia stuartii 101, Streptococcus pneumoniae 16, Citrobacter freundii 51. The isolates varied widely in their susceptibility pattern. Almost all the isolates were about 100% resistant to cloxacillin,.

  9. A study of bacterial pathogens and antibiotic susceptibility patterns in chronic suppurative otitis media.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mofatteh, M R; Shahabian Moghaddam, F; Yousefi, M; Namaei, M H

    2018-01-01

    To assess the frequency of bacterial agents in chronic suppurative otitis media and the antibiotic susceptibility patterns of isolates among patients. A total of 185 patients clinically diagnosed with chronic suppurative otitis media were interviewed and middle-ear effusion samples were collected using sterile swabs. All bacterial isolates were identified by conventional microbiological methods. Antibiotic susceptibility patterns of the isolates were determined by Kirby-Bauer disc diffusion. Staphylococci spp. (64.9 per cent) were the most prevalent bacteria isolated, followed by Klebsiella spp. (12.9 per cent) and Pseudomonas aeruginosa (10.3 per cent). The most effective antibiotic for treatment of bacterial chronic suppurative otitis media was ciprofloxacin. Statistical analysis showed no significant difference in bacterial infestations among chronic suppurative otitis media patients and the antimicrobial susceptibility patterns of the bacterial isolates based on gender and age (p > 0.05). Our findings highlight the importance of a continuous and periodic evaluation of the bacteriological profile and antibiotic susceptibility patterns in chronic suppurative otitis media patients for efficacious treatment of the infection.

  10. The study of past damaging hydrogeological events for damage susceptibility zonation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. Petrucci

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available Damaging Hydrogeological Events are defined as periods during which phenomena, such as landslides, floods and secondary floods, cause damage to people and the environment.

    A Damaging Hydrogeological Event which heavily damaged Calabria (Southern Italy between December 1972, and January 1973, has been used to test a procedure to be utilised in the zonation of a province according to damage susceptibility during DHEs. In particular, we analyzed the province of Catanzaro (2391 km2, an administrative district composed of 80 municipalities, with about 370 000 inhabitants.

    Damage, defined in relation to the reimbursement requests sent to the Department of Public Works, has been quantified using a procedure based on a Local Damage Index. The latter, representing classified losses, has been obtained by multiplying the value of the damaged element and the percentage of damage affecting it.

    Rainfall has been described by the Maximum Return Period of cumulative rainfall, for both short (1, 3, 5, 7, 10 consecutive days and long duration (30, 60, 90, 180 consecutive days, recorded during the event.

    Damage index and population density, presumed to represent the location of vulnerable elements, have been referred to Thiessen polygons associated to rain gauges working at the time of the event.

    The procedure allowed us to carry out a preliminary classification of the polygons composing the province according to their susceptibility to damage during DHEs. In high susceptibility polygons, severe damage occurs during rainfall characterised by low return periods; in medium susceptibility polygons maximum return period rainfall and induced damage show equal levels of exceptionality; in low susceptibility polygons, high return period rainfall induces a low level of damage.

    The east and west sectors of the province show the highest susceptibility, while polygons of the N-NE sector show the lowest

  11. Liquefaction susceptibility of fine-grained soils: preliminary study report. Final report, September 1985-March 1986

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chang, N.Y.

    1987-09-01

    Soil liquefaction, a hazardous ground failure induced by strong motion earthquakes, can cause catastrophic damage to structures such as dams, bridges, power plants, and water-front structures and may involve great losses of life. Examples of liquefaction and resulting damage were observed during the Alaska (1964), Niigata, Japan (1964), and Tangshan, China (1976), earthquakes. Ground failure due to earthquake-induced soil liquefaction may manifest itself as excessive settlement, loss of bearing capacity, sand boiling, and flow slides. The liquefaction potential of clean sands has been studied extensively for the last two decades. However, case histories revealed that liquefied sands were seldom clean. They may contain various percentages of silt or clay or both. In fact, the Chinese observation in the Tansghan earthquake indicated that some cohesive soils may have liquefied. If this indeed had happened, then structures underlain by fine-grained soils, with a marginal safety factor based on the liquefaction criteria normally applied to sands, may actually be unsafe. Thus there is an urgent need for establishing new criteria for the liquefaction susceptibility of soils to include those identified as fine-grained. The author, Professor N.Y. Chang of the University of Colorado at Denver, visited several Chinese agencies and and universities in and near Beijing, China, in the summer of 1985 in an attempt to investigate and verify reported data on the liquefaction of cohesive soils during the Tangshan earthquake of 1976 and to negotiate cooperative research into the problem. This report presents the result of supportive literature review and the findings of the China trip.

  12. An information theoretic approach to use high-fidelity codes to calibrate low-fidelity codes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lewis, Allison, E-mail: lewis.allison10@gmail.com [Department of Mathematics, North Carolina State University, Raleigh, NC 27695 (United States); Smith, Ralph [Department of Mathematics, North Carolina State University, Raleigh, NC 27695 (United States); Williams, Brian [Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, NM 87545 (United States); Figueroa, Victor [Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, NM 87185 (United States)

    2016-11-01

    For many simulation models, it can be prohibitively expensive or physically infeasible to obtain a complete set of experimental data to calibrate model parameters. In such cases, one can alternatively employ validated higher-fidelity codes to generate simulated data, which can be used to calibrate the lower-fidelity code. In this paper, we employ an information-theoretic framework to determine the reduction in parameter uncertainty that is obtained by evaluating the high-fidelity code at a specific set of design conditions. These conditions are chosen sequentially, based on the amount of information that they contribute to the low-fidelity model parameters. The goal is to employ Bayesian experimental design techniques to minimize the number of high-fidelity code evaluations required to accurately calibrate the low-fidelity model. We illustrate the performance of this framework using heat and diffusion examples, a 1-D kinetic neutron diffusion equation, and a particle transport model, and include initial results from the integration of the high-fidelity thermal-hydraulics code Hydra-TH with a low-fidelity exponential model for the friction correlation factor.

  13. Changing attitudes toward smoking and smoking susceptibility through peer crowd targeting: more evidence from a controlled study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moran, Meghan Bridgid; Sussman, Steve

    2015-01-01

    Peer crowd identification consistently predicts an adolescent's smoking behavior. As such, several interventions have targeted adolescents and young adults based on their identification with a specific crowd (e.g., Hipsters). This study uses a controlled experimental design to isolate and test the effect of peer crowd targeting in an antismoking ad on antismoking attitudes and smoking susceptibility. Two hundred and thirty-nine adolescents, age 13-15 years, completed a baseline survey and then viewed an antismoking ad targeting one of eight crowds; 1 week later they completed a posttest. Participants were assessed on antismoking attitudes and smoking susceptibility. Adolescents who strongly identified with the crowd targeted by the ad reported stronger antismoking attitudes and lower levels of smoking susceptibility. Those who disidentified with the crowd targeted in the ad exhibited not statistically significant increases in smoking susceptibility and weaker antismoking attitudes at posttest. These findings indicate that targeting youths based on their peer crowd is a useful strategy for antismoking interventions. Additional research should further examine whether youths who disidentify with the targeted crowd in an ad exhibit reactance against the message.

  14. Empiric Antibiotic Use and Susceptibility in Infants With Bacterial Infections: A Multicenter Retrospective Cohort Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feldman, Elana A; McCulloh, Russell J; Myers, Angela L; Aronson, Paul L; Neuman, Mark I; Bradford, Miranda C; Alpern, Elizabeth R; Balamuth, Frances; Blackstone, Mercedes M; Browning, Whitney L; Hayes, Katie; Korman, Rosalynne; Leazer, Rianna C; Nigrovic, Lise E; Marble, Richard; Roben, Emily; Williams, Derek J; Tieder, Joel S

    2017-07-20

    To assess hospital differences in empirical antibiotic use, bacterial epidemiology, and antimicrobial susceptibility for common antibiotic regimens among young infants with urinary tract infection (UTI), bacteremia, or bacterial meningitis. We reviewed medical records from infants <90 days old presenting to 8 US children's hospitals with UTI, bacteremia, or meningitis. We used the Pediatric Health Information System database to identify cases and empirical antibiotic use and medical record review to determine infection, pathogen, and antimicrobial susceptibility patterns. We compared hospital-level differences in antimicrobial use, pathogen, infection site, and antimicrobial susceptibility. We identified 470 infants with bacterial infections: 362 (77%) with UTI alone and 108 (23%) with meningitis or bacteremia. Infection type did not differ across hospitals ( P = .85). Empirical antibiotic use varied across hospitals ( P < .01), although antimicrobial susceptibility patterns for common empirical regimens were similar. A third-generation cephalosporin would have empirically treated 90% of all ages, 89% in 7- to 28-day-olds, and 91% in 29- to 89-day-olds. The addition of ampicillin would have improved coverage in only 4 cases of bacteremia and meningitis. Ampicillin plus gentamicin would have treated 95%, 89%, and 97% in these age groups, respectively. Empirical antibiotic use differed across regionally diverse US children's hospitals in infants <90 days old with UTI, bacteremia, or meningitis. Antimicrobial susceptibility to common antibiotic regimens was similar across hospitals, and adding ampicillin to a third-generation cephalosporin minimally improves coverage. Our findings support incorporating empirical antibiotic recommendations into national guidelines for infants with suspected bacterial infection. Copyright © 2017 by the American Academy of Pediatrics.

  15. Studies on the infection process by Erysiphe polygoni in resistant and susceptible peas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cirulli, M.; Montemurro, G.; Ciccarese, F.; Smilari, F.

    1976-01-01

    The infection of pea by Erysiphe polygoni was investigated. The susceptible cultivar ''Sprinter'' and the resistant varieties ''Stratagem Resistant'' (er 1 er 1 Er 2 Er 2 ) and ''Mexique-4'' (er 1 er 1 er 2 er 2 ) were used. Observations of germination of conidia, formation of primary appressoria, differentiation of secondary hyphae, number of secondary hyphae per conidium, and number of branches on the longest hyphae per conidium were made at different times from inoculation. The rate of conidial germination was not affected by the host genotypes. The formation of short germ tubes with primary appressoria were found to be similar on the susceptible ''Sprinter'' as well as on the ''Stratagem Resistant'' and ''Mexique-4''. No statistical difference in the growth of germ tubes with appressorium between susceptible and resistant peas was observed at 2, 4, 6, 10 and 12 hrs after inoculation. In resistant peas formation of primary appressoria was not followed by further mycelial growth. Conversely, in the susceptible pea, germinating conidia produced multiple germ tubes and branching hyphae. The establishment of a compatible relationship between host and pathogen appears to occur at or near the stage of formation of the primary appressorium. Most conidia on the leaves formed primary appressoria as early as 2 hrs after inoculation. The Course of the host/pathogen relationship is apparently decided at a very early stage after pathogen contact with the host, such as the length of the longest hyphae, number of germ tubes per conidium and branching of the longest, and the difference in the macroscopic fungal fructification. E. polygoni activity in susceptible pea is evidently influenced by temperature whereas the gene action of the genetic factors remains unaffected in resistant pea

  16. Mapping erosion susceptibility by a multivariate statistical method: A case study from the Ayvalık region, NW Turkey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akgün, Aykut; Türk, Necdet

    2011-09-01

    Erosion is one of the most important natural hazard phenomena in the world, and it poses a significant threat to Turkey in terms of land degredation and desertification. To cope with this problem, we must determine which areas are erosion-prone. Many studies have been carried out and different models and methods have been used to this end. In this study, we used a logistic regression to prepare an erosion susceptibility map for the Ayvalık region in Balıkesir (NW Turkey). The following were our assessment parameters: weathering grades of rocks, slope gradient, structural lineament density, drainage density, land cover, stream power index (SPI) and profile curvature. These were processed by Idrisi Kilimanjaro GIS software. We used logistic regression analysis to relate predictor variables to the occurrence or non-occurrence of gully erosion sites within geographic cells, and then we used this relationship to produce a probability map for future erosion sites. The results indicate that lineament density, weathering grades of rocks and drainage density are the most important variables governing erosion susceptibility. Other variables, such as land cover and slope gradient, were revealed as secondary important variables. Highly weathered basalt, andesite, basaltic andesite and lacustrine sediments were the units most susceptible to erosion. In order to calculate the prediction accuracy of the erosion susceptibility map generated, we compared it with the map showing the gully erosion areas. On the basis of this comparison, the area under curvature (AUC) value was found to be 0.81. This result suggests that the erosion susceptibility map we generated is accurate.

  17. The effects of teacher fidelity of implementation of pathways to health on student outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Little, Melissa A; Riggs, Nathaniel R; Shin, Hee-Sung; Tate, Eleanor B; Pentz, Mary Ann

    2015-03-01

    Previous research has demonstrated the importance of ensuring that programs are implemented as intended by program developers in order to achieve desired program effects. The current study examined implementation fidelity of Pathways to Health (Pathways), a newly developed obesity prevention program for fourth- through sixth-grade children. We explored the associations between self-reported and observed implementation fidelity scores and whether implementation fidelity differed across the first 2 years of program implementation. Additionally, we examined whether implementation fidelity affected program outcomes and whether teacher beliefs were associated with implementation fidelity. The program was better received, and implementation fidelity had more effects on program outcomes in fifth grade than in fourth grade. Findings suggest that implementation in school-based obesity programs may affect junk food intake and intentions to eat healthfully and exercise. School support was associated with implementation fidelity, suggesting that prevention programs may benefit from including a component that boosts school-wide support. © The Author(s) 2013.

  18. Investigating variations in implementation fidelity of an organizational-level occupational health intervention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Augustsson, Hanna; von Thiele Schwarz, Ulrica; Stenfors-Hayes, Terese; Hasson, Henna

    2015-06-01

    The workplace has been suggested as an important arena for health promotion, but little is known about how the organizational setting influences the implementation of interventions. The aims of this study are to evaluate implementation fidelity in an organizational-level occupational health intervention and to investigate possible explanations for variations in fidelity between intervention units. The intervention consisted of an integration of health promotion, occupational health and safety, and a system for continuous improvements (Kaizen) and was conducted in a quasi-experimental design at a Swedish hospital. Implementation fidelity was evaluated with the Conceptual Framework for Implementation Fidelity and implementation factors used to investigate variations in fidelity with the Framework for Evaluating Organizational-level Interventions. A multi-method approach including interviews, Kaizen notes, and questionnaires was applied. Implementation fidelity differed between units even though the intervention was introduced and supported in the same way. Important differences in all elements proposed in the model for evaluating organizational-level interventions, i.e., context, intervention, and mental models, were found to explain the differences in fidelity. Implementation strategies may need to be adapted depending on the local context. Implementation fidelity, as well as pre-intervention implementation elements, is likely to affect the implementation success and needs to be assessed in intervention research. The high variation in fidelity across the units indicates the need for adjustments to the type of designs used to assess the effects of interventions. Thus, rather than using designs that aim to control variation, it may be necessary to use those that aim at exploring and explaining variation, such as adapted study designs.

  19. Evaluation of antibiotic susceptibility in wound infections: A pilot study from Bangladesh [version 1; referees: 2 approved

    OpenAIRE

    Sushmita Roy; Mejbah Uddin Ahmed; Bhuiyan Mohammad Mahtab Uddin; Zubair Ahmed Ratan; Monali Rajawat; Varshil Mehta; Sojib Bin Zaman

    2017-01-01

    Introduction: Infections due to antibiotic resistant bacteria have increased alarmingly in both developed and developing countries. Unrestrained and rapidly spreading bacterial growth has turned the management of wound infections into a serious challenge. This study aimed to determine the prevalence of different bacterial pathogens and their antibiotic susceptibility in various types of wound infections. Methods:  A cross-sectional study was conducted to collect 105 wound swabs. All isolated ...

  20. Evaluating Fidelity to a Modified NIATx Process Improvement Strategy for Improving HIV Services in Correctional Facilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pankow, Jennifer; Willett, Jennifer; Yang, Yang; Swan, Holly; Dembo, Richard; Burdon, William M; Patterson, Yvonne; Pearson, Frank S; Belenko, Steven; Frisman, Linda K

    2018-04-01

    In a study aimed at improving the quality of HIV services for inmates, an organizational process improvement strategy using change teams was tested in 14 correctional facilities in 8 US states and Puerto Rico. Data to examine fidelity to the process improvement strategy consisted of quantitative ratings of the structural and process components of the strategy and qualitative notes that explicate challenges in maintaining fidelity to the strategy. Fidelity challenges included (1) lack of communication and leadership within change teams, (2) instability in team membership, and (3) issues with data utilization in decision-making to implement improvements to services delivery.

  1. Staff turnover in statewide implementation of ACT: relationship with ACT fidelity and other team characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rollins, Angela L; Salyers, Michelle P; Tsai, Jack; Lydick, Jennifer M

    2010-09-01

    Staff turnover on assertive community treatment (ACT) teams is a poorly understood phenomenon. This study examined annual turnover and fidelity data collected in a statewide implementation of ACT over a 5-year period. Mean annual staff turnover across all observations was 30.0%. Turnover was negatively correlated with overall fidelity at Year 1 and 3. The team approach fidelity item was negatively correlated with staff turnover at Year 3. For 13 teams with 3 years of follow-up data, turnover rates did not change over time. Most ACT staff turnover rates were comparable or better than other turnover rates reported in the mental health and substance abuse literature.

  2. Recommendations on Model Fidelity for Wind Turbine Gearbox Simulations; NREL (National Renewable Energy Laboratory)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Keller, J.; Lacava, W.; Austin, J.; Nejad, A.; Halse, C.; Bastard, L.; Helsen, J.

    2015-02-01

    This work investigates the minimum level of fidelity required to accurately simulate wind turbine gearboxes using state-of-the-art design tools. Excessive model fidelity including drivetrain complexity, gearbox complexity, excitation sources, and imperfections, significantly increases computational time, but may not provide a commensurate increase in the value of the results. Essential designparameters are evaluated, including the planetary load-sharing factor, gear tooth load distribution, and sun orbit motion. Based on the sensitivity study results, recommendations for the minimum model fidelities are provided.

  3. How to Measure Motivational Interviewing Fidelity in Randomized Controlled Trials: Practical Recommendations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jelsma, Judith G M; Mertens, Vera-Christina; Forsberg, Lisa; Forsberg, Lars

    2015-07-01

    Many randomized controlled trials in which motivational interviewing (MI) is a key intervention make no provision for the assessment of treatment fidelity. This methodological shortcoming makes it impossible to distinguish between high- and low-quality MI interventions, and, consequently, to know whether MI provision has contributed to any intervention effects. This article makes some practical recommendations for the collection, selection, coding and reporting of MI fidelity data, as measured using the Motivational Interviewing Treatment Integrity Code. We hope that researchers will consider these recommendations and include MI fidelity measures in future studies. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Creation of a Rapid High-Fidelity Aerodynamics Module for a Multidisciplinary Design Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srinivasan, Muktha; Whittecar, William; Edwards, Stephen; Mavris, Dimitri N.

    2012-01-01

    surrogate model, which captures the relationships between input variables and responses into regression equations. Depending on the dimensionality of the problem and the fidelity of the code for which a surrogate model is being created, the initial DOE can itself be computationally prohibitive to run. Cokriging, a modeling approach from the field of geostatistics, provides a desirable compromise between computational expense and fidelity. To do this, cokriging leverages a large body of data generated by a low fidelity analysis, combines it with a smaller set of data from a higher fidelity analysis, and creates a kriging surrogate model with prediction fidelity approaching that of the higher fidelity analysis. When integrated into a multidisciplinary environment, a disciplinary analysis module employing cokriging can raise the analysis fidelity without drastically impacting the expense of design iterations. This is demonstrated through the creation of an aerodynamics analysis module in NASA s OpenMDAO framework. Aerodynamic analyses including Missile DATCOM, APAS, and USM3D are leveraged to create high fidelity aerodynamics decks for parametric vehicle geometries, which are created in NASA s Vehicle Sketch Pad (VSP). Several trade studies are performed to examine the achieved level of model fidelity, and the overall impact to vehicle design is quantified.

  5. Unified universal quantum cloning machine and fidelities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang Yinan; Shi Handuo; Xiong Zhaoxi; Jing Li; Mu Liangzhu [School of Physics, Peking University, Beijing 100871 (China); Ren Xijun [School of Physics and Electronics, Henan University, Kaifeng 4750011 (China); Fan Heng [Institute of Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100190 (China)

    2011-09-15

    We present a unified universal quantum cloning machine, which combines several different existing universal cloning machines together, including the asymmetric case. In this unified framework, the identical pure states are projected equally into each copy initially constituted by input and one half of the maximally entangled states. We show explicitly that the output states of those universal cloning machines are the same. One importance of this unified cloning machine is that the cloning procession is always the symmetric projection, which reduces dramatically the difficulties for implementation. Also, it is found that this unified cloning machine can be directly modified to the general asymmetric case. Besides the global fidelity and the single-copy fidelity, we also present all possible arbitrary-copy fidelities.

  6. High-Fidelity Coding with Correlated Neurons

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Silveira, Rava Azeredo; Berry, Michael J.

    2014-01-01

    Positive correlations in the activity of neurons are widely observed in the brain. Previous studies have shown these correlations to be detrimental to the fidelity of population codes, or at best marginally favorable compared to independent codes. Here, we show that positive correlations can enhance coding performance by astronomical factors. Specifically, the probability of discrimination error can be suppressed by many orders of magnitude. Likewise, the number of stimuli encoded—the capacity—can be enhanced more than tenfold. These effects do not necessitate unrealistic correlation values, and can occur for populations with a few tens of neurons. We further show that both effects benefit from heterogeneity commonly seen in population activity. Error suppression and capacity enhancement rest upon a pattern of correlation. Tuning of one or several effective parameters can yield a limit of perfect coding: the corresponding pattern of positive correlation leads to a ‘lock-in’ of response probabilities that eliminates variability in the subspace relevant for stimulus discrimination. We discuss the nature of this pattern and we suggest experimental tests to identify it. PMID:25412463

  7. Paleomagnetism and Anisotropy of Magnetic Susceptibility study of the Miocene Jack Springs Tuff (Nevada, USA)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shields, S.; Petronis, M. S.; Pluhar, C. J.; Gordon, L.

    2014-12-01

    The mid-Miocene Jack Springs Tuff (JST) outcrops across the western Mina Deflection accommodation zone, west-central Nevada and into eastern California. Previously, the source location for the JST was unknown, yet recent studies northwest of Mono Lake, CA have identified a relatively un-rotated structural block in which to reference the paleomagnetic data. Although new studies have indicated that this block may be rotated up to 13º, we argue that the probable source area is located near the Bodie Hills, CA. At this site, the paleomagnetic reference direction is D = 353°, I = 43°, α95 = 7.7° (Carlson et al, 2013). Based on these data, the JST can be used to measure absolute vertical-axis rotation as well as enable reconstruction of the paleo-topography using the corrected anisotropy of magnetic susceptibility (AMS) data. A total of 19 sites were sampled to constrain Cenozoic to recent vertical axis rotation within the region and AMS experiments were conducted to determine the flow direction of the JST. Curie point estimates indicate that the JST ranges in titanium concentration from 0.042 to 1.10, indicating a low to moderate titanomagnetite phase (Akimoto, 1962). Demagnetization experiments reveal mean destructive fields of the NRM ranging between 15mT and 40mT suggesting that both multi-domain to pseudo-single domain grains are the dominant ferromagnetic phases that carry the remanence and AMS fabric. Preliminary paleomagnetic data yield stable single component demagnetization behavior for most sites that, after structural correction, indicate clockwise vertical axis rotation ranging from +20°± 10° to +60°± 11° between multiple fault blocks. The uncorrected AMS data yield oblate magnetic fabrics that can be used to infer the transport direction, source region, and paleovalley geometry of the JST. These data are tentatively interpreted to indicate west to east transport of the JST across the Mono Basin region into the Mina Deflection that was erupted and

  8. Methods for streamlining intervention fidelity checklists: an example from the chronic disease self-management program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahn, SangNam; Smith, Matthew Lee; Altpeter, Mary; Belza, Basia; Post, Lindsey; Ory, Marcia G

    2014-01-01

    Maintaining intervention fidelity should be part of any programmatic quality assurance (QA) plan and is often a licensure requirement. However, fidelity checklists designed by original program developers are often lengthy, which makes compliance difficult once programs become widely disseminated in the field. As a case example, we used Stanford's original Chronic Disease Self-Management Program (CDSMP) fidelity checklist of 157 items to demonstrate heuristic procedures for generating shorter fidelity checklists. Using an expert consensus approach, we sought feedback from active master trainers registered with the Stanford University Patient Education Research Center about which items were most essential to, and also feasible for, assessing fidelity. We conducted three sequential surveys and one expert group-teleconference call. Three versions of the fidelity checklist were created using different statistical and methodological criteria. In a final group-teleconference call with seven national experts, there was unanimous agreement that all three final versions (e.g., a 34-item version, a 20-item version, and a 12-item version) should be made available because the purpose and resources for administering a checklist might vary from one setting to another. This study highlights the methodology used to generate shorter versions of a fidelity checklist, which has potential to inform future QA efforts for this and other evidence-based programs (EBP) for older adults delivered in community settings. With CDSMP and other EBP, it is important to differentiate between program fidelity as mandated by program developers for licensure, and intervention fidelity tools for providing an "at-a-glance" snapshot of the level of compliance to selected program indicators.

  9. Ac susceptibility studies on Bi-Sr-Ca-Cu-O system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chakravarti, Arani; Mukherjee, C.D.; Ranganathan, R.; Chatterjee, N.; Raychaudhuri, A.K.

    1991-01-01

    We report the low a.c. susceptibility data χ'(T,Hsub(rms)), χsup(double inverted commas)(T,Hsub(rms)) for the newly prepared superconducting system Bi x Sr 4 Ca 2 Cu 4 O y (x=0.5, 1.0 and 1.5) containing Bi at concentrations lower than that in the conventional Bi-based system. The experimental results are discussed in the light of existing theories. (author). 10 refs., 3 figs

  10. Structural studies on the development of soybean rust (Phakopsora pachyrhizi Syd.) in susceptible soybean leaves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koch, E.; Ebrahim-Nesbat, F.; Hoppe, H.H.

    1983-01-01

    Where soybeans are cultivated in the tropics, soybean rust may cause heavy crop losses. Resistance found so far was only of local and temporary value. More substantial breeding efforts are needed, but these may require a better understanding of the pathogen's biology and evolutionary capacity, the infection process and the host-pathogen relationships. The report deals with the infection process and the development of the fungus in a susceptible host variety. (author)

  11. Evaluation of antibiotic susceptibility in wound infections: A pilot study from Bangladesh [version 1; referees: 2 approved

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sushmita Roy

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Infections due to antibiotic resistant bacteria have increased alarmingly in both developed and developing countries. Unrestrained and rapidly spreading bacterial growth has turned the management of wound infections into a serious challenge. This study aimed to determine the prevalence of different bacterial pathogens and their antibiotic susceptibility in various types of wound infections. Methods:  A cross-sectional study was conducted to collect 105 wound swabs. All isolated bacteria were identified based on colony characteristics, gram stain and standard biochemical tests, and antibiotic susceptibility testing (AST with the disc diffusion method. Descriptive statistics were used to present the study findings, and all analyses were performed using Stata Version 13. Results:  The rate of isolation of bacteria was 92.3%. Staphylococcus aureus was found to be the most frequent isolate (55.7%, followed by Escherichia coli (23.7%, Pseudomonas spp. (8.2%, and Streptococcus pyogenes (7.2%. Gram-positive bacteria were mostly (60% found sensitive to vancomycin, azithromycin, gentamicin, imipenem, cefixime, and ceftriaxone in this study. Among the Gram-negative bacteria, Escherichia coli (>60% showed sensitivity to cefixime, azithromycin, cefuroxime, ceftriaxone, cefotaxime, gentamycin, and ceftazidime. Conclusions: The diversity of isolated bacteria and their susceptibility patterns signify a need to implement a proper infection control strategy, which can be achieved by carrying out antibiotic sensitivity tests of the isolates.

  12. A genome-wide association study identified AFF1 as a susceptibility locus for systemic lupus eyrthematosus in Japanese.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yukinori Okada

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE is an autoimmune disease that causes multiple organ damage. Although recent genome-wide association studies (GWAS have contributed to discovery of SLE susceptibility genes, few studies has been performed in Asian populations. Here, we report a GWAS for SLE examining 891 SLE cases and 3,384 controls and multi-stage replication studies examining 1,387 SLE cases and 28,564 controls in Japanese subjects. Considering that expression quantitative trait loci (eQTLs have been implicated in genetic risks for autoimmune diseases, we integrated an eQTL study into the results of the GWAS. We observed enrichments of cis-eQTL positive loci among the known SLE susceptibility loci (30.8% compared to the genome-wide SNPs (6.9%. In addition, we identified a novel association of a variant in the AF4/FMR2 family, member 1 (AFF1 gene at 4q21 with SLE susceptibility (rs340630; P = 8.3×10(-9, odds ratio = 1.21. The risk A allele of rs340630 demonstrated a cis-eQTL effect on the AFF1 transcript with enhanced expression levels (P<0.05. As AFF1 transcripts were prominently expressed in CD4(+ and CD19(+ peripheral blood lymphocytes, up-regulation of AFF1 may cause the abnormality in these lymphocytes, leading to disease onset.

  13. Genetic susceptibility loci, environmental exposures, and Parkinson's disease: a case-control study of gene-environment interactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, Sun Ju; Armasu, Sebastian M; Anderson, Kari J; Biernacka, Joanna M; Lesnick, Timothy G; Rider, David N; Cunningham, Julie M; Ahlskog, J Eric; Frigerio, Roberta; Maraganore, Demetrius M

    2013-06-01

    Prior studies causally linked mutations in SNCA, MAPT, and LRRK2 genes with familial Parkinsonism. Genome-wide association studies have demonstrated association of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in those three genes with sporadic Parkinson's disease (PD) susceptibility worldwide. Here we investigated the interactions between SNPs in those three susceptibility genes and environmental exposures (pesticides application, tobacco smoking, coffee drinking, and alcohol drinking) also associated with PD susceptibility. Pairwise interactions between environmental exposures and 18 variants (16 SNPs and two variable number tandem repeats, or "VNTRs") in SNCA, MAPT and LRRK2, were investigated using data from 1098 PD cases from the upper Midwest, USA and 1098 matched controls. Environmental exposures were assessed using a validated telephone interview script. Five pairwise interactions had uncorrected P-values coffee drinking × MAPT H1/H2 haplotype or MAPT rs16940806, and alcohol drinking × MAPT rs2435211. None of these interactions remained significant after Bonferroni correction. Secondary analyses in strata defined by type of control (sibling or unrelated), sex, or age at onset of the case also did not identify significant interactions after Bonferroni correction. This study documented limited pairwise interactions between established genetic and environmental risk factors for PD; however, the associations were not significant after correction for multiple testing. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Case-control study for colorectal cancer genetic susceptibility in EPICOLON: previously identified variants and mucins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moreno Victor

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Colorectal cancer (CRC is the second leading cause of cancer death in developed countries. Familial aggregation in CRC is also important outside syndromic forms and, in this case, a polygenic model with several common low-penetrance alleles contributing to CRC genetic predisposition could be hypothesized. Mucins and GALNTs (N-acetylgalactosaminyltransferase are interesting candidates for CRC genetic susceptibility and have not been previously evaluated. We present results for ten genetic variants linked to CRC risk in previous studies (previously identified category and 18 selected variants from the mucin gene family in a case-control association study from the Spanish EPICOLON consortium. Methods CRC cases and matched controls were from EPICOLON, a prospective, multicenter, nationwide Spanish initiative, comprised of two independent stages. Stage 1 corresponded to 515 CRC cases and 515 controls, whereas stage 2 consisted of 901 CRC cases and 909 controls. Also, an independent cohort of 549 CRC cases and 599 controls outside EPICOLON was available for additional replication. Genotyping was performed for ten previously identified SNPs in ADH1C, APC, CCDN1, IL6, IL8, IRS1, MTHFR, PPARG, VDR and ARL11, and 18 selected variants in the mucin gene family. Results None of the 28 SNPs analyzed in our study was found to be associated with CRC risk. Although four SNPs were significant with a P-value ADH1C (OR = 1.63, 95% CI = 1.06-2.50, P-value = 0.02, recessive, rs1800795 in IL6 (OR = 1.62, 95% CI = 1.10-2.37, P-value = 0.01, recessive, rs3803185 in ARL11 (OR = 1.58, 95% CI = 1.17-2.15, P-value = 0.007, codominant, and rs2102302 in GALNTL2 (OR = 1.20, 95% CI = 1.00-1.44, P-value = 0.04, log-additive 0, 1, 2 alleles], only rs3803185 achieved statistical significance in EPICOLON stage 2 (OR = 1.34, 95% CI = 1.06-1.69, P-value = 0.01, recessive. In the joint analysis for both stages, results were only significant for rs3803185 (OR = 1

  15. Case-control study for colorectal cancer genetic susceptibility in EPICOLON: previously identified variants and mucins

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abulí, Anna; Morillas, Juan D; Rigau, Joaquim; Latorre, Mercedes; Fernández-Bañares, Fernando; Peña, Elena; Riestra, Sabino; Payá, Artemio; Jover, Rodrigo; Xicola, Rosa M; Llor, Xavier; Fernández-Rozadilla, Ceres; Carvajal-Carmona, Luis; Villanueva, Cristina M; Moreno, Victor; Piqué, Josep M; Carracedo, Angel; Castells, Antoni; Andreu, Montserrat; Ruiz-Ponte, Clara; Castellví-Bel, Sergi; Alonso-Espinaco, Virginia; Muñoz, Jenifer; Gonzalo, Victoria; Bessa, Xavier; González, Dolors; Clofent, Joan; Cubiella, Joaquin

    2011-01-01

    Colorectal cancer (CRC) is the second leading cause of cancer death in developed countries. Familial aggregation in CRC is also important outside syndromic forms and, in this case, a polygenic model with several common low-penetrance alleles contributing to CRC genetic predisposition could be hypothesized. Mucins and GALNTs (N-acetylgalactosaminyltransferase) are interesting candidates for CRC genetic susceptibility and have not been previously evaluated. We present results for ten genetic variants linked to CRC risk in previous studies (previously identified category) and 18 selected variants from the mucin gene family in a case-control association study from the Spanish EPICOLON consortium. CRC cases and matched controls were from EPICOLON, a prospective, multicenter, nationwide Spanish initiative, comprised of two independent stages. Stage 1 corresponded to 515 CRC cases and 515 controls, whereas stage 2 consisted of 901 CRC cases and 909 controls. Also, an independent cohort of 549 CRC cases and 599 controls outside EPICOLON was available for additional replication. Genotyping was performed for ten previously identified SNPs in ADH1C, APC, CCDN1, IL6, IL8, IRS1, MTHFR, PPARG, VDR and ARL11, and 18 selected variants in the mucin gene family. None of the 28 SNPs analyzed in our study was found to be associated with CRC risk. Although four SNPs were significant with a P-value < 0.05 in EPICOLON stage 1 [rs698 in ADH1C (OR = 1.63, 95% CI = 1.06-2.50, P-value = 0.02, recessive), rs1800795 in IL6 (OR = 1.62, 95% CI = 1.10-2.37, P-value = 0.01, recessive), rs3803185 in ARL11 (OR = 1.58, 95% CI = 1.17-2.15, P-value = 0.007, codominant), and rs2102302 in GALNTL2 (OR = 1.20, 95% CI = 1.00-1.44, P-value = 0.04, log-additive 0, 1, 2 alleles], only rs3803185 achieved statistical significance in EPICOLON stage 2 (OR = 1.34, 95% CI = 1.06-1.69, P-value = 0.01, recessive). In the joint analysis for both stages, results were only significant for rs3803185 (OR = 1.12, 95% CI = 1

  16. Antimicrobial susceptibilities of Proteus mirabilis: a longitudinal nationwide study from the Taiwan surveillance of antimicrobial resistance (TSAR) program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jann-Tay; Chen, Pei-Chen; Chang, Shan-Chwen; Shiau, Yih-Ru; Wang, Hui-Ying; Lai, Jui-Fen; Huang, I-Wen; Tan, Mei-Chen; Lauderdale, Tsai-Ling Yang

    2014-09-05

    Longitudinal nationwide data on antimicrobial susceptibility in Proteus mirabilis from different sources are rare. The effects of the revised Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute (CLSI) β-lactam breakpoints on susceptibility rates and on detecting extended-spectrum β-lactamase (ESBL) and AmpC β-lactamase-producers in this species are also seldom evaluated. The present study analyzed data from the Taiwan Surveillance of Antimicrobial Resistance program to address these issues. Isolates were collected biennially between 2002 and 2012 from 25 to 28 hospitals in Taiwan. Minimum inhibitory concentrations (MIC) were determined by reference broth microdilution method. All isolates with aztreonam, ceftazidime, or cefotaxime MIC ≥ 2 mg/L were checked for the presence of ESBL by CLSI confirmatory test and subjected to ESBL and AmpC β-lactamases gene detection by PCR. Univariate and multivariate analyses were performed. Between 2002 and 2012, a total of 1157 P. mirabilis were studied. Susceptibility to cefotaxime, ceftazidime, and ciprofloxacin decreased significantly during the past decade, from 92.6% to 81.7%, 100% to 95.2%, and 80.1% to 53.8%, respectively (P mirabilis from Taiwan in the past decade. The prevalence of ESBL remained stable but AmpC β-lactamase-producing P. mirabilis increased significantly. Cefotaxime was a better surrogate than ceftazidime for predicting the presence of these β-lactamases. Continuous surveillance on antimicrobial resistance and associated resistance mechanisms in P. mirabilis is warranted.

  17. [Susceptibility surveillance of clinical isolates to fluoroquinolone antimicrobial agents from 2003 to 2008: post-marketing study of prulifloxacin].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawai, Shin; Yoshida, Atsushi; Okazaki, Mitsuhiro; Tsujihara, Yoshito; Inuzuka, Kazuhisa; Takeuchi, Kazuhide; Yamashita, Naoko; Onodera, Makoto; Hiraishi, Toru; Ida, Takashi; Maebashi, Kazunori

    2010-06-01

    Yearly changes in the susceptibility of clinical isolates to ulifloxacin (UFX) and other fluoroquinolones were examined through surveys over 3 periods. In the first survey, 534 strains derived from 19 species were collected from clinical specimens during 6 months from December 2003 to May 2004. In the same way, 805 strains were collected from December 2005 to May 2006 in the second survey, and 863 strains were from December 2007 to May 2008 in the third survey. Over these 3 study periods, the susceptibilities of fluoroquinolones against methicillin-susceptible Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli were decreased. The isolation frequency of levofloxacin-nonsusceptible strain was increased from 0% to 11.8% and from 14.6% to 20.8%, respectively. MIC90s of UFX against these pathogens were also increased, but its MIC90 for E. coli was 2 to 4 times lower than that of levofloxacin. On the other hand, the susceptibility of strains of Klebsiella pneumoniae to UFX was increased. Among the fluoroquinolones tested, UFX showed the most potent activity against Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and no changes in the MIC90s occurred during the surveillance. Although one strain of Streptococcus pneumoniae isolated in the third study period showed levofloxacin-resistance (MIC, 8 microg/mL), there were nearly no changes in the MIC90s of any agents tested including UFX against S. pneumoniae during the surveillance. As for other bacterial species, a tendency to increase in resistance to UFX was not observed. The activity of UFX against Salmonella spp. and Shigella spp. was superior/equal to those of fluoroquinolones tested.

  18. Interprofessional education in pharmacology using high-fidelity simulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, Brittney A; Seefeldt, Teresa M; Ngorsuraches, Surachat; Hendrickx, Lori D; Lubeck, Paula M; Farver, Debra K; Heins, Jodi R

    2017-11-01

    This study examined the feasibility of an interprofessional high-fidelity pharmacology simulation and its impact on pharmacy and nursing students' perceptions of interprofessionalism and pharmacology knowledge. Pharmacy and nursing students participated in a pharmacology simulation using a high-fidelity patient simulator. Faculty-facilitated debriefing included discussion of the case and collaboration. To determine the impact of the activity on students' perceptions of interprofessionalism and their ability to apply pharmacology knowledge, surveys were administered to students before and after the simulation. Attitudes Toward Health Care Teams scale (ATHCT) scores improved from 4.55 to 4.72 on a scale of 1-6 (p = 0.005). Almost all (over 90%) of the students stated their pharmacology knowledge and their ability to apply that knowledge improved following the simulation. A simulation in pharmacology is feasible and favorably affected students' interprofessionalism and pharmacology knowledge perceptions. Pharmacology is a core science course required by multiple health professions in early program curricula, making it favorable for incorporation of interprofessional learning experiences. However, reports of high-fidelity interprofessional simulation in pharmacology courses are limited. This manuscript contributes to the literature in the field of interprofessional education by demonstrating that an interprofessional simulation in pharmacology is feasible and can favorably affect students' perceptions of interprofessionalism. This manuscript provides an example of a pharmacology interprofessional simulation that faculty in other programs can use to build similar educational activities. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. High-Fidelity Multidisciplinary Design Optimization of Aircraft Configurations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martins, Joaquim R. R. A.; Kenway, Gaetan K. W.; Burdette, David; Jonsson, Eirikur; Kennedy, Graeme J.

    2017-01-01

    To evaluate new airframe technologies we need design tools based on high-fidelity models that consider multidisciplinary interactions early in the design process. The overarching goal of this NRA is to develop tools that enable high-fidelity multidisciplinary design optimization of aircraft configurations, and to apply these tools to the design of high aspect ratio flexible wings. We develop a geometry engine that is capable of quickly generating conventional and unconventional aircraft configurations including the internal structure. This geometry engine features adjoint derivative computation for efficient gradient-based optimization. We also added overset capability to a computational fluid dynamics solver, complete with an adjoint implementation and semiautomatic mesh generation. We also developed an approach to constraining buffet and started the development of an approach for constraining utter. On the applications side, we developed a new common high-fidelity model for aeroelastic studies of high aspect ratio wings. We performed optimal design trade-o s between fuel burn and aircraft weight for metal, conventional composite, and carbon nanotube composite wings. We also assessed a continuous morphing trailing edge technology applied to high aspect ratio wings. This research resulted in the publication of 26 manuscripts so far, and the developed methodologies were used in two other NRAs. 1

  20. Information, entropy, and fidelity in visual communication

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huck, Friedrich O.; Fales, Carl L.; Alter-Gartenberg, Rachel; Rahman, Zia-ur

    1992-10-01

    This paper presents an assessment of visual communication that integrates the critical limiting factors of image gathering an display with the digital processing that is used to code and restore images. The approach focuses on two mathematical criteria, information and fidelity, and on their relationships to the entropy of the encoded data and to the visual quality of the restored image.

  1. A new universal colour image fidelity metric

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Toet, A.; Lucassen, M.P.

