WorldWideScience

Sample records for few-layer epitaxial graphene

  1. Symmetry Breaking in Few Layer Graphene Films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bostwick, A.; Ohta, T.; McChesney, J.L.; Emtsev, K.; Seyller,Th.; Horn, K.; Rotenberg, E.

    2007-05-25

    Recently, it was demonstrated that the quasiparticledynamics, the layer-dependent charge and potential, and the c-axisscreening coefficient could be extracted from measurements of thespectral function of few layer graphene films grown epitaxially on SiCusing angle-resolved photoemission spectroscopy (ARPES). In this articlewe review these findings, and present detailed methodology for extractingsuch parameters from ARPES. We also present detailed arguments againstthe possibility of an energy gap at the Dirac crossing ED.

  2. Study of EUV induced defects on few-layer graphene

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gao, An; Rizo, P.J.; Zoethout, E.; Scaccabarozzi, L.; Lee, Christopher James; Banine, V.; Bijkerk, Frederik

    2012-01-01

    Defects in graphene greatly affect its properties1-3. Radiation induced-defects may reduce the long-term survivability of graphene-based nano-devices. Here, we expose few-layer graphene to extreme ultraviolet (EUV, 13.5nm) radiation and show there is a power-dependent increase in defect density. We

  3. Chemical storage of hydrogen in few-layer graphene

    Science.gov (United States)

    Subrahmanyam, K. S.; Kumar, Prashant; Maitra, Urmimala; Govindaraj, A.; Hembram, K. P. S. S.; Waghmare, Umesh V.; Rao, C. N. R.

    2011-01-01

    Birch reduction of few-layer graphene samples gives rise to hydrogenated samples containing up to 5 wt % of hydrogen. Spectroscopic studies reveal the presence of sp3 C-H bonds in the hydrogenated graphenes. They, however, decompose readily on heating to 500 °C or on irradiation with UV or laser radiation releasing all the hydrogen, thereby demonstrating the possible use of few-layer graphene for chemical storage of hydrogen. First-principles calculations throw light on the mechanism of dehydrogenation that appears to involve a significant reconstruction and relaxation of the lattice. PMID:21282617

  4. Few layer epitaxial germanene: a novel two-dimensional Dirac material

    OpenAIRE

    María Eugenia Dávila; Guy Le Lay

    2016-01-01

    Monolayer germanene, a novel graphene-like germanium allotrope akin to silicene has been recently grown on metallic substrates. Lying directly on the metal surfaces the reconstructed atom-thin sheets are prone to lose the massless Dirac fermion character and unique associated physical properties of free standing germanene. Here, we show that few layer germanene, which we create by dry epitaxy on a gold template, possesses Dirac cones thanks to a reduced interaction. This finding established o...

  5. Field emission from vertically aligned few-layer graphene

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Malesevic, Alexander; Kemps, Raymond; Vanhulsel, Annick; Chowdhury, Manish Pal; Volodin, Alexander; Van Haesendonck, Chris

    2008-01-01

    The electric field emission behavior of vertically aligned few-layer graphene was studied in a parallel plate-type setup. Few-layer graphene was synthesized in the absence of any metallic catalyst by microwave plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition with gas mixtures of methane and hydrogen. The deposit consists of nanostructures that are several micrometers wide, highly crystalline stacks of four to six atomic layers of graphene, aligned vertically to the substrate surface in a high density network. The few-layer graphene is found to be a good field emitter, characterized by turn-on fields as low as 1 V/μm and field amplification factors up to several thousands. We observe a clear dependence of the few-layer graphene field emission behavior on the synthesis parameters: Hydrogen is identified as an efficient etchant to improve field emission, and samples grown on titanium show lower turn-on field values and higher amplification factors when compared to samples grown on silicon

  6. Characterization of few-layered graphene grown by carbon implantation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Kin Kiong; McCallum, Jeffrey C.; Jamieson, David N.

    2014-01-01

    Graphene is considered to be a very promising material for applications in nanotechnology. The properties of graphene are strongly dependent on defects that occur during growth and processing. These defects can be either detrimental or beneficial to device performance depending on defect type, location and device application. Here we present experimental results on formation of few-layered graphene by carbon ion implantation into nickel films and characteristics of graphene devices formed by graphene transfer and lithographic patterning. Micro-Raman spectroscopy was used to determine the number of graphene layers formed and identify defects arising from the device processing. The graphene films were cleaned by annealing in vacuum. Transport properties of cleaned graphene films were investigated by fabrication of back-gated field-effect transistors, which exhibited high hole and electron mobility of 1935 and 1905 cm2/Vs, respectively

  7. Characterization of few-layered graphene grown by carbon implantation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Kin Kiong; McCallum, Jeffrey C.; Jamieson, David N.

    2014-02-01

    Graphene is considered to be a very promising material for applications in nanotechnology. The properties of graphene are strongly dependent on defects that occur during growth and processing. These defects can be either detrimental or beneficial to device performance depending on defect type, location and device application. Here we present experimental results on formation of few-layered graphene by carbon ion implantation into nickel films and characteristics of graphene devices formed by graphene transfer and lithographic patterning. Micro-Raman spectroscopy was used to determine the number of graphene layers formed and identify defects arising from the device processing. The graphene films were cleaned by annealing in vacuum. Transport properties of cleaned graphene films were investigated by fabrication of back-gated field-effect transistors, which exhibited high hole and electron mobility of 1935 and 1905 cm2/Vs, respectively.

  8. Few layer epitaxial germanene: a novel two-dimensional Dirac material.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dávila, María Eugenia; Le Lay, Guy

    2016-02-10

    Monolayer germanene, a novel graphene-like germanium allotrope akin to silicene has been recently grown on metallic substrates. Lying directly on the metal surfaces the reconstructed atom-thin sheets are prone to lose the massless Dirac fermion character and unique associated physical properties of free standing germanene. Here, we show that few layer germanene, which we create by dry epitaxy on a gold template, possesses Dirac cones thanks to a reduced interaction. This finding established on synchrotron-radiation-based photoemission, scanning tunneling microscopy imaging and surface electron diffraction places few layer germanene among the rare two-dimensional Dirac materials. Since germanium is currently used in the mainstream Si-based electronics, perspectives of using germanene for scaling down beyond the 5 nm node appear very promising. Other fascinating properties seem at hand, typically the robust quantum spin Hall effect for applications in spintronics and the engineering of Floquet Majorana fermions by light for quantum computing.

  9. Few layer epitaxial germanene: a novel two-dimensional Dirac material

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dávila, María Eugenia; Le Lay, Guy

    2016-02-01

    Monolayer germanene, a novel graphene-like germanium allotrope akin to silicene has been recently grown on metallic substrates. Lying directly on the metal surfaces the reconstructed atom-thin sheets are prone to lose the massless Dirac fermion character and unique associated physical properties of free standing germanene. Here, we show that few layer germanene, which we create by dry epitaxy on a gold template, possesses Dirac cones thanks to a reduced interaction. This finding established on synchrotron-radiation-based photoemission, scanning tunneling microscopy imaging and surface electron diffraction places few layer germanene among the rare two-dimensional Dirac materials. Since germanium is currently used in the mainstream Si-based electronics, perspectives of using germanene for scaling down beyond the 5 nm node appear very promising. Other fascinating properties seem at hand, typically the robust quantum spin Hall effect for applications in spintronics and the engineering of Floquet Majorana fermions by light for quantum computing.

  10. High stability of few layer graphene nanoplatelets in various solvents

    KAUST Repository

    Xu, X; Zhou, Jian; Lubineau, Gilles

    2017-01-01

    Dispersion of few-layer graphene nanoplatelets (GNPs) in liquid media is a crucial step for various applications. Here, we highlight a simple, nondestructive method for preparing stable aqueous colloidal solutions with GNP powder quickly dispersed in 5 wt.% sodium–hypochlorite- (NaClO) and sodium-bromide- (NaBr) salted solvent by bath sonication. This method makes it possible to easily prepare a highly concentrated colloidal solution (1 mgcenterdotml−1) of GNPs that can easily be re-dispersed in water (treated GNPs). The aqueous suspension we prepared remained stable for longer than a few weeks. We made similar tests with various solvents and dispersibility appeared to decrease with decreasing polarity. High-concentration suspensions using our facile dispersion method could be of particular interest to the large community using graphene for a diversity of applications.

  11. High stability of few layer graphene nanoplatelets in various solvents

    KAUST Repository

    Xu, X

    2017-04-25

    Dispersion of few-layer graphene nanoplatelets (GNPs) in liquid media is a crucial step for various applications. Here, we highlight a simple, nondestructive method for preparing stable aqueous colloidal solutions with GNP powder quickly dispersed in 5 wt.% sodium–hypochlorite- (NaClO) and sodium-bromide- (NaBr) salted solvent by bath sonication. This method makes it possible to easily prepare a highly concentrated colloidal solution (1 mgcenterdotml−1) of GNPs that can easily be re-dispersed in water (treated GNPs). The aqueous suspension we prepared remained stable for longer than a few weeks. We made similar tests with various solvents and dispersibility appeared to decrease with decreasing polarity. High-concentration suspensions using our facile dispersion method could be of particular interest to the large community using graphene for a diversity of applications.

  12. Epitaxial deposition of silver ultrafine nano-clusters on defect-free surfaces of HOPG-derived few-layer graphene in a UHV multi-chamber by in-situ STM, ex-situ XPS and ab initio calculations

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Ndlovu, GF

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available The growth of three-dimensional ultra-fine spherical nano-particles of silver on few layers of graphene derived from highly oriented pyrolytic graphite in ultra-high vacuum were characterized using in situ scanning tunneling microscopy (STM...

  13. Synthesis of hexagonal boron nitride graphene-like few layers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, S.; Toury, B.; Journet, C.; Brioude, A.

    2014-06-01

    Self-standing highly crystallized hexagonal boron nitride (h-BN) mono-, bi- and few-layers have been obtained for the first time via the Polymer Derived Ceramics (PDCs) route by adding lithium nitride (Li3N) micropowders to liquid-state polyborazylene (PBN). Incorporation of Li3N as a crystallization promoter allows the onset of crystallization of h-BN at a lower temperature (1200 °C) than under classical conditions (1800 °C). The hexagonal structure was confirmed by both electron and X-ray diffraction.Self-standing highly crystallized hexagonal boron nitride (h-BN) mono-, bi- and few-layers have been obtained for the first time via the Polymer Derived Ceramics (PDCs) route by adding lithium nitride (Li3N) micropowders to liquid-state polyborazylene (PBN). Incorporation of Li3N as a crystallization promoter allows the onset of crystallization of h-BN at a lower temperature (1200 °C) than under classical conditions (1800 °C). The hexagonal structure was confirmed by both electron and X-ray diffraction. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available: See DOI: 10.1039/c4nr01017e

  14. Wrinkled Few-Layer Graphene as Highly Efficient Load Bearer

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Androulidakis, Ch.; Koukaras, E. N.; Řáhová, Jaroslava; Sampathkumar, Krishna; Parthenios, J.; Papagelis, K.; Frank, Otakar; Galiotis, C.

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 9, č. 31 (2017), s. 26593-26601 ISSN 1944-8244 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA14-15357S Institutional support: RVO:61388955 Keywords : graphene * wrinkling * Raman spectroscopy Subject RIV: CG - Electrochemistry OBOR OECD: Physical chemistry Impact factor: 7.504, year: 2016

  15. Low temperature synthesis and field emission characteristics of single to few layered graphene grown using PECVD

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kumar, Avshish; Khan, Sunny; Zulfequar, M.; Harsh; Husain, Mushahid, E-mail: mush_reslab@rediffmail.com

    2017-04-30

    Highlights: • Graphene was synthesized by PECVD system at a low temperature of 600 °C. • From different characterization techniques, the presence of single and few layered graphene was confirmed. • X-ray diffraction pattern of the graphene showed single crystalline nature of the film. • The as-grown graphene films were observed extremely good field emitters with long term emission current stability. - Abstract: In this work, high-quality graphene has successfully been synthesized on copper (Cu) coated Silicon (Si) substrate at very large-area by plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition system. This method is low cost and highly effective for synthesizing graphene relatively at low temperature of 600 °C. Electron microscopy images have shown that surface morphology of the grown samples is quite uniform consisting of single layered graphene (SLG) to few layered graphene (FLG). Raman spectra reveal that graphene has been grown with high-quality having negligible defects and the observation of G and G' peaks is also an indicative of stokes phonon energy shift caused due to laser excitation. Scanning probe microscopy image also depicts the synthesis of single to few layered graphene. The field emission characteristics of as-grown graphene samples were studied in a planar diode configuration at room temperature. The graphene samples were observed to be a good field emitter having low turn-on field, higher field amplification factor and long term emission current stability.

  16. Epitaxial graphene

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Heer, Walt A.; Berger, Claire; Wu, Xiaosong; First, Phillip N.; Conrad, Edward H.; Li, Xuebin; Li, Tianbo; Sprinkle, Michael; Hass, Joanna; Sadowski, Marcin L.; Potemski, Marek; Martinez, Gérard

    2007-07-01

    Graphene multilayers are grown epitaxially on single crystal silicon carbide. This system is composed of several graphene layers of which the first layer is electron doped due to the built-in electric field and the other layers are essentially undoped. Unlike graphite the charge carriers show Dirac particle properties (i.e. an anomalous Berry's phase, weak anti-localization and square root field dependence of the Landau level energies). Epitaxial graphene shows quasi-ballistic transport and long coherence lengths; properties that may persist above cryogenic temperatures. Paradoxically, in contrast to exfoliated graphene, the quantum Hall effect is not observed in high-mobility epitaxial graphene. It appears that the effect is suppressed due to the absence of localized states in the bulk of the material. Epitaxial graphene can be patterned using standard lithography methods and characterized using a wide array of techniques. These favorable features indicate that interconnected room temperature ballistic devices may be feasible for low-dissipation high-speed nanoelectronics.

  17. Work function of few layer graphene covered nickel thin films measured with Kelvin probe force microscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eren, B. [Department of Physics, University of Basel, Klingelbergstrasse 82, CH-4056 Basel (Switzerland); Material Sciences Division, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, 1 Cyclotron Road, Berkeley, California 94720 (United States); Gysin, U.; Marot, L., E-mail: Laurent.marot@unibas.ch; Glatzel, Th.; Steiner, R.; Meyer, E. [Department of Physics, University of Basel, Klingelbergstrasse 82, CH-4056 Basel (Switzerland)

    2016-01-25

    Few layer graphene and graphite are simultaneously grown on a ∼100 nm thick polycrystalline nickel film. The work function of few layer graphene/Ni is found to be 4.15 eV with a variation of 50 meV by local measurements with Kelvin probe force microscopy. This value is lower than the work function of free standing graphene due to peculiar electronic structure resulting from metal 3d-carbon 2p(π) hybridization.

  18. Contribution of Dielectric Screening to the Total Capacitance of Few-Layer Graphene Electrodes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhan, Cheng; Jiang, De-en

    2016-03-03

    We apply joint density functional theory (JDFT), which treats the electrode/electrolyte interface self-consistently, to an electric double-layer capacitor (EDLC) based on few-layer graphene electrodes. The JDFT approach allows us to quantify a third contribution to the total capacitance beyond quantum capacitance (CQ) and EDL capacitance (CEDL). This contribution arises from the dielectric screening of the electric field by the surface of the few-layer graphene electrode, and we therefore term it the dielectric capacitance (CDielec). We find that CDielec becomes significant in affecting the total capacitance when the number of graphene layers in the electrode is more than three. Our investigation sheds new light on the significance of the electrode dielectric screening on the capacitance of few-layer graphene electrodes.

  19. EDITORIAL: Epitaxial graphene Epitaxial graphene

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Heer, Walt A.; Berger, Claire

    2012-04-01

    Graphene is widely regarded as an important new electronic material with interesting two-dimensional electron gas properties. Not only that, but graphene is widely considered to be an important new material for large-scale integrated electronic devices that may eventually even succeed silicon. In fact, there are countless publications that demonstrate the amazing applications potential of graphene. In order to realize graphene electronics, a platform is required that is compatible with large-scale electronics processing methods. It was clear from the outset that graphene grown epitaxially on silicon carbide substrates was exceptionally well suited as a platform for graphene-based electronics, not only because the graphene sheets are grown directly on electronics-grade silicon carbide (an important semiconductor in its own right), but also because these sheets are oriented with respect to the semiconductor. Moreover, the extremely high temperatures involved in production assure essentially defect-free and contamination-free materials with well-defined interfaces. Epitaxial graphene on silicon carbide is not a unique material, but actually a class of materials. It is a complex structure consisting of a reconstructed silicon carbide surface, which, for planar hexagonal silicon carbide, is either the silicon- or the carbon-terminated face, an interfacial carbon rich layer, followed by one or more graphene layers. Consequently, the structure of graphene films on silicon carbide turns out to be a rich surface-science puzzle that has been intensively studied and systematically unravelled with a wide variety of surface science probes. Moreover, the graphene films produced on the carbon-terminated face turn out to be rotationally stacked, resulting in unique and important structural and electronic properties. Finally, in contrast to essentially all other graphene production methods, epitaxial graphene can be grown on structured silicon carbide surfaces to produce graphene

  20. Thinning and functionalization of few-layer graphene sheets by CF4 plasma treatment

    KAUST Repository

    Shen, Chao

    2012-05-24

    Structural changes of few-layer graphene sheets induced by CF4 plasma treatment are studied by optical microscopy and Raman spectroscopy, together with theoretical simulation. Experimental results suggest a thickness reduction of few-layer graphene sheets subjected to prolonged CF4 plasma treatment while plasma treatment with short time only leads to fluorine functionalization on the surface layer by formation of covalent bonds. Raman spectra reveal an increase in disorder by physical disruption of the graphene lattice as well as functionalization during the plasma treatment. The F/CF3 adsorption and the lattice distortion produced are proved by theoretical simulation using density functional theory, which also predicts p-type doping and Dirac cone splitting in CF4 plasma-treated graphene sheets that may have potential in future graphene-based micro/nanodevices.

  1. Direct synthesis of few-layer graphene supported platinum nanocatalyst for methanol oxidation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Hong; Ma, Xiaohui; Sheng, Leimei; An, Kang; Yu, Liming; Zhao, Hongbin; Xu, Jiaqiang; Ren, Wei; Zhao, Xinluo

    2014-11-01

    High-crystalline few-layer graphene supported Pt nanoparticles have been synthesized by arc discharge evaporation of carbon electrodes containing Pt element. A high-temperature treatment under hydrogen atmosphere has been carried out to obtain a new type of Pt/graphene catalyst for methanol oxidation in direct methanol fuel cell. The morphology and structure characterizations of as-grown few-layer graphene supported Pt nanoparticles and Pt/graphene catalysts have been studied by Raman spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy with energy-dispersive spectroscopy, and high-resolution transmission electron microscopy. Cyclic voltammograms and chronoamperometric curves show that our present Pt/graphene catalysts have larger current density for methanol oxidation, higher tolerance to carbon monoxide poisoning, and better stability during the operating procedure, compared to commercial Pt/C catalysts.

  2. Magneto-transport properties of a random distribution of few-layer graphene patches

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iacovella, Fabrice; Mitioglu, Anatolie; Pierre, Mathieu; Raquet, Bertrand; Goiran, Michel; Plochocka, Paulina; Escoffier, Walter; Trinsoutrot, Pierre; Vergnes, Hugues; Caussat, Brigitte; Conédéra, Véronique

    2014-01-01

    In this study, we address the electronic properties of conducting films constituted of an array of randomly distributed few layer graphene patches and investigate on their most salient galvanometric features in the moderate and extreme disordered limit. We demonstrate that, in annealed devices, the ambipolar behaviour and the onset of Landau level quantization in high magnetic field constitute robust hallmarks of few-layer graphene films. In the strong disorder limit, however, the magneto-transport properties are best described by a variable-range hopping behaviour. A large negative magneto-conductance is observed at the charge neutrality point, in consistency with localized transport regime

  3. Interlayer catalytic exfoliation realizing scalable production of large-size pristine few-layer graphene

    OpenAIRE

    Geng, Xiumei; Guo, Yufen; Li, Dongfang; Li, Weiwei; Zhu, Chao; Wei, Xiangfei; Chen, Mingliang; Gao, Song; Qiu, Shengqiang; Gong, Youpin; Wu, Liqiong; Long, Mingsheng; Sun, Mengtao; Pan, Gebo; Liu, Liwei

    2013-01-01

    Mass production of reduced graphene oxide and graphene nanoplatelets has recently been achieved. However, a great challenge still remains in realizing large-quantity and high-quality production of large-size thin few-layer graphene (FLG). Here, we create a novel route to solve the issue by employing one-time-only interlayer catalytic exfoliation (ICE) of salt-intercalated graphite. The typical FLG with a large lateral size of tens of microns and a thickness less than 2?nm have been obtained b...

  4. Hydrothermal synthesis of highly nitrogen-doped few-layer graphene via solid–gas reaction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liang, Xianqing; Zhong, Jun; Shi, Yalin; Guo, Jin; Huang, Guolong; Hong, Caihao; Zhao, Yidong

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • A novel approach to synthesis of N-doped few-layer graphene has been developed. • The high doping levels of N in products are achieved. • XPS and XANES results reveal a thermal transformation of N bonding configurations. • The developed method is cost-effective and eco-friendly. - Abstract: Nitrogen-doped (N-doped) graphene sheets with high doping concentration were facilely synthesized through solid–gas reaction of graphene oxide (GO) with ammonia vapor in a self-designed hydrothermal system. The morphology, surface chemistry and electronic structure of N-doped graphene sheets were investigated by TEM, AFM, XRD, XPS, XANES and Raman characterizations. Upon hydrothermal treatment, up to 13.22 at% of nitrogen could be introduced into the crumpled few-layer graphene sheets. Both XPS and XANES analysis reveal that the reaction between oxygen functional groups in GO and ammonia vapor produces amide and amine species in hydrothermally treated GO (HTGO). Subsequent thermal annealing of the resultant HTGO introduces a gradual transformation of nitrogen bonding configurations in graphene sheets from amine N to pyridinic and graphitic N with the increase of annealing temperature. This study provides a simple but cost-effective and eco-friendly method to prepare N-doped graphene materials in large-scale for potential applications

  5. Few-layer graphene growth from polystyrene as solid carbon source utilizing simple APCVD method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmadi, Shahrokh; Afzalzadeh, Reza

    2016-07-01

    This research article presents development of an economical, simple, immune and environment friendly process to grow few-layer graphene by controlling evaporation rate of polystyrene on copper foil as catalyst and substrate utilizing atmospheric pressure chemical vapor deposition (APCVD) method. Evaporation rate of polystyrene depends on molecular structure, amount of used material and temperature. We have found controlling rate of evaporation of polystyrene by controlling the source temperature is easier than controlling the material weight. Atomic force microscopy (AFM) as well as Raman Spectroscopy has been used for characterization of the layers. The frequency of G‧ to G band ratio intensity in some samples varied between 0.8 and 1.6 corresponding to few-layer graphene. Topography characterization by atomic force microscopy confirmed Raman results.

  6. Dynamic Negative Compressibility of Few-Layer Graphene, h-BN, and MoS2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neves, Bernardo; Barboza, Ana Paula; Chacham, Helio; Oliveira, Camilla; Fernandes, Thales; Martins Ferreira, Erlon; Archanjo, Braulio; Batista, Ronaldo; Oliveira, Alan

    2013-03-01

    We report a novel mechanical response of few-layer graphene, h-BN, and MoS2 to the simultaneous compression and shear by an atomic force microscope (AFM) tip. The response is characterized by the vertical expansion of these two-dimensional (2D) layered materials upon compression. Such effect is proportional to the applied load, leading to vertical strain values (opposite to the applied force) of up to 150%. The effect is null in the absence of shear, increases with tip velocity, and is anisotropic. It also has similar magnitudes in these solid lubricant materials (few-layer graphene, h-BN, and MoS2), but it is absent in single-layer graphene and in few-layer mica and Bi2Se3. We propose a physical mechanism for the effect where the combined compressive and shear stresses from the tip induce dynamical wrinkling on the upper material layers, leading to the observed flake thickening. The new effect (and, therefore, the proposed wrinkling) is reversible in the three materials where it is observed.[2] Financial support from CNPq, Fapemig, Rede Nacional de Pesquisa em Nanotubos de Carbono and INCT-Nano-Carbono

  7. Vanishing stick-slip friction in few-layer graphenes: the thickness effect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Liang; Ma, Tian-Bao; Hu, Yuan-Zhong; Wang, Hui

    2011-07-15

    We report the thickness dependence of intrinsic friction in few-layer graphenes, adopting molecular dynamics simulations. The friction force drops dramatically with decreasing number of layers and finally approaches zero with two or three layers. The results, which are robust over a wide range of temperature, shear velocity, and pressure are quantitatively explained by a theoretical model with regard to lateral stiffness, slip length, and maximum lateral force, which could provide a new conceptual framework for understanding stick-slip friction. The results reveal the crucial role of the dimensional effect in nanoscale friction, and could be helpful in the design of graphene-based nanodevices.

  8. Environmental Synthesis of Few Layers Graphene Sheets Using Ultrasonic Exfoliation with Enhanced Electrical and Thermal Properties.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monir Noroozi

    Full Text Available In this paper, we report how few layers graphene that can be produced in large quantity with low defect ratio from exfoliation of graphite by using a high intensity probe sonication in water containing liquid hand soap and PVP. It was founded that the graphene powder obtained by this simple exfoliation method after the heat treatment had an excellent exfoliation into a single or layered graphene sheets. The UV-visible spectroscopy, FESEM, TEM, X-ray powder diffraction and Raman spectroscopy was used to analyse the graphene product. The thermal diffusivity of the samples was analysed using a highly accurate thermal-wave cavity photothermal technique. The data obtained showed excellent enhancement in the thermal diffusivity of the graphene dispersion. This well-dispersed graphene was then used to fabricate an electrically conductive polymer-graphene film composite. The results demonstrated that this low cost and environmental friendly technique allowed to the production of high quality layered graphene sheets, improved the thermal and electrical properties. This may find use in the wide range of applications based on graphene.

  9. Extremely large magnetoresistance in few-layer graphene/boron-nitride heterostructures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gopinadhan, Kalon; Shin, Young Jun; Jalil, Rashid; Venkatesan, Thirumalai; Geim, Andre K; Castro Neto, Antonio H; Yang, Hyunsoo

    2015-09-21

    Understanding magnetoresistance, the change in electrical resistance under an external magnetic field, at the atomic level is of great interest both fundamentally and technologically. Graphene and other two-dimensional layered materials provide an unprecedented opportunity to explore magnetoresistance at its nascent stage of structural formation. Here we report an extremely large local magnetoresistance of ∼2,000% at 400 K and a non-local magnetoresistance of >90,000% in an applied magnetic field of 9 T at 300 K in few-layer graphene/boron-nitride heterostructures. The local magnetoresistance is understood to arise from large differential transport parameters, such as the carrier mobility, across various layers of few-layer graphene upon a normal magnetic field, whereas the non-local magnetoresistance is due to the magnetic field induced Ettingshausen-Nernst effect. Non-local magnetoresistance suggests the possibility of a graphene-based gate tunable thermal switch. In addition, our results demonstrate that graphene heterostructures may be promising for magnetic field sensing applications.

  10. Hybrid Doping of Few-Layer Graphene via a Combination of Intercalation and Surface Doping

    KAUST Repository

    Mansour, Ahmed

    2017-05-23

    Surface molecular doping of graphene has been shown to modify its work function and increase its conductivity. However, the associated shifts in work function and increases in carrier concentration are highly coupled and limited by the surface coverage of dopant molecules on graphene. Here we show that few-layer graphene (FLG) can be doped using a hybrid approach, effectively combining surface doping by larger (metal-)organic molecules, while smaller molecules, such as Br2 and FeCl3, intercalate into the bulk. Intercalation tunes the carrier concentration more effectively, whereas surface doping of intercalated FLG can be used to tune its work function without reducing the carrier mobility. This multi-modal doping approach yields a very high carrier density and tunable work function for FLG, demonstrating a new versatile platform for fabricating graphene-based contacts for electronic, optoelectronic and photovoltaic applications.

  11. The effect of spin-orbit coupling in band structure of few-layer graphene

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sahdan, Muhammad Fauzi, E-mail: sahdan89@yahoo.co.id; Darma, Yudi, E-mail: sahdan89@yahoo.co.id [Department of Physics, Institut Teknologi Bandung, Jalan Ganesa 10, Bandung 40132 (Indonesia)

    2014-03-24

    Topological insulators are electronic materials that have a bulk band gap like an ordinary insulator but have protected conducting states on their edge or surface. This can be happened due to spin-orbit coupling and time-reversal symmetry. Moreover, the edge current flows through their edge or surface depends on its spin orientation and also it is robust against non-magnetic impurities. Therefore, topological insulators are predicted to be useful ranging from spintronics to quantum computation. Graphene was first predicted to be the precursor of topological insulator by Kane-Mele. They developed a Hamiltonian model to describe the gap opening in graphene. In this work, we investigate the band structure of few-layer graphene by using this model with analytical approach. The results of our calculations show that the gap opening occurs at K and K’ point, not only in single layer, but also in bilayer and trilayer graphene.

  12. Hybrid Doping of Few-Layer Graphene via a Combination of Intercalation and Surface Doping

    KAUST Repository

    Mansour, Ahmed; Kirmani, Ahmad R.; Barlow, Stephen; Marder, Seth R.; Amassian, Aram

    2017-01-01

    Surface molecular doping of graphene has been shown to modify its work function and increase its conductivity. However, the associated shifts in work function and increases in carrier concentration are highly coupled and limited by the surface coverage of dopant molecules on graphene. Here we show that few-layer graphene (FLG) can be doped using a hybrid approach, effectively combining surface doping by larger (metal-)organic molecules, while smaller molecules, such as Br2 and FeCl3, intercalate into the bulk. Intercalation tunes the carrier concentration more effectively, whereas surface doping of intercalated FLG can be used to tune its work function without reducing the carrier mobility. This multi-modal doping approach yields a very high carrier density and tunable work function for FLG, demonstrating a new versatile platform for fabricating graphene-based contacts for electronic, optoelectronic and photovoltaic applications.

  13. Facile electrochemical synthesis of few layered graphene from discharged battery electrode and its

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Santosh K. Tiwari

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available A cost-effective, simple and non-hazardous route for synthesis of few-layered graphene from waste zinc carbon battery (ZCB electrodes via electrochemical expansion (ECE has been reported. In this synthesis, we have electrochemically exfoliated the graphene layers, by intercalating sodium dodecyl benzenesulfonate (SDBS surfactant into graphitic layers at different D.C. voltages with a constant SDBS concentration. The graphene sheets were isolated, purified and characterized by Transmission electron microscopy (TEM, Scanning electron microscopy (SEM, Fourier transform infrared spectrometry (FTIR, X-ray diffraction (XRD, Raman spectrometry, Ultraviolet absorption (UV, Selected area electron diffraction (SAED and Cyclic voltammetry. Best result was obtained at 4.5 V of D.C. A possible mechanism for the intercalation process has been proposed. A promising application of the produced material for supercapacitor application has also been explored in combination with polyaniline.

  14. Controlling single and few-layer graphene crystals growth in a solid carbon source based chemical vapor deposition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Papon, Remi; Sharma, Subash; Shinde, Sachin M.; Vishwakarma, Riteshkumar; Tanemura, Masaki; Kalita, Golap

    2014-01-01

    Here, we reveal the growth process of single and few-layer graphene crystals in the solid carbon source based chemical vapor deposition (CVD) technique. Nucleation and growth of graphene crystals on a polycrystalline Cu foil are significantly affected by the injection of carbon atoms with pyrolysis rate of the carbon source. We observe micron length ribbons like growth front as well as saturated growth edges of graphene crystals depending on growth conditions. Controlling the pyrolysis rate of carbon source, monolayer and few-layer crystals and corresponding continuous films are obtained. In a controlled process, we observed growth of large monolayer graphene crystals, which interconnect and merge together to form a continuous film. On the other hand, adlayer growth is observed with an increased pyrolysis rate, resulting few-layer graphene crystal structure and merged continuous film. The understanding of monolayer and few-layer crystals growth in the developed CVD process can be significant to grow graphene with controlled layer numbers.

  15. AB stacked few layer graphene growth by chemical vapor deposition on single crystal Rh(1 1 1) and electronic structure characterization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kordatos, Apostolis; Kelaidis, Nikolaos; Giamini, Sigiava Aminalragia; Marquez-Velasco, Jose; Xenogiannopoulou, Evangelia; Tsipas, Polychronis; Kordas, George; Dimoulas, Athanasios

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Growth of non-defective few layer graphene on Rh(1 1 1) substrates using an ambient- pressure CVD method. • Control of graphene stacking order via the cool-down rate. • Graphene is grown with a mainly AB-stacking geometry on single-crystalline Rhodium for a slow cool-down rate and non-AB for a very fast cool-down. • Good epitaxial orientation of the surface is presented through the RHEED data and confirmed with ARPES characterization for the lower cool-down rate, where graphene's ΓK direction a perfectly aligned with the ΓK direction of the Rh(1 1 1) single crystal. - Abstract: Graphene synthesis on single crystal Rh(1 1 1) catalytic substrates is performed by Chemical Vapor Deposition (CVD) at 1000 °C and atmospheric pressure. Raman analysis shows full substrate coverage with few layer graphene. It is found that the cool-down rate strongly affects the graphene stacking order. When lowered, the percentage of AB (Bernal) -stacked regions increases, leading to an almost full AB stacking order. When increased, the percentage of AB-stacked graphene regions decreases to a point where almost a full non AB-stacked graphene is grown. For a slow cool-down rate, graphene with AB stacking order and good epitaxial orientation with the substrate is achieved. This is indicated mainly by Raman characterization and confirmed by Reflection high-energy electron diffraction (RHEED) imaging. Additional Scanning Tunneling Microscopy (STM) topography data confirm that the grown graphene is mainly an AB-stacked structure. The electronic structure of the graphene/Rh(1 1 1) system is examined by Angle resolved Photo-Emission Spectroscopy (ARPES), where σ and π bands of graphene, are observed. Graphene's ΓK direction is aligned with the ΓK direction of the substrate, indicating no significant contribution from rotated domains.

  16. AB stacked few layer graphene growth by chemical vapor deposition on single crystal Rh(1 1 1) and electronic structure characterization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kordatos, Apostolis [National Center for Scientific Research “Demokritos”, Athens, 15310 (Greece); Kelaidis, Nikolaos, E-mail: n.kelaidis@inn.demokritos.gr [National Center for Scientific Research “Demokritos”, Athens, 15310 (Greece); Giamini, Sigiava Aminalragia [National Center for Scientific Research “Demokritos”, Athens, 15310 (Greece); University of Athens, Department of Physics, Section of Solid State Physics, Athens, 15684 Greece (Greece); Marquez-Velasco, Jose [National Center for Scientific Research “Demokritos”, Athens, 15310 (Greece); National Technical University of Athens, Department of Physics, Athens, 15784 Greece (Greece); Xenogiannopoulou, Evangelia; Tsipas, Polychronis; Kordas, George; Dimoulas, Athanasios [National Center for Scientific Research “Demokritos”, Athens, 15310 (Greece)

    2016-04-30

    Highlights: • Growth of non-defective few layer graphene on Rh(1 1 1) substrates using an ambient- pressure CVD method. • Control of graphene stacking order via the cool-down rate. • Graphene is grown with a mainly AB-stacking geometry on single-crystalline Rhodium for a slow cool-down rate and non-AB for a very fast cool-down. • Good epitaxial orientation of the surface is presented through the RHEED data and confirmed with ARPES characterization for the lower cool-down rate, where graphene's ΓK direction a perfectly aligned with the ΓK direction of the Rh(1 1 1) single crystal. - Abstract: Graphene synthesis on single crystal Rh(1 1 1) catalytic substrates is performed by Chemical Vapor Deposition (CVD) at 1000 °C and atmospheric pressure. Raman analysis shows full substrate coverage with few layer graphene. It is found that the cool-down rate strongly affects the graphene stacking order. When lowered, the percentage of AB (Bernal) -stacked regions increases, leading to an almost full AB stacking order. When increased, the percentage of AB-stacked graphene regions decreases to a point where almost a full non AB-stacked graphene is grown. For a slow cool-down rate, graphene with AB stacking order and good epitaxial orientation with the substrate is achieved. This is indicated mainly by Raman characterization and confirmed by Reflection high-energy electron diffraction (RHEED) imaging. Additional Scanning Tunneling Microscopy (STM) topography data confirm that the grown graphene is mainly an AB-stacked structure. The electronic structure of the graphene/Rh(1 1 1) system is examined by Angle resolved Photo-Emission Spectroscopy (ARPES), where σ and π bands of graphene, are observed. Graphene's ΓK direction is aligned with the ΓK direction of the substrate, indicating no significant contribution from rotated domains.

  17. Biomolecules Electrochemical Sensing Properties of a PMo11V@N-Doped Few Layer Graphene Nanocomposite

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diana M. Fernandes

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available A novel hybrid nanocomposite, PMo11V@N-doped few layer graphene, was prepared by a one-step protocol through direct immobilization of the tetrabutylammonium salt of a vanadium-substituted phosphomolybdate (PMo11V onto N-doped few layer graphene (N-FLG. The nanocomposite characterization by FTIR and XPS confirmed its successful synthesis. Glassy carbon modified electrodes with PMo11V and PMo11V@N-FLG showed cyclic voltammograms consistent with surface-confined redox processes attributed to Mo-centred reductions (MoVI→MoV and a vanadium reduction (VV→VIV. Furthermore, PMo11V@N-FLG modified electrodes showed good stability and well-resolved redox peaks with high current intensities. The observed enhancement of PMo11V electrochemical properties is a consequence of a strong electronic communication between the POM and the N-doped few layer graphene. Additionally, the electro-catalytic and sensing properties towards acetaminophen (AC and theophylline (TP were evaluated by voltammetric techniques using a glassy carbon electrode modified with PMo11V@N-FLG. Under the conditions used, the square wave voltammetric peak current increased linearly with AC concentration in the presence of TP, but showing two linear ranges: 1.2 × 10−6 to 1.2 × 10−4 and 1.2 × 10−4 to 4.8 × 10−4 mol dm−3, with different AC sensitivity values, 0.022 A/mol dm−3 and 0.035 A/mol dm−3, respectively (detection limit, DL = 7.5 × 10−7 mol dm−3.

  18. Production of High-quality Few-layer Graphene Flakes by Intercalation and Exfoliation

    KAUST Repository

    Alzahrani, Areej A.

    2017-11-30

    Graphene, a two-dimensional nanomaterial, has been given much attention since it was first isolated in 2004. Driving this intensive research effort are the unique properties of this one atom thick sheet of carbon, in particular its electrical, thermal and mechanical properties. While the technological applications proposed for graphene abound, its low-cost production in large scales is still a matter of interrogation. Simple methods to obtain few-layered graphene flakes of high structural quality are being investigated with the exfoliation of graphite taking a prominent place in this arena. From the many suggested approaches, the most promising involve the use of liquid media assisted by intercalants and shear forces acting on the basal layers of graphite. In this thesis, it is discussed how a novel method was developed to produce flakes with consistent lateral dimensions that are also few-layered and retain the expected structural and chemical characteristics of graphene. Here, the source material was a commercially available graphiteintercalated compound, also known as expandable graphite. Several exfoliation-inducing tools were investigated including the use of blenders, homogenizers, and ultrasonic processors. To aid in this process, various solvents and intercalants were explored under different reactive conditions. The more efficient approach in yielding defect-free thin flakes was the use of thermally expanded graphite in boiling dimethylformamide followed by ultrasonic processing and centrifugation. In parallel, a method to fraction the flakes as a function of their lateral size was developed. Ultimately, it was possible to obtain samples of graphene flakes with a lateral dimension of a few micrometers (<5 μm) and thickness of 1-3 nm (i.e. <10 layers).

  19. Synthesis of few layer single crystal graphene grains on platinum by chemical vapour deposition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Karamat

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The present competition of graphene electronics demands an efficient route which produces high quality and large area graphene. Chemical vapour deposition technique, where hydrocarbons dissociate in to active carbon species and form graphene layer on the desired metal catalyst via nucleation is considered as the most suitable method. In this study, single layer graphene with the presence of few layer single crystal graphene grains were grown on Pt foil via chemical vapour deposition. The higher growth temperature changes the surface morphology of the Pt foil so a delicate process of hydrogen bubbling was used to peel off graphene from Pt foil samples with the mechanical support of photoresist and further transferred to SiO2/Si substrates for analysis. Optical microscopy of the graphene transferred samples showed the regions of single layer along with different oriented graphene domains. Two type of interlayer stacking sequences, Bernal and twisted, were observed in the graphene grains. The presence of different stacking sequences in the graphene layers influence the electronic and optical properties; in Bernal stacking the band gap can be tunable and in twisted stacking the overall sheet resistance can be reduced. Grain boundaries of Pt provides low energy sites to the carbon species, therefore the nucleation of grains are more at the boundaries. The stacking order and the number of layers in grains were seen more clearly with scanning electron microscopy. Raman spectroscopy showed high quality graphene samples due to very small D peak. 2D Raman peak for single layer graphene showed full width half maximum (FWHM value of 30 cm−1. At points A, B and C, Bernal stacked grain showed FWHM values of 51.22, 58.45 and 64.72 cm−1, while twisted stacked grain showed the FWHM values of 27.26, 28.83 and 20.99 cm−1, respectively. FWHM values of 2D peak of Bernal stacked grain showed an increase of 20–30 cm−1 as compare to single layer graphene

  20. Coulomb Oscillations in a Gate-Controlled Few-Layer Graphene Quantum Dot.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Yipu; Xiong, Haonan; Jiang, Wentao; Zhang, Hongyi; Xue, Xiao; Ma, Cheng; Ma, Yulin; Sun, Luyan; Wang, Haiyan; Duan, Luming

    2016-10-12

    Graphene quantum dots could be an ideal host for spin qubits and thus have been extensively investigated based on graphene nanoribbons and etched nanostructures; however, edge and substrate-induced disorders severely limit device functionality. Here, we report the confinement of quantum dots in few-layer graphene with tunable barriers, defined by local strain and electrostatic gating. Transport measurements unambiguously reveal that confinement barriers are formed by inducing a band gap via the electrostatic gating together with local strain induced constriction. Numerical simulations according to the local top-gate geometry confirm the band gap opening by a perpendicular electric field. We investigate the magnetic field dependence of the energy-level spectra in these graphene quantum dots. Experimental results reveal a complex evolution of Coulomb oscillations with the magnetic field, featuring kinks at level crossings. The simulation of energy spectrum shows that the kink features and the magnetic field dependence are consistent with experimental observations, implying the hybridized nature of energy-level spectrum of these graphene quantum dots.

  1. Reliably counting atomic planes of few-layer graphene (n > 4).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koh, Yee Kan; Bae, Myung-Ho; Cahill, David G; Pop, Eric

    2011-01-25

    We demonstrate a reliable technique for counting atomic planes (n) of few-layer graphene (FLG) on SiO(2)/Si substrates by Raman spectroscopy. Our approach is based on measuring the ratio of the integrated intensity of the G graphene peak and the optical phonon peak of Si, I(G)/I(Si), and is particularly useful in the range n > 4 where few methods exist. We compare our results with atomic force microscopy (AFM) measurements and Fresnel equation calculations. Then, we apply our method to unambiguously identify n of FLG devices on SiO(2) and find that the mobility (μ ≈ 2000 cm(2) V(-1) s(-1)) is independent of layer thickness for n > 4. Our findings suggest that electrical transport in gated FLG devices is dominated by carriers near the FLG/SiO(2) interface and is thus limited by the environment, even for n > 4.

  2. Carrier Lifetime in Exfoliated Few-Layer Graphene Determined from Intersubband Optical Transitions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Limmer, Thomas; Feldmann, Jochen; Da Como, Enrico

    2013-05-01

    We report a femtosecond transient spectroscopy study in the near to middle infrared range, 0.8-0.35 eV photon energy, on graphene and few layer graphene single flakes. The spectra show an evolving structure of photoinduced absorption bands superimposed on the bleaching caused by Pauli blocking of the interband optically coupled states. Supported by tight-binding model calculations, we assign the photoinduced absorption features to intersubband transitions as the number of layers is increased. Interestingly, the intersubband photoinduced resonances show a longer dynamics than the interband bleaching, because of their independence from the absolute energy of the carriers with respect to the Dirac point. The dynamic of these intersubband transitions reflects the lifetime of the hot carriers and provides an elegant method to access it in this important class of semimetals.

  3. Carrier lifetime in exfoliated few-layer graphene determined from intersubband optical transitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Limmer, Thomas; Feldmann, Jochen; Da Como, Enrico

    2013-05-24

    We report a femtosecond transient spectroscopy study in the near to middle infrared range, 0.8-0.35 eV photon energy, on graphene and few layer graphene single flakes. The spectra show an evolving structure of photoinduced absorption bands superimposed on the bleaching caused by Pauli blocking of the interband optically coupled states. Supported by tight-binding model calculations, we assign the photoinduced absorption features to intersubband transitions as the number of layers is increased. Interestingly, the intersubband photoinduced resonances show a longer dynamics than the interband bleaching, because of their independence from the absolute energy of the carriers with respect to the Dirac point. The dynamic of these intersubband transitions reflects the lifetime of the hot carriers and provides an elegant method to access it in this important class of semimetals.

  4. Methanol wetting enthalpy on few-layer graphene decorated hierarchical carbon foam for cooling applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paul, R., E-mail: paul24@purdue.edu [Birck Nanotechnolgy Center, Purdue University, West Lafayette, IN 47907 (United States); Zemlyanov, D. [Birck Nanotechnolgy Center, Purdue University, West Lafayette, IN 47907 (United States); Voevodin, A.A.; Roy, A.K. [Materials and Manufacturing Directorate, Air Force Research Laboratory, WPAFB, OH 45433 (United States); Fisher, T.S. [Birck Nanotechnolgy Center, Purdue University, West Lafayette, IN 47907 (United States); Department of Mechanical Engineering, Purdue University, West Lafayette, IN 47907 (United States)

    2014-12-01

    Vertical few-layer thick graphene petals are grown on macro-porous carbon foam surfaces having an intrinsic open porosity of 75%. This provides a hierarchical porous structure with a potential for surface adsorption/desorption or wetting/dewetting based thermal energy storage applications. Carbon foams have a combined advantage of large surface area and high thermal conductivity critical for thermal energy storage, but they are prone to oxidation and exhibit low adsorption enthalpies for lightweight hydrocarbons. Here we report graphene petal decoration of carbon foam surfaces and subsequent chemical modification through boron nitride incorporation in hexagonal carbon planes of both carbon foams and graphene petals. This chemically reactive hierarchical structure is characterized with FESEM, Raman, XRD, and XPS measurements. Methanol wetting enthalpy of this three-dimensional hierarchical material was measured with a solution calorimeter, and had shown a six fold increase (from 78 to 522 J/g of foam) as compared to the carbon foam prior to the surface modification. Influences of petal decoration on the surface morphology of carbon foam, BN chemical modification, structure and stoichiometry of the hierarchical material surface, and methanol wetting enthalpy improvement are discussed in detail. The applicability of this hierarchical porous material for thermal energy applications is established. - Highlights: • 500 nm thick few layer graphene petals decoration vertically on macroporous carbon foam surface. • Microwave heating assisted chemical treatment for boron-nitride modification. • Defective petals edges due to boron nitride domain formation. • 20 at. % boron and nitrogen incorporation. • Six fold increase in methanol wetting enthalpy on boron-nitride modification.

  5. Methanol wetting enthalpy on few-layer graphene decorated hierarchical carbon foam for cooling applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paul, R.; Zemlyanov, D.; Voevodin, A.A.; Roy, A.K.; Fisher, T.S.

    2014-01-01

    Vertical few-layer thick graphene petals are grown on macro-porous carbon foam surfaces having an intrinsic open porosity of 75%. This provides a hierarchical porous structure with a potential for surface adsorption/desorption or wetting/dewetting based thermal energy storage applications. Carbon foams have a combined advantage of large surface area and high thermal conductivity critical for thermal energy storage, but they are prone to oxidation and exhibit low adsorption enthalpies for lightweight hydrocarbons. Here we report graphene petal decoration of carbon foam surfaces and subsequent chemical modification through boron nitride incorporation in hexagonal carbon planes of both carbon foams and graphene petals. This chemically reactive hierarchical structure is characterized with FESEM, Raman, XRD, and XPS measurements. Methanol wetting enthalpy of this three-dimensional hierarchical material was measured with a solution calorimeter, and had shown a six fold increase (from 78 to 522 J/g of foam) as compared to the carbon foam prior to the surface modification. Influences of petal decoration on the surface morphology of carbon foam, BN chemical modification, structure and stoichiometry of the hierarchical material surface, and methanol wetting enthalpy improvement are discussed in detail. The applicability of this hierarchical porous material for thermal energy applications is established. - Highlights: • 500 nm thick few layer graphene petals decoration vertically on macroporous carbon foam surface. • Microwave heating assisted chemical treatment for boron-nitride modification. • Defective petals edges due to boron nitride domain formation. • 20 at. % boron and nitrogen incorporation. • Six fold increase in methanol wetting enthalpy on boron-nitride modification

  6. Carrier mobility and scattering lifetime in electric double-layer gated few-layer graphene

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Piatti, E.; Galasso, S.; Tortello, M.; Nair, J.R.; Gerbaldi, C. [Dipartimento di Scienza Applicata e Tecnologia, Politecnico di Torino, 10129 Torino (Italy); Bruna, M.; Borini, S. [Istituto Nazionale di Ricerca Metrologica (INRIM), 10135 Torino (Italy); Daghero, D. [Dipartimento di Scienza Applicata e Tecnologia, Politecnico di Torino, 10129 Torino (Italy); Gonnelli, R.S., E-mail: renato.gonnelli@polito.it [Dipartimento di Scienza Applicata e Tecnologia, Politecnico di Torino, 10129 Torino (Italy)

    2017-02-15

    Highlights: • We fabricated few-layer graphene FETs by mechanical exfoliation and standard microfabrication techniques. • We employed a Li-TFSI based ion gel to induce carrier densities as high as ≈6e14 e{sup −}/cm{sup 2} in the devices' channel. • We found a strong asymmetry in the sheet conductance and mobility doping dependences between electron and hole doping. • We combined the experimental results with ab initio DFT calculations to obtain the average scattering lifetime of the charge carriers. • We found that the increase in the carrier density and an unexpected increase in the density of charged scattering centers compete in determining the scattering lifetime. - Abstract: We fabricate electric double-layer field-effect transistor (EDL-FET) devices on mechanically exfoliated few-layer graphene. We exploit the large capacitance of a polymeric electrolyte to study the transport properties of three, four and five-layer samples under a large induced surface charge density both above and below the glass transition temperature of the polymer. We find that the carrier mobility shows a strong asymmetry between the hole and electron doping regime. We then employ ab initio density functional theory (DFT) calculations to determine the average scattering lifetime from the experimental data. We explain its peculiar dependence on the carrier density in terms of the specific properties of the electrolyte we used in our experiments.

  7. Interlayer catalytic exfoliation realizing scalable production of large-size pristine few-layer graphene

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geng, Xiumei; Guo, Yufen; Li, Dongfang; Li, Weiwei; Zhu, Chao; Wei, Xiangfei; Chen, Mingliang; Gao, Song; Qiu, Shengqiang; Gong, Youpin; Wu, Liqiong; Long, Mingsheng; Sun, Mengtao; Pan, Gebo; Liu, Liwei

    2013-01-01

    Mass production of reduced graphene oxide and graphene nanoplatelets has recently been achieved. However, a great challenge still remains in realizing large-quantity and high-quality production of large-size thin few-layer graphene (FLG). Here, we create a novel route to solve the issue by employing one-time-only interlayer catalytic exfoliation (ICE) of salt-intercalated graphite. The typical FLG with a large lateral size of tens of microns and a thickness less than 2 nm have been obtained by a mild and durative ICE. The high-quality graphene layers preserve intact basal crystal planes owing to avoidance of the degradation reaction during both intercalation and ICE. Furthermore, we reveal that the high-quality FLG ensures a remarkable lithium-storage stability (>1,000 cycles) and a large reversible specific capacity (>600 mAh g-1). This simple and scalable technique acquiring high-quality FLG offers considerable potential for future realistic applications.

  8. Electrostatic force microscopy and electrical isolation of etched few-layer graphene nano-domains

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hunley, D. Patrick; Sundararajan, Abhishek; Boland, Mathias J.; Strachan, Douglas R., E-mail: doug.strachan@uky.edu [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Kentucky, Lexington, Kentucky 40506 (United States)

    2014-12-15

    Nanostructured bi-layer graphene samples formed through catalytic etching are investigated with electrostatic force microscopy. The measurements and supporting computations show a variation in the microscopy signal for different nano-domains that are indicative of changes in capacitive coupling related to their small sizes. Abrupt capacitance variations detected across etch tracks indicates that the nano-domains have strong electrical isolation between them. Comparison of the measurements to a resistor-capacitor model indicates that the resistance between two bi-layer graphene regions separated by an approximately 10 nm wide etch track is greater than about 1×10{sup 12} Ω with a corresponding gap resistivity greater than about 3×10{sup 14} Ω⋅nm. This extremely large gap resistivity suggests that catalytic etch tracks within few-layer graphene samples are sufficient for providing electrical isolation between separate nano-domains that could permit their use in constructing atomically thin nanogap electrodes, interconnects, and nanoribbons.

  9. Electrostatic force microscopy and electrical isolation of etched few-layer graphene nano-domains

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hunley, D. Patrick; Sundararajan, Abhishek; Boland, Mathias J.; Strachan, Douglas R.

    2014-01-01

    Nanostructured bi-layer graphene samples formed through catalytic etching are investigated with electrostatic force microscopy. The measurements and supporting computations show a variation in the microscopy signal for different nano-domains that are indicative of changes in capacitive coupling related to their small sizes. Abrupt capacitance variations detected across etch tracks indicates that the nano-domains have strong electrical isolation between them. Comparison of the measurements to a resistor-capacitor model indicates that the resistance between two bi-layer graphene regions separated by an approximately 10 nm wide etch track is greater than about 1×10 12  Ω with a corresponding gap resistivity greater than about 3×10 14  Ω⋅nm. This extremely large gap resistivity suggests that catalytic etch tracks within few-layer graphene samples are sufficient for providing electrical isolation between separate nano-domains that could permit their use in constructing atomically thin nanogap electrodes, interconnects, and nanoribbons

  10. Direct imaging of atomic-scale ripples in few-layer graphene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Wei L; Bhandari, Sagar; Yi, Wei; Bell, David C; Westervelt, Robert; Kaxiras, Efthimios

    2012-05-09

    Graphene has been touted as the prototypical two-dimensional solid of extraordinary stability and strength. However, its very existence relies on out-of-plane ripples as predicted by theory and confirmed by experiments. Evidence of the intrinsic ripples has been reported in the form of broadened diffraction spots in reciprocal space, in which all spatial information is lost. Here we show direct real-space images of the ripples in a few-layer graphene (FLG) membrane resolved at the atomic scale using monochromated aberration-corrected transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The thickness of FLG amplifies the weak local effects of the ripples, resulting in spatially varying TEM contrast that is unique up to inversion symmetry. We compare the characteristic TEM contrast with simulated images based on accurate first-principles calculations of the scattering potential. Our results characterize the ripples in real space and suggest that such features are likely common in ultrathin materials, even in the nanometer-thickness range.

  11. Cyclododecane as support material for clean and facile transfer of large-area few-layer graphene

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Capasso, A.; Leoni, E.; Dikonimos, T.; Buonocore, F.; Lisi, N.; De Francesco, M.; Lancellotti, L.; Bobeico, E.; Sarto, M. S.; Tamburrano, A.; De Bellis, G.

    2014-01-01

    The transfer of chemical vapor deposited graphene is a crucial process, which can affect the quality of the transferred films and compromise their application in devices. Finding a robust and intrinsically clean material capable of easing the transfer of graphene without interfering with its properties remains a challenge. We here propose the use of an organic compound, cyclododecane, as a transfer material. This material can be easily spin coated on graphene and assist the transfer, leaving no residues and requiring no further removal processes. The effectiveness of this transfer method for few-layer graphene on a large area was evaluated and confirmed by microscopy, Raman spectroscopy, x-ray photoemission spectroscopy, and four-point probe measurements. Schottky-barrier solar cells with few-layer graphene were fabricated on silicon wafers by using the cyclododecane transfer method and outperformed reference cells made by standard methods.

  12. Salt-assisted direct exfoliation of graphite into high-quality, large-size, few-layer graphene sheets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niu, Liyong; Li, Mingjian; Tao, Xiaoming; Xie, Zhuang; Zhou, Xuechang; Raju, Arun P A; Young, Robert J; Zheng, Zijian

    2013-08-21

    We report a facile and low-cost method to directly exfoliate graphite powders into large-size, high-quality, and solution-dispersible few-layer graphene sheets. In this method, aqueous mixtures of graphite and inorganic salts such as NaCl and CuCl2 are stirred, and subsequently dried by evaporation. Finally, the mixture powders are dispersed into an orthogonal organic solvent solution of the salt by low-power and short-time ultrasonication, which exfoliates graphite into few-layer graphene sheets. We find that the as-made graphene sheets contain little oxygen, and 86% of them are 1-5 layers with lateral sizes as large as 210 μm(2). Importantly, the as-made graphene can be readily dispersed into aqueous solution in the presence of surfactant and thus is compatible with various solution-processing techniques towards graphene-based thin film devices.

  13. Comparison of Electronic Structure and Magnetic Properties of Few Layer Graphene and Multiwall Carbon Nanotubes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sekhar Chandra Ray

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available A comparative study has been made for the non-catalyst based few layer graphene (FLG and Fe-catalyst based multiwall carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs. Magnetic and electronic properties of FLG and MWCNTs were studied using magnetic M-H hysteresis loops and synchrotron radiation based X-ray absorption fine structure spectroscopy measurements. Structural defects and electronic and bonding properties of FLG/MWCNTs have been studied using Raman spectroscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS, and ultraviolet photoelectron spectroscopy (UPS. The work functions of FLG and MWCNTs are 4.01 eV and 3.79 eV, respectively, obtained from UPS (He-I spectra. UPS (He-II results suggest that the density of states (DOS of MWCNTs is higher than FLG and is consistent with Raman spectroscopy result that shows the defect of MWCNTs is higher than FLG. The magnetic coercivity (Hc of the MWCNTs (~750 Oe is higher than FLG (~85 Oe which could be used for various technological magnetic applications.

  14. Hollow Few-Layer Graphene-Based Structures from Parafilm Waste for Flexible Transparent Supercapacitors and Oil Spill Cleanup.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Duc Dung; Hsieh, Ping-Yen; Tsai, Meng-Ting; Lee, Chi-Young; Tai, Nyan-Hwa; To, Bao Dong; Vu, Duc Tu; Hsu, Chia Chen

    2017-11-22

    We report a versatile strategy to exploit parafilm waste as a carbon precursor for fabrication of freestanding, hollow few-layer graphene fiber mesh (HFGM) structures without use of any gaseous carriers/promoters via an annealing route. The freestanding HFGMs possess good mechanical flexibility, tailorable transparency, and high electrical conductivity, consequently qualifying them as promising electrochemical electrodes. Because of the hollow spaces, electrolyte ions can easily access into and contact with interior surfaces of the graphene fibers, accordingly increasing electrode/electrolyte interfacial area. As expected, solid-state supercapacitors based on the HFGMs exhibit a considerable enhancement in specific capacitance (20-30 fold) as compared to those employing chemical vapor deposition compact graphene films. Moreover, the parafilm waste is found to be beneficial for one-step fabrication of nanocarbon/few-layer graphene composite meshes with superior electrochemical performance, outstanding superhydrophobic property, good self-cleaning ability, and great promise for oil spill cleanup.

  15. Oleic acid-assisted exfoliated few layer graphene films as counter electrode in dye-sensitized solar cell

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, Jincheng; Wang, Yinjie; Sun, Darren Delai

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► Few layer graphene was obtained by liquid exfoliation in oleic acid (OLA). ► The concentration of exfoliated few layer graphene is as high as 1.3 mg/mL. ► OLA-assisted graphite (OLA-G) film has high catalytic activity. ► A power conversion efficiency of 3.56% can be gained by DSSCs with the counter electrode of OLA-G film. - Abstract: We have demonstrated a facile sonication method to exfoliate graphite into few layer graphene with a high concentration of 1.3 mg/mL in oleic acid (OLA). The exfoliations of natural graphite in oleylamine (OA) and trioctylphosphine (TOP) are investigated as a comparison. The few layer graphene dispersion in OLA and the graphite nanoparticles in OA are confirmed by transmission electron microscopy (TEM) observation. The exfoliated graphene dispersion in OLA (OLA-G) and graphite dispersion in OA (OA-G) are fabricated into a film on the FTO substrate by the doctor-blading method. The morphology and catalytic activity in the redox couple regeneration of all the graphite films are examined by field emission scanning electron microscopy and cyclic voltammograms. The OLA-G films on FTO glass with few layer graphene flakes shows better catalytic activity than the OA-G films. The energy conversion efficiency of the cell with the OLA-G film as counter electrode reached 3.56%, which is 70% of dye-sensitized solar cell (DSSC) with the sputtering-Pt counter electrode under the same experimental condition.

