WorldWideScience

Sample records for fide mouse u7

  1. 7 CFR 27.93 - Bona fide spot markets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... REGULATIONS COTTON CLASSIFICATION UNDER COTTON FUTURES LEGISLATION Regulations Spot Markets § 27.93 Bona fide spot markets. The following markets have been determined, after investigation, and are hereby... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Bona fide spot markets. 27.93 Section 27.93...

  2. 78 FR 25181 - Revision of Regulations Defining Bona Fide Cotton Spot Markets

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-30

    ... Service 7 CFR Part 27 RIN 0581-AD26 Revision of Regulations Defining Bona Fide Cotton Spot Markets AGENCY... amending the regulation that specifies which states compose bona fide cotton spot markets in order to assure consistency with the revised Cotton Research and Promotion Act. Updated bona fide spot market...

  3. 78 FR 9330 - Revision of Regulations Defining Bona Fide Cotton Spot Markets

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-08

    ... Defining Bona Fide Cotton Spot Markets AGENCY: Agricultural Marketing Service, USDA. ACTION: Proposed rule... which states compose bona fide cotton spot markets in order to assure consistency with the revised Cotton Research and Promotion Act. Updated bona fide spot market definitions will allow for published...

  4. DMPD: NOD-like receptors (NLRs): bona fide intracellular microbial sensors. [Dynamic Macrophage Pathway CSML Database

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 18585455 NOD-like receptors (NLRs): bona fide intracellular microbial sensors. Shaw...tml) (.csml) Show NOD-like receptors (NLRs): bona fide intracellular microbial sensors. PubmedID 18585455 Ti...tle NOD-like receptors (NLRs): bona fide intracellular microbial sensors. Authors

  5. A Resource for the Transcriptional Signature of Bona Fide Trophoblast Stem Cells and Analysis of Their Embryonic Persistence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Georg Kuales

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Trophoblast stem cells (TSCs represent the multipotent progenitors that give rise to the different cells of the embryonic portion of the placenta. Here, we analysed the expression of key TSC transcription factors Cdx2, Eomes, and Elf5 in the early developing placenta of mouse embryos and in cultured TSCs and reveal surprising heterogeneity in protein levels. We analysed persistence of TSCs in the early placenta and find that TSCs remain in the chorionic hinge until E9.5 and are lost shortly afterwards. To define the transcriptional signature of bona fide TSCs, we used inducible gain- and loss-of-function alleles of Eomes or Cdx2, and EomesGFP, to manipulate and monitor the core maintenance factors of TSCs, followed by genome-wide expression profiling. Combinatorial analysis of resulting expression profiles allowed for defining novel TSC marker genes that might functionally contribute to the maintenance of the TSC state. Analyses by qRT-PCR and in situ hybridisation validated novel TSC- and chorion-specific marker genes, such as Bok/Mtd, Cldn26, Duox2, Duoxa2, Nr0b1, and Sox21. Thus, these expression data provide a valuable resource for the transcriptional signature of bona fide and early differentiating TSCs and may contribute to an increased understanding of the transcriptional circuitries that maintain and/or establish stemness of TSCs.

  6. 7 CFR 15a.61 - Sex as a bona-fide occupational qualification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Sex as a bona-fide occupational qualification. 15a.61... RECEIVING OR BENEFITTING FROM FEDERAL FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE Discrimination on the Basis of Sex in Employment in Education Programs and Activities Prohibited § 15a.61 Sex as a bona-fide occupational...

  7. Generator exchange is associated with an increased rate of Sprint Fidelis lead failure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lovelock, Joshua D; Patel, Ayesha; Mengistu, Andenet; Hoskins, Michael; El-Chami, Mikhael; Lloyd, Michael S; Leon, Angel; DeLurgio, David; Langberg, Jonathan J

    2012-10-01

    The Medtronic Sprint Fidelis defibrillator lead is at an increased risk for failure and was recalled in October 2007. Approximately 268,000 leads were implanted, and more than 100,000 patients still have active Fidelis leads. A number of studies have examined the rate and clinical predictors of lead failure, but none has addressed the effect of an implantable cardioverter-defibrillator generator exchange on subsequent lead failure. Although the manufacturer asserts that "Sprint Fidelis performance after device change-out is similar to lead performance without device change-out," published data are lacking. To assess the effect of implantable cardioverter-defibrillator generator exchange on the rate of Fidelis lead failure. A chart review was conducted in patients who underwent implantation of a Fidelis lead. Patients with a functioning Fidelis lead at generator exchange were compared with controls with leads implanted for a comparable amount of time not undergoing ICD replacement. A total of 1366 patients received a Fidelis lead prior to the recall, of which 479 were still actively followed. Seventy-two patients with a functioning lead underwent generator exchange without lead replacement. Following generator replacement, 15 leads failed. Sixty percent of the Fidelis leads failed within 3 months. Generator exchange increased the rate of lead failure compared with matched controls (20.8% vs 2.54%; P exchange is associated with a higher than expected rate of Fidelis lead failure, often within 3 months. The risk-benefit ratio of Fidelis lead replacement at the time of generator exchange may be greater than appreciated. Copyright © 2012 Heart Rhythm Society. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Exploring key considerations when determining bona fide inadvertent errors resulting in understatements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chrizanne de Villiers

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Chapter 16 of the Tax Administration Act (28 of 2011 (the TA Act deals with understatement penalties. In the event of an ‘understatement’, in terms of Section 222 of the TA Act, a taxpayer must pay an understatement penalty, unless the understatement results from a bona fide inadvertent error. The determining of a bona fide inadvertent error on taxpayers’ returns is a totally new concept in the tax fraternity. It is of utmost importance that this section is applied correctly based on sound evaluation principles and not on professional judgement when determining if the error was indeed the result of a bona fide inadvertent error. This research study focuses on exploring key considerations when determining bona fide inadvertent errors resulting in understatements. The role and importance of tax penalty provisions is explored and the meaning of the different components in the term ‘bona fide inadvertent error’ critically analysed with the purpose to find a possible definition for the term ‘bona fide inadvertent error’. The study also compares the provisions of other tax jurisdictions with regards to errors made resulting in tax understatements in order to find possible guidelines on the application of bona fide inadvertent errors as contained in Section 222 of the TA Act. The findings of the research study revealed that the term ‘bona fide inadvertent error’ contained in Section 222 of the TA Act should be defined urgently and that guidelines must be provided by SARS on the application of the new amendment. SARS should also clarify the application of a bona fide inadvertent error in light of the behaviours contained in Section 223 of the TA Act to avoid any confusion.

  9. Generating Bona Fide Mammalian Prions with Internal Deletions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munoz-Montesino, Carola; Sizun, Christina; Moudjou, Mohammed; Herzog, Laetitia; Reine, Fabienne; Chapuis, Jérôme; Ciric, Danica; Igel-Egalon, Angelique; Laude, Hubert; Béringue, Vincent; Rezaei, Human; Dron, Michel

    2016-08-01

    Mammalian prions are PrP proteins with altered structures causing transmissible fatal neurodegenerative diseases. They are self-perpetuating through formation of beta-sheet-rich assemblies that seed conformational change of cellular PrP. Pathological PrP usually forms an insoluble protease-resistant core exhibiting beta-sheet structures but no more alpha-helical content, loosing the three alpha-helices contained in the correctly folded PrP. The lack of a high-resolution prion structure makes it difficult to understand the dynamics of conversion and to identify elements of the protein involved in this process. To determine whether completeness of residues within the protease-resistant domain is required for prions, we performed serial deletions in the helix H2 C terminus of ovine PrP, since this region has previously shown some tolerance to sequence changes without preventing prion replication. Deletions of either four or five residues essentially preserved the overall PrP structure and mutant PrP expressed in RK13 cells were efficiently converted into bona fide prions upon challenge by three different prion strains. Remarkably, deletions in PrP facilitated the replication of two strains that otherwise do not replicate in this cellular context. Prions with internal deletion were self-propagating and de novo infectious for naive homologous and wild-type PrP-expressing cells. Moreover, they caused transmissible spongiform encephalopathies in mice, with similar biochemical signatures and neuropathologies other than the original strains. Prion convertibility and transfer of strain-specific information are thus preserved despite shortening of an alpha-helix in PrP and removal of residues within prions. These findings provide new insights into sequence/structure/infectivity relationship for prions. Prions are misfolded PrP proteins that convert the normal protein into a replicate of their own abnormal form. They are responsible for invariably fatal neurodegenerative

  10. Usage of U7 snRNA in gene therapy of hemoglobin C disorder ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Here, a bioinformatic analysis was performed to study the effect of co-expression between human Hb C b-globin chain gene and U7.623. The gene ontological results show that full recovery of hemoglobin function and biological process can be derived. This confirms that U7 snRNA can be a good tool for gene therapy in Hb ...

  11. Oportere ex fide bona. Una construcción decisiva de la jurisprudencia romana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Javier Humberto Facco

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Verificada la secularización de la antigua fides, asistimos al surgimiento de una construcción cuya valencia técnica parece concretarse en el específico ámbito del proceso. La fides resulta adjetivada con el calificativo de bona. A partir de entonces el sintagma bona fides significará una característica procesal, una cualidad de ciertas acciones que en la intentio de su fórmula se estructuraban en base al oportere ex fide bona. El núcleo de estas acciones estaba representado por los contratos sinalagmáticos, cuya fuerza obligatoria se fundaba en el consentimiento y pertenecían a la órbita del comercio internacional (ius gentium. Con todo, al margen de su aplicación pretoriana, la cláusula quidquid dare facere oportet ex fide bona fue una elaboración eminentemente jurisprudencial, producto del ingenio de los juristas romanos. Fueron ellos quienes idearon buena parte de las soluciones sobre cuestiones ligadas a la eficacia de los contratos consensuales que todavía hoy se consideran emanaciones de la buena fe-lealtad. Recuperar la trascendencia del rol de los juristas en la tarea de hacer que el derecho sea adherente a la realidad constituye la principal invitación que nace de este escrito.

  12. PEMISAHAN DAN ANALISIS 137Cs DARI LARUTAN PELAT ELEMEN BAKAR U-7%Mo/Al

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dian Anggraini

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRAK PEMISAHAN DAN ANALISIS 137Cs DARI LARUTAN PELAT ELEMEN BAKAR U-7%Mo/Al. Pemisahan cesium dari larutan pelat elemen bakar (PEB U-7Mo/Al telah dilakukan dengan menggunakan metode pengendapan dan penukar kation. Tujuan penelitian adalah mendapatkan metode yang valid untuk pemisahan cesium dari larutan PEB U-7Mo/Al melalui penentuan parameter unjuk kerja metode yaitu akurasi, presisi dan rekoveri. Metode pengendapan dan metode penukar kation yang digunakan mengacu kepada metode ASTM 690-000 dan kepada hasil penelitian U3Si2/Al. Penentuan parameter unjuk kerja metode pengendapan dilakukan dengan menggunakan larutan sampel PEB U-7%Mo/Al sebanyak 150 μL, larutan standar 137Cs sebanyak 50 μL dalam 2 mL HCl 0,1N. Larutan dikenakan proses pengendapan dengan menggunakan pereaksi HClO4 pekat dan penambahan senyawa carrier CsNO3 seberat 225 mg pada temperatur 0oC selama 1 jam, sedangkan proses penukar kation dilakukan dengan menggunakan resin zeolit Lampung sebanyak 400 mg. Proses penukar kation dilakukan secara batch dengan pengocokan selama 1 jam. Hasil proses pengendapan diperoleh endapan CsClO4 dan penukar kation diperoleh berupa padatan cesium - zeolit serta supernatan. Pengukuran dan analisis radionuklida137Cs dalam endapan CsClO4 dan padatan 137Cs-zeolit dilakukan dengan spektrometer gamma. Hasil pengukuran diperoleh nilai cacahan radionuklida 137Cs per detik (cps. Perhitungan rekoveri metode dilakukan dengan perbandingan nilai cacahan radionuklida 137Cs sebelum dan sesudah proses pemisahan. Hasil pemisahan radionuklida 137Cs dari larutan PEB U-7Mo/Al menggunakan metode pengendapan diperoleh rekoveri sebesar 95,56 % dengan akurasi dan presisi pengukuran masing-masing sebesar 0,375 % dan 1,875 %, sedangkan rekoveri pemisahan radionuklida 137Cs dengan metode penukar kation diperoleh rekoveri sebesar 26,73 %. Hal ini menunjukkan bahwa metode pengendapan lebih baik dari pada metode penukar kation untuk pemisahan 137Cs dari larutan bahan bakar

  13. 29 CFR 1625.12 - Exemption for bona fide executive or high policymaking employees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... corporations [or other business organizations] are usually located at corporate or regional headquarters. With respect to employees whose duties are associated with corporate headquarters operations, such as finance..., would be covered by the term “bona fide executive.” Individuals at higher levels in the corporate...

  14. 7 CFR 27.96 - Quotations in bona fide spot markets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... determined by the sale of spot cotton in such spot market. Quotations shall be determined and maintained in each designated spot market by the Cotton Division, Agricultural Marketing Service, USDA, as follows... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Quotations in bona fide spot markets. 27.96 Section 27...

  15. 45 CFR 86.61 - Sex as a bona-fide occupational qualification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Sex as a bona-fide occupational qualification. 86... NONDISCRIMINATION ON THE BASIS OF SEX IN EDUCATION PROGRAMS OR ACTIVITIES RECEIVING FEDERAL FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE Discrimination on the Basis of Sex in Employment in Education Programs or Activities Prohibited § 86.61 Sex as a...

  16. 40 CFR 5.550 - Sex as a bona fide occupational qualification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Sex as a bona fide occupational... NONDISCRIMINATION ON THE BASIS OF SEX IN EDUCATION PROGRAMS OR ACTIVITIES RECEIVING FEDERAL FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE Discrimination on the Basis of Sex in Employment in Education Programs or Activities Prohibited § 5.550 Sex as a...

  17. 24 CFR 3.550 - Sex as a bona fide occupational qualification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Sex as a bona fide occupational... and Urban Development NONDISCRIMINATION ON THE BASIS OF SEX IN EDUCATION PROGRAMS OR ACTIVITIES RECEIVING FEDERAL FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE Discrimination on the Basis of Sex in Employment in Education...

  18. 6 CFR 17.550 - Sex as a bona fide occupational qualification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 6 Domestic Security 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Sex as a bona fide occupational qualification... NONDISCRIMINATION ON THE BASIS OF SEX IN EDUCATION PROGRAMS OR ACTIVITIES RECEIVING FEDERAL FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE Discrimination on the Basis of Sex in Employment in Education Programs or Activities Prohibited § 17.550 Sex as a...

  19. 10 CFR 5.550 - Sex as a bona fide occupational qualification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Sex as a bona fide occupational qualification. 5.550 Section 5.550 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION NONDISCRIMINATION ON THE BASIS OF SEX IN EDUCATION PROGRAMS OR ACTIVITIES RECEIVING FEDERAL FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE Discrimination on the Basis of Sex in...

  20. Law and culture: a theory of comparative variation in bona fide purchase rules

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dari-Mattiacci, G.; Guerriero, C.

    2015-01-01

    A key question in comparative law is why different legal systems provide different legal solutions for the same problem. To answer this question, we use novel comparative evidence on how the conflict between the dispossessed original owner and the bona fide purchaser of a stolen good is resolved in

  1. 13 CFR 113.550 - Sex as a bona fide occupational qualification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 13 Business Credit and Assistance 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Sex as a bona fide occupational qualification. 113.550 Section 113.550 Business Credit and Assistance SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION... Financial Assistance Discrimination on the Basis of Sex in Employment in Education Programs Or Activities...

  2. Fides: Lightweight Authenticated Cipher with Side-Channel Resistance for Constrained Hardware

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bilgin, Begül; Bogdanov, Andrey; Knezevic, Miroslav; Mendel, Florian; Wang, Qingju; Bertoni, G.; Coron, J.S.

    2013-01-01

    In this paper, we present a novel lightweight authenticated cipher optimized for hardware implementations called Fides. It is an online nonce-based authenticated encryption scheme with authenticated data whose area requirements are as low as 793 GE and 1001 GE for 80-bit and 96-bit security,

  3. Fides: Lightweight Authenticated Cipher with Side-Channel Resistance for Constrained Hardware

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bilgin, Begul; Bogdanov, Andrey; Knezevic, Miroslav

    2013-01-01

    , respectively. This is at least two times smaller than its closest competitors Hummingbird-2 and Grain-128a. While being extremely compact, Fides is both throughput and latency efficient, even in its most serial implementations. This is attained by our novel sponge-like design approach. Moreover...

  4. The Sm binding site targets U7 snRNA to coiled bodies (spheres) of amphibian oocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, C H; Murphy, C; Gall, J G

    1996-01-01

    Using cytoplasmic and nuclear injection assays, we show that U7 snRNA constructs are targeted rapidly and specifically to the coiled bodies (spheres) in the germinal vesicle (GV) of the amphibian oocyte, including those coiled bodies attached to the lampbrush chromosomes at the histone gene loci. Because the U7 snRNP is required for removing the 3' end of histone pre-mRNA, we suggest that a major function of coiled bodies is to recruit U7 snRNPs to the histone gene loci, before they associate with the pre-mRNA. Targeting to coiled bodies requires the specific U7 Sm binding site; replacement of the U7 Sm site by that of U2 snRNA reduces this targeting dramatically. No other part of the molecule is required, and the U7 Sm binding site alone is sufficient to direct nuclear import of an unrelated RNA sequence and its specific targeting to coiled bodies. Injected U7 constructs displace the endogenous U7 in the coiled bodies, the amount of injected U7 that ends up in coiled bodies being roughly equal to the amount of endogenous U7 snRNA. PMID:8752090

  5. TEM Characterization of High Burn-up Microstructure of U-7Mo Alloy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jian Gan; Brandon Miller; Dennis Keiser; Adam Robinson; James Madden; Pavel Medvedev; Daniel Wachs

    2014-04-01

    As an essential part of global nuclear non-proliferation effort, the RERTR program is developing low enriched U-Mo fuels (< 20% U-235) for use in research and test reactors that currently employ highly enriched uranium fuels. One type of fuel being developed is a dispersion fuel plate comprised of U-7Mo particles dispersed in Al alloy matrix. Recent TEM characterizations of the ATR irradiated U-7Mo dispersion fuel plates include the samples with a local fission densities of 4.5, 5.2, 5.6 and 6.3 E+21 fissions/cm3 and irradiation temperatures of 101-136?C. The development of the irradiated microstructure of the U-7Mo fuel particles consists of fission gas bubble superlattice, large gas bubbles, solid fission product precipitates and their association to the large gas bubbles, grain subdivision to tens or hundreds of nanometer size, collapse of bubble superlattice, and amorphisation. This presentation will describe the observed microstructures specifically focusing on the U-7Mo fuel particles. The impact of the observed microstructure on the fuel performance and the comparison of the relevant features with that of the high burn-up UO2 fuels will be discussed.

  6. Stress corrosion of the alloy U-7.5 Nb-2.5 Zr

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lepoutre, D.; Nomine, A.M.; Miannay, D.

    1983-09-01

    Oxide formed on U-7.5 Nb-2.5 Zr at room temperature during stress corrosion cracking in oxygen is identical to the natural oxide of the alloy. It is formed by UO 2 with Nb and Zr and is associated with an increased Nb content at the interface. This oxide would be responsible for cracking [fr

  7. Photoproduction of nonstrange baryon resonances in a collective U(7) model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bijker, R.; Leviatan, A.

    1994-01-01

    We present an algebraic description of the geometric structure of baryons in terms of the algebra U(7). We construct a mass operator that preserves the threefold permutational symmetry and discuss a collective model of baryons with the geometry of an oblate symmetric top. This model is applied to the mass spectrum and the photocoupling amplitudes of nonstrange baryons. (author)

  8. SEM and TEM Characterization of As-Fabricated U-7Mo Disperson Fuel Plates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Keiser, D.D. Jr.; Yao, B.; Perez, E.; Sohn, Y.H.

    2009-01-01

    The starting microstructure of a dispersion fuel plate can have a dramatic impact on the overall performance of the plate during irradiation. To improve the understanding of the as-fabricated microstructures of dispersion fuel plates, SEM and TEM analysis have been performed on RERTR-9A archive fuel plates, which went through an additional hot isostatic procsssing (HIP) step during fabrication. The fuel plates had depleted U-7Mo fuel particles dispersed in either Al-2Si or 4043 Al alloy matrix. For the characterized samples, it was observed that a large fraction of the ?-phase U-7Mo alloy particles had decomposed during fabrication, and in areas near the fuel/matrix interface where the transformation products were present significant fuel/matrix interaction had occurred. Relatively thin Si-rich interaction layers were also observed around the U-7Mo particles. In the thick interaction layers, (U)(Al,Si)3 and U6Mo4Al43 were identified, and in the thin interaction layers U(Al,Si)3, U3Si3Al2, U3Si5, and USi1.88-type phases were observed. The U3Si3Al2 phase contained some Mo. Based on the results of this work, exposure of dispersion fuel plates to relatively high temperatures during fabrication impacts the overall microstructure, particularly the nature of the interaction layers around the fuel particles. The time and temperature of fabrication should be carefully controlled in order to produce the most uniform Si-rich layers around the U-7Mo particles.

  9. Thermophysical properties of heat-treated U-7Mo/Al dispersion fuel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cho, Tae Won; Kim, Yeon Soo; Park, Jong Man; Lee, Kyu Hong; Kim, Sunghwan; Lee, Chong-Tak; Yang, Jae Ho; Oh, Jang Soo; Sohn, Dong-Seong

    2018-04-01

    In this study, the effects of interaction layer (IL) on thermophysical properties of U-7Mo/Al dispersion fuel were examined. Microstructural analyses revealed that ILs were formed uniformly on U-Mo particles during heating of U-7Mo/Al samples. The IL volume fraction was measured by applying image analysis methods. The uranium loadings of the samples were calculated based on the measured meat densities at 298 K. The density of the IL was estimated by using the measured density and IL volume fraction. Thermal diffusivity and heat capacity of the samples after the heat treatment were measured as a function of temperature and volume fractions of U-Mo and IL. The thermal conductivity of IL-formed U-7Mo/Al was derived by using the measured thermal diffusivity, heat capacity, and density. The thermal conductivity obtained in the present study was lower than that predicted by the modified Hashin–Shtrikman model due to the theoretical model’s inability to consider the thermal resistance at interfaces between the meat constituents.

  10. Comparing bona fide psychotherapies of depression in adults with two meta-analytical approaches.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah R Braun

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: Despite numerous investigations, the question whether all bona fide treatments of depression are equally efficacious in adults has not been sufficiently answered. METHOD: We applied two different meta-analytical techniques (conventional meta-analysis and mixed treatment comparisons. Overall, 53 studies with 3,965 patients, which directly compared two or more bona fide psychotherapies in a randomized trial, were included. Meta-analyses were conducted regarding five different types of outcome measures. Additionally, the influence of possible moderators was examined. RESULTS: Direct comparisons of cognitive behavior therapy, behavior activation therapy, psychodynamic therapy, interpersonal therapy, and supportive therapies versus all other respective treatments indicated that at the end of treatment all treatments but supportive therapies were equally efficacious whereas there was some evidence that supportive therapies were somewhat less efficacious than all other treatments according to patient self-ratings and clinical significance. At follow-up no significant differences were present. Age, gender, comorbid mental disorders, and length of therapy session were found to moderate efficacy. Cognitive behavior therapy was superior in studies where therapy sessions lasted 90 minutes or longer, behavior activation therapy was more efficacious when therapy sessions lasted less than 90 minutes. Mixed treatment comparisons indicated no statistically significant differences in treatment efficacy but some interesting trends. CONCLUSIONS: This study suggests that there might be differential effects of bona fide psychotherapies which should be examined in detail.

  11. Reaction layer between U-7WT%Mo and Al alloys in chemical diffusion couples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mirandou, M.; Granovsky, M.; Ortiz, M.; Balart, S.; Arico, S.; Gribaudo, L.

    2005-01-01

    Several failures in U-Mo dispersion fuel plates like pillowing and large porosities have been reported during irradiation experiments. These failures have been assigned to the formation of a large (U-Mo)/Al interaction product under high operating conditions. The modification of the matrix by alloying Al to change the interaction layer and improve its irradiation behavior, has been proposed. This paper reports diffusion experiments performed between U-7wt%Mo and various Al alloys containing Mg and / or Si. By the use of Optical Microscopy, SEM and X-Ray diffraction, it was found that with a concentration of 5.2wt% or 7.1 wt%Si the interaction layer is constituted mainly by (U,Mo)(Si,Al) 3 and no (U,Mo)Al 4 is detected. As part of the studies of properties of the U-Mo alloys the time for isothermal transformation start at different temperatures of the γ phase is being evaluated for the present U-7wt%Mo alloy. These results are used to plan the future diffusion program that will include diffusion under irradiation at CNEA RA3 reactor. (author)

  12. ON-GOING STATUS OF KJRR FUEL (U-7MO) QUALIFICATION

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yim, J. S.; Tahk, Y. W.; Oh, J. Y.; Kim, H. J.; Kong, E. H.; Lee, B. H.; Park, J. M.; Jeong, Y. J.; Lee, K. H.; Kim, S. H.; Lee, C. T.; Beasley, A. A.; Choi, Y. J.; Crawford, D. S.; Nielsen, J. W.; Woolstenhulme, N. E.

    2017-03-01

    In order to cope with global shortage of Mo-99 supplies and with growing demand of neutron transmutation doping, KJRR construction plan has been launched since April 2012 to provide self-sufficiency of domestic RI demand, and to extend Si doping capacity for power device market growth. Through comprehensive surveillance of the fuels in-reactor behavior, KAERI has selected the fuel meat of U-7%Mo dispersion in an aluminum matrix with 5wt%Si for the KJRR fuel. As part of the efforts for fuel licensing and qualification of the KJRR fuel, an LTA irradiation test at the ATR started from November 2015 was successfully completed by reaching at 219 EFPD in the end of February 2017. Together with the results of HAMP-1 already completed irradiation and PIE, the successful irradiation of the LTA also demonstrates the fuel integrity under more rigorous conditions than the KJRR operation conditions. This paper updates the current status of the KJRR U7Mo (8 g-U/cm3) LTA irradiation and PIE plan up to date as of February 2017.

  13. Pithovirus sibericum, a new bona fide member of the Fourth TRUC club

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vikas eSharma

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Nucleocytoplasmic large DNA viruses, or representatives of the proposed order Megavirales, include giant viruses of Acanthamoeba that were discovered over the last 12 years and are bona fide microbes. Phylogenies based on a few genes conserved amongst these megaviruses and shared by microbes classified as Eukarya, Bacteria and Archaea, allowed for delineation of a fourth monophylogenetic group or TRUC (Things Resisting Uncompleted Classification composed of the Megavirales representatives. A new Megavirales member named Pithovirus sibericum was isolated from a >30,000-year-old dated Siberian permafrost sample. This virion is as large as recently described pandoraviruses but has a genome that is approximately three to four times shorter. Our objective was to update the classification of P. sibericum as a new member of the Fourth TRUC club. Phylogenetic trees were constructed based on four conserved ancient genes and a phyletic analysis was concurrently conducted based on the presence/absence patterns of a set of informational genes from members of Megavirales, Bacteria, Archaea and Eukarya. Phylogenetic analyses based on the four conserved genes revealed that P. sibericum is part of the fourth TRUC composed of Megavirales members, and is closely related to the families Marseilleviridae and Ascoviridae/Iridoviridae. Additionally, hierarchical clustering delineated four branches, and showed that P. sibericum is part of this fourth TRUC. Overall, phylogenetic and phyletic analyses using informational genes clearly indicate that P. sibericum is a new bona fide member of the Fourth TRUC club composed of representatives of Megavirales, alongside Bacteria, Archaea and Eukarya.

  14. The Medtronic Sprint Fidelis Lead Advisory Notification Has No Adverse Impact on Patient Reported Outcomes in Danish Implantable Cardioverter Defibrillator Patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Susanne Møller; Versteeg, Henneke; Nielsen, Jens C.

    The Medtronic Sprint Fidelis Lead Advisory Notification Has No Adverse Impact on Patient Reported Outcomes in Danish Implantable Cardioverter Defibrillator Patients.......The Medtronic Sprint Fidelis Lead Advisory Notification Has No Adverse Impact on Patient Reported Outcomes in Danish Implantable Cardioverter Defibrillator Patients....

  15. The Medtronic Sprint Fidelis Lead Advisory Notification has no adverse impact on patient reported outcomes in Danish implantable cardioverter defibrillator patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Susanne Møller; Versteeg, Henneke; Nielsen, Jens C.

    The Medtronic Sprint Fidelis Lead Advisory Notification has no adverse impact on patient reported outcomes in Danish implantable cardioverter defibrillator patients.......The Medtronic Sprint Fidelis Lead Advisory Notification has no adverse impact on patient reported outcomes in Danish implantable cardioverter defibrillator patients....

  16. Direct Reading of Bona Fide Barcode Assays for Diagnostics with Smartphone Apps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Jessica X H; Li, Xiaochun; Liu, Frank S F; Yu, Hua-Zhong

    2015-06-30

    The desire to develop new point-of-care (POC) diagnostic tools has led to the adaptation of smartphones to tackle limitations in state-of-the-art instrumentation and centralized laboratory facilities. Today's smartphones possess the computer-like ability to image and process data using mobile apps; barcode scanners are one such type of apps. We demonstrate herein that a diagnostic assay can be performed by patterning immunoassay strips in a bona fide barcode format such that after target binding and signal enhancement, the linear barcode can be read directly with a standard smartphone app. Quantitative analysis can then be performed based on the grayscale intensities with a customized mobile app. This novel diagnostic concept has been validated for a real-world application, i.e., the detection of human chorionic gonadotropin, a pregnancy hormone. With the possibility of multiplex detection, the barcode assay protocol promises to boost POC diagnosis research by the direct adaptation of mobile devices and apps.

  17. The effectiveness of evidence-based treatments for personality disorders when comparing treatment-as-usual and bona fide treatments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Budge, Stephanie L; Moore, Jonathan T; Del Re, A C; Wampold, Bruce E; Baardseth, Timothy P; Nienhuis, Jacob B

    2013-12-01

    The purpose of Study 1 was to examine the relative efficacy of evidence-based treatments (EBTs) when compared to treatment-as-usual (TAU) for adults diagnosed with a personality disorder (PD). The purpose of Study 2 was to investigate the strength of the differences between bona fide psychotherapeutic treatments for PDs. Two separate computerized searches were conducted of: (a) studies that directly compared an EBT with a TAU for treatment of PDs, or (b) studies that compared at least two bona fide treatments for PDs. Meta-analytic methods were used to estimate the effectiveness of the treatments when compared to one another and to model how various confounding variables impacted the results of this comparative research. A total of 30 studies (Study 1; N=1662) were included in the meta-analysis comparing EBTs to TAU. A total of 12 studies (Study 2; N=723) were included in the meta-analysis comparing bona fide treatments. Study 1 found that EBTs were superior to TAU, although the TAU conditions were not comparable in many respects (e.g., not psychotherapy, lacking supervision, lacking training, etc.) to the EBT and there was significant heterogeneity in the effects. Study 2 found that some bona fide treatments were superior to others. © 2013.

  18. The U(7) structure of 12C and the Hoyle 2+ state

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gai, Moshe

    2012-10-01

    We measured the 12C(γ,3α) reaction with an Optical Time Projection Chamber (O-TPC) detector operating at 100 torr with the CO2(80%)+N2(20%) gas mixture and gamma-ray beams from the HIγS facility of the TUNL at Duke. The measured complete angular distributions (between 9.1 - 10.7 MeV) determine the cross section yield curve and phase shifts leading to an unambiguous identification of the second 2+ state in 12C at 9.94 MeV. Hence the long sought for "Hoyle 2+ state" is unambiguously established. The observed spectrum of 12C below 12 MeV including the 2+2 (and a hint of a third 2+) observed in this work is analyzed in the theoretical framework of the rotationvibration spectrum predicted for a triangular shape oblate spinning top with a D3h symmetry, in which the Hoyle state is the first vibrational breathing mode of the triangular three alpha particle system. We also observed a hint of the 2+3 state which is predicted by this U(7) model as a member of the 1- bending mode band, but the existence of this 2+3 is yet to be confirmed.

  19. SEM Characterization of the High Burn-up Microstructure of U-7Mo Alloy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dennis D. Keiser, Jr.; Jan-Fong Jue; Jian Gan; Brandon Miller; Adam Robinson; Pavel Medvedev; James Madden; Dan Wachs; M. Teague

    2014-04-01

    During irradiation, the microstructure of U-7Mo evolves until at a fission density near 5x1021 f/cm3 a high-burnup microstructure exists that is very different than what was observed at lower fission densities. This microstructure is dominated by randomly distributed, relatively large, homogeneous fission gas bubbles. The bubble superlattice has collapsed in many microstructural regions, and the fuel grain sizes, in many areas, become sub-micron in diameter with both amorphous fuel and crystalline fuel present. Solid fission product precipitates can be found inside the fission gas bubbles. To generate more information about the characteristics of the high-fission density microstructure, three samples irradiated in the RERTR-7 experiment have been characterized using a scanning electron microscope equipped with a focused ion beam. The FIB was used to generate samples for SEM imaging and to perform 3D reconstruction of the microstructure, which can be used to look for evidence of possible fission gas bubble interlinkage.

  20. Analysis of irradiated U-7wt%Mo dispersion fuel microstructures using automated image processing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Collette, R. [Colorado School of Mines, Nuclear Science and Engineering Program, 1500 Illinois St, Golden, CO 80401 (United States); King, J., E-mail: kingjc@mines.edu [Colorado School of Mines, Nuclear Science and Engineering Program, 1500 Illinois St, Golden, CO 80401 (United States); Buesch, C. [Oregon State University, 1500 SW Jefferson St., Corvallis, OR 97331 (United States); Keiser, D.D.; Williams, W.; Miller, B.D.; Schulthess, J. [Nuclear Fuels and Materials Division, Idaho National Laboratory, P.O. Box 1625, Idaho Falls, ID 83415-6188 (United States)

    2016-07-15

    The High Performance Research Reactor Fuel Development (HPPRFD) program is responsible for developing low enriched uranium (LEU) fuel substitutes for high performance reactors fueled with highly enriched uranium (HEU) that have not yet been converted to LEU. The uranium-molybdenum (U-Mo) fuel system was selected for this effort. In this study, fission gas pore segmentation was performed on U-7wt%Mo dispersion fuel samples at three separate fission densities using an automated image processing interface developed in MATLAB. Pore size distributions were attained that showed both expected and unexpected fission gas behavior. In general, it proved challenging to identify any dominant trends when comparing fission bubble data across samples from different fuel plates due to varying compositions and fabrication techniques. The results exhibited fair agreement with the fission density vs. porosity correlation developed by the Russian reactor conversion program. - Highlights: • Automated image processing is used to extract fission gas bubble data from irradiated U−Mo fuel samples. • Verification and validation tests are performed to ensure the algorithm's accuracy. • Fission bubble parameters are predictably difficult to compare across samples of varying compositions. • The 2-D results suggest the need for more homogenized fuel sampling in future studies. • The results also demonstrate the value of 3-D reconstruction techniques.

  1. TEM characterization of irradiated U-7Mo/Mg dispersion fuel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gan, J.; Keiser, D. D.; Miller, B. D.; Jue, J. F.; Robinson, A. B.; Madden, J.

    2017-10-01

    This paper presents the results of transmission electron microscopy (TEM) characterization on neutron-irradiated samples taken from the low-flux and high-flux sides of the same fuel plate with U-7Mo fuel particles dispersed in Mg matrix with aluminum alloy Al6061 as cladding material that was irradiated edge-on to the core in the Advanced Test Reactor. The corresponding local fission density and fission rate of the fuel particles and the average fuel-plate centerline temperature for the low-flux and high-flux samples are estimated to be 3.7 × 1021 f/cm3, 7.4 × 1014 f/cm3/s and 123 °C, and 5.5 × 1021 f/cm3, 11.0 × 1014 f/cm3/s and 158 °C, respectively. Complex interaction layers developed at the Al-Mg interface, consisting of Al3Mg2 and Al12Mg17 along with precipitates of MgO, Mg2Si and FeAl5.3. No interaction between Mg matrix and U-Mo fuel particle was identified. For the U-Mo fuel particles, at low fission density, small elongated bubbles wrapped around the clean areas with a fission gas bubble superlattice, which suggests that bubble coalescence is an important mechanism for converting the fission gas bubble superlattice to large bubbles. At high fission density, no bubbles or porosity were observed in the Mg matrix, and pockets of residual fission gas bubble superlattice were observed in the U-Mo fuel particle interior.

  2. Effect of the Zr elements with thermal properties changes of U-7Mo-xZr/Al dispersion fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Supardjo; Agoeng Kadarjono; Boybul; Aslina Br Ginting

    2016-01-01

    Thermal properties data of nuclear fuel is required as input data to predict material properties change phenomenon during the fabrication process and irradiated in a nuclear reactor. Study the influence of Zr element in the U-7Mo-xZr/Al (x = 1%, 2% and 3%) fuel dispersion to changes in the thermal properties at various temperatures have been stiffened. Thermal analysis includes determining the melting temperature, enthalpy, and phase changes made using Differential Thermal Analysis (DTA) in the temperature range between 30 °C up to 1400 °C, while the heat capacity of U-7Mo-xZr alloy and U-7Mo-xZr/Al dispersion fuel using Differential Scanning Calorimeter (DSC) at room temperature up to 450 °C. Thermal analyst data DTA shows that Zr levels of all three compositions showed a similar phenomenon. At temperatures between 565.60 °C - 584.98 °C change becomes α + δ to α + γ phase and at 649.22 °C – 650.13 °C happen smelting Al matrix Occur followed by a reaction between Al matrix with U-7Mo-xZr on 670.38 °C - 673.38 °C form U (Al, Mo)x Zr. Furthermore a phase change α + β becomes β + γ Occurs at temperatures 762.08 °C - 776.33 °C and diffusion between the matrix by U-7Mo-xZr/Al on 853.55 °C - 875.20 °C. Every phenomenon that Occurs, enthalpy posed a relative stable. Consolidation of uranium Occur in 1052.42 °C - 1104.99 °C and decomposition reaction of U (Al, Mo)x and U (Al, Zr) x becomes (UAl 4 , UAl 3 , UAl 2 ), U-Mo, and UZr on 1328,34 °C - 1332,06 °C , The existence of Zr in U-Mo alloy increases the heat capacity of the U-7Mo-xZr/Al, dispersion fuel and the higher heat capacity of Zr levels increased due to interactions between the atoms of Zr with Al matrix so that the heat absorbed by the fuel increase. (author)

  3. Comparisons of five performance validity indices in bona fide and simulated traumatic brain injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bashem, Jesse R; Rapport, Lisa J; Miller, Justin B; Hanks, Robin A; Axelrod, Bradley N; Millis, Scott R

    2014-01-01

    A number of performance validity tests (PVTs) are used to assess memory complaints associated with traumatic brain injury (TBI); however, few studies examine the concordance and predictive accuracy of multiple PVTs, specifically in the context of combined models in known-group designs. The present study compared five widely used PVTs: the Test of Memory Malingering (TOMM), Medical Symptom Validity Test (MSVT), Reliable Digit Span (RDS), Word Choice Test (WCT), and California Verbal Learning Test - Forced Choice (CVLT-FC). Participants were 51 adults with bona fide moderate to severe TBI and 58 demographically comparable healthy adults coached to simulate memory impairment. Classification accuracy of individual PVTs was evaluated using logistic regression and receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves, examining both the dichotomous cutting scores as recommended by the test publishers and continuous scores for the measures. Results demonstrated nearly equivalent discrimination ability of the TOMM, MSVT, and CVLT-FC as individual predictors, all of which markedly outperformed the WCT and RDS. Models of combined PVTs were examined using Bayesian information criterion statistics, with results demonstrating that diagnostic accuracy showed only small to modest growth when the number of tests was increased beyond two. Considering the clinical and pragmatic issues in deriving a parsimonious assessment battery, these findings suggest that using the TOMM and CVLT in conjunction or the MSVT and CVLT in conjunction maximized predictive accuracy as compared to a single index or an assortment of these widely used measures.

  4. giant is a bona fide gap gene in the intermediate germband insect, Oncopeltus fasciatus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Paul Z; Patel, Nipam H

    2010-03-01

    Drosophila undergoes a form of development termed long germ segmentation, where all segments are specified nearly simultaneously so that by the blastoderm stage, the entire body plan has been determined. This mode of segmentation is evolutionarily derived. Most insects undergo short or intermediate germ segmentation, where only anterior segments are specified early, and posterior segments are sequentially specified during germband elongation. These embryological differences imply that anterior and posterior segments might rely upon different molecular mechanisms. In Drosophila, embryos mutant for giant show a gap in the anterior as well fusions of several abdominal segments. In Tribolium, a short germ beetle, giant is required for segmental identity, but not formation, in gnathal segments and also for segmentation of the entire abdomen. This raises the possibility that giant might not act as a gap gene in short and intermediate germ insects. Oncopeltus fasciatus is an intermediate germ insect that is an outgroup to the clade containing Drosophila and Tribolium. We cloned the Oncopeltus homolog of giant and determined its expression and function during segmentation. We find that Oncopeltus giant is a canonical gap gene in the maxillary and labial segments and also plays a gap-like role in the first four abdominal segments. Our results suggest that giant was a bona fide gap gene in the ancestor of these insects with this role being lost in the lineage leading towards Tribolium. This highlights the conservation of anterior patterning and evolutionary plasticity of the genetic regulation controlling posterior segmentation, even in short and intermediate germ insects.

  5. Meningeal melanocytes in the mouse: Distribution and dependence on Mitf

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefan Arni Hafsteinsson Gudjohnsen

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Melanocytes are pigment producing cells derived from the neural crest. They are primarily found in the skin and hair follicles, but can also be found in other tissues including the eye, ear and heart. Here we describe the distribution of pigmented cells in C57BL/6J mouse meninges, the membranes that envelope the brain. These cells contain melanosomes of all four stages of development and they depend on MITF, the master regulator of melanocyte development, suggesting that they are bona-fide melanocytes. The location of these pigmented cells is consistent with the location of meningeal melanomas in humans and animal models.

  6. La Graeca fides e la falsità moscovitanel discorso polacco premoderno. Storia di un topos ["Graeca fides and the Perfidy of the Muscovites in the Polish Early Modern Discourse. History of a Topos "

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roman Krzywy

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available "The article discusses the usage of the classical topos Graeca fides to describe the citizens of the Grand Duchy of Moscow in early modern Polish literature (chronicles, diaries, journalistic writings, diplomatic reports etc.. This way of speaking was justified by the identification of the Eastern Orthodox Church with the Greek Byzantine Rite. The formula was used to deprecate Russians and became part of a negative stereotype. The author demonstrates, with diverse examples, how this formula became a constant topos in statements about a country considered hostile in Poland since the 16th century, and in which contexts it was developed."

  7. A cost-effectiveness analysis of a proactive management strategy for the Sprint Fidelis recall: a probabilistic decision analysis model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bashir, Jamil; Cowan, Simone; Raymakers, Adam; Yamashita, Michael; Danter, Matthew; Krahn, Andrew; Lynd, Larry D

    2013-12-01

    The management of the recall is complicated by the competing risks of lead failure and complications that can occur with lead revision. Many of these patients are currently undergoing an elective generator change--an ideal time to consider lead revision. To determine the cost-effectiveness of a proactive management strategy for the Sprint Fidelis recall. We obtained detailed clinical outcomes and costing data from a retrospective analysis of 341 patients who received the Sprint Fidelis lead in British Columbia, where patients younger than 60 years were offered lead extraction when undergoing generator replacement. These population-based data were used to construct and populate a probabilistic Markov model in which a proactive management strategy was compared to a conservative strategy to determine the incremental cost per lead failure avoided. In our population, elective lead revisions were half the cost of emergent revisions and had a lower complication rate. In the model, the incremental cost-effectiveness ratio of proactive lead revision versus a recommended monitoring strategy was $12,779 per lead failure avoided. The proactive strategy resulted in 21 fewer failures per 100 patients treated and reduced the chance of an additional complication from an unexpected surgery. Cost-effectiveness analysis suggests that prospective lead revision should be considered when patients with a Sprint Fidelis lead present for pulse generator change. Elective revision of the lead is justified even when 25% of the population is operated on per year, and in some scenarios, it is both less costly and provides a better outcome. © 2013 Heart Rhythm Society Published by Heart Rhythm Society All rights reserved.

  8. Establishment of mouse expanded potential stem cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Jian; Ryan, David J; Wang, Wei; Tsang, Jason Cheuk-Ho; Lan, Guocheng; Masaki, Hideki; Gao, Xuefei; Antunes, Liliana; Yu, Yong; Zhu, Zhexin; Wang, Juexuan; Kolodziejczyk, Aleksandra A; Campos, Lia S; Wang, Cui; Yang, Fengtang; Zhong, Zhen; Fu, Beiyuan; Eckersley-Maslin, Melanie A; Woods, Michael; Tanaka, Yosuke; Chen, Xi; Wilkinson, Adam C; Bussell, James; White, Jacqui; Ramirez-Solis, Ramiro; Reik, Wolf; Göttgens, Berthold; Teichmann, Sarah A; Tam, Patrick P L; Nakauchi, Hiromitsu; Zou, Xiangang; Lu, Liming; Liu, Pentao

    2017-10-19

    Mouse embryonic stem cells derived from the epiblast contribute to the somatic lineages and the germline but are excluded from the extra-embryonic tissues that are derived from the trophectoderm and the primitive endoderm upon reintroduction to the blastocyst. Here we report that cultures of expanded potential stem cells can be established from individual eight-cell blastomeres, and by direct conversion of mouse embryonic stem cells and induced pluripotent stem cells. Remarkably, a single expanded potential stem cell can contribute both to the embryo proper and to the trophectoderm lineages in a chimaera assay. Bona fide trophoblast stem cell lines and extra-embryonic endoderm stem cells can be directly derived from expanded potential stem cells in vitro. Molecular analyses of the epigenome and single-cell transcriptome reveal enrichment for blastomere-specific signature and a dynamic DNA methylome in expanded potential stem cells. The generation of mouse expanded potential stem cells highlights the feasibility of establishing expanded potential stem cells for other mammalian species.

  9. Calculation of Design Parameters for an Equilibrium LEU Core in the NBSR using a U7Mo Dispersion Fuel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hanson A. L.; Diamond D.

    2014-06-30

    A plan is being developed for the conversion of the NIST research reactor (NBSR) from high-enriched uranium (HEU) fuel to low-enriched uranium (LEU) fuel. The LEU fuel may be a monolithic foil (LEUm) of U10Mo (10% molybdenum by weight in an alloy with uranium) or a dispersion of U7Mo in aluminum (LEUd). A previous report provided neutronic calculations for the LEUm fuel and this report presents the neutronics parameters for the LEUd fuel. The neutronics parameters for the LEUd fuel are compared to those previously obtained for the present HEU fuel and the proposed LEUm fuel. The results show no significant differences between the LEUm and the LEUd other than the LEUd fuel requires slightly less uranium than the LEUm fuel due to less molybdenum being present. The calculations include kinetics parameters, reactivity coefficients, reactivity worths of control elements and abnormal configurations, and power distributions under normal operation and with misloaded fuel elements.

  10. Enbrittlement of the U-7,5 Nb-2,5 Zr uranium alloy in gaseous environments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lepoutre, D.

    1984-10-01

    Stress corrosion cracking in air, oxygen, hydrogen, water, carbon dioxide of an uranium alloy U 7.5 Nb 2.5 Zr is experimentally studied. The stress corrosion tests are performed with fatigue precracked Single Edge Notched specimens, and the Linear Elastic Fracture Mechanic concept is used to describe the stress state at the crack tip. The s.c.c. maps and the cracking kinetics are determined as a function of stress intensity factor, temperature and pressure. In oxygen, an embrittlement is observed in all the tests, for any temperature and pressure; cracking is transgranular and thermally activated. We propose a model which takes in account the concomitant buildup of an oxide film and niobium interfacial segregated zone. In hydrogen, an embrittlement is observed only at low pressure: hydriding occurs at high pressure. A brittle phase failure mechanism is proposed to explain the embrittling effect of hydrogen. Cracking in oxygen at low pressure is inhibited by water and carbon dioxide. Finally oxygen is the specie responsible for cracking in laboratory air [fr

  11. The relative efficacy of bona fide psychotherapies for treating post-traumatic stress disorder: a meta-analysis of direct comparisons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benish, Steven G; Imel, Zac E; Wampold, Bruce E

    2008-06-01

    Psychotherapy has been found to be an effective treatment of post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), but meta-analyses have yielded inconsistent results on relative efficacy of psychotherapies in the treatment of PTSD. The present meta-analysis controlled for potential confounds in previous PTSD meta-analyses by including only bona fide psychotherapies, avoiding categorization of psychotherapy treatments, and using direct comparison studies only. The primary analysis revealed that effect sizes were homogenously distributed around zero for measures of PTSD symptomology, and for all measures of psychological functioning, indicating that there were no differences between psychotherapies. Additionally, the upper bound of the true effect size between PTSD psychotherapies was quite small. The results suggest that despite strong evidence of psychotherapy efficaciousness vis-à-vis no treatment or common factor controls, bona fide psychotherapies produce equivalent benefits for patients with PTSD.

  12. Practical theology as life science: Fides Quaerens Vivendi and its connection to Hebrew thinking (Hālak

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniël J. Louw

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The term practical theology is complex and, due to many different religious and cultural settings, a many layered concept. During the past 40 years the paradigm in theory formation for an academic and disciplinary approach to practical theology shifted from the clerical and ecclesial paradigm of ministerial actions to experiences of faith with the emphasis on an empirical based epistemology. Rather than a deductive approach, the shift is towards a more inductive approach within the methodological framework of phenomenology. Currently, in the international discourse on theory formation, there is a tendency towards a hermeneutical approach with the focus on the networking, relational dynamics of civil society Thus, the attempt to describe practical theology as a kind of ‘life science’ (the concern for the mundane and existential reality of everyday life – Alltagsreligion. Within the context of African spiritualties, with its emphasis on the communal dynamics of vital, human relationships, the focus on lifestyles becomes vital. In light of an ontology of life (l’energie spirituelle – Henri Bergson, the notion of fides quaerens vivendi [faith seeking lifestyles] is researched. With reference to the theory of complexification and chaosmos as well as the impact thereof on different theories in life sciences, the connection between sapientia and the vivid praxis of God is critically explored. The focus of this article is on the question: What is the impact of an ontology of life on both praxis thinking and theological reflection? Instead of the Cartesian framework of causative definitions, the notion of the ‘infinition of God’ is proposed within the praxis of Hebrew, wisdom thinking.

  13. Management of functional Sprint Fidelis leads at cardiac resynchronization therapy-defibrillator generator replacement: a novel option for preventing inappropriate shocks from lead failure in fragile patients with high risk of sudden death.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Dennis W X; Chu, Matthew M; House, Chad M

    2017-12-01

    In patients with a functional Sprint Fidelis lead at generator replacement, the manufacturer recommended to either continue to use the existing lead or replace it with a new lead. For those patients who continue to use a functional Fidelis lead, the risk of inappropriate shocks remains present if the lead fails in the future. We evaluated the feasibility of an alternative approach at the time of cardiac resynchronization therapy-defibrillator (CRT-D) generator replacement in patients with a functional bipolar left ventricular (LV) lead for prevention of inappropriate shocks from future Fidelis lead failure. During the procedure, the pace/sense IS-1 connection pin of the functional Fidelis lead was intentionally inserted into the LV port of the new CRT-D generator, while the existing bipolar LV lead IS-1 connection pin was inserted into the right ventricular (RV) pace/sense port. After such switching, the existing bipolar LV lead was used for functional LV pacing/sensing, while the Fidelis lead was used for functional RV pacing and high voltage shock only and could no longer be used for the purpose of sensing and detecting. This approach precluded oversensing and inappropriate shocks should the functional Fidelis lead fail in the future. Six fragile patients, who were not considered suitable candidates for lead replacement, underwent the alternative approach. During a follow-up of 35 ± 23 months, the CRT-D system functioned normally in five patients. The Fidelis lead fractured in one patient 7 months after generator replacement. The malfunction was detected promptly and the defected lead was replaced. No inappropriate detections or shock was triggered. In CRT-D patients with a functional Fidelis lead and a bipolar LV lead, switching of the Fidelis lead pace/sense IS-1 pin with the bipolar LV lead IS-1 pin at generator replacement did not affect normal system function. This novel approach may be valuable in fragile patients with high risk of sudden death for

  14. Electron microscopy characterization of an as-fabricated research reactor fuel plate comprised of U-7Mo particles dispersed in an Al-2Si alloy matrix

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Keiser, Dennis D.; Gan, J.; Jue, J.F.; Miller, B.D.; Clark, C.R.

    2010-01-01

    To understand the microstructural development of nuclear fuel plates during irradiation, it is imperative to know the microstructure of a fuel plate after all the fabrication steps have been completed and before it is inserted into the reactor. To this end, a U-7 wt.% Mo alloy research reactor dispersion fuel plate with Al-2 wt.% Si matrix was destructively examined using scanning and transmission electron microscopy to characterize the developed microstructure after fabrication. Of particular interest for this study was how the Si that was added to the fuel matrix partitioned between the various fuel plate phases during fabrication. Si was added to the matrix so that the microstructure that developed during fuel fabrication would exhibit good irradiation behavior. SEM analysis was used to identify the representative microstructure, the compositions of the various phases, and the partitioning behavior of the fuel and matrix constituents. TEM analysis was employed to definitively identify the phases in the U-7Mo alloy and the phases that formed due to diffusional interactions between the fuel particles and matrix during fuel plate fabrication. The TEM results are the first reported for an as-fabricated U-7 wt.% Mo dispersion fuel plate with an Al alloy matrix. SEM results showed that a significant portion of the original γ-(U-Mo) fuel particles had transformed to a lamellar microstructure, comprised of α-U and either γ or γ' phases, and the fuel/matrix interaction layers were enriched in Si. TEM analysis identified an ordered fcc (U-Mo)(Al-Si) 3 type of phase, which formed at the decomposed U-7Mo/matrix interface and extended into the lamellar microstructure. Some regions of the U-7Mo particles retained the single-phase γ-(U-Mo). Small precipitate phases were observed in the fuel meat matrix that contained Fe, Al, and Si. The Si that is added to the matrix of a U-Mo dispersion fuel plate to improve irradiation performance appears to result in the creation of a

  15. Design and performance of U7B beamline and X-ray diffraction and scattering station at NSRL and its preliminary experiments in protein crystallography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pan Guoqiang; Xu, Chaoyin; Fan Rong; Gao Chen; Lou Xiaohua; Teng Maikun; Huang Qingqiu; Niu Liwen

    2005-01-01

    This publication describes the design and performance of the U7B beamline and X-ray diffraction and diffuse scattering station at National Synchrotron Radiation Laboratory (NSRL). The beamline optics comprise a Pt-coated toroidal focusing mirror and a double-crystal Si(1 1 1) monochromator. A preliminary experiment of diffraction data collection and processing was carried out using a commercial imaging plate detector system (Mar345). The data collected from one single crystal of acutohaemolysin, a Lys49-type PLA2 from Agkistrodon acutus venom, are of high quality

  16. Centralized mouse repositories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donahue, Leah Rae; Hrabe de Angelis, Martin; Hagn, Michael; Franklin, Craig; Lloyd, K C Kent; Magnuson, Terry; McKerlie, Colin; Nakagata, Naomi; Obata, Yuichi; Read, Stuart; Wurst, Wolfgang; Hörlein, Andreas; Davisson, Muriel T

    2012-10-01

    Because the mouse is used so widely for biomedical research and the number of mouse models being generated is increasing rapidly, centralized repositories are essential if the valuable mouse strains and models that have been developed are to be securely preserved and fully exploited. Ensuring the ongoing availability of these mouse strains preserves the investment made in creating and characterizing them and creates a global resource of enormous value. The establishment of centralized mouse repositories around the world for distributing and archiving these resources has provided critical access to and preservation of these strains. This article describes the common and specialized activities provided by major mouse repositories around the world.

  17. CONSIDERATIONS ON THE EXPRESS REGULATION OF THE BONA FIDE PRINCIPLE IN THE CONSTITUTION OF ROMANIA AND IN THE NEW ROMANIAN CIVIL CODE AFTER THE MODEL OF ENCODINGS ON THE EUROPEAN LEVEL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DOBRILĂ Mirela Carmen

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available This article examines the significance of the bona fide concept as a particularly complex notion and timely constant on both European regulation level and the national level, both in the Constitution of Romania and in the new Romanian Civil Code. The study hereby describes the way the new Romanian Civil Code comprehends to provide an express regulation of the bona fide principle, as a novelty and great interest for the Romanian civil law, this analysis aiming to be an opening study that would lead to new guidelines.

  18. La cláusula ‘ex fide bona’ y su influencia en el ‘quantum respondeatur’ como herramienta para recuperar el equilibrio patrimonial en derecho romano

    OpenAIRE

    Lilian C. San Martín Neira

    2015-01-01

    Este artículo se refiere a la relación existente entre la cláusula ex fide bona y la cuantía de la condena en derecho romano. Mediante la exégesis de dos pasajes del Digesto se pone en evidencia que, gracias a la elasticidad de la cláusula ex fide bona, los juristas romanos utilizaron el quantum respondeatur como un mecanismo para restablecer el equilibrio patrimonial, excluyendo de la summa condemnationis cantidades que en principio habrían debido incluirse. En consecuencia, en Roma la buena...

  19. Aminoacyl-tRNA-charged eukaryotic elongation factor 1A is a bona fide substrate for Legionelle pneumophila effector glucosyltransferases

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tzivelekidis, Tina; Jank, Thomas; Pohl, Corinna

    2011-01-01

    Legionella pneumophila, which is the causative organism of Legionnaires disease, translocates numerous effector proteins into the host cell cytosol by a type IV secretion system during infection. Among the most potent effector proteins of Legionella are glucosyltransferases (Lgt’s), which...... selectively modify eukaryotic elongation factor (eEF) 1A at Ser-53 in the GTP binding domain. Glucosylation results in inhibition of protein synthesis. Here we show that in vitro glucosylation of yeast and mouse eEF1A by Lgt3 in the presence of the factors Phe-tRNAPhe and GTP was enhanced 150 and 590-fold...

  20. Gaze beats mouse

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mateo, Julio C.; San Agustin, Javier; Hansen, John Paulin

    2008-01-01

    Facial EMG for selection is fast, easy and, combined with gaze pointing, it can provide completely hands-free interaction. In this pilot study, 5 participants performed a simple point-and-select task using mouse or gaze for pointing and a mouse button or a facial-EMG switch for selection. Gaze...... pointing was faster than mouse pointing, while maintaining a similar error rate. EMG and mouse-button selection had a comparable performance. From analyses of completion time, throughput and error rates, we concluded that the combination of gaze and facial EMG holds potential for outperforming the mouse....

  1. Discrimination-pregnancy leave-Pregnancy Discrimination Act not retroactive-bona fide seniority system. AT&T Corp. v. Hulteen, 2009 U.S. LEXIS 3470 (U.S. 5/18/2009).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-01-01

    A pension plan whose terms are those of a bona fide seniority system and which treats pregnancy leave, taken before the addition of the Pregnancy Discrimination Act (PDA) to Title VII, differently than other kinds of medical leave, does not amount to sex and pregnancy discrimination under Title VII because PDA does not apply retroactively.

  2. The Knockout Mouse Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Austin, Christopher P; Battey, James F; Bradley, Allan; Bucan, Maja; Capecchi, Mario; Collins, Francis S; Dove, William F; Duyk, Geoffrey; Dymecki, Susan; Eppig, Janan T; Grieder, Franziska B; Heintz, Nathaniel; Hicks, Geoff; Insel, Thomas R; Joyner, Alexandra; Koller, Beverly H; Lloyd, K C Kent; Magnuson, Terry; Moore, Mark W; Nagy, Andras; Pollock, Jonathan D; Roses, Allen D; Sands, Arthur T; Seed, Brian; Skarnes, William C; Snoddy, Jay; Soriano, Philippe; Stewart, David J; Stewart, Francis; Stillman, Bruce; Varmus, Harold; Varticovski, Lyuba; Verma, Inder M; Vogt, Thomas F; von Melchner, Harald; Witkowski, Jan; Woychik, Richard P; Wurst, Wolfgang; Yancopoulos, George D; Young, Stephen G; Zambrowicz, Brian

    2009-01-01

    Mouse knockout technology provides a powerful means of elucidating gene function in vivo, and a publicly available genome-wide collection of mouse knockouts would be significantly enabling for biomedical discovery. To date, published knockouts exist for only about 10% of mouse genes. Furthermore, many of these are limited in utility because they have not been made or phenotyped in standardized ways, and many are not freely available to researchers. It is time to harness new technologies and efficiencies of production to mount a high-throughput international effort to produce and phenotype knockouts for all mouse genes, and place these resources into the public domain. PMID:15340423

  3. An encyclopedia of mouse DNA elements (Mouse ENCODE).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stamatoyannopoulos, John A; Snyder, Michael; Hardison, Ross; Ren, Bing; Gingeras, Thomas; Gilbert, David M; Groudine, Mark; Bender, Michael; Kaul, Rajinder; Canfield, Theresa; Giste, Erica; Johnson, Audra; Zhang, Mia; Balasundaram, Gayathri; Byron, Rachel; Roach, Vaughan; Sabo, Peter J; Sandstrom, Richard; Stehling, A Sandra; Thurman, Robert E; Weissman, Sherman M; Cayting, Philip; Hariharan, Manoj; Lian, Jin; Cheng, Yong; Landt, Stephen G; Ma, Zhihai; Wold, Barbara J; Dekker, Job; Crawford, Gregory E; Keller, Cheryl A; Wu, Weisheng; Morrissey, Christopher; Kumar, Swathi A; Mishra, Tejaswini; Jain, Deepti; Byrska-Bishop, Marta; Blankenberg, Daniel; Lajoie, Bryan R; Jain, Gaurav; Sanyal, Amartya; Chen, Kaun-Bei; Denas, Olgert; Taylor, James; Blobel, Gerd A; Weiss, Mitchell J; Pimkin, Max; Deng, Wulan; Marinov, Georgi K; Williams, Brian A; Fisher-Aylor, Katherine I; Desalvo, Gilberto; Kiralusha, Anthony; Trout, Diane; Amrhein, Henry; Mortazavi, Ali; Edsall, Lee; McCleary, David; Kuan, Samantha; Shen, Yin; Yue, Feng; Ye, Zhen; Davis, Carrie A; Zaleski, Chris; Jha, Sonali; Xue, Chenghai; Dobin, Alex; Lin, Wei; Fastuca, Meagan; Wang, Huaien; Guigo, Roderic; Djebali, Sarah; Lagarde, Julien; Ryba, Tyrone; Sasaki, Takayo; Malladi, Venkat S; Cline, Melissa S; Kirkup, Vanessa M; Learned, Katrina; Rosenbloom, Kate R; Kent, W James; Feingold, Elise A; Good, Peter J; Pazin, Michael; Lowdon, Rebecca F; Adams, Leslie B

    2012-08-13

    To complement the human Encyclopedia of DNA Elements (ENCODE) project and to enable a broad range of mouse genomics efforts, the Mouse ENCODE Consortium is applying the same experimental pipelines developed for human ENCODE to annotate the mouse genome.

  4. Gaze beats mouse

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mateo, Julio C.; San Agustin, Javier; Hansen, John Paulin

    2008-01-01

    Facial EMG for selection is fast, easy and, combined with gaze pointing, it can provide completely hands-free interaction. In this pilot study, 5 participants performed a simple point-and-select task using mouse or gaze for pointing and a mouse button or a facial-EMG switch for selection. Gaze po...

  5. Interlopers at the Fringes of Empire: The Procurators of the Propaganda Fide Papal Congregation in Canton and Macao, 1700-1823

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eugenio Menegon

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The office of the procurator of the papal Sacred Congregation for the Propagation of the Faith (Sacra Congregatio de Propaganda Fide offers a unique case study of noncommercial interloping in the long eighteenth century in the Pearl River Delta, and reveals the complexity and fluidity of life at the intersection of Asian and European maritime environments in that special human ecosystem. The oceanic infrastructure of the Age of Sail and the Sino-Western trade system in Canton sustained the Catholic missionary enterprise in Asia, and the professional figure of the procurator represented its economic and political linchpin. Procurators were agents connected with both European and Qing imperial formations, yet not directly at their service. They utilized existing maritime trade networks to their own advantage without being integral parts of those networks’ economic mechanisms. All the while, they subverted Qing prohibitions against Christianity. Using sources preserved in Rome, this article offers new insights into the global mechanisms of trade, communication, and religious exchange embodied by the procurators-interlopers and their networks, with significant implications for the history of the Sino-Western trade system, Qing policies toward the West and Christianity, and the history of Asian Catholic missions.