    2003-01-01

    We extend a recently introduced universal grayscale image quality index to a newly developed perceptually decorrelated colour space. The resulting colour image fidelity metric quantifies the distortion of a processed colour image relative to its original version. We evaluated the new colour image

  2. Information, entropy and fidelity in visual communication

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huck, Friedrich O.; Fales, Carl L.; Alter-Gartenberg, Rachel; Rahman, Zia-Ur

    1992-01-01

    This paper presents an assessment of visual communication that integrates the critical limiting factors of image gathering and display with the digital processing that is used to code and restore images. The approach focuses on two mathematical criteria, information and fidelity, and on their relationships to the entropy of the encoded data and to the visual quality of the restored image.

  3. A method for assessing fidelity of delivery of telephone behavioral support for smoking cessation

    OpenAIRE

    Lorencatto, F.; West, R.; Bruguera, C.; Michie, S.

    2014-01-01

    Objectives: Behavioral support for smoking cessation is delivered through different modalities, often guided by treatment manuals. Recently developed methods for assessing fidelity of delivery have shown that face-to-face behavioral support is often not delivered as specified in the service treatment manual. This study aimed to extend this method to evaluate fidelity of telephone-delivered behavioral support. \\ud \\ud Method: A treatment manual and transcripts of 75 audio-recorded behavioral s...

  4. Landslide susceptibility mapping based on Support Vector Machine: A case study on natural slopes of Hong Kong, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, X.; Tham, L. G.; Dai, F. C.

    2008-11-01

    The Support Vector Machine (SVM) is an increasingly popular learning procedure based on statistical learning theory, and involves a training phase in which the model is trained by a training dataset of associated input and target output values. The trained model is then used to evaluate a separate set of testing data. There are two main ideas underlying the SVM for discriminant-type problems. The first is an optimum linear separating hyperplane that separates the data patterns. The second is the use of kernel functions to convert the original non-linear data patterns into the format that is linearly separable in a high-dimensional feature space. In this paper, an overview of the SVM, both one-class and two-class SVM methods, is first presented followed by its use in landslide susceptibility mapping. A study area was selected from the natural terrain of Hong Kong, and slope angle, slope aspect, elevation, profile curvature of slope, lithology, vegetation cover and topographic wetness index (TWI) were used as environmental parameters which influence the occurrence of landslides. One-class and two-class SVM models were trained and then used to map landslide susceptibility respectively. The resulting susceptibility maps obtained by the methods were compared to that obtained by the logistic regression (LR) method. It is concluded that two-class SVM possesses better prediction efficiency than logistic regression and one-class SVM. However, one-class SVM, which only requires failed cases, has an advantage over the other two methods as only "failed" case information is usually available in landslide susceptibility mapping.

  5. T-cell receptor variable genes and genetic susceptibility to celiac disease: an association and linkage study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roschmann, E; Wienker, T F; Gerok, W; Volk, B A

    1993-12-01

    Genetic susceptibility of celiac disease is primarily associated with a particular combination of and HLA-DQA1/DQB1 gene; however, this does not fully account for the genetic predisposition. Therefore, the aim of this study was to examine whether T-cell receptor (TCR) genes may be susceptibility genes in celiac disease. HLA class II typing was performed by polymerase chain reaction amplification in combination with sequence-specific oligonucleotide hybridization. TCR alpha (TCRA), TCR gamma (TCRG), and TCR beta (TCRB) loci were investigated by restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis. Allelic frequencies of TCRA, TCRG, and TCRB variable genes were compared between patients with celiac disease (n = 53) and control patients (n = 67), and relative risk (RR) estimates were calculated. The RR was 1.67 for allele C1 at TCRA1, 3.35 for allele D2 at TCRA2, 1.66 for allele B2 at TCRG, and 1.35 for allele B at TCRB, showing no significant association. Additionally, linkage analysis was performed in 23 families. The logarithm of odd scores for celiac disease vs. the TCR variable genes at TCRA, TCRG, and TCRB showed no significant linkage. These data suggest that the analyzed TCR variable gene segments V alpha 1.2, V gamma 11, and V beta 8 do not play a major role in susceptibility to celiac disease.

  6. Variable-Weighted Linear Combination Model for Landslide Susceptibility Mapping: Case Study in the Shennongjia Forestry District, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Chen

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available A landslide susceptibility map plays an essential role in urban and rural planning. The main purpose of this study is to establish a variable-weighted linear combination model (VWLC and assess its potential for landslide susceptibility mapping. Firstly, different objective methods are employed for data processing rather than the frequently-used subjective judgments: K-means clustering is used for classification; binarization is introduced to determine buffer length thresholds for locational elements (road, river, and fault; landslide area density is adopted as the contribution index; and a correlation analysis is conducted for suitable factor selection. Secondly, considering the dimension changes of the preference matrix varying with the different locations of the mapping cells, the variable weights of each optimal factor are determined based on the improved analytic hierarchy process (AHP. On this basis, the VWLC model is established and applied to regional landslide susceptibility mapping for the Shennongjia Forestry District, China, where shallow landslides frequently occur. The obtained map is then compared with a map using the traditional WLC, and the results of the comparison show that VWLC is more reasonable, with a higher accuracy, and can be used anywhere that has the same or similar geological and topographical conditions.

  7. A prospective study on evaluation of pathogenesis, biofilm formation, antibiotic susceptibility of microbial community in urinary catheter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Younis, Khansa Mohammed; Usup, Gires; Ahmad, Asmat

    2015-09-01

    This study is aimed to isolate, detect biofilm formation ability and antibiotic susceptibility of urinary catheter adherent microorganisms from elderly hospitalized patient at the Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia Medical Center. Microorganisms were isolated from three samples of urinary catheters (UC) surface; one of the acute vascular rejection patient (UCB) and two from benign prostate hyperplasia patients (UCC and UCD). A total of 100 isolates was isolated with 35 from UCB, 38 (UCC) and 28 (UCD). Ninety six were identified as Gram-negative bacilli, one Gram-positive bacilli and three yeasts. Results of biofilm forming on sterile foley catheter showed that all the isolates can form biofilm at different degrees; strong biofilm forming: 32% from the 35 isolates (UCB), 25% out of 38 isolates (UCC), 26% out of 28 isolates (UCD). As for moderate biofilm forming; 3% from UCB, 10% from UCC and 2% from UCD. Weak biofilm forming in UCC (3%). The antibiotic susceptibility for (UCB) isolates showed highly resistant to ampicillin, novobiocin and penicillin 100 (%), kanamycin (97%), tetracycline (94%), chloramphenicol (91%), streptomycin (77%) and showed low level of resistance to gentamycin (17%), while all the isolates from (UCC-D) showed high resistant towards ampicillin and penicillin, novobiocin (94%), tetracycline (61%), streptomycin (53%), gentamycin (50%) and low level of resistance to kanamycin (48%), chloramphenicol (47%). The findings indicate that these isolates can spread within the community on urinary catheters surface and produce strong biofilm, therefore, monitoring antibiotic susceptibility of bacteria isolated in the aggregation is recommended.

  8. An Investigation of the Impact of Aerodynamic Model Fidelity on Close-In Combat Effectiveness Prediction in Piloted Simulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Persing, T. Ray; Bellish, Christine A.; Brandon, Jay; Kenney, P. Sean; Carzoo, Susan; Buttrill, Catherine; Guenther, Arlene

    2005-01-01

    Several aircraft airframe modeling approaches are currently being used in the DoD community for acquisition, threat evaluation, training, and other purposes. To date there has been no clear empirical study of the impact of airframe simulation fidelity on piloted real-time aircraft simulation study results, or when use of a particular level of fidelity is indicated. This paper documents a series of piloted simulation studies using three different levels of airframe model fidelity. This study was conducted using the NASA Langley Differential Maneuvering Simulator. Evaluations were conducted with three pilots for scenarios requiring extensive maneuvering of the airplanes during air combat. In many cases, a low-fidelity modified point-mass model may be sufficient to evaluate the combat effectiveness of the aircraft. However, in cases where high angle-of-attack flying qualities and aerodynamic performance are a factor or when precision tracking ability of the aircraft must be represented, use of high-fidelity models is indicated.

  9. Study of Prevalence and Antimicrobial Susceptibility of Blood Culture Bacterial Isolates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ayobola, E. D.

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Bloodstream infections are associated with significant morbidity and mortality. Definitive diagnosis is by bacteriologic culture of blood samples to identify organisms and establish antibiotic susceptibility. Between July and September 2009, 249 blood samples collected from patients at the University of Benin Teaching Hospital were processed. Positive cultures which accounted for 48(19.3% of total samples screened, were purified and identified according to standard methods. Sensitivity of bacteria to different antibiotics was determined by Kirby-Bauer disk diffusion method. Microorganisms recovered were Staphylococcus aureus (14.6%, Providencia spp., Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Enterobacter spp., Klebsiella pneumoniae and Proteus mirabilis (12.5% respectively, Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus epidermidis (8.3% respectively and Citrobacter freundii (6.3% . The highest antibiotic activities against Gram positive isolates were observed for ofloxacin (90.9%, nitrofurantoin (81.8% and gentamicin (72.7%, while in Gram negative bacteria, ofloxacin (81.1% and nalidixic acid (45.9% were most effective. The possibility of drug resistance acquisition by bacteria makes continuous surveillance of antimicrobial susceptibility patterns of bacteria essential as this will enhance efforts to identify resistance and attempt to limit its spread.

  10. Relationship between Systems Coaching and Problem-Solving Implementation Fidelity in a Response-to-Intervention Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    March, Amanda L.; Castillo, Jose M.; Batsche, George M.; Kincaid, Donald

    2016-01-01

    The literature on RTI has indicated that professional development and coaching are critical to facilitating problem-solving implementation with fidelity. This study examined the extent to which systems coaching related to the fidelity of problem-solving implementation in 31 schools from six districts. Schools participated in three years of a…

  11. High versus Low Theoretical Fidelity Pedometer Intervention Using Social-Cognitive Theory on Steps and Self-Efficacy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raedeke, Thomas D.; Dlugonski, Deirdre

    2017-01-01

    Purpose: This study was designed to compare a low versus high theoretical fidelity pedometer intervention applying social-cognitive theory on step counts and self-efficacy. Method: Fifty-six public university employees participated in a 10-week randomized controlled trial with 2 conditions that varied in theoretical fidelity. Participants in the…

  12. Perceptions of Fidelity to Family Group Decision-Making Principles: Examining the Impact of Race, Gender, and Relationship

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rauktis, Mary E.; Huefner, Jonathan; Cahalane, Helen

    2011-01-01

    This study explored the perceptions of fidelity to family group principles using comparative information from family, friends, and professionals, taking into account race and gender. White respondents felt there was a greater degree of fidelity than did the African American respondents, with other race respondents sometimes rating similarly to…

  13. High Versus Low Theoretical Fidelity Pedometer Intervention Using Social-Cognitive Theory on Steps and Self-Efficacy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raedeke, Thomas D; Dlugonski, Deirdre

    2017-12-01

    This study was designed to compare a low versus high theoretical fidelity pedometer intervention applying social-cognitive theory on step counts and self-efficacy. Fifty-six public university employees participated in a 10-week randomized controlled trial with 2 conditions that varied in theoretical fidelity. Participants in the high theoretical fidelity condition wore a pedometer and participated in a weekly group walk followed by a meeting to discuss cognitive-behavioral strategies targeting self-efficacy. Participants in the low theoretical fidelity condition met for a group walk and also used a pedometer as a motivational tool and to monitor steps. Step counts were assessed throughout the 10-week intervention and after a no-treatment follow-up (20 weeks and 30 weeks). Self-efficacy was measured preintervention and postintervention. Participants in the high theoretical fidelity condition increased daily steps by 2,283 from preintervention to postintervention, whereas participants in the low fidelity condition demonstrated minimal change during the same time period (p = .002). Individuals attending at least 80% of the sessions in the high theoretical fidelity condition showed an increase of 3,217 daily steps (d = 1.03), whereas low attenders increased by 925 (d = 0.40). Attendance had minimal impact in the low theoretical fidelity condition. Follow-up data revealed that step counts were at least somewhat maintained. For self-efficacy, participants in the high, compared with those in the low, theoretical fidelity condition showed greater improvements. Findings highlight the importance of basing activity promotion efforts on theory. The high theoretical fidelity intervention that included cognitive-behavioral strategies targeting self-efficacy was more effective than the low theoretical fidelity intervention, especially for those with high attendance.

  14. Exposure to point-of-sale displays and changes in susceptibility to smoking: findings from a cohort study of school students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bogdanovica, Ilze; Szatkowski, Lisa; McNeill, Ann; Spanopoulos, Dionysis; Britton, John

    2015-04-01

    To investigate the association between frequency of visiting shops and noticing of tobacco point-of-sale (PoS) displays and the development of susceptibility to smoking, or smoking uptake, in secondary school students. Two surveys of a school based cohort study carried out in 2011 and 2012. Nottinghamshire, UK. A total of 2270 children aged 11-16 years from eight schools in Nottinghamshire. We investigated changes in susceptibility to smoking and smoking status in relation to frequency of visiting shops and noticing PoS displays and number of tobacco brands recognized, controlling for a range of potential confounders. Susceptibility to smoking was defined using a set of three questions covering intentions to try smoking, to smoke within the next year and likelihood of smoking if a best friend offered a cigarette. For the analysis we used multinomial logistic regression. Among non-susceptible never smokers, noticing PoS displays more frequently was associated independently with an increased risk of becoming susceptible to smoking [adjusted relative risk ratio (RRR) = 1.74; 99% confidence interval (CI) = 1.13-2.69], but was not associated with smoking uptake. Recognizing a higher number of brands among non-susceptible never smokers doubled the risk of becoming susceptible to smoking and of becoming a smoker, but this did not have a significant effect on transition to smoking among susceptible never smokers. Frequency of noticing tobacco PoS displays was not associated significantly with smoking uptake among those who were susceptible never smokers at baseline. Noticing tobacco point-of-sale displays more often and recognizing a higher number of tobacco brands is associated with an increased risk of becoming susceptible to smoking among adolescents in the United Kingdom, and recognizing a higher number of brands is associated positively with an increased risk of smoking uptake. © 2014 Society for the Study of Addiction.

  15. Assessing the adaptation and implementation fidelity of an Online Tobacco Cessation Training Program for Healthcare Professionals in three Spanish-speaking Latin American countries: The Fruitful Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristina Martínez

    2017-05-01

    This study has been funded by Global Bridges Mayo Clinic (Pfizer Medical Group; GB-13520139: Development and Dissemination of a Tobacco Cessation Training Program for Healthcare Professionals in Spanish-speaking Countries. Moreover, CM and EF are also funded by the Spanish Government (Instituto de Salut Carlos III, grant PI15-00875 and the Catalan Government (Xarxa Catalana d’Hospitals sense fum, Agència de Salut Pública de Catalunya, contracte Nº 2015VAR171

  16. A Prorating Method for Estimating MMPI-2-RF Scores From MMPI Responses: Examination of Score Fidelity and Illustration of Empirical Utility in the PERSEREC Police Integrity Study Sample.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarescavage, Anthony M; Corey, David M; Ben-Porath, Yossef S

    2016-04-01

    The purpose of the current study was to identify Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory-2-Restructured Form (MMPI-2-RF) correlates of police officer integrity violations and other problem behaviors in an archival database with original MMPI item responses and collateral information regarding integrity violations obtained for 417 male officers. In Study 1, we estimated MMPI-2-RF scores from the MMPI item pool (which includes approximately 80% of the MMPI-2-RF items) in a normative sample, a psychiatric inpatient sample, and a police officer sample, and conducted analyses that demonstrated the comparability of estimated and full scale scores for 41 of the 51 MMPI-2-RF scales. In Study 2, we correlated estimated MMPI-2-RF scores with information about subsequent integrity violations and problem behaviors from the integrity violation data set. Several meaningful associations were obtained, predominately with scales from the emotional, thought, and behavioral dysfunction domains of the MMPI-2-RF. Application of a correction for range restriction yielded substantially improved validity estimates. Finally, we calculated relative risk ratios for the statistically significant findings using cutoffs lower than 65T, which is traditionally used to identify clinically significant elevations, and found several meaningful relative risk ratios. © The Author(s) 2015.

  17. Genome-wide association study identifies nox3 as a critical gene for susceptibility to noise-induced hearing loss.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joel Lavinsky

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available In the United States, roughly 10% of the population is exposed daily to hazardous levels of noise in the workplace. Twin studies estimate heritability for noise-induced hearing loss (NIHL of approximately 36%, and strain specific variation in sensitivity has been demonstrated in mice. Based upon the difficulties inherent to the study of NIHL in humans, we have turned to the study of this complex trait in mice. We exposed 5 week-old mice from the Hybrid Mouse Diversity Panel (HMDP to a 10 kHz octave band noise at 108 dB for 2 hours and assessed the permanent threshold shift 2 weeks post exposure using frequency specific stimuli. These data were then used in a genome-wide association study (GWAS using the Efficient Mixed Model Analysis (EMMA to control for population structure. In this manuscript we describe our GWAS, with an emphasis on a significant peak for susceptibility to NIHL on chromosome 17 within a haplotype block containing NADPH oxidase-3 (Nox3. Our peak was detected after an 8 kHz tone burst stimulus. Nox3 mutants and heterozygotes were then tested to validate our GWAS. The mutants and heterozygotes demonstrated a greater susceptibility to NIHL specifically at 8 kHz both on measures of distortion product otoacoustic emissions (DPOAE and on auditory brainstem response (ABR. We demonstrate that this sensitivity resides within the synaptic ribbons of the cochlea in the mutant animals specifically at 8 kHz. Our work is the first GWAS for NIHL in mice and elucidates the power of our approach to identify tonotopic genetic susceptibility to NIHL.

  18. Exposure to point‐of‐sale displays and changes in susceptibility to smoking: findings from a cohort study of school students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szatkowski, Lisa; McNeill, Ann; Spanopoulos, Dionysis; Britton, John

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Aims To investigate the association between frequency of visiting shops and noticing of tobacco point‐of‐sale (PoS) displays and the development of susceptibility to smoking, or smoking uptake, in secondary school students. Design Two surveys of a school based cohort study carried out in 2011 and 2012. Settings Nottinghamshire, UK. Participants A total of 2270 children aged 11–16 years from eight schools in Nottinghamshire. Measurements We investigated changes in susceptibility to smoking and smoking status in relation to frequency of visiting shops and noticing PoS displays and number of tobacco brands recognized, controlling for a range of potential confounders. Susceptibility to smoking was defined using a set of three questions covering intentions to try smoking, to smoke within the next year and likelihood of smoking if a best friend offered a cigarette. For the analysis we used multinomial logistic regression. Findings Among non‐susceptible never smokers, noticing PoS displays more frequently was associated independently with an increased risk of becoming susceptible to smoking [adjusted relative risk ratio (RRR) = 1.74; 99% confidence interval (CI) = 1.13–2.69], but was not associated with smoking uptake. Recognizing a higher number of brands among non‐susceptible never smokers doubled the risk of becoming susceptible to smoking and of becoming a smoker, but this did not have a significant effect on transition to smoking among susceptible never smokers. Frequency of noticing tobacco PoS displays was not associated significantly with smoking uptake among those who were susceptible never smokers at baseline. Conclusions Noticing tobacco point‐of‐sale displays more often and recognizing a higher number of tobacco brands is associated with an increased risk of becoming susceptible to smoking among adolescents in the United Kingdom, and recognizing a higher number of brands is associated positively with an increased risk of

  19. Measuring third year undergraduate nursing students' reflective thinking skills and critical reflection self-efficacy following high fidelity simulation: A pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tutticci, Naomi; Lewis, Peter A; Coyer, Fiona

    2016-05-01

    Critical reflection underpins critical thinking, a highly desirable generic nursing graduate capability. To improve the likelihood of critical thinking transferring to clinical practice, reflective thinking needs to be measured within the learning space of simulation. This study was divided into two phases to address the reliability and validity measures of previously untested surveys. Phase One data was collected from individuals (n = 6) using a 'think aloud' approach and an expert panel to review content validity, and verbatim comment analysis was undertaken. The Reflective Thinking Instrument and Critical Reflection Self-Efficacy Visual Analogue Scale items were contextualised to simulation. The expert review confirmed these instruments exhibited content validity. Phase Two data was collected through an online survey (n = 58). Cronbach's alpha measured internal consistency and was demonstrated by all subscales and the Instrument as a whole (.849). There was a small to medium positive correlation between critical reflection self-efficacy and general self-efficacy (r = .324, n = 56, p = .048). Participant responses were positive regarding the simulation experience. The research findings demonstrated that the Reflective Thinking and Simulation Satisfaction survey is reliable. Further development of this survey to establish validity is recommended to make it viable. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Fine mapping of breast cancer genome-wide association studies loci in women of African ancestry identifies novel susceptibility markers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Yonglan; Ogundiran, Temidayo O; Falusi, Adeyinka G; Nathanson, Katherine L; John, Esther M; Hennis, Anselm J M; Ambs, Stefan; Domchek, Susan M; Rebbeck, Timothy R; Simon, Michael S; Nemesure, Barbara; Wu, Suh-Yuh; Leske, Maria Cristina; Odetunde, Abayomi; Niu, Qun; Zhang, Jing; Afolabi, Chibuzor; Gamazon, Eric R; Cox, Nancy J; Olopade, Christopher O; Olopade, Olufunmilayo I; Huo, Dezheng

    2013-07-01

    Numerous single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) associated with breast cancer susceptibility have been identified by genome-wide association studies (GWAS). However, these SNPs were primarily discovered and validated in women of European and Asian ancestry. Because linkage disequilibrium is ancestry-dependent and heterogeneous among racial/ethnic populations, we evaluated common genetic variants at 22 GWAS-identified breast cancer susceptibility loci in a pooled sample of 1502 breast cancer cases and 1378 controls of African ancestry. None of the 22 GWAS index SNPs could be validated, challenging the direct generalizability of breast cancer risk variants identified in Caucasians or Asians to other populations. Novel breast cancer risk variants for women of African ancestry were identified in regions including 5p12 (odds ratio [OR] = 1.40, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.11-1.76; P = 0.004), 5q11.2 (OR = 1.22, 95% CI = 1.09-1.36; P = 0.00053) and 10p15.1 (OR = 1.22, 95% CI = 1.08-1.38; P = 0.0015). We also found positive association signals in three regions (6q25.1, 10q26.13 and 16q12.1-q12.2) previously confirmed by fine mapping in women of African ancestry. In addition, polygenic model indicated that eight best markers in this study, compared with 22 GWAS-identified SNPs, could better predict breast cancer risk in women of African ancestry (per-allele OR = 1.21, 95% CI = 1.16-1.27; P = 9.7 × 10(-16)). Our results demonstrate that fine mapping is a powerful approach to better characterize the breast cancer risk alleles in diverse populations. Future studies and new GWAS in women of African ancestry hold promise to discover additional variants for breast cancer susceptibility with clinical implications throughout the African diaspora.

  1. A longitudinal study of whole body, tissue, and cellular physiology in a mouse model of fibrosing NASH with high fidelity to the human condition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krishnan, Anuradha; Abdullah, Tasduq Sheikh; Mounajjed, Taofic; Hartono, Stella; McConico, Andrea; White, Thomas; LeBrasseur, Nathan; Lanza, Ian; Nair, Sreekumaran; Gores, Gregory; Charlton, Michael

    2017-06-01

    NASH. NEW & NOTEWORTHY This study demonstrates in a first of kind longitudinal analysis, the evolution of nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) on a fast-food diet-induced model. Key findings include 1 ) hepatic lipid composition changes in a multiphasic fashion as NASH evolves; 2 ) insulin resistance precedes hepatic inflammation and fibrosis, answering a longstanding chicken-and-egg question regarding the relationship of insulin resistance to liver histology in NASH; and 3 ) mitochondrial dysfunction and depletion occur after the histological features of NASH are apparent. Copyright © 2017 the American Physiological Society.

  2. Study of amorphous semiconductors doped with rare earths (Gd and Er) and conducting polymers by EPR techniques and magnetic susceptibility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sercheli, Mauricio da Silva

    1999-01-01

    This thesis involves the study of amorphous semiconductors and conducting polymers, which have been characterized by EPR and magnetic susceptibility measurements, and to a lesser extent by Raman spectroscopy and RBS. The semiconductors were studied using thin films of silicon doped with rare earth metals, e.g. erbium and gadolinium, which had their magnetic properties studied. Using these studies we could determine the state of valence of the rare earths as well as their concentrations in the silicon matrix. According to our results, the valence of the rare earth metal ions is 3+, and we were able to conclude that 4f electronic shells could not be used for the calculation of the conducting band in this system. Furthermore, the analysis of the data on the magnetic susceptibility of the Er 3+ ion with cubic crystalline acting field, gave us the opportunity to estimate the overall splitting of their electronic states for the first time. The conducting polymers were studied using samples of poly(3-methylthiophene) doped with ClO 4 - , which show a phase transition in the range of 230 K to 130 K. The electron paramagnetic resonance also gives important information on the crystallization, doping level and the presence of polarons or bipolarons in conducting polymers. (author)

  3. Fidel Castro: the word that unites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grisel Veloz-Fernández

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The present work carries out a boarding of Fidel Castro's political speech, leaving of an understanding of its renovating character inside the most complex historical segment in the revolutionary process that is the period 1959 - 1961. It is during the same one that in Cuba a consent arms to the socialism. That achievement relapses fundamentally in Fidel's leadership and its capacity to negotiate the nucleus of ideas and values of that process through the political speech. Analyzed around 72 documents a characterization of that speech it has been achieved in benefit of their current utility. Presently work takes as starting point the conditions that existed in our country to the revolutionary victory that were the material base of an authentic revolution of the political speech in Cuba and the world like interaction form and transmission of political ideas as regards talkative resources.

  4. Moessbauer, electron paramagnetic resonance and magnetic susceptibility studies of photosensitive nitrile hydratase from Rhodococcus sp. N-771

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nagamune, Teruyuki; Honda, Jun; Kobayashi, Yoshio; Sasabe, Hiroyuki; Endo, Isao; Ambe, Fumitoshi; Teratani, Yoshitaka; Hirata, Akira

    1992-01-01

    Moessbauer, magnetic susceptibility and electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) studies of inactive and photoactivated NHase enzymes were performed to elucidate the electronic change of non-heme two-iron atom center of the enzyme by photoactivation. These spectroscopic investigations revealed that both the two iron atoms of the active NHase could be assigned to low-spin ferric state, and those of the inactive NHase could each be assigned to low-spin ferric and low-spin ferrous ones. From these results, it was concluded that one of the non-heme iron atoms is oxidized in the inactive NHase during photoactivation. (orig.)

  5. Fidelity of Simulation for Pilot Training

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-12-01

    indicators of joint angles. The combination of all the pro- prioceptive senses permits subjects to perceive body accelerations based on the biomechanical ...constraints III. Controllers A. Flight controls 1. Center stick, column, side stick, collective 2. Pedals (yaw control, brakes) 3. Thrust controllers 4...the most sensitive elements in terms of fidelity require- ments. The force-generating systems associated with the stick or column and pedals are

  6. Fidelity, entanglement, and information complementarity relation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cai, Jian-Ming; Zhou, Zheng-Wei; Guo, Guang-Can

    2007-01-01

    We investigate the dynamics of information in isolated multi-qubit systems. It is shown that information is in not only local form but also nonlocal form. We apply a measure of local information based on fidelity, and demonstrate that nonlocal information can be directly related to some appropriate well defined entanglement measures. Under general unitary transformations, local and nonlocal information will exhibit unambiguous complementary behavior with the total information conserved

  7. Datasets in Gene Expression Omnibus used in the study ORD-020969: Genomic effects of androstenedione and sex-specific liver cancer susceptibility in mice

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Datasets in Gene Expression Omnibus used in the study ORD-020969: Genomic effects of androstenedione and sex-specific liver cancer susceptibility in mice. This...

  8. The Pliocene Horcón Formation, Central Chile: a case study of earthquake-induced landslide susceptibility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valdivia, D.; Elgueta, S.; Hodgkin, A.; Marquardt, C.; del Valle, F.; Yáñez Morroni, G.

    2017-12-01

    Stability slope analysis is typically focused on modeling using cohesion and friction angle parameters but in earthquake-induced landslides, susceptibility is correlated more to lithological and stratigraphic parameters. In sedimentary deposits whose cohesion and diagenesis are very low, the risk of landslides increases. The Horcón Formation, which crops out continuously along cliffs in Central Chile between 32.5° and 33°S, is a Miocene-Pliocene well preserved, horizontally stratified unit composed of marine strata which overlies Paleozoic-Mesozoic igneous basement. During the Quaternary, the sequence was tectonically uplifted 80 meters and covered by unconsolidated eolian deposits. Given that Seismotectonic and Barrier-Asperity models suggest the occurrence of a forthcoming megathrust earthquake in a segment which includes this area, the Horcón Formation constitutes a good case study to characterize the susceptibility of this type of sediment for mass movements triggered by earthquakes. Field mapping, stratigraphic and sedimentological studies, including petrographic analyses to determine lithological composition and paragenesis of diagenetic events, have been carried out along with limited gravimetric profiling and CPTU drill tests. High resolution digital elevation modeling has also been applied. This work has led to the recognition of a shallow marine lithofacies association composed of weakly lithified fossiliferous and bioturbated medium to fine grained litharenite, mudstone, and fine conglomerate. The low grade of diagenesis in the sedimentary deposits was in response to a short period of burial and a subsequent accelerated uplift evidenced along the coast of Chile during the Quaternary. We have generated a predictive model of landslide susceptibility for the Horcón Formation and for the overlying Quaternary eolian deposits incorporating variables such as composition and diagenesis of lithofacies, slope, structures, weathering and landcover. The model

  9. The Associations between VEGF Gene Polymorphisms and Diabetic Retinopathy Susceptibility: A Meta-Analysis of 11 Case-Control Studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liyuan Han

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Aims. Published data on the associations of VEGF polymorphisms with diabetic retinopathy (DR susceptibility are inconclusive. A systematic meta-analysis was undertaken to clarify this topic. Methods. Data were collected from the following electronic databases: PubMed, Embase, OVID, Web of Science, Elsevier Science Direct, Excerpta Medica Database (EMBASE, and Cochrane Library with the last report up to January 10, 2014. ORs and 95% CIs were calculated for VEGF–2578C/A (rs699947, –1154G/A (rs1570360, –460T/C (rs833061, −634G>C (rs2010963, and +936C/T (rs3025039 in at least two published studies. Meta-analysis was performed in a fixed/random effect model by using the software STATA 12.0. Results. A total of 11 studies fulfilling the inclusion criteria were included in this meta-analysis. A significant relationship between VEGF+936C/T (rs3025039 polymorphism and DR was found in a recessive model (OR = 3.19, 95% CI = 1.20–8.41, and P(z=0.01 in Asian and overall populations, while a significant association was also found between –460T/C (rs833061 polymorphism and DR risk under a recessive model (OR = 2.12, 95% CI = 1.12–4.01, and P(z=0.02. Conclusions. Our meta-analysis demonstrates that +936C/T (rs3025039 is likely to be associated with susceptibility to DR in Asian populations, and the recessive model of –460T/C (rs833061 is associated with elevated DR susceptibility.

  10. Study of strains of Candida spp. Isolated from catheters in UHC of Oran (Algeria): Identification and antifungal susceptibility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bendjelloul, M; Boucherit-Otmani, Z; Boucherit, K

    2016-09-01

    The increasing incidence of Candida spp., and the vital prognosis often compromise for patients with Candida species make urgent the exact knowledge of their distribution worldwide and exhaust action antifungals currently used in clinical. That why we carry out an epidemiological study of Candida species and testing their susceptibility against two antifungals: amphotericin B and caspofungin. Samplings of peripheral venous catheters (PVC) were carried out from during 8months on the services of Internal medicine, Surgery A and Neonatology of Oran's University Hospital Center (UHC). The study of the susceptibility of Candida species to antifungal agents was performed according to the Clinical Laboratory Standards Institute (CLSI 2008). From 300 samples, 25 yeasts were isolated. The rate of colonization PVC was 8.33% by Candida spp. The most isolated strains were Candida parapsilosis with 64% of cases, followed by Candida albicans (12%) then 8% for Candida glabrata and Candida krusei. However, only 4% of isolates were Candida famata or Candida lusitaniae. Furthermore all isolated strains were susceptible to amphotericin B with Minimum Inhibitory Concentrations (MIC) ranging from 0.25 to 1μg/mL. MIC obtained with caspofungin vary from 0.0625 to 2μg/mL for all strains. Moreover, one strain of C. krusei is resistant to caspofungin with a MIC superior to 8μg/mL. All though caspofungin is at least as effective as amphotericin B, it is better tolerated for the treatment of invasive fungal infections. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS.

  11. Corrosion susceptibility study of candidate pin materials for ALTC (Active Lithium/Thionyl Chloride) batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bovard, Francine S.; Cieslak, Wendy R.

    1987-09-01

    The corrosion susceptibilities of eight alternate battery pin material candidates for ALTC (Active Lithium/Thionyl Chloride) batteries in 1.5M LiAlCl4/SOCl2 electrolyte have been investigated using ampule exposure and electrochemical tests. The thermal expansion coefficients of these candidate materials are expected to match Sandia-developed Li-corrosion resistant glasses. The corrosion resistances of the candidate materials, which included three stainless steels (15-5 PH, 17-4 PH, and 446), three Fe-Ni glass sealing alloys (Kovar, Alloy 52, and Niromet 426), a Ni-based alloy (Hastelloy B-2) and a zirconium-based alloy (Zircaloy), were compared to the reference materials Ni and 316L SS. All of the candidate materials showed some evidence of corrosion and, therefore, did not perform as well as the reference materials. The Hastelloy B-2 and Zircaloy are clearly unacceptable materials for this application. Of the remaining alternate materials, the 446 SS and Alloy 52 are the most promising candidates.

  12. Prevalence and antimicrobial susceptibility pattern of methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus: A multicentre study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajaduraipandi K

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: Methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA is an important nosocomial pathogen. We report the prevalence and antibiotic susceptibility pattern of MRSA in major southern districts of Tamilnadu. Methods: A total of 7172 clinical specimens and 1725 carrier screening samples were collected from different centers and subjected to MRSA screening using conventional microbiological methods. Subsequently the antibiotic sensitivity test was performed for the confirmed MRSA isolates. Results: Out of 906 strains of S. aureus isolated from clinical and carrier samples, 250 (31.1% and 39 (37.9% were found to be methicillin resistant respectively. Almost all clinical MRSA strains (99.6% were resistant to penicillin, 93.6% to ampicillin, and 63.2% towards gentamicin, co-trimoxazole, cephalexin, erythromycin, and cephotaxime. All MRSA strains (100% of carrier screening samples had resistance to penicillin and about 71.8% and 35.9% were resistant to ampicillin and co-trimoxazole respectively. Multidrug resistance was observed among 63.6% of clinical and 23% of carrier MRSA isolates. However, all strains of clinical and carrier subjects were sensitive to vancomycin. Conclusion: The determination of prevalence and antibiotic sensitivity pattern of MRSA will help the treating clinicians for first line treatment in referral hospitals.

  13. Landslide susceptibility modeling applying machine learning methods: A case study from Longju in the Three Gorges Reservoir area, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Chao; Yin, Kunlong; Cao, Ying; Ahmed, Bayes; Li, Yuanyao; Catani, Filippo; Pourghasemi, Hamid Reza

    2018-03-01

    Landslide is a common natural hazard and responsible for extensive damage and losses in mountainous areas. In this study, Longju in the Three Gorges Reservoir area in China was taken as a case study for landslide susceptibility assessment in order to develop effective risk prevention and mitigation strategies. To begin, 202 landslides were identified, including 95 colluvial landslides and 107 rockfalls. Twelve landslide causal factor maps were prepared initially, and the relationship between these factors and each landslide type was analyzed using the information value model. Later, the unimportant factors were selected and eliminated using the information gain ratio technique. The landslide locations were randomly divided into two groups: 70% for training and 30% for verifying. Two machine learning models: the support vector machine (SVM) and artificial neural network (ANN), and a multivariate statistical model: the logistic regression (LR), were applied for landslide susceptibility modeling (LSM) for each type. The LSM index maps, obtained from combining the assessment results of the two landslide types, were classified into five levels. The performance of the LSMs was evaluated using the receiver operating characteristics curve and Friedman test. Results show that the elimination of noise-generating factors and the separated modeling of each landslide type have significantly increased the prediction accuracy. The machine learning models outperformed the multivariate statistical model and SVM model was found ideal for the case study area.

  14. Multi-Collinearity Based Model Selection for Landslide Susceptibility Mapping: A Case Study from Ulus District of Karabuk, Turkey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahin, E. K.; Colkesen, I., , Dr; Kavzoglu, T.

    2017-12-01

    Identification of localities prone to landslide areas plays an important role for emergency planning, disaster management and recovery planning. Due to its great importance for disaster management, producing accurate and up-to-date landslide susceptibility maps is essential for hazard mitigation purpose and regional planning. The main objective of the present study was to apply multi-collinearity based model selection approach for the production of a landslide susceptibility map of Ulus district of Karabuk, Turkey. It is a fact that data do not contain enough information to describe the problem under consideration when the factors are highly correlated with each other. In such cases, choosing a subset of the original features will often lead to better performance. This paper presents multi-collinearity based model selection approach to deal with the high correlation within the dataset. Two collinearity diagnostic factors (Tolerance (TOL) and the Variance Inflation Factor (VIF)) are commonly used to identify multi-collinearity. Values of VIF that exceed 10.0 and TOL values less than 1.0 are often regarded as indicating multi-collinearity. Five causative factors (slope length, curvature, plan curvature, profile curvature and topographical roughness index) were found highly correlated with each other among 15 factors available for the study area. As a result, the five correlated factors were removed from the model estimation, and performances of the models including the remaining 10 factors (aspect, drainage density, elevation, lithology, land use/land cover, NDVI, slope, sediment transport index, topographical position index and topographical wetness index) were evaluated using logistic regression. The performance of prediction model constructed with 10 factors was compared to that of 15-factor model. The prediction performance of two susceptibility maps was evaluated by overall accuracy and the area under the ROC curve (AUC) values. Results showed that overall

  15. Genetic susceptibility markers for a breast-colorectal cancer phenotype: Exploratory results from genome-wide association studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joon, Aron; Brewster, Abenaa M.; Chen, Wei V.; Eng, Cathy; Shete, Sanjay; Casey, Graham; Schumacher, Fredrick; Lin, Yi; Harrison, Tabitha A.; White, Emily; Ahsan, Habibul; Andrulis, Irene L.; Whittemore, Alice S.; Ko Win, Aung; Schmidt, Daniel F.; Kapuscinski, Miroslaw K.; Ochs-Balcom, Heather M.; Gallinger, Steven; Jenkins, Mark A.; Newcomb, Polly A.; Lindor, Noralane M.; Peters, Ulrike; Amos, Christopher I.; Lynch, Patrick M.

    2018-01-01

    Background Clustering of breast and colorectal cancer has been observed within some families and cannot be explained by chance or known high-risk mutations in major susceptibility genes. Potential shared genetic susceptibility between breast and colorectal cancer, not explained by high-penetrance genes, has been postulated. We hypothesized that yet undiscovered genetic variants predispose to a breast-colorectal cancer phenotype. Methods To identify variants associated with a breast-colorectal cancer phenotype, we analyzed genome-wide association study (GWAS) data from cases and controls that met the following criteria: cases (n = 985) were women with breast cancer who had one or more first- or second-degree relatives with colorectal cancer, men/women with colorectal cancer who had one or more first- or second-degree relatives with breast cancer, and women diagnosed with both breast and colorectal cancer. Controls (n = 1769), were unrelated, breast and colorectal cancer-free, and age- and sex- frequency-matched to cases. After imputation, 6,220,060 variants were analyzed using the discovery set and variants associated with the breast-colorectal cancer phenotype at Pcolorectal cancer phenotype in the discovery and replication data (most significant; rs7430339, Pdiscovery = 1.2E-04; rs7429100, Preplication = 2.8E-03). In meta-analysis of the discovery and replication data, the most significant association remained at rs7429100 (P = 1.84E-06). Conclusion The results of this exploratory analysis did not find clear evidence for a susceptibility locus with a pleiotropic effect on hereditary breast and colorectal cancer risk, although the suggestive association of genetic variation in the region of ROBO1, a potential tumor suppressor gene, merits further investigation. PMID:29698419

  16. Comparative studies on the biology and filarial susceptibility of selected blood-feeding and autogenous Aedes togoi sub-colonies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anuluck Junkum

    2003-06-01

    Full Text Available Blood-feeding and autogenous sub-colonies were selected from a laboratory, stock colony of Aedes togoi, which was originally collected from Koh Nom Sao, Chanthaburi province, Southeast Thailand. Comparative biology and filarial susceptibility between the two sub-colonies (blood-feeding: F11, F13; autogeny: F38, F40 were investigated to evaluate their viability and vectorial capacity. The results of comparison on biology revealed intraspecific differences, i.e., the average egg deposition/gravid female (F11/F38; F13/F40, embryonation rate (F13/F40, hatchability rate (F11/F38; F13/F40, egg width (F11/F38, wing length of females (F13/F40, and wing length and width of males (F11/F38 in the blood-feeding sub-colony were significantly greater than that in the autogenous sub-colony; and egg length (F11/F38 and width (F13/F40, and mean longevity of adult females (F11/F38 and males (F13/F40 in the blood-feeding sub-colony were significantly less than that in the autogenous sub-colony. The results of comparison on filarial susceptibility demonstrated that both sub-colonies yielded similar susceptibilities to Brugia malayi [blood-feeding/autogeny = 56.7% (F11/53.3%(F38, 60%(F13/83.3%(F40] and Dirofilaria immitis [blood-feeding/autogeny = 85.7%(F11/75%(F38, 45%(F13/29.4%(F40], suggesting autogenous Ae. togoi sub-colony was an efficient laboratory vector in study of filariasis.