  16. Charge spill-out and work function of few-layer graphene on SiC(0 0 0 1)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Renault, O; Rotella, H; Kaja, K; Blaise, P; Poiroux, T; Pascon, A M; Fonseca, L R C; Mathieu, C; Rault, J E; Barrett, N

    2014-01-01

    We report on the charge spill-out and work function of epitaxial few-layer graphene on 6 H-SiC(0 0 0 1). Experiments from high-resolution, energy-filtered x-ray photoelectron emission microscopy (XPEEM) are combined with ab initio density functional theory calculations using a relaxed interface model. The work function values obtained from theory and experiments are in qualitative agreement, reproducing the previously observed trend of increasing work function with each additional graphene plane. Electron transfer at the SiC/graphene interface through a buffer layer (BL) causes an interface dipole moment which is at the origin of the graphene work function modulation. The total charge transfer is independent of the number of graphene layers, and is consistent with the constant binding energy of the SiC component of the C 1s core-level, measured by XPEEM. Charge leakage into a vacuum depends on the number of graphene layers, explaining why the experimental, layer-dependent C 1s graphene core-level binding energy shift does not rigidly follow that of the work function. Thus, a combination of charge transfer at the SiC/graphene interface and charge spill-out into the vacuum resolves the apparent discrepancy between the experimental work function and C 1s binding energy. (paper)

  17. Few-layer graphene sheets with embedded gold nanoparticles for electrochemical analysis of adenine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Biris AR

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Alexandru R Biris,1 Stela Pruneanu,1 Florina Pogacean,1 Mihaela D Lazar,1 Gheorghe Borodi,1 Stefania Ardelean,1 Enkeleda Dervishi,2 Fumiya Watanabe,2 Alexandru S Biris2 1National Institute for Research and Development of Isotopic and Molecular Technologies, Cluj-Napoca, Romania; 2Center for Integrative Nanotechnology Sciences, University of Arkansas at Little Rock, Little Rock, AR, USA Abstract: This work describes the synthesis of few-layer graphene sheets embedded with various amounts of gold nanoparticles (Gr-Au-x over an Aux/MgO catalytic system (where x = 1, 2, or 3 wt%. The sheet-like morphology of the Gr-Au-x nanostructures was confirmed by transmission electron microscopy and high resolution transmission electron microscopy, which also demonstrated that the number of layers within the sheets varied from two to seven. The sample with the highest percentage of gold nanoparticles embedded within the graphitic layers (Gr-Au-3 showed the highest degree of crystallinity. This distinct feature, along with the large number of edge-planes seen in high resolution transmission electron microscopic images, has a crucial effect on the electrocatalytic properties of this material. The reaction yields (40%–50% and the final purity (96%–98% of the Gr-Au-x composites were obtained by thermogravimetric analysis. The Gr-Au-x composites were used to modify platinum substrates and subsequently to detect adenine, one of the DNA bases. For the bare electrode, no oxidation signal was recorded. In contrast, all of the modified electrodes showed a strong electrocatalytic effect, and a clear peak for adenine oxidation was recorded at approximately +1.05 V. The highest increase in the electrochemical signal was obtained using a platinum/Gr-Au-3-modified electrode. In addition, this modified electrode had an exchange current density (I0, obtained from the Tafel plot one order of magnitude higher than that of the bare platinum electrode, which also confirmed that

  18. Tunable Electrical and Optical Characteristics in Monolayer Graphene and Few-Layer MoS2 Heterostructure Devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rathi, Servin; Lee, Inyeal; Lim, Dongsuk; Wang, Jianwei; Ochiai, Yuichi; Aoki, Nobuyuki; Watanabe, Kenji; Taniguchi, Takashi; Lee, Gwan-Hyoung; Yu, Young-Jun; Kim, Philip; Kim, Gil-Ho

    2015-08-12

    Lateral and vertical two-dimensional heterostructure devices, in particular graphene-MoS2, have attracted profound interest as they offer additional functionalities over normal two-dimensional devices. Here, we have carried out electrical and optical characterization of graphene-MoS2 heterostructure. The few-layer MoS2 devices with metal electrode at one end and monolayer graphene electrode at the other end show nonlinearity in drain current with drain voltage sweep due to asymmetrical Schottky barrier height at the contacts and can be modulated with an external gate field. The doping effect of MoS2 on graphene was observed as double Dirac points in the transfer characteristics of the graphene field-effect transistor (FET) with a few-layer MoS2 overlapping the middle part of the channel, whereas the underlapping of graphene have negligible effect on MoS2 FET characteristics, which showed typical n-type behavior. The heterostructure also exhibits a strongest optical response for 520 nm wavelength, which decreases with higher wavelengths. Another distinct feature observed in the heterostructure is the peak in the photocurrent around zero gate voltage. This peak is distinguished from conventional MoS2 FETs, which show a continuous increase in photocurrent with back-gate voltage. These results offer significant insight and further enhance the understanding of the graphene-MoS2 heterostructure.

  19. Urea-assisted liquid-phase exfoliation of natural graphite into few-layer graphene

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hou, Dandan; Liu, Qinfu; Wang, Xianshuai; Qiao, Zhichuan; Wu, Yingke; Xu, Bohui; Ding, Shuli

    2018-05-01

    The mass production of graphene with high quality is desirable for its wide applications. Here, we demonstrated a facile method to exfoliate natural graphite into graphene in organic solvent by assisting of urea. The exfoliation of graphite may originate from the "molecular wedge" effect of urea, which can intercalate into the edge of natural graphite, thus facilitating the production of graphene dispersion with a high concentration up to 1.2 mg/mL. The obtained graphene is non-oxidized with negligible defects. Therefore, this approach has great promise in bulk production of graphene with superior quality for a variety of applications.

  20. Calculation of inter-plane thermal resistance of few-layer graphene from equilibrium molecular dynamics simulations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ni, Y; Chalopin, Y; Volz, S

    2012-01-01

    Inter-plane thermal resistance in 5-layer graphene is calculated from equilibrium molecular dynamics (EMD) by calculating the autocorrelation function of temperature difference. Our simulated inter-plane resistance for 5-layer graphene is 4.83 × 10 −9 m 2 K/W. This data is in the same order of magnitude with the reported values from NEMD simulations and Debye model calculations, and the possible reasons for the slight differences are discussed in details. The inter-plane resistance is not dependent on temperature, according to the results of the EMD simulation. Phonon density of states (DOSs) were plotted to better understand the mechanism behind the obtained values. These results provide a better insight in the heat transfer across a few layer graphene and yield useful information on the design of graphene based thermal materials.

  1. Raman spectroscopy of few-layer graphene prepared by C2–C6 cluster ion implantation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Z.S.; Zhang, R.; Zhang, Z.D.; Huang, Z.H.; Liu, C.S.; Fu, D.J.; Liu, J.R.

    2013-01-01

    Few-layer graphene has been prepared on 300 nm-thick Ni films by C 2 –C 6 cluster ion implantation at 20 keV/cluster. Raman spectroscopy reveals significant influence of the number of atoms in the cluster, the implantation dose, and thermal treatment on the structure of the graphene layers. In particular, the graphene samples exhibit a sharp G peak at 1584 cm −1 and 2D peaks at 2711–2717 cm −1 . The I G /I 2D ratios higher than 1.70 and I G /I D ratio as high as 1.95 confirm that graphene sheets with low density of defects have been synthesized with much improved quality by ion implantation with larger clusters of C 4 –C 6

  2. Powder, paper and foam of few-layer graphene prepared in high yield by electrochemical intercalation exfoliation of expanded graphite.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Liqiong; Li, Weiwei; Li, Peng; Liao, Shutian; Qiu, Shengqiang; Chen, Mingliang; Guo, Yufen; Li, Qi; Zhu, Chao; Liu, Liwei

    2014-04-09

    A facile and high-yield approach to the preparation of few-layer graphene (FLG) by electrochemical intercalation exfoliation (EIE) of expanded graphite in sulfuric acid electrolyte is reported. Stage-1 H2SO4-graphite intercalation compound is used as a key intermediate in EIE to realize the efficient exfoliation. The yield of the FLG sheets (papers made of the FLG flakes retain excellent conductivity (≈24,500 S m(-1)). Three-dimensional (3D) graphene foams with light weight are fabricated from the FLG flakes by the use of Ni foams as self-sacrifice templates. Furthermore, 3D graphene/Ni foams without any binders, which are used as supercapacitor electrodes in aqueous electrolyte, provide the specific capacitance of 113.2 F g(-1) at a current density of 0.5 A g(-1), retaining 90% capacitance after 1000 cycles. © 2013 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  3. Electric double-layer capacitance between an ionic liquid and few-layer graphene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uesugi, Eri; Goto, Hidenori; Eguchi, Ritsuko; Fujiwara, Akihiko; Kubozono, Yoshihiro

    2013-01-01

    Ionic-liquid gates have a high carrier density due to their atomically thin electric double layer (EDL) and extremely large geometrical capacitance Cg. However, a high carrier density in graphene has not been achieved even with ionic-liquid gates because the EDL capacitance CEDL between the ionic liquid and graphene involves the series connection of Cg and the quantum capacitance Cq, which is proportional to the density of states. We investigated the variables that determine CEDL at the molecular level by varying the number of graphene layers n and thereby optimising Cq. The CEDL value is governed by Cq at n 4. This transition with n indicates a composite nature for CEDL. Our finding clarifies a universal principle that determines capacitance on a microscopic scale, and provides nanotechnological perspectives on charge accumulation and energy storage using an ultimately thin capacitor.

  4. Suppression of the self-heating effect in GaN HEMT by few-layer graphene heat spreading elements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Volcheck, V. S.; Stempitsky, V. R.

    2017-11-01

    Self-heating has an adverse effect on characteristics of gallium nitride (GaN) high electron mobility transistors (HEMTs). Various solutions to the problem have been proposed, however, a temperature rise due to dissipated electrical power still hinders the production of high power and high speed GaN devices. In this paper, thermal management of GaN HEMT via few-layer graphene (FLG) heat spreading elements is investigated. It is shown that integration of the FLG elements on top of the device structure considerably reduces the maximum temperature and improves the DC and small signal AC performance.

  5. A Simple Road for the Transformation of Few-Layer Graphene into MWNTs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Quintana, Mildred; Grzelczak, Marek; Spyrou, Konstantinos; Calvaresi, Matteo; Bals, Sara; Kooi, Bart; Van Tendeloo, Gustaaf; Rudolf, Petra; Zerbetto, Francesco; Prato, Maurizio

    2012-01-01

    We report the direct formation of multiwalled carbon nanotubes (MWNT) by ultrasonication of graphite in dimethylformamide (DMF) upon addition of ferrocene aldehyde (Fc-CHO). The tubular structures appear exclusively at the edges of graphene layers and contain Fe clusters. Pc in conjunction with

  6. Thinning and functionalization of few-layer graphene sheets by CF4 plasma treatment

    KAUST Repository

    Shen, Chao; Cao, Ronggen; Cheng, Yingchun; Ding, Fei; Huang, Gaoshan; Mei, Yongfeng; Schwingenschlö gl, Udo

    2012-01-01

    of the graphene lattice as well as functionalization during the plasma treatment. The F/CF3 adsorption and the lattice distortion produced are proved by theoretical simulation using density functional theory, which also predicts p-type doping and Dirac cone

  7. Facile Doping and Work-Function Modification of Few-Layer Graphene Using Molecular Oxidants and Reductants

    KAUST Repository

    Mansour, Ahmed; Said, Marcel M.; Dey, Sukumar; Hu, Hanlin; Zhang, Siyuan; Munir, Rahim; Zhang, Yadong; Moudgil, Karttikay; Barlow, Stephen; Marder, Seth R.; Amassian, Aram

    2017-01-01

    Doping of graphene is a viable route toward enhancing its electrical conductivity and modulating its work function for a wide range of technological applications. In this work, the authors demonstrate facile, solution-based, noncovalent surface doping of few-layer graphene (FLG) using a series of molecular metal-organic and organic species of varying n- and p-type doping strengths. In doing so, the authors tune the electronic, optical, and transport properties of FLG. The authors modulate the work function of graphene over a range of 2.4 eV (from 2.9 to 5.3 eV)-unprecedented for solution-based doping-via surface electron transfer. A substantial improvement of the conductivity of FLG is attributed to increasing carrier density, slightly offset by a minor reduction of mobility via Coulomb scattering. The mobility of single layer graphene has been reported to decrease significantly more via similar surface doping than FLG, which has the ability to screen buried layers. The dopant dosage influences the properties of FLG and reveals an optimal window of dopant coverage for the best transport properties, wherein dopant molecules aggregate into small and isolated clusters on the surface of FLG. This study shows how soluble molecular dopants can easily and effectively tune the work function and improve the optoelectronic properties of graphene.

  8. Facile Doping and Work-Function Modification of Few-Layer Graphene Using Molecular Oxidants and Reductants

    KAUST Repository

    Mansour, Ahmed

    2017-01-03

    Doping of graphene is a viable route toward enhancing its electrical conductivity and modulating its work function for a wide range of technological applications. In this work, the authors demonstrate facile, solution-based, noncovalent surface doping of few-layer graphene (FLG) using a series of molecular metal-organic and organic species of varying n- and p-type doping strengths. In doing so, the authors tune the electronic, optical, and transport properties of FLG. The authors modulate the work function of graphene over a range of 2.4 eV (from 2.9 to 5.3 eV)-unprecedented for solution-based doping-via surface electron transfer. A substantial improvement of the conductivity of FLG is attributed to increasing carrier density, slightly offset by a minor reduction of mobility via Coulomb scattering. The mobility of single layer graphene has been reported to decrease significantly more via similar surface doping than FLG, which has the ability to screen buried layers. The dopant dosage influences the properties of FLG and reveals an optimal window of dopant coverage for the best transport properties, wherein dopant molecules aggregate into small and isolated clusters on the surface of FLG. This study shows how soluble molecular dopants can easily and effectively tune the work function and improve the optoelectronic properties of graphene.

  9. Towards Lego Snapping; Integration of Carbon Nanotubes and Few-Layer Graphene

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nasseri, Mohsen; Boland, Mathias; Farrokhi, M. Javad; Strachan, Douglas

    Integration of semiconducting, conducting, and insulating nanomaterials into precisely aligned complicated systems is one of the main challenges to the ultimate size scaling of electronic devices, which is a key goal in nanoscience and nanotechnology. This integration could be made more effective through controlled alignment of the crystallographic lattices of the nanoscale components. Of the vast number of materials of atomically-thin materials, two of the sp2 bonded carbon structures, graphene and carbon nanotubes, are ideal candidates for this type of application since they are built from the same backbone carbon lattice. Here we report carbon nanotube and graphene hybrid nanostructures fabricated through their catalytic synthesis and etching. The growth formations we have investigated through various high-resolution microscopy techniques provide evidence of lego-snapped interfaces between nanotubes and graphene into device-relevant orientations. We will finish with a discussion of the various size and energy regimes relevant to these lego-snapped interfaces and their implications on developing these integrated formations.

  10. Room temperature LPG resistive sensor based on the use of a few-layer graphene/SnO2 nanocomposite.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goutham, Solleti; Bykkam, Satish; Sadasivuni, Kishor Kumar; Kumar, Devarai Santhosh; Ahmadipour, Mohsen; Ahmad, Zainal Arifin; Rao, Kalagadda Venkateswara

    2017-12-20

    A nanocomposite consisting of a few layers of graphene (FLG) and tin dioxide (SnO 2 ) was prepared by ultrasound-assisted synthesis. The uniform SnO 2 nanoparticles (NPs) on the FLG were characterized by X-ray diffraction in terms of lattice and phase structure. The functional groups present in the composite were analyzed by FTIR. Electron microscopy (HR-TEM and FE-SEM) was used to study the morphology. The effect of the fraction of FLG present in the nanocomposite was investigated. Sensitivity, selectivity and reproducibility towards resistive sensing of liquid propane gas (LPG) was characterized by the I-V method. The sensor with 1% of FLG on SnO 2 operated at a typical voltage of 1 V performs best in giving a rapid and sensitive response even at 27 °C. This proves that the operating temperature of such sensors can be drastically decreased which is in contrast to conventional metal oxide LPG sensors. Graphical abstract Schematic of a room temperature gas sensor for liquefied petroleum gas (LPG). It is based on the use of a few-layered graphene (1 wt%)/SnO 2 nanocomposite that was deposited on an interdigitated electrode (IDEs). A sensing mechanism for LPG detection has been established.

  11. Facile and Scalable Synthesis Method for High-Quality Few-Layer Graphene through Solution-Based Exfoliation of Graphite.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wee, Boon-Hong; Wu, Tong-Fei; Hong, Jong-Dal

    2017-02-08

    Here we describe a facile and scalable method for preparing defect-free graphene sheets exfoliated from graphite using the positively charged polyelectrolyte precursor poly(p-phenylenevinylene) (PPV-pre) as a stabilizer in an aqueous solution. The graphene exfoliated by PPV-pre was apparently stabilized in the solution as a form of graphene/PPV-pre (denoted to GPPV-pre), which remains in a homogeneous dispersion over a year. The thickness values of 300 selected 76% GPPV-pre flakes ranged from 1 to 10 nm, corresponding to between one and a few layers of graphene in the lateral dimensions of 1 to 2 μm. Furthermore, this approach was expected to yield a marked decrease in the density of defects in the electronic conjugation of graphene compared to that of graphene oxide (GO) obtained by Hummers' method. The positively charged GPPV-pre was employed to fabricate a poly(ethylene terephthalate) (PET) electrode layer-by-layer with negatively charged GO, yielding (GPPV-pre/GO) n film electrode. The PPV-pre and GO in the (GPPV-pre/GO) n films were simultaneously converted using hydroiodic acid vapor to fully conjugated PPV and reduced graphene oxide (RGO), respectively. The electrical conductivity of (GPPV/RGO) 23 multilayer films was 483 S/cm, about three times greater than that of the (PPV/RGO) 23 multilayer films (166 S/cm) comprising RGO (prepared by Hummers method). Furthermore, the superior electrical properties of GPPV were made evident, when comparing the capacitive performances of two supercapacitor systems; (polyaniline PANi/RGO) 30 /(GPPV/RGO) 23 /PET (volumetric capacitance = 216 F/cm 3 ; energy density = 19 mWh/cm 3 ; maximum power density = 498 W/cm 3 ) and (PANi/RGO) 30 /(PPV/RGO) 23 /PET (152 F/cm 3 ; 9 mWh/cm 3 ; 80 W/cm 3 ).

  12. Observation of spin-glass behavior in nickel adsorbed few layer graphene

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mitra, Sreemanta [MLS Professor of Physics' Unit, Indian Association for the Cultivation of Science, Kolkata-700032 (India); Department of Physics, University of Calcutta, Kolkata-700009 (India); Mondal, Oindrila [Department of Physics, M.U.C. Woman' s College, Burdwan (India); Banerjee, Sourish [Department of Physics, University of Calcutta, Kolkata-700009 (India); Chakravorty, Dipankar [MLS Professor of Physics' Unit, Indian Association for the Cultivation of Science, Kolkata-700032 (India)

    2013-01-14

    Nickel-adsorbed graphene was prepared by first synthesizing graphite oxide (GO) by modified Hummers' method and then reducing a solution containing both GO and Ni{sup 2+}. Energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy analysis showed 31 at. % nickel was present. Magnetization measurements under both dc and ac magnetic fields were carried out in the temperature range 2 K to 300 K. The zero field cooled and field cooled magnetization data showed a pronounced irreversibility at a temperature around 20 K. The analysis of the ac susceptibility data was carried out by both Vogel-Fulcher as well as power law. From dynamic scaling analysis, the microscopic flipping time {tau}{sub 0}{approx}10{sup -13}s and critical exponent z{nu}=5.9{+-}0.1 were found, indicating the presence of conventional spin glass in the system. The spin glass transition temperature was estimated as 19.5 K. Decay of thermoremanent magnetization was explained by stretched exponential function with a value of the exponent as 0.6. From the results, it is concluded that nickel adsorbed graphene behaves like a spin-glass.

  13. Observation of spin-glass behavior in nickel adsorbed few layer graphene

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mitra, Sreemanta; Mondal, Oindrila; Banerjee, Sourish; Chakravorty, Dipankar

    2013-01-01

    Nickel-adsorbed graphene was prepared by first synthesizing graphite oxide (GO) by modified Hummers' method and then reducing a solution containing both GO and Ni 2+ . Energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy analysis showed 31 at. % nickel was present. Magnetization measurements under both dc and ac magnetic fields were carried out in the temperature range 2 K to 300 K. The zero field cooled and field cooled magnetization data showed a pronounced irreversibility at a temperature around 20 K. The analysis of the ac susceptibility data was carried out by both Vogel-Fulcher as well as power law. From dynamic scaling analysis, the microscopic flipping time τ 0 ∼10 −13 s and critical exponent zν=5.9±0.1 were found, indicating the presence of conventional spin glass in the system. The spin glass transition temperature was estimated as 19.5 K. Decay of thermoremanent magnetization was explained by stretched exponential function with a value of the exponent as 0.6. From the results, it is concluded that nickel adsorbed graphene behaves like a spin-glass.

  14. Synthesis and Characterization of Mass Produced High Quality Few Layered Graphene Sheets via a Chemical Method

    KAUST Repository

    Khenfouch, Mohammed

    2014-04-01

    Graphene is a two-dimensional crystal of carbon atoms arranged in a honeycomb lattice. It is a zero band gap semimetal with very unique physical and chemical properties which make it useful for many applications such as ultra-high-speed field-effect transistors, p-n junction diodes, terahertz oscillators, and low-noise electronic, NEMS and sensors. When the high quality mass production of this nanomaterial is still a big challenge, we developed a process which will be an important step to achieve this goal. Atomic Force Microscopy, Scanning Electron Microscopy, Scanning tunneling microscopy, High Resolution Transmission Electron Microscopy, X-Ray Diffraction, Raman spectroscopy, Energy Dispersive X-ray system were investigated to characterize and examine the quality of this product.

  15. Nanoscale measurements of unoccupied band dispersion in few-layer graphene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jobst, Johannes; Kautz, Jaap; Geelen, Daniël; Tromp, Rudolf M; van der Molen, Sense Jan

    2015-11-26

    The properties of any material are fundamentally determined by its electronic band structure. Each band represents a series of allowed states inside a material, relating electron energy and momentum. The occupied bands, that is, the filled electron states below the Fermi level, can be routinely measured. However, it is remarkably difficult to characterize the empty part of the band structure experimentally. Here, we present direct measurements of unoccupied bands of monolayer, bilayer and trilayer graphene. To obtain these, we introduce a technique based on low-energy electron microscopy. It relies on the dependence of the electron reflectivity on incidence angle and energy and has a spatial resolution ∼10 nm. The method can be easily applied to other nanomaterials such as van der Waals structures that are available in small crystals only.

  16. Schottky diode model for non-parabolic dispersion in narrow-gap semiconductor and few-layer graphene

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ang, Yee Sin; Ang, L. K.; Zubair, M.

    Despite the fact that the energy dispersions are highly non-parabolic in many Schottky interfaces made up of 2D material, experimental results are often interpreted using the conventional Schottky diode equation which, contradictorily, assumes a parabolic energy dispersion. In this work, the Schottky diode equation is derived for narrow-gap semiconductor and few-layer graphene where the energy dispersions are highly non-parabolic. Based on Kane's non-parabolic band model, we obtained a more general Kane-Schottky scaling relation of J (T2 + γkBT3) which connects the contrasting J T2 in the conventional Schottky interface and the J T3 scaling in graphene-based Schottky interface via a non-parabolicity parameter, γ. For N-layer graphene of ABC -stacking and of ABA -stacking, the scaling relation follows J T 2 / N + 1 and J T3 respectively. Intriguingly, the Richardson constant extracted from the experimental data using an incorrect scaling can differ with the actual value by more than two orders of magnitude. Our results highlights the importance of using the correct scaling relation in order to accurately extract important physical properties, such as the Richardson constant and the Schottky barrier's height.

  17. Synthesis of few-layer graphene on a Ni substrate by using DC plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition (PE-CVD)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Jeong Hyuk; Castro, Edward Joseph; Hwang, Yong Gyoo; Lee, Choong Hun

    2011-01-01

    In this work, few-layer graphene (FLG) was successfully grown on polycrystalline Ni a large scale by using DC plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition (DC PE-CVD), which may serve as an alternative route in large-scale graphene synthesis. The synthesis time had an effect on the quality of the graphene produced. The applied DC voltage, on the other hand, influenced the minimization of the defect densities in the graphene grown. We also present a method of producing a free-standing polymethyl methacrylate (PMMA)/graphene membrane on a FeCl 3(aq) solution, which could then be transferred to the desired substrate.

  18. Local solid phase growth of few-layer graphene on silicon carbide from nickel silicide supersaturated with carbon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Escobedo-Cousin, Enrique; Vassilevski, Konstantin; Hopf, Toby; Wright, Nick; O'Neill, Anthony; Horsfall, Alton; Goss, Jonathan; Cumpson, Peter

    2013-01-01

    Patterned few-layer graphene (FLG) films were obtained by local solid phase growth from nickel silicide supersaturated with carbon, following a fabrication scheme, which allows the formation of self-aligned ohmic contacts on FLG and is compatible with conventional SiC device processing methods. The process was realised by the deposition and patterning of thin Ni films on semi-insulating 6H-SiC wafers followed by annealing and the selective removal of the resulting nickel silicide by wet chemistry. Raman spectroscopy and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) were used to confirm both the formation and subsequent removal of nickel silicide. The impact of process parameters such as the thickness of the initial Ni layer, annealing temperature, and cooling rates on the FLG films was assessed by Raman spectroscopy, XPS, and atomic force microscopy. The thickness of the final FLG film estimated from the Raman spectra varied from 1 to 4 monolayers for initial Ni layers between 3 and 20 nm thick. Self-aligned contacts were formed on these patterned films by contact photolithography and wet etching of nickel silicide, which enabled the fabrication of test structures to measure the carrier concentration and mobility in the FLG films. A simple model of diffusion-driven solid phase chemical reaction was used to explain formation of the FLG film at the interface between nickel silicide and silicon carbide.

  19. Unzipping of multi-wall carbon nanotubes with different diameter distributions: Effect on few-layer graphene oxide obtention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torres, D.; Pinilla, J. L.; Suelves, I.

    2017-12-01

    Few-layer graphene oxide (FLGO) was obtained by chemical unzipping of multi-wall carbon nanotubes (MWCNT) of different diameter distributions. MWCNT were synthesized by catalytic decomposition of methane using Fe-Mo/MgO catalysts. The variation in the Fe/Mo ratio (1, 2 and 5) was very influential in MWCNT diameter distribution and type of MWCNT obtained, including textural, chemical, structural and morphological characteristics. MWCNT diameter distribution and surface defects content had a profound impact on the characteristics of the resulting FLGO. Thus, MWCNT obtained with the catalyst with a Fe/Mo: 5 and presenting a narrow diameter distribution centered at 8.6 ± 3.3 nm led to FLGO maintaining non-oxidized graphite stacking (according to XRD analysis), lower specific surface area and higher thermostability as compared to FLGO obtained from MWCNT showing wider diameter distributions. The presence of more oxygen-containing functionalities and structural defects in large diameter nanotubes promotes the intercalation of species towards the inner layers of the nanotube, resulting in an enhanced MWCNT oxidation and opening into FLGO, what improves both micro- and mesoporosity.

  20. Vanadium Oxyfluoride/Few-Layer Graphene Composite as a High-Performance Cathode Material for Lithium Batteries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cambaz, Musa Ali; Vinayan, B P; Clemens, Oliver; Munnangi, Anji Reddy; Chakravadhanula, Venkata Sai Kiran; Kübel, Christian; Fichtner, Maximilian

    2016-04-18

    Metal oxyfluoride compounds are gathering significant interest as cathode materials for lithium ion batteries at the moment because of their high theoretical capacity and resulting high energy density. In this regard, a new and direct approach is presented to synthesize phase-pure vanadium oxyfluoride (VO2F). The structure of VO2F was identified by Rietveld refinement of the powder X-ray diffraction (XRD) pattern. It crystallizes in a perovskite-type structure with disorder of the oxide and fluoride ions. The as-synthesized VO2F was tested as a cathode material for lithium ion batteries after being surface-coated with few-layer graphene. The VO2F delivered a first discharge capacity of 254 mA h g(-1) and a reversible capacity of 208 mA h g(-1) at a rate of C/20 for the first 20 cycles with an average discharge voltage of 2.84 V, yielding an energy density of 591 W h kg(-1). Improved rate capability that outperforms the previous report has been achieved, showing a discharge capacity of 150 mA h g(-1) for 1 C. The structural changes during lithium insertion and extraction were monitored by ex-situ XRD analysis of the electrodes discharged and charged to various stages. Lithium insertion results in an irreversible structural change of the anion lattice from (3)/4 cubic close packing to hexagonal close packing to accommodate the inserted lithium ions while keeping the overall space-group symmetry. For the first time we have revealed a structural change for the ReO3-type structure of as-prepared VO2F to the RhF3 structure after lithiation/delithiation, with structural changes that have not been observed in previous reports. Furthermore, the new synthetic approach described here would be a platform for the synthesis of new oxyfluoride compounds.

  1. Manipulation of Dirac cones in metal-intercalated epitaxial graphene

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Cai-Zhuang; Kim, Minsung; Tringides, Michael; Ho, Kai-Ming

    Graphene is one of the most attractive materials from both fundamental and practical points of view due to its characteristic Dirac cones. The electronic property of graphene can be modified through the interaction with substrate or another graphene layer as illustrated in few-layer epitaxial graphene. Recently, metal intercalation became an effective method to manipulate the electronic structure of graphene by modifying the coupling between the constituent layers. In this work, we show that the Dirac cones of epitaxial graphene can be manipulated by intercalating rare-earth metals. We demonstrate that rare-earth metal intercalated epitaxial graphene has tunable band structures and the energy levels of Dirac cones as well as the linear or quadratic band dispersion can be controlled depending on the location of the intercalation layer and density. Our results could be important for applications and characterizations of the intercalated epitaxial graphene. Supported by the U.S. DOE-BES under Contract No. DE-AC02-07CH11358.

  2. Hybrid nanomaterial of α-Co(OH)2 nanosheets and few-layer graphene as an enhanced electrode material for supercapacitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, J P; Liu, L; Ma, K Y; Wang, X; Li, Q Q; Wu, J S; Liu, F

    2017-01-15

    Supercapacitor with metal hydroxide nanosheets as electrode can have high capacitance. However, the cycling stability and high rate capacity is low due to the low electrical conductivity. Here, the exfoliated α-Co(OH) 2 nanosheets with high capacitance has been assembled on few-layer graphene with high electric conductivity by a facile yet effective and scalable solution method. Exfoliated hydrotalcite-like α-Co(OH) 2 nanosheets and few-layer graphene suspensions were prepared by a simple ultrasonication in formamide and N-methyl-2-pyrrolidone, respectively. Subsequently, a hybrid was made by self-assembly of α-Co(OH) 2 and few-layer graphene when the two dispersions were mixed at room temperature. The hybrid material provided a high specific capacitance of 567.1F/g at 1A/g, while a better rate capability and better stability were achieved compared to that mad of pristine and single exfoliated α-Co(OH) 2 . When the hybrid nanocomposite was used as a positive electrode and activated carbon was applied as negative electrode to assembly an asymmetric capacitor, an energy density of 21.2Wh/kg at a power density of 0.41kW/kg within a potential of 1.65V was delivered. The high electrochemical performance and facile solution-based synthesis method suggested that the hybrid of exfoliated α-Co(OH) 2 /few-layer graphene could be a potential electrode material for electrochemical capacitor. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Plasmon-enhanced scattering and charge transfer in few-layer graphene interacting with buried printed 2D-pattern of silver nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carles, R.; Bayle, M.; Bonafos, C.

    2018-04-01

    Hybrid structures combing silver nanoparticles and few-layer graphene have been synthetized by combining low-energy ion beam synthesis and stencil techniques. A single plane of metallic nanoparticles plays the role of an embedded plasmonic enhancer located in dedicated areas at a controlled nanometer distance from deposited graphene layers. Optical imaging, reflectance and Raman scattering mapping are used to measure the enhancement of electronic and vibrational properties of these layers. In particular electronic Raman scattering is shown as notably efficient to analyze the optical transfer of charge carriers between the systems and the presence of intrinsic and extrinsic defects.

  4. Van der Waals stacks of few-layer h-AlN with graphene: an ab initio study of structural, interaction and electronic properties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dos Santos, Renato B; Mota, F de Brito; Rivelino, R; Kakanakova-Georgieva, A; Gueorguiev, G K

    2016-01-01

    Graphite-like hexagonal AlN (h-AlN) multilayers have been experimentally manifested and theoretically modeled. The development of any functional electronics applications of h-AlN would most certainly require its integration with other layered materials, particularly graphene. Here, by employing vdW-corrected density functional theory calculations, we investigate structure, interaction energy, and electronic properties of van der Waals stacking sequences of few-layer h-AlN with graphene. We find that the presence of a template such as graphene induces enough interlayer charge separation in h-AlN, favoring a graphite-like stacking formation. We also find that the interface dipole, calculated per unit cell of the stacks, tends to increase with the number of stacked layers of h-AlN and graphene. (paper)

  5. Few layer graphene wrapped mixed phase TiO2 nanofiber as a potential electrode material for high performance supercapacitor applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thirugnanam, Lavanya; Sundara, Ramaprabhu

    2018-06-01

    A combination of favorable composition and optimized anatase/rutile mixed-phase TiO2 (MPTNF)/Hydrogen exfoliated graphene (HEG) composite nanofibers (MPTNF/HEG) and anatase/rutile mixed-phase TiO2/reduced graphene oxide (rGO) composite nanofibers (MPTNF/rGO) have been reported to enhance the electrochemical properties for supercapacitor applications. These composite nanofibers have been synthesized by an efficient route of electrospinning together with the help of easy chemical methods. Both the composites exhibit good charge storage capability with enhanced pseudocapacitance and electric double-layer capacitance (EDLC) as confirmed by cyclic voltammetry studies. MPTNF/HEG composite showed maximum specific capacitance of 210.5 F/g at the current density of 1 A/g, which was mainly due to its availability of the more active sites for ions adsorption on a few layers of graphene wrapped TiO2 nanofiber surface. The synergistic effect of anatase/rutile mixed phase with one dimensional nanostructure and the electronic interaction between TiO2 and few layer graphene provided the subsequent improvement of ion adsorption capacity. Also exhibit excellent electrochemical performance to improve the capacitive properties of TiO2 electrode materials which is required for the development of flexible electrodes in energy storage devices and open up new opportunities for high performance supercapacitors.

  6. 3D-copper oxide and copper oxide/few-layer graphene with screen printed nanosheet assembly for ultrasensitive non-enzymatic glucose sensing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Zhimei [Tianjin Key Laboratory of Film Electronic and Communicate Devices, School of Electronics Information Engineering, Tianjin University of Technology, Tianjin, 300384 (China); Advanced Materials and Printed Electronics Center, School of Electronics Information Engineering, Tianjin University of Technology, Tianjin, 300384 (China); Pan, Peng, E-mail: panpeny@163.com [Tianjin Key Laboratory of Film Electronic and Communicate Devices, School of Electronics Information Engineering, Tianjin University of Technology, Tianjin, 300384 (China); Advanced Materials and Printed Electronics Center, School of Electronics Information Engineering, Tianjin University of Technology, Tianjin, 300384 (China); Liu, Xuewen [Tianjin Key Laboratory of Film Electronic and Communicate Devices, School of Electronics Information Engineering, Tianjin University of Technology, Tianjin, 300384 (China); Advanced Materials and Printed Electronics Center, School of Electronics Information Engineering, Tianjin University of Technology, Tianjin, 300384 (China); Yang, Zhengchun; Wei, Jun [Advanced Materials and Printed Electronics Center, School of Electronics Information Engineering, Tianjin University of Technology, Tianjin, 300384 (China); Wei, Zhen, E-mail: weizhenxinxi@163.com [Tianjin Key Laboratory of Film Electronic and Communicate Devices, School of Electronics Information Engineering, Tianjin University of Technology, Tianjin, 300384 (China); Advanced Materials and Printed Electronics Center, School of Electronics Information Engineering, Tianjin University of Technology, Tianjin, 300384 (China)

    2017-02-01

    Screen-printed copper oxide (CuO) and CuO/few-layer graphene on graphite electrodes were used to fabricate the ultrasensitive nonenzymatic glucose biosensors. Flower-like CuO and flower-like CuO/few-layer graphene composites were prepared by screen-printing method and characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), field-emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM), and high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HETEM). On the basis of their cyclic voltammetry (CV) and chronoamperometry results, it was concluded that the addition of graphene to CuO significantly improved the performance of the fabricated glucose sensors, exhibiting high and reproducible sensitivity of 3120 μAmM{sup −1} cm{sup −2} with three linear ranges from 4 μM to 13.5 mM and the detection limit of 4 μM (S/N = 3) in a fast response time of 2 s. In addition, the fabricated sensors could effectively avoid the disturbance by interferents, such as Ascorbic Acid (AA), Uric Acid (UA), and Dopamine (DA). Most importantly, the testing results of real blood serum samples demonstrated that the electrodes were applicable and acceptable for the determination of glucose concentrations in human serum. The efficiencies of two non-enzymatic glucose biosensors for glucose determination were comparable with that of a commercial enzymatic sensor. - Highlights: • The method 2D nanosheet turns to 3D microflower by using screen printing was proposed. • Few-layer graphene added improved the sensor’s performance on base of CuO functional material. • Two ultrasensitive non-enzymatic glucose sensors were successfully fabricated. • The proposed sensor shows a high sensitivity of 3120 μA mM{sup −1} cm{sup −2}.

  7. Few-layer MoS2-anchored graphene aerogel paper for free-standing electrode materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Wee Siang Vincent; Peng, Erwin; Loh, Tamie Ai Jia; Huang, Xiaolei; Xue, Jun Min

    2016-04-21

    To reduce the reliance on polymeric binders, conductive additives, and metallic current collectors during the electrode preparation process, as well as to assess the true performance of lithium ion battery (LIB) anodes, a free-standing electrode has to be meticulously designed. Graphene aerogel is a popular scaffolding material that has been widely used with embedded nanoparticles for application in LIB anodes. However, the current graphene aerogel/nanoparticle composite systems still involve decomposition into powder and the addition of additives during electrode preparation because of the thick aerogel structure. To further enhance the capacity of the system, MoS2 was anchored onto a graphene aerogel paper and the composite was used directly as an LIB anode. The resultant additive-free MoS2/graphene aerogel paper composite exhibited long cyclic performance with 101.1% retention after 700 cycles, which demonstrates the importance of free-standing electrodes in enhancing cyclic stability.

  8. Saturated evanescent-wave absorption of few-layer graphene-covered side-polished single-mode fiber for all-optical switching

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Kaung-Jay; Wu, Chun-Lung; Lin, Yung-Hsiang; Wang, Hwai-Yung; Cheng, Chih-Hsien; Chi, Yu-Chieh; Lin, Gong-Ru

    2018-01-01

    Using the evanescent-wave saturation effect of hydrogen-free low-temperature synthesized few-layer graphene covered on the cladding region of a side-polished single-mode fiber, a blue pump/infrared probe-based all-optical switch is demonstrated with specific wavelength-dependent probe modulation efficiency. Under the illumination of a blue laser diode at 405 nm, the few-layer graphene exhibits cross-gain modulation at different wavelengths covering the C- and L-bands. At a probe power of 0.5 mW, the L-band switching throughput power variant of 16 μW results in a probe modulation depth of 3.2%. Blue shifting the probe wavelength from 1580 to 1520 nm further enlarges the switching throughput power variant to 24 mW and enhances the probe modulation depth to 5%. Enlarging the probe power from 0.5 to 1 mW further enlarges the switching throughput power variant from 25 to 58 μW to promote its probe modulation depth of up to 5.8% at 1520 nm. In contrast, the probe modulation depth degrades from 5.1% to 1.2% as the pumping power reduces from 85 to 24 mW, which is attributed to the saturable absorption of the few-layer graphene-based evanescent-wave absorber. The modulation depth at wavelength of 1550 nm under a probe power of 1 mW increases from 1.2% to 5.1%, as more carriers can be excited when increasing the blue laser power from 24 to 85 mW, whereas it decreases from 5.1% to 3.3% by increasing the input probe power from 1 to 2 mW to show an easier saturated condition at longer wavelength.

  9. Epitaxial graphene electronic structure and transport

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    De Heer, Walt A; Berger, Claire; Wu Xiaosong; Sprinkle, Mike; Hu Yike; Ruan Ming; First, Phillip N; Stroscio, Joseph A; Haddon, Robert; Piot, Benjamin; Faugeras, Clement; Potemski, Marek; Moon, Jeong-Sun

    2010-01-01

    Since its inception in 2001, the science and technology of epitaxial graphene on hexagonal silicon carbide has matured into a major international effort and is poised to become the first carbon electronics platform. A historical perspective is presented and the unique electronic properties of single and multilayered epitaxial graphenes on electronics grade silicon carbide are reviewed. Early results on transport and the field effect in Si-face grown graphene monolayers provided proof-of-principle demonstrations. Besides monolayer epitaxial graphene, attention is given to C-face grown multilayer graphene, which consists of electronically decoupled graphene sheets. Production, structure and electronic structure are reviewed. The electronic properties, interrogated using a wide variety of surface, electrical and optical probes, are discussed. An overview is given of recent developments of several device prototypes including resistance standards based on epitaxial graphene quantum Hall devices and new ultrahigh frequency analogue epitaxial graphene amplifiers.

  10. One-Minute Room-Temperature Transfer-Free Production of Mono- and Few-Layer Polycrystalline Graphene on Various Substrates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Shenglin; Zeng, Yike; Zhou, Wenli; Miao, Xiangshui; Yu, Yan

    2016-01-14

    Graphene deposited on various substrates has attracted the attention of the scientific and technical communities for use in a wide range of applications. Graphene on substrates is commonly produced by two types of methods, namely, methods that require a transfer step and transfer-free methods. Compared with methods that require a transfer step, transfer-free methods have a simpler procedure and a lower cost. Thus, transfer-free methods have considerable potential to meet the industrial and commercial demands of production methods. However, some limitations of the current transfer-free methods must be overcome, such as the high temperatures encountered during production, the relatively long manufacturing times, incompatibilities for both rigid and flexible substrates, and an inability to extend the process to other two-dimensional (2-D) atomic crystals. In this work, a room-temperature rubbing method is developed for the rapid transfer-free production of defect-free polycrystalline graphene on rigid and flexible substrates. Starting with inexpensive commercially obtained graphite powder, mono- and few-layer graphene can be fabricated directly on various substrates, with an average production time of less than one minute (from raw graphite to graphene on the substrate). Importantly, this method can be extended to other 2-D atomic crystals.

  11. Few-layer and symmetry-breaking effects on the electrical properties of ordered CF3Cl phases on graphene

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morales-Cifuentes, Josue; Wang, Yilin; Reutt-Robey, Janice; Einstein, T. L.

    2014-03-01

    An effective pseudopotential mechanism for breaking the inherent sub-lattice symmetry of graphene has been studied using DFT calculations on hexagonal boron nitride. Electrical detection of CF3Cl phase transitions on graphene shows the existence of a commensurate ordered phase in which this can be tested. We study the electronic properties of this phase using VASP ver 5.3.3, with ab initio van der Waals density functionals (vdW-DF1 and vdW-DF2). Consistent with a physisorbed phase, binding energies and charge transfer per CF3Cl molecule are calculated to be on the order of 280meV and 0.01e, respectively. By exploring different coverages and orientations of this ordered phase we are able to open a band gap in some configurations; said gap is in the range of 8 to 80meV depending on the strength of the effective pseudopotential. Furthermore, we calculate the screening of these effects in bi-layer and tri-layer graphene. Work supported by NSF-MRSEC at UMD, grant DMR 05-20471 and NSF-CHE 13-05892.

  12. Pressure-dependent synthesis of high-quality few-layer graphene by plasma-enhanced arc discharge and their thermal stability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kumar, Rajesh; Singh, Rajesh Kumar; Dubey, Pawan Kumar; Kumar, Pradip; Tiwari, Radhey Shyam; Oh, Il-Kwon

    2013-01-01

    In this article, a simple and cost-effective method to produce high-quality few-layer graphene (FLG) sheets (∼4 layers) have been achieved by the direct current arc discharge under argon atmosphere, using pure graphite rods as the electrodes. Ar was used as a buffer gas with pure graphite rods as anode and cathode electrodes. We explored the suitable conditions for producing FLG by changing the Ar gas pressure inside the arcing chamber. This method has several advantages over the previous methods to produce graphene for research applications. No toxic and hazardous intercalant was used for producing FLG in this process. The optimum Ar pressure was 500 Torr, for producing minimum number of FLG and this also shows the good thermal stability. The FLG product so obtained has been characterized by X-ray diffraction, scanning and electron microscopy, Raman and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. Thermal stabilities of FLG were determined by thermal gravimetric analysis

  13. Epitaxial-graphene/graphene-oxide junction: an essential step towards epitaxial graphene electronics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Xiaosong; Sprinkle, Mike; Li, Xuebin; Ming, Fan; Berger, Claire; de Heer, Walt A

    2008-07-11

    Graphene-oxide (GO) flakes have been deposited to bridge the gap between two epitaxial-graphene electrodes to produce all-graphene devices. Electrical measurements indicate the presence of Schottky barriers at the graphene/graphene-oxide junctions, as a consequence of the band gap in GO. The barrier height is found to be about 0.7 eV, and is reduced after annealing at 180 degrees C, implying that the gap can be tuned by changing the degree of oxidation. A lower limit of the GO mobility was found to be 850 cm2/V s, rivaling silicon. In situ local oxidation of patterned epitaxial graphene has been achieved.

  14. Facile and large-scale synthesis of high quality few-layered graphene nano-platelets via methane decomposition over unsupported iron family catalysts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Awadallah, Ahmed E., E-mail: ahmedelsayed_epri@yahoo.com [Process Development Division, Egyptian Petroleum Research Institute, 11727 Cairo (Egypt); Aboul-Enein, Ateyya A. [Process Development Division, Egyptian Petroleum Research Institute, 11727 Cairo (Egypt); Kandil, Usama F. [Petroleum Application Department, Egyptian Petroleum Research Institute, 11727 Cairo (Egypt); Taha, Mahmoud Reda [Department of Civil Engineering, University of New Mexico, Albuquerque, NM 87131 (United States)

    2017-04-15

    High quality few-layered graphene nano-platelets (GNPs) were successfully prepared via catalytic chemical vapor deposition of methane under ambient pressure using substrate-free unsupported iron, cobalt, and nickel metallic sheets as catalysts. The bulk catalysts were prepared via combustion method using citric acid as a fuel. Various analytical techniques, including high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (TEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD), thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), temperature programmed reduction (TPR) and Raman spectroscopy were employed to characterize the fresh and reduced catalysts and to identify the morphological structure of the as-grown GNPs. TEM images of the reduced metal catalysts showed that polycrystalline metallic sheets were easily produced after complete reduction of unsupported metal oxides. The data demonstrated that the formation of zero-valent metallic sheets could effectively promote the growth of GNPs on their surfaces. The unsupported Ni catalyst exhibits higher catalytic growth activity in terms of GNPs yield (254 wt%) compared with all other catalysts. Raman spectra and TEM results established that a few layers of GNPs with high crystallinity and good graphitization were produced. TGA results further demonstrated that the as-grown GNPs exhibit significantly higher thermal stability in air atmosphere compared with other synthesis methods. - Highlights: • Few-layered graphene nanoplatelets were prepared via methane catalytic decomposition. • Metallic sheets of iron group metals were used as novel catalysts. • The surfaces of metallic sheets were found to be very effective for GNPs growth. • The number of layers is dependent on the morphological structure of the catalysts. • The unsupported metallic Ni catalyst exhibited higher catalytic growth activity.

  15. The novel synthesis of highly water-soluble few-layer graphene nanosheets by a simple one-pot chemical route and without any modification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tadjarodi, Azadeh, E-mail: tajarodi@iust.ac.ir; Ferdowsi, Somayeh Moazen

    2016-11-01

    In this study, a simple one-pot and scalable process including mild oxidation of graphite in mixture of H{sub 2}SO{sub 4}/KMnO{sub 4} at 60 °C was developed to synthesize water-soluble graphene. In this process, effects of the oxidant amount and reaction time on oxidation and exfoliation degree of graphite were explored. At this temperature, most oxygen-containing functional groups were introduced at the edges of graphite by preserving the pristine sp{sup 2}carbon-bonded structure. These functional groups were responsible for exfoliation of edge-functionalized graphite (EFG) sheets to edge-graphene oxide (EGO). Various techniques including atomic force microscopy (AFM), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), Raman and Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), X-ray diffraction pattern (XRD) and direct-current measurements proved that resulting EGO was formed from few-layer graphene nanosheets (GNS) with sub-2 nm thickness, low-defect sites in basal plane owing good solubility in water from pH 6 to 11 through electrostatic stabilization, as determined by zeta-potentiometry. This low-cost and high-efficiency solution processing techniques has enabled to produce aqueous graphene dispersions without need to use polymeric or surfactant stabilizers for many technological applications. - Highlights: • Water-soluble graphene was synthesized by a simple one-pot and scalable process. • This process did not utilize any reduction agents, stabilizer and ultrasonication. • The effects of oxidant amount and reaction time on process were explored.

  16. Spin transport in epitaxial graphene

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tbd, -

    2014-03-01

    Spintronics is a paradigm focusing on spin as the information vector in fast and ultra-low-power non volatile devices such as the new STT-MRAM. Beyond its widely distributed application in data storage it aims at providing more complex architectures and a powerful beyond CMOS solution for information processing. The recent discovery of graphene has opened novel exciting opportunities in terms of functionalities and performances for spintronics devices. We will present experimental results allowing us to assess the potential of graphene for spintronics. We will show that unprecedented highly efficient spin information transport can occur in epitaxial graphene leading to large spin signals and macroscopic spin diffusion lengths (~ 100 microns), a key enabler for the advent of envisioned beyond-CMOS spin-based logic architectures. We will also show that how the device behavior is well explained within the framework of the Valet-Fert drift-diffusion equations. Furthermore, we will show that a thin graphene passivation layer can prevent the oxidation of a ferromagnet, enabling its use in novel humide/ambient low-cost processes for spintronics devices, while keeping its highly surface sensitive spin current polarizer/analyzer behavior and adding new enhanced spin filtering property. These different experiments unveil promising uses of graphene for spintronics.

  17. Unusual surface and edge morphologies, sp2 to sp3 hybridized transformation and electronic damage after Ar+ ion irradiation of few-layer graphene surfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Harthi, Salim Hamood; Elzain, Mohammed; Al-Barwani, Muataz; Kora'a, Amal; Hysen, Thomas; Myint, Myo Tay Zar; Anantharaman, Maliemadom Ramaswamy

    2012-08-19

    Roughness and defects induced on few-layer graphene (FLG) irradiated by Ar+ ions at different energies were investigated using X-ray photoemission spectroscopy (XPS) and atomic force microscopy techniques. The results provide direct experimental evidence of ripple formation, sp2 to sp3 hybridized carbon transformation, electronic damage, Ar+ implantation, unusual defects and edge reconstructions in FLG, which depend on the irradiation energy. In addition, shadowing effects similar to those found in oblique-angle growth of thin films were seen. Reliable quantification of the transition from the sp2-bonding to sp3-hybridized state as a result of Ar+ ion irradiation is achieved from the deconvolution of the XPS C (1s) peak. Although the ion irradiation effect is demonstrated through the shape of the derivative of the Auger transition C KVV spectra, we show that the D parameter values obtained from these spectra which are normally used in the literature fail to account for the sp2 to sp3 hybridization transition. In contrast to what is known, it is revealed that using ion irradiation at large FLG sample tilt angles can lead to edge reconstructions. Furthermore, FLG irradiation by low energy of 0.25 keV can be a plausible way of peeling graphene layers without the need of Joule heating reported previously.

  18. Designing Two-Dimensional Dirac Heterointerfaces of Few-Layer Graphene and Tetradymite-Type Sb2Te3 for Thermoelectric Applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jang, Woosun; Lee, Jiwoo; In, Chihun; Choi, Hyunyong; Soon, Aloysius

    2017-12-06

    Despite the ubiquitous nature of the Peltier effect in low-dimensional thermoelectric devices, the influence of finite temperature on the electronic structure and transport in the Dirac heterointerfaces of the few-layer graphene and layered tetradymite, Sb 2 Te 3 (which coincidently have excellent thermoelectric properties) are not well understood. In this work, using the first-principles density-functional theory calculations, we investigate the detailed atomic and electronic structure of these Dirac heterointerfaces of graphene and Sb 2 Te 3 and further re-examine the effect of finite temperature on the electronic band structures using a phenomenological temperature-broadening model based on Fermi-Dirac statistics. We then proceed to understand the underlying charge redistribution process in this Dirac heterointerfaces and through solving the Boltzmann transport equation, we present the theoretical evidence of electron-hole asymmetry in its electrical conductivity as a consequence of this charge redistribution mechanism. We finally propose that the hexagonal-stacked Dirac heterointerfaces are useful as efficient p-n junction building blocks in the next-generation thermoelectric devices where the electron-hole asymmetry promotes the thermoelectric transport by "hot" excited charge carriers.

  19. A highly stable (SnOx-Sn)@few layered graphene composite anode of sodium-ion batteries synthesized by oxygen plasma assisted milling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Deliang; Liu, Jiangwen; Li, Xiang; Hu, Renzong; Zeng, Meiqing; Yang, Lichun; Zhu, Min

    2017-05-01

    The (SnOx-Sn)@few layered graphene ((SnOx-Sn)@FLG) composite has been synthesized by oxygen plasma-assisted milling. Owing to the synergistic effect of rapid plasma heating and ball mill grinding, SnOx (1 ≤ x ≤ 2) nanoparticles generated from the reaction of Sn with oxygen are tightly wrapped by FLG nanosheets which are simultaneously exfoliated from expanded graphite, forming secondary micro granules. Inside the granules, the small size of the SnOx nanoparticles enables the fast kinetics for Na+ transfer. The in-situ formed FLG and residual Sn nanoparticles improve the electrical conductivity of the composite, meanwhile alleviate the aggregation of SnOx nanoparticles and relieve the volume change during the cycling, which is beneficial for the cyclic stability for the Na+ storage. As an anode material for sodium-ion batteries, the (SnOx-Sn)@FLG composite exhibits a high reversible capacity of 448 mAh g-1 at a current density of 100 mA g-1 in the first cycle, with 82.6% capacity retention after 250 cycles. Even when the current density increases to 1000 mA g-1, this composite retains 316.5 mAh g-1 after 250 cycles. With superior Na+ storage stability, the (SnOx-Sn)@FLG composite can be a promising anode material for high performance sodium-ion batteries.

  20. Epitaxial Graphene: A New Material for Electronics

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Heer, Walt A.

    2007-10-01

    Graphene multilayers are grown epitaxially on single crystal silicon carbide. This system is composed of several graphene layers of which the first layer is electron doped due to the built-in electric field and the other layers are essentially undoped. Unlike graphite the charge carriers show Dirac particle properties (i.e. an anomalous Berry's phase, weak anti-localization and square root field dependence of the Landau level energies). Epitaxial graphene shows quasi-ballistic transport and long coherence lengths; properties that may persists above cryogenic temperatures. Paradoxically, in contrast to exfoliated graphene, the quantum Hall effect is not observed in high mobility epitaxial graphene. It appears that the effect is suppressed due to absence of localized states in the bulk of the material. Epitaxial graphene can be patterned using standard lithography methods and characterized using a wide array of techniques. These favorable features indicate that interconnected room temperature ballistic devices may be feasible for low dissipation high-speed nano-electronics.

  1. Energy loss and straggling of 1–50 keV H, He, C, N, and O ions passing through few layer graphene

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Allegrini, Frédéric; Bedworth, Peter; Ebert, Robert W.; Fuselier, Stephen A.; Nicolaou, Georgios; Sinton, Steve

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Evaluation of graphene foils for space plasma instruments. • Energy loss and straggling of keV ions passing through graphene foils. • Lower energy loss than for ultra-thin carbon foils. • Thickness non-uniformity leads to higher straggling. - Abstract: Graphene could be an alternative to amorphous carbon foils, in particular in space plasma instrumentation. The interaction of ions or neutral atoms with these foils results in different effects: electron emission, charge exchange, angular scattering, and energy straggling. We showed in previous studies that (1) the charge exchange properties are similar for graphene and regular carbon foils, and (2) the scattering at low energies (few keVs) is less for graphene than for one of our thinnest practical carbon foils. In this study, we report measurements of the energy loss and straggling of ∼1–50 keV H, He, C, N, and O ions in graphene. We compare graphene and a carbon foil for hydrogen. We provide simple power law fits to the average energy loss, energy straggling, and skewness of the energy distributions. We find the energy loss for ions transiting through graphene to be reduced compared to thin carbon foils but the energy straggling to be larger, which we attribute to the non-uniformity of the graphene foils used in this study

  2. Exfoliating and Dispersing Few-Layered Graphene in Low-Boiling-Point Organic Solvents towards Solution-Processed Optoelectronic Device Applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Lu; Miao, Zhongshuo; Hao, Zhen; Liu, Jun

    2016-05-06

    With normal organic surfactants, graphene can only be dispersed in water and cannot be dispersed in low-boiling-point organic solvents, which hampers its application in solution-processed organic optoelectronic devices. Herein, we report the exfoliation of graphite into graphene in low-boiling-point organic solvents, for example, methanol and acetone, by using edge-carboxylated graphene quantum dots (ECGQD) as the surfactant. The great capability of ECGQD for graphene dispersion is due to its ultralarge π-conjugated unit that allows tight adhesion on the graphene surface through strong π-π interactions, its edge-carboxylated structure that diminishes the steric effects of the oxygen-containing functional groups on the basal plane of ECGQD, and its abundance of carboxylic acid groups for solubility. The graphene dispersion in methanol enables the application of graphene:ECGQD as a cathode interlayer in polymer solar cells (PSCs). Moreover, the PSC device performance of graphene:ECGQD is better than that of Ca, the state-of-the-art cathode interlayer material. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  3. Molecular beam epitaxy of graphene on mica

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lippert, G.; Dabrowski, J.; Yamamoto, Y.; Mehr, W.; Lupina, G.; Herziger, F.; Maultzsch, J.; Baringhaus, J.; Tegenkamp, C.; Lemme, M.C.

    2012-01-01

    Realization of graphene devices is often hindered by the fact that the known layer growth methods do not meet the requirements of the device fabrication in silicon mainstream technology. For example, the relatively straightforward method of decomposition of hexagonal SiC is not CMOS-compatible due to the high-thermal budget it requires [Moon et al., IEEE Electron Device Lett. 31, 260 (2010)]. Techniques based on layer transfer are restricted because of the uncertainty of residual metal contaminants, particles, and structural defects. Of interest is thus a method that would allow one to grow a graphene film directly in the device area where graphene is needed. Production of large area graphene is not necessarily required in this case, but high quality of the film and metal-free growth on an insulating substrate at temperatures below 1000 C are important requirements. We demonstrate direct growth of defect-free graphene on insulators at moderate temperatures by molecular beam epitaxy. The quality of the graphene was probed by high-resolution Raman spectroscopy, indicating a negligible density of defects. The spectra are compared with those from graphene flakes mechanically exfoliated from native graphite onto mica. These results are combined with insights from density functional theory calculations. A model of graphene growth on mica and similar substrates is proposed. (Copyright copyright 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  4. State memory in solution gated epitaxial graphene

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butko, A. V.; Butko, V. Y.; Lebedev, S. P.; Lebedev, A. A.; Davydov, V. Y.; Smirnov, A. N.; Eliseyev, I. A.; Dunaevskiy, M. S.; Kumzerov, Y. A.

    2018-06-01

    We studied electrical transport in transistors fabricated on a surface of high quality epitaxial graphene with density of defects as low as 5·1010 cm-2 and observed quasistatic hysteresis with a time constant in a scale of hours. This constant is in a few orders of magnitude greater than the constant previously reported in CVD graphene. The hysteresis observed here can be described as a shift of ∼+2V of the Dirac point measured during a gate voltage increase from the position of the Dirac point measured during a gate voltage decrease. This hysteresis can be characterized as a nonvolatile quasistatic state memory effect in which the state of the gated graphene is determined by its initial state prior to entering the hysteretic region. Due to this effect the difference in resistance of the gated graphene measured in the hysteretic region at the same applied voltages can be as high as 70%. The observed effect can be explained by assuming that charge carriers in graphene and oppositely charged molecular ions from the solution form quasistable interfacial complexes at the graphene interface. These complexes likely preserve the initial state by preventing charge carriers in graphene from discharging in the hysteretic region.

  5. High sensitive quasi freestanding epitaxial graphene gas sensor on 6H-SiC

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Iezhokin, I.; Offermans, P.; Brongersma, S.H.; Giesbers, A.J.M.; Flipse, C.F.J.