  6. SCFJFK is a bona fide E3 ligase for ING4 and a potent promoter of the angiogenesis and metastasis of breast cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Ruorong; He, Lin; Li, Zhongwu; Han, Xiao; Liang, Jing; Si, Wenzhe; Chen, Zhe; Li, Lei; Xie, Guojia; Li, Wanjin; Wang, Peiyan; Lei, Liandi; Zhang, Hongquan; Pei, Fei; Cao, Dengfeng

    2015-01-01

    Loss of function/dysregulation of inhibitor of growth 4 (ING4) and hyperactivation of NF-κB are frequent events in many types of human malignancies. However, the molecular mechanisms underlying these remarkable aberrations are not understood. Here, we report that ING4 is physically associated with JFK. We demonstrated that JFK targets ING4 for ubiquitination and degradation through assembly of an Skp1–Cul1–F-box (SCF) complex. We showed that JFK-mediated ING4 destabilization leads to the hyperactivation of the canonical NF-κB pathway and promotes angiogenesis and metastasis of breast cancer. Significantly, the expression of JFK is markedly up-regulated in breast cancer, and the level of JFK is negatively correlated with that of ING4 and positively correlated with an aggressive clinical behavior of breast carcinomas. Our study identified SCFJFK as a bona fide E3 ligase for ING4 and unraveled the JFK–ING4–NF-κB axis as an important player in the development and progression of breast cancer, supporting the pursuit of JFK as a potential target for breast cancer intervention. PMID:25792601

  7. SCF(JFK) is a bona fide E3 ligase for ING4 and a potent promoter of the angiogenesis and metastasis of breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Ruorong; He, Lin; Li, Zhongwu; Han, Xiao; Liang, Jing; Si, Wenzhe; Chen, Zhe; Li, Lei; Xie, Guojia; Li, Wanjin; Wang, Peiyan; Lei, Liandi; Zhang, Hongquan; Pei, Fei; Cao, Dengfeng; Sun, Luyang; Shang, Yongfeng

    2015-03-15

    Loss of function/dysregulation of inhibitor of growth 4 (ING4) and hyperactivation of NF-κB are frequent events in many types of human malignancies. However, the molecular mechanisms underlying these remarkable aberrations are not understood. Here, we report that ING4 is physically associated with JFK. We demonstrated that JFK targets ING4 for ubiquitination and degradation through assembly of an Skp1-Cul1-F-box (SCF) complex. We showed that JFK-mediated ING4 destabilization leads to the hyperactivation of the canonical NF-κB pathway and promotes angiogenesis and metastasis of breast cancer. Significantly, the expression of JFK is markedly up-regulated in breast cancer, and the level of JFK is negatively correlated with that of ING4 and positively correlated with an aggressive clinical behavior of breast carcinomas. Our study identified SCF(JFK) as a bona fide E3 ligase for ING4 and unraveled the JFK-ING4-NF-κB axis as an important player in the development and progression of breast cancer, supporting the pursuit of JFK as a potential target for breast cancer intervention. © 2015 Yan et al.; Published by Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory Press.

  8. Mouse Genome Informatics (MGI)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — MGI is the international database resource for the laboratory mouse, providing integrated genetic, genomic, and biological data to facilitate the study of human...

  9. Mouse Phenome Database (MPD)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The Mouse Phenome Database (MPD) has characterizations of hundreds of strains of laboratory mice to facilitate translational discoveries and to assist in selection...

  10. Atopowe zapalenie skóry – ciężka postać u 7-letniej dziewczynki – opis przypadku

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bolesław Kalicki

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Atopowe zapalenie skóry (AZS jest przewlekłym schorzeniem dermatologicznym o podłożu zapalnym, charakteryzującym się częstymi nawrotami zmian, wybitną suchością skóry oraz towarzyszącym świądem. Zapadalność na AZS w ostatnich latach rośnie, aktualnie dotyka ono 1% do 20% populacji dziecięcej. W patogenezie choroby rolę odrywają czynniki genetyczne, środowiskowe, infekcyjne oraz mechanizmy immunologiczne. W zależności od wieku dziecka wyróżniamy fazę niemowlęcą z typowym zajęciem skóry twarzy, tułowia i wyprostnych części kończyn, fazę dziecięcą z przewagą zmian w zgięciach łokciowych, podkolanowych, wokół nadgarstków i kostek oraz przewlekłą postać typu dorosłego. Początkowo zmiany mają charakter sączących się grudek na podłożu rumieniowym, wraz z długością trwania choroby tworzą się blaszki, a naskórek ulega lichenizacji. Podstawą do rozpoznania AZS jest obraz kliniczny. Najczęściej stosowane są w tym celu kryteria Hanifina i Rajki omówione poniżej, a także kryteria zaproponowane w 2003 roku przez American Academy of Dermatology. Chorobie towarzyszy często eozynofilia, zwiększone stężenie immunoglobulin E oraz dodatnie punktowe testy skórne. W pracy przedstawiono najczęstsze jednostki chorobowe wymagające różnicowania z AZS. Leczenie tego schorzenia obejmuje systematyczne nawilżanie skóry, a w fazie zaostrzenia stosowanie leków przeciwzapalnych – glikokortykosteroidów i inhibitorów kalcyneuryny oraz leków przeciwbakteryjnych i antyhistaminowych. W pracy omówiono również ciężką postać AZS przebiegającą z wybitną eozynofilią i hipergammaglobulinemią E u 7-letniej dziewczynki hospitalizowanej w Klinice Pediatrii WIM.

  11. Microdosimetry measurements characterizing the radiation fields of 300 MeV/u 12C and 185 MeV/u 7Li pencil beams stopping in water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martino, G; Durante, M; Schardt, D

    2010-06-21

    In order to characterize the complex radiation field produced by heavy-ion beams in water, in particular the lateral dose fall-off and the radiation quality, microdosimetry measurements were performed at GSI Darmstadt using pencil-like beams of 300 MeV/u (12)C and 185 MeV/u (7)Li ions delivered by the heavy-ion synchrotron SIS-18. The ion beams (range in water about 17 cm) were stopped in the center of a 30 x 30 x 30 cm(3) water phantom and their radiation field was investigated by in-phantom measurements using a tissue-equivalent proportional chamber (TEPC). The chamber was placed at 35 different positions in the central plane at various depths along the beam axis and at radial distances of 0, 1, 2, 5 and 10 cm. The off-axis measurements for both (12)C and (7)Li ions show very similar distributions of the lineal energy, all peaking between 1 and 10 keV microm(-1) which is a typical range covered by secondary hydrogen fragments and neutrons. The radiation quality given by the dose-mean lineal energy [Formula in text] was found to be at a constant level of 1-2 keV microm(-1) at radial distances larger than 2 cm. The relative absorbed dose at each position was obtained by integration of the measured spectra normalized to the number of incident primary beam particles. The results confirm that the lateral dose profile of heavy ions shows an extremely steep fall-off, with relative values of about 10(-3), 10(-4) and 10(-5) at the 2, 5 and 10 cm distance from the beam axis, respectively. The depth-dose curves at a fixed distance from the beam axis slowly rise until they reach the depth of the Bragg peak, reflecting the build-up of secondary fragments with increasing penetration depth. The measured (12)C dose profiles were found to be in good agreement with a similar experimental study at HIMAC (Japan).

  12. mouseTube

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torquet, Nicolas; de Chaumont, Fabrice; Faure, Philippe; Bourgeron, Thomas; Ey, Elodie

    2016-01-01

    Ultrasonic vocalisation is a broadly used proxy to evaluate social communication in mouse models of neuropsychiatric disorders. The efficacy and robustness of testing these models suffer from limited knowledge of the structure and functions of these vocalisations as well as of the way to analyse the data. We created mouseTube , an open database with a web interface, to facilitate sharing and comparison of ultrasonic vocalisations data and metadata attached to a recording file. Metadata describe 1) the acquisition procedure, e.g ., hardware, software, sampling frequency, bit depth; 2) the biological protocol used to elicit ultrasonic vocalisations; 3) the characteristics of the individual emitting ultrasonic vocalisations ( e.g. , strain, sex, age). To promote open science and enable reproducibility, data are made freely available. The website provides searching functions to facilitate the retrieval of recording files of interest. It is designed to enable comparisons of ultrasonic vocalisation emission between strains, protocols or laboratories, as well as to test different analysis algorithms and to search for protocols established to elicit mouse ultrasonic vocalisations. Over the long term, users will be able to download and compare different analysis results for each data file. Such application will boost the knowledge on mouse ultrasonic communication and stimulate sharing and comparison of automatic analysis methods to refine phenotyping techniques in mouse models of neuropsychiatric disorders.

  13. BONA FIDE, STRONG-VARIABLE GALACTIC LUMINOUS BLUE VARIABLE STARS ARE FAST ROTATORS: DETECTION OF A HIGH ROTATIONAL VELOCITY IN HR CARINAE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Groh, J. H.; Damineli, A.; Moises, A. P.; Teodoro, M.; Hillier, D. J.; Barba, R.; Fernandez-Lajus, E.; Gamen, R. C.; Solivella, G.

    2009-01-01

    We report optical observations of the luminous blue variable (LBV) HR Carinae which show that the star has reached a visual minimum phase in 2009. More importantly, we detected absorptions due to Si IV λλ4088-4116. To match their observed line profiles from 2009 May, a high rotational velocity of v rot ≅ 150 ± 20 km s -1 is needed (assuming an inclination angle of 30 deg.), implying that HR Car rotates at ≅0.88 ± 0.2 of its critical velocity for breakup (v crit ). Our results suggest that fast rotation is typical in all strong-variable, bona fide galactic LBVs, which present S-Dor-type variability. Strong-variable LBVs are located in a well-defined region of the HR diagram during visual minimum (the 'LBV minimum instability strip'). We suggest this region corresponds to where v crit is reached. To the left of this strip, a forbidden zone with v rot /v crit >1 is present, explaining why no LBVs are detected in this zone. Since dormant/ex LBVs like P Cygni and HD 168625 have low v rot , we propose that LBVs can be separated into two groups: fast-rotating, strong-variable stars showing S-Dor cycles (such as AG Car and HR Car) and slow-rotating stars with much less variability (such as P Cygni and HD 168625). We speculate that supernova (SN) progenitors which had S-Dor cycles before exploding (such as in SN 2001ig, SN 2003bg, and SN 2005gj) could have been fast rotators. We suggest that the potential difficulty of fast-rotating Galactic LBVs to lose angular momentum is additional evidence that such stars could explode during the LBV phase.

  14. Utilization of a national network for rapid response to the Medtronic Fidelis lead advisory: the Canadian Heart Rhythm Society Device Advisory Committee.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krahn, Andrew D; Simpson, Christopher S; Parkash, Ratika; Yee, Raymond; Champagne, Jean; Healey, Jeffrey S; Cameron, Doug; Thibault, Bernard; Mangat, Iqwal; Tung, Stanley; Sterns, Laurence; Birnie, David H; Exner, Derek V; Sivakumaran, Soori; Davies, Ted; Coutu, Benoit; Crystal, Eugene; Wolfe, Kevin; Verma, Atul; Stephenson, Elizabeth A; Sanatani, Shubhayan; Gow, Robert; Connors, Sean; Paredes, Felix Ayala; Turabian, Michael; Kus, Teresa; Gardner, Martin; Essebag, Vidal

    2009-04-01

    The Canadian Heart Rhythm Society (CHRS) Device Advisory Committee was commissioned in 2006 to develop a mechanism for responding to advisories regarding cardiac rhythm device and lead performance. In the event of an advisory, the Chair classifies the advisory as urgent, semi-urgent, or routine based on the nature of the threat to the patient and the number of patients affected. The Chair uses an e-mail network with the committee members to disseminate advisory information and to assemble a consensus recommendation. Committee membership is broadly representative of the Canadian device community, including both academic and nonacademic centers, adult and pediatric specialists, and includes balanced regional representation. Recommendations are approved by the CHRS executive and made available to all implant and follow-up centers on the CHRS website. With the Medtronic Fidelis lead advisory of October 15, 2007, the Chair classified the advisory as semi-urgent and initiated an e-mail discussion and preliminary survey of all Canadian implantable cardioverter-defibrillator (ICD) centers within 3 hours of advisory announcement. A CHRS membership statement was issued within 48 hours. Within 5 working days, sample letters to physicians and patients were posted for local adaptation and distribution. Complete data collection was obtained from all Canadian defibrillator centers. Analyses at 20, 25, 30, and 32 months suggest an accelerating course of failures (3.91% at 32 months, P advisories. The network allows collection of focused data on implanted device system performance and facilitates timely reporting of clinically relevant data to patients and clinicians.

  15. Immunostimulatory mouse granuloma protein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fontan, E; Fauve, R M; Hevin, B; Jusforgues, H

    1983-10-01

    Earlier studies have shown that from subcutaneous talc-induced granuloma in mice, a fraction could be extracted that fully protected mice against Listeria monocytogenes. Using standard biochemical procedures--i.e., ammonium sulfate fractionation, preparative electrophoresis, gel filtration chromatography, isoelectric focusing, and preparative polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis--we have now purified an active factor to homogeneity. A single band was obtained in NaDodSO4/polyacrylamide gel with an apparent Mr of 55,000. It migrated with alpha 1-globulins and the isoelectric point was 5 +/- 0.1. The biological activity was destroyed with Pronase but not with trypsin and a monospecific polyclonal rabbit antiserum was obtained. The intravenous injection of 5 micrograms of this "mouse granuloma protein" fully protects mice against a lethal inoculum of L. monocytogenes. Moreover, after their incubation with 10 nM mouse granuloma protein, mouse peritoneal cells became cytostatic against Lewis carcinoma cells.

  16. Mouse models of cataract

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2009-12-31

    Dec 31, 2009 ... Mutations affecting the mouse lens can be identified easily by visual inspection, and a remarkable number of mutant lines ..... out mutants do not show an ocular phenotype, the two Bfsp genes are important for lens ... The more severe mutants have in addition to the ocular symptoms some more clinical ...

  17. Mouse Leydig Tumor Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bo-Syong Pan

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Cordycepin is a natural pure compound extracted from Cordyceps sinensis (CS. We have demonstrated that CS stimulates steroidogenesis in primary mouse Leydig cell and activates apoptosis in MA-10 mouse Leydig tumor cells. It is highly possible that cordycepin is the main component in CS modulating Leydig cell functions. Thus, our aim was to investigate the steroidogenic and apoptotic effects with potential mechanism of cordycepin on MA-10 mouse Leydig tumor cells. Results showed that cordycepin significantly stimulated progesterone production in dose- and time-dependent manners. Adenosine receptor (AR subtype agonists were further used to treat MA-10 cells, showing that A1, A 2A , A 2B , and A3, AR agonists could stimulate progesterone production. However, StAR promoter activity and protein expression remained of no difference among all cordycepin treatments, suggesting that cordycepin might activate AR, but not stimulated StAR protein to regulate MA-10 cell steroidogenesis. Meanwhile, cordycepin could also induce apoptotic cell death in MA-10 cells. Moreover, four AR subtype agonists induced cell death in a dose-dependent manner, and four AR subtype antagonists could all rescue cell death under cordycepin treatment in MA-10 cells. In conclusion, cordycepin could activate adenosine subtype receptors and simultaneously induce steroidogenesis and apoptosis in MA-10 mouse Leydig tumor cells.

  18. Colonization, mouse-style

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Searle Jeremy B

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Several recent papers, including one in BMC Evolutionary Biology, examine the colonization history of house mice. As well as background for the analysis of mouse adaptation, such studies offer a perspective on the history of movements of the humans that accidentally transported the mice. See research article: http://www.biomedcentral.com/1471-2148/10/325

  19. Functional validation of putative toxin-antitoxin genes from the Gram-positive pathogen Streptococcus pneumoniae: phd-doc is the fourth bona-fide operon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Wai Ting; Yeo, Chew Chieng; Sadowy, Ewa; Espinosa, Manuel

    2014-01-01

    Bacterial toxin-antitoxin (TAs) loci usually consist of two genes organized as an operon, where their products are bound together and inert under normal conditions. However, under stressful circumstances the antitoxin, which is more labile, will be degraded more rapidly, thereby unleashing its cognate toxin to act on the cell. This, in turn, causes cell stasis or cell death, depending on the type of TAs and/or time of toxin exposure. Previously based on in silico analyses, we proposed that Streptococcus pneumoniae, a pathogenic Gram-positive bacterium, may harbor between 4 and 10 putative TA loci depending on the strains. Here we have chosen the pneumococcal strain Hungary(19A)-6 which contains all possible 10 TA loci. In addition to the three well-characterized operons, namely relBE2, yefM-yoeB, and pezAT, we show here the functionality of a fourth operon that encodes the pneumococcal equivalent of the phd-doc TA. Transcriptional fusions with gene encoding Green Fluorescent Protein showed that the promoter was slightly repressed by the Phd antitoxin, and exhibited almost background values when both Phd-Doc were expressed together. These findings demonstrate that phd-doc shows the negative self-regulatory features typical for an authentic TA. Further, we also show that the previously proposed TAs XreA-Ant and Bro-XreB, although they exhibit a genetic organization resembling those of typical TAs, did not appear to confer a functional behavior corresponding to bona fide TAs. In addition, we have also discovered new interesting bioinformatics results for the known pneumococcal TAs RelBE2 and PezAT. A global analysis of the four identified toxins-antitoxins in the pneumococcal genomes (PezAT, RelBE2, YefM-YoeB, and Phd-Doc) showed that RelBE2 and Phd-Doc are the most conserved ones. Further, there was good correlation among TA types, clonal complexes and sequence types in the 48 pneumococcal strains analyzed.

  20. RIKEN mouse genome encyclopedia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayashizaki, Yoshihide

    2003-01-01

    We have been working to establish the comprehensive mouse full-length cDNA collection and sequence database to cover as many genes as we can, named Riken mouse genome encyclopedia. Recently we are constructing higher-level annotation (Functional ANnoTation Of Mouse cDNA; FANTOM) not only with homology search based annotation but also with expression data profile, mapping information and protein-protein database. More than 1,000,000 clones prepared from 163 tissues were end-sequenced to classify into 159,789 clusters and 60,770 representative clones were fully sequenced. As a conclusion, the 60,770 sequences contained 33,409 unique. The next generation of life science is clearly based on all of the genome information and resources. Based on our cDNA clones we developed the additional system to explore gene function. We developed cDNA microarray system to print all of these cDNA clones, protein-protein interaction screening system, protein-DNA interaction screening system and so on. The integrated database of all the information is very useful not only for analysis of gene transcriptional network and for the connection of gene to phenotype to facilitate positional candidate approach. In this talk, the prospect of the application of these genome resourced should be discussed. More information is available at the web page: http://genome.gsc.riken.go.jp/.

  1. ‘Ekhaya: Human displacement and the yearning for familial homecoming. From Throne (Cathedra to Home (Oikos in a grassroots ecclesiology of place and space: Fides Quaerens Domum et Locum [Faith Seeking Home and Space

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel J. Louw

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available The classical definition of theology is ‘faith-seeking understanding’ (fides quaerens intellectum. The focus is on the understanding/interpretation of the object of Christian faith: God. There is another root for the quest for understanding, namely the praxis situation of faith. People live in particular historical contexts that have their own distinctive problems and possibilities; thus, the focus on place and space in a theology of home. A praxis approach is to learn life and the gospel from below, thus the emphasis on a grassroots ecclesiology that is structured like an oikos, a familial dwelling place. This understanding of the dynamics of the fellowship of believers as  oikodomein is captured by the Zulu notion for the yearning for home (home sickness: Ekhaya. It is argued that Ekhaya thinking is an alternative route for an operative ecclesiology that caters for the need of marginalised, oppressed, displaced and homeless people. Practical theology is thus described as fides  quaerens domum et locum [faith-seeking home and place], namely to inhabit. An Ekhaya approach to practical theological ecclesiology is about critical reflection through the eyes of those who are weak and who don’t count for much by the standards of successful people and institutions.

  2. La cláusula ‘ex fide bona’ y su influencia en el ‘quantum respondeatur’ como herramienta para recuperar el equilibrio patrimonial en derecho romano

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lilian C. San Martín Neira

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Este artículo se refiere a la relación existente entre la cláusula ex fide bona y la cuantía de la condena en derecho romano. Mediante la exégesis de dos pasajes del Digesto se pone en evidencia que, gracias a la elasticidad de la cláusula ex fide bona, los juristas romanos utilizaron el quantum respondeatur como un mecanismo para restablecer el equilibrio patrimonial, excluyendo de la summa condemnationis cantidades que en principio habrían debido incluirse. En consecuencia, en Roma la buena fe no era solo un mecanismo de integración del contrato mediante la ampliación de las obligaciones contraídas por las partes, sino también un mecanismo de atenuación de dichas obligaciones, cuando su exigencia en términos literales resultaba contraria al equilibrio propio de los contratos de buena fe.

  3. Effect of co-substrate on production of poly-β- hydroxybutyrate (PHB and copolymer PHBV from newly identified mutant Rhodobacter sphaeroides U7 cultivated under aerobic-dark condition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kemarajt Kemavongse

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available Photosynthetic bacterial mutant strain U7 was identified using both classical and molecular (16S rDNA techniques to be Rhodobacter sphaeroides. The glutamate-acetate (GA medium containing sodium acetate and sodium glutamate as carbon and nitrogen sources was used for production of poly-β-hydroxybutyrate (PHB from R. sphaeroides U7 cultivated under aerobic-dark condition (200 rpm at 37oC. Effect of auxiliary carbon sources (propionate and valerate and concentrations (molar ratio of 40/0, 40/20, 40/40 and 40/80 on copolymer production were studied. Both combinations of acetate with valerate and acetate with propionate were found to induce the accumulation of poly-β-hydroxybutyrate-co-β-hydroxyvalerate (PHBV within the cell. Acetate with propionate in the molar ratio of 40/40 gave the highest poly-β-hydroxyalkanoates (PHA content (77.68%, followed by acetate with valerate at the same molar ratio (77.42%. Although their polymer contents were similar, the presence of 40 mM valerate gave more than 4 times higher hydroxyvalerate (HV fraction (84.77% than in the presence of 40 mM propionate (19.12% HV fraction.

  4. Burn mouse models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Calum, Henrik; Høiby, Niels; Moser, Claus

    2014-01-01

    Severe thermal injury induces immunosuppression, involving all parts of the immune system, especially when large fractions of the total body surface area are affected. An animal model was established to characterize the burn-induced immunosuppression. In our novel mouse model a 6 % third-degree b......Severe thermal injury induces immunosuppression, involving all parts of the immune system, especially when large fractions of the total body surface area are affected. An animal model was established to characterize the burn-induced immunosuppression. In our novel mouse model a 6 % third......-degree burn injury was induced with a hot-air blower. The third-degree burn was confirmed histologically. At 48 h, a decline in the concentration of peripheral blood leucocytes was observed in the group of mice with burn wound. The reduction was ascribed to the decline in concentration of polymorphonuclear...... neutrophil leucocytes and monocytes. When infecting the skin with Pseudomonas aeruginosa, a dissemination of bacteria was observed only in the burn wound group. Histological characterization of the skin showed an increased polymorphonuclear neutrophil granulocytes dominated inflammation in the group of mice...

  5. Hand gestures mouse cursor control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marian-Avram Vincze

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The paper describes the implementation of a human-computer interface for controlling the mouse cursor. The test reveal the fact: a low-cost web camera some processing algorithms are quite enough to control the mouse cursor on computers. Even if the system is influenced by the illuminance level on the plane of the hand, the current study may represent a start point for some studies on the hand tracking and gesture recognition field.

  6. An optimized method for mouse liver sinusoidal endothelial cell isolation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meyer, Jeremy, E-mail: jeremy.meyer@hcuge.ch [Division of Digestive and Transplantation Surgery, University Hospitals of Geneva, Rue Gabrielle-Perret-Gentil 4, 1211 Genève 14 (Switzerland); Unit of Surgical Research, University of Geneva, Rue Michel-Servet 1, 1206 Genève (Switzerland); Lacotte, Stéphanie, E-mail: stephanie.lacotte@unige.ch [Unit of Surgical Research, University of Geneva, Rue Michel-Servet 1, 1206 Genève (Switzerland); Morel, Philippe, E-mail: philippe.morel@hcuge.ch [Division of Digestive and Transplantation Surgery, University Hospitals of Geneva, Rue Gabrielle-Perret-Gentil 4, 1211 Genève 14 (Switzerland); Unit of Surgical Research, University of Geneva, Rue Michel-Servet 1, 1206 Genève (Switzerland); Gonelle-Gispert, Carmen, E-mail: carmen.gonelle@unige.ch [Unit of Surgical Research, University of Geneva, Rue Michel-Servet 1, 1206 Genève (Switzerland); Bühler, Léo, E-mail: leo.buhler@hcuge.ch [Division of Digestive and Transplantation Surgery, University Hospitals of Geneva, Rue Gabrielle-Perret-Gentil 4, 1211 Genève 14 (Switzerland); Unit of Surgical Research, University of Geneva, Rue Michel-Servet 1, 1206 Genève (Switzerland)

    2016-12-10

    The objective of the present study was to develop an accurate and reproducible method for liver sinusoidal endothelial cell (LSEC) isolation in mice. Non-parenchymal cells were isolated using a modified two-step collagenase digestion combined with Optiprep density gradient centrifugation. LSEC were further purified using two prevalent methods, short-term selective adherence and CD146+ magnetic-activated cell sorting (MACS), and compared in terms of cell yield, viability and purity to our purification technique using CD11b cell depletion combined with long-term selective adherence. LSEC purification using our technique allowed to obtain 7.07±3.80 million LSEC per liver, while CD146+ MACS and short-term selective adherence yielded 2.94±1.28 and 0.99±0.66 million LSEC, respectively. Purity of the final cell preparation reached 95.10±2.58% when using our method. In contrast, CD146+ MACS and short-term selective adherence gave purities of 86.75±3.26% and 47.95±9.82%, respectively. Similarly, contamination by non-LSEC was the lowest when purification was performed using our technique, with a proportion of contaminating macrophages of only 1.87±0.77%. Further, isolated cells analysed by scanning electron microscopy presented typical LSEC fenestrations organized in sieve plates, demonstrating that the technique allowed to isolate bona fide LSEC. In conclusion, we described a reliable and reproducible technique for the isolation of high yields of pure LSEC in mice. This protocol provides an efficient method to prepare LSEC for studying their biological functions. - Highlights: • This protocol provides an efficient method to prepare primary mouse LSEC for studying their biological functions. • The liver cell dispersion step was improved by performing a retrograde cannulation of the liver. • The cell yield and the purity obtained were higher than comparative techniques in mice. • Contaminating macrophages were removed by introducing a CD11b- magnetic

  7. Mouse Resource Browser--a database of mouse databases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zouberakis, Michael; Chandras, Christina; Swertz, Morris; Smedley, Damian; Gruenberger, Michael; Bard, Jonathan; Schughart, Klaus; Rosenthal, Nadia; Hancock, John M; Schofield, Paul N; Kollias, George; Aidinis, Vassilis

    2010-07-06

    The laboratory mouse has become the organism of choice for discovering gene function and unravelling pathogenetic mechanisms of human diseases through the application of various functional genomic approaches. The resulting deluge of data has led to the deployment of numerous online resources and the concomitant need for formalized experimental descriptions, data standardization, database interoperability and integration, a need that has yet to be met. We present here the Mouse Resource Browser (MRB), a database of mouse databases that indexes 217 publicly available mouse resources under 22 categories and uses a standardised database description framework (the CASIMIR DDF) to provide information on their controlled vocabularies (ontologies and minimum information standards), and technical information on programmatic access and data availability. Focusing on interoperability and integration, MRB offers automatic generation of downloadable and re-distributable SOAP application-programming interfaces for resources that provide direct database access. MRB aims to provide useful information to both bench scientists, who can easily navigate and find all mouse related resources in one place, and bioinformaticians, who will be provided with interoperable resources containing data which can be mined and integrated. Database URL: http://bioit.fleming.gr/mrb.

  8. TL transgenic mouse strains

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Obata, Y.; Matsudaira, Y.; Hasegawa, H.; Tamaki, H.; Takahashi, T.; Morita, A.; Kasai, K.

    1993-01-01

    As a result of abnormal development of the thymus of these mice, TCR αβ lineage of the T cell differentiation is disturbed and cells belonging to the TCR γδ CD4 - CD8 - double negative (DN) lineage become preponderant. The γδ DN cells migrate into peripheral lymphoid organs and constitute nearly 50% of peripheral T cells. Immune function of the transgenic mice is severely impaired, indicating that the γδ cells are incapable of participating in these reactions. Molecular and serological analyses of T-cell lymphomas reveal that they belong to the γδ lineage. Tg.Tla a -3-1 mice should be useful in defining the role of TL in normal and abnormal T cell differentiation as well as in the development of T-cell lymphomas, and further they should facilitate studies on the differentiation and function of γδ T cells. We isolated T3 b -TL gene from B6 mice and constructed a chimeric gene in which T3 b -TL is driven by the promoter of H-2K b . With the chimeric gene, two transgenic mouse strains, Tg. Con.3-1 and -2 have been derived in C3H background. Both strains express TL antigen in various tissues including skin. The skin graft of transgenic mice on C3H and (B6 X C3H)F 1 mice were rejected. In the mice which rejected the grafts, CD8 + TCRαβ cytotoxic T cells (CTL) against TL antigens were recognized. The recognition of TL by CTL did not require the antigen presentation by H-2 molecules. The results indicated that TL antigen in the skin becomes a transplantation antigen and behaves like a typical allogeneic MHC class I antigen. The facts that (B6 X C3H)F 1 mice rejected the skin expressing T3 b -TL antigen and induced CTL that killed TL + lymphomas of B6 origin revealed that TL antigen encoded by T3 b -TL is recognized as non-self in B6 mice. Experiments are now extended to analyze immune responses to TL antigen expressed on autochthonous T cell lymphomas. (J.P.N.)

  9. 10. international mouse genome conference

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meisler, M.H.

    1996-12-31

    Ten years after hosting the First International Mammalian Genome Conference in Paris in 1986, Dr. Jean-Louis Guenet presided over the Tenth Conference at the Pasteur Institute, October 7--10, 1996. The 1986 conference was a satellite to the Human Gene Mapping Workshop and had approximately 50 attendees. The 1996 meeting was attended by 300 scientists from around the world. In the interim, the number of mapped loci in the mouse increased from 1,000 to over 20,000. This report contains a listing of the program and its participants, and two articles that review the meeting and the role of the laboratory mouse in the Human Genome project. More than 200 papers were presented at the conference covering the following topics: International mouse chromosome committee meetings; Mutant generation and identification; Physical and genetic maps; New technology and resources; Chromatin structure and gene regulation; Rate and hamster genetic maps; Informatics and databases; and Quantitative trait analysis.

  10. Imaging Mouse Models of Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyons, Scott Keith

    2015-01-01

    Mouse models of cancer have proven to be an indispensable resource in furthering both our basic knowledge of cancer biology and the translation of new cancer treatments and imaging approaches into the clinic. As mouse models have developed and improved in their ability to model many diverse aspects of the human disease, so too has the need for robust imaging approaches to measure key biological parameters noninvasively. The aim of this review is to provide a brief overview of the various imaging approaches available to researchers today for imaging preclinical cancer models, highlighting their relative strengths and weaknesses. The very nature of modeling cancer in the mouse is also changing, and brief mention will be made on how imaging can maximize the utility of these new, accurate, and genetically versatile models.

  11. Mouse models of Fanconi anemia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Parmar, Kalindi; D'Andrea, Alan; Niedernhofer, Laura J.

    2009-01-01

    Fanconi anemia is a rare inherited disease characterized by congenital anomalies, growth retardation, aplastic anemia and an increased risk of acute myeloid leukemia and squamous cell carcinomas. The disease is caused by mutation in genes encoding proteins required for the Fanconi anemia pathway, a response mechanism to replicative stress, including that caused by genotoxins that cause DNA interstrand crosslinks. Defects in the Fanconi anemia pathway lead to genomic instability and apoptosis of proliferating cells. To date, 13 complementation groups of Fanconi anemia were identified. Five of these genes have been deleted or mutated in the mouse, as well as a sixth key regulatory gene, to create mouse models of Fanconi anemia. This review summarizes the phenotype of each of the Fanconi anemia mouse models and highlights how genetic and interventional studies using the strains have yielded novel insight into therapeutic strategies for Fanconi anemia and into how the Fanconi anemia pathway protects against genomic instability.

  12. Mouse Resource Browser-a database of mouse databases

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zouberakis, Michael; Chandras, Christina; Swertz, Morris; Smedley, Damian; Gruenberger, Michael; Bard, Jonathan; Schughart, Klaus; Rosenthal, Nadia; Hancock, John M.; Schofield, Paul N.; Kollias, George; Aidinis, Vassilis

    2010-01-01

    The laboratory mouse has become the organism of choice for discovering gene function and unravelling pathogenetic mechanisms of human diseases through the application of various functional genomic approaches. The resulting deluge of data has led to the deployment of numerous online resources and the

  13. Mouse Models of Rheumatoid Arthritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caplazi, P; Baca, M; Barck, K; Carano, R A D; DeVoss, J; Lee, W P; Bolon, B; Diehl, L

    2015-09-01

    Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is a chronic debilitating autoimmune disorder characterized by synovitis that leads to cartilage and bone erosion by invading fibrovascular tissue. Mouse models of RA recapitulate many features of the human disease. Despite the availability of medicines that are highly effective in many patient populations, autoimmune diseases (including RA) remain an area of active biomedical research, and consequently mouse models of RA are still extensively used for mechanistic studies and validation of therapeutic targets. This review aims to integrate morphologic features with model biology and cover the key characteristics of the most commonly used induced and spontaneous mouse models of RA. Induced models emphasized in this review include collagen-induced arthritis and antibody-induced arthritis. Collagen-induced arthritis is an example of an active immunization strategy, whereas antibody- induced arthritis models, such as collagen antibody-induced arthritis and K/BxN antibody transfer arthritis, represent examples of passive immunization strategies. The coverage of spontaneous models in this review is focused on the TNFΔ (ARE) mouse, in which arthritis results from overexpression of TNF-α, a master proinflammatory cytokine that drives disease in many patients. © The Author(s) 2015.

  14. The Mouse SAGE Site: database of public mouse SAGE libraries

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Divina, Petr; Forejt, Jiří

    2004-01-01

    Roč. 32, - (2004), s. D482-D483 ISSN 0305-1048 R&D Projects: GA MŠk LN00A079; GA ČR GV204/98/K015 Grant - others:HHMI(US) 555000306 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z5052915 Keywords : mouse SAGE libraries * web -based database Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 7.260, year: 2004

  15. Ribonucleoprotein localization in mouse oocytes

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Flemr, Matyáš; Svoboda, Petr

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 53, č. 2 (2011), s. 136-141 ISSN 1046-2023 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA204/09/0085; GA ČR GAP305/10/2215; GA MŠk ME09039 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50520514 Keywords : mouse oocyte * in situ hybridization * immunofluorescence Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 4.011, year: 2011

  16. Utrophin Compensates dystrophin Loss during Mouse Spermatogenesis

    OpenAIRE

    Chen, Hung-Chih; Chin, Yu-Feng; Lundy, David J.; Liang, Chung-Tiang; Chi, Ya-Hui; Kuo, Paolin; Hsieh, Patrick C. H.

    2017-01-01

    Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) is an X-linked genetic disorder resulting from mutations in the dystrophin gene. The mdx/utrn ?/? mouse, lacking in both dystrophin and its autosomal homologue utrophin, is commonly used to model the clinical symptoms of DMD. Interestingly, these mice are infertile but the mechanisms underlying this phenomenon remain unclear. Using dystrophin deficient mdx mouse and utrophin haplodeficient mdx/utrn +/? mouse models, we demonstrate the contribution of Dp427 (f...

  17. Steroid metabolism in the mouse placenta

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Okker-Reitsma, G.H.

    1976-01-01

    The purpose of the study described in this thesis was to investigate the capacity for steroid synthesis of the mouse placenta - especially the production of progesterone, androgens and estrogens - and to determine, if possible, the relation of steroid synthesis to special cell types. In an introductory chapter the androgen production in the mouse placenta is surveyed by means of a histochemical and bioindicator study of different stages of development of the placenta. The metabolism of [ 3 H]-dehydroepiandrosterone and [ 3 H]-progesterone by mouse placental tissue in vitro is studied. The metabolism of [ 3 H]-progesterone by the mouse fetal adrenal in vitro is also studied

  18. Preclinical Mouse Models of Neurofibromatosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-10-01

    and merlin, together function upstream of the Hippo/ Salvador /Warts/Yki pathway(35). The McClatchey lab identified and cloned the putative mammalian...skeletal development and growth.” Human Mol Genet 2007; 16: 874-886. Romero , M.I., Lin, L, Lush, M.E., Lei, L., Parada, L.F. and Zhu, Y. Deletion of...mouse. Nat Genet. 1994;7:353-61. 3. Zhu Y, Romero MI, Ghosh P, Ye Z, Charnay P, Rushing EJ, et al. Ablation of NF1 function in neurons induces

  19. DZ Chamaeleontis: a bona fide photoevaporating disc

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canovas, H.; Montesinos, B.; Schreiber, M. R.; Cieza, L. A.; Eiroa, C.; Meeus, G.; de Boer, J.; Ménard, F.; Wahhaj, Z.; Riviere-Marichalar, P.; Olofsson, J.; Garufi, A.; Rebollido, I.; van Holstein, R. G.; Caceres, C.; Hardy, A.; Villaver, E.

    2018-02-01

    Context. DZ Cha is a weak-lined T Tauri star (WTTS) surrounded by a bright protoplanetary disc with evidence of inner disc clearing. Its narrow Hα line and infrared spectral energy distribution suggest that DZ Cha may be a photoevaporating disc. Aims: We aim to analyse the DZ Cha star + disc system to identify the mechanism driving the evolution of this object. Methods: We have analysed three epochs of high resolution optical spectroscopy, photometry from the UV up to the sub-mm regime, infrared spectroscopy, and J-band imaging polarimetry observations of DZ Cha. Results: Combining our analysis with previous studies we find no signatures of accretion in the Hα line profile in nine epochs covering a time baseline of 20 yr. The optical spectra are dominated by chromospheric emission lines, but they also show emission from the forbidden lines [SII] 4068 and [OI] 6300Å that indicate a disc outflow. The polarized images reveal a dust depleted cavity of 7 au in radius and two spiral-like features, and we derive a disc dust mass limit of Mdust 80 MJup) companions are detected down to 0.̋07 ( 8 au, projected). Conclusions: The negligible accretion rate, small cavity, and forbidden line emission strongly suggests that DZ Cha is currently at the initial stages of disc clearing by photoevaporation. At this point the inner disc has drained and the inner wall of the truncated outer disc is directly exposed to the stellar radiation. We argue that other mechanisms like planet formation or binarity cannot explain the observed properties of DZ Cha. The scarcity of objects like this one is in line with the dispersal timescale (≲105 yr) predicted by this theory. DZ Cha is therefore an ideal target to study the initial stages of photoevaporation. Based on observations collected at the European Organisation for Astronomical Research in the Southern Hemisphere under ESO programme 097.C-0536. Based on data obtained from the ESO Science Archive Facility under request number 250112.

  20. Take care of your mouse!

    CERN Multimedia

    IT Department

    2011-01-01

    “Stop --- Think --- Click" is the basic recommendation for securely browsing the Internet and for securely reading e-mails. Users who have followed this recommendation in the past were less likely to have their computer infected or their computing account compromised. We would like to thank all those who donated their mouse to the CERN Animal Shelter for Computer Mice (http://cern.ch/c-a-s). For those who still use a mouse, please stay vigilant and  alert: do not click on links whose origin you do not trust or which look like gibberish. Do not install untrusted software or plug-ins, since software from untrusted sources may infect or compromise your computer, or violate copyrights. Finally, take particular care with e-mails: Do not open unexpected or suspicious e-mails or attachments. Delete them if they do not concern you or if they appear strange. If in doubt, or if you have questions, please do not hesitate to contact Computer.Security@cern.ch

  1. Mouse models for cone degeneration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samardzija, Marijana; Grimm, Christian

    2014-01-01

    Loss of cone vision has devastating effects on everyday life. Even though much effort has been made to understand cone physiology and pathophysiology, no successful therapies are available for patients suffering from cone disorders. As complex retinal interactions cannot be studied in vitro, utilization of different animal models is inevitable. Due to recent advances in transgenesis, mice became the most popular animal model to study human diseases, also in ophthalmology. While there are similarities in retinal anatomy and pathophysiology between mice and humans, there are also differences, most importantly the lack of a cone-rich macula in mice. Instead, cones in mice are rare and distributed over the whole retina, which makes the analysis of cone pathophysiology very difficult in these animals. This hindrance is one of the reasons why our understanding of rod pathophysiological processes is much more advanced. Recently, however, the sparseness of cones was overcome by the generation of the Nrl (- / -) mouse that expresses only cone photoreceptors in the retina. This paper will give a brief overview of some of the known mouse models to study cone degeneration and discuss the current knowledge gained from the analysis of these models.

  2. Genes of Mouse and Human

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosa Calvello

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Conservation/mutation in the intronic initial and terminal hexanucleotides was studied in 26 orthologous cytokine receptor genes of Mouse and Human. Introns began and ended with the canonical dinucleotides GT and AG, respectively. Identical configurations were found in 57% of the 5′ hexanucleotides and 28% of the 3′ hexanucleotides. The actual conservation percentages of the individual variable nucleotides at each position in the hexanucleotides were determined, and the theoretical rates of conservation of groups of three nucleotides were calculated under the hypothesis of a mutual evolutionary independence of the neighboring nucleotides (random association. Analysis of the actual conservation of groups of variable nucleotides showed that, at 5′, GTGAGx was significantly more expressed and GTAAGx was significantly less expressed, as compared to the random association. At 3′, TTTxAG and xTGCAG were overexpressed as compared to a random association. Study of Mouse and Human transcript variants involving the splice sites showed that most variants were not inherited from the common ancestor but emerged during the process of speciation. In some variants the silencing of a terminal hexanucleotide determined skipping of the downstream exon; in other variants the constitutive splicing hexanucleotide was replaced by another potential, in-frame, splicing hexanucleotide, leading to alterations of exon lengths.

  3. The wobbler mouse, an ALS animal model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Moser, Jakob Maximilian; Bigini, Paolo; Schmitt-John, Thomas

    2013-01-01

    This review article is focused on the research progress made utilizing the wobbler mouse as animal model for human motor neuron diseases, especially the amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS). The wobbler mouse develops progressive degeneration of upper and lower motor neurons and shows striking...

  4. Are You a Man or a Mouse?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Herrmann, Janne Rothmar

    2008-01-01

    Are you a man or a mouse? This expression is used to encourage someone to be brave when they are frightened of doing something. It is also an expression which bears associations to John Steinbeck's novella Of Mice and Men, the title of which is taken from Robert Burns' poem To a Mouse, which...

  5. Mouse adenovirus type 1 infection of macrophages

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ashley, S.L.; Welton, A.R.; Harwood, K.M.; Rooijen, van N.; Spindler, K.R.

    2009-01-01

    Mouse adenovirus type 1 (MAV-1) causes acute and persistent infections in mice, with high levels of virus found in the brain, spinal cord and spleen in acute infections. MAV-1 infects endothelial cells throughout the mouse, and monocytes/macrophages have also been implicated as targets of the virus.

  6. Understanding sex determination in the mouse: genetics ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Recent years have seen a rapid growth in mouse genetics resources that support research into fundamental mechanisms in organogenesis, including those controlling mammalian sex determinations. Numerous mouse mutants have shed light on molecular pathways of cell fate specification during gonadogenesis and the ...

  7. Krtap16, characterization of a new hair keratin-associated protein (KAP) gene complex on mouse chromosome 16 and evidence for regulation by Hoxc13.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pruett, Nathanael D; Tkatchenko, Tatiana V; Jave-Suarez, Luis; Jacobs, Donna F; Potter, Christopher S; Tkatchenko, Andrei V; Schweizer, Jürgen; Awgulewitsch, Alexander

    2004-12-03

    Intermediate filament (IF) keratins and keratin-associated proteins (KAPs) are principal structural components of hair and encoded by members of multiple gene families. The severe hair growth defects observed upon aberrant expression of certain keratin and KAP genes in both mouse and man suggest that proper hair growth requires their spatio-temporally coordinated activation. An essential prerequisite for studying these cis-regulatory mechanisms is to define corresponding gene families, their genomic organization, and expression patterns. This work characterizes eight recently identified high glycine/tyrosine (HGT)-type KAP genes collectively designated Krtap16-n. These genes are shown to be integrated into a larger KAP gene domain on mouse chromosome 16 (MMU16) that is orthologous to a recently described HGT- and high sulfur (HS)-type KAP gene complex on human chromosome 21q22.11. All Krtap16 genes exhibit strong expression in a narrowly defined pattern restricted to the lower and middle cortical region of the hair shaft in both developing and cycling hair. During hair follicle regression (catagen), expression levels decrease until expression is no longer detectable in follicles at resting stage (telogen). Since isolation of the Krtap16 genes was based on their differential expression in transgenic mice overexpressing the Hoxc13 transcriptional regulator in hair, we examined whether bona fide Hoxc13 binding sites associated with these genes might be functionally relevant by performing electrophoretic mobility shift assays (EMSAs). The data provide evidence for sequence-specific interaction between Hoxc13 and Krtap16 genes, thus supporting the concept of a regulatory relationship between Hoxc13 and these KAP genes.

  8. The Mouse Genome Database (MGD): facilitating mouse as a model for human biology and disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eppig, Janan T; Blake, Judith A; Bult, Carol J; Kadin, James A; Richardson, Joel E

    2015-01-01

    The Mouse Genome Database (MGD, http://www.informatics.jax.org) serves the international biomedical research community as the central resource for integrated genomic, genetic and biological data on the laboratory mouse. To facilitate use of mouse as a model in translational studies, MGD maintains a core of high-quality curated data and integrates experimentally and computationally generated data sets. MGD maintains a unified catalog of genes and genome features, including functional RNAs, QTL and phenotypic loci. MGD curates and provides functional and phenotype annotations for mouse genes using the Gene Ontology and Mammalian Phenotype Ontology. MGD integrates phenotype data and associates mouse genotypes to human diseases, providing critical mouse-human relationships and access to repositories holding mouse models. MGD is the authoritative source of nomenclature for genes, genome features, alleles and strains following guidelines of the International Committee on Standardized Genetic Nomenclature for Mice. A new addition to MGD, the Human-Mouse: Disease Connection, allows users to explore gene-phenotype-disease relationships between human and mouse. MGD has also updated search paradigms for phenotypic allele attributes, incorporated incidental mutation data, added a module for display and exploration of genes and microRNA interactions and adopted the JBrowse genome browser. MGD resources are freely available to the scientific community. © The Author(s) 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Nucleic Acids Research.

  9. Transgenesis in mouse embryonic stem cells

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ree, J. van; Zhou, W.; Li, M.; Deursen, J.M.A. van

    2011-01-01

    Traditionally, transgenic mice are generated by pronuclear injection of exogenous DNA. This technique has several limitations, including limited control over transgene expression, transgene cytotoxicity, -promiscuity and silencing, and founder mouse sterility. Here we describe two protocols to

  10. A catalog of the mouse gut metagenome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Liang; Feng, Qiang; Liang, Suisha; Sonne, Si Brask; Xia, Zhongkui; Qiu, Xinmin; Li, Xiaoping; Long, Hua; Zhang, Jianfeng; Zhang, Dongya; Liu, Chuan; Fang, Zhiwei; Chou, Joyce; Glanville, Jacob; Hao, Qin; Kotowska, Dorota; Colding, Camilla; Licht, Tine Rask; Wu, Donghai; Yu, Jun; Sung, Joseph Jao Yiu; Liang, Qiaoyi; Li, Junhua; Jia, Huijue; Lan, Zhou; Tremaroli, Valentina; Dworzynski, Piotr; Nielsen, H Bjørn; Bäckhed, Fredrik; Doré, Joël; Le Chatelier, Emmanuelle; Ehrlich, S Dusko; Lin, John C; Arumugam, Manimozhiyan; Wang, Jun; Madsen, Lise; Kristiansen, Karsten

    2015-10-01

    We established a catalog of the mouse gut metagenome comprising ∼2.6 million nonredundant genes by sequencing DNA from fecal samples of 184 mice. To secure high microbiome diversity, we used mouse strains of diverse genetic backgrounds, from different providers, kept in different housing laboratories and fed either a low-fat or high-fat diet. Similar to the human gut microbiome, >99% of the cataloged genes are bacterial. We identified 541 metagenomic species and defined a core set of 26 metagenomic species found in 95% of the mice. The mouse gut microbiome is functionally similar to its human counterpart, with 95.2% of its Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) orthologous groups in common. However, only 4.0% of the mouse gut microbial genes were shared (95% identity, 90% coverage) with those of the human gut microbiome. This catalog provides a useful reference for future studies.

  11. Effects of endotoxin on the lactating mouse

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carr, J.K.

    1985-01-01

    The regulation of endogenous mouse mammary tumor virus (MMTV) sequences in trans by a host gene, the Lps locus on mouse chromosome 4, was suspected from a genetic linkage analysis. The Lps locus mediates the mouse's response to the injection of lipopolysaccharide (LPS) in the responder mouse while mice with the deficient allele are incapable of responding. Others have found that endotoxin exposure reduces milk production in lactating animals. This observation was confirmed in mice and extended by examining 125 I-prolactin binding to liver membranes of lactating mice. Endotoxin treatment of responder mice increases liver prolactin binding within 15 minutes, followed by a decline over 6 hours. Scatchard analysis shows that the immediate increase comes from both increased affinity and abundance of the prolactin receptor. No such change in prolactin binding is seen in the non-responder following endotoxin treatment nor in 125 I-insulin binding in responders

  12. Melatonin receptors: latest insights from mouse models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tosini, Gianluca; Owino, Sharon; Guillame, Jean-Luc; Jockers, Ralf

    2014-01-01

    Summary Melatonin, the neuro-hormone synthesized during the night, has recently seen an unexpected extension of its functional implications towards type 2 diabetes development, visual functions, sleep disturbances and depression. Transgenic mouse models were instrumental for the establishment of the link between melatonin and these major human diseases. Most of the actions of melatonin are mediated by two types of G protein-coupled receptors, named MT1 and MT2, which are expressed in many different organs and tissues. Understanding the pharmacology and function of mouse MT1 and MT2 receptors, including MT1/MT2 heteromers, will be of crucial importance to evaluate the relevance of these mouse models for future therapeutic developments. This review will critically discuss these aspects, and give some perspectives including the generation of new mouse models. PMID:24903552

  13. THE BREEDING SEASON OF THE MULTIMAMMATE MOUSE ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2017-10-25

    MASTOMYS) NATALENSIS (A. SMITH) IN THE. TRANSVAAL HIGHVELD. C. G. COETZEE. Medical Ecology Centre, State Dept. of Health, Johannesburg·. INTRODUCTION. The multimammate mouse is one of the commonest and ...

  14. Optimizing mouse models for precision cancer prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le Magnen, Clémentine; Dutta, Aditya; Abate-Shen, Cory

    2016-03-01

    As cancer has become increasingly prevalent, cancer prevention research has evolved towards placing a greater emphasis on reducing cancer deaths and minimizing the adverse consequences of having cancer. 'Precision cancer prevention' takes into account the collaboration of intrinsic and extrinsic factors in influencing cancer incidence and aggressiveness in the context of the individual, as well as recognizing that such knowledge can improve early detection and enable more accurate discrimination of cancerous lesions. However, mouse models, and particularly genetically engineered mouse (GEM) models, have yet to be fully integrated into prevention research. In this Opinion article, we discuss opportunities and challenges for precision mouse modelling, including the essential criteria of mouse models for prevention research, representative success stories and opportunities for more refined analyses in future studies.

  15. Interactions of mouse pinworms and trichomonads

    OpenAIRE

    Choutková, Jana

    2012-01-01

    Oxyurid nematodes Aspiculuris tetraptera and Syphacia obvelata are both common mouse intestinal parasites; in the same location several species of trichomonads occur. Tritrichomonas muris is the most often found, but there are also some others: Tritrichomonas minuta, Pentatrichomonas hominis or Hexamastix muris. It is known that, under some circumstances, trichomonads can be found in the intestine of mouse pinworms, as reported by Theiler and Farber (1936) for T. muris in A. tetraptera and S....

  16. A catalog of the mouse gut metagenome

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Xiao, Liang; Feng, Qiang; Liang, Suisha

    2015-01-01

    We established a catalog of the mouse gut metagenome comprising ∼2.6 million nonredundant genes by sequencing DNA from fecal samples of 184 mice. To secure high microbiome diversity, we used mouse strains of diverse genetic backgrounds, from different providers, kept in different housing laborato......We established a catalog of the mouse gut metagenome comprising ∼2.6 million nonredundant genes by sequencing DNA from fecal samples of 184 mice. To secure high microbiome diversity, we used mouse strains of diverse genetic backgrounds, from different providers, kept in different housing...... laboratories and fed either a low-fat or high-fat diet. Similar to the human gut microbiome, >99% of the cataloged genes are bacterial. We identified 541 metagenomic species and defined a core set of 26 metagenomic species found in 95% of the mice. The mouse gut microbiome is functionally similar to its human...... counterpart, with 95.2% of its Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) orthologous groups in common. However, only 4.0% of the mouse gut microbial genes were shared (95% identity, 90% coverage) with those of the human gut microbiome. This catalog provides a useful reference for future studies....

  17. Cat fertilization by mouse sperm injection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Yong-Xun; Cui, Xiang-Shun; Yu, Xian-Feng; Lee, Sung-Hyun; Wang, Qing-Ling; Gao, Wei-Wei; Xu, Yong-Nan; Sun, Shao-Chen; Kong, Il-Keun; Kim, Nam-Hyung

    2012-11-01

    Interspecies intracytoplasmic sperm injection has been carried out to understand species-specific differences in oocyte environments and sperm components during fertilization. While sperm aster organization during cat fertilization requires a paternally derived centriole, mouse and hamster fertilization occur within the maternal centrosomal components. To address the questions of where sperm aster assembly occurs and whether complete fertilization is achieved in cat oocytes by interspecies sperm, we studied the fertilization processes of cat oocytes following the injection of cat, mouse, or hamster sperm. Male and female pronuclear formations were not different in the cat oocytes at 6 h following cat, mouse or hamster sperm injection. Microtubule asters were seen in all oocytes following intracytoplasmic injection of cat, mouse or hamster sperm. Immunocytochemical staining with a histone H3-m2K9 antibody revealed that mouse sperm chromatin is incorporated normally with cat egg chromatin, and that the cat eggs fertilized with mouse sperm enter metaphase and become normal 2-cell stage embryos. These results suggest that sperm aster formation is maternally dependent, and that fertilization processes and cleavage occur in a non-species specific manner in cat oocytes.

  18. Optimization of the virtual mouse HeadMouse to foster its classroom use by children with physical disabilities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Merce TEIXIDO

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the optimization of a virtual mouse called HeadMouse in order to foster its classroom use by children with physical disabilities. HeadMouse is an absolute virtual mouse that converts head movements in cursor displacement and facial gestures in click actions. The virtual mouse combines different image processing algorithms: face detection, pattern matching and optical flow in order to emulate the behaviour of a conventional computer mouse. The original implementation of HeadMouse requires large computational power and this paper proposes specific optimizations in order to enable its use by children with disabilities in standard low cost classroom computers.

  19. Heme synthesis in normal mouse liver and mouse liver tumors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stout, D.L.; Becker, F.F.

    1990-01-01

    Hepatic cancers from mice and rats demonstrate decreased levels of delta-aminolevulinic acid synthase, the rate-limiting enzyme in the heme synthetic pathway, and increased heme oxygenase, the heme-catabolizing enzyme. These findings suggest that diminution of P-450, b5, and catalase in these lesions may result from a heme supply that is limited by decreased heme synthesis and increased heme catabolism. Heme synthesis was measured in mouse liver tumors (MLT) and adjacent tumor-free lobes (BKG) by administering the radiolabeled heme precursors 55 FeCl3 and [2- 14 C]glycine and subsequently extracting the heme for determination of specific activity. Despite reduced delta-aminolevulinic acid synthase activity in MLT, both tissues incorporated [2-14C]glycine into heme at similar rates. At early time points, heme extracted from MLT contained less 55Fe than that from BKG. This was attributed to the findings that MLT took up 55Fe at a slower rate than BKG and had larger iron stores than BKG. The amount of heme per milligram of protein was also similar in both tissues. These findings militate against the hypothesis that diminished hemoprotein levels in MLT result from limited availability of heme. It is probable, therefore, that decreased hemoprotein levels in hepatic tumors are linked to a general program of dedifferentiation associated with the cancer phenotype. Diminution of hemoprotein in MLT may result in a relatively increased intracellular heme pool. delta-Aminolevulinic acid synthase and heme oxygenase are, respectively, negatively and positively regulated by heme. Thus, their alteration in MLT may be due to the regulatory influences of the heme pool

  20. DevMouse, the mouse developmental methylome database and analysis tools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Hongbo; Zhu, Rangfei; Lv, Jie; He, Hongjuan; Yang, Lin; Huang, Zhijun; Su, Jianzhong; Zhang, Yan; Yu, Shihuan; Wu, Qiong

    2014-01-01

    DNA methylation undergoes dynamic changes during mouse development and plays crucial roles in embryogenesis, cell-lineage determination and genomic imprinting. Bisulfite sequencing enables profiling of mouse developmental methylomes on an unprecedented scale; however, integrating and mining these data are challenges for experimental biologists. Therefore, we developed DevMouse, which focuses on the efficient storage of DNA methylomes in temporal order and quantitative analysis of methylation dynamics during mouse development. The latest release of DevMouse incorporates 32 normalized and temporally ordered methylomes across 15 developmental stages and related genome information. A flexible query engine is developed for acquisition of methylation profiles for genes, microRNAs, long non-coding RNAs and genomic intervals of interest across selected developmental stages. To facilitate in-depth mining of these profiles, DevMouse offers online analysis tools for the quantification of methylation variation, identification of differentially methylated genes, hierarchical clustering, gene function annotation and enrichment. Moreover, a configurable MethyBrowser is provided to view the base-resolution methylomes under a genomic context. In brief, DevMouse hosts comprehensive mouse developmental methylome data and provides online tools to explore the relationships of DNA methylation and development. Database URL: http://www.devmouse.org/

  1. Pathology of Mouse Models of Accelerated Aging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harkema, L; Youssef, S A; de Bruin, A

    2016-03-01

    Progeroid mouse models display phenotypes in multiple organ systems that suggest premature aging and resemble features of natural aging of both mice and humans. The prospect of a significant increase in the global elderly population within the next decades has led to the emergence of "geroscience," which aims at elucidating the molecular mechanisms involved in aging. Progeroid mouse models are frequently used in geroscience as they provide insight into the molecular mechanisms that are involved in the highly complex process of natural aging. This review provides an overview of the most commonly reported nonneoplastic macroscopic and microscopic pathologic findings in progeroid mouse models (eg, osteoporosis, osteoarthritis, degenerative joint disease, intervertebral disc degeneration, kyphosis, sarcopenia, cutaneous atrophy, wound healing, hair loss, alopecia, lymphoid atrophy, cataract, corneal endothelial dystrophy, retinal degenerative diseases, and vascular remodeling). Furthermore, several shortcomings in pathologic analysis and descriptions of these models are discussed. Progeroid mouse models are valuable models for aging, but thorough knowledge of both the mouse strain background and the progeria-related phenotype is required to guide interpretation and translation of the pathology data. © The Author(s) 2016.

  2. Design and Materials of E-Mouse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lorissa Joana Esguerra-Buenas

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents the design and the materials used in the development of an E-Mouse or the Ergo-Mouse. The proposed engineering design is based on the studies conducted about the risk factors such as having a carpal tunnel syndrome in using the traditional mouse. The concepts of the existing traditional mouse incorporated the features of a touch pad, which is ergonomically designed was considered in the development of the project. The proponent made use of different technologies such as the Bluetooth to connect the E-Mouse to the computer system, the capacitive glass touch screen sensor type which is made of a glass panel, a controller which acts as the interface between the display and the sensor and the software driver to recognize the input. Emphasis is mainly on the kind of materials to be used and to come up with the design that is tailor fit to the needs of the users with the current technology.

  3. The Riken mouse genome encyclopedia project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayashizaki, Yoshihide

    2003-01-01

    The Riken mouse genome encyclopedia a comprehensive full-length cDNA collection and sequence database. High-level functional annotation is based on sequence homology search, expression profiling, mapping and protein-protein interactions. More than 1000000 clones prepared from 163 tissues were end-sequenced and classified into 128000 clusters, and 60000 representative clones were fully sequenced representing 24000 clear protein-encoding genes. The application of the mouse genome database for positional cloning and gene network regulation analysis is reported.

  4. Chemical Aspects of Lesser Mouse Deer Meat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Djalal Rosyidi

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available An experiment aiming for studying chemical aspects of lesser mouse deer meat (Tragulus javanicus. This research explored the chemical aspects of lesser mouse deer meat (Tragulus javanicus. Eight lesser mouse deer (four female and four male were used in chemical aspects of lesser mouse deer meat. The parameters observed included proximate analysis, amino acid, fatty acid, cholesterol and EPA-DHA of the meat. The results showed that average meat chemical composition were content of water, protein, fat, ash and cholesterol were 76.33 %, 21.42 %, 0.51 %, 1.20% and 50.00 mg/100 g, respectively. Fatty acid consist of lauric acid, miristate, palmitate, stearic, oleic, linoleic, and linolenic were 1.04 % 3.09%, 30.97, 0.77%., 59.41%, 3.22% and 1.12%, respectively. The total EPA and DHA was 0.13% and 0.05%,   Keywords: amino acid, fatty acid, cholesterol and EPA-DHA

  5. Infra Red 3D Computer Mouse

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Harbo, Anders La-Cour; Stoustrup, Jakob

    2000-01-01

    The infra red 3D mouse is a three dimensional input device to a computer. It works by determining the position of an arbitrary object (like a hand) by emitting infra red signals from a number of locations and measuring the reflected intensities. To maximize stability, robustness, and use...

  6. Construction of expression vectors carrying mouse peroxisomal ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The aim of this study was to construct expression vectors carrying mouse peroxisomal protein gene (PEP-cDNA) in prokaryotic and mammalian expression vectors in ... pGEX6p2-PEP and pUcD3-FLAG-PEP constructed vectors were transformed into the one shot TOP10 and JM105 bacterial competent cells, respectively.

  7. Genetically engineered mouse models of prostate cancer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nawijn, Martijn C.; Bergman, Andreas M.; van der Poel, Henk G.

    Objectives: Mouse models of prostate cancer are used to test the contribution of individual genes to the transformation process, evaluate the collaboration between multiple genetic lesions observed in a single tumour, and perform preclinical intervention studies in prostate cancer research. Methods:

  8. MPHASYS: a mouse phenotype analysis system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mian I

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Systematic, high-throughput studies of mouse phenotypes have been hampered by the inability to analyze individual animal data from a multitude of sources in an integrated manner. Studies generally make comparisons at the level of genotype or treatment thereby excluding associations that may be subtle or involve compound phenotypes. Additionally, the lack of integrated, standardized ontologies and methodologies for data exchange has inhibited scientific collaboration and discovery. Results Here we introduce a Mouse Phenotype Analysis System (MPHASYS, a platform for integrating data generated by studies of mouse models of human biology and disease such as aging and cancer. This computational platform is designed to provide a standardized methodology for working with animal data; a framework for data entry, analysis and sharing; and ontologies and methodologies for ensuring accurate data capture. We describe the tools that currently comprise MPHASYS, primarily ones related to mouse pathology, and outline its use in a study of individual animal-specific patterns of multiple pathology in mice harboring a specific germline mutation in the DNA repair and transcription-specific gene Xpd. Conclusion MPHASYS is a system for analyzing multiple data types from individual animals. It provides a framework for developing data analysis applications, and tools for collecting and distributing high-quality data. The software is platform independent and freely available under an open-source license 1.

  9. Understanding sex determination in the mouse: genetics ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    profiles of the male and female gonads, firstly during primary sex determination, but also in the adult gonad, thereby regulating cellular behaviour during ... XX males (here, I was referring to the start of my Sxr work). She wrote back saying ..... Mouse genetics is providing increasingly sophisticated tools for the study of sex ...

  10. Understanding sex determination in the mouse: genetics ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    gonadal poles in a paracrine fashion (Hiramatsu et al. 2010). .... a granulosa-like cell fate and the appearance of theca-like cells in mutant XY gonads. ..... and DNA repair. Trends Cell Biol. 22, 220–227. Nishino K., Hattori N., Tanaka S. and Shiota K. 2004 DNA methylation-mediated control of Sry gene expression in mouse.

  11. the production of mouse embryonic stem cells

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    MADU

    result of the anarchic development of early embryonic cells left behind during development. However, their localization in the genital organs supported an alternative hypothesis: they were the result of an anarchic multiplication of the. Series. What history tells us. VII. Twenty-five years ago: the production of mouse embryonic ...

  12. Pathology of Mouse Models of Accelerated Aging

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Harkema, L.; Youssef, S. A.; de Bruin, A.