  17. Antimicrobial susceptibility monitoring of respiratory tract pathogens isolated from diseased cattle and pigs across Europe: the VetPath study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Jong, Anno; Thomas, Valérie; Simjee, Shabbir; Moyaert, Hilde; El Garch, Farid; Maher, Kirsty; Morrissey, Ian; Butty, Pascal; Klein, Ulrich; Marion, Hervé; Rigaut, Delphine; Vallé, Michel

    2014-08-06

    VetPath is an ongoing pan-European antibiotic susceptibility monitoring programme collecting pathogens from diseased antimicrobial non-treated cattle, pigs and poultry. In the current study, 1001 isolates from cattle and pig respiratory tract infections were tested for their antimicrobial susceptibilities. Non-replicate lung samples or nasopharyngeal/nasal swabs were collected from animals with acute clinical signs in 11 countries during 2002-2006. Pasteurella multocida and Mannheimia haemolytica from cattle and P. multocida, Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae and Streptococcus suis from pigs were isolated by standard methods. S. suis was also isolated from meningitis cases. MICs of 16 antibiotics were assessed centrally by broth microdilution following CLSI recommendations. Results were interpreted using CLSI breakpoints where available. P. multocida (231) and M. haemolytica (138) isolates were all susceptible to amoxicillin/clavulanic acid, ceftiofur, enrofloxacin and trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole. Resistance to florfenicol and spectinomycin was 0.4% and 3.5% in P. multocida, respectively, and absent in M. haemolytica isolates. Tetracycline resistance was 5.7% and 14.6% for P. multocida and M. haemolytica. In pigs, 230 P. multocida, 220 A. pleuropneumoniae and 182 S. suis isolates were recovered. Resistance to amoxicillin/clavulanic acid, ceftiofur, enrofloxacin, florfenicol, tiamulin and tilmicosin was absent or <1%. Trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole resistance was 3-6% and tetracycline resistance varied from 14.7% in A. pleuropneumoniae to 81.8% in S. suis. In conclusion, low resistance to antibiotics with defined clinical breakpoints, except for tetracycline, was observed among the major respiratory tract pathogens recovered from cattle and pigs. Since for approximately half of the antibiotics in this panel no CLSI-defined breakpoints were available, setting of the missing veterinary breakpoints is important. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Attenuation of Foot-and-Mouth Disease Virus by Engineered Viral Polymerase Fidelity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rai, Devendra K; Diaz-San Segundo, Fayna; Campagnola, Grace; Keith, Anna; Schafer, Elizabeth A; Kloc, Anna; de Los Santos, Teresa; Peersen, Olve; Rieder, Elizabeth

    2017-08-01

    Foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV) RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (RdRp) (3D pol ) catalyzes viral RNA synthesis. Its characteristic low fidelity and absence of proofreading activity allow FMDV to rapidly mutate and adapt to dynamic environments. In this study, we used the structure of FMDV 3D pol in combination with previously reported results from similar picornaviral polymerases to design point mutations that would alter replication fidelity. In particular, we targeted Trp237 within conserved polymerase motif A because of the low reversion potential inherent in the single UGG codon. Using biochemical and genetic tools, we show that the replacement of tryptophan 237 with phenylalanine imparts higher fidelity, but replacements with isoleucine and leucine resulted in lower-fidelity phenotypes. Viruses containing these W237 substitutions show in vitro growth kinetics and plaque morphologies similar to those of the wild-type (WT) A 24 Cruzeiro strain in BHK cells, and both high- and low-fidelity variants retained fitness during coinfection with the wild-type virus. The higher-fidelity W237F (W237F HF ) mutant virus was more resistant to the mutagenic nucleoside analogs ribavirin and 5-fluorouracil than the WT virus, whereas the lower-fidelity W237I (W237I LF ) and W237L LF mutant viruses exhibited lower ribavirin resistance. Interestingly, the variant viruses showed heterogeneous and slightly delayed growth kinetics in primary porcine kidney cells, and they were significantly attenuated in mouse infection experiments. These data demonstrate, for a single virus, that either increased or decreased RdRp fidelity attenuates virus growth in animals, which is a desirable feature for the development of safer and genetically more stable vaccine candidates. IMPORTANCE Foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) is the most devastating disease affecting livestock worldwide. Here, using structural and biochemical analyses, we have identified FMDV 3D pol mutations that affect polymerase

  19. Assessing fidelity of delivery of smoking cessation behavioural support in practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lorencatto, Fabiana; West, Robert; Christopherson, Charlotte; Michie, Susan

    2013-04-04

    Effectiveness of evidence-based behaviour change interventions is likely to be undermined by failure to deliver interventions as planned. Behavioural support for smoking cessation can be a highly cost-effective, life-saving intervention. However, in practice, outcomes are highly variable. Part of this may be due to variability in fidelity of intervention implementation. To date, there have been no published studies on this. The present study aimed to: evaluate a method for assessing fidelity of behavioural support; assess fidelity of delivery in two English Stop-Smoking Services; and compare the extent of fidelity according to session types, duration, individual practitioners, and component behaviour change techniques (BCTs). Treatment manuals and transcripts of 34 audio-recorded behavioural support sessions were obtained from two Stop-Smoking Services and coded into component BCTs using a taxonomy of 43 BCTs. Inter-rater reliability was assessed using percentage agreement. Fidelity was assessed by examining the proportion of BCTs specified in the manuals that were delivered in individual sessions. This was assessed by session type (i.e., pre-quit, quit, post-quit), duration, individual practitioner, and BCT. Inter-coder reliability was high (87.1%). On average, 66% of manual-specified BCTs were delivered per session (SD 15.3, range: 35% to 90%). In Service 1, average fidelity was highest for post-quit sessions (69%) and lowest for pre-quit (58%). In Service 2, fidelity was highest for quit-day (81%) and lowest for post-quit sessions (56%). Session duration was not significantly correlated with fidelity. Individual practitioner fidelity ranged from 55% to 78%. Individual manual-specified BCTs were delivered on average 63% of the time (SD 28.5, range: 0 to 100%). The extent to which smoking cessation behavioural support is delivered as specified in treatment manuals can be reliably assessed using transcripts of audiotaped sessions. This allows the investigation of

  20. A Prospective Study of Tuberculosis Drug Susceptibility in Sabah, Malaysia, and an Algorithm for Management of Isoniazid Resistance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rashid Ali, Muhammad Redzwan S.; Parameswaran, Uma; William, Timothy; Bird, Elspeth; Wilkes, Christopher S.; Lee, Wai Khew; Yeo, Tsin Wen; Anstey, Nicholas M.; Ralph, Anna P.

    2015-01-01

    Introduction. The burden of tuberculosis is high in eastern Malaysia, and rates of Mycobacterium tuberculosis drug resistance are poorly defined. Our objectives were to determine M. tuberculosis susceptibility and document management after receipt of susceptibility results. Methods. Prospective study of adult outpatients with smear-positive pulmonary tuberculosis (PTB) in Sabah, Malaysia. Additionally, hospital clinicians accessed the reference laboratory for clinical purposes during the study. Results. 176 outpatients were enrolled; 173 provided sputum samples. Mycobacterial culture yielded M. tuberculosis in 159 (91.9%) and nontuberculous Mycobacterium (NTM) in three (1.7%). Among outpatients there were no instances of multidrug resistant M. tuberculosis (MDR-TB). Seven people (4.5%) had isoniazid resistance (INH-R); all were switched to an appropriate second-line regimen for varying durations (4.5–9 months). Median delay to commencement of the second-line regimen was 13 weeks. Among 15 inpatients with suspected TB, 2 had multidrug resistant TB (one extensively drug resistant), 2 had INH-R, and 4 had NTM. Conclusions. Current community rates of MDR-TB in Sabah are low. However, INH-resistance poses challenges, and NTM is an important differential diagnosis in this setting, where smear microscopy is the usual diagnostic modality. To address INH-R management issues in our setting, we propose an algorithm for the treatment of isoniazid-resistant PTB. PMID:25838829

  1. An ac susceptibility study in capped Ni/Ni(OH)2 core-shell nanoassemblies: dual peak observations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Godsell, Jeffrey F; Roy, Saibal; Bala, Tanushree; Ryan, Kevin M.

    2011-01-01

    In this study, the ac susceptibility (χ' and χ'') variation with temperature (10-100 K) for oleic acid (OA) capped Ni/Ni(OH) 2 core-shell nanoparticle assemblies are reported at frequencies varying from 0.1 to 1000 Hz. Nanoparticle assemblies, with two average particle diameters of ∼34 nm and ∼14 nm, were synthesized using a wet chemical synthesis approach. Two peaks in the ac susceptibility versus temperature curves are clearly discernable for each of the samples. The first, occurring at ∼22 K was attributed to the paramagnetic/antiferromagnetic transition of the Ni(OH) 2 present in the shell. The second higher temperature peak was attributed to the superparamagnetic blocking of the pure Ni situated at the core of the nanoparticles. The higher temperature peaks in both the χ' and χ'' curves were observed to increase with increasing frequency. Thus the Neel and the blocking temperatures for such core-shell nanoassemblies were clearly identified from the ac analysis, whereas they were not discernible (superimposed) even from very low dc (FC/ZFC) field measurements. Interparticle interactions within the assemblies were studied through the fitting of phenomenological laws to the experimental datasets. It is observed that even with an OA capping layer, larger Ni/Ni(OH) 2 nanoparticles experience a greater degree of sub-capping layer oxidation thus producing lower magnetic interaction strengths.

  2. High Proportions of Multidrug-Resistant Acinetobacter spp. Isolates in a District in Western India: A Four-Year Antibiotic Susceptibility Study of Clinical Isolates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ingvild Odsbu

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the study was to determine the proportions of multidrug-resistant (MDR Acinetobacter spp. isolates from the district of Nashik in Western India during the period from 2011–2014. Antibacterial susceptibility testing of isolates from inpatients and outpatients was performed using Kirby–Bauer disc diffusion method to determine inhibitory zone diameters. Proportions of non-susceptible isolates were calculated from the antibacterial susceptibility data. MDR was defined as an isolate being non-susceptible to at least one antibacterial agent in at least three antibacterial categories. The change in proportions of MDR isolates; extended-spectrum β-lactamase (ESBL-producing isolates; and non-susceptible isolates to specific antibacterial categories over calendar time was investigated by logistic regression. The proportions of MDR and ESBL-producing isolates ranged from 89.4% to 95.9% and from 87.9% to 94.0%; respectively. The proportions of non-susceptible isolates to aminoglycosides; carbapenems; antipseudomonal penicillins/β-lactamase inhibitors; cephalosporins; folate pathway inhibitors; or penicillins/β-lactamase inhibitors exceeded 77.5%. Proportions of fluoroquinolone and tetracycline non-susceptible isolates ranged from 65.3% to 83.3% and from 71.3% to 75.9%; respectively. No changes in trends were observed over time; except for a decreasing trend in fluoroquinolone non-susceptible isolates (OR = 0.75 (95% CI, 0.62–0.91. Significantly higher proportions of non-susceptible; MDR and ESBL-producing isolates were found among isolates from the respiratory system compared to isolates from all other specimen types (p < 0.05. High proportions of MDR Acinetobacter spp. isolates were observed in the period from 2011–2014. Antimicrobial stewardship programmes are needed to prevent the emergence and spread of antibiotic resistance.

  3. Biochemical characterization of enzyme fidelity of influenza A virus RNA polymerase complex.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shilpa Aggarwal

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available It is widely accepted that the highly error prone replication process of influenza A virus (IAV, together with viral genome assortment, facilitates the efficient evolutionary capacity of IAV. Therefore, it has been logically assumed that the enzyme responsible for viral RNA replication process, influenza virus type A RNA polymerase (IAV Pol, is a highly error-prone polymerase which provides the genomic mutations necessary for viral evolution and host adaptation. Importantly, however, the actual enzyme fidelity of IAV RNA polymerase has never been characterized.Here we established new biochemical assay conditions that enabled us to assess both polymerase activity with physiological NTP pools and enzyme fidelity of IAV Pol. We report that IAV Pol displays highly active RNA-dependent RNA polymerase activity at unbiased physiological NTP substrate concentrations. With this robust enzyme activity, for the first time, we were able to compare the enzyme fidelity of IAV Pol complex with that of bacterial phage T7 RNA polymerase and the reverse transcriptases (RT of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV-1 and murine leukemia virus (MuLV, which are known to be low and high fidelity enzymes, respectively. We observed that IAV Pol displayed significantly higher fidelity than HIV-1 RT and T7 RNA polymerase and equivalent or higher fidelity than MuLV RT. In addition, the IAV Pol complex showed increased fidelity at lower temperatures. Moreover, upon replacement of Mg(++ with Mn(++, IAV Pol displayed increased polymerase activity, but with significantly reduced processivity, and misincorporation was slightly elevated in the presence of Mn(++. Finally, when the IAV nucleoprotein (NP was included in the reactions, the IAV Pol complex exhibited enhanced polymerase activity with increased fidelity.Our study indicates that IAV Pol is a high fidelity enzyme. We envision that the high fidelity nature of IAV Pol may be important to counter-balance the multiple rounds of

  4. Autoimmunity and susceptibility to Hodgkin lymphoma: a population-based case-control study in Scandinavia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landgren, Ola; Engels, Eric A; Pfeiffer, Ruth M; Gridley, Gloria; Mellemkjaer, Lene; Olsen, Jørgen H; Kerstann, Kimberly F; Wheeler, William; Hemminki, Kari; Linet, Martha S; Goldin, Lynn R

    2006-09-20

    Personal history of autoimmune diseases is consistently associated with increased risk of non-Hodgkin lymphoma. In contrast, there are limited data on risk of Hodgkin lymphoma following autoimmune diseases and almost no data addressing whether there is a familial association between the conditions. Using population-based linked registry data from Sweden and Denmark, 32 separate autoimmune and related conditions were identified from hospital diagnoses in 7476 case subjects with Hodgkin lymphoma, 18,573 matched control subjects, and more than 86,000 first-degree relatives of case and control subjects. We calculated odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) as measures of relative risks for each condition using logistic regression and also applied multivariable hierarchical regression models. All P values are two-sided. We found statistically significantly increased risks of Hodgkin lymphoma associated with personal histories of several autoimmune conditions, including rheumatoid arthritis (OR = 2.7, 95% CI = 1.9 to 4.0), systemic lupus erythematosus (OR = 5.8, 95% CI = 2.2 to 15.1), sarcoidosis (OR = 14.1, 95% CI = 5.4 to 36.8), and immune thrombocytopenic purpura (OR = infinity, P = .002). A statistically significant increase in risk of Hodgkin lymphoma was associated with family histories of sarcoidosis (OR = 1.8, 95% CI = 1.01 to 3.1) and ulcerative colitis (OR = 1.6, 95% CI = 1.02 to 2.6). Personal or family history of certain autoimmune conditions was strongly associated with increased risk of Hodgkin lymphoma. The association between both personal and family histories of sarcoidosis and a statistically significantly increased risk of Hodgkin lymphoma suggests shared susceptibility for these conditions.

  5. Theory of fidelity measure in degenerate four-wave mixing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bochove, E.J.

    1983-01-01

    Phase-conjugate beam fidelity is studied in degenerate four-wave mixing with spatially varying pump beams. The analysis includes the effects of probe depletion, diffracting non-linear phase variation focussing, and finally that of losses. Relatively simple algebraic expressions are found for the phase conjugate reflectivity for the cases of collinear and near-collinear beam gemetries. It is found that by focussing the probe beam into the mixing medium, the fraction of energy in the phase conjugate beam which was transferred to other modes, may typically be reduced by one order of magnitude. (Author) [pt

  6. Multi-fidelity optimization of horizontal axis wind turbines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    McWilliam, Michael; Zahle, Frederik; Pavese, Christian

    2017-01-01

    This paper is concerned with the numerical design optimization of wind turbines. Many examples of wind turbine design optimization in literature rely on simplified analysis in some form. This may lead to sub-optimal design, because the optimizer does not see the full fidelity of the problem....... Finally, AMMF was used in full aero-elastic wind turbine rotor design optimization problem based on the DTU 10 MW reference wind turbine design. Mixed results were achieved for the final study and further work is needed to find the best configuration for AMMF....

  7. High Fidelity Raman Chemical Imaging of Materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bobba, Venkata Nagamalli Koteswara Rao

    The development of high fidelity Raman imaging systems is important for a number of application areas including material science, bio-imaging, bioscience and healthcare, pharmaceutical analysis, and semiconductor characterization. The use of Raman imaging as a characterization tool for detecting the amorphous and crystalline regions in the biopolymer poly-L-lactic acid (PLLA) is the precis of my thesis. In the first chapter, a brief insight about the basics of Raman spectroscopy, Raman chemical imaging, Raman mapping, and Raman imaging techniques has been provided. The second chapter contains details about the successful development of tailored sample of PLLA. Biodegradable polymers are used in areas of tissue engineering, agriculture, packaging, and in medical field for drug delivery, implant devices, and surgical sutures. Detailed information about the sample preparation and characterization of these cold-drawn PLLA polymer substrates has been provided. Wide-field Raman hyperspectral imaging using an acousto-optic tunable filter (AOTF) was demonstrated in the early 1990s. The AOTF contributed challenges such as image walk, distortion, and image blur. A wide-field AOTF Raman imaging system has been developed as part of my research and methods to overcome some of the challenges in performing AOTF wide-field Raman imaging are discussed in the third chapter. This imaging system has been used for studying the crystalline and amorphous regions on the cold-drawn sample of PLLA. Of all the different modalities that are available for performing Raman imaging, Raman point-mapping is the most extensively used method. The ease of obtaining the Raman hyperspectral cube dataset with a high spectral and spatial resolution is the main motive of performing this technique. As a part of my research, I have constructed a Raman point-mapping system and used it for obtaining Raman hyperspectral image data of various minerals, pharmaceuticals, and polymers. Chapter four offers

  8. Maternal geohelminth infections are associated with an increased susceptibility to geohelminth infection in children: a case-control study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raaj S Mehta

    Full Text Available Children of mothers infected with soil-transmitted helminths (STH may have an increased susceptibility to STH infection.We did a case-control study nested in a birth cohort in Ecuador. Data from 1,004 children aged 7 months to 3 years were analyzed. Cases were defined as children with Ascaris lumbricoides and/or Trichuris trichiura, controls without. Exposure was defined as maternal infection with A. lumbricoides and/or T. trichiura, detected during the third trimester of pregnancy. The analysis was restricted to households with a documented infection to control for infection risk. Children of mothers with STH infections had a greater risk of infection compared to children of uninfected mothers (adjusted OR 2.61, 95% CI: 1.88-3.63, p<0.001. This effect was particularly strong in children of mothers with both STH infections (adjusted OR: 5.91, 95% CI: 3.55-9.81, p<0.001. Newborns of infected mothers had greater levels of plasma IL-10 than those of uninfected mothers (p=0.033, and there was evidence that cord blood IL-10 was increased among newborns who became infected later in childhood (p=0.060.Our data suggest that maternal STH infections increase susceptibility to infection during early childhood, an effect that was associated with elevated IL-10 in cord plasma.

  9. Influence of Factor V Leiden on susceptibility to and outcome from critical illness: a genetic association study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Benfield, Thomas; Ejrnæs, Karen; Juul, Klaus

    2010-01-01

    ABSTRACT: INTRODUCTION: Disturbance of the pro-coagulatant and anti-coagulant balance is associated with a poor outcome from critical illness. The objective of this study is to determine whether the Factor V Leiden (FVL) mutation is associated with susceptibility to or death from critical illness....... METHODS: A genetic association study involving four case cohorts comprising two Gram negative sepsis, one invasive pneumococcal disease and one intensive care unit cohort with a total of 1,249 patients. Controls were derived from a population-based cohort study (N = 8,147). DNA from patients and controls...... not appear to increase the risk of admission due to severe invasive infections. Nevertheless, in the subgroup of patients admitted to intensive care an increased risk and a poorer long-term outcome for individuals with critical illness were observed for FVL mutation carriers....

  10. Fidelity Failures in Brief Strategic Family Therapy for Adolescent Drug Abuse: A Clinical Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lebensohn-Chialvo, Florencia; Rohrbaugh, Michael J; Hasler, Brant P

    2018-04-30

    As evidence-based family treatments for adolescent substance use and conduct problems gain traction, cutting edge research moves beyond randomized efficacy trials to address questions such as how these treatments work and how best to disseminate them to community settings. A key factor in effective dissemination is treatment fidelity, which refers to implementing an intervention in a manner consistent with an established manual. While most fidelity research is quantitative, this study offers a qualitative clinical analysis of fidelity failures in a large, multisite effectiveness trial of Brief Strategic Family Therapy (BSFT) for adolescent drug abuse, where BSFT developers trained community therapists to administer this intervention in their own agencies. Using case notes and video recordings of therapy sessions, an independent expert panel first rated 103 cases on quantitative fidelity scales grounded in the BSFT manual and the broader structural-strategic framework that informs BSFT intervention. Because fidelity was generally low, the panel reviewed all cases qualitatively to identify emergent types or categories of fidelity failure. Ten categories of failures emerged, characterized by therapist omissions (e.g., failure to engage key family members, failure to think in threes) and commissions (e.g., off-model, nonsystemic formulations/interventions). Of these, "failure to think in threes" appeared basic and particularly problematic, reflecting the central place of this idea in structural theory and therapy. Although subject to possible bias, our observations highlight likely stumbling blocks in exporting a complex family treatment like BSFT to community settings. These findings also underscore the importance of treatment fidelity in family therapy research. © 2018 Family Process Institute.

  11. Comparison of the force applied on oral structures during intubation attempts by novice physicians between the Macintosh direct laryngoscope, Airway Scope and C-MAC PM: a high-fidelity simulator-based study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakanishi, Taizo; Shiga, Takashi; Homma, Yosuke; Koyama, Yasuaki; Goto, Tadahiro

    2016-05-23

    We examined whether the use of Airway Scope (AWS) and C-MAC PM (C-MAC) decreased the force applied on oral structures during intubation attempts as compared with the force applied with the use of Macintosh direct laryngoscope (DL). Prospective cross-over study. A total of 35 novice physicians participated. We used 6 simulation scenarios based on the difficulty of intubation and intubation devices. Our primary outcome measures were the maximum force applied on the maxillary incisors and tongue during intubation attempts, measured by a high-fidelity simulator. The maximum force applied on maxillary incisors was higher with the use of the C-MAC than with the DL and AWS in the normal airway scenario (DL, 26 Newton (N); AWS, 18 N; C-MAC, 52 N; p<0.01) and the difficult airway scenario (DL, 42 N; AWS, 24 N; C-MAC, 68 N; p<0.01). In contrast, the maximum force applied on the tongue was higher with the use of the DL than with the AWS and C-MAC in both airway scenarios (DL, 16 N; AWS, 1 N; C-MAC, 7 N; p<0.01 in the normal airway scenario; DL, 12 N; AWS, 4 N; C-MAC, 7 N; p<0.01 in the difficult airway scenario). The use of C-MAC, compared with the DL and AWS, was associated with the higher maximum force applied on maxillary incisors during intubation attempts. In contrast, the use of video laryngoscopes was associated with the lower force applied on the tongue in both airway scenarios, compared with the DL. Our study was a simulation-based study, and further research on living patients would be warranted. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/

  12. High-Fidelity Roadway Modeling and Simulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jie; Papelis, Yiannis; Shen, Yuzhong; Unal, Ozhan; Cetin, Mecit

    2010-01-01

    Roads are an essential feature in our daily lives. With the advances in computing technologies, 2D and 3D road models are employed in many applications, such as computer games and virtual environments. Traditional road models were generated by professional artists manually using modeling software tools such as Maya and 3ds Max. This approach requires both highly specialized and sophisticated skills and massive manual labor. Automatic road generation based on procedural modeling can create road models using specially designed computer algorithms or procedures, reducing the tedious manual editing needed for road modeling dramatically. But most existing procedural modeling methods for road generation put emphasis on the visual effects of the generated roads, not the geometrical and architectural fidelity. This limitation seriously restricts the applicability of the generated road models. To address this problem, this paper proposes a high-fidelity roadway generation method that takes into account road design principles practiced by civil engineering professionals, and as a result, the generated roads can support not only general applications such as games and simulations in which roads are used as 3D assets, but also demanding civil engineering applications, which requires accurate geometrical models of roads. The inputs to the proposed method include road specifications, civil engineering road design rules, terrain information, and surrounding environment. Then the proposed method generates in real time 3D roads that have both high visual and geometrical fidelities. This paper discusses in details the procedures that convert 2D roads specified in shape files into 3D roads and civil engineering road design principles. The proposed method can be used in many applications that have stringent requirements on high precision 3D models, such as driving simulations and road design prototyping. Preliminary results demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed method.

  13. Measuring implementation of a school-based violence prevention program : Fidelity and teachers' responsiveness as predictors of proximal outcomes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schultes, Marie Therese; Stefanek, Elisabeth; van de Schoot, Rens; Strohmeier, Dagmar; Spiel, Christiane

    2014-01-01

    When school-based prevention programs are put into practice, evaluation studies commonly only consider one indicator of program implementation. The present study investigates how two different aspects of program implementation - fidelity and participant responsiveness - jointly influence proximal

  14. Mechanical massage and mental training programmes affect employees' anxiety, stress susceptibility and detachment-a randomised explorative pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muller, Jasmin; Handlin, Linda; Harlén, Mikael; Lindmark, Ulrika; Ekström, Anette

    2015-09-02

    Working people's reduced ability to recover has been proposed as a key factor behind the increase in stress-related health problems. One not yet evidence-based preventive method designed to help employees keep healthy and be less stressed is an armchair with built-in mechanical massage and mental training programmes, This study aimed to evaluate possible effects on employees' experience of levels of "Anxiety", "Stress Susceptibility", "Detachment" and "Social Desirability" when using mechanical massage and mental training programmes, both separately and in combination, during working hours. Employees from four different workplaces were randomly assigned to one of the following groups: i) Massage and mental training (sitting in the armchair and receiving mechanical massage while listening to the mental training programmes, n=19), ii) Massage (sitting in the armchair and receiving mechanical massage only, n=19), iii) Mental training (sitting in the armchair and listening to the mental training programmes only, n=19), iv) Pause (sitting in the armchair but not receiving mechanical massage or listening to the mental training programmes, n=19), v) Control (not sitting in the armchair at all, n=17). In order to discover how the employees felt about their own health they were asked to respond to statements from the "Swedish Scale of Personality" (SSP), immediately before the randomisation, after four weeks and after eight weeks (end-of-study). There were no significant differences between the five study groups for any of the traits studied ("Somatic Trait Anxiety", "Psychic Trait Anxiety", "Stress Susceptibility", "Detachment" and "Social Desirability") at any of the occasions. However, the massage group showed a significant decrease in the subscale "Somatic Trait Anxiety" (p=0.032), during the entire study period. Significant decreases in the same subscale were also observed in the pause group between start and week eight (p=0.040) as well as between week four and week

  15. Association study of candidate genes for susceptibility to schizophrenia and bipolar disorder on chromosome 22Q13

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Severinsen, Jacob; Binderup, Helle; Mors, Ole

    Chromosome 22q is suspected to harbor risk genes for schizophrenia as well as bipolar affective disorder. This is evidenced through genetic mapping studies, investigations of cytogenetic abnormalities, and direct examination of candidate genes. In a recent study of distantly related patients from...... the Faroe Islands we have obtained evidence suggesting two regions on chromosome 22q13 to potentially harbor susceptibility genes for both schizophrenia and bipolar affective disorder. We have selected a number of candidate genes from these two regions for further analysis, including the neuro-gene WKL1...... and unrelated controls, and in a Scottish case-control sample comprising 200 schizophrenics, 200 bipolar patients and 200 controls. None of the investigated SNPs have so far showed strong evidence of association to either bipolar disorder or schizophrenia....

  16. Chemical fidelity of an RNA polymerase ribozyme

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Attwater, J.; Tagami, S.; Kimoto, M.

    2013-01-01

    for function. Here we have explored the chemical fidelity, i.e. substrate selectivity and specificity for both single and multiple catalytic steps of the Z RNA polymerase ribozyme-a modern day analogue of the primordial RNA replicase. Using a wide range of nucleotide analogues and ionic conditions, we observe......The emergence of catalytically active RNA enzymes (ribozymes) is widely believed to have been an important transition in the origin of life. In the context of a likely heterogeneous chemical environment, substrate specificity and selectivity of these primordial enzymes would have been critical...

  17. Evaluation of a novel high-fidelity epistaxis task trainer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott, Grace M; Roth, Kathryn; Rotenberg, Brian; Sommer, Doron D; Sowerby, Leigh; Fung, Kevin

    2016-07-01

    To assess the efficacy of a novel high-fidelity epistaxis simulator in teaching epistaxis management to junior otolaryngology head and neck surgery residents. Prospective cohort study. A novel high-fidelity epistaxis task trainer was developed using a cadaver head, intravenous tubing, and a food coloring-filled saline bag to emulate blood. Learners were instructed on two techniques of nasal packing (formal nasal pack and nasal tampon) for the management of epistaxis using the task trainer. Learners were videotaped attempting to pack the nose of the task trainer pre- and postintervention (verbal instruction, and practice time with task trainer). Five board-certified otolaryngologists (blinded to pre- and postintervention status) evaluated the packing technique using standardized subjective outcome measures. There were 13 junior otolaryngology residents enrolled in the study. This cohort showed a statistically significant increase in global rating scores (P epistaxis simulator has been successful in teaching and the practical application of various skills in epistaxis management. This task trainer appears to confer an educational benefit in technical skills acquisition in novice learners. Further studies are needed to determine long-term skill retention. Simulation is a promising educational adjunct that effectively enhances epistaxis management skills acquisition while maximizing patient safety. NA. Laryngoscope, 126:1501-1503, 2016. © 2015 The American Laryngological, Rhinological and Otological Society, Inc.

  18. A high-throughput assay for the comprehensive profiling of DNA ligase fidelity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lohman, Gregory J S; Bauer, Robert J; Nichols, Nicole M; Mazzola, Laurie; Bybee, Joanna; Rivizzigno, Danielle; Cantin, Elizabeth; Evans, Thomas C

    2016-01-29

    DNA ligases have broad application in molecular biology, from traditional cloning methods to modern synthetic biology and molecular diagnostics protocols. Ligation-based detection of polynucleotide sequences can be achieved by the ligation of probe oligonucleotides when annealed to a complementary target sequence. In order to achieve a high sensitivity and low background, the ligase must efficiently join correctly base-paired substrates, while discriminating against the ligation of substrates containing even one mismatched base pair. In the current study, we report the use of capillary electrophoresis to rapidly generate mismatch fidelity profiles that interrogate all 256 possible base-pair combinations at a ligation junction in a single experiment. Rapid screening of ligase fidelity in a 96-well plate format has allowed the study of ligase fidelity in unprecedented depth. As an example of this new method, herein we report the ligation fidelity of Thermus thermophilus DNA ligase at a range of temperatures, buffer pH and monovalent cation strength. This screen allows the selection of reaction conditions that maximize fidelity without sacrificing activity, while generating a profile of specific mismatches that ligate detectably under each set of conditions. © The Author(s) 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Nucleic Acids Research.

  19. Challenges of maintaining research protocol fidelity in a clinical care setting: A qualitative study of the experiences and views of patients and staff participating in a randomized controlled trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farmer Andrew J

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Trial research has predominantly focused on patient and staff understandings of trial concepts and/or motivations for taking part, rather than why treatment recommendations may or may not be followed during trial delivery. This study sought to understand why there was limited attainment of the glycaemic target (HbA1c ≤6.5% among patients who participated in the Treating to Target in Type 2 Diabetes Trial (4-T. The objective was to inform interpretation of trial outcomes and provide recommendations for future trial delivery. Methods In-depth interviews were conducted with 45 patients and 21 health professionals recruited from 11 of 58 trial centres in the UK. Patients were broadly representative of those in the main trial in terms of treatment allocation, demographics and glycaemic control. Both physicians and research nurses were interviewed. Results Most patients were committed to taking insulin as recommended by 4-T staff. To avoid hypoglycaemia, patients occasionally altered or skipped insulin doses, normally in consultation with staff. Patients were usually unaware of the trial's glycaemic target. Positive staff feedback could lead patients to believe they had been 'successful' trial participants even when their HbA1c exceeded 6.5%. While some staff felt that the 4-T automated insulin dose adjustment algorithm had increased their confidence to prescribe larger insulin doses than in routine clinical practice, all described situations where they had not followed its recommendations. Staff regarded the application of a 'one size fits all' glycaemic target during the trial as contradicting routine clinical practice where they would tailor treatments to individuals. Staff also expressed concerns that 'tight' glycaemic control might impose an unacceptably high risk of hypoglycaemia, thus compromising trust and safety, especially amongst older patients. To address these concerns, staff tended to adapt the trial protocol to

  20. AC susceptibility, XRD and DSC studies of Sm1-xGdxMn2Si2 silicides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kervan, S.; Kilic, A.; Gencer, A.

    2004-01-01

    X-ray powder diffraction, AC susceptibility and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) studies were performed on the polycrystalline Sm 1-x Gd x Mn 2 Si 2 (0≤x≤1) compounds. All compounds investigated crystallize in the body-centered tetragonal ThCr 2 Si 2 -type structure with the space group I4/mmm. Substitution of Gd for Sm leads to a linear decrease of the lattice constants and the unit cell volume. The lattice constants and the unit cell volume obey Vegard's law. At low temperatures, the rare earth sublattice orders and reconfigures the ordering in the Mn sublattice. The samples with x=0.6 and 0.8 exhibit spin reorientation phenomenon. The Neel temperature T N (Mn) determined by DSC technique and the Curie temperature T C (RE) increase linearly with increasing Gd content x. The results are summarized in the x-T magnetic phase diagram

  1. Magnetic relaxation phenomena in the chiral magnet Fe1 -xCoxSi : An ac susceptibility study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bannenberg, L. J.; Lefering, A. J. E.; Kakurai, K.; Onose, Y.; Endoh, Y.; Tokura, Y.; Pappas, C.

    2016-10-01

    We present a systematic study of the ac susceptibility of the chiral magnet Fe1 -xCoxSi with x =0.30 covering four orders of magnitude in frequencies from 0.1 Hz to 1 kHz, with particular emphasis to the pronounced history dependence. Characteristic relaxation times ranging from a few milliseconds to tens of seconds are observed around the skyrmion lattice A phase, the helical-to-conical transition and in a region above TC. The distribution of relaxation frequencies around the A phase is broad, asymmetric, and originates from multiple coexisting relaxation processes. The pronounced dependence of the magnetic phase diagram on the magnetic history and cooling rates as well as the asymmetric frequency dependence and slow dynamics suggest more complicated physical phenomena in Fe0.7Co0.3Si than in other chiral magnets.

  2. Comparative study of landslides susceptibility mapping methods: Multi-Criteria Decision Making (MCDM) and Artificial Neural Network (ANN)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salleh, S. A.; Rahman, A. S. A. Abd; Othman, A. N.; Mohd, W. M. N. Wan

    2018-02-01

    As different approach produces different results, it is crucial to determine the methods that are accurate in order to perform analysis towards the event. This research aim is to compare the Rank Reciprocal (MCDM) and Artificial Neural Network (ANN) analysis techniques in determining susceptible zones of landslide hazard. The study is based on data obtained from various sources such as local authority; Dewan Bandaraya Kuala Lumpur (DBKL), Jabatan Kerja Raya (JKR) and other agencies. The data were analysed and processed using Arc GIS. The results were compared by quantifying the risk ranking and area differential. It was also compared with the zonation map classified by DBKL. The results suggested that ANN method gives better accuracy compared to MCDM with 18.18% higher accuracy assessment of the MCDM approach. This indicated that ANN provides more reliable results and it is probably due to its ability to learn from the environment thus portraying realistic and accurate result.

  3. The -938C>A Polymorphism in MYD88 Is Associated with Susceptibility to Tuberculosis: A Pilot Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kalliopi Aggelou

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Tuberculosis (TB is a major disease worldwide, caused by Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB infection. The Toll-Like Receptor (TLR pathway plays a crucial role in the recognition of MTB. Aim. The present study aimed to investigate the involvement of myeloid differentiation primary response protein 88 (MYD88 gene polymorphisms in TB. Materials and Methods. A total of 103 TB cases and 92 control subjects were genotyped for the MYD88 -938C>A (rs4988453 and 1944C>G (rs4988457 polymorphisms. Results. The MYD88 -938CA and -938AA genotypes were associated with an increased risk for tuberculosis with odds ratio (OR of 5.71 (95% confidence intervals [CIs] 2.89–11.28, p=0.01. Conclusions. The MYD88 -938C>A genetic polymorphism is associated with increased susceptibility to TB and may serve as a marker to screen individuals who are at risk.

  4. Radiometric studies on the oxidation of (I-14C) fatty acids by drug-susceptible and drug-resistant mycobacteria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Camargo, E.E.; Kopajtic, T.M.; Hopkins, G.K.; Cannon, N.P.; Wagner Junior, H.N.

    1987-01-01

    A radiometric assay system has been used to study oxidation patterns of (l - 14 C) fatty acids by drug-susceptible and drug-resistant organisms of the genus Mycobacterium (M. tuberculosis - H 37 Rv and Erdman, M. bovis, M. avium, M. intracellulare, M.Kansasii and M. chelonei). The organisms were inoculated in sterile reaction vials containing liquid 7H9 medium, 10% ADC enrichment and 1.0 uli of one of the (l- 14 C) fatty acids (butyric, hexanoic, octanoic, decanoic, lauric, myristic, palmitic, stearic, oleic, linoleic, linolenic). Vials were incubated at 37 0 C and the 14 CO 2 envolved was measured daily for 3 days with a Bactec R-301 instrument. (M.A.C.) [pt

  5. Air pollution increases forest susceptibility to wildfires: a case study for the San Bernardino Mountains in southern California

    Science.gov (United States)

    N.E. Grulke; R.A. Minnich; T. Paine; P. Riggan

    2010-01-01

    Many factors increase susceptibility of forests to wildfire. Among them are increases in human population, changes in land use, fire suppression, and frequent droughts. These factors have been exacerbating forest susceptibility to wildfires over the last century in southern California. Here we report on the significant role that air pollution has on increasing forest...

  6. How Fidelity invests in service professionals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McColgan, E A

    1997-01-01

    If you're in the business of service delivery, investment in the training and development of your staff is one of the keys to your company's success. But what's the best way to design and implement your investment? In 1994, Fidelity Institutional Retirement Services Company (FIRSCo) needed to ensure that its rapidly expanding staff maintained the company's high levels of customer satisfaction. The solution, according to Ellyn McColgan, formerly an executive vice president of FIRSCo and now the president of Fidelity Investments Tax-Exempt Services Company, was to reach out to its service associates with a powerful new model for training and development called Service Delivery University. SDU is a virtual university with a content-based core curriculum and five colleges that focus on business concepts and skills. It is driven by three principles. First, all training must be directly aligned with the company's strategic and financial objectives and focused on customer needs. Second, service delivery is a profession and should be taught as such. And finally, professional development should be the primary responsibility of line managers rather than the human resources department. McColgan explains how FIRSCo overcame resistance to this sweeping change in employee education. (Time was one obstacle: each associate receives 80 hours of training per year.) In addition, the author discusses the fine art of measuring the success of a program like SDU. She finds that the company's investment has paid dividends to the staff, to the organization as a whole, and to FIRSCo's customers.

  7. Fidelity Witnesses for Fermionic Quantum Simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gluza, M.; Kliesch, M.; Eisert, J.; Aolita, L.

    2018-05-01

    The experimental interest and developments in quantum spin-1 /2 chains has increased uninterruptedly over the past decade. In many instances, the target quantum simulation belongs to the broader class of noninteracting fermionic models, constituting an important benchmark. In spite of this class being analytically efficiently tractable, no direct certification tool has yet been reported for it. In fact, in experiments, certification has almost exclusively relied on notions of quantum state tomography scaling very unfavorably with the system size. Here, we develop experimentally friendly fidelity witnesses for all pure fermionic Gaussian target states. Their expectation value yields a tight lower bound to the fidelity and can be measured efficiently. We derive witnesses in full generality in the Majorana-fermion representation and apply them to experimentally relevant spin-1 /2 chains. Among others, we show how to efficiently certify strongly out-of-equilibrium dynamics in critical Ising chains. At the heart of the measurement scheme is a variant of importance sampling specially tailored to overlaps between covariance matrices. The method is shown to be robust against finite experimental-state infidelities.

  8. Ozone exposure, vitamin C intake, and genetic susceptibility of asthmatic children in Mexico City: a cohort study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moreno-Macías Hortensia

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background We previously reported that asthmatic children with GSTM1 null genotype may be more susceptible to the acute effect of ozone on the small airways and might benefit from antioxidant supplementation. This study aims to assess the acute effect of ozone on lung function (FEF25-75 in asthmatic children according to dietary intake of vitamin C and the number of putative risk alleles in three antioxidant genes: GSTM1, GSTP1 (rs1695, and NQO1 (rs1800566. Methods 257 asthmatic children from two cohort studies conducted in Mexico City were included. Stratified linear mixed models with random intercepts and random slopes on ozone were used. Potential confounding by ethnicity was assessed. Analyses were conducted under single gene and genotype score approaches. Results The change in FEF25-75 per interquartile range (60 ppb of ozone in persistent asthmatic children with low vitamin C intake and GSTM1 null was −91.2 ml/s (p = 0.06. Persistent asthmatic children with 4 to 6 risk alleles and low vitamin C intake showed an average decrement in FEF25-75 of 97.2 ml/s per 60 ppb of ozone (p = 0.03. In contrast in children with 1 to 3 risk alleles, acute effects of ozone on FEF25-75 did not differ by vitamin C intake. Conclusions Our results provide further evidence that asthmatic children predicted to have compromised antioxidant defense by virtue of genetic susceptibility combined with deficient antioxidant intake may be at increased risk of adverse effects of ozone on pulmonary function.

  9. Antimicrobial susceptibility profile, treatment outcome and serotype distribution of clinical isolates of Salmonella enterica subspecies enterica: a 2-year study from Kerala, South India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harichandran D

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Deepa Harichandran, Kavitha Radhakrishnan Dinesh Department of Microbiology, Amrita School of Medicine, Amrita Institute of Medical Sciences and Research Centre, Amrita Vishwa Vidyapeetham University, Kochi, Kerala, India Background/purpose: Typhoid and paratyphoid fever continue to be important causes of illness and death in parts of Asia, being associated with poor sanitation and consumption of unsafe food and water. Antimicrobial resistance has emerged to traditional first-line drugs, namely, the fluoroquinolones, as well as to third-generation cephalosporins, posing challenges to treatment. Azithromycin has proven to be an effective alternative for treatment of uncomplicated typhoid fever. The purpose of this study was to determine the antimicrobial susceptibility, clinical outcome and serotype distribution pattern of clinical isolates belonging to Salmonella enterica subspecies enterica. Methodology: All clinical isolates of S. enterica obtained from blood, sterile body fluids, as well as stool and urine samples at Amrita Institute of Medical Sciences and Research Centre, Kerala, India, between August 2011 and July 2013 were included in the study and processed based on standard microbiology protocols. Results: A total of 118 isolates of Salmonella were obtained during the study period. Out of these, 79 were of S. Typhi (66.95%, followed by isolates of S. Paratyphi A (22; 18.64% and S. Typhimurium 12 (10.17%. Five isolates could not be identified further. There was 100% susceptibility to ceftriaxone in all S. enterica subspecies. Ciprofloxacin susceptibility was 32.91% for S. Typhi and 40.90% for S. Paratyphi A as determined by the disk diffusion method. The susceptibility profile of S. Typhi isolates to different antimicrobials was as follows: chloramphenicol (94.93%, ampicillin (77.21%, cotrimoxazole (75.94% and azithromycin (78.48%. For S. Typhi, the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC of ciprofloxacin required to inhibit the growth

  10. Effect of laser pulse shaping parameters on the fidelity of quantum logic gates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaari, Ryan R; Brown, Alex

    2012-09-14

    The effect of varying parameters specific to laser pulse shaping instruments on resulting fidelities for the ACNOT(1), NOT(2), and Hadamard(2) quantum logic gates are studied for the diatomic molecule (12)C(16)O. These parameters include varying the frequency resolution, adjusting the number of frequency components and also varying the amplitude and phase at each frequency component. A time domain analytic form of the original discretized frequency domain laser pulse function is derived, providing a useful means to infer the resulting pulse shape through variations to the aforementioned parameters. We show that amplitude variation at each frequency component is a crucial requirement for optimal laser pulse shaping, whereas phase variation provides minimal contribution. We also show that high fidelity laser pulses are dependent upon the frequency resolution and increasing the number of frequency components provides only a small incremental improvement to quantum gate fidelity. Analysis through use of the pulse area theorem confirms the resulting population dynamics for one or two frequency high fidelity laser pulses and implies similar dynamics for more complex laser pulse shapes. The ability to produce high fidelity laser pulses that provide both population control and global phase alignment is attributed greatly to the natural evolution phase alignment of the qubits involved within the quantum logic gate operation.