    2013-01-01

    We have measured the electrical response to NO2, N2, NH3, and CO for epitaxial graphene and quasi freestanding epitaxial graphene on 6H-SiC substrates. Quasi freestanding epitaxial graphene shows a 6 fold increase in NO2 sensitivity compared to epitaxial graphene. Both samples show a sensitivity

  6. Simple fabrication of reduced graphene oxide -few layer MoS2 nanocomposite for enhanced electrochemical performance in supercapacitors and water purification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raghu, M. S.; Yogesh Kumar, K.; Rao, Srilatha; Aravinda, T.; Sharma, S. C.; Prashanth, M. K.

    2018-05-01

    Expelling of heavy metal ions into water resource systems is extremely hazardous to the environment. Adsorption is one of the most cost effective and potential methods to remove the heavy metal ions from the effluents. Therefore, an attempt has been made to study the adsorption of metal particles of Cd and Hg from aqueous solution by using reduced graphene oxide-molybdenum disulphide (rGO-MoS2) nanocomposites as adsorbents. The rGO-MoS2 composites were synthesized by following simple physical methods; which involve the mixing of dispersions of MoS2 and graphene oxide (GO) by sonication, followed by subsequent reduction with hydrazine hydrate. Characterization of the nanocomposites was performed by FESEM, TEM, EDAX, raman spectroscopy, XRD and BET surface area analysis. Electron microscopic images validate the presence of homogeneity in the synthesized nanocomposite. Batch adsorption experiments were used to scrutinizethe effect of an array of parameters like effect of pH, initial concentration of the metal ions, adsorbent dose, and contact time on the adsorption capacity of metal ions on rGO-MoS2 nanocomposites. The thorough examination of adsorbed isotherm and energy demonstrates the best fitting of the adsorption data with the 'Langmuir adsorption isotherm model' and follows the pseudo-second-order kinetic in active condition. The synthesized materials havealso been tested against Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacterial strains and have showcased promising antimicrobial activities. At the same time, the nanocomposites were evaluated for electrochemical performance in supercapacitors. The rGO-MoS2 nanocomposite demonstrates better capacitance (440 Fg-1) at 5 mvs-1 scan rate. The inimitable surface property of MoS2 and good electrical conductivity of rGO results show versatile usage and formidable performance as an adsorbent, antibacterial agent and electrode material for supercapacitors.

  7. On the density of states of disordered epitaxial graphene

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Davydov, S. Yu.

    2015-01-01

    The study is concerned with two types of disordered epitaxial graphene: (i) graphene with randomly located carbon vacancies and (ii) structurally amorphous graphene. The former type is considered in the coherent potential approximation, and for the latter type, a model of the density of states is proposed. The effects of two types of substrates, specifically, metal and semiconductor substrates are taken into account. The specific features of the density of states of epitaxial graphene at the Dirac point and the edges of the continuous spectrum are analyzed. It is shown that vacancies in epitaxial graphene formed on the metal substrate bring about logarithmic nulling of the density of states of graphene at the Dirac point and the edges of the continuous spectrum. If the Dirac point corresponds to the middle of the band gap of the semiconductor substrate, the linear trend of the density of states to zero in the vicinity of the Dirac point in defect-free graphene transforms into a logarithmic decrease in the presence of vacancies. In both cases, the graphene-substrate interaction is assumed to be weak (quasi-free graphene). In the study of amorphous epitaxial graphene, a simple model of free amorphous graphene is proposed as the initial model, in which account is taken of the nonzero density of states at the Dirac point, and then the interaction of the graphene sheet with the substrate is taken into consideration. It is shown that, near the Dirac point, the quadratic behavior of the density of states of free amorphous graphene transforms into a linear dependence for amorphous epitaxial graphene. In the study, the density of states of free graphene corresponds to the low-energy approximation of the electron spectrum

  8. On the kinetic barriers of graphene homo-epitaxy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Wei; Yu, Xinke; Xie, Ya-Hong; Cahyadi, Erica; Ratsch, Christian

    2014-01-01

    The diffusion processes and kinetic barriers of individual carbon adatoms and clusters on graphene surfaces are investigated to provide fundamental understanding of the physics governing epitaxial growth of multilayer graphene. It is found that individual carbon adatoms form bonds with the underlying graphene whereas the interaction between graphene and carbon clusters, consisting of 6 atoms or more, is very weak being van der Waals in nature. Therefore, small carbon clusters are quite mobile on the graphene surfaces and the diffusion barrier is negligibly small (∼6 meV). This suggests the feasibility of high-quality graphene epitaxial growth at very low growth temperatures with small carbon clusters (e.g., hexagons) as carbon source. We propose that the growth mode is totally different from 3-dimensional bulk materials with the surface mobility of carbon hexagons being the highest over graphene surfaces that gradually decreases with further increase in cluster size

  9. The physics of epitaxial graphene on SiC(0001)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kageshima, H; Hibino, H; Tanabe, S

    2012-01-01

    Various physical properties of epitaxial graphene grown on SiC(0001) are studied. First, the electronic transport in epitaxial bilayer graphene on SiC(0001) and quasi-free-standing bilayer graphene on SiC(0001) is investigated. The dependences of the resistance and the polarity of the Hall resistance at zero gate voltage on the top-gate voltage show that the carrier types are electron and hole, respectively. The mobility evaluated at various carrier densities indicates that the quasi-free-standing bilayer graphene shows higher mobility than the epitaxial bilayer graphene when they are compared at the same carrier density. The difference in mobility is thought to come from the domain size of the graphene sheet formed. To clarify a guiding principle for controlling graphene quality, the mechanism of epitaxial graphene growth is also studied theoretically. It is found that a new graphene sheet grows from the interface between the old graphene sheets and the SiC substrate. Further studies on the energetics reveal the importance of the role of the step on the SiC surface. A first-principles calculation unequivocally shows that the C prefers to release from the step edge and to aggregate as graphene nuclei along the step edge rather than be left on the terrace. It is also shown that the edges of the existing graphene more preferentially absorb the isolated C atoms. For some annealing conditions, experiments can also provide graphene islands on SiC(0001) surfaces. The atomic structures are studied theoretically together with their growth mechanism. The proposed embedded island structures actually act as a graphene island electronically, and those with zigzag edges have a magnetoelectric effect. Finally, the thermoelectric properties of graphene are theoretically examined. The results indicate that reducing the carrier scattering suppresses the thermoelectric power and enhances the thermoelectric figure of merit. The fine control of the Fermi energy position is thought to

  10. Graphene nanoribbons epitaxy on boron nitride

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lu, Xiaobo; Wang, Shuopei; Wu, Shuang; Chen, Peng; Zhang, Jing; Zhao, Jing; Meng, Jianling; Xie, Guibai; Wang, Duoming; Wang, Guole; Zhang, Ting Ting; Yang, Rong; Shi, Dongxia [Beijing National Laboratory for Condensed Matter Physics and Institute of Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100190 (China); Yang, Wei [Beijing National Laboratory for Condensed Matter Physics and Institute of Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100190 (China); Laboratoire Pierre Aigrain, ENS-CNRS UMR 8551, Universités Pierre et Marie Curie and Paris-Diderot, 24 rue Lhomond, 75231 Paris Cedex 05 (France); Watanabe, Kenji; Taniguchi, Takashi [National Institute for Materials Science, 1-1 Namiki, Tsukuba 305-0044 (Japan); Zhang, Guangyu, E-mail: gyzhang@aphy.iphy.ac.cn [Beijing National Laboratory for Condensed Matter Physics and Institute of Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100190 (China); Collaborative Innovation Center of Quantum Matter, Beijing 100190 (China)

    2016-03-14

    In this letter, we report a pilot study on epitaxy of monolayer graphene nanoribbons (GNRs) on hexagonal boron nitride (h-BN). We found that GNRs grow preferentially from the atomic steps of h-BN, forming in-plane heterostructures. GNRs with well-defined widths ranging from ∼15 nm to ∼150 nm can be obtained reliably. As-grown GNRs on h-BN have high quality with a carrier mobility of ∼20 000 cm{sup 2} V{sup −1} s{sup −1} for ∼100-nm-wide GNRs at a temperature of 1.7 K. Besides, a moiré pattern induced quasi-one-dimensional superlattice with a periodicity of ∼15 nm for GNR/h-BN was also observed, indicating zero crystallographic twisting angle between GNRs and h-BN substrate. The superlattice induced band structure modification is confirmed by our transport results. These epitaxial GNRs/h-BN with clean surfaces/interfaces and tailored widths provide an ideal platform for high-performance GNR devices.

  11. Giant inelastic tunneling in epitaxial graphene mediated by localized states

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cervenka, J.; Ruit, van de K.; Flipse, C.F.J.

    2010-01-01

    Local electronic structures of nanometer-sized patches of epitaxial graphene and its interface layer with SiC(0001) have been studied by atomically resolved scanning tunneling microscopy and spectroscopy. Localized states belonging to the interface layer of a graphene/SiC system show to have

  12. Conductivity of epitaxial and CVD graphene with correlated line defects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Radchenko, T. M.; Shylau, Artsem; Zozoulenko, I. V.

    2014-01-01

    Transport properties of single-layer graphene with correlated one-dimensional defects are studied theoretically using the computational model within the time-dependent real-space Kubo-Greenwood formalism. Such defects are present in epitaxial graphene, comprising atomic terraces and steps due...

  13. Epitaxial graphene-encapsulated surface reconstruction of Ge(110)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, Gavin P.; Kiraly, Brian; Jacobberger, Robert M.; Mannix, Andrew J.; Arnold, Michael S.; Hersam, Mark C.; Guisinger, Nathan P.; Bedzyk, Michael J.

    2018-04-01

    Understanding and engineering the properties of crystalline surfaces has been critical in achieving functional electronics at the nanoscale. Employing scanning tunneling microscopy, surface x-ray diffraction, and high-resolution x-ray reflectivity experiments, we present a thorough study of epitaxial graphene (EG)/Ge(110) and report a Ge(110) "6 × 2" reconstruction stabilized by the presence of epitaxial graphene unseen in group-IV semiconductor surfaces. X-ray studies reveal that graphene resides atop the surface reconstruction with a 0.34 nm van der Waals (vdW) gap and provides protection from ambient degradation.

  14. Epitaxial growth mechanisms of graphene and effects of substrates

    OpenAIRE

    Özçelik, V. Ongun; Cahangirov, S.; Ciraci, S.

    2012-01-01

    The growth process of single layer graphene with and without substrate is investigated using ab initio, finite temperature molecular dynamic calculations within density functional theory. An understanding of the epitaxial graphene growth mechanisms in the atomic level is provided by exploring the transient stages which occur at the growing edges of graphene. These stages are formation and collapse of large carbon rings together with the formation and healing of Stone-Wales like pentagon-hepta...

  15. Van der Waals Epitaxy of GaSe/Graphene Heterostructure: Electronic and Interfacial Properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ben Aziza, Zeineb; Henck, Hugo; Pierucci, Debora; Silly, Mathieu G; Lhuillier, Emmanuel; Patriarche, Gilles; Sirotti, Fausto; Eddrief, Mahmoud; Ouerghi, Abdelkarim

    2016-10-07

    Stacking two-dimensional materials in so-called van der Waals (vdW) heterostructures, like the combination of GaSe and graphene, provides the ability to obtain hybrid systems which are suitable to design optoelectronic devices. Here, we report the structural and electronic properties of the direct growth of multilayered GaSe by Molecular beam Epitaxy (MBE) on graphene. Reflection high-energy electron diffraction (RHEED) images exhibited sharp streaky features indicative of high quality GaSe layer produced via a vdW epitaxy. Micro-Raman spectroscopy showed that, after the vdW hetero-interface formation, the Raman signature of pristine graphene is preserved. However, the GaSe film tuned the charge density of graphene layer by shifting the Dirac point by about 80 meV toward lower binding energies, attesting an electron transfer from graphene to GaSe. Angle-resolved photoemission spectroscopy (ARPES) measurements showed that the maximum of the valence band of few layers of GaSe are located at the Γ point at a binding energy of about -0.73 eV relatively to the Fermi level (p-type doping). From the ARPES measurements, a hole effective mass defined along the ΓM direction and equal to about m*/m0 = -1.1 was determined. By coupling the ARPES data with high resolution X-ray photoemission spectroscopy (HR-XPS) measurements, the Schottky interface barrier height was estimated to be 1.2 eV. These findings allow deeper understanding of the interlayer interactions and the electronic structure of GaSe/graphene vdW heterostructure.

  16. Improvement of Metal-Graphene Ohmic Contact Resistance in Bilayer Epitaxial Graphene Devices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    He Ze-Zhao; Yang Ke-Wu; Yu Cui; Li Jia; Liu Qing-Bin; Lu Wei-Li; Feng Zhi-Hong; Cai Shu-Jun

    2015-01-01

    We report on an improved metal-graphene ohmic contact in bilayer epitaxial graphene on a SiC substrate with contact resistance below 0.1 ω·mm. Monolayer and bilayer epitaxial graphenes are prepared on a 4H-SiC substrate in this work. Their contact resistances are measured by a transfer length method. An improved photoresist-free device fabrication method is used and is compared with the conventional device fabrication method. Compared with the monolayer graphene, the contact resistance R c of bilayer graphene improves from an average of 0.24 ω·mm to 0.1 ω·mm. Ohmic contact formation mechanism analysis by Landauer's approach reveals that the obtained low ohmic contact resistance in bilayer epitaxial graphene is due to their high carrier density, high carrier transmission probability, and p-type doping introduced by contact metal Au. (paper)

  17. Quantum Hall effect in epitaxial graphene with permanent magnets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parmentier, F D; Cazimajou, T; Sekine, Y; Hibino, H; Irie, H; Glattli, D C; Kumada, N; Roulleau, P

    2016-12-06

    We have observed the well-kown quantum Hall effect (QHE) in epitaxial graphene grown on silicon carbide (SiC) by using, for the first time, only commercial NdFeB permanent magnets at low temperature. The relatively large and homogeneous magnetic field generated by the magnets, together with the high quality of the epitaxial graphene films, enables the formation of well-developed quantum Hall states at Landau level filling factors v = ±2, commonly observed with superconducting electro-magnets. Furthermore, the chirality of the QHE edge channels can be changed by a top gate. These results demonstrate that basic QHE physics are experimentally accessible in graphene for a fraction of the price of conventional setups using superconducting magnets, which greatly increases the potential of the QHE in graphene for research and applications.

  18. Quantum Hall effect in epitaxial graphene with permanent magnets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parmentier, F. D.; Cazimajou, T.; Sekine, Y.; Hibino, H.; Irie, H.; Glattli, D. C.; Kumada, N.; Roulleau, P.

    2016-12-01

    We have observed the well-kown quantum Hall effect (QHE) in epitaxial graphene grown on silicon carbide (SiC) by using, for the first time, only commercial NdFeB permanent magnets at low temperature. The relatively large and homogeneous magnetic field generated by the magnets, together with the high quality of the epitaxial graphene films, enables the formation of well-developed quantum Hall states at Landau level filling factors v = ±2, commonly observed with superconducting electro-magnets. Furthermore, the chirality of the QHE edge channels can be changed by a top gate. These results demonstrate that basic QHE physics are experimentally accessible in graphene for a fraction of the price of conventional setups using superconducting magnets, which greatly increases the potential of the QHE in graphene for research and applications.

  19. Extraordinary epitaxial alignment of graphene islands on Au(111)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wofford, Joseph M; Dubon, Oscar D; Starodub, Elena; Nie Shu; Bartelt, Norman C; Thürmer, Konrad; McCarty, Kevin F; Walter, Andrew L; Bostwick, Aaron; Rotenberg, Eli

    2012-01-01

    Pristine, single-crystalline graphene displays a unique collection of remarkable electronic properties that arise from its two-dimensional, honeycomb structure. Using in situ low-energy electron microscopy, we show that when deposited on the (111) surface of Au carbon forms such a structure. The resulting monolayer, epitaxial film is formed by the coalescence of dendritic graphene islands that nucleate at a high density. Over 95% of these islands can be identically aligned with respect to each other and to the Au substrate. Remarkably, the dominant island orientation is not the better lattice-matched 30° rotated orientation but instead one in which the graphene [01] and Au [011] in-plane directions are parallel. The epitaxial graphene film is only weakly coupled to the Au surface, which maintains its reconstruction under the slightly p-type doped graphene. The linear electronic dispersion characteristic of free-standing graphene is retained regardless of orientation. That a weakly interacting, non-lattice matched substrate is able to lock graphene into a particular orientation is surprising. This ability, however, makes Au(111) a promising substrate for the growth of single crystalline graphene films. (paper)

  20. Substrate-induced magnetism in epitaxial graphene buffer layers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramasubramaniam, A; Medhekar, N V; Shenoy, V B

    2009-07-08

    Magnetism in graphene is of fundamental as well as technological interest, with potential applications in molecular magnets and spintronic devices. While defects and/or adsorbates in freestanding graphene nanoribbons and graphene sheets have been shown to cause itinerant magnetism, controlling the density and distribution of defects and adsorbates is in general difficult. We show from first principles calculations that graphene buffer layers on SiC(0001) can also show intrinsic magnetism. The formation of graphene-substrate chemical bonds disrupts the graphene pi-bonds and causes localization of graphene states near the Fermi level. Exchange interactions between these states lead to itinerant magnetism in the graphene buffer layer. We demonstrate the occurrence of magnetism in graphene buffer layers on both bulk-terminated as well as more realistic adatom-terminated SiC(0001) surfaces. Our calculations show that adatom density has a profound effect on the spin distribution in the graphene buffer layer, thereby providing a means of engineering magnetism in epitaxial graphene.

  1. Epitaxially grown strained pentacene thin film on graphene membrane.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Kwanpyo; Santos, Elton J G; Lee, Tae Hoon; Nishi, Yoshio; Bao, Zhenan

    2015-05-06

    Organic-graphene system has emerged as a new platform for various applications such as flexible organic photovoltaics and organic light emitting diodes. Due to its important implication in charge transport, the study and reliable control of molecular packing structures at the graphene-molecule interface are of great importance for successful incorporation of graphene in related organic devices. Here, an ideal membrane of suspended graphene as a molecular assembly template is utilized to investigate thin-film epitaxial behaviors. Using transmission electron microscopy, two distinct molecular packing structures of pentacene on graphene are found. One observed packing structure is similar to the well-known bulk-phase, which adapts a face-on molecular orientation on graphene substrate. On the other hand, a rare polymorph of pentacene crystal, which shows significant strain along the c-axis, is identified. In particular, the strained film exhibits a specific molecular orientation and a strong azimuthal correlation with underlying graphene. Through ab initio electronic structure calculations, including van der Waals interactions, the unusual polymorph is attributed to the strong graphene-pentacene interaction. The observed strained organic film growth on graphene demonstrates the possibility to tune molecular packing via graphene-molecule interactions. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  2. In situ observation of stress relaxation in epitaxial graphene

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    N'Diaye, Alpha T; Coraux, Johann; Busse, Carsten; Michely, Thomas; Gastel, Raoul van; Poelsema, Bene; MartInez-Galera, Antonio J; Gomez-RodrIguez, Jose M; Hattab, Hichem; Wall, Dirk; Heringdorf, Frank-J Meyer zu; Hoegen, Michael Horn-von

    2009-01-01

    Upon cooling, branched line defects develop in epitaxial graphene grown at high temperature on Pt(111) and Ir(111). Using atomically resolved scanning tunneling microscopy, we demonstrate that these defects are wrinkles in the graphene layer, i.e. stripes of partially delaminated graphene. With low energy electron microscopy (LEEM), we investigate the wrinkling phenomenon in situ. Upon temperature cycling, we observe hysteresis in the appearance and disappearance of the wrinkles. Simultaneously with wrinkle formation a change in bright field imaging intensity of adjacent areas and a shift in the moire spot positions for micro diffraction of such areas takes place. The stress relieved by wrinkle formation results from the mismatch in thermal expansion coefficients of graphene and the substrate. A simple one-dimensional model taking into account the energies related to strain, delamination and bending of graphene is in qualitative agreement with our observations.

  3. Structured epitaxial graphene: growth and properties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hu Yike; Ruan Ming; Guo Zelei; Dong Rui; Palmer, James; Hankinson, John; Berger, Claire; Heer, Walt A de

    2012-01-01

    Graphene is generally considered to be a strong candidate to succeed silicon as an electronic material. However, to date, it actually has not yet demonstrated capabilities that exceed standard semiconducting materials. Currently demonstrated viable graphene devices are essentially limited to micrometre-sized ultrahigh-frequency analogue field effect transistors and quantum Hall effect devices for metrology. Nanoscopically patterned graphene tends to have disordered edges that severely reduce mobilities thereby obviating its advantage over other materials. Here we show that graphene grown on structured silicon carbide surfaces overcomes the edge roughness and promises to provide an inroad into nanoscale patterning of graphene. We show that high-quality ribbons and rings can be made using this technique. We also report on the progress towards high-mobility graphene monolayers on silicon carbide for device applications. (paper)

  4. New synthesis method for the growth of epitaxial graphene

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yu, X.Z. [Materials Sciences Division, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States); Laboratory of Condensed Matter Spectroscopy and Opto-Electronic Physics, Department of Physics, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, 1954 Hua Shan Road, Shanghai 200030 (China); Hwang, C.G.; Jozwiak, C.M.; Koehl, A. [Materials Sciences Division, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States); Schmid, A.K. [National Center for Electron Microscopy, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, CA 94709 (United States); Lanzara, A., E-mail: ALanzara@lbl.gov [Materials Sciences Division, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States); Department of Physics, University of California, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States)

    2011-04-15

    Highlights: {yields} We report a new straightforward method for the synthesis of micrometer scale graphene sheets. {yields} The process is based on a face to face mehtod in which two SiC substrates are placed one on top of the other and are heated simultaneously, leading to highly homogeneous samples. {yields} The number of graphene layers is determined by the annealing temperature. - Abstract: As a viable candidate for an all-carbon post-CMOS electronics revolution, epitaxial graphene has attracted significant attention. To realize its application potential, reliable methods for fabricating large-area single-crystalline graphene domains are required. A new way to synthesize high quality epitaxial graphene, namely 'face-to-face' method, has been reported in this paper. The structure and morphologies of the samples are characterized by low-energy electron diffraction, atomic force microscopy, angle-resolved photoemission spectroscopy and Raman spectroscopy. The grown samples show better quality and larger length scales than samples grown through conventional thermal desorption. Moreover, the graphene thickness can be easily controlled by changing annealing temperature.

  5. The invention of graphene electronics and the physics of epitaxial graphene on silicon carbide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    De Heer, Walt A

    2012-01-01

    Graphene electronics was officially invented at the Georgia Institute of Technology in 2003 after experimental and theoretical research on graphene properties starting from 2001. This paper focuses on the motivation and events leading to the invention of graphene electronics, as well as on recent developments. Graphene electronics was originally conceived as a new electronics paradigm to incorporate the room-temperature ballistic and coherent properties of carbon nanotubes in a patternable electronic material. Graphene on silicon carbide was chosen as the most suitable material. Other electronics schemes, involving transferred (exfoliated and chemical vapor deposition-produced) graphitic materials, that operate in the diffusive regime may not be competitive with standard methods and may therefore not significantly impact electronics. In recent years, epitaxial graphene has improved to the point where graphene electronics according to the original concept appears to be within reach. Beyond electronics, epitaxial graphene research has led to important developments in graphene physics in general and has become a leading platform for graphene science as well.

  6. Extraordinary Photoluminescence and Strong Temperature/Angle-Dependent Raman Responses in Few-Layer Phosphorene

    OpenAIRE

    Zhang, Shuang; Yang, Jiong; Xu, Renjing; Wang, Fan; Li, Weifeng; Ghufran, Muhammad; Zhang, Yong-wei; Yu, Zongfu; Zhang, Gang; Qin, Qinghua; Lu, Yuerui

    2014-01-01

    Phosphorene is a new family member of two-dimensional materials. We observed strong and highly layer-dependent photoluminescence in few-layer phosphorene (2 to 5 layers). The results confirmed the theoretical prediction that few-layer phosphorene has a direct and layer-sensitive band gap. We also demonstrated that few-layer phosphorene is more sensitive to temperature modulation than graphene and MoS2 in Raman scattering. The anisotropic Raman response in few-layer phosphorene has enabled us ...

  7. Superconductivity in few-layer stanene

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liao, Menghan; Zang, Yunyi; Guan, Zhaoyong; Li, Haiwei; Gong, Yan; Zhu, Kejing; Hu, Xiao-Peng; Zhang, Ding; Xu, Yong; Wang, Ya-Yu; He, Ke; Ma, Xu-Cun; Zhang, Shou-Cheng; Xue, Qi-Kun

    2018-04-01

    A single atomic slice of α-tin—stanene—has been predicted to host the quantum spin Hall effect at room temperature, offering an ideal platform to study low-dimensional and topological physics. Although recent research has focused on monolayer stanene, the quantum size effect in few-layer stanene could profoundly change material properties, but remains unexplored. By exploring the layer degree of freedom, we discover superconductivity in few-layer stanene down to a bilayer grown on PbTe, while bulk α-tin is not superconductive. Through substrate engineering, we further realize a transition from a single-band to a two-band superconductor with a doubling of the transition temperature. In situ angle-resolved photoemission spectroscopy (ARPES) together with first-principles calculations elucidate the corresponding band structure. The theory also indicates the existence of a topologically non-trivial band. Our experimental findings open up novel strategies for constructing two-dimensional topological superconductors.

  8. Epitaxial growth mechanisms of graphene and effects of substrates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Özçelik, V. Ongun; Cahangirov, S.; Ciraci, S.

    2012-06-01

    The growth process of single layer graphene with and without substrate is investigated using ab initio, finite temperature molecular dynamic calculations within density functional theory. An understanding of the epitaxial graphene growth mechanisms in the atomic level is provided by exploring the transient stages which occur at the growing edges of graphene. These stages are formation and collapse of large carbon rings together with the formation and healing of Stone-Wales like pentagon-heptagon defects. The activation barriers for the healing of these growth induced defects on various substrates are calculated using the climbing image nudge elastic band method and compared with that of the Stone-Wales defect. It is found that the healing of pentagon-heptagon defects occurring near the edge in the course of growth is much easier than that of Stone-Wales defect. The role of the substrate in the epitaxial growth and in the healing of defects are also investigated in detail, along with the effects of using carbon dimers as the building blocks of graphene growth.

  9. Spin-injection into epitaxial graphene on silicon carbide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konishi, Keita; Cui, Zhixin; Hiraki, Takahiro; Yoh, Kanji

    2013-09-01

    We have studied the spin-injection properties in epitaxial graphene on SiC. The ferromagnetic metal (FM) electrodes were composed of a tunnel barrier layer AlOx (14 Å) and a ferromagnetic Co (600 Å) layer. We have successfully observed the clear resistance peaks indicating spin-injection both in the "local" and "non-local" spin measurement set-ups at low temperatures. We estimate spin-injection rate of 1% based on "non-local" measurement and 1.6% based on local measurements. Spin-injection rate of multilayer graphene by mechanical exfoliation method was twice as high as single layer graphene on SiC based on "local" measurement.

  10. Chemical gating of epitaxial graphene through ultrathin oxide layers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larciprete, Rosanna; Lacovig, Paolo; Orlando, Fabrizio; Dalmiglio, Matteo; Omiciuolo, Luca; Baraldi, Alessandro; Lizzit, Silvano

    2015-08-07

    We achieved a controllable chemical gating of epitaxial graphene grown on metal substrates by exploiting the electrostatic polarization of ultrathin SiO2 layers synthesized below it. Intercalated oxygen diffusing through the SiO2 layer modifies the metal-oxide work function and hole dopes graphene. The graphene/oxide/metal heterostructure behaves as a gated plane capacitor with the in situ grown SiO2 layer acting as a homogeneous dielectric spacer, whose high capacity allows the Fermi level of graphene to be shifted by a few hundreds of meV when the oxygen coverage at the metal substrate is of the order of 0.5 monolayers. The hole doping can be finely tuned by controlling the amount of interfacial oxygen, as well as by adjusting the thickness of the oxide layer. After complete thermal desorption of oxygen the intrinsic doping of SiO2 supported graphene is evaluated in the absence of contaminants and adventitious adsorbates. The demonstration that the charge state of graphene can be changed by chemically modifying the buried oxide/metal interface hints at the possibility of tuning the level and sign of doping by the use of other intercalants capable of diffusing through the ultrathin porous dielectric and reach the interface with the metal.

  11. Few-layer black phosphorus nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sofer, Zdenek; Bouša, Daniel; Luxa, Jan; Mazanek, Vlastimil; Pumera, Martin

    2016-01-28

    Herein, black phosphorus quantum dots and nanoparticles of a few layer thickness were prepared and characterized using STEM, AFM, dynamic light scattering, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction, Raman spectroscopy and photoluminescence. Impact electrochemistry of the induvidual black phosphorus nanoparticles allows their size determination. The centrifugation of colloidal black phosphorus nanoparticles allowed separation of quantum dots with sizes up to 15 nm. These black phosphorus nanoparticles exhibit a large band gap and are expected to find a wide range of applications from semiconductors to biomolecule tags. The use of black phosphorus nanoparticles for vapour sensing was successfully demonstrated.

  12. Top-gate dielectric induced doping and scattering of charge carriers in epitaxial graphene

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puls, Conor P.; Staley, Neal E.; Moon, Jeong-Sun; Robinson, Joshua A.; Campbell, Paul M.; Tedesco, Joseph L.; Myers-Ward, Rachael L.; Eddy, Charles R.; Gaskill, D. Kurt; Liu, Ying

    2011-07-01

    We show that an e-gun deposited dielectric impose severe limits on epitaxial graphene-based device performance based on Raman spectroscopy and low-temperature transport measurements. Specifically, we show from studies of epitaxial graphene Hall bars covered by SiO2 that the measured carrier density is strongly inhomogenous and predominantly induced by charged impurities at the grapheme/dielectric interface that limit mobility via Coulomb interactions. Our work emphasizes that material integration of epitaxial graphene and a gate dielectric is the next major road block towards the realization of graphene-based electronics.

  13. Defect Engineering in Few-Layer Phosphorene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Ankur; Wen, Bo; Liu, Boqing; Myint, Ye Win; Zhang, Han; Lu, Yuerui

    2018-04-01

    Defect engineering in 2D phosphorene samples is becoming an important and powerful technique to alter their properties, enabling new optoelectronic applications, particularly at the infrared wavelength region. Defect engineering in a few-layer phosphorene sample via introduction of substrate trapping centers is realized. In a three-layer (3L) phosphorene sample, a strong photoluminescence (PL) emission peak from localized excitons at ≈1430 nm is observed, a much lower energy level than free excitonic emissions. An activation energy of ≈77 meV for the localized excitons is determined in temperature-dependent PL measurements. The relatively high activation energy supports the strong stability of the localized excitons even at elevated temperature. The quantum efficiency of localized exciton emission in 3L phosphorene is measured to be approximately three times higher than that of free excitons. These results could enable exciting applications in infrared optoelectronics. © 2018 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  14. Extraordinary photoluminescence and strong temperature/angle-dependent Raman responses in few-layer phosphorene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Shuang; Yang, Jiong; Xu, Renjing; Wang, Fan; Li, Weifeng; Ghufran, Muhammad; Zhang, Yong-Wei; Yu, Zongfu; Zhang, Gang; Qin, Qinghua; Lu, Yuerui

    2014-09-23

    Phosphorene is a new family member of two-dimensional materials. We observed strong and highly layer-dependent photoluminescence in few-layer phosphorene (two to five layers). The results confirmed the theoretical prediction that few-layer phosphorene has a direct and layer-sensitive band gap. We also demonstrated that few-layer phosphorene is more sensitive to temperature modulation than graphene and MoS2 in Raman scattering. The anisotropic Raman response in few-layer phosphorene has enabled us to use an optical method to quickly determine the crystalline orientation without tunneling electron microscopy or scanning tunneling microscopy. Our results provide much needed experimental information about the band structures and exciton nature in few-layer phosphorene.

  15. Molecular beam epitaxial growth of graphene and ridge-structure networks of graphene

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maeda, Fumihiko; Hibino, Hiroki

    2011-01-01

    By gas-source molecular beam epitaxy (MBE) using cracked ethanol, we grew graphene at substrate temperatures between 600 and 915 °C on graphene formed on SiC(0 0 0 1) by thermal decomposition. To investigate the substrate temperature dependence of graphene growth we analysed the MBE-grown graphene by Raman spectroscopy and in situ x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and observed it by atomic force microscopy (AFM) and cross-sectional transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Analyses using the G-band peak and the peak intensity ratio between D- and G-band peaks in the Raman spectra revealed that growth at higher temperatures improved the crystallinity and increased the domain size. Although the growth rate decreased at higher temperatures, as revealed by XPS, these results indicated that growth at a higher temperature is effective in obtaining graphene of higher quality. Furthermore, the AFM and TEM observations revealed a network of fin-like ridge structures of graphene sticking out from the surface. The presence of these 'graphene nanofins' indicated that two-dimensional islands of graphene are surrounded by the nanofins, and the island size was estimated to be 67 nm using the average distance between the nanofins.

  16. Richardson constant and electrostatics in transfer-free CVD grown few-layer MoS2/graphene barristor with Schottky barrier modulation >0.6eV

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jahangir, Ifat; Uddin, M. Ahsan; Singh, Amol K.; Koley, Goutam; Chandrashekhar, M. V. S.

    2017-10-01

    We demonstrate a large area MoS2/graphene barristor, using a transfer-free method for producing 3-5 monolayer (ML) thick MoS2. The gate-controlled diodes show good rectification, with an ON/OFF ratio of ˜103. The temperature dependent back-gated study reveals Richardson's coefficient to be 80.3 ± 18.4 A/cm2/K and a mean electron effective mass of (0.66 ± 0.15)m0. Capacitance and current based measurements show the effective barrier height to vary over a large range of 0.24-0.91 eV due to incomplete field screening through the thin MoS2. Finally, we show that this barristor shows significant visible photoresponse, scaling with the Schottky barrier height. A response time of ˜10 s suggests that photoconductive gain is present in this device, resulting in high external quantum efficiency.

  17. Surface functionalization of epitaxial graphene on SiC by ion irradiation for gas sensing application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaushik, Priya Darshni; Ivanov, Ivan G.; Lin, Pin-Cheng; Kaur, Gurpreet; Eriksson, Jens; Lakshmi, G.B.V.S.; Avasthi, D.K.; Gupta, Vinay; Aziz, Anver; Siddiqui, Azher M.; Syväjärvi, Mikael; Yazdi, G. Reza

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • For the first time the gas sensing application of SHI irradiated epitaxial graphene on SiC is explored. • Surface morphology of irradiated graphene layers showed graphene folding, hillocks, and formation of wrinkles. • Existence of an optimal fluence which maximize the gas sensing response towards NO_2 and NH_3 gases. - Abstract: In this work, surface functionalization of epitaxial graphene grown on silicon carbide was performed by ion irradiation to investigate their gas sensing capabilities. Swift heavy ion irradiation using 100 MeV silver ions at four varying fluences was implemented on epitaxial graphene to investigate morphological and structural changes and their effects on the gas sensing capabilities of graphene. Sensing devices are expected as one of the first electronic applications using graphene and most of them use functionalized surfaces to tailor a certain function. In our case, we have studied irradiation as a tool to achieve functionalization. Morphological and structural changes on epitaxial graphene layers were investigated by atomic force microscopy, Raman spectroscopy, Raman mapping and reflectance mapping. The surface morphology of irradiated graphene layers showed graphene folding, hillocks, and formation of wrinkles at highest fluence (2 × 10"1"3 ions/cm"2). Raman spectra analysis shows that the graphene defect density is increased with increasing fluence, while Raman mapping and reflectance mapping show that there is also a reduction of monolayer graphene coverage. The samples were investigated for ammonia and nitrogen dioxide gas sensing applications. Sensors fabricated on pristine and irradiated samples showed highest gas sensing response at an optimal fluence. Our work provides new pathways for introducing defects in controlled manner in epitaxial graphene, which can be used not only for gas sensing application but also for other applications, such as electrochemical, biosensing, magnetosensing and spintronic

  18. Surface functionalization of epitaxial graphene on SiC by ion irradiation for gas sensing application

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaushik, Priya Darshni, E-mail: kaushik.priyadarshni@gmail.com [Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Linköping University, SE-58183 Linköping (Sweden); Department of Physics, Jamia Millia Islamia, New Delhi, 110025 (India); Ivanov, Ivan G.; Lin, Pin-Cheng [Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Linköping University, SE-58183 Linköping (Sweden); Kaur, Gurpreet [Department of Physics and Astrophysics, University of Delhi, Delhi, 110007 (India); Eriksson, Jens [Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Linköping University, SE-58183 Linköping (Sweden); Lakshmi, G.B.V.S. [Inter-University Accelerator Centre, Aruna Asaf Ali Marg, New Delhi, 110067 (India); Avasthi, D.K. [Inter-University Accelerator Centre, Aruna Asaf Ali Marg, New Delhi, 110067 (India); Amity Institute of Nanotechnology, Noida 201313 (India); Gupta, Vinay [Department of Physics and Astrophysics, University of Delhi, Delhi, 110007 (India); Aziz, Anver; Siddiqui, Azher M. [Department of Physics, Jamia Millia Islamia, New Delhi, 110025 (India); Syväjärvi, Mikael [Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Linköping University, SE-58183 Linköping (Sweden); Yazdi, G. Reza, E-mail: yazdi@ifm.liu.se [Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Linköping University, SE-58183 Linköping (Sweden)

    2017-05-01

    Highlights: • For the first time the gas sensing application of SHI irradiated epitaxial graphene on SiC is explored. • Surface morphology of irradiated graphene layers showed graphene folding, hillocks, and formation of wrinkles. • Existence of an optimal fluence which maximize the gas sensing response towards NO{sub 2} and NH{sub 3} gases. - Abstract: In this work, surface functionalization of epitaxial graphene grown on silicon carbide was performed by ion irradiation to investigate their gas sensing capabilities. Swift heavy ion irradiation using 100 MeV silver ions at four varying fluences was implemented on epitaxial graphene to investigate morphological and structural changes and their effects on the gas sensing capabilities of graphene. Sensing devices are expected as one of the first electronic applications using graphene and most of them use functionalized surfaces to tailor a certain function. In our case, we have studied irradiation as a tool to achieve functionalization. Morphological and structural changes on epitaxial graphene layers were investigated by atomic force microscopy, Raman spectroscopy, Raman mapping and reflectance mapping. The surface morphology of irradiated graphene layers showed graphene folding, hillocks, and formation of wrinkles at highest fluence (2 × 10{sup 13} ions/cm{sup 2}). Raman spectra analysis shows that the graphene defect density is increased with increasing fluence, while Raman mapping and reflectance mapping show that there is also a reduction of monolayer graphene coverage. The samples were investigated for ammonia and nitrogen dioxide gas sensing applications. Sensors fabricated on pristine and irradiated samples showed highest gas sensing response at an optimal fluence. Our work provides new pathways for introducing defects in controlled manner in epitaxial graphene, which can be used not only for gas sensing application but also for other applications, such as electrochemical, biosensing, magnetosensing and

  19. Intercalation of metals and silicon at the interface of epitaxial graphene and its substrates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang Li; Xu Wen-Yan; Que Yan-De; Mao Jin-Hai; Meng Lei; Pan Li-Da; Li Geng; Wang Ye-Liang; Du Shi-Xuan; Gao Hong-Jun; Liu Yun-Qi

    2013-01-01

    Intercalations of metals and silicon between epitaxial graphene and its substrates are reviewed. For metal intercalation, seven different metals have been successfully intercalated at the interface of graphene/Ru(0001) and form different intercalated structures. Meanwhile, graphene maintains its original high quality after the intercalation and shows features of weakened interaction with the substrate. For silicon intercalation, two systems, graphene on Ru(0001) and on Ir(111), have been investigated. In both cases, graphene preserves its high quality and regains its original superlative properties after the silicon intercalation. More importantly, we demonstrate that thicker silicon layers can be intercalated at the interface, which allows the atomic control of the distance between graphene and the metal substrates. These results show the great potential of the intercalation method as a non-damaging approach to decouple epitaxial graphene from its substrates and even form a dielectric layer for future electronic applications. (topical review - low-dimensional nanostructures and devices)

  20. Electronic cooling via interlayer Coulomb coupling in multilayer epitaxial graphene

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mihnev, Momchil T.; Tolsma, John R.; Divin, Charles J.; Sun, Dong; Asgari, Reza; Polini, Marco; Berger, Claire; de Heer, Walt A.; MacDonald, Allan H.; Norris, Theodore B.

    2015-01-01

    In van der Waals bonded or rotationally disordered multilayer stacks of two-dimensional (2D) materials, the electronic states remain tightly confined within individual 2D layers. As a result, electron–phonon interactions occur primarily within layers and interlayer electrical conductivities are low. In addition, strong covalent in-plane intralayer bonding combined with weak van der Waals interlayer bonding results in weak phonon-mediated thermal coupling between the layers. We demonstrate here, however, that Coulomb interactions between electrons in different layers of multilayer epitaxial graphene provide an important mechanism for interlayer thermal transport, even though all electronic states are strongly confined within individual 2D layers. This effect is manifested in the relaxation dynamics of hot carriers in ultrafast time-resolved terahertz spectroscopy. We develop a theory of interlayer Coulomb coupling containing no free parameters that accounts for the experimentally observed trends in hot-carrier dynamics as temperature and the number of layers is varied. PMID:26399955

  1. Mini array of quantum Hall devices based on epitaxial graphene

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Novikov, S.; Lebedeva, N.; Hämäläinen, J.; Iisakka, I.; Immonen, P.; Manninen, A. J.; Satrapinski, A.

    2016-01-01

    Series connection of four quantum Hall effect (QHE) devices based on epitaxial graphene films was studied for realization of a quantum resistance standard with an up-scaled value. The tested devices showed quantum Hall plateaux R H,2 at a filling factor v = 2 starting from a relatively low magnetic field (between 4 T and 5 T) when the temperature was 1.5 K. The precision measurements of quantized Hall resistance of four QHE devices connected by triple series connections and external bonding wires were done at B = 7 T and T = 1.5 K using a commercial precision resistance bridge with 50 μA current through the QHE device. The results showed that the deviation of the quantized Hall resistance of the series connection of four graphene-based QHE devices from the expected value of 4×R H,2  = 2 h/e 2 was smaller than the relative standard uncertainty of the measurement (<1 × 10 −7 ) limited by the used resistance bridge.

  2. Evolution of interfacial intercalation chemistry on epitaxial graphene/SiC by surface enhanced Raman spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ferralis, Nicola; Carraro, Carlo

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • H-intercalated epitaxial graphene–SiC interface studied with surface enhanced Raman. • Evolution of graphene and H–Si interface with UV-ozone, annealing and O-exposure. • H–Si interface and quasi-freestanding graphene are retained after UV-ozone treatment. • Enhanced ozonolytic reactivity at the edges of H-intercalated defected graphene. • Novel SERS method for characterizing near-surface graphene–substrate interfaces. - Abstract: A rapid and facile evaluation of the effects of physical and chemical processes on the interfacial layer between epitaxial graphene monolayers on SiC(0 0 0 1) surfaces is essential for applications in electronics, photonics, and optoelectronics. Here, the evolution of the atomic scale epitaxial graphene-buffer-layer–SiC interface through hydrogen intercalation, thermal annealings, UV-ozone etching and oxygen exposure is studied by means of single microparticle mediated surface enhanced Raman spectroscopy (smSERS). The evolution of the interfacial chemistry in the buffer layer is monitored through the Raman band at 2132 cm −1 corresponding to the Si-H stretch mode. Graphene quality is monitored directly by the selectively enhanced Raman signal of graphene compared to the SiC substrate signal. Through smSERS, a simultaneous correlation between optimized hydrogen intercalation in epitaxial graphene/SiC and an increase in graphene quality is uncovered. Following UV-ozone treatment, a fully hydrogen passivated interface is retained, while a moderate degradation in the quality of the hydrogen intercalated quasi-freestanding graphene is observed. While hydrogen intercalated defect free quasi-freestanding graphene is expected to be robust upon UV-ozone, thermal annealing, and oxygen exposure, ozonolytic reactivity at the edges of H-intercalated defected graphene results in enhanced amorphization of the quasi-freestanding (compared to non-intercalated) graphene, leading ultimately to its complete etching

  3. Evolution of interfacial intercalation chemistry on epitaxial graphene/SiC by surface enhanced Raman spectroscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ferralis, Nicola, E-mail: ferralis@mit.edu [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, MA 02139 (United States); Carraro, Carlo [Department of Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering, University of California, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States)

    2014-11-30

    Highlights: • H-intercalated epitaxial graphene–SiC interface studied with surface enhanced Raman. • Evolution of graphene and H–Si interface with UV-ozone, annealing and O-exposure. • H–Si interface and quasi-freestanding graphene are retained after UV-ozone treatment. • Enhanced ozonolytic reactivity at the edges of H-intercalated defected graphene. • Novel SERS method for characterizing near-surface graphene–substrate interfaces. - Abstract: A rapid and facile evaluation of the effects of physical and chemical processes on the interfacial layer between epitaxial graphene monolayers on SiC(0 0 0 1) surfaces is essential for applications in electronics, photonics, and optoelectronics. Here, the evolution of the atomic scale epitaxial graphene-buffer-layer–SiC interface through hydrogen intercalation, thermal annealings, UV-ozone etching and oxygen exposure is studied by means of single microparticle mediated surface enhanced Raman spectroscopy (smSERS). The evolution of the interfacial chemistry in the buffer layer is monitored through the Raman band at 2132 cm{sup −1} corresponding to the Si-H stretch mode. Graphene quality is monitored directly by the selectively enhanced Raman signal of graphene compared to the SiC substrate signal. Through smSERS, a simultaneous correlation between optimized hydrogen intercalation in epitaxial graphene/SiC and an increase in graphene quality is uncovered. Following UV-ozone treatment, a fully hydrogen passivated interface is retained, while a moderate degradation in the quality of the hydrogen intercalated quasi-freestanding graphene is observed. While hydrogen intercalated defect free quasi-freestanding graphene is expected to be robust upon UV-ozone, thermal annealing, and oxygen exposure, ozonolytic reactivity at the edges of H-intercalated defected graphene results in enhanced amorphization of the quasi-freestanding (compared to non-intercalated) graphene, leading ultimately to its complete etching.

  4. Quasi van der Waals epitaxy of copper thin film on single-crystal graphene monolayer buffer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Zonghuan; Sun, Xin; Washington, Morris A.; Lu, Toh-Ming

    2018-03-01

    Quasi van der Waals epitaxial growth of face-centered cubic Cu (~100 nm) thin films on single-crystal monolayer graphene is demonstrated using thermal evaporation at an elevated substrate temperature of 250 °C. The single-crystal graphene was transferred to amorphous (glass) and crystalline (quartz) SiO2 substrates for epitaxy study. Raman analysis showed that the thermal evaporation method had minimal damage to the graphene lattice during the Cu deposition. X-ray diffraction and electron backscatter diffraction analyses revealed that both Cu films are single-crystal with (1 1 1) out-of-plane orientation and in-plane Σ3 twin domains of 60° rotation. The crystallinity of the SiO2 substrates has a negligible effect on the Cu crystal orientation during the epitaxial growth, implying the strong screening effect of graphene. We also demonstrate the epitaxial growth of polycrystalline Cu on a commercial polycrystalline monolayer graphene consisting of two orientation domains offset 30° to each other. It confirms that the crystal orientation of the epitaxial Cu film follows that of graphene, i.e. the Cu film consists of two orientation domains offset 30° to each other when deposited on polycrystalline graphene. Finally, on the contrary to the report in the literature, we show that the direct current and radio frequency flip sputtering method causes significant damage to the graphene lattice during the Cu deposition process, and therefore neither is a suitable method for Cu epitaxial growth on graphene.

  5. Surface Chemistry Involved in Epitaxy of Graphene on 3C-SiC(111/Si(111

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abe Shunsuke

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Surface chemistry involved in the epitaxy of graphene by sublimating Si atoms from the surface of epitaxial 3C-SiC(111 thin films on Si(111 has been studied. The change in the surface composition during graphene epitaxy is monitored by in situ temperature-programmed desorption spectroscopy using deuterium as a probe (D2-TPD and complementarily by ex situ Raman and C1s core-level spectroscopies. The surface of the 3C-SiC(111/Si(111 is Si-terminated before the graphitization, and it becomes C-terminated via the formation of C-rich (6√3 × 6√3R30° reconstruction as the graphitization proceeds, in a similar manner as the epitaxy of graphene on Si-terminated 6H-SiC(0001 proceeds.

  6. Transfer-free electrical insulation of epitaxial graphene from its metal substrate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lizzit, Silvano; Larciprete, Rosanna; Lacovig, Paolo; Dalmiglio, Matteo; Orlando, Fabrizio; Baraldi, Alessandro; Gammelgaard, Lauge; Barreto, Lucas; Bianchi, Marco; Perkins, Edward; Hofmann, Philip

    2012-09-12

    High-quality, large-area epitaxial graphene can be grown on metal surfaces, but its transport properties cannot be exploited because the electrical conduction is dominated by the substrate. Here we insulate epitaxial graphene on Ru(0001) by a stepwise intercalation of silicon and oxygen, and the eventual formation of a SiO(2) layer between the graphene and the metal. We follow the reaction steps by X-ray photoemission spectroscopy and demonstrate the electrical insulation using a nanoscale multipoint probe technique.

  7. Transfer-Free Electrical Insulation of Epitaxial Graphene from its Metal Substrate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lizzit, Silvano; Larciprete, Rosanna; Lacovig, Paolo

    2012-01-01

    High-quality, large-area epitaxial graphene can be grown on metal surfaces, but its transport properties cannot be exploited because the electrical conduction is dominated by the substrate. Here we insulate epitaxial graphene on Ru(0001) by a stepwise intercalation of silicon and oxygen......, and the eventual formation of a SiO2 layer between the graphene and the metal. We follow the reaction steps by X-ray photoemission spectroscopy and demonstrate the electrical insulation using a nanoscale multipoint probe technique....

  8. Porphyrin molecules boost the sensitivity of epitaxial graphene for NH3 detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iezhokin, I.; den Boer, D.; Offermans, P.; Ridene, M.; Elemans, J. A. A. W.; Adriaans, G. P.; Flipse, C. F. J.

    2017-02-01

    The sensitivity of quasi-free standing epitaxial graphene for NH3 detection is strongly enhanced by chemical functionalization with cobalt porphyrins resulting in a detection limit well below 100 ppb. Hybridization between NH3 and cobalt porphyrins induces a charge transfer to graphene and results in a shift of the graphene Fermi-level as detected by Hall measurements and theoretically explained by electronic structure calculations.

  9. Multilayer epitaxial graphene grown on the (SiC 000 1-bar ) surface; structure and electronic properties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sprinkle, M; Hicks, J; Tinkey, H; Clark, M C; Hass, J; Conrad, E H; Tejeda, A; Taleb-Ibrahimi, A; Le Fevre, P; Bertran, F; Soukiassian, P; Martinotti, D

    2010-01-01

    We review the progress towards developing epitaxial graphene as a material for carbon electronics. In particular, we discuss improvements in epitaxial graphene growth, interface control and the understanding of multilayer epitaxial graphene's (MEG's) electronic properties. Although graphene grown on both polar faces of SiC will be discussed, our discussions will focus on graphene grown on the (0 0 0 1-bar ) C-face of SiC. The unique properties of C-face MEG have become apparent. These films behave electronically like a stack of nearly independent graphene sheets rather than a thin Bernal stacked graphite sample. The origins of multilayer graphene's electronic behaviour are its unique highly ordered stacking of non-Bernal rotated graphene planes. While these rotations do not significantly affect the inter-layer interactions, they do break the stacking symmetry of graphite. It is this broken symmetry that leads to each sheet behaving like isolated graphene planes.

  10. Defect mediated van der Waals epitaxy of hexagonal boron nitride on graphene

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heilmann, M.; Bashouti, M.; Riechert, H.; Lopes, J. M. J.

    2018-04-01

    Van der Waals heterostructures comprising of hexagonal boron nitride and graphene are promising building blocks for novel two-dimensional devices such as atomically thin transistors or capacitors. However, demonstrators of those devices have been so far mostly fabricated by mechanical assembly, a non-scalable and time-consuming method, where transfer processes can contaminate the surfaces. Here, we investigate a direct growth process for the fabrication of insulating hexagonal boron nitride on high quality epitaxial graphene using plasma assisted molecular beam epitaxy. Samples were grown at varying temperatures and times and studied using atomic force microscopy, revealing a growth process limited by desorption at high temperatures. Nucleation was mostly commencing from morphological defects in epitaxial graphene, such as step edges or wrinkles. Raman spectroscopy combined with x-ray photoelectron measurements confirm the formation of hexagonal boron nitride and prove the resilience of graphene against the nitrogen plasma used during the growth process. The electrical properties and defects in the heterostructures were studied with high lateral resolution by tunneling current and Kelvin probe force measurements. This correlated approach revealed a nucleation apart from morphological defects in epitaxial graphene, which is mediated by point defects. The presented results help understanding the nucleation and growth behavior during van der Waals epitaxy of 2D materials, and point out a route for a scalable production of van der Waals heterostructures.

  11. Looking behind the scenes: Raman spectroscopy of top-gated epitaxial graphene through the substrate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fromm, F; Wehrfritz, P; Seyller, Th; Hundhausen, M

    2013-01-01

    Raman spectroscopy is frequently used to study the properties of epitaxial graphene grown on silicon carbide (SiC). In this work, we present a confocal micro-Raman study of epitaxial graphene on SiC(0001) in top-down geometry, i.e. in a geometry where both the primary laser light beam as well as the back-scattered light is guided through the SiC substrate. Compared to the conventional top-up configuration, in which confocal micro-Raman spectra are measured from the air side, we observe a significant intensity enhancement in top-down configuration, indicating that most of the Raman-scattered light is emitted into the SiC substrate. The intensity enhancement is explained in terms of dipole radiation at a dielectric surface. The new technique opens the possibility to probe graphene layers in devices where the graphene layer is covered by non-transparent materials. We demonstrate this by measuring gate-modulated Raman spectra of a top-gated epitaxial graphene field effect device. Moreover, we show that these measurements enable us to disentangle the effects of strain and charge on the positions of the prominent Raman lines in epitaxial graphene on SiC. (paper)

  12. Tuning electronic transport in epitaxial graphene-based van der Waals heterostructures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Yu-Chuan; Li, Jun; de La Barrera, Sergio C.; Eichfeld, Sarah M.; Nie, Yifan; Addou, Rafik; Mende, Patrick C.; Wallace, Robert M.; Cho, Kyeongjae; Feenstra, Randall M.; Robinson, Joshua A.

    2016-04-01

    Two-dimensional tungsten diselenide (WSe2) has been used as a component in atomically thin photovoltaic devices, field effect transistors, and tunneling diodes in tandem with graphene. In some applications it is necessary to achieve efficient charge transport across the interface of layered WSe2-graphene, a semiconductor to semimetal junction with a van der Waals (vdW) gap. In such cases, band alignment engineering is required to ensure a low-resistance, ohmic contact. In this work, we investigate the impact of graphene electronic properties on the transport at the WSe2-graphene interface. Electrical transport measurements reveal a lower resistance between WSe2 and fully hydrogenated epitaxial graphene (EGFH) compared to WSe2 grown on partially hydrogenated epitaxial graphene (EGPH). Using low-energy electron microscopy and reflectivity on these samples, we extract the work function difference between the WSe2 and graphene and employ a charge transfer model to determine the WSe2 carrier density in both cases. The results indicate that WSe2-EGFH displays ohmic behavior at small biases due to a large hole density in the WSe2, whereas WSe2-EGPH forms a Schottky barrier junction.Two-dimensional tungsten diselenide (WSe2) has been used as a component in atomically thin photovoltaic devices, field effect transistors, and tunneling diodes in tandem with graphene. In some applications it is necessary to achieve efficient charge transport across the interface of layered WSe2-graphene, a semiconductor to semimetal junction with a van der Waals (vdW) gap. In such cases, band alignment engineering is required to ensure a low-resistance, ohmic contact. In this work, we investigate the impact of graphene electronic properties on the transport at the WSe2-graphene interface. Electrical transport measurements reveal a lower resistance between WSe2 and fully hydrogenated epitaxial graphene (EGFH) compared to WSe2 grown on partially hydrogenated epitaxial graphene (EGPH). Using low

  13. Step driven competitive epitaxial and self-limited growth of graphene on copper surface

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lili Fan

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available The existence of surface steps was found to have significant function and influence on the growth of graphene on copper via chemical vapor deposition. The two typical growth modes involved were found to be influenced by the step morphologies on copper surface, which led to our proposed step driven competitive growth mechanism. We also discovered a protective role of graphene in preserving steps on copper surface. Our results showed that wide and high steps promoted epitaxial growth and yielded multilayer graphene domains with regular shape, while dense and low steps favored self-limited growth and led to large-area monolayer graphene films. We have demonstrated that controllable growth of graphene domains of specific shape and large-area continuous graphene films are feasible.

  14. Single orientation graphene synthesized on iridium thin films grown by molecular beam epitaxy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dangwal Pandey, A., E-mail: arti.pandey@desy.de; Grånäs, E.; Shayduk, R.; Noei, H.; Vonk, V. [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), D-22607 Hamburg (Germany); Krausert, K.; Franz, D.; Müller, P.; Keller, T. F.; Stierle, A., E-mail: andreas.stierle@desy.de [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), D-22607 Hamburg (Germany); Fachbereich Physik, Universität Hamburg, D-22607 Hamburg (Germany)

    2016-08-21

    Heteroepitaxial iridium thin films were deposited on (0001) sapphire substrates by means of molecular beam epitaxy, and subsequently, one monolayer of graphene was synthesized by chemical vapor deposition. The influence of the growth parameters on the quality of the Ir films, as well as of graphene, was investigated systematically by means of low energy electron diffraction, x-ray reflectivity, x-ray diffraction, Auger electron spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy, and atomic force microscopy. Our study reveals (111) oriented iridium films with high crystalline quality and extremely low surface roughness, on which the formation of large-area epitaxial graphene is achieved. The presence of defects, like dislocations, twins, and 30° rotated domains in the iridium films is also discussed. The coverage of graphene was found to be influenced by the presence of 30° rotated domains in the Ir films. Low iridium deposition rates suppress these rotated domains and an almost complete coverage of graphene was obtained. This synthesis route yields inexpensive, air-stable, and large-area graphene with a well-defined orientation, making it accessible to a wider community of researchers for numerous experiments or applications, including those which use destructive analysis techniques or irreversible processes. Moreover, this approach can be used to tune the structural quality of graphene, allowing a systematic study of the influence of defects in various processes like intercalation below graphene.

  15. Mechanical exfoliation of epitaxial graphene on Ir(111) enabled by Br2 intercalation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herbig, Charlotte; Kaiser, Markus; Bendiab, Nedjma; Schumacher, Stefan; Förster, Daniel F; Coraux, Johann; Meerholz, Klaus; Michely, Thomas; Busse, Carsten

    2012-08-08

    We show here that Br(2) intercalation is an efficient method to enable exfoliation of epitaxial graphene on metals by adhesive tape. We exemplify this method for high-quality graphene of macroscopic extension on Ir(111). The sample quality and the transfer process are monitored using low-energy electron diffraction (LEED), scanning tunneling microscopy (STM), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and Raman spectroscopy. The developed process provides an opportunity for preparing graphene of strictly monatomic thickness and well-defined orientation including the transfer to poly(ethylene terephthalate) (PET) foil.

  16. Nanoselective area growth of GaN by metalorganic vapor phase epitaxy on 4H-SiC using epitaxial graphene as a mask

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Puybaret, Renaud; Jordan, Matthew B.; Voss, Paul L.; Ougazzaden, Abdallah; Patriarche, Gilles; Sundaram, Suresh; El Gmili, Youssef; Salvestrini, Jean-Paul; Heer, Walt A. de; Berger, Claire

    2016-01-01

    We report the growth of high-quality triangular GaN nanomesas, 30-nm thick, on the C-face of 4H-SiC using nanoselective area growth (NSAG) with patterned epitaxial graphene grown on SiC as an embedded mask. NSAG alleviates the problems of defects in heteroepitaxy, and the high mobility graphene film could readily provide the back low-dissipative electrode in GaN-based optoelectronic devices. A 5–8 graphene-layer film is first grown on the C-face of 4H-SiC by confinement-controlled sublimation of silicon carbide. Graphene is then patterned and arrays of 75-nm-wide openings are etched in graphene revealing the SiC substrate. A 30-nm-thick GaN is subsequently grown by metal organic vapor phase epitaxy. GaN nanomesas grow epitaxially with perfect selectivity on SiC, in the openings patterned through graphene. The up-or-down orientation of the mesas on SiC, their triangular faceting, and cross-sectional scanning transmission electron microscopy show that they are biphasic. The core is a zinc blende monocrystal surrounded with single-crystal wurtzite. The GaN crystalline nanomesas have no threading dislocations or V-pits. This NSAG process potentially leads to integration of high-quality III-nitrides on the wafer scalable epitaxial graphene/silicon carbide platform.