    Progeroid mouse models display phenotypes in multiple organ systems that suggest premature aging and resemble features of natural aging of both mice and humans. The prospect of a significant increase in the global elderly population within the next decades has led to the emergence of geroscience,

  13. Pathology of Mouse Models of Accelerated Aging

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Harkema, L; Youssef, S A; de Bruin, A

    2016-01-01

    Progeroid mouse models display phenotypes in multiple organ systems that suggest premature aging and resemble features of natural aging of both mice and humans. The prospect of a significant increase in the global elderly population within the next decades has led to the emergence of "geroscience,"

  14. An update on the mouse liver proteome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Borlak Jürgen

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Decoding of the liver proteome is subject of intense research, but hampered by methodological constraints. We recently developed an improved protocol for studying rat liver proteins based on 2-DE-MALDI-TOF-MS peptide mass finger printing. This methodology was now applied to develop a mouse liver protein database. Results Liver proteins were extracted by two different lysis buffers in sequence followed by a liquid-phase IEF pre-fractionation and separation of proteins by 2 DE at two different pH ranges, notably 5-8 and 7-10. Based on 9600 in gel digests a total of 643 mouse liver proteins with high sequence coverage (> 20 peptides per protein could be identified by MALDI-TOF-MS peptide mass finger printing. Notably, 255 proteins are novel and have not been reported so far by conventional two-dimensional electrophoresis proteome mapping. Additionally, the results of the present findings for mouse liver were compared to published data of the rat proteome to compile as many proteins as possible in a rodent liver database. Conclusion Based on 2-DE MALDI-TOF-MS a significantly improved proteome map of mouse liver was obtained. We discuss some prominent members of newly identified proteins for a better understanding of liver biology.

  15. Myelination competent conditionally immortalized mouse Schwann cells

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Saavedra, José T.; Wolterman, Ruud A.; Baas, Frank; ten Asbroek, Anneloor L. M. A.

    2008-01-01

    Numerous mouse myelin mutants are available to analyze the biology of the peripheral nervous system related to health and disease in vivo. However, robust in vitro biochemical characterizations of players in peripheral nerve processes are still not possible due to the limited growth capacities of

  16. New routes for transgenesis of the mouse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belizário, José E; Akamini, Priscilla; Wolf, Philip; Strauss, Bryan; Xavier-Neto, José

    2012-08-01

    Transgenesis refers to the molecular genetic techniques for directing specific insertions, deletions and point mutations in the genome of germ cells in order to create genetically modified organisms (GMO). Genetic modification is becoming more practicable, efficient and predictable with the development and use of a variety of cell and molecular biology tools and DNA sequencing technologies. A collection of plasmidial and viral vectors, cell-type specific promoters, positive and negative selectable markers, reporter genes, drug-inducible Cre-loxP and Flp/FRT recombinase systems are available which ensure efficient transgenesis in the mouse. The technologies for the insertion and removal of genes by homologous-directed recombination in embryonic stem cells (ES) and generation of targeted gain- and loss-of function alleles have allowed the creation of thousands of mouse models of a variety of diseases. The engineered zinc finger nucleases (ZFNs) and small hairpin RNA-expressing constructs are novel tools with useful properties for gene knockout free of ES manipulation. In this review we briefly outline the different approaches and technologies for transgenesis as well as their advantages and disadvantages. We also present an overview on how the novel integrative mouse and human genomic databases and bioinformatics approaches have been used to understand genotype-phenotype relationships of hundreds of mutated and candidate disease genes in mouse models. The updating and continued improvements of the genomic technologies will eventually help us to unraveling the biological and pathological processes in such a way that they can be translated more efficiently from mouse to human and vise-versa.

  17. The mouse prostate: a basic anatomical and histological guideline

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel S.M. Oliveira

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Despite substantial similarities in embryological, cellular and molecular biology features, human and mouse prostates differ in organ morphology and tissue architecture. Thus, a clear understanding of the anatomy and histology of the mouse prostate is essential for the identification of urogenital phenotypes in genetically engineered mice, as well as for the study of the etiology, development, and treatment of human prostatic diseases for which mouse models are used. The purpose of this manuscript is to provide a brief guide for the dissection of the mouse prostate and the identification of its different lobes and histology, to both basic researchers and medical pathologists who are unfamiliar with mouse tissues.

  18. MouseMine: a new data warehouse for MGI.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Motenko, H; Neuhauser, S B; O'Keefe, M; Richardson, J E

    2015-08-01

    MouseMine (www.mousemine.org) is a new data warehouse for accessing mouse data from Mouse Genome Informatics (MGI). Based on the InterMine software framework, MouseMine supports powerful query, reporting, and analysis capabilities, the ability to save and combine results from different queries, easy integration into larger workflows, and a comprehensive Web Services layer. Through MouseMine, users can access a significant portion of MGI data in new and useful ways. Importantly, MouseMine is also a member of a growing community of online data resources based on InterMine, including those established by other model organism databases. Adopting common interfaces and collaborating on data representation standards are critical to fostering cross-species data analysis. This paper presents a general introduction to MouseMine, presents examples of its use, and discusses the potential for further integration into the MGI interface.

  19. Assessment of plasminogen synthesis in vitro by mouse tumor cells using a competition radioimmunoassay for mouse plasminogen

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roblin, R.O.; Bell, T.E.; Young, P.L.

    1978-01-01

    A sensitive, specific competition radioimmunoassay for mouse plasmin(ogen) has been developed in order to determine whether mouse tumor cells can synthesize plasminogen in vitro. The rabbit anti-BALB/c mouse plasminogen antibodies used in the assay react with the plasminogen present in serum from BALB/c, C3H, AKR and C57BL/6 mice, and also recognized mouse plasmin. The competition radiommunoassay can detect as little as 50 ng of mouse plasminogen. No competition was observed with preparations of fetal calf, human and rabbit plasminogens. A variety of virus-transformed and mouse tumor cell lines were all found to contain less than 100 ng mouse plasminogen/mg of cell extract protein. Thus, if the plasminogen activator/plasmin system is important in the growth or movement of this group of tumor cells, the cells will be dependent upon the circulatory system of the host for their plasminogen supply. (Auth.)

  20. PODAAC-AQR40-4U7CS

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The IPRC/SOEST Aquarius OI-SSS v4 product is a level 4, near-global, 0.5 degree spatial resolution, 7-day, optimally interpolated salinity dataset based on version...

  1. Mouse cell culture - Methods and protocols

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CarloAlberto Redi

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The mouse is, out of any doubt, the experimental animal par excellence for many many colleagues within the scientific community, notably for those working in mammalian biology (in a broad sense, from basic genetic to modeling human diseases, starting at least from 1664 Robert Hooke experiments on air’s propertyn. Not surprising then that mouse cell cultures is a well established field of research itself and that there are several handbooks devoted to this discipline. Here, Andrew Ward and David Tosh provide a necessary update of the protocols currently needed. In fact, nearly half of the book is devoted to stem cells culture protocols, mainly embryonic, from a list of several organs (kidney, lung, oesophagus and intestine, pancreas and liver to mention some........

  2. Mouse brain imaging using photoacoustic computed tomography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lou, Yang; Xia, Jun; Wang, Lihong V.

    2014-03-01

    Photoacoustic computed tomography (PACT) provides structural and functional information when used in small animal brain imaging. Acoustic distortion caused by bone structures largely limits the deep brain image quality. In our work, we present ex vivo PACT images of freshly excised mouse brain, intending that can serve as a gold standard for future PACT in vivo studies on small animal brain imaging. Our results show that structures such as the striatum, hippocampus, ventricles, and cerebellum can be clearly di erentiated. An artery feature called the Circle of Willis, located at the bottom of the brain, can also be seen. These results indicate that if acoustic distortion can be accurately accounted for, PACT should be able to image the entire mouse brain with rich structural information.

  3. Circadian oscillators in the mouse brain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rath, Martin F; Rovsing, Louise; Møller, Morten

    2014-01-01

    The circadian timekeeper of the mammalian brain resides in the suprachiasmatic nucleus of the hypothalamus (SCN), and is characterized by rhythmic expression of a set of clock genes with specific 24-h daily profiles. An increasing amount of data suggests that additional circadian oscillators...... residing outside the SCN have the capacity to generate peripheral circadian rhythms. We have recently shown the presence of SCN-controlled oscillators in the neocortex and cerebellum of the rat. The function of these peripheral brain clocks is unknown, and elucidating this could involve mice...... and granular cell layers of the cerebellar cortex of the mouse brain. Among these, Per1, Per2, Cry1, Arntl, and Nr1d1 exhibit circadian rhythms suggesting that local running circadian oscillators reside within neurons of the mouse neocortex and cerebellar cortex. The temporal expression profiles of clock genes...

  4. Learning to segment mouse embryo cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    León, Juan; Pardo, Alejandro; Arbeláez, Pablo

    2017-11-01

    Recent advances in microscopy enable the capture of temporal sequences during cell development stages. However, the study of such sequences is a complex task and time consuming task. In this paper we propose an automatic strategy to adders the problem of semantic and instance segmentation of mouse embryos using NYU's Mouse Embryo Tracking Database. We obtain our instance proposals as refined predictions from the generalized hough transform, using prior knowledge of the embryo's locations and their current cell stage. We use two main approaches to learn the priors: Hand crafted features and automatic learned features. Our strategy increases the baseline jaccard index from 0.12 up to 0.24 using hand crafted features and 0.28 by using automatic learned ones.

  5. Mouse Model of Human Hereditary Pancreatitis

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-09-01

    trypsin-dependent pathway in pancreatitis and to begin testing therapeutic and preventive approaches. Mutations in the digestive enzyme trypsinogen...expression of mutant trypsinogens at the protein level, we will perform chromatographic analysis of the total trypsinogen fraction isolated from mouse...pancreata (Subtask 4a). This subtask has been delayed until homozygous animals could be generated. Homozygous animals are now available and chromatographic

  6. Exploring Images: A Haptic Mouse Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James Wolfer

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Exposing students to touch-enabled computing typically requires the use of expensive Haptic robots. This exhibit demonstrates the adaptation of a commercial, haptically-enabled mouse. Using a customized Linux device driver and a Python imaging script, we allow users to “virtually touch” images. Specific examples include exploring the Mona Lisa, digital mammograms, and ”touch-traversal” of a maze.

  7. DNA damage response during mouse oocyte maturation

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Mayer, Alexandra; Baran, Vladimír; Sakakibara, Y.; Brzáková, Adéla; Ferencová, Ivana; Motlík, Jan; Kitajima, T.; Schultz, R. M.; Šolc, Petr

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 15, č. 4 (2016), s. 546-558 ISSN 1538-4101 R&D Projects: GA MŠk LH12057; GA MŠk ED2.1.00/03.0124 Institutional support: RVO:67985904 Keywords : double strand DNA breaks * DNA damage * MRE11 * meiotic maturation * mouse oocytes Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 3.530, year: 2016

  8. Cranial bone morphometric study among mouse strains

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yamamura Ken-ichi

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Little is known about the molecular mechanism which regulates how the whole cranium is shaped. Mouse models currently available for genetic research include several hundreds of unique inbred strains and genetically engineered mutants. By cross comparing their genomic structures, we can elucidate the cause of any differences in the phenotype between two strains. The craniometry of subspecies, or closely related species, of mice provide a good systemic model to study the relationship between genetic variance and cranial shape evolution. The lack of a quantified framework for comparing and analyzing mouse cranial shape has been a problem. For this reason, we performed quantitative analysis of cranial shape morphology between several mouse strains. Results This article reports on a craniometric assay of seven mouse strains: four inbred strains (C57BL/6J, BALB/cA, C3H/HeJ, and CBA/JNCr from Mus musculus domesticus (M. m. domesticus; one closed colony strain (ICR from M. m. domesticus; one inbred strain (MSM/Ms from Mus musculus molossinus; and, Mus spretus as a strain from a species other than M. m. domesticus. We performed linear measurements and geometric morphometrics. Geometric morphometrics revealed that the cranial characteristics of each strains were clearly distinguishable. We obtained mean scores for each species using the tpsRelw Program and plotted them. Conclusion Geometric morphometrics proved to be useful for identifying and classifying variations in form, and it revealed that M. spretus has a slender cranium when compared with our other strains. The mean cranial shape of C3H or CBA was more similar to MSM/Ms, which is derived from M. m. molossinus, than to either C57BL/6J, BALB, or ICR which are derived from M. m. domesticus. Future work in this field will aid in elucidating the mechanism of whole cranial shape regulation.

  9. Cranial bone morphometric study among mouse strains

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-01-01

    Background Little is known about the molecular mechanism which regulates how the whole cranium is shaped. Mouse models currently available for genetic research include several hundreds of unique inbred strains and genetically engineered mutants. By cross comparing their genomic structures, we can elucidate the cause of any differences in the phenotype between two strains. The craniometry of subspecies, or closely related species, of mice provide a good systemic model to study the relationship between genetic variance and cranial shape evolution. The lack of a quantified framework for comparing and analyzing mouse cranial shape has been a problem. For this reason, we performed quantitative analysis of cranial shape morphology between several mouse strains. Results This article reports on a craniometric assay of seven mouse strains: four inbred strains (C57BL/6J, BALB/cA, C3H/HeJ, and CBA/JNCr) from Mus musculus domesticus (M. m. domesticus); one closed colony strain (ICR) from M. m. domesticus; one inbred strain (MSM/Ms) from Mus musculus molossinus; and, Mus spretus as a strain from a species other than M. m. domesticus. We performed linear measurements and geometric morphometrics. Geometric morphometrics revealed that the cranial characteristics of each strains were clearly distinguishable. We obtained mean scores for each species using the tpsRelw Program and plotted them. Conclusion Geometric morphometrics proved to be useful for identifying and classifying variations in form, and it revealed that M. spretus has a slender cranium when compared with our other strains. The mean cranial shape of C3H or CBA was more similar to MSM/Ms, which is derived from M. m. molossinus, than to either C57BL/6J, BALB, or ICR which are derived from M. m. domesticus. Future work in this field will aid in elucidating the mechanism of whole cranial shape regulation. PMID:18307817

  10. Adiponectin Enhances Mouse Fetal Fat Deposition

    OpenAIRE

    Qiao, Liping; Yoo, Hyung sun; Madon, Alysha; Kinney, Brice; Hay, William W.; Shao, Jianhua

    2012-01-01

    Maternal obesity increases offspring birth weight and susceptibility to obesity. Adiponectin is an adipocyte-secreted hormone with a prominent function in maintaining energy homeostasis. In contrast to adults, neonatal blood adiponectin levels are positively correlated with anthropometric parameters of adiposity. This study was designed to investigate the role of adiponectin in maternal obesityenhanced fetal fat deposition. By using high-fat diet?induced obese mouse models, our study showed t...

  11. Engineering a new mouse model for vitiligo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manga, Prashiela; Orlow, Seth J

    2012-07-01

    Although the precise mechanisms that trigger vitiligo remain elusive, autoimmune responses mediate its progression. The development of therapies has been impeded by a paucity of animal models, since mice lack interfollicular melanocytes, the primary targets in vitiligo. In this issue, Harris et al. describe a mouse model in which interfollicular melanocytes are retained by Kit ligand overexpression and an immune response is initiated by transplanting melanocyte-targeting CD8+ T cells.

  12. Development of mPMab-1, a Mouse-Rat Chimeric Antibody Against Mouse Podoplanin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamada, Shinji; Kaneko, Mika K; Nakamura, Takuro; Ichii, Osamu; Konnai, Satoru; Kato, Yukinari

    2017-04-01

    Podoplanin (PDPN), the ligand of C-type lectin-like receptor-2, is used as a lymphatic endothelial marker. We previously established clone PMab-1 of rat IgG 2a as a specific monoclonal antibody (mAb) against mouse PDPN. PMab-1 is also very sensitive in immunohistochemical analysis; however, rat mAbs seem to be unfavorable for pathologists because anti-mouse IgG and anti-rabbit IgG are usually used as secondary antibodies in commercially available kits for immunohistochemical analysis. In this study, we develop a mouse-rat chimeric antibody, mPMab-1 of mouse IgG 2a , which was derived from rat PMab-1 mAb. Immunohistochemical analysis shows that mPMab-1 detects podocytes of the kidney, lymphatic endothelial cells of the colon, and type I alveolar cells of the lung. Importantly, mPMab-1 is more sensitive than PMab-1. This conversion strategy from rat mAb to mouse mAb could be applicable to other mAbs.

  13. The Mouse Tumor Biology Database: A Comprehensive Resource for Mouse Models of Human Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krupke, Debra M; Begley, Dale A; Sundberg, John P; Richardson, Joel E; Neuhauser, Steven B; Bult, Carol J

    2017-11-01

    Research using laboratory mice has led to fundamental insights into the molecular genetic processes that govern cancer initiation, progression, and treatment response. Although thousands of scientific articles have been published about mouse models of human cancer, collating information and data for a specific model is hampered by the fact that many authors do not adhere to existing annotation standards when describing models. The interpretation of experimental results in mouse models can also be confounded when researchers do not factor in the effect of genetic background on tumor biology. The Mouse Tumor Biology (MTB) database is an expertly curated, comprehensive compendium of mouse models of human cancer. Through the enforcement of nomenclature and related annotation standards, MTB supports aggregation of data about a cancer model from diverse sources and assessment of how genetic background of a mouse strain influences the biological properties of a specific tumor type and model utility. Cancer Res; 77(21); e67-70. ©2017 AACR . ©2017 American Association for Cancer Research.

  14. Implementation of the mouse frailty index.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kane, Alice E; Ayaz, Omar; Ghimire, Anjali; Feridooni, Hirad A; Howlett, Susan E

    2017-10-01

    Frailty is considered a state of high vulnerability for adverse health outcomes for people of the same age. Those who are frail have higher mortality, worse health outcomes, and use more health care services than those who are not frail. Despite this, little is known about the biology of frailty, the effect of frailty on pharmacological or surgical outcomes, and potential interventions to attenuate frailty. In humans, frailty can be quantified using a frailty index (FI) based on the principle of deficit accumulation. The recent development of an FI in naturally ageing mice provides an opportunity to conduct frailty research in a validated preclinical model. The mouse FI has been successfully used across a wide range of applications; however, there are some factors that should be considered in implementing this tool. This review summarises the current literature, presents some original data, and suggests areas for future research on the current applications of the mouse FI, inter-rater reliability of the FI, the effect of observer characteristics and environmental factors on mouse FI scores, and the individual items that make up the FI assessment. The implementation of this tool into preclinical frailty research should greatly accelerate translational research in this important field.

  15. Digenic Inheritance in Cystinuria Mouse Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Espino, Meritxell; Font-Llitjós, Mariona; Vilches, Clara; Salido, Eduardo; Prat, Esther; López de Heredia, Miguel; Palacín, Manuel; Nunes, Virginia

    2015-01-01

    Cystinuria is an aminoaciduria caused by mutations in the genes that encode the two subunits of the amino acid transport system b0,+, responsible for the renal reabsorption of cystine and dibasic amino acids. The clinical symptoms of cystinuria relate to nephrolithiasis, due to the precipitation of cystine in urine. Mutations in SLC3A1, which codes for the heavy subunit rBAT, cause cystinuria type A, whereas mutations in SLC7A9, which encodes the light subunit b0,+AT, cause cystinuria type B. By crossing Slc3a1-/- with Slc7a9-/- mice we generated a type AB cystinuria mouse model to test digenic inheritance of cystinuria. The 9 genotypes obtained have been analyzed at early (2- and 5-months) and late stage (8-months) of the disease. Monitoring the lithiasic phenotype by X-ray, urine amino acid content analysis and protein expression studies have shown that double heterozygous mice (Slc7a9+/-Slc3a1+/-) present lower expression of system b0,+ and higher hyperexcretion of cystine than single heterozygotes (Slc7a9+/-Slc3a1+/+ and Slc7a9+/+Slc3a1+/-) and give rise to lithiasis in 4% of the mice, demonstrating that cystinuria has a digenic inheritance in this mouse model. Moreover in this study it has been demonstrated a genotype/phenotype correlation in type AB cystinuria mouse model providing new insights for further molecular and genetic studies of cystinuria patients. PMID:26359869

  16. Digenic Inheritance in Cystinuria Mouse Model.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meritxell Espino

    Full Text Available Cystinuria is an aminoaciduria caused by mutations in the genes that encode the two subunits of the amino acid transport system b0,+, responsible for the renal reabsorption of cystine and dibasic amino acids. The clinical symptoms of cystinuria relate to nephrolithiasis, due to the precipitation of cystine in urine. Mutations in SLC3A1, which codes for the heavy subunit rBAT, cause cystinuria type A, whereas mutations in SLC7A9, which encodes the light subunit b0,+AT, cause cystinuria type B. By crossing Slc3a1-/- with Slc7a9-/- mice we generated a type AB cystinuria mouse model to test digenic inheritance of cystinuria. The 9 genotypes obtained have been analyzed at early (2- and 5-months and late stage (8-months of the disease. Monitoring the lithiasic phenotype by X-ray, urine amino acid content analysis and protein expression studies have shown that double heterozygous mice (Slc7a9+/-Slc3a1+/- present lower expression of system b0,+ and higher hyperexcretion of cystine than single heterozygotes (Slc7a9+/-Slc3a1+/+ and Slc7a9+/+Slc3a1+/- and give rise to lithiasis in 4% of the mice, demonstrating that cystinuria has a digenic inheritance in this mouse model. Moreover in this study it has been demonstrated a genotype/phenotype correlation in type AB cystinuria mouse model providing new insights for further molecular and genetic studies of cystinuria patients.

  17. Mouse models for core binding factor leukemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chin, D W L; Watanabe-Okochi, N; Wang, C Q; Tergaonkar, V; Osato, M

    2015-10-01

    RUNX1 and CBFB are among the most frequently mutated genes in human leukemias. Genetic alterations such as chromosomal translocations, copy number variations and point mutations have been widely reported to result in the malfunction of RUNX transcription factors. Leukemias arising from such alterations in RUNX family genes are collectively termed core binding factor (CBF) leukemias. Although adult CBF leukemias generally are considered a favorable risk group as compared with other forms of acute myeloid leukemia, the 5-year survival rate remains low. An improved understanding of the molecular mechanism for CBF leukemia is imperative to uncover novel treatment options. Over the years, retroviral transduction-transplantation assays and transgenic, knockin and knockout mouse models alone or in combination with mutagenesis have been used to study the roles of RUNX alterations in leukemogenesis. Although successful in inducing leukemia, the existing assays and models possess many inherent limitations. A CBF leukemia model which induces leukemia with complete penetrance and short latency would be ideal as a platform for drug discovery. Here, we summarize the currently available mouse models which have been utilized to study CBF leukemias, discuss the advantages and limitations of individual experimental systems, and propose suggestions for improvements of mouse models.

  18. A report from the Sixth International Mouse Genome Conference

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brown, S. [Saint Mary`s Hospital Medical School, London (United Kingdom). Dept. of Biochemistry and Molecular Genetics

    1992-12-31

    The Sixth Annual Mouse Genome Conference was held in October, 1992 at Buffalo, USA. The mouse is one of the primary model organisms in the Human Genome Project. Through the use of gene targeting studies the mouse has become a powerful biological model for the study of gene function and, in addition, the comparison of the many homologous mutations identified in human and mouse have widened our understanding of the biology of these two organisms. A primary goal in the mouse genome program has been to create a genetic map of STSs of high resolution (<1cM) that would form the basis for the physical mapping of the whole mouse genome. Buffalo saw substantial new progress towards the goal of a very high density genetic map and the beginnings of substantive efforts towards physical mapping in chromosome regions with a high density of genetic markers.

  19. Applications and Limitations of Mouse Models for Understanding Human Atherosclerosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    von Scheidt, Moritz; Zhao, Yuqi; Kurt, Zeyneb; Pan, Calvin; Zeng, Lingyao; Yang, Xia; Schunkert, Heribert; Lusis, Aldons J.

    2017-01-01

    Most of the biological understanding of mechanisms underlying coronary artery disease (CAD) derives from studies of mouse models. The identification of multiple CAD loci and strong candidate genes in large human genome-wide association studies (GWAS) presented an opportunity to examine the relevance of mouse models for the human disease. We comprehensively reviewed the mouse literature, including 827 literature-derived genes, and compared it to human data. First, we observed striking concordance of risk factors for atherosclerosis in mice and humans. Second, there was highly significant overlap of mouse genes with human genes identified by GWAS. In particular, of the 46 genes with strong association signals in CAD-GWAS that were studied in mouse models all but one exhibited consistent effects on atherosclerosis-related phenotypes. Third, we compared 178 CAD-associated pathways derived from human GWAS with 263 from mouse studies and observed that over 50% were consistent between both species. PMID:27916529

  20. The mouse prostate: a basic anatomical and histological guideline

    OpenAIRE

    Daniel S.M. Oliveira; Sijana Dzinic; Alan I Bonfil; Allen D Saliganan; Shijie Sheng; R. Daniel Bonfil

    2016-01-01

    Despite substantial similarities in embryological, cellular and molecular biology features, human and mouse prostates differ in organ morphology and tissue architecture. Thus, a clear understanding of the anatomy and histology of the mouse prostate is essential for the identification of urogenital phenotypes in genetically engineered mice, as well as for the study of the etiology, development, and treatment of human prostatic diseases for which mouse models are used. The purpose of this manus...

  1. Expression profiling of the mouse early embryo: Reflections and Perspectives

    OpenAIRE

    Ko, Minoru S. H.

    2006-01-01

    Laboratory mouse plays important role in our understanding of early mammalian development and provides invaluable model for human early embryos, which are difficult to study for ethical and technical reasons. Comprehensive collection of cDNA clones, their sequences, and complete genome sequence information, which have been accumulated over last two decades, have provided even more advantages to mouse models. Here the progress in global gene expression profiling in early mouse embryos and, to ...

  2. Наблюдения върху лексикалната вариативност при библейските цитати в Йоан-Екзарховия превод на De Fide Orthodoxa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Татяна [Tatiana] Илиева [Ilieva

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Observations on the theological terminology in the biblical quotations in John the Exarch’s translation of De Fide Orthodoxa The paper presented here aims at comparing the theological terms as used, on the one hand, in the biblical quotations in John the Exarch’s translation of De fide orthodoxa and, on the other, in the Old Bulgarian (Grigirovich Prophetologion, Codex Marianus, Codex Zographiensis, Sinai Psalter, Enina Apostolos as well as in some Middle Bulgarian (Bologna Psalter, Karpinski Apostolos, Ohridski Apostolos Old Russian (Mstislav Gospels, Yurievski Gospels, Pogodinov Psalter, Chudov Psalter, Tolstoev Apostolos, Hristinopol Apostolos and Old Serbia (Shishatovatski Apostolos, Matich Apostolos monuments. Also taken in consideration are the respective parts in certain theological writings associated with the Preslav Literary Centre.   Uwagi o terminologii teologicznej w cytatach z Biblii w przekładzie De Fide Orthodoxa Jana Egzarchy Celem artykułu jest porównanie terminologii teologicznej w cytatach biblijnych w przekładzie De fide othodoxa Jana Egzarchy, w starobułgarskich zabytkach językowych (Lekcjonarz Grigorowizca, Kodeks Mariański, Kodeks Zografski, Psałterz Synajski, Apostoł Eniński, w wybranych zabytkach średniobułgarskich (Psałterz Boloński, Apostoł Karpinski, Apostoł Ohrydzki, staroruskich (Ewangeliarz Mścisława, Ewangeliarz Jurjewski, Psałterz Pogodina, Psałterz Chłudowa, Apostoł Tołstoja, Apostoł Krystynopolski i staroserbskich (Apostoł Sziszatowacki, Apostoł Maticia. Analizie poddano także poszczególne części wybranych pism teologicznych powstałych w presławskiej szkole piśmienniczej.

  3. Decerebrate mouse model for studies of the spinal cord circuits

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Meehan, Claire Francesca; Mayr, Kyle A; Manuel, Marin

    2017-01-01

    The adult decerebrate mouse model (a mouse with the cerebrum removed) enables the study of sensory-motor integration and motor output from the spinal cord for several hours without compromising these functions with anesthesia. For example, the decerebrate mouse is ideal for examining locomotor...... behavior using intracellular recording approaches, which would not be possible using current anesthetized preparations. This protocol describes the steps required to achieve a low-blood-loss decerebration in the mouse and approaches for recording signals from spinal cord neurons with a focus on motoneurons...

  4. Neutron issues in the JANUS mouse program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carnes, B.A.; Grahn, D.

    1990-01-01

    Over the last 25 years, the JANUS program in the Biological and Medical Research Division at Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) has compiled a database on the response of both sexes of an F 1 hybrid mouse, the B6CF 1 (C57BL/6 x BALB/c), to external whole- body irradiation by 60 Co γ-rays and fission neutrons. Three basic patterns of exposure for both neutrons and γ-rays have been investigated: single exposures, 24 equal once-weekly exposures, and 60 equal once-weekly exposures. All irradiations were terminated at predetermined total doses, with dose calculated in centigrays at the midline of the mouse. Three endpoints will be discussed in this paper: (1) life shortening, (2) a point estimate for cumulative mortality, and (3) the hazard function. Life shortening is used as an analysis endpoint because it summarizes, in a single index, the integrated effect of all injuries accumulated by an organism. Histopathological analyses of the mice used in the ANL studies have indicated that 85% of the deaths were caused by neoplasms. Connective tissue tumors were the dominant tumor in the B6CF 1 mouse, with tumors of lymphoreticular origin accounting for approximately 80% of this class. The latter two endpoints will therefore be used to describe the life table experience of mice dying from the lymphoreticular class of tumors. Dose-response models will be applied to the three endpoints in order to describe the response function for neutron exposures, evaluate the effect of dose range and pattern of exposure on the response function for neutrons, and provide a set of neutron relative biological effectiveness (RBE) values of the ANL database. 25 refs

  5. Mouse hypospadias: A critical examination and definition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinclair, Adriane Watkins; Cao, Mei; Shen, Joel; Cooke, Paul; Risbridger, Gail; Baskin, Laurence; Cunha, Gerald R

    2016-12-01

    Hypospadias is a common malformation whose etiology is based upon perturbation of normal penile development. The mouse has been previously used as a model of hypospadias, despite an unacceptably wide range of definitions for this malformation. The current paper presents objective criteria and a definition of mouse hypospadias. Accordingly, diethylstilbestrol (DES) induced penile malformations were examined at 60 days postnatal (P60) in mice treated with DES over the age range of 12 days embryonic to 20 days postnatal (E12-P20). DES-induced hypospadias involves malformation of the urethral meatus, which is most severe in DES E12-P10, DES P0-P10 and DES P5-P15 groups, and less so or absent in the other treatment groups. A frenulum-like ventral tether between the penis and the prepuce was seen in the most severely affected DES-treated mice. Internal penile morphology was also altered in the DES E12-P10, DES P0-P10 and DES P5-P15 groups (with little effect in the other DES treatment groups). Thus, adverse effects of DES are a function of the period of DES treatment and most severe in the P0-P10 period. In "estrogen mutant mice" (NERKI, βERKO, αERKO and AROM+) hypospadias was only seen in AROM+ male mice having genetically-engineered elevation is serum estrogen. Significantly, mouse hypospadias was only seen distally at and near the urethral meatus where epithelial fusion events are known to take place and never in the penile midshaft, where urethral formation occurs via an entirely different morphogenetic process. Copyright © 2016 International Society of Differentiation. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Functional connectivity hubs of the mouse brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liska, Adam; Galbusera, Alberto; Schwarz, Adam J; Gozzi, Alessandro

    2015-07-15

    Recent advances in functional connectivity methods have made it possible to identify brain hubs - a set of highly connected regions serving as integrators of distributed neuronal activity. The integrative role of hub nodes makes these areas points of high vulnerability to dysfunction in brain disorders, and abnormal hub connectivity profiles have been described for several neuropsychiatric disorders. The identification of analogous functional connectivity hubs in preclinical species like the mouse may provide critical insight into the elusive biological underpinnings of these connectional alterations. To spatially locate functional connectivity hubs in the mouse brain, here we applied a fully-weighted network analysis to map whole-brain intrinsic functional connectivity (i.e., the functional connectome) at a high-resolution voxel-scale. Analysis of a large resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (rsfMRI) dataset revealed the presence of six distinct functional modules related to known large-scale functional partitions of the brain, including a default-mode network (DMN). Consistent with human studies, highly-connected functional hubs were identified in several sub-regions of the DMN, including the anterior and posterior cingulate and prefrontal cortices, in the thalamus, and in small foci within well-known integrative cortical structures such as the insular and temporal association cortices. According to their integrative role, the identified hubs exhibited mutual preferential interconnections. These findings highlight the presence of evolutionarily-conserved, mutually-interconnected functional hubs in the mouse brain, and may guide future investigations of the biological foundations of aberrant rsfMRI hub connectivity associated with brain pathological states. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. A Reverse Stroop Task with Mouse Tracking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamamoto, Naohide; Incera, Sara; McLennan, Conor T

    2016-01-01

    In a reverse Stroop task, observers respond to the meaning of a color word irrespective of the color in which the word is printed-for example, the word red may be printed in the congruent color (red), an incongruent color (e.g., blue), or a neutral color (e.g., white). Although reading of color words in this task is often thought to be neither facilitated by congruent print colors nor interfered with incongruent print colors, this interference has been detected by using a response method that does not give any bias in favor of processing of word meanings or processing of print colors. On the other hand, evidence for the presence of facilitation in this task has been scarce, even though this facilitation is theoretically possible. By modifying the task such that participants respond to a stimulus color word by pointing to a corresponding response word on a computer screen with a mouse, the present study investigated the possibility that not only interference but also facilitation would take place in a reverse Stroop task. Importantly, in this study, participants' responses were dynamically tracked by recording the entire trajectories of the mouse. Arguably, this method provided richer information about participants' performance than traditional measures such as reaction time and accuracy, allowing for more detailed (and thus potentially more sensitive) investigation of facilitation and interference in the reverse Stroop task. These trajectories showed that the mouse's approach toward correct response words was significantly delayed by incongruent print colors but not affected by congruent print colors, demonstrating that only interference, not facilitation, was present in the current task. Implications of these findings are discussed within a theoretical framework in which the strength of association between a task and its response method plays a critical role in determining how word meanings and print colors interact in reverse Stroop tasks.

  8. Significant determinants of mouse pain behaviour.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael S Minett

    Full Text Available Transgenic mouse behavioural analysis has furthered our understanding of the molecular and cellular mechanisms underlying damage sensing and pain. However, it is not unusual for conflicting data on the pain phenotypes of knockout mice to be generated by reputable groups. Here we focus on some technical aspects of measuring mouse pain behaviour that are often overlooked, which may help explain discrepancies in the pain literature. We examined touch perception using von Frey hairs and mechanical pain thresholds using the Randall-Selitto test. Thermal pain thresholds were measured using the Hargreaves apparatus and a thermal place preference test. Sodium channel Nav1.7 knockout mice show a mechanical deficit in the hairy skin, but not the paw, whilst shaving the abdominal hair abolished this phenotype. Nav1.7, Nav1.8 and Nav1.9 knockout mice show deficits in noxious mechanosensation in the tail, but not the paw. TRPA1 knockout mice, however, have a loss of noxious mechanosensation in the paw but not the tail. Studies of heat and cold sensitivity also show variability depending on the intensity of the stimulus. Deleting Nav1.7, Nav1.8 or Nav1.9 in Nav1.8-positive sensory neurons attenuates responses to slow noxious heat ramps, whilst responses to fast noxious heat ramps are only reduced when Nav1.7 is lost in large diameter sensory neurons. Deleting Nav1.7 from all sensory neurons attenuates responses to noxious cooling but not extreme cold. Finally, circadian rhythms dramatically influence behavioural outcome measures such as von Frey responses, which change by 80% over the day. These observations demonstrate that fully characterising the phenotype of a transgenic mouse strain requires a range of behavioural pain models. Failure to conduct behavioural tests at different anatomical locations, stimulus intensities, and at different points in the circadian cycle may lead to a pain behavioural phenotype being misinterpreted, or missed altogether.

  9. A humanized mouse model of tuberculosis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Veronica E Calderon

    Full Text Available Mycobacterium tuberculosis (M.tb is the second leading infectious cause of death worldwide and the primary cause of death in people living with HIV/AIDS. There are several excellent animal models employed to study tuberculosis (TB, but many have limitations for reproducing human pathology and none are amenable to the direct study of HIV/M.tb co-infection. The humanized mouse has been increasingly employed to explore HIV infection and other pathogens where animal models are limiting. Our goal was to develop a small animal model of M.tb infection using the bone marrow, liver, thymus (BLT humanized mouse. NOD-SCID/γc(null mice were engrafted with human fetal liver and thymus tissue, and supplemented with CD34(+ fetal liver cells. Excellent reconstitution, as measured by expression of the human CD45 pan leukocyte marker by peripheral blood populations, was observed at 12 weeks after engraftment. Human T cells (CD3, CD4, CD8, as well as natural killer cells and monocyte/macrophages were all observed within the human leukocyte (CD45(+ population. Importantly, human T cells were functionally competent as determined by proliferative capacity and effector molecule (e.g. IFN-γ, granulysin, perforin expression in response to positive stimuli. Animals infected intranasally with M.tb had progressive bacterial infection in the lung and dissemination to spleen and liver from 2-8 weeks post infection. Sites of infection in the lung were characterized by the formation of organized granulomatous lesions, caseous necrosis, bronchial obstruction, and crystallization of cholesterol deposits. Human T cells were distributed throughout the lung, liver, and spleen at sites of inflammation and bacterial growth and were organized to the periphery of granulomas. These preliminary results demonstrate the potential to use the humanized mouse as a model of experimental TB.

  10. Mouse allergen-specific immunoglobulin G4 and risk of mouse skin test sensitivity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Matsui, E. C.; Diette, G. B.; Krop, E. J. M.; Aalberse, R. C.; Smith, A. L.; Eggleston, P. A.

    2006-01-01

    High serum levels of cat-specific IgG and IgG4 are associated with protection against allergic sensitization to cat, but whether this association applies to other animal allergens remains unclear. To determine if high levels of mouse-specific IgG and IgG4 are associated with a decreased risk of

  11. Mouse models for understanding human developmental anomalies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Generoso, W.M.

    1989-01-01

    The mouse experimental system presents an opportunity for studying the nature of the underlying mutagenic damage and the molecular pathogenesis of this class of anomalies by virtue of the accessibility of the zygote and its descendant blastomeres. Such studies could contribute to the understanding of the etiology of certain sporadic but common human malformations. The vulnerability of the zygotes to mutagens as demonstrated in the studies described in this report should be a major consideration in chemical safety evaluation. It raises questions regarding the danger to human zygotes when the mother is exposed to drugs and environmental chemicals

  12. Immunohistochemical visualization of mouse interneuron subtypes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Simon Mølgaard; Ulrichsen, Maj; Boggild, Simon

    2014-01-01

    of the hippocampus where they have previously been described. Additionally, the antibodies were also tested on sections from mouse spinal cord with similar criteria for specificity of the antibodies. Using the antibodies with a high rating on pAbmAbs, stainings with high signal-to-noise ratios and location......The activity of excitatory neurons is controlled by a small, but highly diverse population of inhibitory interneurons. These cells show a high level of physiological, morphological and neurochemical heterogeneity, and play highly specific roles in neuronal circuits. In the mammalian hippocampus...

  13. The volume effect in irradiated mouse colorectum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skwarchuk, Mark William

    1997-11-01

    Damage of the colorectum is the dose-limiting normal tissue complication following radiotherapy of prostate and cervical cancers. One approach for decreasing complications is to physically reduce the treatment volume. Mathematical models have been previously developed to describe the change in associated toxicity with a change in irradiated volume, i.e. the 'volume effect', for serial-type normal tissues including the colorectum. The first goal of this thesis was to test the hypothesis that there would not be a threshold length in the development of obstruction after irradiation of mouse colorectum, as predicted by the Probability model of the volume effect. The second goal was to examine if there were differences in the threshold and in the incidence of colorectal obstruction after irradiation of two mouse strains, C57B1/6 (C57) and C3Hf/Kam (C3H), previously found to be fibrosis-prone and-resistant, respectively, after lung irradiation due, in part, to genetic differences. The hypothesis examined was that differences in incidence between strains were due to the differential expression of the fibrogenic cytokines TGF/beta and TNF/alpha. Various lengths of C57 and C3H mouse colorectum were irradiated and the incidence of colorectal obstruction was followed up to 15 months. A threshold length was observed for both mouse strains, in contradiction of model predictions. The mechanism of the threshold was epithelial regeneration after irradiation. C57 mice had significantly higher incidence of colorectal obstruction compared to C3H mice, especially at smaller irradiated lengths. Colorectal tissue was obtained at various times after irradiation and prepared for histology, immunohistochemistry and RNase protection assay for measurement of TGF/beta 1, 2, 3 and TNF/alpha mRNA. Distinct strain differences in the histological time of appearance and spatial locations of fibrosis were observed. However, there were no consistent strain difference in mRNA levels or

  14. Mouse models for understanding human developmental anomalies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Generoso, W.M.

    1989-01-01

    The mouse experimental system presents an opportunity for studying the nature of the underlying mutagenic damage and the molecular pathogenesis of this class of anomalies by virtue of the accessibility of the zygote and its descendant blastomeres. Such studies could contribute to the understanding of the etiology of certain sporadic but common human malformations. The vulnerability of the zygotes to mutagens as demonstrated in the studies described in this report should be a major consideration in chemical safety evaluation. It raises questions regarding the danger to human zygotes when the mother is exposed to drugs and environmental chemicals.

  15. Involvement of mouse and porcine PLCζ-induced calcium oscillations in preimplantation development of mouse embryos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoneda, Akihiro, E-mail: ayoneda@sci.hokudai.ac.jp [Laboratory of Animal Breeding and Reproduction, Graduate School of Agriculture, Hokkaido University (Japan); Division of Molecular Therapeutics, Center for Food & Medical Innovation, Hokkaido University (Japan); Watanabe, Tomomasa [Laboratory of Animal Breeding and Reproduction, Graduate School of Agriculture, Hokkaido University (Japan)

    2015-05-01

    In mammals, phospholipase Cζ (PLCζ) has the ability to trigger calcium (Ca{sup 2+}) oscillations in oocytes, leading to oocyte activation. Although there is a species-specific difference in the PLCζ-induced Ca{sup 2+} oscillatory pattern, whether PLCζ-induced Ca{sup 2+} oscillations affect preimplantation embryonic development remains unclear. Here, we show that Ca{sup 2+} oscillations in mouse PLCζ cRNA-injected oocytes stopped just before pronuclear formation, while that in porcine PLCζ cRNA-injected oocytes continued for several hours after pronuclei had been formed. This difference of Ca{sup 2+} oscillations in oocytes after pronuclear formation was dependent on the difference in the nuclear localization signal (NLS) sequence of PLCζ between the mouse and pig. However, mouse and porcine PLCζ cRNA-injected oocytes parthenogenetically developed to blastocysts regardless of the absence or presence of Ca{sup 2+} oscillations after pronuclear formation. Furthermore, the developmental rate of mouse or porcine PLCζ-activated oocytes injected with round spermatids to the blastocyst stage was not significantly different from that of strontium-activated oocytes injected with round spermatids. These results suggest that the PLCζ-induced Ca{sup 2+} oscillatory pattern in mouse oocytes is dependent on the NLS sequence of PLCζ and injection of PLCζ may be a useful method for activation of round spermatid-injected and somatic nuclear transferred oocytes. - Highlights: • Porcine PLCζ-induced Ca{sup 2+} oscillations continued after pronuclear formation. • The Ca{sup 2+} oscillatory pattern was dependent on the difference in the NLS sequence of PLCζ. • PLCζ-activated oocytes parthenogenetically developed to blastocysts. • PLCζ-activated oocytes injected with round spermatids developed to blastocysts.

  16. The mouse resources at the RIKEN BioResource center.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshiki, Atsushi; Ike, Fumio; Mekada, Kazuyuki; Kitaura, Yasuyuki; Nakata, Hatsumi; Hiraiwa, Noriko; Mochida, Keiji; Ijuin, Maiko; Kadota, Masayo; Murakami, Ayumi; Ogura, Atsuo; Abe, Kuniya; Moriwaki, Kazuo; Obata, Yuichi

    2009-04-01

    Mice are one of the most important model organisms for studying biological phenomena and diseases processes in life sciences. The biomedical research community has succeeded in launching large scale strategic knockout mouse projects around the world. RIKEN BRC, a comprehensive government funded biological resource center was established in 2001. RIKEN BRC has been acting as the core facility for the mouse resources of the National BioResource Project (NBRP) of the Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology (MEXT), Japan since 2002. RIKEN BRC is a founding member of the Federation of International Mouse Resources (FIMRe) together with the Jackson Laboratory, the European Mouse Mutant Archive, and other centers, and has participated in the International Mouse Strain Resource (IMSR) to distribute mouse strains worldwide. With the support of the scientific community, RIKEN BRC has collected over 3,800 strains including inbred, transgenic, knockout, wild-derived, and ENU-induced mutant strains. Excellent mouse models for human diseases and gene functions from academic organizations and private companies are distributed through RIKEN BRC. To meet research and social needs, our mice will be rederived to a specific pathogen-free state, strictly monitored for their health, and accurately tested for their genetic modifications and backgrounds. Users can easily access our mouse resources through the internet and obtain the mouse strains for a minimal fee. Cryopreservation of embryos and sperm is used for efficient preservation of the increasing number of mouse resources. RIKEN BRC collaborates with FIMRe members to support Japanese scientists in the use of valuable mouse resources from around the world.

  17. Mouse models of metastasis: progress and prospects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Gómez-Cuadrado

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Metastasis is the spread of cancer cells from a primary tumor to distant sites within the body to establish secondary tumors. Although this is an inefficient process, the consequences are devastating as metastatic disease accounts for >90% of cancer-related deaths. The formation of metastases is the result of a series of events that allow cancer cells to escape from the primary site, survive in the lymphatic system or blood vessels, extravasate and grow at distant sites. The metastatic capacity of a tumor is determined by genetic and epigenetic changes within the cancer cells as well as contributions from cells in the tumor microenvironment. Mouse models have proven to be an important tool for unraveling the complex interactions involved in the metastatic cascade and delineating its many stages. Here, we critically appraise the strengths and weaknesses of the current mouse models and highlight the recent advances that have been made using these models in our understanding of metastasis. We also discuss the use of these models for testing potential therapies and the challenges associated with the translation of these findings into the provision of new and effective treatments for cancer patients.

  18. Molecular analysis of heritable mouse mutations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rinchik, E.M.

    1987-01-01

    Germ-like mutations of the mouse have for years comprised one class of biological markers for mammalian reproductive and developmental toxicology. Understanding the molecular nature of mutations and the mechanisms by which mutations are translated into specific (and often complex) phenotypes, however, still looms as a major goal of mammalian biology. Molecular genetic analysis of heritable mouse mutations constitutes a significant, experimentally malleable strategy for relating genomic DNA structure to genic expression and function in mammals. The integrated use of recombinant DNA technology, which allows both the identification and analysis of expression of single genes, and classical genetic and cytogenetic analysis, which allow the important correlation between basic DNA defects and the organismic consequences of such defects, has been crucial to this strategy. Some of the approaches (e.g., specific-gene cloning, random-clone analysis of genomic regions, insertional mutagenesis) for studying the nature and effect of both mutations and their wild-type counterparts that have resulted from this integration of genetic analysis and molecular biology have been applied to many loci within the murine genome. Studies of the nature and effects of a complex set of radiation-induced mutations at the dilute-short ear (d-se) region of chromosome 9, a specific example of this type of integrated analysis, are discussed

  19. Fundamental cryobiology of mouse ova and embryos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leibo, S. P.

    1977-01-01

    An increasing fraction of mouse ova and embryos are killed as the rate at which they are cooled to -196/sup 0/C is increased. The survival of these cells depends not only on cooling rate, but also on the minimum subzero temperature to which the cells are cooled. Low temperature microscopy demonstrates that lethal cooling rates are coincident with those that produce intracellular ice formation, and that the lethal temperature appears to be that at which intracellular ice forms. Furthermore, the microscopy shows that ova do not dehydrate when cooled at rates that produce intracellular ice and cell death, but undergo substantial shrinkage when cooled at rates that produce little intracellular ice and high survival. Measurements of the water permeability of mouse ova and the temperature coefficient of that permeability can be used to test a mathematical model formulated to describe the kinetics of water loss at subzero temperatures from a hypothetical cell. The observed dehydration of ova cooled to subzero temperatures at given rates is approximately predicted by the mathematical model, although there is some quantitative discrepancy between the observed and calculated responses.

  20. ZNF 197L is dispensable in mouse development | Tang | African ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The gene trap technique is a newly powerful approach for characterizing and mutating genes in mouse. We used gene trap method to identify mice gene of unknown function and to establish their mouse line. Here, we found one such gene termed as Ayu17-923 (similar to zinc finger protein 197 transcript variant 2, ZNF ...

  1. Mouse Vocal Communication System: Are Ultrasounds Learned or Innate?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arriaga, Gustavo; Jarvis, Erich D.

    2013-01-01

    Mouse ultrasonic vocalizations (USVs) are often used as behavioral readouts of internal states, to measure effects of social and pharmacological manipulations, and for behavioral phenotyping of mouse models for neuropsychiatric and neurodegenerative disorders. However, little is known about the neurobiological mechanisms of rodent USV production.…

  2. Accesion number Protein name ENOA_MOUSE Alpha-enolase ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Sandra Feijoo Bandin

    Mitochondrial inner membrane protein. CMC1_MOUSE. Calcium-binding mitochondrial carrier protein Aralar1. CMC2_MOUSE. Calcium-binding mitochondrial carrier protein Aralar2. Biological process. Metabolic process. Glycolysis. Lipid metabolism. Respiratory electron transport chain. Others. Calcium ion homeostasis.

  3. Design an electronic mouse trap for agriculture area | Rizman ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The LED were function as an alert to the owner to know either there is a mouse or not inside the trap. The LED will turn off once the mouse is release. In the project, the main part of the circuit consists of PIR sensors and LCD display. The coding is designed by using Arduino. Keywords: PIR sensor; Arduino; LCD; mousetrap; ...

  4. A survey of internet resources for mouse development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saunders, Thomas L

    2010-01-01

    The Internet contains many sources of information useful for mouse developmental biology research. These include anatomical atlases, gene expression atlases, and indexes to genetically engineered mouse strains and embryonic stem (ES) cells. Online atlases supersede earlier printed atlases in the quantity of available online images and the depth of specialized anatomical terminology and gene ontologies. Atlases annotated with gene expression data have increased value for comparisons with mouse models designed to study genetic perturbations of developmental processes. Gene expression libraries and microarray analyses of developmental stages are also available in Internet repositories. Bioinformatic interrogation of this data can identify regulatory gene networks and suggest putative transcriptional regulators that control cell fate. In silico formulated hypotheses about regulatory genes may be tested in vivo with mouse models obtained from the international Knockout Mouse Project (KOMP). Many of the genes targeted ES cells in KOMP are designed to mark cells with reporter molecules and produce conditional alleles. In combination with Cre recombinase mouse strains, genes can be inactivated at different developmental stages in specific cell types to study their function in embryogenesis. Atlases of mouse development, gene expression atlases, transcriptome databases, and repositories of genetically engineered mouse strains and ES cells are discussed. Copyright (c) 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Transgenic Mouse Models of SV40-Induced Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hudson, Amanda L; Colvin, Emily K

    2016-01-01

    The SV40 viral oncogene has been used since the 1970s as a reliable and reproducible method to generate transgenic mouse models. This seminal discovery has taught us an immense amount about how tumorigenesis occurs, and its success has led to the evolution of many mouse models of cancer. Despite the development of more modern and targeted approaches for developing genetically engineered mouse models of cancer, SV40-induced mouse models still remain frequently used today. This review discusses a number of cancer types in which SV40 mouse models of cancer have been developed and highlights their relevance and importance to preclinical research. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Institute for Laboratory Animal Research. All rights reserved. For permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  6. Immunologic analyses of mouse cystathionase in normal and leukemic cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bikel, I.; Faibes, D.; Uren, J.R.; Livingston, D.M.

    1978-01-01

    Rabbit antisera have been raised against mouse liver cystathionase and shown to possess enzyme neutralizing activity. Agar gel double immunodiffusion analyses demonstrated that both mouse liver cystathionase and rat liver cystathionase react with the antisera, the latter enzyme being completely cross-reactive with the former. Following radioiodination of the purified rat liver enzyme, a double antibody radioimmunoassay was developed in which greater than 90% of the labeled protein could be specifically precipitated with the anti-mouse cystathionase antibodies. In this test the purified rat liver and mouse liver enzymes were virtually indistinguishable, generating superimposable competition displacement curves on a protein mass basis. These results indicate that both enzymes are immunologically identical, thus validating the use of the rat in lieu of the murine liver enzyme as radiolabeled tracer in an assay for mouse cystathionase. In addition, competition radioimmunoassays demonstrated that the immunological reactivities of both the purified rat liver and mouse liver enzymes were equally heat sensitive. The sensitivity of the assay was determined to be 1 ng of enzyme protein/0.22 mL of assay mixture, and the assay could be used to detect the presence of enzyme protein in tissue homogenates of single mouse organs. Mouse or rat cross-reactivity with human liver cystathionase was incomplete; but, with the exception of heart and spleen, parallel radioimmunoassay competition displacement curves were obtained for cystathionase from different mouse organs including thymus. Extracts of 7-, 9-, and 10-month-old spontaneous AKR mouse thymomas were tested in the radioimmunoassay along with extracts of age-matched thymuses which were grossly tumor free. A reaction of nonidentity was observed for all of the tumor extracts while a reaction identical with that of the pure liver enzyme was found with all of the normal thymus extracts

  7. Rats and mice immunised with chimeric human/mouse proteinase 3 produce autoantibodies to mouse Pr3 and rat granulocytes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Geld, Ymke M.; Hellmark, Thomas; Selga, Daina; Heeringa, Peter; Huitema, Minke G.; Limburg, Pieter C.; Kallenberg, Cees G. M.

    2007-01-01

    Aim: In this study, we employed chimeric human/ mouse Proteinase 3 ( PR3) proteins as tools to induce an autoantibody response to PR3 in rats and mice. Method: Rats and mice were immunised with recombinant human PR3 ( HPR3), recombinant murine PR3 ( mPR3), single chimeric human/ mouse PR3 ( HHm,

  8. The Mouse House: A brief history of the ORNL mouse-genetics program, 1947–2009

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Russell, Liane B.

    2013-10-01

    The large mouse genetics program at the Oak Ridge National Lab is often re-membered chiefly for the germ-cell mutation-rate data it generated and their uses in estimating the risk of heritable radiation damage. In fact, it soon became a multi-faceted research effort that, over a period of almost 60 years, generated a wealth of information in the areas of mammalian mutagenesis, basic genetics (later enriched by molecular techniques), cytogenetics, reproductive biology, biochemistry of germ cells, and teratology. Research in the area of germ-cell mutagenesis explored the important physical and biological factors that affect the frequency and nature of induced mutations and made several unexpected discoveries, such as the major importance of the perigametic interval (the zygote stage) for the origin of spontaneous mutations and for the sensitivity to induced genetic change. Of practical value was the discovery that ethylnitrosourea was a supermutagen for point mutations, making high-efficiency mutagenesis in the mouse feasible worldwide. Teratogenesis findings resulted in recommendations still generally accepted in radiological practice. Studies supporting the mutagenesis research added whole bodies of information about mammalian germ-cell development and about molecular targets in germ cells. The early decision to not merely count but propagate genetic variants of all sorts made possible further discoveries, such as the Y-Chromosome s importance in mammalian sex determination and the identification of rare X-autosome translocations, which, in turn, led to the formulation of the single-active-X hypothesis and provided tools for studies of functional mosaicism for autosomal genes, male sterility, and chromosome-pairing mechanism. Extensive genetic and then molecular analyses of large numbers of induced specific-locus mutants resulted in fine-structure physical and correlated functional mapping of significant portions of the mouse genome and constituted a valuable

  9. The Mouse House: a brief history of the ORNL mouse-genetics program, 1947-2009.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russell, Liane B

    2013-01-01

    The large mouse genetics program at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) is often remembered chiefly for the germ-cell mutation-rate data it generated and their uses in estimating the risk of heritable radiation damage. In fact, it soon became a multi-faceted research effort that, over a period of almost 60 years, generated a wealth of information in the areas of mammalian mutagenesis, basic genetics (later enriched by molecular techniques), cytogenetics, reproductive biology, biochemistry of germ cells, and teratology. Research in the area of germ-cell mutagenesis explored the important physical and biological factors that affect the frequency and nature of induced mutations and made several unexpected discoveries, such as the major importance of the perigametic interval (the zygote stage) for the origin of spontaneous mutations and for the sensitivity to induced genetic change. Of practical value was the discovery that ethylnitrosourea was a supermutagen for point mutations, making high-efficiency mutagenesis in the mouse feasible worldwide. Teratogenesis findings resulted in recommendations still generally accepted in radiological practice. Studies supporting the mutagenesis research added whole bodies of information about mammalian germ-cell development and about molecular targets in germ cells. The early decision to not merely count but propagate genetic variants of all sorts made possible further discoveries, such as the Y-chromosome's importance in mammalian sex determination and the identification of rare X-autosome translocations, which, in turn, led to the formulation of the single-active-X hypothesis and provided tools for studies of functional mosaicism for autosomal genes, male sterility, and chromosome-pairing mechanism. Extensive genetic and then molecular analyses of large numbers of induced specific-locus mutants resulted in fine-structure physical and correlated functional mapping of significant portions of the mouse genome and constituted a

  10. Negative pion irradiations of the mouse testis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coggle, J.E.; Lambert, B.E.; Peel, D.M.; Davies, R.W.

    1977-01-01

    A study has been made of testicular weight-loss in the mouse 28 days after 70 MeV pion irradiation. The data on weight loss after peak or plateau pion irradiation of anaesthetized mice have been compared with those after high-dose-rate 14 MeV electrons and low-dose-rate 200 kVp X-rays. The data points for the initial radiosensitive component of weight loss all fell on the same line; 1 Gy of pions, 14 MeV electrons and X-rays all produced approximately 45% reduction in testicular weight. There was no evidence of a dose-rate effect for rates between 1.2 Gy h -1 and 14 400 Gy h -1 . The r.b.e. of pions for testicular weight loss is therefore unity compared with low-LET electrons and X-rays. (U.K.)

  11. Insights from Human/Mouse genome comparisons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pennacchio, Len A.

    2003-03-30

    Large-scale public genomic sequencing efforts have provided a wealth of vertebrate sequence data poised to provide insights into mammalian biology. These include deep genomic sequence coverage of human, mouse, rat, zebrafish, and two pufferfish (Fugu rubripes and Tetraodon nigroviridis) (Aparicio et al. 2002; Lander et al. 2001; Venter et al. 2001; Waterston et al. 2002). In addition, a high-priority has been placed on determining the genomic sequence of chimpanzee, dog, cow, frog, and chicken (Boguski 2002). While only recently available, whole genome sequence data have provided the unique opportunity to globally compare complete genome contents. Furthermore, the shared evolutionary ancestry of vertebrate species has allowed the development of comparative genomic approaches to identify ancient conserved sequences with functionality. Accordingly, this review focuses on the initial comparison of available mammalian genomes and describes various insights derived from such analysis.

  12. Actin dynamics in mouse fibroblasts in microgravity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moes, Maarten J. A.; Bijvelt, Jose J.; Boonstra, Johannes

    2007-09-01

    After stimulating with the growth factor PDGF, cells exhibit abundant membrane ruffling and other morphological changes under normal gravity conditions. These morphological changes are largely determined by the actin microfilament system. Now these actin dynamics were studied under microgravity conditions in mouse fibroblasts during the DELTA mission. The aim of the present study was to describe the actin morphology in detail, to establish the effect of PDGF on actin morphology and to study the role of several actin-interacting proteins involved in introduced actin dynamics in microgravity. Identical experiments were conducted at 1G on earth as a reference. No results in microgravity were obtained due to a combination of malfunctioning hardware and unfulfilled temperature requirements.

  13. Global Hypertranscription in the Mouse Embryonic Germline

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michelle Percharde

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Primordial germ cells (PGCs are vital for inheritance and evolution. Their transcriptional program has been extensively studied and is assumed to be well known. We report here a remarkable global upregulation of the transcriptome of mouse PGCs compared to somatic cells. Using cell-number-normalized genome-wide analyses, we uncover significant transcriptional amplification in PGCs, including mRNAs, rRNA, and transposable elements. Hypertranscription preserves tissue-specific gene expression patterns, correlates with cell size, and can still be detected in E15.5 male germ cells when proliferation has ceased. PGC hypertranscription occurs at the level of nascent transcription, is accompanied by increased translation rates, and is driven by Myc factors n-Myc and l-Myc (but not c-Myc and by P-TEFb. This study provides a paradigm for transcriptional analyses during development and reveals a major global hyperactivity of the germline transcriptome.

  14. Mouse Model of Burn Wound and Infection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Calum, Henrik; Høiby, Niels; Moser, Claus

    2017-01-01

    The immunosuppression induced by thermal injury renders the burned victim susceptible to infection. A mouse model was developed to examine the immunosuppression, which was possible to induce even at a minor thermal insult of 6% total body surface area. After induction of the burn (48 hr......) a depression of leukocytes in the peripheral blood was found of the burned mice. This depression was due to a reduction in the polymorphonuclear cells. The burned mice were not able to clear a Pseudomonas aeruginosa wound infection, since the infection spread to the blood as compared to mice only infected...... with P. aeruginosa subcutaneously. The burn model offers an opportunity to study infections under these conditions. The present model can also be used to examine new antibiotics and immune therapy. Our animal model resembling the clinical situation is useful in developing new treatments of burn wound...

  15. Mouse models for dengue vaccines and antivirals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plummer, Emily M; Shresta, Sujan

    2014-08-01

    Dengue virus (DENV) has substantial global impact, with an estimated 390million people infected each year. In spite of this, there is currently no approved DENV-specific vaccine or antiviral. One reason for this is the difficulty involved with development of an adequate animal model. While non-human primates support viral replication, they do not exhibit signs of clinical disease. A mouse model is an ideal alternative; however, wild-type mice are resistant to DENV-induced disease. Infection of interferon receptor-deficient mice results in disease that recapitulates key features of severe dengue disease in humans. For the development of vaccines, interferon receptor-deficient mice provide a stringent model for testing vaccine-induced immune components from vaccinated wild-type mice. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. A Transgenic Mouse Model of Poliomyelitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koike, Satoshi; Nagata, Noriyo

    2016-01-01

    Transgenic mice (tg mice) that express the human poliovirus receptor (PVR), CD155, are susceptible to poliovirus and develop a neurological disease that resembles human poliomyelitis. Assessment of the neurovirulence levels of poliovirus strains, including mutant viruses produced by reverse genetics, circulating vaccine-derived poliovirus, and vaccine candidates, is useful for basic research of poliovirus pathogenicity, the surveillance of circulating polioviruses, and the quality control of oral live poliovirus vaccines, and does not require the use of monkeys. Furthermore, PVR-tg mice are useful for studying poliovirus tissue tropism and host immune responses. PVR-tg mice can be bred with mice deficient in the genes involved in viral pathogenicity. This report describes the methods used to analyze the pathogenicity and immune responses of poliovirus using the PVR-tg mouse model.

  17. Sampling the Mouse Hippocampal Dentate Gyrus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lisa Basler

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Sampling is a critical step in procedures that generate quantitative morphological data in the neurosciences. Samples need to be representative to allow statistical evaluations, and samples need to deliver a precision that makes statistical evaluations not only possible but also meaningful. Sampling generated variability should, e.g., not be able to hide significant group differences from statistical detection if they are present. Estimators of the coefficient of error (CE have been developed to provide tentative answers to the question if sampling has been “good enough” to provide meaningful statistical outcomes. We tested the performance of the commonly used Gundersen-Jensen CE estimator, using the layers of the mouse hippocampal dentate gyrus as an example (molecular layer, granule cell layer and hilus. We found that this estimator provided useful estimates of the precision that can be expected from samples of different sizes. For all layers, we found that a smoothness factor (m of 0 generally provided better estimates than an m of 1. Only for the combined layers, i.e., the entire dentate gyrus, better CE estimates could be obtained using an m of 1. The orientation of the sections impacted on CE sizes. Frontal (coronal sections are typically most efficient by providing the smallest CEs for a given amount of work. Applying the estimator to 3D-reconstructed layers and using very intense sampling, we observed CE size plots with m = 0 to m = 1 transitions that should also be expected but are not often observed in real section series. The data we present also allows the reader to approximate the sampling intervals in frontal, horizontal or sagittal sections that provide CEs of specified sizes for the layers of the mouse dentate gyrus.