  11. Variable Fidelity Aeroelastic Toolkit - Structural Model, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The proposed innovation is a methodology to incorporate variable fidelity structural models into steady and unsteady aeroelastic and aeroservoelastic analyses in...

  12. Technical Basis for Physical Fidelity of NRC Control Room Training Simulators for Advanced Reactors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Minsk, Brian S.; Branch, Kristi M.; Bates, Edward K.; Mitchell, Mark R.; Gore, Bryan F.; Faris, Drury K.

    2009-10-09

    The objective of this study is to determine how simulator physical fidelity influences the effectiveness of training the regulatory personnel responsible for examination and oversight of operating personnel and inspection of technical systems at nuclear power reactors. It seeks to contribute to the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission’s (NRC’s) understanding of the physical fidelity requirements of training simulators. The goal of the study is to provide an analytic framework, data, and analyses that inform NRC decisions about the physical fidelity requirements of the simulators it will need to train its staff for assignment at advanced reactors. These staff are expected to come from increasingly diverse educational and experiential backgrounds.

  13. Generalized Hofmann quantum process fidelity bounds for quantum filters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sedlák, Michal; Fiurášek, Jaromír

    2016-04-01

    We propose and investigate bounds on the quantum process fidelity of quantum filters, i.e., probabilistic quantum operations represented by a single Kraus operator K . These bounds generalize the Hofmann bounds on the quantum process fidelity of unitary operations [H. F. Hofmann, Phys. Rev. Lett. 94, 160504 (2005), 10.1103/PhysRevLett.94.160504] and are based on probing the quantum filter with pure states forming two mutually unbiased bases. Determination of these bounds therefore requires far fewer measurements than full quantum process tomography. We find that it is particularly suitable to construct one of the probe bases from the right eigenstates of K , because in this case the bounds are tight in the sense that if the actual filter coincides with the ideal one, then both the lower and the upper bounds are equal to 1. We theoretically investigate the application of these bounds to a two-qubit optical quantum filter formed by the interference of two photons on a partially polarizing beam splitter. For an experimentally convenient choice of factorized input states and measurements we study the tightness of the bounds. We show that more stringent bounds can be obtained by more sophisticated processing of the data using convex optimization and we compare our methods for different choices of the input probe states.

  14. Bipartite fidelity and Loschmidt echo of the bosonic conformal interface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Tianci; Lin, Mao

    2017-12-01

    We study the quantum quench problem for a class of bosonic conformal interfaces by computing the Loschmidt echo and the bipartite fidelity. The quench can be viewed as a sudden change of boundary conditions parametrized by θ when connecting two one-dimensional critical systems. They are classified by S (θ ) matrices associated with the current scattering processes on the interface. The resulting Loschmidt echo of the quench has long time algebraic decay t-α, whose exponent also appears in the finite size bipartite fidelity as L-α/2. We perform analytic and numerical calculations of the exponent α , and find that it has a quadratic dependence on the change of θ if the prior and post-quench boundary conditions are of the same type of S , while remaining 1/4 otherwise. Possible physical realizations of these interfaces include, for instance, connecting different quantum wires (Luttinger liquids), quench of the topological phase edge states, etc., and the exponent can be detected in an x-ray edge singularity-type experiment.

  15. Patterns of communication in high-fidelity simulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Judy K; Nelson, Kimberly

    2015-01-01

    High-fidelity simulation is commonplace in nursing education. However, critical thinking, decision making, and psychomotor skills scenarios are emphasized. Scenarios involving communication occur in interprofessional or intraprofessional settings. The importance of effective nurse-patient communication is reflected in statements from the American Nurses Association and Quality and Safety Education for Nurses, and in the graduate outcomes of most nursing programs. This qualitative study examined the patterns of communication observed in video recordings of a medical-surgical scenario with 71 senior students in a baccalaureate program. Thematic analysis revealed patterns of (a) focusing on tasks, (b) communicating-in-action, and (c) being therapeutic. Additional categories under the patterns included missing opportunities, viewing the "small picture," relying on informing, speaking in "medical tongues," offering choices…okay?, feeling uncomfortable, and using therapeutic techniques. The findings suggest the importance of using high-fidelity simulation to develop expertise in communication. In addition, the findings reinforce the recommendation to prioritize communication aspects of scenarios and debriefing for all simulations. Copyright 2015, SLACK Incorporated.

  16. Importance of debriefing in high-fidelity simulations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Igor Karnjuš

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Debriefing has been identified as one of the most important parts of a high-fidelity simulation learning process. During debriefing, the mentor invites learners to critically assess the knowledge and skills used during the execution of a scenario. Regardless of the abundance of studies that have examined simulation-based education, debriefing is still poorly defined.The present article examines the essential features of debriefing, its phases, techniques and methods with a systematic review of recent publications. It emphasizes the mentor’s role, since the effectiveness of debriefing largely depends on the mentor’s skills to conduct it. The guidelines that allow the mentor to evaluate his performance in conducting debriefing are also presented. We underline the importance of debriefing in clinical settings as part of continuous learning process. Debriefing allows the medical teams to assess their performance and develop new strategies to achieve higher competencies.Although the debriefing is the cornerstone of high-fidelity simulation learning process, it also represents an important learning strategy in the clinical setting. Many important aspects of debriefing are still poorly explored and understood, therefore this part of the learning process should be given greater attention in the future.

  17. Multi-Fidelity Uncertainty Propagation for Cardiovascular Modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fleeter, Casey; Geraci, Gianluca; Schiavazzi, Daniele; Kahn, Andrew; Marsden, Alison

    2017-11-01

    Hemodynamic models are successfully employed in the diagnosis and treatment of cardiovascular disease with increasing frequency. However, their widespread adoption is hindered by our inability to account for uncertainty stemming from multiple sources, including boundary conditions, vessel material properties, and model geometry. In this study, we propose a stochastic framework which leverages three cardiovascular model fidelities: 3D, 1D and 0D models. 3D models are generated from patient-specific medical imaging (CT and MRI) of aortic and coronary anatomies using the SimVascular open-source platform, with fluid structure interaction simulations and Windkessel boundary conditions. 1D models consist of a simplified geometry automatically extracted from the 3D model, while 0D models are obtained from equivalent circuit representations of blood flow in deformable vessels. Multi-level and multi-fidelity estimators from Sandia's open-source DAKOTA toolkit are leveraged to reduce the variance in our estimated output quantities of interest while maintaining a reasonable computational cost. The performance of these estimators in terms of computational cost reductions is investigated for a variety of output quantities of interest, including global and local hemodynamic indicators. Sandia National Labs is a multimission laboratory managed and operated by NTESS, LLC, for the U.S. DOE under contract DE-NA0003525. Funding for this project provided by NIH-NIBIB R01 EB018302.

  18. High Fidelity Simulation of Primary Atomization in Diesel Engine Sprays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivey, Christopher; Bravo, Luis; Kim, Dokyun

    2014-11-01

    A high-fidelity numerical simulation of jet breakup and spray formation from a complex diesel fuel injector at ambient conditions has been performed. A full understanding of the primary atomization process in fuel injection of diesel has not been achieved for several reasons including the difficulties accessing the optically dense region. Due to the recent advances in numerical methods and computing resources, high fidelity simulations of atomizing flows are becoming available to provide new insights of the process. In the present study, an unstructured un-split Volume-of-Fluid (VoF) method coupled to a stochastic Lagrangian spray model is employed to simulate the atomization process. A common rail fuel injector is simulated by using a nozzle geometry available through the Engine Combustion Network. The working conditions correspond to a single orifice (90 μm) JP-8 fueled injector operating at an injection pressure of 90 bar, ambient condition at 29 bar, 300 K filled with 100% nitrogen with Rel = 16,071, Wel = 75,334 setting the spray in the full atomization mode. The experimental dataset from Army Research Lab is used for validation in terms of spray global parameters and local droplet distributions. The quantitative comparison will be presented and discussed. Supported by Oak Ridge Associated Universities and the Army Research Laboratory.

  19. Genetic variants associated with susceptibility to idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis in people of European ancestry: a genome-wide association study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, Richard J; Porte, Joanne; Braybrooke, Rebecca; Flores, Carlos; Fingerlin, Tasha E; Oldham, Justin M; Guillen-Guio, Beatriz; Ma, Shwu-Fan; Okamoto, Tsukasa; John, Alison E; Obeidat, Ma'en; Yang, Ivana V; Henry, Amanda; Hubbard, Richard B; Navaratnam, Vidya; Saini, Gauri; Thompson, Norma; Booth, Helen L; Hart, Simon P; Hill, Mike R; Hirani, Nik; Maher, Toby M; McAnulty, Robin J; Millar, Ann B; Molyneaux, Philip L; Parfrey, Helen; Rassl, Doris M; Whyte, Moira K B; Fahy, William A; Marshall, Richard P; Oballa, Eunice; Bossé, Yohan; Nickle, David C; Sin, Don D; Timens, Wim; Shrine, Nick; Sayers, Ian; Hall, Ian P; Noth, Imre; Schwartz, David A; Tobin, Martin D; Wain, Louise V; Jenkins, R Gisli

    2017-11-01

    Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) is a chronic progressive lung disease with high mortality, uncertain cause, and few treatment options. Studies have identified a significant genetic risk associated with the development of IPF; however, mechanisms by which genetic risk factors promote IPF remain unclear. We aimed to identify genetic variants associated with IPF susceptibility and provide mechanistic insight using gene and protein expression analyses. We used a two-stage approach: a genome-wide association study in patients with IPF of European ancestry recruited from nine different centres in the UK and controls selected from UK Biobank (stage 1) matched for age, sex, and smoking status; and a follow-up of associated genetic variants in independent datasets of patients with IPF and controls from two independent US samples from the Chicago consortium and the Colorado consortium (stage 2). We investigated the effect of novel signals on gene expression in large transcriptomic and genomic data resources, and examined expression using lung tissue samples from patients with IPF and controls. 602 patients with IPF and 3366 controls were selected for stage 1. For stage 2, 2158 patients with IPF and 5195 controls were selected. We identified a novel genome-wide significant signal of association with IPF susceptibility near A-kinase anchoring protein 13 (AKAP13; rs62025270, odds ratio [OR] 1·27 [95% CI 1·18-1·37], p=1·32 × 10 -9 ) and confirmed previously reported signals, including in mucin 5B (MUC5B; rs35705950, OR 2·89 [2·56-3·26], p=1·12 × 10 -66 ) and desmoplakin (DSP; rs2076295, OR 1·44 [1·35-1·54], p=7·81 × 10 -28 ). For rs62025270, the allele A associated with increased susceptibility to IPF was also associated with increased expression of AKAP13 mRNA in lung tissue from patients who had lung resection procedures (n=1111). We showed that AKAP13 is expressed in the alveolar epithelium and lymphoid follicles from patients with IPF, and AKAP

  20. A Combination of Geographically Weighted Regression, Particle Swarm Optimization and Support Vector Machine for Landslide Susceptibility Mapping: A Case Study at Wanzhou in the Three Gorges Area, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xianyu Yu

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available In this study, a novel coupling model for landslide susceptibility mapping is presented. In practice, environmental factors may have different impacts at a local scale in study areas. To provide better predictions, a geographically weighted regression (GWR technique is firstly used in our method to segment study areas into a series of prediction regions with appropriate sizes. Meanwhile, a support vector machine (SVM classifier is exploited in each prediction region for landslide susceptibility mapping. To further improve the prediction performance, the particle swarm optimization (PSO algorithm is used in the prediction regions to obtain optimal parameters for the SVM classifier. To evaluate the prediction performance of our model, several SVM-based prediction models are utilized for comparison on a study area of the Wanzhou district in the Three Gorges Reservoir. Experimental results, based on three objective quantitative measures and visual qualitative evaluation, indicate that our model can achieve better prediction accuracies and is more effective for landslide susceptibility mapping. For instance, our model can achieve an overall prediction accuracy of 91.10%, which is 7.8%–19.1% higher than the traditional SVM-based models. In addition, the obtained landslide susceptibility map by our model can demonstrate an intensive correlation between the classified very high-susceptibility zone and the previously investigated landslides.

  1. A Combination of Geographically Weighted Regression, Particle Swarm Optimization and Support Vector Machine for Landslide Susceptibility Mapping: A Case Study at Wanzhou in the Three Gorges Area, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Xianyu; Wang, Yi; Niu, Ruiqing; Hu, Youjian

    2016-05-11

    In this study, a novel coupling model for landslide susceptibility mapping is presented. In practice, environmental factors may have different impacts at a local scale in study areas. To provide better predictions, a geographically weighted regression (GWR) technique is firstly used in our method to segment study areas into a series of prediction regions with appropriate sizes. Meanwhile, a support vector machine (SVM) classifier is exploited in each prediction region for landslide susceptibility mapping. To further improve the prediction performance, the particle swarm optimization (PSO) algorithm is used in the prediction regions to obtain optimal parameters for the SVM classifier. To evaluate the prediction performance of our model, several SVM-based prediction models are utilized for comparison on a study area of the Wanzhou district in the Three Gorges Reservoir. Experimental results, based on three objective quantitative measures and visual qualitative evaluation, indicate that our model can achieve better prediction accuracies and is more effective for landslide susceptibility mapping. For instance, our model can achieve an overall prediction accuracy of 91.10%, which is 7.8%-19.1% higher than the traditional SVM-based models. In addition, the obtained landslide susceptibility map by our model can demonstrate an intensive correlation between the classified very high-susceptibility zone and the previously investigated landslides.

  2. Cellular Scanning Strategy for Selective Laser Melting: Capturing Thermal Trends with a Low-Fidelity, Pseudo-Analytical Model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mohanty, Sankhya; Hattel, Jesper Henri

    2014-01-01

    Simulations of additivemanufacturing processes are known to be computationally expensive.The resulting large runtimes prohibit their application in secondary analysis requiring several complete simulations such as optimization studies, and sensitivity analysis. In this paper, a low-fidelity pseud...

  3. Alcohol Metabolizing Gene Polymorphisms as Genetic Biomarkers of Alcoholic Liver Disease Susceptibility and Severity: A Northeast India Patient Based Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tarun K. Basumatary

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: Excessive alcohol consumption is associated with genetic predisposition to Alcoholic Liver Disease (ALD, but there is very limited data on both molecular and genetic aspects of ALD among the Northeast Indian (NEI population. Aim and Objectives: Screening the role of genetic alterations in alcohol metabolizing pathway genes in the pathogenesis of ALD which is prevalent in the ethnically NEI population. Material and Methods: Whole blood was collected from ALD patients (n=150 [alcoholic chronic liver disease (CLD, n=110 and alcoholic cirrhosis (Cirr/cirrhosis, n=40], Alcoholic Without Liver Disease (AWLD, n=93 and healthy controls (HC/controls, n=274 with informed consents along with Fibroscan based liver stiffness measurement (LSM score and clinical data. Alcohol Dehydrogenase 2 (ADH2 and Aldehyde Dehydrogenase 2 (ALDH2 genotyping was studied by Polymerase Chain Reaction with Confronting Two Pair Primers (PCR-CTPP; and Alcohol Dehydrogenase 3 (ADH3 by Polymerase Chain Reaction-Restriction Fragment Length Polymorphism (PCR-RFLP method. Results:ADH2*2 genotype was predominant and associated with increased risk of cirrhosis compared to healthy controls, AWLD and CLD cases; and CLD compared to AWLD cases. ADH3*1 genotype was associated with significantly increased risk of cirrhosis compared to healthy controls, AWLD and CLD cases (p<0.001. Variant ALDH2 genotype was rare and analysis of the joint effects of genotypes showed that higher variant genotype resulted increased risk of CLD and cirrhosis compared to AWLD, and cirrhosis compared to CLD; thereby confirming the association of the polymorphisms in key alcohol metabolizing genes in the predisposition to ALD susceptibility and severity. Presence of variant ADH2, ADH3 and ALDH2 genotypes correlated with higher LSM scores in ALD. Conclusion: Alterations in the alcohol metabolizing genes are critically associated with ALD susceptibility and severity.

  4. Synthesis and magnetic hyperthermia studies on high susceptible Fe1-xMgxFe2O4 superparamagnetic nanospheres

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manohar, A.; Krishnamoorthi, C.

    2017-12-01

    Majority studies on magnetic hyperthermia properties were carried out by modifying the saturation mass magnetization (Ms) of the samples. Here efforts were made to enhance the specific heat generation rate (SHGR) of single domain superparamagnetic (SP) material by modifying its magnetic susceptibility. Well crystallined, inverse spinel structured and close to monosize Fe1-xMgxFe2O4 (x = 0, 0.1, 0.2, 0.3, 0.4, & 0.5) compounds with nanosphere geometry (diameter 10 nm) were synthesized by solvothermal reflux method at ≈ 300 °C . In the literature it is reported that magnesium ferrites synthesized at high temperatures yield mixed (normal & inverse) spinel structures. The inverse spinel structure was confirmed by X-ray powder diffraction (XRPD), lattice vibrations and magnetic characteristics of the compounds. The Ms of the compounds decrease with increase of substituent Mg2+ concentration. Under high excitation energy the inter-valance charge transfer whereas under low excitation energy the intra-valance charge transfer process were predominant. The as-synthesized nanospheres were encapsulated by hydrophobic oleic acid and were exchanged by hydrophilic poly(acrylic acid) by chemical exchange process. Estimated magnetic hyperthermia power or SHGR of the x = 0, 0.3 & 0.5 were 11, 11.4 & 22.4 W per gram of respective compounds, respectively, under 63.4 kA m-1 field amplitude and 126 kHz frequency. The SHGR enhances with Mg2+ concentration though its Ms reduces and is attributed to reduced spin-orbital coupling in the compounds with enhanced Mg2+ concentration. This may pave a new way to develop magnetic hyperthermia material by modifying magnetic susceptibility of the compounds against to the reported Ms modification approach. The obtained high SHGR of the biocompatible compounds could be used in magnetic hyperthermia applications in biomedical field.

  5. Studies on the susceptibility of ostriches (Struthio camelus to the Indonesian velogenic strain of Newcastle disease virus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Darminto

    1998-12-01

    Full Text Available Susceptibility of ostriches (Struthio camelus to the Indonesian velogenic strain of Newcastle disease virus (NDV was evaluated by artificial infection . Twelve - 5 to 6 week old ostriches were divided into 3 groups each containing 4 birds . The first group was inoculated through respiratory system by dropping directly the virus solution into the nostrils, while the second group was inoculated through digestive system by dropping directly the virus solution into the oesophagus, with the dose of infection 106ELDSo (50%-embryo lethal dose per bird . Meanwhile, the third group was treated as uninfected control . All infected birds developed antibody responses, but only two inoculated birds from the first group and two inoculated birds from the second group developed clinical signs of Newcastle disease (ND, with no specific pathological alterations . Infected birds, either sicks or healthy, excreted the challenge viruses through the respiratory system and still be detected up to the end of this experiment, ie . 15 days post-inoculation . The challenge viruses can be re-isolated from the brain, trachea, lungs, heart, liver, spleen, kidneys, small intestine, cecal-tonsil, and proventriculus of the infected birds . This study concludes that: (1 the ostriches are susceptible to the infection of the Indonesian velogenic strain ofNDV; (2 all infected birds developed immune responses, but only half of them develops el jtigi aj i disease ; (3 the infected birds excreted the challenge viruses for a considerable long time which may play role as the Mginiseti.ce ofinfectron the other healthy ostriches ; and (4 the challenge viruses can be re-isolated from various organs of the birds . .

  6. Landslide susceptibility assessment by using a neuro-fuzzy model: a case study in the Rupestrian heritage rich area of Matera

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sdao, F.; Lioi, D. S.; Pascale, S.; Caniani, D.; Mancini, I. M.

    2013-02-01

    The complete assessment of landslide susceptibility needs uniformly distributed detailed information on the territory. This information, which is related to the temporal occurrence of landslide phenomena and their causes, is often fragmented and heterogeneous. The present study evaluates the landslide susceptibility map of the Natural Archaeological Park of Matera (Southern Italy) (Sassi and area Rupestrian Churches sites). The assessment of the degree of "spatial hazard" or "susceptibility" was carried out by the spatial prediction regardless of the return time of the events. The evaluation model for the susceptibility presented in this paper is very focused on the use of innovative techniques of artificial intelligence such as Neural Network, Fuzzy Logic and Neuro-fuzzy Network. The method described in this paper is a novel technique based on a neuro-fuzzy system. It is able to train data like neural network and it is able to shape and control uncertain and complex systems like a fuzzy system. This methodology allows us to derive susceptibility maps of the study area. These data are obtained from thematic maps representing the parameters responsible for the instability of the slopes. The parameters used in the analysis are: plan curvature, elevation (DEM), angle and aspect of the slope, lithology, fracture density, kinematic hazard index of planar and wedge sliding and toppling. Moreover, this method is characterized by the network training which uses a training matrix, consisting of input and output training data, which determine the landslide susceptibility. The neuro-fuzzy method was integrated to a sensitivity analysis in order to overcome the uncertainty linked to the used membership functions. The method was compared to the landslide inventory map and was validated by applying three methods: a ROC (Receiver Operating Characteristic) analysis, a confusion matrix and a SCAI method. The developed neuro-fuzzy method showed a good performance in the

  7. Parental Co-Viewing and Susceptibility for Smoking and Drinking in Adolescents: An Experimental Pilot Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leeuw, R.N.H. de; Blom, H.C.; Engels, R.C.M.E.

    2014-01-01

    Background and Objectives: The current pilot study is the first experiment to examine whether parents are able to diminish the adverse influences of smoking and drinking depicted in movies through co-viewing. Methods: For this study, 99 adolescents (M - 12.82 years old; SD = .95; 38.8% boys) watched

  8. Genome-wide association study identifies multiple susceptibility loci for multiple myeloma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mitchell, Jonathan S; Li, Ni; Weinhold, Niels

    2016-01-01

    Multiple myeloma (MM) is a plasma cell malignancy with a significant heritable basis. Genome-wide association studies have transformed our understanding of MM predisposition, but individual studies have had limited power to discover risk loci. Here we perform a meta-analysis of these GWAS, add a ...

  9. Susceptibility loci for sporadic brain arteriovenous malformation; a replication study and meta-analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kremer, P.H.; Koeleman, B.P.C.; Rinkel, G.J.; Diekstra, F.P.; Berg, L.H. van den; Veldink, J.H.; Klijn, C.J.M.

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Case-control studies have reported multiple genetic loci to be associated with sporadic brain arteriovenous malformations (AVMs) but most of these have not been replicated in independent populations. The aim of this study was to find additional evidence for these reported associations

  10. Genetic testing of newborns for type 1 diabetes susceptibility: a prospective cohort study on effects on maternal mental health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Magnus Per

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Concerns about the general psychological impact of genetic testing have been raised. In the Environmental Triggers of Type 1 Diabetes (MIDIA study, genetic testing was performed for HLA-conferred type 1 diabetes susceptibility among Norwegian newborns. The present study assessed whether mothers of children who test positively suffer from poorer mental health and well-being after receiving genetic risk information about their children. Methods The study was based on questionnaire data from the Norwegian Mother and Child Cohort (MoBa study conducted by the Norwegian Institute of Public Health. Many of the mothers in the MoBa study also took part in the MIDIA study, in which their newborn children were tested for HLA-conferred genetic susceptibility for type 1 diabetes. We used MoBa questionnaire data from the 30th week of pregnancy (baseline and 6 months post-partum (3-3.5 months after disclosure of test results. We measured maternal symptoms of anxiety and depression (SCL-8, maternal self-esteem (RSES, and satisfaction with life (SWLS. The mothers also reported whether they were seriously worried about their child 6 months post-partum. We compared questionnaire data from mothers who had received information about having a newborn with high genetic risk for type 1 diabetes (N = 166 with data from mothers who were informed that their baby did not have a high-risk genotype (N = 7224. The association between genetic risk information and maternal mental health was analysed using multiple linear regression analysis, controlling for baseline mental health scores. Results Information on genetic risk in newborns was found to have no significant impact on maternal symptoms of anxiety and depression (p = 0.9, self-esteem (p = 0.2, satisfaction with life (p = 0.2, or serious worry about their child (OR = 0.98, 95% CI 0.64-1.48. Mental health before birth was strongly associated with mental health after birth. In addition, an increased

  11. Evidence for shared susceptibility to epilepsy and psychosis: a population-based family study.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Clarke, Mary C

    2012-05-01

    There is emerging evidence of an etiological overlap between a range of neurodevelopmental disorders, including schizophrenia and epilepsy. Here we investigate shared familial vulnerability to psychotic illness and epilepsy in a family-based study.

  12. Comparison of intervention fidelity between COPE TEEN and an attention-control program in a randomized controlled trial

    OpenAIRE

    Kelly, Stephanie A.; Oswalt, Krista; Melnyk, Bernadette Mazurek; Jacobson, Diana

    2014-01-01

    Fidelity in implementing an intervention is critical to accurately determine and interpret the effects of an intervention. It is important to monitor the manner in which the behavioral intervention is implemented (e.g. adaptations, delivery as intended and dose). Few interventions are implemented with 100% fidelity. In this study, high school health teachers implemented the intervention. To attribute study findings to the intervention, it was vital to know to what degree the intervention was ...

  13. Association studies of ERCC1 polymorphisms with lung cancer susceptibility: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jinhong Zhu

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Excision repair cross-complimentary group 1 (ERCC1 is an essential component of the nucleotide excision repair system that is responsible for repairing damaged DNA. Functional genetic variations in the ERCC1 gene may alter DNA repair capacity and modulate cancer risk. The putative roles of ERCC1 gene polymorphisms in lung cancer susceptibility have been widely investigated. However, the results remain controversial. OBJECTIVES: An updated meta-analysis was conducted to explore whether lung cancer risk could be attributed to the following ERCC1 polymorphisms: rs11615 (T>C, rs3212986 (C>A, rs3212961 (A>C, rs3212948 (G>C, rs2298881 (C>A. METHODS: Several major databases (MEDLINE, EMBASE and Scopus and the Chinese Biomedical database were searched for eligible studies. Crude odds ratios (ORs with 95% confidence intervals (CIs were used to measure the strength of associations. RESULTS: Sixteen studies with 10,106 cases and 13,238 controls were included in this meta-analysis. Pooled ORs from 11 eligible studies (8,215 cases vs. 11,402 controls suggested a significant association of ERCC1 rs11615 with increased risk for lung cancer (homozygous: CC versus TT, OR = 1.24, 95% CI: 1.04-1.48, P = 0.02. However, such an association was disproportionately driven by a single study. Removal of that study led to null association. Moreover, initial analyses suggested that ERCC1 rs11615 exerts a more profound effect on the susceptibility of non-smokers to lung cancer than that of smokers. Moreover, no statistically significant association was found between remaining ERCC1 polymorphisms of interest and lung cancer risk, except for rs3212948 variation (heterozygous: CG vs.GG, OR = 0.78, 95% CI: 0.67-0.90, P = 0.001; dominant: CG/CC vs.GG, OR = 0.79, 95% CI: 0.69-0.91, P = 0.001. CONCLUSION: Overall, this meta-analysis suggests that ERCC1 rs3212948 G>C, but not others, is a lung cancer risk-associated polymorphism. Carefully

  14. Illustrating the multiple facets and levels of fidelity of implementation to a teacher classroom management intervention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reinke, Wendy M; Herman, Keith C; Stormont, Melissa; Newcomer, Lori; David, Kimberly

    2013-11-01

    Many school-based interventions to promote student mental health rely on teachers as implementers. Thus, understanding the interplay between the multiple domains of fidelity to the intervention and intervention support systems such as coaching and teacher implementation of new skills is an important aspect of implementation science. This study describes a systematic process for assessing multiple domains of fidelity. Data from a larger efficacy trial of the Incredible Years Teacher Classroom Management (IY TCM) program are utilized. Data on fidelity to the IY TCM workshop training sessions and onsite weekly coaching indicate that workshop leaders and the IY TCM coach implemented the training and coaching model with adequate adherence. Further, workshop leaders' ratings of engagement were associated with teacher implementation of specific praise, following training on this content. Lastly, the IY TCM coach differentiation of teacher exposure to coaching was evaluated and found to be associated with teacher implementation of classroom management practices and student disruptive behavior.

  15. A genome-wide association study in American Indians implicates DNER as a susceptibility locus for type 2 diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanson, Robert L; Muller, Yunhua L; Kobes, Sayuko; Guo, Tingwei; Bian, Li; Ossowski, Victoria; Wiedrich, Kim; Sutherland, Jeffrey; Wiedrich, Christopher; Mahkee, Darin; Huang, Ke; Abdussamad, Maryam; Traurig, Michael; Weil, E Jennifer; Nelson, Robert G; Bennett, Peter H; Knowler, William C; Bogardus, Clifton; Baier, Leslie J

    2014-01-01

    Most genetic variants associated with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) have been identified through genome-wide association studies (GWASs) in Europeans. The current study reports a GWAS for young-onset T2DM in American Indians. Participants were selected from a longitudinal study conducted in Pima Indians and included 278 cases with diabetes with onset before 25 years of age, 295 nondiabetic controls ≥45 years of age, and 267 siblings of cases or controls. Individuals were genotyped on a ∼1M single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) array, resulting in 453,654 SNPs with minor allele frequency >0.05. SNPs were analyzed for association in cases and controls, and a family-based association test was conducted. Tag SNPs (n = 311) were selected for 499 SNPs associated with diabetes (P associated with T2DM (odds ratio = 1.29 per copy of the T allele; P = 6.6 × 10(-8), which represents genome-wide significance accounting for the number of effectively independent SNPs analyzed). Transfection studies in murine pancreatic β-cells suggested that DNER regulates expression of notch signaling pathway genes. These studies implicate DNER as a susceptibility gene for T2DM in American Indians.

  16. Is correction necessary when clinically determining quantitative cerebral perfusion parameters from multi-slice dynamic susceptibility contrast MR studies?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salluzzi, M; Frayne, R; Smith, M R

    2006-01-01

    Several groups have modified the standard singular value decomposition (SVD) algorithm to produce delay-insensitive cerebral blood flow (CBF) estimates from dynamic susceptibility contrast (DSC) perfusion studies. However, new dependences of CBF estimates on bolus arrival times and slice position in multi-slice studies have been recently recognized. These conflicting findings can be reconciled by accounting for several experimental and algorithmic factors. Using simulation and clinical studies, the non-simultaneous measurement of arterial and tissue concentration curves (relative slice position) in a multi-slice study is shown to affect time-related perfusion parameters, e.g. arterial-tissue-delay measurements. However, the current clinical impact of relative slice position on amplitude-related perfusion parameters, e.g. CBF, can be expected to be small unless any of the following conditions are present individually or in combination: (a) high concentration curve signal-to-noise ratios, (b) small tissue mean transit times, (c) narrow arterial input functions or (d) low temporal resolution of the DSC image sequence. Recent improvements in magnetic resonance (MR) technology can easily be expected to lead to scenarios where these effects become increasingly important sources of inaccuracy for all perfusion parameter estimates. We show that using Fourier interpolated (high temporal resolution) residue functions reduces the systematic error of the perfusion parameters obtained from multi-slice studies

  17. Parental consanguinity and susceptibility to drug abuse among offspring, a case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saadat, Mostafa; Vakili-Ghartavol, Roghayyeh

    2010-11-30

    Consanguineous marriage is the union of individuals having at least one common ancestor. It is well established that consanguinity is a potential risk factor for many adverse health outcome of offspring. In the present case-control study we tested the hypothesis of an association between parental consanguinity marriages and risk of offspring substance abuse. The study was performed in Shiraz (Fars province, Iran). Here 156 male drug abusers (case group) and 264 randomly selected healthy blood donors, matched for age and gender as control group, were included in the study. The prevalence of parental consanguineous marriages in the studied sample was 39.1 and 28.0% among cases and controls, respectively. The difference was statistically significant. The substance abusers were more smokers and drinkers compared with the control group. There was significant negative linear trend between drug abuse and level of education. The participants stratified using drinking habits and then the analysis was carried out separately for drinker and non-drinker subjects. Among drinkers, neither before nor after adjusting for smoking status and educational level, parental consanguinity did not show association with risk of substance abuse. Among non-drinkers, after adjusting for smoking status and educational level, parental consanguineous marriage was significantly associated with increased risk of substance abuse. Our study supports a significant relationship between parental consanguinity and drug abuse among non-drinker subjects. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Can iridology detect susceptibility to cancer? A prospective case-controlled study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Münstedt, Karsten; El-Safadi, Samer; Brück, Friedel; Zygmunt, Marek; Hackethal, Andreas; Tinneberg, Hans-Rudolf

    2005-06-01

    This prospective case-control study aimed to investigate the value of iridology as a diagnostic tool in detecting some common cancers. One hundred ten (110) subjects were enrolled in the study: 68 subjects had histologically proven cancers of the breast, ovary, uterus, prostate, or colorectum, and 42 were control subjects. All subjects were examined by an experienced practitioner of iridology, who was unaware of their gender or medical details. He was allowed to suggest up to five diagnoses for each subject and his results were then compared with each subject's medical diagnosis to determine the accuracy of iridology in detecting malignancy. Iridology identified the correct diagnosis in only 3 cases (sensitivity, 0.04). Iridology was of no value in diagnosing the cancers investigated in this study.

  19. Study on the Efficacy of Some Current Herbicides for Control of Resistant and Susceptible Canarygrass (Phalaris spp. Biotypes to Acetyl CoA Carboxylase (ACCase Inhibitors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    e Zand

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Two separate greenhouse experiments were conducted in the greenhouse facilities of the Iranian Plant Protection Research Institute, Tehran, to study the efficacy of some herbicides to control of resistant and susceptible P. minor and P. paradoxa biotypes. In each experiment, resistant and susceptible biotypes were treated separately by 19 herbicide treatments. Treatments included 10 ACCase inhibitors, 6 Acetolactate Synthase (ALS inhibitors, prosulfocarb, flamprop-M-isopropyl, isoproturon plus diflufenican and a non-sprayed control. To evaluate the effects of treatments, different characteristics including percent damage based on EWRC scores at 15 and 30 days after spraying, percentage of survived plants after spraying relative to before spraying, and percentage of dry weight and wet weight of individual plants relative to control were studied. Results showed that the susceptible biotypes of P. minor were best controlled by clodinafop propargyl and pinoxaden at 450 ml/ha while pinoxaden at 450 ml/ha and cycloxydim were best options for control of the resistant biotype. Among ALS inhibitors, iodosulfuron plus mesosulfuron could control susceptible and resistant biotypes of P. minor very effectively and semi-satisfactory, respectively. Iodosulfuron plus mesosulfuron and sulfosulfuron plus metsulfuron could remarkably reduce the wet weight of individual plants compared to control so that the plants were not damaging any more. Among other herbicides, isoproturon plus diflufenican could control the susceptible and resistant biotypes semi-satisfactory and very effectively, respectively. Keywords: Herbicide resistance, ACCase inhibitors, ALS inhibitors

  20. Genome-wide association study identifies new prostate cancer susceptibility loci

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schumacher, Fredrick R.; Berndt, Sonja I.; Siddiq, Afshan

    2011-01-01

    Prostate cancer (PrCa) is the most common non-skin cancer diagnosed among males in developed countries and the second leading cause of cancer mortality, yet little is known regarding its etiology and factors that influence clinical outcome. Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) of PrCa have iden...

  1. Placebo effect studies are susceptible to response bias and to other types of biases

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hróbjartsson, Asbjørn; Kaptchuk, Ted J; Miller, Franklin G

    2011-01-01

    Investigations of the effect of placebo are often challenging to conduct and interpret. The history of placebo shows that assessment of its clinical significance has a real potential to be biased. We analyze and discuss typical types of bias in studies on placebo....

  2. Cross Sectional Study of Burn Infections and Antibiotic Susceptibility Pattern for the Improvement of Treatment Policy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neda Pirbonyeh

    2017-04-01

    Conclusion: By evaluating the infectious agents during the period of the study, it was found that due to the focus on treatment of Gram negative bacteria, Gram positive bacteria especially Staphylococcus aureus and Coagulase Negative Staphylococcus have at least doubled. This increase in two important nosocomial infections is a next threat of infection and septicemia for burn victims.

  3. Visual communication - Information and fidelity. [of images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huck, Freidrich O.; Fales, Carl L.; Alter-Gartenberg, Rachel; Rahman, Zia-Ur; Reichenbach, Stephen E.

    1993-01-01

    This assessment of visual communication deals with image gathering, coding, and restoration as a whole rather than as separate and independent tasks. The approach focuses on two mathematical criteria, information and fidelity, and on their relationships to the entropy of the encoded data and to the visual quality of the restored image. Past applications of these criteria to the assessment of image coding and restoration have been limited to the link that connects the output of the image-gathering device to the input of the image-display device. By contrast, the approach presented in this paper explicitly includes the critical limiting factors that constrain image gathering and display. This extension leads to an end-to-end assessment theory of visual communication that combines optical design with digital processing.

  4. Experimental quantum error correction with high fidelity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Jingfu; Gangloff, Dorian; Moussa, Osama; Laflamme, Raymond

    2011-01-01

    More than ten years ago a first step toward quantum error correction (QEC) was implemented [Phys. Rev. Lett. 81, 2152 (1998)]. The work showed there was sufficient control in nuclear magnetic resonance to implement QEC, and demonstrated that the error rate changed from ε to ∼ε 2 . In the current work we reproduce a similar experiment using control techniques that have been since developed, such as the pulses generated by gradient ascent pulse engineering algorithm. We show that the fidelity of the QEC gate sequence and the comparative advantage of QEC are appreciably improved. This advantage is maintained despite the errors introduced by the additional operations needed to protect the quantum states.

  5. Quantum-critical scaling of fidelity in 2D pairing models

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adamski, Mariusz, E-mail: mariusz.adamski@ift.uni.wroc.pl [Institute of Theoretical Physics, University of Wrocław, pl. Maksa Borna 9, 50–204, Wrocław (Poland); Jȩdrzejewski, Janusz [Institute of Theoretical Physics, University of Wrocław, pl. Maksa Borna 9, 50–204, Wrocław (Poland); Krokhmalskii, Taras [Institute for Condensed Matter Physics, 1 Svientsitski Street, 79011, Lviv (Ukraine)

    2017-01-15

    The laws of quantum-critical scaling theory of quantum fidelity, dependent on the underlying system dimensionality D, have so far been verified in exactly solvable 1D models, belonging to or equivalent to interacting, quadratic (quasifree), spinless or spinfull, lattice-fermion models. The obtained results are so appealing that in quest for correlation lengths and associated universal critical indices ν, which characterize the divergence of correlation lengths on approaching critical points, one might be inclined to substitute the hard task of determining an asymptotic behavior at large distances of a two-point correlation function by an easier one, of determining the quantum-critical scaling of the quantum fidelity. However, the role of system's dimensionality has been left as an open problem. Our aim in this paper is to fill up this gap, at least partially, by verifying the laws of quantum-critical scaling theory of quantum fidelity in a 2D case. To this end, we study correlation functions and quantum fidelity of 2D exactly solvable models, which are interacting, quasifree, spinfull, lattice-fermion models. The considered 2D models exhibit new, as compared with 1D ones, features: at a given quantum-critical point there exists a multitude of correlation lengths and multiple universal critical indices ν, since these quantities depend on spatial directions, moreover, the indices ν may assume larger values. These facts follow from the obtained by us analytical asymptotic formulae for two-point correlation functions. In such new circumstances we discuss the behavior of quantum fidelity from the perspective of quantum-critical scaling theory. In particular, we are interested in finding out to what extent the quantum fidelity approach may be an alternative to the correlation-function approach in studies of quantum-critical points beyond 1D.

  6. Improving contraceptive choice: fidelity of implementation and the gap between effectiveness and efficacy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garbers, Samantha; Flandrick, Kathleen; Bermudez, Dayana; Meserve, Allison; Chiasson, Mary Ann

    2014-11-01

    Interventions to reduce unintended pregnancy through improved contraceptive use are a public health priority. A comprehensive process evaluation of a contraceptive assessment module intervention with demonstrated efficacy was undertaken. The 12-month process evaluation goal was to describe the extent to which the intervention was implemented as intended over time, and to identify programmatic adjustments to improve implementation fidelity. Quantitative and qualitative methods included staff surveys, electronic health record data, usage monitoring, and observations. Fidelity of implementation was low overall (framework enabled the research team to identify and address complexities inherent in effectiveness studies and facilitated the alignment of program and context. © 2014 Society for Public Health Education.

  7. Replication of genome wide association studies on hepatocellular carcinoma susceptibility loci in a Chinese population.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kangmei Chen

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Genome-wide association studies (GWAS have identified three loci (rs17401966 in KIF1B, rs7574865 in STAT4, rs9275319 in HLA-DQ as being associated with hepatitis B virus-related hepatocellular carcinoma (HBV-related HCC in a Chinese population, two loci (rs2596542 in MICA, rs9275572 located between HLA-DQA and HLA-DQB with hepatitis C virus-related HCC (HCV-related HCC in a Japanese population. In the present study, we sought to determine whether these SNPs are predictive for HBV-related HCC development in other Chinese population as well. METHOD AND FINDINGS: We genotyped 4 SNPs, rs2596542, rs9275572, rs17401966, rs7574865, in 506 HBV-related HCC patients and 772 chronic hepatitis B (CHB patients in Han Chinese by TaqMan methods. Odds ratio(ORand 95% confidence interval (CI were calculated by logistic regression. In our case-control study, significant association between rs9275572 and HCC were observed (P = 0.02, OR = 0.73, 95% CI = 0.56-0.95. In the further haplotype analysis between rs2596542 at 6p21.33 and rs9275572 at 6p21.3, G-A showed a protective effect on HBV-related HCC occurrence (P<0.001, OR = 0.66, 95% CI = 0.52-0.84. CONCLUSION: These findings provided convincing evidence that rs9275572 significantly associated with HBV-related HCC.