  17. Nanoselective area growth of GaN by metalorganic vapor phase epitaxy on 4H-SiC using epitaxial graphene as a mask

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Puybaret, Renaud; Jordan, Matthew B.; Voss, Paul L.; Ougazzaden, Abdallah, E-mail: aougazza@georgiatech-metz.fr [School of Electrical and Computer Engineering, Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta, Georgia 30332 (United States); CNRS UMI 2958, Georgia Institute of Technology, 2 Rue Marconi, 57070 Metz (France); Patriarche, Gilles [CNRS, Laboratoire de Photonique et de Nanostructures, Route de Nozay, 91460 Marcoussis (France); Sundaram, Suresh; El Gmili, Youssef [CNRS UMI 2958, Georgia Institute of Technology, 2 Rue Marconi, 57070 Metz (France); Salvestrini, Jean-Paul [Université de Lorraine, CentraleSupélec, LMOPS, EA4423, 57070 Metz (France); Heer, Walt A. de [School of Physics, Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta, Georgia 30332 (United States); Berger, Claire [School of Physics, Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta, Georgia 30332 (United States); CNRS, Institut Néel, BP166, 38042 Grenoble Cedex 9 (France)

    2016-03-07

    We report the growth of high-quality triangular GaN nanomesas, 30-nm thick, on the C-face of 4H-SiC using nanoselective area growth (NSAG) with patterned epitaxial graphene grown on SiC as an embedded mask. NSAG alleviates the problems of defects in heteroepitaxy, and the high mobility graphene film could readily provide the back low-dissipative electrode in GaN-based optoelectronic devices. A 5–8 graphene-layer film is first grown on the C-face of 4H-SiC by confinement-controlled sublimation of silicon carbide. Graphene is then patterned and arrays of 75-nm-wide openings are etched in graphene revealing the SiC substrate. A 30-nm-thick GaN is subsequently grown by metal organic vapor phase epitaxy. GaN nanomesas grow epitaxially with perfect selectivity on SiC, in the openings patterned through graphene. The up-or-down orientation of the mesas on SiC, their triangular faceting, and cross-sectional scanning transmission electron microscopy show that they are biphasic. The core is a zinc blende monocrystal surrounded with single-crystal wurtzite. The GaN crystalline nanomesas have no threading dislocations or V-pits. This NSAG process potentially leads to integration of high-quality III-nitrides on the wafer scalable epitaxial graphene/silicon carbide platform.

  18. Tunneling Spectroscopy Studies of Epitaxial Graphene on Silicon Carbide(0001) and Its Interfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandin, Andreas Axel Tomas

    A two dimensional network of sp2 bonded carbon atoms is defined as graphene. This novel material possesses remarkable electronic properties due to its unique band structure at the vicinity of the Fermi energy. The toughest challenge to bring use of graphene electronic properties in device geometries is that graphene is exceptionally sensitive to its electrical environment for integration into macroscopic system of electrical contacts and substrates. One of the most promising substrates for graphene is the polar surfaces of SiC for the reason it can be grown epitaxially by sublimating Si from the top-most SiC atomic layers. In this work, the interfaces of graphene grown on the Si-terminated polar surface SiC(0001) is studied in UHV using scanning tunneling microscopy (STM), scanning tunneling spectroscopy (STS), low energy electron diffraction (LEED) and auger electron Spectroscopy (AES). STM is used image the graphene surface and interfaces with the capability of atomic resolution. LEED is used to study surface atomic reciprocal ordering and AES is used to determine surface atomic composition during the graphene formation. Interfacial layer (Buffer layer), Single layer graphene and bilayer graphene are identified electronically by means of probing the first member of the image potential derived state. This state is found by dZ/dV spectroscopy in the high energy unoccupied states and is exceptionally sensitive to electrostatic changes to the surface which is detected by energy shifts of image potential states (IPS). This sensitivity is utilized to probe the graphene screening of external electric fields by varying the electric field in the tunneling junction and addresses the fact that charged impurity scattering is likely to be crucial for epitaxial graphene on SiC(0001) when it comes to transport parameters. Shifts of IPS energy position has also been used verify work function changes for identification of several Sodium Intercalation structures of epitaxial

  19. Spintronics and thermoelectrics in exfoliated and epitaxial graphene

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van den Berg, Jan Jasper

    2016-01-01

    This thesis is about two subjects: graphene spintronics and graphene thermoelectrics. Spintronics is about the creation and manipulation of spin currents. These are electrical currents in which we can control the spin orientation (up or down) of the conduction electrons. The second subject,

  20. Oxygen Switching of the Epitaxial Graphene-Metal Interaction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larciprete, Rosanna; Ulstrup, Søren; Lacovig, Paolo

    2012-01-01

    as on clean Ir(111), giving only a slightly higher oxygen coverage. Upon lifting, the C 1s signal shows a downshift in binding energy, due to the charge transfer to graphene from the oxygen-covered metal surface. Moreover, the characteristic spectral signatures of the graphenesubstrate interaction...... in the valence band are removed, and the spectrum of strongly hole-doped, quasi free-standing graphene with a single Dirac cone around the K point is observed. The oxygen can be deintercalated by annealing, and this process takes place at around T = 600 K, in a rather abrupt way. A small amount of carbon atoms...... demonstrate that oxygen intercalation is an efficient method for fully decoupling an extended layer of graphene from a metal substrate, such as Ir(111). They pave the way for the fundamental research on graphene, where extended, ordered layers of free-standing graphene are important and, due to the stability...

  1. Controlling the growth of epitaxial graphene on metalized diamond (111) surface

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cooil, S. P.; Wells, J. W.; Hu, D.; Evans, D. A.; Niu, Y. R.; Zakharov, A. A.; Bianchi, M.

    2015-01-01

    The 2-dimensional transformation of the diamond (111) surface to graphene has been demonstrated using ultrathin Fe films that catalytically reduce the reaction temperature needed for the conversion of sp 3 to sp 2 carbon. An epitaxial system is formed, which involves the re-crystallization of carbon at the Fe/vacuum interface and that enables the controlled growth of monolayer and multilayer graphene films. In order to study the initial stages of single and multilayer graphene growth, real time monitoring of the system was preformed within a photoemission and low energy electron microscope. It was found that the initial graphene growth occurred at temperatures as low as 500 °C, whilst increasing the temperature to 560 °C was required to produce multi-layer graphene of high structural quality. Angle resolved photoelectron spectroscopy was used to study the electronic properties of the grown material, where a graphene-like energy momentum dispersion was observed. The Dirac point for the first layer is located at 2.5 eV below the Fermi level, indicating an n-type doping of the graphene due to substrate interactions, while that of the second graphene layer lies close to the Fermi level

  2. Planar edge Schottky barrier-tunneling transistors using epitaxial graphene/SiC junctions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kunc, Jan; Hu, Yike; Palmer, James; Guo, Zelei; Hankinson, John; Gamal, Salah H; Berger, Claire; de Heer, Walt A

    2014-09-10

    A purely planar graphene/SiC field effect transistor is presented here. The horizontal current flow over one-dimensional tunneling barrier between planar graphene contact and coplanar two-dimensional SiC channel exhibits superior on/off ratio compared to conventional transistors employing vertical electron transport. Multilayer epitaxial graphene (MEG) grown on SiC(0001̅) was adopted as the transistor source and drain. The channel is formed by the accumulation layer at the interface of semi-insulating SiC and a surface silicate that forms after high vacuum high temperature annealing. Electronic bands between the graphene edge and SiC accumulation layer form a thin Schottky barrier, which is dominated by tunneling at low temperatures. A thermionic emission prevails over tunneling at high temperatures. We show that neglecting tunneling effectively causes the temperature dependence of the Schottky barrier height. The channel can support current densities up to 35 A/m.

  3. Morphological and electronic properties of epitaxial graphene on SiC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yakimova, R.; Iakimov, T.; Yazdi, G.R.; Bouhafs, C.; Eriksson, J.; Zakharov, A.; Boosalis, A.; Schubert, M.; Darakchieva, V.

    2014-01-01

    We report on the structural and electronic properties of graphene grown on SiC by high-temperature sublimation. We have studied thickness uniformity of graphene grown on 4H–SiC (0 0 0 1), 6H–SiC (0 0 0 1), and 3C–SiC (1 1 1) substrates and investigated in detail graphene surface morphology and electronic properties. Differences in the thickness uniformity of the graphene layers on different SiC polytypes is related mainly to the minimization of the terrace surface energy during the step bunching process. It is also shown that a lower substrate surface roughness results in more uniform step bunching and consequently better quality of the grown graphene. We have compared the three SiC polytypes with a clear conclusion in favor of 3C–SiC. Localized lateral variations in the Fermi energy of graphene are mapped by scanning Kelvin probe microscopy. It is found that the overall single-layer graphene coverage depends strongly on the surface terrace width, where a more homogeneous coverage is favored by wider terraces. It is observed that the step distance is a dominating, factor in determining the unintentional doping of graphene from the SiC substrate. Microfocal spectroscopic ellipsometry mapping of the electronic properties and thickness of epitaxial graphene on 3C–SiC (1 1 1) is also reported. Growth of one monolayer graphene is demonstrated on both Si- and C-polarity of the 3C–SiC substrates and it is shown that large area homogeneous single monolayer graphene can be achieved on the Si-face substrates. Correlations between the number of graphene monolayers on one hand and the main transition associated with an exciton enhanced van Hove singularity at ∼4.5 eV and the free-charge carrier scattering time, on the other are established. It is shown that the interface structure on the Si- and C-polarity of the 3C–SiC (1 1 1) differs and has a determining role for the thickness and electronic properties homogeneity of the epitaxial graphene.

  4. Voltage-controlled inversion of tunnel magnetoresistance in epitaxial nickel/graphene/MgO/cobalt junctions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Godel, F.; Doudin, B.; Henry, Y.; Halley, D., E-mail: halley@ipcms.unistra.fr, E-mail: dayen@ipcms.unistra.fr; Dayen, J.-F., E-mail: halley@ipcms.unistra.fr, E-mail: dayen@ipcms.unistra.fr [Institut de Physique et Chimie des Matériaux de Strasbourg (IPCMS), UMR 7504 CNRS-UdS, 23 rue du Loess, 67034 Strasbourg (France); Venkata Kamalakar, M. [Institut de Physique et Chimie des Matériaux de Strasbourg (IPCMS), UMR 7504 CNRS-UdS, 23 rue du Loess, 67034 Strasbourg (France); Department of Microtechnology and Nanoscience, Chalmers University of Technology, SE-41296 Göteborg (Sweden)

    2014-10-13

    We report on the fabrication and characterization of vertical spin-valve structures using a thick epitaxial MgO barrier as spacer layer and a graphene-passivated Ni film as bottom ferromagnetic electrode. The devices show robust and scalable tunnel magnetoresistance, with several changes of sign upon varying the applied bias voltage. These findings are explained by a model of phonon-assisted transport mechanisms that relies on the peculiarity of the band structure and spin density of states at the hybrid graphene|Ni interface.

  5. Detecting the local transport properties and the dimensionality of transport of epitaxial graphene by a multi-point probe approach

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Barreto, Lucas; Perkins, Edward; Johannsen, Jens

    2013-01-01

    The electronic transport properties of epitaxial monolayer graphene (MLG) and hydrogen-intercalated quasi free-standing bilayer graphene (QFBLG) on SiC(0001) are investigated by micro multi-point probes. Using a probe with 12 contacts, we perform four-point probe measurements with the possibility...

  6. Graphene nanoribbon field-effect transistors on wafer-scale epitaxial graphene on SiC substrates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wan Sik Hwang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available We report the realization of top-gated graphene nanoribbon field effect transistors (GNRFETs of ∼10 nm width on large-area epitaxial graphene exhibiting the opening of a band gap of ∼0.14 eV. Contrary to prior observations of disordered transport and severe edge-roughness effects of graphene nanoribbons (GNRs, the experimental results presented here clearly show that the transport mechanism in carefully fabricated GNRFETs is conventional band-transport at room temperature and inter-band tunneling at low temperature. The entire space of temperature, size, and geometry dependent transport properties and electrostatics of the GNRFETs are explained by a conventional thermionic emission and tunneling current model. Our combined experimental and modeling work proves that carefully fabricated narrow GNRs behave as conventional semiconductors and remain potential candidates for electronic switching devices.

  7. GaN epitaxial layers grown on multilayer graphene by MOCVD

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Tianbao; Liu, Chenyang; Zhang, Zhe; Yu, Bin; Dong, Hailiang; Jia, Wei; Jia, Zhigang; Yu, Chunyan; Gan, Lin; Xu, Bingshe

    2018-04-01

    In this study, GaN epitaxial layers were successfully deposited on a multilayer graphene (MLG) by using metal-organic chemical vapor deposition (MOCVD). Highly crystalline orientations of the GaN films were confirmed through electron backscatter diffraction (EBSD). An epitaxial relationship between GaN films and MLG is unambiguously established by transmission electron microscope (TEM) analysis. The Raman spectra was used to analyze the internal stress of GaN films, and the spectrum shows residual tensile stress in the GaN films. Moreover, the results of the TEM analysis and Raman spectra indicate that the high quality of the MLG substrate is maintained even after the growth of the GaN film. This high-quality MLG makes it possible to easily remove epitaxial layers from the supporting substrate by micro-mechanical exfoliation technology. This work can aid in the development of transferable devices using GaN films.

  8. Low-temperature ballistic transport in nanoscale epitaxial graphene cross junctions

    OpenAIRE

    Weingart, S.; Bock, C.; Kunze, U.; Speck, F.; Seyller, Th.; Ley, L.

    2009-01-01

    We report on the observation of inertial-ballistic transport in nanoscale cross junctions fabricated from epitaxial graphene grown on SiC(0001). Ballistic transport is indicated by a negative bend resistance of R12,43 ~ 170 ohm which is measured in a non-local, four-terminal configuration at 4.2 K and which vanishes as the temperature is increased above 80 K.

  9. Approaching the Dirac point in high-mobility multilayer epitaxial graphene

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Orlita, Milan; Faugeras, C.; Plochocka, P.; Neugebauer, P.; Martinez, G.; Maude, D. K.; Barra, A. L.; Sprinkle, M.; Berger, C.; de Heer, W.A.; Potemski, M.

    2008-01-01

    Roč. 101, č. 26 (2008), 267601/1-267601/4 ISSN 0031-9007 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR KAN400100652 Grant - others:EU(XE) RITA -CT-2003-505474 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10100521 Keywords : multilayer epitaxial graphene * Dirac fermions * magnetic field Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism Impact factor: 7.180, year: 2008

  10. Weak localization in few-layer black phosphorus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Du, Yuchen; Neal, Adam T; Zhou, Hong; Ye, Peide D

    2016-01-01

    We have conducted a comprehensive investigation into the magneto-transport properties of few-layer black phosphorus in terms of phase coherence length, phase coherence time, and mobility via weak localization measurement and Hall-effect measurement. We present magnetoresistance data showing the weak localization effect in bare p-type few-layer black phosphorus and reveal its strong dependence on temperature and carrier concentration. The measured weak localization agrees well with the Hikami–Larkin–Nagaoka model and the extracted phase coherence length of 104 nm at 350 mK, decreasing as ∼T −0.513+−0.053 with increased temperature. Weak localization measurement allows us to qualitatively probe the temperature-dependent phase coherence time τ ϕ , which is in agreement with the theory of carrier interaction in the diffusive regime. We also observe the universal conductance fluctuation phenomenon in few-layer black phosphorus within moderate magnetic field and low temperature regime. (paper)

  11. Hydrogen assisted growth of high quality epitaxial graphene on the C-face of 4H-SiC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cai, Tuocheng; Jia, Zhenzhao; Yan, Baoming; Yu, Dapeng; Wu, Xiaosong, E-mail: xswu@pku.edu.cn [State Key Laboratory for Artificial Microstructure and Mesoscopic Physics, Peking University, Beijing 100871 (China); Collaborative Innovation Center of Quantum Matter, Beijing 100871 (China)

    2015-01-05

    We demonstrate hydrogen assisted growth of high quality epitaxial graphene on the C-face of 4H-SiC. Compared with the conventional thermal decomposition technique, the size of the growth domain by this method is substantially increased and the thickness variation is reduced. Based on the morphology of epitaxial graphene, the role of hydrogen is revealed. It is found that hydrogen acts as a carbon etchant. It suppresses the defect formation and nucleation of graphene. It also improves the kinetics of carbon atoms via hydrocarbon species. These effects lead to increase of the domain size and the structure quality. The consequent capping effect results in smooth surface morphology and suppression of multilayer growth. Our method provides a viable route to fine tune the growth kinetics of epitaxial graphene on SiC.

  12. Sub-monolayer growth of titanium, cobalt, and palladium on epitaxial graphene

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sokolova, Anastasia; Kilchert, Franziska; Schneider, M. Alexander [Lehrstuhl fuer Festkoerperphysik, Friedrich-Alexander Universitaet Erlangen-Nuernberg (FAU), Erlangen (Germany); Link, Stefan; Stoehr, Alexander; Starke, Ulrich [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Festkoerperforschung, Stuttgart (Germany)

    2017-11-15

    We deposited metals (Ti, Co, Pd) typically used as seed layers for contacts on epitaxial graphene on SiC(0001) and studied the early stages of growth in the sub-monolayer regime by Scanning Tunneling Microscopy (STM). All three metals do not wet the substrate and Ostwalt ripening occurs at temperatures below 400 K. The analysis of the epitaxial orientation of the metal adislands revealed their specific alignment to the graphene lattice. It is found that the apparent height of the islands as measured by STM strongly deviates from their true topographic height. This is interpreted as an indication of the presence of scattering processes within the metal particles that increase the transparency of the metal-graphene interface for electrons. Even large islands are easily picked up by the tip of the STM allowing insight into the bonding between metal island and graphene surface and into mechanisms leading to metal intercalation. (copyright 2017 by WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  13. Wafer scale millimeter-wave integrated circuits based on epitaxial graphene in high data rate communication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Habibpour, Omid; He, Zhongxia Simon; Strupinski, Wlodek; Rorsman, Niklas; Zirath, Herbert

    2017-02-01

    In recent years, the demand for high data rate wireless communications has increased dramatically, which requires larger bandwidth to sustain multi-user accessibility and quality of services. This can be achieved at millimeter wave frequencies. Graphene is a promising material for the development of millimeter-wave electronics because of its outstanding electron transport properties. Up to now, due to the lack of high quality material and process technology, the operating frequency of demonstrated circuits has been far below the potential of graphene. Here, we present monolithic integrated circuits based on epitaxial graphene operating at unprecedented high frequencies (80-100 GHz). The demonstrated circuits are capable of encoding/decoding of multi-gigabit-per-second information into/from the amplitude or phase of the carrier signal. The developed fabrication process is scalable to large wafer sizes.

  14. Wafer scale millimeter-wave integrated circuits based on epitaxial graphene in high data rate communication

    Science.gov (United States)

    Habibpour, Omid; He, Zhongxia Simon; Strupinski, Wlodek; Rorsman, Niklas; Zirath, Herbert

    2017-02-01

    In recent years, the demand for high data rate wireless communications has increased dramatically, which requires larger bandwidth to sustain multi-user accessibility and quality of services. This can be achieved at millimeter wave frequencies. Graphene is a promising material for the development of millimeter-wave electronics because of its outstanding electron transport properties. Up to now, due to the lack of high quality material and process technology, the operating frequency of demonstrated circuits has been far below the potential of graphene. Here, we present monolithic integrated circuits based on epitaxial graphene operating at unprecedented high frequencies (80-100 GHz). The demonstrated circuits are capable of encoding/decoding of multi-gigabit-per-second information into/from the amplitude or phase of the carrier signal. The developed fabrication process is scalable to large wafer sizes.

  15. X-ray radiation effects in multilayer epitaxial graphene

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hicks, Jeremy; Tinkey, Holly; Hankinson, John; Heer, Walt A. de; Conrad, Edward H. [School of Physics, Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta, Georgia 30332 (United States); Arora, Rajan; Kenyon, Eleazar; Chakraborty, Partha S.; Cressler, John D. [School of Electrical and Computer Engineering, Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta, Georgia 30332 (United States); Berger, Claire [School of Physics, Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta, Georgia 30332 (United States); CNRS-Institut Neel, BP 166, 38042 Grenoble Cedex 9 (France)

    2011-12-05

    We characterize multilayer graphene grown on C-face SiC before and after exposure to a total ionizing dose of 12 Mrad(SiO{sub 2}) using a 10 keV x-ray source. While we observe the partial peeling of the top graphene layers and the appearance of a modest Raman D-peak, we find that the electrical characteristics (mobility, sheet resistivity, free carrier concentration) of the material are mostly unaffected by radiation exposure. Combined with x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy data showing numerous carbon-oxygen bonds after irradiation, we conclude that the primary damage mechanism is through surface etching from reactive oxygen species created by the x-rays.

  16. Van der Waals epitaxy of GaN-based light-emitting diodes on wet-transferred multilayer graphene film

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yang; Zhao, Yun; Wei, Tongbo; Liu, Zhiqiang; Duan, Ruifei; Wang, Yunyu; Zhang, Xiang; Wu, QingQing; Yan, Jianchang; Yi, Xiaoyao; Yuan, Guodong; Wang, Junxi; Li, Jimin

    2017-08-01

    We experimentally investigated the possibility of using multilayer graphene to solve large mismatch problems between sapphire and nitride and further studied the effects of a multilayer graphene interlayer on the optical and electrical properties of LEDs. For the subsequent growth of 3-µm-thick GaN on AlN, multilayer graphene helps release stress and effectively removes cracks. In addition, multilayer graphene increases the diffraction of the substrate surface as determined from the increase in optical transmittance spectra in the wavelength range of 400-900 nm. Although the crystalline quality of GaN with multilayer graphene is slightly decreased, LEDs grown on multilayer graphene still show a higher output power than those grown on conventional sapphire. The present findings showed that the multilayer graphene layer is attractive as a potential substrate for the epitaxial growth of III-nitride to reduce stress and it could improve back light extraction as a rough layer to increase external quantum efficiency.

  17. The crystal orientation relation and macroscopic surface roughness in hetero-epitaxial graphene grown on Cu/mica

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qi, J L; Nagashio, K; Nishimura, T; Toriumi, A

    2014-01-01

    Clean, flat and orientation-identified graphene on a substrate is in high demand for graphene electronics. In this study, the hetero-epitaxial graphene growth on Cu(111)/mica(001) by chemical vapor deposition is investigated to check the applicability for top-gate insulator research on graphene, as well as graphene channel research, by transferring graphene on to SiO 2 /Si substrates. After adjusting the graphene growth conditions, the surface roughness of the graphene/Cu/mica substrate and the average smoothed areas are ∼0.34 nm and ∼100 μm 2 , respectively. The orientation of graphene in the graphene/Cu/mica substrate can be identified by the hexagonal void morphology of Cu. Moreover, we demonstrate a relatively high mobility of ∼4500 cm 2 V −1 s −1 in graphene transferred on the SiO 2 /Si substrate. These results suggest that the present graphene/Cu/mica substrate can be used for top-gate insulator research on graphene. (papers)

  18. Raman spectroscopy in graphene

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Malard, L.M.; Pimenta, M.A.; Dresselhaus, G.; Dresselhaus, M.S.

    2009-01-01

    Recent Raman scattering studies in different types of graphene samples are reviewed here. We first discuss the first-order and the double resonance Raman scattering mechanisms in graphene, which give rise to the most prominent Raman features. The determination of the number of layers in few-layer graphene is discussed, giving special emphasis to the possibility of using Raman spectroscopy to distinguish a monolayer from few-layer graphene stacked in the Bernal (AB) configuration. Different types of graphene samples produced both by exfoliation and using epitaxial methods are described and their Raman spectra are compared with those of 3D crystalline graphite and turbostratic graphite, in which the layers are stacked with rotational disorder. We show that Resonance Raman studies, where the energy of the excitation laser line can be tuned continuously, can be used to probe electrons and phonons near the Dirac point of graphene and, in particular allowing a determination to be made of the tight-binding parameters for bilayer graphene. The special process of electron-phonon interaction that renormalizes the phonon energy giving rise to the Kohn anomaly is discussed, and is illustrated by gated experiments where the position of the Fermi level can be changed experimentally. Finally, we discuss the ability of distinguishing armchair and zig-zag edges by Raman spectroscopy and studies in graphene nanoribbons in which the Raman signal is enhanced due to resonance with singularities in the density of electronic states.

  19. Few-layer MoS2 as nitrogen protective barrier

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akbali, B.; Yanilmaz, A.; Tomak, A.; Tongay, S.; Çelebi, C.; Sahin, H.

    2017-10-01

    We report experimental and theoretical investigations of the observed barrier behavior of few-layer MoS2 against nitrogenation. Owing to its low-strength shearing, low friction coefficient, and high lubricity, MoS2 exhibits the demeanor of a natural N-resistant coating material. Raman spectroscopy is done to determine the coating capability of MoS2 on graphene. Surface morphology of our MoS2/graphene heterostructure is characterized by using optical microscopy, scanning electron microscopy, and atomic force microscopy. In addition, density functional theory-based calculations are performed to understand the energy barrier performance of MoS2 against nitrogenation. The penetration of nitrogen atoms through a defect-free MoS2 layer is prevented by a very high vertical diffusion barrier, indicating that MoS2 can serve as a protective layer for the nitrogenation of graphene. Our experimental and theoretical results show that MoS2 material can be used both as an efficient nanocoating material and as a nanoscale mask for selective nitrogenation of graphene layer.

  20. Influence of structural properties on ballistic transport in nanoscale epitaxial graphene cross junctions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bock, Claudia; Weingart, Sonja; Karaissaridis, Epaminondas; Kunze, Ulrich; Speck, Florian; Seyller, Thomas

    2012-01-01

    In this paper we investigate the influence of material and device properties on the ballistic transport in epitaxial monolayer graphene and epitaxial quasi-free-standing monolayer graphene. Our studies comprise (a) magneto-transport in two-dimensional (2D) Hall bars, (b) temperature- and magnetic-field-dependent bend resistance of unaligned and step-edge-aligned orthogonal cross junctions, and (c) the influence of the lead width of the cross junctions on ballistic transport. We found that ballistic transport is highly sensitive to scattering at the step edges of the silicon carbide substrate. A suppression of the ballistic transport is observed if the lead width of the cross junction is reduced from 50 nm to 30 nm. In a 50 nm wide device prepared on quasi-free-standing graphene we observe a gradual transition from the ballistic into the diffusive transport regime if the temperature is increased from 4.2 to about 50 K, although 2D Hall bars show a temperature-independent mobility. Thus, in 1D devices additional temperature-dependent scattering mechanisms play a pivotal role. (paper)

  1. Incorporating isolated molybdenum (Mo) atoms into Bilayer Epitaxial Graphene on 4H-SiC(0001)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Han; Wan, Wen; Li, Hui; Wong, Swee Liang; Lv, Lu; Gao, Yongli; Wee, Andrew T. S.

    2014-03-01

    The atomic structures and electronic properties of isolated Mo atoms in bilayer epitaxial graphene (BLEG) on 4H-SiC(0001) are investigated by low temperature scanning tunneling microscopy (LT-STM). LT-STM results reveal that isolated Mo dopants prefer to substitute C atoms at α-sites, and preferentially locate between the graphene bilayers. First-principles calculations confirm that the embedding of single Mo dopants within BLEG is energetically favorable as compared to monolayer graphene. The calculated bandstructures show that Mo-doped BLEG is n-doped, and each Mo atom introduces a local magnetic moment of 1.81 μB. Our findings demonstrate a simple and stable method to incorporate single transition metal dopants into the graphene lattice to tune its electronic and magnetic properties for possible use in graphene spin devices. NRF-CRP (Singapore) grants R-143-000-360-281and R-144-000-295-281. ``Shenghua Professorship'' startup funding from CSU and the support from the NSF of China (Grant No.11304398).

  2. Charge-carrier transport in large-area epitaxial graphene

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kisslinger, Ferdinand; Popp, Matthias; Weber, Heiko B. [Lehrstuhl fuer Angewandte Physik, Friedrich-Alexander-Universitaet Erlangen-Nuernberg (FAU), Erlangen (Germany); Jobst, Johannes [Huygens-Kamerlingh Onnes Laboratorium, Leiden Institute of Physics, Leiden University (Netherlands); Shallcross, Sam [Lehrstuhl fuer theoretische Festkoerperphysik, Friedrich-Alexander-Universitaet Erlangen-Nuernberg (FAU), Erlangen (Germany)

    2017-11-15

    We present an overview of recent charge carrier transport experiments in both monolayer and bilayer graphene, with emphasis on the phenomena that appear in large-area samples. While many aspects of transport are based on quantum mechanical concepts, in the large-area limit classical corrections dominate and shape the magnetoresistance and the tunneling conductance. The discussed phenomena are very general and can, with little modification, be expected in any atomically thin 2D conductor. (copyright 2017 by WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  3. Investigation of structural and electronic properties of epitaxial graphene on 3C–SiC(100/Si(100 substrates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gogneau N

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Noelle Gogneau,1 Amira Ben Gouider Trabelsi,2 Mathieu G Silly,3 Mohamed Ridene,1 Marc Portail,4 Adrien Michon,4 Mehrezi Oueslati,2 Rachid Belkhou,3 Fausto Sirotti,3 Abdelkarim Ouerghi1 1Laboratoire de Photonique et de Nanostructures, Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique, Marcoussis, France; 2Unité des Nanomatériaux et Photonique, Faculté des Sciences de Tunis, Université de Tunis El Manar Campus Universitaire, Tunis, Tunisia; 3Synchrotron-SOLEIL, Saint-Aubin, BP48, F91192 Gif sur Yvette Cedex, France; 4Centre de Recherche sur l'HétéroEpitaxie et Ses Application, Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique, Valbonne, France Abstract: Graphene has been intensively studied in recent years in order to take advantage of its unique properties. Its synthesis on SiC substrates by solid-state graphitization appears a suitable option for graphene-based electronics. However, before developing devices based on epitaxial graphene, it is desirable to understand and finely control the synthesis of material with the most promising properties. To achieve these prerequisites, many studies are being conducted on various SiC substrates. Here, we review 3C–SiC(100 epilayers grown by chemical vapor deposition on Si(100 substrates for producing graphene by solid state graphitization under ultrahigh-vacuum conditions. Based on various characterization techniques, the structural and electrical properties of epitaxial graphene layer grown on 3C–SiC(100/Si(100 are discussed. We establish that epitaxial graphene presents properties similar to those obtained using hexagonal SiC substrates, with the advantage of being compatible with current Si-processing technology. Keywords: epitaxial graphene, electronic properties, structural properties, silicon carbide 

  4. Atomic and electronic structure of trilayer graphene/SiC(0001): Evidence of Strong Dependence on Stacking Sequence and charge transfer

    OpenAIRE

    Pierucci, Debora; Brumme, Thomas; Girard, Jean-Christophe; Calandra, Matteo; Silly, Mathieu G.; Sirotti, Fausto; Barbier, Antoine; Mauri, Francesco; Ouerghi, Abdelkarim

    2016-01-01

    International audience; The transport properties of few-layer graphene are the directly result of a peculiar band structure near the Dirac point. Here, for epitaxial graphene grown on SiC, we determine the effect of charge transfer from the SiC substrate on the local density of states (LDOS) of trilayer graphene using scaning tunneling microscopy/spectroscopy and angle resolved photoemission spectroscopy (ARPES). Different spectra are observed and are attributed to the existence of two stable...

  5. Influence of defects in SiC (0001) on epitaxial graphene

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guo Yu; Guo Li-Wei; Lu Wei; Huang Jiao; Jia Yu-Ping; Sun Wei; Li Zhi-Lin; Wang Yi-Fei

    2014-01-01

    Defects in silicon carbide (SiC) substrate are crucial to the properties of the epitaxial graphene (EG) grown on it. Here we report the effect of defects in SiC on the crystalline quality of EGs through comparative studies of the characteristics of the EGs grown on SiC (0001) substrates with different defect densities. It is found that EGs on high quality SiC possess regular steps on the surface of the SiC and there is no discernible D peak in its Raman spectrum. Conversely, the EG on the SiC with a high density of defects has a strong D peak, irregular stepped morphology and poor uniformity in graphene layer numbers. It is the defects in the SiC that are responsible for the irregular stepped morphology and lead to the small domain size in the EG. (rapid communication)

  6. Nickel enhanced graphene growth directly on dielectric substrates by molecular beam epitaxy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wofford, Joseph M., E-mail: joewofford@gmail.com, E-mail: lopes@pdi-berlin.de; Lopes, Joao Marcelo J., E-mail: joewofford@gmail.com, E-mail: lopes@pdi-berlin.de; Riechert, Henning [Paul-Drude-Institut für Festkörperelektronik, Hausvogteiplatz 5-7, 10117 Berlin (Germany); Speck, Florian; Seyller, Thomas [Technische Universität Chemnitz, Institut für Physik, Reichenhainer Str. 70, 09126 Chemnitz (Germany)

    2016-07-28

    The efficacy of Ni as a surfactant to improve the crystalline quality of graphene grown directly on dielectric Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}(0001) substrates by molecular beam epitaxy is examined. Simultaneously exposing the substrate to a Ni flux throughout C deposition at 950 °C led to improved charge carrier mobility and a Raman spectrum indicating less structural disorder in the resulting nanocrystalline graphene film. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy confirmed that no residual Ni could be detected in the film and showed a decrease in the intensity of the defect-related component of the C1s level. Similar improvements were not observed when a lower substrate temperature (850 °C) was used. A close examination of the Raman spectra suggests that Ni reduces the concentration of lattice vacancies in the film, possibly by catalytically assisting adatom incorporation.

  7. Successful Fabrication of GaN Epitaxial Layer on Non-Catalytically grown Graphene

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hwang, Sung Won [Konkuk University, Chungju (Korea, Republic of); Choi, Suk-Ho [Kyung Hee University, Yongin (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-07-15

    Sapphire is widely used as a substrate for the growth of GaN epitaxial layer (EPI), but has several drawbacks such as high cost, large lattice mismatch, non-flexibility, and so on. Here, we first employ graphene directly grown on Si or sapphire substrate as a platform for the growth and lift-off of GaN-light-emitting diode (LED) EPI, useful for not only recycling the substrate but also transferring the GaN-LED EPI to other flexible substrates. Sequential standard processes of nucleation/recrystallization of GaN seeds and deposition of undoped (u-) GaN/AlN buffer layer were done on graphene/substrate before the growth of GaN-LED EPI, accompanied by taping and lift-off of u-GaN/AlN or GaN-LED EPI. This approach can overcome the limitations by the catalytic growth and transfer of graphene, and make the oxygen-plasma treatment of graphene for the growth of GaN EPI unnecessary.

  8. In situ fabrication of quasi-free-standing epitaxial graphene nanoflakes on gold.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leicht, Philipp; Zielke, Lukas; Bouvron, Samuel; Moroni, Riko; Voloshina, Elena; Hammerschmidt, Lukas; Dedkov, Yuriy S; Fonin, Mikhail

    2014-04-22

    Addressing the multitude of electronic phenomena theoretically predicted for confined graphene structures requires appropriate in situ fabrication procedures yielding graphene nanoflakes (GNFs) with well-defined geometries and accessible electronic properties. Here, we present a simple strategy to fabricate quasi-free-standing GNFs of variable sizes, performing temperature programmed growth of graphene flakes on the Ir(111) surface and subsequent intercalation of gold. Using scanning tunneling microscopy (STM), we show that epitaxial GNFs on a perfectly ordered Au(111) surface are formed while maintaining an unreconstructed, singly hydrogen-terminated edge structure, as confirmed by the accompanying density functional theory (DFT) calculations. Using tip-induced lateral displacement of GNFs, we demonstrate that GNFs on Au(111) are to a large extent decoupled from the Au(111) substrate. The direct accessibility of the electronic states of a single GNF is demonstrated upon analysis of the quasiparticle interference patterns obtained by low-temperature STM. These findings open up an interesting playground for diverse investigations of graphene nanostructures with possible implications for device fabrication.

  9. Emergence of an Out-of-Plane Optical Phonon (ZO) Kohn Anomaly in Quasifreestanding Epitaxial Graphene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Politano, Antonio; de Juan, Fernando; Chiarello, Gennaro; Fertig, Herbert A

    2015-08-14

    In neutral graphene, two prominent cusps known as Kohn anomalies are found in the phonon dispersion of the highest optical phonon at q=Γ (LO branch) and q=K (TO branch), reflecting a significant electron-phonon coupling (EPC) to undoped Dirac electrons. In this work, high-resolution electron energy loss spectroscopy is used to measure the phonon dispersion around the Γ point in quasifreestanding graphene epitaxially grown on Pt(111). The Kohn anomaly for the LO phonon is observed at finite momentum q~2k_{F} from Γ, with a shape in excellent agreement with the theory and consistent with known values of the EPC and the Fermi level. More strikingly, we also observe a Kohn anomaly at the same momentum for the out-of-plane optical phonon (ZO) branch. This observation is the first direct evidence of the coupling of the ZO mode with Dirac electrons, which is forbidden for freestanding graphene but becomes allowed in the presence of a substrate. Moreover, we estimate the EPC to be even greater than that of the LO mode, making graphene on Pt(111) an optimal system to explore the effects of this new coupling in the electronic properties.

  10. In silico carbon molecular beam epitaxial growth of graphene on the h-BN substrate: carbon source effect on van der Waals epitaxy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jonghoon; Varshney, Vikas; Park, Jeongho; Farmer, Barry L.; Roy, Ajit K.

    2016-05-01

    Against the presumption that hexagonal boron-nitride (h-BN) should provide an ideal substrate for van der Waals (vdW) epitaxy to grow high quality graphene films, carbon molecular beam epitaxy (CMBE) techniques using solid carbon sublimation have reported relatively poor quality of the graphene. In this article, the CMBE growth of graphene on the h-BN substrate is numerically studied in order to identify the effect of the carbon source on the quality of the graphene film. The carbon molecular beam generated by the sublimation of solid carbon source materials such as graphite and glassy carbon is mostly composed of atomic carbon, carbon dimers and carbon trimers. Therefore, the graphene film growth becomes a complex process involving various deposition characteristics of a multitude of carbon entities. Based on the study of surface adsorption and film growth characteristics of these three major carbon entities comprising graphite vapour, we report that carbon trimers convey strong traits of vdW epitaxy prone to high quality graphene growth, while atomic carbon deposition is a surface-reaction limited process accompanied by strong chemisorption. The vdW epitaxial behaviour of carbon trimers is found to be substantial enough to nucleate and develop into graphene like planar films within a nanosecond of high flux growth simulation, while reactive atomic carbons tend to impair the structural integrity of the crystalline h-BN substrate upon deposition to form an amorphous interface between the substrate and the growing carbon film. The content of reactive atomic carbons in the molecular beam is suspected to be the primary cause of low quality graphene reported in the literature. A possible optimization of the molecular beam composition towards the synthesis of better quality graphene films is suggested.Against the presumption that hexagonal boron-nitride (h-BN) should provide an ideal substrate for van der Waals (vdW) epitaxy to grow high quality graphene films, carbon

  11. MBE growth of few-layer 2H-MoTe2 on 3D substrates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vishwanath, Suresh; Sundar, Aditya; Liu, Xinyu; Azcatl, Angelica; Lochocki, Edward; Woll, Arthur R.; Rouvimov, Sergei; Hwang, Wan Sik; Lu, Ning; Peng, Xin; Lien, Huai-Hsun; Weisenberger, John; McDonnell, Stephen; Kim, Moon J.; Dobrowolska, Margaret; Furdyna, Jacek K.; Shen, Kyle; Wallace, Robert M.; Jena, Debdeep; Xing, Huili Grace

    2018-01-01

    MoTe2 is the least explored material in the Molybdenum-chalcogen family. Molecular beam epitaxy (MBE) provides a unique opportunity to tackle the small electronegativity difference between Mo and Te while growing layer by layer away from thermodynamic equilibrium. We find that for a few-layer MoTe2 grown at a moderate rate of ∼6 min per monolayer, a narrow window in temperature (above Te cell temperature) and Te:Mo ratio exists, where we can obtain pure phase 2H-MoTe2. This is confirmed using reflection high-energy electron diffraction (RHEED), Raman spectroscopy and X-ray photoemission spectroscopy (XPS). For growth on CaF2, Grazing incidence X-ray diffraction (GI-XRD) reveals a grain size of ∼90 Å and presence of twinned grains. In this work, we hypothesis the presence of excess Te incorporation in MBE grown few layer 2H-MoTe2. For film on CaF2, it is based on >2 Te:Mo stoichiometry using XPS as well as 'a' and 'c' lattice spacing greater than bulk 2H-MoTe2. On GaAs, its based on observations of Te crystallite formation on film surface, 2 × 2 superstructure observed in RHEED and low energy electron diffraction, larger than bulk c-lattice spacing as well as the lack of electrical conductivity modulation by field effect. Finally, thermal stability and air sensitivity of MBE 2H-MoTe2 is investigated by temperature dependent XRD and XPS, respectively.

  12. Molecular Beam Epitaxial Growth and Characterization of Graphene and Hexagonal Boron Nitride Two-Dimensional Layers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Renjing

    Van der Waals (vdW) materials (also called as two-dimensional (2D) material in some literature) systems have received extensive attention recently due to their potential applications in next-generation electronics platform. Exciting properties have been discovered in this field, however, the performance and properties of the systems rely on the materials' quality and interface significantly, leading to the urgent need for scalable synthesis of high-quality vdW crystals and heterostructures. Toward this direction, this dissertation is devoted on the study of Molecular Beam Epitaxy (MBE) growth and various characterization of vdW materials and heterostructures, especially graphene and hexagonal boron nitride (h-BN). The goal is to achieve high-quality vdW materials and related heterostructures. There are mainly four projects discussed in this dissertation. The first project (Chapter 2) is about MBE growth of large-area h-BN on copper foil. After the growth, the film was transferred onto SiO2 substrate for characterization. It is observed that as-grown film gives evident h-BN Raman spectrum; what's more, h-BN peak intensity and position is dependent on film thickness. N-1s and B-1s XPS peaks further suggest the formation of h-BN. AFM and SEM images show the film is flat and continuous over large area. Our synthesis method shows it's possible to use MBE to achieve h-BN growth and could also pave a way for some unique structure, such as h-BN/graphene heterostructures and doped h-BN films by MBE. The second project (Chapter 3) is focused on establishment of grapehene/h-BN heterostructure on cobalt (Co) film. In-situ epitaxial growth of graphene/h-BN heterostructures on Co film substrate was achieved by using plasma-assisted MBE. The direct graphene/h-BN vertical stacking structures were demonstrated and further confirmed by various characterizations, such as Raman spectroscopy, SEM, XPS and TEM. Large area heterostructures consisting of single- /bilayer graphene and

  13. Vibrational spectra of nanowires measured using laser doppler vibrometry and STM studies of epitaxial graphene : an LDRD fellowship report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Biedermann, Laura Butler

    2009-09-01

    MWNTs, their vibration spectra was more extensively studied. The thermal vibration spectra of Ag{sub 2}Ga nanoneedles was measured under both ambient and low-vacuum conditions. The operational deflection shapes of the vibrating Ag{sub 2}Ga nanoneedles was also measured, allowing confirmation of the eigenmodes of vibration. The modulus of the crystalline nanoneedles was 84.3 {+-} 1.0 GPa. Gas damping is the dominate mechanism of energy loss for nanowires oscillating under ambient conditions. The measured quality factors, Q, of oscillation are in line with theoretical predictions of air damping in the free molecular gas damping regime. In the free molecular regime, Q{sub gas} is linearly proportional to the density and diameter of the nanowire and inversely proportional to the air pressure. Since the density of the Ag{sub 2}Ga nanoneedles is three times that of the MWNTs, the Ag{sub 2}Ga nanoneedles have greater Q at atmospheric pressures. Our initial measurements of Q for Ag{sub 2}Ga nanoneedles in low-vacuum (10 Torr) suggest that the intrinsic Q of these nanoneedles may be on the order of 1000. The epitaxial carbon that grows after heating (000{bar 1}) silicon carbide (SiC) to high temperatures (1450-1600) in vacuum was also studied. At these high temperatures, the surface Si atoms sublime and the remaining C atoms reconstruct to form graphene. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and scanning tunneling microscopy (STM) were used to characterize the quality of the few-layer graphene (FLG) surface. The XPS studies were useful in confirming the graphitic composition and measuring the thickness of the FLG samples. STM studies revealed a wide variety of nanometer-scale features that include sharp carbon-rich ridges, moire superlattices, one-dimensional line defects, and grain boundaries. By imaging these features with atomic scale resolution, considerable insight into the growth mechanisms of FLG on the carbon-face of SiC is obtained.

  14. Direct growth of hexagonal boron nitride/graphene heterostructures on cobalt foil substrates by plasma-assisted molecular beam epitaxy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xu, Zhongguang; Khanaki, Alireza; Tian, Hao; Zheng, Renjing; Suja, Mohammad; Liu, Jianlin, E-mail: jianlin@ece.ucr.edu [Quantum Structures Laboratory, Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, University of California, Riverside, California 92521 (United States); Zheng, Jian-Guo [Irvine Materials Research Institute, University of California, Irvine, California 92697-2800 (United States)

    2016-07-25

    Graphene/hexagonal boron nitride (G/h-BN) heterostructures have attracted a great deal of attention because of their exceptional properties and wide variety of potential applications in nanoelectronics. However, direct growth of large-area, high-quality, and stacked structures in a controllable and scalable way remains challenging. In this work, we demonstrate the synthesis of h-BN/graphene (h-BN/G) heterostructures on cobalt (Co) foil by sequential deposition of graphene and h-BN layers using plasma-assisted molecular beam epitaxy. It is found that the coverage of h-BN layers can be readily controlled on the epitaxial graphene by growth time. Large-area, uniform-quality, and multi-layer h-BN films on thin graphite layers were achieved. Based on an h-BN (5–6 nm)/G (26–27 nm) heterostructure, capacitor devices with Co(foil)/G/h-BN/Co(contact) configuration were fabricated to evaluate the dielectric properties of h-BN. The measured breakdown electric field showed a high value of ∼2.5–3.2 MV/cm. Both I-V and C-V characteristics indicate that the epitaxial h-BN film has good insulating characteristics.

  15. Capture Zone Distributions and Island Morphologies in Organic Epitaxy and Graphene Formation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pimpinelli, Alberto; Einstein, T. L.

    2013-03-01

    Stating that island nucleation is an essential step in the formation of an epitaxial or supported layer may appear trivially obvious. However, less trivial is the observation that the size of the critical nucleus plays a crucial role in that it determines both the island density (and therefore the size of domains) and the evolution of the island morphology. In this talk we will describe recent developments in the analysis of capture zone distributions (CZD) specifically tailored for application to organic materials. We will also describe specific features of organic and graphene island morphologies, and discuss how they are related to the nucleation process and to the size of the critical nucleus. Work at UMD supported by NSF-MRSEC, Grant DMR 05-20471 and NSF CHE 07-49949

  16. Probing the dielectric response of the interfacial buffer layer in epitaxial graphene via optical spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, Heather M.; Rigosi, Albert F.; Chowdhury, Sugata; Yang, Yanfei; Nguyen, Nhan V.; Tavazza, Francesca; Elmquist, Randolph E.; Newell, David B.; Hight Walker, Angela R.

    2017-11-01

    Monolayer epitaxial graphene (EG) is a suitable candidate for a variety of electronic applications. One advantage of EG growth on the Si face of SiC is that it develops as a single crystal, as does the layer below, referred to as the interfacial buffer layer (IBL), whose properties include an electronic band gap. Although much research has been conducted to learn about the electrical properties of the IBL, not nearly as much work has been reported on the optical properties of the IBL. In this work, we combine measurements from Mueller matrix ellipsometry, differential reflectance contrast, atomic force microscopy, and Raman spectroscopy, as well as calculations from Kramers-Kronig analyses and density-functional theory, to determine the dielectric function of the IBL within the energy range of 1 eV to 8.5 eV.

  17. Raman Spectroscopy as a Tool to Address Individual Graphene Layers in Few-Layer Graphene

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kalbáč, Martin; Kong, J.; Dresselhaus, M. S.

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 116, č. 35 (2012), s. 19046-19050 ISSN 1932-7447 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA400400911; GA MŠk ME09060; GA ČR GAP204/10/1677; GA ČR(CZ) GAP208/12/1062 Institutional support: RVO:61388955 Keywords : chemical vapor deposition * transistor * films Subject RIV: CG - Electrochemistry Impact factor: 4.814, year: 2012

  18. Electronic and structural characterizations of unreconstructed {0001} surfaces and the growth of graphene overlayers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Emtsev, Konstantin

    2009-01-01

    The present work is focused on the characterization of the clean unreconstructed SiC{0001} surfaces and the growth of graphene overlayers thereon. Electronic properties of SiC surfaces and their interfaces with graphene and few layer graphene films were investigated by means of angle resolved photoelectron spectroscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and low energy electron diffraction. Structural characterizations of the epitaxial graphene films grown on SiC were carried out by atomic force microscopy and low energy electron microscopy. Supplementary data was obtained by scanning tunneling microscopy. (orig.)

  19. Thickness-Dependent Dielectric Constant of Few-Layer In 2 Se 3 Nanoflakes

    KAUST Repository

    Wu, Di

    2015-11-17

    © 2015 American Chemical Society. The dielectric constant or relative permittivity (εr) of a dielectric material, which describes how the net electric field in the medium is reduced with respect to the external field, is a parameter of critical importance for charging and screening in electronic devices. Such a fundamental material property is intimately related to not only the polarizability of individual atoms but also the specific atomic arrangement in the crystal lattice. In this Letter, we present both experimental and theoretical investigations on the dielectric constant of few-layer In2Se3 nanoflakes grown on mica substrates by van der Waals epitaxy. A nondestructive microwave impedance microscope is employed to simultaneously quantify the number of layers and local electrical properties. The measured εr increases monotonically as a function of the thickness and saturates to the bulk value at around 6-8 quintuple layers. The same trend of layer-dependent dielectric constant is also revealed by first-principles calculations. Our results of the dielectric response, being ubiquitously applicable to layered 2D semiconductors, are expected to be significant for this vibrant research field.

  20. Observing hot carrier distribution in an n-type epitaxial graphene on a SiC substrate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Someya, T.; Ishida, Y.; Yoshida, R.; Iimori, T.; Yukawa, R.; Akikubo, K.; Yamamoto, Sh.; Yamamoto, S.; Kanai, T.; Itatani, J.; Komori, F.; Shin, S.; Matsuda, I.; Fukidome, H.; Funakubo, K.; Suemitsu, M.; Yamamoto, T.

    2014-01-01

    Hot carrier dynamics in the Dirac band of n-type epitaxial graphene on a SiC substrate were traced in real time using femtosecond-time-resolved photoemission spectroscopy. The spectral evolution directly reflects the energetically linear density of states superimposed with a Fermi–Dirac distribution. The relaxation time is governed by the internal energy dissipation of electron–electron scattering, and the observed electronic temperature indicates cascade carrier multiplication

  1. van der Waals epitaxy of SnS film on single crystal graphene buffer layer on amorphous SiO2/Si

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiang, Yu; Yang, Yunbo; Guo, Fawen; Sun, Xin; Lu, Zonghuan; Mohanty, Dibyajyoti; Bhat, Ishwara; Washington, Morris; Lu, Toh-Ming; Wang, Gwo-Ching

    2018-03-01

    Conventional hetero-epitaxial films are typically grown on lattice and symmetry matched single crystal substrates. We demonstrated the epitaxial growth of orthorhombic SnS film (∼500 nm thick) on single crystal, monolayer graphene that was transferred on the amorphous SiO2/Si substrate. Using X-ray pole figure analysis we examined the structure, quality and epitaxy relationship of the SnS film grown on the single crystal graphene and compared it with the SnS film grown on commercial polycrystalline graphene. We showed that the SnS films grown on both single crystal and polycrystalline graphene have two sets of orientation domains. However, the crystallinity and grain size of the SnS film improve when grown on the single crystal graphene. Reflection high-energy electron diffraction measurements show that the near surface texture has more phases as compared with that of the entire film. The surface texture of a film will influence the growth and quality of film grown on top of it as well as the interface formed. Our result offers an alternative approach to grow a hetero-epitaxial film on an amorphous substrate through a single crystal graphene buffer layer. This strategy of growing high quality epitaxial thin film has potential applications in optoelectronics.

  2. Spiral growth of few-layer MoS{sub 2} by chemical vapor deposition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dong, X.; Yan, C.; Tomer, D.; Li, L., E-mail: lianli@uwm.edu [Department of Physics, University of Wisconsin, Milwaukee, Wisconsin 53211 (United States); Li, C. H. [Naval Research Laboratory, Washington, DC 20375 (United States)

    2016-08-01

    Growth spirals exhibit appealing properties due to a preferred layer stacking and lack of inversion symmetry. Here, we report spiral growth of MoS{sub 2} during chemical vapor deposition on SiO{sub 2}/Si and epitaxial graphene/SiC substrates, and their physical and electronic properties. We determine the layer-dependence of the MoS{sub 2} bandgap, ranging from 2.4 eV for the monolayer to a constant of 1.3 eV beyond the fifth layer. We further observe that spirals predominantly initiate at the step edges of the SiC substrate, based on which we propose a growth mechanism driven by screw dislocation created by the coalescence of two growth fronts at steps.

  3. Structural and electronic properties of epitaxial graphene on SiC(0 0 0 1): a review of growth, characterization, transfer doping and hydrogen intercalation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Riedl, C; Coletti, C; Starke, U

    2010-01-01

    Graphene, a monoatomic layer of graphite, hosts a two-dimensional electron gas system with large electron mobilities which makes it a prospective candidate for future carbon nanodevices. Grown epitaxially on silicon carbide (SiC) wafers, large area graphene samples appear feasible and integration in existing device technology can be envisioned. This paper reviews the controlled growth of epitaxial graphene layers on SiC(0 0 0 1) and the manipulation of their electronic structure. We show that epitaxial graphene on SiC grows on top of a carbon interface layer that-although it has a graphite-like atomic structure-does not display the linear π-bands typical for graphene due to a strong covalent bonding to the substrate. Only the second carbon layer on top of this interface acts like monolayer graphene. With a further carbon layer, a graphene bilayer system develops. During the growth of epitaxial graphene on SiC(0 0 0 1) the number of graphene layers can be precisely controlled by monitoring the π-band structure. Experimental fingerprints for in situ growth control could be established. However, due to the influence of the interface layer, epitaxial graphene on SiC(0 0 0 1) is intrinsically n-doped and the layers have a long-range corrugation in their density of states. As a result, the Dirac point energy where the π-bands cross is shifted away from the Fermi energy, so that the ambipolar properties of graphene cannot be exploited. We demonstrate methods to compensate and eliminate this structural and electronic influence of the interface. We show that the band structure of epitaxial graphene on SiC(0 0 0 1) can be precisely tailored by functionalizing the graphene surface with tetrafluoro-tetracyanoquinodimethane (F4-TCNQ) molecules. Charge neutrality can be achieved for mono- and bilayer graphene. On epitaxial bilayer graphene, where a band gap opens due to the asymmetric electric field across the layers imposed by the interface, the magnitude of this band gap

  4. Reducing the Schottky barrier between few-layer MoTe2 and gold

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qi, Dianyu; Wang, Qixing; Han, Cheng; Jiang, Jizhou; Zheng, Yujie; Chen, Wei; Zhang, Wenjing; Thye Shen Wee, Andrew

    2017-12-01

    Schottky barriers greatly influence the performance of optoelectronic devices. Schottky barriers can be reduced by harnessing the polymorphism of 2D metal transition dichalcogenides, since both semiconducting and metallic phases exist. However, high energy, high temperature or chemicals are normally required for phase transformation, or the processes are complex. In this work, stable low-resistance contacts between few layer MoTe2 flakes and gold electrodes are achieved by a simple thermal annealing treatment at low temperature (200-400 °C). The resulting Schottky barrier height of the annealed MoTe2/Au interface is low (~23 meV). A new Raman A g mode of the 1T‧ metallic phase of MoTe2 on gold electrode is observed, indicating that the low-resistance contact is due to the phase transition of 2H-MoTe2. The gold substrate plays an important role in the transformation, and a higher gold surface roughness increases the transformation rate. With this method, the mobility and ON-state current of the MoTe2 transistor increase by ~3-4 orders of magnitude, the photocurrent of vertically stacked graphene/MoTe2/Au device increases ~300%, and the response time decreases by ~20%.

  5. Superior mechanical flexibility of phosphorene and few-layer black phosphorus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wei, Qun [School of Physics and Optoelectronic Engineering, Xidian University, Xi' an 710071 (China); School of Letters and Sciences, Arizona State University, Mesa, Arizona 85212 (United States); Peng, Xihong, E-mail: Xihong.peng@asu.edu [School of Letters and Sciences, Arizona State University, Mesa, Arizona 85212 (United States)

    2014-06-23

    Recently, fabricated two dimensional (2D) phosphorene crystal structures have demonstrated great potential in applications of electronics. Mechanical strain was demonstrated to be able to significantly modify the electronic properties of phosphorene and few-layer black phosphorus. In this work, we employed first principles density functional theory calculations to explore the mechanical properties of phosphorene, including ideal tensile strength and critical strain. It was found that a monolayer phosphorene can sustain tensile strain up to 27% and 30% in the zigzag and armchair directions, respectively. This enormous strain limit of phosphorene results from its unique puckered crystal structure. We found that the tensile strain applied in the armchair direction stretches the pucker of phosphorene, rather than significantly extending the P-P bond lengths. The compromised dihedral angles dramatically reduce the required strain energy. Compared to other 2D materials, such as graphene, phosphorene demonstrates superior flexibility with an order of magnitude smaller Young's modulus. This is especially useful in practical large-magnitude-strain engineering. Furthermore, the anisotropic nature of phosphorene was also explored. We derived a general model to calculate the Young's modulus along different directions for a 2D system.

  6. Superior mechanical flexibility of phosphorene and few-layer black phosphorus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wei, Qun; Peng, Xihong

    2014-01-01

    Recently, fabricated two dimensional (2D) phosphorene crystal structures have demonstrated great potential in applications of electronics. Mechanical strain was demonstrated to be able to significantly modify the electronic properties of phosphorene and few-layer black phosphorus. In this work, we employed first principles density functional theory calculations to explore the mechanical properties of phosphorene, including ideal tensile strength and critical strain. It was found that a monolayer phosphorene can sustain tensile strain up to 27% and 30% in the zigzag and armchair directions, respectively. This enormous strain limit of phosphorene results from its unique puckered crystal structure. We found that the tensile strain applied in the armchair direction stretches the pucker of phosphorene, rather than significantly extending the P-P bond lengths. The compromised dihedral angles dramatically reduce the required strain energy. Compared to other 2D materials, such as graphene, phosphorene demonstrates superior flexibility with an order of magnitude smaller Young's modulus. This is especially useful in practical large-magnitude-strain engineering. Furthermore, the anisotropic nature of phosphorene was also explored. We derived a general model to calculate the Young's modulus along different directions for a 2D system.

  7. Electronic and structural characterizations of unreconstructed {l_brace}0001{r_brace} surfaces and the growth of graphene overlayers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Emtsev, Konstantin

    2009-06-03

    The present work is focused on the characterization of the clean unreconstructed SiC{l_brace}0001{r_brace} surfaces and the growth of graphene overlayers thereon. Electronic properties of SiC surfaces and their interfaces with graphene and few layer graphene films were investigated by means of angle resolved photoelectron spectroscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and low energy electron diffraction. Structural characterizations of the epitaxial graphene films grown on SiC were carried out by atomic force microscopy and low energy electron microscopy. Supplementary data was obtained by scanning tunneling microscopy. (orig.)