  18. Diffusion microscopic MRI of the mouse embryo: Protocol and practical implementation in the splotch mouse model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norris, Francesca C; Siow, Bernard M; Cleary, Jon O; Wells, Jack A; De Castro, Sandra C P; Ordidge, Roger J; Greene, Nicholas D E; Copp, Andrew J; Scambler, Peter J; Alexander, Daniel C; Lythgoe, Mark F

    2015-02-01

    Advanced methodologies for visualizing novel tissue contrast are essential for phenotyping the ever-increasing number of mutant mouse embryos being generated. Although diffusion microscopic MRI (μMRI) has been used to phenotype embryos, widespread routine use is limited by extended scanning times, and there is no established experimental procedure ensuring optimal data acquisition. We developed two protocols for designing experimental procedures for diffusion μMRI of mouse embryos, which take into account the effect of embryo preparation and pulse sequence parameters on resulting data. We applied our protocols to an investigation of the splotch mouse model as an example implementation. The protocols provide DTI data in 24 min per direction at 75 μm isotropic using a three-dimensional fast spin-echo sequence, enabling preliminary imaging in 3 h (6 directions plus one unweighted measurement), or detailed imaging in 9 h (42 directions plus six unweighted measurements). Application to the splotch model enabled assessment of spinal cord pathology. We present guidelines for designing diffusion μMRI experiments, which may be adapted for different studies and research facilities. As they are suitable for routine use and may be readily implemented, we hope they will be adopted by the phenotyping community. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  19. Brain gene expression of a sporadic (icv-STZ Mouse and a familial mouse model (3xTg-AD mouse of Alzheimer's disease.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yanxing Chen

    Full Text Available Alzheimer's disease (AD can be divided into sporadic AD (SAD and familial AD (FAD. Most AD cases are sporadic and may result from multiple etiologic factors, including environmental, genetic and metabolic factors, whereas FAD is caused by mutations of presenilins or amyloid-β (Aβ precursor protein (APP. A commonly used mouse model for AD is 3xTg-AD mouse, which is generated by over-expression of mutated presenilin 1, APP and tau in the brain and thus represents a mouse model of FAD. A mouse model generated by intracerebroventricular (icv administration of streptozocin (STZ, icv-STZ mouse, shows many aspects of SAD. Despite the wide use of these two models for AD research, differences in gene expression between them are not known. Here, we compared the expression of 84 AD-related genes in the hippocampus and the cerebral cortex between icv-STZ mice and 3xTg-AD mice using a custom-designed qPCR array. These genes are involved in APP processing, tau/cytoskeleton, synapse function, apoptosis and autophagy, AD-related protein kinases, glucose metabolism, insulin signaling, and mTOR pathway. We found altered expression of around 20 genes in both mouse models, which affected each of above categories. Many of these gene alterations were consistent with what was observed in AD brain previously. The expression of most of these altered genes was decreased or tended to be decreased in the hippocampus of both mouse models. Significant diversity in gene expression was found in the cerebral cortex between these two AD mouse models. More genes related to synaptic function were dysregulated in the 3xTg-AD mice, whereas more genes related to insulin signaling and glucose metabolism were down-regulated in the icv-STZ mice. The present study provides important fundamental knowledge of these two AD mouse models and will help guide future studies using these two mouse models for the development of AD drugs.

  20. Chromosomal localization of the human and mouse hyaluronan synthase genes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Spicer, A.P.; McDonald, J.A. [Mayo Clinic Scottsdale, AZ (United States); Seldin, M.F. [Univ. of California Davis, CA (United States)] [and others

    1997-05-01

    We have recently identified a new vertebrate gene family encoding putative hyaluronan (HA) synthases. Three highly conserved related genes have been identified, designated HAS1, HAS2, and HAS3 in humans and Has1, Has2, and Has3 in the mouse. All three genes encode predicted plasma membrane proteins with multiple transmembrane domains and approximately 25% amino acid sequence identity to the Streptococcus pyogenes HA synthase, HasA. Furthermore, expression of any one HAS gene in transfected mammalian cells leads to high levels of HA biosynthesis. We now report the chromosomal localization of the three HAS genes in human and in mouse. The genes localized to three different positions within both the human and the mouse genomes. HAS1 was localized to the human chromosome 19q13.3-q13.4 boundary and Has1 to mouse Chr 17. HAS2 was localized to human chromosome 8q24.12 and Has2 to mouse Chr 15. HAS3 was localized to human chromosome 16q22.1 and Has3 to mouse Chr 8. The map position for HAS1 reinforces the recently reported relationship between a small region of human chromosome 19q and proximal mouse chromosome 17. HAS2 mapped outside the predicted critical region delineated for the Langer-Giedion syndrome and can thus be excluded as a candidate gene for this genetic syndrome. 33 refs., 2 figs.

  1. Meeting Report: The Twelfth International Mouse Genome Conference

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Manolakou, Katerina; Cross, Sally H.; Simpson, Eleanor H.; Jackson, Ian J.

    1998-10-01

    The annual International Mouse Genome Conference (IMGC) is where, scientifically speaking, classical mouse genetics meets the relative newcomer of genomics. The 12th meeting took place last October in the delightful Bavarian village of Garmisch-Partenkirchen, and we were greeted by the sight on the mountains of the first snowfall of the season. However the discussions left little time for exploration. Minds of participants in Garmisch were focused by a recent document produced by the NIH and by discussions within other funding agencies worldwide. If implemented, the proposals will further enhance the status of the mouse as the principal model for study of the function of the human genome.

  2. Linking topography to tonotopy in the mouse auditory thalamocortical circuit

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hackett, Troy A; Rinaldi Barkat, Tania; O'Brien, Barbara M J

    2011-01-01

    The mouse sensory neocortex is reported to lack several hallmark features of topographic organization such as ocular dominance and orientation columns in primary visual cortex or fine-scale tonotopy in primary auditory cortex (AI). Here, we re-examined the question of auditory functional topography...... by aligning ultra-dense receptive field maps from the auditory cortex and thalamus of the mouse in vivo with the neural circuitry contained in the auditory thalamocortical slice in vitro. We observed precisely organized tonotopic maps of best frequency (BF) in the middle layers of AI and the anterior auditory...... of auditory thalamocortical circuit organization and plasticity in the genetically tractable mouse model....

  3. Cellular and genetic analysis of mouse blastocyst development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pedersen, R A; Spindle, A I

    1979-01-01

    The development of mouse embryos was studied by both cellular and genetic approaches. In the cellular analysis, determination of cell fate in blastocysts and in cell populations derived from them was studied in an attempt to estimate the time that these cells become committed to their fate. In the genetic analysis, existing mutations that are lethal to mouse embryos were used to discern essential features of early development. In this review, the timing of cell determination in the inner cell mass and the primary ectoderm, and the manifestation of defects in mouse embryos that are homozygous for the A/sup y/ allele of the agouti locus were considered.

  4. Modeling Phenotypes of Tuberous Scerosis in the Mouse

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Shipley, James M

    2007-01-01

    The overall goal of this project is to generate a mouse model of the smooth muscle-related facets of tuberous sclerosis, specifically in an attempt to model the lung phenotype seen in a subset of TS...

  5. Modeling Phenotypes of Tuberous Sclerosis in the Mouse

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Shipley, James M

    2006-01-01

    The overall goal of this project is to generate a mouse model of the smooth muscle-related facets of tuberous sclerosis specifically in an attempt to model the lung phenotype seen in a subset of TS...

  6. Immunologic applications of conditional gene modification technology in the mouse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Suveena; Zhu, Jinfang

    2014-04-02

    Since the success of homologous recombination in altering mouse genome and the discovery of Cre-loxP system, the combination of these two breakthroughs has created important applications for studying the immune system in the mouse. Here, we briefly summarize the general principles of this technology and its applications in studying immune cell development and responses; such implications include conditional gene knockout and inducible and/or tissue-specific gene over-expression, as well as lineage fate mapping. We then discuss the pros and cons of a few commonly used Cre-expressing mouse lines for studying lymphocyte development and functions. We also raise several general issues, such as efficiency of gene deletion, leaky activity of Cre, and Cre toxicity, all of which may have profound impacts on data interpretation. Finally, we selectively list some useful links to the Web sites as valuable mouse resources. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

  7. A comparative encyclopedia of DNA elements in the mouse genome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yue, Feng; Cheng, Yong; Breschi, Alessandra; Vierstra, Jeff; Wu, Weisheng; Ryba, Tyrone; Sandstrom, Richard; Ma, Zhihai; Davis, Carrie; Pope, Benjamin D; Shen, Yin; Pervouchine, Dmitri D; Djebali, Sarah; Thurman, Robert E; Kaul, Rajinder; Rynes, Eric; Kirilusha, Anthony; Marinov, Georgi K; Williams, Brian A; Trout, Diane; Amrhein, Henry; Fisher-Aylor, Katherine; Antoshechkin, Igor; DeSalvo, Gilberto; See, Lei-Hoon; Fastuca, Meagan; Drenkow, Jorg; Zaleski, Chris; Dobin, Alex; Prieto, Pablo; Lagarde, Julien; Bussotti, Giovanni; Tanzer, Andrea; Denas, Olgert; Li, Kanwei; Bender, M A; Zhang, Miaohua; Byron, Rachel; Groudine, Mark T; McCleary, David; Pham, Long; Ye, Zhen; Kuan, Samantha; Edsall, Lee; Wu, Yi-Chieh; Rasmussen, Matthew D; Bansal, Mukul S; Kellis, Manolis; Keller, Cheryl A; Morrissey, Christapher S; Mishra, Tejaswini; Jain, Deepti; Dogan, Nergiz; Harris, Robert S; Cayting, Philip; Kawli, Trupti; Boyle, Alan P; Euskirchen, Ghia; Kundaje, Anshul; Lin, Shin; Lin, Yiing; Jansen, Camden; Malladi, Venkat S; Cline, Melissa S; Erickson, Drew T; Kirkup, Vanessa M; Learned, Katrina; Sloan, Cricket A; Rosenbloom, Kate R; Lacerda de Sousa, Beatriz; Beal, Kathryn; Pignatelli, Miguel; Flicek, Paul; Lian, Jin; Kahveci, Tamer; Lee, Dongwon; Kent, W James; Ramalho Santos, Miguel; Herrero, Javier; Notredame, Cedric; Johnson, Audra; Vong, Shinny; Lee, Kristen; Bates, Daniel; Neri, Fidencio; Diegel, Morgan; Canfield, Theresa; Sabo, Peter J; Wilken, Matthew S; Reh, Thomas A; Giste, Erika; Shafer, Anthony; Kutyavin, Tanya; Haugen, Eric; Dunn, Douglas; Reynolds, Alex P; Neph, Shane; Humbert, Richard; Hansen, R Scott; De Bruijn, Marella; Selleri, Licia; Rudensky, Alexander; Josefowicz, Steven; Samstein, Robert; Eichler, Evan E; Orkin, Stuart H; Levasseur, Dana; Papayannopoulou, Thalia; Chang, Kai-Hsin; Skoultchi, Arthur; Gosh, Srikanta; Disteche, Christine; Treuting, Piper; Wang, Yanli; Weiss, Mitchell J; Blobel, Gerd A; Cao, Xiaoyi; Zhong, Sheng; Wang, Ting; Good, Peter J; Lowdon, Rebecca F; Adams, Leslie B; Zhou, Xiao-Qiao; Pazin, Michael J; Feingold, Elise A; Wold, Barbara; Taylor, James; Mortazavi, Ali; Weissman, Sherman M; Stamatoyannopoulos, John A; Snyder, Michael P; Guigo, Roderic; Gingeras, Thomas R; Gilbert, David M; Hardison, Ross C; Beer, Michael A; Ren, Bing

    2014-11-20

    The laboratory mouse shares the majority of its protein-coding genes with humans, making it the premier model organism in biomedical research, yet the two mammals differ in significant ways. To gain greater insights into both shared and species-specific transcriptional and cellular regulatory programs in the mouse, the Mouse ENCODE Consortium has mapped transcription, DNase I hypersensitivity, transcription factor binding, chromatin modifications and replication domains throughout the mouse genome in diverse cell and tissue types. By comparing with the human genome, we not only confirm substantial conservation in the newly annotated potential functional sequences, but also find a large degree of divergence of sequences involved in transcriptional regulation, chromatin state and higher order chromatin organization. Our results illuminate the wide range of evolutionary forces acting on genes and their regulatory regions, and provide a general resource for research into mammalian biology and mechanisms of human diseases.

  8. In vitro differentiation of mouse embryonic stem cells into functional ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Jane

    2011-08-22

    treated mouse embryonic fibroblast (MEF) feeder cells in knockout ..... 501. Liu H, Ye Z, Kim Y, Sharkis S, Jang YY (2010). Generation of endoderm-derived human induced pluripotent stem cells from primary hepatocytes.

  9. Vitrification of mouse MII oocytes: Developmental competency using paclitaxel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farzaneh Fesahat

    2016-12-01

    Conclusion: A high concentration of paclitaxel, an anticancer drug, interrupted the mouse oocyte competency when supplemented to vitrification media. Consequently, the optimal concentration of this cytoskeleton stabilizer may improve the post-thawed developmental abilities of oocytes.

  10. Human · mouse genome analysis and radiation biology. Proceedings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hori, Tada-aki

    1994-03-01

    This issue is the collection of the papers presented at the 25th NIRS symposium on Human, Mouse Genome Analysis and Radiation Biology. The 14 of the presented papers are indexed individually. (J.P.N.)

  11. The p53-Deficient Mouse as a Breast Cancer Model

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Donehower, Laurence

    1998-01-01

    .... In order to better understand the role of p53 mutation and loss in breast cancer progression, we have developed a mouse model which is genetically programmed to develop mammary cancer in the presence and absence of p53...

  12. The p53-Deficient Mouse as a Breast Cancer Model

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Donehower, Lawrence

    1997-01-01

    .... In order to better understand the role of p53 mutation and loss in breast cancer progression, we have developed a mouse model which is genetically programmed to develop mammary cancer in the presence and absence of p53...

  13. A data-capture tool for mouse pathology phenotyping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sundberg, B A; Schofield, P N; Gruenberger, M; Sundberg, J P

    2009-11-01

    The Mouse Disease Information System is a free Microsoft Access database (http://research.jax.org/faculty/sundberg/index.html) designed by veterinary pathologists to aid veterinary pathologists in data acquisition, analysis, and coordination of tissue-sample archives. Linking the system to the Mouse Anatomy and Mouse Pathology Ontologies provides controlled vocabulary (and spelling) for organ, tissue, and diagnosis. Severity scores provide a quantitative assessment of all lesions to enable quantitative trait locus analysis for large-scale studies. Individual diagnoses can be verified for their definition by online linkage to Pathbase.net. Histologic images can be accessed from Pathbase by using the Mouse Pathology Ontology directly for comparison with slides being viewed at the time of data entry and providing the user with a reference and a "virtual second opinion."

  14. Characteristics of the mouse genomic histamine H1 receptor gene

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Inoue, Isao; Taniuchi, Ichiro; Kitamura, Daisuke [Kyushu Univ., Fukuoka (Japan)] [and others

    1996-08-15

    We report here the molecular cloning of a mouse histamine H1 receptor gene. The protein deduced from the nucleotide sequence is composed of 488 amino acid residues with characteristic properties of GTP binding protein-coupled receptors. Our results suggest that the mouse histamine H1 receptor gene is a single locus, and no related sequences were detected. Interspecific backcross analysis indicated that the mouse histamine H1 receptor gene (Hrh1) is located in the central region of mouse Chromosome 6 linked to microphthalmia (Mitfmi), ras-related fibrosarcoma oncogene 1 (Raf1), and ret proto-oncogene (Ret) in a region of homology with human chromosome 3p. 12 refs., 3 figs.

  15. An Atlas of Combinatorial Transcriptional Regulation in Mouse and Man

    KAUST Repository

    Ravasi, Timothy

    2010-03-01

    Combinatorial interactions among transcription factors are critical to directing tissue-specific gene expression. To build a global atlas of these combinations, we have screened for physical interactions among the majority of human and mouse DNA-binding transcription factors (TFs). The complete networks contain 762 human and 877 mouse interactions. Analysis of the networks reveals that highly connected TFs are broadly expressed across tissues, and that roughly half of the measured interactions are conserved between mouse and human. The data highlight the importance of TF combinations for determining cell fate, and they lead to the identification of a SMAD3/FLI1 complex expressed during development of immunity. The availability of large TF combinatorial networks in both human and mouse will provide many opportunities to study gene regulation, tissue differentiation, and mammalian evolution.

  16. End Sequencing and Finger Printing of Human & Mouse BAC Libraries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fraser, C

    2005-09-27

    This project provided for continued end sequencing of existing and new BAC libraries constructed to support human sequencing as well as to initiate BAC end sequencing from the mouse BAC libraries constructed to support mouse sequencing. The clones, the sequences, and the fingerprints are now an available resource for the community at large. Research and development of new metaodologies for BAC end sequencing have reduced costs and increase throughput.

  17. A cytocidal tissue kallikrein isolated from mouse submandibular glands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murakami, K; Ikigai, H; Nagumo, N; Tomita, M; Shimamura, T

    1989-11-06

    A cytocidal factor against mouse thymocytes was purified from the submandibular glands of female BALB/c mice using Sephadex G-50 gel filtration chromatography and reverse-phase HPLC. SDS-PAGE and amino acid sequence analysis revealed that the cytocidal factor was mouse glandular kallikrein (mGK)-6. mGK-6 showed an optimal enzyme activity at pH 10 and a cytocidal activity against thymocytes in a dose-dependent manner.

  18. A cytotoxic serine proteinase isolated from mouse submandibular gland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimamura, T; Nagumo, N; Ikigai, H; Murakami, K; Okubo, S; Toda, M; Ohnishi, R; Tomita, M

    1989-08-01

    We have isolated a novel cytotoxic factor from the submandibular glands of male BALB/c mice by Sephadex G-50 gel filtration chromatography and reverse-phase HPLC. The cytotoxic factor is a serine proteinase, which belongs to the mouse glandular kallikrein (mGK) family, with an Mr of approximately 27,000. The purified serine proteinase showed cytotoxic activity against mouse thymocytes in a dose-dependent manner, and a serine proteinase inhibitor, diisopropyl fluorophosphate, blocked its cytotoxic activity.

  19. Surface landmark quantification of embryonic mouse craniofacial morphogenesis

    OpenAIRE

    Percival, Christopher J; Green, Rebecca; Marcucio, Ralph; Hallgrímsson, Benedikt

    2014-01-01

    Background Morphometric quantification of subtle craniofacial variation in studies of experimentally modified embryonic mice has proved valuable in determining the effects of developmental perturbations on craniofacial morphogenesis. The direct comparison of landmark coordinate data from embryos of many different mouse strains and mouse models can advance our understanding of the bases for craniofacial variation. We propose a standard set of craniofacial surface landmarks, for use with embryo...

  20. Rapid genetic algorithm optimization of a mouse computational model: Benefits for anthropomorphization of neonatal mouse cardiomyocytes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Corina Teodora Bot

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available While the mouse presents an invaluable experimental model organism in biology, its usefulness in cardiac arrhythmia research is limited in some aspects due to major electrophysiological differences between murine and human action potentials (APs. As previously described, these species-specific traits can be partly overcome by application of a cell-type transforming clamp (CTC to anthropomorphize the murine cardiac AP. CTC is a hybrid experimental-computational dynamic clamp technique, in which a computationally calculated time-dependent current is inserted into a cell in real time, to compensate for the differences between sarcolemmal currents of that cell (e.g., murine and the desired species (e.g., human. For effective CTC performance, mismatch between the measured cell and a mathematical model used to mimic the measured AP must be minimal. We have developed a genetic algorithm (GA approach that rapidly tunes a mathematical model to reproduce the AP of the murine cardiac myocyte under study. Compared to a prior implementation that used a template-based model selection approach, we show that GA optimization to a cell-specific model results in a much better recapitulation of the desired AP morphology with CTC. This improvement was more pronounced when anthropomorphizing neonatal mouse cardiomyocytes to human-like APs than to guinea pig APs. CTC may be useful for a wide range of applications, from screening effects of pharmaceutical compounds on ion channel activity, to exploring variations in the mouse or human genome. Rapid GA optimization of a cell-specific mathematical model improves CTC performance and may therefore expand the applicability and usage of the CTC technique.

  1. Magnolol inhibits the inflammatory response in mouse mammary epithelial cells and a mouse mastitis model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Wang; Dejie, Liang; Xiaojing, Song; Tiancheng, Wang; Yongguo, Cao; Zhengtao, Yang; Naisheng, Zhang

    2015-02-01

    Mastitis comprises an inflammation of the mammary gland, which is almost always linked with bacterial infection. The treatment of mastitis concerns antimicrobial substances, but not very successful. On the other hand, anti-inflammatory therapy with Chinese traditional medicine becomes an effective way for treating mastitis. Magnolol is a polyphenolic binaphthalene compound extracted from the stem bark of Magnolia sp., which has been shown to exert a potential for anti-inflammatory activity. The purpose of this study was to investigate the protective effects of magnolol on inflammation in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced mastitis mouse model in vivo and the mechanism of this protective effects in LPS-stimulated mouse mammary epithelial cells (MMECs) in vitro. The damage of tissues was determined by histopathology and myeloperoxidase (MPO) assay. The expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines was determined by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-κB), inhibitory kappa B (IκBα) protein, p38, extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK), c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK), and Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) were determined by Western blot. The results showed that magnolol significantly inhibit the LPS-induced TNF-α, IL-6, and IL-1β production both in vivo and vitro. Magnolol declined the phosphorylation of IκBα, p65, p38, ERK, and JNK in LPS-stimulated MMECs. Furthermore, magnolol inhibited the expression of TLR4 in LPS-stimulated MMECs. In vivo study, it was also observed that magnolol attenuated the damage of mastitis tissues in the mouse models. These findings demonstrated that magnolol attenuate LPS-stimulated inflammatory response by suppressing TLR4/NF-κB/mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) signaling system. Thereby, magnolol may be a therapeutic agent against mastitis.

  2. Novel Transgenic Mouse Model of Polycystic Kidney Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kito, Yusuke; Saigo, Chiemi; Takeuchi, Tamotsu

    2017-09-01

    Transmembrane protein 207 (TMEM207) is characterized as an important molecule for invasiveness of gastric signet-ring cell carcinoma cells. To clarify the pathobiological effects of TMEM207, we generated 13 transgenic mouse strains, designated C57BL/6-transgenic (Tg) (ITF-TMEM207), where the mouse Tmem207 is ectopically expressed under the proximal promoter of the murine intestinal trefoil factor gene. A C57BL/6-Tg (ITF-TMEM207) mouse strain unexpectedly exhibited a high incidence of spontaneous kidney cysts with histopathological features resembling human polycystic kidney disease, which were found in approximately all mice within 1 year. TMEM207 immunoreactivity was found in noncystic kidney tubules and in renal cysts of the transgenic mice. The ITF-TMEM207 construct was inserted into Mitf at chromosome 6. Cystic kidney was not observed in other C57BL/6-Tg (ITF-TMEM207) transgenic mouse strains. Although several genetically manipulated animal models exist, this mouse strain harboring a genetic mutation in Mitf and overexpression of Tmem207 protein was not reported as a model of polycystic kidney disease until now. This study demonstrates that the C57BL/6-Tg (ITF-TMEM207) mouse may be a suitable model for understanding human polycystic kidney disease. Copyright © 2017 American Society for Investigative Pathology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Mouse models to study dengue virus immunology and pathogenesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raphaël M. Zellweger

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The development of a compelling murine model of dengue virus (DENV infection has been challenging, because dengue virus clinical isolates do not readily replicate or cause pathology in immunocompetent mice. However, research using immunocompromised mice and/or mouse-adapted viruses allows to investigate questions that may be impossible to address in human studies. In this review, we discuss the potential strengths and limitations of existing mouse models of dengue disease. Human studies are descriptive by nature; moreover, the strain, time, and sequence of infection are often unknown. In contrast, in mice, the conditions of infection are well defined and a large number of experimental parameters can be varied at will. Therefore, mouse models offer an opportunity to experimentally test hypotheses that are based on epidemiological observations. In particular, gain-of-function or loss-of-function models can be established to assess how different components of the immune system (either alone or in combination contribute to protection or pathogenesis during secondary infections or after vaccination. In addition, mouse models have been used for pre-clinical testing of antiviral drug or for vaccine development studies. Conclusions based on mouse experiments must be extrapolated to DENV infection in humans with caution due to the inherent limitations of animal models. However, research in mouse models is a useful complement to in vitro and epidemiological data, and may delineate new areas that deserve attention during future human studies.

  4. Solute diffusion through stripped mouse duodenum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takeuchi, T; Ham, M; Mizumori, M; Guth, P H; Engel, E; Kaunitz, J D; Akiba, Y

    2007-12-01

    We measured villous cell intracellular pH (pH(i)) and solute diffusion between the bathing media and the epithelial cells in stripped, chambered mouse duodenum. Apical perfusion of a high CO2 solution rapidly acidified the upper villous cells with recovery after its removal. Apical zoniporide (ZP) enhanced CO(2)-induced acidification. Serosal ZP, dimethylamiloride (DMA) or stilbene anion transport inhibitors failed to alter CO(2)-induced acidification, whereas serosal high CO(2) buffer acidified the upper villous cells. Serosal 5-hydroxytryptamine rapidly acidified the upper villous cells. All serosally-perfused fluorescent compounds stained the crypt area, but not the villi or villous cells. In contrast, intravenous carboxyfluorescein quickly diffused into the interstitial space of the entire mucosa, and mucosally perfused fluorescent compound rapidly penetrated the epithelial cell layer. In muscle-stripped duodenum mounted in a small-aperture perfusion chamber, serosal solutes can readily diffuse only to the crypt cell region, whereas access to the villous epithelial cells is diffusion-limited. In contrast, rapid villous cell responses to serosally applied solutes are best explained by neural reflexes. Limited viability of the villous cells and impaired structural stability of the villi further limit long-term, villous cell functional studies of mucosal preparations mounted in small aperture diffusion chambers.

  5. Dissection and Culture of Mouse Embryonic Kidney.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aresh, Bejan; Peuckert, Christiane

    2017-05-17

    The goal of this protocol is to describe a method for the dissection, isolation, and culture of mouse metanephric rudiments. During mammalian kidney development, the two progenitor tissues, the ureteric bud and the metanephric mesenchyme, communicate and reciprocally induce cellular mechanisms to eventually form the collecting system and the nephrons of the kidney. As mammalian embryos grow intrauterine and therefore are inaccessible to the observer, an organ culture has been developed. With this method, it is possible to study epithelial-mesenchymal interactions and cellular behavior during kidney organogenesis. Furthermore, the origin of congenital kidney and urogenital tract malformations can be investigated. After careful dissection, the metanephric rudiments are transferred onto a filter that floats on culture medium and can be kept in a cell culture incubator for several days. However, one must be aware that the conditions are artificial and could influence the metabolism in the tissue. Also, the penetration of test substances could be limited due to the extracellular matrix and basal membrane present in the explant. One main advantage of organ culture is that the experimenter can gain direct access to the organ. This technology is cheap, simple, and allows a large number of modifications, such as the addition of biologically active substances, the study of genetic variants, and the application of advanced imaging techniques.

  6. Late effects of irradiation in mouse jejunum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reynaud, A.; Travis, E.L.

    1984-01-01

    The response of mouse jejunum at intervals up to 1 year after single 'priming' doses of X-rays has been assessed by crypt survival after retreatment with single doses of X-rays and morphometric analysis of changes in the intestinal submucosa. The crypt dose-survival curves in mice re-irradiated at 2, 6, or 12 months after priming irradiation were displaced to higher doses in pre-treated than in non-pre-treated mice and were characterized by higher D 0 values. Misonidazole given before the test exposure reversed this effect so that the dose survival curve for crypts in pre-treated mice were superimposed on that for mice not previously irradiated, suggesting that the increase in isoeffect dose and the change in the D 0 in previously exposed mice was due to crypt hypoxia. Quantifications of the area of the submucosa showed that its area was increased at all three times after the priming doses and was a result of collagen deposition and oedema. Thus, the hypoxia in the crypts was probably secondary to these changes. Deaths began at 6-7 months after priming irradiation and were due to intestinal obstruction and stenosis. Thus, as in other tissues, two phases of injury can be assayed in the intestine of experimental animals. (author)

  7. Induced thermal resistance in the mouse ear

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Law, M.P.; Coultas, P.G.; Field, S.B.

    1979-01-01

    The mouse ear (pinna) was used to investigate the effect of two hyperthermic treatments. Heating was by immersion in hot water at 43.5 0 C. A single treatment of about 50 minutes was required to cause necrosis in 50% of the ears treated. When heat treatment was given in two equal fractions the total heating time had to be increased if the interval between fractions was greater than four hours. By 24 hours a total treatment of about 100 minutes was required, indicating almost complete recovery from the first heating. Priming treatments at 43.5 0 C induced thermal resistance to a second heat treatment at 43.5 0 C. Maximum resistance was observed one day after a 20 minute priming and two days after a 40 minute priming, when the heating time had to be increased to 120 minutes, an increase by a factor of 2.4. Shorter priming treatments induced less resistance, the minimum heating time to produce an effect being two minutes. In all cases the effect decreased during the next four to five days. These results indicate that the reduced response of tissues to fractionated hyperthermia is due both to the repair of sublethal heat damage and induction of thermal resistance. (author)

  8. Plantarflexion Contracture in the mdx Mouse

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garlich, Michael W.; Baltgalvis, Kristen A.; Call, Jarrod A.; Dorsey, Lisa L.; Lowe, Dawn A.

    2012-01-01

    Objective Contractures are a major clinical issue for patients with muscular dystrophies. However, it is unknown whether contractures are present in the widely used mdx mouse model of Duchenne muscular dystrophy. Therefore, the objectives of this study were to develop methods to measure muscle contractures in mice, to determine whether plantarflexion contractures are present in mdx mice, and to analyze the composition of the major muscles involved. Design Hindlimbs of eight wild type and six mdx mice were assessed every 2 wks during the course of a 12-wk study. Assessments included range of motion and in vivo torques about the ankle. At the end of the study, mice were euthanized, and muscles were analyzed for composition. Results The mdx mice had ~10 degrees less dorsiflexion, increased passive torque moving the ankle into dorsiflexion, and an increased passive-to-active torque ratio relative to wild type mice. Gastrocnemius muscle composition alterations included increased wet mass, decreased protein content, and increased collagen. Conclusions The results indicate that mdx mice have plantarflexion contractures similar to those seen in children with Duchenne muscular dystrophy. In future studies, these measures can be used to assess strategies to slow the progression of contractures that occur with muscular dystrophies. PMID:21403594

  9. Zinc distribution in mouse brain by SRXRF

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Yuanxun; Zhang Yongping; Li Delu; Zhang Guilin; Long Jiangang; Shen Hui; Huang Yuying; He Wei

    2006-01-01

    In order to explore the interaction between the expression of ZnT3 (Zinc Transporter 3) mRNA (Messenger Ribonucleic Acid) and the concentration of elemental zinc in mouse brain, zinc distribution in brain was determined by synchrotron radiation X-ray fluorescence (SRXRF) technique and a ZnT3 mRNA expression in tissue was examined by the reverse-transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) method. The results show that the zinc concentration is not evenly distributed in brain slices. Its concentrations in cerebral cortex and hippocampus are nearly 5-10 times higher than those in other positions. A corresponding relation is that ZnT3 mRNA in cerebral cortex, hippocampus and testis has higher abundant degree, but it is not examined out in other tissues. Furthermore, the results promote that ZnT3 facilitates the accumulation of zinc in synaptic vesicles and may play an important role in structuring of vesicular zinc pool. (author)

  10. Mouse Models of Rare Craniofacial Disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Achilleos, Annita; Trainor, Paul A

    2015-01-01

    A rare disease is defined as a condition that affects less than 1 in 2000 individuals. Currently more than 7000 rare diseases have been documented, and most are thought to be of genetic origin. Rare diseases primarily affect children, and congenital craniofacial syndromes and disorders constitute a significant proportion of rare diseases, with over 700 having been described to date. Modeling craniofacial disorders in animal models has been instrumental in uncovering the etiology and pathogenesis of numerous conditions and in some cases has even led to potential therapeutic avenues for their prevention. In this chapter, we focus primarily on two general classes of rare disorders, ribosomopathies and ciliopathies, and the surprising finding that the disruption of fundamental, global processes can result in tissue-specific craniofacial defects. In addition, we discuss recent advances in understanding the pathogenesis of an extremely rare and specific craniofacial condition known as syngnathia, based on the first mouse models for this condition. Approximately 1% of all babies are born with a minor or major developmental anomaly, and individuals suffering from rare diseases deserve the same quality of treatment and care and attention to their disease as other patients. © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Dissociated cultures of newborn mouse brain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wiesmann, U.N.; Hofmann, K.; Burkhart, T.; Herschkowitz, N.

    1975-01-01

    The metabolism of 35 SO 4 -sulfated lipids and mucopolysaccharides was studied in dissociated brain cell cultures from newborn albino mouse brains. The cultures were maintained under an atmosphere of 40% O 2 and 5% CO 2 in apparent good health up to 30 days. Early morphological examination of the dissociated cells demonstrated an initial partial reaggregation of the cells, which later settled and became confluent bilayered cultures. Cell proliferation measured by DNA and protein determination, morphological differentiation and biochemical differentiation took place in the dissociated brain cell cultures analogous in some respects to the in vivo situation. A timed increase in the synthesis of a myelin precursor, cerebroside 35 SO 4 , was observed after 6 to 8 days in culture (DIC). A peak of cerebroside sulfate was evident at 17 DIC. No stable sulfatide was observed at any time. Protein-bound macromolecular 35 SO 4 -MPS was synthetized and secreted from the cells into the culture medium. Maximal synthesis and secretion occurred at 8 DIC. This culture system proves to be a useful model for studying some aspects of differentiation of brain cells under external conditions. (author)

  12. Mouse estrous cycle identification tool and images.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shannon L Byers

    Full Text Available The efficiency of producing timed pregnant or pseudopregnant mice can be increased by identifying those in proestrus or estrus. Visual observation of the vagina is the quickest method, requires no special equipment, and is best used when only proestrus or estrus stages need to be identified. Strain to strain differences, especially in coat color can make it difficult to determine the stage of the estrous cycle accurately by visual observation. Presented here are a series of images of the vaginal opening at each stage of the estrous cycle for 3 mouse strains of different coat colors: black (C57BL/6J, agouti (CByB6F1/J and albino (BALB/cByJ. When all 4 stages (proestrus, estrus, metestrus, and diestrus need to be identified, vaginal cytology is regarded as the most accurate method. An identification tool is presented to aid the user in determining the stage of estrous when using vaginal cytology. These images and descriptions are an excellent resource for learning how to determine the stage of the estrous cycle by visual observation or vaginal cytology.

  13. Transgenic Mouse Model of Chronic Beryllium Disease

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gordon, Terry

    2009-05-26

    Animal models provide powerful tools for dissecting dose-response relationships and pathogenic mechanisms and for testing new treatment paradigms. Mechanistic research on beryllium exposure-disease relationships is severely limited by a general inability to develop a sufficient chronic beryllium disease animal model. Discovery of the Human Leukocyte Antigen (HLA) - DPB1Glu69 genetic susceptibility component of chronic beryllium disease permitted the addition of this human beryllium antigen presentation molecule to an animal genome which may permit development of a better animal model for chronic beryllium disease. Using FVB/N inbred mice, Drs. Rubin and Zhu, successfully produced three strains of HLA-DPB1 Glu 69 transgenic mice. Each mouse strain contains a haplotype of the HLA-DPB1 Glu 69 gene that confers a different magnitude of odds ratio (OR) of risk for chronic beryllium disease: HLA-DPB1*0401 (OR = 0.2), HLA-DPB1*0201 (OR = 15), HLA-DPB1*1701 (OR = 240). In addition, Drs. Rubin and Zhu developed transgenic mice with the human CD4 gene to permit better transmission of signals between T cells and antigen presenting cells. This project has maintained the colonies of these transgenic mice and tested the functionality of the human transgenes.

  14. Longitudinal analysis of mouse SDOCT volumes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antony, Bhavna J.; Carass, Aaron; Lang, Andrew; Kim, Byung-Jin; Zack, Donald J.; Prince, Jerry L.

    2017-03-01

    Spectral-domain optical coherence tomography (SDOCT), in addition to its routine clinical use in the diagnosis of ocular diseases, has begun to fund increasing use in animal studies. Animal models are frequently used to study disease mechanisms as well as to test drug efficacy. In particular, SDOCT provides the ability to study animals longitudinally and non-invasively over long periods of time. However, the lack of anatomical landmarks makes the longitudinal scan acquisition prone to inconsistencies in orientation. Here, we propose a method for the automated registration of mouse SDOCT volumes. The method begins by accurately segmenting the blood vessels and the optic nerve head region in the scans using a pixel classification approach. The segmented vessel maps from follow-up scans were registered using an iterative closest point (ICP) algorithm to the baseline scan to allow for the accurate longitudinal tracking of thickness changes. Eighteen SDOCT volumes from a light damage model study were used to train a random forest utilized in the pixel classification step. The area under the curve (AUC) in a leave-one-out study for the retinal blood vessels and the optic nerve head (ONH) was found to be 0.93 and 0.98, respectively. The complete proposed framework, the retinal vasculature segmentation and the ICP registration, was applied to a secondary set of scans obtained from a light damage model. A qualitative assessment of the registration showed no registration failures.

  15. Multistage chemical carcinogenesis in mouse skin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Slaga, T.J.; Fischer, S.M.; Weeks, C.E.; Klein-Szanto, A.J.P.

    1979-01-01

    Skin tumors in mice can be induced by the sequential application of a subthreshold dose of a carcinogen (initiation phase) followed by repetitive treatment with a noncarcinogenic tumor promoter. The initiation phase requires only a single application of either a direct acting carcinogen or a procarcinogen which has to be metabolized before being active and is essentially an irreversible step which probably involves a somatic cell mutation. There is a good correlation between the skin tumor initiating activites of several polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) and their ability to bind covalently to epidermal DNA. Laboratory results suggest that bay region diol-epoxides are the ultimate carcinogenic form of PAH carcinogens. Potent inhibitors and stimulators of PAH tumor initiation appear to affect the level of the PAH diol-epoxide reacting with specific DNA bases. Reecent data suggests that the tumor promotion stage involves at least three important steps: (1) the induction of embryonic looking cells (dark cells) in adult epidermis; (2) an increased production of epidermal prostaglandins and polyamines; (3) sustained proliferation of dark cells. Retinoic acid specifically inhibits step two whereas the anti-inflammatory steriod fluocinolone acetonide is a potent inhibitor of steps one and three. The mechanism and the importance of a specific sequence for each step in chemical carcinogenesis in mouse skin are detailed.

  16. Computer simulations of the mouse spermatogenic cycle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Debjit Ray

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The spermatogenic cycle describes the periodic development of germ cells in the testicular tissue. The temporal–spatial dynamics of the cycle highlight the unique, complex, and interdependent interaction between germ and somatic cells, and are the key to continual sperm production. Although understanding the spermatogenic cycle has important clinical relevance for male fertility and contraception, there are a number of experimental obstacles. For example, the lengthy process cannot be visualized through dynamic imaging, and the precise action of germ cells that leads to the emergence of testicular morphology remains uncharacterized. Here, we report an agent-based model that simulates the mouse spermatogenic cycle on a cross-section of the seminiferous tubule over a time scale of hours to years, while considering feedback regulation, mitotic and meiotic division, differentiation, apoptosis, and movement. The computer model is able to elaborate the germ cell dynamics in a time-lapse movie format, allowing us to trace individual cells as they change state and location. More importantly, the model provides mechanistic understanding of the fundamentals of male fertility, namely how testicular morphology and sperm production are achieved. By manipulating cellular behaviors either individually or collectively in silico, the model predicts causal events for the altered arrangement of germ cells upon genetic or environmental perturbations. This in silico platform can serve as an interactive tool to perform long-term simulation and to identify optimal approaches for infertility treatment and contraceptive development.

  17. Mouse lung adhesion assay for Bordetella pertussis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burns, K.A.; Freer, J.H.

    1982-01-01

    The ability of Bordetella pertussis to adhere to cell surfaces has been demonstrated by adhesion to tissue culture cells and adhesion to chicken, hamster or rabbit trachea in organ culture. In this report a mouse lung assay for adhesion is described and the results obtained using two virulent strains of B. pertussis and their avirulent counterparts. These were a C modulation of one of the original virulent strains and a phase IV variant of the other virulent strain. Organisms were radiolabelled by adding 1 μCi (37 K Bq) of [ 14 C]glutamic acid per 10 ml of culture medium before inoculation and incubation for 5 days. The lungs were washed by perfusion in situ with at least two volumes (1 ml) of sterile 1% (w/v) casamino acids. The percentage of the inoculated organisms retained in the lungs was determined, after removal of the lungs, by one of the following two methods: viable count or radioactive count. Results for both methods were expressed as the percentage of the inoculum retained in the lungs plus or minus one standard deviation. (Auth.)

  18. Sperm Proteome Maturation in the Mouse Epididymis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skerget, Sheri; Rosenow, Matthew A; Petritis, Konstantinos; Karr, Timothy L

    2015-01-01

    In mammals, transit through the epididymis, which involves the acquisition, loss and modification of proteins, is required to confer motility and fertilization competency to sperm. The overall dynamics of maturation is poorly understood, and a systems level understanding of the complex maturation process will provide valuable new information about changes occurring during epididymal transport. We report the proteomes of sperm collected from the caput, corpus and cauda segments of the mouse epididymis, identifying 1536, 1720 and 1234 proteins respectively. This study identified 765 proteins that are present in sperm obtained from all three segments. We identified 1766 proteins that are potentially added (732) or removed (1034) from sperm during epididymal transit. Phenotypic analyses of the caput, corpus and cauda sperm proteomes identified 60 proteins that have known sperm phenotypes when mutated, or absent from sperm. Our analysis indicates that as much as one-third of proteins with known sperm phenotypes are added to sperm during epididymal transit. GO analyses revealed that cauda sperm are enriched for specific functions including sperm-egg recognition and motility, consistent with the observation that sperm acquire motility and fertilization competency during transit through the epididymis. In addition, GO analyses revealed that the immunity protein profile of sperm changes during sperm maturation. Finally, we identified components of the 26S proteasome, the immunoproteasome, and a proteasome activator in mature sperm.

  19. Microwaving for double indirect immunofluorescence with primary antibodies from the same species and for staining of mouse tissues with mouse monoclonal antibodies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tornehave, D.; Hougaard, D.M.; Larsson, L.I.

    2000-01-01

    indirect immunofluorescence staining with antibodies raised in the same species. Moreover, microwaving also inhibits reactions with endogenous immunoglobulins present in extracellular compartments. This substantially reduces background in indirect immunostaining of mouse tissues with mouse monoclonal...

  20. A minimal mechanical device displaying bona fide stochastic resonance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Viridi, Sparisoma; Grete, Patrick; Markus, Mario

    2008-01-01

    A sphere in a shaken box with two connected compartments was monitored experimentally. The peaks of the residence time distribution appear at integer multiples of the driving period. The area below the first peak, the signal-to-noise ratio and the output signal power have maxima at a common value of the driving period T d . These maxima occur at the minimum of T K /T d (T K : 'Kramer's time')

  1. Teologia (fides – nauka (ratio: jaka teologia i jaka nauka?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrzej Bronk

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available I am interested in the methodological and institutional status of (Christian theology: what does justify its place in the number of academic disciplines? Is it only the community of inquirers (Ch. Peirce, that conventionally recognizes which type of knowledge and what kind of method is scientific? If so, then what does make the theologicality and scientificality of Christian theology? The theological work is conducted at least in two contexts: in the formation of the doctrine and in the research activity. When a theologian teaches, he does this in the name of the catholic Church which formally equips him with such a mission (venia legendi. It is important to distinguish between an idealized theology as an academic discipline and the multiplicity of different subjects and disciplines actually present in particular theological faculties. Clearly, any answer whether theology is epistéme (scientia depends on the meaning of the words theology and science. One can match their senses so that the proposition: „theology is a science” will be analytically true or false. The epistemic and methodological peculiarity of theology manifests itself mostly in the way of justifying propositions (dogma with premisses derived from the Christian Revelation. Thus in arguing for the presence of theology in the academic curriculum one has to take into account an aporia: the consequence of a strong accent on the methodological autonomy of theology would mean that its theories and propositions could be evaluated only „from inside” by insiders. But this again raises the question of objectivity and intersubjectivity of theological knowledge and of the presence of theology in the communitas scientiarum.

  2. A bona fide baby boom for the Baltics / Aleksei Gunter

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Gunter, Aleksei, 1979-

    2004-01-01

    Seoses jaanuaris alanud vanemahüvitise programmiga ennustatakse sel aastal sündide arvu tõusu. Rahvastikuminister Paul-Eerik Rummo kommentaare. Tabel: Eesti rahvastikuandmed aprill 2003 - aprill 2004

  3. 29 CFR 1625.8 - Bona fide seniority systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... equitable allocation of available employment opportunities and prerogatives among younger and older workers. (b) Adoption of a purported seniority system which gives those with longer service lesser rights, and... upon the circumstances, be a “subterfuge to evade the purposes” of the Act. (c) Unless the essential...

  4. Peaceful Uses Bona Fides: Criteria for Evaluation and Case Studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ajemian, Chris K.; Hazel, Mike; Kessler, Carol E.; Mathews, Carrie E.; Morris, Fred A.; Seward, Amy M.; Peterson, Danielle J.; Smith, Brian W.

    2007-06-06

    This study applies a set of indicators to assess the peaceful nature of a state’s nuclear program. Evaluation of a country’s nuclear program relative to these indicators can help the international community to take appropriate actions to ensure that the growth of the global nuclear energy industry proceeds peacefully and to minimize nuclear proliferation risks.

  5. Analysis of internet usage by University of Benin Students | Fidelis ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study investigated the use of the internet amongst students of the faculty of physical and life sciences, University of Benin, Benin-City, Nigeria. The survey technique was adopted for this study since a large number of people were involved. A total of 400 questionnaires were distributed. A total of 371 were returned, given ...

  6. Mouse Genome Informatics (MGI) Resource: Genetic, Genomic, and Biological Knowledgebase for the Laboratory Mouse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eppig, Janan T

    2017-07-01

    The Mouse Genome Informatics (MGI) Resource supports basic, translational, and computational research by providing high-quality, integrated data on the genetics, genomics, and biology of the laboratory mouse. MGI serves a strategic role for the scientific community in facilitating biomedical, experimental, and computational studies investigating the genetics and processes of diseases and enabling the development and testing of new disease models and therapeutic interventions. This review describes the nexus of the body of growing genetic and biological data and the advances in computer technology in the late 1980s, including the World Wide Web, that together launched the beginnings of MGI. MGI develops and maintains a gold-standard resource that reflects the current state of knowledge, provides semantic and contextual data integration that fosters hypothesis testing, continually develops new and improved tools for searching and analysis, and partners with the scientific community to assure research data needs are met. Here we describe one slice of MGI relating to the development of community-wide large-scale mutagenesis and phenotyping projects and introduce ways to access and use these MGI data. References and links to additional MGI aspects are provided. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press.

  7. Transgenic mouse offspring generated by ROSI

    Science.gov (United States)

    MOREIRA, Pedro; PÉREZ-CEREZALES, Serafín; LAGUNA, Ricardo; FERNÁNDEZ-GONZALEZ, Raúl; SANJUANBENITO, Belén Pintado; GUTIÉRREZ-ADÁN, Alfonso

    2015-01-01

    The production of transgenic animals is an important tool for experimental and applied biology. Over the years, many approaches for the production of transgenic animals have been tried, including pronuclear microinjection, sperm-mediated gene transfer, transfection of male germ cells, somatic cell nuclear transfer and the use of lentiviral vectors. In the present study, we developed a new transgene delivery approach, and we report for the first time the production of transgenic animals by co-injection of DNA and round spermatid nuclei into non-fertilized mouse oocytes (ROSI). The transgene used was a construct containing the human CMV immediate early promoter and the enhanced GFP gene. With this procedure, 12% of the live offspring we obtained carried the transgene. This efficiency of transgenic production by ROSI was similar to the efficiency by pronuclear injection or intracytoplasmic injection of male gamete nuclei (ICSI). However, ICSI required fewer embryos to produce the same number of transgenic animals. The expression of Egfp mRNA and fluorescence of EGFP were found in the majority of the organs examined in 4 transgenic lines generated by ROSI. Tissue morphology and transgene expression were not distinguishable between transgenic animals produced by ROSI or pronuclear injection. Furthermore, our results are of particular interest because they indicate that the transgene incorporation mediated by intracytoplasmic injection of male gamete nuclei is not an exclusive property of mature sperm cell nuclei with compact chromatin but it can be accomplished with immature sperm cell nuclei with decondensed chromatin as well. The present study also provides alternative procedures for transgene delivery into embryos or reconstituted oocytes. PMID:26498042

  8. Characterization of a pneumococcal meningitis mouse model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mook-Kanamori Barry

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background S. pneumoniae is the most common causative agent of meningitis, and is associated with high morbidity and mortality. We aimed to develop an integrated and representative pneumococcal meningitis mouse model resembling the human situation. Methods Adult mice (C57BL/6 were inoculated in the cisterna magna with increasing doses of S. pneumoniae serotype 3 colony forming units (CFU; n = 24, 104, 105, 106 and 107 CFU and survival studies were performed. Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF, brain, blood, spleen, and lungs were collected. Subsequently, mice were inoculated with 104 CFU S. pneumoniae serotype 3 and sacrificed at 6 (n = 6 and 30 hours (n = 6. Outcome parameters were bacterial outgrowth, clinical score, and cytokine and chemokine levels (using Luminex® in CSF, blood and brain. Meningeal inflammation, neutrophil infiltration, parenchymal and subarachnoidal hemorrhages, microglial activation and hippocampal apoptosis were assessed in histopathological studies. Results Lower doses of bacteria delayed onset of illness and time of death (median survival CFU 104, 56 hrs; 105, 38 hrs, 106, 28 hrs. 107, 24 hrs. Bacterial titers in brain and CSF were similar in all mice at the end-stage of disease independent of inoculation dose, though bacterial outgrowth in the systemic compartment was less at lower inoculation doses. At 30 hours after inoculation with 104 CFU of S. pneumoniae, blood levels of KC, IL6, MIP-2 and IFN- γ were elevated, as were brain homogenate levels of KC, MIP-2, IL-6, IL-1β and RANTES. Brain histology uniformly showed meningeal inflammation at 6 hours, and, neutrophil infiltration, microglial activation, and hippocampal apoptosis at 30 hours. Parenchymal and subarachnoidal and cortical hemorrhages were seen in 5 of 6 and 3 of 6 mice at 6 and 30 hours, respectively. Conclusion We have developed and validated a murine model of pneumococcal meningitis.

  9. Transmission of mouse parvovirus by fomites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Compton, Susan R; Paturzo, Frank X; Smith, Peter C; Macy, James D

    2012-11-01

    The goal of the current studies was to determine the risk of transmission of mouse parvovirus (MPV) by caging and husbandry practices. To determine whether MPV can be transmitted during cage changes in a biologic safety cabinet without the use of disinfectants, 14 cages of Swiss Webster mice were inoculated with MPV. Cages containing infected mice were interspersed among 14 cages housing naïve Swiss Webster mice. At 1, 2, and 4 wk after inoculation of the mice, cages were changed across each row. All naïve mice housed adjacent to infected mice remained seronegative. To determine the risk of environmental contamination, nesting pads that were used to sample the room floor during husbandry procedures at 1, 2, 4, and 6 wk after inoculation of the mice were placed in cages with naïve mice. None of the mice exposed to the pads became MPV seropositive. To determine whether components from cages that had housed MPV-infected mice could transmit MPV, Swiss Webster mice were exposed to soiled bedding or used cages, drinking valves, food, cage bottoms, wire bars and filter tops, nesting material, or shelters. With the exception of drinking valves, all mice exposed to other components became MPV seropositive. Fourteen cages that had housed MPV-infected mice were washed but not autoclaved; mice housed in the washed cages did not become MPV seropositive. In conclusion, all cage components can serve as fomites, with the drinking valve being the least risky. Cage washing alone was sufficient to remove or inactivate MPV.

  10. TRPM3 expression in mouse retina.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R Lane Brown

    Full Text Available Transient receptor potential (TRP channels constitute a large family of cation permeable ion channels that serve crucial functions in sensory systems by transducing environmental changes into cellular voltage and calcium signals. Within the retina, two closely related members of the melastatin TRP family, TRPM1 and TRPM3, are highly expressed. TRPM1 has been shown to be required for the depolarizing response to light of ON-bipolar cells, but the role of TRPM3 in the retina is unknown. Immunohistochemical staining of mouse retina with an antibody directed against the C-terminus of TRPM3 labeled the inner plexiform layer (IPL and a subset of cells in the ganglion cell layer. Within the IPL, TRPM3 immunofluorescence was markedly stronger in the OFF sublamina than in the ON sublamina. Electroretinogram recordings showed that the scotopic and photopic a- and b-waves of TRPM3(-/- mice are normal indicating that TRPM3 does not play a major role in visual processing in the outer retina. TRPM3 activity was measured by calcium imaging and patch-clamp recording of immunopurified retinal ganglion cells. Application of the TRPM3 agonist, pregnenolone sulfate (PS, stimulated increases in intracellular calcium in ~40% of cells from wild type and TRPM1(‑/‑ mice, and the PS-stimulated increases in calcium were blocked by co-application of mefenamic acid, a TRPM3 antagonist. No PS-stimulated changes in fluorescence were observed in ganglion cells from TRPM3(-/- mice. Similarly, PS-stimulated currents that could be blocked by mefenamic acid were recorded from wild type retinal ganglion cells but were absent in ganglion cells from TRPM3-/- mice.

  11. Development of a novel mouse constipation model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Chao; Wang, Kai-Yue; Yu, Zhi; Xu, Bin

    2016-03-07

    To establish a novel mouse constipation model. Animals were randomly divided into three groups, and intragastrically administered 0-4 °C saline (ice-cold group) or 15-20 °C saline (saline control group) daily for 14 d, or were left untreated (blank control group). Stools were collected 3-24 h after treatment to record the wet and dry weights and the stool form. Intestinal propulsion experiments were carried out and defecation time was measured for six days continuously after suspending treatments. The expressions of PGP9.5 were detected by immunohistochemistry. Based on the percentage of stool weight changes compared with baseline (before irritation) in 9-14 d, stool weight changes were classified into three levels. Each level shows a different body state, which is state I (no change: plus or minus 5%), state II (slightly decreased: 5%-15%) and state III (decreased: 15%-25%). In state III, between day 9-14, the stool weights decreased by 15%-25% compared with the baseline, and changed at a rate > 10% compared with blank control values, and the stools became small and dry. Additionally, intestinal functions degenerated in these animals, and PGP9.5-positive expression markedly decreased in jejunum, ileum and proximal colon myenteric plexus. Irritation with ice-cold saline is a stable, repeatable method in building constipation model in mice for exploring the pathogenesis and treatment options of constipation, and the change of stool weight and size may serve as a useful tool to judge a constipation model success or not.

  12. Radioadaptive Cytoprotective Pathways in the Mouse Retina

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zanello, Susana B.; Wotring, V.; Theriot, C.; Ploutz-Snyder, R.; Zhang, Y.; Wu, H.

    2010-01-01

    Exposure to cosmic radiation implies a risk of tissue degeneration. Radiation retinopathy is a complication of radiotherapy and exhibits common features with other retinopathies and neuropathies. Exposure to a low radiation dose elicits protective cellular events (radioadaptive response), reducing the stress of a subsequent higher dose. To assess the risk of radiation-induced retinal changes and the extent to which a small priming dose reduces this risk, we used a mouse model exposed to a source of Cs-137-gamma radiation. Gene expression profiling of retinas from non-irradiated control C57BL/6J mice (C) were compared to retinas from mice treated with a low 50 mGy dose (LD), a high 6 Gy dose (HD), and a combined treatment of 50 mGy (priming) and 6 Gy (challenge) doses (LHD). Whole retina RNA was isolated and expression analysis for selected genes performed by RTqPCR. Relevant target genes associated with cell death/survival, oxidative stress, cellular stress response and inflammation pathways, were analyzed. Cellular stress response genes were upregulated at 4 hr after the challenge dose in LHD retinas (Sirt1: 1.5 fold, Hsf1: 1.7 fold, Hspa1a: 2.5 fold; Hif1a: 1.8 fold, Bag1: 1.7). A similar trend was observed in LD animals. Most antioxidant enzymes (Hmox1, Sod2, Prdx1, Cygb, Cat1) and inflammatory mediators (NF B, Ptgs2 and Tgfb1) were upregulated in LHD and LD retinas. Expression of the pro-survival gene Bcl2 was upregulated in LD (6-fold) and LHD (4-fold) retinas. In conclusion, cytoprotective gene networks activation in the retina suggests a radioadaptive response to a priming irradiation dose, with mitigation of the deleterious effects of a subsequent high dose exposure. The enhancement of these cytoprotective mechanisms has potential value as a countermeasure to ocular alterations caused by radiation alone or in combination with other factors in spaceflight environments.

  13. Human vs. Mouse Nociceptors - Similarities and Differences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rostock, Charlotte; Schrenk-Siemens, Katrin; Pohle, Jörg; Siemens, Jan

    2017-12-08

    The somatosensory system allows us to detect a diverse range of physical and chemical stimuli including noxious ones, which can initiate protective reflexes to prevent tissue damage. However, the sensation of pain can - under pathological circumstances - outlive its usefulness and perpetrate ongoing suffering. Rodent model systems have been tremendously useful to help understand basic mechanisms of pain perception. Unfortunately, the translation of this knowledge into novel therapies has been challenging. We have investigated similarities and differences of human and mouse peptidergic (TRKA expressing) nociceptors using dual-color fluorescence in situ hybridization of dorsal root ganglia. By comparing the transcripts of a selected group of well-established nociceptive markers, we observed significant differences for some of them. We found co-expression of Trpv1, a key player for sensitization and inflammatory pain, with TrkA in a larger population in humans compared to mice. Similar results could be obtained for Na v 1.8 and Na v 1.9, two voltage gated sodium channels implicated in pathological forms of pain. Additionally, co-expression of Ret and TrkA was also found to be more abundant in human neurons. Moreover, the neurofilament heavy polypeptide was detected in all human sensory DRG neurons compared to a more selective expression pattern observed in rodents. To our knowledge, this is the first time that such detailed comparative analysis has been performed and we believe that our findings will direct future experimentation geared to understand the difficulties we face in translating findings from rodent models to humans. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  14. Intracranial pressure changes during mouse development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moazen, Mehran; Alazmani, Ali; Rafferty, Katherine; Liu, Zi-Jun; Gustafson, Jennifer; Cunningham, Michael L; Fagan, Michael J; Herring, Susan W

    2016-01-04

    During early stages of postnatal development, pressure from the growing brain as well as cerebrospinal fluid, i.e. intracranial pressure (ICP), load the calvarial bones. It is likely that such loading contributes to the peripheral bone formation at the sutural edges of calvarial bones, especially shortly after birth when the brain is growing rapidly. The aim of this study was to quantify ICP during mouse development. A custom pressure monitoring system was developed and calibrated. It was then used to measure ICP in a total of seventy three wild type mice at postnatal (P) day 3, 10, 20, 31 and 70. Retrospectively, the sample in each age group with the closest ICP to the average value was scanned using micro-computed tomography to estimate cranial growth. ICP increased from 1.33±0.87mmHg at P3 to 1.92±0.78mmHg at P10 and 3.60±1.08mmHg at P20. In older animals, ICP plateaued at about 4mmHg. There were statistically significant differences between the ICP at the P3 vs. P20, and P10 vs. P20. In the samples that were scanned, intracranial volume and skull length followed a similar pattern of increase up to P20 and then plateaued at older ages. These data are consistent with the possibility of ICP being a contributing factor to bone formation at the sutures during early stages of development. The data can be further used for development and validation of computational models of skull growth. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. The recombinational anatomy of a mouse chromosome.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kenneth Paigen

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Among mammals, genetic recombination occurs at highly delimited sites known as recombination hotspots. They are typically 1-2 kb long and vary as much as a 1,000-fold or more in recombination activity. Although much is known about the molecular details of the recombination process itself, the factors determining the location and relative activity of hotspots are poorly understood. To further our understanding, we have collected and mapped the locations of 5,472 crossover events along mouse Chromosome 1 arising in 6,028 meioses of male and female reciprocal F1 hybrids of C57BL/6J and CAST/EiJ mice. Crossovers were mapped to a minimum resolution of 225 kb, and those in the telomere-proximal 24.7 Mb were further mapped to resolve individual hotspots. Recombination rates were evolutionarily conserved on a regional scale, but not at the local level. There was a clear negative-exponential relationship between the relative activity and abundance of hotspot activity classes, such that a small number of the most active hotspots account for the majority of recombination. Females had 1.2x higher overall recombination than males did, although the sex ratio showed considerable regional variation. Locally, entirely sex-specific hotspots were rare. The initiation of recombination at the most active hotspot was regulated independently on the two parental chromatids, and analysis of reciprocal crosses indicated that parental imprinting has subtle effects on recombination rates. It appears that the regulation of mammalian recombination is a complex, dynamic process involving multiple factors reflecting species, sex, individual variation within species, and the properties of individual hotspots.

  16. Thyroid Hormone Signaling in the Mouse Retina.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrick Arbogast

    Full Text Available Thyroid hormone is a crucial regulator of gene expression in the developing and adult retina. Here we sought to map sites of thyroid hormone signaling at the cellular level using the transgenic FINDT3 reporter mouse model in which neurons express β-galactosidase (β-gal under the control of a hybrid Gal4-TRα receptor when triiodothyronine (T3 and cofactors of thyroid receptor signaling are present. In the adult retina, nearly all neurons of the ganglion cell layer (GCL, ganglion cells and displaced amacrine cells showed strong β-gal labeling. In the inner nuclear layer (INL, a minority of glycineric and GABAergic amacrine cells showed β-gal labeling, whereas the majority of amacrine cells were unlabeled. At the level of amacrine types, β-gal labeling was found in a large proportion of the glycinergic AII amacrines, but only in a small proportion of the cholinergic/GABAergic 'starburst' amacrines. At postnatal day 10, there also was a high density of strongly β-gal-labeled neurons in the GCL, but only few amacrine cells were labeled in the INL. There was no labeling of bipolar cells, horizontal cells and Müller glia cells at both stages. Most surprisingly, the photoreceptor somata in the outer nuclear layer also showed no β-gal label, although thyroid hormone is known to control cone opsin expression. This is the first record of thyroid hormone signaling in the inner retina of an adult mammal. We hypothesize that T3 levels in photoreceptors are below the detection threshold of the reporter system. The topographical distribution of β-gal-positive cells in the GCL follows the overall neuron distribution in that layer, with more T3-signaling cells in the ventral than the dorsal half-retina.

  17. Architecture, Function, and Assembly of the Mouse Visual System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seabrook, Tania A; Burbridge, Timothy J; Crair, Michael C; Huberman, Andrew D

    2017-07-25

    Vision is the sense humans rely on most to navigate the world, make decisions, and perform complex tasks. Understanding how humans see thus represents one of the most fundamental and important goals of neuroscience. The use of the mouse as a model for parsing how vision works at a fundamental level started approximately a decade ago, ushered in by the mouse's convenient size, relatively low cost, and, above all, amenability to genetic perturbations. In the course of that effort, a large cadre of new and powerful tools for in vivo labeling, monitoring, and manipulation of neurons were applied to this species. As a consequence, a significant body of work now exists on the architecture, function, and development of mouse central visual pathways. Excitingly, much of that work includes causal testing of the role of specific cell types and circuits in visual perception and behavior-something rare to find in studies of the visual system of other species. Indeed, one could argue that more information is now available about the mouse visual system than any other sensory system, in any species, including humans. As such, the mouse visual system has become a platform for multilevel analysis of the mammalian central nervous system generally. Here we review the mouse visual system structure, function, and development literature and comment on the similarities and differences between the visual system of this and other model species. We also make it a point to highlight the aspects of mouse visual circuitry that remain opaque and that are in need of additional experimentation to enrich our understanding of how vision works on a broad scale.

  18. Metallothionein expression in mouse immune organ induced by radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ju Guizhi; Fan Cai; Liu Shuzheng

    2000-01-01

    To explore the effect of ionizing radiation on the expression of metallothionein (MT) in immune organs, the 109 Cd-haemoglobin affinity assay was employed to measure the content of MT in tissues. The dose effect relationship of the MT expression in mouse thymus and spleen was investigated 16h after exposure to 0.5, 1, 2, 4 and 6 Gy whole body irradiation (WBI). And the time course changes in MT expression in mouse thymus and spleen were also determined at different time intervals after 4 Gy WBI. The results showed that the MT content in mouse thymus was significantly increased 16 h after 4 Gy and 6 Gy irradiation compared with that in sham-irradiated mice (p < 0.05, respectively). And it was found that the MT content in mouse thymus was also increased significantly from 8 h to 48 h after 4 Gy irradiation compared with that in sham-irradiated mice (p < 0.05 - p < 0.001). However, there were no markedly changes for the MT expression in the mouse spleen after exposure to X rays. These results mentioned above suggest that the MT expression in immune organs could be induced by X rays, which may be tissue-specific

  19. Wiring cost and topological participation of the mouse brain connectome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rubinov, Mikail; Ypma, Rolf J F; Watson, Charles; Bullmore, Edward T

    2015-08-11

    Brain connectomes are topologically complex systems, anatomically embedded in 3D space. Anatomical conservation of "wiring cost" explains many but not all aspects of these networks. Here, we examined the relationship between topology and wiring cost in the mouse connectome by using data from 461 systematically acquired anterograde-tracer injections into the right cortical and subcortical regions of the mouse brain. We estimated brain-wide weights, distances, and wiring costs of axonal projections and performed a multiscale topological and spatial analysis of the resulting weighted and directed mouse brain connectome. Our analysis showed that the mouse connectome has small-world properties, a hierarchical modular structure, and greater-than-minimal wiring costs. High-participation hubs of this connectome mediated communication between functionally specialized and anatomically localized modules, had especially high wiring costs, and closely corresponded to regions of the default mode network. Analyses of independently acquired histological and gene-expression data showed that nodal participation colocalized with low neuronal density and high expression of genes enriched for cognition, learning and memory, and behavior. The mouse connectome contains high-participation hubs, which are not explained by wiring-cost minimization but instead reflect competitive selection pressures for integrated network topology as a basis for higher cognitive and behavioral functions.