  8. Replication of genome wide association studies on hepatocellular carcinoma susceptibility loci in a Chinese population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Kangmei; Shi, Weimei; Xin, Zhenhui; Wang, Huifen; Zhu, Xilin; Wu, Xiaopan; Li, Zhuo; Li, Hui; Liu, Ying

    2013-01-01

    Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have identified three loci (rs17401966 in KIF1B, rs7574865 in STAT4, rs9275319 in HLA-DQ) as being associated with hepatitis B virus-related hepatocellular carcinoma (HBV-related HCC) in a Chinese population, two loci (rs2596542 in MICA, rs9275572 located between HLA-DQA and HLA-DQB) with hepatitis C virus-related HCC (HCV-related HCC) in a Japanese population. In the present study, we sought to determine whether these SNPs are predictive for HBV-related HCC development in other Chinese population as well. We genotyped 4 SNPs, rs2596542, rs9275572, rs17401966, rs7574865, in 506 HBV-related HCC patients and 772 chronic hepatitis B (CHB) patients in Han Chinese by TaqMan methods. Odds ratio(OR)and 95% confidence interval (CI) were calculated by logistic regression. In our case-control study, significant association between rs9275572 and HCC were observed (P = 0.02, OR = 0.73, 95% CI = 0.56-0.95). In the further haplotype analysis between rs2596542 at 6p21.33 and rs9275572 at 6p21.3, G-A showed a protective effect on HBV-related HCC occurrence (P<0.001, OR = 0.66, 95% CI = 0.52-0.84). These findings provided convincing evidence that rs9275572 significantly associated with HBV-related HCC.

  9. High Fidelity In Situ Shoulder Dystocia Simulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew Pelikan, MD

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Audience: Resident physicians, emergency department (ED staff Introduction: Precipitous deliveries are high acuity, low occurrence in most emergency departments. Shoulder dystocia is a rare but potentially fatal complication of labor that can be relieved by specific maneuvers that must be implemented in a timely manner. This simulation is designed to educate resident learners on the critical management steps in a shoulder dystocia presenting to the emergency department. A special aspect of this simulation is the unique utilization of the “Noelle” model with an instructing physician at bedside maneuvering the fetus through the stations of labor and providing subtle adjustments to fetal positioning not possible though a mechanized model. A literature search of “shoulder dystocia simulation” consists primarily of obstetrics and mid-wife journals, many of which utilize various mannequin models. None of the reviewed articles utilized a bedside provider maneuvering the fetus with the Noelle model, making this method unique. While the Noelle model is equipped with a remote-controlled motor that automatically rotates and delivers the baby either to the head or to the shoulders and can produce a turtle sign and which will prevent delivery of the baby until signaled to do so by the instructor, using the bedside instructor method allows this simulation to be reproduced with less mechanistically advanced and lower cost models.1-5 Objectives: At the end of this simulation, learners will: 1 Recognize impending delivery and mobilize appropriate resources (ie, both obstetrics [OB] and NICU/pediatrics; 2 Identify risk factors for shoulder dystocia based on history and physical; 3 Recognize shoulder dystocia during delivery; 4 Demonstrate maneuvers to relieve shoulder dystocia; 5 Communicate with team members and nursing staff during resuscitation of a critically ill patient. Method: High-fidelity simulation. Topics: High fidelity, in situ, Noelle model

  10. Entanglement fidelity of the standard quantum teleportation channel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Gang; Ye, Ming-Yong, E-mail: myye@fjnu.edu.cn; Lin, Xiu-Min

    2013-09-16

    We consider the standard quantum teleportation protocol where a general bipartite state is used as entanglement resource. We use the entanglement fidelity to describe how well the standard quantum teleportation channel transmits quantum entanglement and give a simple expression for the entanglement fidelity when it is averaged on all input states.

  11. Commentary: Learning from Variations in Fidelity of Implementation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balu, Rekha; Doolittle, Fred

    2016-01-01

    The articles in this special issue discuss efforts to improve academic reading outcomes for students and ways to achieve high implementation fidelity of promising strategies. At times the authors discuss if--and how--strong fidelity is associated with strong outcomes and potentially even impacts (the difference between program and control group…

  12. Gain tuning and fidelity in continuous-variable quantum teleportation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ide, Toshiki; Hofmann, Holger F.; Furusawa, Akira; Kobayashi, Takayoshi

    2002-01-01

    The fidelity of continuous-variable teleportation can be optimized by changing the gain in the modulation of the output field. We discuss the gain dependence of fidelity for coherent, vacuum, and one-photon inputs and propose optimal gain tuning strategies for corresponding input selections

  13. AFFECT: Altered-Fidelity Framework for Enhancing Cognition and Training

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ryan Patrick McMahan

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we present a new framework for analyzing and designing virtual reality (VR techniques. This framework is based on two concepts—system fidelity (i.e., the degree with which real-world experiences are reproduced by a system and memory (i.e., the formation and activation of perceptual, cognitive, and motor networks of neurons. The premise of the framework is to manipulate an aspect of system fidelity in order to assist a stage of memory. We call it the Altered-Fidelity Framework for Enhancing Cognition and Training (AFFECT. AFFECT provides nine categories of approaches to altering system fidelity to positively affect learning or training. These categories are based on the intersections of three aspects of system fidelity (interaction fidelity, scenario fidelity, and display fidelity and three stages of memory (encoding, implicit retrieval, and explicit retrieval. In addition to discussing the details of our new framework, we show how AFFECT can be used as a tool for analyzing and categorizing VR techniques designed to facilitate learning or training. We also demonstrate how AFFECT can be used as a design space for creating new VR techniques intended for educational and training systems.

  14. A Systematic Review of Fidelity of Implementation in Parent-Mediated Early Communication Intervention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lieberman-Betz, Rebecca G.

    2015-01-01

    This article examined the reporting of four elements of fidelity of implementation (FOI) in parent-mediated early communication treatment studies. Thirty-five studies were reviewed to extract information regarding reporting of dosage, adherence, quality, and participant responsiveness for both practitioners and parents involved in parent-delivered…

  15. Evaluating Outcomes of High Fidelity Simulation Curriculum in a Community College Nursing Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denlea, Gregory Richard

    2017-01-01

    This study took place at a Wake Technical Community College, a multi-campus institution in Raleigh, North Carolina. An evaluation of the return on investment in high fidelity simulation used by an associate degree of nursing program was conducted with valid and reliable instruments. The study demonstrated that comparable student outcomes are…

  16. Genome-wide association study of glioma subtypes identifies specific differences in genetic susceptibility to glioblastoma and non-glioblastoma tumors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Melin, Beatrice S; Barnholtz-Sloan, Jill S; Wrensch, Margaret R

    2017-01-01

    Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have transformed our understanding of glioma susceptibility, but individual studies have had limited power to identify risk loci. We performed a meta-analysis of existing GWAS and two new GWAS, which totaled 12,496 cases and 18,190 controls. We identified fi...

  17. Air pollution and lung function among susceptible adult subjects: a panel study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marconi Achille

    2006-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Adverse health effects at relatively low levels of ambient air pollution have consistently been reported in the last years. We conducted a time-series panel study of subjects with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD, asthma, and ischemic heart disease (IHD to evaluate whether daily levels of air pollutants have a measurable impact on the lung function of adult subjects with pre-existing lung or heart diseases. Methods Twenty-nine patients with COPD, asthma, or IHD underwent repeated lung function tests by supervised spirometry in two one-month surveys. Daily samples of coarse (PM10–2.5 and fine (PM2.5 particulate matter were collected by means of dichotomous samplers, and the dust was gravimetrically analyzed. The particulate content of selected metals (cadmium, chrome, iron, nickel, lead, platinum, vanadium, and zinc was determined by atomic absorption spectrometry. Ambient concentrations of nitrogen dioxide (NO2, carbon monoxide (CO, ozone (O3, and sulphur dioxide (SO2 were obtained from the regional air-quality monitoring network. The relationships between concentrations of air pollutants and lung function parameters were analyzed by generalized estimating equations (GEE for panel data. Results Decrements in lung function indices (FVC and/or FEV1 associated with increasing concentrations of PM2.5, NO2 and some metals (especially zinc and iron were observed in COPD cases. Among the asthmatics, NO2 was associated with a decrease in FEV1. No association between average ambient concentrations of any air pollutant and lung function was observed among IHD cases. Conclusion This study suggests that the short-term negative impact of exposure to air pollutants on respiratory volume and flow is limited to individuals with already impaired respiratory function. The fine fraction of ambient PM seems responsible for the observed effects among COPD cases, with zinc and iron having a potential role via oxidative stress. The

  18. Non-Motor Symptom Burdens Are Not Associated with Iron Accumulation in Early Parkinson's Disease: a Quantitative Susceptibility Mapping Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Chaewon; Lee, Seon; Lee, Jee Young; Rhim, Jung Hyo; Park, Sun Won

    2018-03-26

    Quantitative susceptibility mapping (QSM) has been used to measure iron accumulation in the deep nuclei of patients with Parkinson's disease (PD). This study examined the relationship between non-motor symptoms (NMSs) and iron accumulation in the deep nuclei of patients with PD. The QSM data were acquired from 3-Tesla magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in 29 patients with early PD and 19 normal controls. The Korean version of the NMS scale (K-NMSS) was used for evaluation of NMSs in patients. The patients were divided into high NMS and low NMS groups. The region-of-interest analyses were performed in the following deep nuclei: red nucleus, substantia nigra pars compacta, substantia nigra pars reticulata, dentate nucleus, globus pallidus, putamen, and head of the caudate nucleus. Thirteen patients had high NMS scores (total K-NMSS score, mean = 32.1), and 16 had low NMS scores (10.6). The QSM values in the deep were not different among the patients with high NMS scores, low NMS scores, and controls. The QSM values were not correlated linearly with K-NMSS total score after adjusting the age at acquisition of brain MRI. The study demonstrated that the NMS burdens are not associated with iron accumulation in the deep nuclei of patients with PD. These results suggest that future neuroimaging studies on the pathology of NMSs in PD should use more specific and detailed clinical tools and recruit PD patients with severe NMSs. © 2018 The Korean Academy of Medical Sciences.

  19. Sex-specific predictors of hearing-aid use in older persons: The age, gene/environment susceptibility - Reykjavik study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fisher, Diana E.; Li, Chuan-Ming; Hoffman, Howard J.; Chiu, May S.; Themann, Christa L.; Petersen, Hannes; Jonsson, Palmi V.; Jonsson, Helgi; Jonasson, Fridbert; Sverrisdottir, Johanna Eyrun; Launer, Lenore J.; Eiriksdottir, Gudny; Gudnason, Vilmundur; Cotch, Mary Frances

    2015-01-01

    Objective We estimate the prevalence of hearing-aid use in Iceland and identify sex-specific factors associated with use. Design Population-based cohort study. Study sample A total of 5172 age, gene/environment susceptibility - Reykjavik study (AGES-RS) participants, aged 67 to 96 years (mean age 76.5 years), who completed air-conduction and pure-tone audiometry. Results Hearing-aid use was reported by 23.0% of men and 15.9% of women in the cohort, although among participants with at least moderate hearing loss in the better ear (pure-tone average [PTA] of thresholds at 0.5, 1, 2, and 4 kHz ≥ 35 dB hearing level [HL]) it was 49.9% and did not differ by sex. Self-reported hearing loss was the strongest predictor of hearing-aid use in men [OR: 2.68 (95% CI: 1.77, 4.08)] and women [OR: 3.07 (95% CI: 1.94, 4.86)], followed by hearing loss severity based on audiometry. Having diabetes or osteoarthritis were significant positive predictors of use in men, whereas greater physical activity and unimpaired cognitive status were important in women. Conclusions Hearing-aid use was comparable in Icelandic men and women with moderate or greater hearing loss. Self-recognition of hearing loss was the factor most predictive of hearing-aid use; other influential factors differed for men and women. PMID:25816699

  20. Use of a Regression Model to Study Host-Genomic Determinants of Phage Susceptibility in MRSA

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zschach, Henrike; Larsen, Mette V; Hasman, Henrik

    2018-01-01

    strains to 12 (nine monovalent) different therapeutic phage preparations and subsequently employed linear regression models to estimate the influence of individual host gene families on resistance to phages. Specifically, we used a two-step regression model setup with a preselection step based on gene...... family enrichment. We show that our models are robust and capture the data's underlying signal by comparing their performance to that of models build on randomized data. In doing so, we have identified 167 gene families that govern phage resistance in our strain set and performed functional analysis...... on them. This revealed genes of possible prophage or mobile genetic element origin, along with genes involved in restriction-modification and transcription regulators, though the majority were genes of unknown function. This study is a step in the direction of understanding the intricate host...

  1. An in vitro study of antifungal drug susceptibility of Candida species isolated from human immunodeficiency virus seropositive and human immunodeficiency virus seronegative individuals in Lucknow population Uttar Pradesh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dar, Mohammad Shafi; Sreedar, Gadiputi; Shukla, Abhilasha; Gupta, Prashant; Rehan, Ahmad Danish; George, Jiji

    2015-01-01

    Candidiasis is the most common opportunistic infection in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) seropositive patients, starting from asymptomatic colonization to pathogenic forms and gradual colonization of non-albicans in patients with advanced immunosuppression leads to resistance for azole group of antifungal drugs with high rate of morbidity and mortality. To isolate the Candida species and determine of antifungal drug susceptibility against fluconazole, itraconazole, nystatin, amphotericin B, and clotrimazolein HIV seropositive and control individuals, with or without clinical oropharyngeal candidiasis (OPC). Includes samples from faucial region of 70 subjects with and without clinical candidiasis in HIV seropositive and controls were aseptically inoculated onto Sabaraud's Dextrose Agar media and yeasts were identified for the specific species by Corn Meal Agar, sugar fermentation and heat tolerance tests. Antifungal drug susceptibility of the isolated species was done against above-mentioned drugs by E-test and disc diffusion method. The commonly isolated species in HIV seropositive and controls were Candida albicans, Candida glabrata and Candida tropicalis Candida guilliermondii and Candida dubliniensis isolated only in HIV seropositive patients. Susceptibility against selected antifungal drugs was observed more in HIV-negative individuals whereas susceptible dose-dependent and resistance were predominant in HIV-positive patients. Resistance is the major problem in the therapy of OPC, especially in HIV seropositive patients due to aggressive and prolonged use of antifungal agents, therefore, our study emphasizes the need for antifungal drug susceptibility testing whenever antifungal treatment is desired, especially in HIV-infected subjects.

  2. A Study to Determine Susceptibility to Hepatitis A of Travelers from South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waner; Schoub; Baxter; French

    1997-12-01

    Hepatitis A is an important cause of acute hepatitis in travelers to developing countries. In 1991, 33 million persons living in industrialized countries traveled to developing countries where hepatitis A is highly endemic (World Tourism Organization, unpublished data, 1993). Reports indicate that 40-50% of cases of hepatitis A infection in the United Kingdom,1 Switzerland2 and Sweden3 are associated with recent international travel. The disease is usually benign, but the severity increases with age.4 Because the disease is enterically transmitted, occurrence is related to water quality and level of sanitation. In developing countries, with poor water quality and sanitation, especially in the tropics where hepatitis A is endemic, exposure is virtually universal before the age of 10 years.4 In developed countries with good food and water hygiene, the rate of exposure to hepatitis A in children is low. The rate of seropositivity increases slowly during early adulthood and reaches moderate levels during late adulthood.5 Studies have demonstrated the higher prevalence among people who live in poor, overcrowded conditions.6 Travelers going from low incidence countries to endemic areas are particularly at risk for acquiring hepatitis A, especially if they stay for extended periods.7 The risk that Danish travelers to North Africa would acquire hepatitis A was estimated to be 3.5 per 10,000, and this population accounted for at least 20% of all cases of hepatitis in Denmark. Similarly, Germans traveling or living in tropical countries have a 40 times higher risk of acquiring hepatitis than do groups living at home.8 The pattern in South Africans ranges from minimal exposure to hepatitis A in childhood in populations with good water quality and sanitation (mainly white), to high exposure in those exposed to poor water quality and sanitation in childhood (mainly black). Hepatitis A vaccine has been found to be effective in reducing the incidence of infection in travelers

  3. Defining the genetic susceptibility to cervical neoplasia-A genome-wide association study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul J Leo

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available A small percentage of women with cervical HPV infection progress to cervical neoplasia, and the risk factors determining progression are incompletely understood. We sought to define the genetic loci involved in cervical neoplasia and to assess its heritability using unbiased unrelated case/control statistical approaches. We demonstrated strong association of cervical neoplasia with risk and protective HLA haplotypes that are determined by the amino-acids carried at positions 13 and 71 in pocket 4 of HLA-DRB1 and position 156 in HLA-B. Furthermore, 36% (standard error 2.4% of liability of HPV-associated cervical pre-cancer and cancer is determined by common genetic variants. Women in the highest 10% of genetic risk scores have approximately >7.1% risk, and those in the highest 5% have approximately >21.6% risk, of developing cervical neoplasia. Future studies should examine genetic risk prediction in assessing the risk of cervical neoplasia further, in combination with other screening methods.

  4. Study of Relationship between Genetic Pattern and Susceptibility to Terbinafine in Clinical Isolated of Trichophyton rubrum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fatemeh Hadadi

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Background & objectives: Trichophyton rubrum is one of the most common pathogeniccause of dermatophytosis. One of the drugs which have been prescribed widely for fungal infections is terbinafine which belongs to allylamines group of antifungal agents. Recently molecular typing methods have been developed for answering the epidemiological questions and disease recurrence problems. Current study has been conducted on 22 isolates of Trichophyton rubrum obtained from patients randomly. Our aim was the investigation of correlation between genetic pattern and sensitivity to Terbinafine in clinical isolates of Trichophyton rubrum.   Methods: Firstly the genus and species of isolated fungi from patients have been confirmed by macroscopic and microscopic methods, then, the resistance and sensitivity of isolates against drug have been determined using culture medium containing defined amount of drug. In next step fungal DNA has been extracted by RAPD-PCR (random amplified polymorphic DNA with random sequences of 3 primers.   Results: Each primer produced different amplified pattern, and using each 3 primers differences have been observed in genetic pattern of resistant and sensitive samples using each 3 primers, but there was no bond with 100% specificity.   Conclusion: The 12 sensitive isolates which didn’t grow in 0.1 mg concentration of drug, also had limited growth at the low concentration of drug. Ten resistant isolates which grew in 0.1mg/ml of drug, in lower concentration of drug were resisted. RAPD analysis for molecular typing of Trichophyton rubrum seems to be completely suitable.

  5. Study of Relationship between Genetic Pattern and Susceptibility to Fluconazole in Clinical Isolated of Trichophyton rubrum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F Hadadi

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Background & objectives: Trichophyton rubrum is one of the most common pathogenic causes of dermatophytosis. One of the drugs prescribed for fungal infections is fluconazole which belongs to Azoles group of antifungal agents. Recently molecular typing methods have been developed for answering the epidemiological questions and disease recurrence problems. Current study has been conducted on 22 isolates of Trichophyton rubrum obtained from patients randomly. Our aim was the investigation of correlation between genetic pattern and sensitivity to Fluconazole in clinical isolates of Trichophyton rubrum .   Methods: Firstly the genus and species of isolated fungi from patients have been confirmed by macroscopic and microscopic methods. Then, the resistance and sensitivity of isolates against drug have been determined using culture medium containing defined amount of drug. In next step fungal DNA has been extracted by RAPD-PCR (random amplified polymorphic DNA with random sequences of 3 primers.   Results: Each primer produced different amplified pattern, and differences have been observed in genetic pattern of resistant and sensitive samples using each 3 primers, but there was no bond with 100% specificity.   Conclusion: The 12 sensitive isolates which didn’t grow in 50µg/ml concentration of drug, also had limited growth at the lower concentration of drug. Ten resistant isolates which grew in 50µg/ml of drug, also showed resistant to lower concentration of drug. There are differences in genetic pattern of resistant and sensitive samples. RAPD analysis for molecular typing of Trichophyton rubrum seems to be completely suitable.

  6. Local environment can enhance fidelity of quantum teleportation

    Science.gov (United States)

    BadziaĢ, Piotr; Horodecki, Michał; Horodecki, Paweł; Horodecki, Ryszard

    2000-07-01

    We show how an interaction with the environment can enhance fidelity of quantum teleportation. To this end, we present examples of states which cannot be made useful for teleportation by any local unitary transformations; nevertheless, after being subjected to a dissipative interaction with the local environment, the states allow for teleportation with genuinely quantum fidelity. The surprising fact here is that the necessary interaction does not require any intelligent action from the parties sharing the states. In passing, we produce some general results regarding optimization of teleportation fidelity by local action. We show that bistochastic processes cannot improve fidelity of two-qubit states. We also show that in order to have their fidelity improvable by a local process, the bipartite states must violate the so-called reduction criterion of separability.

  7. Quantum nondemolition measurement saturates fidelity trade-off

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mista, L.; Filip, R.

    2005-01-01

    Full text: A general quantum measurement on an unknown quantum state enables us to estimate what the state originally was. Simultaneously, the measurement has a destructive effect on a measured quantum state which is reflected by the decrease of the output fidelity. We show for any d-level system that quantum non-demolition measurement controlled by a suitably prepared ancilla is a measurement in which the decrease of the output fidelity is minimal. The ratio between the estimation fidelity and the output fidelity can be continuously controlled by the preparation of the ancilla. Different measurement strategies on the ancilla to gain maximum estimation fidelity are analyzed. A feasible scheme of such a measurement for atomic and optical 2-level systems based on basic controlled-NOT gate is discussed. (author)

  8. Susceptibility to Hamstring Injuries in Soccer: A Prospective Study Using Muscle Functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schuermans, Joke; Van Tiggelen, Damien; Danneels, Lieven; Witvrouw, Erik

    2016-05-01

    Running-related hamstring strain injuries remain a delicate issue in several sports such as soccer. Their unremittingly high incidence and recurrence rates indicate that the underlying risk has not yet been fully identified. Among other factors, the importance of neuromuscular coordination and the quality of interplay between the different hamstring muscle bellies is thought to be a key determinant within the intrinsic injury risk. Muscle functional magnetic resonance imaging (mfMRI) is one of the tools that has been proven to be valid for evaluating intermuscular coordination. To investigate the risk of sustaining an index or recurring soccer-related hamstring injury by exploring metabolic muscle characteristics using mfMRI. Cohort study; Level of evidence, 2. A total of 27 healthy male soccer players and 27 soccer players with a history of hamstring injuries underwent standardized mfMRI. The mfMRI protocol consisted of a resting scan, a strenuous bilateral eccentric hamstring exercise, and a postexercise scan. The exercise-related T2 change, or the signal intensity shift between both scans, was used to detect differences in metabolic characteristics between (1) the different hamstring muscle bellies and (2) the prospective cohorts based on the (re)occurrence of hamstring injuries during a follow-up period of 18 months. The risk of sustaining a first hamstring injury was associated with alterations in the intermuscular hierarchy in terms of the magnitude of the metabolic response after a heavy eccentric effort, with the dominant role of the semitendinosus set aside for a higher contribution of the biceps femoris (P = .017). Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve analysis demonstrated that this variable was significantly able to predict the occurrence of index injuries with a sensitivity of 100% and a specificity of 70% when the metabolic activity of the biceps femoris exceeded 10%. The risk of sustaining a reinjury was associated with a substantial deficit

  9. Epstein-Barr virus, cytomegalovirus, and multiple sclerosis susceptibility: A multiethnic study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langer-Gould, Annette; Wu, Jun; Lucas, Robyn; Smith, Jessica; Gonzales, Edlin; Amezcua, Lilyana; Haraszti, Samantha; Chen, Lie Hong; Quach, Hong; James, Judith A; Barcellos, Lisa F; Xiang, Anny H

    2017-09-26

    To determine whether Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) or cytomegalovirus (CMV) seropositivity is associated with multiple sclerosis (MS) in blacks and Hispanics and to what extent measures of the hygiene hypothesis or breastfeeding could explain these findings. EBV and CMV have been associated with MS risk in whites, and the timing and frequency of both viruses vary by factors implicated in the hygiene hypothesis. Incident cases of MS or its precursor, clinically isolated syndrome (CIS), and matched controls (blacks, 111 cases/128 controls; Hispanics, 173/187; whites, 235/256) were recruited from the membership of Kaiser Permanente Southern California. Logistic regression models accounted for HLA-DRB1*1501 status, smoking, socioeconomic status, age, sex, genetic ancestry, and country of birth. Epstein-Barr nuclear antigen-1 (EBNA-1) seropositivity was independently associated with an increased odds of MS/CIS in all 3 racial/ethnic groups ( p < 0.001 for blacks and whites, p = 0.02 for Hispanics). In contrast, CMV seropositivity was associated with a lower risk of MS/CIS in Hispanics ( p = 0.004) but not in blacks ( p = 0.95) or whites ( p = 0.96). Being born in a low/middle-income country was associated with a lower risk of MS in Hispanics ( p = 0.02) but not after accounting for EBNA-1 seropositivity. Accounting for breastfeeding did not diminish the association between CMV and MS in Hispanics. The consistency of EBNA-1 seropositivity with MS across racial/ethnic groups and between studies points to a strong biological link between EBV infection and MS risk. The association between past CMV infection and MS risk supports the broader hygiene hypothesis, but the inconsistency of this association across racial/ethnic groups implies noncausal associations. © 2017 American Academy of Neurology.

  10. Exome-wide association study reveals novel susceptibility genes to sporadic dilated cardiomyopathy.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ulrike Esslinger

    Full Text Available Dilated cardiomyopathy (DCM is an important cause of heart failure with a strong familial component. We performed an exome-wide array-based association study (EWAS to assess the contribution of missense variants to sporadic DCM.116,855 single nucleotide variants (SNVs were analyzed in 2796 DCM patients and 6877 control subjects from 6 populations of European ancestry. We confirmed two previously identified associations with SNVs in BAG3 and ZBTB17 and discovered six novel DCM-associated loci (Q-value<0.01. The lead-SNVs at novel loci are common and located in TTN, SLC39A8, MLIP, FLNC, ALPK3 and FHOD3. In silico fine mapping identified HSPB7 as the most likely candidate at the ZBTB17 locus. Rare variant analysis (MAF<0.01 demonstrated significant association for TTN variants only (P = 0.0085. All candidate genes but one (SLC39A8 exhibit preferential expression in striated muscle tissues and mutations in TTN, BAG3, FLNC and FHOD3 are known to cause familial cardiomyopathy. We also investigated a panel of 48 known cardiomyopathy genes. Collectively, rare (n = 228, P = 0.0033 or common (n = 36, P = 0.019 variants with elevated in silico severity scores were associated with DCM, indicating that the spectrum of genes contributing to sporadic DCM extends beyond those identified here.We identified eight loci independently associated with sporadic DCM. The functions of the best candidate genes at these loci suggest that proteostasis regulation might play a role in DCM pathophysiology.

  11. A genome wide association study of Plasmodium falciparum susceptibility to 22 antimalarial drugs in Kenya.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jason P Wendler

    Full Text Available Drug resistance remains a chief concern for malaria control. In order to determine the genetic markers of drug resistant parasites, we tested the genome-wide associations (GWA of sequence-based genotypes from 35 Kenyan P. falciparum parasites with the activities of 22 antimalarial drugs.Parasites isolated from children with acute febrile malaria were adapted to culture, and sensitivity was determined by in vitro growth in the presence of anti-malarial drugs. Parasites were genotyped using whole genome sequencing techniques. Associations between 6250 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs and resistance to individual anti-malarial agents were determined, with false discovery rate adjustment for multiple hypothesis testing. We identified expected associations in the pfcrt region with chloroquine (CQ activity, and other novel loci associated with amodiaquine, quinazoline, and quinine activities. Signals for CQ and primaquine (PQ overlap in and around pfcrt, and interestingly the phenotypes are inversely related for these two drugs. We catalog the variation in dhfr, dhps, mdr1, nhe, and crt, including novel SNPs, and confirm the presence of a dhfr-164L quadruple mutant in coastal Kenya. Mutations implicated in sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine resistance are at or near fixation in this sample set.Sequence-based GWA studies are powerful tools for phenotypic association tests. Using this approach on falciparum parasites from coastal Kenya we identified known and previously unreported genes associated with phenotypic resistance to anti-malarial drugs, and observe in high-resolution haplotype visualizations a possible signature of an inverse selective relationship between CQ and PQ.

  12. Xeroderma pigmentosum group D polymorphisms and esophageal cancer susceptibility: a meta-analysis based on case-control studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Rong; Zhang, Chong; Malik, Armah; Shen, Zhi-Da; Hu, Jian; Wu, Yi-He

    2014-11-28

    To clarify the effects of the xeroderma pigmentosum group D (XPD) Asp312Asn and Lys751Gln gene polymorphisms on the risk of esophageal cancer (EC). A computerised literature search was conducted to identify the relevant studies from the PUBMED and EMBASE databases, reviews, and reference lists of relevant articles. Odds ratios (ORs) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were used to assess the associations between the XPD Asp312Asn and/or Lys751Gln polymorphisms and EC susceptibility. Statistical analyses were performed using the software Stata 12.0. A fixed or random effects model was selected based on a heterogeneity test. Publication bias was estimated using funnel plots and Egger's linear regression method. Subgroup analyses were performed based on histological type and ethnicity. Thirteen case-control studies with a total of 10 comparisons for the Asp312Asn polymorphism, including 2373 cases and 3175 controls, and 15 comparisons for the Lys751Gln polymorphism, including 3226 cases and 5237 controls, were recruited for the meta-analysis. In terms of the XPD Asp312Asn polymorphism, significantly increased EC risks were identified in the Asp/Asn vs Asp/Asp comparison (OR = 1.17, 95%CI: 1.02-1.33, P = 0.03) and in the dominant-model comparison (Asn/Asn+Asp/Asn vs Asp/Asp: OR = 1.18, 95%CI: 1.04-1.34, P = 0.01). However, no significant associations were found in the Asn/Asn vs Asp/Asp comparison (OR = 1.30, 95%CI: 1.00-1.70, P = 0.05) or in the recessive-model comparison (Asn/Asn vs Asp/Asn + Asp/Asp: OR = 1.17, 95%CI: 0.91-1.50, P = 0.22). In terms of the XPD Lys751Gln polymorphism, a significant association with EC susceptibility was found under the recessive model (Gln/Gln vs Lys/Gln+Lys/Lys: OR = 1.21, 95%CI: 1.02-1.43, P = 0.03). However, no associations were identified in the other comparisons (co-dominant model: Lys/Gln vs Lys/Lys: OR = 1.11, 95%CI: 0.94-1.31, P = 0.20; Gln/Gln vs Lys/Lys: OR = 1.31, 95%CI: 0.98-1.75, P = 0.07; dominant model: OR = 1.14, 95%CI

  13. Diagnostic value of susceptibility-weighted imaging of abdominal wall endometriomas during the cyclic menstrual changes: A preliminary study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Solak, Aynur; Şahin, Neslin; Genç, Berhan; Sever, Ali Rıza; Genç, Mine; Sivrikoz, Oya Nermin

    2013-01-01

    Objective: The purpose of this study is to investigate the value of susceptibility-weighted imaging (SWI) for the evaluation of cyclic morphological and hemorrhagic changes in abdominal wall endometriomas (AWE). Materials and methods: Fourteen patients with a total of 17 lesions who were admitted with complaints of abdominal wall mass and cyclic pain were evaluated by MRI. Patients were scanned during the first three days of the menstrual cycle and during the mid-cycle phase (day 13–15). In addition to conventional images SWI was performed. The signal changes within the lesions on SWI were compared and graded on both studies. Results: There was no significant difference in the size of the lesions in the early days of the menstruation compared to the mid-menstrual period. The SWI taken on mid-cycle phase showed that the center was hyperintense and the peripheral zone was hypointense in all lesions. A signal void related to increased blood and the shrinkage of complete disappearance of hyperintensity in the venter of the lesion was seen 15 (88%) of the 17 cases on the SWI series performed during the menstrual phase scan. Conclusion: SWI is a sensitive technique and has the capability to show hemorrhage and deposition of hemosiderin within the lesions. For patients suspected with AWE, valuable diagnostic findings may be obtained if the MRI examination including SWI is performed during the early and mid phase menstrual cycle

  14. Antibiotic susceptibility of Brachyspira hyodysenteriae isolates from Czech swine farms: a 10-year follow-up study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Josef Prášek

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Brachyspira hyodysenteriae is the causative agent of swine dysentery. Loss of clinical efficacy of some antimicrobial agents authorized for treating swine dysentery was observed on certain Czech pig farms. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the antimicrobial sensitivity of six antibiotics using a set of 202 randomly selected B. hyodysenteriae isolates obtained from farms in the Czech Republic between years 1997 and 2006. Minimum inhibitory concentration of antibiotics tylosin, lincomycin, tylvalosin, chlortetracyclin, tiamulin and valnemulin were tested, using an agar dilution method. All antibiotics tested showed an increase in minimal inhibitory concentrations. Continual decrease in susceptibility of B. hyodysenteriae isolates to tiamulin and valnemulin was observed. Multiresistant B. hyodysenteriae were isolated more frequently in the past years. Only a careful use of antibiotics can ensure their efficacy, especially in case of pleuromutilins, in the strategic therapy of swine dysentery. This rare study demonstrates the minimal inhibitory concentration changes of selected antidysenterics among Czech isolates of Brachyspira hyodysenteriae during a ten-year period.

  15. Diagnostic value of susceptibility-weighted imaging of abdominal wall endometriomas during the cyclic menstrual changes: A preliminary study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Solak, Aynur, E-mail: aynursolak@yahoo.com [Radiology Department of Sifa University Hospital, 35240, Fevzipasa Boulvard 172/2, Basmane, Izmir (Turkey); Şahin, Neslin, E-mail: neslinshn@gmail.com [Radiology Department of Sifa University Hospital, 35240, Fevzipasa Boulvard 172/2, Basmane, Izmir (Turkey); Genç, Berhan, E-mail: be.genc@hotmail.com [Radiology Department of Sifa University Hospital, 35240, Fevzipasa Boulvard 172/2, Basmane, Izmir (Turkey); Sever, Ali Rıza, E-mail: arsever@hotmail.com [Department of Radiology, Maidstone Hospital, Breast Unit, Maidstone, Kent (United Kingdom); Genç, Mine, E-mail: drminegenc@hotmail.com [Department of Gynecology and Obstetrics, Sifa University Hospital, 35240, Fevzipasa Boulvard 172/2, Basmane, Izmir (Turkey); Sivrikoz, Oya Nermin, E-mail: onsoral@yahoo.com [Pathology Department of Sifa University Hospital, 35240, Bornova, Izmir (Turkey)

    2013-09-15

    Objective: The purpose of this study is to investigate the value of susceptibility-weighted imaging (SWI) for the evaluation of cyclic morphological and hemorrhagic changes in abdominal wall endometriomas (AWE). Materials and methods: Fourteen patients with a total of 17 lesions who were admitted with complaints of abdominal wall mass and cyclic pain were evaluated by MRI. Patients were scanned during the first three days of the menstrual cycle and during the mid-cycle phase (day 13–15). In addition to conventional images SWI was performed. The signal changes within the lesions on SWI were compared and graded on both studies. Results: There was no significant difference in the size of the lesions in the early days of the menstruation compared to the mid-menstrual period. The SWI taken on mid-cycle phase showed that the center was hyperintense and the peripheral zone was hypointense in all lesions. A signal void related to increased blood and the shrinkage of complete disappearance of hyperintensity in the venter of the lesion was seen 15 (88%) of the 17 cases on the SWI series performed during the menstrual phase scan. Conclusion: SWI is a sensitive technique and has the capability to show hemorrhage and deposition of hemosiderin within the lesions. For patients suspected with AWE, valuable diagnostic findings may be obtained if the MRI examination including SWI is performed during the early and mid phase menstrual cycle.

  16. Polymorphisms in xenobiotic metabolizing genes (EPHX1, NQO1 and PON1) in lymphoma susceptibility: a case control study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Conesa-Zamora, Pablo; Vicente, Vicente; Pérez-Guillermo, Miguel; Ruiz-Cosano, Javier; Torres-Moreno, Daniel; Español, Ignacio; Gutiérrez-Meca, María D; Trujillo-Santos, Javier; Pérez-Ceballos, Elena; González-Conejero, Rocío; Corral, Javier

    2013-01-01

    The interplay between genetic susceptibility and carcinogenic exposure is important in the development of haematopoietic malignancies. EPHX1, NQO1 and PON1 are three genes encoding proteins directly involved in the detoxification of potential carcinogens. We have studied the prevalence of three functional polymorphisms affecting these genes rs1051740 EPHX1, rs1800566 NQO1 and rs662 PON1 in 215 patients with lymphoma and 214 healthy controls. Genotype frequencies for EPHX and NQO1 polymorphisms did not show any correlation with disease. In contrast, the GG genotype in the PON1 polymorphism was found to be strongly associated with the disease (15.3% vs. 4.7%; OR = 3.7 CI (95%): 1.8-7.7; p < 0.001). According to the pathological diagnosis this association was related to follicular (p = 0.004) and diffuse large B-cell (p = 0.016) lymphomas. Despite the fact that further confirmation is needed, this study shows that the PON1 GG genotype in rs662 polymorphism could be a risk factor for B-cell lymphomas

  17. A preliminary study of genetic factors that influence susceptibility to bovine tuberculosis in the British cattle herd.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erin E Driscoll

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Associations between specific host genes and susceptibility to Mycobacterial infections such as tuberculosis have been reported in several species. Bovine tuberculosis (bTB impacts greatly the UK cattle industry, yet genetic predispositions have yet to be identified. We therefore used a candidate gene approach to study 384 cattle of which 160 had reacted positively to an antigenic skin test ('reactors'. Our approach was unusual in that it used microsatellite markers, embraced high breed diversity and focused particularly on detecting genes showing heterozygote advantage, a mode of action often overlooked in SNP-based studies. A panel of neutral markers was used to control for population substructure and using a general linear model-based approach we were also able to control for age. We found that substructure was surprisingly weak and identified two genomic regions that were strongly associated with reactor status, identified by markers INRA111 and BMS2753. In general the strength of association detected tended to vary depending on whether age was included in the model. At INRA111 a single genotype appears strongly protective with an overall odds ratio of 2.2, the effect being consistent across nine diverse breeds. Our results suggest that breeding strategies could be devised that would appreciably increase genetic resistance of cattle to bTB (strictly, reduce the frequency of incidence of reactors with implications for the current debate concerning badger-culling.

  18. Landslide susceptibility mapping using frequency ratio, logistic regression, artificial neural networks and their comparison: A case study from Kat landslides (Tokat—Turkey)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yilmaz, Işık

    2009-06-01

    The purpose of this study is to compare the landslide susceptibility mapping methods of frequency ratio (FR), logistic regression and artificial neural networks (ANN) applied in the Kat County (Tokat—Turkey). Digital elevation model (DEM) was first constructed using GIS software. Landslide-related factors such as geology, faults, drainage system, topographical elevation, slope angle, slope aspect, topographic wetness index (TWI) and stream power index (SPI) were used in the landslide susceptibility analyses. Landslide susceptibility maps were produced from the frequency ratio, logistic regression and neural networks models, and they were then compared by means of their validations. The higher accuracies of the susceptibility maps for all three models were obtained from the comparison of the landslide susceptibility maps with the known landslide locations. However, respective area under curve (AUC) values of 0.826, 0.842 and 0.852 for frequency ratio, logistic regression and artificial neural networks showed that the map obtained from ANN model is more accurate than the other models, accuracies of all models can be evaluated relatively similar. The results obtained in this study also showed that the frequency ratio model can be used as a simple tool in assessment of landslide susceptibility when a sufficient number of data were obtained. Input process, calculations and output process are very simple and can be readily understood in the frequency ratio model, however logistic regression and neural networks require the conversion of data to ASCII or other formats. Moreover, it is also very hard to process the large amount of data in the statistical package.

  19. Magnetic Anisotropic Susceptibility Studies on Impact Structures in the Serra Geral Basalt, Paraná Basin, Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crosta, A. P.; MacDonald, W. D.

    2009-12-01

    Studies of magnetic properties of shocked basalt are underway for two impact craters in the 132 Ma Serra Geral basalt of southern Brazil: the Vista Alegre crater (25.95°S, 41.69°W) in the state of Paraná, with a diameter of 12.4 km, and the Vargeão crater (26.81°S, 52.17°W) in Santa Catarina, of 9.5 km. Shatter cones and quartz planar deformation features (pdfs) have been found at both structures. Uplifted crater rims and external ejecta deposits have been removed by erosion at both craters. The interior of the Vista Alegre crater contains ejecta fallback deposits, typically reworked and weathered, and basalts of the crater floor are poorly exposed. In contrast, shocked basalts are exposed across the interior of the Vargeão structure, ejecta fallback deposits have been removed by erosion, and a central domal uplift of quartzose strata from beneath the basalt is found. Discounting the possibility of differential erosion rates, these differences might suggest that the Vargeão is the older of the two structures. Laboratory experiments elsewhere have suggested that major axes of the ellipse of anisotropic susceptibility (K1 major; K3 minor) could be aligned with the direction of propagation of the shockwave accompanying impact processes. Insufficient exposures exist at Vista Alegre to test this hypothesis. Oriented samples along a NNW-trending diametral profile across the better exposed Vargeão structure did not show a radial alignment of either K1 or K3 relative to the centre of that structure. In general, the mean susceptibility at Vargeão is lower towards the center; the degree of anisotropy is low (Pjcentral uplift. The shape factor (T) varies considerably (-0.5 (prolate) to +0.7 (oblate)); most magnetofabrics are oblate. Only 3 of 16 sites are prolate, and those are near the crater margin. K3 (minimum) axes are mainly steep, with a mean direction steep and slightly north of the center. K1 (maximum) axes are mainly gently plunging (tendency to preferring

  20. Using mixed methods to assess fidelity of delivery and its influencing factors in a complex self-management intervention for people with osteoarthritis and low back pain.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Toomey, Elaine

    2017-08-04

    Despite an increasing awareness of the importance of fidelity of delivery within complex behaviour change interventions, it is often poorly assessed. This mixed methods study aimed to establish the fidelity of delivery of a complex self-management intervention and explore the reasons for these findings using a convergent\\/triangulation design.

  1. HLA-DQB1*03 confers susceptibility to chronic hepatitis C in Japanese: a genome-wide association study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daiki Miki

    Full Text Available Hepatitis C virus (HCV establishes a chronic infection in 70-80% of infected individuals. Many researchers have examined the effect of human leukocyte antigen (HLA on viral persistence because of its critical role in the immune response against exposure to HCV, but almost all studies have proven to be inconclusive. To identify genetic risk factors for chronic HCV infection, we analyzed 458,207 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs in 481 chronic HCV patients and 2,963 controls in a Japanese cohort. Next, we performed a replication study with an independent panel of 4,358 cases and 1,114 controls. We further confirmed the association in 1,379 cases and 25,817 controls. In the GWAS phase, we found 17 SNPs that showed suggestive association (P < 1 × 10⁻⁵. After the first replication study, we found one intronic SNP in the HLA-DQ locus associated with chronic HCV infection, and when we combined the two studies, the association reached the level of genome-wide significance. In the second replication study, we again confirmed the association (P(combined = 3.59 × 10⁻¹⁶, odds ratio [OR] = 0.79. Subsequent analysis revealed another SNP, rs1130380, with a stronger association (OR=0.72. This nucleotide substitution causes an amino acid substitution (R55P in the HLA-DQB1 protein specific to the DQB1*03 allele, which is common worldwide. In addition, we confirmed an association with the previously reported IFNL3-IFNL4 locus and propose that the effect of DQB1*03 on HCV persistence might be affected by the IFNL4 polymorphism. Our findings suggest that a common amino acid substitution in HLA-DQB1 affects susceptibility to chronic infection with HCV in the Japanese population and may not be independent of the IFNL4 genotype.