  8. Synthesis of few-layer, large area hexagonal-boron nitride by pulsed laser deposition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Glavin, Nicholas R. [Nanoelectronic Materials Branch, Air Force Research Laboratory, Wright-Patterson AFB, Dayton, OH 45433 (United States); School of Mechanical Engineering and Birck Nanotechnology Center, Purdue University, West Lafayette, IN 47907 (United States); Jespersen, Michael L. [Nanoelectronic Materials Branch, Air Force Research Laboratory, Wright-Patterson AFB, Dayton, OH 45433 (United States); University of Dayton Research Institute, 300 College Park, Dayton, OH 45469 (United States); Check, Michael H. [Nanoelectronic Materials Branch, Air Force Research Laboratory, Wright-Patterson AFB, Dayton, OH 45433 (United States); Hu, Jianjun [Nanoelectronic Materials Branch, Air Force Research Laboratory, Wright-Patterson AFB, Dayton, OH 45433 (United States); University of Dayton Research Institute, 300 College Park, Dayton, OH 45469 (United States); Hilton, Al M. [Nanoelectronic Materials Branch, Air Force Research Laboratory, Wright-Patterson AFB, Dayton, OH 45433 (United States); Wyle Laboratories, Dayton, OH 45433 (United States); Fisher, Timothy S. [School of Mechanical Engineering and Birck Nanotechnology Center, Purdue University, West Lafayette, IN 47907 (United States); Voevodin, Andrey A. [Nanoelectronic Materials Branch, Air Force Research Laboratory, Wright-Patterson AFB, Dayton, OH 45433 (United States)

    2014-12-01

    Pulsed laser deposition (PLD) has been investigated as a technique for synthesis of ultra-thin, few-layer hexagonal boron nitride (h-BN) thin films on crystalline highly ordered pyrolytic graphite (HOPG) and sapphire (0001) substrates. The plasma-based processing technique allows for increased excitations of deposited atoms due to background nitrogen gas collisional ionizations and extended resonance time of the energetic species presence at the condensation surface. These processes permit growth of thin, polycrystalline h-BN at 700 °C, a much lower temperature than that required by traditional growth methods. Analysis of the as-deposited films reveals epitaxial-like growth on the nearly lattice matched HOPG substrate, resulting in a polycrystalline h-BN film, and amorphous BN (a-BN) on the sapphire substrates, both with thicknesses of 1.5–2 nm. Stoichiometric films with boron-to-nitrogen ratios of unity were achieved by adjusting the background pressure within the deposition chamber and distance between the target and substrate. The reduction in deposition temperature and formation of stoichiometric, large-area h-BN films by PLD provide a process that is easily scaled-up for two-dimensional dielectric material synthesis and also present a possibility to produce very thin and uniform a-BN. - Highlights: • PLD was used to synthesize boron nitride thin films on HOPG and sapphire substrates. • Lattice matched substrate allowed for formation of polycrystalline h-BN. • Nitrogen gas pressure directly controlled film chemistry and structure. • Technique allows for ultrathin, uniform films at reduced processing temperatures.

  9. Narrow plasmon resonances enabled by quasi-freestanding bilayer epitaxial graphene

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daniels, Kevin M.; Jadidi, M. Mehdi; Sushkov, Andrei B.; Nath, Anindya; Boyd, Anthony K.; Sridhara, Karthik; Drew, H. Dennis; Murphy, Thomas E.; Myers-Ward, Rachael L.; Gaskill, D. Kurt

    2017-06-01

    Exploiting the underdeveloped terahertz range (~1012-1013 Hz) of the electromagnetic spectrum could advance many scientific fields (e.g. medical imaging for the identification of tumors and other biological tissues, non-destructive evaluation of hidden objects or ultra-broadband communication). Despite the benefits of operating in this regime, generation, detection and manipulation have proven difficult, as few materials have functional interactions with THz radiation. In contrast, graphene supports resonances in the THz regime through structural confinement of surface plasmons, which can lead to enhanced absorption. In prior work, the achievable plasmon resonances in such structures have been limited by multiple electron scattering mechanisms (i.e. large carrier scattering rates) which greatly broaden the resonance (>100 cm-1 3 THz). We report the narrowest room temperature Drude response to-date, 30 cm-1 (0.87 THz), obtained using quasi-free standing bilayer epitaxial graphene (QFS BLG) synthesized on (0 0 0 1)6H-SiC. This narrow response is due to a 4-fold increase in carrier mobility and improved thickness and electronic uniformity of QFS BLG. Moreover, QFS BLG samples patterned into microribbons targeting 1.8-5.7 THz plasmon resonances also exhibit low scattering rates (37-53 cm-1). Due to the improved THz properties of QFS BLG, the effects of e-beam processing on carrier scattering rates was determined and we found that fabrication conditions can be tuned to minimize the impact on optoelectronic properties. In addition, electrostatic gating of patterned QFS BLG shows narrow band THz amplitude modulation. Taken together, these properties of QFS BLG should facilitate future development of THz optoelectronic devices for monochromatic applications.

  10. Changes in work function due to NO2 adsorption on monolayer and bilayer epitaxial graphene on SiC(0001)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caffrey, Nuala M.; Armiento, Rickard; Yakimova, Rositsa; Abrikosov, Igor A.

    2016-11-01

    The electronic properties of monolayer graphene grown epitaxially on SiC(0001) are known to be highly sensitive to the presence of NO2 molecules. The presence of small areas of bilayer graphene, on the other hand, considerably reduces the overall sensitivity of the surface. We investigate how NO2 molecules interact with monolayer and bilayer graphene, both free-standing and on a SiC(0001) substrate. We show that it is necessary to explicitly include the effect of the substrate in order to reproduce the experimental results. When monolayer graphene is present on SiC, there is a large charge transfer from the interface between the buffer layer and the SiC substrate to the molecule. As a result, the surface work function increases by 0.9 eV after molecular adsorption. A graphene bilayer is more effective at screening this interfacial charge, and so the charge transfer and change in work function after NO2 adsorption is much smaller.

  11. Electronic energy loss spectra from mono-layer to few layers of phosphorene

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohan, Brij; Thakur, Rajesh; Ahluwalia, P. K.

    2016-01-01

    Using first principles calculations, electronic and optical properties of few-layers phosphorene has been investigated. Electronic band structure show a moderate band gap of 0.9 eV in monolayer phosphorene which decreases with increasing number of layers. Optical properties of few-layers of phosphorene in infrared and visible region shows tunability with number of layers. Electron energy loss function has been plotted and huge red shift in plasmonic behaviours is found. These tunable electronic and optical properties of few-layers of phosphorene can be useful for the applications of optoelectronic devices.

  12. Electronic energy loss spectra from mono-layer to few layers of phosphorene

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mohan, Brij, E-mail: brijmohanhpu@yahoo.com; Thakur, Rajesh; Ahluwalia, P. K. [Department of Physics, Himachal Pradesh University, Shimla (HP) India 171005 (India)

    2016-05-23

    Using first principles calculations, electronic and optical properties of few-layers phosphorene has been investigated. Electronic band structure show a moderate band gap of 0.9 eV in monolayer phosphorene which decreases with increasing number of layers. Optical properties of few-layers of phosphorene in infrared and visible region shows tunability with number of layers. Electron energy loss function has been plotted and huge red shift in plasmonic behaviours is found. These tunable electronic and optical properties of few-layers of phosphorene can be useful for the applications of optoelectronic devices.

  13. Tunable magnetotransport in Fe/hBN/graphene/hBN/Pt(Fe) epitaxial multilayers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magnus Ukpong, Aniekan

    2018-03-01

    Theoretical and computational analysis of the magnetotransport properties and spin-transfer torque field-induced switching of magnetization density in vertically-stacked multilayers is presented. Using epitaxially-capped free layers of Pt and Fe, atom-resolved magnetic moments and spin-transfer torques are computed at finite bias. The calculations are performed within linear response approximation to the spin-density reformulation of the van der Waals density functional theory. Dynamical spin excitations are computed as a function of a spin-transfer torque induced magnetic field along the magnetic easy axis, and the corresponding spin polarization perpendicular to the easy axis is obtained. Bias-dependent giant anisotropic magnetoresistance of up to 3200% is obtained in the nonmagnetic-metal-capped Fe/hBN/graphene/hBN/Pt multilayer architecture. Since this specific heterostructure is not yet fabricated and characterized, the predicted high performance has not been demonstrated experimentally. Nevertheless, similar calculations performed on the Fe/hBN/Co stack show that the tunneling magnetoresistance obtained at the Fermi-level is in excellent agreement with results of recent magnetotransport measurements on magnetic tunnel junctions that contain the monolayer hBN tunnel region. The magnitude of the spin-transfer torque is found to increase as the tunneling spin current increases, and this activates the magnetization switching process due to increased charge accumulation. This mechanism causes substantial spin backflow, which manifests as rapid undulations in the bias-dependent tunneling spin currents. The implication of these findings on the design of nanoscale spintronic devices with spin-transfer torque tunable magnetization density is discussed. Insights derived from this study are expected to enhance the prospects for developing and integrating artificially assembled van der Waals multilayer heterostructures as the preferred material platform for efficient

  14. Kapitza Resistance between Few-Layer Graphene and Water: Liquid Layering Effects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Alexeev, Dmitry; Chen, Jie; Walther, Jens Honore

    2015-01-01

    difference in the phonon mean free path between the FLG and water. Remarkably, RK is strongly dependent on the layering of water adjacent to the FLG, exhibiting an inverse proportionality relationship to the peak density of the first water layer, which is consistent with better acoustic phonon matching...... between FLG and water. These findings suggest novel ways to engineer the thermal transport properties of solid−liquidinterfaces by controlling and regulating the liquid layering at the interface....

  15. Production of High-quality Few-layer Graphene Flakes by Intercalation and Exfoliation

    KAUST Repository

    Alzahrani, Areej A.

    2017-01-01

    , the source material was a commercially available graphiteintercalated compound, also known as expandable graphite. Several exfoliation-inducing tools were investigated including the use of blenders, homogenizers, and ultrasonic processors. To aid

  16. Layer-dependent band alignment and work function of few-layer phosphorene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Yongqing; Zhang, Gang; Zhang, Yong-Wei

    2014-10-20

    Using first-principles calculations, we study the electronic properties of few-layer phosphorene focusing on layer-dependent behavior of band gap, work function band alignment and carrier effective mass. It is found that few-layer phosphorene shows a robust direct band gap character, and its band gap decreases with the number of layers following a power law. The work function decreases rapidly from monolayer (5.16 eV) to trilayer (4.56 eV), and then slowly upon further increasing the layer number. Compared to monolayer phosphorene, there is a drastic decrease of hole effective mass along the ridge (zigzag) direction for bilayer phosphorene, indicating a strong interlayer coupling and screening effect. Our study suggests that 1). Few-layer phosphorene with a layer-dependent band gap and a robust direct band gap character is promising for efficient solar energy harvest. 2). Few-layer phosphorene outperforms monolayer counterpart in terms of a lighter carrier effective mass, a higher carrier density and a weaker scattering due to enhanced screening. 3). The layer-dependent band edges and work functions of few-layer phosphorene allow for modification of Schottky barrier with enhanced carrier injection efficiency. It is expected that few-layer phosphorene will present abundant opportunities for a plethora of new electronic applications.

  17. Selective Epitaxy of InP on Si and Rectification in Graphene/InP/Si Hybrid Structure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niu, Gang; Capellini, Giovanni; Hatami, Fariba; Di Bartolomeo, Antonio; Niermann, Tore; Hussein, Emad Hameed; Schubert, Markus Andreas; Krause, Hans-Michael; Zaumseil, Peter; Skibitzki, Oliver; Lupina, Grzegorz; Masselink, William Ted; Lehmann, Michael; Xie, Ya-Hong; Schroeder, Thomas

    2016-10-12

    The epitaxial integration of highly heterogeneous material systems with silicon (Si) is a central topic in (opto-)electronics owing to device applications. InP could open new avenues for the realization of novel devices such as high-mobility transistors in next-generation CMOS or efficient lasers in Si photonics circuitry. However, the InP/Si heteroepitaxy is highly challenging due to the lattice (∼8%), thermal expansion mismatch (∼84%), and the different lattice symmetries. Here, we demonstrate the growth of InP nanocrystals showing high structural quality and excellent optoelectronic properties on Si. Our CMOS-compatible innovative approach exploits the selective epitaxy of InP nanocrystals on Si nanometric seeds obtained by the opening of lattice-arranged Si nanotips embedded in a SiO 2 matrix. A graphene/InP/Si-tip heterostructure was realized on obtained materials, revealing rectifying behavior and promising photodetection. This work presents a significant advance toward the monolithic integration of graphene/III-V based hybrid devices onto the mainstream Si technology platform.

  18. Ambipolar field-effect transistors by few-layer InSe with asymmetry contact metals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chang-Yu Lin

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Group IIIA−VIA layered semiconductors (MX, where M = Ga and In, X = S, Se, and Te have attracted tremendous interest for their anisotropic optical, electronic, and mechanical properties. In this study, we demonstrated that metal and InSe junctions can lead to carrier behaviors in few-layered InSe FETs. These results indicate that the polarity of few-layered InSe FETs can be determined by using metals with different work functions. We adopted FET S/D metal contacts with asymmetric work functions to reduce the Schottky barriers of electrons and holes, and discovered that few-layered InSe FETs with carefully selected metal contacts can achieve ambipolar behaviors. These results indicate that group IIIA−VIA layered semiconductor FETs with asymmetry contact metals have great potential for applications in photovoltaic devices, optical sensors, and CMOS inverter circuits.

  19. An ultrahigh pressure homogenization technique for easily exfoliating few-layer phosphorene from bulk black phosphorus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guan, Qing-Qing; Zhou, Hua-Jing; Ning, Ping; Lian, Pei-Chao; Wang, Bo; He, Liang; Chai, Xin-Sheng

    2018-05-01

    We have developed an easy and efficient method for exfoliating few-layer sheets of black phosphorus (BP) in N-methyl-2-pyrrolidone, using ultra-high pressure homogenization (UPH). The BP was first exfoliated into sheets that were a few atomic layers thick, using a homogenizer for only 30 min. Next, a double centrifugation procedure was used to separate the material into few-layer nanosheets that were examined by X-ray diffraction, atomic force microscopy (AFM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), high-angle annular dark field scanning transmission electron microscopy (HAADF-STEM), and energy-dispersive X-ray (EDX) spectroscopy. The results show that the products are specimens of phosphorene that are only a few-layer thick.

  20. Anomalous response of supported few-layer hexagonal boron nitride to DC electric fields: a confined water effect?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveira, Camilla; Matos, Matheus; Mazzoni, Mário; Chacham, Hélio; Neves, Bernardo

    2013-03-01

    Hexagonal boron nitride (h-BN) is a two-dimensional compound from III-V family, with the atoms of boron and nitrogen arranged in a honeycomb lattice, similar to graphene. Unlike graphene though, h-BN is an insulator material, with a gap larger than 5 eV. Here, we use Electric Force Microscopy (EFM) to study the electrical response of mono and few-layers of h-BN to an electric field applied by the EFM tip. Our results show an anomalous behavior in the dielectric response for h-BN for different bias orientation: for a positive bias applied to the tip, h-BN layers respond with a larger dielectric constant than the dielectric constant of the silicon dioxide substrate; while for a negative bias, the h-BN dielectric constant is smaller than the dielectric constant of the substrate. Based on first-principles calculations, we showed that this anomalous response may be interpreted as a macroscopic consequence of confinement of a thin water layer between h-BN and substrate. These results were confirmed by sample annealing and also also by a comparative analysis with h-BN on a non-polar substrate. All the authors acknowledge financial support from CNPq, Fapemig, Rede Nacional de Pesquisa em Nanotubos de Carbono and INCT-Nano-Carbono.

  1. Few-layer antimonene decorated microfiber: ultra-short pulse generation and all-optical thresholding with enhanced long term stability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Yufeng; Liang, Zhiming; Jiang, Xiantao; Chen, Yunxiang; Li, Zhongjun; Lu, Lu; Ge, Yanqi; Wang, Ke; Zheng, Jilin; Lu, Shunbin; Ji, Jianhua; Zhang, Han

    2017-12-01

    Antimonene, a new type of mono/few-layer two-dimensional (2D) mono-elemental material purely consisting of antimony similar as graphene and phosphorene, has been theoretically predicted with excellent optical response and enhanced stability. Herein, we experimentally investigated the broadband nonlinear optical response of highly stable few-layer antimonene (FLA) by performing an open-aperture Z-scan laser measurement. Thanks to the direct bandgap and resonant absorption at the telecommunication band, we demonstrated the feasibility of FLA-decorated microfiber not only as an optical saturable absorber for ultrafast photonics operation, but also as a stable all-optical pulse thresholder that can effectively suppress the transmission noise, boost the signal-to-noise ratio (SNR), and reshape the deteriorated input signal. Our findings, as the first prototypic device of absorption of antimonene, might facilitate the development of antimonene-based optical communication technologies towards high stability and practical applications in the future.

  2. Abnormal Multiple Charge Memory States in Exfoliated Few-Layer WSe2 Transistors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Mikai; Wang, Yifan; Shepherd, Nathan; Huard, Chad; Zhou, Jiantao; Guo, L J; Lu, Wei; Liang, Xiaogan

    2017-01-24

    To construct reliable nanoelectronic devices based on emerging 2D layered semiconductors, we need to understand the charge-trapping processes in such devices. Additionally, the identified charge-trapping schemes in such layered materials could be further exploited to make multibit (or highly desirable analog-tunable) memory devices. Here, we present a study on the abnormal charge-trapping or memory characteristics of few-layer WSe 2 transistors. This work shows that multiple charge-trapping states with large extrema spacing, long retention time, and analog tunability can be excited in the transistors made from mechanically exfoliated few-layer WSe 2 flakes, whereas they cannot be generated in widely studied few-layer MoS 2 transistors. Such charge-trapping characteristics of WSe 2 transistors are attributed to the exfoliation-induced interlayer deformation on the cleaved surfaces of few-layer WSe 2 flakes, which can spontaneously form ambipolar charge-trapping sites. Our additional results from surface characterization, charge-retention characterization at different temperatures, and density functional theory computation strongly support this explanation. Furthermore, our research also demonstrates that the charge-trapping states excited in multiple transistors can be calibrated into consistent multibit data storage levels. This work advances the understanding of the charge memory mechanisms in layered semiconductors, and the observed charge-trapping states could be further studied for enabling ultralow-cost multibit analog memory devices.

  3. Buffer-eliminated, charge-neutral epitaxial graphene on oxidized 4H-SiC (0001) surface

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sirikumara, Hansika I.; Jayasekera, Thushari

    2016-01-01

    Buffer-eliminated, charge-neutral epitaxial graphene (EG) is important to enhance its potential in device applications. Using the first principles Density Functional Theory calculations, we investigated the effect of oxidation on the electronic and structural properties of EG on 4H-SiC (0001) surface. Our investigation reveals that the buffer layer decouples from the substrate in the presence of both silicate and silicon oxy-nitride at the interface, and the resultant monolayer EG is charge-neutral in both cases. The interface at 4H-SiC/silicate/EG is characterized by surface dangling electrons, which opens up another route for further engineering EG on 4H-SiC. Dangling electron-free 4H-SiC/silicon oxy-nitride/EG is ideal for achieving charge-neutral EG.

  4. Facile electrochemical transfer of large-area single crystal epitaxial graphene from Ir(1 1 1)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Koefoed, Line; Kongsfelt, Mikkel; Ulstrup, Søren

    2015-01-01

    they are grown on (diameter ≈7 mm). In addition, the substrate can be reused for further growth cycles. A detailed Raman map analysis of the transferred graphene reveals straight lines, in which the Raman peaks characteristic for graphene are shifted. These lines originate from scratches in the Ir(1 1 1) crystal...

  5. Step edge influence on barrier height and contact area in vertical heterojunctions between epitaxial graphene and n-type 4H-SiC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tadjer, M. J.; Nyakiti, L. O.; Robinson, Z.; Anderson, T. J.; Myers-Ward, R. L.; Wheeler, V. D.; Eddy, C. R.; Gaskill, D. K.; Koehler, A. D.; Hobart, K. D.; Kub, F. J.

    2014-01-01

    Vertical rectifying contacts of epitaxial graphene grown by Si sublimation on the Si-face of 4H-SiC epilayers were investigated. Forward bias preferential conduction through the step edges was correlated by linear current density normalization. This phenomenon was observed on samples with 2.7–5.8 monolayers of epitaxial graphene as determined by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. A modified Richardson plot was implemented to extract the barrier height (0.81 eV at 290 K, 0.99 eV at 30 K) and the electrically dominant SiC step length of a Ti/Al contact overlapping a known region of approximately 0.52 μm wide SiC terraces

  6. Large-Area Synthesis of High-Quality Uniform Few-Layer MoTe2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Lin; Xu, Kai; Zubair, Ahmad; Liao, Albert D; Fang, Wenjing; Ouyang, Fangping; Lee, Yi-Hsien; Ueno, Keiji; Saito, Riichiro; Palacios, Tomás; Kong, Jing; Dresselhaus, Mildred S

    2015-09-23

    The controlled synthesis of large-area, atomically thin molybdenum ditelluride (MoTe2) crystals is crucial for its various applications based on the attractive properties of this emerging material. In this work, we developed a chemical vapor deposition synthesis to produce large-area, uniform, and highly crystalline few-layer 2H and 1T' MoTe2 films. It was found that these two different phases of MoTe2 can be grown depending on the choice of Mo precursor. Because of the highly crystalline structure, the as-grown few-layer 2H MoTe2 films display electronic properties that are comparable to those of mechanically exfoliated MoTe2 flakes. Our growth method paves the way for the large-scale application of MoTe2 in high-performance nanoelectronics and optoelectronics.

  7. Low-Frequency Interlayer Breathing Modes in Few-Layer Black Phosphorus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ling, Xi; Liang, Liangbo; Huang, Shengxi; Puretzky, Alexander A; Geohegan, David B; Sumpter, Bobby G; Kong, Jing; Meunier, Vincent; Dresselhaus, Mildred S

    2015-06-10

    As a new two-dimensional layered material, black phosphorus (BP) is a very promising material for nanoelectronics and optoelectronics. We use Raman spectroscopy and first-principles theory to characterize and understand the low-frequency (LF) interlayer breathing modes (<100 cm(-1)) in few-layer BP for the first time. Using a laser polarization dependence study and group theory analysis, the breathing modes are assigned to Ag symmetry. Compared to the high-frequency (HF) Raman modes, the LF breathing modes are considerably more sensitive to interlayer coupling and, thus, their frequencies show a stronger dependence on the number of layers. Hence, they constitute an effective means to probe both the crystalline orientation and thickness of few-layer BP. Furthermore, the temperature dependence shows that in the temperature range -150 to 30 °C, the breathing modes have a weak anharmonic behavior, in contrast to the HF Raman modes that exhibit strong anharmonicity.

  8. Few-layer SnSe{sub 2} transistors with high on/off ratios

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pei, Tengfei; Bao, Lihong, E-mail: lhbao@iphy.ac.cn; Wang, Guocai; Ma, Ruisong; Yang, Haifang; Li, Junjie; Gu, Changzhi; Du, Shixuan; Gao, Hong-jun [Institute of Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, P. O. Box 603, Beijing 100190 (China); Pantelides, Sokrates [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Vanderbilt University, Nashville, Tennessee 37235 (United States); Material Science and Technology Division, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee 37381 (United States)

    2016-02-01

    We report few-layer SnSe{sub 2} field effect transistors (FETs) with high current on/off ratios. By trying different gate configurations, 300 nm SiO{sub 2} and 70 nm HfO{sub 2} as back gate only and 70 nm HfO{sub 2} as back gate combined with a top capping layer of polymer electrolyte, few-layer SnSe{sub 2} FET with a current on/off ratio of 10{sup 4} can be obtained. This provides a reliable solution for electrically modulating quasi-two-dimensional materials with high electron density (over 10{sup 13} cm{sup −2}) for field-effect transistor applications.

  9. A route to strong p-doping of epitaxial graphene on SiC

    KAUST Repository

    Cheng, Yingchun; Schwingenschlö gl, Udo

    2010-01-01

    The effects of Au intercalation on the electronic properties of epitaxialgraphenegrown on SiC{0001} substrates are studied using first principles calculations. A graphenemonolayer on SiC{0001} restores the shape of the pristine graphene dispersion

  10. Largely Tunable Band Structures of Few-Layer InSe by Uniaxial Strain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Chaoyu; Fan, Fengren; Xuan, Ningning; Huang, Shenyang; Zhang, Guowei; Wang, Chong; Sun, Zhengzong; Wu, Hua; Yan, Hugen

    2018-01-31

    Because of the strong quantum confinement effect, few-layer γ-InSe exhibits a layer-dependent band gap, spanning the visible and near infrared regions, and thus recently has been drawing tremendous attention. As a two-dimensional material, the mechanical flexibility provides an additional tuning knob for the electronic structures. Here, for the first time, we engineer the band structures of few-layer and bulk-like InSe by uniaxial tensile strain and observe a salient shift of photoluminescence peaks. The shift rate of the optical gap is approximately 90-100 meV per 1% strain for four- to eight-layer samples, which is much larger than that for the widely studied MoS 2 monolayer. Density functional theory calculations well reproduce the observed layer-dependent band gaps and the strain effect and reveal that the shift rate decreases with the increasing layer number for few-layer InSe. Our study demonstrates that InSe is a very versatile two-dimensional electronic and optoelectronic material, which is suitable for tunable light emitters, photodetectors, and other optoelectronic devices.

  11. Thermal expansion, anharmonicity and temperature-dependent Raman spectra of single- and few-layer MoSe₂ and WSe₂.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Late, Dattatray J; Shirodkar, Sharmila N; Waghmare, Umesh V; Dravid, Vinayak P; Rao, C N R

    2014-06-06

    We report the temperature-dependent Raman spectra of single- and few-layer MoSe2 and WSe2 in the range 77-700 K. We observed linear variation in the peak positions and widths of the bands arising from contributions of anharmonicity and thermal expansion. After characterization using atomic force microscopy and high-resolution transmission electron microscopy, the temperature coefficients of the Raman modes were determined. Interestingly, the temperature coefficient of the A(2)(2u) mode is larger than that of the A(1g) mode, the latter being much smaller than the corresponding temperature coefficients of the same mode in single-layer MoS2 and of the G band of graphene. The temperature coefficients of the two modes in single-layer MoSe2 are larger than those of the same modes in single-layer WSe2. We have estimated thermal expansion coefficients and temperature dependence of the vibrational frequencies of MoS2 and MoSe2 within a quasi-harmonic approximation, with inputs from first-principles calculations based on density functional theory. We show that the contrasting temperature dependence of the Raman-active mode A(1g) in MoS2 and MoSe2 arises essentially from the difference in their strain-phonon coupling. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  12. A route to strong p-doping of epitaxial graphene on SiC

    KAUST Repository

    Cheng, Yingchun

    2010-11-09

    The effects of Au intercalation on the electronic properties of epitaxialgraphenegrown on SiC{0001} substrates are studied using first principles calculations. A graphenemonolayer on SiC{0001} restores the shape of the pristine graphene dispersion, where doping levels between strongly n-doped and weakly p-doped can be achieved by altering the Au coverage. We predict that Au intercalation between the two C layers of bilayer graphenegrown on SiC{0001} makes it possible to achieve a strongly p-doped graphene state, where the p-doping level can be controlled by means of the Au coverage.

  13. Automatic identification of single- and/or few-layer thin-film material

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2014-01-01

    One or more digital representations of single- (101) and/or few-layer (102) thin- film material are automatically identified robustly and reliably in a digital image (100), the digital image (100) having a predetermined number of colour components, by - determining (304) a background colour...... component of the digital image (100) for each colour component, and - determining or estimating (306) a colour component of thin-film material to be identified in the digital image (100) for each colour component by obtaining a pre-determined contrast value (C R; C G; C B) for each colour component...

  14. Determination of the Schottky barrier height of ferromagnetic contacts to few-layer phosphorene

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anugrah, Yoska; Robbins, Matthew C.; Koester, Steven J. [Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, University of Minnesota-Twin Cities, Minneapolis, Minnesota 55455 (United States); Crowell, Paul A. [School of Physics and Astronomy, University of Minnesota-Twin Cities, Minneapolis, Minnesota 55455 (United States)

    2015-03-09

    Phosphorene, the 2D analogue of black phosphorus, is a promising material for studying spin transport due to its low spin-orbit coupling and its ½ nuclear spin, which could allow the study of hyperfine effects. In this work, the properties of permalloy (Py) and cobalt (Co) contacts to few-layer phosphorene are presented. The Schottky barrier height was extracted and determined as a function of gate bias. Flat-band barrier heights, relative to the valence band edge, of 110 meV and 200 meV were determined for Py and Co, respectively. These results are important for future studies of spin transport in phosphorene.

  15. Magneto-transmission of multi-layer epitaxial graphene and bulk graphite: a comparison

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Orlita, Milan; Faugeras, C.; Martinez, G.; Maude, D. K.; Schneider, J.M.; Sprinkle, M.; Berger, C.; de Heer, W.A.; Potemski, M.

    2009-01-01

    Roč. 149, 27-28 (2009), 1128-1131 ISSN 0038-1098 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR KAN400100652 Grant - others:EC(XE) RITA -CT-2003-505474 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10100521 Keywords : graphene * cyclotron resonance Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism Impact factor: 1.837, year: 2009

  16. Few-layered MoSe2 nanosheets as an advanced electrode material for supercapacitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balasingam, Suresh Kannan; Lee, Jae Sung; Jun, Yongseok

    2015-09-21

    We report the synthesis of few-layered MoSe2 nanosheets using a facile hydrothermal method and their electrochemical charge storage behavior. A systematic study of the structure and morphology of the as-synthesized MoSe2 nanosheets was performed. The downward peak shift in the Raman spectrum and the high-resolution transmission electron microscopy images confirmed the formation of few-layered nanosheets. The electrochemical energy-storage behavior of MoSe2 nanosheets was also investigated for supercapacitor applications in a symmetric cell configuration. The MoSe2 nanosheet electrode exhibited a maximum specific capacitance of 198.9 F g(-1) and the symmetric device showed 49.7 F g(-1) at a scan rate of 2 mV s(-1). A capacitance retention of approximately 75% was observed even after 10 000 cycles at a high charge-discharge current density of 5 A g(-1). The two-dimensional MoSe2 nanosheets exhibited a high specific capacitance and good cyclic stability, which makes it a promising electrode material for supercapacitor applications.

  17. Engineering few-layer MoTe2 devices by Co/hBN tunnel contacts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Mengjian; Luo, Wei; Wu, Nannan; Zhang, Xue-ao; Qin, Shiqiao

    2018-04-01

    2H phase Molybdenum ditelluride (MoTe2) is a layered two-dimensional (2D) semiconductor that has recently gained extensive attention for its intriguing properties, demonstrating great potential for nanoelectronics and optoelectronics. Optimizing the electric contacts to MoTe2 is a critical step for realizing high performance devices. Here, we demonstrate Co/hBN tunnel contacts to few-layer MoTe2. In sharp contrast to the p-type conduction of Co contacted MoTe2, Co/hBN tunnel contacted MoTe2 devices show clear n-type transport properties. Our first principles calculation reveals that the inserted few-layer hBN strongly interacts with Co and significantly reduces its work-function by ˜1.2 eV, while MoTe2 itself has a much weaker influence on the work-function of Co. This allows us to build MoTe2 diodes using the mixed Co/hBN and Co contact architecture, which can be switched from p-n type to n-p type by changing the gate-voltage, paving the way for engineering multi-functional devices based on atomically thin 2D semiconductors.

  18. Stacking-dependent electronic property of trilayer graphene epitaxially grown on Ru(0001)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Que, Yande; Xiao, Wende, E-mail: wdxiao@iphy.ac.cn, E-mail: hjgao@iphy.ac.cn; Chen, Hui; Wang, Dongfei; Du, Shixuan; Gao, Hong-Jun, E-mail: wdxiao@iphy.ac.cn, E-mail: hjgao@iphy.ac.cn [Institute of Physics and University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100190 (China)

    2015-12-28

    The growth, atomic structure, and electronic property of trilayer graphene (TLG) on Ru(0001) were studied by low temperature scanning tunneling microscopy and spectroscopy in combined with tight-binding approximation (TBA) calculations. TLG on Ru(0001) shows a flat surface with a hexagonal lattice due to the screening effect of the bottom two layers and the AB-stacking in the top two layers. The coexistence of AA- and AB-stacking in the bottom two layers leads to three different stacking orders of TLG, namely, ABA-, ABC-, and ABB-stacking. STS measurements combined with TBA calculations reveal that the density of states of TLG with ABC- and ABB-stacking is characterized by one and two sharp peaks near to the Fermi level, respectively, in contrast to the V-shaped feature of TLG with ABA-stacking. Our work demonstrates that TLG on Ru(0001) might be an ideal platform for exploring stacking-dependent electronic properties of graphene.

  19. Structural Consequences of Hydrogen Intercalation of Epitaxial Graphene on SiC(0001)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-10-23

    in barrier height at the graphene –silicon carbide Schottky junction,” Nat. Commun. 4, 2752 (2013). 31H. Yang, J. Heo, S. Park, H. J. Song, D. H. Seo, K...displacement. The shift of the Dirac point defines the Schottky barrier height and will determine the practicality of employing the wide-bandgap...are thought to critically influence technologi- cally relevant properties such as Dirac point shift and Schottky barrier height . Furthermore, this

  20. Direct microwave annealing of SiC substrate for rapid synthesis of quality epitaxial graphene

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Cichoň, Stanislav; Macháč, P.; Fekete, Ladislav; Lapčák, L.

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 98, Mar (2016), s. 441-448 ISSN 0008-6223 R&D Projects: GA MŠk LO1409; GA MŠk(CZ) LM2011029 Grant - others:FUNBIO(XE) CZ.2.16/3.1.00/21568 Institutional support: RVO:68378271 Keywords : graphene * SiC * microwave Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism Impact factor: 6.337, year: 2016

  1. Approach to Multifunctional Device Platform with Epitaxial Graphene on Transition Metal Oxide (Postprint)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-09-23

    layers, respectively. 15. SUBJECT TERMS Heterostructures, two-dimensional materials, van der Waals interaction , 2D graphene, metal oxide (TiO2...sample holder with a 10.6 μ m CO2 IR laser . The laser output power was adjusted until the target temperature was reached. The temperature of the sample... Laser Deposited Transition- Metal Carbides for Field-Emission Cathode Coatings. ACS Appl. Mater. Interfaces 5, 9241–9246 (2013). 13. Swift, G. A

  2. Few-Layered Black Phosphorus: From Fabrication and Customization to Biomedical Applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Huaiyu; Yu, Xue-Feng

    2018-02-01

    As a new kind of 2D material, black phosphorus has gained increased attention in the past three years. Although few-layered black phosphorus nanosheets (BPs) degrade quickly under ambient conditions to phosphate anions, which greatly hampers their optical and electronic applications, this property also makes BPs highly biocompatible and biodegradable, and is regarded as an advantage for various biomedical applications. This Concept summarizes the state-of-art progresses of BPs, from fabrication and surface modification to biomedical applications. It is expected that BPs with such fascinating properties will encourage more scientists to engage in expanding its biomedical applications by tackling the scientific challenges involved in their development. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  3. Quasiparticle energies, excitons, and optical spectra of few-layer black phosphorus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tran, Vy; Fei, Ruixiang; Yang, Li

    2015-01-01

    We report first-principles GW–Bethe–Salpeter-equation (BSE) studies of excited-state properties of few-layer black phosphorus (BP) (phosphorene). With improved GW computational methods, we obtained converged quasiparticle band gaps and optical absorption spectra by the single-shot (G 0 W 0 ) procedure. Moreover, we reveal fine structures of anisotropic excitons, including the series of one-dimensional like wave functions, spin singlet–triplet splitting, and electron–hole binding energy spectra by solving BSE. An effective-mass model is employed to describe these electron–hole pairs, shedding light on estimating the exciton binding energy of anisotropic two-dimensional semiconductors without expensive ab initio simulations. Finally, the anisotropic optical response of BP is explained by using optical selection rules based on the projected single-particle density of states at band edges. (paper)

  4. Basal-plane thermal conductivity of few-layer molybdenum disulfide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jo, Insun; Ou, Eric; Shi, Li; Pettes, Michael Thompson; Wu, Wei

    2014-01-01

    We report the in-plane thermal conductivity of suspended exfoliated few-layer molybdenum disulfide (MoS 2 ) samples that were measured by suspended micro-devices with integrated resistance thermometers. The obtained room-temperature thermal conductivity values are (44–50) and (48–52) W m −1 K −1 for two samples that are 4 and 7 layers thick, respectively. For both samples, the peak thermal conductivity occurs at a temperature close to 120 K, above which the thermal conductivity is dominated by intrinsic phonon-phonon scattering although phonon scattering by surface disorders can still play an important role in these samples especially at low temperatures

  5. Few-layer bismuth selenides exfoliated by hemin inhibit amyloid-β1–42 fibril formation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Jian; Xiong, Yunjing; Lin, Zhiqin; Sun, Liping; Weng, Jian

    2015-01-01

    Inhibiting amyloid-β (Aβ) fibril formation is the primary therapeutic strategy for Alzheimer’s disease. Several small molecules and nanomaterials have been used to inhibit Aβ fibril formation. However, insufficient inhibition efficiency or poor metabolization limits their further applications. Here, we used hemin to exfoliate few-layer Bi2Se3 in aqueous solution. Then we separated few-layer Bi2Se3 with different sizes and thicknesses by fractional centrifugation, and used them to attempt to inhibit Aβ1-42 aggregation. The results show that smaller and thinner few-layer Bi2Se3 had the highest inhibition efficiency. We further investigated the interaction between few-layer Bi2Se3 and Aβ1-42 monomers. The results indicate that the inhibition effect may be due to the high adsorption capacity of few-layer Bi2Se3 for Aβ1−42 monomers. Few-layer Bi2Se3 also decreased Aβ-mediated peroxidase-like activity and cytotoxicity according to in vitro neurotoxicity studies under physiological conditions. Therefore, our work shows the potential for applications of few-layer Bi2Se3 in the biomedical field. PMID:26018135

  6. Fabrication of GO/Cement Composites by Incorporation of Few-Layered GO Nanosheets and Characterization of Their Crystal/Chemical Structure and Properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lv, Shenghua; Hu, Haoyan; Zhang, Jia; Luo, Xiaoqian; Lei, Ying; Sun, Li

    2017-12-18

    Original graphene oxide (GO) nanosheets were prepared using the Hummers method and found to easily aggregate in aqueous and cement composites. Using carboxymethyl chitosan (CCS) as a dispersant, few-layered GO nanosheets (1-2 layers) were obtained by forming CCS/GO intercalation composites. The testing results indicated that the few-layered GO nanosheets could uniformly spread, both in aqueous and cement composites. The cement composites were prepared with GO dosages of 0.03%, 0.05% and 0.07% and we found that they had a compact microstructure in the whole volume. A special feature was determined, namely that the microstructures consisted of regular-shaped crystals created by self-crosslinking. The X-ray diffraction (XRD) results indicated that there was a higher number of cement hydration crystals in GO/cement composites. Meanwhile, we also found that partially-amorphous Calcium-Silicate-Hydrate (C-S-H) gel turned into monoclinic crystals. At 28 days, the GO/cement composites reached the maximum compressive and flexural strengths at a 0.05% dosage. These strengths were 176.64 and 31.67 MPa and, compared with control samples, their increased ratios were 64.87% and 149.73%, respectively. Durability parameters, such as penetration, freeze-thaw, carbonation, drying-shrinkage value and pore structure, showed marked improvement. The results indicated that it is possible to obtain cement composites with a compact microstructure and with high performances by introducing CCS/GO intercalation composites.

  7. Few-layered Ni(OH)2 nanosheets for high-performance supercapacitors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Wenping; Rui, Xianhong; Ulaganathan, Mani; Madhavi, Srinivasan; Yan, Qingyu

    2015-11-01

    Few-layered Ni(OH)2 nanosheets (4-5 nm in thickness) are synthesized towards high-performance supercapacitors. The ultrathin Ni(OH)2 nanosheets show high specific capacitance and good rate capability in both three-electrode and asymmetric devices. In the three-electrode device, the Ni(OH)2 nanosheets deliver a high capacitance of 2064 F g-1 at 2 A g-1, and the capacitance still has a retention of 1837 F g-1 at a high current density of 20 A g-1. Such excellent performance is by far one of the best for Ni(OH)2 electrodes. In the two-electrode asymmetric device, the specific capacitance is 248 F g-1 at 1 A g-1, and reaches 113 F g-1 at 20 A g-1. The capacitance of the asymmetric device maintains to be 166 F g-1 during the 4000th cycle at 2 A g-1, suggesting good cycling stability of the device. Besides, the asymmetric device exhibits gravimetric energy density of 22 Wh kg-1 at a power density of 0.8 kW kg-1. The present results demonstrate that the ultrathin Ni(OH)2 nanosheets are highly attractive electrode materials for achieving fast charging/discharging and high-capacity supercapacitors.

  8. Structural Phase Transition and Material Properties of Few-Layer Monochalcogenides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehboudi, Mehrshad; Fregoso, Benjamin M; Yang, Yurong; Zhu, Wenjuan; van der Zande, Arend; Ferrer, Jaime; Bellaiche, L; Kumar, Pradeep; Barraza-Lopez, Salvador

    2016-12-09

    GeSe and SnSe monochalcogenide monolayers and bilayers undergo a two-dimensional phase transition from a rectangular unit cell to a square unit cell at a critical temperature T_{c} well below the melting point. Its consequences on material properties are studied within the framework of Car-Parrinello molecular dynamics and density-functional theory. No in-gap states develop as the structural transition takes place, so that these phase-change materials remain semiconducting below and above T_{c}. As the in-plane lattice transforms from a rectangle into a square at T_{c}, the electronic, spin, optical, and piezoelectric properties dramatically depart from earlier predictions. Indeed, the Y and X points in the Brillouin zone become effectively equivalent at T_{c}, leading to a symmetric electronic structure. The spin polarization at the conduction valley edge vanishes, and the hole conductivity must display an anomalous thermal increase at T_{c}. The linear optical absorption band edge must change its polarization as well, making this structural and electronic evolution verifiable by optical means. Much excitement is drawn by theoretical predictions of giant piezoelectricity and ferroelectricity in these materials, and we estimate a pyroelectric response of about 3×10^{-12}  C/K m here. These results uncover the fundamental role of temperature as a control knob for the physical properties of few-layer group-IV monochalcogenides.

  9. Operation mode switchable charge-trap memory based on few-layer MoS2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hou, Xiang; Yan, Xiao; Liu, Chunsen; Ding, Shijin; Zhang, David Wei; Zhou, Peng

    2018-03-01

    Ultrathin layered two-dimensional (2D) semiconductors like MoS2 and WSe2 have received a lot of attention because of their excellent electrical properties and potential applications in electronic devices. We demonstrate a charge-trap memory with two different tunable operation modes based on a few-layer MoS2 channel and an Al2O3/HfO2/Al2O3 charge storage stack. Our device shows excellent memory properties under the traditional three-terminal operation mode. More importantly, unlike conventional charge-trap devices, this device can also realize the memory performance with just two terminals (drain and source) because of the unique atomic crystal electrical characteristics. Under the two-terminal operation mode, the erase/program current ratio can reach up to 104 with a stable retention property. Our study indicates that the conventional charge-trap memory cell can also realize the memory performance without the gate terminal based on novel two dimensional materials, which is meaningful for low power consumption and high integration density applications.

  10. Few-Layer Black Phosphorus Carbide Field-Effect Transistor via Carbon Doping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Wee Chong; Cai, Yongqing; Ng, Rui Jie; Huang, Li; Feng, Xuewei; Zhang, Gang; Zhang, Yong-Wei; Nijhuis, Christian A; Liu, Xinke; Ang, Kah-Wee

    2017-06-01

    Black phosphorus carbide (b-PC) is a new family of layered semiconducting material that has recently been predicted to have the lightest electrons and holes among all known 2D semiconductors, yielding a p-type mobility (≈10 5 cm 2 V -1 s -1 ) at room temperature that is approximately five times larger than the maximum value in black phosphorus. Here, a high-performance composite few-layer b-PC field-effect transistor fabricated via a novel carbon doping technique which achieved a high hole mobility of 1995 cm 2 V -1 s -1 at room temperature is reported. The absorption spectrum of this material covers an electromagnetic spectrum in the infrared regime not served by black phosphorus and is useful for range finding applications as the earth atmosphere has good transparency in this spectral range. Additionally, a low contact resistance of 289 Ω µm is achieved using a nickel phosphide alloy contact with an edge contacted interface via sputtering and thermal treatment. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  11. Ultrafast carrier thermalization and cooling dynamics in few-layer MoS2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nie, Zhaogang; Long, Run; Sun, Linfeng; Huang, Chung-Che; Zhang, Jun; Xiong, Qihua; Hewak, Daniel W; Shen, Zexiang; Prezhdo, Oleg V; Loh, Zhi-Heng

    2014-10-28

    Femtosecond optical pump-probe spectroscopy with 10 fs visible pulses is employed to elucidate the ultrafast carrier dynamics of few-layer MoS2. A nonthermal carrier distribution is observed immediately following the photoexcitation of the A and B excitonic transitions by the ultrashort, broadband laser pulse. Carrier thermalization occurs within 20 fs and proceeds via both carrier-carrier and carrier-phonon scattering, as evidenced by the observed dependence of the thermalization time on the carrier density and the sample temperature. The n(-0.37 ± 0.03) scaling of the thermalization time with carrier density suggests that equilibration of the nonthermal carrier distribution occurs via non-Markovian quantum kinetics. Subsequent cooling of the hot Fermi-Dirac carrier distribution occurs on the ∼ 0.6 ps time scale via carrier-phonon scattering. Temperature- and fluence-dependence studies reveal the involvement of hot phonons in the carrier cooling process. Nonadiabatic ab initio molecular dynamics simulations, which predict carrier-carrier and carrier-phonon scattering time scales of 40 fs and 0.5 ps, respectively, lend support to the assignment of the observed carrier dynamics.

  12. Large-area few-layer MoS 2 deposited by sputtering

    KAUST Repository

    Huang, Jyun-Hong

    2016-06-06

    Direct magnetron sputtering of transition metal dichalcogenide targets is proposed as a new approach for depositing large-area two-dimensional layered materials. Bilayer to few-layer MoS2 deposited by magnetron sputtering followed by post-deposition annealing shows superior area scalability over 20 cm(2) and layer-by-layer controllability. High crystallinity of layered MoS2 was confirmed by Raman, photo-luminescence, and transmission electron microscopy analysis. The sputtering temperature and annealing ambience were found to play an important role in the film quality. The top-gate field-effect transistor by using the layered MoS2 channel shows typical n-type characteristics with a current on/off ratio of approximately 10(4). The relatively low mobility is attributed to the small grain size of 0.1-1 mu m with a trap charge density in grain boundaries of the order of 10(13) cm(-2).

  13. Anisotropic in-plane thermal conductivity observed in few-layer black phosphorus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Zhe; Maassen, Jesse; Deng, Yexin; Du, Yuchen; Garrelts, Richard P.; Lundstrom, Mark S; Ye, Peide D.; Xu, Xianfan

    2015-01-01

    Black phosphorus has been revisited recently as a new two-dimensional material showing potential applications in electronics and optoelectronics. Here we report the anisotropic in-plane thermal conductivity of suspended few-layer black phosphorus measured by micro-Raman spectroscopy. The armchair and zigzag thermal conductivities are ∼20 and ∼40 W m−1 K−1 for black phosphorus films thicker than 15 nm, respectively, and decrease to ∼10 and ∼20 W m−1 K−1 as the film thickness is reduced, exhibiting significant anisotropy. The thermal conductivity anisotropic ratio is found to be ∼2 for thick black phosphorus films and drops to ∼1.5 for the thinnest 9.5-nm-thick film. Theoretical modelling reveals that the observed anisotropy is primarily related to the anisotropic phonon dispersion, whereas the intrinsic phonon scattering rates are found to be similar along the armchair and zigzag directions. Surface scattering in the black phosphorus films is shown to strongly suppress the contribution of long mean-free-path acoustic phonons. PMID:26472191

  14. Edge-spin-derived magnetism in few-layer MoS2 nanomeshes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Kondo

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Magnetism arising from edge spins is highly interesting, particularly in 2D atomically thin materials in which the influence of edges becomes more significant. Among such materials, molybdenum disulfide (MoS2; one of the transition metal dichalcogenide (TMD family is attracting significant attention. The causes for magnetism observed in the TMD family, including in MoS2, have been discussed by considering various aspects, such as pure zigzag atomic-structure edges, grain boundaries, and vacancies. Here, we report the observation of ferromagnetism (FM in few-layer MoS2 nanomeshes (NMs; honeycomb-like array of hexagonal nanopores with low-contamination and low-defect pore edges, which have been created by a specific non-lithographic method. We confirm robust FM arising from pore edges in oxygen(O-terminated MoS2-NMs at room temperature, while it disappears in hydrogen(H-terminated samples. The observed high-sensitivity of FM to NM structures and critical annealing temperatures suggest a possibility that the Mo-atom dangling bond in pore edge is a dominant factor for the FM.

  15. Thermal effects on the Raman phonon of few-layer phosphorene

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ling, Zhi-Peng; Ang, Kah-Wee

    2015-01-01

    Two-dimensional phosphorene is a promising channel material for next generation transistor applications due to its superior carrier transport property. Here, we report the influence of thermal effects on the Raman phonon of few-layer phosphorene formed on hafnium-dioxide (HfO 2 ) high-k dielectric. When annealed at elevated temperatures (up to 200 °C), the phosphorene film was found to exhibit a blue shift in both the out-of-plane (A 1 g ) and in-plane (B 2g and A 2 g ) phonon modes as a result of compressive strain effect. This is attributed to the out-diffusion of hafnium (Hf) atoms from the underlying HfO 2 dielectric, which compresses the phosphorene in both the zigzag and armchair directions. With a further increase in thermal energy beyond 250 °C, strain relaxation within phosphorene eventually took place. When this happens, the phosphorene was unable to retain its intrinsic crystallinity prior to annealing, as evident from the broadening of full-width at half maximum of the Raman phonon. These results provide an important insight into the impact of thermal effects on the structural integrity of phosphorene when integrated with high-k gate dielectric

  16. Few-layer Phosphorene: An Ideal 2D Material For Tunnel Transistors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ameen, Tarek A.; Ilatikhameneh, Hesameddin; Klimeck, Gerhard; Rahman, Rajib

    2016-01-01

    2D transition metal dichalcogenides (TMDs) have attracted a lot of attention recently for energy-efficient tunneling-field-effect transistor (TFET) applications due to their excellent gate control resulting from their atomically thin dimensions. However, most TMDs have bandgaps (Eg) and effective masses (m*) outside the optimum range needed for high performance. It is shown here that the newly discovered 2D material, few-layer phosphorene, has several properties ideally suited for TFET applications: 1) direct Eg in the optimum range ~1.0–0.4 eV, 2) light transport m* (0.15 m0), 3) anisotropic m* which increases the density of states near the band edges, and 4) a high mobility. These properties combine to provide phosphorene TFET outstanding ION ~ 1 mA/um, ON/OFF ratio ~ 106 for a 15 nm channel and 0.5 V supply voltage, thereby significantly outperforming the best TMD-TFETs and CMOS in many aspects such as ON/OFF current ratio and energy-delay products. Furthermore, phosphorene TFETS can scale down to 6 nm channel length and 0.2 V supply voltage within acceptable range in deterioration of the performance metrics. Full-band atomistic quantum transport simulations establish phosphorene TFETs as serious candidates for energy-efficient and scalable replacements of MOSFETs. PMID:27345020

  17. Thermal effects on the Raman phonon of few-layer phosphorene

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ling, Zhi-Peng; Ang, Kah-Wee, E-mail: eleakw@nus.edu.sg [Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, National University of Singapore, 4 Engineering Drive 3, Singapore 117583 (Singapore); Centre for Advanced 2D Materials and Graphene Research Centre, National University of Singapore, 6 Science Drive 2, Singapore 117546 (Singapore)

    2015-12-01

    Two-dimensional phosphorene is a promising channel material for next generation transistor applications due to its superior carrier transport property. Here, we report the influence of thermal effects on the Raman phonon of few-layer phosphorene formed on hafnium-dioxide (HfO{sub 2}) high-k dielectric. When annealed at elevated temperatures (up to 200 °C), the phosphorene film was found to exhibit a blue shift in both the out-of-plane (A{sup 1}{sub g}) and in-plane (B{sub 2g} and A{sup 2}{sub g}) phonon modes as a result of compressive strain effect. This is attributed to the out-diffusion of hafnium (Hf) atoms from the underlying HfO{sub 2} dielectric, which compresses the phosphorene in both the zigzag and armchair directions. With a further increase in thermal energy beyond 250 °C, strain relaxation within phosphorene eventually took place. When this happens, the phosphorene was unable to retain its intrinsic crystallinity prior to annealing, as evident from the broadening of full-width at half maximum of the Raman phonon. These results provide an important insight into the impact of thermal effects on the structural integrity of phosphorene when integrated with high-k gate dielectric.

  18. Vertical dielectric screening of few-layer van der Waals semiconductors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koo, Jahyun; Gao, Shiyuan; Lee, Hoonkyung; Yang, Li

    2017-10-05

    Vertical dielectric screening is a fundamental parameter of few-layer van der Waals two-dimensional (2D) semiconductors. However, unlike the widely-accepted wisdom claiming that the vertical dielectric screening is sensitive to the thickness, our first-principles calculation based on the linear response theory (within the weak field limit) reveals that this screening is independent of the thickness and, in fact, it is the same as the corresponding bulk value. This conclusion is verified in a wide range of 2D paraelectric semiconductors, covering narrow-gap ones and wide-gap ones with different crystal symmetries, providing an efficient and reliable way to calculate and predict static dielectric screening of reduced-dimensional materials. Employing this conclusion, we satisfactorily explain the tunable band gap in gated 2D semiconductors. We further propose to engineer the vertical dielectric screening by changing the interlayer distance via vertical pressure or hybrid structures. Our predicted vertical dielectric screening can substantially simplify the understanding of a wide range of measurements and it is crucial for designing 2D functional devices.

  19. Electron mobility in few-layer MoxW1-xS2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chandrasekar, Hareesh; Nath, Digbijoy N

    2015-01-01

    Heterostructures of two-dimensional (2D) layered materials are increasingly being explored for electronics in order to potentially extend conventional transistor scaling and to exploit new device designs and architectures. Alloys form a key underpinning of any heterostructure device technology and therefore an understanding of their electronic properties is essential. In this paper, we study the intrinsic electron mobility in few-layer Mo x W 1−x S 2 as limited by various scattering mechanisms. The room temperature, energy-dependent scattering times corresponding to polar longitudinal optical (LO) phonon, alloy and background impurity scattering mechanisms are estimated based on the Born approximation to Fermi’s golden rule. The contribution of individual scattering rates is analyzed as a function of 2D electron density as well as of alloy composition in Mo x W 1−x S 2 . While impurity scattering limits the mobility for low carrier densities (<2–4×10 12 cm −2 ), LO polar phonon scattering is the dominant mechanism for high electron densities. Alloy scattering is found to play a non-negligible role for 0.5 < x < 0.7 in Mo x W 1−x S 2 . The LO phonon-limited and impurity-limited mobilities show opposing trends with respect to alloy mole fractions. The understanding of electron mobility in Mo x W 1−x S 2 presented here is expected to enable the design and realization of heterostructures and devices based on alloys of MoS 2 and WS 2 . (paper)

  20. Correlation between (in)commensurate domains of multilayer epitaxial graphene grown on SiC(0 0 0 1-bar ) and single layer electronic behavior

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mendes-de-Sa, T G; Goncalves, A M B; Matos, M J S; Coelho, P M; Magalhaes-Paniago, R; Lacerda, R G

    2012-01-01

    A systematic study of the evolution of the electronic behavior and atomic structure of multilayer epitaxial graphene (MEG) as a function of growth time was performed. MEG was obtained by sublimation of a 4H-SiC(0 0 0 1-bar ) substrate in an argon atmosphere. Raman spectroscopy and x-ray diffraction were carried out in samples grown for different times. For 30 min of growth the sample Raman signal is similar to that of graphite, while for 60 min the spectrum becomes equivalent to that of exfoliated graphene. Conventional x-ray diffraction reveals that all the samples have two different (0001) lattice spacings. Grazing incidence x-ray diffraction shows that thin films are composed of rotated (commensurate) structures formed by adjacent graphene layers. Thick films are almost completely disordered. This result can be directly correlated to the single layer electronic behavior of the films as observed by Raman spectroscopy. Finally, to understand the change in lattice spacings as a result of layer rotation, we have carried out first principles calculations (using density functional theory) of the observed commensurate structures. (paper)

  1. Synthesis and electronic properties of chemically functionalized graphene on metal surfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grüneis, Alexander

    2013-01-01

    A review on the electronic properties, growth and functionalization of graphene on metals is presented. Starting from the derivation of the electronic properties of an isolated graphene layer using the nearest neighbor tight-binding (TB) approximation for π and σ electrons, the TB model is then extended to third-nearest neighbors and interlayer coupling. The latter is relevant to few-layer graphene and graphite. Next, the conditions under which epitaxial graphene can be obtained by chemical vapor deposition are reviewed with a particular emphasis on the Ni(111) surface. Regarding functionalization, I first discuss the intercalation of monolayer Au into the graphene/Ni(111) interface, which renders graphene quasi-free-standing. The Au intercalated quasi-free-standing graphene is then the basis for chemical functionalization. Functionalization of graphene is classified into covalent, ionic and substitutional functionalization. As archetypical examples for these three possibilities I discuss covalent functionalization by hydrogen, ionic functionalization by alkali metals and substitutional functionalization by nitrogen heteroatoms.

  2. Exciton Rydberg series in mono- and few-layer WS2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chernikov, Alexey; Berkelbach, Timothy C.; Hill, Heather M.; Rigosi, Albert; Li, Yilei; Aslan, Özgur B.; Hybertsen, Mark S.; Reichman, David R.; Heinz, Tony F.

    2014-03-01

    Considered a long-awaited semiconducting analogue to graphene, the family of atomically thin transition metal dichalcogenides (TMDs) attracted intense interest in the scientific community due to their remarkable physical properties resulting from the reduced dimensionality. A fundamental manifestation of the two-dimensional nature is a strong increase in the Coulomb interaction. The resulting formation of tightly bound excitons plays a crucial role for a majority of optical and transport phenomena. In our work, we investigate the excitons in atomically thin TMDs by optical micro-spectroscopy and apply a microscopic, ab-initio theoretical approach. We observe a full sequence of excited exciton states, i.e., the Rydberg series, in the monolayer WS2, identifying tightly bound excitons with energies exceeding 0.3 eV - almost an order of magnitude higher than in the corresponding, three-dimensional crystal. We also find significant deviations of the excitonic properties from the conventional hydrogenic physics - a direct evidence of a non-uniform dielectric environment. Finally, an excellent quantitative agreement is obtained between the experimental findings and the developed theoretical approach.

  3. Cold cathode emission studies on topographically modified few layer and single layer MoS2 films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaur, Anand P. S.; Sahoo, Satyaprakash; Mendoza, Frank; Rivera, Adriana M.; Kumar, Mohit; Dash, Saroj P.; Morell, Gerardo; Katiyar, Ram S.

    2016-01-01

    Nanostructured materials, such as carbon nanotubes, are excellent cold cathode emitters. Here, we report comparative field emission (FE) studies on topographically tailored few layer MoS2 films consisting of ⟨0001⟩ plane perpendicular (⊥) to c-axis (i.e., edge terminated vertically aligned) along with planar few layer and monolayer (1L) MoS2 films. FE measurements exhibited lower turn-on field Eto (defined as required applied electric field to emit current density of 10 μA/cm2) ˜4.5 V/μm and higher current density ˜1 mA/cm2, for edge terminated vertically aligned (ETVA) MoS2 films. However, Eto magnitude for planar few layer and 1L MoS2 films increased further to 5.7 and 11 V/μm, respectively, with one order decrease in emission current density. The observed differences in emission behavior, particularly for ETVA MoS2 is attributed to the high value of geometrical field enhancement factor (β), found to be ˜1064, resulting from the large confinement of localized electric field at edge exposed nanograins. Emission behavior of planar few layers and 1L MoS2 films are explained under a two step emission mechanism. Our studies suggest that with further tailoring the microstructure of ultra thin ETVA MoS2 films would result in elegant FE properties.

  4. Inherent Electrochemistry and Charge Transfer Properties of Few-Layer Two Dimensional Ti3C2Tx MXene

    KAUST Repository

    Nayak, Pranati

    2018-05-25

    We report the effect of Ti3C2Tx MXene flake thickness on its inherent electrochemistry and heterogeneous charge transfer characteristics. It is shown that the Ti3C2Tx undergoes irreversible oxidation in the positive potential window, which strongly depends on the flake thickness and pH of the electrolyte. Few-layer Ti3C2Tx exhibits faster electron transfer kinetics (k0=0.09533 cm/s) with Fe(CN)64−/3− redox mediator compared to multi-layer Ti3C2Tx (k0= 0.00503 cm/s). In addition, few-layer free standing Ti3C2Tx film electrode remains intact after enduring irreversible oxidation.

  5. Inherent Electrochemistry and Charge Transfer Properties of Few-Layer Two Dimensional Ti3C2Tx MXene

    KAUST Repository

    Nayak, Pranati; Jiang, Qiu; Mohanraman, Rajeshkumar; Anjum, Dalaver H.; Hedhili, Mohamed N.; Alshareef, Husam N.

    2018-01-01

    We report the effect of Ti3C2Tx MXene flake thickness on its inherent electrochemistry and heterogeneous charge transfer characteristics. It is shown that the Ti3C2Tx undergoes irreversible oxidation in the positive potential window, which strongly depends on the flake thickness and pH of the electrolyte. Few-layer Ti3C2Tx exhibits faster electron transfer kinetics (k0=0.09533 cm/s) with Fe(CN)64−/3− redox mediator compared to multi-layer Ti3C2Tx (k0= 0.00503 cm/s). In addition, few-layer free standing Ti3C2Tx film electrode remains intact after enduring irreversible oxidation.