  20. Evidence for dual cyclooxygenases in mouse and rat brain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Keeting, P.E.; Zweig, A.; Lysz, T.W.

    1986-05-01

    The existence of dual forms of cyclooxygenase (CO) in the whole brain of rat and mouse was investigated. Using microsomes prepared from tissue homogenized in 10 mM EDTA and 1% BSA, they assayed for prostaglandin (PG) in a medium containing 1-(/sup 14/C)-arachidonic acid (AA: 1 ..mu..g; 300,000 cpm) 1.2 mM epinephrine, and 1 mM glutathione. The mouse microsomal PGE/sub 2/ synthesis rose rapidly and plateaued within 5 minutes while PGF/sub 2..cap alpha../ levels continued to rise through the 60 minute incubation. Evidence for the existence of two forms of the CO in the mouse brain came from the observations that (1) 0.4 ..mu..M indomethacin inhibited PGE/sub 2/ production) by 80% while PGF/sub 2..cap alpha../ synthesis decreased only 20% and (2) a 3 minute preincubation of the mouse microsomes with unlabelled AA (1 ..mu.. g) eliminated PGE/sub 2/ synthesis while PGF/sub 2..cap alpha../ synthesis continued. Similar results were obtained with rat brain microsomes. Rat kidney microsomal preparations appear not to have the two CO forms. From these observations, it is concluded that there are PGE/sub 2/ and PGF/sub 2..cap alpha../ associated CO in mouse and rat brain microsomal preparations. The PGF/sub 2..cap alpha../ associated CO is somewhat resistant to arachidonate induced destruction while the PGE/sub 2/ associated CO undergoes autodestruction readily.

  1. A Comprehensive Atlas of the Adult Mouse Penis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillips, Tiffany R.; Wright, David K.; Gradie, Paul E.; Johnston, Leigh A.; Pask, Andrew J.

    2016-01-01

    Mice are routinely used to study the development of the external genitalia and, in particular, the process of male urethral closure. This is because misplacement of the male penile urethra, or hypospadias, is amongst the most common birth defects reported in humans. While mice present a tractable model to study penile development, several structures differ between mice and humans, and there is a lack of consensus in the literature on their annotation and developmental origins. Defining the ontology of the mouse prepuce is especially important for the relevance and interpretation of mouse models of hypospadias to human conditions. We have developed a detailed annotation of the adult mouse penis that addresses these differences and enables an accurate comparison of murine and human hypospadias phenotypes. Through MRI data, gross morphology and section histology, we define the origin of the mouse external and internal prepuces, their relationship to the single human foreskin as well as provide a comprehensive view of the various structures of the mouse penis and their associated muscle attachments within the body. These data are combined to annotate structures in a novel 3D adult penis atlas that can be downloaded, viewed at any angle, and manipulated to examine the relationship of various structures. PMID:26112156

  2. Effect of computer mouse gain and visual demand on mouse clicking performance and muscle activation in a young and elderly group of experienced computer users

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sandfeld, Jesper; Jensen, Bente R.

    2005-01-01

    The present study evaluated the specific effects of motor demand and visual demands on the ability to control motor output in terms of performance and muscle activation. Young and elderly subjects performed multidirectional pointing tasks with the computer mouse. Three levels of mouse gain...... and three levels of target size were used. All subjects demonstrated a reduced working speed and hit rate at the highest mouse gain (1:8) when the target size was small. The young group had an optimum at mouse gain 1:4. The elderly group was most sensitive to the combination of high mouse gain and small...... was only to a minor degree influenced by mouse gain (and target sizes) indicating that stability of the forearm/hand is of significance during computer mouse control. The study has implications for ergonomists, pointing device manufacturers and software developers....

  3. MICE: a mouse imaging collaboration environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szymanski, Jacek; Flask, Chris; Wilson, David; Johnson, David; Muzic, Raymond F., Jr.; Zhang, Guo-Qiang

    2006-03-01

    With the ever-increasing complexity of science and engineering, many important research problems are being addressed by collaborative, multidisciplinary teams. We present a web-based collaborative environment for small animal imaging research, called the Mouse Imaging Collaboration Environment (MICE). MICE provides an effective and user-friendly tool for managing and sharing of the terabytes of high-resolution and high-dimension image data generated at small animal imaging core facilities. We describe the design of MICE and our experience in the implementation and deployment of a beta-version baseline-MICE. The baseline-MICE provides an integrated solution from image data acquisition to end-user access and long-term data storage at our UH/Case Small Animal Imaging Resource Center. As image data is acquired from scanners, it is pushed to the MICE server which automatically stores it in a directory structure according to its DICOM metadata. The directory structure reflects imaging modality, principle investigators, animal models, scanning dates and study details. Registered end-users access this imaging data through an authenticated web-interface. Thumbnail images are created by custom scripts running on the MICE server while data down-loading is achieved through standard web-browser ftp. MICE provides a security infrastructure that manages user roles, their access privileges such as read/write, and the right to modify the access privileges. Additional data security measures include a two server paradigm with the Web access server residing outside a network firewall to provide access through the Internet, and the imaging data server - a large RAID storage system supporting flexible backup policies - residing behind the protected firewall with a dedicated link to the Web access server. Direct network link to the RAID storage system outside the firewall other than this dedicated link is not permitted. Establishing the initial image directory structure and letting the

  4. Expansion of mouse sertoli cells on microcarriers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, B; Zhang, S; Wang, Y; Zhuang, Y; Chu, J; Zhang, S; Shi, X; Bi, J; Guo, M

    2010-06-01

    Sertoli cells (SCs) have been described as the 'nurse cells' of the testis whose primary function is to provide essential growth factors and create an appropriate environment for development of other cells [for example, germinal and nerve stem cells (NSCs), used here]. However, the greatest challenge at present is that it is difficult to obtain sufficient SCs of normal physiological function for cell transplantation and biological medicine, largely due to traditional static culture parameter difficult to be monitored and scaled up. Operational stirred culture conditions for in vitro expansion and differentiation of SCs need to be optimized for large-scale culture. In this study, the culturing process for primary SC expansion and maintaining lack of differentiation was optimized for the first time, by using microcarrier bead technology in spinner flask culture. Effects of various feeding/refreshing regimes, stirring speeds, seed inoculum levels of SCs, and concentrations of microcarrier used for expansion of mouse SCs were also explored. In addition, pH, osmotic pressure and metabolic variables including consumption rates of glucose, glutamine, amino acids, and formation rates of lactic acid and ammonia, were investigated in culture. After 6 days, maximal cell densities achieved were 4.6 x 10(6) cells/ml for Cytodex-1 in DMEM/FBS compared to 4.8 x 10(5) cells/ml in static culture. Improved expansion was achieved using an inoculum of 1 x 10(5) cells/ml and microcarrier concentration of 3 mg/ml at stirring speed of 30 rpm. RESULTS indicated that medium replacement (50% changed everyday) resulted in supply of nutrients and removal of waste products inhibiting cell growth, that lead to maintenance of cultures in steady state for several days. These conditions favoured preservation of SCs in the undifferentiated state and significantly increased their physiological activity and trophic function, which were assessed by co-culturing with NSCs and immunostaining. Data

  5. Initial sequencing and comparative analysis of the mouse genome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waterston, Robert H; Lindblad-Toh, Kerstin; Birney, Ewan; Rogers, Jane; Abril, Josep F; Agarwal, Pankaj; Agarwala, Richa; Ainscough, Rachel; Alexandersson, Marina; An, Peter; Antonarakis, Stylianos E; Attwood, John; Baertsch, Robert; Bailey, Jonathon; Barlow, Karen; Beck, Stephan; Berry, Eric; Birren, Bruce; Bloom, Toby; Bork, Peer; Botcherby, Marc; Bray, Nicolas; Brent, Michael R; Brown, Daniel G; Brown, Stephen D; Bult, Carol; Burton, John; Butler, Jonathan; Campbell, Robert D; Carninci, Piero; Cawley, Simon; Chiaromonte, Francesca; Chinwalla, Asif T; Church, Deanna M; Clamp, Michele; Clee, Christopher; Collins, Francis S; Cook, Lisa L; Copley, Richard R; Coulson, Alan; Couronne, Olivier; Cuff, James; Curwen, Val; Cutts, Tim; Daly, Mark; David, Robert; Davies, Joy; Delehaunty, Kimberly D; Deri, Justin; Dermitzakis, Emmanouil T; Dewey, Colin; Dickens, Nicholas J; Diekhans, Mark; Dodge, Sheila; Dubchak, Inna; Dunn, Diane M; Eddy, Sean R; Elnitski, Laura; Emes, Richard D; Eswara, Pallavi; Eyras, Eduardo; Felsenfeld, Adam; Fewell, Ginger A; Flicek, Paul; Foley, Karen; Frankel, Wayne N; Fulton, Lucinda A; Fulton, Robert S; Furey, Terrence S; Gage, Diane; Gibbs, Richard A; Glusman, Gustavo; Gnerre, Sante; Goldman, Nick; Goodstadt, Leo; Grafham, Darren; Graves, Tina A; Green, Eric D; Gregory, Simon; Guigó, Roderic; Guyer, Mark; Hardison, Ross C; Haussler, David; Hayashizaki, Yoshihide; Hillier, LaDeana W; Hinrichs, Angela; Hlavina, Wratko; Holzer, Timothy; Hsu, Fan; Hua, Axin; Hubbard, Tim; Hunt, Adrienne; Jackson, Ian; Jaffe, David B; Johnson, L Steven; Jones, Matthew; Jones, Thomas A; Joy, Ann; Kamal, Michael; Karlsson, Elinor K; Karolchik, Donna; Kasprzyk, Arkadiusz; Kawai, Jun; Keibler, Evan; Kells, Cristyn; Kent, W James; Kirby, Andrew; Kolbe, Diana L; Korf, Ian; Kucherlapati, Raju S; Kulbokas, Edward J; Kulp, David; Landers, Tom; Leger, J P; Leonard, Steven; Letunic, Ivica; Levine, Rosie; Li, Jia; Li, Ming; Lloyd, Christine; Lucas, Susan; Ma, Bin; Maglott, Donna R; Mardis, Elaine R; Matthews, Lucy; Mauceli, Evan; Mayer, John H; McCarthy, Megan; McCombie, W Richard; McLaren, Stuart; McLay, Kirsten; McPherson, John D; Meldrim, Jim; Meredith, Beverley; Mesirov, Jill P; Miller, Webb; Miner, Tracie L; Mongin, Emmanuel; Montgomery, Kate T; Morgan, Michael; Mott, Richard; Mullikin, James C; Muzny, Donna M; Nash, William E; Nelson, Joanne O; Nhan, Michael N; Nicol, Robert; Ning, Zemin; Nusbaum, Chad; O'Connor, Michael J; Okazaki, Yasushi; Oliver, Karen; Overton-Larty, Emma; Pachter, Lior; Parra, Genís; Pepin, Kymberlie H; Peterson, Jane; Pevzner, Pavel; Plumb, Robert; Pohl, Craig S; Poliakov, Alex; Ponce, Tracy C; Ponting, Chris P; Potter, Simon; Quail, Michael; Reymond, Alexandre; Roe, Bruce A; Roskin, Krishna M; Rubin, Edward M; Rust, Alistair G; Santos, Ralph; Sapojnikov, Victor; Schultz, Brian; Schultz, Jörg; Schwartz, Matthias S; Schwartz, Scott; Scott, Carol; Seaman, Steven; Searle, Steve; Sharpe, Ted; Sheridan, Andrew; Shownkeen, Ratna; Sims, Sarah; Singer, Jonathan B; Slater, Guy; Smit, Arian; Smith, Douglas R; Spencer, Brian; Stabenau, Arne; Stange-Thomann, Nicole; Sugnet, Charles; Suyama, Mikita; Tesler, Glenn; Thompson, Johanna; Torrents, David; Trevaskis, Evanne; Tromp, John; Ucla, Catherine; Ureta-Vidal, Abel; Vinson, Jade P; Von Niederhausern, Andrew C; Wade, Claire M; Wall, Melanie; Weber, Ryan J; Weiss, Robert B; Wendl, Michael C; West, Anthony P; Wetterstrand, Kris; Wheeler, Raymond; Whelan, Simon; Wierzbowski, Jamey; Willey, David; Williams, Sophie; Wilson, Richard K; Winter, Eitan; Worley, Kim C; Wyman, Dudley; Yang, Shan; Yang, Shiaw-Pyng; Zdobnov, Evgeny M; Zody, Michael C; Lander, Eric S

    2002-12-05

    The sequence of the mouse genome is a key informational tool for understanding the contents of the human genome and a key experimental tool for biomedical research. Here, we report the results of an international collaboration to produce a high-quality draft sequence of the mouse genome. We also present an initial comparative analysis of the mouse and human genomes, describing some of the insights that can be gleaned from the two sequences. We discuss topics including the analysis of the evolutionary forces shaping the size, structure and sequence of the genomes; the conservation of large-scale synteny across most of the genomes; the much lower extent of sequence orthology covering less than half of the genomes; the proportions of the genomes under selection; the number of protein-coding genes; the expansion of gene families related to reproduction and immunity; the evolution of proteins; and the identification of intraspecies polymorphism.

  6. Mouse endometrial stromal cells produce basement-membrane components

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wewer, U M; Damjanov, A; Weiss, J

    1986-01-01

    . Mouse decidual cells isolated from 6- to 7-day pregnant uteri explanted in vitro continue to synthesize basement-membrane-like extracellular matrix. Using immunohistochemistry and metabolic labeling followed by immunoprecipitation, SDS-PAGE, and fluorography, it was shown that the decidual cells...... to undergo pseudodecidualization. We thus showed that stromal cells from pregnant and nonpregnant mouse uteri synthesize significant amounts of basement-membrane components in vitro, and hence could serve as a good model for the study of normal basement-membrane components.......During mouse pregnancy, uterine stromal cells transform into morphologically distinct decidual cells under the influence of the implanting embryo and a proper hormonal environment. Mechanical stimulation of hormonally primed uterine stromal cells leads to the same morphologic alterations...

  7. Mouse Mos protooncogene product is present and functions during oogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paules, R S; Buccione, R; Moschel, R C; Vande Woude, G F; Eppig, J J

    1989-07-01

    We have identified the mouse Mos-encoded protein product, p39mos, in maturing mouse oocytes and have shown that it is indistinguishable from the product expressed in Mos-transformed NIH 3T3 cells. p39mos is detected in oocytes arrested in the first meiotic prophase, during germinal-vesicle breakdown, metaphase I, anaphase I, and in ovulated eggs. We show that microinjection of three different Mos antisense (but not sense) oligodeoxyribonucleotides into germinal vesicle-stage oocytes prevents first polar-body emission and therefore interrupted the normal progression of meiosis. These results show that in mouse oocytes, as in the amphibian Xenopus [Sagata, N., Oskarsson, M., Copeland, T., Brumbaugh, J. & Vande Woude, G.F. (1988) Nature (London) 335, 519-525], the product of Mos is necessary for normal meiotic maturation.

  8. Transgenic mouse models of hormonal mammary carcinogenesis: advantages and limitations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirma, Nameer B; Tekmal, Rajeshwar R

    2012-09-01

    Mouse models of breast cancer, especially transgenic and knockout mice, have been established as valuable tools in shedding light on factors involved in preneoplastic changes, tumor development and malignant progression. The majority of mouse transgenic models develop estrogen receptor (ER) negative tumors. This is seen as a drawback because the majority of human breast cancers present an ER positive phenotype. On the other hand, several transgenic mouse models have been developed that produce ER positive mammary tumors. These include mice over-expressing aromatase, ERα, PELP-1 and AIB-1. In this review, we will discuss the value of these models as physiologically relevant in vivo systems to understand breast cancer as well as some of the pitfalls involving these models. In all, we argue that the use of transgenic models has improved our understanding of the molecular aspects and biology of breast cancer. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Husbandry of the "nude" mouse in conventional and germfree environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eaton, G J; Outzen, H C; Custer, R P; Johnson, F N

    1975-06-01

    The "nude" mouse is a unique tool for immunologic studies. Its relatively short life span dictates the application of rigid environmental controls to increase longevity if the mouse is to assume the role of a practical experimental animal. In this paper we discussed the husbandry procedures employed to raise "nude" mice in our facilities under conventional, defined flora, and germfree conditions. Conventional and defined flora mice were raised on laminar flow stay-clean rocks, and germfree "nudes" were housed in self-contained germfree isolators. The major cause of morbidity and mortality among conventional and defined flora "nude" mice was fulminating hepatitis. We presented evidence that the etiologic agent of the disease was mouse hepatitis virus (MHV). Germfree "nude" mice were completely free from viral and bacterial diseases.

  10. mouseTube – a database to collaboratively unravel mouse ultrasonic communication [version 1; referees: 2 approved

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicolas Torquet

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Ultrasonic vocalisation is a broadly used proxy to evaluate social communication in mouse models of neuropsychiatric disorders. The efficacy and robustness of testing these models suffer from limited knowledge of the structure and functions of these vocalisations as well as of the way to analyse the data. We created mouseTube, an open database with a web interface, to facilitate sharing and comparison of ultrasonic vocalisations data and metadata attached to a recording file. Metadata describe 1 the acquisition procedure, e.g., hardware, software, sampling frequency, bit depth; 2 the biological protocol used to elicit ultrasonic vocalisations; 3 the characteristics of the individual emitting ultrasonic vocalisations (e.g., strain, sex, age. To promote open science and enable reproducibility, data are made freely available. The website provides searching functions to facilitate the retrieval of recording files of interest. It is designed to enable comparisons of ultrasonic vocalisation emission between strains, protocols or laboratories, as well as to test different analysis algorithms and to search for protocols established to elicit mouse ultrasonic vocalisations. Over the long term, users will be able to download and compare different analysis results for each data file. Such application will boost the knowledge on mouse ultrasonic communication and stimulate sharing and comparison of automatic analysis methods to refine phenotyping techniques in mouse models of neuropsychiatric disorders.

  11. Successful mouse hepatocyte culture with sandwich collagen gel formation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Hyun Jung

    2013-01-01

    Purpose Primary mammalian hepatocytes largely retain their liver-specific functions when they are freshly derived from donors. However, long-term cultures of functional hepatocytes are difficult to establish. To increase the longevity and maintain the differentiated functions of hepatocytes in primary culture, cells can be cultured in a sandwich configuration of collagen. In such a configuration, hepatocytes can be cultured for longer periods compared with cultures on single layers of collagen. However, research regarding mouse hepatocytes in sandwich culture is lacking. Methods Primary mouse hepatocytes were sandwiched between two layers of collagen to maintain the stability of their liver-specific functions. After gelation, 2 mL of hepatocyte culture medium was applied. Results After 24 hours, 5, 10 days of culture, the collagen gel sandwich maintained the cellular border and numbers of bile canaliculi more efficiently than a single collagen coating in both high and low density culture dishes. Reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction analysis of alpha-1-antitrypsin (AAT), hepatocyte nuclear factor 4 alpha (HNF4A), alphafetoprotein, albumin, tryptophan oxygenase (TO), the tyrosine aminotransferase gene, glucose-6-phosphatase, glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase for mouse primary hepatocytes cultured on collagen coated dishes and collagen gels showed superior hepatocyte-related gene expression in cells grown using the collagen gel sandwich culture system. AAT, HNF4A, albumin, TO were found to be expressed in mouse hepatocytes cultured on collagen gels for 5 and 10 days. In contrast, mouse hepatocytes grown on collagen-coated dishes did not express these genes after 5 and 10 days of culture. Conclusion The collagen gel sandwich method is suitable for primary culture system of adult mouse hepatocytes. PMID:23577314

  12. Enhancement of mouse sperm motility by trophinin-binding peptide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Park Seong

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Trophinin is an intrinsic membrane protein that forms a complex in the cytoplasm with bystin and tastin, linking it microtubule-associated motor dynein (ATPase in some cell types. Previously, we found that human sperm tails contain trophinin, bystin and tastin proteins, and that trophinin-binding GWRQ (glycine, tryptophan, arginine, glutamine peptide enhanced motility of human sperm. Methods Immunohistochemistry was employed to determine trophinin protein in mouse spermatozoa from wild type mouse, by using spermatozoa from trophinin null mutant mice as a negative control. Multivalent 8-branched GWRQ (glycine, tryptophan, arginine, glutamine peptide or GWRQ-MAPS, was chemically synthesized, purified by HPLC and its structure was confirmed by MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry. Effect of GWRQ-MAPS on mouse spermatozoa from wild type and trophinin null mutant was assessed by a computer-assisted semen analyzer (CASA. Results Anti-trophinin antibody stained the principal (central piece of the tail of wild type mouse sperm, whereas the antibody showed no staining on trophinin null sperm. Phage particles displaying GWRQ bound to the principal piece of sperm tail from wild type but not trophinin null mice. GWRQ-MAPS enhanced motility of spermatozoa from wild type but not trophinin null mice. CASA showed that GWRQ-MAPS enhanced both progressive motility and rapid motility in wild type mouse sperm. Conclusions Present study established the expression of trophinin in the mouse sperm tail and trophinin-dependent effect of GWRQ-MAPS on sperm motility. GWRQ causes a significant increase in sperm motility.

  13. Endothelial and lipoprotein lipases in human and mouse placenta

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lindegaard, Marie L S; Olivecrona, Gunilla; Christoffersen, Christina

    2005-01-01

    Placenta expresses various lipase activities. However, a detailed characterization of the involved genes and proteins is lacking. In this study, we compared the expression of endothelial lipase (EL) and LPL in human term placenta. When placental protein extracts were separated by heparin...... protein associated with both cell types. In mouse placentas, lack of LPL expression resulted in increased EL mRNA expression. These results suggest that the cellular expression of EL and LPL in human placenta is different. Nevertheless, the two lipases might have overlapping functions in the mouse...... placenta. Our data also suggest that the major portions of both proteins are stored in an inactive form in human term placenta....

  14. Zinc-enriched (ZEN) terminals in mouse spinal cord

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jo, S M; Danscher, G; Schrøder, H D

    2000-01-01

    The general distribution of zinc-enriched (ZEN) terminals in mouse spinal cord was investigated at light microscopic level by means of zinc transporter-3 immunohistochemistry (ZnT3(IHC)) and zinc selenium autometallography (ZnSe(AMG)). Staining for ZnT3(IHC) corresponded closely to the Zn...... dendrites. These ZEN terminals in the ventral horn were in general larger than those in the dorsal horn. This is the first description of the pattern of ZEN terminals in mouse spinal cord....

  15. Genetic mapping of the mouse neuromuscular mutation kyphoscoliosis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Skynner, M.J.; Coulton, G.R.; Mason, R.M. [Charing Cross and Westminster Hospital Medical School, London (United Kingdom)] [and others

    1995-01-01

    The ky mouse mutant, kyphoscoliosis, exhibits a degenerative muscle disease resulting in chronic deformation of the spinal column. Using an interspecific backcross segregating the ky mutation, we have mapped the ky locus to a small region of mouse chromosome 9. ky is nonrecombinant with the microsatellites D9Mit24 and D9Mit169 and lies in a conserved linkage group that encompasses human chromosome 3. s-Laminin (LAMS) and the gene for dystrophin-associated glycoprotein 1 (DAG1), which map to human chromosome 3, are both recombinant with ky, ruling them out as candidates. 24 refs., 2 figs., 1 tab.

  16. Growth and production kinetics of human x mouse and mouse hybridoma cells at reduced temperature and serum content.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borth, N; Heider, R; Assadian, A; Katinger, H

    1992-09-01

    The growth and production kinetics of a mouse hybridoma cell line and a human-mouse heterohybridoma were analyzed under conditions of reduced temperature and serum content. The mouse hybridoma P24 had a constant cell specific production rate and RNA content, while the heterohybridoma 3D6-LC4 showed growth associated production kinetics and an increased RNA content at higher growth rates. This behaviour of 3D6-LC4 cells can be explained by the unusual cell cycle kinetics of this line, which can be arrested in any phase under growth limiting conditions, so that a low growth rate does not result in a greater portion of high producing G1-phase cells. Substrate limitation changes the cell cycle distribution of this cell line to a greater extent than low temperature or serum content, which indicates that this stress factor exerts a greater physiological control than assumed.

  17. Discrimination of tumorigenic triazole conazoles from phenobarbital by transcriptional analyses of mouse liver gene expression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conazoles are fungicides used to control fungal growth in environmental settings and to treat humans with fungal infections. Mouse hepatotumorigenic conazoles display many of the same hepatic toxicologic responses as the mouse liver carcinogen phenobarbital (PB): constitutive and...

  18. Isolation and characterization of proteins of the mouse mammary tumour virus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Westenbrink, F.

    1980-01-01

    A vaccination procedure was developed to mouse mammary tumor virus (MuMTV) induced mouse mammary tumorigenesis. The structural proteins of MuMTV were purified so that their immunogenic qualities were retained. Radioimmunoassays were developed for the proteins. (Auth.)

  19. The PPCD1 mouse: characterization of a mouse model for posterior polymorphous corneal dystrophy and identification of a candidate gene.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna L Shen

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available The PPCD1 mouse, a spontaneous mutant that arose in our mouse colony, is characterized by an enlarged anterior chamber resulting from metaplasia of the corneal endothelium and blockage of the iridocorneal angle by epithelialized corneal endothelial cells. The presence of stratified multilayered corneal endothelial cells with abnormal patterns of cytokeratin expression are remarkably similar to those observed in human posterior polymorphous corneal dystrophy (PPCD and the sporadic condition, iridocorneal endothelial syndrome. Affected eyes exhibit epithelialized corneal endothelial cells, with inappropriate cytokeratin expression and proliferation over the iridocorneal angle and posterior cornea. We have termed this the "mouse PPCD1" phenotype and mapped the mouse locus for this phenotype, designated "Ppcd1", to a 6.1 Mbp interval on Chromosome 2, which is syntenic to the human Chromosome 20 PPCD1 interval. Inheritance of the mouse PPCD1 phenotype is autosomal dominant, with complete penetrance on the sensitive DBA/2J background and decreased penetrance on the C57BL/6J background. Comparative genome hybridization has identified a hemizygous 78 Kbp duplication in the mapped interval. The endpoints of the duplication are located in positions that disrupt the genes Csrp2bp and 6330439K17Rik and lead to duplication of the pseudogene LOC100043552. Quantitative reverse transcriptase-PCR indicates that expression levels of Csrp2bp and 6330439K17Rik are decreased in eyes of PPCD1 mice. Based on the observations of decreased gene expression levels, association with ZEB1-related pathways, and the report of corneal opacities in Csrp2bp(tm1a(KOMPWtsi heterozygotes and embryonic lethality in nulls, we postulate that duplication of the 78 Kbp segment leading to haploinsufficiency of Csrp2bp is responsible for the mouse PPCD1 phenotype. Similarly, CSRP2BP haploinsufficiency may lead to human PPCD.

  20. On the mechanism of nucleolar dominance in mouse-human somatic cell hybrids.

    OpenAIRE

    Onishi, T; Berglund, C; Reeder, R H

    1984-01-01

    The mechanism of nucleolar dominance was studied in two lines of mouse-human somatic hybrids. Both lines had preferentially lost human chromosomes but had retained significant amounts of both mouse and human ribosomal genes (genes coding for the 18S, 5.8S, and 28S RNAs of ribosomes). However, the human ribosomal genes were repressed, and only mouse ribosomal genes were expressed. Soluble transcription extracts from the hybrids were able to initiate RNA synthesis accurately on a cloned mouse r...

  1. Determination of alternative pathway of complement activity in mouse serum using rabbit erythrocytes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dijk, H. van; Rademaker, P.M.; Willers, J.M.N

    1980-01-01

    Rabbit, mouse and sheep erythrocytes expressing different concentrations of membrane sialic acid were used to study possible modes of activation of the alternative complement (C) pathway in mouse, human and guinea pig serum. Mouse erythrocytes activated only human serum, whereas rabbit erythrocytes

  2. Genomic cloning of the mouse LDL receptor related protein/_2-macroglobulin receptor gene

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zee, A. van der; Stas, L.; Hilleker, C.; Leuven, F. van; Dijk, K.W. van; Havekes, L; Frants, R.A.; Hofker, M.H.

    1994-01-01

    The LDL receptor-related protein (LRP) or alpha 2-macroglobulin receptor (A2mr) is encoded by a 15-kb mRNA in mouse and human. Probes encompassing different regions of the mouse cDNA were used to isolate clones from a cosmid library of mouse strain 129. Four overlapping cosmids were used for

  3. Growth inhibition of mouse embryonic stem (ES) cells on the feeders ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ajl4

    Mouse embryonic stem cells (mESCs) can be propagated in vitro on the feeders of mouse embryonic fibroblasts. In this study, we found growth inhibition of mESCs cultured on embryonic fibroblast feeders derived from different livestock animals. Under the same condition, mESCs derived from mouse embryonic fibroblast ...

  4. Instant conditional transgenesis in the mouse hematopoietic compartment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Csikós, Tamás; Reijmers, Rogier M.; Uren, Anthony G.; Spaargaren, Marcel; Pals, Steven T.

    2008-01-01

    Adoptive transfer of retrovirally transduced stem cells has recently been described for instant transgenesis in the hematopoietic compartment of mice. This method circumvents the need to manipulate the germline. However, cell type specific gene expression in this 'retrogenic' mouse model has

  5. Diurnal activity of the four-striped mouse, Rhabdomys pumilio

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    mouse was marked with a toe-clipped number. Temperatures in the shade 1 m above ground level were recorded with a Yellow. Springs Instrument Telethermometer at the beginning and end of each trap check. Maxi- mum daily temperatures recorded for the three days in July were 24, 20, and 26°C; minimum observed ...

  6. Cardiac disease and arrhythmogenesis: Mechanistic insights from mouse models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lois Choy

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The mouse is the second mammalian species, after the human, in which substantial amount of the genomic information has been analyzed. With advances in transgenic technology, mutagenesis is now much easier to carry out in mice. Consequently, an increasing number of transgenic mouse systems have been generated for the study of cardiac arrhythmias in ion channelopathies and cardiomyopathies. Mouse hearts are also amenable to physical manipulation such as coronary artery ligation and transverse aortic constriction to induce heart failure, radiofrequency ablation of the AV node to model complete AV block and even implantation of a miniature pacemaker to induce cardiac dyssynchrony. Last but not least, pharmacological models, despite being simplistic, have enabled us to understand the physiological mechanisms of arrhythmias and evaluate the anti-arrhythmic properties of experimental agents, such as gap junction modulators, that may be exert therapeutic effects in other cardiac diseases. In this article, we examine these in turn, demonstrating that primary inherited arrhythmic syndromes are now recognized to be more complex than abnormality in a particular ion channel, involving alterations in gene expression and structural remodelling. Conversely, in cardiomyopathies and heart failure, mutations in ion channels and proteins have been identified as underlying causes, and electrophysiological remodelling are recognized pathological features. Transgenic techniques causing mutagenesis in mice are extremely powerful in dissecting the relative contributions of different genes play in producing disease phenotypes. Mouse models can serve as useful systems in which to explore how protein defects contribute to arrhythmias and direct future therapy.

  7. Survival and movement of the Congo forest mouse ( Deomys ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Survival and movement of the Congo forest mouse ( Deomys ferrugineus ): a comparison of primary rainforest and fallow land in Kisangani, Democratic Republic of Congo. ... Survival analyses taking into account trap-happiness effects were conducted using the program MARK. Abundance of D. ferrugineus was generally ...

  8. In vitro culture of mouse embryos amniotic fluid ID human

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    1989-07-15

    Jul 15, 1989 ... Because human amniotic fluid is a physiological, balanced ultrafiltrate, it has been considered as an inexpensive alternative culture medium in. IVF. A study of the development of mouse embryos in human amniotic fluid was undertaken to assess the suitability of this as an optional culture medium in human ...

  9. Mouse endometrial stromal cells produce basement-membrane components

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wewer, U M; Damjanov, A; Weiss, J

    1986-01-01

    . Mouse decidual cells isolated from 6- to 7-day pregnant uteri explanted in vitro continue to synthesize basement-membrane-like extracellular matrix. Using immunohistochemistry and metabolic labeling followed by immunoprecipitation, SDS-PAGE, and fluorography, it was shown that the decidual cells...

  10. Autopsy and histological analysis of the transgenic mouse

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gijbels, Marion J. J.; de Winther, Menno P. J.

    2011-01-01

    Over the past decades, transgenic and knock-out mouse models have become common use in research laboratories. Detailed phenotypic characterization of such models is essential for understanding basic mechanisms of normal physiology and disease. Hereto, pathological examination is a very helpful tool.

  11. A simplified immunohistochemical classification of skeletal muscle fibres in mouse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Kammoun

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The classification of muscle fibres is of particular interest for the study of the skeletal muscle properties in a wide range of scientific fields, especially animal phenotyping. It is therefore important to define a reliable method for classifying fibre types. The aim of this study was to establish a simplified method for the immunohistochemical classification of fibres in mouse. To carry it out, we first tested a combination of several anti myosin heavy chain (MyHC antibodies in order to choose a minimum number of antibodies to implement a semi-automatic classification. Then, we compared the classification of fibres to the MyHC electrophoretic pattern on the same samples. Only two anti MyHC antibodies on serial sections with the fluorescent labeling of the Laminin were necessary to classify properly fibre types in Tibialis Anterior and Soleus mouse muscles in normal physiological conditions. This classification was virtually identical to the classification realized by the electrophoretic separation of MyHC. This immunohistochemical classification can be applied to the total area of Tibialis Anterior and Soleus mouse muscles. Thus, we provide here a useful, simple and time-efficient method for immunohistochemical classification of fibres, applicable for research in mouse

  12. The clinical implications of mouse models of enhanced anxiety

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sartori, Simone B; Landgraf, Rainer; Singewald, Nicolas

    2011-01-01

    Mice are increasingly overtaking the rat model organism in important aspects of anxiety research, including drug development. However, translating the results obtained in mouse studies into information that can be applied in clinics remains challenging. One reason may be that most of the studies so far have used animals displaying ‘normal’ anxiety rather than ‘psychopathological’ animal models with abnormal (elevated) anxiety, which more closely reflect core features and sensitivities to therapeutic interventions of human anxiety disorders, and which would, thus, narrow the translational gap. Here, we discuss manipulations aimed at persistently enhancing anxiety-related behavior in the laboratory mouse using phenotypic selection, genetic techniques and/or environmental manipulations. It is hoped that such models with enhanced construct validity will provide improved ways of studying the neurobiology and treatment of pathological anxiety. Examples of findings from mouse models of enhanced anxiety-related behavior will be discussed, as well as their relation to findings in anxiety disorder patients regarding neuroanatomy, neurobiology, genetic involvement and epigenetic modifications. Finally, we highlight novel targets for potential anxiolytic pharmacotherapeutics that have been established with the help of research involving mice. Since the use of psychopathological mouse models is only just beginning to increase, it is still unclear as to the extent to which such approaches will enhance the success rate of drug development in translating identified therapeutic targets into clinical trials and, thus, helping to introduce the next anxiolytic class of drugs. PMID:21901080

  13. Somatic structural rearrangements in genetically engineered mouse mammary tumors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Varela, I.; Klijn, C.N.; Stephens, P.J.; Mudie, L.J.; Stebbings, L.; Galappaththige, D.; Van der Gulden, H.; Schut, E.; Klarenbeek, S.; Campbell, P.J.; Wessels, L.F.A.; Stratton, M.R.; Jonkers, J.; Futreal, P.A.; Adams, D.J.

    2010-01-01

    Background: Here we present the first paired-end sequencing of tumors from genetically engineered mouse models of cancer to determine how faithfully these models recapitulate the landscape of somatic rearrangements found in human tumors. These were models of Trp53-mutated breast cancer, Brca1- and

  14. A preclinical mouse model of invasive lobular breast cancer metastasis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Doornebal, Chris W.; Klarenbeek, Sjoerd; Braumuller, Tanya M.; Klijn, Christiaan N.; Ciampricotti, Metamia; Hau, Cheei-Sing; Hollmann, Markus W.; Jonkers, Jos; de Visser, Karin E.

    2013-01-01

    Metastatic disease accounts for more than 90% of cancer-related deaths, but the development of effective antimetastatic agents has been hampered by the paucity of clinically relevant preclinical models of human metastatic disease. Here, we report the development of a mouse model of spontaneous

  15. Monitoring foam coarsening using a computer optical mouse as a ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    In this paper, we present an experimental approach to track coarsening process of foam using a computer optical mouse as a dynamic laser speckle measurement sensor. The dynamics of foam coarsening and rearrangement events cause changes in the intensity of laser speckle backscattered from the foam. A strong ...

  16. Rapid Prototyping of Tangibles with a Capacitive Mouse

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ramos, Juan David Hincapie; Esbensen, Morten; Kogutowska, Magdalena

    2011-01-01

    lays the capacitive surface and communication capa- bilities of a Microsoft TouchMouse, both of which are ap- propriated to fulfill the mentined requirements. Unlike ex- isting approaches for rapid prototyping of tangibles like the Arduino boards, using the Toki toolkit does not require de- velopers...

  17. Extra-oviductal expression of oviductal glycoprotein 1 in mouse ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2017-01-11

    Jan 11, 2017 ... previously shown that spermatozoa from multiple species contain receptors for OVGP1 (Zhao et al. 2016). Since we. Figure 3. Immunohistochemical localization of OVGP1 in mouse reproductive tissues. Paraffin sections probed with OVGP1 antibody in case of ovary (A), testis (B) and epididymis (C).

  18. RNA PROFILES IN RAT AND MOUSE EPIDIDYMAL SPERMATOZOA

    Science.gov (United States)

    RNA PROFILES IN RAT AND MOUSE EPIDIDYMAL SPERMATOZOA Kary E. Thompson1, Hongzu Ren1, Judith E. Schmid1 and David J. Dix11Reproductive Toxicology Division, NHEERL, ORD, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, RTP, NC. Mature spermatozoa are transcriptionally inactive...

  19. Microarray analysis of mandible regionalization during mouse development

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Langová, Petra; Balková, Simona; Buchtová, Marcela

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 159, Suppl 1 (2015), S24-S24 ISSN 1213-8118. [Morphology 2015. International Congress of the Czech Anatomical Society /49./. Lojda Symposium on Histochemistry /52./. 06.09.2015-08.09.2015, Olomouc] R&D Projects: GA ČR GB14-37368G Institutional support: RVO:67985904 Keywords : mouse development Subject RIV: EA - Cell Biology

  20. Withaferin A Suppresses Liver Tumor Growth in a Nude Mouse ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Purpose: To investigate the effect of withaferin A on tumor growth and metastasis in liver in a nude mouse model. Methods: Withaferin A was injected through a portal vein to the orthotopic liver tumor in a nude mice model. Xenogen in vivo imaging system was used to monitor tumor growth and metastasis. The effect of ...

  1. The influence of fluorides on mouse sperm capacitation

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Dvořáková-Hortová, K.; Šandera, M.; Jursová, M.; Vašínová, J.; Pěknicová, Jana

    2008-01-01

    Roč. 108, 1-2 (2008), s. 157-170 ISSN 0378-4320 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) 1M06011 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50520701 Keywords : Mouse spermatozoa * Capacitation * Fluorides Subject RIV: DN - Health Impact of the Environment Quality Impact factor : 1.890, year: 2008

  2. The influence of fluorides on mouse sperm capacitation

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Dvořáková-Hortová, K.; Šandera, M.; Jursová, M.; Vašinová, J.; Pěknicová, Jana

    2008-01-01

    Roč. 108, 1-2 (2008), s. 157-170 ISSN 0378-4320 R&D Projects: GA MŠk 1M06011 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50520514; CEZ:AV0Z50520701 Keywords : mouse spermatozoa * capacitation * fluorides Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor : 1.890, year: 2008

  3. A solar powered wireless computer mouse: industrial design concepts

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Reich, N.H.; Veefkind, M.; van Sark, W.G.J.H.M.; Alsema, E.A.; Turkenburg, W.C.; Silvester, S.

    2009-01-01

    A solar powered wireless computer mouse (SPM) was chosen to serve as a case study for the evaluation and optimization of industrial design processes of photovoltaic (PV) powered consumer systems. As the design process requires expert knowledge in various technical fields, we assessed and compared

  4. Noninvasive photoacoustic computed tomography of mouse brain metabolism in vivo

    OpenAIRE

    Yao, Junjie; Xia, Jun; Maslov, Konstantin I.; Nasiriavanaki, Mohammadreza; Tsytsarev, Vassiliy; Demchenko, Alexei V.; Wang, Lihong V.

    2012-01-01

    We have demonstrated the feasibility of imaging mouse brain metabolism using photoacoustic computed tomography (PACT), a fast, noninvasive and functional imaging modality with optical contrast and acoustic resolution. Brain responses to forepaw stimulations were imaged transdermally and transcranially. 2-NBDG, which diffuses well across the blood–brain-barrier, provided exogenous contrast for photoacoustic imaging of glucose response. Concurrently, hemoglobin provided endogenous contrast for ...

  5. Comparison of (stereotactic) parcellations in mouse prefrontal cortex

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van de Werd, H.J.J.M.; Uylings, H.B.M.

    2014-01-01

    This study compares the cytoarchitectonic parcellation of the prefrontal cortex (PFC) in the mouse as presented in publications that are commonly used for identifying brain areas. Agreement was found to be greater for boundaries in the medial PFC than in the lateral PFC and lowest for those in the

  6. Study of methyl bromide reactivity with human and mouse hemoglobin

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A study has been carried out on in-vitro reactivity of human and mouse hemoglobin spectrophotometrically at physiological pH, using different protein to reagent ratios. Hemoglobin side chains were modified with different concentrations of methyl bromide on agro-soil fumigant. To ascertain if the site of alkylation was the ...

  7. Early stages in human and mouse T-cell development

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Spits, H.

    1994-01-01

    One important question in lymphopoiesis is where stem cells commit to T-, B- and natural killer (NK)-cell lineages. Recent findings in human and mouse systems suggest that the thymus is seeded by a yet uncommitted progenitor cell. The earliest murine thymic progenitor cells have the capacity to

  8. Dephosphorylation of WR-2721 with mouse tissue homogenates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mori, T.; Nikaido, O.; Sugahara, T.

    1984-01-01

    Mouse liver homogenate had an optimum pH of 8.6 to 8.8 for dephosphorylation of WR-2721 in the analyzed pH range from 5.2 to 10.0. At this optimum pH condition, the dephosphorylation activities of six mouse tissue homogenates were analyzed. Kidney, liver and small intestine homogenates showed higher dephosphorylation activities than spleen and lung homogenates. Furthermore, serum did not show any dephosphorylation activity. The high activity found in liver homogenate agrees well with our previous data with mouse L cells. However, optimum pH from 8.6 to 8.8 in liver homogenate is quite different from the data reported by using Ehrlich ascites tumor cells (optimum pH was 5.6). Therefore, it is suggested that WR-2721 administered into mouse is efficiently dephosphorylated in certain tissues such as liver to its active form with the enzyme(s) different from that found in Ehrlich ascites tumor cells

  9. Experimental investigation of mouse kidney aging with SR PCI technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yifeng, P.; Zehua, Z.; Guohao, D.; Tiqiao, X.; Hongjie, X.; Peiping, Z.

    2013-08-01

    Objective. Basing on the coherence character of the Synchrotron radiation (SR), the mouse kidney study is performed using the propagation-based phase-contrast imaging (PCI) technology which as one approach of the phase contrasts imaging (PCI). The aim of this paper was to visualize the kidney at different ages and evaluate the latent value of aging mechanism with SR phase contrast imaging technology. Methods. The experiments were performed at the BL13W1 line of the SSRF (the Shanghai synchrotron radiation facility), the samples were soaked in 10% formalin solution, the mouse kidneys at different ages were imaged on the shelf in the propagation-based phase-contrast imaging setup and captured with CCD. The captured images were analyzed and compared. Results. When the distance is 50 cm between the samples and imaging plate, good contrast and high resolution were obtained in the propagation-based phase-contrast imaging (PCI), as such renal capsule revealed well, and the resolution reach to 30 micron; there is significant difference in the shape and vessels structures among the mouse kidneys at different age. Conclusion. The PCI is good for the applying of main light element organization imaging, the difference in shape and vessels structure between the young and old mouse kidney maybe indicated at some extent with the propagation-based phase-contrast imaging technology.

  10. FANTOM5 CAGE profiles of human and mouse samples

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Noguchi, Shuhei; Arakawa, Takahiro; Fukuda, Shiro; Furuno, Masaaki; Hasegawa, Akira; Hori, Fumi; Ishikawa-Kato, Sachi; Kaida, Kaoru; Kaiho, Ai; Kanamori-Katayama, Mutsumi; Kawashima, Tsugumi; Kojima, Miki; Kubosaki, Atsutaka; Manabe, Ri-ichiroh; Murata, Mitsuyoshi; Nagao-Sato, Sayaka; Nakazato, Kenichi; Ninomiya, Noriko; Nishiyori-Sueki, Hiromi; Noma, Shohei; Saijyo, Eri; Saka, Akiko; Sakai, Mizuho; Simon, Christophe; Suzuki, Naoko; Tagami, Michihira; Watanabe, Shoko; Yoshida, Shigehiro; Arner, Peter; Axton, Richard A; Babina, Magda; Baillie, J Kenneth; Barnett, Timothy C; Beckhouse, Anthony G; Blumenthal, Antje; Bodega, Beatrice; Bonetti, Alessandro; Briggs, James; Brombacher, Frank; Carlisle, Ailsa J; Clevers, Hans C; Davis, Carrie A; Detmar, Michael; Dohi, Taeko; Edge, Albert S B; Edinger, Matthias; Ehrlund, Anna; Ekwall, Karl; Endoh, Mitsuhiro; Enomoto, Hideki; Eslami, Afsaneh; Fagiolini, Michela; Fairbairn, Lynsey; Farach-Carson, Mary C; Faulkner, Geoffrey J; Ferrai, Carmelo; Fisher, Malcolm E; Forrester, Lesley M; Fujita, Rie; Furusawa, Jun-ichi; Geijtenbeek, Teunis B; Gingeras, Thomas; Goldowitz, Daniel; Guhl, Sven; Guler, Reto; Gustincich, Stefano; Ha, Thomas J; Hamaguchi, Masahide; Hara, Mitsuko; Hasegawa, Yuki; Herlyn, Meenhard; Heutink, Peter; Hitchens, Kelly J; Hume, David A; Ikawa, Tomokatsu; Ishizu, Yuri; Kai, Chieko; Kawamoto, Hiroshi; Kawamura, Yuki I; Kempfle, Judith S; Kenna, Tony J; Kere, Juha; Khachigian, Levon M; Kitamura, Toshio; Klein, Sarah; Klinken, S Peter; Knox, Alan J; Kojima, Soichi; Koseki, Haruhiko; Koyasu, Shigeo; Lee, Weonju; Lennartsson, Andreas; Mackay-Sim, Alan; Mejhert, Niklas; Mizuno, Yosuke; Morikawa, Hiromasa; Morimoto, Mitsuru; Moro, Kazuyo; Morris, Kelly J; Motohashi, Hozumi; Mummery, Christine L; Nakachi, Yutaka; Nakahara, Fumio; Nakamura, Toshiyuki; Nakamura, Yukio; Nozaki, Tadasuke; Ogishima, Soichi; Ohkura, Naganari; Ohno, Hiroshi; Ohshima, Mitsuhiro; Okada-Hatakeyama, Mariko; Okazaki, Yasushi; Orlando, Valerio; Ovchinnikov, Dmitry A; Passier, Robert; Patrikakis, Margaret; Pombo, Ana; Pradhan-Bhatt, Swati; Qin, Xian-Yang; Rehli, Michael; Rizzu, Patrizia; Roy, Sugata; Sajantila, Antti; Sakaguchi, Shimon; Sato, Hiroki; Satoh, Hironori; Savvi, Suzana; Saxena, Alka; Schmidl, Christian; Schneider, Claudio; Schulze-Tanzil, Gundula G; Schwegmann, Anita; Sheng, Guojun; Shin, Jay W; Sugiyama, Daisuke; Sugiyama, Takaaki; Summers, Kim M; Takahashi, Naoko; Takai, Jun; Tanaka, Hiroshi; Tatsukawa, Hideki; Tomoiu, Andru; Toyoda, Hiroo; van de Wetering, Marc; van den Berg, Linda M; Verardo, Roberto; Vijayan, Dipti; Wells, Christine A; Winteringham, Louise N; Wolvetang, Ernst; Yamaguchi, Yoko; Yamamoto, Masayuki; Yanagi-Mizuochi, Chiyo; Yoneda, Misako; Yonekura, Yohei; Zhang, Peter G; Zucchelli, Silvia; Abugessaisa, Imad; Arner, Erik; Harshbarger, Jayson; Kondo, Atsushi; Lassmann, Timo; Lizio, Marina; Sahin, Serkan; Sengstag, Thierry; Severin, Jessica; Shimoji, Hisashi; Suzuki, Masanori; Suzuki, Harukazu; Kawai, Jun; Kondo, Naoto; Itoh, Masayoshi; Daub, Carsten O; Kasukawa, Takeya; Kawaji, Hideya; Carninci, Piero; Forrest, Alistair R R; Hayashizaki, Yoshihide

    2017-01-01

    In the FANTOM5 project, transcription initiation events across the human and mouse genomes were mapped at a single base-pair resolution and their frequencies were monitored by CAGE (Cap Analysis of Gene Expression) coupled with single-molecule sequencing. Approximately three thousands of samples,

  11. New Insights on the Morphology of Adult Mouse Penis1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez, Esequiel; Weiss, Dana A.; Yang, Jennifer H.; Menshenina, Julia; Ferretti, Max; Cunha, Tristan J.; Barcellos, Dale; Chan, Lok Yun; Risbridger, Gail; Cunha, Gerald R.; Baskin, Laurence S.

    2011-01-01

    ABSTRACT The adult mouse penis represents the end point of masculine sex differentiation of the embryonic genital tubercle and contains bone, cartilage, the urethra, erectile bodies, several types of epithelium, and many individual cell types arrayed into specific anatomical structures. Using contemporary high-resolution imaging techniques, we sought to provide new insights to the current description of adult mouse penile morphology to enable understanding of penile abnormalities, including hypospadias. Examination of serial transverse and longitudinal sections, scanning electron microscopy, and three-dimensional (3D) reconstruction provided a new appreciation of the individual structures in the adult mouse penis and their 3D interrelationships. In so doing, we discovered novel paired erectile bodies, the male urogenital mating protuberance (MUMP), and more accurately described the urethral meatus. These morphological observations were quantified by morphometric analysis and now provide accurate morphological end points of sex differentiation of mouse penis that will be the foundation of future studies to identify normal and abnormal penile development. PMID:21918128

  12. Transgenic mouse models--a seminal breakthrough in oncogene research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Harvey W; Muller, William J

    2013-12-01

    Transgenic mouse models are an integral part of modern cancer research, providing a versatile and powerful means of studying tumor initiation and progression, metastasis, and therapy. The present repertoire of these models is very diverse, with a wide range of strategies used to induce tumorigenesis by expressing dominant-acting oncogenes or disrupting the function of tumor-suppressor genes, often in a highly tissue-specific manner. Much of the current technology used in the creation and characterization of transgenic mouse models of cancer will be discussed in depth elsewhere. However, to gain a complete appreciation and understanding of these complex models, it is important to review the history of the field. Transgenic mouse models of cancer evolved as a new and, compared with the early cell-culture-based techniques, more physiologically relevant approach for studying the properties and transforming capacities of oncogenes. Here, we will describe early transgenic mouse models of cancer based on tissue-specific expression of oncogenes and discuss their impact on the development of this still rapidly growing field.

  13. Reconstruction of human mammary tissues in a mouse model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Proia, David A; Kuperwasser, Charlotte

    2006-01-01

    Establishing a model system that more accurately recapitulates both normal and neoplastic breast epithelial development in rodents is central to studying human breast carcinogenesis. However, the inability of human breast epithelial cells to colonize mouse mammary fat pads is problematic. Considering that the human breast is a more fibrous tissue than is the adipose-rich stroma of the murine mammary gland, our group sought to bypass the effects of the rodent microenvironment through incorporation of human stromal fibroblasts. We have been successful in reproducibly recreating functionally normal breast tissues from reduction mammoplasty tissues, in what we term the human-in-mouse (HIM) model. Here we describe our relatively simple and inexpensive techniques for generating this orthotopic xenograft model. Whether the model is to be applied for understanding normal human breast development or tumorigenesis, investigators with minimal animal surgery skills, basic cell culture techniques and access to human breast tissue will be able to generate humanized mouse glands within 3 months. Clearing the mouse of its endogenous epithelium with subsequent stromal humanization takes 1 month. The subsequent implantation of co-mixed human epithelial cells and stromal cells occurs 2 weeks after humanization, so investigators should expect to observe the desired outgrowths 2 months afterward. As a whole, this model system has the potential to improve the understanding of crosstalk between tissue stroma and the epithelium as well as factors involved in breast stem cell biology tumor initiation and progression.

  14. Modeling fragile X syndrome in the Fmr1 knockout mouse

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kazdoba, Tatiana M.; Leach, Prescott T.; Silverman, Jill L.; Crawley, Jacqueline N.

    2014-01-01

    Summary Fragile X Syndrome (FXS) is a commonly inherited form of intellectual disability and one of the leading genetic causes for autism spectrum disorder. Clinical symptoms of FXS can include impaired cognition, anxiety, hyperactivity, social phobia, and repetitive behaviors. FXS is caused by a CGG repeat mutation which expands a region on the X chromosome containing the FMR1 gene. In FXS, a full mutation (> 200 repeats) leads to hypermethylation of FMR1, an epigenetic mechanism that effectively silences FMR1 gene expression and reduces levels of the FMR1 gene product, fragile X mental retardation protein (FMRP). FMRP is an RNA-binding protein that is important for the regulation of protein expression. In an effort to further understand how loss of FMR1 and FMRP contribute to FXS symptomology, several FXS animal models have been created. The most well characterized rodent model is the Fmr1 knockout (KO) mouse, which lacks FMRP protein due to a disruption in its Fmr1 gene. Here, we review the behavioral phenotyping of the Fmr1 KO mouse to date, and discuss the clinical relevance of this mouse model to the human FXS condition. While much remains to be learned about FXS, the Fmr1 KO mouse is a valuable tool for understanding the repercussions of functional loss of FMRP and assessing the efficacy of pharmacological compounds in ameliorating the molecular and behavioral phenotypes relevant to FXS. PMID:25606362

  15. Markers of mouse macrophage development detected by monoclonal antibodies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    P.J. Leenen (Pieter); M.F.T.R. de Bruijn (Marella F.T.R); J.S. Voerman (Jane); P.A. Campbell (Priscilla); W. van Ewijk (Willem)

    1994-01-01

    textabstractIn this review, we present and discuss a selected panel of antibody-defined markers expressed during different stages of mouse macrophage development. We distinguish four categories of markers, which are characteristic of: (1) macrophage precursors and immature macrophages (ER-MP12,

  16. The mouse "xenotropic" gammaretroviruses and their XPR1 receptor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kozak Christine A

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The xenotropic/polytropic subgroup of mouse leukemia viruses (MLVs all rely on the XPR1 receptor for entry, but these viruses vary in tropism, distribution among wild and laboratory mice, pathogenicity, strategies used for transmission, and sensitivity to host restriction factors. Most, but not all, isolates have typical xenotropic or polytropic host range, and these two MLV tropism types have now been detected in humans as viral sequences or as infectious virus, termed XMRV, or xenotropic murine leukemia virus-related virus. The mouse xenotropic MLVs (X-MLVs were originally defined by their inability to infect cells of their natural mouse hosts. It is now clear, however, that X-MLVs actually have the broadest host range of the MLVs. Nearly all nonrodent mammals are susceptible to X-MLVs, and all species of wild mice and several common strains of laboratory mice are X-MLV susceptible. The polytropic MLVs, named for their apparent broad host range, show a more limited host range than the X-MLVs in that they fail to infect cells of many mouse species as well as many nonrodent mammals. The co-evolution of these viruses with their receptor and other host factors that affect their replication has produced a heterogeneous group of viruses capable of inducing various diseases, as well as endogenized viral genomes, some of which have been domesticated by their hosts to serve in antiviral defense.

  17. Young children's ability to use a computer mouse

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Donker, A.; Reitsma, P.

    2007-01-01

    Because there is little empirical data available on how well young children are able to use a computer mouse, the present study examined their proficiency in clicking on small objects at various positions on the screen and their skill in moving objects over the screen, using drag-and-drop and

  18. Simple and efficient expression of codon-optimized mouse leukemia ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Purpose: To obtain a higher yield of mouse leukemia inhibitory factor to maintain the proliferation potential of pluripotent stem cells at a low cost. Methods: A method was designed to produce recombinant mLIF protein (rmLIF) in Escherichia coli. Through analysis of rmLIF sequence, it was found that rare codons were ...

  19. Controlling complexity: the clinical relevance of mouse complex genetics

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Forejt, Jiří

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 21, č. 11 (2013), s. 1191-1196 ISSN 1018-4813 Institutional support: RVO:68378050 Keywords : Mouse model * Forward genetics * Rewiev Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology OBOR OECD: Genetics and heredity (medical genetics to be 3) Impact factor: 4.225, year: 2013

  20. In vitro differentiation of mouse embryonic stem cells into functional ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Studies have shown that embryonic stem (ES) cells can be successfully differentiated into liver cells, which offer the potential unlimited cell source for a variety of end-stage liver disease. In our study, in order to induce mouse ES cells to differentiate into hepatocyte-like cells under chemically defined conditions, ES cells ...

  1. A mouse model of mammary hyperplasia induced by oral hormone ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Methods and Materials: To address the mechanism, we developed a mouse model of mammary hyperplasia. We gave mice estradiol valerate tablets and progesterone capsules sequentially for one month by intragastric administration. Results: Mice treated by this method had a series of pathological changes which are ...

  2. Towards a mouse model of depression : a psychoneuroendocrine approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dalm, Sergiu

    2012-01-01

    Chronic stress is considered a vulnerability factor for depression. A key symptom is anhedonia; a reduced response to positive stimuli. Drugs are effective for only 20-40% of the patients and new drugs are urgently needed. The objective of the research was to develop a mouse model of depression that

  3. Regulation of hematopoietic stem cells during mouse development

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    C. Orelio (Claudia)

    2003-01-01

    textabstractThe hematopoietic system is comprised of many different cell types that fulfill important physiological functions throughout embryonic and adult stages of mouse development. As the mature blood cells have a limited life-span, the pool of blood cells needs constant replenishing. At the

  4. A scaling analysis of a cat and mouse Markov chain

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Litvak, Nelli; Robert, Philippe

    2012-01-01

    If ($C_n$) a Markov chain on a discrete state space $S$, a Markov chain ($C_n, M_n$) on the product space $S \\times S$, the cat and mouse Markov chain, is constructed. The first coordinate of this Markov chain behaves like the original Markov chain and the second component changes only when both

  5. A scaling analysis of a cat and mouse Markov chain

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Litvak, Nelli; Robert, Philippe

    Motivated by an original on-line page-ranking algorithm, starting from an arbitrary Markov chain $(C_n)$ on a discrete state space ${\\cal S}$, a Markov chain $(C_n,M_n)$ on the product space ${\\cal S}^2$, the cat and mouse Markov chain, is constructed. The first coordinate of this Markov chain

  6. Endogenous Mouse Dicer Is an Exclusively Cytoplasmic Protein.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christian Much

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Dicer is a large multi-domain protein responsible for the ultimate step of microRNA and short-interfering RNA biogenesis. In human and mouse cell lines, Dicer has been shown to be important in the nuclear clearance of dsRNA as well as the establishment of chromatin modifications. Here we set out to unambiguously define the cellular localization of Dicer in mice to understand if this is a conserved feature of mammalian Dicer in vivo. To this end, we utilized an endogenously epitope tagged Dicer knock-in mouse allele. From primary mouse cell lines and adult tissues, we determined with certainty by biochemical fractionation and confocal immunofluorescence microscopy that endogenous Dicer is exclusively cytoplasmic. We ruled out the possibility that a fraction of Dicer shuttles to and from the nucleus as well as that FGF or DNA damage signaling induce Dicer nuclear translocation. We also explored Dicer localization during the dynamic and developmental context of embryogenesis, where Dicer is ubiquitously expressed and strictly cytoplasmic in all three germ layers as well as extraembryonic tissues. Our data exclude a direct role for Dicer in the nuclear RNA processing in the mouse.

  7. Endogenous Mouse Dicer Is an Exclusively Cytoplasmic Protein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Much, Christian; Auchynnikava, Tania; Pavlinic, Dinko; Buness, Andreas; Rappsilber, Juri; Benes, Vladimir; Allshire, Robin; O'Carroll, Dónal

    2016-06-01

    Dicer is a large multi-domain protein responsible for the ultimate step of microRNA and short-interfering RNA biogenesis. In human and mouse cell lines, Dicer has been shown to be important in the nuclear clearance of dsRNA as well as the establishment of chromatin modifications. Here we set out to unambiguously define the cellular localization of Dicer in mice to understand if this is a conserved feature of mammalian Dicer in vivo. To this end, we utilized an endogenously epitope tagged Dicer knock-in mouse allele. From primary mouse cell lines and adult tissues, we determined with certainty by biochemical fractionation and confocal immunofluorescence microscopy that endogenous Dicer is exclusively cytoplasmic. We ruled out the possibility that a fraction of Dicer shuttles to and from the nucleus as well as that FGF or DNA damage signaling induce Dicer nuclear translocation. We also explored Dicer localization during the dynamic and developmental context of embryogenesis, where Dicer is ubiquitously expressed and strictly cytoplasmic in all three germ layers as well as extraembryonic tissues. Our data exclude a direct role for Dicer in the nuclear RNA processing in the mouse.

  8. Mouse embryos cultured In amnIotIc fluid

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Mouse embryos are used as a monitor of human in vicro fertilisation (IVF) culture conditions. Embryo culture media are often complicated solutions requiring careful monitoring to ensure uniformity for successful embryo culture.1-3 Much of the quality control is outside the scope of the IVF laboratory, for example the source of ...

  9. In vitro culture of mouse embryos amniotic fluid ID human

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    1989-07-15

    Jul 15, 1989 ... Human amniotic fluid was compared with Ham's F-10 culture medium as a possible alternative for use in in vitro fertilisation. The cleavage success of mouse embryos in human amniotic fluid (experimental group) was 92% compared with 86% in. Ham's F-10 medium. It is concluded that human amniotic.

  10. One-Tube Isolation of DNA from Mouse Tails.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, Michael R; Sambrook, Joseph

    2018-02-01

    This protocol describes a variation of a simple method for isolation of DNA from mouse tails that uses commercially available gel-barrier tubes to eliminate the tedious transfer of samples during serial extractions with organic solvents. This variant is useful when processing very large numbers of samples. © 2018 Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory Press.

  11. Automated morphometry of transgenic mouse brains in MR images

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Scheenstra, Alize Elske Hiltje

    2011-01-01

    Quantitative and local morphometry of mouse brain MRI is a relatively new field of research, where automated methods can be exploited to rapidly provide accurate and repeatable results. In this thesis we reviewed several existing methods and applications of quantitative morphometry to brain MR

  12. The European dimension for the mouse genome mutagenesis

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Auwerx, J.; Avner, P.; Baldock, R.; Ballabio, A.; Balling, R.; Barbacid, M.; Berns, A.; Bradley, A.; Brown, S.; Carmeliet, P.; Chambon, P.; Cox, R.; Davidson, D.; Davies, K.; Duboule, D.; Forejt, Jiří; Granucci, F.; Hastie, N.; Angelis, M. H. de; Jackson, I.; Kioussis, D.; Kollias, G.; Lathrop, M.; Lendahl, U.; Malumbres, M.; von Melchner, H.; Müller, W.; Partanen, J.; Ricciardi-Castagnoli, P.; Rigby, P.; Rosen, B.; Rosenthal, N.; Skarnes, B.; Stewart, A. F.; Thornton, J.; Tocchini-Valentini, G.; Wagner, E.; Wahli, W.; Wurst, W.

    2004-01-01

    Roč. 16, - (2004), s. 925-927 ISSN 1061-4036 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) LN00A079 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z5052915 Keywords : The European Mouse Mutagenesis Consortium Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 24.695, year: 2004

  13. Measurements of radon activity concentration in mouse tissues and organs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishimori, Yuu; Tanaka, Hiroshi; Sakoda, Akihiro; Kataoka, Takahiro; Yamaoka, Kiyonori; Mitsunobu, Fumihiro

    2017-05-01

    The purpose of this study is to investigate the biokinetics of inhaled radon, radon activity concentrations in mouse tissues and organs were determined after mice had been exposed to about 1 MBq/m 3 of radon in air. Radon activity concentrations in mouse blood and in other tissues and organs were measured with a liquid scintillation counter and with a well-type HP Ge detector, respectively. Radon activity concentration in mouse blood was 0.410 ± 0.016 Bq/g when saturated with 1 MBq/m 3 of radon activity concentration in air. In addition, average partition coefficients obtained were 0.74 ± 0.19 for liver, 0.46 ± 0.13 for muscle, 9.09 ± 0.49 for adipose tissue, and 0.22 ± 0.04 for other organs. With these results, a value of 0.414 for the blood-to-air partition coefficient was calculated by means of our physiologically based pharmacokinetic model. The time variation of radon activity concentration in mouse blood during exposure to radon was also calculated. All results are compared in detail with those found in the literature.