  2. Study of susceptibility to hydrogen embrittlement of welded joints of large WWER reactor vessels at different temperatures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mazel', R.E.; Kuznetsova, T.P.; Grinenko, V.G.; Sapronova, M.N.

    1977-01-01

    The effect is studied of hydrogen and a coolant of WWER on the susceptibility to brittle fracture of welded joints from steels 15Kh2MFA and 15Kh2NMFA obtained by automatic submerged arc welding with the use of the welding materials of different purity. The effect of hydrogen (concentration range 0.5-7.5 cm 3 /100 g, testing temperatures 20, 70 and 325 deg C) and the coolant (pressures up to 120 atm, temperatures 20-350 deg C) have been estimated by the fracture work during static bending tests. It is shown that the purification of the welding materials enhances the fracture properties by about a factor of 2. Hydrogenation results in a sharp drop (by about a factor of 3) of the fracture work. The increased testing temperature (up to 325 deg C) is accompanied by disappearance of the effect of hydrogen embrittlement, which is explained by an increase in the diffusion mobility of atomic hydrogen. Under the action of the coolant the fracture work shows a two-fold decrease, while the pressure being increased up to 100 atm leads to greater fracture work decrease

  3. Intervention Fidelity for a Complex Behaviour Change Intervention in Community Pharmacy Addressing Cardiovascular Disease Risk

    Science.gov (United States)

    McNamara, K. P.; O'Reilly, S. L.; George, J.; Peterson, G. M.; Jackson, S. L.; Duncan, G.; Howarth, H.; Dunbar, J. A.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Delivery of cardiovascular disease (CVD) prevention programs by community pharmacists appears effective and enhances health service access. However, their capacity to implement complex behavioural change processes during patient counselling remains largely unexplored. This study aims to determine intervention fidelity by pharmacists…

  4. The KiVa antibullying curriculum and outcome: Does fidelity matter?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Haataja, A.; Voeten, M.J.M.; Boulton, A.J.; Ahtola, A.; Poskiparta, E.H.; Salmivalli, C.

    2014-01-01

    Research on school-based prevention suggests that the success of prevention programs depends on whether they are implemented as intended. In antibullying program evaluations, however, limited attention has been paid to implementation fidelity. The present study fills in this gap by examining the

  5. Evidence that soil aluminum enforces site fidelity of southern New England forest trees

    Science.gov (United States)

    S. W. Bigelow; C. D. Canham

    2010-01-01

    Tree species composition of hardwood forests of the northeastern United States corresponds with soil chemistry, and differential performance along soil calcium (Ca) gradients has been proposed as a mechanism for enforcing this fidelity of species to site. We conducted studies in a southern New England forest to test if surface-soil Ca is more important than other...

  6. The Fidelity of Implementation of the Response to Intervention (RTI) Process in Missouri Public Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drury, Debra A.

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this problem-based study was to gather data which analyzed the degree of fidelity of implementation of Response to Intervention as reported by building principals in the State of Missouri. The project began when team members, providing professional development for the Response to Intervention process, came to the conclusion there…

  7. High fidelity simulation effectiveness in nursing students' transfer of learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirkman, Tera R

    2013-07-13

    Members of nursing faculty are utilizing interactive teaching tools to improve nursing student's clinical judgment; one method that has been found to be potentially effective is high fidelity simulation (HFS). The purpose of this time series design study was to determine whether undergraduate nursing students were able to transfer knowledge and skills learned from classroom lecture and a HFS clinical to the traditional clinical setting. Students (n=42) were observed and rated on their ability to perform a respiratory assessment. The observations and ratings took place at the bedside, prior to a respiratory lecture, following the respiratory lecture, and following simulation clinical. The findings indicated that there was a significant difference (p=0.000) in transfer of learning demonstrated over time. Transfer of learning was demonstrated and the use of HFS was found to be an effective learning and teaching method. Implications of results are discussed.

  8. Rapid identification and antimicrobial susceptibility testing of positive blood cultures using MALDI-TOF MS and a modification of the standardised disc diffusion test: a pilot study.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Fitzgerald, C

    2016-04-27

    In an era when clinical microbiology laboratories are under increasing financial pressure, there is a need for inexpensive, yet effective, rapid microbiology tests. The aim of this study was to evaluate a novel modification of standard methodology for the identification and antimicrobial susceptibility testing (AST) of pathogens in positive blood cultures, reducing the turnaround time of laboratory results by 24 h.

  9. A meta-analysis of genome-wide association studies to identify prostate cancer susceptibility loci associated with aggressive and non-aggressive disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Amin Al Olama, Ali; Kote-Jarai, Zsofia; Schumacher, Fredrick R

    2013-01-01

    Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have identified multiple common genetic variants associated with an increased risk of prostate cancer (PrCa), but these explain less than one-third of the heritability. To identify further susceptibility alleles, we conducted a meta-analysis of four GWAS inc...

  10. Studies of. gamma. -ray irradiation effects on tris(. beta. -diketonato)iron(III) and cobalt(III) coordination compounds by means of Moessbauer spectroscopy and magnetic susceptibility measurements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sakai, Y.; Endo, K.; Sano, H. (Tokyo Metropolitan Univ. (Japan). Faculty of Science)

    1981-06-01

    Both absorption Moessbauer spectroscopy and magnetic susceptibility measurements on tris(..beta..-diketonato)iron(III) and cobalt(III) compounds indicate that ligands which have phenyl group as a substituent are more stable to ..gamma..-ray radiolysis, in accordance with previous results of emission Moessbauer spectroscopic studies of /sup 57/Co-labelled tris (..beta..-diketonato)cobalt(III) compounds.

  11. A meta-analysis of genome-wide association studies of breast cancer identifies two novel susceptibility loci at 6q14 and 20q11

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Siddiq, Afshan; Couch, Fergus J.; Chen, Gary K.; Lindström, Sara; Eccles, Diana; Millikan, Robert C.; Michailidou, Kyriaki; Stram, Daniel O.; Beckmann, Lars; Rhie, Suhn Kyong; Ambrosone, Christine B.; Aittomäki, Kristiina; Amiano, Pilar; Apicella, Carmel; Baglietto, Laura; Bandera, Elisa V.; Beckmann, Matthias W.; Berg, Christine D.; Bernstein, Leslie; Blomqvist, Carl; Brauch, Hiltrud; Brinton, Louise; Bui, Quang M.; Buring, Julie E.; Buys, Saundra S.; Campa, Daniele; Carpenter, Jane E.; Chasman, Daniel I.; Chang-Claude, Jenny; Chen, Constance; Clavel-Chapelon, Françoise; Cox, Angela; Cross, Simon S.; Czene, Kamila; Deming, Sandra L.; Diasio, Robert B.; Diver, W. Ryan; Dunning, Alison M.; Durcan, Lorraine; Ekici, Arif B.; Fasching, Peter A.; Feigelson, Heather Spencer; Fejerman, Laura; Figueroa, Jonine D.; Fletcher, Olivia; Flesch-Janys, Dieter; Gaudet, Mia M.; Gerty, Susan M.; Rodriguez-Gil, Jorge L.; Giles, Graham G.; van Gils, Carla H.; Godwin, Andrew K.; Graham, Nikki; Greco, Dario; Hall, Per; Hankinson, Susan E.; Hartmann, Arndt; Hein, Rebecca; Heinz, Judith; Hoover, Robert N.; Hopper, John L.; Hu, Jennifer J.; Huntsman, Scott; Ingles, Sue A.; Irwanto, Astrid; Isaacs, Claudine; Jacobs, Kevin B.; John, Esther M.; Justenhoven, Christina; Kaaks, Rudolf; Kolonel, Laurence N.; Coetzee, Gerhard A.; Lathrop, Mark; Le Marchand, Loic; Lee, Adam M.; Lee, I.-Min; Lesnick, Timothy; Lichtner, Peter; Liu, Jianjun; Lund, Eiliv; Makalic, Enes; Martin, Nicholas G.; McLean, Catriona A.; Meijers-Heijboer, Hanne; Meindl, Alfons; Miron, Penelope; Monroe, Kristine R.; Montgomery, Grant W.; Müller-Myhsok, Bertram; Nickels, Stefan; Nyante, Sarah J.; Olswold, Curtis; Overvad, Kim; Palli, Domenico; Park, Daniel J.; Palmer, Julie R.; Pathak, Harsh; Peto, Julian; Pharoah, Paul; Rahman, Nazneen; Rivadeneira, Fernando; Schmidt, Daniel F.; Schmutzler, Rita K.; Slager, Susan; Southey, Melissa C.; Stevens, Kristen N.; Sinn, Hans-Peter; Press, Michael F.; Ross, Eric; Riboli, Elio; Ridker, Paul M.; Schumacher, Fredrick R.; Severi, Gianluca; dos Santos Silva, Isabel; Stone, Jennifer; Sund, Malin; Tapper, William J.; Thun, Michael J.; Travis, Ruth C.; Turnbull, Clare; Uitterlinden, Andre G.; Waisfisz, Quinten; Wang, Xianshu; Wang, Zhaoming; Weaver, Joellen; Schulz-Wendtland, Rüdiger; Wilkens, Lynne R.; van den Berg, David; Zheng, Wei; Ziegler, Regina G.; Ziv, Elad; Nevanlinna, Heli; Easton, Douglas F.; Hunter, David J.; Henderson, Brian E.; Chanock, Stephen J.; Garcia-Closas, Montserrat; Kraft, Peter; Haiman, Christopher A.; Vachon, Celine M.

    2012-01-01

    Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) of breast cancer defined by hormone receptor status have revealed loci contributing to susceptibility of estrogen receptor (ER)-negative subtypes. To identify additional genetic variants for ER-negative breast cancer, we conducted the largest meta-analysis of

  12. Species distribution and susceptibility profile to fluconazole, voriconazole and MXP-4509 of 551 clinical yeast isolates from a Romanian multi-centre study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Minea, B; Nastasa, V; Moraru, R F; Kolecka, A; Flonta, M M; Marincu, I; Man, A; Toma, F; Lupse, M; Doroftei, B; Marangoci, N; Pinteala, M; Boekhout, T; Mares, M

    This is the first multi-centre study regarding yeast infections in Romania. The aim was to determine the aetiological spectrum and susceptibility pattern to fluconazole, voriconazole and the novel compound MXP-4509. The 551 isolates were identified using routine laboratory methods, matrix-assisted

  13. Sinkhole susceptibility mapping using the analytical hierarchy process (AHP) and magnitude-frequency relationships: A case study in Hamadan province, Iran

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taheri, Kamal; Gutiérrez, Francisco; Mohseni, Hassan; Raeisi, Ezzat; Taheri, Milad

    2015-04-01

    Since 1989, an increasing number of sinkhole occurrences have been reported in the Kabudar Ahang and Razan-Qahavand subcatchments (KRQ) of Hamadan province, western Iran. The sinkhole-related subsidence phenomenon poses a significant threat for people and human structures, including sensitive facilities like the Hamadan Power Plant. Groundwater over-exploitation from the thick alluvial cover and the underlying cavernous limestone has been identified as the main factor involved in sinkhole development. A sinkhole susceptibility model was produced in a GIS environment applying the analytical hierarchy process (AHP) approach and considering a selection of eight factors, each categorized into five classes: distance to faults (DF), water level decline (WLD), groundwater exploitation (GE), penetration of deep wells into karst bedrock (PKA), distance to deep wells (DDW), groundwater alkalinity (GA), bedrock lithology (BL), and alluvium thickness (AT). Relative weights were preliminarily assigned to each factor and to their different classes through systematic pairwise comparisons based on expert judgment. The resulting sinkhole susceptibility index (SSI) values were then classified into four susceptibility classes: low, moderate, high and very high susceptibility. Subsequently, the model was refined through a trial and error process involving changes in the relative weights and iterative evaluation of the prediction capability. Independent evaluation of the final model indicates that 55% and 45% of the subsidence events fall within the very high and high, susceptibility zones, respectively. The results of this study show that AHP can be a useful approach for susceptibility assessment if data on the main controlling factors have sufficient accuracy and spatial coverage. The limitations of the model are partly related to the difficulty of gathering data on some important geological factors, due to their hidden nature. The magnitude and frequency relationship constructed

  14. Methodological issues in detecting gene-gene interactions in breast cancer susceptibility: a population-based study in Ontario

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Onay Venus

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background There is growing evidence that gene-gene interactions are ubiquitous in determining the susceptibility to common human diseases. The investigation of such gene-gene interactions presents new statistical challenges for studies with relatively small sample sizes as the number of potential interactions in the genome can be large. Breast cancer provides a useful paradigm to study genetically complex diseases because commonly occurring single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs may additively or synergistically disturb the system-wide communication of the cellular processes leading to cancer development. Methods In this study, we systematically studied SNP-SNP interactions among 19 SNPs from 18 key genes involved in major cancer pathways in a sample of 398 breast cancer cases and 372 controls from Ontario. We discuss the methodological issues associated with the detection of SNP-SNP interactions in this dataset by applying and comparing three commonly used methods: the logistic regression model, classification and regression trees (CART, and the multifactor dimensionality reduction (MDR method. Results Our analyses show evidence for several simple (two-way and complex (multi-way SNP-SNP interactions associated with breast cancer. For example, all three methods identified XPD-[Lys751Gln]*IL10-[G(-1082A] as the most significant two-way interaction. CART and MDR identified the same critical SNPs participating in complex interactions. Our results suggest that the use of multiple statistical approaches (or an integrated approach rather than a single methodology could be the best strategy to elucidate complex gene interactions that have generally very different patterns. Conclusion The strategy used here has the potential to identify complex biological relationships among breast cancer genes and processes. This will lead to the discovery of novel biological information, which will improve breast cancer risk management.

  15. The Effect of Model Fidelity on Learning Outcomes of a Simulation-Based Education Program for Central Venous Catheter Insertion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diederich, Emily; Mahnken, Jonathan D; Rigler, Sally K; Williamson, Timothy L; Tarver, Stephen; Sharpe, Matthew R

    2015-12-01

    Simulation-based education for central venous catheter (CVC) insertion has been repeatedly documented to improve performance, but the impact of simulation model fidelity has not been described. The aim of this study was to examine the impact of the physical fidelity of the simulation model on learning outcomes for a simulation-based education program for CVC insertion. Forty consecutive residents rotating through the medical intensive care unit of an academic medical center completed a simulation-based education program for CVC insertion. The curriculum was designed in accordance with the principles of deliberate practice and mastery learning. Each resident underwent baseline skills testing and was then randomized to training on a commercially available CVC model with high physical fidelity (High-Fi group) or a simply constructed model with low physical fidelity (Low-Fi group) in a noninferiority trial. Upon completion of their medical intensive care unit rotation 4 weeks later, residents returned for repeat skills testing on the high-fidelity model using a 26-item checklist. The mean (SD) posttraining score on the 26-item checklist for the Low-Fi group was 23.8 (2.2) (91.5%) and was not inferior to the mean (SD) score for the High-Fi group of 22.5 (2.6) (86.5%) (P Simulation-based education using equipment with low physical fidelity can achieve learning outcomes comparable with those with high-fidelity equipment, as long as other aspects of fidelity are maintained and robust educational principles are applied during the design of the curriculum.

  16. Genetic fidelity and variability of micropropagated cassava plants (Manihot esculenta Crantz) evaluated using ISSR markers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vidal, Á M; Vieira, L J; Ferreira, C F; Souza, F V D; Souza, A S; Ledo, C A S

    2015-07-14

    Molecular markers are efficient for assessing the genetic fidelity of various species of plants after in vitro culture. In this study, we evaluated the genetic fidelity and variability of micropropagated cassava plants (Manihot esculenta Crantz) using inter-simple sequence repeat markers. Twenty-two cassava accessions from the Embrapa Cassava & Fruits Germplasm Bank were used. For each accession, DNA was extracted from a plant maintained in the field and from 3 plants grown in vitro. For DNA amplification, 27 inter-simple sequence repeat primers were used, of which 24 generated 175 bands; 100 of those bands were polymorphic and were used to study genetic variability among accessions of cassava plants maintained in the field. Based on the genetic distance matrix calculated using the arithmetic complement of the Jaccard's index, genotypes were clustered using the unweighted pair group method using arithmetic averages. The number of bands per primer was 2-13, with an average of 7.3. For most micropropagated accessions, the fidelity study showed no genetic variation between plants of the same accessions maintained in the field and those maintained in vitro, confirming the high genetic fidelity of the micropropagated plants. However, genetic variability was observed among different accessions grown in the field, and clustering based on the dissimilarity matrix revealed 7 groups. Inter-simple sequence repeat markers were efficient for detecting the genetic homogeneity of cassava plants derived from meristem culture, demonstrating the reliability of this propagation system.

  17. Genome-wide association study for type 2 diabetes in Indians identifies a new susceptibility locus at 2q21.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tabassum, Rubina; Chauhan, Ganesh; Dwivedi, Om Prakash; Mahajan, Anubha; Jaiswal, Alok; Kaur, Ismeet; Bandesh, Khushdeep; Singh, Tejbir; Mathai, Benan John; Pandey, Yogesh; Chidambaram, Manickam; Sharma, Amitabh; Chavali, Sreenivas; Sengupta, Shantanu; Ramakrishnan, Lakshmi; Venkatesh, Pradeep; Aggarwal, Sanjay K; Ghosh, Saurabh; Prabhakaran, Dorairaj; Srinath, Reddy K; Saxena, Madhukar; Banerjee, Monisha; Mathur, Sandeep; Bhansali, Anil; Shah, Viral N; Madhu, Sri Venkata; Marwaha, Raman K; Basu, Analabha; Scaria, Vinod; McCarthy, Mark I; Venkatesan, Radha; Mohan, Viswanathan; Tandon, Nikhil; Bharadwaj, Dwaipayan

    2013-03-01

    Indians undergoing socioeconomic and lifestyle transitions will be maximally affected by epidemic of type 2 diabetes (T2D). We conducted a two-stage genome-wide association study of T2D in 12,535 Indians, a less explored but high-risk group. We identified a new type 2 diabetes-associated locus at 2q21, with the lead signal being rs6723108 (odds ratio 1.31; P = 3.32 × 10⁻⁹). Imputation analysis refined the signal to rs998451 (odds ratio 1.56; P = 6.3 × 10⁻¹²) within TMEM163 that encodes a probable vesicular transporter in nerve terminals. TMEM163 variants also showed association with decreased fasting plasma insulin and homeostatic model assessment of insulin resistance, indicating a plausible effect through impaired insulin secretion. The 2q21 region also harbors RAB3GAP1 and ACMSD; those are involved in neurologic disorders. Forty-nine of 56 previously reported signals showed consistency in direction with similar effect sizes in Indians and previous studies, and 25 of them were also associated (P < 0.05). Known loci and the newly identified 2q21 locus altogether explained 7.65% variance in the risk of T2D in Indians. Our study suggests that common susceptibility variants for T2D are largely the same across populations, but also reveals a population-specific locus and provides further insights into genetic architecture and etiology of T2D.

  18. A Histological Study of Aspergillus flavus Colonization of Wound Inoculated Maize Kernels of Resistant and Susceptible Maize Hybrids in the Field

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gary L. Windham

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Aspergillus flavus colonization in developing kernels of maize single-cross hybrids resistant (Mp313E × Mp717 and susceptible (GA209 × T173 to aflatoxin accumulation was determined in the field over three growing seasons (2012–2014. Plants were hand pollinated, and individual kernels were inoculated with a needle dipped in a suspension of A. flavus conidia 21 days after pollination. Kernels were harvested at 1- to 2-day intervals from 1 to 21 days after inoculation (DAI. Kernels were placed in FAA fixative, dehydrated, embedded in paraffin, sectioned, and stained with toluidine blue. Kernels were also collected additional kernels for aflatoxin analyses in 2013 and 2014. At 2 DAI, A. flavus hyphae were observed among endosperm cells in the susceptible hybrid, but colonization of the endosperm in the resistant hybrid was limited to the wound site of the resistant hybrid. Sections of the scutellum of the susceptible hybrid were colonized by A. flavus by 5 DAI. Fungal growth was slower in the resistant hybrid compared to the susceptible hybrid. By 10 DAI, A. flavus had colonized a large section of the embryo in the susceptible hybrid; whereas in the resistant hybrid, approximately half of the endosperm had been colonized and very few cells in the embryo were colonized. Fungal colonization in some of the kernels of the resistant hybrid was slowed in the aleurone layer or at the endosperm-scutellum interface. In wounded kernels with intact aleurone layers, the fungus spread around the kernel between the pericarp and aleurone layer with minimal colonization of the endosperm. Aflatoxin B1 was first detected in susceptible kernel tissues 8 DAI in 2013 (14 μg/kg and 2014 (18 μg/kg. The resistant hybrid had significantly lower levels of aflatoxin accumulation compared to the susceptible hybrid at harvests 10, 21, and 28 DAI in 2013, and 20 and 24 DAI in 2014. Our study found differential A. flavus colonization of susceptible and resistant kernel

  19. Foot-and-mouth disease virus type O specific mutations determine RNA-dependent RNA polymerase fidelity and virus attenuation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Chen; Wang, Haiwei; Yuan, Tiangang; Woodman, Andrew; Yang, Decheng; Zhou, Guohui; Cameron, Craig E; Yu, Li

    2018-05-01

    Previous studies have shown that the FMDV Asia1/YS/CHA/05 high-fidelity mutagen-resistant variants are attenuated (Zeng et al., 2014). Here, we introduced the same single or multiple-amino-acid substitutions responsible for increased 3D pol fidelity of type Asia1 FMDV into the type O FMDV O/YS/CHA/05 infectious clone. The rescued viruses O-DA and O-DAMM are lower replication fidelity mutants and showed an attenuated phenotype. These results demonstrated that the same amino acid substitution of 3D pol in different serotypes of FMDV strains had different effects on viral fidelity. In addition, nucleoside analogues were used to select high-fidelity mutagen-resistant type O FMDV variants. The rescued mutagen-resistant type O FMDV high-fidelity variants exhibited significantly attenuated fitness and a reduced virulence phenotype. These results have important implications for understanding the molecular mechanism of FMDV evolution and pathogenicity, especially in developing a safer modified live-attenuated vaccine against FMDV. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. High-Fidelity Piezoelectric Audio Device

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woodward, Stanley E.; Fox, Robert L.; Bryant, Robert G.

    2003-01-01

    ModalMax is a very innovative means of harnessing the vibration of a piezoelectric actuator to produce an energy efficient low-profile device with high-bandwidth high-fidelity audio response. The piezoelectric audio device outperforms many commercially available speakers made using speaker cones. The piezoelectric device weighs substantially less (4 g) than the speaker cones which use magnets (10 g). ModalMax devices have extreme fabrication simplicity. The entire audio device is fabricated by lamination. The simplicity of the design lends itself to lower cost. The piezoelectric audio device can be used without its acoustic chambers and thereby resulting in a very low thickness of 0.023 in. (0.58 mm). The piezoelectric audio device can be completely encapsulated, which makes it very attractive for use in wet environments. Encapsulation does not significantly alter the audio response. Its small size (see Figure 1) is applicable to many consumer electronic products, such as pagers, portable radios, headphones, laptop computers, computer monitors, toys, and electronic games. The audio device can also be used in automobile or aircraft sound systems.

  1. Status report on high fidelity reactor simulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Palmiotti, G.; Smith, M.; Rabiti, C.; Lewis, E.; Yang, W.; Leclere, M.; Siegel, A.; Fischer, P.; Kaushik, D.; Ragusa, J.; Lottes, J.; Smith, B.

    2006-01-01

    This report presents the effort under way at Argonne National Laboratory toward a comprehensive, integrated computational tool intended mainly for the high-fidelity simulation of sodium-cooled fast reactors. The main activities carried out involved neutronics, thermal hydraulics, coupling strategies, software architecture, and high-performance computing. A new neutronics code, UNIC, is being developed. The first phase involves the application of a spherical harmonics method to a general, unstructured three-dimensional mesh. The method also has been interfaced with a method of characteristics. The spherical harmonics equations were implemented in a stand-alone code that was then used to solve several benchmark problems. For thermal hydraulics, a computational fluid dynamics code called Nek5000, developed in the Mathematics and Computer Science Division for coupled hydrodynamics and heat transfer, has been applied to a single-pin, periodic cell in the wire-wrap geometry typical of advanced burner reactors. Numerical strategies for multiphysics coupling have been considered and higher-accuracy efficient methods proposed to finely simulate coupled neutronic/thermal-hydraulic reactor transients. Initial steps have been taken in order to couple UNIC and Nek5000, and simplified problems have been defined and solved for testing. Furthermore, we have begun developing a lightweight computational framework, based in part on carefully selected open source tools, to nonobtrusively and efficiently integrate the individual physics modules into a unified simulation tool

  2. A functional haplotype of NFKB1 influence susceptibility to oral cancer: a population-based and in vitro study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Fa; Liu, Fengqiong; Yan, Lingjun; Lin, Lisong; Qiu, Yu; Wang, Jing; Wu, Junfeng; Bao, Xiaodan; Hu, Zhijian; Cai, Lin; He, Baochang

    2018-05-01

    Genetic variations of NF-κB and its inhibitor IκB genes and their biological mechanism in oral cancer were not well recognized. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the associations of polymorphisms in NFKB1 and NFKBIA with oral cancer susceptibility, and further explore their potential mechanism in vitro. First, the polymorphisms of NFKB1 and NFKBIA were genotyped through iPLEX Sequenom MassARRAY platform in a case-control study with 425 oral cancer patients and 485 healthy controls. Then, the function was explored by a luciferase reporter assay and an electrophoretic mobility shift assay (EMSA) in human tongue squamous cell carcinoma cell lines. The results indicated that NFKB1 rs28362491 Del/Del and rs72696119 G/G genotypes were associated with the risk of oral cancer, with a strong linkage disequilibrium (D' = 0.991, r 2  = 0.971). Moreover, DG haplotype of NFKB1 also showed a significant increased risk (OR = 1.25, 95% CI: 1.02-1.53, P = 0.030). Dual-luciferase reporter assays further revealed that the plasmids with DG or IG or DC haplotype transfected with Tca-8113 cells or CAL-27 cells had a lower luciferase expression than that with IC haplotype. EMSA demonstrated that 4-bp ATTG deletion in the promoter of NFKB1 abolished the binding site of transcription factor. Our preliminary findings suggest that the haplotype of rs28362491 and rs72696119 in NFKB1 could act as a novel genetic marker to predict oral cancer risk in the southeast of China, but much more extensive researches still need to be conducted. © 2018 The Authors. Cancer Medicine published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  3. Flood susceptibility assessment in a highly urbanized alluvial fan: the case study of Sala Consilina (southern Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Santangelo

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with the risk assessment to alluvial fan flooding at the piedmont zone of carbonate massifs of the southern Apennines chain (southern Italy. These areas are prime spots for urban development and are generally considered to be safer than the valley floors. As a result, villages and towns have been built on alluvial fans which, during intense storms, may be affected by flooding and/or debris flow processes.

    The study area is located at the foothills of the Maddalena mountains, an elongated NW-SE trending ridge which bounds to the east the wide intermontane basin of Vallo di Diano. The area comprises a wide detrital talus (bajada made up by coalescent alluvial fans, ranging in age from the Middle Pleistocene to the Holocene. Historical analysis was carried out to ascertain the state of activity of the fans and to identify and map the zones most hit by past flooding. According to the information gathered, the Sala Consilina fans would appear prone to debris flows; in the past these processes have produced extensive damage and loss of life in the urban area. The watershed basins feeding the fans have very low response times and may produce debris flow events with high magnitudes. Taking into account the historical damage, the fan surface morphology, and the present urban development (street orientation and hydraulic network, the piedmont area was zoned and various susceptibility classes were detected. These results may represent a useful tool for studies aiming at territorial hazard mapping and civil protection interventions.

  4. Beyond disease susceptibility-Leveraging genome-wide association studies for new insights into complex disease biology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, J C

    2017-12-01

    Genetic studies in complex diseases have been highly successful, but have also been largely one-dimensional: predominantly focusing on the genetic contribution to disease susceptibility. While this is undoubtedly important-indeed it is a pre-requisite for understanding the mechanisms underlying disease development-there are many other important aspects of disease biology that have received comparatively little attention. In this review, I will discuss how existing genetic data can be leveraged to provide new insights into other aspects of disease biology, why such insights could change the way we think about complex disease, and how this could provide opportunities for better therapies and/or facilitate personalised medicine. To do this, I will use the example of Crohn's disease-a chronic form of inflammatory bowel disease that has been one of the main success stories in complex disease genetics. Indeed, thanks to genetic studies, we now have a much more detailed understanding of the processes involved in Crohn's disease development, but still know relatively little about what determines the subsequent disease course (prognosis) and why this differs so considerably between individuals. I will discuss how we came to realise that genetic variation plays an important role in determining disease prognosis and how this has changed the way we think about Crohn's disease genetics. This will illustrate how phenotypic data can be used to leverage new insights from genetic data and will provide a broadly applicable framework that could yield new insights into the biology of multiple diseases. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  5. Alcohol-related cancers and genetic susceptibility in Europe: the ARCAGE project: study samples and data collection.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Lagiou, Pagona

    2009-02-01

    Cancers of the upper aerodigestive tract (UADT) include those of the oral cavity, pharynx (other than nasopharynx), larynx, and esophagus. Tobacco smoking and consumption of alcoholic beverages are established causes of UADT cancers, whereas reduced intake of vegetables and fruits are likely causes. The role of genetic predisposition and possible interactions of genetic with exogenous factors, however, have not been adequately studied. Moreover, the role of pattern of smoking and drinking, as well as the exact nature of the implicated dietary variables, has not been clarified. To address these issues, the International Agency for Research on Cancer initiated in 2002 the alcohol-related cancers and genetic susceptibility (ARCAGE) in Europe project, with the participation of 15 centers in 11 European countries. Information and biological data from a total of 2304 cases and 2227 controls have been collected and will be used in a series of analyses. A total of 166 single nucleotide polymorphisms of 76 genes are being studied for genetic associations with UADT cancers. We report here the methodology of the ARCAGE project, main demographic and lifestyle characteristics of the cases and controls, as well as the distribution of cases by histology and subsite. About 80% of cases were males and fewer than 20% of all cases occurred before the age of 50 years. Overall, the most common subsite was larynx, followed by oral cavity, oropharynx, esophagus and hypopharynx. Close to 90% of UADT cancers were squamous cell carcinomas. A clear preponderance of smokers and alcohol drinkers among UADT cases compared with controls was observed.

  6. Relationship Between Self-Assessed Fidelity and Self-Reported Employment in the Individual Placement and Support Model of Supported Employment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Margolies, Paul J; Humensky, Jennifer L; Chiang, I-Chin; Covell, Nancy H; Jewell, Thomas C; Broadway-Wilson, Karen; Gregory, Raymond; Scannevin, Gary; Dixon, Lisa B

    2018-05-01

    A growing body of literature demonstrates that high-fidelity implementation of the individual placement and support (IPS) model of supported employment increases the chances of achieving desired outcomes. This study examined the relationship between IPS fidelity, as self-reported by program sites, and employment outcomes and determined whether this relationship was maintained over time. A total of 78 outpatient programs in New York State provided data on self-reported IPS fidelity and employment outcomes. Pearson correlations were used to determine the relationship between fidelity scores and competitive employment rates. A mixed-effects model examined the relationship between repeated fidelity and employment measures over time. A significant positive relationship was found between better self-reported IPS fidelity and greater employment. The relationship between IPS fidelity and employment was sustained over time (up to one year). Higher-fidelity implementation of the IPS model, as self-assessed by program sites, was associated with higher employment rates, which were sustained over time.

  7. Environmental influences on patterns of vertical movement and site fidelity of grey reef sharks (Carcharhinus amblyrhynchos at aggregation sites.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriel M S Vianna

    Full Text Available We used acoustic telemetry to describe the patterns of vertical movement, site fidelity and residency of grey reef sharks (Carcharhinus amblyrhynchos on the outer slope of coral reefs in Palau, Micronesia, over a period of two years and nine months. We tagged 39 sharks (mostly adult females of which 31 were detected regularly throughout the study. Sharks displayed strong inter-annual residency with greater attendance at monitored sites during summer than winter months. More individuals were detected during the day than at night. Mean depths of tagged sharks increased from 35 m in winter to 60 m in spring following an increase in water temperature at 60 m, with maximum mean depths attained when water temperatures at 60 m stabilised around 29°C. Sharks descended to greater depths and used a wider range of depths around the time of the full moon. There were also crepuscular cycles in mean depth, with sharks moving into shallower waters at dawn and dusk each day. We suggest that daily, lunar and seasonal cycles in vertical movement and residency are strategies for optimising both energetic budgets and foraging behaviour. Cyclical patterns of movement in response to environmental variables might affect the susceptibility of reef sharks to fishing, a consideration that should be taken into account in the implementation of conservation strategies.

  8. Environmental influences on patterns of vertical movement and site fidelity of grey reef sharks (Carcharhinus amblyrhynchos) at aggregation sites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vianna, Gabriel M S; Meekan, Mark G; Meeuwig, Jessica J; Speed, Conrad W

    2013-01-01

    We used acoustic telemetry to describe the patterns of vertical movement, site fidelity and residency of grey reef sharks (Carcharhinus amblyrhynchos) on the outer slope of coral reefs in Palau, Micronesia, over a period of two years and nine months. We tagged 39 sharks (mostly adult females) of which 31 were detected regularly throughout the study. Sharks displayed strong inter-annual residency with greater attendance at monitored sites during summer than winter months. More individuals were detected during the day than at night. Mean depths of tagged sharks increased from 35 m in winter to 60 m in spring following an increase in water temperature at 60 m, with maximum mean depths attained when water temperatures at 60 m stabilised around 29°C. Sharks descended to greater depths and used a wider range of depths around the time of the full moon. There were also crepuscular cycles in mean depth, with sharks moving into shallower waters at dawn and dusk each day. We suggest that daily, lunar and seasonal cycles in vertical movement and residency are strategies for optimising both energetic budgets and foraging behaviour. Cyclical patterns of movement in response to environmental variables might affect the susceptibility of reef sharks to fishing, a consideration that should be taken into account in the implementation of conservation strategies.

  9. Genetic variations of MMP9 gene and intracerebral hemorrhage susceptibility: a case-control study in Chinese Han population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Jie; Wu, Bo; Lin, Sen; Zhou, Junshan; Li, Yingbin; Dong, Wei; Arima, Hisatomi; Zhang, Chanfei; Liu, Yukai; Liu, Ming

    2014-06-15

    To investigate the association between genetic variations of matrix metalloproteinase 9 (MMP9) gene and intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH) susceptibility in Chinese Han population. The clinical data and peripheral blood samples from the patients with ICH and hypertension, and controlled subjects with hypertension only, were collected. MassARRAY Analyzer was used to genotype the tagger single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) of MMP9 gene. Haploview4.2 and Unphased3.1.7 were employed to construct haplotypes and to analyze the association between genetic variations (alleles, genotypes and haplotypes) of MMP9 gene and ICH susceptibility. 181 patients with ICH and hypertension, and 197 patients with hypertension only, were recruited between Sep 2009 and Oct 2010. Patients in the ICH group were younger (61.80 ± 13.27 vs. 72.44 ± 12.71 years, ppopulation. Our logistical regression analysis showed that there were no significant associations between genetic variations of the MPP9 gene and ICH susceptibility (all p>0.05). The genetic variations of MMP9 gene were not significantly associated with ICH susceptibility in the Chinese Han population. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Sporadic colorectal cancer and individual susceptibility: A review of the association studies investigating the role of DNA repair genetic polymorphisms

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Naccarati, Alessio; Pardini, B.; Hemminki, K.; Vodička, Pavel

    2007-01-01

    Roč. 635, 2-3(2007), s.118-145 ISSN 1383-5742 R&D Projects: GA MZd NR8563; GA ČR GA310/05/2626 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50390512 Keywords : Sporadic colorectal cancer * Individual susceptibility * DNA repair Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 4.353, year: 2007

  11. Understanding the susceptibility to HIV of female and male students case study of LAMS school in Benin

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kissezounnon, M.S.

    2008-01-01

    This research project aims to understand the factors that influence susceptibility to HIV for female and male students in LAMS (Lycee Agricole Meidji o Sekou in Benin), in order to contribute to the reduction of the phenomenon. The results of questionnaires, group discussions and interviews show the

  12. Geographic Differences in Genetic Susceptibility to IgA Nephropathy: GWAS Replication Study and Geospatial Risk Analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kiryluk, Krzysztof; Li, Yifu; Sanna-Cherchi, Simone; Rohanizadegan, Mersedeh; Suzuki, Hitoshi; Eitner, Frank; Snyder, Holly J.; Choi, Murim; Hou, Ping; Scolari, Francesco; Izzi, Claudia; Gigante, Maddalena; Gesualdo, Loreto; Savoldi, Silvana; Amoroso, Antonio; Cusi, Daniele; Zamboli, Pasquale; Julian, Bruce A.; Novak, Jan; Wyatt, Robert J.; Mucha, Krzysztof; Perola, Markus; Kristiansson, Kati; Viktorin, Alexander; Magnusson, Patrik K.; Thorleifsson, Gudmar; Thorsteinsdottir, Unnur; Stefansson, Kari; Boland, Anne; Metzger, Marie; Thibaudin, Lise; Wanner, Christoph; Jager, Kitty J.; Goto, Shin; Maixnerova, Dita; Karnib, Hussein H.; Nagy, Judit; Panzer, Ulf; Xie, Jingyuan; Chen, Nan; Tesar, Vladimir; Narita, Ichiei; Berthoux, Francois; Floege, Jürgen; Stengel, Benedicte; Zhang, Hong; Lifton, Richard P.; Gharavi, Ali G.

    2012-01-01

    IgA nephropathy (IgAN), major cause of kidney failure worldwide, is common in Asians, moderately prevalent in Europeans, and rare in Africans. It is not known if these differences represent variation in genes, environment, or ascertainment. In a recent GWAS, we localized five IgAN susceptibility

  13. Degrees of reality: airway anatomy of high-fidelity human patient simulators and airway trainers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schebesta, Karl; Hüpfl, Michael; Rössler, Bernhard; Ringl, Helmut; Müller, Michael P; Kimberger, Oliver

    2012-06-01

    Human patient simulators and airway training manikins are widely used to train airway management skills to medical professionals. Furthermore, these patient simulators are employed as standardized "patients" to evaluate airway devices. However, little is known about how realistic these patient simulators and airway-training manikins really are. This trial aimed to evaluate the upper airway anatomy of four high-fidelity patient simulators and two airway trainers in comparison with actual patients by means of radiographic measurements. The volume of the pharyngeal airspace was the primary outcome parameter. Computed tomography scans of 20 adult trauma patients without head or neck injuries were compared with computed tomography scans of four high-fidelity patient simulators and two airway trainers. By using 14 predefined distances, two cross-sectional areas and three volume parameters of the upper airway, the manikins' similarity to a human patient was assessed. The pharyngeal airspace of all manikins differed significantly from the patients' pharyngeal airspace. The HPS Human Patient Simulator (METI®, Sarasota, FL) was the most realistic high-fidelity patient simulator (6/19 [32%] of all parameters were within the 95% CI of human airway measurements). The airway anatomy of four high-fidelity patient simulators and two airway trainers does not reflect the upper airway anatomy of actual patients. This finding may impact airway training and confound comparative airway device studies.

  14. Factors contributing to intervention fidelity in a multi-site chronic disease self-management program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perrin, Karen M; Burke, Somer Goad; O'Connor, Danielle; Walby, Gary; Shippey, Claire; Pitt, Seraphine; McDermott, Robert J; Forthofer, Melinda S

    2006-10-26

    Disease self-management programs have been a popular approach to reducing morbidity and mortality from chronic disease. Replicating an evidence-based disease management program successfully requires practitioners to ensure fidelity to the original program design. The Florida Health Literacy Study (FHLS) was conducted to investigate the implementation impact of the Pfizer, Inc. Diabetes Mellitus and Hypertension Disease Self-Management Program based on health literacy principles in 14 community health centers in Florida. The intervention components discussed include health educator recruitment and training, patient recruitment, class sessions, utilization of program materials, translation of program manuals, patient retention and follow-up, and technical assistance. This report describes challenges associated with achieving a balance between adaptation for cultural relevance and fidelity when implementing the health education program across clinic sites. This balance was necessary to achieve effectiveness of the disease self-management program. The FHLS program was implemented with a high degree of fidelity to the original design and used original program materials. Adaptations identified as advantageous to program participation are discussed, such as implementing alternate methods for recruiting patients and developing staff incentives for participation. Effective program implementation depends on the talent, skill and willing participation of clinic staff. Program adaptations that conserve staff time and resources and recognize their contribution can increase program effectiveness without jeopardizing its fidelity.

  15. Factors contributing to intervention fidelity in a multi-site chronic disease self-management program

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pitt Seraphine

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background and objectives Disease self-management programs have been a popular approach to reducing morbidity and mortality from chronic disease. Replicating an evidence-based disease management program successfully requires practitioners to ensure fidelity to the original program design. Methods The Florida Health Literacy Study (FHLS was conducted to investigate the implementation impact of the Pfizer, Inc. Diabetes Mellitus and Hypertension Disease Self-Management Program based on health literacy principles in 14 community health centers in Florida. The intervention components discussed include health educator recruitment and training, patient recruitment, class sessions, utilization of program materials, translation of program manuals, patient retention and follow-up, and technical assistance. Results This report describes challenges associated with achieving a balance between adaptation for cultural relevance and fidelity when implementing the health education program across clinic sites. This balance was necessary to achieve effectiveness of the disease self-management program. The FHLS program was implemented with a high degree of fidelity to the original design and used original program materials. Adaptations identified as advantageous to program participation are discussed, such as implementing alternate methods for recruiting patients and developing staff incentives for participation. Conclusion Effective program implementation depends on the talent, skill and willing participation of clinic staff. Program adaptations that conserve staff time and resources and recognize their contribution can increase program effectiveness without jeopardizing its fidelity.