  6. Few-Layer MoS2-Organic Thin-Film Hybrid Complementary Inverter Pixel Fabricated on a Glass Substrate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Hee Sung; Shin, Jae Min; Jeon, Pyo Jin; Lee, Junyeong; Kim, Jin Sung; Hwang, Hyun Chul; Park, Eunyoung; Yoon, Woojin; Ju, Sang-Yong; Im, Seongil

    2015-05-13

    Few-layer MoS2-organic thin-film hybrid complementary inverters demonstrate a great deal of device performance with a decent voltage gain of ≈12, a few hundred pW power consumption, and 480 Hz switching speed. As fabricated on glass, this hybrid CMOS inverter operates as a light-detecting pixel as well, using a thin MoS2 channel. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  7. Biotunable Nanoplasmonic Filter on Few-Layer MoS2 for Rapid and Highly Sensitive Cytokine Optoelectronic Immunosensing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Younggeun; Ryu, Byunghoon; Oh, Bo-Ram; Song, Yujing; Liang, Xiaogan; Kurabayashi, Katsuo

    2017-06-27

    Monitoring of the time-varying immune status of a diseased host often requires rapid and sensitive detection of cytokines. Metallic nanoparticle-based localized surface plasmon resonance (LSPR) biosensors hold promise to meet this clinical need by permitting label-free detection of target biomolecules. These biosensors, however, continue to suffer from relatively low sensitivity as compared to conventional immunoassay methods that involve labeling processes. Their response speeds also need to be further improved to enable rapid cytokine quantification for critical care in a timely manner. In this paper, we report an immunobiosensing device integrating a biotunable nanoplasmonic optical filter and a highly sensitive few-layer molybdenum disulfide (MoS 2 ) photoconductive component, which can serve as a generic device platform to meet the need of rapid cytokine detection with high sensitivity. The nanoplasmonic filter consists of anticytokine antibody-conjugated gold nanoparticles on a SiO 2 thin layer that is placed 170 μm above a few-layer MoS 2 photoconductive flake device. The principle of the biosensor operation is based on tuning the delivery of incident light to the few-layer MoS 2 photoconductive flake thorough the nanoplasmonic filter by means of biomolecular surface binding-induced LSPR shifts. The tuning is dependent on cytokine concentration on the nanoplasmonic filter and optoelectronically detected by the few-layer MoS 2 device. Using the developed optoelectronic biosensor, we have demonstrated label-free detection of IL-1β, a pro-inflammatory cytokine, with a detection limit as low as 250 fg/mL (14 fM), a large dynamic range of 10 6 , and a short assay time of 10 min. The presented biosensing approach could be further developed and generalized for point-of-care diagnosis, wearable bio/chemical sensing, and environmental monitoring.

  8. Atomic and electronic structure of trilayer graphene/SiC(0001): Evidence of Strong Dependence on Stacking Sequence and charge transfer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pierucci, Debora; Brumme, Thomas; Girard, Jean-Christophe; Calandra, Matteo; Silly, Mathieu G; Sirotti, Fausto; Barbier, Antoine; Mauri, Francesco; Ouerghi, Abdelkarim

    2016-09-15

    The transport properties of few-layer graphene are the directly result of a peculiar band structure near the Dirac point. Here, for epitaxial graphene grown on SiC, we determine the effect of charge transfer from the SiC substrate on the local density of states (LDOS) of trilayer graphene using scaning tunneling microscopy/spectroscopy and angle resolved photoemission spectroscopy (ARPES). Different spectra are observed and are attributed to the existence of two stable polytypes of trilayer: Bernal (ABA) and rhomboedreal (ABC) staking. Their electronic properties strongly depend on the charge transfer from the substrate. We show that the LDOS of ABC stacking shows an additional peak located above the Dirac point in comparison with the LDOS of ABA stacking. The observed LDOS features, reflecting the underlying symmetry of the two polytypes, were reproduced by explicit calculations within density functional theory (DFT) including the charge transfer from the substrate. These findings demonstrate the pronounced effect of stacking order and charge transfer on the electronic structure of trilayer or few layer graphene. Our approach represents a significant step toward understand the electronic properties of graphene layer under electrical field.

  9. Growth and characterization of Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} films on fluorine functionalized epitaxial graphene

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Robinson, Zachary R., E-mail: ZRobinso@Brockport.edu [Department of Physics, The College at Brockport, Brockport, New York 14420 (United States); Jernigan, Glenn G.; Wheeler, Virginia D.; Hernández, Sandra C.; Eddy, Charles R. [U.S. Naval Research Laboratory, Washington, DC 20375 (United States); Mowll, Tyler R.; Ong, Eng Wen [College of Nanoscale Science and Engineering, University at Albany-SUNY, Albany, New York 12203 (United States); Ventrice, Carl A. [College of Nanoscale Science, SUNY Polytechnic Institute, Albany, New York 12203 (United States); Geisler, Heike [Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, SUNY Oneonta, Oneonta, New York 13820 (United States); Pletikosic, Ivo; Yang, Hongbo; Valla, Tonica [Brookhaven National Laboratory, Brookhaven, New York 11973 (United States)

    2016-08-21

    Intelligent engineering of graphene-based electronic devices on SiC(0001) requires a better understanding of processes used to deposit gate-dielectric materials on graphene. Recently, Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} dielectrics have been shown to form conformal, pinhole-free thin films by functionalizing the top surface of the graphene with fluorine prior to atomic layer deposition (ALD) of the Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} using a trimethylaluminum (TMA) precursor. In this work, the functionalization and ALD-precursor adsorption processes have been studied with angle-resolved photoelectron spectroscopy, low energy electron diffraction, and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. It has been found that the functionalization process has a negligible effect on the electronic structure of the graphene, and that it results in a twofold increase in the adsorption of the ALD-precursor. In situ TMA-dosing and XPS studies were also performed on three different Si(100) substrates that were terminated with H, OH, or dangling Si-bonds. This dosing experiment revealed that OH is required for TMA adsorption. Based on those data along with supportive in situ measurements that showed F-functionalization increases the amount of oxygen (in the form of adsorbed H{sub 2}O) on the surface of the graphene, a model for TMA-adsorption on graphene is proposed that is based on a reaction of a TMA molecule with OH.

  10. Effects of Pretreatment on the Electronic Properties of Plasma Enhanced Chemical Vapor Deposition Hetero-Epitaxial Graphene Devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Lian-Chang; Shi, Zhi-Wen; Yang, Rong; Huang, Jian

    2014-09-01

    Quasi-monolayer graphene is successfully grown by the plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition heteroepitaxial method we reported previously. To measure its electrical properties, the prepared graphene is fabricated into Hall ball shaped devices by the routine micro-fabrication method. However, impurity molecules adsorbed onto the graphene surface will impose considerable doping effects on the one-atom-thick film material. Our experiment demonstrates that pretreatment of the device by heat radiation baking and electrical annealing can dramatically influence the doping state of the graphene and consequently modify the electrical properties. While graphene in the as-fabricated device is highly p-doped, as confirmed by the position of the Dirac point at far more than +60 V, baking treatment at temperatures around 180°C can significantly lower the doping level and reduce the conductivity. The following electrical annealing is much more efficient to desorb the extrinsic molecules, as confirmed by the in situ measurement, and as a result, further modify the doping state and electrical properties of the graphene, causing a considerable drop of the conductivity and a shifting of Dirac point from beyond +60 V to 0 V.

  11. Slater-Koster Tight-Binding parametrization of single and few-layer Black-Phosphorus from first-principles calculations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menezes, Marcos; Capaz, Rodrigo

    Black Phosphorus (BP) is a promising material for applications in electronics, especially due to the tuning of its band gap by increasing the number of layers. In single-layer BP, also called Phosphorene, the P atoms form two staggered chains bonded by sp3 hybridization, while neighboring layers are bonded by Van-der-Waals interactions. In this work, we present a Tight-Binding (TB) parametrization of the electronic structure of single and few-layer BP, based on the Slater-Koster model within the two-center approximation. Our model includes all 3s and 3p orbitals, which makes this problem more complex than that of graphene, where only 2pz orbitals are needed for most purposes. The TB parameters are obtained from a least-squares fit of DFT calculations carried on the SIESTA code. We compare the results for different basis-sets used to expand the ab-initio wavefunctions and discuss their applicability. Our model can fit a larger number of bands than previously reported calculations based on Wannier functions. Moreover, our parameters have a clear physical interpretation based on chemical bonding. As such, we expect our results to be useful in a further understanding of multilayer BP and other 2D-materials characterized by strong sp3 hybridization. CNPq, FAPERJ, INCT-Nanomateriais de Carbono.

  12. Temperature dependence of Coulomb oscillations in a few-layer two-dimensional WS2 quantum dot.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Xiang-Xiang; Zhang, Zhuo-Zhi; You, Jie; Liu, Di; Li, Hai-Ou; Cao, Gang; Xiao, Ming; Guo, Guo-Ping

    2015-11-05

    Standard semiconductor fabrication techniques are used to fabricate a quantum dot (QD) made of WS2, where Coulomb oscillations were found. The full-width-at-half-maximum of the Coulomb peaks increases linearly with temperature while the height of the peaks remains almost independent of temperature, which is consistent with standard semiconductor QD theory. Unlike graphene etched QDs, where Coulomb peaks belonging to the same QD can have different temperature dependences, these results indicate the absence of the disordered confining potential. This difference in the potential-forming mechanism between graphene etched QDs and WS2 QDs may be the reason for the larger potential fluctuation found in graphene QDs.

  13. Probing in-plane anisotropy in few-layer ReS2 using low frequency noise measurement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitra, Richa; Jariwala, Bhakti; Bhattacharya, Arnab; Das, Anindya

    2018-04-01

    ReS2, a layered two-dimensional material popular for its in-plane anisotropic properties, is emerging as one of the potential candidates for flexible electronics and ultrafast optical applications. It is an n-type semiconducting material having a layer independent bandgap of 1.55 eV. In this paper we have characterized the intrinsic electronic noise level of few-layer ReS2 for the first time. Few-layer ReS2 field effect transistor devices show a 1/f nature of noise for frequency ranging over three orders of magnitude. We have also observed that not only the electrical response of the material is anisotropic; the noise level is also dependent on direction. In fact the noise is found to be more sensitive towards the anisotropy. This fact has been explained by evoking the theory where the Hooge parameter is not a constant quantity, but has a distinct power law dependence on mobility along the two-axes direction. The anisotropy in 1/f noise measurement will pave the way to quantify the anisotropic nature of two-dimensional (2D) materials, which will be helpful for the design of low-noise transistors in future.

  14. Mechanically delaminated few layered MoS2 nanosheets based high performance wire type solid-state symmetric supercapacitors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krishnamoorthy, Karthikeyan; Pazhamalai, Parthiban; Veerasubramani, Ganesh Kumar; Kim, Sang Jae

    2016-07-01

    Two dimensional nanostructures are increasingly used as electrode materials in flexible supercapacitors for portable electronic applications. Herein, we demonstrated a ball milling approach for achieving few layered molybdenum disulfide (MoS2) via exfoliation from their bulk. Physico-chemical characterizations such as X-ray diffraction, field emission scanning electron microscope, and laser Raman analyses confirmed the occurrence of exfoliated MoS2 sheets with few layers from their bulk via ball milling process. MoS2 based wire type solid state supercapacitors (WSCs) are fabricated and examined using cyclic voltammetry (CV), electrochemical impedance spectroscopy, and galvanostatic charge discharge (CD) measurements. The presence of rectangular shaped CV curves and symmetric triangular shaped CD profiles suggested the mechanism of charge storage in MoS2 WSC is due to the formation of electrochemical double layer capacitance. The MoS2 WSC device delivered a specific capacitance of 119 μF cm-1, and energy density of 8.1 nW h cm-1 with better capacitance retention of about 89.36% over 2500 cycles, which ensures the use of the ball milled MoS2 for electrochemical energy storage devices.

  15. Effect of Growth Pressure on Epitaxial Graphene Grown on 4H-SiC Substrates by Using Ethene Chemical Vapor Deposition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shuxian Cai

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The Si(0001 face and C(000-1 face dependences on growth pressure of epitaxial graphene (EG grown on 4H-SiC substrates by ethene chemical vapor deposition (CVD was studied using atomic force microscopy (AFM and micro-Raman spectroscopy (μ-Raman. AFM revealed that EGs on Si-faced substrates had clear stepped morphologies due to surface step bunching. However, This EG formation did not occur on C-faced substrates. It was shown by μ-Raman that the properties of EG on both polar faces were different. EGs on Si-faced substrates were relatively thinner and more uniform than on C-faced substrates at low growth pressure. On the other hand, D band related defects always appeared in EGs on Si-faced substrates, but they did not appear in EG on C-faced substrate at an appropriate growth pressure. This was due to the μ-Raman covering the step edges when measurements were performed on Si-faced substrates. The results of this study are useful for optimized growth of EG on polar surfaces of SiC substrates.

  16. Few-layered MnO2/SWCNT hybrid in-plane supercapacitor with high energy density

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dutta, Shibsankar; Pal, Shreyasi; De, Sukanta

    2018-05-01

    In this present work we have synthesized few layered MnO2 nanosheets by mixed solvent exfoliation process for the application as electrode material of in-plane supercapacitor. The Structure and surface morphology of the as prepared samples are characterized by Raman, Transmission electron microscopy and Scanning electron microscopy. The patterns of the hybrids were directly fabricated by (50: 50 wt %) mixture of MnO2 and SWCNT dispersions with the help of a customized mask, and directly transferred onto a flexible PET substrate. Remarkably, the prepared in-plane supercapacitors deliver high energy density of 2.62mWh/cm2. Furthermore, our supercapacitors shows exceptional flexibility and stable performance under bending conditions

  17. Atmospheric pressure route to epitaxial nitrogen-doped trilayer graphene on 4H-SiC (0001) substrate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boutchich, M.; Arezki, H.; Alamarguy, D.; Güneş, F.; Alvarez, J.; Kleider, J. P.; Ho, K.-I.; Lai, C. S.; Sediri, H.; Ouerghi, A.

    2014-01-01

    Large-area graphene film doped with nitrogen is of great interest for a wide spectrum of nanoelectronics applications, such as field effect devices, super capacitors, and fuel cells among many others. Here, we report on the structural and electronic properties of nitrogen doped trilayer graphene on 4H-SiC (0001) grown under atmospheric pressure. The trilayer nature of the growth is evidenced by scanning transmission electron microscopy. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy shows the incorporation of 1.2% of nitrogen distributed in pyrrolic-N, and pyridinic-N configurations as well as a graphitic-N contribution. This incorporation causes an increase in the D band on the Raman signature indicating that the nitrogen is creating defects. Ultraviolet photoelectron spectroscopy shows a decrease of the work function of 0.3 eV due to the N-type doping of the nitrogen atoms in the carbon lattice and the edge defects. A top gate field effect transistor device has been fabricated and exhibits carrier mobilities up to 1300 cm 2 /V s for holes and 850 cm 2 /V s for electrons at room temperature

  18. Enhanced photocatalytic hydrogen evolution from in situ formation of few-layered MoS2/CdS nanosheet-based van der Waals heterostructures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iqbal, Shahid; Pan, Ziwei; Zhou, Kebin

    2017-05-25

    Here we report for the first time that the H 2 bubbles generated by photocatalytic water splitting are effective in the layer-by-layer exfoliation of MoS 2 nanocrystals (NCs) into few layers. The as-obtained few layers can be in situ assembled with CdS nanosheets (NSs) into van der Waals heterostructures (vdWHs) of few-layered MoS 2 /CdS NSs which, in turn, are effective in charge separation and transfer, leading to enhanced photocatalytic H 2 production activity. The few-layered MoS 2 /CdS vdWHs exhibited a H 2 evolution rate of 140 mmol g (CdS) -1 h -1 and achieved an apparent quantum yield of 66% at 420 nm.

  19. Few-Layer WSe2 Schottky Junction-Based Photovoltaic Devices through Site-Selective Dual Doping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ko, Seungpil; Na, Junhong; Moon, Young-Sun; Zschieschang, Ute; Acharya, Rachana; Klauk, Hagen; Kim, Gyu-Tae; Burghard, Marko; Kern, Klaus

    2017-12-13

    Ultrathin sheets of two-dimensional (2D) materials like transition metal dichalcogenides have attracted strong attention as components of high-performance light-harvesting devices. Here, we report the implementation of Schottky junction-based photovoltaic devices through site-selective surface doping of few-layer WSe 2 in lateral contact configuration. Specifically, whereas the drain region is covered by a strong molecular p-type dopant (NDP-9) to achieve an Ohmic contact, the source region is coated with an Al 2 O 3 layer, which causes local n-type doping and correspondingly an increase of the Schottky barrier at the contact. By scanning photocurrent microscopy using green laser light, it could be confirmed that photocurent generation is restricted to the region around the source contact. The local photoinduced charge separation is associated with a photoresponsivity of up to 20 mA W -1 and an external quantum efficiency of up to 1.3%. The demonstrated device concept should be easily transferrable to other van der Waals 2D materials.

  20. Spectroscopy of bulk and few-layer superconducting NbSe2 with van der Waals tunnel junctions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dvir, T; Massee, F; Attias, L; Khodas, M; Aprili, M; Quay, C H L; Steinberg, H

    2018-02-09

    Tunnel junctions, an established platform for high resolution spectroscopy of superconductors, require defect-free insulating barriers; however, oxides, the most common barrier, can only grow on a limited selection of materials. We show that van der Waals tunnel barriers, fabricated by exfoliation and transfer of layered semiconductors, sustain stable currents with strong suppression of sub-gap tunneling. This allows us to measure the spectra of bulk (20 nm) and ultrathin (3- and 4-layer) NbSe 2 devices at 70 mK. These exhibit two distinct superconducting gaps, the larger of which decreases monotonically with thickness and critical temperature. The spectra are analyzed using a two-band model incorporating depairing. In the bulk, the smaller gap exhibits strong depairing in in-plane magnetic fields, consistent with high out-of-plane Fermi velocity. In the few-layer devices, the large gap exhibits negligible depairing, consistent with out-of-plane spin locking due to Ising spin-orbit coupling. In the 3-layer device, the large gap persists beyond the Pauli limit.

  1. Accurate identification of layer number for few-layer WS2 and WSe2 via spectroscopic study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yuanzheng; Li, Xinshu; Yu, Tong; Yang, Guochun; Chen, Heyu; Zhang, Cen; Feng, Qiushi; Ma, Jiangang; Liu, Weizhen; Xu, Haiyang; Liu, Yichun; Liu, Xinfeng

    2018-03-23

    Transition metal dichalcogenides (TMDs) with a typical layered structure are highly sensitive to their layer number in optical and electronic properties. Seeking a simple and effective method for layer number identification is very important to low-dimensional TMD samples. Herein, a rapid and accurate layer number identification of few-layer WS 2 and WSe 2 is proposed via locking their photoluminescence (PL) peak-positions. As the layer number of WS 2 /WSe 2 increases, it is found that indirect transition emission is more thickness-sensitive than direct transition emission, and the PL peak-position differences between the indirect and direct transitions can be regarded as fingerprints to identify their layer number. Theoretical calculation confirms that the notable thickness-sensitivity of indirect transition derives from the variations of electron density of states of W atom d-orbitals and chalcogen atom p-orbitals. Besides, the PL peak-position differences between the indirect and direct transitions are almost independent of different insulating substrates. This work not only proposes a new method for layer number identification via PL studies, but also provides a valuable insight into the thickness-dependent optical and electronic properties of W-based TMDs.

  2. Tunneling Plasmonics in Bilayer Graphene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fei, Z; Iwinski, E G; Ni, G X; Zhang, L M; Bao, W; Rodin, A S; Lee, Y; Wagner, M; Liu, M K; Dai, S; Goldflam, M D; Thiemens, M; Keilmann, F; Lau, C N; Castro-Neto, A H; Fogler, M M; Basov, D N

    2015-08-12

    We report experimental signatures of plasmonic effects due to electron tunneling between adjacent graphene layers. At subnanometer separation, such layers can form either a strongly coupled bilayer graphene with a Bernal stacking or a weakly coupled double-layer graphene with a random stacking order. Effects due to interlayer tunneling dominate in the former case but are negligible in the latter. We found through infrared nanoimaging that bilayer graphene supports plasmons with a higher degree of confinement compared to single- and double-layer graphene, a direct consequence of interlayer tunneling. Moreover, we were able to shut off plasmons in bilayer graphene through gating within a wide voltage range. Theoretical modeling indicates that such a plasmon-off region is directly linked to a gapped insulating state of bilayer graphene, yet another implication of interlayer tunneling. Our work uncovers essential plasmonic properties in bilayer graphene and suggests a possibility to achieve novel plasmonic functionalities in graphene few-layers.

  3. Passive harmonic mode-locking of Er-doped fiber laser using CVD-grown few-layer MoS2 as a saturable absorber

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xia Han-Ding; Li He-Ping; Lan Chang-Yong; Li Chun; Deng Guang-Lei; Li Jian-Feng; Liu Yong

    2015-01-01

    Passive harmonic mode locking of an erbium-doped fiber laser based on few-layer molybdenum disulfide (MoS 2 ) saturable absorber (SA) is demonstrated. The few-layer MoS 2 is prepared by the chemical vapor deposition (CVD) method and then transferred onto the end face of a fiber connector to form a fiber-compatible MoS 2 SA. The 20th harmonic mode-locked pulses at 216-MHz repetition rate are stably generated with a pulse duration of 1.42 ps and side-mode suppression ratio (SMSR) of 36.1 dB. The results confirm that few-layer MoS 2 can serve as an effective SA for mode-locked fiber lasers. (paper)

  4. Metallic few-layered VS2 ultrathin nanosheets: high two-dimensional conductivity for in-plane supercapacitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Jun; Sun, Xu; Wu, Changzheng; Peng, Lele; Lin, Chenwen; Hu, Shuanglin; Yang, Jinlong; Xie, Yi

    2011-11-09

    With the rapid development of portable electronics, such as e-paper and other flexible devices, practical power sources with ultrathin geometries become an important prerequisite, in which supercapacitors with in-plane configurations are recently emerging as a favorable and competitive candidate. As is known, electrode materials with two-dimensional (2D) permeable channels, high-conductivity structural scaffolds, and high specific surface areas are the indispensible requirements for the development of in-plane supercapacitors with superior performance, while it is difficult for the presently available inorganic materials to make the best in all aspects. In this sense, vanadium disulfide (VS(2)) presents an ideal material platform due to its synergic properties of metallic nature and exfoliative characteristic brought by the conducting S-V-S layers stacked up by weak van der Waals interlayer interactions, offering great potential as high-performance in-plane supercapacitor electrodes. Herein, we developed a unique ammonia-assisted strategy to exfoliate bulk VS(2) flakes into ultrathin VS(2) nanosheets stacked with less than five S-V-S single layers, representing a brand new two-dimensional material having metallic behavior aside from graphene. Moreover, highly conductive VS(2) thin films were successfully assembled for constructing the electrodes of in-plane supercapacitors. As is expected, a specific capacitance of 4760 μF/cm(2) was realized here in a 150 nm in-plane configuration, of which no obvious degradation was observed even after 1000 charge/discharge cycles, offering as a new in-plane supercapacitor with high performance based on quasi-two-dimensional materials.

  5. Electrostatic force assisted deposition of graphene

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Xiaogan [Berkeley, CA

    2011-11-15

    An embodiment of a method of depositing graphene includes bringing a stamp into contact with a substrate over a contact area. The stamp has at least a few layers of the graphene covering the contact area. An electric field is developed over the contact area. The stamp is removed from the vicinity of the substrate which leaves at least a layer of the graphene substantially covering the contact area.

  6. Casein mediated green synthesis and decoration of reduced graphene oxide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maddinedi, Sireesh Babu; Mandal, Badal Kumar; Vankayala, Raviraj; Kalluru, Poliraju; Tammina, Sai Kumar; Kiran Kumar, H. A.

    This research is mainly focusing on one-step biosynthesis of graphene from graphene oxide and its stabilization using naturally occurring milk protein, casein. The synthesis of casein reduced graphene oxide (CRGO) was completed within 7 h under reflux at 90 °C with the formation of few layered fine graphene nanosheets. UV-Vis, XRD, XPS analysis data revealed the reduction process of the graphene oxide. Results of FT-IR, HPLC and TEM analysis have shown that the ensuing material consists of graphene decorated with casein molecules. Aspartic acid and glutamic acid residue present in casein molecules are responsible for the reduction of graphene oxide.

  7. Piezo-Catalytic Effect on the Enhancement of the Ultra-High Degradation Activity in the Dark by Single- and Few-Layers MoS2 Nanoflowers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Jyh Ming; Chang, Wei En; Chang, Yu Ting; Chang, Chih-Kai

    2016-05-01

    Single- and few-layer MoS2 nanoflowers are first discovered to have a piezo-catalyst effect, exhibiting an ultra-high degradation activity in the dark by introducing external mechanical strains. The degradation ratio of the Rhodamine-B dye solution reaches 93% within 60 s under ultrasonic-wave assistance in the dark. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  8. Effect of structural modulation and thickness of a graphene overlayer on the binding energy of the Rashba-type surface state of Ir(111)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sánchez-Barriga, J; Marchenko, D; Rader, O; Varykhalov, A; Bihlmayer, G; Wortmann, D

    2013-01-01

    The Ir(111) surface is known to host a surface state with a giant spin–orbit splitting due to the Rashba effect. This surface state is stable even in air when Ir is protected with an epitaxial graphene overlayer. In the present paper, we reveal an effect allowing one to tune the binding energy of this spin-split surface state up and down and demonstrate the practical application of this effect by two different approaches. The first approach is related to a decoration of the moiré pattern of single-layer graphene on Ir(111) by self-assembled nanoclusters of different compositions. The clusters locally pin graphene to the Ir substrate and enhance the amplitude of its structural corrugation, which, in turn, leads to an increase in the surface state binding energy. The second approach is related to the synthesis of few-layer graphene on Ir(111) by segregation of carbon. Additional graphene layers induce a shift of the Ir surface state towards lower binding energies and bring it almost to the Fermi level. Based on density functional calculations performed for the graphene/Ir(111) system, we show that in both cases the effect causing the binding energy shifts is intimately related to the distance between graphene and the Ir surface, which is subject to change due to deposition of clusters or by increasing the amount of graphene overlayers. In contrast, the observed spin–orbit splitting of the Ir(111) surface state remains remarkably robust and constant in all cases. Our theoretical analysis reveals that such stability can be explained by the localization properties of the Ir surface state that is a deep surface resonance. (paper)

  9. Moving towards the magnetoelectric graphene transistor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cao, Shi; Xiao, Zhiyong; Kwan, Chun-Pui; Zhang, Kai; Bird, Jonathan P.

    2017-01-01

    Here, the interfacial charge transfer between mechanically exfoliated few-layer graphene and Cr 2 O 3 (0001) surfaces has been investigated. Electrostatic force microscopy and Kelvin probe force microscopy studies point to hole doping of few-layer graphene, with up to a 150 meV shift in the Fermi level, an aspect that is confirmed by Raman spectroscopy. Density functional theory calculations furthermore confirm the p-type nature of the graphene/chromia interface and suggest that the chromia is able to induce a significant carrier spin polarization in the graphene layer. A large magnetoelectrically controlled magneto-resistance can therefore be anticipated in transistor structures based on this system, a finding important for developing graphene-based spintronic applications.

  10. Graphene Q-switched Yb:KYW planar waveguide laser

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kim, Jun Wan; Choi, Sun Young; Aravazhi, S.; Pollnau, Markus; Griebner, Uwe; Petrov, Valentin; Bae, Sukang; Ahn, Kwang Jun; Yeom, Dong-Il; Rotermund, Fabian

    A diode-pumped Yb:KYW planar waveguide laser, single-mode Q-switched by evanescent-field interaction with graphene, is demonstrated for the first time. Few-layer graphene grown by chemical vapor deposition is transferred onto the top of a guiding layer, which initiates stable Q-switched operation in

  11. Functionalization of Graphene via 1,3-Dipolar Cycloaddition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Quintana, Mildred; Spyrou, Konstantinos; Grzelczak, Marek; Browne, Wesley R.; Rudolf, Petra; Prato, Maurizio

    Few-layer graphenes (FLG) produced by dispersion and exfoliation of graphite in N-methylpyrrolidone were successfully functionalized using the 1,3-dipolar cycloaddition of azomethine ylides. The amino functional groups attached to graphene sheets were quantified by the Kaiser test. These amino

  12. PREFACE: Ultrathin layers of graphene, h-BN and other honeycomb structures Ultrathin layers of graphene, h-BN and other honeycomb structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geber, Thomas; Oshima, Chuhei

    2012-08-01

    Since ancient times, pure carbon materials have been familiar in human society—not only diamonds in jewellery and graphite in pencils, but also charcoal and coal which have been used for centuries as fuel for living and industry. Carbon fibers are stronger, tougher and lighter than steel and increase material efficiency because of their lower weight. Today, carbon fibers and related composite materials are used to make the frames of bicycles, cars and even airplane parts. The two-dimensional allotrope, now called graphene, is just a single layer of carbon atoms, locked together in a strongly bonded honeycomb lattice. In plane, graphene is stiffer than diamond, but out-of-plane it is soft, like rubber. It is virtually invisible, may conduct electricity (heat) better than copper and weighs next to nothing. Carbon compounds with two carbon atoms as a base, such as graphene, graphite or diamond, have isoelectronic sister compounds made of boron-nitrogen pairs: hexagonal and cubic boron nitride, with almost the same lattice constant. Although the two 2D sisters, graphene and h-BN, have the same number of valence electrons, their electronic properties are very different: freestanding h-BN is an insulator, while charge carriers in graphene are highly mobile. The past ten years have seen a great expansion in studies of single-layer and few-layer graphene. This activity has been concerned with the π electron transport in graphene, in electric and magnetic fields. More than 30 years ago, however, single-layer graphene and h-BN on solid surfaces were widely investigated. It was noted that they drastically changed the chemical reactivity of surfaces, and they were known to 'poison' heterogeneous catalysts, to passivate surfaces, to prevent oxidation of surfaces and to act as surfactants. Also, it was realized that the controlled growth of h-BN and graphene on substrates yields the formation of mismatch driven superstructures with peculiar template functionality on the

  13. Expansion and exfoliation of graphite to form graphene

    KAUST Repository

    Patole, Shashikan P.

    2017-07-27

    Graphene production methods are described based on subjecting non- covalent graphite intercalated compounds, such as graphite bisulfate, to expansion conditions such as shocks of heat and/or microwaves followed by turbulence-assisted exfoliation to produce few-layer, high quality graphene flakes. Depending on the approach selected for the exfoliation step, free-flowing graphene powder, graphene slurry, or an aqueous graphene mixture can be obtained. Surfactants can aid in dispersion, and graphene inks can be formed. The parameters of the process are simple, efficient and low-cost enabling therefore the scale- up of production. Applications include electrodes and energy storage devices.

  14. Sodium deoxycholate functionalized graphene and its composites with polyvinyl alcohol

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Lanwei; Liao Ruijuan; Tang Zhenghai; Lei Yanda; Guo Baochun

    2011-01-01

    Sodium deoxycholate (SDC), a kind of bile derivative, is used to noncovalently functionalize graphene. Stable and high concentration (up to 20 mg ml -1 ) of graphene colloid is obtained. The stabilization mechanism is revealed to be hydrophobic interaction, electrostatic repulsion and hydrogen bonding. Single-layer and few-layer graphene are obtained in the colloid. Subsequently, the obtained graphene sheets are incorporated into a polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) matrix by solution casting to fabricate PVA/graphene composites. Morphological observations substantiate the homogeneous dispersion of graphene in the PVA matrix and strong interfacial adhesion between them. Significant improvements in tensile strength and modulus of the composite films are observed.

  15. High temperature study on the thermal properties of few-layer Mo0.5W0.5S2 and effects of capping layers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hong Gu

    Full Text Available We investigated the thermal properties of few-layer Mo0.5W0.5S2 using a series of samples with different kinds of capping layers. Temperature-dependent Raman measurements were conducted in the range of 300–500 K, with power-dependent measurements also carried out. It indicated, for the few-layer Mo0.5W0.5S2, the temperature coefficients of the WS2-like E12g mode, MoS2-like E12g mode and A1g mode were −0.0155 cm−1/K, −0.0146 cm−1/K, and −0.0130 cm−1/K, respectively. And the thermal conductivity was estimated to be 44.8 W/mK. Moreover, the Mo0.5W0.5S2 samples coated with capping layers (ZrO2, HfO2 both showed a better thermal stability and a larger thermal conductivity than the one without. The results revealed that the capping layer should be an important factor in the thermal property. Keywords: Mo0.5W0.5S2, TMDs, Thermal properties, High temperature, Capping layers, Raman

  16. All-dry transferred single- and few-layer MoS2 field effect transistor with enhanced performance by thermal annealing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Islam, Arnob; Lee, Jaesung; Feng, Philip X.-L.

    2018-01-01

    We report on the experimental demonstration of all-dry stamp transferred single- and few-layer (1L to 3L) molybdenum disulfide (MoS2) field effect transistors (FETs), with a significant enhancement of device performance by employing thermal annealing in moderate vacuum. Three orders of magnitude reduction in both contact and channel resistances have been attained via thermal annealing. We obtain a low contact resistance of 22 kΩ μm after thermal annealing of 1L MoS2 FETs stamp-transferred onto gold (Au) contact electrodes. Furthermore, nearly two orders of magnitude enhancement of field effect mobility are also observed after thermal annealing. Finally, we employ Raman and photoluminescence measurements to reveal the phenomena of alloying or hybridization between 1L MoS2 and its contacting electrodes during annealing, which is responsible for attaining the low contact resistance.

  17. Fabrication and independent control of patterned polymer gate for a few-layer WSe{sub 2} field-effect transistor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hong, Sung Ju; Park, Min; Kang, Hojin; Park, Yung Woo, E-mail: ywpark@snu.ac.kr [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Seoul National University, Seoul 151-747 (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Minwoo; Jeong, Dae Hong [Department of Chemistry Education, Seoul National University, Seoul 151-742 (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-08-15

    We report the fabrication of a patterned polymer electrolyte for a two-dimensional (2D) semiconductor, few-layer tungsten diselenide (WSe{sub 2}) field-effect transistor (FET). We expose an electron-beam in a desirable region to form the patterned structure. The WSe{sub 2} FET acts as a p-type semiconductor in both bare and polymer-covered devices. We observe a highly efficient gating effect in the polymer-patterned device with independent gate control. The patterned polymer gate operates successfully in a molybdenum disulfide (MoS{sub 2}) FET, indicating the potential for general applications to 2D semiconductors. The results of this study can contribute to large-scale integration and better flexibility in transition metal dichalcogenide (TMD)-based electronics.

  18. 2D Space-Confined Synthesis of Few-Layer MoS2 Anchored on Carbon Nanosheet for Lithium-Ion Battery Anode.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Jingwen; Qin, Jian; Zhang, Xiang; Shi, Chunsheng; Liu, Enzuo; Li, Jiajun; Zhao, Naiqin; He, Chunnian

    2015-04-28

    A facile and scalable 2D spatial confinement strategy is developed for in situ synthesizing highly crystalline MoS2 nanosheets with few layers (≤5 layers) anchored on 3D porous carbon nanosheet networks (3D FL-MoS2@PCNNs) as lithium-ion battery anode. During the synthesis, 3D self-assembly of cubic NaCl particles is adopted to not only serve as a template to direct the growth of 3D porous carbon nanosheet networks, but also create a 2D-confined space to achieve the construction of few-layer MoS2 nanosheets robustly lain on the surface of carbon nanosheet walls. In the resulting 3D architecture, the intimate contact between the surfaces of MoS2 and carbon nanosheets can effectively avoid the aggregation and restacking of MoS2 as well as remarkably enhance the structural integrity of the electrode, while the conductive matrix of 3D porous carbon nanosheet networks can ensure fast transport of both electrons and ions in the whole electrode. As a result, this unique 3D architecture manifests an outstanding long-life cycling capability at high rates, namely, a specific capacity as large as 709 mAh g(-1) is delivered at 2 A g(-1) and maintains ∼95.2% even after 520 deep charge/discharge cycles. Apart from promising lithium-ion battery anode, this 3D FL-MoS2@PCNN composite also has immense potential for applications in other areas such as supercapacitor, catalysis, and sensors.

  19. Counting molecular-beam grown graphene layers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Plaut, Annette S. [School of Physics, University of Exeter, Exeter EX4 4QL (United Kingdom); Wurstbauer, Ulrich [Department of Physics, Columbia University, New York, New York 10027 (United States); Pinczuk, Aron [Department of Physics, Columbia University, New York, New York 10027 (United States); Department of Applied Physics and Applied Mathematics, Columbia University, New York, New York 10027 (United States); Garcia, Jorge M. [MBE Lab, IMM-Instituto de Microelectronica de Madrid (CNM-CSIC), Madrid, E-28760 (Spain); Pfeiffer, Loren N. [Electrical Engineering Department, Princeton University, New Jersey 08544 (United States)

    2013-06-17

    We have used the ratio of the integrated intensity of graphene's Raman G peak to that of the silicon substrate's first-order optical phonon peak, accurately to determine the number of graphene layers across our molecular-beam (MB) grown graphene films. We find that these results agree well both, with those from our own exfoliated single and few-layer graphene flakes, and with the results of Koh et al.[ACS Nano 5, 269 (2011)]. We hence distinguish regions of single-, bi-, tri-, four-layer, etc., graphene, consecutively, as we scan coarsely across our MB-grown graphene. This is the first, but crucial, step to being able to grow, by such molecular-beam-techniques, a specified number of large-area graphene layers, to order.

  20. Centimeter Scale Patterned Growth of Vertically Stacked Few Layer Only 2D MoS2/WS2 van der Waals Heterostructure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choudhary, Nitin; Park, Juhong; Hwang, Jun Yeon; Chung, Hee-Suk; Dumas, Kenneth H; Khondaker, Saiful I; Choi, Wonbong; Jung, Yeonwoong

    2016-05-05

    Two-dimensional (2D) van der Waal (vdW) heterostructures composed of vertically-stacked multiple transition metal dichalcogenides (TMDs) such as molybdenum disulfide (MoS2) and tungsten disulfide (WS2) are envisioned to present unprecedented materials properties unobtainable from any other material systems. Conventional fabrications of these hybrid materials have relied on the low-yield manual exfoliation and stacking of individual 2D TMD layers, which remain impractical for scaled-up applications. Attempts to chemically synthesize these materials have been recently pursued, which are presently limited to randomly and scarcely grown 2D layers with uncontrolled layer numbers on very small areas. Here, we report the chemical vapor deposition (CVD) growth of large-area (>2 cm(2)) patterned 2D vdW heterostructures composed of few layer, vertically-stacked MoS2 and WS2. Detailed structural characterizations by Raman spectroscopy and high-resolution/scanning transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM/STEM) directly evidence the structural integrity of two distinct 2D TMD layers with atomically sharp vdW heterointerfaces. Electrical transport measurements of these materials reveal diode-like behavior with clear current rectification, further confirming the formation of high-quality heterointerfaces. The intrinsic scalability and controllability of the CVD method presented in this study opens up a wide range of opportunities for emerging applications based on the unconventional functionalities of these uniquely structured materials.

  1. Gate-modulated conductance of few-layer WSe2 field-effect transistors in the subgap regime: Schottky barrier transistor and subgap impurity states

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Junjie; Feng, Simin; Rhodes, Daniel; Balicas, Luis; Nguyen, Minh An T.; Watanabe, K.; Taniguchi, T.; Mallouk, Thomas E.; Terrones, Mauricio; Zhu, J.

    2015-01-01

    Two key subjects stand out in the pursuit of semiconductor research: material quality and contact technology. The fledging field of atomically thin transition metal dichalcogenides (TMDCs) faces a number of challenges in both efforts. This work attempts to establish a connection between the two by examining the gate-dependent conductance of few-layer (1-5L) WSe 2 field effect devices. Measurements and modeling of the subgap regime reveal Schottky barrier transistor behavior. We show that transmission through the contact barrier is dominated by thermionic field emission (TFE) at room temperature, despite the lack of intentional doping. The TFE process arises due to a large number of subgap impurity states, the presence of which also leads to high mobility edge carrier densities. The density of states of such impurity states is self-consistently determined to be approximately 1–2 × 10 13 /cm 2 /eV in our devices. We demonstrate that substrate is unlikely to be a major source of the impurity states and suspect that lattice defects within the material itself are primarily responsible. Our experiments provide key information to advance the quality and understanding of TMDC materials and electrical devices

  2. Characterization of Few-Layer 1T' MoTe2 by Polarization-Resolved Second Harmonic Generation and Raman Scattering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beams, Ryan; Cancado, Luiz Gustavo; Krylyuk, Sergiy; Kalish, Irina; Kalanyan, Berc; Singh, Arunima K; Choudhary, Kamal; Bruma, Alina; Vora, Patrick M; Tavazza, Francesca; Davydov, Albert V; Stranick, Stephan J

    2016-10-05

    We study the crystal symmetry of few-layer 1T' MoTe 2 using the polarization dependence of the second harmonic generation (SHG) and Raman scattering. Bulk 1T' MoTe 2 is known to be inversion symmetric; however, we find that the inversion symmetry is broken for finite crystals with even numbers of layers, resulting in strong SHG comparable to other transition metal dichalcogenides. Group theory analysis of the polarization dependence of the Raman signals allows for the definitive assignment of all the Raman modes in 1T' MoTe 2 and clears up a discrepancy in the literature. The Raman results were also compared with density-functional theory simulations and are in excellent agreement in the layer-depenent variations of the Raman modes. The experimental measurements also determine the relationship between the crystal axes and the polarization-dependence of the SHG and Raman scattering, which now allows the anisotropy of polarized SHG or Raman signal to independently determine the crystal orientation.

  3. Gate-modulated conductance of few-layer WSe{sub 2} field-effect transistors in the subgap regime: Schottky barrier transistor and subgap impurity states

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Junjie; Feng, Simin [Department of Physics, The Pennsylvania State University, University Park, Pennsylvania 16802 (United States); Rhodes, Daniel; Balicas, Luis [National High Magnetic Field Lab, Florida State University, Tallahassee, Florida 32310 (United States); Nguyen, Minh An T. [Department of Chemistry, The Pennsylvania State University, University Park, Pennsylvania 16802 (United States); Watanabe, K.; Taniguchi, T. [National Institute for Materials Science, 1-1 Namiki, Tsukuba 305-0044 (Japan); Mallouk, Thomas E. [Department of Physics, The Pennsylvania State University, University Park, Pennsylvania 16802 (United States); Department of Chemistry, The Pennsylvania State University, University Park, Pennsylvania 16802 (United States); Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, The Pennsylvania State University, University Park, Pennsylvania 16802 (United States); Terrones, Mauricio [Department of Physics, The Pennsylvania State University, University Park, Pennsylvania 16802 (United States); Department of Chemistry, The Pennsylvania State University, University Park, Pennsylvania 16802 (United States); Department of Materials Science and Engineering, The Pennsylvania State University, University Park, Pennsylvania 16802 (United States); Center for 2-Dimensional and Layered Materials, The Pennsylvania State University, University Park, Pennsylvania 16802 (United States); Zhu, J., E-mail: jzhu@phys.psu.edu [Department of Physics, The Pennsylvania State University, University Park, Pennsylvania 16802 (United States); Center for 2-Dimensional and Layered Materials, The Pennsylvania State University, University Park, Pennsylvania 16802 (United States)

    2015-04-13

    Two key subjects stand out in the pursuit of semiconductor research: material quality and contact technology. The fledging field of atomically thin transition metal dichalcogenides (TMDCs) faces a number of challenges in both efforts. This work attempts to establish a connection between the two by examining the gate-dependent conductance of few-layer (1-5L) WSe{sub 2} field effect devices. Measurements and modeling of the subgap regime reveal Schottky barrier transistor behavior. We show that transmission through the contact barrier is dominated by thermionic field emission (TFE) at room temperature, despite the lack of intentional doping. The TFE process arises due to a large number of subgap impurity states, the presence of which also leads to high mobility edge carrier densities. The density of states of such impurity states is self-consistently determined to be approximately 1–2 × 10{sup 13}/cm{sup 2}/eV in our devices. We demonstrate that substrate is unlikely to be a major source of the impurity states and suspect that lattice defects within the material itself are primarily responsible. Our experiments provide key information to advance the quality and understanding of TMDC materials and electrical devices.

  4. Contrast and Raman spectroscopy study of single- and few-layered charge density wave material: 2H-TaSe2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hajiyev, Parviz; Cong, Chunxiao; Qiu, Caiyu; Yu, Ting

    2013-01-01

    In this article, we report the first successful preparation of single- and few-layers of tantalum diselenide (2H-TaSe2) by mechanical exfoliation technique. Number of layers is confirmed by white light contrast spectroscopy and atomic force microscopy (AFM). Vibrational properties of the atomically thin layers of 2H-TaSe2 are characterized by micro-Raman spectroscopy. Room temperature Raman measurements demonstrate MoS2-like spectral features, which are reliable for thickness determination. E1g mode, usually forbidden in backscattering Raman configuration is observed in the supported TaSe2 layers while disappears in the suspended layers, suggesting that this mode may be enabled because of the symmetry breaking induced by the interaction with the substrate. A systematic in-situ low temperature Raman study, for the first time, reveals the existence of incommensurate charge density wave phase transition in single and double-layered 2H-TaSe2 as reflected by a sudden softening of the second-order broad Raman mode resulted from the strong electron-phonon coupling (Kohn anomaly). PMID:24005335

  5. Nitrogen-doped graphene by microwave plasma chemical vapor deposition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kumar, A.; Voevodin, A.A.; Paul, R.; Altfeder, I.; Zemlyanov, D.; Zakharov, D.N.; Fisher, T.S.

    2013-01-01

    Rapid synthesis of nitrogen-doped, few-layer graphene films on Cu foil is achieved by microwave plasma chemical vapor deposition. The films are doped during synthesis by introduction of nitrogen gas in the reactor. Raman spectroscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, transmission electron microscopy and scanning tunneling microscopy reveal crystal structure and chemical characteristics. Nitrogen concentrations up to 2 at.% are observed, and the limit is linked to the rigidity of graphene films on copper surfaces that impedes further nitrogen substitutions of carbon atoms. The entire growth process requires only a few minutes without supplemental substrate heating and offers a promising path toward large-scale synthesis of nitrogen-doped graphene films. - Highlights: ► Rapid synthesis of nitrogen doped few layer graphene on Cu foil. ► Defect density increment on 2% nitrogen doping. ► Nitrogen doped graphene is a good protection to the copper metallic surface

  6. Nitrogen-doped graphene by microwave plasma chemical vapor deposition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kumar, A., E-mail: kumar50@purdue.edu [Birck Nanotechnolgy Center, Purdue University, West Lafayette, IN 47907 (United States); Voevodin, A.A. [Birck Nanotechnolgy Center, Purdue University, West Lafayette, IN 47907 (United States); Materials and Manufacturing Directorate, Air Force Research Laboratory, WPAFB, OH 45433 (United States); Paul, R. [Birck Nanotechnolgy Center, Purdue University, West Lafayette, IN 47907 (United States); Altfeder, I. [Materials and Manufacturing Directorate, Air Force Research Laboratory, WPAFB, OH 45433 (United States); Zemlyanov, D.; Zakharov, D.N. [Birck Nanotechnolgy Center, Purdue University, West Lafayette, IN 47907 (United States); Fisher, T.S., E-mail: tsfisher@purdue.edu [Birck Nanotechnolgy Center, Purdue University, West Lafayette, IN 47907 (United States); Materials and Manufacturing Directorate, Air Force Research Laboratory, WPAFB, OH 45433 (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Rapid synthesis of nitrogen-doped, few-layer graphene films on Cu foil is achieved by microwave plasma chemical vapor deposition. The films are doped during synthesis by introduction of nitrogen gas in the reactor. Raman spectroscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, transmission electron microscopy and scanning tunneling microscopy reveal crystal structure and chemical characteristics. Nitrogen concentrations up to 2 at.% are observed, and the limit is linked to the rigidity of graphene films on copper surfaces that impedes further nitrogen substitutions of carbon atoms. The entire growth process requires only a few minutes without supplemental substrate heating and offers a promising path toward large-scale synthesis of nitrogen-doped graphene films. - Highlights: ► Rapid synthesis of nitrogen doped few layer graphene on Cu foil. ► Defect density increment on 2% nitrogen doping. ► Nitrogen doped graphene is a good protection to the copper metallic surface.

  7. Green conversion of graphene oxide to graphene nanosheets and its biosafety study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adhiraj Dasgupta

    Full Text Available Chemical reduction of graphene oxide (GO to graphene employs the use of toxic and environmentally harmful reducing agents, hindering mass production of graphene which is of tremendous technological importance. In this study we report a green approach to the synthesis of graphene, bio-reduced by crude polysaccharide. The polysaccharide reduces exfoliated GO to graphene at room temperature in an aqueous medium. Transmission electron microscopy image provides clear evidence for the formation of few layer graphene. Characterization of the resulting polysaccharide reduced GO by Raman spectroscopy, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and Energy dispersive X-ray analysis confirms reduction of GO to graphene. We also investigated the degree of biosafety of the reduced GO and found it to be safe under 100 μg/ml.

  8. Few-Layer MoS2 Nanodomains Decorating TiO2 Nanoparticles: A Case Study for the Photodegradation of Carbamazepine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sara Cravanzola

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available S-doped TiO2 and hybrid MoS2/TiO2 systems have been synthesized, via the sulfidation with H2S of the bare TiO2 and of MoOx supported on TiO2 systems, with the aim of enhancing the photocatalytic properties of TiO2 for the degradation of carbamazepine, an anticonvulsant drug, whose residues and metabolites are usually inefficiently removed in wastewater treatment plants. The focus of this study is to find a relationship between the morphology/structure/surface properties and photoactivity. The full characterization of samples reveals the strong effects of the H2S action on the properties of TiO2, with the formation of defects at the surface, as shown by transmission electron microscopy (TEM and infrared spectroscopy (IR, while also the optical properties are strongly affected by the sulfidation treatment, with changes in the electronic states of TiO2. Meanwhile, the formation of small and thin few-layer MoS2 domains, decorating the TiO2 surface, is evidenced by both high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM and UV-Vis/Raman spectroscopies, while Fourier-transform infrared (FTIR spectra give insights into the nature of Ti and Mo surface sites. The most interesting findings of our research are the enhanced photoactivity of the MoS2/TiO2 hybrid photocatalyst toward the carbamazepine mineralization. Surprisingly, the formation of hazardous compounds (i.e., acridine derivatives, usually obtained from carbamazepine, is precluded when treated with MoS2/TiO2 systems.

  9. Porous Hybrid Composites of Few-Layer MoS2 Nanosheets Embedded in a Carbon Matrix with an Excellent Supercapacitor Electrode Performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ji, Hongmei; Liu, Chao; Wang, Ting; Chen, Jing; Mao, Zhengning; Zhao, Jin; Hou, Wenhua; Yang, Gang

    2015-12-22

    Porous hierarchical architectures of few-layer MoS2 nanosheets dispersed in carbon matrix are prepared by a microwave-hydrothermal method followed by annealing treatment via using glucose as C source and structure-directing agent and (NH4 )2 MoS4 as both Mo and S sources. It is found that the morphology and size of the secondary building units (SBUs), the size and layer number of MoS2 nanosheets as well as the distribution of MoS2 nanosheets in carbon matrix, can be effectively controlled by simply adjusting the molar ratio of (NH4 )2 MoS4 to glucose, leading to the materials with a low charge-transfer resistance, many electrochemical active sites and a robust structure for an outstanding energy storage performance including a high specific capacitance (589 F g(-1) at 0.5 A g(-1) ), a good rate capability (364 F g(-1) at 20 A g(-1) ), and an excellent cycling stability (retention 104% after 2000 cycles) for application in supercapacitors. The exceptional rate capability endows the electrode with a high energy density of 72.7 Wh kg(-1) and a high power density of 12.0 kW kg(-1) simultaneously. This work presents a facile and scalable approach for synthesizing novel heterostructures of MoS2 -based electrode materials with an enhanced rate capability and cyclability for potential application in supercapacitor. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  10. Photoreflectance study of the near-band-edge transitions of chemical vapor deposition-grown mono- and few-layer MoS{sub 2} films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lin, Kuang-I, E-mail: kilin@mail.ncku.edu.tw [Center for Micro/Nano Science and Technology, National Cheng Kung University, Tainan 70101, Taiwan (China); Chen, Yen-Jen; Wang, Bo-Yan; Cheng, Yung-Chen [Department of Materials Science, National University of Tainan, Tainan 70005, Taiwan (China); Chen, Chang-Hsiao, E-mail: chsiaoc@fcu.edu.tw [Department of Automatic Control Engineering, Feng Chia University, Taichung 40724, Taiwan (China)

    2016-03-21

    Room-temperature photoreflectance (PR) and reflectance (R) spectroscopy are utilized to investigate the near-band-edge transitions of molybdenum disulfide (MoS{sub 2}) thin films grown on sapphire substrates by a hot-wall chemical vapor deposition system. The layer thickness and optical properties of the MoS{sub 2} thin films are confirmed by Raman spectroscopy, atomic force microscope, and photoluminescence (PL) analysis. The B exciton shows relatively weak PL intensity in comparing with the A exciton even for monolayer MoS{sub 2} films. In the R spectrum of few‐layer MoS{sub 2}, it is not possible to clearly observe exciton related features. The PR spectra have two sharp, derivative-like features on a featureless background. Throughout the PR lineshape fitting, the transition energies are designated as the A and B excitons at the K-point of the Brillouin zone, but at room temperature there seems to be no distinguishable feature corresponding to an H‐point transition for the mono- and few-layer MoS{sub 2} films unlike in bulk. These transition energies are slightly larger than those obtained by PL, which is attributed to the Stokes shifts related to doping level. The obtained values of valence-band spin-orbit splitting are in good agreement with those from other experimental methods. By comparing the PR lineshapes, the dominant modulation mechanism is attributed to variations of the exciton transition energies due to change in the built-in electric field. On the strength of this study, PR spectroscopy is demonstrated as a powerful technique for characterizing the near-band-edge transitions of MoS{sub 2} from monolayer to bulk.

  11. Layer-dependent supercapacitance of graphene films grown by chemical vapor deposition on nickel foam

    KAUST Repository

    Chen, Wei; Fan, Zhongli; Zeng, Gaofeng; Lai, Zhiping

    2013-01-01

    High-quality, large-area graphene films with few layers are synthesized on commercial nickel foams under optimal chemical vapor deposition conditions. The number of graphene layers is adjusted by varying the rate of the cooling process. It is found

  12. Surfactant mediated liquid phase exfoliation of graphene

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narayan, Rekha; Kim, Sang Ouk

    2015-10-01

    Commercialization of graphene based applications inevitably requires cost effective mass production. From the early days of research on graphene, direct liquid phase exfoliation (LPE) of graphite has been considered as the most promising strategy to produce high-quality mono or few-layer graphene sheets in solvent dispersion forms. Substantial success has been achieved thus far in the LPE of graphene employing numerous solvent systems and suitable surfactants. This invited review article principally showcase the recent research progress as well as shortcomings of surfactant assisted LPE of graphene. In particular, a comprehensive assessment of the quality and yield of the graphene sheets produced by different categories of the surfactants are summarized. Future direction of LPE methods is also proposed for the eventual success of commercial applications.

  13. Chirality and grain boundary effects on indentation mechanical properties of graphene coated on nickel foil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Yuping; Lv, Jiajiang; Liu, Sheng

    2018-04-01

    We investigate chirality and grain boundary (GB) effects on indentation mechanical properties of graphene coated on nickel foil using molecular dynamics simulations. The models of graphene with different chirality angles, different numbers of layers and tilt GBs were established. It was found that the chirality angle of few-layer graphene had a significant effect on the load bearing capacity of graphene/nickel systems, and this turns out to be more significant when the number of layers is greater than one. The enhancement to the contact stiffness, elastic capacity and the load bearing capacity of graphene with tilt GBs was lower than that of pristine graphene.

  14. Graphene: from functionalization to devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tejeda, Antonio; Soukiassian, Patrick G.

    2014-03-01

    The year 2014 marks the first decade of the rise of graphene. Graphene, a single atomic layer of carbon atoms in sp2 bonding configuration having a honeycomb structure, has now become a well-known and well-established material. Among some of its many outstanding fundamental properties, one can mention a very high carrier mobility, a very large spin diffusion length, unsurpassed mechanical properties as graphene is the strongest material ever measured and an exceptional thermal conductivity scaling more than one order of magnitude above that of copper. After the first years of the graphene rush, graphene growth is now well controlled using various methods like epitaxial growth on silicon carbide substrate, chemical vapour deposition (CVD) or plasma techniques on metal, insulator or semiconductor substrates. More applied research is now taking over the initial studies on graphene production. Indeed, graphene is a promising material for many advanced applications such as, but not limited to, electronic, spintronics, sensors, photonics, micro/nano-electromechanical (MEMS/NEMS) systems, super-capacitors or touch-screen technologies. In this context, this Special Issue of the Journal of Physics D: Applied Physics on graphene reviews some of the recent achievements, progress and prospects in this field. It includes a collection of seventeen invited articles covering the current status and future prospects of some selected topics of strong current interest. This Special Issue is organized in four sections. The first section is dedicated to graphene devices, and opens with an article by de Heer et al on an investigation of integrating graphene devices with silicon complementary metal-oxide-semiconductor (CMOS) technology. Then, a study by Svintsov et al proposes a lateral all-graphene tunnel field-effect transistor (FET) with a high on/off current switching ratio. Next, Tsukagoshi et al present how a band-gap opening occurs in a graphene bilayer by using a perpendicular

  15. Green reduction of graphene oxide via Lycium barbarum extract

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hou, Dandan, E-mail: houdandan114@163.com; Liu, Qinfu, E-mail: lqf@cumtb.edu.cn; Cheng, Hongfei, E-mail: h.cheng@cumtb.edu.cn; Zhang, Hao, E-mail: 1073261516@qq.com; Wang, Sen, E-mail: wscumtb@163.com

    2017-02-15

    The synthesis of graphene from graphene oxide (GO) usually involves toxic reducing agents that are harmful to human health and the environment. Here, we report a facile approach for effective reduction of GO, for the first time, using Lycium barbarum extract as a green and natural reducing agent. The morphology and de-oxidation efficiency of the reduced graphene were characterized and results showed that Lycium barbarum extract can effectively reduce GO into few layered graphene with a high carbon to oxygen ratio (6.5), comparable to that of GO reduced by hydrazine hydrate (6.6). The possible reduction mechanism of GO may be due to the active components existing in Lycium barbarum fruits, which have high binding affinity to the oxygen containing groups to form their corresponding oxides and other by-products. This method avoided the use of any nocuous chemicals, thus facilitating the mass production of graphene and graphene-based bio-materials. - Graphical abstract: Schematic illustration of the preparation of reduced graphene by Lycium barbarum extract. - Highlights: • The Lycium barbarum extract was used for the reduction of graphene oxide. • The obtained few layered graphene exhibited high carbon to oxygen ratio. • This approach can be applied in the preparation of graphene-based bio-materials.

  16. Nanometer-scale lithography on microscopically clean graphene

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    van Dorp, W. F.; Zhang, X.; Feringa, B. L.

    2011-01-01

    Focused-electron-beam-induced deposition, or FEBID, enables the fabrication of patterns with sub-10 nm resolution. The initial stages of metal deposition by FEBID are still not fundamentally well understood. For these investigations, graphene, a one-atom-thick sheet of carbon atoms in a hexagonal...... lattice, is ideal as the substrate for FEBID writing. In this paper, we have used exfoliated few-layer graphene as a support to study the early growth phase of focused-electron-beam-induced deposition and to write patterns with dimensions between 0.6 and 5 nm. The results obtained here are compared...... to the deposition behavior on amorphous materials. Prior to the deposition experiment, the few-layer graphene was cleaned. Typically, it is observed in electron microscope images that areas of microscopically clean graphene are surrounded by areas with amorphous material. We present a method to remove the amorphous...

  17. Ultraviolet-visible spectroscopy of graphene oxides

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qi Lai

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Dispersions of few-layer (1-3 layers, multi-layer (4-10 layers and thick-layer (>10 layers graphene oxide (GO were prepared by a modified Hummers method with different mass ratios of KMnO4 to graphite. Ultraviolet-visible (UV-vis spectroscopic data show that few-layer GO dispersions can be distinguished from multi- and thick-layer dispersions by a more intense peak at 230 nm. Atomic force microscopy (AFM images of few-layer GO contain a single peak, those of multi-layer GO exhibit a shoulder and those of thick-layer GO do not contain a peak or shoulder. These findings allow qualitative analysis of GO dispersions. X-ray photoelectron spectra (XPS show that the change of UV-vis absorption intensity of GO is caused by a conjugative effect related to chromophore aggregation that influences the π-π* plasmon peak.

  18. Performance of Solution Processed Carbon Nanotube Field Effect Transistors with Graphene Electrodes

    OpenAIRE

    Gangavarapu, P R Yasasvi; Lokesh, Punith Chikkahalli; Bhat, K N; Naik, A K

    2016-01-01

    This work evaluates the performance of carbon nanotube field effect transistors (CNTFET) using few layer graphene as the contact electrode material. We present the experimental results obtained on the barrier height at CNT graphene junction using temperature dependent IV measurements. The estimated barrier height in our devices for both holes and electrons is close to zero or slightly negative indicating the Ohmic contact of graphene with the valence and conduction bands of CNTs. In addition,...