  14. Social organization of the golden brown mouse lemur (Microcebus ravelobensis)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Weidt, A.; Hagenah, N.; Randrianambinina, B.; Radespiel, U.

    2004-01-01

    Our study provides the first data on the social organization of the golden brown mouse lemur, a nocturnal primate discovered in northwestern Madagascar in 1994. The study was carried out in two 6-month field periods during the dry season, covering time before and during the mating season. The

  15. Peptidomics Analysis of Transient Regeneration in the Neonatal Mouse Heart.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Yi; Zhang, Qijun; Li, Hua; Cheng, Zijie; Li, Xing; Chen, Yumei; Shen, Yahui; Wang, Liansheng; Song, Guixian; Qian, Lingmei

    2017-09-01

    Neonatal mouse hearts have completely regenerative capability after birth, but the ability to regenerate rapidly lost after 7 days, the mechanism has not been clarified. Previous studies have shown that mRNA profile of adult mouse changed greatly compared to neonatal mouse. So far, there is no research of peptidomics related to heart regeneration. In order to explore the changes of proteins, enzymes, and peptides related to the transient regeneration, we used comparative petidomics technique to compare the endogenous peptides in the mouse heart of postnatal 1 and 7 days. In final, we identified 236 differentially expressed peptides, 169 of which were upregulated and 67 were downregulated in the postnatal 1 day heart, and also predicted 36 functional peptides associated with transient regeneration. The predicted 36 candidate peptides are located in the important domains of precursor proteins and/or contain the post-transcriptional modification (PTM) sites, which are involved in the biological processes of cardiac development, cardiac muscle disease, cell proliferation, necrosis, and apoptosis. In conclusion, for the first time, we compared the peptidomics profiles of neonatal heart between postnatal 1 day and postnatal 7 day. This study provides a new direction and an important basis for the mechanism research of transient regeneration in neonatal heart. J. Cell. Biochem. 118: 2828-2840, 2017. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  16. Genes Altered by Intracisternal A Particles in Mouse Mammary Tumorigenesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    1997-07-01

    present in many mouse mammary tumors and preneoplasias, whereas little or no expression is detected in normal mammary glands from virgin, pregnant...agarose gel and gel purified using either the MERmaid isolation kit or the Geneclean isolation kit (both Bio 101) depending on the size of the amplicon. The

  17. Isolation and Proteomic Characterization of the Mouse Sperm Acrosomal Matrix*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guyonnet, Benoit; Zabet-Moghaddam, Masoud; SanFrancisco, Susan; Cornwall, Gail A.

    2012-01-01

    A critical step during fertilization is the sperm acrosome reaction in which the acrosome releases its contents allowing the spermatozoa to penetrate the egg investments. The sperm acrosomal contents are composed of both soluble material and an insoluble material called the acrosomal matrix (AM). The AM is thought to provide a stable structure from which associated proteins are differentially released during fertilization. Because of its important role during fertilization, efforts have been put toward isolating the AM for biochemical study and to date AM have been isolated from hamster, guinea pig, and bull spermatozoa. However, attempts to isolate AM from mouse spermatozoa, the species in which fertilization is well-studied, have been unsuccessful possibly because of the small size of the mouse sperm acrosome and/or its fusiform shape. Herein we describe a procedure for the isolation of the AM from caput and cauda mouse epididymal spermatozoa. We further carried out a proteomic analysis of the isolated AM from both sperm populations and identified 501 new proteins previously not detected by proteomics in mouse spermatozoa. A comparison of the AM proteome from caput and cauda spermatozoa showed that the AM undergoes maturational changes during epididymal transit similar to other sperm domains. Together, our studies suggest the AM to be a dynamic and functional structure carrying out a variety of biological processes as implied by the presence of a diverse group of proteins including proteases, chaperones, hydrolases, transporters, enzyme modulators, transferases, cytoskeletal proteins, and others. PMID:22707618

  18. Extension of gray-brown mouse lemur (Microcebus griseorufus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Habitat disturbances may impact behaviors of animals, includ- ing their activity patterns. In southwestern Madagascar ... activities including hunting of animals, illegal harvesting of plants, and clearing of land for agriculture disturb ... 2001), nocturnal mouse lemurs consume an omnivorous diet (Radespiel 2007, Atsalis 2008) ...

  19. Monitoring foam coarsening using a computer optical mouse as a ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Abstract. In this paper, we present an experimental approach to track coarsening process of foam using a computer optical mouse as a dynamic laser speckle measurement sensor. The dynamics of foam coarsening and rearrangement events cause changes in the intensity of laser speckle backscat- tered from the foam.

  20. Mouse Xenograft Model for Mesothelioma | NCI Technology Transfer Center | TTC

    Science.gov (United States)

    The National Cancer Institute is seeking parties interested in collaborative research to co-develop, evaluate, or commercialize a new mouse model for monoclonal antibodies and immunoconjugates that target malignant mesotheliomas. Applications of the technology include models for screening compounds as potential therapeutics for mesothelioma and for studying the pathology of mesothelioma.

  1. A mouse monoclonal antibody against Alexa Fluor 647.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wuethrich, Irene; Guillen, Eduardo; Ploegh, Hidde L

    2014-04-01

    Fluorophores are essential tools in molecular and cell biology. However, their application is mostly confined to the singular exploitation of their fluorescent properties. To enhance the versatility and expand the use of the fluorophore Alexa Fluor 647 (AF647), we generated a mouse monoclonal antibody against it. We demonstrate its use of AF647 for immunoblot, immunoprecipitation, and cytofluorimetry.

  2. Radioprotection by dipyridamole in the aging mouse. Effects on lipid peroxidation in mouse liver, spleen and brain after whole-body X-ray irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seino, Noritaka

    1995-01-01

    To investigate the radioprotective effect of dipyridamole in the aging mouse, the lipid peroxide content in aging mouse liver, spleen and brain irradiated by X-ray were measured both before and after injection of dipyridamole. The lipid peroxide content increased with aging from 2 months old to 16 months old in the mouse liver, spleen and brain. The content of lipid peroxide in the liver and spleen of the aging mouse was significantly increased in 7 days after whole-body irradiation with 8 Gy, but was unchanged in the brain. Dipyridamole, given before irradiation, significantly inhibited the increase of lipid peroxide after irradiation. These results suggest that dipyridamole may have radioprotective effects on aging mouse liver and spleen as well as on young mouse, and that inhibition of lipid peroxidation is a possible factor in the radioprotective effect of dipyridamole. (author)

  3. A Mouse Model for Laser-induced Choroidal Neovascularization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shah, Ronil S; Soetikno, Brian T; Lajko, Michelle; Fawzi, Amani A

    2015-12-27

    The mouse laser-induced choroidal neovascularization (CNV) model has been a crucial mainstay model for neovascular age-related macular degeneration (AMD) research. By administering targeted laser injury to the RPE and Bruch's membrane, the procedure induces angiogenesis, modeling the hallmark pathology observed in neovascular AMD. First developed in non-human primates, the laser-induced CNV model has come to be implemented into many other species, the most recent of which being the mouse. Mouse experiments are advantageously more cost-effective, experiments can be executed on a much faster timeline, and they allow the use of various transgenic models. The miniature size of the mouse eye, however, poses a particular challenge when performing the procedure. Manipulation of the eye to visualize the retina requires practice of fine dexterity skills as well as simultaneous hand-eye-foot coordination to operate the laser. However, once mastered, the model can be applied to study many aspects of neovascular AMD such as molecular mechanisms, the effect of genetic manipulations, and drug treatment effects. The laser-induced CNV model, though useful, is not a perfect model of the disease. The wild-type mouse eye is otherwise healthy, and the chorio-retinal environment does not mimic the pathologic changes in human AMD. Furthermore, injury-induced angiogenesis does not reflect the same pathways as angiogenesis occurring in an age-related and chronic disease state as in AMD. Despite its shortcomings, the laser-induced CNV model is one of the best methods currently available to study the debilitating pathology of neovascular AMD. Its implementation has led to a deeper understanding of the pathogenesis of AMD, as well as contributing to the development of many of the AMD therapies currently available.

  4. Identification of suitable reference genes in the mouse placenta.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solano, María Emilia; Thiele, Kristin; Kowal, Mirka Katharina; Arck, Petra Clara

    2016-03-01

    Quantitative real-time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR) is a reliable tool to analyse gene expression profiles. The expression of housekeeping genes generally serves as a reference for mRNA amount, assuming that it remains stable under pathophysiological and experimental conditions. To date, an empirical validation of reference genes suitable for RT-qPCR-based studies in the mouse placenta is missing. We used NormFinder and BestKeeper statistical software to analyse the expression stability of candidate housekeeping genes quantified by RT-qPCR in mouse placentas. Fifteen of 32 potential candidate housekeeping genes analysed on gestation day (gd) 16.5 in mouse placentas exhibited an optimal cycle threshold (Ct). Among them B2m, Polr2a, Ubc, and Ywhaz genes showed the highest expression stability in placentas from control, but also experimentally-challenged mice. These genes as well as the currently widely used housekeeping genes Hprt1, Actb, and Gapdh were selected for further quality assessments. We quantified the Ct values of these selected genes in placental samples obtained from wild-type or genetically engineered dams at different gds, or upon selected experimental interventions known to affect placental phenotype. Among all housekeeping genes analysed, Polr2a was the most stably expressed and its expression stability excelled in combination with Ubc. Polr2a, especially in combination with Ubc, can be proposed as highly suitable endogenous reference for gene expression analysis in mouse-derived placental tissue. Moreover, the validation of both genes as a stable reference gene in human placenta-derived tissue strengthens the translational relevance of RT-qPCR findings using mouse placenta. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Multi-tissue DNA methylation age predictor in mouse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stubbs, Thomas M; Bonder, Marc Jan; Stark, Anne-Katrien; Krueger, Felix; von Meyenn, Ferdinand; Stegle, Oliver; Reik, Wolf

    2017-04-11

    DNA methylation changes at a discrete set of sites in the human genome are predictive of chronological and biological age. However, it is not known whether these changes are causative or a consequence of an underlying ageing process. It has also not been shown whether this epigenetic clock is unique to humans or conserved in the more experimentally tractable mouse. We have generated a comprehensive set of genome-scale base-resolution methylation maps from multiple mouse tissues spanning a wide range of ages. Many CpG sites show significant tissue-independent correlations with age which allowed us to develop a multi-tissue predictor of age in the mouse. Our model, which estimates age based on DNA methylation at 329 unique CpG sites, has a median absolute error of 3.33 weeks and has similar properties to the recently described human epigenetic clock. Using publicly available datasets, we find that the mouse clock is accurate enough to measure effects on biological age, including in the context of interventions. While females and males show no significant differences in predicted DNA methylation age, ovariectomy results in significant age acceleration in females. Furthermore, we identify significant differences in age-acceleration dependent on the lipid content of the diet. Here we identify and characterise an epigenetic predictor of age in mice, the mouse epigenetic clock. This clock will be instrumental for understanding the biology of ageing and will allow modulation of its ticking rate and resetting the clock in vivo to study the impact on biological age.

  6. Mouse ribosomal RNA genes contain multiple differentially regulated variants.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hung Tseng

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Previous cytogenetic studies suggest that various rDNA chromosomal loci are not equally active in different cell types. Consistent with this variability, rDNA polymorphism is well documented in human and mouse. However, attempts to identify molecularly rDNA variant types, which are regulated individually (i.e., independent of other rDNA variants and tissue-specifically, have not been successful. We report here the molecular cloning and characterization of seven mouse rDNA variants (v-rDNA. The identification of these v-rDNAs was based on restriction fragment length polymorphisms (RFLPs, which are conserved among individuals and mouse strains. The total copy number of the identified variants is less than 100 and the copy number of each individual variant ranges from 4 to 15. Sequence analysis of the cloned v-rDNA identified variant-specific single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs in the transcribed region. These SNPs were used to develop a set of variant-specific PCR assays, which permitted analysis of the v-rDNAs' expression profiles in various tissues. These profiles show that three v-rDNAs are expressed in all tissues (constitutively active, two are expressed in some tissues (selectively active, and two are not expressed (silent. These expression profiles were observed in six individuals from three mouse strains, suggesting the pattern is not randomly determined. Thus, the mouse rDNA array likely consists of genetically distinct variants, and some are regulated tissue-specifically. Our results provide the first molecular evidence for cell-type-specific regulation of a subset of rDNA.

  7. Mouse Models of Fragile X-Associated Tremor Ataxia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berman, Robert F.; Willemsen, Rob

    2009-01-01

    Objective To describe the development of mouse models of Fragile X-associated Tremor/Ataxia (FXTAS) and the behavioral, histological and molecular characteristics of these mice. Method This paper compares the pathophysiology and neuropsychological features of FXTAS in humans to the major mouse models of FXTAS. Specifically, the development of a transgenic mouse line carrying an expanded CGG trinucleotide repeat in the 5′untranslated regions of the Fmr1 gene is described along with a description of the characteristic intranuclear ubiquitin positive inclusions and the behavioral sequella observed in these mice. Results CGG KI mice model many of the important features of FXTAS, although some aspects are not well modeled in mice. Aspects of FXTAS that are modeled well include elevated levels of Fmr1 mRNA, reduced levels of Fmrp, the presence of intranuclear inclusions that develop with age and show similar distributions within neurons, and neuropsychological and cognitive deficits, including poor motor function, impaired memory and evidence of increased anxiety. Features of FXTAS that are not well modeled in these mice include intentional tremors that are observed in some FXTAS patients but have not been reported in CGG KI mice. In addition, while intranuclear inclusions in astrocytes are very prominent in FXTAS, there are relatively few observed in CGG KI mice. A number of additional features of FXTAS have not been systematically examined in mouse models yet, including white matter disease, hyperintensities in T2-weighted MRI, and brain atrophy, although these are currently under investigation in our laboratories. Conclusion The available mouse model has provided valuable insights into the molecular biology and pathophysiology of FXTAS, and will be particularly useful for developing and testing new therapeutic treatments in the future. PMID:19574928

  8. Genetic analysis of radiation-induced mouse thymic lymphomas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kominami, R.; Wakabayashi, Y.; Niwa, O.

    2003-01-01

    Mouse thymic lymphomas are one of the classic models of radiation-induced malignancies, and the model has been used for the study of genes involved in carcinogenesis. ras oncogenes are the first isolate which undergoes mutations in 10 to 30 % of lymphomas, and p16INK4a and p19ARF in the INK4a-ARF locus are also frequently inactivated. In our previous study, the inactivation of Ikaros, a key regurator of lymphoid system, was found in those lymphomas, and it was suggested that there are other responsible genes yet to be discovered. On the other hand, genetic predisposition to radiation-induced lymphoma often differs in different strains, and this reflects the presence of low penetrance genes that can modify the impact of a given mutation. Little study of such modifiers or susceptibility genes has been performed, either. Recent availability of databases on mouse genome information and the power of mouse genetic system underline usefulness of the lymphoma model in search for novel genes involved, which may provide clues to molecular mechanisms of development of the radiogenic lymphoma and also genes involved in human lymphomas and other malignancies. Accordingly, we have carried out positional cloning for the two different types of tumor-related genes. In this symposium, our current progress is presented that includes genetic mapping of susceptibility/ resistance loci on mouse chromosomes 4, 5 and 19, and also functional analysis of a novel tumor suppressor gene, Rit1/Bcl11b, that has been isolated from allelic loss (LOH) mapping and sequence analysis for γ -ray induced mouse thymic lymphomas

  9. Indirubin Treatment of Lipopolysaccharide-Induced Mastitis in a Mouse Model and Activity in Mouse Mammary Epithelial Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lai, Jin-Lun; Liu, Yu-Hui; Peng, Yong-Chong; Ge, Pan; He, Chen-Fei; Liu, Chang; Chen, Ying-Yu; Guo, Ai-Zhen; Hu, Chang-Min

    2017-01-01

    Indirubin is a Chinese medicine extracted from indigo and known to be effective for treating chronic myelogenous leukemia, neoplasia, and inflammatory disease. This study evaluated the in vivo anti-inflammatory activity of indirubin in a lipopolysaccharide- (LPS-) induced mouse mastitis model. The indirubin mechanism and targets were evaluated in vitro in mouse mammary epithelial cells. In the mouse model, indirubin significantly attenuated the severity of inflammatory lesions, edema, inflammatory hyperemia, milk stasis and local tissue necrosis, and neutrophil infiltration. Indirubin significantly decreased myeloperoxidase activity and downregulated the production of tumor necrosis factor- α , interleukin-1 β (IL-1 β ), and IL-6 caused by LPS. In vitro, indirubin inhibited LPS-stimulated expression of proinflammatory cytokines in a dose-dependent manner. It also downregulated LPS-induced toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) expression and inhibited phosphorylation of LPS-induced nuclear transcription factor-kappa B (NF- κ B) P65 protein and inhibitor of kappa B. In addition to its effect on the NF- κ B signaling pathway, indirubin suppressed the mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) signaling by inhibiting phosphorylation of extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK), P38, and c-jun NH2-terminal kinase (JNK). Indirubin improved LPS-induced mouse mastitis by suppressing TLR4 and downstream NF- κ B and MAPK pathway inflammatory signals and might be a potential treatment of mastitis and other inflammatory diseases.

  10. Mouse Obox and Crxos modulate preimplantation transcriptional profiles revealing similarity between paralogous mouse and human homeobox genes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amy H. Royall

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background ETCHbox genes are eutherian-specific homeobox genes expressed during preimplantation development at a time when the first cell lineage decisions are being made. The mouse has an unusual repertoire of ETCHbox genes with several gene families lost in evolution and the remaining two, Crxos and Obox, greatly divergent in sequence and number. Each has undergone duplication to give a double homeodomain Crxos locus and a large cluster of over 60 Obox loci. The gene content differences between species raise important questions about how evolution can tolerate loss of genes implicated in key developmental events. Results We find that Crxos internal duplication occurred in the mouse lineage, while Obox duplication was stepwise, generating subgroups with distinct sequence and expression. Ectopic expression of three Obox genes and a Crxos transcript in primary mouse embryonic cells followed by transcriptome sequencing allowed investigation into their functional roles. We find distinct transcriptomic influences for different Obox subgroups and Crxos, including modulation of genes related to zygotic genome activation and preparation for blastocyst formation. Comparison with similar experiments performed using human homeobox genes reveals striking overlap between genes downstream of mouse Crxos and genes downstream of human ARGFX. Conclusions Mouse Crxos and human ARGFX homeobox genes are paralogous rather than orthologous, yet they have evolved to regulate a common set of genes. This suggests there was compensation of function alongside gene loss through co-option of a different locus. Functional compensation by non-orthologous genes with dissimilar sequences is unusual but may indicate underlying distributed robustness. Compensation may be driven by the strong evolutionary pressure for successful early embryo development.

  11. ATM localization and gene expression in the adult mouse eye.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leemput, Julia; Masson, Christel; Bigot, Karine; Errachid, Abdelmounaim; Dansault, Anouk; Provost, Alexandra; Gadin, Stéphanie; Aoufouchi, Said; Menasche, Maurice; Abitbol, Marc

    2009-01-01

    High levels of metabolism and oxygen consumption in most adult murine ocular compartments, combined with exposure to light and ultraviolet (UV) radiation, are major sources of oxidative stress, causing DNA damage in ocular cells. Of all mammalian body cells, photoreceptor cells consume the largest amount of oxygen and generate the highest levels of oxidative damage. The accumulation of such damage throughout life is a major factor of aging tissues. Several multiprotein complexes have recently been identified as the major sensors and mediators involved in the maintenance of DNA integrity. The activity of these complexes initially seemed to be restricted to dividing cells, given their ultimate role in major cell cycle checkpoints. However, it was later established that they are also active in post-mitotic cells. Recent findings demonstrate that the DNA damage response (DDR) is essential for the development, maintenance, and normal functioning of the adult central nervous system. One major molecular factor in the DDR is the protein, ataxia telangiectasia mutated (ATM). It is required for the rapid induction of cellular responses to DNA double-strand breaks. These cytotoxic DNA lesions may be caused by oxidative damage. To understand how ATM prevents oxidative stress and participates in the maintenance of genomic integrity and cell viability of the adult retina, we determined the ATM expression patterns and studied its localization in the adult mouse eye. Atm gene expression was analyzed by RT-PCR experiments and its localization by in situ hybridization on adult mouse ocular and cerebellar tissue sections. ATM protein expression was determined by western blot analysis of proteins homogenates extracted from several mouse tissues and its localization by immunohistochemistry experiments performed on adult mouse ocular and cerebellar tissue sections. In addition, subcellular localization was realized by confocal microscopy imaging of ocular tissue sections, with a special

  12. Diffusion tensor imaging using multiple coils for mouse brain connectomics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nouls, John C; Badea, Alexandra; Anderson, Robert B J; Cofer, Gary P; Allan Johnson, G

    2018-04-19

    The correlation between brain connectivity and psychiatric or neurological diseases has intensified efforts to develop brain connectivity mapping techniques on mouse models of human disease. The neural architecture of mouse brain specimens can be shown non-destructively and three-dimensionally by diffusion tensor imaging, which enables tractography, the establishment of a connectivity matrix and connectomics. However, experiments on cohorts of animals can be prohibitively long. To improve throughput in a 7-T preclinical scanner, we present a novel two-coil system in which each coil is shielded, placed off-isocenter along the axis of the magnet and connected to a receiver circuit of the scanner. Preservation of the quality factor of each coil is essential to signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) performance and throughput, because mouse brain specimen imaging at 7 T takes place in the coil-dominated noise regime. In that regime, we show a shielding configuration causing no SNR degradation in the two-coil system. To acquire data from several coils simultaneously, the coils are placed in the magnet bore, around the isocenter, in which gradient field distortions can bias diffusion tensor imaging metrics, affect tractography and contaminate measurements of the connectivity matrix. We quantified the experimental alterations in fractional anisotropy and eigenvector direction occurring in each coil. We showed that, when the coils were placed 12 mm away from the isocenter, measurements of the brain connectivity matrix appeared to be minimally altered by gradient field distortions. Simultaneous measurements on two mouse brain specimens demonstrated a full doubling of the diffusion tensor imaging throughput in practice. Each coil produced images devoid of shading or artifact. To further improve the throughput of mouse brain connectomics, we suggested a future expansion of the system to four coils. To better understand acceptable trade-offs between imaging throughput and connectivity

  13. Assisting People with Multiple Disabilities and Minimal Motor Behavior to Improve Computer Pointing Efficiency through a Mouse Wheel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shih, Ching-Hsiang; Chang, Man-Ling; Shih, Ching-Tien

    2009-01-01

    This study evaluated whether two people with multiple disabilities and minimal motor behavior would be able to improve their pointing performance using finger poke ability with a mouse wheel through a Dynamic Pointing Assistive Program (DPAP) and a newly developed mouse driver (i.e., a new mouse driver replaces standard mouse driver, changes a…

  14. Expression of mouse agrin in normal, denervated and dystrophic muscle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eusebio, Alexander; Oliveri, Filippo; Barzaghi, Patrizia; Ruegg, Markus A

    2003-06-01

    Agrin is a heparan sulfate proteoglycan that is required for the development of postsynaptic specializations at the neuromuscular junction. An alternatively spliced isoform of agrin that lacks this activity is found in basement membranes of several tissues including embryonic muscle. Overexpression of a miniaturized form of this agrin isoform ameliorates the severe muscle dystrophy of laminin alpha2-deficient mice, a mouse model for merosin-deficient congenital muscle dystrophy. Several lines of evidence indicate that this amelioration is based on the high-affinity binding of the mini-agrin to the laminins and to alpha-dystroglycan. Here, we used antibodies raised against mouse agrin to evaluate protein expression in adult muscle of normal and dystrophic mice. We find that expression of agrin in non-synaptic region varies greatly between different muscles in wild-type mice and that its levels are altered in dystrophic muscle.

  15. Computerized assessment of social approach behavior in mouse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Damon T Page

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Altered sociability is a core feature of a variety of human neurological disorders, including autism. Social behaviors may be tested in animal models, such as mice, to study the biological bases of sociability and how this is altered in neurodevelopmental disorders. An easily quantifiable social behavior frequently used to assess sociability in the mouse is the tendency to approach and interact with an unfamiliar mouse. Here we present a novel computer-assisted method for scoring social approach behavior in mice using a three-chambered apparatus. We find consistent results between data scored using the computer assisted method and a human observer, making computerized assessment a reliable, low cost, high-throughput method for testing sociability.

  16. Mouse Models of Allergic Diseases: TSLP and Its Functional Roles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miyuki Omori-Miyake

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The cytokine TSLP was originally identified in a murine thymic stromal cell line as a lymphoid growth factor. After the discovery of TSLP, extensive molecular genetic analyses and gene targeting experiments have demonstrated that TSLP plays an essential role in allergic diseases. In this review, we discuss the current status of TSLP and its functional role in allergic diseases particularly by focusing on effects of TSLP on haematopoietic cells in mouse models. It is our conclusion that a number of research areas, i.e., a new source of TSLP, effects of TSLP on non-haematopoietic and haematopoietic cells, synergistic interactions of cytokines including IL-25 and IL-33 and a regulation of TSLP expression and its function, are critically needed to understand the whole picture of TSLP involvement in allergic diseases. The mouse models will thus contribute further to our understanding of TSLP involvement in allergic diseases and development of therapeutic measures for human allergic diseases.

  17. Mouse models of myeloproliferative neoplasms: JAK of all grades

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Li

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available In 2005, several groups identified a single gain-of-function point mutation in the JAK2 kinase that was present in the majority of patients with myeloproliferative neoplasms (MPNs. Since this discovery, much effort has been dedicated to understanding the molecular consequences of the JAK2V617F mutation in the haematopoietic system. Three waves of mouse models have been produced recently (bone marrow transplantation, transgenic and targeted knock-in, which have facilitated the understanding of the molecular pathogenesis of JAK2V617F-positive MPNs, providing potential platforms for designing and validating novel therapies in humans. This Commentary briefly summarises the first two types of mouse models and then focuses on the more recently generated knock-in models.

  18. Isotropic Optical Mouse Placement for Mobile Robot Velocity Estimation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sungbok Kim

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the isotropic placement of multiple optical mice for the velocity estimation of a mobile robot. It is assumed that there can be positional restriction on the installation of optical mice at the bottom of a mobile robot. First, the velocity kinematics of a mobile robot with an array of optical mice is obtained and the resulting Jacobian matrix is analysed symbolically. Second, the isotropic, anisotropic and singular optical mouse placements are identified, along with the corresponding characteristic lengths. Third, the least squares mobile robot velocity estimation from the noisy optical mouse velocity measurements is discussed. Finally, simulation results for several different placements of three optical mice are given.

  19. Three-Dimensional Reconstruction of the Mouse Nephron

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhai, Xiao-Yue; Thomsen, Jesper Skovhus; Birn, Henrik

    2006-01-01

    Renal function is crucially dependent on renal microstructure which provides the basis for the regulatory mechanisms that control the transport of water and solutes between filtrate and plasma and the urinary concentration. This study provides new, detailed information on mouse renal architecture...... and collecting ducts was performed on aligned digital images, obtained from 2.5-µm-thick serial sections of mouse kidneys. Important new findings were highlighted: (1) A tortuous course of the descending thin limbs of long-looped nephrons and a winding course of the thick ascending limbs of short-looped nephrons......-looped nephron bends were identified to relate to the length and the position of the nephron and its corresponding glomerulus. The ultrastructure of the tubule segments was identified and suggests important implications for renal transport mechanisms that should be considered when evaluating the segmental...

  20. Flexible Piezoelectric Energy Harvesting from Mouse Click Motions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Youngsu Cha

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we study energy harvesting from the mouse click motions of a robot finger and a human index finger using a piezoelectric material. The feasibility of energy harvesting from mouse click motions is experimentally and theoretically assessed. The fingers wear a glove with a pocket for including the piezoelectric material. We model the energy harvesting system through the inverse kinematic framework of parallel joints in a finger and the electromechanical coupling equations of the piezoelectric material. The model is validated through energy harvesting experiments in the robot and human fingers with the systematically varying load resistance. We find that energy harvesting is maximized at the matched load resistance to the impedance of the piezoelectric material, and the harvested energy level is tens of nJ.

  1. Life history and bioeconomy of the house mouse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berry, R J; Bronson, F H

    1992-11-01

    1. More is known about the western European house mouse, Mus (musculus) domesticus than any other non-human mammal. If laboratory and field information is combined, an extremely valuable understanding of the species' bioeconomy could be obtained. 2. The seven stages of mouse life-history are surveyed (up to birth, nest life, sex life, social structure, population statics and stability, senescence, and death), and the interactions between the changing phenotype and the environment are described. 3. These interactions can be used to build up a model of the opportunities and compromises which result in the fitness of individual mice. It is not yet possible to quantify such a model, but this should in principle be achievable.

  2. Carboxylesterases in lipid metabolism: from mouse to human

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jihong Lian

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Mammalian carboxylesterases hydrolyze a wide range of xenobiotic and endogenous compounds, including lipid esters. Physiological functions of carboxylesterases in lipid metabolism and energy homeostasis in vivo have been demonstrated by genetic manipulations and chemical inhibition in mice, and in vitro through (overexpression, knockdown of expression, and chemical inhibition in a variety of cells. Recent research advances have revealed the relevance of carboxylesterases to metabolic diseases such as obesity and fatty liver disease, suggesting these enzymes might be potential targets for treatment of metabolic disorders. In order to translate pre-clinical studies in cellular and mouse models to humans, differences and similarities of carboxylesterases between mice and human need to be elucidated. This review presents and discusses the research progress in structure and function of mouse and human carboxylesterases, and the role of these enzymes in lipid metabolism and metabolic disorders.

  3. Transgenic mouse - Methods and protocols, 2nd edition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlo Alberto Redi

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Marten H. Hofner (from the Dept. of Pathology of the Groningen University and Jan M. van Deursen (from the Mayo College of Medicine at Rochester, MN, USA provided us with the valuable second edition of Transgenic mouse: in fact, eventhough we are in the –omics era and already equipped with the state-of-the-art techniques in whatsoever field, still we need to have gene(s functional analysis data to understand common and complex deseases. Transgenesis is still an irreplaceable method and protocols to well perform it are more than welcome. Here, how to get genetic modified mice (the quintessential model of so many human deseases considering how much of the human genes are conserved in the mouse and the great block of genic synteny existing between the two genomes is analysed in deep and presented in clearly detailed step by step protocols....

  4. Gain and frequency tuning within the mouse cochlear apex

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oghalai, John S.; Raphael, Patrick D. [Department of Otolaryngology, Stanford University School of Medicine, Stanford, California (United States); Gao, Simon [Department of Otolaryngology, Stanford University School of Medicine, Stanford, California (United States); Department of Bioengineering, Rice University, Houston, Texas (United States); Lee, Hee Yoon [Department of Otolaryngology, Stanford University School of Medicine, Stanford, California (United States); Department of Electrical Engineering, Stanford University, Stanford, California (United States); Groves, Andrew K. [Department of Neuroscience, Department of Molecular and Human Genetics, and Program in Developmental Biology, Baylor College of Medicine, Houston, Texas (United States); Zuo, Jian [Department of Developmental Neurobiology, St. Jude Children’s Research Hospital, Memphis, Tennessee (United States); Applegate, Brian E. [Department of Biomedical Engineering, Texas A& M University, College Station, Texas (United States)

    2015-12-31

    Normal mammalian hearing requires cochlear outer hair cell active processes that amplify the traveling wave with high gain and sharp tuning, termed cochlear amplification. We have used optical coherence tomography to study cochlear amplification within the apical turn of the mouse cochlea. We measured not only classical basilar membrane vibratory tuning curves but also vibratory responses from the rest of the tissues that compose the organ of Corti. Basilar membrane tuning was sharp in live mice and broad in dead mice, whereas other regions of the organ of Corti demonstrated phase shifts consistent with additional filtering beyond that provided by basilar membrane mechanics. We use these experimental data to support a conceptual framework of how cochlear amplification is tuned within the mouse cochlear apex. We will also study transgenic mice with targeted mutations that affect different biomechanical aspects of the organ of Corti in an effort to localize the underlying processes that produce this additional filtering.

  5. Genetic regulation of systemic angiogenesis in the mouse lung.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitzner, W; Srisuma, S; Wagner, E

    2003-10-01

    The work in this study takes advantage of a new experimental model in the mouse that completely isolates the angiogenic process from the direct effects of ischemia. The model also leads to lung angiogenesis that mimics the vascular source of many lung pathologies, and allows investigation of the temporal and spatial factors that can promote or inhibit angiogenesis. This work describes the expression patterns of genes relevant to pro-angiogenic signals and conditions in response to ischemia in the lung. The most notable changes were increases in the expression of genes involved in inflammation and tissue remodeling. In particular, the results confirm a important role of ELR+ CXC chemokines as proangiogenic signals. In addition, the experimental findings in this mouse lung model show that lung ischemia, rather than hypoxia, is the essential trigger for angiogenesis. Results from this model also suggest potential approaches for determining critical pathways and potential therapeutic strategies related to the control of angiogenesis.

  6. Giant renin secretory granules in beige mouse renal afferent arterioles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, B L; Rasch, Ruth; Nyengaard, Jens Randel

    1997-01-01

    The mutant beige mouse (C57BL/6 bg) has a disease characterised by abnormally enlarged cytoplasmic granules in a variety of cells. With the purpose of establishing a suitable cellular model for studying renin secretion, the present study was undertaken to compare renin granule morphology in beige.......5+/-0.3 mGoldblatt units/ml). The total volume of renin granules per afferent arteriole was similar in the two mice strains (1114 microm3 in the controls and 1507 microm3 in the beige mice). The total number of renin granules per arteriole as assessed by stereological techniques was about 1900 in controls...... (average granular volume 0.681 microm3), whereas 1-2 large granules were present per cell in beige mice. The volume of afferent arteriole that contained secretory granules was lower in the beige mice. We conclude that the beige mouse synthesizes, stores and releases active renin. Renin secretory granules...

  7. How age affects pointing with mouse and touchpad

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hertzum, Morten; Hornbæk, Kasper

    2010-01-01

    pointing with mouse and touchpad. The goal is to provide an integrated analysis of (a) how these three age groups differ in pointing performance, (b) how these differences are affected by the two pointing devices, and (c) how the submovement structure of cursor trajectories may explain performance...... neither more nor less errors than young and adult participants. All three age groups were slower and made more errors with the touchpad than the mouse, but the touchpad slowed down elderly participants more than young participants, who in turn were slowed down more than adult participants. Adult......Effects of age on pointing performance have become increasingly important as computers have become extensively used by still larger parts of the population. This study empirically investigates young (12-14 years), adult (25-33 years), and elderly (61-69 years) participants' performance when...

  8. Transcriptomic profiling of trichloroethylene exposure in male mouse liver

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yan Jiang

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Chronic Trichloroethylene (TCE exposure could induce hepatocellular carcinoma in mice, and occupational exposure in humans was suggested to be associated with liver cancer. To understand the role of non-genotoxic mechanism(s for TCE action, we examined the gene expression and DNA methylation changes in the liver of B6C3F1 mice orally administered with TCE for 5 days. As a beginning step, we profiled gene expression alterations induced by the TCE in mouse livers. Here we describe in detail the experimental methods, quality controls, and other information associated with our data deposited into Gene Expression Omnibus (GEO under GSE58819. Our data provide useful information for gene expression responses to TCE in mouse liver.

  9. Zicam-induced damage to mouse and human nasal tissue.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jae H Lim

    Full Text Available Intranasal medications are used to treat various nasal disorders. However, their effects on olfaction remain unknown. Zicam (zinc gluconate; Matrixx Initiatives, Inc, a homeopathic substance marketed to alleviate cold symptoms, has been implicated in olfactory dysfunction. Here, we investigated Zicam and several common intranasal agents for their effects on olfactory function. Zicam was the only substance that showed significant cytotoxicity in both mouse and human nasal tissue. Specifically, Zicam-treated mice had disrupted sensitivity of olfactory sensory neurons to odorant stimulation and were unable to detect novel odorants in behavioral testing. These findings were long-term as no recovery of function was observed after two months. Finally, human nasal explants treated with Zicam displayed significantly elevated extracellular lactate dehydrogenase levels compared to saline-treated controls, suggesting severe necrosis that was confirmed on histology. Our results demonstrate that Zicam use could irreversibly damage mouse and human nasal tissue and may lead to significant smell dysfunction.

  10. Mouse models of colorectal cancer as preclinical models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buczacki, Simon J.A.; Arends, Mark J.; Adams, David J.

    2015-01-01

    In this review, we discuss the application of mouse models to the identification and pre‐clinical validation of novel therapeutic targets in colorectal cancer, and to the search for early disease biomarkers. Large‐scale genomic, transcriptomic and epigenomic profiling of colorectal carcinomas has led to the identification of many candidate genes whose direct contribution to tumourigenesis is yet to be defined; we discuss the utility of cross‐species comparative ‘omics‐based approaches to this problem. We highlight recent progress in modelling late‐stage disease using mice, and discuss ways in which mouse models could better recapitulate the complexity of human cancers to tackle the problem of therapeutic resistance and recurrence after surgical resection. PMID:26115037

  11. Automatic Detection of Wild-type Mouse Cranial Sutures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ólafsdóttir, Hildur; Darvann, Tron Andre; Hermann, Nuno V.

    , automatic detection of the cranial sutures becomes important. We have previously built a craniofacial, wild-type mouse atlas from a set of 10 Micro CT scans using a B-spline-based nonrigid registration method by Rueckert et al. Subsequently, all volumes were registered nonrigidly to the atlas. Using...... these transformations, any annotation on the atlas can automatically be transformed back to all cases. For this study, two rounds of tracing seven of the cranial sutures, were performed on the atlas by one observer. The average of the two rounds was automatically propagated to all the cases. For validation......, the observer traced the sutures on each of the mouse volumes as well. The observer outperforms the automatic approach by approximately 0.1 mm. All mice have similar errors while the suture error plots reveal that suture 1 and 2 are cumbersome, both for the observer and the automatic approach. These sutures can...

  12. Fast and Reliable Mouse Picking Using Graphics Hardware

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hanli Zhao

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Mouse picking is the most commonly used intuitive operation to interact with 3D scenes in a variety of 3D graphics applications. High performance for such operation is necessary in order to provide users with fast responses. This paper proposes a fast and reliable mouse picking algorithm using graphics hardware for 3D triangular scenes. Our approach uses a multi-layer rendering algorithm to perform the picking operation in linear time complexity. The objectspace based ray-triangle intersection test is implemented in a highly parallelized geometry shader. After applying the hardware-supported occlusion queries, only a small number of objects (or sub-objects are rendered in subsequent layers, which accelerates the picking efficiency. Experimental results demonstrate the high performance of our novel approach. Due to its simplicity, our algorithm can be easily integrated into existing real-time rendering systems.

  13. Vibrational properties characterization of mouse embryo during microinjection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hedrih Anđelka N.

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available To determine the vibration characteristics (natural frequencies and mode shapes of a mouse embryo during microinjection the modal analysis is used. The spherical mouse embryo 60 μm in diameter is modeled as elastic finite elements biostructure consisting of 6μm thick micromembrane and 38 μm in diameter nucleus. Embryo modeling and modal analysis were based on the use of the finite elements method in the modal analysis system of ANSYS software. The modal analysis was carried out for first six modes of embryo natural frequencies. The numerical analysis of dependence of embryo own frequencies on the boundary conditions and external loads are presented. The relevant illustrations of the typical variations of the shape, deformation and particle velocities of vibrating embryo are given. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. OI174001: Dynamics of hybrid systems with complex structures: Mechanics of materials

  14. A dose-surviving fraction curve for mouse colonic mucosa

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tucker, S.L.; Thames, H.D. Jr.; Withers, H.R.; Mason, K.A.

    1983-01-01

    A dose-surviving fraction curve representing the response of the mouse colonic mucosa to single doses of 137 Cs gamma radiation was obtained from the results of a multifraction in vivo colony assay. Construction of the curve required an estimated of the average number of clonogens initially present per colonic crypt. The estimated clonogen count (88) was determined by a statistical method based on the use of doses per fraction common to different fractionation protocols. Parameters for the LQ and TC models of cell survival were obtained by weighted least-squares fits to the data. A comparison of the survival characteristics of cells from the mouse colonic and jejunal crypts suggested that the epithelium of the colon is less radiosensitive than that of the jejunum. (author)

  15. Isolation, culture and genetic manipulation of mouse pancreatic ductal cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reichert, Maximilian; Takano, Shigetsugu; Heeg, Steffen; Bakir, Basil; Botta, Gregory P; Rustgi, Anil K

    2013-01-01

    The most common subtype of pancreatic cancer is pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC). PDAC resembles duct cells morphologically and, to some extent, at a molecular level. Recently, genetic-lineage labeling has become popular in the field of tumor biology in order to study cell-fate decisions or to trace cancer cells in the mouse. However, certain biological questions require a nongenetic labeling approach to purify a distinct cell population in the pancreas. Here we describe a protocol for isolating mouse pancreatic ductal epithelial cells and ductlike cells directly in vivo using ductal-specific Dolichos biflorus agglutinin (DBA) lectin labeling followed by magnetic bead separation. Isolated cells can be cultured (in two or three dimensions), manipulated by lentiviral transduction to modulate gene expression and directly used for molecular studies. This approach is fast (~4 h), affordable, results in cells with high viability, can be performed on the bench and is applicable to virtually all genetic and nongenetic disease models of the pancreas.

  16. Functional analysis of limb transcriptional enhancers in the mouse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nolte, Mark J; Wang, Ying; Deng, Jian Min; Swinton, Paul G; Wei, Caimiao; Guindani, Michele; Schwartz, Robert J; Behringer, Richard R

    2014-01-01

    Transcriptional enhancers are genomic sequences bound by transcription factors that act together with basal transcriptional machinery to regulate gene transcription. Several high-throughput methods have generated large datasets of tissue-specific enhancer sequences with putative roles in developmental processes. However, few enhancers have been deleted from the genome to determine their roles in development. To understand the roles of two enhancers active in the mouse embryonic limb bud we deleted them from the genome. Although the genes regulated by these enhancers are unknown, they were selected because they were identified in a screen for putative limb bud-specific enhancers associated with p300, an acetyltransferase that participates in protein complexes that promote active transcription, and because the orthologous human enhancers (H1442 and H280) drive distinct lacZ expression patterns in limb buds of embryonic day (E) 11.5 transgenic mice. We show that the orthologous mouse sequences, M1442 and M280, regulate dynamic expression in the developing limb. Although significant transcriptional differences in enhancer-proximal genes in embryonic limb buds accompany the deletion of M1442 and M280 no gross limb malformations during embryonic development were observed, demonstrating that M1442 and M280 are not required for mouse limb development. However, M280 is required for the development and/or maintenance of body size; M280 mice are significantly smaller than controls. M280 also harbors an "ultraconserved" sequence that is identical between human, rat, and mouse. This is the first report of a phenotype resulting from the deletion of an ultraconserved element. These studies highlight the importance of determining enhancer regulatory function by experiments that manipulate them in situ and suggest that some of an enhancer's regulatory capacities may be developmentally tolerated rather than developmentally required. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  17. TFCat: the curated catalog of mouse and human transcription factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fulton, Debra L; Sundararajan, Saravanan; Badis, Gwenael; Hughes, Timothy R; Wasserman, Wyeth W; Roach, Jared C; Sladek, Rob

    2009-01-01

    Unravelling regulatory programs governed by transcription factors (TFs) is fundamental to understanding biological systems. TFCat is a catalog of mouse and human TFs based on a reliable core collection of annotations obtained by expert review of the scientific literature. The collection, including proven and homology-based candidate TFs, is annotated within a function-based taxonomy and DNA-binding proteins are organized within a classification system. All data and user-feedback mechanisms are available at the TFCat portal . PMID:19284633

  18. A unified gene catalog for the laboratory mouse reference genome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Y; Richardson, J E; Hale, P; Baldarelli, R M; Reed, D J; Recla, J M; Sinclair, R; Reddy, T B K; Bult, C J

    2015-08-01

    We report here a semi-automated process by which mouse genome feature predictions and curated annotations (i.e., genes, pseudogenes, functional RNAs, etc.) from Ensembl, NCBI and Vertebrate Genome Annotation database (Vega) are reconciled with the genome features in the Mouse Genome Informatics (MGI) database (http://www.informatics.jax.org) into a comprehensive and non-redundant catalog. Our gene unification method employs an algorithm (fjoin--feature join) for efficient detection of genome coordinate overlaps among features represented in two annotation data sets. Following the analysis with fjoin, genome features are binned into six possible categories (1:1, 1:0, 0:1, 1:n, n:1, n:m) based on coordinate overlaps. These categories are subsequently prioritized for assessment of annotation equivalencies and differences. The version of the unified catalog reported here contains more than 59,000 entries, including 22,599 protein-coding coding genes, 12,455 pseudogenes, and 24,007 other feature types (e.g., microRNAs, lincRNAs, etc.). More than 23,000 of the entries in the MGI gene catalog have equivalent gene models in the annotation files obtained from NCBI, Vega, and Ensembl. 12,719 of the features are unique to NCBI relative to Ensembl/Vega; 11,957 are unique to Ensembl/Vega relative to NCBI, and 3095 are unique to MGI. More than 4000 genome features fall into categories that require manual inspection to resolve structural differences in the gene models from different annotation sources. Using the MGI unified gene catalog, researchers can easily generate a comprehensive report of mouse genome features from a single source and compare the details of gene and transcript structure using MGI's mouse genome browser.

  19. Transcriptional Repression of Catalase in Mouse Skin Tumor Progression

    OpenAIRE

    Kwei, Kevin A.; Finch, Joanne S.; Thompson, Eric J.; Bowden, G. Tim

    2004-01-01

    Previous studies in our laboratory have shown that the elevation of reactive oxygen species levels and the repression of the antioxidant enzyme, catalase, played a critical role in the in vitro progression of benign papilloma cells to malignant carcinoma cells. Catalase message, protein levels, and activity levels were found to be downregulated in the malignantly progressed cells. The goal of this study is to further characterize the repression of catalase in malignant progression of mouse sk...

  20. Transcriptional Repression of Catalase in Mouse Skin Tumor Progression1

    OpenAIRE

    Kwei, Kevin A; Finch, Joanne S; Thompson, Eric J; Bowden, G Tim

    2004-01-01

    Previous studies in our laboratory have shown that the elevation of reactive oxygen species levels and the repression of the antioxidant enzyme, catalase, played a critical role in the in vitro progression of benign papilloma cells to malignant carcinoma cells. Catalase message, protein levels, and activity levels were found to be downregulated in the malignantly progressed cells. The goal of this study is to further characterize the repression of catalase in malignant progression of mouse sk...

  1. Cryopreservation of mouse embryos by ethylene glycol-based vitrification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mochida, Keiji; Hasegawa, Ayumi; Taguma, Kyuichi; Yoshiki, Atsushi; Ogura, Atsuo

    2011-11-18

    Cryopreservation of mouse embryos is a technological basis that supports biomedical sciences, because many strains of mice have been produced by genetic modifications and the number is consistently increasing year by year. Its technical development started with slow freezing methods in the 1970s(1), then followed by vitrification methods developed in the late 1980s(2). Generally, the latter technique is advantageous in its quickness, simplicity, and high survivability of recovered embryos. However, the cryoprotectants contained are highly toxic and may affect subsequent embryo development. Therefore, the technique was not applicable to certain strains of mice, even when the solutions are cooled to 4°C to mitigate the toxic effect during embryo handling. At the RIKEN BioResource Center, more than 5000 mouse strains with different genetic backgrounds and phenotypes are maintained(3), and therefore we have optimized a vitrification technique with which we can cryopreserve embryos from many different strains of mice, with the benefits of high embryo survival after vitrifying and thawing (or liquefying, more precisely) at the ambient temperature(4). Here, we present a vitrification method for mouse embryos that has been successfully used at our center. The cryopreservation solution contains ethylene glycol instead of DMSO to minimize the toxicity to embryos(5). It also contains Ficoll and sucrose for prevention of devitrification and osmotic adjustment, respectively. Embryos can be handled at room temperature and transferred into liquid nitrogen within 5 min. Because the original method was optimized for plastic straws as containers, we have slightly modified the protocol for cryotubes, which are more easily accessible in laboratories and more resistant to physical damages. We also describe the procedure of thawing vitrified embryos in detail because it is a critical step for efficient recovery of live mice. These methodologies would be helpful to researchers and

  2. Genetic and epigenetic control of early mouse development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Albert, Mareike; Peters, Antoine H F M

    2009-01-01

    A decade after cloning the sheep Dolly, the induction of pluripotency by transcription factors has further revolutionized the possibilities of reprogramming a cell's identity, with exciting prospects for personalized medicine. Establishing totipotency during natural reproduction remains, however......, exceedingly more efficient than in reproductive cloning or in transcription factor-based reprogramming. Understanding the molecular mechanisms directing acquisition of totipotency during early embryogenesis may enable optimization of protocols for induced reprogramming. Recent studies in mouse embryonic stem...

  3. Mechanisms of gender-specific regulation of mouse sulfotransferases (Sults)

    OpenAIRE

    Alnouti, Yazen; Klaassen, Curtis D.

    2010-01-01

    Marked gender differences in the expression of sulfotransferases (Sults) are known to exist in several species including rats, mice and hamsters. However, the mechanism for this gender difference is not known. Therefore, in the present study, it was determined whether sex and/or growth hormone (GH) are responsible for the gender difference in the expression of Sults using gonadectomized (GNX), hypophysectomized (HX) and GH-releasing hormone receptor-deficient little (lit/lit) mouse models.Sul...

  4. Coevolution of Cryptosporidium tyzzeri and the house mouse (Mus musculus)

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kváč, Martin; McEvoy, J.; Loudová, M.; Stenger, B.; Sak, Bohumil; Květoňová, Dana; Ditrich, Oleg; Rašková, Veronika; Moriarty, E.; Rost, M.; Macholán, Miloš; Piálek, Jaroslav

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 43, č. 10 (2013), s. 805-817 ISSN 0020-7519 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA206/08/0640; GA MŠk(CZ) LH11061 Institutional support: RVO:60077344 ; RVO:67985904 ; RVO:68081766 Keywords : Cryptosporidium tyzzeri * house mouse * hybrid zone * coevolution Subject RIV: EG - Zoology; GJ - Animal Vermins ; Diseases, Veterinary Medicine (BC-A) Impact factor: 3.404, year: 2013

  5. Mouse oocytes nucleoli rescue embryonic development of porcine enucleolated oocytes

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Morovic, M.; Strejček, F.; Nakagawa, S.; Deshmukh, R.S.; Murin, M.; Benc, M.; Fulka, Helena; Kyogoku, H.; Pendovski, L.; Fulka, J.; Laurinčik, Jozef

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 25, č. 6 (2017), s. 675-685 ISSN 0967-1994 R&D Projects: GA MŠk EF15_003/0000460 Institutional support: RVO:68378050 ; RVO:67985904 Keywords : Embryo * Interspecies nucleolar transfer * Mouse * Nucleolus * Olcytes * Pig Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology OBOR OECD: Reproductive biology (medical aspects to be 3); Developmental biology (UZFG-Y) Impact factor: 1.053, year: 2016

  6. Treatment of D-galactose induced mouse aging with Lycium ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Compared with model group, after mice drank LBP, the times of electric shock was less than aging mice (in which, the high-dose LBP group, P<0.05), and electric shock incubation period was longer (P<0.01). On Day 45 after modelling and drug administration, the contents of LPO, LF and MAO-B in mouse brain tissue in the ...

  7. The Pathology of EMT in Mouse Mammary Tumorigenesis

    OpenAIRE

    Cardiff, Robert Darrell

    2010-01-01

    Epithelial-mesenchymal-transition (EMT) tumorigenesis in the mouse was first described over 100?years ago using various terms such as carcinosarcoma and without any comprehension of the underlying mechanisms. Such tumors have been considered artifacts of transplantation and of tissue culture. Recently, EMT tumors have been recognized in mammary glands of genetically engineered mice. This review provides a historical perspective leading to the current status in the context of some of the key m...

  8. Uterine disorders and pregnancy complications: insights from mouse models

    OpenAIRE

    Lim, Hyunjung Jade; Wang, Haibin

    2010-01-01

    Much of our knowledge of human uterine physiology and pathology has been extrapolated from the study of diverse animal models, as there is no ideal system for studying human uterine biology in vitro. Although it remains debatable whether mouse models are the most suitable system for investigating human uterine function(s), gene-manipulated mice are considered by many the most useful tool for mechanistic analysis, and numerous studies have identified many similarities in female reproduction be...

  9. Expression of GABAergic receptors in mouse taste receptor cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Margaret R Starostik

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Multiple excitatory neurotransmitters have been identified in the mammalian taste transduction, with few studies focused on inhibitory neurotransmitters. Since the synthetic enzyme glutamate decarboxylase (GAD for gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA is expressed in a subset of mouse taste cells, we hypothesized that other components of the GABA signaling pathway are likely expressed in this system. GABA signaling is initiated by the activation of either ionotropic receptors (GABA(A and GABA(C or metabotropic receptors (GABA(B while it is terminated by the re-uptake of GABA through transporters (GATs. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Using reverse transcriptase-PCR (RT-PCR analysis, we investigated the expression of different GABA signaling molecules in the mouse taste system. Taste receptor cells (TRCs in the circumvallate papillae express multiple subunits of the GABA(A and GABA(B receptors as well as multiple GATs. Immunocytochemical analyses examined the distribution of the GABA machinery in the circumvallate papillae. Both GABA(A-and GABA(B- immunoreactivity were detected in the peripheral taste receptor cells. We also used transgenic mice that express green fluorescent protein (GFP in either the Type II taste cells, which can respond to bitter, sweet or umami taste stimuli, or in the Type III GAD67 expressing taste cells. Thus, we were able to identify that GABAergic receptors are expressed in some Type II and Type III taste cells. Mouse GAT4 labeling was concentrated in the cells surrounding the taste buds with a few positively labeled TRCs at the margins of the taste buds. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: The presence of GABAergic receptors localized on Type II and Type III taste cells suggests that GABA is likely modulating evoked taste responses in the mouse taste bud.

  10. Delimiting species without nuclear monophyly in Madagascar's mouse lemurs.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David W Weisrock

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Speciation begins when populations become genetically separated through a substantial reduction in gene flow, and it is at this point that a genetically cohesive set of populations attain the sole property of species: the independent evolution of a population-level lineage. The comprehensive delimitation of species within biodiversity hotspots, regardless of their level of divergence, is important for understanding the factors that drive the diversification of biota and for identifying them as targets for conservation. However, delimiting recently diverged species is challenging due to insufficient time for the differential evolution of characters--including morphological differences, reproductive isolation, and gene tree monophyly--that are typically used as evidence for separately evolving lineages. METHODOLOGY: In this study, we assembled multiple lines of evidence from the analysis of mtDNA and nDNA sequence data for the delimitation of a high diversity of cryptically diverged population-level mouse lemur lineages across the island of Madagascar. Our study uses a multi-faceted approach that applies phylogenetic, population genetic, and genealogical analysis for recognizing lineage diversity and presents the most thoroughly sampled species delimitation of mouse lemur ever performed. CONCLUSIONS: The resolution of a large number of geographically defined clades in the mtDNA gene tree provides strong initial evidence for recognizing a high diversity of population-level lineages in mouse lemurs. We find additional support for lineage recognition in the striking concordance between mtDNA clades and patterns of nuclear population structure. Lineages identified using these two sources of evidence also exhibit patterns of population divergence according to genealogical exclusivity estimates. Mouse lemur lineage diversity is reflected in both a geographically fine-scaled pattern of population divergence within established and

  11. Cloning and Characterization of the Mouse Hepatitis Virus Receptor

    Science.gov (United States)

    1991-02-11

    MALCOLM, GROW AIR FORCE MEDICAL CENTER WILFORO HALL AIR FORCE MEDICAL CENTER Title of Dissertation: "Cloning and Characterization of the Mouse Hepatitis...classical example of this is the infection by poliovirus of the anterior horn cells of the spinal cord (Jubelt et al., 1980). Other examples...cells to adsorb virus and to support viral replication. Non-primate cell lines resistant to infection by Intact poliovirus become infected and produced

  12. Clonality of mouse and human cardiomyogenesis in vivo

    OpenAIRE

    Hosoda, Toru; D'Amario, Domenico; Cabral-Da-Silva, Mauricio Castro; Zheng, Hanqiao; Padin-Iruegas, M. Elena; Ogorek, Barbara; Ferreira-Martins, João; Yasuzawa-Amano, Saori; Amano, Katsuya; Ide-Iwata, Noriko; Cheng, Wei; Rota, Marcello; Urbanek, Konrad; Kajstura, Jan; Anversa, Piero

    2009-01-01

    An analysis of the clonality of cardiac progenitor cells (CPCs) and myocyte turnover in vivo requires genetic tagging of the undifferentiated cells so that the clonal marker of individual mother cells is traced in the specialized progeny. CPC niches in the atria and apex of the mouse heart were infected with a lentivirus carrying EGFP, and the destiny of the tagged cells was determined 1–5 months later. A common integration site was identified in isolated CPCs, cardiomyocytes, endothelial cel...

  13. High-Resolution Maps of Mouse Reference Populations

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Šimeček, Petr; Forejt, Jiří; Williams, R. W.; Shiroishi, T.; Takada, T.; Lu, L.; Johnson, T. E.; Bennett, B.; Deschepper, C. F.; Scott-Boyer, M.P.; de Villena, F.P.M.; Churchill, G. A.

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 7, č. 10 (2017), s. 3427-3434 ISSN 2160-1836 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA16-01969S; GA MŠk(CZ) LM2015040; GA MŠk(CZ) LQ1604 Institutional support: RVO:68378050 Keywords : chromosome substitution strains * recombinant inbred strains * mouse diversity genotyping array * gene conversions Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology OBOR OECD: Genetics and heredity (medical genetics to be 3) Impact factor: 2.861, year: 2016

  14. Genetic predisposition and genomic instability: studies with mouse embryos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Streffer, C. [Universitaetsklinikum Essen (Germany). Inst. fuer Medizinische Strahlenbiologie

    1999-07-01

    The preimplantation mouse embryo is a useful system for radiobiological studies. Chromosomal aberrations were determined after exposure to X-rays and neutrons during the zygote (1-cell stage). New aberrations developed and were expressed during the 2nd and 3rd mitosis after irradiation. These later aberration developed from DNA damage which was originally not a DSB. Further chromosomal aberrations were studied in fibroblasts of fetuses 19 days post conception. A significant increase of chromosome aberrations was found in the fetuses which were irradiated in the 1-cell stage and which had developed a malformation. These data can only be explained by the induction of a genome instability through the radiation exposure which had been performed many cell generations earlier. Until recently it was generally accepted that an exposure to ionizing radiation during the preimplantation period of mammalian development will not induce malformations. However, recently it could be shown that certain sensitive mouse strains exist in which malformations are induced by exposure to X-rays and neutrons during the preimplantation period. It was further demonstrated that this effect can be suppressed if the sensitive mouse strain is crossbred with mice from a resistant mouse strain. These data show that this radiation effect is due to a genetic phenomenon with a recessive trait. Studies on protein patterns in normal fetuses and in fetuses with the malformation showed that characteristic changes occur. There are proteins which are no longer expressed in the malformed fetuses and new proteins may appear. Certain changes in glycoproteins and phosphoproteins were found not only in liver of malformed fetuses but also in skin and kidney of these organisms. The analysis of the genome of these malformed fetuses have given evidence that changes in two or three genes are responsible for the radiation-induced malformation. It was possible to localize 1 gene on chromosome 13 and another gene on

  15. Circular RNA profiles in mouse lung tissue induced by radon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pei, Weiwei; Tao, Lijing; Zhang, Leshuai W; Zhang, Shuyu; Cao, Jianping; Jiao, Yang; Tong, Jian; Nie, Jihua

    2017-04-07

    Radon is a known human lung carcinogen, whose underlying carcinogenic mechanism remains unclear. Recently, circular RNA (circRNA), a class of endogenous non-protein coding RNAs that contain a circular loop, was found to exhibit multiple biological effects. In this study, circRNA profiles in mouse lung tissues between control and radon exposure were analyzed. Six mice were exposed to radon at concentration of 100,000 Bq/m 3 , 12 h/d, for up to cumulative doses of 60 working level months (WLM). H&E staining and immunohistochemistry of caspase-3 were used to detect the damages in lung tissue. The lung tissue of control and exposed group were selected for circRNA microarray study. The circRNA/microRNA interaction was analyzed by starBase prediction software. 5 highest expressing circRNAs were selected by real-time PCR to validate the consistency in mouse lung tissue exposed to radon. Inflammatory reaction was found in mouse lung tissue exposed to radon, and caspase-3 expression was significantly increased. Microarray screening revealed 107 up-regulated and 83 down-regulated circRNAs, among which top 30 circRNAs with the highest fold changes were chosen for further analysis, with 5 microRNAs binding sites listed for each circRNA. Consistency of the top 5 circRNAs with the highest expressions were confirmed in mice exposed with 60WLM of radon. Mouse lung tissue was severely injured when exposed to radon through pathological diagnosis and immunohistochemical analysis. A series of differentially expressed circRNAs demonstrated that they may play an important role in pulmonary toxicity induced by radon.

  16. Walnut Hoarding by the Japanese Wood Mouse, Apodemus speciosus Temminck

    OpenAIRE

    Noriko, Tamura; Tama Forest Science Garden, Forestry and Forest Products Research Institute

    2001-01-01

    Walnuts, Juglans ailantifolia Carriere, are large and the shell is diffcult to open. Thus, seed predators in Japan are restricted mainly to the Japanese squirrel (Sciurus lis Temminck) and the wood mouse (Apodemus speciosus Temminck), which can shave away the hard shells with their sharp incisors. Previous work indicated that the squirrels are not only predators, but also disperse walnuts. In this study, 95 walnuts in Periodl (September 1996-February 1997) and 80 walnuts in Period 2 (Septembe...

  17. Escherichia coli Pathotypes Occupy Distinct Niches in the Mouse Intestine

    OpenAIRE

    Meador, Jessica P.; Caldwell, Matthew E.; Cohen, Paul S.; Conway, Tyrrell

    2014-01-01

    Since the first step of the infection process is colonization of the host, it is important to understand how Escherichia coli pathogens successfully colonize the intestine. We previously showed that enterohemorrhagic O157:H7 strain E. coli EDL933 colonizes a niche in the streptomycin-treated mouse intestine that is distinct from that of human commensal strains, which explains how E. coli EDL933 overcomes colonization resistance imparted by some, but not all, commensal E. coli strains. Here we...

  18. Mouse models of estrogen receptor-positive breast cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shakur Mohibi

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Breast cancer is the most frequent malignancy and second leading cause of cancer-related deaths among women. Despite advances in genetic and biochemical analyses, the incidence of breast cancer and its associated mortality remain very high. About 60 - 70% of breast cancers are Estrogen Receptor alpha (ER-α positive and are dependent on estrogen for growth. Selective estrogen receptor modulators (SERMs have therefore provided an effective targeted therapy to treat ER-α positive breast cancer patients. Unfortunately, development of resistance to endocrine therapy is frequent and leads to cancer recurrence. Our understanding of molecular mechanisms involved in the development of ER-α positive tumors and their resistance to ER antagonists is currently limited due to lack of experimental models of ER-α positive breast cancer. In most mouse models of breast cancer, the tumors that form are typically ER-negative and independent of estrogen for their growth. However, in recent years more attention has been given to develop mouse models that develop different subtypes of breast cancers, including ER-positive tumors. In this review, we discuss the currently available mouse models that develop ER-α positive mammary tumors and their potential use to elucidate the molecular mechanisms of ER-α positive breast cancer development and endocrine resistance.

  19. Influence of age, irradiation and humanization on NSG mouse phenotypes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaclyn S. Knibbe-Hollinger

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Humanized mice are frequently utilized in bench to bedside therapeutic tests to combat human infectious, cancerous and degenerative diseases. For the fields of hematology-oncology, regenerative medicine, and infectious diseases, the immune deficient mice have been used commonly in basic research efforts. Obstacles in true translational efforts abound, as the relationship between mouse and human cells in disease pathogenesis and therapeutic studies requires lengthy investigations. The interplay between human immunity and mouse biology proves ever more complicated when aging, irradiation, and human immune reconstitution are considered. All can affect a range of biochemical and behavioral functions. To such ends, we show age- and irradiation-dependent influences for the development of macrocytic hyper chromic anemia, myelodysplasia, blood protein reductions and body composition changes. Humanization contributes to hematologic abnormalities. Home cage behavior revealed day and dark cycle locomotion also influenced by human cell reconstitutions. Significant age-related day-to-day variability in movement, feeding and drinking behaviors were observed. We posit that this data serves to enable researchers to better design translational studies in this rapidly emerging field of mouse humanization.