  16. A comparative study on the effects of electron beam irradiation on imidacloprid-resistant and -susceptible Aphis gossypii (Hemiptera: Aphididae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yun, Seung-Hwan; Koo, Hyun-Na; Lee, Seon-Woo; Kim, Hyun Kyung; Kim, Yuri; Han, Bumsoo; Kim, Gil-Hah

    2015-07-01

    The melon and cotton aphid, Aphis gossypii, is a polyphagous insect pest. This study compared the development, reproduction, DNA damage, recovery, and gene expression in imidacloprid-resistant (IMI-R) and -susceptible (S) strains of A. gossypii by electron beam irradiation. When 1st instar nymphs were irradiated with 100 Gy, the fecundity (nymphs of F1 generation) of the resultant adults were completely inhibited. When adults were irradiated with 200 Gy, the number of total 1st instar nymphs produced per adult was 3.0±1.7 and 1.9±1.4 in the S and IMI-R strains, respectively, but adult development was completely suppressed. However, electron beam irradiation did not affect adult longevity in either the S or IMI-R strain. There was no statistically significant difference between the effect of irradiation on the S and IMI-R strains. Therefore, electron beam irradiation at 200 Gy could be used as a phytosanitary irradiation treatment for both S and IMI-R strains of A. gossypii. The DNA damage caused by electron beam irradiation was evaluated by an alkaline comet assay. Exposure to an electron beam (50 Gy) induced DNA damage that was repaired to a similar level as the untreated control group (0 Gy) over time. However, at more than 100 Gy, the DNA damage was not completely repaired. The expression of P450, HSP70, cuticle protein, and elongation factor genes were higher in the IMI-R strain than in the S strain.

  17. Identification of novel susceptibility Loci for kawasaki disease in a Han chinese population by a genome-wide association study.

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    Fuu-Jen Tsai

    Full Text Available Kawasaki disease (KD is an acute systemic vasculitis syndrome that primarily affects infants and young children. Its etiology is unknown; however, epidemiological findings suggest that genetic predisposition underlies disease susceptibility. Taiwan has the third-highest incidence of KD in the world, after Japan and Korea. To investigate novel mechanisms that might predispose individuals to KD, we conducted a genome-wide association study (GWAS in 250 KD patients and 446 controls in a Han Chinese population residing in Taiwan, and further validated our findings in an independent Han Chinese cohort of 208 cases and 366 controls. The most strongly associated single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs detected in the joint analysis corresponded to three novel loci. Among these KD-associated SNPs three were close to the COPB2 (coatomer protein complex beta-2 subunit gene: rs1873668 (p = 9.52×10⁻⁵, rs4243399 (p = 9.93×10⁻⁵, and rs16849083 (p = 9.93×10⁻⁵. We also identified a SNP in the intronic region of the ERAP1 (endoplasmic reticulum amino peptidase 1 gene (rs149481, p(best = 4.61×10⁻⁵. Six SNPs (rs17113284, rs8005468, rs10129255, rs2007467, rs10150241, and rs12590667 clustered in an area containing immunoglobulin heavy chain variable regions genes, with p(best-values between 2.08×10⁻⁵ and 8.93×10⁻⁶, were also identified. This is the first KD GWAS performed in a Han Chinese population. The novel KD candidates we identified have been implicated in T cell receptor signaling, regulation of proinflammatory cytokines, as well as antibody-mediated immune responses. These findings may lead to a better understanding of the underlying molecular pathogenesis of KD.

  18. Prevalence of diphtheria and tetanus antibodies among adults in Singapore: a national serological study to identify most susceptible population groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ang, L W; James, L; Goh, K T

    2016-03-01

    In view of waning antitoxin titres over time after the last vaccine dose against diphtheria and tetanus, we determined the immunity levels in adults to identify most susceptible groups for protection in Singapore. Our study involved residual sera from 3293 adults aged 18-79 who had participated in a national health survey in 2010. IgG antibody levels were determined using commercial enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Overall, 92.0% (95% confidence interval [CI]: 91.1-92.9%) had at least basic protection against diphtheria (antibody levels ≥0.01 IU/ml), while 71.4% (95% CI: 69.8-72.9%) had at least short-term protection against tetanus (antibody levels >0.1 IU/ml). The seroprevalence declined significantly with age for both diseases; the drop was most marked in the 50- to 59-year age group for diphtheria and 60- to 69-year age group for tetanus. There was a significant difference in seroprevalence by residency for diphtheria (92.8% among Singapore citizens versus 87.1% among permanent residents; P = 0.001). The seroprevalence for tetanus was significantly higher among males (83.2%) than females (62.4%) (P < 0.0005). It may be of value to consider additional vaccination efforts to protect older adults at higher risk for exposure against diphtheria and tetanus, particularly those travelling to areas where diphtheria is endemic or epidemic. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Faculty of Public Health. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  19. A comparative study on the effects of electron beam irradiation on imidacloprid-resistant and -susceptible Aphis gossypii (Hemiptera: Aphididae)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yun, Seung-Hwan; Koo, Hyun-Na; Lee, Seon-Woo; Kim, Hyun Kyung; Kim, Yuri; Han, Bumsoo; Kim, Gil-Hah

    2015-01-01

    The melon and cotton aphid, Aphis gossypii, is a polyphagous insect pest. This study compared the development, reproduction, DNA damage, recovery, and gene expression in imidacloprid-resistant (IMI-R) and -susceptible (S) strains of A. gossypii by electron beam irradiation. When 1st instar nymphs were irradiated with 100 Gy, the fecundity (nymphs of F 1 generation) of the resultant adults were completely inhibited. When adults were irradiated with 200 Gy, the number of total 1st instar nymphs produced per adult was 3.0±1.7 and 1.9±1.4 in the S and IMI-R strains, respectively, but adult development was completely suppressed. However, electron beam irradiation did not affect adult longevity in either the S or IMI-R strain. There was no statistically significant difference between the effect of irradiation on the S and IMI-R strains. Therefore, electron beam irradiation at 200 Gy could be used as a phytosanitary irradiation treatment for both S and IMI-R strains of A. gossypii. The DNA damage caused by electron beam irradiation was evaluated by an alkaline comet assay. Exposure to an electron beam (50 Gy) induced DNA damage that was repaired to a similar level as the untreated control group (0 Gy) over time. However, at more than 100 Gy, the DNA damage was not completely repaired. The expression of P450, HSP70, cuticle protein, and elongation factor genes were higher in the IMI-R strain than in the S strain. - Highlights: • Electron beam irradiation induces abnormal development in both the IMI-R and -S strain. • Electron beam irradiation induces DNA damage in both the S and IMI-R strain. • The expression of several specific genes were higher in the IMI-R strain. • 200 Gy could be used as a phytosanitary treatment for both strains of this species

  20. Does Mental Health Status Influence Susceptibility to the Physiologic Effects of Air Pollution? A Population Based Study of Canadian Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dales, Robert E; Cakmak, Sabit

    2016-01-01

    Both air pollution exposure and the presence of mental illness are associated with an increased risk of physical illness. To determine whether or not children with less favourable mental health are more susceptible to pulmonary and cardiovascular effects of ambient air pollution, compared to those who are mentally healthy. We carried out a cross-sectional study of 1,883 children between the ages of 6 and 17 years of age who participated in the Canadian Health Measures population survey between 2007 and 2009. Subjects were assigned the air pollution values obtained from the National Air Pollution monitor closest to their neighborhood. Lung function, heart rate and blood pressure were stratified by indicators of mental health. The latter were ascertained by questions about feelings of happiness, a diagnosed mood disorder, and the emotional symptom subscale of the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire. Among those who reported a mood disorder, an interquartile increase in ozone was associated with increases in systolic and diastolic pressures of 3.8 mmHg (95% CI 1.6, 5.9) and 3.0mmHg (95%CI 0.9, 5.2) respectively, and a decreases in FVC of 7.6% (95% CI 2.9, 12.3). No significant changes in these variables were observed in those who did not report a mood disorder. Among those with unfavourable emotional symptoms, ozone was associated with a 6.4% (95% CI 1.7, 11.3) increase in heart rate, a 4.1% (95%CI 1.2, 7.1) increase in systolic blood pressure, and a 6.0% (95% CI 1.4, 10.6) decrease in FEVl. No significant effect was seen in these variables among those with no emotional symptoms. In the Canadian population, children who report mood disorders or unfavourable emotional symptoms appear to be more vulnerable to the adverse physiologic effects of air pollution.

  1. A fMRI study on the impact of advertising for flavored e-cigarettes on susceptible young adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garrison, Kathleen A; O'Malley, Stephanie S; Gueorguieva, Ralitza; Krishnan-Sarin, Suchitra

    2018-05-01

    E-cigarettes are sold in flavors such as "skittles," "strawberrylicious," and "juicy fruit," and no restrictions are in place on marketing e-cigarettes to youth. Sweets/fruits depicted in e-cigarette advertisements may increase their appeal to youth and interfere with health warnings. This study tested a brain biomarker of product preference for sweet/fruit versus tobacco flavor e-cigarettes, and whether advertising for flavors interfered with warning labels. Participants (N = 26) were college-age young adults who had tried an e-cigarette and were susceptible to future e-cigarette use. They viewed advertisements in fMRI for sweet/fruit and tobacco flavor e-cigarettes, menthol and regular cigarettes, and control images of sweets/fruits/mints with no tobacco product. Cue-reactivity was measured in the nucleus accumbens, a brain biomarker of product preference. Advertisements randomly contained warning labels, and recognition of health warnings was tested post-scan. Visual attention was measured using eye-tracking. There was a significant effect of e-cigarette condition (sweet/tobacco/control) on nucleus accumbens activity, that was not found for cigarette condition (menthol/regular/control). Nucleus accumbens activity was greater for sweet/fruit versus tobacco flavor e-cigarette advertisements and did not differ compared with control images of sweets and fruits. Greater nucleus accumbens activity was correlated with poorer memory for health warnings. These and exploratory eye-tracking findings suggest that advertising for sweet/fruit flavors may increase positive associations with e-cigarettes and/or override negative associations with tobacco, and interfere with health warnings, suggesting that one way to reduce the appeal of e-cigarettes to youth and educate youth about e-cigarette health risks is to regulate advertising for flavors. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. A genome-wide association study in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD: identification of two major susceptibility loci.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sreekumar G Pillai

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available There is considerable variability in the susceptibility of smokers to develop chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD. The only known genetic risk factor is severe deficiency of alpha(1-antitrypsin, which is present in 1-2% of individuals with COPD. We conducted a genome-wide association study (GWAS in a homogenous case-control cohort from Bergen, Norway (823 COPD cases and 810 smoking controls and evaluated the top 100 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs in the family-based International COPD Genetics Network (ICGN; 1891 Caucasian individuals from 606 pedigrees study. The polymorphisms that showed replication were further evaluated in 389 subjects from the US National Emphysema Treatment Trial (NETT and 472 controls from the Normative Aging Study (NAS and then in a fourth cohort of 949 individuals from 127 extended pedigrees from the Boston Early-Onset COPD population. Logistic regression models with adjustments of covariates were used to analyze the case-control populations. Family-based association analyses were conducted for a diagnosis of COPD and lung function in the family populations. Two SNPs at the alpha-nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (CHRNA 3/5 locus were identified in the genome-wide association study. They showed unambiguous replication in the ICGN family-based analysis and in the NETT case-control analysis with combined p-values of 1.48 x 10(-10, (rs8034191 and 5.74 x 10(-10 (rs1051730. Furthermore, these SNPs were significantly associated with lung function in both the ICGN and Boston Early-Onset COPD populations. The C allele of the rs8034191 SNP was estimated to have a population attributable risk for COPD of 12.2%. The association of hedgehog interacting protein (HHIP locus on chromosome 4 was also consistently replicated, but did not reach genome-wide significance levels. Genome-wide significant association of the HHIP locus with lung function was identified in the Framingham Heart study (Wilk et al., companion article

  3. Mapping Forest Fire Susceptibility in Temperate Mountain Areas with Expert Knowledge. A Case Study from Iezer Mountains, Romanian Carpathians

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mihai, Bogdan; Savulescu, Ionut

    2014-05-01

    Forest fires in Romanian Carpathians became a frequent phenomenon during the last decade, although local climate and other environmental features did not create typical conditions. From 2004, forest fires affect in Romania more than 100 hectares/year of different forest types (deciduous and coniferous). Their magnitude and frequency are not known, since a historical forest fire inventory does not exist (only press papers and local witness for some selected events). Forest fires features the summer dry periods but there are dry autumns and early winter periods with events of different magnitudes. The application we propose is based on an empirical modeling of forest fire susceptibility in a typical mountain area from the Southern Carpathians, the Iezer Mountains (2462 m). The study area features almost all the altitudinal vegetation zones of the European temperate mountains, from the beech zone, to the coniferous zone, the subalpine and the alpine zones (Mihai et al., 2007). The analysis combines GIS and remote sensing models (Chuvieco et al., 2012), starting from the ideas that forest fires are featured by the ignition zones and then by the fire propagation zones. The first data layer (ignition zones) is the result of the crossing between the ignition factors: lightning - points of multitemporal occurence and anthropogenic activities (grazing, tourism and traffic) and the ignition zones (forest fuel zonation - forest stands, soil cover and topoclimatic factor zonation). This data is modelled from different sources: the MODIS imagery fire product (Hantson et al., 2012), detailed topographic maps, multitemporal orthophotos at 0.5 m resolution, Landsat multispectral imagery, forestry cadastre maps, detailed soil maps, meteorological data (the WorldClim digital database) as well as the field survey (mapping using GPS and local observation). The second data layer (fire propagation zones) is the result of the crossing between the forest fuel zonation, obtained with the

  4. Simwe model application on susceptibility analysis to linear erosion: a case study in Alto Douro wine region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandes, Joana; Bateira, Carlos; Soares, Laura; Faria, Ana; Moura, Rui; Gonçalves, José

    2016-04-01

    The wine production in Alto Douro Wine Region - one of the world's oldest regulated and demarcated wine region - is based on a slope system organized in agricultural terraces once supported exclusively by dry stone walls. It has been undergoing the necessary changes for the introduction of technological innovations partially associated to the mechanization of vineyards work. In this sense, different forms of terrain framing have been implemented, namely the substitution of stone walls by earth embankments. This evolution raises a group of problems related to the hydric soil erosion and landscape preservation, since Alto Douro Wine Region is classified as UNESCO World Heritage Site since 2001. The study area is mostly occupied by vineyards planted in the agriculture terraces without continuous vegetation, the flow proceeds superficially influenced by the weak infiltration capacity and hydraulic conductivity. So, because of this conditioning factor the erosive features present non-significant depth, and the length thereof is limited essentially by the slope of the land, where was registered 64 gullies and 78 rills This paper focuses on the evaluation of susceptibility to linear erosion, through the application of SIMWE (SIMulated Water Erosion), (Mitas and Mitasova, 1998), using a digital elevation model, with pixel of one square meter of spatial resolution, created through detail aerial photographs, (side pixel of 50 cm), submitted to automatic stereo-correlation procedures in Agisoft PhotoScan software. The results provided by the model are compared with hydrological characteristics of the soil, (infiltration capacity, and hydraulic conductivity), soil texture, and soil structure parameters (identified by electrical resistivity measurement) where obtained from field monitoring. This approach demonstrates an association between the spatial distribution of erosive features with high values of soil saturation, and reduced water discharge (10-110 cm3/s), that are

  5. Hybrid High-Fidelity Auscultation Scope, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — To address the NASA Johnson Space Center's need for a space auscultation capability, Physical Optics Corporation proposes to develop a Hybrid High-Fidelity...

  6. USA luure : Fidel Castro on suremas / Allan Espenberg

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Espenberg, Allan

    2006-01-01

    Kuuba president Fidel Castro, Haiti president Rene Preval, Filipiinide president Gloria Macapagal-Arroyo, Türkmenistani president Saparmurat Nijazov, Guinea president Lansana Conte ja Itaalia ekspeaminister Silvio Berlusconi, Sambia ekspresident Frederick Chilubaga võitlevad terviseprobleemidega

  7. A methodological approach to assess beach-dune system susceptibility to erosion. Cases studies from Valdelagrana spit (Spain) and Campomarino beach (Italy).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rizzo, Angela; Aucelli, Pietro P. C.; Gracia, Javier F.; Anfuso, Giorgio; Rosskopf, Carmen M.

    2016-04-01

    considered by taking into account the medium term evolution (approx. 30 years) of the dune toe and dune vegetation cover. The proposed methodology was tested for two coastal sectors with different physiographic and marine conditions and different land use characteristics: the Valdelagrana beach and the Campomarino beach that are respectively located in the eastern part of the Gulf of Cadiz (Spain) and in the southern part of the Molise coastal stretch (Italy). Preliminary results show that the methodology allows identifying within the studied coastal sectors coast stretches with different degree of susceptibility. It is furthermore very advantageous as it requires parameters mostly already available through photo-interpretation, therefore it is easy to apply without requiring field surveys as do many other index-based methods.

  8. Measurement fidelity in the presence of coherent dynamics or dissipation

    Science.gov (United States)

    You, Jian-Qiang; Ashhab, S.; Nori, Franco

    2011-03-01

    We analyze the problem of a charge qubit probed by a quantum point contact when the measurement is concurrent with Hamiltonian-induced coherent dynamics or dissipation. This additional dynamics changes the state of the qubit before the measurement is completed. As a result, the measurement fidelity is reduced. We calculate the reduction in measurement fidelity in these cases. References: S. Ashhab, J. Q. You, and F. Nori, New J. Phys. 11, 083017 (2009); Phys. Scr. T137, 014005 (2009).

  9. Toward the Effective and Efficient Measurement of Implementation Fidelity

    OpenAIRE

    Schoenwald, Sonja K.; Garland, Ann F.; Chapman, Jason E.; Frazier, Stacy L.; Sheidow, Ashli J.; Southam-Gerow, Michael A.

    2011-01-01

    Implementation science in mental health is informed by other academic disciplines and industries. Conceptual and methodological territory charted in psychotherapy research is pertinent to two elements of the conceptual model of implementation posited by Aarons and colleagues (2010)—implementation fidelity and innovation feedback systems. Key characteristics of scientifically validated fidelity instruments, and of the feasibility of their use in routine care, are presented. The challenges of e...

  10. Humanism of Marti and Fidel in the formation of values

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Luis Darias Concepción

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available Humanism as an integrative concept of human values has always been present in thinking and revolutionary work of our main precursors. Two strong exponents in the formation of patriotic and human values in our country has been without doubt the work of Martí and Fidel, whose thoughts and actions correspond fully with the humanistic philosophical doctrine. In this paper we reflect on the presence of humanism as a philosophical current in the thinking of Marti and Fidel.

  11. A comparative study of frequency ratio, weights of evidence and logistic regression methods for landslide susceptibility mapping: Sultan Mountains, SW Turkey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozdemir, Adnan; Altural, Tolga

    2013-03-01

    This study evaluated and compared landslide susceptibility maps produced with three different methods, frequency ratio, weights of evidence, and logistic regression, by using validation datasets. The field surveys performed as part of this investigation mapped the locations of 90 landslides that had been identified in the Sultan Mountains of south-western Turkey. The landslide influence parameters used for this study are geology, relative permeability, land use/land cover, precipitation, elevation, slope, aspect, total curvature, plan curvature, profile curvature, wetness index, stream power index, sediment transportation capacity index, distance to drainage, distance to fault, drainage density, fault density, and spring density maps. The relationships between landslide distributions and these parameters were analysed using the three methods, and the results of these methods were then used to calculate the landslide susceptibility of the entire study area. The accuracy of the final landslide susceptibility maps was evaluated based on the landslides observed during the fieldwork, and the accuracy of the models was evaluated by calculating each model's relative operating characteristic curve. The predictive capability of each model was determined from the area under the relative operating characteristic curve and the areas under the curves obtained using the frequency ratio, logistic regression, and weights of evidence methods are 0.976, 0.952, and 0.937, respectively. These results indicate that the frequency ratio and weights of evidence models are relatively good estimators of landslide susceptibility in the study area. Specifically, the results of the correlation analysis show a high correlation between the frequency ratio and weights of evidence results, and the frequency ratio and logistic regression methods exhibit correlation coefficients of 0.771 and 0.727, respectively. The frequency ratio model is simple, and its input, calculation and output processes are

  12. Genome Wide Association Study of SNP-, Gene-, and Pathway-based Approaches to Identify Genes Influencing Susceptibility to Staphylococcus aureus Infections

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    Zhan eYe

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: We conducted a genome-wide association study (GWAS to identify specific genetic variants that underlie susceptibility to disease caused by Staphylococcus aureus in humans. Methods: Cases (n=309 and controls (n=2,925 were genotyped at 508,921 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs. Cases had at least one laboratory and clinician confirmed disease caused by S. aureus whereas controls did not. R-package (for SNP association, EIGENSOFT (to estimate and adjust for population stratification and gene- (VEGAS and pathway-based (DAVID, PANTHER, and Ingenuity Pathway Analysis analyses were performed.Results: No SNP reached genome-wide significance. Four SNPs exceeded the pConclusion: We identified potential susceptibility genes for S. aureus diseases in this preliminary study but confirmation by other studies is needed. The observed associations could be relevant given the complexity of S. aureus as a pathogen and its ability to exploit multiple biological pathways to cause infections in humans.

  13. Mate fidelity and breeding site tenacity in a monogamous sandpiper, the black turnstone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Handel, C.M.; Gill, R.E.

    2000-01-01

    We examined the relationship between mate fidelity and breeding site tenacity during a 5-year study of the black turnstone, Arenaria melanocephala, a socially monogamous sandpiper breeding in subarctic Alaska. We tested the predictions of several hypotheses regarding the incidence of divorce and the benefits of fidelity to mate and breeding site. Interannual return rates to the breeding grounds (88% for males, 79% for females) were among the highest yet recorded for any scolopacid sandpiper, and 88% of returning birds nested on their previous year's territory. The annual divorce rate was only 11%, and mate fidelity was significantly linked to fidelity to territory but independent of sex and year. Males arrived in spring significantly earlier than their mates and interannual fidelity was influenced by the relative timing of arrival of pair members. Reunited pairs had significantly higher fledging success than new pairs formed after death or divorce. The incidence of divorce was unrelated to reproductive success the previous year, although birds nested significantly further away after failure than after a successful nesting attempt. Sightings of marked individuals suggested that members of pairs do not winter together, and breeding site tenacity provides a mechanism through which pair members can reunite. We reject the 'incompatibility' hypothesis for divorce in turnstones, and our data contradict predictions of the 'better option' hypothesis. Alternatively, we propose the 'bet-hedging' hypothesis to explain the occurrence of divorce, which transpires when an individual pairs with a new mate to avoid the cost of waiting for a previous mate to return. Such costs can include remaining unmated, if the former mate has died, or experiencing lower reproductive success because of delayed breeding.

  14. Determinants of Default from Tuberculosis Treatment among Patients with Drug-Susceptible Tuberculosis in Karachi, Pakistan: A Mixed Methods Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chida, Natasha; Ansari, Zara; Hussain, Hamidah; Jaswal, Maria; Symes, Stephen; Khan, Aamir J; Mohammed, Shama

    2015-01-01

    Non-adherence to tuberculosis therapy can lead to drug resistance, prolonged infectiousness, and death; therefore, understanding what causes treatment default is important. Pakistan has one of the highest burdens of tuberculosis in the world, yet there have been no qualitative studies in Pakistan that have specifically examined why default occurs. We conducted a mixed methods study at a tuberculosis clinic in Karachi to understand why patients with drug-susceptible tuberculosis default from treatment, and to identify factors associated with default. Patients attending this clinic pick up medications weekly and undergo family-supported directly observed therapy. In-depth interviews were administered to 21 patients who had defaulted. We also compared patients who defaulted with those who were cured, had completed, or had failed treatment in 2013. Qualitative analyses showed the most common reasons for default were the financial burden of treatment, and medication side effects and beliefs. The influence of finances on other causes of default was also prominent, as was concern about the effect of treatment on family members. In quantitative analysis, of 2120 patients, 301 (14.2%) defaulted. Univariate analysis found that male gender (OR: 1.34, 95% CI: 1.04-1.71), being 35-59 years of age (OR: 1.54, 95% CI: 1.14-2.08), or being 60 years of age or older (OR: 1.84, 95% CI: 1.17-2.88) were associated with default. After adjusting for gender, disease site, and patient category, being 35-59 years of age (aOR: 1.49, 95% CI: 1.10-2.03) or 60 years of age or older (aOR: 1.76, 95% CI: 1.12-2.77) were associated with default. In multivariate analysis age was the only variable associated with default. This lack of identifiable risk factors and our qualitative findings imply that default is complex and often due to extrinsic and medication-related factors. More tolerable medications, improved side effect management, and innovative cost-reduction measures are needed to reduce

  15. Determinants of Default from Tuberculosis Treatment among Patients with Drug-Susceptible Tuberculosis in Karachi, Pakistan: A Mixed Methods Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natasha Chida

    Full Text Available Non-adherence to tuberculosis therapy can lead to drug resistance, prolonged infectiousness, and death; therefore, understanding what causes treatment default is important. Pakistan has one of the highest burdens of tuberculosis in the world, yet there have been no qualitative studies in Pakistan that have specifically examined why default occurs. We conducted a mixed methods study at a tuberculosis clinic in Karachi to understand why patients with drug-susceptible tuberculosis default from treatment, and to identify factors associated with default. Patients attending this clinic pick up medications weekly and undergo family-supported directly observed therapy.In-depth interviews were administered to 21 patients who had defaulted. We also compared patients who defaulted with those who were cured, had completed, or had failed treatment in 2013.Qualitative analyses showed the most common reasons for default were the financial burden of treatment, and medication side effects and beliefs. The influence of finances on other causes of default was also prominent, as was concern about the effect of treatment on family members. In quantitative analysis, of 2120 patients, 301 (14.2% defaulted. Univariate analysis found that male gender (OR: 1.34, 95% CI: 1.04-1.71, being 35-59 years of age (OR: 1.54, 95% CI: 1.14-2.08, or being 60 years of age or older (OR: 1.84, 95% CI: 1.17-2.88 were associated with default. After adjusting for gender, disease site, and patient category, being 35-59 years of age (aOR: 1.49, 95% CI: 1.10-2.03 or 60 years of age or older (aOR: 1.76, 95% CI: 1.12-2.77 were associated with default.In multivariate analysis age was the only variable associated with default. This lack of identifiable risk factors and our qualitative findings imply that default is complex and often due to extrinsic and medication-related factors. More tolerable medications, improved side effect management, and innovative cost-reduction measures are needed to

  16. Identification of a breast cancer susceptibility locus at 4q31.22 using a genome-wide association study paradigm.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yadav Sapkota

    Full Text Available More than 40 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs for breast cancer susceptibility were identified by genome-wide association studies (GWASs. However, additional SNPs likely contribute to breast cancer susceptibility and overall genetic risk, prompting this investigation for additional variants. Six putative breast cancer susceptibility SNPs identified in a two-stage GWAS that we reported earlier were replicated in a follow-up stage 3 study using an independent set of breast cancer cases and controls from Canada, with an overall cumulative sample size of 7,219 subjects across all three stages. The study design also encompassed the 11 variants from GWASs previously reported by various consortia between the years 2007-2009 to (i enable comparisons of effect sizes, and (ii identify putative prognostic variants across studies. All SNP associations reported with breast cancer were also adjusted for body mass index (BMI. We report a strong association with 4q31.22-rs1429142 (combined per allele odds ratio and 95% confidence interval = 1.28 [1.17-1.41] and P combined = 1.5×10(-7, when adjusted for BMI. Ten of the 11 breast cancer susceptibility loci reported by consortia also showed associations in our predominantly Caucasian study population, and the associations were independent of BMI; four FGFR2 SNPs and TNRC9-rs3803662 were among the most notable associations. Since the original report by Garcia-Closas et al. 2008, this is the second study to confirm the association of 8q24.21-rs13281615 with breast cancer outcomes.

  17. A study of the influence of breed and strain on the susceptibility of sheep to Haemonchus controtus infection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Castelino, J.

    1976-07-01

    Breed appears to influence the susceptibility of sheep to Haemonchus contortus infection. Experiments on Masai and Merino sheep indicated that the Masai appear innately capable of reacting more vigorously to throw off H. contortus infection, this reaction being enhanced by previous experience. Following challenge, tangible resistance develops consistently in Masai, compared to a partial resistance, at best, in Merino. Resistance appears to be a short-lived phenomenon in both breeds. A field trial was carried out, to determine the influence of hemoglobin type on the susceptibility of Merino sheep. Sheep of hemoglobin types AA, AB and BB were used. A lower egg production occurred in hemoglobin type AA sheep, contrary to results obtained in the laboratory where ''massive'' experimental infection (250 Haemonchus larvae/kg liveweight) was effected. Tracer techniques involving 51 Cr- labelled erythrocytes and 125 I-tagged plasma were applied

  18. Magnetic susceptibility measurements of σ plutonium alloys. Contribution to the study of the 5f electrons localization in the plutonium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meot-Reymond, S.

    1996-01-01

    Physical properties of actinide metals are essentially ruled by the 5f electrons localization. From a theoretically point of view, this localization is more important in the δ-phase than in the α-one. To compare their magnetic behaviour, low temperature magnetic susceptibility measurements have been performed and previous-resistivity data have been analysed. Experimental results and theoretical data can be conciliate by the existence of a Kondo effect in the δ-Pu phase. (author)

  19. Epidemiology and Susceptibility of 3,051 Staphylococcus aureus Isolates from 25 University Hospitals Participating in the European SENTRY Study

    OpenAIRE

    Fluit, A. C.; Wielders, C. L. C.; Verhoef, J.; Schmitz, F.-J.

    2001-01-01

    A total of 3,051 methicillin-susceptible Staphylococcus aureus (MSSA) isolates and methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA) isolates in Europe were compared. MRSA isolates constituted 25% of all isolates and were more prevalent in southern Europe. MRSA isolates appeared to be more prevalent in intensive care units than in outpatient departments. Only a small minority of MSSA isolates were multidrug resistant, whereas the majority of MRSA isolates were multidrug resistant.

  20. A comparative study on the predictive ability of the decision tree, support vector machine and neuro-fuzzy models in landslide susceptibility mapping using GIS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pradhan, Biswajeet

    2013-02-01

    The purpose of the present study is to compare the prediction performances of three different approaches such as decision tree (DT), support vector machine (SVM) and adaptive neuro-fuzzy inference system (ANFIS) for landslide susceptibility mapping at Penang Hill area, Malaysia. The necessary input parameters for the landslide susceptibility assessments were obtained from various sources. At first, landslide locations were identified by aerial photographs and field surveys and a total of 113 landslide locations were constructed. The study area contains 340,608 pixels while total 8403 pixels include landslides. The landslide inventory was randomly partitioned into two subsets: (1) part 1 that contains 50% (4000 landslide grid cells) was used in the training phase of the models; (2) part 2 is a validation dataset 50% (4000 landslide grid cells) for validation of three models and to confirm its accuracy. The digitally processed images of input parameters were combined in GIS. Finally, landslide susceptibility maps were produced, and the performances were assessed and discussed. Total fifteen landslide susceptibility maps were produced using DT, SVM and ANFIS based models, and the resultant maps were validated using the landslide locations. Prediction performances of these maps were checked by receiver operating characteristics (ROC) by using both success rate curve and prediction rate curve. The validation results showed that, area under the ROC curve for the fifteen models produced using DT, SVM and ANFIS varied from 0.8204 to 0.9421 for success rate curve and 0.7580 to 0.8307 for prediction rate curves, respectively. Moreover, the prediction curves revealed that model 5 of DT has slightly higher prediction performance (83.07), whereas the success rate showed that model 5 of ANFIS has better prediction (94.21) capability among all models. The results of this study showed that landslide susceptibility mapping in the Penang Hill area using the three approaches (e

  1. The hOGG1 Ser326Cys polymorphism contributes to digestive system cancer susceptibility: evidence from 48 case-control studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yang; Gao, Xujie; Wei, Feng; Zhang, Xinwei; Yu, Jinpu; Zhao, Hua; Sun, Qian; Yan, Fan; Yan, Cihui; Li, Hui; Ren, Xiubao

    2015-02-01

    The Ser326Cys polymorphism in the human 8-oxogunaine DNA glycosylase (hOGG1) gene had been implicated in cancer susceptibility. Studies investigating the associations between the Ser326Cys polymorphism and digestion cancer susceptibility showed conflicting results. Therefore, a meta-analysis was performed to derive a more precise estimation of the relationship. We conducted a meta-analysis of 48 studies that included 12,073 cancer cases and 19,557 case-free controls. We assessed the strength of the association using odds ratios (ORs) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs). In our analysis, the hOGG1 Ser326Cys polymorphism was significantly associated with the risk of digestive system cancers (Cys/Cys vs. Ser/Ser: OR = 1.17, 95% CI = 1.00-1.35, P digestive cancers.

  2. Age-related deposition of brain iron in normal adults: an in vivo susceptibility weighted imaging study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Qidong; Xu Xiaojun; Zhang Minming

    2008-01-01

    Objective: The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of age on the iron concentration of the human brain. Methods: The brain iron level was evaluated in vivo in 78 healthy adult volunteers using a noninvasive magnetic resonance method termed susceptibility weighted imaging. The subjects were divided intothree groups due to different ages: young (22-35 years old, n=27), middle- aged (36-55 years old, n=35), and aged (56-78 years old, n=16). The phase values were measured on the corrected phase images in the globus pallidus, putamen, caudate, substantia nigra, red nucleus, thalamus and frontal white matter. The phase values of those regions measured from the subjects over than 30 years old were correlated with published values of brain iron concentration in normal adults to check the validity of the data. Then, the phase values of the three groups were tested for significant age-related differences using one-way ANOVA, followed by post hoc testing using least significant difference (LSD) procedure. Regression analysis was used to further examine age-related effects revealed by group comparisons, and to estimate the rates of age-related changes. Results: A strong negative correlation was found between the phase values and the published values of the brain iron concentration (r=-0.796, P= 0.032), which indicated that the higher the iron deposition level, the greater the negative phase values. In the putamen (F=20.115, P<0.01) and frontal white matter (F=3.536, P=0.034), significant differences were detected in the phase values of the three age groups. Linear regression analysis showed that phase values of the putamen, frontal white matter, and red nucleus decreased with age (The regression coefficients were -0.001, -0.001, and < -0.001 respectively, and the P value were all < 0.05), which indicated that the iron concentration of those brain structures increased with age. No significant age- related changes of the iron concentration were found in the

  3. Arterial stiffness, pressure and flow pulsatility and brain structure and function: the Age, Gene/Environment Susceptibility--Reykjavik study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, Gary F; van Buchem, Mark A; Sigurdsson, Sigurdur; Gotal, John D; Jonsdottir, Maria K; Kjartansson, Ólafur; Garcia, Melissa; Aspelund, Thor; Harris, Tamara B; Gudnason, Vilmundur; Launer, Lenore J

    2011-11-01

    Aortic stiffness increases with age and vascular risk factor exposure and is associated with increased risk for structural and functional abnormalities in the brain. High ambient flow and low impedance are thought to sensitize the cerebral microcirculation to harmful effects of excessive pressure and flow pulsatility. However, haemodynamic mechanisms contributing to structural brain lesions and cognitive impairment in the presence of high aortic stiffness remain unclear. We hypothesized that disproportionate stiffening of the proximal aorta as compared with the carotid arteries reduces wave reflection at this important interface and thereby facilitates transmission of excessive pulsatile energy into the cerebral microcirculation, leading to microvascular damage and impaired function. To assess this hypothesis, we evaluated carotid pressure and flow, carotid-femoral pulse wave velocity, brain magnetic resonance images and cognitive scores in participants in the community-based Age, Gene/Environment Susceptibility--Reykjavik study who had no history of stroke, transient ischaemic attack or dementia (n = 668, 378 females, 69-93 years of age). Aortic characteristic impedance was assessed in a random subset (n = 422) and the reflection coefficient at the aorta-carotid interface was computed. Carotid flow pulsatility index was negatively related to the aorta-carotid reflection coefficient (R = -0.66, Pwave velocity were each associated with increased risk for silent subcortical infarcts (hazard ratios of 1.62-1.71 per standard deviation, Pwave velocity was associated with higher white matter hyperintensity volume (0.108 ± 0.045 SD/SD, P = 0.018). Pulsatility index was associated with lower whole brain (-0.127 ± 0.037 SD/SD, Pwave velocity (-0.095 ± 0.043 SD/SD, P = 0.028) and carotid pulse pressure (-0.114 ± 0.045 SD/SD, P = 0.013) were associated with lower memory scores. Pulsatility index was associated with lower memory scores (-0.165 ± 0.039 SD/SD, Pwave

  4. A comparative antibody study of the potential susceptibility of Thoroughbred and non?Thoroughbred horse populations in Ireland to equine influenza virus

    OpenAIRE

    Gildea, Sarah; Arkins, Sean; Cullinane, Ann

    2010-01-01

    Please cite this paper as: Gildea et?al. (2010) A comparative antibody study of the potential susceptibility of Thoroughbred and non?Thoroughbred horse populations in Ireland to equine influenza virus. Influenza and Other Respiratory Viruses 4(6), 363?372. Background? In Ireland, horses may be protected against equine influenza virus (EIV) as a result of natural exposure or vaccination. Current mandatory vaccination programmes are targeted at highly mobile horses. A correlation between antibo...

  5. Using mixed methods to assess fidelity of delivery and its influencing factors in a complex self-management intervention for people with osteoarthritis and low back pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toomey, Elaine; Matthews, James; Hurley, Deirdre A

    2017-08-04

    Despite an increasing awareness of the importance of fidelity of delivery within complex behaviour change interventions, it is often poorly assessed. This mixed methods study aimed to establish the fidelity of delivery of a complex self-management intervention and explore the reasons for these findings using a convergent/triangulation design. Feasibility trial of the Self-management of Osteoarthritis and Low back pain through Activity and Skills (SOLAS) intervention (ISRCTN49875385), delivered in primary care physiotherapy. 60 SOLAS sessions were delivered across seven sites by nine physiotherapists. Fidelity of delivery of prespecified intervention components was evaluated using (1) audio-recordings (n=60), direct observations (n=24) and self-report checklists (n=60) and (2) individual interviews with physiotherapists (n=9). Quantitatively, fidelity scores were calculated using percentage means and SD of components delivered. Associations between fidelity scores and physiotherapist variables were analysed using Spearman's correlations. Interviews were analysed using thematic analysis to explore potential reasons for fidelity scores. Integration of quantitative and qualitative data occurred at an interpretation level using triangulation. Quantitatively, fidelity scores were high for all assessment methods; with self-report (92.7%) consistently higher than direct observations (82.7%) or audio-recordings (81.7%). There was significant variation between physiotherapists' individual scores (69.8% - 100%). Both qualitative and quantitative data (from physiotherapist variables) found that physiotherapists' knowledge (Spearman's association at p=0.003) and previous experience (p=0.008) were factors that influenced their fidelity. The qualitative data also postulated participant-level (eg, individual needs) and programme-level factors (eg, resources) as additional elements that influenced fidelity. The intervention was delivered with high fidelity. This study contributes

  6. Self-Reflection of Video-Recorded High-Fidelity Simulations and Development of Clinical Judgment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bussard, Michelle E

    2016-09-01

    Nurse educators are increasingly using high-fidelity simulators to improve prelicensure nursing students' ability to develop clinical judgment. Traditionally, oral debriefing sessions have immediately followed the simulation scenarios as a method for students to connect theory to practice and therefore develop clinical judgment. Recently, video recording of the simulation scenarios is being incorporated. This qualitative, interpretive description study was conducted to identify whether self-reflection on video-recorded high-fidelity simulation (HFS) scenarios helped prelicensure nursing students to develop clinical judgment. Tanner's clinical judgment model was the framework for this study. Four themes emerged from this study: Confidence, Communication, Decision Making, and Change in Clinical Practice. This study indicated that self-reflection of video-recorded HFS scenarios is beneficial for prelicensure nursing students to develop clinical judgment. [J Nurs Educ. 2016;55(9):522-527.]. Copyright 2016, SLACK Incorporated.

  7. Improving discharge data fidelity for use in large administrative databases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gologorsky, Yakov; Knightly, John J; Lu, Yi; Chi, John H; Groff, Michael W

    2014-06-01

    Large administrative databases have assumed a major role in population-based studies examining health care delivery. Lumbar fusion surgeries specifically have been scrutinized for rising rates coupled with ill-defined indications for fusion such as stenosis and spondylosis. Administrative databases classify cases with the International Classification of Diseases, Ninth Revision, Clinical Modification (ICD-9-CM). The ICD-9-CM discharge codes are not designated by surgeons, but rather are assigned by trained hospital medical coders. It is unclear how accurately they capture the surgeon's indication for fusion. The authors first sought to compare the ICD-9-CM code(s) assigned by the medical coder according to the surgeon's indication based on a review of the medical chart, and then to elucidate barriers to data fidelity. A retrospective review was undertaken of all lumbar fusions performed in the Department of Neurosurgery at the authors' institution between August 1, 2011, and August 31, 2013. Based on this review, the indication for fusion in each case was categorized as follows: spondylolisthesis, deformity, tumor, infection, nonpathological fracture, pseudarthrosis, adjacent-level degeneration, stenosis, degenerative disc disease, or disc herniation. These surgeon diagnoses were compared with the primary ICD-9-CM codes that were generated by the medical coders and submitted to administrative databases. A follow-up interview with the hospital's coders and coding manager was undertaken to review causes of error and suggestions for future improvement in data fidelity. There were 178 lumbar fusion operations performed in the course of 170 hospital admissions. There were 44 hospitalizations in which fusion was performed for tumor, infection, or nonpathological fracture. Of these, the primary diagnosis matched the surgical indication for fusion in 98% of cases. The remaining 126 hospitalizations were for degenerative diseases, and of these, the primary ICD-9-CM

  8. New Sequence Variants in HLA Class II/III Region Associated with Susceptibility to Knee Osteoarthritis Identified by Genome-Wide Association Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakajima, Masahiro; Takahashi, Atsushi; Kou, Ikuyo; Rodriguez-Fontenla, Cristina; Gomez-Reino, Juan J.; Furuichi, Tatsuya; Dai, Jin; Sudo, Akihiro; Uchida, Atsumasa; Fukui, Naoshi; Kubo, Michiaki; Kamatani, Naoyuki; Tsunoda, Tatsuhiko; Malizos, Konstantinos N.; Tsezou, Aspasia; Gonzalez, Antonio; Nakamura, Yusuke; Ikegawa, Shiro

    2010-01-01

    Osteoarthritis (OA) is a common disease that has a definite genetic component. Only a few OA susceptibility genes that have definite functional evidence and replication of association have been reported, however. Through a genome-wide association study and a replication using a total of ∼4,800 Japanese subjects, we identified two single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) (rs7775228 and rs10947262) associated with susceptibility to knee OA. The two SNPs were in a region containing HLA class II/III genes and their association reached genome-wide significance (combined P = 2.43×10−8 for rs7775228 and 6.73×10−8 for rs10947262). Our results suggest that immunologic mechanism is implicated in the etiology of OA. PMID:20305777

  9. The tryptophan hydroxylase 1 (TPH1) gene, schizophrenia susceptibility, and suicidal behavior: a multi-centre case-control study and meta-analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Saetre, Peter; Lundmark, Per; Wang, August

    2010-01-01

    Serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamin; 5-HT) alternations has since long been suspected in the pathophysiology of schizophrenia. Tryptophan hydroxylase (tryptophan 5-monooxygenase; TPH) is the rate-limiting enzyme in the biosynthesis of 5-HT, and sequence variation in intron 6 of the TPH1 gene has been...... affected individuals having attempted suicide at least once and patients with no history of suicide attempts (P = 0.84). A systematic literature review and meta-analysis support the A218C polymorphism as a susceptibility locus for schizophrenia (odds ratio 1.17, 95% confidence interval 1.......07-1.29). Association studies on suicide attempts are however conflicting (heterogeneity index I(2) = 0.54) and do not support the A218C/A779C polymorphisms being a susceptibility locus for suicidal behavior among individuals diagnosed with a psychiatric disorder (OR = 0.96 [0.80-1.16]). We conclude that the TPH1 A218...