  19. Discrete Dynamics of Nanoparticle Channelling in Suspended Graphene

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Booth, Tim; Pizzocchero, Filippo; Andersen, Henrik

    2011-01-01

    We have observed a previously undescribed stepwise oxidation of mono- and few layer suspended graphene by silver nanoparticles in situ at subnanometer scale in an environmental transmission electron microscope. Over the range of 600–850 K, we observe crystallographically oriented channelling...

  20. Preparation of graphene by electrical explosion of graphite sticks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Xin; Xu, Chunxiao; Yin, Hao; Wang, Xiaoguang; Song, Qiuzhi; Chen, Pengwan

    2017-08-03

    Graphene nanosheets were produced by electrical explosion of high-purity graphite sticks in distilled water at room temperature. The as-prepared samples were characterized by various techniques to find different forms of carbon phases, including graphite nanosheets, few-layer graphene, and especially, mono-layer graphene with good crystallinity. Delicate control of energy injection is critical for graphene nanosheet formation, whereas mono-layer graphene was produced under the charging voltage of 22.5-23.5 kV. On the basis of electrical wire explosion and our experimental results, the underlying mechanism that governs the graphene generation was carefully illustrated. This work provides a simple but innovative route for producing graphene nanosheets.

  1. Nanometer-scale lithography on microscopically clean graphene

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Van Dorp, W F; De Hosson, J Th M; Zhang, X; Feringa, B L; Wagner, J B; Hansen, T W

    2011-01-01

    Focused-electron-beam-induced deposition, or FEBID, enables the fabrication of patterns with sub-10 nm resolution. The initial stages of metal deposition by FEBID are still not fundamentally well understood. For these investigations, graphene, a one-atom-thick sheet of carbon atoms in a hexagonal lattice, is ideal as the substrate for FEBID writing. In this paper, we have used exfoliated few-layer graphene as a support to study the early growth phase of focused-electron-beam-induced deposition and to write patterns with dimensions between 0.6 and 5 nm. The results obtained here are compared to the deposition behavior on amorphous materials. Prior to the deposition experiment, the few-layer graphene was cleaned. Typically, it is observed in electron microscope images that areas of microscopically clean graphene are surrounded by areas with amorphous material. We present a method to remove the amorphous material in order to obtain large areas of microscopically clean graphene flakes. After cleaning, W(CO) 6 was used as the precursor to study the early growth phase of FEBID deposits. It was observed that preferential adsorption of the precursor molecules on step edges and adsorbates plays a key role in the deposition on cleaned few-layer graphene.

  2. Graphene synthesis by laser-assisted chemical vapor deposition on Ni plate and the effect of process parameters on uniform graphene growth

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jiang, Juan; Lin, Zhe; Ye, Xiaohui; Zhong, Minlin; Huang, Ting; Zhu, Hongwei

    2014-01-01

    A fast, simple technique was developed to fabricate few-layer graphene films at ambient pressure and room temperature by laser-assisted chemical vapor deposition on polycrystalline Ni plates. Laser scanning speed was found as the most important factor in the production of few-layer graphene. The quality of graphene films was controlled by varying the laser power. Uniform graphene ribbons with a width of 1.5 mm and a length of 16 mm were obtained at a scanning speed of 1.3 mm/s and a laser power of 600 W. The developed technique provided a promising application of a high-power laser system to fabricate a graphene film. - Highlights: • Uniform few-layer graphene was fabricated at room temperature and ambient conditions. • Laser-assisted chemical vapor deposition was used to grow the layers in a few seconds. • The effect of process parameters on graphene growth was discussed. • This cost effective method could facilitate the integration of graphene in electronic devices

  3. Performance-Enhanced Activated Carbon Electrodes for Supercapacitors Combining Both Graphene-Modified Current Collectors and Graphene Conductive Additive.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Rubing; Qian, Yuting; Li, Weiwei; Zhu, Shoupu; Liu, Fengkui; Guo, Yufen; Chen, Mingliang; Li, Qi; Liu, Liwei

    2018-05-15

    Graphene has been widely used in the active material, conductive agent, binder or current collector for supercapacitors, due to its large specific surface area, high conductivity, and electron mobility. However, works simultaneously employing graphene as conductive agent and current collector were rarely reported. Here, we report improved activated carbon (AC) electrodes (AC@G@NiF/G) simultaneously combining chemical vapor deposition (CVD) graphene-modified nickel foams (NiF/Gs) current collectors and high quality few-layer graphene conductive additive instead of carbon black (CB). The synergistic effect of NiF/Gs and graphene additive makes the performances of AC@G@NiF/G electrodes superior to those of electrodes with CB or with nickel foam current collectors. The performances of AC@G@NiF/G electrodes show that for the few-layer graphene addition exists an optimum value around 5 wt %, rather than a larger addition of graphene, works out better. A symmetric supercapacitor assembled by AC@G@NiF/G electrodes exhibits excellent cycling stability. We attribute improved performances to graphene-enhanced conductivity of electrode materials and NiF/Gs with 3D graphene conductive network and lower oxidation, largely improving the electrical contact between active materials and current collectors.

  4. Performance-Enhanced Activated Carbon Electrodes for Supercapacitors Combining Both Graphene-Modified Current Collectors and Graphene Conductive Additive

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Rubing; Qian, Yuting; Li, Weiwei; Zhu, Shoupu; Liu, Fengkui; Guo, Yufen; Chen, Mingliang; Li, Qi; Liu, Liwei

    2018-01-01

    Graphene has been widely used in the active material, conductive agent, binder or current collector for supercapacitors, due to its large specific surface area, high conductivity, and electron mobility. However, works simultaneously employing graphene as conductive agent and current collector were rarely reported. Here, we report improved activated carbon (AC) electrodes (AC@G@NiF/G) simultaneously combining chemical vapor deposition (CVD) graphene-modified nickel foams (NiF/Gs) current collectors and high quality few-layer graphene conductive additive instead of carbon black (CB). The synergistic effect of NiF/Gs and graphene additive makes the performances of AC@G@NiF/G electrodes superior to those of electrodes with CB or with nickel foam current collectors. The performances of AC@G@NiF/G electrodes show that for the few-layer graphene addition exists an optimum value around 5 wt %, rather than a larger addition of graphene, works out better. A symmetric supercapacitor assembled by AC@G@NiF/G electrodes exhibits excellent cycling stability. We attribute improved performances to graphene-enhanced conductivity of electrode materials and NiF/Gs with 3D graphene conductive network and lower oxidation, largely improving the electrical contact between active materials and current collectors. PMID:29762528

  5. Exciton broadening in WS2 /graphene heterostructures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hill, Heather M.; Rigosi, Albert F.; Raja, Archana

    2017-01-01

    Here, we have used optical spectroscopy to observe spectral broadening of WS 2 exciton reflectance peaks in heterostructures of monolayer WS 2 capped with mono- to few-layer graphene. The broadening is found to be similar for the A and B excitons and on the order of 5–10 meV. No strong dependence on the number of graphene layers was observed within experimental uncertainty. The broadening can be attributed to charge- and energy-transfer processes between the two materials, providing an observed lower bound for the corresponding time scales of 65 fs.

  6. Programmed synthesis of freestanding graphene nanomembrane arrays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waduge, Pradeep; Larkin, Joseph; Upmanyu, Moneesh; Kar, Swastik; Wanunu, Meni

    2015-02-04

    Freestanding graphene membranes are unique materials. The combination of atomically thin dimensions, remarkable mechanical robustness, and chemical stability make porous and non-porous graphene membranes attractive for water purification and various sensing applications. Nanopores in graphene and other 2D materials have been identified as promising devices for next-generation DNA sequencing based on readout of either transverse DNA base-gated current or through-pore ion current. While several ground breaking studies of graphene-based nanopores for DNA analysis have been reported, all methods to date require a physical transfer of the graphene from its source of production onto an aperture support. The transfer process is slow and often leads to tears in the graphene that render many devices useless for nanopore measurements. In this work, we report a novel scalable approach for site-directed fabrication of pinhole-free graphene nanomembranes. Our approach yields high quality few-layer graphene nanomembranes produced in less than a day using a few steps that do not involve transfer. We highlight the functionality of these graphene devices by measuring DNA translocation through electron-beam fabricated nanopores in such membranes. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  7. Core-shell SrTiO3/graphene structure by chemical vapor deposition for enhanced photocatalytic performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Chenye; Bu, Xiuming; Yang, Siwei; He, Peng; Ding, Guqiao; Xie, Xiaoming

    2018-04-01

    Direct growth of high quality graphene on the surface of SrTiO3 (STO) was realized through chemical vapor deposition (CVD), to construct few-layer 'graphene shell' on every STO nanoparticle. The STO/graphene composite shows significantly enhanced UV light photocatalytic activity compared with the STO/rGO reference. Mechanism analysis confirms the role of special core-shell structure and chemical bond (Tisbnd C) for rapid interfacial electron transfer and effective electron-hole separation.

  8. An investigation into graphene exfoliation and potential graphene application in MEMS devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fercana, George; Kletetschka, Gunther; Mikula, Vilem; Li, Mary

    2011-02-01

    The design of microelectromecanical systems (MEMS) and micro-opto-electromechanical systems (MOEMS) are often materials-limited with respect to the efficiency and capability of the material. Graphene, a one atom thick honeycomb lattice of carbon, is a highly desired material for MEMS applications. Relevant properties of graphene include the material's optical transparency, mechanical strength, energy efficiency, and electrical and thermal conductivity due to its electron mobility. Aforementioned properties make graphene a strong candidate to supplant existing transparent electrode technology and replace the conventionally used material, indium-tin oxide. In this paper we present preliminary results on work toward integration of graphene with MEMS structures. We are studying mechanical exfoliation of highly ordered pyrolytic graphite (HOPG) crystals by repeatedly applying and separating adhesive materials from the HOPG surface. The resulting graphene sheets are then transferred to silicon oxide substrate using the previously applied adhesive material. We explored different adhesive options, particularly the use of Kapton tape, to improve the yield of graphene isolation along with chemical cross-linking agents which operate on a mechanism of photoinsertion of disassociated nitrene groups. These perfluorophenyl nitrenes participate in C=C addition reactions with graphene monolayers creating a covalent binding between the substrate and graphene. We are focusing on maximizing the size of isolated graphene sheets and comparing to conventional exfoliation. Preliminary results allow isolation of few layer graphene (FLG) sheets (ntechnology to be used in future deep space telescopes.

  9. Noise and its reduction in graphene based nanopore devices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kumar, Ashvani; Park, Kyeong-Beom; Kim, Hyun-Mi; Kim, Ki-Bum

    2013-01-01

    Ionic current fluctuations in graphene nanopore devices are a ubiquitous phenomenon and are responsible for degraded spatial and temporal resolution. Here, we descriptively investigate the impact of different substrate materials (Si and quartz) and membrane thicknesses on noise characteristics of graphene nanopore devices. To mitigate the membrane fluctuations and pin-hole defects, a SiN x membrane is transferred onto the substrate and a pore of approximately 70 nm in diameter is perforated prior to the graphene transfer. Comprehensive noise study reveals that the few layer graphene transferred onto the quartz substrate possesses low noise level and higher signal to noise ratio as compared to single layer graphene, without deteriorating the spatial resolution. The findings here point to improvement of graphene based nanopore devices for exciting opportunities in future single-molecule genomic screening devices. (paper)

  10. Towards nanoprinting with metals on graphene

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melinte, G.; Moldovan, S.; Hirlimann, C.; Liu, X.; Bégin-Colin, S.; Bégin, D.; Banhart, F.; Pham-Huu, C.; Ersen, O.

    2015-08-01

    Graphene and carbon nanotubes are envisaged as suitable materials for the fabrication of the new generation of nanoelectronics. The controlled patterning of such nanostructures with metal nanoparticles is conditioned by the transfer between a recipient and the surface to pattern. Electromigration under the impact of an applied voltage stands at the base of printing discrete digits at the nanoscale. Here we report the use of carbon nanotubes as nanoreservoirs for iron nanoparticles transfer on few-layer graphene. An initial Joule-induced annealing is required to ensure the control of the mass transfer with the nanotube acting as a `pen' for the writing process. By applying a voltage, the tube filled with metal nanoparticles can deposit metal on the surface of the graphene sheet at precise locations. The reverse transfer of nanoparticles from the graphene surface to the nanotube when changing the voltage polarity opens the way for error corrections.

  11. Mode-locking of an InAs Quantum Dot Based Vertical External Cavity Surface Emitting Laser Using Atomic Layer Graphene

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-07-16

    catalyzed on either a copper foil or on nickel coated substrates. The graphene must be transferred off of these substrates and then on to the DBR/spacer to...properties of graphene in both the exfoliated single layer graphene (SLG) and few layer graphene (FLG) flakes . Sun et al. make use of bile salts to...semiconductors and dielectrics is the transfer of CVD graphene grown on copper foils. The graphene is grown on thin Cu-foils by CVD using methane and

  12. Experimental Methods for Implementing Graphene Contacts to Finite Bandgap Semiconductors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Meyer-Holdt, Jakob

    Present Ph.D. thesis describes my work on implanting graphene as electrical contact to finite bandgap semiconductors. Different transistor architectures, types of graphene and finite bandgap semiconductors have been employed. The device planned from the beginning of my Ph.D. fellowship...... contacts to semiconductor nanowires, more specifically, epitaxially grown InAs nanowires. First, we tried a top down method where CVD graphene was deposited on substrate supported InAs nanowires followed by selective graphene ashing to define graphene electrodes. While electrical contact between...

  13. Graphene-Based Flexible and Transparent Tunable Capacitors

    OpenAIRE

    Man, Baoyuan; Xu, Shicai; Jiang, Shouzheng; Liu, Aihua; Gao, Shoubao; Zhang, Chao; Qiu, Hengwei; Li, Zhen

    2015-01-01

    We report a kind of electric field tunable transparent and flexible capacitor with the structure of graphene-Bi1.5MgNb1.5O7 (BMN)-graphene. The graphene films with low sheet resistance were grown by chemical vapor deposition. The BMN thin films were fabricated on graphene by using laser molecular beam epitaxy technology. Compared to BMN films grown on Au, the samples on graphene substrates show better quality in terms of crystallinity, surface morphology, leakage current, and loss tangent. By...

  14. Nanomechanical mapping of graphene layers and interfaces in suspended graphene nanostructures grown via carbon diffusion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Robinson, B.J. [Department of Physics, Lancaster University, Lancaster LA1 4YB (United Kingdom); Rabot, C. [CEA-LETI-Minatec Campus, 17 rue des Martyrs, 38054 Grenoble Cedex 09 (France); Mazzocco, R. [Department of Physics, Lancaster University, Lancaster LA1 4YB (United Kingdom); Delamoreanu, A. [Microelectronics Technology Laboratory (LTM), Joseph Fourier University, French National Research Center (CNRS), 17 Avenue des Martyrs, 38054 Grenoble Cedex 9 (France); Zenasni, A. [CEA-LETI-Minatec Campus, 17 rue des Martyrs, 38054 Grenoble Cedex 09 (France); Kolosov, O.V., E-mail: o.kolosov@lancaster.ac.uk [Department of Physics, Lancaster University, Lancaster LA1 4YB (United Kingdom)

    2014-01-01

    Graphene's remarkable mechanical, electronic and thermal properties are strongly determined by both the mechanism of its growth and its interaction with the underlying substrate. Evidently, in order to explore the fundamentals of these mechanisms, efficient nanoscale methods that enable observation of features hidden underneath the immediate surface are needed. In this paper we use nanomechanical mapping via ultrasonic force microscopy that employs MHz frequency range ultrasonic vibrations and allows the observation of surface composition and subsurface interfaces with nanoscale resolution, to elucidate the morphology of few layer graphene (FLG) films produced via a recently reported method of carbon diffusion growth (CDG) on platinum-metal based substrate. CDG is known to result in FLG suspended over large areas, which could be of high importance for graphene transfer and applications where a standalone graphene film is required. This study directly reveals the detailed mechanism of CDG three-dimensional growth and FLG film detachment, directly linking the level of graphene decoupling with variations of the substrate temperature during the annealing phase of growth. We also show that graphene initially and preferentially decouples at the substrate grain boundaries, likely due to its negative expansion coefficient at cooling, forming characteristic “nano-domes” at the intersections of the grain boundaries. Furthermore, quantitative nanomechanical mapping of flexural stiffness of suspended FLG “nano-domes” using kHz frequency range force modulation microscopy uncovers the progression of “nano-dome” stiffness from single to bi-modal distribution as CDG growth progresses, suggesting growth instability at advanced CDG stages. - Highlights: • Exploring growth and film-substrate decoupling in carbon diffusion grown graphene • Nanomechanical mapping of few layer graphene and graphene–substrate interfaces • Quantitative stiffness mapping of

  15. Strain-Modulated Epitaxy

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Brown, April

    1999-01-01

    Strain-Modulated Epitaxy (SME) is a novel approach, invented at Georgia Tech, to utilize subsurface stressors to control strain and therefore material properties and growth kinetics in the material above the stressors...

  16. 1/f noise in graphene nanopores

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heerema, S J; Schneider, G F; Rozemuller, M; Vicarelli, L; Zandbergen, H W; Dekker, C

    2015-01-01

    Graphene nanopores are receiving great attention due to their atomically thin membranes and intrinsic electrical properties that appear greatly beneficial for biosensing and DNA sequencing. Here, we present an extensive study of the low-frequency 1/f noise in the ionic current through graphene nanopores and compare it to noise levels in silicon nitride pore currents. We find that the 1/f noise magnitude is very high for graphene nanopores: typically two orders of magnitude higher than for silicon nitride pores. This is a drawback as it significantly lowers the signal-to-noise ratio in DNA translocation experiments. We evaluate possible explanations for these exceptionally high noise levels in graphene pores. From examining the noise for pores of different diameters and at various salt concentrations, we find that in contrast to silicon nitride pores, the 1/f noise in graphene pores does not follow Hooge’s relation. In addition, from studying the dependence on the buffer pH, we show that the increased noise cannot be explained by charge fluctuations of chemical groups on the pore rim. Finally, we compare single and bilayer graphene to few-layer and multi-layer graphene and boron nitride (h-BN), and we find that the noise reduces with layer thickness for both materials, which suggests that mechanical fluctuations may be the underlying cause of the high 1/f noise levels in monolayer graphene nanopore devices. (paper)

  17. Vacuum Technology in the study of Graphene

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ghoshal, A K; Banerjee, S N; Chakraborty, D

    2012-01-01

    Graphene, an allotrope of carbon is a two-dimensional sheet of covalently bonded carbon atoms that has been attracting great attention in the field of electronics. In a recent review graphene is defined as a flat monolayer of carbon atoms tightly packed into a 2-D honeycomb lattice. A survey has been made of the production processes and instrumentation for characterization of graphene. In the production of graphene, the methods mainly used are Epitaxial growth, oxide reduction, growth from metal-carbon melts, growth from sugar. In the characterization of graphene, the instruments that are mainly used to study the atomic properties, electronic properties, optical properties, spin properties are Scanning Electron Microscopy, Transmission Electron Microscopy, Raman Spectroscopy. In all these instruments high or ultra-high vacuum is required. This paper attempts to correlate vacuum technology in the production and characterization of graphene.

  18. Thin epitaxial silicon detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stab, L.

    1989-01-01

    Manufacturing procedures of thin epitaxial surface barriers will be given. Some improvements have been obtained: larger areas, lower leakage currents and better resolutions. New planar epitaxial dE/dX detectors, made in a collaboration work with ENERTEC-INTERTECHNIQUE, and a new application of these thin planar diodes to EXAFS measurements, made in a collaboration work with LURE (CNRS,CEA,MEN) will also be reported

  19. Rapid growth of single-layer graphene on the insulating substrates by thermal CVD

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, C.Y. [Faculty of Materials Science and Engineering, Kunming University of Science and Technology, Kunming 650093 (China); Key Laboratory of Marine Materials and Related Technologies, Zhejiang Key Laboratory of Marine Materials and Protective Technologies, Ningbo Institute of Materials Technology and Engineering, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Ningbo 315201 (China); Dai, D.; Chen, G.X.; Yu, J.H. [Key Laboratory of Marine Materials and Related Technologies, Zhejiang Key Laboratory of Marine Materials and Protective Technologies, Ningbo Institute of Materials Technology and Engineering, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Ningbo 315201 (China); Nishimura, K. [Key Laboratory of Marine Materials and Related Technologies, Zhejiang Key Laboratory of Marine Materials and Protective Technologies, Ningbo Institute of Materials Technology and Engineering, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Ningbo 315201 (China); Advanced Nano-processing Engineering Lab, Mechanical Systems Engineering, Kogakuin University (Japan); Lin, C.-T. [Key Laboratory of Marine Materials and Related Technologies, Zhejiang Key Laboratory of Marine Materials and Protective Technologies, Ningbo Institute of Materials Technology and Engineering, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Ningbo 315201 (China); Jiang, N., E-mail: jiangnan@nimte.ac.cn [Key Laboratory of Marine Materials and Related Technologies, Zhejiang Key Laboratory of Marine Materials and Protective Technologies, Ningbo Institute of Materials Technology and Engineering, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Ningbo 315201 (China); Zhan, Z.L., E-mail: zl_zhan@sohu.com [Faculty of Materials Science and Engineering, Kunming University of Science and Technology, Kunming 650093 (China)

    2015-08-15

    Highlights: • A rapid thermal CVD process has been developed to directly grow graphene on the insulating substrates. • The treating time consumed is ≈25% compared to conventional CVD procedure. • Single-layer and few-layer graphene can be formed on quartz and SiO{sub 2}/Si substrates, respectively. • The formation of thinner graphene at the interface is due to the fast precipitation rate of carbon atoms during cooling. - Abstract: The advance of CVD technique to directly grow graphene on the insulating substrates is particularly significant for further device fabrication. As graphene is catalytically grown on metal foils, the degradation of the sample properties is unavoidable during transfer of graphene on the dielectric layer. Moreover, shortening the treatment time as possible, while achieving single-layer growth of graphene, is worthy to be investigated for promoting the efficiency of mass production. Here we performed a rapid heating/cooling process to grow graphene films directly on the insulating substrates by thermal CVD. The treating time consumed is ≈25% compared to conventional CVD procedure. In addition, we found that high-quality, single-layer graphene can be formed on quartz, but on SiO{sub 2}/Si substrate only few-layer graphene can be obtained. The pronounced substrate effect is attributed to the different dewetting behavior of Ni films on the both substrates at 950 °C.

  20. Multiscale investigation of graphene layers on 6H-SiC(000-1)

    OpenAIRE

    Tiberj, Antoine; Huntzinger, Jean-Roch; Camassel, Jean; Hiebel, Fanny; Mahmood, Ather; Mallet, Pierre; Naud, Cecile; Veuillen, Jean-Yves

    2011-01-01

    Abstract In this article, a multiscale investigation of few graphene layers grown on 6H-SiC(000-1) under ultrahigh vacuum (UHV) conditions is presented. At 100-μm scale, the authors show that the UHV growth yields few layer graphene (FLG) with an average thickness given by Auger spectroscopy between 1 and 2 graphene planes. At the same scale, electron diffraction reveals a significant rotational disorder between the first graphene layer and the SiC surface, although well-defined preferre...

  1. High-quality AlN films grown on chemical vapor-deposited graphene films

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chen Bin-Hao

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available We report the growth of high-quality AlN films on graphene. The graphene films were synthesized by CVD and then transferred onto silicon substrates. Epitaxial aluminum nitride films were deposited by DC magnetron sputtering on both graphene as an intermediate layer and silicon as a substrate. The structural characteristics of the AlN films and graphene were investigated. Highly c-axis-oriented AlN crystal structures are investigated based on the XRDpatterns observations.

  2. Graphene on insulating crystalline substrates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Akcoeltekin, S; El Kharrazi, M; Koehler, B; Lorke, A; Schleberger, M

    2009-01-01

    We show that it is possible to prepare and identify ultra-thin sheets of graphene on crystalline substrates such as SrTiO 3 , TiO 2 , Al 2 O 3 and CaF 2 by standard techniques (mechanical exfoliation, optical and atomic force microscopy). On the substrates under consideration we find a similar distribution of single layer, bilayer and few-layer graphene and graphite flakes as with conventional SiO 2 substrates. The optical contrast C of a single graphene layer on any of those substrates is determined by calculating the optical properties of a two-dimensional metallic sheet on the surface of a dielectric, which yields values between C = -1.5% (G/TiO 2 ) and C = -8.8% (G/CaF 2 ). This contrast is in reasonable agreement with experimental data and is sufficient to make identification by an optical microscope possible. The graphene layers cover the crystalline substrate in a carpet-like mode and the height of single layer graphene on any of the crystalline substrates as determined by atomic force microscopy is d SLG = 0.34 nm and thus much smaller than on SiO 2 .

  3. Graphene oxide and reduced graphene oxide studied by the XRD, TEM and electron spectroscopy methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stobinski, L.; Lesiak, B.; Malolepszy, A.; Mazurkiewicz, M.; Mierzwa, B.; Zemek, J.; Jiricek, P.; Bieloshapka, I.

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Graphene oxide (FL-GOc) and reduced graphene oxide (FL-RGOc): XRD, TEM, XPS, REELS. • FL-GOc: stacking nanostructure—22 × 6 nm (DxH), 0.9 nm layers separation (XRD). • FL-RGOc: stacking nanostructure—8 × 1 nm (DxH), 0.4 nm layers separation (XRD). • Reduction: oxygen group degradation, decreasing distance between graphene layers. • Number of graphene layers in stacking nanostructure: 6–7 (FL-GOc), 2–3 (FL-RGOc). - Abstract: The commercial and synthesised few-layer graphene oxide, prepared using oxidation reactions, and few-layer reduced graphene oxide samples were structurally and chemically investigated by the X-ray diffraction (XRD), transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and electron spectroscopy methods, i.e. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and reflection electron energy loss spectroscopy (REELS). The commercial graphene oxide (FL-GOc) shows a stacking nanostructure of about 22 × 6 nm average diameter by height with the distance of 0.9 nm between 6-7 graphene layers, whereas the respective reduced graphene oxide (FL-RGOc)—about 8 × 1 nm average diameter by height stacking nanostructure with the distance of 0.4 nm between 2-3 graphene layers (XRD). The REELS results are consistent with those by the XRD indicating 8 (FL-GOc) and 4 layers (FL-RGOc). In graphene oxide and reduced graphene oxide prepared from the graphite the REELS indicates 8–11 and 7–10 layers. All graphene oxide samples show the C/O ratio of 2.1–2.3, 26.5–32.1 at% of C sp 3 bonds and high content of functional oxygen groups (hydroxyl—C-OH, epoxy—C-O-C, carbonyl—C=O, carboxyl—C-OOH, water) (XPS). Reduction increases the C/O ratio to 2.8–10.3, decreases C sp 3 content to 11.4–20.3 at% and also the content of C-O-C and C=O groups, accompanied by increasing content of C-OH and C-OOH groups. Formation of additional amount of water due to functional oxygen group reduction leads to layer delamination. Removing of functional oxygen groups

  4. Facile synthesis and electrochemical properties of continuous porous spheres assembled from defect-rich, interlayer-expanded, and few-layered MoS2/C nanosheets for reversible lithium storage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Biao; Lu, Huihui; Zhao, Naiqin; Shi, Chunsheng; Liu, Enzuo; He, Chunnian; Ma, Liying

    2018-05-01

    Hollow or continuous porous hierarchical MoS2/C structures with large Li-ion and electron transport kinetics, and high structural stability are urgent needs for their application in lithium ion batteries. In this regard, a novel continuous porous micro-sphere constructed from defect-rich, interlayer-expanded, and few-layered MoS2/C nanosheets is successfully synthesized through a facile one-pot hydrothermal method. The polyvinyl pyrrolidone surfactant serves as carbon source and supporter, while the CS2 works as soft template and sulfur source during hydrothermal process. The morphologies, structures, and electrochemical properties are systematically characterized. Importantly, it should be noted that the unique porous micro-spheres with merits of rich-defect, expanded-interlayer, few-layer (integrating carbon are favorable for lithium ion batteries application. When the uniform composites are used as lithium ion batteries anode materials, they deliver a high reversible capacity, excellent cycling performance (average capacity fading of 0.037% per cycle at 0.2 A g-1), and good rate capability.

  5. Hydrothermal fabrication of few-layer MoS2 nanosheets within nanopores on TiO2 derived from MIL-125(Ti) for efficient photocatalytic H2 evolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ye, Fei; Li, Houfen; Yu, Hongtao; Chen, Shuo; Quan, Xie

    2017-12-01

    Protons tend to bond strongly with unsaturated-coordinate S element located at the edge of nano-MoS2 and are consequently reduced to H2. Therefore, increasing the active S atoms quantity will be a feasible approach to enhance hydrogen evolution. Herein we developed a porous TiO2 derived from metal organic frameworks (MOFs) as scaffold to restrict the growth and inhibit the aggregation of MoS2 nanosheets. As a result, the thickness of the prepared MoS2 nanosheets was less than 3 nm (1-4 layers), with more edges and active S atoms being exposed. This few-layer MoS2-porous TiO2 exhibits a H2 evolution rate of 897.5 μmol h-1 g-1, which is nearly twice as much as free-stand MoS2 nanosheets and twenty times more than physical mixture of MoS2 with porous TiO2. The high performance is attributed to that more active edge sites in few-layer MoS2-porous TiO2 are exposed than pure MoS2. This work provides a new method to construct MOFs derived porous structures for controlling MoS2 to expose active sites for HER.

  6. A pentacene monolayer trapped between graphene and a substrate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Qicheng; Peng, Boyu; Chan, Paddy Kwok Leung; Luo, Zhengtang

    2015-09-21

    A self-assembled pentacene monolayer can be fabricated between the solid-solid interface of few-layered graphene (FLG) and the mica substrate, through a diffusion-spreading method. By utilizing a transfer method that allows us to sandwich pentacene between graphene and mica, followed by controlled annealing, we enabled the diffused pentacene to be trapped in the interfaces and led to the formation of a stable monolayer. We found that the formation of a monolayer is kinetically favored by using a 2D Ising lattice gas model for pentacene trapped between the graphene-substrate interfaces. This kinetic Monte Carlo simulation results indicate that, due to the graphene substrate enclosure, the spreading of the first layer proceeds faster than the second layer, as the kinetics favors the filling of voids by molecules from the second layer. This graphene assisted monolayer assembly method provides a new avenue for the fabrication of two-dimensional monolayer structures.

  7. Synthesis of graphene by MEVVA source ion implantation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ying, J.J.; Xiao, X.H.; Dai, Z.G.; Wu, W.; Li, W.Q.; Mei, F.; Cai, G.X.; Ren, F.; Jiang, C.Z.

    2013-01-01

    Ion implantation provides a new synthesis route for graphene, and few-layered graphene synthesis by ion implantation has been reported. Here we show the synthesis of a single layer of high-quality graphene by Metal Vapor Vacuum Arc (MEVVA) source ion implantation. Polycrystalline nickel and copper thin films are implanted with MEVVA source carbon ions at 40 kV, followed by high-temperature thermal annealing and quenching. A Raman spectrum is applied to probe the quality and thickness of the prepared graphene. A single layer of high-quality graphene is grown on the nickel films, but not on the copper films. The growth mechanisms on the nickel and copper films are explained. MEVVA source ion implantation has been widely applied in industrial applications, demonstrating that this synthesis method can be generalized for industrial production

  8. Landau quantization of Dirac fermions in graphene and its multilayers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Long-Jing; Bai, Ke-Ke; Wang, Wen-Xiao; Li, Si-Yu; Zhang, Yu; He, Lin

    2017-08-01

    When electrons are confined in a two-dimensional (2D) system, typical quantum-mechanical phenomena such as Landau quantization can be detected. Graphene systems, including the single atomic layer and few-layer stacked crystals, are ideal 2D materials for studying a variety of quantum-mechanical problems. In this article, we review the experimental progress in the unusual Landau quantized behaviors of Dirac fermions in monolayer and multilayer graphene by using scanning tunneling microscopy (STM) and scanning tunneling spectroscopy (STS). Through STS measurement of the strong magnetic fields, distinct Landau-level spectra and rich level-splitting phenomena are observed in different graphene layers. These unique properties provide an effective method for identifying the number of layers, as well as the stacking orders, and investigating the fundamentally physical phenomena of graphene. Moreover, in the presence of a strain and charged defects, the Landau quantization of graphene can be significantly modified, leading to unusual spectroscopic and electronic properties.

  9. Electrochemically cathodic exfoliation of graphene sheets in room temperature ionic liquids N-butyl, methylpyrrolidinium bis(trifluoromethylsulfonyl)imide and their electrochemical properties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, Yingchang; Lu, Fang; Zhou, Zhou; Song, Weixin; Chen, Qiyuan; Ji, Xiaobo

    2013-01-01

    Graphical abstract: Electrochemically cathodic exfoliation of graphite into few-layer graphene sheets in room temperature ionic liquids (RTILs) N-butyl, methylpyrrolidinium bis(trifluoromethylsulfonyl)-imide (BMPTF 2 N). -- Highlights: • Few-layer graphene sheets were prepared through electrochemically cathodic exfoliation in room temperature ionic liquids. • The mechanism of cathodic exfoliation in ionic liquids was proposed. • The derived activated graphene sheets show enhanced electrochemical properties. -- Abstract: Electrochemically cathodic exfoliation in room temperature ionic liquids N-butyl, methylpyrrolidinium bis(trifluoromethylsulfonyl)-imide (BMPTF 2 N) has been developed for few-layer graphene sheets, demonstrating low levels of oxygen (2.7 at% of O) with a nearly perfect structure (I D /I G 2 N involves the intercalation of ionic liquids cation [BMP] + under highly negatively charge followed by graphite expansion. Porous activated graphene sheets were also obtained by activation of graphene sheets in KOH. Transmission electron microscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and Raman spectroscopy were used to characterize these graphene materials. The electrochemical performances of the graphene sheets and porous activated graphene sheets for lithium-ion battery anode materials were evaluated using cyclic voltammetry, galvanostatic charge–discharge cycling, and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy

  10. Label-free detection of DNA hybridization using transistors based on CVD grown graphene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Tzu-Yin; Loan, Phan Thi Kim; Hsu, Chang-Lung; Lee, Yi-Hsien; Tse-Wei Wang, Jacob; Wei, Kung-Hwa; Lin, Cheng-Te; Li, Lain-Jong

    2013-03-15

    The high transconductance and low noise of graphene-based field-effect transistors based on large-area monolayer graphene produced by chemical vapor deposition are used for label-free electrical detection of DNA hybridization. The gate materials, buffer concentration and surface condition of graphene have been optimized to achieve the DNA detection sensitivity as low as 1 pM (10(-12) M), which is more sensitive than the existing report based on few-layer graphene. The graphene films obtained using conventional PMMA-assisted transfer technique exhibits PMMA residues, which degrade the sensing performance of graphene. We have demonstrated that the sensing performance of the graphene samples prepared by gold-transfer is largely enhanced (by 125%). Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Transparent conductive graphene electrode in GaN-based ultra-violet light emitting diodes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Byung-Jae; Mastro, Michael A; Hite, Jennifer; Eddy, Charles R; Kim, Jihyun

    2010-10-25

    We report a graphene-based transparent conductive electrode for use in ultraviolet (UV) GaN light emitting diodes (LEDs). A few-layer graphene (FLG) layer was mechanically deposited. UV light at a peak wavelength of 368 nm was successfully emitted by the FLG layer as transparent contact to p-GaN. The emission of UV light through the thin graphene layer was brighter than through the thick graphene layer. The thickness of the graphene layer was characterized by micro-Raman spectroscopy. Our results indicate that this novel graphene-based transparent conductive electrode holds great promise for use in UV optoelectronics for which conventional ITO is less transparent than graphene.

  12. Layer-dependent supercapacitance of graphene films grown by chemical vapor deposition on nickel foam

    KAUST Repository

    Chen, Wei

    2013-03-01

    High-quality, large-area graphene films with few layers are synthesized on commercial nickel foams under optimal chemical vapor deposition conditions. The number of graphene layers is adjusted by varying the rate of the cooling process. It is found that the capacitive properties of graphene films are related to the number of graphene layers. Owing to the close attachment of graphene films on the nickel substrate and the low charge-transfer resistance, the specific capacitance of thinner graphene films is almost twice that of the thicker ones and remains stable up to 1000 cycles. These results illustrate the potential for developing high-performance graphene-based electrical energy storage devices. © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Direct Growth of Graphene on Silicon by Metal-Free Chemical Vapor Deposition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tai, Lixuan; Zhu, Daming; Liu, Xing; Yang, Tieying; Wang, Lei; Wang, Rui; Jiang, Sheng; Chen, Zhenhua; Xu, Zhongmin; Li, Xiaolong

    2018-06-01

    The metal-free synthesis of graphene on single-crystal silicon substrates, the most common commercial semiconductor, is of paramount significance for many technological applications. In this work, we report the growth of graphene directly on an upside-down placed, single-crystal silicon substrate using metal-free, ambient-pressure chemical vapor deposition. By controlling the growth temperature, in-plane propagation, edge-propagation, and core-propagation, the process of graphene growth on silicon can be identified. This process produces atomically flat monolayer or bilayer graphene domains, concave bilayer graphene domains, and bulging few-layer graphene domains. This work would be a significant step toward the synthesis of large-area and layer-controlled, high-quality graphene on single-crystal silicon substrates. [Figure not available: see fulltext.

  14. Equilibrium stability of strained epitaxial layers on a rigid substrate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Granato, E.; Kosterlitz, J.M.; Ying, S.C.

    1987-07-01

    A simple theory of the equilibrium stability of an strained epitaxial layer on a rigid substrate is presented. We generalise the Frankvan der Merwe model of a single layer and consider N layers of adsorbate on a substrate. Continuum elasticity theory is used to describe each layer, but the coupling between layers is treated ina discrete fashion. Our method interpolates between a few layers and the thick film limit of standard dislocation theory, and in this limit the standard results are obtained. In addition, we developed a variational approach which agrees well with our exact calculations. The advantage of our method over previous ores is that it allows to perform stability analyses of arbitrary superlattice configurations. (author) [pt

  15. Isolation of high quality graphene from Ru by solution phase intercalation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koren, E.; Sutter, E.; Bliznakov, S.; Ivars-Barcelo, F.; Sutter, P.

    2013-09-01

    We introduce a method for isolating graphene grown on epitaxial Ru(0001)/α-Al2O3. The strong graphene/Ru(0001) coupling is weakened by electrochemically driven intercalation of hydrogen underpotentially deposited in aqueous KOH solution, which allows the penetration of water molecules at the graphene/Ru(0001) interface. Following these electrochemically driven processes, the graphene can be isolated by electrochemical hydrogen evolution and transferred to arbitrary supports. Raman and transport measurements demonstrate the high quality of the transferred graphene. Our results show that intercalation, typically carried out in vacuum, can be extended to solution environments for graphene processing under ambient conditions.

  16. Towards functionalization of graphene: in situ study of the nucleation of copper-phtalocyanine on graphene

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwarz, Daniel; Henneke, Caroline; Kumpf, Christian

    2016-02-01

    Molecular films present an elegant way for the uniform functionalization or doping of graphene. Here, we present an in situ study on the initial growth of copper phthalocyanine (CuPc) on epitaxial graphene on Ir(111). We followed the growth up to a closed monolayer with low energy electron microscopy and selected area electron diffraction (μLEED). The molecules coexist on graphene in a disordered phase without long-range order and an ordered crystalline phase. The local topography of the graphene substrate plays an important role in the nucleation process of the crystalline phase. Graphene flakes on Ir(111) feature regions that are under more tensile stress than others. We observe that the CuPc molecules form ordered domains initially on those graphene regions that are closest to the fully relaxed lattice. We attribute this effect to a stronger influence of the underlying Ir(111) substrate for molecules adsorbed on those relaxed regions.

  17. Towards functionalization of graphene: in situ study of the nucleation of copper-phtalocyanine on graphene

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schwarz, Daniel; Henneke, Caroline; Kumpf, Christian

    2016-01-01

    Molecular films present an elegant way for the uniform functionalization or doping of graphene. Here, we present an in situ study on the initial growth of copper phthalocyanine (CuPc) on epitaxial graphene on Ir(111). We followed the growth up to a closed monolayer with low energy electron microscopy and selected area electron diffraction (μLEED). The molecules coexist on graphene in a disordered phase without long-range order and an ordered crystalline phase. The local topography of the graphene substrate plays an important role in the nucleation process of the crystalline phase. Graphene flakes on Ir(111) feature regions that are under more tensile stress than others. We observe that the CuPc molecules form ordered domains initially on those graphene regions that are closest to the fully relaxed lattice. We attribute this effect to a stronger influence of the underlying Ir(111) substrate for molecules adsorbed on those relaxed regions. (paper)

  18. Graphene Thermal Properties: Applications in Thermal Management and Energy Storage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jackie D. Renteria

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available We review the thermal properties of graphene, few-layer graphene and graphene nanoribbons, and discuss practical applications of graphene in thermal management and energy storage. The first part of the review describes the state-of-the-art in the graphene thermal field focusing on recently reported experimental and theoretical data for heat conduction in graphene and graphene nanoribbons. The effects of the sample size, shape, quality, strain distribution, isotope composition, and point-defect concentration are included in the summary. The second part of the review outlines thermal properties of graphene-enhanced phase change materials used in energy storage. It is shown that the use of liquid-phase-exfoliated graphene as filler material in phase change materials is promising for thermal management of high-power-density battery parks. The reported experimental and modeling results indicate that graphene has the potential to outperform metal nanoparticles, carbon nanotubes, and other carbon allotropes as filler in thermal management materials.

  19. Direct Measurement of the Surface Energy of Graphene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Engers, Christian D; Cousens, Nico E A; Babenko, Vitaliy; Britton, Jude; Zappone, Bruno; Grobert, Nicole; Perkin, Susan

    2017-06-14

    Graphene produced by chemical vapor deposition (CVD) is a promising candidate for implementing graphene in a range of technologies. In most device configurations, one side of the graphene is supported by a solid substrate, wheras the other side is in contact with a medium of interest, such as a liquid or other two-dimensional material within a van der Waals stack. In such devices, graphene interacts on both faces via noncovalent interactions and therefore surface energies are key parameters for device fabrication and operation. In this work, we directly measured adhesive forces and surface energies of CVD-grown graphene in dry nitrogen, water, and sodium cholate using a modified surface force balance. For this, we fabricated large (∼1 cm 2 ) and clean graphene-coated surfaces with smooth topography at both macro- and nanoscales. By bringing two such surfaces into contact and measuring the force required to separate them, we measured the surface energy of single-layer graphene in dry nitrogen to be 115 ± 4 mJ/m 2 , which was similar to that of few-layer graphene (119 ± 3 mJ/m 2 ). In water and sodium cholate, we measured interfacial energies of 83 ± 7 and 29 ± 6 mJ/m 2 , respectively. Our work provides the first direct measurement of graphene surface energy and is expected to have an impact both on the development of graphene-based devices and contribute to the fundamental understanding of surface interactions.

  20. Facile synthesis of 3D few-layered MoS2 coated TiO2 nanosheet core-shell nanostructures for stable and high-performance lithium-ion batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Biao; Zhao, Naiqin; Guo, Lichao; He, Fang; Shi, Chunsheng; He, Chunnian; Li, Jiajun; Liu, Enzuo

    2015-07-01

    Uniform transition metal sulfide deposition on a smooth TiO2 surface to form a coating structure is a well-known challenge, caused mainly due to their poor affinities. Herein, we report a facile strategy for fabricating mesoporous 3D few-layered (glucose as a binder. The core-shell structure has been systematically examined and corroborated by transmission electron microscopy, scanning transmission electron microscopy, and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy analyses. It is found that the resultant 3D FL-MoS2@TiO2 as a lithium-ion battery anode delivers an outstanding high-rate capability with an excellent cycling performance, relating to the unique structure of 3D FL-MoS2@TiO2. The 3D uniform coverage of few-layered (glucose as a binder. The core-shell structure has been systematically examined and corroborated by transmission electron microscopy, scanning transmission electron microscopy, and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy analyses. It is found that the resultant 3D FL-MoS2@TiO2 as a lithium-ion battery anode delivers an outstanding high-rate capability with an excellent cycling performance, relating to the unique structure of 3D FL-MoS2@TiO2. The 3D uniform coverage of few-layered (<4 layers) MoS2 onto the TiO2 can remarkably enhance the structure stability and effectively shortens the transfer paths of both lithium ions and electrons, while the strong synergistic effect between MoS2 and TiO2 can significantly facilitate the transport of ions and electrons across the interfaces, especially in the high-rate charge-discharge process. Moreover, the facile fabrication strategy can be easily extended to design other oxide/carbon-sulfide/oxide core-shell materials for extensive applications. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available: Supplementary SEM, TEM, XPS and EIS analyses. See DOI: 10.1039/c5nr03334a

  1. Single crystalline metal films as substrates for graphene growth

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zeller, Patrick; Henss, Ann-Kathrin; Wintterlin, Joost [Department Chemie, Ludwig-Maximilians-Universitaet Muenchen (Germany); Weinl, Michael; Schreck, Matthias [Institut fuer Physik, Universitaet Augsburg (Germany); Speck, Florian; Ostler, Markus [Lehrstuhl fuer Technische Physik, Universitaet Erlangen-Nuernberg, Erlangen (Germany); Institut fuer Physik, Technische Universitaet Chemnitz (Germany); Seyller, Thomas [Institut fuer Physik, Technische Universitaet Chemnitz (Germany)

    2017-11-15

    Single crystalline metal films deposited on YSZ-buffered Si(111) wafers were investigated with respect to their suitability as substrates for epitaxial graphene. Graphene was grown by CVD of ethylene on Ru(0001), Ir(111), and Ni(111) films in UHV. For analysis a variety of surface science methods were used. By an initial annealing step the surface quality of the films was strongly improved. The temperature treatments of the metal films caused a pattern of slip lines, formed by thermal stress in the films, which, however, did not affect the graphene quality and even prevented wrinkle formation. Graphene was successfully grown on all three types of metal films in a quality comparable to graphene grown on bulk single crystals of the same metals. In the case of the Ni(111) films the originally obtained domain structure of rotational graphene phases could be transformed into a single domain by annealing. This healing process is based on the control of the equilibrium between graphene and dissolved carbon in the film. For the system graphene/Ni(111) the metal, after graphene growth, could be removed from underneath the epitaxial graphene layer by a pure gas phase reaction, using the reaction of CO with Ni to give gaseous Ni(CO){sub 4}. (copyright 2017 by WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  2. Utilization of plasmas for graphene synthesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shashurin, Alexey; Keidar, Michael

    2013-10-01

    Graphene is a one-atom-thick planar sheet of carbon atoms that are densely packed in a honeycomb crystal lattice. Grapheen has tremendous range of potential applications ranging from high-speed transistors to electrochemical energy storage devices and biochemical sensors. Methods of graphene synthesis include mechanical exfoliation, epitaxial growth on SiC, CVD and colloidal suspensions. In this work the utilization of plasmas in synthesis process is considered. Types of carbonaceous structures produced by the anodic arc and regions of their synthesis were studied. Ultimate role of substrate temperature and transformations occurring with various carbonaceous structures generated in plasma discharge were considered. Formation of graphene film on copper substrate was detected at temperatures around the copper melting point. The film was consisted of several layers graphene flakes having typical sizes of about 200 nm. Time required for crystallization of graphene on externally heated substrates was determined. This work was supported by National Science Foundation (NSF Grant No. CBET-1249213).

  3. Interfacial Interactions in Monolayer and Few-Layer SnS/CH3 NH3 PbI3 Perovskite van der Waals Heterostructures and Their Effects on Electronic and Optical Properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jian-Cai; Wei, Zeng-Xi; Huang, Wei-Qing; Ma, Li-Li; Hu, Wangyu; Peng, Ping; Huang, Gui-Fang

    2018-02-05

    A high light-absorption coefficient and long-range hot-carrier transport of hybrid organic-inorganic perovskites give huge potential to their composites in solar energy conversion and environmental protection. Understanding interfacial interactions and their effects are paramount for designing perovskite-based heterostructures with desirable properties. Herein, we systematically investigated the interfacial interactions in monolayer and few-layer SnS/CH 3 NH 3 PbI 3 heterostructures and their effects on the electronic and optical properties of these structures by density functional theory. It was found that the interfacial interactions in SnS/CH 3 NH 3 PbI 3 heterostructures were van der Waals (vdW) interactions, and they were found to be insensitive to the layer number of 2D SnS sheets. Interestingly, although their band gap decreased upon increasing the layer number of SnS, the near-gap electronic states and optical absorption spectra of these heterostructures were found to be strikingly similar. This feature was determined to be critical for the design of 2D layered SnS-based heterostructures. Strong absorption in the ultraviolet and visible-light regions, type II staggered band alignment at the interface, and few-layer SnS as an active co-catalyst make 2D SnS/CH 3 NH 3 PbI 3 heterostructures promising candidates for photocatalysis, photodetectors, and solar energy harvesting and conversion. These results provide first insight into the nature of interfacial interactions and are useful for designing hybrid organic-inorganic perovskite-based devices with novel properties. © 2018 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  4. Liquid phase exfoliated graphene for electronic applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sukumaran, Sheena S.; Jinesh, K. B.; Gopchandran, K. G.

    2017-09-01

    Graphene dispersions were prepared using the liquid phase exfoliation method with three different surfactants. One surfactant was used from each of the surfactant types, anionic, cationic, and non-ionic; those used, were sodium dodecylbenzene sulfonate (SDBS), cetyltrimethylammonium bromide (CTAB) and polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP), respectively. Raman spectroscopy was used to investigate the number of layers and the nature of any defects present in the exfoliated graphene. The yield of graphene was found to be less with the non-ionic surfactant, PVP. The deconvolution of 2D peaks at ~2700 cm-1 indicated that graphene prepared using these surfactants resulted in sheets consisting of few-layer graphene. The ratio of intensity of the D and G bands in the Raman spectra showed that edge defect density is high for samples prepared with SDBS compared to the other two, and is attributed to the smaller size of the graphene sheets, as shown in the electron micrographs. In the case of the dispersion in PVP, it is found that the sizes of the graphene sheets are highly sensitive to the concentration of the surfactant used. Here, we have made an attempt to investigate the local density of states in the graphene sheets by measuring the tunnelling current-voltage characteristics. Graphene layers have shown consistent p-type behaviour when exfoliated with SDBS and n-type behaviour when exfoliated with CTAB, with a larger band gap for graphene exfoliated using CTAB. Hence, in addition to the known advantages of liquid phase exfoliation, we found that by selecting suitable surfactants, to a certain extent it is possible to tune the band gap and determine the type of majority carriers.

  5. Electron-phonon coupling in quasi free-standing graphene

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christian Johannsen, Jens; Ulstrup, Søren; Bianchi, Marco

    2013-01-01

    Quasi free-standing monolayer graphene can be produced by intercalating species like oxygen or hydrogen between epitaxial graphene and the substrate crystal. If the graphene is indeed decoupled from the substrate, one would expect the observation of a similar electronic dispersion and many......-body effects, irrespective of the substrate and the material used to achieve the decoupling. Here we investigate the electron-phonon coupling in two different types of quasi free-standing monolayer graphene: decoupled from SiC via hydrogen intercalation and decoupled from Ir via oxygen intercalation. Both...

  6. Towards functionalization of graphene: in situ study of the nucleation of copper-phtalocyanine on graphene

    OpenAIRE

    Schwarz, Daniel; Henneke, Caroline; Kumpf, Christian

    2016-01-01

    Molecular films present an elegant way for the uniform functionalization or doping of graphene. Here, we present an in situ study on the initial growth of copper phthalocyanine (CuPc) on epitaxial graphene on Ir(111). We followed the growth up to a closed monolayer with low energy electron microscopy and selected area electron diffraction (μLEED). The molecules coexist on graphene in a disordered phase without long-range order and an ordered crystalline phase. The local topography of the grap...

  7. Mass production of highly-porous graphene for high-performance supercapacitors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amiri, Ahmad; Shanbedi, Mehdi; Ahmadi, Goodarz; Eshghi, Hossein; Kazi, S. N.; Chew, B. T.; Savari, Maryam; Zubir, Mohd Nashrul Mohd

    2016-09-01

    This study reports on a facile and economical method for the scalable synthesis of few-layered graphene sheets by the microwave-assisted functionalization. Herein, single-layered and few-layered graphene sheets were produced by dispersion and exfoliation of functionalized graphite in ethylene glycol. Thermal treatment was used to prepare pure graphene without functional groups, and the pure graphene was labeled as thermally-treated graphene (T-GR). The morphological and statistical studies about the distribution of the number of layers showed that more than 90% of the flakes of T-GR had less than two layers and about 84% of T-GR were single-layered. The microwave-assisted exfoliation approach presents us with a possibility for a mass production of graphene at low cost and great potentials in energy storage applications of graphene-based materials. Owing to unique surface chemistry, the T-GR demonstrates an excellent energy storage performance, and the electrochemical capacitance is much higher than that of the other carbon-based nanostructures. The nanoscopic porous morphology of the T-GR-based electrodes made a significant contribution in increasing the BET surface as well as the specific capacitance of graphene. T-GR, with a capacitance of 354.1 Fg-1 at 5 mVs-1 and 264 Fg-1 at 100 mVs-1, exhibits excellent performance as a supercapacitor.

  8. Graphene growth process modeling: a physical-statistical approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Jian; Huang, Qiang

    2014-09-01

    As a zero-band semiconductor, graphene is an attractive material for a wide variety of applications such as optoelectronics. Among various techniques developed for graphene synthesis, chemical vapor deposition on copper foils shows high potential for producing few-layer and large-area graphene. Since fabrication of high-quality graphene sheets requires the understanding of growth mechanisms, and methods of characterization and control of grain size of graphene flakes, analytical modeling of graphene growth process is therefore essential for controlled fabrication. The graphene growth process starts with randomly nucleated islands that gradually develop into complex shapes, grow in size, and eventually connect together to cover the copper foil. To model this complex process, we develop a physical-statistical approach under the assumption of self-similarity during graphene growth. The growth kinetics is uncovered by separating island shapes from area growth rate. We propose to characterize the area growth velocity using a confined exponential model, which not only has clear physical explanation, but also fits the real data well. For the shape modeling, we develop a parametric shape model which can be well explained by the angular-dependent growth rate. This work can provide useful information for the control and optimization of graphene growth process on Cu foil.

  9. EDITORIAL: Special issue on Graphene Special issue on Graphene

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morpurgo, Alberto F.; Trauzettel, Björn

    2010-03-01

    and effectively reflect the status of different areas of graphene research. The excitonic condensation in a double graphene system is discussed by Kharitonov and Efetov. Borca et al report on a method to fabricate and characterize graphene monolayers epitaxially grown on Ru(0001). Furthermore, the energy and transport gaps in etched graphene nanoribbons are analyzed experimentally by Molitor et al. Mucha-Kruczyński et al review the tight-binding model of bilayer graphene, whereas Wurm et al focus on a theoretical description of the Aharonov-Bohm effect in monolayer graphene rings. Screening effects and collective excitations are studied by Roldán et al. Subsequently, Palacios et al review the electronic and magnetic structures of graphene nanoribbons, a problem that is highly relevant for graphene-based transistors. Klein tunneling in single and multiple barriers in graphene is the topic of the review article by Pereira Jr et al, while De Martino and Egger discuss the spectrum of a magnetic quantum dot in graphene. Titov et al study the effect of resonant scatterers on the local density of states in a rectangular graphene setup with metallic leads. Finally, the resistance modulation of multilayer graphene controlled by gate electric fields is experimentally analyzed by Miyazaki et al. We would like to thank all the authors for their contributions, which combine new results and pedagogical discussions of the state-of-the-art in different areas: it is this combination that most often adds to the value of topical issues. Special thanks also goes to the staff of Institute of Physics Publishing for contributing to the success of this effort.

  10. Graphene Edges Dictate the Morphology of Nanoparticles during Catalytic Channeling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pizzocchero, Filippo; Vanin, Marco; Kling, Jens

    2014-01-01

    We perform in-situ transmission electron microscopy (TEM) experiments of silver nanoparticles channeling on mono-, bi-, and few-layer graphene and discover that the interactions in the one-dimensional particle–graphene contact line are sufficiently strong so as to dictate the three-dimensional sh......We perform in-situ transmission electron microscopy (TEM) experiments of silver nanoparticles channeling on mono-, bi-, and few-layer graphene and discover that the interactions in the one-dimensional particle–graphene contact line are sufficiently strong so as to dictate the three......-dimensional shape of the nanoparticles. We find a characteristic faceted shape in particles channeling along graphene ⟨100⟩ directions that is lost during turning and thus represents a dynamic equilibrium state of the graphene–particle system. We propose a model for the mechanism of zigzag edge formation...... and an explanation of the rate-limiting step for this process, supported by density functional theory (DFT) calculations, and obtain a good agreement between the DFT-predicted and experimentally obtained activation energies of 0.39 and 0.56 eV, respectively. Understanding the origin of the channels' orientation...

  11. Engineering Graphene Films from Coal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vijapur, Santosh H.

    Graphene is a unique material with remarkable properties suitable for a wide array of applications. Chemical vapor deposition (CVD) is a simple technique for synthesis of large area and high quality graphene films on various metal substrates. Among the metal substrates, copper has been shown to be an excellent support for the growth of graphene films. Traditionally, hydrocarbon gases are used for the graphene synthesis via CVD. Unconventional solid carbon sources such as various polymers and food waste have also shown great potential for synthesis of graphene films. Coal is one such carbon enriched and abundantly available unconventional source. Utilization of coal as a carbon source to synthesize large area, transparent, and high quality few-layer graphene films via CVD has been demonstrated in the present work. Hydrocarbon gases are released as products of coal pyrolysis at temperatures ≥400 °C. This study hypothesized that, these hydrocarbon gases act as precursors for the synthesis of graphene films on the copper substrate. Hence, atmospheric pressure CVD and low temperature of 400 °C were utilized initially for the production of graphene films. These conditions were suitable for the formation of amorphous carbon (a-C) films but not crystalline graphene films that were the objective of this work. The synthesized a-C films on the copper substrate were shown to be uniform and transparent with large surface area. The thickness and surface roughness of the a-C films were determined to have typical values of 5 nm and 0.55 nm, respectively. The a-C film has >95 % optical transmittance and sheet resistivity of 0.6 MO sq-1. These values are comparable to other carbon thin films synthesized at higher temperatures. Further, the a-C films were transferred onto any type of substrate such as silicon wafer and titanium foil, and can be utilized for diverse applications. However, crystalline graphene films were not produced by implementing atmospheric pressure CVD and low

  12. Graphene as an atomically thin interface for growth of vertically aligned carbon nanotubes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rao, Rahul; Chen, Gugang; Arava, Leela Mohana Reddy; Kalaga, Kaushik; Ishigami, Masahiro; Heinz, Tony F; Ajayan, Pulickel M; Harutyunyan, Avetik R

    2013-01-01

    Growth of vertically aligned carbon nanotube (CNT) forests is highly sensitive to the nature of the substrate. This constraint narrows the range of available materials to just a few oxide-based dielectrics and presents a major obstacle for applications. Using a suspended monolayer, we show here that graphene is an excellent conductive substrate for CNT forest growth. Furthermore, graphene is shown to intermediate growth on key substrates, such as Cu, Pt, and diamond, which had not previously been compatible with nanotube forest growth. We find that growth depends on the degree of crystallinity of graphene and is best on mono- or few-layer graphene. The synergistic effects of graphene are revealed by its endurance after CNT growth and low contact resistances between the nanotubes and Cu. Our results establish graphene as a unique interface that extends the class of substrate materials for CNT growth and opens up important new prospects for applications.

  13. Graphene ribbon growth on structured silicon carbide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stoehr, Alexander; Link, Stefan; Starke, Ulrich [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Festkoerperforschung, Stuttgart (Germany); Baringhaus, Jens; Aprojanz, Johannes; Tegenkamp, Christoph [Institut fuer Festkoerperphysik, Leibniz Universitaet Hannover (Germany); Niu, Yuran [MAX IV Laboratory, Lund University (Sweden); present address: School of Physics and Astronomy, Cardiff University (United Kingdom); Zakharov, Alexei A. [MAX IV Laboratory, Lund University (Sweden); Chen, Chaoyu; Avila, Jose; Asensio, Maria C. [Synchrotron SOLEIL and Universite Paris-Saclay, Gif sur Yvette (France)

    2017-11-15

    Structured Silicon Carbide was proposed to be an ideal template for the production of arrays of edge specific graphene nanoribbons (GNRs), which could be used as a base material for graphene transistors. We prepared periodic arrays of nanoscaled stripe-mesas on SiC surfaces using electron beam lithography and reactive ion etching. Subsequent epitaxial graphene growth by annealing is differentiated between the basal-plane mesas and the faceting stripe walls as monitored by means of atomic force microscopy (AFM). Microscopic low energy electron diffraction (μ-LEED) revealed that the graphene ribbons on the facetted mesa side walls grow in epitaxial relation to the basal-plane graphene with an armchair orientation at the facet edges. The π-band system of the ribbons exhibits linear bands with a Dirac like shape corresponding to monolayer graphene as identified by angle-resolved photoemission spectroscopy (ARPES). (copyright 2017 by WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  14. Direct Synthesis of Fe3C-Functionalized Graphene by High Temperature Autoclave Pyrolysis for Oxygen Reduction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hu, Yang; Jensen, Jens Oluf; Zhang, Wei

    2014-01-01

    We present a novel approach to direct fabrication of few-layer graphene sheets with encapsulated Fe3C nanoparticles from pyrolysis of volatile non-graphitic precursors without any substrate. This one-step autoclave approach is facile and potentially scalable for production. Tested as an electroca...