  20. Mouse models of DNA mismatch repair in cancer research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Kyeryoung; Tosti, Elena; Edelmann, Winfried

    2016-02-01

    Germline mutations in DNA mismatch repair (MMR) genes are the cause of hereditary non-polyposis colorectal cancer/Lynch syndrome (HNPCC/LS) one of the most common cancer predisposition syndromes, and defects in MMR are also prevalent in sporadic colorectal cancers. In the past, the generation and analysis of mouse lines with knockout mutations in all of the known MMR genes has provided insight into how loss of individual MMR genes affects genome stability and contributes to cancer susceptibility. These studies also revealed essential functions for some of the MMR genes in B cell maturation and fertility. In this review, we will provide a brief overview of the cancer predisposition phenotypes of recently developed mouse models with targeted mutations in MutS and MutL homologs (Msh and Mlh, respectively) and their utility as preclinical models. The focus will be on mouse lines with conditional MMR mutations that have allowed more accurate modeling of human cancer syndromes in mice and that together with new technologies in gene targeting, hold great promise for the analysis of MMR-deficient intestinal tumors and other cancers which will drive the development of preventive and therapeutic treatment strategies. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Characteristics of transposable element exonization within human and mouse.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Noa Sela

    Full Text Available Insertion of transposed elements within mammalian genes is thought to be an important contributor to mammalian evolution and speciation. Insertion of transposed elements into introns can lead to their activation as alternatively spliced cassette exons, an event called exonization. Elucidation of the evolutionary constraints that have shaped fixation of transposed elements within human and mouse protein coding genes and subsequent exonization is important for understanding of how the exonization process has affected transcriptome and proteome complexities. Here we show that exonization of transposed elements is biased towards the beginning of the coding sequence in both human and mouse genes. Analysis of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs revealed that exonization of transposed elements can be population-specific, implying that exonizations may enhance divergence and lead to speciation. SNP density analysis revealed differences between Alu and other transposed elements. Finally, we identified cases of primate-specific Alu elements that depend on RNA editing for their exonization. These results shed light on TE fixation and the exonization process within human and mouse genes.

  2. A consensus definition of cataplexy in mouse models of narcolepsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scammell, Thomas E; Willie, Jon T; Guilleminault, Christian; Siegel, Jerome M

    2009-01-01

    People with narcolepsy often have episodes of cataplexy, brief periods of muscle weakness triggered by strong emotions. Many researchers are now studying mouse models of narcolepsy, but definitions of cataplexy-like behavior in mice differ across labs. To establish a common language, the International Working Group on Rodent Models of Narcolepsy reviewed the literature on cataplexy in people with narcolepsy and in dog and mouse models of narcolepsy and then developed a consensus definition of murine cataplexy. The group concluded that murine cataplexy is an abrupt episode of nuchal atonia lasting at least 10 seconds. In addition, theta activity dominates the EEG during the episode, and video recordings document immobility. To distinguish a cataplexy episode from REM sleep after a brief awakening, at least 40 seconds of wakefulness must precede the episode. Bouts of cataplexy fitting this definition are common in mice with disrupted orexin/hypocretin signaling, but these events almost never occur in wild type mice. It remains unclear whether murine cataplexy is triggered by strong emotions or whether mice remain conscious during the episodes as in people with narcolepsy. This working definition provides helpful insights into murine cataplexy and should allow objective and accurate comparisons of cataplexy in future studies using mouse models of narcolepsy.

  3. Genetic conflict outweighs heterogametic incompatibility in the mouse hybrid zone?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dufková Petra

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The Mus musculus musculus/M. m. domesticus contact zone in Europe is characterised by sharp frequency discontinuities for sex chromosome markers at the centre of wider clines in allozyme frequencies. Results We identify a triangular area (approximately 330 km2 where the musculus Y chromosome introgresses across this front for up to 22 km into domesticus territory. Introgression of the Y chromosome is accompanied by a perturbation of the census sex ratio: the sex ratio is significantly female biased in musculus localities and domesticus localities lacking Y chromosome introgression. In contrast, where the musculus Y is detected in domesticus localities, the sex ratio is close to parity, and significantly different from both classes of female biased localities. The geographic position of an abrupt cline in an X chromosome marker, and autosomal clines centred on the same position, seem unaffected by the musculus Y introgression. Conclusion We conclude that sex ratio distortion is playing a role in the geographic separation of speciation genes in this section of the mouse hybrid zone. We suggest that clines for genes involved in sex-ratio distortion have escaped from the centre of the mouse hybrid zone, causing a decay in the barrier to gene flow between the two house mouse taxa.

  4. Current State of Animal (Mouse Modeling in Melanoma Research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Omer F. Kuzu

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Despite the considerable progress in understanding the biology of human cancer and technological advancement in drug discovery, treatment failure remains an inevitable outcome for most cancer patients with advanced diseases, including melanoma. Despite FDA-approved BRAF-targeted therapies for advanced stage melanoma showed a great deal of promise, development of rapid resistance limits the success. Hence, the overall success rate of melanoma therapy still remains to be one of the worst compared to other malignancies. Advancement of next-generation sequencing technology allowed better identification of alterations that trigger melanoma development. As development of successful therapies strongly depends on clinically relevant preclinical models, together with the new findings, more advanced melanoma models have been generated. In this article, besides traditional mouse models of melanoma, we will discuss recent ones, such as patient-derived tumor xenografts, topically inducible BRAF mouse model and RCAS/TVA-based model, and their advantages as well as limitations. Although mouse models of melanoma are often criticized as poor predictors of whether an experimental drug would be an effective treatment, development of new and more relevant models could circumvent this problem in the near future.

  5. Organ culture and immunostaining of mouse embryonic kidneys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barak, Hila; Boyle, Scott C

    2011-01-01

    The study of organogenesis in mammals allows investigation of a wide variety of basic cell biological processes in the context of the intact organ. This has become especially important in the age of genetics, as the consequences of gene deletion or mutation in the mouse can be directly linked to human congenital abnormalities. The ability to culture some organs ex vivo during development has emerged as an important tool to understand how tissues are constructed and the signaling pathways that regulate these processes. It has been especially useful in organs that grow via branching morphogenic mechanisms, such as the lung and kidney. Here we demonstrate isolation, ex vivo growth, and fluorescent immunostaining of mouse embryonic day 12.5 (E12.5) kidneys. To demonstrate nephron formation using live imaging, we have isolated and cultured kidneys from mice carrying a green fluorescent protein (GFP) transgene driven by the Hes 1 promoter, which is expressed early in the developing nephron. We also provide a protocol for robust imaging of multiple kidney structures in the whole-mount setting. These techniques serve as a basic platform for the analysis of branching morphogenesis and nephron formation in genetic mouse models or in response to exogenous factors, such as agonists or inhibitors, which can be directly added to the culture medium.

  6. Neuroinformatics of the Allen Mouse Brain Connectivity Atlas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuan, Leonard; Li, Yang; Lau, Chris; Feng, David; Bernard, Amy; Sunkin, Susan M; Zeng, Hongkui; Dang, Chinh; Hawrylycz, Michael; Ng, Lydia

    2015-02-01

    The Allen Mouse Brain Connectivity Atlas is a mesoscale whole brain axonal projection atlas of the C57Bl/6J mouse brain. Anatomical trajectories throughout the brain were mapped into a common 3D space using a standardized platform to generate a comprehensive and quantitative database of inter-areal and cell-type-specific projections. This connectivity atlas has several desirable features, including brain-wide coverage, validated and versatile experimental techniques, a single standardized data format, a quantifiable and integrated neuroinformatics resource, and an open-access public online database (http://connectivity.brain-map.org/). Meaningful informatics data quantification and comparison is key to effective use and interpretation of connectome data. This relies on successful definition of a high fidelity atlas template and framework, mapping precision of raw data sets into the 3D reference framework, accurate signal detection and quantitative connection strength algorithms, and effective presentation in an integrated online application. Here we describe key informatics pipeline steps in the creation of the Allen Mouse Brain Connectivity Atlas and include basic application use cases. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Noise Reduction for a MEMS-Gyroscope-Based Head Mouse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Jiaying; Gerdtman, Christer; Lindén, Maria

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, four different signal processing algorithms which can be applied to reduce the noise from a MEMS-gyroscope-based computer head mouse are presented. MEMS-gyroscopes are small, light, cheap and widely used in many electrical products. MultiPos, a MEMS-gyroscope-based computer head mouse system was designed for persons with movement disorders. Noise such as physiological tremor and electrical noise is a common problem for the MultiPos system. In this study four different signal processing algorithms were applied and evaluated by simulation in MATLAB and implementation in a dsPIC, with aim to minimize the noise in MultiPos. The algorithms were low-pass filter, Least Mean Square (LMS) algorithm, Kalman filter and Weighted Fourier Linear Combiner (WFLC) algorithm. Comparisons and system tests show that these signal processing algorithms can be used to improve the MultiPos system. The WFLC algorithm was found the best method for noise reduction in the application of a MEMS-gyroscope-based head mouse.

  8. Phototransduction Influences Metabolic Flux and Nucleotide Metabolism in Mouse Retina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Jianhai; Rountree, Austin; Cleghorn, Whitney M; Contreras, Laura; Lindsay, Ken J; Sadilek, Martin; Gu, Haiwei; Djukovic, Danijel; Raftery, Dan; Satrústegui, Jorgina; Kanow, Mark; Chan, Lawrence; Tsang, Stephen H; Sweet, Ian R; Hurley, James B

    2016-02-26

    Production of energy in a cell must keep pace with demand. Photoreceptors use ATP to maintain ion gradients in darkness, whereas in light they use it to support phototransduction. Matching production with consumption can be accomplished by coupling production directly to consumption. Alternatively, production can be set by a signal that anticipates demand. In this report we investigate the hypothesis that signaling through phototransduction controls production of energy in mouse retinas. We found that respiration in mouse retinas is not coupled tightly to ATP consumption. By analyzing metabolic flux in mouse retinas, we also found that phototransduction slows metabolic flux through glycolysis and through intermediates of the citric acid cycle. We also evaluated the relative contributions of regulation of the activities of α-ketoglutarate dehydrogenase and the aspartate-glutamate carrier 1. In addition, a comprehensive analysis of the retinal metabolome showed that phototransduction also influences steady-state concentrations of 5'-GMP, ribose-5-phosphate, ketone bodies, and purines. © 2016 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  9. Mouse-based genetic modeling and analysis of Down syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xing, Zhuo; Li, Yichen; Pao, Annie; Bennett, Abigail S.; Tycko, Benjamin; Mobley, William C.; Yu, Y. Eugene

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Down syndrome (DS), caused by human trisomy 21 (Ts21), can be considered as a prototypical model for understanding the effects of chromosomal aneuploidies in other diseases. Human chromosome 21 (Hsa21) is syntenically conserved with three regions in the mouse genome. Sources of data A review of recent advances in genetic modeling and analysis of DS. Using Cre/loxP-mediated chromosome engineering, a substantial number of new mouse models of DS have recently been generated, which facilitates better understanding of disease mechanisms in DS. Areas of agreement Based on evolutionary conservation, Ts21 can be modeled by engineered triplication of Hsa21 syntenic regions in mice. The validity of the models is supported by the exhibition of DS-related phenotypes. Areas of controversy Although substantial progress has been made, it remains a challenge to unravel the relative importance of specific candidate genes and molecular mechanisms underlying the various clinical phenotypes. Growing points Further understanding of mechanisms based on data from mouse models, in parallel with human studies, may lead to novel therapies for clinical manifestations of Ts21 and insights to the roles of aneuploidies in other developmental disorders and cancers. PMID:27789459

  10. Characterization of regulatory volume decrease in freshly isolated mouse cholangiocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Won Kyoo

    2002-12-01

    Cell volume regulation plays a vital role in many cell functions. Recent study indicates that both K(+) and Cl(-) channels are important for the regulatory volume decrease (RVD) of cholangiocarcinoma cells, but its physiological significance is unclear due to the tumorous nature of the cells used. This present study reports the RVD of normal mouse cholangiocytes by using freshly isolated bile duct cell clusters (BDCC). A relatively simple and practical method of measuring the cross-sectional area of BDCCs by quantitative videomicroscopy was used to indirectly measure their volumes. Mouse cholangiocytes exhibited RVD, which was inhibited by 5-nitro-2'-(3-phenylpropylamino)-benzoate, DIDS, and glibenclamide, suggesting its dependence on certain chloride channels, such as volume-activated chloride channels. It is also inhibited by barium chloride but not by tetraethylammonium chloride, indicating its dependence on certain potassium channels. However, cAMP agonists had no significant effect on the RVD of BDCCs. This indirect method described can be used to study the RVD of cholangiocytes from normal as well as genetically altered mouse livers.

  11. Characterization of mutations at the mouse phenylalanine hydroxylase locus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McDonald, J.D.; Charlton, C.K. [Wichita State Univ., KS (United States)

    1997-02-01

    Two genetic mouse models for human phenylketonuria have been characterized by DNA sequence analysis. For each, a distinct mutation was identified within the protein coding sequence of the phenylalanine hydroxylase gene. This establishes that the mutated locus is the same as that causing human phenylketonuria and allows a comparison between these mouse phenylketonuria models and the human disease. A genotype/phenotype relationship that is strikingly similar to the human disease emerges, underscoring the similarity of phenylketonuria in mouse and man. In PAH{sup ENU1}, the phenotype is mild. The Pah{sup enu1} mutation predicts a conservative valine to alanine amino acid substitution and is located in exon 3, a gene region where serious mutations are rare in humans. In PAH{sup ENU2} the phenotype is severe. The Pah{sup enu2} mutation predicts a radical phenylalanine to serine substitution and is located in exon 7, a gene region where serious mutations are common in humans. In PAH{sup ENU2}, the sequence information was used to devise a direct genotyping system based on the creation of a new Alw26I restriction endonuclease site. 26 refs., 2 figs., 1 tab.

  12. How informative is the mouse for human gut microbiota research?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Thi Loan Anh; Vieira-Silva, Sara; Liston, Adrian; Raes, Jeroen

    2015-01-01

    The microbiota of the human gut is gaining broad attention owing to its association with a wide range of diseases, ranging from metabolic disorders (e.g. obesity and type 2 diabetes) to autoimmune diseases (such as inflammatory bowel disease and type 1 diabetes), cancer and even neurodevelopmental disorders (e.g. autism). Having been increasingly used in biomedical research, mice have become the model of choice for most studies in this emerging field. Mouse models allow perturbations in gut microbiota to be studied in a controlled experimental setup, and thus help in assessing causality of the complex host-microbiota interactions and in developing mechanistic hypotheses. However, pitfalls should be considered when translating gut microbiome research results from mouse models to humans. In this Special Article, we discuss the intrinsic similarities and differences that exist between the two systems, and compare the human and murine core gut microbiota based on a meta-analysis of currently available datasets. Finally, we discuss the external factors that influence the capability of mouse models to recapitulate the gut microbiota shifts associated with human diseases, and investigate which alternative model systems exist for gut microbiota research. © 2015. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  13. How informative is the mouse for human gut microbiota research?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thi Loan Anh Nguyen

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The microbiota of the human gut is gaining broad attention owing to its association with a wide range of diseases, ranging from metabolic disorders (e.g. obesity and type 2 diabetes to autoimmune diseases (such as inflammatory bowel disease and type 1 diabetes, cancer and even neurodevelopmental disorders (e.g. autism. Having been increasingly used in biomedical research, mice have become the model of choice for most studies in this emerging field. Mouse models allow perturbations in gut microbiota to be studied in a controlled experimental setup, and thus help in assessing causality of the complex host-microbiota interactions and in developing mechanistic hypotheses. However, pitfalls should be considered when translating gut microbiome research results from mouse models to humans. In this Special Article, we discuss the intrinsic similarities and differences that exist between the two systems, and compare the human and murine core gut microbiota based on a meta-analysis of currently available datasets. Finally, we discuss the external factors that influence the capability of mouse models to recapitulate the gut microbiota shifts associated with human diseases, and investigate which alternative model systems exist for gut microbiota research.

  14. Host Genetic and Environmental Effects on Mouse Cecum Microbiota

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Campbell, James H [ORNL; Foster, Carmen M [ORNL; Vishnivetskaya, Tatiana A [ORNL; Campbell, Alisha G [ORNL; Yang, Zamin Koo [ORNL; Wymore, Ann [ORNL; Palumbo, Anthony Vito [ORNL; Podar, Mircea [ORNL

    2012-01-01

    The mammalian gut harbors complex and variable microbial communities, across both host phylogenetic space and conspecific individuals. A synergy of host genetic and environmental factors shape these communities and account for their variability, but their individual contributions and the selective pressures involved are still not well understood. We employed barcoded pyrosequencing of V1-2 and V4 regions of bacterial small subunit ribosomal RNA genes to characterize the effects of host genetics and environment on cecum assemblages in 10 genetically distinct, inbred mouse strains. Eight of these strains are the foundation of the Collaborative Cross (CC), a panel of mice derived from a genetically diverse set of inbred founder strains, designed specifically for complex trait analysis. Diversity of gut microbiota was characterized by complementing phylogenetic and distance-based, sequence-clustering approaches. Significant correlations were found between the mouse strains and their gut microbiota, reflected by distinct bacterial communities. Cohabitation and litter had a reduced, although detectable effect, and the microbiota response to these factors varied by strain. We identified bacterial phylotypes that appear to be discriminative and strain-specific to each mouse line used. Cohabitation of different strains of mice revealed an interaction of host genetic and environmental factors in shaping gut bacterial consortia, in which bacterial communities became more similar but retained strain specificity. This study provides a baseline analysis of intestinal bacterial communities in the eight CC progenitor strains and will be linked to integrated host genotype, phenotype and microbiota research on the resulting CC panel.

  15. Genetically engineered mucin mouse models for inflammation and cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joshi, Suhasini; Kumar, Sushil; Bafna, Sangeeta; Rachagani, Satyanarayana; Wagner, Kay-Uwe; Jain, Maneesh; Batra, Surinder K

    2015-12-01

    Mucins are heavily O-glycosylated proteins primarily produced by glandular and ductal epithelial cells, either in membrane-tethered or secretory forms, for providing lubrication and protection from various exogenous and endogenous insults. However, recent studies have linked their aberrant overexpression with infection, inflammation, and cancer that underscores their importance in tissue homeostasis. In this review, we present current status of the existing mouse models that have been developed to gain insights into the functional role(s) of mucins under physiological and pathological conditions. Knockout mouse models for membrane-associated (Muc1 and Muc16) and secretory mucins (Muc2) have helped us to elucidate the role of mucins in providing effective and protective barrier functions against pathological threats, participation in disease progression, and improved our understanding of mucin interaction with biotic and abiotic environmental components. Emphasis is also given to available transgenic mouse models (MUC1 and MUC7), which has been exploited to understand the context-dependent regulation and therapeutic potential of human mucins during inflammation and cancer.

  16. Development of a Representative Mouse Model with Nonalcoholic Steatohepatitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verbeek, Jef; Jacobs, Ans; Spincemaille, Pieter; Cassiman, David

    2016-06-01

    Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is the most prevalent liver disease in the Western world. It represents a disease spectrum ranging from isolated steatosis to non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH). In particular, NASH can evolve to fibrosis, cirrhosis, hepatocellular carcinoma, and liver failure. The development of novel treatment strategies is hampered by the lack of representative NASH mouse models. Here, we describe a NASH mouse model, which is based on feeding non-genetically manipulated C57BL6/J mice a 'Western style' high-fat/high-sucrose diet (HF-HSD). HF-HSD leads to early obesity, insulin resistance, and hypercholesterolemia. After 12 weeks of HF-HSD, all mice exhibit the complete spectrum of features of NASH, including steatosis, hepatocyte ballooning, and lobular inflammation, together with fibrosis in the majority of mice. Hence, this model closely mimics the human disease. Implementation of this mouse model will lead to a standardized setup for the evaluation of (i) underlying mechanisms that contribute to the progression of NAFLD to NASH, and (ii) therapeutic interventions for NASH. © 2016 by John Wiley & Sons, Inc. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

  17. Cooperation between Rb and Arf in suppressing mouse retinoblastoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conkrite, Karina; Sundby, Maggie; Mu, David; Mukai, Shizuo; MacPherson, David

    2012-01-01

    Retinoblastoma is a pediatric cancer that has served as a paradigm for tumor suppressor gene function. Retinoblastoma is initiated by RB gene mutations, but the subsequent cooperating mutational events leading to tumorigenesis are poorly characterized. We investigated what these additional genomic alterations might be using human retinoblastoma samples and mouse models. Array-based comparative genomic hybridization studies revealed deletions in the CDKN2A locus that include ARF and P16INK4A, both of which encode tumor suppressor proteins, in both human and mouse retinoblastoma. Through mouse genetic analyses, we found that Arf was the critical tumor suppressor gene in the deleted region. In mice, inactivation of one allele of Arf cooperated with Rb and p107 loss to rapidly accelerate retinoblastoma, with frequent loss of heterozygosity (LOH) at the Arf locus. Arf has been reported to exhibit p53-independent tumor suppressor roles in other systems; however, our results showed no additive effect of p53 and Arf coinactivation in promoting retinoblastoma. Moreover, p53 inactivation completely eliminated any selection for Arf LOH. Thus, our data reveal important insights into the p53 pathway in retinoblastoma and show that Arf is a key collaborator with Rb in retinoblastoma suppression. PMID:22484813

  18. Dynamic reorganization of intrinsic functional networks in the mouse brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grandjean, Joanes; Preti, Maria Giulia; Bolton, Thomas A W; Buerge, Michaela; Seifritz, Erich; Pryce, Christopher R; Van De Ville, Dimitri; Rudin, Markus

    2017-05-15

    Functional connectivity (FC) derived from resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (rs-fMRI) allows for the integrative study of neuronal processes at a macroscopic level. The majority of studies to date have assumed stationary interactions between brain regions, without considering the dynamic aspects of network organization. Only recently has the latter received increased attention, predominantly in human studies. Applying dynamic FC (dFC) analysis to mice is attractive given the relative simplicity of the mouse brain and the possibility to explore mechanisms underlying network dynamics using pharmacological, environmental or genetic interventions. Therefore, we have evaluated the feasibility and research potential of mouse dFC using the interventions of social stress or anesthesia duration as two case-study examples. By combining a sliding-window correlation approach with dictionary learning, several dynamic functional states (dFS) with a complex organization were identified, exhibiting highly dynamic inter- and intra-modular interactions. Each dFS displayed a high degree of reproducibility upon changes in analytical parameters and across datasets. They fluctuated at different degrees as a function of anesthetic depth, and were sensitive indicators of pathology as shown for the chronic psychosocial stress mouse model of depression. Dynamic functional states are proposed to make a major contribution to information integration and processing in the healthy and diseased brain. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Expression of CNPY2 in mouse tissues: quantification and localization.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kota Hatta

    Full Text Available Canopy FGF signaling regulator 2 (CNPY2 is a FGF21-modulated protein containing a saposin B-type domain. In vitro studies have shown CNPY2 is able to enhance neurite outgrowth in neurons and stabilize the expression of low density lipoprotein receptor in macrophages and hepatocytes. However, no in vivo data are available on the normal expression of CNPY2 and information is lacking on which cell types express this protein in tissues. To address this, the present study examined CNPY2 expression at the mRNA and protein levels. Quantitative PCR and ELISA examination of mouse tissues showed that CNPY2 varies between organs, with the highest expression in the heart, lung and liver. Immunohistochemistry detected CNPY2 in a variety of cell types including skeletal, cardiac and smooth muscle myocytes, endothelial cells and epithelial cells. CNPY2 was also detectable in mouse blood and human and mouse uteri. These data demonstrate CNPY2 is widely distributed in tissues and suggest the protein has biological functions that have yet to be identified. Using these new observations we discuss possible functions of the protein.

  20. Overexpression of mouse TTF-2 gene causes cleft palate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meng, Tian; Shi, Jia-Yu; Wu, Min; Wang, Yan; Li, Ling; Liu, Yan; Zheng, Qian; Huang, Lei; Shi, Bing

    2012-01-01

    In humans, mutations of the gene encoding for thyroid transcription factor-2 (TTF-2 or FOXE1) result in Bamforth syndrome. Bamforth syndrome is characterized by agenesis, cleft palate, spiky hair and choanal atresia. TTF-2 null mice (TTF-2−/−) also exhibit cleft palate, suggesting its involvement in the palatogenesis. However, the molecular pathology and genetic regulation by TTF2 remain largely unknown. In the present study, the recombinant expression vector pBROAD3-TTF-2 containing the promoter of the mouse ROSA26 gene was created to form the structural gene of mouse TTF-2 and was microinjected into the male pronuclei of fertilized ova. Sequence analysis confirmed that the TTF-2 transgenic mouse model was established successfully. The transgenic mice displayed a phenotype of cleft palate. In addition, we found that TTF-2 was highly expressed in the medial edge epithelium (MEE) from the embryonic day 12.5 (E12.5) to E14.5 in TTF-2 transgenic mice. These observations suggest that overexpression of TTF-2 during palatogenesis may contribute to formation of cleft palate. PMID:22304410

  1. The Mouse Universal Genotyping Array: From Substrains to Subspecies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew P. Morgan

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Genotyping microarrays are an important resource for genetic mapping, population genetics, and monitoring of the genetic integrity of laboratory stocks. We have developed the third generation of the Mouse Universal Genotyping Array (MUGA series, GigaMUGA, a 143,259-probe Illumina Infinium II array for the house mouse (Mus musculus. The bulk of the content of GigaMUGA is optimized for genetic mapping in the Collaborative Cross and Diversity Outbred populations, and for substrain-level identification of laboratory mice. In addition to 141,090 single nucleotide polymorphism probes, GigaMUGA contains 2006 probes for copy number concentrated in structurally polymorphic regions of the mouse genome. The performance of the array is characterized in a set of 500 high-quality reference samples spanning laboratory inbred strains, recombinant inbred lines, outbred stocks, and wild-caught mice. GigaMUGA is highly informative across a wide range of genetically diverse samples, from laboratory substrains to other Mus species. In addition to describing the content and performance of the array, we provide detailed probe-level annotation and recommendations for quality control.

  2. Mouse Models Recapitulating Human Adrenocortical Tumors: What is lacking?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Felicia Leccia

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Adrenal cortex tumors are divided into benign forms such as primary hyperplasias and adrenocortical adenomas (ACAs, and malignant forms or adrenocortical carcinomas (ACCs. Primary hyperplasias are rare causes of ACTH-independent hypercortisolism. ACAs are the most common type of adrenal gland tumors and they are rarely functional, i.e producing steroids. When functional, adenomas result in endocrine disorders such as Cushing’s syndrome (hypercortisolism or Conn’s syndrome (hyperaldosteronism. In contrast, ACCs are extremely rare but highly aggressive tumors that may also lead to hypersecreting syndromes. Genetic analyses of patients with sporadic or familial forms of adrenocortical tumors led to the identification of potentially causative genes, most of them being involved in PKA, Wnt/β-catenin and P53 signaling pathways. Development of mouse models is a crucial step to firmly establish the functional significance of candidate genes, to dissect mechanisms leading to tumors and endocrine disorders and in fine to provide in vivo tools for therapeutic screens. In this article we will provide an overview on the existing mouse models (xenografted and genetically engineered of adrenocortical tumors by focusing on the role of PKA and Wnt/β-catenin pathways in this context. We will discuss the advantages and limitations of models that have been developed heretofore and we will point out necessary improvements in the development of next generation mouse models of adrenal diseases.

  3. Proteomic interactions in the mouse vitreous-retina complex.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jessica M Skeie

    Full Text Available Human vitreoretinal diseases are due to presumed abnormal mechanical interactions between the vitreous and retina, and translational models are limited. This study determined whether nonstructural proteins and potential retinal biomarkers were expressed by the normal mouse vitreous and retina.Vitreous and retina samples from mice were collected by evisceration and analyzed by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. Identified proteins were further analyzed for differential expression and functional interactions using bioinformatic software.We identified 1,680 unique proteins in the retina and 675 unique proteins in the vitreous. Unbiased clustering identified protein pathways that distinguish retina from vitreous including oxidative phosphorylation and neurofilament cytoskeletal remodeling, whereas the vitreous expressed oxidative stress and innate immunology pathways. Some intracellular protein pathways were found in both retina and vitreous, such as glycolysis and gluconeogenesis and neuronal signaling, suggesting proteins might be shuttled between the retina and vitreous. We also identified human disease biomarkers represented in the mouse vitreous and retina, including carbonic anhydrase-2 and 3, crystallins, macrophage inhibitory factor, glutathione peroxidase, peroxiredoxins, S100 precursors, and von Willebrand factor.Our analysis suggests the vitreous expresses nonstructural proteins that functionally interact with the retina to manage oxidative stress, immune reactions, and intracellular proteins may be exchanged between the retina and vitreous. This novel proteomic dataset can be used for investigating human vitreoretinopathies in mouse models. Validation of vitreoretinal biomarkers for human ocular diseases will provide a critical tool for diagnostics and an avenue for therapeutics.

  4. Screening for Stress Resistance Mutations in the Mouse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wallace S Chick

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Longevity is correlated with stress resistance in many animal models. However, previous efforts through the boosting of the antioxidant defense system did not extend life span, suggesting that longevity related stress resistance is mediated by other uncharacterized pathways. We have developed a high-throughput platform for screening and rapid identification of novel genetic mutants in the mouse that are stress-resistant. Selection for resistance to stressors occurs in mutagenized mouse embryonic stem (ES cells, which are carefully treated so as to maintain pluripotency for mouse production. Initial characterization of these mutant ES cells revealed mutations in Pigl, Tiam1, and Rffl, among others. These genes are implicated in glycosylphosphatidylinositol biosynthesis, NADPH oxidase function, and inflammation. These mutants: (1 are resistant to two different oxidative stressors, paraquat and the omission of 2-mercaptoethanol, (2 have reduced levels of endogenous reactive oxygen species (ROS, (3 are capable of generating live mice, and (4 transmit the stress resistance phenotype to the mice. This strategy offers an efficient way to select for new mutants expressing a stress resistance phenotype, to rapidly identify the causative genes, and to develop mice for in vivo studies.

  5. Nonspecific airway reactivity in a mouse model of asthma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Collie, D.D.; Wilder, J.A.; Bice, D.E.

    1995-12-01

    Animal models are indispensable for studies requiring an intact immune system, especially for studying the pathogenic mechanisms in atopic diseases, regulation of IgE production, and related biologic effects. Mice are particularly suitable and have been used extensively for such studies because their immune system is well characterized. Further, large numbers of mutants or inbred strains of mice are available that express deficiencies of individual immunologic processes, inflammatory cells, or mediator systems. By comparing reactions in such mice with appropriate control animals, the unique roles of individual cells or mediators may be characterized more precisely in the pathogenesis of atopic respiratory diseases including asthma. However, given that asthma in humans is characterized by the presence of airway hyperresponsiveness to specific and nonspecific stimuli, it is important that animal models of this disease exhibit similar physiologic abnormalities. In the past, the size of the mouse has limited its versatility in this regard. However, recent studies indicate the feasibility of measuring pulmonary responses in living mice, thus facilitating the physiologic evaluation of putative mouse models of human asthma that have been well charcterized at the immunologic and patholigic level. Future work will provide details of the morphometry of the methacholine-induced bronchoconstriction and will further seek to determine the relationship between cigarette smoke exposure and the development of NS-AHR in the transgenic mouse model.

  6. Txndc9 Is Required for Meiotic Maturation of Mouse Oocytes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fanhua Ma

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Txndc9 (thioredoxin domain containing protein 9 has been shown to be involved in mammalian mitosis; however, its function in mammalian oocyte meiosis remains unclear. In this study, we initially found that Txndc9 is expressed during meiotic maturation of mouse oocytes and higher expression of Txndc9 mRNA and protein occurred in germinal vesicle (GV stage. By using confocal scanning, we observed that Txndc9 localized at both nucleus and cytoplasm, especially at spindle microtubules. Specific depletion of Txndc9 by siRNA in mouse oocyte resulted in decreasing the rate of first polar body extrusion and increasing abnormal spindle assemble. Moreover, knockdown of Txndc9 in germinal vesicle (GV stage oocytes led to higher level of reactive oxygen species (ROS and lower level of antioxidant glutathione (GSH as compared with control oocytes, which indicated that Txndc9 may be involved in mediating the redox balance. In summary, our results demonstrated that Txndc9 is crucial for mouse oocyte maturation by regulating spindle assembly, polar body extrusion, and redox status.

  7. Multiwavelength Studies of the Mouse Pulsar Wind Nebula

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klingler, Noel; Kargaltsev, Oleg; Pavlov, George G.; Ng, C.-Y.; Beniamini, Paz; O'Sullivan, Samantha

    2018-01-01

    PSR J1747-2958 is a young and energetic pulsar at an estimated distance of ~5 kpc. It is moving supersonically through the ISM and powers the famous Mouse pulsar wind nebula (PWN; G359.23-0.82): a tail spanning 45" in X-rays and 12' in radio. We discuss the results of our analysis of deep Chandra observations (as well as archival radio and IR data) of the Mouse PWN. We present a spatially-resolved spectral map of the PWN, which displays a photon index which varies strongly with distance from the pulsar over the 45" extent of the X-ray tail as the result of synchrotron cooling. We discuss the shape of the multiwavelength spectrum, the PWN physical properties (e.g., we infer a high magnetic field B~200 μG), and the connection between PWN morphology and radio/gamma-ray light curves which we use to constrain the viewing angle and identify structures in the PWN. We compare the Mouse pulsar with the population of other pulsars with measured (or inferred) velocities.

  8. A genomic analysis of mouse models of breast cancer reveals molecular features of mouse models and relationships to human breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hollern, Daniel P; Andrechek, Eran R

    2014-06-05

    Genomic variability limits the efficacy of breast cancer therapy. To simplify the study of the molecular complexity of breast cancer, researchers have used mouse mammary tumor models. However, the degree to which mouse models model human breast cancer and are reflective of the human heterogeneity has yet to be demonstrated with gene expression studies on a large scale. To this end, we have built a database consisting of 1,172 mouse mammary tumor samples from 26 different major oncogenic mouse mammary tumor models. In this dataset we identified heterogeneity within mouse models and noted a surprising amount of interrelatedness between models, despite differences in the tumor initiating oncogene. Making comparisons between models, we identified differentially expressed genes with alteration correlating with initiating events in each model. Using annotation tools, we identified transcription factors with a high likelihood of activity within these models. Gene signatures predicted activation of major cell signaling pathways in each model, predictions that correlated with previous genetic studies. Finally, we noted relationships between mouse models and human breast cancer at both the level of gene expression and predicted signal pathway activity. Importantly, we identified individual mouse models that recapitulate human breast cancer heterogeneity at the level of gene expression. This work underscores the importance of fully characterizing mouse tumor biology at molecular, histological and genomic levels before a valid comparison to human breast cancer may be drawn and provides an important bioinformatic resource.

  9. Mouse sensitivity is an independent risk factor for rhinitis in children with asthma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sedaghat, Ahmad R.; Matsui, Elizabeth C.; Baxi, Sachin N.; Bollinger, Mary E.; Miller, Rachel; Perzanowski, Matthew; Phipatanakul, Wanda

    2015-01-01

    Background Although mouse and cockroach allergy are known to be important in urban children with asthma, the independent association of mouse and cockroach sensitization with rhinitis in these children is unknown. Objective To determine the association of mouse and cockroach sensitization with rhinitis in urban children with asthma. Methods As part of the Mouse Allergen and Asthma Intervention Trial, 499 urban children (5–17yr) with persistent asthma underwent spirometry, skin prick testing to 14 common environmental allergens, serology for mouse-specific IgE. In 269 subjects, cockroach-specific IgE serology was also obtained. Patient/parent-reported rhinitis in the last two weeks and one year were the primary outcome measures. Mouse/cockroach exposure was measured by reported frequency of sightings. Mouse allergen settled bedroom dust samples were also measured in mouse-sensitized children. Results Rhinitis was reported in 49.9% and 70.2% of participants within the last 2 weeks and last one year, respectively. Serum mouse IgE level ≥0.35IU/mL was associated with rhinitis in the past two weeks (ORadj=2.15, 95%CI= 1.02–4.54, P=0.04) and the past year (ORadj=2.40, 95%CI =1.12–5.1, P=0.02) after controlling for age, race, gender, the presence of any smokers at home, primary caregiver education level, number of allergen sensitivities, cockroach IgE level ≥0.35IU/mL and study site (Boston or Baltimore). Measures of home mouse exposure were not associated with rhinitis, regardless of mouse sensitivity. Cockroach sensitivity was not associated with rhinitis regardless of sensitization to other allergens. Conclusions In urban asthmatic children, increased mouse-, but not cockroach-, IgE in the sera (mouse IgE ≥0.35IU/mL) may be associated independently with rhinitis. PMID:26441149

  10. Human more complex than mouse at cellular level.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander E Vinogradov

    Full Text Available The family of transcription factors with the C2H2 zinc finger domain is expanding in the evolution of vertebrates, reaching its highest numbers in the mammals. The question arises: whether an increased amount of these transcription factors is related to embryogenesis, nervous system, pathology or more of them are expressed in individual cells? Among mammals, the primates have a more complex anatomical structure than the rodents (e.g., brain. In this work, I show that a greater number of C2H2-ZF genes are expressed in the human cells than in the mouse cells. The effect is especially pronounced for C2H2-ZF genes accompanied with the KRAB domain. The relative difference between the numbers of C2H2-ZF(-KRAB genes in the human and mouse cellular transcriptomes even exceeds their difference in the genomes (i.e. a greater subset of existing in the genome genes is expressed in the human cellular transcriptomes compared to the mouse transcriptomes. The evolutionary turnover of C2H2-ZF(-KRAB genes acts in the direction of the revealed phenomenon, i.e. gene duplication and loss enhances the difference in the relative number of C2H2-ZF(-KRAB genes between human and mouse cellular transcriptomes. A higher amount of these genes is expressed in the brain and embryonic cells (compared with other tissues, whereas a lower amount--in the cancer cells. It is specifically the C2H2-ZF transcription factors whose repertoire is poorer in the cancer and richer in the brain (other transcription factors taken together do not show this trend. These facts suggest that increase of anatomical complexity is accompanied by a more complex intracellular regulation involving these transcription factors. Malignization is associated with simplification of this regulation. These results agree with the known fact that human cells are more resistant to oncogenic transformation than mouse cells. The list of C2H2-ZF genes whose suppression might be involved in malignization is provided.

  11. Dual effects of fluoxetine on mouse early embryonic development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Chang-Woon [Department of Physiology and Institute of Health Sciences, Gyeongsang National University School of Medicine, Jinju 660-751 (Korea, Republic of); Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Samsung Changwon Hospital, Sungkyunkwan University, Changwon 630-723 (Korea, Republic of); Choe, Changyong [National Institute of Animal Science, RDA, Cheonan 330-801 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Eun-Jin [Department of Physiology and Institute of Health Sciences, Gyeongsang National University School of Medicine, Jinju 660-751 (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Jae-Ik [Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Gyeongsang National University Hospital, Jinju 660-702 (Korea, Republic of); Yoon, Sook-Young [Fertility Center of CHA Gangnam Medical Center, CHA University, Seoul 135-081 (Korea, Republic of); Cho, Young-Woo; Han, Sunkyu; Tak, Hyun-Min; Han, Jaehee [Department of Physiology and Institute of Health Sciences, Gyeongsang National University School of Medicine, Jinju 660-751 (Korea, Republic of); Kang, Dawon, E-mail: dawon@gnu.ac.kr [Department of Physiology and Institute of Health Sciences, Gyeongsang National University School of Medicine, Jinju 660-751 (Korea, Republic of)

    2012-11-15

    Fluoxetine, a selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor, regulates a variety of physiological processes, such as cell proliferation and apoptosis, in mammalian cells. Little is known about the role of fluoxetine in early embryonic development. This study was undertaken to investigate the effect of fluoxetine during mouse early embryonic development. Late two-cell stage embryos (2-cells) were cultured in the presence of various concentrations of fluoxetine (1 to 50 μM) for different durations. When late 2-cells were incubated with 5 μM fluoxetine for 6 h, the percentage that developed into blastocysts increased compared to the control value. However, late 2-cells exposed to fluoxetine (5 μM) over 24 h showed a reduction in blastocyst formation. The addition of fluoxetine (5 μM) together with KN93 or KN62 (calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II (CaMKII) inhibitors) failed to increase blastocyst formation. Fluoxetine treatment inhibited TREK-1 and TREK-2, members of the two-pore domain K{sup +} channel family expressed in mouse embryos, activities, indicating that fluoxetine-induced membrane depolarization in late 2-cells might have resulted from TREK inhibition. In addition, long-term exposure to fluoxetine altered the TREK mRNA expression levels. Furthermore, injection of siRNA targeting TREKs significantly decreased blastocyst formation by ∼ 30% compared to injection of scrambled siRNA. Long-term exposure of fluoxetine had no effect on blastocyst formation of TREK deficient embryos. These results indicate that low-dose and short-term exposures of late 2-cells to fluoxetine probably increase blastocyst formation through activation of CaMKII-dependent signal transduction pathways, whereas long-term exposure decreases mouse early embryonic development through inhibition of TREK channel gating. Highlights: ► Short-term exposure of 2-cells to fluoxetine enhances mouse blastocyst formation. ► The enhancive effect of fluoxetine is resulted from Ca

  12. Comparison of the metabolic activation of environmental carcinogens in mouse embryonic stem cells and mouse embryonic fibroblasts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krais, Annette M.; Mühlbauer, Karl-Rudolf; Kucab, Jill E.; Chinbuah, Helena; Cornelius, Michael G.; Wei, Quan-Xiang; Hollstein, Monica; Phillips, David H.; Arlt, Volker M.; Schmeiser, Heinz H.

    2015-01-01

    We compared mouse embryonic stem (ES) cells and fibroblasts (MEFs) for their ability to metabolically activate the environmental carcinogens benzo[a]pyrene (BaP), 3-nitrobenzanthrone (3-NBA) and aristolochic acid I (AAI), measuring DNA adduct formation by 32P-postlabelling and expression of xenobiotic-metabolism genes by quantitative real-time PCR. At 2 μM, BaP induced Cyp1a1 expression in MEFs to a much greater extent than in ES cells and formed 45 times more adducts. Nqo1 mRNA expression was increased by 3-NBA in both cell types but induction was higher in MEFs, as was adduct formation. For AAI, DNA binding was over 450 times higher in MEFs than in ES cells, although Nqo1 and Cyp1a1 transcriptional levels did not explain this difference. We found higher global methylation of DNA in ES cells than in MEFs, which suggests higher chromatin density and lower accessibility of the DNA to DNA damaging agents in ES cells. However, AAI treatment did not alter DNA methylation. Thus mouse ES cells and MEFs have the metabolic competence to activate a number of environmental carcinogens, but MEFs have lower global DNA methylation and higher metabolic capacity than mouse ES cells. PMID:25230394

  13. Towards the integration of mouse databases - definition and implementation of solutions to two use-cases in mouse functional genomics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schofield Paul

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The integration of information present in many disparate biological databases represents a major challenge in biomedical research. To define the problems and needs, and to explore strategies for database integration in mouse functional genomics, we consulted the biologist user community and implemented solutions to two user-defined use-cases. Results We organised workshops, meetings and used a questionnaire to identify the needs of biologist database users in mouse functional genomics. As a result, two use-cases were developed that can be used to drive future designs or extensions of mouse databases. Here, we present the use-cases and describe some initial computational solutions for them. The application for the gene-centric use-case, "MUSIG-Gen" starts from a list of gene names and collects a wide range of data types from several distributed databases in a "shopping cart"-like manner. The iterative user-driven approach is a response to strongly articulated requests from users, especially those without computational biology backgrounds. The application for the phenotype-centric use-case, "MUSIG-Phen", is based on a similar concept and starting from phenotype descriptions retrieves information for associated genes. Conclusion The use-cases created, and their prototype software implementations should help to better define biologists' needs for database integration and may serve as a starting point for future bioinformatics solutions aimed at end-user biologists.

  14. Resistance of human and mouse myeloid leukemia cells to UV radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Poljak-Blazi, M.; Osmak, M.; Hadzija, M.

    1989-01-01

    Sensitivity of mouse bone marrow and myeloid leukemia cells and sensitivity of human myeloid leukemia cells to UV light was tested. Criteria were the in vivo colony-forming ability of UV exposed cells and the inhibition of DNA synthesis during post-irradiation incubation for 24 h in vitro. Mouse bone marrow cells irradiated with a small dose of UV light (5 J/m 2 ) and injected into x-irradiated animals did not form hemopoietic colonies on recipient's spleens, and recipients died. However, mouse leukemia cells, after irradiation with higher doses of UV light, retained the ability to form colonies on the spleens, and all recipient mice died with typical symptoms of leukemia. In vitro, mouse bone marrow cells exhibited high sensitivity to UV light compared to mouse myeloid leukemia cells. Human leukemia cells were also resistant to UV light, but more sensitive than mouse leukemia cells. (author)

  15. Genotoxicity of 3-nitrobenzanthrone and 3-aminobenzanthrone in MutaMouse and lung epithelial cells derived from MutaMouse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arlt, Volker M; Gingerich, John; Schmeiser, Heinz H; Phillips, David H; Douglas, George R; White, Paul A

    2008-11-01

    FE1 lung epithelial cells derived from MutaMouse are a new model system to provide in vitro mutagenicity data with the potential to predict the outcome of an in vivo MutaMouse test. 3-Nitrobenzanthrone (3-NBA) is a potent mutagen and suspected human carcinogen identified in diesel exhaust and urban air pollution. We investigated the mutagenicity and DNA binding of 3-NBA and its main metabolite 3-aminobenzanthrone (3-ABA) in vitro and in vivo in the MutaMouse assay. Mice were treated with 3-NBA or 3-ABA (0, 2 or 5 mg/kg body weight/day) by gavage for 28 days and 28 days later lacZ mutant frequency (MF) was determined in liver, lung and bone marrow. For both compounds, dose-related increases in MF were seen in liver and bone marrow, but not in lung; mutagenic activity was approximately 2-fold lower for 3-ABA than for 3-NBA. With 3-NBA, highest DNA adduct levels (measured by (32)P-post-labelling) were found in liver (approximately 230 adducts per 10(8) nucleotides) with levels 20- to 40-fold lower in bone marrow and lung. With 3-ABA, DNA adduct levels were again highest in the liver, but approximately 4-fold lower than for 3-NBA. FE1 cells were exposed to up to 10 microg/ml 3-NBA or 3-ABA for 6 h with or without exogenous activation (S9) and harvested after 3 days. For 3-NBA, there was a dose-related increase in MF both with and without S9 mix, which was >10 times higher than observed in vivo. At the highest concentration of 3-ABA (10 microg/ml), we found only around a 2-fold increase in MF relative to controls. DNA adduct formation in FE1 cells was dose-dependent for both compounds, but 10- to 20-fold higher for 3-NBA compared to 3-ABA. Collectively, our data indicate that MutaMouse FE1 cells are well suited for cost-effective testing of suspected mutagens with different metabolic activation pathways as a guide for subsequent in vivo MutaMouse testing.

  16. Beethoven, a mouse model for dominant, progressive hearing loss DFNA36.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vreugde, Sarah; Erven, Alexandra; Kros, Corné J; Marcotti, Walter; Fuchs, Helmut; Kurima, Kiyoto; Wilcox, Edward R; Friedman, Thomas B; Griffith, Andrew J; Balling, Rudi; Hrabé De Angelis, Martin; Avraham, Karen B; Steel, Karen P

    2002-03-01

    Despite recent progress in identifying genes underlying deafness, there are still relatively few mouse models of specific forms of human deafness. Here we describe the phenotype of the Beethoven (Bth) mouse mutant and a missense mutation in Tmc1 (transmembrane cochlear-expressed gene 1). Progressive hearing loss (DFNA36) and profound congenital deafness (DFNB7/B11) are caused by dominant and recessive mutations of the human ortholog, TMC1 (ref. 1), for which Bth and deafness (dn) are mouse models, respectively.

  17. Development and characterization of a homologous radioimmunoassay for deer mouse (Peromyscus maniculatus bairdii) prolactin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marr, G.A.; Colosi, P.; Desjardins, C.; Talamantes, F.

    1983-01-01

    A highly specific and sensitive homologous radioimmunoassay has been developed for the secreted form of prolactin from the deer mouse Peromyscus maniculatus bairdii. Peromyscus serum and pituitary homogenates displayed paralled dilution response curves, and no cross reaction was seen with either mouse prolactin, mouse growth hormone or rat prolactin. The assay was sensitive to 25 picograms per tube and the intra- and inter-assay coefficients of variation were 5 and 3.6%, respectively. In addition, the authors have demonstrated that Peromyscus prolactin does not show parallel displacement in a homologous radioimmunoassay utilized for measuring prolactin in the common laboratory mouse

  18. A comparison of some organizational characteristics of the mouse central retina and the human macula.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Volland, Stefanie; Esteve-Rudd, Julian; Hoo, Juyea; Yee, Claudine; Williams, David S

    2015-01-01

    Mouse models have greatly assisted our understanding of retinal degenerations. However, the mouse retina does not have a macula, leading to the question of whether the mouse is a relevant model for macular degeneration. In the present study, a quantitative comparison between the organization of the central mouse retina and the human macula was made, focusing on some structural characteristics that have been suggested to be important in predisposing the macula to stresses leading to degeneration: photoreceptor density, phagocytic load on the RPE, and the relative thinness of Bruch's membrane. Light and electron microscopy measurements from retinas of two strains of mice, together with published data on human retinas, were used for calculations and subsequent comparisons. As in the human retina, the central region of the mouse retina possesses a higher photoreceptor cell density and a thinner Bruch's membrane than in the periphery; however, the magnitudes of these periphery to center gradients are larger in the human. Of potentially greater relevance is the actual photoreceptor cell density, which is much greater in the mouse central retina than in the human macula, underlying a higher phagocytic load for the mouse RPE. Moreover, at eccentricities that correspond to the peripheral half of the human macula, the rod to cone ratio is similar between mouse and human. Hence, with respect to photoreceptor density and phagocytic load of the RPE, the central mouse retina models at least the more peripheral part of the macula, where macular degeneration is often first evident.

  19. Human mammary microenvironment better regulates the biology of human breast cancer in humanized mouse model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Ming-Jie; Wang, Jue; Xu, Lu; Zha, Xiao-Ming; Zhao, Yi; Ling, Li-Jun; Wang, Shui

    2015-02-01

    During the past decades, many efforts have been made in mimicking the clinical progress of human cancer in mouse models. Previously, we developed a human breast tissue-derived (HB) mouse model. Theoretically, it may mimic the interactions between "species-specific" mammary microenvironment of human origin and human breast cancer cells. However, detailed evidences are absent. The present study (in vivo, cellular, and molecular experiments) was designed to explore the regulatory role of human mammary microenvironment in the progress of human breast cancer cells. Subcutaneous (SUB), mammary fat pad (MFP), and HB mouse models were developed for in vivo comparisons. Then, the orthotopic tumor masses from three different mouse models were collected for primary culture. Finally, the biology of primary cultured human breast cancer cells was compared by cellular and molecular experiments. Results of in vivo mouse models indicated that human breast cancer cells grew better in human mammary microenvironment. Cellular and molecular experiments confirmed that primary cultured human breast cancer cells from HB mouse model showed a better proliferative and anti-apoptotic biology than those from SUB to MFP mouse models. Meanwhile, primary cultured human breast cancer cells from HB mouse model also obtained the migratory and invasive biology for "species-specific" tissue metastasis to human tissues. Comprehensive analyses suggest that "species-specific" mammary microenvironment of human origin better regulates the biology of human breast cancer cells in our humanized mouse model of breast cancer, which is more consistent with the clinical progress of human breast cancer.

  20. Monitor hemoglobin concentration and oxygen saturation in living mouse tail using photoacoustic CT scanner

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Bo; Kruger, Robert; Reinecke, Daniel; Stantz, Keith M.

    2010-02-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study is to use PCT spectroscopy scanner to monitor the hemoglobin concentration and oxygen saturation change of living mouse by imaging the artery and veins in a mouse tail. Materials and Methods: One mouse tail was scanned using the PCT small animal scanner at the isosbestic wavelength (796nm) to obtain its hemoglobin concentration. Immediately after the scan, the mouse was euthanized and its blood was extracted from the heart. The true hemoglobin concentration was measured using a co-oximeter. Reconstruction correction algorithm to compensate the acoustic signal loss due to the existence of bone structure in the mouse tail was developed. After the correction, the hemoglobin concentration was calculated from the PCT images and compared with co-oximeter result. Next, one mouse were immobilized in the PCT scanner. Gas with different concentrations of oxygen was given to mouse to change the oxygen saturation. PCT tail vessel spectroscopy scans were performed 15 minutes after the introduction of gas. The oxygen saturation values were then calculated to monitor the oxygen saturation change of mouse. Results: The systematic error for hemoglobin concentration measurement was less than 5% based on preliminary analysis. Same correction technique was used for oxygen saturation calculation. After correction, the oxygen saturation level change matches the oxygen volume ratio change of the introduced gas. Conclusion: This living mouse tail experiment has shown that NIR PCT-spectroscopy can be used to monitor the oxygen saturation status in living small animals.

  1. A vertical mouse and ergonomic mouse pads alter wrist position but do not reduce carpal tunnel pressure in patients with carpal tunnel syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmid, Annina B; Kubler, Paul A; Johnston, Venerina; Coppieters, Michel W

    2015-03-01

    Non-neutral wrist positions and external pressure leading to increased carpal tunnel pressure during computer use have been associated with a heightened risk of carpal tunnel syndrome (CTS). This study investigated whether commonly used ergonomic devices reduce carpal tunnel pressure in patients with CTS. Carpal tunnel pressure was measured in twenty-one patients with CTS before, during and after a computer mouse task using a standard mouse, a vertical mouse, a gel mouse pad and a gliding palm support. Carpal tunnel pressure increased while operating a computer mouse. Although the vertical mouse significantly reduced ulnar deviation and the gel mouse pad and gliding palm support decreased wrist extension, none of the ergonomic devices reduced carpal tunnel pressure. The findings of this study do therefore not endorse a strong recommendation for or against any of the ergonomic devices commonly recommended for patients with CTS. Selection of ergonomic devices remains dependent on personal preference. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd and The Ergonomics Society. All rights reserved.

  2. A mouse model system for genetic analysis of sociability: C57BL/6J versus BALB/cJ inbred mouse strains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sankoorikal, Geena Mary V; Kaercher, Kristin A; Boon, Catherine J; Lee, Jin Kyoung; Brodkin, Edward S

    2006-03-01

    Impairments in social behaviors are highly disabling symptoms of autism, schizophrenia, and other psychiatric disorders. Mouse model systems are useful for identifying the many genes and environmental factors likely to affect complex behaviors, such as sociability (the tendency to seek social interaction). To progress toward developing such a model system, we tested the hypothesis that C57BL/6J inbred mice show higher levels of sociability than BALB/cJ inbred mice. Mice tested for sociability were 4- and 9-week-old, male and female C57BL/6J and BALB/cJ mice. On 2 consecutive days, the sociability of each test mouse toward an unfamiliar 4-week-old DBA/2J stimulus mouse was assessed with a social choice paradigm conducted in a three-chambered apparatus. Measures of sociability included the time that the test mouse spent near versus far from the stimulus mouse, the time spent directly sniffing the stimulus mouse, and the time spent in contact between test and stimulus mice in a free interaction. C57BL/6J mice showed higher levels of sociability than BALB/cJ mice overall in each of these measures. We propose that C57BL/6J and BALB/cJ mice will be a useful mouse model system for future genetic and neurobiological studies of sociability.

  3. Biochemical and Structural Properties of Mouse Kynurenine Aminotransferase III

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Han, Q.; Robinson, H; Cai, T; Tagle, D; Li, J

    2009-01-01

    Kynurenine aminotransferase III (KAT III) has been considered to be involved in the production of mammalian brain kynurenic acid (KYNA), which plays an important role in protecting neurons from overstimulation by excitatory neurotransmitters. The enzyme was identified based on its high sequence identity with mammalian KAT I, but its activity toward kynurenine and its structural characteristics have not been established. In this study, the biochemical and structural properties of mouse KAT III (mKAT III) were determined. Specifically, mKAT III cDNA was amplified from a mouse brain cDNA library, and its recombinant protein was expressed in an insect cell protein expression system. We established that mKAT III is able to efficiently catalyze the transamination of kynurenine to KYNA and has optimum activity at relatively basic conditions of around pH 9.0 and at relatively high temperatures of 50 to 60C. In addition, mKAT III is active toward a number of other amino acids. Its activity toward kynurenine is significantly decreased in the presence of methionine, histidine, glutamine, leucine, cysteine, and 3-hydroxykynurenine. Through macromolecular crystallography, we determined the mKAT III crystal structure and its structures in complex with kynurenine and glutamine. Structural analysis revealed the overall architecture of mKAT III and its cofactor binding site and active center residues. This is the first report concerning the biochemical characteristics and crystal structures of KAT III enzymes and provides a basis toward understanding the overall physiological role of mammalian KAT III in vivo and insight into regulating the levels of endogenous KYNA through modulation of the enzyme in the mouse brain.

  4. A new mouse model of metabolic syndrome and associated complications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yun; Zheng, Yue; Nishina, Patsy M; Naggert, Jürgen K.

    2010-01-01

    Metabolic Syndrome (MS) encompasses a clustering of risk factors for cardiovascular disease, including obesity, insulin resistance, and dyslipidemia. We characterized a new mouse model carrying a dominant mutation, C57BL/6J-Nmf15/+ (B6-Nmf15/+), which develops additional complications of MS such as adipose tissue inflammation and cardiomyopathy. A backcross was used to genetically map the Nmf15 locus. Mice were examined in the CLAMS™ animal monitoring system, and dual energy X-ray absorptiometry and blood chemistry analyses were performed. Hypothalamic LepR, SOCS1 and STAT3 phosphorylation were examined. Cardiac function was assessed by Echo- and Electro Cardiography. Adipose tissue inflammation was characterized by in situ hybridization and measurement of Jun kinase activity. The Nmf15 locus mapped to distal mouse chromosome 5 with a LOD score of 13.8. Nmf15 mice developed obesity by 12 weeks of age. Plasma leptin levels were significantly elevated in pre-obese Nmf15 mice at 8 weeks of age and an attenuated STAT3 phosphorylation in the hypothalamus suggests a primary leptin resistance. Adipose tissue from Nmf15 mice showed a remarkable degree of inflammation and macrophage infiltration as indicated by expression of the F4/80 marker and increased phosphorylation of JNK1/2. Lipidosis was observed in tubular epithelial cells and glomeruli of the kidney. Nmf15 mice demonstrate both histological and pathophysiological evidence of cardiomyopathy. The Nmf15 mouse model provides a new entry point into pathways mediating leptin resistance and obesity. It is one of few models that combine many aspects of metabolic syndrome and can be useful for testing new therapeutic approaches for combating obesity complications, particularly cardiomyopathy. PMID:19398498

  5. Surface landmark quantification of embryonic mouse craniofacial morphogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Percival, Christopher J; Green, Rebecca; Marcucio, Ralph; Hallgrímsson, Benedikt

    2014-07-24

    Morphometric quantification of subtle craniofacial variation in studies of experimentally modified embryonic mice has proved valuable in determining the effects of developmental perturbations on craniofacial morphogenesis. The direct comparison of landmark coordinate data from embryos of many different mouse strains and mouse models can advance our understanding of the bases for craniofacial variation. We propose a standard set of craniofacial surface landmarks, for use with embryonic day (E) 10.5-12.5 mice, to serve as the foundation for this type of data compilation and analysis. We quantify the intra- and inter-observer landmark placement variation associated with each landmark and determine how the results of a simple ontogenetic analysis might be influenced by selection of landmark set. Intraobserver landmark placement error for experienced landmarkers generally remains below 0.1 mm, with some landmarks exhibiting higher values at E11.5 and E12.5. Interobserver error tends to increase with embryonic age and those landmarks defined on wide inflections of curves or facial processes exhibit the highest error. Landmarks with highest intra- or inter-observer are identified and we determine that their removal from the dataset does not significantly change the vectors of craniofacial shape change associated with an ontogenetic regression. Our quantification of landmark placement error demonstrates that it is preferable for a single observer to identify all landmark coordinates within a single study and that significant training and experience are necessary before a landmarker can produce data for use in larger meta-analyses. However, we are confident that this standard landmark set, once landmarks with higher error are removed, can serve as a foundation for a comparative dataset of facial morphogenesis across various mouse populations to help identify the developmental bases for phenotypic variation in the craniofacial complex.

  6. Experimental Mouse Model of Lumbar Ligamentum Flavum Hypertrophy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saito, Takeyuki; Yokota, Kazuya; Kobayakawa, Kazu; Hara, Masamitsu; Kubota, Kensuke; Harimaya, Katsumi; Kawaguchi, Kenichi; Hayashida, Mitsumasa; Matsumoto, Yoshihiro; Doi, Toshio; Shiba, Keiichiro; Nakashima, Yasuharu; Okada, Seiji

    2017-01-01

    Lumbar spinal canal stenosis (LSCS) is one of the most common spinal disorders in elderly people, with the number of LSCS patients increasing due to the aging of the population. The ligamentum flavum (LF) is a spinal ligament located in the interior of the vertebral canal, and hypertrophy of the LF, which causes the direct compression of the nerve roots and/or cauda equine, is a major cause of LSCS. Although there have been previous studies on LF hypertrophy, its pathomechanism remains unclear. The purpose of this study is to establish a relevant mouse model of LF hypertrophy and to examine disease-related factors. First, we focused on mechanical stress and developed a loading device for applying consecutive mechanical flexion-extension stress to the mouse LF. After 12 weeks of mechanical stress loading, we found that the LF thickness in the stress group was significantly increased in comparison to the control group. In addition, there were significant increases in the area of collagen fibers, the number of LF cells, and the gene expression of several fibrosis-related factors. However, in this mecnanical stress model, there was no macrophage infiltration, angiogenesis, or increase in the expression of transforming growth factor-β1 (TGF-β1), which are characteristic features of LF hypertrophy in LSCS patients. We therefore examined the influence of infiltrating macrophages on LF hypertrophy. After inducing macrophage infiltration by micro-injury to the mouse LF, we found excessive collagen synthesis in the injured site with the increased TGF-β1 expression at 2 weeks after injury, and further confirmed LF hypertrophy at 6 weeks after injury. Our findings demonstrate that mechanical stress is a causative factor for LF hypertrophy and strongly suggest the importance of macrophage infiltration in the progression of LF hypertrophy via the stimulation of collagen production.

  7. Recent female mouse models displaying advanced reproductive aging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Danilovich, Natalia; Ram Sairam, M

    2006-02-01

    Reproductive senescence occurs in all female mammals with resultant changes in numerous body functional systems and several important features may be species-specific. Those features that appear to parallel human menopause and aging include general similarity of hormone profiles across the menopausal transition, progression to cycle termination through irregular cycles, declining fertility with age, disturbances in thermogenesis, age-related gains in body weight, fat distribution and disposition towards metabolic syndrome. Structural and hormonal changes in the brain and ovary play a critical role in determining the onset of reproductive senescence. The short life span of rodents such as mice (compared to humans) and the ability to generate specific and timed gene deletions, provide powerful experimental paradigms to understand the molecular and functional changes that precede and follow the loss of reproductive capacity. In theory, any manipulation that compromises ovarian function either partly or totally would impact reproductive events at various levels followed by other dysfunctions. In this article, we provide an overview of three mouse models for the study of female reproductive aging. They are derived from different strategies and their age related phenotypes have been characterized to varying degrees. The follitropin receptor knockout (FORKO) mouse, in its null and haploinsufficient state as well as the dioxin/aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) knockout mouse, serve as two examples of single gene deletions. A third model, using administration of a chemical toxicant such as 4-vinylcyclohexene diepoxide (VCD) in the adult state, produces ovarian deficiencies accompanied by aging changes. These will serve as useful alternatives to previously used radical ovariectomy in young adults. It is anticipated that these new models and more that will be forthcoming will extend opportunities to understand reproductive aging and resolve controversies that abound on issues

  8. Detailed characterization of the substrate specificity of mouse wax synthase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miklaszewska, Magdalena; Kawiński, Adam; Banaś, Antoni

    2013-01-01

    Wax synthases are membrane-associated enzymes catalysing the esterification reaction between fatty acyl-CoA and a long chain fatty alcohol. In living organisms, wax esters function as storage materials or provide protection against harmful environmental influences. In industry, they are used as ingredients for the production of lubricants, pharmaceuticals, and cosmetics. Currently the biological sources of wax esters are limited to jojoba oil. In order to establish a large-scale production of desired wax esters in transgenic high-yielding oilseed plants, enzymes involved in wax esters synthesis from different biological resources should be characterized in detail taking into consideration their substrate specificity. Therefore, this study aims at determining the substrate specificity of one of such enzymes -- the mouse wax synthase. The gene encoding this enzyme was expressed heterologously in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. In the in vitro assays (using microsomal fraction from transgenic yeast), we evaluated the preferences of mouse wax synthase towards a set of combinations of 11 acyl-CoAs with 17 fatty alcohols. The highest activity was observed for 14:0-CoA, 12:0-CoA, and 16:0-CoA in combination with medium chain alcohols (up to 5.2, 3.4, and 3.3 nmol wax esters/min/mg microsomal protein, respectively). Unsaturated alcohols longer than 18°C were better utilized by the enzyme in comparison to the saturated ones. Combinations of all tested alcohols with 20:0-CoA, 22:1-CoA, or Ric-CoA were poorly utilized by the enzyme, and conjugated acyl-CoAs were not utilized at all. Apart from the wax synthase activity, mouse wax synthase also exhibited a very low acyl-CoA:diacylglycerol acyltransferase activity. However, it displayed neither acyl-CoA:monoacylglycerol acyltransferase, nor acyl-CoA:sterol acyltransferase activity.