  10. Fidelity of implementation: development and testing of a measure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wiitala Wyndy

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Along with the increasing prevalence of chronic illness has been an increase in interventions, such as nurse case management programs, to improve outcomes for patients with chronic illness. Evidence supports the effectiveness of such interventions in reducing patient morbidity, mortality, and resource utilization, but other studies have produced equivocal results. Often, little is known about how implementation of an intervention actually occurs in clinical practice. While studies often assume that interventions are used in clinical practice exactly as originally designed, this may not be the case. Thus, fidelity of an intervention's implementation reflects how an intervention is, or is not, used in clinical practice and is an important factor in understanding intervention effectiveness and in replicating the intervention in dissemination efforts. The purpose of this paper is to contribute to the understanding of implementation science by (a proposing a methodology for measuring fidelity of implementation (FOI and (b testing the measure by examining the association between FOI and intervention effectiveness. Methods We define and measure FOI based on organizational members' level of commitment to using the distinct components that make up an intervention as they were designed. Semistructured interviews were conducted among 18 organizational members in four medical centers, and the interviews were analyzed qualitatively to assess three dimensions of commitment to use--satisfaction, consistency, and quality--and to develop an overall rating of FOI. Mixed methods were used to explore the association between FOI and intervention effectiveness (inpatient resource utilization and mortality. Results Predictive validity of the FOI measure was supported based on the statistical significance of FOI as a predictor of intervention effectiveness. The strongest relationship between FOI and intervention effectiveness was found when an

  11. Fidelity of implementation: development and testing of a measure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keith, Rosalind E; Hopp, Faith P; Subramanian, Usha; Wiitala, Wyndy; Lowery, Julie C

    2010-12-30

    Along with the increasing prevalence of chronic illness has been an increase in interventions, such as nurse case management programs, to improve outcomes for patients with chronic illness. Evidence supports the effectiveness of such interventions in reducing patient morbidity, mortality, and resource utilization, but other studies have produced equivocal results. Often, little is known about how implementation of an intervention actually occurs in clinical practice. While studies often assume that interventions are used in clinical practice exactly as originally designed, this may not be the case. Thus, fidelity of an intervention's implementation reflects how an intervention is, or is not, used in clinical practice and is an important factor in understanding intervention effectiveness and in replicating the intervention in dissemination efforts. The purpose of this paper is to contribute to the understanding of implementation science by (a) proposing a methodology for measuring fidelity of implementation (FOI) and (b) testing the measure by examining the association between FOI and intervention effectiveness. We define and measure FOI based on organizational members' level of commitment to using the distinct components that make up an intervention as they were designed. Semistructured interviews were conducted among 18 organizational members in four medical centers, and the interviews were analyzed qualitatively to assess three dimensions of commitment to use--satisfaction, consistency, and quality--and to develop an overall rating of FOI. Mixed methods were used to explore the association between FOI and intervention effectiveness (inpatient resource utilization and mortality). Predictive validity of the FOI measure was supported based on the statistical significance of FOI as a predictor of intervention effectiveness. The strongest relationship between FOI and intervention effectiveness was found when an alternative measure of FOI was utilized based on

  12. Reducing the uncertainty in the fidelity of seismic imaging results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, H. W.; Zou, Z.

    2017-12-01

    A key aspect in geoscientific inversion is quantifying the quality of the results. In seismic imaging, we must quantify the uncertainty of every imaging result based on field data, because data noise and methodology limitations may produce artifacts. Detection of artifacts is therefore an important aspect in uncertainty quantification in geoscientific inversion. Quantifying the uncertainty of seismic imaging solutions means assessing their fidelity, which defines the truthfulness of the imaged targets in terms of their resolution, position error and artifact. Key challenges to achieving the fidelity of seismic imaging include: (1) Difficulty to tell signal from artifact and noise; (2) Limitations in signal-to-noise ratio and seismic illumination; and (3) The multi-scale nature of the data space and model space. Most seismic imaging studies of the Earth's crust and mantle have employed inversion or modeling approaches. Though they are in opposite directions of mapping between the data space and model space, both inversion and modeling seek the best model to minimize the misfit in the data space, which unfortunately is not the output space. The fact that the selection and uncertainty of the output model are not judged in the output space has exacerbated the nonuniqueness problem for inversion and modeling. In contrast, the practice in exploration seismology has long established a two-fold approach of seismic imaging: Using velocity modeling building to establish the long-wavelength reference velocity models, and using seismic migration to map the short-wavelength reflectivity structures. Most interestingly, seismic migration maps the data into an output space called imaging space, where the output reflection images of the subsurface are formed based on an imaging condition. A good example is the reverse time migration, which seeks the reflectivity image as the best fit in the image space between the extrapolation of time-reversed waveform data and the prediction

  13. Asymmetric strand segregation: epigenetic costs of genetic fidelity?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diane P Genereux

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Asymmetric strand segregation has been proposed as a mechanism to minimize effective mutation rates in epithelial tissues. Under asymmetric strand segregation, the double-stranded molecule that contains the oldest DNA strand is preferentially targeted to the somatic stem cell after each round of DNA replication. This oldest DNA strand is expected to have fewer errors than younger strands because some of the errors that arise on daughter strands during their synthesis fail to be repaired. Empirical findings suggest the possibility of asymmetric strand segregation in a subset of mammalian cell lineages, indicating that it may indeed function to increase genetic fidelity. However, the implications of asymmetric strand segregation for the fidelity of epigenetic information remain unexplored. Here, I explore the impact of strand-segregation dynamics on epigenetic fidelity using a mathematical-modelling approach that draws on the known molecular mechanisms of DNA methylation and existing rate estimates from empirical methylation data. I find that, for a wide range of starting methylation densities, asymmetric -- but not symmetric -- strand segregation leads to systematic increases in methylation levels if parent strands are subject to de novo methylation events. I found that epigenetic fidelity can be compromised when enhanced genetic fidelity is achieved through asymmetric strand segregation. Strand segregation dynamics could thus explain the increased DNA methylation densities that are observed in structured cellular populations during aging and in disease.

  14. Susceptibility Genes in Thyroid Autoimmunity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yoshiyuki Ban

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available The autoimmune thyroid diseases (AITD are complex diseases which are caused by an interaction between susceptibility genes and environmental triggers. Genetic susceptibility in combination with external factors (e.g. dietary iodine is believed to initiate the autoimmune response to thyroid antigens. Abundant epidemiological data, including family and twin studies, point to a strong genetic influence on the development of AITD. Various techniques have been employed to identify the genes contributing to the etiology of AITD, including candidate gene analysis and whole genome screening. These studies have enabled the identification of several loci (genetic regions that are linked with AITD, and in some of these loci, putative AITD susceptibility genes have been identified. Some of these genes/loci are unique to Graves' disease (GD and Hashimoto's thyroiditis (HT and some are common to both the diseases, indicating that there is a shared genetic susceptibility to GD and HT. The putative GD and HT susceptibility genes include both immune modifying genes (e.g. HLA, CTLA-4 and thyroid specific genes (e.g. TSHR, Tg. Most likely, these loci interact and their interactions may influence disease phenotype and severity.

  15. Cohort study investigating the effects of first stage of the English tobacco point-of-sale display ban on awareness, susceptibility and smoking uptake among adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bogdanovica, Ilze; McNeill, Ann; Britton, John

    2017-01-23

    A prospective evaluation of the effect of 2012 point-of-sale (PoS) display ban in supermarkets in England on perceived exposure to PoS displays, and on changes in susceptibility and smoking uptake among young people. Cohort study. Seven schools in Nottinghamshire, England. 1035 11-16-year-old school children. Changes in reported exposure to PoS displays before and after prohibition, and the association between exposure to and awareness of PoS displays and change in susceptibility to smoking and smoking status between 2011 and 2012 (before the ban) and 2012 and 2013 (after the ban). The proportion of children noticing tobacco PoS displays in supermarkets most or every time they visited a shop changed little between 2011 and 2012 (59.6% (95% CI 56.6% to 62.6%) and 58.8% (95% CI 55.8% to 61.8%), respectively); but decreased by about 13 percentage points to 45.7% (95% CI 42.7% to 48.7%) in 2013, after the ban. However, after adjusting for confounders, implementation of the first stage of the PoS ban in 2012 did not result in significant changes in the relation between susceptibility to smoking and smoking status and exposure to and awareness of PoS displays. Prohibition of PoS in large supermarkets resulted in a decline in the proportion of young people noticing PoS displays in large shops, but little or no change in smoking uptake or susceptibility. It remains to be seen whether extension of the PoS ban to all shops in 2015 has a more marked effect. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.

  16. How useful is a history of rubella vaccination for determination of disease susceptibility? A cross-sectional study at a public funded health clinic in Malaysia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cheong Ai Theng

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Identification of pregnant women susceptible to rubella is important as vaccination can be given postpartum to prevent future risks of congenital rubella syndrome. However, in Malaysia, rubella antibody screening is not offered routinely to pregnant women in public funded health clinics due to cost constraint. Instead, a history of rubella vaccination is asked to be provided to establish the women’s risk for rubella infection. The usefulness of this history, however, is not established. Thus, this paper aimed to determine the usefulness of a history of rubella vaccination in determining rubella susceptibility in pregnant women. Methods A cross-sectional study was conducted on 500 pregnant women attending a public funded health clinic. Face-to-face interviews were conducted, and demographic data and history of rubella vaccination were obtained. Anti-rubella IgG test was performed. Results A majority of the women (66.6% had a positive vaccination history. Of these, 92.2% women were immune. A third (33.4% of the women had a negative or unknown vaccination history, but 81.4% of them were immune to rubella. The sensitivity and specificity of a history of rubella vaccination in identifying disease susceptibility was 54.4% (95% CI: 40.7, 67.4% and 69.3% (95% CI: 64.7, 73.5% respectively; the positive predictive value was 18.6% (95% CI: 13.1, 25.5% and the negative predictive value was 92.2% (95% CI: 88.6, 94.7%. Conclusions A vaccination history of rubella had a poor diagnostic value in predicting rubella susceptibility. However, obtaining a vaccination history is inexpensive compared with performing a serological test. A cost-utility analysis would be useful in determining which test (history versus serological test is more cost-effective in a country with resource constraint.

  17. How useful is a history of rubella vaccination for determination of disease susceptibility? A cross-sectional study at a public funded health clinic in Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheong, Ai Theng; Tong, Seng Fah; Khoo, Ee Ming

    2013-01-31

    Identification of pregnant women susceptible to rubella is important as vaccination can be given postpartum to prevent future risks of congenital rubella syndrome. However, in Malaysia, rubella antibody screening is not offered routinely to pregnant women in public funded health clinics due to cost constraint. Instead, a history of rubella vaccination is asked to be provided to establish the women's risk for rubella infection. The usefulness of this history, however, is not established. Thus, this paper aimed to determine the usefulness of a history of rubella vaccination in determining rubella susceptibility in pregnant women. A cross-sectional study was conducted on 500 pregnant women attending a public funded health clinic. Face-to-face interviews were conducted, and demographic data and history of rubella vaccination were obtained. Anti-rubella IgG test was performed. A majority of the women (66.6%) had a positive vaccination history. Of these, 92.2% women were immune. A third (33.4%) of the women had a negative or unknown vaccination history, but 81.4% of them were immune to rubella. The sensitivity and specificity of a history of rubella vaccination in identifying disease susceptibility was 54.4% (95% CI: 40.7, 67.4%) and 69.3% (95% CI: 64.7, 73.5%) respectively; the positive predictive value was 18.6% (95% CI: 13.1, 25.5%) and the negative predictive value was 92.2% (95% CI: 88.6, 94.7%). A vaccination history of rubella had a poor diagnostic value in predicting rubella susceptibility. However, obtaining a vaccination history is inexpensive compared with performing a serological test. A cost-utility analysis would be useful in determining which test (history versus serological test) is more cost-effective in a country with resource constraint.

  18. Detailed rock failure susceptibility mapping in steep rocky coasts by means of non-contact geostructural surveys: the case study of the Tigullio Gulf (Eastern Liguria, Northern Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. De Vita

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available In this study, an engineering geological analysis for the assessment of the rock failure susceptibility of a high, steep, rocky coast was developed by means of non-contact geostructural surveys. The methodology was applied to a 6-km coastal cliff located in the Gulf of Tigullio (Northern Tyrrhenian Sea between Rapallo and Chiavari.

    The method is based on the geostructural characterisation of outcropping rock masses through meso- and macroscale stereoscopic analyses of digital photos that were taken continuously from a known distance from the coastline. The results of the method were verified through direct surveys of accessible sample areas. The rock failure susceptibility of the coastal sector was assessed by analysing the fundamental rock slope mechanisms of instability and the results were implemented into a Geographic Information System (GIS.

    The proposed method is useful for rock failure susceptibility assessments in high, steep, rocky coastal areas, where accessibility is limited due to cliffs or steep slopes. Moreover, the method can be applied to private properties or any other area where a complete and systematic analysis of rock mass structural features cannot be achieved.

    Compared to direct surveys and to other non-contact methods based on digital terrestrial photogrammetry, the proposed procedure provided good quality data of the structural features of the rock mass at a low cost. Therefore, the method could be applied to similar coastal areas with a high risk of rock failure occurrence.

  19. Increased brain iron deposition is a risk factor for brain atrophy in patients with haemodialysis: a combined study of quantitative susceptibility mapping and whole brain volume analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chai, Chao; Zhang, Mengjie; Long, Miaomiao; Chu, Zhiqiang; Wang, Tong; Wang, Lijun; Guo, Yu; Yan, Shuo; Haacke, E Mark; Shen, Wen; Xia, Shuang

    2015-08-01

    To explore the correlation between increased brain iron deposition and brain atrophy in patients with haemodialysis and their correlation with clinical biomarkers and neuropsychological test. Forty two patients with haemodialysis and forty one age- and gender-matched healthy controls were recruited in this prospective study. 3D whole brain high resolution T1WI and susceptibility weighted imaging were scanned on a 3 T MRI system. The brain volume was analyzed using voxel-based morphometry (VBM) in patients and to compare with that of healthy controls. Quantitative susceptibility mapping was used to measure and compare the susceptibility of different structures between patients and healthy controls. Correlation analysis was used to investigate the relationship between the brain volume, iron deposition and neuropsychological scores. Stepwise multiple regression analysis was used to explore the effect of clinical biomarkers on the brain volumes in patients. Compared with healthy controls, patients with haemodialysis showed decreased volume of bilateral putamen and left insular lobe (All P brain iron deposition is negatively correlated with the decreased volume of bilateral putamen (P brain iron deposition and dialysis duration was risk factors for brain atrophy in patients with haemodialysis. The decreased gray matter volume of the left insular lobe was correlated with neurocognitive impairment.

  20. Applying the anisotropy of magnetic susceptibility technique to the study of the tectonic evolution of the West Spitsbergen Fold-and-Thrust Belt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katarzyna Dudzisz

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available We demonstrate the use of the anisotropy of magnetic susceptibility (AMS method to determine the orientation of the principal tectonic strain directions developed during the formation of the West Spitsbergen Fold-and-Thrust Belt (WSFTB. The AMS measurements and extensive rock-magnetic studies of the Lower Triassic rocks reported here were focused on the recognition of the magnetic fabric, the identification of ferromagnetic minerals and an estimation of the influence of ferro- and paramagnetic minerals on magnetic susceptibility. At most sites, the paramagnetic minerals controlled the magnetic susceptibility, and at only one site the impact of ferromagnetic minerals was higher. The AMS technique documented the presence of different types of magnetic fabrics within the sampled sites. At two sites, a normal (Kmin perpendicular to the bedding magnetic fabric of sedimentary origin was detected. This was associated with a good clustering of the maximum AMS axes imposed by tectonic strain. The Kmax magnetic lineation directions obtained here parallel the general NNW–SSE trend of the WSFTB fold axial traces and thrust fronts. The two other investigated sites possessed mixed and inverted fabrics, the latter of which appear to reflect the presence of iron-bearing carbonates.

  1. Study on Association between Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms in Murine Double Minute 2 and Susceptibility of Hepatocellular Carcinoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xia Wang

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To investigate the relationship between single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP in murine double minute 2 (MDM2 and susceptibility and biological behavior of hepatocellularcarcinoma (HCC. Methods: MDM2 (rs2279744 site polymorphism in peripheral blood from 166 patients with HCC and 157 healthy controls were detected by SYBR GREEN PCR method and the relationship between MDM2 polymorphism and susceptibility and biological behavior of HCC was analyzed by comparing the differences of genotypes in two populations. Results: There was no statistical significance between two groups in terms of MDM2 allele distribution in research population (P = 0.753. The risk of HCC onset in individuals with GG+ TG genotype was 1.698 times of those with TT genotype in case group (95%CI = 1.027 -2.808. MDM2 SNP was associated with HBV infection and the degree of tumor differentiation (P< 0.05. The incidence of alleles in experimental group (T, 0.49; G, 0.51 was very different from that in control group (T, 0.59; G, 0.41 (P = 0.015. The incidence of GG genotype in patients with HCC (22.29% was significantly higher than those without HCC (13.38%. Compared with TT genotype, G allele or GG genotype had more correlation with HCC onset. Conclusion: Compared with TT genotype, MDM2 promoter SNP309 G allele or GG genotype is more associated with HCC onset in Chinese population.

  2. Preliminary study of relationships between hypnotic susceptibility and personality disorder functioning styles in healthy volunteers and personality disorder patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    He Wei

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Hypnotic susceptibility is one of the stable characteristics of individuals, but not closely related to the personality traits such as those measured by the five-factor model in the general population. Whether it is related to the personality disorder functioning styles remains unanswered. Methods In 77 patients with personality disorders and 154 healthy volunteers, we administered the Stanford Hypnotic Susceptibility Scale: Form C (SHSSC and the Parker Personality Measure (PERM tests. Results Patients with personality disorders showed higher passing rates on SHSSC Dream and Posthypnotic Amnesia items. No significant correlation was found in healthy volunteers. In the patients however, SHSSC Taste hallucination (β = 0.26 and Anosmia to Ammonia (β = -0.23 were significantly correlated with the PERM Borderline style; SHSSC Posthypnotic Amnesia was correlated with the PERM Schizoid style (β = 0.25 but negatively the PERM Narcissistic style (β = -0.23. Conclusions Our results provide limited evidence that could help to understand the abnormal cognitions in personality disorders, such as their hallucination and memory distortions.

  3. SINKHOLE SUSCEPTIBILITY HAZARD ZONES USING GIS AND ANALYTICAL HIERARCHICAL PROCESS (AHP: A CASE STUDY OF KUALA LUMPUR AND AMPANG JAYA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. A. H. M. Rosdi

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Sinkhole is not classified as new phenomenon in this country, especially surround Klang Valley. Since 1968, the increasing numbers of sinkhole incident have been reported in Kuala Lumpur and the vicinity areas. As the results, it poses a serious threat for human lives, assets and structure especially in the capital city of Malaysia. Therefore, a Sinkhole Hazard Model (SHM was generated with integration of GIS framework by applying Analytical Hierarchical Process (AHP technique in order to produced sinkhole susceptibility hazard map for the particular area. Five consecutive parameters for main criteria each categorized by five sub classes were selected for this research which is Lithology (LT, Groundwater Level Decline (WLD, Soil Type (ST, Land Use (LU and Proximity to Groundwater Wells (PG. A set of relative weights were assigned to each inducing factor and computed through pairwise comparison matrix derived from expert judgment. Lithology and Groundwater Level Decline has been identified gives the highest impact to the sinkhole development. A sinkhole susceptibility hazard zones was classified into five prone areas namely very low, low, moderate, high and very high hazard. The results obtained were validated with thirty three (33 previous sinkhole inventory data. This evaluation shows that the model indicates 64 % and 21 % of the sinkhole events fall within high and very high hazard zones respectively. Based on this outcome, it clearly represents that AHP approach is useful to predict natural disaster such as sinkhole hazard.

  4. Sinkhole Susceptibility Hazard Zones Using GIS and Analytical Hierarchical Process (ahp): a Case Study of Kuala Lumpur and Ampang Jaya

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosdi, M. A. H. M.; Othman, A. N.; Zubir, M. A. M.; Latif, Z. A.; Yusoff, Z. M.

    2017-10-01

    Sinkhole is not classified as new phenomenon in this country, especially surround Klang Valley. Since 1968, the increasing numbers of sinkhole incident have been reported in Kuala Lumpur and the vicinity areas. As the results, it poses a serious threat for human lives, assets and structure especially in the capital city of Malaysia. Therefore, a Sinkhole Hazard Model (SHM) was generated with integration of GIS framework by applying Analytical Hierarchical Process (AHP) technique in order to produced sinkhole susceptibility hazard map for the particular area. Five consecutive parameters for main criteria each categorized by five sub classes were selected for this research which is Lithology (LT), Groundwater Level Decline (WLD), Soil Type (ST), Land Use (LU) and Proximity to Groundwater Wells (PG). A set of relative weights were assigned to each inducing factor and computed through pairwise comparison matrix derived from expert judgment. Lithology and Groundwater Level Decline has been identified gives the highest impact to the sinkhole development. A sinkhole susceptibility hazard zones was classified into five prone areas namely very low, low, moderate, high and very high hazard. The results obtained were validated with thirty three (33) previous sinkhole inventory data. This evaluation shows that the model indicates 64 % and 21 % of the sinkhole events fall within high and very high hazard zones respectively. Based on this outcome, it clearly represents that AHP approach is useful to predict natural disaster such as sinkhole hazard.

  5. The trajectory of fidelity in a multiyear trial of the family check-up predicts change in child problem behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiapa, Amanda; Smith, Justin D; Kim, Hanjoe; Dishion, Thomas J; Shaw, Daniel S; Wilson, Melvin N

    2015-10-01

    Therapist fidelity to evidence-based family interventions has consistently been linked to child and family outcomes. However, few studies have evaluated the potential ebb and flow of fidelity of therapists over time. We examined therapist drift in fidelity over 4 years in the context of a Family Check-Up prevention services in early childhood (ages 2-5 years). At age 2, families engaging in Women, Infants, and Children Nutritional Supplement Program services were randomized and offered annual Family Check-Ups. Seventy-nine families with a child in the clinical range of problem behaviors at age 2 years were included in this analysis. Latent growth modeling revealed a significant linear decline in fidelity over time (M = -0.35, SD = 0.35) and that steeper declines were related to less improvement in caregiver-reported problem behaviors assessed at ages 7.5/8.5 years (b = -.69, p = .003; β = -.95, 95% CI [-2.11, -0.22]). These findings add to the literature concerning the need to continually monitor therapist fidelity to an evidence-based practice over time to optimize family benefits. Limitations and directions for future research are discussed. (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).

  6. Maintaining Treatment Fidelity of Mindfulness-Based Relapse Prevention Intervention for Alcohol Dependence: A Randomized Controlled Trial Experience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aleksandra E. Zgierska

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Treatment fidelity is essential to methodological rigor of clinical trials evaluating behavioral interventions such as Mindfulness Meditation (MM. However, procedures for monitoring and maintenance of treatment fidelity are inconsistently applied, limiting the strength of such research. Objective. To describe the implementation and findings related to fidelity monitoring of the Mindfulness-Based Relapse Prevention for Alcohol Dependence (MBRP-A intervention in a 26-week randomized controlled trial. Methods. 123 alcohol dependent adults were randomly assigned to MM (MBRP-A and home practice, adjunctive to usual care; N=64 or control (usual care alone; N=59. Treatment fidelity assessment strategies recommended by the National Institutes of Health Behavior Change Consortium for study/intervention design, therapist training, intervention delivery, and treatment receipt and enactment were applied. Results. Ten 8-session interventions were delivered. Therapist adherence and competence, assessed using the modified MBRP Adherence and Competence Scale, were high. Among the MM group participants, 46 attended ≥4 sessions; over 90% reported at-home MM practice at 8 weeks and 72% at 26 weeks. They also reported satisfaction with and usefulness of MM for maintaining sobriety. No adverse events were reported. Conclusions. A systematic approach to assessment of treatment fidelity in behavioral clinical trials allows determination of the degree of consistency between intended and actual delivery and receipt of intervention.

  7. NanoPCR observation: different levels of DNA replication fidelity in nanoparticle-enhanced polymerase chain reactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shen Cenchao; Yang Wenjuan; Ji Qiaoli; Zhang Zhizhou; Maki, Hisaji; Dong Anjie

    2009-01-01

    Nanoparticle-assisted PCR (polymerase chain reaction) technology is getting more and more attention recently. It is believed that some of the DNA recombinant technologies will be upgraded by nanotechnology in the near future, among which DNA replication is one of the core manipulation techniques. So whether or not the DNA replication fidelity is compromised in nanoparticle-assisted PCR is a question. In this study, a total of 16 different metallic and non-metallic nanoparticles (NPs) were tested for their effects on DNA replication fidelity in vitro and in vivo. Sixteen types of nanomaterials were distinctly different in enhancing the PCR efficiency, and their relative capacity to retain DNA replication fidelity was largely different from each other based on rpsL gene mutation assay. Generally speaking, metallic nanoparticles induced larger error rates in DNA replication fidelity than non-metallic nanoparticles, and non-metallic nanomaterials such as carbon nanopowder or nanotubes were still safe as PCR enhancers because they did not compromise the DNA replication fidelity in the Taq DNA polymerase-based PCR system.

  8. Topological susceptibility from the overlap

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Del Debbio, Luigi; Pica, Claudio

    2003-01-01

    The chiral symmetry at finite lattice spacing of Ginsparg-Wilson fermionic actions constrains the renormalization of the lattice operators; in particular, the topological susceptibility does not require any renormalization, when using a fermionic estimator to define the topological charge....... Therefore, the overlap formalism appears as an appealing candidate to study the continuum limit of the topological susceptibility while keeping the systematic errors under theoretical control. We present results for the SU(3) pure gauge theory using the index of the overlap Dirac operator to study...

  9. Effects of two different high-fidelity DNA polymerases on genetic analysis of the cyanobacterial community structure in a subtropical deep freshwater reservoir

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhen, Zhuo; Liu, Jingwen; Rensing, Christopher Günther T

    2017-01-01

    and diversity analysis. In this study, two clone libraries were constructed with two different DNA polymerases, Q5 high-fidelity DNA polymerase and exTaq polymerase, to compare the differences in their capability to accurately reflect the cyanobacterial community structure and diversity in a subtropical deep......-fidelity DNA polymerase. It is noteworthy that so far Q5 high-fidelity DNA polymerase was the first time to be employed in the genetic analysis of cyanobacterial community. And it is for the first time that the cyanobacterial community structure in Dongzhen reservoir was analyzed using molecular methods...

  10. Teaching Palatoplasty Using a High-Fidelity Cleft Palate Simulator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Homan; Podolsky, Dale J; Fisher, David M; Wong, Karen W; Lorenz, H Peter; Khosla, Rohit K; Drake, James M; Forrest, Christopher R

    2018-01-01

    Cleft palate repair is a challenging procedure for cleft surgeons to teach. A novel high-fidelity cleft palate simulator has been described for surgeon training. This study evaluates the simulator's effect on surgeon procedural confidence and palatoplasty knowledge among learners. Plastic surgery trainees attended a palatoplasty workshop consisting of a didactic session on cleft palate anatomy and repair followed by a simulation session. Participants completed a procedural confidence questionnaire and palatoplasty knowledge test immediately before and after the workshop. All participants reported significantly higher procedural confidence following the workshop (p cleft palate surgery experience had higher procedural confidence before (p cleft palate experience did not have higher mean baseline test scores than those with no experience (30 percent versus 28 percent; p > 0.05), but did have significantly higher scores after the workshop (61 percent versus 35 percent; p cleft palate simulator as a training tool to teach palatoplasty. Improved procedural confidence and knowledge were observed after a single session, with benefits seen among trainees both with and without previous cleft experience.

  11. Biosensor Architectures for High-Fidelity Reporting of Cellular Signaling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dushek, Omer; Lellouch, Annemarie C.; Vaux, David J.; Shahrezaei, Vahid

    2014-01-01

    Understanding mechanisms of information processing in cellular signaling networks requires quantitative measurements of protein activities in living cells. Biosensors are molecular probes that have been developed to directly track the activity of specific signaling proteins and their use is revolutionizing our understanding of signal transduction. The use of biosensors relies on the assumption that their activity is linearly proportional to the activity of the signaling protein they have been engineered to track. We use mechanistic mathematical models of common biosensor architectures (single-chain FRET-based biosensors), which include both intramolecular and intermolecular reactions, to study the validity of the linearity assumption. As a result of the classic mechanism of zero-order ultrasensitivity, we find that biosensor activity can be highly nonlinear so that small changes in signaling protein activity can give rise to large changes in biosensor activity and vice versa. This nonlinearity is abolished in architectures that favor the formation of biosensor oligomers, but oligomeric biosensors produce complicated FRET states. Based on this finding, we show that high-fidelity reporting is possible when a single-chain intermolecular biosensor is used that cannot undergo intramolecular reactions and is restricted to forming dimers. We provide phase diagrams that compare various trade-offs, including observer effects, which further highlight the utility of biosensor architectures that favor intermolecular over intramolecular binding. We discuss challenges in calibrating and constructing biosensors and highlight the utility of mathematical models in designing novel probes for cellular signaling. PMID:25099816

  12. Fiscal loss and program fidelity: impact of the economic downturn on HIV/STI prevention program fidelity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Catania, Joseph A; Dolcini, M Margaret; Gandelman, Alice A; Narayanan, Vasudha; McKay, Virginia R

    2014-03-01

    The economic downturn of 2007 created significant fiscal losses for public and private agencies conducting behavioral prevention. Such macro-economic changes may influence program implementation and sustainability. We examined how public and private agencies conducting RESPECT, a brief HIV/STI (sexually transmitted infection) counseling and testing intervention, adapted to fiscal loss and how these adaptations impacted program fidelity. We collected qualitative and quantitative data in a national sample of 15 agencies experiencing fiscal loss. Using qualitative analyses, we examined how program fidelity varied with different types of adaptations. Agencies reported three levels of adaptation: agency-level, program-level, and direct fiscal remedies. Private agencies tended to use direct fiscal remedies, which were associated with higher fidelity. Some agency-level adaptations contributed to reductions in procedural fit, leading to negative staff morale and decreased confidence in program effectiveness, which in turn, contributed to poor fidelity. Findings describe a "work stress pathway" that links program fiscal losses to poor staff morale and low program fidelity.

  13. Scalar and pseudoscalar susceptibilities in nuclei

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ericson, Magda; Chanfray, Guy; Chanfray, Guy

    2003-01-01

    We study the two QCD susceptibilities of the nuclear medium in the linear σ model. The magnitude of the scalar one increases due to the mixing with the softer modes of the nucleon-hole excitations. The pseudoscalar susceptibility, follows the density evolution of the quark condensate and thus decreases in magnitude. At normal nuclear matter density the two susceptibilities become much close than in the vacuum, a consequence of the partial chiral symmetry restoration. (author)

  14. Study of the magnetic susceptibilities of some plutonium derivatives; Etude des susceptibilites magnetiques de quelques derives du plutonium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Raphael, G [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Fontenay-aux-Roses (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1969-06-01

    We present a detailed description of an automatic recording apparatus for magnetic susceptibility measurement of radioactive samples in the temperature range 4 K - 1200 K. We have measured the magnetic susceptibility of various plutonium compounds: - PuO{sub 2}, Pu{sub 2}O{sub 3}, PuO{sub 2-x}, - PuS, Pu{sub 2}S{sub 3}, Pu{sub 3}S{sub 4}, (U{sub x}Pu{sub 1-x})S - PuN - PuC{sub 1-x}(N,O,H,vacancy), Pu{sub 2}C{sub 3}, (U{sub 0.85}Pu{sub 0.15})C. The curves of susceptibilities versus temperature show many magnetic transitions. The interpretation of these results shows the existence of magnetic moments carried by the 5 f electrons and localized on the metallic sites as well as the great influence of the 'crystal field' in all these compounds. (author) [French] Nous decrivons d'une facon detaillee un appareil permettant de mesurer d'une facon continue et automatique des susceptibilites magnetiques sur des echantillons radioactifs dans un domaine de temperature s'etalant de 4 K a 1200 K. Nous avons mesure les susceptibilites magnetiques de certains composes du plutonium tels que: - PuO{sub 2}, Pu{sub 2}O{sub 3}, PuO{sub 2-x} - PuS, Pu{sub 2}S{sub 3}, Pu{sub 3}S{sub 4}, (U{sub x}Pu{sub 1-x})S - PuN - PuC{sub 1-x}(N,O,H,vacancy), Pu{sub 2}C{sub 3}, (U{sub 0.85}Pu{sub 0.15})C. Les courbes de susceptibilite magnetique en fonction de la temperature mettent en evidence de nombreuses transitions magnetiques. L'interpretation de ces resultats a montre l'existence de moments magnetiques portes par les electrons f et localises sur les sites metalliques ainsi que l'influence tres grande du champ cristallin. (auteur)

  15. High-Fidelity Simulation: Preparing Dental Hygiene Students for Managing Medical Emergencies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bilich, Lisa A; Jackson, Sarah C; Bray, Brenda S; Willson, Megan N

    2015-09-01

    Medical emergencies can occur at any time in the dental office, so being prepared to properly manage the situation can be the difference between life and death. The entire dental team must be properly trained regarding all aspects of emergency management in the dental clinic. The aim of this study was to evaluate a new educational approach using a high-fidelity simulator to prepare dental hygiene students for medical emergencies. This study utilized high-fidelity simulation (HFS) to evaluate the abilities of junior dental hygiene students at Eastern Washington University to handle a medical emergency in the dental hygiene clinic. Students were given a medical emergency scenario requiring them to assess the emergency and implement life-saving protocols in a simulated "real-life" situation using a high-fidelity manikin. Retrospective data were collected for four years from the classes of 2010 through 2013 (N=114). The results indicated that learning with simulation was effective in helping the students identify the medical emergency in a timely manner, implement emergency procedures correctly, locate and correctly utilize contents of the emergency kit, administer appropriate intervention/treatment for a specific patient, and provide the patient with appropriate follow-up instructions. For dental hygiene programs seeking to enhance their curricula in the area of medical emergencies, this study suggests that HFS is an effective tool to prepare students to appropriately handle medical emergencies. Faculty calibration is essential to standardize simulation.

  16. Asymptomatic bacteriuria and antimicrobial susceptibility pattern of the isolates among pregnant women attending Dessie referral hospital, Northeast Ethiopia: A hospital-based cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, Ismail Ebrie; Gebrecherkos, Teklay; Gizachew, Mucheye; Menberu, Martha Alemayehu

    2018-05-01

    The aim of the current study was to find out the prevalence of asymptomatic bacteriuria, antimicrobial susceptibility pattern of the isolates and related risk factors among pregnant women. A hospital-based cross-sectional study was carried out from February 2017 to May 2017 among asymptomatic pregnant mothers attending Dessie Referral Hospital, Northeast Ethiopia. About 10-15 mL of freshly voided midstream urine samples were collected from each study participants, and analyzed at Dessie regional research microbiology laboratory with conventional antibiotic susceptibility, and biochemical tests. Isolates were tested against commonly used antimicrobials using Kirby Bauer disc diffusion method. Data were analyzed by SPSS version 20 software and in all cases, p-values below 0.05 was considered as statistically significant. Overall, 358 pregnant women were included in the study with a mean age of 26.5±4.6 years (range, 19-43 yrs). The overall prevalence of asymptomatic bacteriuria was 56% (15.6%). Isolated microorganisms were mainly Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus (for each, n=18; 31%). Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus were resistant to ampicillin (66.7%), and penicillin (94.44%). The prevalence of multidrug- resistant isolates was 72.4%. History of catheterization [AOR=2.28, 95% CI=(1.03-5.06)] and anemia [AOR=4.98, 95% CI=(2.395-10.34) were statistically significant regarding the prevalence of asymptomatic bacteriuria. The overall prevalence of asymptomatic bacteriuria among pregnant women in the study area was high. The presence of asymptomatic bacteriuria and their antibiotic susceptibility test results should be taken into consideration during the management of pregnant women who are visiting antenatal care clinic.

  17. New high-fidelity terrain modeling method constrained by terrain semanteme.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bo Zhou

    Full Text Available Production of higher-fidelity digital elevation models is important; as such models are indispensable components of space data infrastructure. However, loss of terrain features is a constant problem for grid digital elevation models, although these models have already been defined in such a way that their distinct usage as data sources in terrain modeling processing is prohibited. Therefore, in this study, the novel concept-terrain semanteme is proposed to define local space terrain features, and a new process for generating grid digital elevation models based on this new concept is designed. A prototype system is programmed to test the proposed approach; the results indicate that terrain semanteme can be applied in the process of grid digital elevation model generation, and that usage of this new concept improves the digital elevation model fidelity. Moreover, the terrain semanteme technique can be applied for recovery of distorted digital elevation model regions containing terrain semantemes, with good recovery efficiency indicated by experiments.

  18. High-Fidelity Quantum Logic Gates Using Trapped-Ion Hyperfine Qubits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ballance, C J; Harty, T P; Linke, N M; Sepiol, M A; Lucas, D M

    2016-08-05

    We demonstrate laser-driven two-qubit and single-qubit logic gates with respective fidelities 99.9(1)% and 99.9934(3)%, significantly above the ≈99% minimum threshold level required for fault-tolerant quantum computation, using qubits stored in hyperfine ground states of calcium-43 ions held in a room-temperature trap. We study the speed-fidelity trade-off for the two-qubit gate, for gate times between 3.8  μs and 520  μs, and develop a theoretical error model which is consistent with the data and which allows us to identify the principal technical sources of infidelity.

  19. Replication fidelity assessment of large area sub-μm structured polymer surfaces using scatterometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Calaon, M; Hansen, H N; Tosello, G; Madsen, M H; Weirich, J; Hansen, P E; Garnaes, J; Tang, P T

    2015-01-01

    The present study addresses one of the key challenges in the product quality control of transparent structured polymer substrates, the replication fidelity of sub-μm structures over a large area. Additionally the work contributes to the development of new techniques focused on in-line characterization of large nanostructured surfaces using scatterometry. In particular an approach to quantify the replication fidelity of high volume manufacturing processes such as polymer injection moulding is presented. Both periodic channels and semi-spherical structures were fabricated on nickel shims used for later injection moulding of Cyclic-olefin-copolymer (COC) substrate were the sub-μm features where ultimately transferred. The scatterometry system was validated using calibrated atomic force microscopy measurements and a model based on scalar diffraction theory employed to calculate the expected angular distribution of the reflected and the transmitted intensity for the nickel surfaces and structured COC and, respectively. (paper)

  20. General misincorporation frequency: Re-evaluation of the fidelity of DNA polymerases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Jie; Li, Bianbian; Liu, Xiaoying; Tang, Hong; Zhuang, Xiyao; Yang, Mingqi; Xu, Ying; Zhang, Huidong; Yang, Chun

    2018-02-19

    DNA replication in cells is performed in the presence of four dNTPs and four rNTPs. In this study, we re-evaluated the fidelity of DNA polymerases using the general misincorporation frequency consisting of three incorrect dNTPs and four rNTPs but not using the traditional special misincorporation frequency with only the three incorrect dNTPs. We analyzed both the general and special misincorporation frequencies of nucleotide incorporation opposite dG, rG, or 8-oxoG by Pseudomonas aeruginosa phage 1 (PaP1) DNA polymerase Gp90 or Sulfolobus solfataricus DNA polymerase Dpo4. Both misincorporation frequencies of other DNA polymerases published were also summarized and analyzed. The general misincorporation frequency is obviously higher than the special misincorporation frequency for many DNA polymerases, indicating the real fidelity of a DNA polymerase should be evaluated using the general misincorporation frequency. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. A New Design for Airway Management Training with Mixed Reality and High Fidelity Modeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Yunhe; Hananel, David; Zhao, Zichen; Burke, Daniel; Ballas, Crist; Norfleet, Jack; Reihsen, Troy; Sweet, Robert

    2016-01-01

    Restoring airway function is a vital task in many medical scenarios. Although various simulation tools have been available for learning such skills, recent research indicated that fidelity in simulating airway management deserves further improvements. In this study, we designed and implemented a new prototype for practicing relevant tasks including laryngoscopy, intubation and cricothyrotomy. A large amount of anatomical details or landmarks were meticulously selected and reconstructed from medical scans, and 3D-printed or molded to the airway intervention model. This training model was augmented by virtually and physically presented interactive modules, which are interoperable with motion tracking and sensor data feedback. Implementation results showed that this design is a feasible approach to develop higher fidelity airway models that can be integrated with mixed reality interfaces.

  2. Influence of intrinsic decoherence on tripartite entanglement and bipartite fidelity of polar molecules in pendular states

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Han, Jia-Xing; Hu, Yuan; Jin, Yu [Key Laboratory of Micro-Nano Measurement-Manipulation and Physics (Ministry of Education), School of Physics and Nuclear Energy Engineering, Beihang University, Xueyuan Road No. 37, Beijing 100191 (China); Zhang, Guo-Feng, E-mail: gf1978zhang@buaa.edu.cn [Key Laboratory of Micro-Nano Measurement-Manipulation and Physics (Ministry of Education), School of Physics and Nuclear Energy Engineering, Beihang University, Xueyuan Road No. 37, Beijing 100191 (China); State Key Laboratory of Software Development Environment, Beihang University, Xueyuan Road No. 37, Beijing 100191 (China); State Key Laboratory of Low-Dimensional Quantum Physics, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China); Key Laboratory of Quantum Information, University of Science and Technology of China, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Hefei 230026 (China)

    2016-04-07

    An array of ultracold polar molecules trapped in an external electric field is regarded as a promising carrier of quantum information. Under the action of this field, molecules are compelled to undergo pendular oscillations by the Stark effect. Particular attention has been paid to the influence of intrinsic decoherence on the model of linear polar molecular pendular states, thereby we evaluate the tripartite entanglement with negativity, as well as fidelity of bipartite quantum systems for input and output signals using electric dipole moments of polar molecules as qubits. According to this study, we consider three typical initial states for both systems, respectively, and investigate the temporal evolution with variable values of the external field intensity, the intrinsic decoherence factor, and the dipole-dipole interaction. Thus, we demonstrate the sound selection of these three main parameters to obtain the best entanglement degree and fidelity.

  3. Groundstate fidelity phase diagram of the fully anisotropic two-leg spin-½ XXZ ladder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Sheng-Hao; Shi, Qian-Qian; Batchelor, Murray T.; Zhou, Huan-Qiang

    2017-11-01

    The fully aniso