  9. Adaptive optics retinal imaging in the living mouse eye

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geng, Ying; Dubra, Alfredo; Yin, Lu; Merigan, William H.; Sharma, Robin; Libby, Richard T.; Williams, David R.

    2012-01-01

    Correction of the eye’s monochromatic aberrations using adaptive optics (AO) can improve the resolution of in vivo mouse retinal images [Biss et al., Opt. Lett. 32(6), 659 (2007) and Alt et al., Proc. SPIE 7550, 755019 (2010)], but previous attempts have been limited by poor spot quality in the Shack-Hartmann wavefront sensor (SHWS). Recent advances in mouse eye wavefront sensing using an adjustable focus beacon with an annular beam profile have improved the wavefront sensor spot quality [Geng et al., Biomed. Opt. Express 2(4), 717 (2011)], and we have incorporated them into a fluorescence adaptive optics scanning laser ophthalmoscope (AOSLO). The performance of the instrument was tested on the living mouse eye, and images of multiple retinal structures, including the photoreceptor mosaic, nerve fiber bundles, fine capillaries and fluorescently labeled ganglion cells were obtained. The in vivo transverse and axial resolutions of the fluorescence channel of the AOSLO were estimated from the full width half maximum (FWHM) of the line and point spread functions (LSF and PSF), and were found to be better than 0.79 μm ± 0.03 μm (STD)(45% wider than the diffraction limit) and 10.8 μm ± 0.7 μm (STD)(two times the diffraction limit), respectively. The axial positional accuracy was estimated to be 0.36 μm. This resolution and positional accuracy has allowed us to classify many ganglion cell types, such as bistratified ganglion cells, in vivo. PMID:22574260

  10. Preventive action of curcumin in experimental acute pancreatitis in mouse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Wen-Guang; Xu, Gang; Ren, Gui-Jie; Xu, Xia; Yuan, Hui-Qing; Qi, Xiao-Li; Tian, Ke-Li

    2011-11-01

    Curcuma longa (turmeric) has a long history of use in Ayurvedic medicine as a treatment for inflammatory conditions. The purpose of the present study was to investigate the preventive effects of curcumin against acute pancreatitis (AP) induced by caerulein in mouse and to elucidate possible mechanism of curcumin action. Curcumin (50 mg/kg/day) was intraperitoneally injected to Kun Ming male mice for 6 days, followed by injection of caerulein to induce AP. GW9662 (0.3 mg/kg), a specific peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPARγ) antagonist, was intravenously injected along with curcumin. Murine macrophage RAW264.7 cells were treated with 100 μmol/l curcumin for 2 h, and then stimulated with 0.1 μ g/ml lipopolysaccharide (LPS). Serum amylase and transaminase levels were measured at 10 h after AP. TNF-α level in mouse serum and cell culture medium were detected by ELISA. Expression of PPARγ and NF-κB were analyzed by RT-PCR and Western blot. Curcumin significantly decreased the pancreas injury and reversed the elevation of serum amylase, ALT and AST activities and TNF-α level in mice with AP. Curcumin treatment inhibited the elevation of NF-κB-p65 in the nucleus of mouse pancreas AP group and RAW264.7 cells, but significantly increased the expression of PPARγ. GW9662 could abolish the effects of curcumin on serum levels of amylase, ALT, AST, TNF-α, and NF-κB level. Our results suggest that curcumin could attenuate pancreas tissue and other organ injury by inhibiting the release of inflammatory cytokine TNF-α. These effects may involve upregulation of PPARγ and subsequent downregulation of NF-κB.

  11. Venous Thrombosis and Cancer: from Mouse Models to Clinical Trials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hisada, Y.; Geddings, J. E.; Ay, C.; Mackman, N.

    2015-01-01

    Cancer patients have a ~4 fold increased risk of venous thromboembolism (VTE) compared with the general population and this is associated with significant morbidity and mortality. This review summarizes our current knowledge of VTE and cancer from mouse models to clinical studies. Notably, risk of VTE varies depending on the type and stage of cancer. For instance, pancreatic and brain cancer patients have a higher risk of VTE than breast and prostate cancer patients. Moreover, patients with metastatic disease have a higher risk than those with localized tumors. Tumor-derived procoagulant factors and growth factors may directly and indirectly enhance VTE. For example, increased levels of circulating tumor-derived, tissue factor-positive microvesicles may trigger VTE. In a mouse model of ovarian cancer, tumor-derived IL-6 and hepatic thrombopoietin has been linked to increased platelet production and thrombosis. In addition, mouse models of mammary and lung cancer showed that tumor-derived granulocyte colony-stimulating factor causes neutrophilia and activation of neutrophils. Activated neutrophils can release neutrophil extracellular traps (NETs) that enhance thrombosis. Cell-free DNA in the blood derived from cancer cells, NETs and treatment with cytotoxic drugs can activate the clotting cascade. These studies suggest that there are multiple mechanisms for VTE in patients with different types of cancer. Preventing and treating VTE in cancer patients is challenging; the current recommendations are to use low molecular weight heparin. Understanding the underlying mechanisms may allow the development of new therapies to safely prevent VTE in cancer patients. PMID:25988873

  12. Non-melanoma skin cancer in mouse and man.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwarz, Michael; Münzel, Peter A; Braeuning, Albert

    2013-05-01

    As a frontier organ, skin is exposed to different environmental and/or occupational chemicals which cause cutaneous cancers in experimental animals. In mice, 7,12-dimethylbenz[a]anthrancene (DMBA) and the phorbol ester 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate (TPA) are frequently used as skin model tumor initiator and promoter, respectively. The sequential administration of DMBA and TPA leads to the appearance of a large number of benign papillomas, of which some convert later into invasive squamous cell carcinomas (SCC). At the molecular level, initiation of carcinogenesis in mouse skin consists in the mutational activation of the Ha-ras oncoprotein. HA-RAS mutations are rare in human SCC, but HA-RAS-mutated tumors appear in melanoma patients treated with B-raf inhibitors, indicating that initiated, HA-RAS-mutated stem cells also reside in human skin. Similarly, UV-induced human SCC show footprint mutations in the tumor suppressor gene TP53 which are also observed in UV-induced mouse SCC. Strong species differences exist with respect to phorbol ester-mediated tumor promotion. While certain mouse strains are very susceptible, other rodent species are much less sensitive. Likewise, humans appear to be much more resistant to phorbol ester-mediated skin toxicity. Papilloma formation as a result of a chemical insult is uncommon in men, questioning the relevance of this preneoplastic lesion for humans. However, skin tumorigenesis in the experimental situation and in humans appears to follow common molecular mechanisms, even though there are species differences in the morphological correlates to the preneoplastic state. Therefore, we recommend not simply labeling them as irrelevant for human risk assessment.

  13. A dystrophic Duchenne mouse model for testing human antisense oligonucleotides.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcel Veltrop

    Full Text Available Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD is a severe muscle-wasting disease generally caused by reading frame disrupting mutations in the DMD gene resulting in loss of functional dystrophin protein. The reading frame can be restored by antisense oligonucleotide (AON-mediated exon skipping, allowing production of internally deleted, but partially functional dystrophin proteins as found in the less severe Becker muscular dystrophy. Due to genetic variation between species, mouse models with mutations in the murine genes are of limited use to test and further optimize human specific AONs in vivo. To address this we have generated the del52hDMD/mdx mouse. This model carries both murine and human DMD genes. However, mouse dystrophin expression is abolished due to a stop mutation in exon 23, while the expression of human dystrophin is abolished due to a deletion of exon 52. The del52hDMD/mdx model, like mdx, shows signs of muscle dystrophy on a histological level and phenotypically mild functional impairment. Local administration of human specific vivo morpholinos induces exon skipping and dystrophin restoration in these mice. Depending on the number of mismatches, occasional skipping of the murine Dmd gene, albeit at low levels, could be observed. Unlike previous models, the del52hDMD/mdx model enables the in vivo analysis of human specific AONs targeting exon 51 or exon 53 on RNA and protein level and muscle quality and function. Therefore, it will be a valuable tool for optimizing human specific AONs and genome editing approaches for DMD.

  14. Hyperelastic Material Properties of Mouse Skin under Compression.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuxiang Wang

    Full Text Available The skin is a dynamic organ whose complex material properties are capable of withstanding continuous mechanical stress while accommodating insults and organism growth. Moreover, synchronized hair cycles, comprising waves of hair growth, regression and rest, are accompanied by dramatic fluctuations in skin thickness in mice. Whether such structural changes alter skin mechanics is unknown. Mouse models are extensively used to study skin biology and pathophysiology, including aging, UV-induced skin damage and somatosensory signaling. As the skin serves a pivotal role in the transfer function from sensory stimuli to neuronal signaling, we sought to define the mechanical properties of mouse skin over a range of normal physiological states. Skin thickness, stiffness and modulus were quantitatively surveyed in adult, female mice (Mus musculus. These measures were analyzed under uniaxial compression, which is relevant for touch reception and compression injuries, rather than tension, which is typically used to analyze skin mechanics. Compression tests were performed with 105 full-thickness, freshly isolated specimens from the hairy skin of the hind limb. Physiological variables included body weight, hair-cycle stage, maturity level, skin site and individual animal differences. Skin thickness and stiffness were dominated by hair-cycle stage at young (6-10 weeks and intermediate (13-19 weeks adult ages but by body weight in mature mice (26-34 weeks. Interestingly, stiffness varied inversely with thickness so that hyperelastic modulus was consistent across hair-cycle stages and body weights. By contrast, the mechanics of hairy skin differs markedly with anatomical location. In particular, skin containing fascial structures such as nerves and blood vessels showed significantly greater modulus than adjacent sites. Collectively, this systematic survey indicates that, although its structure changes dramatically throughout adult life, mouse skin at a given

  15. Venous thrombosis and cancer: from mouse models to clinical trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hisada, Y; Geddings, J E; Ay, C; Mackman, N

    2015-08-01

    Cancer patients have a ~4 fold increased risk of venous thromboembolism (VTE) compared with the general population and this is associated with significant morbidity and mortality. This review summarizes our current knowledge of VTE and cancer, from mouse models to clinical studies. Notably, the risk of VTE varies depending on the type and stage of cancer. For instance, pancreatic and brain cancer patients have a higher risk of VTE than breast and prostate cancer patients. Moreover, patients with metastatic disease have a higher risk than those with localized tumors. Tumor-derived procoagulant factors and growth factors may directly and indirectly enhance VTE. For example, increased levels of circulating tumor-derived, tissue factor-positive microvesicles may trigger VTE. In a mouse model of ovarian cancer, tumor-derived IL-6 and hepatic thrombopoietin have been linked to increased platelet production and thrombosis. In addition, mouse models of mammary and lung cancer showed that tumor-derived granulocyte colony-stimulating factor causes neutrophilia and activation of neutrophils. Activated neutrophils can release neutrophil extracellular traps (NETs) that enhance thrombosis. Cell-free DNA in the blood derived from cancer cells, NETs and treatment with cytotoxic drugs can activate the clotting cascade. These studies suggest that there are multiple mechanisms for VTE in patients with different types of cancer. Preventing and treating VTE in cancer patients is challenging; the current recommendations are to use low-molecular-weight heparin. Understanding the underlying mechanisms may allow the development of new therapies to safely prevent VTE in cancer patients. © 2015 International Society on Thrombosis and Haemostasis.

  16. Mouse Hepatic Tumor Vascular Imaging by Experimental Selective Angiography.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sang Kyum Kim

    Full Text Available Human hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC has unique vascular features, which require selective imaging of hepatic arterial perfusion and portal venous perfusion with vascular catheterization for sufficient evaluation. Unlike in humans, vessels in mice are too small to catheterize, and the importance of separately imaging the feeding vessels of tumors is frequently overlooked in hepatic tumor models. The purpose of this study was to perform selective latex angiography in several mouse liver tumor models and assess their suitability.In several ectopic (Lewis lung carcinoma, B16/F10 melanoma cell lines and spontaneous liver tumor (Albumin-Cre/MST1fl/fl/MST2fl/fl, Albumin-Cre/WW45fl/fl, and H-ras12V genetically modified mouse models, the heart left ventricle and/or main portal vein of mice was punctured, and latex dye was infused to achieve selective latex arteriography and/or portography.H-ras12V transgenic mice (a HCC and hepatic adenoma model developed multiple liver nodules that displayed three different perfusion patterns (portal venous or hepatic artery perfusion predominant, mixed perfusion, indicating intra-tumoral vascular heterogeneity. Selective latex angiography revealed that the Lewis lung carcinoma implant model and the Albumin-Cre/WW45fl/fl model reproduced conventional angiography findings of human HCC. Specifically, these mice developed tumors with abundant feeding arteries but no portal venous perfusion.Different hepatic tumor models showed different tumor vessel characteristics that influence the suitability of the model and that should be considered when designing translational experiments. Selective latex angiography applied to certain mouse tumor models (both ectopic and spontaneous closely simulated typical characteristics of human HCC vascular imaging.

  17. SWAP-70 contributes to spontaneous transformation of mouse embryo fibroblasts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chang, Yu-Tzu; Shu, Chung-Li; Lai, Jing-Yang; Lin, Ching-Yu; Chuu, Chih-Pin [Institute of Cellular and System Medicine National Health Research Institute, Zhunan Town 35053, Miaoli County, Taiwan, ROC (China); Morishita, Kazuhiro; Ichikawa, Tomonaga [Division of Tumor and Cellular Biochemistry Department of Medical Sciences Faculty of Medicine University of Miyazaki, 5200 Kihara, Kiyotake, Miyazaki-shi, Miyazaki 889-1692 Japan (Japan); Jessberger, Rolf [Faculty of Medicine Carl Gustav Carus, Institute of Physiological Chemistry, Dresden University of Technology, Dresden (Germany); Fukui, Yasuhisa, E-mail: 990412@nhri.org.tw [Institute of Cellular and System Medicine National Health Research Institute, Zhunan Town 35053, Miaoli County, Taiwan, ROC (China)

    2016-07-15

    Mouse embryo fibroblasts (MEFs) grow slowly after cultivation from animals, however, after an extended period of cultivation, their growth accelerates. We found that SWAP-70 deficient MEFs failed to increase growth rates. They maintain normal growth rates and proliferation cycles for at least 5 years. Complementing SWAP-70 deficiency in one of these MEF clones, MEF1F2, by expressing human SWAP-70 resulted in fast growth of the cells after further cultivation for a long period. The resulting cells show a transformation phenotype, since they grow on top of each other and do not show contact inhibition. This phenotype was reverted when sanguinarine, a putative SWAP-70 inhibitor, was added. Two SWAP-70 expressing clones were examined in detail. Even after cell density became very high their cdc2 and NFκB were still activated suggesting that they do not stop growing. One of the clones formed colonies in soft agar and formed tumors in nude mice. Lately, one more clone became transformed being able to make colonies in soft agar. We maintain 4 human SWAP-70 expressing MEF1F2 cell lines. Three out of 4 clones exhibited transforming phenotypes. The mouse SWAP-70 gene also promoted transformation of MEFs. Taken together our data suggest that SWAP-70 is not a typical oncogene, but is required for spontaneous transformation of MEFs. - Highlights: • Mouse embryo fibroblasts (MEFs) lacking SWAP-70 do not cause spontaneous transform. • Adding back of SWAP-70 to SWAP-70-deficient MEFs induces spontaneous transformation. • SWAP-70 is required for spontaneous transformation of MEFs.

  18. Analysis of Kif5b Expression during Mouse Kidney Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xue, Wenqian; Wang, Zai; Lu, Song; Lin, Raozhou; Liu, Mengfei; Zhu, Guixia; Huang, Jian-Dong

    2015-01-01

    Recent studies showed that kidney-specific inactivation of Kif3a produces kidney cysts and renal failure, suggesting that kinesin-mediated intracellular transportation is important for the establishement and maintenance of renal epithelial cell polarity and normal nephron functions. Kif5b, one of the most conserved kinesin heavy chain, is the mouse homologue of the human ubiquitous Kinesin Heavy Chain (uKHC). In order to elucidate the role of Kif5b in kidney development and function, it is essential to establish its expression profile within the organ. Therefore, in this study, we examined the expression pattern of Kif5b in mouse kidney. Kidneys from embryonic (E) 12.5-, 16.5-dpc (days post coitus) mouse fetuses, from postnatal (P) day 0, 10, 20 pups and from adult mice were collected. The distribution of Kif5b was analyzed by immunostaining. The possible involvement of Kif5b in kidney development was investigated in conditional mutant mice by using a Cre-LoxP strategy. This study showed that the distribution of Kif5b displayed spatiotemporal changes during postnatal kidney development. In kidneys of new born mice, Kif5b was strongly expressed in all developing tubules and in the ureteric bud, but not in the glomerulus or in other early-developing structures, such as the cap mesenchyme, the comma-shaped body, and the S-shaped body. In kidneys of postnatal day 20 or of older mice, however, Kif5b was localized selectively in the basolateral domain of epithelial cells of the thick ascending loop of Henle, as well as of the distal convoluted tubule, with little expression being observed in the proximal tubule or in the collecting duct. Conditional knock-down of Kif5b in mouse kidney did not result in detectable morphological defects, but it did lead to a decrease in cell proliferation rate and also to a mislocalization of Na+/K+/-ATPase, indicating that although Kif5b is non-essential for kidney morphogenesis, it is important for nephron maturation. PMID:25885434

  19. Inhibitory zinc-enriched terminals in mouse spinal cord

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Danscher, G; Jo, S M; Varea, E

    2001-01-01

    The ultrastructural localization of zinc transporter-3, glutamate decarboxylase and zinc ions in zinc-enriched terminals in the mouse spinal cord was studied by zinc transporter-3 and glutamate decarboxylase immunohistochemistry and zinc selenium autometallography, respectively.The distribution......-enriched terminals, whereas the dorsal horn was dominated by medium-sized and small zinc-enriched terminals.The presence of boutons with flat synaptic vesicles with zinc ions and symmetric synaptic contacts suggests the presence of inhibitory zinc-enriched terminals in the mammalian spinal cord...

  20. Subplate in the developing cortex of mouse and human

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wang, Wei Zhi; Hoerder-Suabedissen, Anna; Oeschger, Franziska M

    2010-01-01

    Abstract The subplate is a largely transient zone containing precocious neurons involved in several key steps of cortical development. The majority of subplate neurons form a compact layer in mouse, but are dispersed throughout a much larger zone in the human. In rodent, subplate neurons are among......-binding globulin and Alpha-2-Heremans-Schmid glycoprotein/human fetuin. In addition, the established subplate neuron marker neuropeptide Y is expressed superficially, whereas potassium/chloride co-transporter (KCC2)-positive neurons are localized in the deep subplate at 16 PCW. These observations imply...

  1. The cellular cancer resistance of the SR/CR mouse

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Koch, Janne; Hau, Jann; Jensen, Henrik Elvang

    2012-01-01

    The SR/CR mouse phenotype, first described in 1999 in BALB/c and later bred into C57BL/6 mice, is resistant to cancer formation following high doses of cancer cells administered intraperitoneally. The tumor cell targeting and destruction mechanisms have not been identified. By fluorescence...... injection showed formations of immune cells morphologically resembling polymorphonuclear granulocytes and macrophages adjoining the cancer cells. The results point to the potential involvement of innate immune cells in cancer immunology. Our data support migration of polymorphonuclear granulocytes...

  2. Phase-contrast X-ray microtomography of mouse fetus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masato Hoshino

    2012-02-01

    A phase-contrast X-ray microtomography system using the Talbot imaging has been built at the SPring-8 synchrotron radiation facility. This system has much higher density resolution than absorption-based X-ray microtomography. The tomographic sections of formalin-fixed mouse fetuses obtained with this method clearly depict various organs without any staining at a pixel resolution of up to 5 µm. Since this technique allows us to obtain three-dimensional structural information without sectioning, it will be particularly useful to examine anomalies that take place during development. It can be also used to quantitatively measure volume and mass of organs during development.

  3. Patterns of cell death in the perinatal mouse forebrain

    OpenAIRE

    Mosley, Morgan; Shah, Charisma; Morse, Kiriana A.; Miloro, Stephen A.; Holmes, Melissa M.; Ahern, Todd H.; Forger, Nancy G.

    2016-01-01

    The importance of cell death in brain development has long been appreciated, but many basic questions remain, such as what initiates or terminates the cell death period. One obstacle has been the lack of quantitative data defining exactly when cell death occurs. We recently created a “cell death atlas,” using the detection of activated caspase-3 (AC3) to quantify apoptosis in the postnatal mouse ventral forebrain and hypothalamus, and found that the highest rates of cell death were seen at th...

  4. Nebivolol Desensitizes Myofilaments of a Hypertrophic Cardiomyopathy Mouse Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sabrina Stücker

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: Hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM patients often present with diastolic dysfunction and a normal to supranormal systolic function. To counteract this hypercontractility, guideline therapies advocate treatment with beta-adrenoceptor and Ca2+ channel blockers. One well established pathomechanism for the hypercontractile phenotype frequently observed in HCM patients and several HCM mouse models is an increased myofilament Ca2+ sensitivity. Nebivolol, a commonly used beta-adrenoceptor antagonist, has been reported to lower maximal force development and myofilament Ca2+ sensitivity in rabbit and human heart tissues. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of nebivolol in cardiac muscle strips of an established HCM Mybpc3 mouse model. Furthermore, we investigated actions of nebivolol and epigallocatechin-gallate, which has been shown to desensitize myofilaments for Ca2+ in mouse and human HCM models, in cardiac strips of HCM patients with a mutation in the most frequently mutated HCM gene MYBPC3.Methods and Results: Nebivolol effects were tested on contractile parameters and force-Ca2+ relationship of skinned ventricular muscle strips isolated from Mybpc3-targeted knock-in (KI, wild-type (WT mice and cardiac strips of three HCM patients with MYBPC3 mutations. At baseline, KI strips showed no difference in maximal force development compared to WT mouse heart strips. Neither 1 nor 10 μM nebivolol had an effect on maximal force development in both genotypes. 10 μM nebivolol induced myofilament Ca2+ desensitization in WT strips and to a greater extent in KI strips. Neither 1 nor 10 μM nebivolol had an effect on Ca2+ sensitivity in cardiac muscle strips of three HCM patients with MYBPC3 mutations, whereas epigallocatechin-gallate induced a right shift in the force-Ca2+ curve.Conclusion: Nebivolol induced a myofilament Ca2+ desensitization in both WT and KI strips, which was more pronounced in KI muscle strips. In human cardiac muscle

  5. IN VITRO CULTURE OF FROZEN AND THAWED MOUSE OVA

    OpenAIRE

    KANAGAWA, Hiroshi

    1980-01-01

    Seventy mouse ova at the 4--8-cell stages were collected at room temperature from mice treated with pregnant mare's serum gonadotrophin and human chorionic gonadotrophin. Seventy ova were divided into 5 groups, and each group was placed in a 0.5 ml plastic straw with 0.2 ml of Brinster's medium. Then, the straws were immersed into an ice bath (0℃) for 5 minutes. Next, an equal volume of 2 M dimethyl sulfoxide was added to the sample straw. The medium with ova was then seeded at -6℃ and cooled...

  6. Imaging mouse cancer models in vivo using reporter transgenes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyons, Scott K; Patrick, P Stephen; Brindle, Kevin M

    2013-08-01

    Imaging mouse models of cancer with reporter transgenes has become a relatively common experimental approach in the laboratory, which allows noninvasive and longitudinal investigation of diverse aspects of tumor biology in vivo. Our goal here is to outline briefly the principles of the relevant imaging modalities, emphasizing particularly their strengths and weaknesses and what the researcher can expect in a practical sense from each of these techniques. Furthermore, we discuss how relatively subtle modifications in the way reporter transgene expression is regulated in the cell underpin the ability of reporter transgenes as a whole to provide readouts on such varied aspects of tumor biology in vivo.

  7. Multiple Requirements of PLK1 during Mouse Oocyte Maturation

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Šolc, Petr; Kitajima, T.; Yoshida, S.; Brzáková, Adéla; Kaido, M.; Baran, V.; Mayer, Alexandra; Šámalová, P.; Motlík, Jan; Ellenberg, J.

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 10, č. 2 (2015) E-ISSN 1932-6203 R&D Projects: GA MŠk LH12057; GA ČR(CZ) GPP301/11/P081; GA ČR(CZ) GC301/09/J036; GA ČR GAP502/11/0593; GA MŠk ED2.1.00/03.0124 Institutional support: RVO:67985904 Keywords : PLK1 * meiosis * mouse oocytes Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 3.057, year: 2015

  8. ACCELEROMETER-BASED COMPUTER MOUSE FOR PEOPLE WITH SPECIAL NEEDS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lluís Ribas Xirgo

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available A great deal of human-machine interaction depends on hands, and so does access to information technology services. People unable to use hands do require special devices that replace computer mice or touchscreens. In this paper, we present a building kit for a full-featured computer mouse that is controlled by head movements. The resulting kit includes an easy-to-find bill of materials, instructions to build the device and to use it. The experiments conducted with already built devices showed that it works pretty well for most people after a short period of adaptation.

  9. Dantrolene is neuroprotective in Huntington's disease transgenic mouse model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chen Xi

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Huntington's disease (HD is a progressive neurodegenerative disorder caused by a polyglutamine expansion in the Huntingtin protein which results in the selective degeneration of striatal medium spiny neurons (MSNs. Our group has previously demonstrated that calcium (Ca2+ signaling is abnormal in MSNs from the yeast artificial chromosome transgenic mouse model of HD (YAC128. Moreover, we demonstrated that deranged intracellular Ca2+ signaling sensitizes YAC128 MSNs to glutamate-induced excitotoxicity when compared to wild type (WT MSNs. In previous studies we also observed abnormal neuronal Ca2+ signaling in neurons from spinocerebellar ataxia 2 (SCA2 and spinocerebellar ataxia 3 (SCA3 mouse models and demonstrated that treatment with dantrolene, a ryanodine receptor antagonist and clinically relevant Ca2+ signaling stabilizer, was neuroprotective in experiments with these mouse models. The aim of the current study was to evaluate potential beneficial effects of dantrolene in experiments with YAC128 HD mouse model. Results The application of caffeine and glutamate resulted in increased Ca2+ release from intracellular stores in YAC128 MSN cultures when compared to WT MSN cultures. Pre-treatment with dantrolene protected YAC128 MSNs from glutamate excitotoxicty, with an effective concentration of 100 nM and above. Feeding dantrolene (5 mg/kg twice a week to YAC128 mice between 2 months and 11.5 months of age resulted in significantly improved performance in the beam-walking and gait-walking assays. Neuropathological analysis revealed that long-term dantrolene feeding to YAC128 mice significantly reduced the loss of NeuN-positive striatal neurons and reduced formation of Httexp nuclear aggregates. Conclusions Our results support the hypothesis that deranged Ca2+ signaling plays an important role in HD pathology. Our data also implicate the RyanRs as a potential therapeutic target for the treatment of HD and demonstrate that Ryan

  10. Analysis of Kif5b expression during mouse kidney development.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ju Cui

    Full Text Available Recent studies showed that kidney-specific inactivation of Kif3a produces kidney cysts and renal failure, suggesting that kinesin-mediated intracellular transportation is important for the establishement and maintenance of renal epithelial cell polarity and normal nephron functions. Kif5b, one of the most conserved kinesin heavy chain, is the mouse homologue of the human ubiquitous Kinesin Heavy Chain (uKHC. In order to elucidate the role of Kif5b in kidney development and function, it is essential to establish its expression profile within the organ. Therefore, in this study, we examined the expression pattern of Kif5b in mouse kidney. Kidneys from embryonic (E 12.5-, 16.5-dpc (days post coitus mouse fetuses, from postnatal (P day 0, 10, 20 pups and from adult mice were collected. The distribution of Kif5b was analyzed by immunostaining. The possible involvement of Kif5b in kidney development was investigated in conditional mutant mice by using a Cre-LoxP strategy. This study showed that the distribution of Kif5b displayed spatiotemporal changes during postnatal kidney development. In kidneys of new born mice, Kif5b was strongly expressed in all developing tubules and in the ureteric bud, but not in the glomerulus or in other early-developing structures, such as the cap mesenchyme, the comma-shaped body, and the S-shaped body. In kidneys of postnatal day 20 or of older mice, however, Kif5b was localized selectively in the basolateral domain of epithelial cells of the thick ascending loop of Henle, as well as of the distal convoluted tubule, with little expression being observed in the proximal tubule or in the collecting duct. Conditional knock-down of Kif5b in mouse kidney did not result in detectable morphological defects, but it did lead to a decrease in cell proliferation rate and also to a mislocalization of Na+/K+/-ATPase, indicating that although Kif5b is non-essential for kidney morphogenesis, it is important for nephron maturation.

  11. Differentiation of Mouse Embryonic Stem Cells into Ventral Foregut Precursors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rothová, Michaela; Hölzenspies, Jurriaan J; Livigni, Alessandra

    2016-01-01

    Anterior definitive endoderm (ADE), the ventral foregut precursor, is both an important embryonic signaling center and a unique multipotent precursor of liver, pancreas, and other organs. Here, a method is described for the differentiation of mouse embryonic stem cells (mESCs) to definitive...... endoderm with pronounced anterior character. ADE-containing cultures can be produced in vitro by suspension (embryoid body) culture or in a serum-free adherent monolayer culture. ESC-derived ADE cells are committed to endodermal fates and can undergo further differentiation in vitro towards ventral foregut...

  12. Preclinical Mouse Cancer Models: A Maze of Opportunities and Challenges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Day, Chi-Ping; Merlino, Glenn; Van Dyke, Terry

    2015-01-01

    Significant advances have been made in developing novel therapeutics for cancer treatment, and targeted therapies have revolutionized the treatment of some cancers. Despite the promise, only about five percent of new cancer drugs are approved, and most fail due to lack of efficacy. The indication is that current preclinical methods are limited in predicting successful outcomes. Such failure exacts enormous cost, both financial and in the quality of human life. This primer explores the current status, promise and challenges of preclinical evaluation in advanced mouse cancer models and briefly addresses emerging models for early-stage preclinical development. PMID:26406370

  13. Mouse genetic model for clinical and immunological heterogeneity of leishmaniasis

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Lipoldová, Marie; Svobodová, M.; Havelková, Helena; Krulová, Magdalena; Badalová, Jana; Nohýnková, E.; Hart, A. A. M.; Schlegel, David; Volf, P.; Demant, P.

    2002-01-01

    Roč. 54, č. 3 (2002), s. 174-183 ISSN 0093-7711 R&D Projects: GA MZd NM28; GA ČR GA310/00/0760; GA MŠk OK 394 Grant - others:Howard Hughes Medical Institute(US) HHMI55000323; WHO(XX) TDR I.D. 970772; EC(XE) ERBI-C15-CT98-0317; EC(XE) BIO-4-CT98-0445 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z5052915 Keywords : Leishmaniasis * mouse model * complex disease Subject RIV: EC - Immunology Impact factor: 2.475, year: 2002

  14. Predisposition and genome instability: studies with mouse embryos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Streffer, C. [Essen Universitatsklinikum, (Germany). Institut fur Medizinische Strahlenbiologie

    1997-03-01

    The preimplantation mouse embryo is a useful system for radiobiological studies. Chromosomal aberrations were determined after exposure to X-rays and neutrons during the zygote (1-cell stage). New aberrations developed and were expressed during the 2. and 3. mitosis after irradiation. These later aberration developed from DNA damage which was originally not a DSB. Further chromosomal aberrations were studied in fibroblasts of fetuses 19 days post conception. A significant increase of chromosome aberrations was found in the fetuses which were irradiated in the 1-cell stage and which had developed a malformation. These data can only be explained by the induction of a genome instability through the radiation exposure which had been performed many cell generations earlier. Until recently is was generally accepted that an exposure which had been performed many cell generations earlier. Until recently it was generally accepted that an exposure to ionizing radiation during the preimplantation period of mammalian development will not induce malformations. However, recently it could be shown that certain sensitive mouse strains exist in which malformations are induced by exposure to X-rays and neutrons during the preimplantation period. It was further demonstrated that this effect can be suppressed if the sensitive mouse strain is crossbred with mice from a resistant mouse train. These data show that this radiation effect is due to a genetic phenomenon with a recessive trait. Studies on protein patterns in normal fetuses and in fetuses with the malformation showed that characteristic changes occur. There are proteins which are no longer expressed in the malformed fetuses nd new proteins may appear. Certain changes in glycoproteins and phosphoproteins were found not only in liver of malformed fetuses but also in skin and kidney of these organisms. The analysis of the genome of these malformed fetuses have given evidence that changes in two or three genes are responsible for

  15. The Event Coordination Notation: Behaviour Modelling Beyond Mickey Mouse

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jepsen, Jesper; Kindler, Ekkart

    2015-01-01

    The Event Coordination Notation (ECNO) allows modelling the desired behaviour of a software system on top of any object-oriented software. Together with existing technologies from Model-based Software Engineering (MBSE) for automatically generating the software for the structural parts, ECNO allows...... management system. This way, we demonstrate that ECNO can be used for modelling software beyond the typical Mickey Mouse examples. This example demonstrates that the essence of workflow management – including its behaviour – can be captured in ECNO: in a sense, it is a domain model of workflow management...

  16. Activation of endogeneous retroviruses in mouse cells by thermal neutrons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Niwa, Ohtsura

    1987-01-01

    The effect of thermal neutrons on the induction of murine endogenous viruses from a mouse fibroblast cell line was investigated. Thermal neutrons were more effective than X-rays in induction of endogenous virus as well as in killing of the cells. However, when measured as a function of cell killing, both radiations had similar efficiency of induction. The RBEs of thermal neutrons alone were calculated on the assumption that the contribution of contaminating γ-rays was additive. It was 4.2 for the killing effect and 4-5 for virus induction. (author)

  17. Mouse sperm chromatin proteins: quantitative isolation and partial characterization. [Mice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Balhorn, R.; Gledhill, B.L.; Wyrobek, A.J.

    1977-09-06

    Conditions are described that permit the quantitative extraction of chromatin proteins from the epididymal sperm of the mouse. These proteins have been isolated free of contaminating tail proteins following removal of the tails with cetyltrimethylammonium bromide (CTAB). Without this treatment, numerous acid-soluble tail proteins coextract with the nuclear proteins isolated from partially purified heads. The proteins isolated in this manner do not require prior modification with iodoacetamide and show no evidence of proteolytic degradation. In acid-urea polyacrylamide gels, 99% of the sperm protein migrates as one electrophoretic band. Evidence is presented that suggests that this single band contains two protamine-like proteins.

  18. Relationship between radiobiological hypoxia in a C3H mouse mammary carcinoma and osteopontin levels in mouse serum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lukacova, Slavka; Khalil, Azza A; Overgaard, Jens; Alsner, Jan; Horsman, Michael R

    2005-12-01

    To investigate the possible relationship between radiobiological hypoxia in a C3H mouse mammary carcinoma and osteopontin (OPN) levels measured in mouse serum. Experiments were performed in CDF1 mice that were either non-tumour bearing or with different sized tumours implanted in the right rear foot. Osteopontin levels in extracted mouse blood serum and tissue from the transplanted tumours were measured using an ELISA assay. The tumour oxygenation status was estimated using the Eppendorf Histograph and the fraction of oxygen partial pressure (pO2) values =5 mm Hg (HF5) was calculated. Necrosis was measured in haematoxylin and eosin-stained sections. Tumour hypoxia was increased by placing animals in a low-oxygen (10%) environment. Single radiation doses (240 kV x-rays) were given locally to tumours under ambient or clamped conditions and response assessed using a tumour control assay. Serum OPN levels increased linearly with increasing tumour volume and this increase correlated with tumour OPN. HF5 and necrosis also increased with increasing tumour volume, but this increase was non-linear. Converting the HF5 results into equivalent tumour volume gave results that were directly correlated to OPN serum levels. Placing mice in a 10% oxygen environment for 12 hours significantly increased HF5. However, serum OPN only increased if reoxygenation occurred before measurement. Radiobiological hypoxic fraction in this tumour model did not change with increasing tumour size, but the total number of hypoxic cells did increase. These findings suggest that serum OPN measurement may predict the proportion of hypoxic cells in this tumour model, although increased serum OPN levels simply resulting from an increased tumour burden can not be ruled out.

  19. The impact of maternal separation on adult mouse behaviour and on the total neuron number in the mouse hippocampus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fabricius, K.; Wörtwein, Gitta; Pakkenberg, B.

    2008-01-01

    , the number of errors made by the MS24 mice compared to controls and in total distance moved. The mice were subsequently sacrificed and the total number of neurons estimated in the hippocampus using the optical fractionator. We found a significant loss of neurons in the dentate gyrus in MS mice compared...... to controls. Apparently a single maternal separation can impact the number of neurons in mouse hippocampus either by a decrease of neurogenesis or as an increase in neuron apoptosis. This study is the first to assess the result of maternal separation combining behaviour and stereology Udgivelsesdato: 2008/2...

  20. Mouse embryonic retina delivers information controlling cortical neurogenesis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ciro Bonetti

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The relative contribution of extrinsic and intrinsic mechanisms to cortical development is an intensely debated issue and an outstanding question in neurobiology. Currently, the emerging view is that interplay between intrinsic genetic mechanisms and extrinsic information shape different stages of cortical development. Yet, whereas the intrinsic program of early neocortical developmental events has been at least in part decoded, the exact nature and impact of extrinsic signaling are still elusive and controversial. We found that in the mouse developing visual system, acute pharmacological inhibition of spontaneous retinal activity (retinal waves-RWs during embryonic stages increase the rate of corticogenesis (cell cycle withdrawal. Furthermore, early perturbation of retinal spontaneous activity leads to changes of cortical layer structure at a later time point. These data suggest that mouse embryonic retina delivers long-distance information capable of modulating cell genesis in the developing visual cortex and that spontaneous activity is the candidate long-distance acting extrinsic cue mediating this process. In addition, these data may support spontaneous activity to be a general signal coordinating neurogenesis in other developing sensory pathways or areas of the central nervous system.

  1. A Mouse Model of Hypospadias Induced by Estradiol Benzoate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Hou-Guang; Han, Cong-Hui; Zhang, Wei

    2015-12-01

    We wished to establish a mouse model of hypospadias using injections of estradiol benzoate for investigating the molecular mechanisms of hypospadias. Fifty timed pregnant mice were randomly divided into five study groups: A, B, C, D, and E. These groups were injected subcutaneously with estradiol benzoate mixed with sesame oil at, respectively, the doses of 0, 0.1, 0.5, 2.5, or 12.5 mg kg(-1) days(-1) from gestation day (GD) 12 to GD 16. The pups' mortality was recorded on the day of delivery. Urethras and positions of testes were examined on postnatal day 28. The numbers of live pups were significantly lower in the study groups D and E compared to study group A (p Hypospadias was seen in groups C (3.3 %; 1/30), D (18.2 %; 4/22), and E (21.4 %; 3/14), while cryptorchidism was observed in groups C (10 %; 3/30), D (31.8 %; 7/22), and E (57.1 %; 8/14) on postnatal day 28. The experimental model of hypospadias induced by estradiol benzoate in the group D (2.5 mg kg(-1) days(-1)) was more reliable considering high mortality of the study group E. The dose of estradiol benzoate used in the group D is suitable for establishing mouse model of hypospadias.

  2. Rasagiline interferes with neurodegeneration in the Prph2/rds mouse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eigeldinger-Berthou, Sylvie; Meier, Claudia; Zulliger, Rahel; Lecaudé, Stéphanie; Enzmann, Volker; Sarra, Gian-Marco

    2012-03-01

    Rasagiline (N-propargyl-1(R)-aminoindan) is a second-generation propargylamine with neuroprotective effects. We used the Prph2/rds mouse to assess the effect of rasagiline on photoreceptor cell death and to examine the possible modulation of different pathways of programmed cell death. The animals were orally treated with various doses of rasagiline from Postnatal Day 1 to 56. Methodological approaches consisted of morphometric analyses of the outer nuclear layer thickness and investigation of apoptotic events using TUNEL (TdT-mediated dUTP-biotin nick end labeling) assay, immunohistochemistry, and immunoblot staining. The expression of programmed cell death marker genes involved in photoreceptor degeneration was studied by quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction. In the Prph2/rds mouse, treatment resulted in a significant dose-dependent neuroprotection at Postnatal Day 56 and a delay in the induction of apoptotic events at Postnatal Day 14. Programmed cell death marker gene expression showed that several mechanisms were involved in photoreceptor degeneration. Furthermore, rasagiline did not only target apoptosis but also other pathways such as autophagy and inflammation. This study showed for the first time significant neuroprotective effects of rasagiline in the retina of Prph2/rds mice through caspase-dependent pathways. However, the activation of caspase-independent programmed cell death pathways that are not affected by rasagiline eventually led to retinal degeneration, but in a delayed manner.

  3. Clusterin Seals the Ocular Surface Barrier in Mouse Dry Eye.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aditi Bauskar

    Full Text Available Dry eye is a common disorder caused by inadequate hydration of the ocular surface that results in disruption of barrier function. The homeostatic protein clusterin (CLU is prominent at fluid-tissue interfaces throughout the body. CLU levels are reduced at the ocular surface in human inflammatory disorders that manifest as severe dry eye, as well as in a preclinical mouse model for desiccating stress that mimics dry eye. Using this mouse model, we show here that CLU prevents and ameliorates ocular surface barrier disruption by a remarkable sealing mechanism dependent on attainment of a critical all-or-none concentration. When the CLU level drops below the critical all-or-none threshold, the barrier becomes vulnerable to desiccating stress. CLU binds selectively to the ocular surface subjected to desiccating stress in vivo, and in vitro to the galectin LGALS3, a key barrier component. Positioned in this way, CLU not only physically seals the ocular surface barrier, but it also protects the barrier cells and prevents further damage to barrier structure. These findings define a fundamentally new mechanism for ocular surface protection and suggest CLU as a biotherapeutic for dry eye.

  4. Clusterin Seals the Ocular Surface Barrier in Mouse Dry Eye.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bauskar, Aditi; Mack, Wendy J; Mauris, Jerome; Argüeso, Pablo; Heur, Martin; Nagel, Barbara A; Kolar, Grant R; Gleave, Martin E; Nakamura, Takahiro; Kinoshita, Shigeru; Moradian-Oldak, Janet; Panjwani, Noorjahan; Pflugfelder, Stephen C; Wilson, Mark R; Fini, M Elizabeth; Jeong, Shinwu

    2015-01-01

    Dry eye is a common disorder caused by inadequate hydration of the ocular surface that results in disruption of barrier function. The homeostatic protein clusterin (CLU) is prominent at fluid-tissue interfaces throughout the body. CLU levels are reduced at the ocular surface in human inflammatory disorders that manifest as severe dry eye, as well as in a preclinical mouse model for desiccating stress that mimics dry eye. Using this mouse model, we show here that CLU prevents and ameliorates ocular surface barrier disruption by a remarkable sealing mechanism dependent on attainment of a critical all-or-none concentration. When the CLU level drops below the critical all-or-none threshold, the barrier becomes vulnerable to desiccating stress. CLU binds selectively to the ocular surface subjected to desiccating stress in vivo, and in vitro to the galectin LGALS3, a key barrier component. Positioned in this way, CLU not only physically seals the ocular surface barrier, but it also protects the barrier cells and prevents further damage to barrier structure. These findings define a fundamentally new mechanism for ocular surface protection and suggest CLU as a biotherapeutic for dry eye.

  5. Fresh mouse peritoneal macrophages have low scavenger receptor activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, J G; Keshava, C; Murphy, A A; Pitas, R E; Parthasarathy, S

    1997-11-01

    Peritoneal macrophages are easily isolated by lavage, suggesting that they are either nonadherent or weakly adherent in situ. Cultured macrophages express class A scavenger receptors (SCR), which mediate Ca2+-independent adhesion in vitro. We examined fresh peritoneal macrophages from mice and from women with endometriosis to determine whether the adherence of these cells was associated with increased expression of class A SCR. Fresh human macrophages were not immunoreactive to SCR antibodies; however, SCR immunoreactivity increased with time in culture. Fresh mouse and human macrophages took up minimal amounts of 1,1'-dioctadecyl-3,3,3',3'-tetramethylindocarbocyanine (DiI)-acetyl-low density lipoproteins (Ac-LDL), a class A SCR ligand. Murine macrophages in culture for 24-72 h internalized four times more Ac-LDL than fresh cells. Cells cultured for 2 days incorporated 3.2 times more [14C] oleate than freshly isolated cells (55.7 +/- 7.9 versus 17.6 +/- 3.0 nmol/mg cell protein). In contrast to SCR activity, mouse macrophage SCR mRNA expression was similar in freshly isolated macrophages and those cultured for 3 days. These results suggest that peritoneal macrophages express only low levels of SCR activity in situ and that posttranscriptional regulation after isolation leads to an increase in SCR activity that correlates with adherence of the macrophages in vitro.

  6. The effect of the melatonin on cryopreserved mouse testicular cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ghasem Saki

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: After improvements in various cancer treatments, life expectancy has been raised, but success in treatment causes loss of fertility in many of the survived young men. Cryopreservation of immature testicular tissues or cells introduced as the only way to preserve fertility. However, freezing has some harmful effects. Melatonin, a pineal gland hormone, has receptors in reproductive systems of different species. It is assumed that melatonin has free radical scavenger properties. Objective: The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of melatonin on the cryopreserved testicular cells in mouse. Materials and Methods: Cells from 7- 10 days old NMRI mice testes were isolated using two step enzymatic digestion. The testicular cells were divided into two groups randomly and cryopreserved in two different freezing media with and without the addition of 100 μm melatonin. Finally, apoptosis of the cells was assayed by flow cytometry. Also, lactate dehydrogenase activity test was performed to assess the cytotoxicity. Results: The results of lactate dehydrogenase showed the nearly cytotoxic effect of melatonin. The results of flow cytometry showed increase in apoptosis in the cryopreserved cells in the media containing melatonin compared to the control group. Conclusion: The present study shows that melatonin has an apoptotic effect on cryopreserved mouse testicular cells.

  7. Cerebellar associative sensory learning defects in five mouse autism models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kloth, Alexander D; Badura, Aleksandra; Li, Amy; Cherskov, Adriana; Connolly, Sara G; Giovannucci, Andrea; Bangash, M Ali; Grasselli, Giorgio; Peñagarikano, Olga; Piochon, Claire; Tsai, Peter T; Geschwind, Daniel H; Hansel, Christian; Sahin, Mustafa; Takumi, Toru; Worley, Paul F; Wang, Samuel S-H

    2015-01-01

    Sensory integration difficulties have been reported in autism, but their underlying brain-circuit mechanisms are underexplored. Using five autism-related mouse models, Shank3+/ΔC, Mecp2R308/Y, Cntnap2−/−, L7-Tsc1 (L7/Pcp2Cre::Tsc1flox/+), and patDp(15q11-13)/+, we report specific perturbations in delay eyeblink conditioning, a form of associative sensory learning requiring cerebellar plasticity. By distinguishing perturbations in the probability and characteristics of learned responses, we found that probability was reduced in Cntnap2−/−, patDp(15q11-13)/+, and L7/Pcp2Cre::Tsc1flox/+, which are associated with Purkinje-cell/deep-nuclear gene expression, along with Shank3+/ΔC. Amplitudes were smaller in L7/Pcp2Cre::Tsc1flox/+ as well as Shank3+/ΔC and Mecp2R308/Y, which are associated with granule cell pathway expression. Shank3+/ΔC and Mecp2R308/Y also showed aberrant response timing and reduced Purkinje-cell dendritic spine density. Overall, our observations are potentially accounted for by defects in instructed learning in the olivocerebellar loop and response representation in the granule cell pathway. Our findings indicate that defects in associative temporal binding of sensory events are widespread in autism mouse models. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.06085.001 PMID:26158416

  8. Rebuilding MTOCs upon centriole loss during mouse oogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luksza, Małgorzata; Queguigner, Isabelle; Verlhac, Marie-Hélène; Brunet, Stéphane

    2013-10-01

    The vast majority of animal cells contain canonical centrosomes as a main microtubule-organizing center defined by a central pair of centrioles. As a rare and striking exception to this rule, vertebrate oocytes loose their centrioles at an early step of oogenesis. At the end of oogenesis, centrosomes are eventually replaced by numerous acentriolar microtubule-organizing centers (MTOCs) that shape the spindle poles during meiotic divisions. The mechanisms involved in centrosome and acentriolar MTOCs metabolism in oocytes have not been elucidated yet. In addition, little is known about microtubule organization and its impact on intracellular architecture during the oocyte growth phase following centrosome disassembly. We have investigated this question in the mouse by coupling immunofluorescence and live-imaging approaches. We show that growing oocytes contain dispersed pericentriolar material, responsible for microtubule assembly and distribution all over the cell. The gradual enlargement of PCM foci eventually leads in competent oocytes to the formation of big perinuclear MTOCs and to the assembly of large microtubule asters emanating from the close vicinity of the nucleus. Upon meiosis resumption, perinuclear MTOCs spread around the nuclear envelope, which in parallel is remodelled before breaking-down, via a MT- and dynein-dependent mechanism. Only fully competent oocytes are able to perform this dramatic reorganization at NEBD. Therefore, the MTOC-MT reorganization that we describe is one of key feature of mouse oocyte competency. © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Considerations for skin carcinogenesis experiments using inducible transgenic mouse models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Popis, Martyna C; Wagner, Rebecca E; Constantino-Casas, Fernando; Blanco, Sandra; Frye, Michaela

    2018-01-24

    This study was designed to estimate the percentage of non-malignant skin tumours (papillomas) progressing to malignant squamous cell carcinomas (SCCs) in a carcinogenesis study using established transgenic mouse models. In our skin cancer model, we conditionally induced oncogenic point mutant alleles of p53 and k-ras in undifferentiated, basal cells of the epidermis. Upon activation of the transgenes through administration of tamoxifen, the vast majority of mice (> 80%) developed skin papillomas, yet primarily around the mouth. Since these tumours hindered the mice eating, they rapidly lost weight and needed to be culled before the papillomas progressed to SCCs. The mouth papillomas formed regardless of the route of application, including intraperitoneal injections, local application to the back skin, or subcutaneous insertion of a tamoxifen pellet. Implantation of a slow releasing tamoxifen pellet into 18 mice consistently led to papilloma formation, of which only one progressed to a malignant SCC. Thus, the challenges for skin carcinogenesis studies using this particular cancer mouse model are low conversion rates of papillomas to SCCs and high frequencies of mouth papilloma formation.

  10. Intrauterine Telemetry to Measure Mouse Contractile Pressure In Vivo

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rada, Cara C.; Pierce, Stephanie L.; Grotegut, Chad A.; England, Sarah K.

    2015-01-01

    A complex integration of molecular and electrical signals is needed to transform a quiescent uterus into a contractile organ at the end of pregnancy. Despite the discovery of key regulators of uterine contractility, this process is still not fully understood. Transgenic mice provide an ideal model in which to study parturition. Previously, the only method to study uterine contractility in the mouse was ex vivo isometric tension recordings, which are suboptimal for several reasons. The uterus must be removed from its physiological environment, a limited time course of investigation is possible, and the mice must be sacrificed. The recent development of radiometric telemetry has allowed for longitudinal, real-time measurements of in vivo intrauterine pressure in mice. Here, the implantation of an intrauterine telemeter to measure pressure changes in the mouse uterus from mid-pregnancy until delivery is described. By comparing differences in pressures between wild type and transgenic mice, the physiological impact of a gene of interest can be elucidated. This technique should expedite the development of therapeutics used to treat myometrial disorders during pregnancy, including preterm labor. PMID:25867820

  11. [Developmental toxicity of retrorsine on mouse embryos in vitro].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Jiayin; Liang, Aihu; Yi, Yan

    2011-07-01

    To investigate the fetotoxicity of retrorsine. Mouse whole embryo culture (WEC) was applied. Post-implantation (8.5 d) mouse embryos were isolated from their mothers and put into the medium of immediately centrifuged serum (ICS) prepared from rats. Different concentrations of retrorsine (12.5, 25, 50, 100 mg x L(-1)) were added into the WEC culture. Development (yolk sac diameter, crown-rump length, head length, somite number) and organic morphodifferentiation (yolk sac circulation, allantois, embryonic flexion, heart, brain, optic-otic-olfactory organ, branchial arch, maxillary, mandible, bud) of embryos were observed at 48 h after treatment. Obvious fetotoxicity could be observed in various retrorsine treatment groups in a dose-dependent manner. Development of embryos was delayed significantly at dose 12.5-100 mg x L(-1). Malformations were shown in all organic morphodifferentiation indexes, especially in otic-olfactory organ, branchial arch, maxillary, mandible, bud. Retrorsine had obvious fetotoxicity in vitro WEC culture, indicating that exposure of pregnant mice to retrorsine may have potential risk on fetals.

  12. [Toxicity of monocrotaline on in vitro cultured mouse embryos].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Jiayin; Liang, Aihua; Yi, Yan; Gao, Shuangrong; Nilsen, Odd Georg

    2011-02-01

    To investigate the fetotoxicity of monocrotaline. Mouse whole embryo culture (WEC) was applied. Post-implantation (8.5 d) mouse embryos were isolated from their mothers and put into the medium of immediately centrifuged serum (ICS) prepared from rats. Different concentrations of monocrotaline (100, 50, 25, 12.5 mg x L(-1)) were added into the WEC. Development (yolk sac diameter, crown-rump length, head length, somite number) and organic morphodifferentiation (yolk sac circulation, allantois, embryonic flexion, heart, brain, optic-otic-olfactory organ, branchial arch, maxillary, mandible, bud) of embryos were observed at 48 h after treatment. Obvious fetotoxicity could be observed in various monocrotaline treatment groups in a dose-dependent manner. Development of embryos was delayed significantly at dose 12.5-100 mg x L(-1). Malformations were shown in all organic morphodifferentiation indice, especially in opti-otic organ, mandible and bud. Monocrotaline had obvious fetotoxicity in vitro WEC, indicating that exposure of pregnant mice to monocrotaline may have potential risk on fetus.

  13. Oocyte-like cells induced from mouse spermatogonial stem cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Lu; Cao, Jinping; Ji, Ping; Zhang, Di; Ma, Lianghong; Dym, Martin; Yu, Zhuo; Feng, Lixin

    2012-08-06

    During normal development primordial germ cells (PGCs) derived from the epiblast are the precursors of spermatogonia and oogonia. In culture, PGCs can be induced to dedifferentiate to pluripotent embryonic germ (EG) cells in the presence of various growth factors. Several recent studies have now demonstrated that spermatogonial stem cells (SSCs) can also revert back to pluripotency as embryonic stem (ES)-like cells under certain culture conditions. However, the potential dedifferentiation of SSCs into PGCs or the potential generation of oocytes from SSCs has not been demonstrated before. We report that mouse male SSCs can be converted into oocyte-like cells in culture. These SSCs-derived oocytes (SSC-Oocs) were similar in size to normal mouse mature oocytes. They expressed oocyte-specific markers and gave rise to embryos through parthenogenesis. Interestingly, the Y- and X-linked testis-specific genes in these SSC-Oocs were significantly down-regulated or turned off, while oocyte-specific X-linked genes were activated. The gene expression profile appeared to switch to that of the oocyte across the X chromosome. Furthermore, these oocyte-like cells lost paternal imprinting but acquired maternal imprinting. Our data demonstrate that SSCs might maintain the potential to be reprogrammed into oocytes with corresponding epigenetic reversals. This study provides not only further evidence for the remarkable plasticity of SSCs but also a potential system for dissecting molecular and epigenetic regulations in germ cell fate determination and imprinting establishment during gametogenesis.

  14. Oocyte-like cells induced from mouse spermatogonial stem cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wang Lu

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background During normal development primordial germ cells (PGCs derived from the epiblast are the precursors of spermatogonia and oogonia. In culture, PGCs can be induced to dedifferentiate to pluripotent embryonic germ (EG cells in the presence of various growth factors. Several recent studies have now demonstrated that spermatogonial stem cells (SSCs can also revert back to pluripotency as embryonic stem (ES-like cells under certain culture conditions. However, the potential dedifferentiation of SSCs into PGCs or the potential generation of oocytes from SSCs has not been demonstrated before. Results We report that mouse male SSCs can be converted into oocyte-like cells in culture. These SSCs-derived oocytes (SSC-Oocs were similar in size to normal mouse mature oocytes. They expressed oocyte-specific markers and gave rise to embryos through parthenogenesis. Interestingly, the Y- and X-linked testis-specific genes in these SSC-Oocs were significantly down-regulated or turned off, while oocyte-specific X-linked genes were activated. The gene expression profile appeared to switch to that of the oocyte across the X chromosome. Furthermore, these oocyte-like cells lost paternal imprinting but acquired maternal imprinting. Conclusions Our data demonstrate that SSCs might maintain the potential to be reprogrammed into oocytes with corresponding epigenetic reversals. This study provides not only further evidence for the remarkable plasticity of SSCs but also a potential system for dissecting molecular and epigenetic regulations in germ cell fate determination and imprinting establishment during gametogenesis.

  15. Clusterin Seals the Ocular Surface Barrier in Mouse Dry Eye

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bauskar, Aditi; Mack, Wendy J.; Mauris, Jerome; Argüeso, Pablo; Heur, Martin; Nagel, Barbara A.; Kolar, Grant R.; Gleave, Martin E.; Nakamura, Takahiro; Kinoshita, Shigeru; Moradian-Oldak, Janet; Panjwani, Noorjahan; Pflugfelder, Stephen C.; Wilson, Mark R.; Fini, M. Elizabeth; Jeong, Shinwu

    2015-01-01

    Dry eye is a common disorder caused by inadequate hydration of the ocular surface that results in disruption of barrier function. The homeostatic protein clusterin (CLU) is prominent at fluid-tissue interfaces throughout the body. CLU levels are reduced at the ocular surface in human inflammatory disorders that manifest as severe dry eye, as well as in a preclinical mouse model for desiccating stress that mimics dry eye. Using this mouse model, we show here that CLU prevents and ameliorates ocular surface barrier disruption by a remarkable sealing mechanism dependent on attainment of a critical all-or-none concentration. When the CLU level drops below the critical all-or-none threshold, the barrier becomes vulnerable to desiccating stress. CLU binds selectively to the ocular surface subjected to desiccating stress in vivo, and in vitro to the galectin LGALS3, a key barrier component. Positioned in this way, CLU not only physically seals the ocular surface barrier, but it also protects the barrier cells and prevents further damage to barrier structure. These findings define a fundamentally new mechanism for ocular surface protection and suggest CLU as a biotherapeutic for dry eye. PMID:26402857

  16. Stimulatory effect of undecylenic acid on mouse osteoblast differentiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Myung Hee; Shim, Ki Shuk; Lee, Su-Ui; Kim, Young Sup; Min, Yong Ki; Kim, Seong Hwan

    2010-04-01

    Natural compounds with bone-forming (or anabolic) activity have been recently focused on in bone research. The present study investigated the effect of undecylenic acid (UA) on osteoblast differentiation in mouse osteoblastic MC3T3-E1 subclone 4 cells and primary mouse calvarial cells. Low concentrations of UA (up to 5 microM) exhibited no cytotoxicity and significantly increased the expression and activity of alkaline phosphatase (early differentiation marker of osteoblast) and calcium deposition with the induction of expression of the osteocalcin gene in both cells. Interestingly, at low concentration of UA, the induction of NF-kappaB p65 translocation into nucleus and the up-regulation of AP-1 and NFATc1 transcript levels were also observed, suggesting that the stimulatory effect of UA on osteoblast differentiation could be mediated through the activation of transcription factors. Additionally, although the patterns of UA-induced activation of MAP kinases (JNK and p38) were not completely consistent with the increase of both ALP activity and calcium deposition by UA, MAP kinases might be partially involved in the biological function of UA during the early and late stages of osteoblast differentiation. Copyright (c) 2009 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  17. Gene expression profiles of mouse spermatogenesis during recovery from irradiation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shah, Fozia J; Tanaka, Masami; Nielsen, John E

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Irradiation or chemotherapy that suspend normal spermatogenesis is commonly used to treat various cancers. Fortunately, spermatogenesis in many cases can be restored after such treatments but knowledge is limited about the re-initiation process. Earlier studies have described the cell......BACKGROUND: Irradiation or chemotherapy that suspend normal spermatogenesis is commonly used to treat various cancers. Fortunately, spermatogenesis in many cases can be restored after such treatments but knowledge is limited about the re-initiation process. Earlier studies have described...... the cellular changes that happen during recovery from irradiation by means of histology. We have earlier generated gene expression profiles during induction of spermatogenesis in mouse postnatal developing testes and found a correlation between profiles and the expressing cell types. The aim of the present...... work was to utilize the link between expression profile and cell types to follow the cellular changes that occur during post-irradiation recovery of spermatogenesis in order to describe recovery by means of gene expression. METHODS: Adult mouse testes were subjected to irradiation with 1 Gy...

  18. The first knockin mouse model of episodic ataxia type 2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rose, Samuel J; Kriener, Lisa H; Heinzer, Ann K; Fan, Xueliang; Raike, Robert S; van den Maagdenberg, Arn M J M; Hess, Ellen J

    2014-11-01

    Episodic ataxia type 2 (EA2) is an autosomal dominant disorder associated with attacks of ataxia that are typically precipitated by stress, ethanol, caffeine or exercise. EA2 is caused by loss-of-function mutations in the CACNA1A gene, which encodes the α1A subunit of the CaV2.1 voltage-gated Ca(2+) channel. To better understand the pathomechanisms of this disorder in vivo, we created the first genetic animal model of EA2 by engineering a mouse line carrying the EA2-causing c.4486T>G (p.F1406C) missense mutation in the orthologous mouse Cacna1a gene. Mice homozygous for the mutated allele exhibit a ~70% reduction in CaV2.1 current density in Purkinje cells, though surprisingly do not exhibit an overt motor phenotype. Mice hemizygous for the knockin allele (EA2/- mice) did exhibit motor dysfunction measurable by rotarod and pole test. Studies using Cre-flox conditional genetics explored the role of cerebellar Purkinje cells or cerebellar granule cells in the poor motor performance of EA2/- mice and demonstrate that manipulation of either cell type alone did not cause poor motor performance. Thus, it is possible that subtle dysfunction arising from multiple cell types is necessary for the expression of certain ataxia syndromes. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Mouse cloning and somatic cell reprogramming using electrofused blastomeres.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riaz, Amjad; Zhao, Xiaoyang; Dai, Xiangpeng; Li, Wei; Liu, Lei; Wan, Haifeng; Yu, Yang; Wang, Liu; Zhou, Qi

    2011-05-01

    Mouse cloning from fertilized eggs can assist development of approaches for the production of "genetically tailored" human embryonic stem (ES) cell lines that are not constrained by the limitations of oocyte availability. However, to date only zygotes have been successfully used as recipients of nuclei from terminally differentiated somatic cell donors leading to ES cell lines. In fertility clinics, embryos of advanced embryonic stages are usually stored for future use, but their ability to support the derivation of ES cell lines via somatic nuclear transfer has not yet been proved. Here, we report that two-cell stage electrofused mouse embryos, arrested in mitosis, can support developmental reprogramming of nuclei from donor cells ranging from blastomeres to somatic cells. Live, full-term cloned pups from embryonic donors, as well as pluripotent ES cell lines from embryonic or somatic donors, were successfully generated from these reconstructed embryos. Advanced stage pre-implantation embryos were unable to develop normally to term after electrofusion and transfer of a somatic cell nucleus, indicating that discarded pre-implantation human embryos could be an important resource for research that minimizes the ethical concerns for human therapeutic cloning. Our approach provides an attractive and practical alternative to therapeutic cloning using donated oocytes for the generation of patient-specific human ES cell lines.

  20. Expression of smoothened in mouse embryonic maxillofacial development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, J; Fan, Z; Ma, X; Wu, Y; Liu, S; Gao, Y; Shen, Y; Fan, M; Wang, S

    2012-04-01

    Hedgehog (Hh) signaling plays many key roles in the development of Drosophila and vertebrate embryos including regulation of craniofacial development. The seven-transmembrane protein, smoothened (Smo) transduces the Hh signal across the plasma membrane as an essential receptor of PTCHED1/2. There are few studies that evaluate the detailed expression of Smo in mouse embryonic craniofacial development. We investigated the expression patterns of Smo during murine embryonic craniofacial development using in situ hybridization (ISH), studies of whole-mounts and sections, immunohistochemistry, quantitative real time PCR, and Western blot analysis. We found that Smo mRNA was expressed in the face of mouse embryos at 11 and 12.5 days post coitum (dpc). After 13.5 dpc, the expression decreased to a low level and was faintly detected after birth. Smo protein could be detected also in embryos at 11, 12.5, and 14.5 dpc. After 15.5 dpc, the expression was very faint and paralleled the gene expression studies. No expression was detected in whisker follicle during facial development and faint signal was detected in Meckel's cartilage. These findings concerning Smo expression should guide further investigation of sonic Hh signaling pathway gene function during maxillofacial development.