  15. A green synthetic approach to graphene nanosheets for hydrogen adsorption

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yuan Wenhui; Li Baoqing; Li Li

    2011-01-01

    A green and facile strategy of preparing graphene by reducing exfoliated graphite oxide (GO) with glucose was developed in this study. The as-prepared samples were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), Raman spectroscopy, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), Scanning electron microscopy (SEM), Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and Atomic force microscopy (AFM). The characterization results indicated that the graphene sheets (GS) were of high quality with smooth surface, rich pore structure and few layer graphene. The samples have a BET specific surface area of 1205.8 m 2 g -1 measured by N 2 adsorption at 77 K. The hydrogen storage capacity of 2.7 wt.% at 298 K and 25 bar demonstrated that the as-prepared graphene employing glucose as reductant is supposed to be a promising material with outstanding property for hydrogen storage.

  16. Nitrogen-doped graphene by ball-milling graphite with melamine for energy conversion and storage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xue, Yuhua; Chen, Hao; Qu, Jia; Dai, Liming

    2015-01-01

    N-doped graphene was prepared by ball milling of graphite with melamine. It was found that ball-milling reduced the size of graphite particles from 30 to 1 μm and facilitated the exfoliation of the resultant small particles into few-layer N-doped graphene nanosheets under ultrasonication. The as-prepared N-doped graphene nanoplatelets (NGnPs) exhibited a nitrogen content as high as 11.4 at.%, making them attractive as efficient electrode materials in supercapacitors for energy storage and as highly-active metal-free catalysts for oxygen reduction in fuel cells for energy conversion. (paper)

  17. Nonlinear damage effect in graphene synthesis by C-cluster ion implantation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Rui; Zhang Zaodi; Wang Zesong; Wang Shixu; Wang Wei; Fu Dejun; Liu Jiarui

    2012-01-01

    We present few-layer graphene synthesis by negative carbon cluster ion implantation with C 1 , C 2 , and C 4 at energies below 20 keV. The small C-clusters were produced by a source of negative ion by cesium sputtering with medium beam current. We show that the nonlinear effect in cluster-induced damage is favorable for graphene precipitation compared with monomer carbon ions. The nonlinear damage effect in cluster ion implantation shows positive impact on disorder reduction, film uniformity, and the surface smoothness in graphene synthesis.

  18. Three-dimensional strutted graphene grown by substrate-free sugar blowing for high-power-density supercapacitors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xuebin; Zhang, Yuanjian; Zhi, Chunyi; Wang, Xi; Tang, Daiming; Xu, Yibin; Weng, Qunhong; Jiang, Xiangfen; Mitome, Masanori; Golberg, Dmitri; Bando, Yoshio

    2013-12-01

    Three-dimensional graphene architectures in the macroworld can in principle maintain all the extraordinary nanoscale properties of individual graphene flakes. However, current 3D graphene products suffer from poor electrical conductivity, low surface area and insufficient mechanical strength/elasticity; the interconnected self-supported reproducible 3D graphenes remain unavailable. Here we report a sugar-blowing approach based on a polymeric predecessor to synthesize a 3D graphene bubble network. The bubble network consists of mono- or few-layered graphitic membranes that are tightly glued, rigidly fixed and spatially scaffolded by micrometre-scale graphitic struts. Such a topological configuration provides intimate structural interconnectivities, freeway for electron/phonon transports, huge accessible surface area, as well as robust mechanical properties. The graphene network thus overcomes the drawbacks of presently available 3D graphene products and opens up a wide horizon for diverse practical usages, for example, high-power high-energy electrochemical capacitors, as highlighted in this work.

  19. Ultrahigh-throughput exfoliation of graphite into pristine ‘single-layer’ graphene using microwaves and molecularly engineered ionic liquids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsumoto, Michio; Saito, Yusuke; Park, Chiyoung; Fukushima, Takanori; Aida, Takuzo

    2015-09-01

    Graphene has shown much promise as an organic electronic material but, despite recent achievements in the production of few-layer graphene, the quantitative exfoliation of graphite into pristine single-layer graphene has remained one of the main challenges in developing practical devices. Recently, reduced graphene oxide has been recognized as a non-feasible alternative to graphene owing to variable defect types and levels, and attention is turning towards reliable methods for the high-throughput exfoliation of graphite. Here we report that microwave irradiation of graphite suspended in molecularly engineered oligomeric ionic liquids allows for ultrahigh-efficiency exfoliation (93% yield) with a high selectivity (95%) towards ‘single-layer’ graphene (that is, with thicknesses oligomeric ionic liquids up to ~100 mg ml-1, and form physical gels in which an anisotropic orientation of graphene sheets, once induced by a magnetic field, is maintained.

  20. Epitaxial growth of hybrid nanostructures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Chaoliang; Chen, Junze; Wu, Xue-Jun; Zhang, Hua

    2018-02-01

    Hybrid nanostructures are a class of materials that are typically composed of two or more different components, in which each component has at least one dimension on the nanoscale. The rational design and controlled synthesis of hybrid nanostructures are of great importance in enabling the fine tuning of their properties and functions. Epitaxial growth is a promising approach to the controlled synthesis of hybrid nanostructures with desired structures, crystal phases, exposed facets and/or interfaces. This Review provides a critical summary of the state of the art in the field of epitaxial growth of hybrid nanostructures. We discuss the historical development, architectures and compositions, epitaxy methods, characterization techniques and advantages of epitaxial hybrid nanostructures. Finally, we provide insight into future research directions in this area, which include the epitaxial growth of hybrid nanostructures from a wider range of materials, the study of the underlying mechanism and determining the role of epitaxial growth in influencing the properties and application performance of hybrid nanostructures.

  1. Selfsupported epitaxial silicon films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lazarovici, D.; Popescu, A.

    1975-01-01

    The methods of removing the p or p + support of an n-type epitaxial silicon layer using electrochemical etching are described. So far, only n + -n junctions have been processed. The condition of anodic dissolution for some values of the support and layer resistivity are given. By this method very thin single crystal selfsupported targets of convenient areas can be obtained for channeling - blocking experiments

  2. Nanopatched Graphene with Molecular Self-Assembly Toward Graphene-Organic Hybrid Soft Electronics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Boseok; Lee, Seong Kyu; Jung, Jaehyuck; Joe, Minwoong; Lee, Seon Baek; Kim, Jinsung; Lee, Changgu; Cho, Kilwon

    2018-04-30

    Increasing the mechanical durability of large-area polycrystalline single-atom-thick materials is a necessary step toward the development of practical and reliable soft electronics based on these materials. Here, it is shown that the surface assembly of organosilane by weak epitaxy forms nanometer-thick organic patches on a monolayer graphene surface and dramatically increases the material's resistance to harsh postprocessing environments, thereby increasing the number of ways in which graphene can be processed. The nanopatched graphene with the improved mechanical durability enables stable operation when used as transparent electrodes of wearable strain sensors. Also, the nanopatched graphene applied as an electrode modulates the molecular orientation of deposited organic semiconductor layers, and yields favorable nominal charge injection for organic transistors. These results demonstrate the potential for use of self-assembled organic nanopatches in graphene-based soft electronics. © 2018 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  3. Stable configurations of graphene on silicon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Javvaji, Brahmanandam; Shenoy, Bhamy Maithry [Department of Aerospace Engineering, Indian Institute of Science, Bangalore 560012 (India); Mahapatra, D. Roy, E-mail: droymahapatra@aero.iisc.ernet.in [Department of Aerospace Engineering, Indian Institute of Science, Bangalore 560012 (India); Ravikumar, Abhilash [Department of Metallurgical and Materials Engineering, National Institute of Technology Karnataka, Surathkal 575025 (India); Hegde, G.M. [Center for Nano Science and Engineering, Indian Institute of Science, Bangalore 560012 (India); Rizwan, M.R. [Department of Metallurgical and Materials Engineering, National Institute of Technology Karnataka, Surathkal 575025 (India)

    2017-08-31

    Highlights: • Simulations of epitaxial growth process for silicon–graphene system is performed. • Identified the most favourable orientation of graphene sheet on silicon substrate. • Atomic local strain due to the silicon–carbon bond formation is analyzed. - Abstract: Integration of graphene on silicon-based nanostructures is crucial in advancing graphene based nanoelectronic device technologies. The present paper provides a new insight on the combined effect of graphene structure and silicon (001) substrate on their two-dimensional anisotropic interface. Molecular dynamics simulations involving the sub-nanoscale interface reveal a most favourable set of temperature independent orientations of the monolayer graphene sheet with an angle of ∽15° between its armchair direction and [010] axis of the silicon substrate. While computing the favorable stable orientations, both the translation and the rotational vibrations of graphene are included. The possible interactions between the graphene atoms and the silicon atoms are identified from their coordination. Graphene sheet shows maximum bonding density with bond length 0.195 nm and minimum bond energy when interfaced with silicon substrate at 15° orientation. Local deformation analysis reveals probability distribution with maximum strain levels of 0.134, 0.047 and 0.029 for 900 K, 300 K and 100 K, respectively in silicon surface for 15° oriented graphene whereas the maximum probable strain in graphene is about 0.041 irrespective of temperature. Silicon–silicon dimer formation is changed due to silicon–carbon bonding. These results may help further in band structure engineering of silicon–graphene lattice.

  4. Graphene on graphene antidot lattices

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gregersen, Søren Schou; Pedersen, Jesper Goor; Power, Stephen

    2015-01-01

    Graphene bilayer systems are known to exhibit a band gap when the layer symmetry is broken by applying a perpendicular electric field. The resulting band structure resembles that of a conventional semiconductor with a parabolic dispersion. Here, we introduce a bilayer graphene heterostructure......, where single-layer graphene is placed on top of another layer of graphene with a regular lattice of antidots. We dub this class of graphene systems GOAL: graphene on graphene antidot lattice. By varying the structure geometry, band-structure engineering can be performed to obtain linearly dispersing...

  5. High-quality PVD graphene growth by fullerene decomposition on Cu foils

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Azpeitia, J.; Otero-Irurueta, G.; Palacio, I.; Martinez, J. I.; Ruiz del Arbol, N.; Santoro, G.; Gutiérrez, A.; Aballe, L.; Foerster, M.; Kalbáč, Martin; Valeš, Václav; Mompean, F. J.; Garcia-Hernandez, M.; Martín-Gago, J.A.; Munuera, C.; Lopez, M. F.

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 119, AUG 2017 (2017), s. 535-543 ISSN 0008-6223 R&D Projects: GA MŠk LL1301 EU Projects: European Commission(XE) 696656 - GrapheneCore1 Institutional support: RVO:61388955 Keywords : functional perturbation- theory * epitaxial graphene * copper substrate * pt(111) surface * raman-spectrum * cvd-graphene Subject RIV: CF - Physical ; Theoretical Chemistry OBOR OECD: Physical chemistry Impact factor: 6.337, year: 2016

  6. High-quality PVD graphene growth by fullerene decomposition on Cu foils

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Azpeitia, J.; Otero-Irurueta, G.; Palacio, I.; Martinez, J. I.; Ruiz del Arbol, N.; Santoro, G.; Gutiérrez, A.; Aballe, L.; Foerster, M.; Kalbáč, Martin; Valeš, Václav; Mompean, F. J.; Garcia-Hernandez, M.; Martín-Gago, J.A.; Munuera, C.; Lopez, M. F.

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 119, AUG 2017 (2017), s. 535-543 ISSN 0008-6223 R&D Projects: GA MŠk LL1301 EU Projects: European Commission(XE) 696656 - GrapheneCore1 Institutional support: RVO:61388955 Keywords : functional perturbation-theory * epitaxial graphene * copper substrate * pt(111) surface * raman-spectrum * cvd-graphene Subject RIV: CF - Physical ; Theoretical Chemistry OBOR OECD: Physical chemistry Impact factor: 6.337, year: 2016

  7. CVD-graphene growth on different polycrystalline transition metals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. P. Lavin-Lopez

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The chemical vapor deposition (CVD graphene growth on two polycrystalline transition metals (Ni and Cu was investigated in detail using Raman spectroscopy and optical microscopy as a way to synthesize graphene of the highest quality (i.e. uniform growth of monolayer graphene, which is considered a key issue for electronic devices. Key CVD process parameters (reaction temperature, CH4/H2flow rate ratio, total flow of gases (CH4+H2, reaction time were optimized for both metals in order to obtain the highest graphene uniformity and quality. The conclusions previously reported in literature about the performance of low and high carbon solubility metals in the synthesis of graphene and their associated reaction mechanisms, i.e. surface depositionand precipitation on cooling, respectively, was not corroborated by the results obtained in this work. Under the optimal reaction conditions, a large percentage of monolayer graphene was obtained over the Ni foil since the carbon saturation was not complete, allowing carbon atoms to be stored in the bulk metal, which could diffuse forming high quality monolayer graphene at the surface. However, under the optimal reaction conditions, the formation of a non-uniform mixture of few layers and multilayer graphene on the Cu foil was related to the presence of an excess of active carbon atoms on the Cu surface.

  8. Graphene production by dissociation of camphor molecules on nickel substrate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ravani, Fotini [Foundation of Research and Technology — Hellas, Institute of Chemical Engineering Sciences (FORTH/ICE-HT), 26504, Patras (Greece); Interdepartmental Program in Polymer Science and Technology, University of Patras, 26504, Patras (Greece); Papagelis, Konstantinos [Foundation of Research and Technology — Hellas, Institute of Chemical Engineering Sciences (FORTH/ICE-HT), 26504, Patras (Greece); Department of Materials Science, University of Patras, 26504, Patras (Greece); Dracopoulos, Vassileios; Parthenios, John [Foundation of Research and Technology — Hellas, Institute of Chemical Engineering Sciences (FORTH/ICE-HT), 26504, Patras (Greece); Dassios, Konstantinos G. [Foundation of Research and Technology — Hellas, Institute of Chemical Engineering Sciences (FORTH/ICE-HT), 26504, Patras (Greece); Department of Material Science and Engineering, University of Ioannina, 45110, Ioannina (Greece); Siokou, Angeliki [Foundation of Research and Technology — Hellas, Institute of Chemical Engineering Sciences (FORTH/ICE-HT), 26504, Patras (Greece); Galiotis, Costas, E-mail: c.galiotis@iceht.forth.gr [Foundation of Research and Technology — Hellas, Institute of Chemical Engineering Sciences (FORTH/ICE-HT), 26504, Patras (Greece); Interdepartmental Program in Polymer Science and Technology, University of Patras, 26504, Patras (Greece); Department of Materials Science, University of Patras, 26504, Patras (Greece)

    2013-01-01

    A chemical vapor deposition (CVD) process for the production of continuous-high quality-graphene layers based on camphor decomposition on polycrystalline Ni foil, is demonstrated. In situ X-ray diffraction at the pyrolysis temperature of the Ni foil indicates the presence of dominant Ni <111> grains which play an important role in the carbon nucleation and growth. The topography of the grown graphene layers is studied by scanning electron microscopy and atomic force microscopy which show that the Ni surface is covered by continuous and wrinkled graphene carpets. Raman spectroscopy reveals the high quality of the graphene film which appears to be only a few monolayers thick. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy indicates the existence of graphitic layers and the absence of any spectral features associated with carbides (Ni{sub x}C). The proposed CVD process is a sufficient method for large scale production of graphene films. - Highlights: ► An inexpensive chemical vapor deposition method based on camphor is presented. ► Few-layer graphene carpets of high quality are produced on polycrystalline Ni. ► The working deposition temperature is decreased by about 15%. ► Natural cooling is employed for graphene production. ► Role of Ni surface texture upon the graphene growth process is demonstrated.

  9. Pressure-mediated doping in graphene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicolle, Jimmy; Machon, Denis; Poncharal, Philippe; Pierre-Louis, Olivier; San-Miguel, Alfonso

    2011-09-14

    Exfoliated graphene and few layer graphene samples supported on SiO(2) have been studied by Raman spectroscopy at high pressure. For samples immersed on a alcohol mixture, an electron transfer of ∂n/∂P ∼ 8 × 10(12) cm(-2) GPa(-1) is observed for monolayer and bilayer graphene, leading to giant doping values of n ∼ 6 × 10(13) cm(-2) at the maximum pressure of 7 GPa. Three independent and consistent proofs of the doping process are obtained from (i) the evolution of the Raman G-band to 2D-band intensity ratio, (ii) the pressure coefficient of the G-band frequency, and (iii) the 2D band components splitting in the case of the bilayer sample. The charge transfer phenomena is absent for trilayer samples and for samples immersed in argon or nitrogen. We also show that a phase transition from a 2D biaxial strain response, resulting from the substrate drag upon volume reduction, to a 3D hydrostatic compression takes place when going from the bilayer to the trilayer sample. By model calculations we relate this transition to the unbinding of the graphene-SiO(2) system when increasing the number of graphene layers and as function of the surface roughness parameters. We propose that the formation of silanol groups on the SiO(2) substrate allows for a capacitance-induced substrate-mediated charge transfer.

  10. Graphene aerogels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pauzauskie, Peter J; Worsley, Marcus A; Baumann, Theodore F; Satcher, Jr., Joe H; Biener, Juergen

    2015-03-31

    Graphene aerogels with high conductivity and surface areas including a method for making a graphene aerogel, including the following steps: (1) preparing a reaction mixture comprising a graphene oxide suspension and at least one catalyst; (2) curing the reaction mixture to produce a wet gel; (3) drying the wet gel to produce a dry gel; and (4) pyrolyzing the dry gel to produce a graphene aerogel. Applications include electrical energy storage including batteries and supercapacitors.

  11. Investigating the performance of nitrogen-doped graphene photoanode in dye-sensitized solar cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joseph, Easter; Singh, Balbir Singh Mahinder; Mohamed, Norani Muti; Kait, Chong Fai; Saheed, Mohamed Shuaib Mohamed; Khatani, Mehboob

    2016-11-01

    In this paper, the atmospheric pressure chemical vapor deposition (AP-CVD) is used to synthesize graphene on a copper substrate by utilizing methane as a precursor and N-doped graphene (NDG) in the presence of ammonia. The performance of pure titanium dioxide (TiO2), TiO2/graphene, and TiO2/NDG as photoanodes in dye-sensitized solar cell (DSSC) were compared. Field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) showed flakes of few layers with an interrupted layer in both graphene and NDG. DSSC consist of TiO2/NDG photoanode exhibits a better enhancement due to the high conductivity of donor N in graphene which enhances the electron transportation across nanoporous TiO2.

  12. Epitaxy physical principles and technical implementation

    CERN Document Server

    Herman, Marian A; Sitter, Helmut

    2004-01-01

    Epitaxy provides readers with a comprehensive treatment of the modern models and modifications of epitaxy, together with the relevant experimental and technological framework. This advanced textbook describes all important aspects of the epitaxial growth processes of solid films on crystalline substrates, including a section on heteroepitaxy. It covers and discusses in details the most important epitaxial growth techniques, which are currently widely used in basic research as well as in manufacturing processes of devices, namely solid-phase epitaxy, liquid-phase epitaxy, vapor-phase epitaxy, including metal-organic vapor-phase epitaxy and molecular-beam epitaxy. Epitaxy’s coverage of science and texhnology thin-film is intended to fill the need for a comprehensive reference and text examining the variety of problems related to the physical foundations and technical implementation of epitaxial crystallization. It is intended for undergraduate students, PhD students, research scientists, lecturers and practic...

  13. Anomalous magnetic behavior at the graphene/Co interface

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mandal, Sumit; Saha, Shyamal K., E-mail: cnssks@iacs.res.in [Department of Materials Science, Indian Association for the Cultivation of Science, Jadavpur, Kolkata 700032 (India)

    2014-07-14

    An intensive theoretical study on the interaction between graphene and transition metal atom has been carried out; however, its experimental verification is still lacking. To explore the theoretical prediction of antiferromagnetic coupling due to charge transfer between graphene and cobalt, epitaxial layer of cobalt is grown on graphene surface. Predicted antiferromagnetic interaction with Neel temperature (T{sub N} ∼ 32 K) which anomalously shifts to higher temperature (34 K) and becomes more prominent under application of magnetic field of 1 T is reported. Lowering of magnetoresistance as a consequence of this antiferromagnetic coupling at the interface is also observed.

  14. High-Yield Preparation and Electrochemical Properties of Few-Layer MoS2 Nanosheets by Exfoliating Natural Molybdenite Powders Directly via a Coupled Ultrasonication-Milling Process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Huina; Chen, Deliang; Wang, Kai; Zhang, Rui

    2016-09-01

    Cost-effective and scalable preparation of two-dimensional (2D) molybdenum disulfide (MoS2) has been the bottleneck that limits their applications. This paper reports a novel coupled ultrasonication-milling (CUM) process to exfoliate natural molybdenite powders to achieve few-layer MoS2 (FL-MoS2) nanosheets in the solvent of N-methyl-2-pyrrolidone (NMP) with polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP) molecules. The synergistic effect of ultrasonication and sand milling highly enhanced the exfoliation efficiency, and the precursor of natural molybdenite powders minimizes the synthetic cost of FL-MoS2 nanosheets. The exfoliation of natural molybdenite powders was conducted in a home-made CUM system, mainly consisting of an ultrasonic cell disruptor and a ceramic sand mill. The samples were characterized by X-ray diffraction, UV-vis spectra, Raman spectra, FT-IR, SEM, TEM, AFM, and N2 adsorption-desorption. The factors that influence the exfoliation in the CUM process, including the initial concentration of natural molybdenite powders ( C in, 15-55 g L-1), ultrasonic power ( P u, 200-350 W), rotation speed of sand mill ( ω s, 1500-2250 r.p.m), exfoliation time ( t ex, 0.5-6 h), and the molar ratio of PVP unit to MoS2 ( R pm, 0-1), were systematically investigated. Under the optimal CUM conditions (i.e., C in = 45 g L-1, P u = 280 W, ω s = 2250 r.p.m and R pm = 0.5), the yield at t ex = 6 h reaches 21.6 %, and the corresponding exfoliation rate is as high as 1.42 g L-1 h-1. The exfoliation efficiency of the CUM mode is much higher than that of either the ultrasonication (U) mode or the milling (M) mode. The synergistic mechanism and influencing rules of the CUM process in exfoliating natural molybdenite powders were elaborated. The as-obtained FL-MoS2 nanosheets have a high specific surface area of 924 m2 g-1 and show highly enhanced electrocatalytic performance in hydrogen evolution reaction and good electrochemical sensing property in detecting ascorbic acid. The CUM process

  15. Effects of substrate material on carbon films grown by laser molecular beam epitaxy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, M.; Xu, X.Y.; Man, B.Y.; Kong, D.M.; Xu, S.C.

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► We prepared tri-layers by laser molecular beam epitaxy (LMBE) on sapphire substrate. ► We found that the formation of the graphene film has a strong relation to the structure and properties of the substrate. ► The different carbon film formation mechanism of the buffer layers can affect the morphology of the film. - Abstract: The carbon thin films were grown on different substrates with different buffer layers by laser molecular beam epitaxy (LMBE) with a high purity graphite carbon target. A UV pulsed KrF excimer laser with a wavelength of 248 nm was used as laser source. The structure, surface morphology and other properties of the carbon thin films were characterized by Raman spectroscopy, transmission electron microscopy (TEM), selected area electron diffraction (SAED) and atomic force microscopy (AFM). The results show that the properties of the carbon thin films and the formation of the graphene film have a strong relation to the structure and properties of the substrate. The substrate with a hexagonal wurtzite structure which is similar to the hexagonal honeycomb structure of the carbon atoms arranged in the graphene is more beneficial for the formation of the graphene thin film. In our experiment conditions, the carbon films grown on sapphire substrates with different buffer layers have an ordered structure and a smooth surface, and form high quality tri-layer graphene films.

  16. Water on graphene: review of recent progress

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melios, C.; Giusca, C. E.; Panchal, V.; Kazakova, O.

    2018-04-01

    The sensitivity of graphene to the surrounding environment is given by its π electrons, which are directly exposed to molecules in the ambient air. The high sensitivity of graphene to the local environment has shown to be both advantageous and problematic for graphene-based devices, such as transistors and sensors, where the graphene carrier concentration and mobility changes due to ambient humidity variations. In this review, recent progress is presented in understanding the effects of water on different types of graphene: epitaxially grown and quasi-free standing on SiC(0 0 0 1), grown by chemical vapour deposition and transfered on SiO2, and exfoliated flakes. It is demonstrated that water withdraws electrons from graphene, but the graphene-water interaction highly depends on the thickness, layer stacking, underlying substrate and substrate-induced doping. Moreover, we highlight the importance of clear and unambiguous description of the environmental conditions (i.e. relative humidity) whenever a routine characterisation for carrier concentration and mobility is reported (often presented as a simple figure-of-merit), as these electrical characteristics are highly dependent on the adsorbed molecules and the surrounding environment.

  17. Graphene Coatings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stoot, Adam Carsten; Camilli, Luca; Bøggild, Peter

    2014-01-01

    Owing to its remarkable electrical and mechanical properties, graphene has been attracting tremendous interest in materials science. In particular, its chemical stability and impermeability make it a promising protective membrane. However, recent investigations reveal that single layer graphene...... cannot be used as a barrier in the long run, due to galvanic corrosion phenomena arising when oxygen or water penetrate through graphene cracks or domain boundaries. Here, we overcome this issue by using a multilayered (ML) graphene coating. Our lab- as well as industrial-scale tests demonstrate that ML...... graphene can effectively protect Ni in harsh environments, even after long term exposure. This is made possible by the presence of a high number of graphene layers, which can efficiently mask the cracks and domain boundaries defects found in individual layers of graphene. Our findings thus show...

  18. Two dimensional MoS{sub 2}/graphene p-n heterojunction diode: Fabrication and electronic characteristics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Su, Wei-Jhih [Graduate Institute of Electro-Optical Engineering, National Taiwan University of Science and Technology, 43, Section 4, Keelung Road, Taipei 10607, Taiwan (China); Chang, Hsuan-Chen [Department of Electronic and Computer Engineering, National Taiwan University of Science and Technology, 43, Section 4, Keelung Road, Taipei 10607, Taiwan (China); Shih, Yi-Ting [Graduate Institute of Electro-Optical Engineering, National Taiwan University of Science and Technology, 43, Section 4, Keelung Road, Taipei 10607, Taiwan (China); Wang, Yi-Ping [Department of Electronic and Computer Engineering, National Taiwan University of Science and Technology, 43, Section 4, Keelung Road, Taipei 10607, Taiwan (China); Hsu, Hung-Pin [Department of Electronic Engineering, Ming Chi University of Technology, 84 Gungjuan Road, New Taipei City 24301, Taiwan (China); Huang, Ying-Sheng [Graduate Institute of Electro-Optical Engineering, National Taiwan University of Science and Technology, 43, Section 4, Keelung Road, Taipei 10607, Taiwan (China); Department of Electronic and Computer Engineering, National Taiwan University of Science and Technology, 43, Section 4, Keelung Road, Taipei 10607, Taiwan (China); Lee, Kuei-Yi, E-mail: kylee@mail.ntust.edu.tw [Graduate Institute of Electro-Optical Engineering, National Taiwan University of Science and Technology, 43, Section 4, Keelung Road, Taipei 10607, Taiwan (China); Department of Electronic and Computer Engineering, National Taiwan University of Science and Technology, 43, Section 4, Keelung Road, Taipei 10607, Taiwan (China)

    2016-06-25

    Molybdenum disulfide (MoS{sub 2}) films are currently the most potential semiconductor materials of the two-dimensional nano-material heterojunction. Few-layer MoS{sub 2} is an n-type semiconductor that has good mechanical strength, high carrier mobility, and has similar thickness as graphene. Graphene is presently the thinnest two-dimensional material with good thermal conductivity and high carrier mobility. The graphene Fermi level can be precisely controlled using the oxygen adsorption. Therefore, graphene can be tuned from zero-gap to p-type semiconductor material using the amount of adsorbed oxygen. In this study we combine few-layer MoS{sub 2} and graphene to produce a heterojunction and exhaustively study the interface properties for heterojunction diode application. According to the results, the MoS{sub 2} band-gap increases with decreasing thickness. The I–V characteristics of the MoS{sub 2}/Graphene p-n junction diodes can be precisely tuned by adjusting different thicknesses of the MoS{sub 2} films. By applying our fabricating method, MoS{sub 2}/Graphene heterojunction diode can be easily constructed and have potential to different applications. - Highlights: • We controlled the layer thickness of MoS{sub 2} by different exfoliation times. • We presented Raman scattering of MoS{sub 2} and define their layers number. • The few-layer MoS{sub 2}/graphene pn junction diode was synthesized. • We measured the device current and voltage characteristics. • The built-in potential barrier could be adjusted by controlling MoS{sub 2} thicknesses.

  19. Reducing the layer number of AB stacked multilayer graphene grown on nickel by annealing at low temperature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Velasco, J Marquez; Giamini, S A; Kelaidis, N; Tsipas, P; Tsoutsou, D; Kordas, G; Raptis, Y S; Boukos, N; Dimoulas, A

    2015-10-09

    Controlling the number of layers of graphene grown by chemical vapor deposition is crucial for large scale graphene application. We propose here an etching process of graphene which can be applied immediately after growth to control the number of layers. We use nickel (Ni) foil at high temperature (T = 900 °C) to produce multilayer-AB-stacked-graphene (MLG). The etching process is based on annealing the samples in a hydrogen/argon atmosphere at a relatively low temperature (T = 450 °C) inside the growth chamber. The extent of etching is mainly controlled by the annealing process duration. Using Raman spectroscopy we demonstrate that the number of layers was reduced, changing from MLG to few-layer-AB-stacked-graphene and in some cases to randomly oriented few layer graphene near the substrate. Furthermore, our method offers the significant advantage that it does not introduce defects in the samples, maintaining their original high quality. This fact and the low temperature our method uses make it a good candidate for controlling the layer number of already grown graphene in processes with a low thermal budget.

  20. Graphene plasmonic nanogratings for biomolecular sensing in liquid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chorsi, Meysam T.; Chorsi, Hamid T.

    2017-12-01

    We design a surface plasmon resonance (SPR) molecular sensor based on graphene and biomolecule adsorption at graphene-liquid interfaces. The sensor configuration consists of two opposing arrays of graphene nanograting mounted on a substrate, with a liquid-phase sensing medium confined between them. We characterize the design in simulation on a variety of substrates by altering the refractive index of the sensing medium and varying the absorbance-transmittance characteristics. The influence of various parameters on the biosensor's performance, including the Fermi level of graphene, the dielectric constant of the substrate, and the incident angle for plasmon excitation, is investigated. Numerical simulations demonstrate the sensitivity higher than 3000 nm/RIU (refractive index unit). The device supports a wide range of substrates in which graphene can be epitaxially grown. The proposed biosensor works independent of the incident angle and can be tuned to cover a broadband wavelength range.

  1. Accelerating the development of transparent graphene electrodes through basic science driven chemical functionalization.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chan, Calvin [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Beechem, III, Thomas Edwin [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Ohta, Taisuke [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Brumbach, Michael T. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Wheeler, David Roger [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Veneman, Alexander [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Gearba, I. Raluca [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Stevenson, Keith J. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2013-09-01

    Chemical functionalization is required to adapt graphenes properties to many applications. However, most covalent functionalization schemes are spontaneous or defect driven and are not suitable for applications requiring directed assembly of molecules on graphene substrates. In this work, we demonstrated electrochemically driven covalent bonding of phenyl iodoniums onto epitaxial graphene. The amount of chemisorption was demonstrated by varying the duration of the electrochemical driving potential. Chemical, electronic, and defect states of phenyl-modified graphene were studied by photoemission spectroscopy, spatially resolved Raman spectroscopy, and water contact angle measurement. Covalent attachment rehybridized some of the delocalized graphene sp2 orbitals to localized sp3 states. Control over the relative spontaneity (reaction rate) of covalent graphene functionalization is an important first step to the practical realization of directed molecular assembly on graphene. More than 10 publications, conference presentations, and program highlights were produced (some invited), and follow-on funding was obtained to continue this work.

  2. Graphene-based electrochemical sensor for detection of 2,4,6-trinitrotoluene (TNT) in seawater: the comparison of single-, few-, and multilayer graphene nanoribbons and graphite microparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goh, Madeline Shuhua; Pumera, Martin

    2011-01-01

    The detection of explosives in seawater is of great interest. We compared response single-, few-, and multilayer graphene nanoribbons and graphite microparticle-based electrodes toward the electrochemical reduction of 2,4,6-trinitrotoluene (TNT). We optimized parameters such as accumulation time, accumulation potential, and pH. We found that few-layer graphene exhibits about 20% enhanced signal for TNT after accumulation when compared to multilayer graphene nanoribbons. However, graphite microparticle-modified electrode provides higher sensitivity, and there was no significant difference in the performance of single-, few-, and multilayer graphene nanoribbons and graphite microparticles for the electrochemical detection of TNT. We established the limit of detection of TNT in untreated seawater at 1 μg/mL.

  3. A flexible and transparent graphene/ZnO nanorod hybrid structure fabricated by exfoliating a graphite substrate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nam, Gwang-Hee; Baek, Seong-Ho; Cho, Chang-Hee; Park, Il-Kyu

    2014-09-01

    We demonstrate the fabrication of a graphene/ZnO nanorod (NR) hybrid structure by mechanical exfoliation of ZnO NRs grown on a graphite substrate. We confirmed the existence of graphene sheets on the hybrid structure by analyzing the Raman spectra and current-voltage (I-V) characteristics. The Raman spectra of the exfoliated graphene/ZnO NR hybrid structure show G and 2D band peaks that are shifted to lower wavenumbers, indicating that the exfoliated graphene layer exists under a significant amount of strain. The I-V characteristics of the graphene/ZnO NR hybrid structure show current flow through the graphene layer, while no current flow is observed on the ZnO NR/polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) composite without graphene, thereby indicating that the few-layer graphene was successfully transferred onto the hybrid structure. A piezoelectric nanogenerator is demonstrated by using the fabricated graphene/ZnO NR hybrid structure. The nanogenerator exhibits stable output voltage up to 3.04 V with alternating current output characteristics.We demonstrate the fabrication of a graphene/ZnO nanorod (NR) hybrid structure by mechanical exfoliation of ZnO NRs grown on a graphite substrate. We confirmed the existence of graphene sheets on the hybrid structure by analyzing the Raman spectra and current-voltage (I-V) characteristics. The Raman spectra of the exfoliated graphene/ZnO NR hybrid structure show G and 2D band peaks that are shifted to lower wavenumbers, indicating that the exfoliated graphene layer exists under a significant amount of strain. The I-V characteristics of the graphene/ZnO NR hybrid structure show current flow through the graphene layer, while no current flow is observed on the ZnO NR/polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) composite without graphene, thereby indicating that the few-layer graphene was successfully transferred onto the hybrid structure. A piezoelectric nanogenerator is demonstrated by using the fabricated graphene/ZnO NR hybrid structure. The nanogenerator

  4. Aromatic graphene

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Das, D. K., E-mail: gour.netai@gmail.com [Department of Metallurgical and Material Science Engineering, National Institute of Technology Durgapur-713209, West Bengal (India); Sahoo, S., E-mail: sukadevsahoo@yahoo.com [Department of Physics, National Institute of Technology Durgapur-713209, West Bengal (India)

    2016-04-13

    In recent years graphene attracts the scientific and engineering communities due to its outstanding electronic, thermal, mechanical and optical properties and many potential applications. Recently, Popov et al. [1] have studied the properties of graphene and proved that it is aromatic but without fragrance. In this paper, we present a theory to prepare graphene with fragrance. This can be used as scented pencils, perfumes, room and car fresheners, cosmetics and many other useful household substances.

  5. Aromatic graphene

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Das, D. K.; Sahoo, S.

    2016-01-01

    In recent years graphene attracts the scientific and engineering communities due to its outstanding electronic, thermal, mechanical and optical properties and many potential applications. Recently, Popov et al. [1] have studied the properties of graphene and proved that it is aromatic but without fragrance. In this paper, we present a theory to prepare graphene with fragrance. This can be used as scented pencils, perfumes, room and car fresheners, cosmetics and many other useful household substances.

  6. Enhancing photoresponsivity using MoTe2-graphene vertical heterostructures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuiri, Manabendra; Chakraborty, Biswanath; Paul, Arup; Das, Subhadip; Sood, A. K.; Das, Anindya

    2016-02-01

    MoTe2 with a narrow band-gap of ˜1.1 eV is a promising candidate for optoelectronic applications, especially for the near-infrared photo detection. However, the photo responsivity of few layers MoTe2 is very small (graphene vertical heterostructures have a much larger photo responsivity of ˜20 mA W-1. The trans-conductance measurements with back gate voltage show on-off ratio of the vertical transistor to be ˜(0.5-1) × 105. The rectification nature of the source-drain current with the back gate voltage reveals the presence of a stronger Schottky barrier at the MoTe2-metal contact as compared to the MoTe2-graphene interface. In order to quantify the barrier height, it is essential to measure the work function of a few layers MoTe2, not known so far. We demonstrate a method to determine the work function by measuring the photo-response of the vertical transistor as a function of the Schottky barrier height at the MoTe2-graphene interface tuned by electrolytic top gating.

  7. In-situ TEM imaging of the anisotropic etching of graphene by metal nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Jiake; Xu, Zhi; Wang, Hao; Tian, Xuezeng; Yang, Shize; Wang, Lifen; Wang, Wenlong; Bai, Xuedong

    2014-11-21

    Few-layer graphene was successfully tailored with smooth edges along crystallographic directions by Joule heating-driven tungsten nanoparticles inside a transmission electron microscope. The dynamic process was monitored in real time at the atomic resolution level. These high-resolution in-situ observations show that the neighboring graphene layers joined together to form closed edges, which is in contrast to the supposed open edges formed with hydrogen passivation. The tungsten nanoparticles transformed to W₂C in the intermediate stage of etching and to WC after etching, suggesting that carbon dissolution helped the continuous action of the metal nanoparticles in the catalytic anisotropic etching reaction.

  8. Characteristics of thermally reduced graphene oxide and applied for dye-sensitized solar cell counter electrode

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ho, Ching-Yuan, E-mail: cyho@cycu.edu.tw [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Chung Yuan Christian University, Chung-Li, Taiwan (China); Department of Chemistry, Center for Nanotechnology and Institute of Biomedical Technology, Chung Yuan Christian University, Chung-Li, Taiwan (China); Wang, Hong-Wen [Department of Chemistry, Center for Nanotechnology and Institute of Biomedical Technology, Chung Yuan Christian University, Chung-Li, Taiwan (China); Department of Chemistry, Chung Yuan Christian University, Chung-Li, Taiwan (China)

    2015-12-01

    Graphical abstract: Experimental process: (1) graphite oxidized to graphene oxide; (2) thermal reduction from graphene oxide to graphene; (3) applying to DSSC counter electrode. - Highlights: • Intercalated defects were eliminated by increasing reduction temperature of GO. • High reduction temperature of tGP has lower resistance, high the electron lifetime. • Higher thermal reduction of GO proposes electrocatalytic properties. • DSSC using tGP{sub 250} as counter electrode has energy conversion efficiency of 3.4%. - Abstract: Graphene oxide (GO) was synthesized from a flake-type of graphite powder, which was then reduced to a few layers of graphene sheets using the thermal reduction method. The surface morphology, phase crystallization, and defect states of the reduced graphene were determined from an electron microscope equipped with an energy dispersion spectrometer, X-ray diffraction, Raman spectroscopy, and infrared spectra. After graphene formation, the intercalated defects that existed in the GO were removed, and it became crystalline by observing impurity changes and d-spacing. Dye-sensitized solar cells, using reduced graphene as the counter electrode, were fabricated to evaluate the electrolyte activity and charge transport performance. The electrochemical impedance spectra showed that increasing the thermal reduction temperature could achieve faster electron transport and longer electron lifetime, and result in an energy conversion efficiency of approximately 3.4%. Compared to the Pt counter electrode, the low cost of the thermal reduction method suggests that graphene will enjoy a wide range of potential applications in the field of electronic devices.

  9. Characteristics of thermally reduced graphene oxide and applied for dye-sensitized solar cell counter electrode

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ho, Ching-Yuan; Wang, Hong-Wen

    2015-01-01

    Graphical abstract: Experimental process: (1) graphite oxidized to graphene oxide; (2) thermal reduction from graphene oxide to graphene; (3) applying to DSSC counter electrode. - Highlights: • Intercalated defects were eliminated by increasing reduction temperature of GO. • High reduction temperature of tGP has lower resistance, high the electron lifetime. • Higher thermal reduction of GO proposes electrocatalytic properties. • DSSC using tGP 250 as counter electrode has energy conversion efficiency of 3.4%. - Abstract: Graphene oxide (GO) was synthesized from a flake-type of graphite powder, which was then reduced to a few layers of graphene sheets using the thermal reduction method. The surface morphology, phase crystallization, and defect states of the reduced graphene were determined from an electron microscope equipped with an energy dispersion spectrometer, X-ray diffraction, Raman spectroscopy, and infrared spectra. After graphene formation, the intercalated defects that existed in the GO were removed, and it became crystalline by observing impurity changes and d-spacing. Dye-sensitized solar cells, using reduced graphene as the counter electrode, were fabricated to evaluate the electrolyte activity and charge transport performance. The electrochemical impedance spectra showed that increasing the thermal reduction temperature could achieve faster electron transport and longer electron lifetime, and result in an energy conversion efficiency of approximately 3.4%. Compared to the Pt counter electrode, the low cost of the thermal reduction method suggests that graphene will enjoy a wide range of potential applications in the field of electronic devices.

  10. Graphene coating for anti-corrosion and the investigation of failure mechanism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhu, Y X; Duan, C Y; Chen, Y F; Wang, Y; Liu, H Y

    2017-01-01

    Graphene produced by chemical vapor deposition (CVD) methods has been considered as a promising corrosion prevention layer because of its exceptional structure and impermeability. However, the anti-corrosion performance and the failure mechanism are still controversial. In this study, graphene layers with different quality levels, crystallite sizes, and layer numbers were prepared on the surface of Cu by a CVD process. The effects of grain boundaries (GBs) on the failure of graphene layers to provide adequate protection were investigated in detail by combining graphene transfer techniques, computation, and anti-corrosion measurements. Our results reveal that corrosion rates decrease marginally upon the increase of graphene layer number, and this rather weak dependence on thickness likely arises from the aligned nature of the GBs in CVD-grown few-layer graphene. This problem can potentially be overcome by layer-by-layer graphene transfer technique, in which corrosion is found to be arrested locally when transferred graphene is present on top of the as-grown graphene. However, this advantage is not reflected in corrosion studies performed on large-scale samples, where cracks or imperfect interfaces could offset the advantages of GB misalignment. With improvements in technology, the layer-by-layer assembly technique could be used to develop an effective anti-corrosion barrier. (paper)

  11. Microspherical polyaniline/graphene nanocomposites for high performance supercapacitors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Hailiang; Zhou, Xufeng; Zhang, Yiming; Chen, Liang; Liu, Zhaoping

    2013-12-01

    Polyaniline/graphene nanocomposites with microspherical morphology and porous structure are prepared as electrode materials for supercapacitors. Using few-layer graphene obtained by liquid phase exfoliation of graphite as the raw material, porous graphene microspheres are produced by spray drying, and are then employed as the substrates for the growth of polyaniline nanowire arrays by in situ polymerization. In the composite, interconnected graphene sheets with few structural defects constitute a high-efficient conductive network to improve the electrical conductivity of polyaniline. Furthermore, the microspherical architecture prevents restacking of polyaniline/graphene composite nanosheets, thus facilitates fast diffusion of electrolytes. Consequently, the nanocomposite exhibits excellent electrochemical performance. A specific capacitance of 338 F g-1 is reached in 1 M H2SO4 at a scan rate of 20 mV s-1, and a high capacity retention rate of 87.4% after 10,000 cycles at a current density of 3 A g-1 can be achieved, which suggests that the polyaniline/graphene composite with such kind of 3D architecture is a promising electrode material for high-performance supercapacitors.

  12. Scanning tunneling microscopy and spectroscopy of twisted trilayer graphene

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zuo, Wei-Jie; Qiao, Jia-Bin; Ma, Dong-Lin; Yin, Long-Jing; Sun, Gan; Zhang, Jun-Yang; Guan, Li-Yang; He, Lin

    2018-01-01

    Twist, as a simple and unique degree of freedom, could lead to enormous novel quantum phenomena in bilayer graphene. A small rotation angle introduces low-energy van Hove singularities (VHSs) approaching the Fermi level, which result in unusual correlated states in the bilayer graphene. It is reasonable to expect that the twist could also affect the electronic properties of few-layer graphene dramatically. However, such an issue has remained experimentally elusive. Here, by using scanning tunneling microscopy/spectroscopy (STM/STS), we systematically studied a twisted trilayer graphene (TTG) with two different small twist angles between adjacent layers. Two sets of VHSs, originating from the two twist angles, were observed in the TTG, indicating that the TTG could be simply regarded as a combination of two different twisted bilayers of graphene. By using high-resolution STS, we observed a split of the VHSs and directly imaged the spatial symmetry breaking of electronic states around the VHSs. These results suggest that electron-electron interactions play an important role in affecting the electronic properties of graphene systems with low-energy VHSs.

  13. Ammonia Generation via a Graphene-Coated Nickel Catalyst

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fei Lu

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available A novel graphene-coated Ni electrode was developed in this investigation to improve corrosion resistance while unexpectedly enhancing the ammonia generation rate in the electrochemically induced urea to ammonia (eU2A process, which is an electrochemical onsite ammonia generation method. The development of the electrode is crucial for the eU2A reactions since in the ammonia generation process, the concentration of ammonia is inevitably high on the surface of the electrode, leading to severe corrosion of the electrode and the loss of generated ammonia as well. In this paper, the graphene was derived from raw coal by using the chemical vapor deposition method and self-lifted onto a Ni electrode to form a protective layer for corrosion prevention. Transmission electron microscopy showed the synthesized graphene had few-layers and Raman spectroscopy indicated that the coating of graphene was stable during the eU2A reaction. As a result, the ammonia corrosion of the Ni electrode was dramatically reduced by ~20 times with the graphene coating method. More importantly, a higher ammonia generation rate (~2 times was achieved using the graphene-coated Ni working electrode compared to a bare Ni electrode in the eU2A process.

  14. Topographic and electronic contrast of the graphene moir´e on Ir(111) probed by scanning tunneling microscopy and noncontact atomic force microscopy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sun, Z.; Hämäläinen, K.; Sainio, K.; Lahtinen, J.; Vanmaekelbergh, D.A.M.; Liljeroth, P.

    2011-01-01

    Epitaxial graphene grown on transition-metal surfaces typically exhibits a moir´e pattern due to the lattice mismatch between graphene and the underlying metal surface. We use both scanning tunneling microscopy (STM) and atomic force microscopy (AFM) to probe the electronic and topographic contrast

  15. Exfoliation of graphene with an industrial dye: teaching an old dog new tricks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schlierf, Andrea; Cha, Kitty; Schwab, Matthias Georg; Samorı, Paolo; Palermo, Vincenzo

    2014-12-01

    We describe the exfoliation, processing and inclusion in polymer composites of few-layers graphene nanoplatelets (GNPs) by using the molecule indanthrone blue sulphonic acid sodium salt (IBS), a very common industrial dyestuff and intermediate for liquid crystal preparation. We show how IBS can be used to successfully exfoliate graphite into few-layers graphene yielding highly stable dispersions in water. To demonstrate that the method is suitable for applications in composites, these graphene-organic hybrids are processed into a commercial commodity polymer (polyvinyl alcohol, PVA), enhancing its electrical bulk conductivity by ten orders of magnitude by adding as few as 3% of GNP. We attribute the good performance of IBS in dispersing GNPs in water to its amphiphilic nature and the tendency to self-assemble through π-π interaction of its large aromatic core with the graphene surface. The molecule studied here, unlike many specialty organic surfactants or solvents commonly known to exfoliate graphene, is already used as a blue pigment dispersant additive in the industrial production of polymers and thus does not need to be removed from the final product.

  16. Exfoliation of graphene with an industrial dye: teaching an old dog new tricks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schlierf, Andrea; Palermo, Vincenzo; Cha, Kitty; Georg Schwab, Matthias; Samorı, Paolo

    2014-01-01

    We describe the exfoliation, processing and inclusion in polymer composites of few-layers graphene nanoplatelets (GNPs) by using the molecule indanthrone blue sulphonic acid sodium salt (IBS), a very common industrial dyestuff and intermediate for liquid crystal preparation. We show how IBS can be used to successfully exfoliate graphite into few-layers graphene yielding highly stable dispersions in water. To demonstrate that the method is suitable for applications in composites, these graphene-organic hybrids are processed into a commercial commodity polymer (polyvinyl alcohol, PVA), enhancing its electrical bulk conductivity by ten orders of magnitude by adding as few as 3% of GNP. We attribute the good performance of IBS in dispersing GNPs in water to its amphiphilic nature and the tendency to self-assemble through π–π interaction of its large aromatic core with the graphene surface. The molecule studied here, unlike many specialty organic surfactants or solvents commonly known to exfoliate graphene, is already used as a blue pigment dispersant additive in the industrial production of polymers and thus does not need to be removed from the final product. (paper)

  17. Carbide-forming groups IVB-VIB metals: a new territory in the periodic table for CVD growth of graphene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zou, Zhiyu; Fu, Lei; Song, Xiuju; Zhang, Yanfeng; Liu, Zhongfan

    2014-07-09

    Early transition metals, especially groups IVB-VIB metals, can form stable carbides, which are known to exhibit excellent "noble-metal-like" catalytic activities. We demonstrate herein the applications of groups IVB-VIB metals in graphene growth using atmospheric pressure chemical vapor deposition technique. Similar to the extensively studied Cu, Ni, and noble metals, these transition-metal foils facilitate the catalytic growth of single- to few-layer graphene. The most attractive advantage over the existing catalysts is their perfect control of layer thickness and uniformity with highly flexible experimental conditions by in situ converting the dissolved carbons into stable carbides to fully suppress the upward segregation/precipitation effect. The growth performance of graphene on these transition metals can be well explained by the periodic physicochemical properties of elements. Our work has disclosed a new territory of catalysts in the periodic table for graphene growth and is expected to trigger more interest in graphene research.

  18. Dual functions of imidazole-based polymeric ionic liquid (PIL) on the anticorrosive performance of graphene-based waterborne epoxy coatings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Chengbao; Du, Peng; Nan, Feng; Zhao, Haichao; Wang, Liping

    2018-06-01

    Dispersion of graphene nanosheets in a water and polymer matrix has been rarely achieved due to graphene’s hydrophobicity, which thus impedes its potential anticorrosive application. In this study, stable graphene aqueous dispersion was obtained by using imidazole-based polymeric ionic liquid (PIL) as the dispersant with ultrasonic vibration. Stacked graphene sheets were exfoliated to a few layers via cation-π interaction between PIL and graphene nanosheets. Electrochemical impedance measurements were taken to investigate the anticorrosion performance of epoxy coatings with or without polymeric ionic liquid–graphene (PIL–G) hybrids. Results indicated that the PIL–G hybrid significantly enhanced the long-term protective performance of epoxy coatings, which was attributed to the synergistic effects of the corrosion-inhibitive PIL and impermeable graphene nanosheets.

  19. Preparation of water-soluble graphene nanoplatelets and highly conductive films

    KAUST Repository

    Xu, Xuezhu

    2017-08-11

    This paper tackles the challenge of preparation stable, highly concentrated aqueous graphene dispersions. Despite tremendous recent interest, there has been limited success in developing a method that ensures the total dispersion of non-oxidized, defect-free graphene nanosheets in water. This study successfully demonstrates that few-layer graphene nanoplatelets (GNPs) can form highly concentrated aqueous colloidal solutions after they have been pretreated in a low-concentration inorganic sodium-hypochlorite and sodium-bromide salted aqueous solvent. This method retains the graphitic structure as evidenced by nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, and Raman spectroscopy. Vacuum-filtrated freestanding films demonstrate an electrical conductivity as high as 3000 S m−1. This dispersion technique is believed to be applicable not only for GNPs, but also for dispersing other types of graphitic materials, including fullerenes, single/double/multi-walled carbon nanotubes, graphene nanoribbons and etc.

  20. Light-assisted recharging of graphene quantum dots in fluorographene matrix

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Antonova, I. V. [A.V. Rzhanov Institute of Semiconductor Physics, Russian Academy of Sciences, Siberian Branch, Acad. Lavrentiev Avenue 13, Novosibirsk 630090 (Russian Federation); Novosibirsk State University, Pirogov Street 2, Novosibirsk 630090 (Russian Federation); Nebogatikova, N. A.; Prinz, V. Ya. [A.V. Rzhanov Institute of Semiconductor Physics, Russian Academy of Sciences, Siberian Branch, Acad. Lavrentiev Avenue 13, Novosibirsk 630090 (Russian Federation); Popov, V. I.; Smagulova, S. A. [North - East Federal University, Yakutsk (Russian Federation)

    2014-10-07

    In the present study, the charge transient spectroscopy was used to analyze the transient relaxation of charges in graphene and bilayer-graphene quantum dot (QD) systems formed by chemical functionalization of graphene and few-layer graphene layers. A set of activation energies (one to three different values) for the emission of charges from QDs sized 50 to 70 nm, most likely proceeding via the thermal activation of charge carriers from QD quantum confinement levels, were deduced from measurements performed in the dark. Daylight illumination of samples during measurements was found to result in a strong decrease of the activation energies and in an involvement of an athermal process in the charge relaxation phenomenon. The time of the light-assisted emission of charge carriers from QDs proved to be two to four orders of magnitude shorter than the time of their emission from QDs under no-illumination conditions.

  1. Multilayer graphene growth on polar dielectric substrates using chemical vapour deposition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karamat, S.; Çelik, K.; Shah Zaman, S.; Oral, A.

    2018-06-01

    High quality of graphene is necessary for its applications at industrial scale production. The most convenient way is its direct growth on dielectrics which avoid the transfer route of graphene from metal to dielectric substrate usually followed by graphene community. The choice of a suitable dielectric for the gate material which can replace silicon dioxide (SiO2) is in high demand. Various properties like permittivity, thermodynamic stability, film morphology, interface quality, bandgap and band alignment of other dielectrics with graphene needs more exploration. A potential dielectric material is required which could be used to grow graphene with all these qualities. Direct growth of graphene on magnesium oxide (MgO) substrates is an interesting idea and will be a new addition in the library of 2D materials. The present work is about the direct growth of graphene on MgO substrates by an ambient pressure chemical vapour deposition (CVD) method. We address the surface instability issue of the polar oxides which is the most challenging factor in MgO. Atomic force microscopy (AFM) measurements showed the topographical features of the graphene coated on MgO. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) study is carried out to extract information regarding the presence of necessary elements, their bonding with substrates and to confirm the sp-2 hybridization of carbon, which is a characteristic feature of graphene film. The chemical shift is due to the surface reconstruction of MgO in the prepared samples. For graphene-MgO interface, valence band offset (VBO) and conduction band offset (CBO) extracted from valence band spectra reported. Further, we predicted the energy band diagram for single layer and thin film of graphene. By using the room-temperature energy band gap values of MgO and graphene, the CBO is calculated to be 6.85 eV for single layer and 5.66 eV for few layer (1-3) of graphene layers.

  2. Precise, Self-Limited Epitaxy of Ultrathin Organic Semiconductors and Heterojunctions Tailored by van der Waals Interactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Bing; Zhao, Yinghe; Nan, Haiyan; Yang, Ziyi; Zhang, Yuhan; Zhao, Huijuan; He, Daowei; Jiang, Zonglin; Liu, Xiaolong; Li, Yun; Shi, Yi; Ni, Zhenhua; Wang, Jinlan; Xu, Jian-Bin; Wang, Xinran

    2016-06-08

    Precise assembly of semiconductor heterojunctions is the key to realize many optoelectronic devices. By exploiting the strong and tunable van der Waals (vdW) forces between graphene and organic small molecules, we demonstrate layer-by-layer epitaxy of ultrathin organic semiconductors and heterostructures with unprecedented precision with well-defined number of layers and self-limited characteristics. We further demonstrate organic p-n heterojunctions with molecularly flat interface, which exhibit excellent rectifying behavior and photovoltaic responses. The self-limited organic molecular beam epitaxy (SLOMBE) is generically applicable for many layered small-molecule semiconductors and may lead to advanced organic optoelectronic devices beyond bulk heterojunctions.

  3. Efficient Transfer of Graphene-Physical and Electrical Performance Perspective

    KAUST Repository

    Ghoneim, Mohamed T.

    2012-11-01

    Efficient Transfer of Graphene –Physical and Electrical Performance Perspective Graphene has become one of the most widely used atomic crystal structure materials since its first experimental proof by Geim-Novoselov in 2004 [1]. This is attributed to its reported incredible carrier mobility, mechanical strength and thermal conductivity [2] [3] [4]. These properties suggest interesting applications of Graphene ranging from electronics to energy storage and conversion [5]. In 2008, Chen et al reported a 40,000 cm2V-1s-1 mobility for a Single Layer Graphene (SLG) on SiO2 compared to 285 cm2V-1s-1 for silicon channel devices [6]. Chemical vapor deposition (CVD) is a common method for growing graphene on a metal surface as a catalyst for graphene nucleation. This adds a necessary transfer step to the target substrate ultimately desired for graphene devices fabrication. Interfacing with graphene is a critical challenge in preserving its promising high mobility. This initiated the motivation for studying the effect of intermediate interfaces imposed by transfer processes. In this work, few layers graphene (FLG) was grown on copper foils inside a high temperature furnace. Then Raman spectroscopy was performed on grown graphene sample to confirm few (in between 3-10) layers. Afterwards the sample was cut into three pieces and transferred to 300 nm SiO2 on Si substrates using three techniques, namely: (i) pickup transfer with top side of Graphene brought in contact with SiO2 [7], (ii) Ploy (methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) transfer with Graphene and a PMMA support layer on top scooped from bottom side [8], and (iii) a modified direct transfer which is similar to PMMA transfer without the support layer [9]. Comparisons were done using Raman spectroscopy to determine the relative defectivity, Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) to observe discontinuities and Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM) to measure surface roughness. Then we conclude with electrical data based on the contact

  4. Graphene Nanodevices

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Calado, V.E.

    2013-01-01

    This thesis describes a divergent set of experiments on graphene, a one-atom thin sheet of carbon. We employ graphene’s unique properties to explore fundamental physics and novel applications. This is done by nano fabricating graphene to nanodevices, which are subject to experiments. Here we first

  5. Growth and intercalation of graphene on silicon carbide studied by low-energy electron microscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Speck, Florian; Ostler, Markus; Wanke, Martina; Seyller, Thomas [Universitaet Erlangen-Nuernberg, Lehrstuhl fuer Technische Physik, Erlangen (Germany); Technische Universitaet Chemnitz, Institut fuer Physik (Germany); Besendoerfer, Sven [Universitaet Erlangen-Nuernberg, Lehrstuhl fuer Technische Physik, Erlangen (Germany); Krone, Julia [Technische Universitaet Chemnitz, Institut fuer Physik (Germany)

    2017-11-15

    Based on its electronic, structural, chemical, and mechanical properties, many potential applications have been proposed for graphene. In order to realize these visions, graphene has to be synthesized, grown, or exfoliated with properties that are determined by the targeted application. Growth of so-called epitaxial graphene on silicon carbide by sublimation of silicon in an argon atmosphere is one particular method that could potentially lead to electronic applications. In this contribution we summarize our recent work on different aspects of epitaxial graphene growth and interface manipulation by intercalation, which was performed by a combination of low-energy electron microscopy, low-energy electron diffraction, atomic force microscopy and photoelectron spectroscopy. (copyright 2017 by WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  6. Role of defects in the process of graphene growth on hexagonal boron nitride from atomic carbon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dabrowski, J., E-mail: Dabrowski@ihp-microelectronics.com; Lippert, G.; Schroeder, T.; Lupina, G. [IHP, Im Technologiepark 25, 15236 Frankfurt (Oder) (Germany)

    2014-11-10

    Hexagonal boron nitride (h-BN) is an attractive substrate for graphene, as the interaction between these materials is weak enough for high carrier mobility to be retained in graphene but strong enough to allow for some epitaxial relationship. We deposited graphene on exfoliated h-BN by molecular beam epitaxy (MBE), we analyzed the atomistic details of the process by ab initio density functional theory (DFT), and we linked the DFT and MBE results by random walk theory. Graphene appears to nucleate around defects in virgin h-BN. The DFT analysis reveals that sticking of carbon to perfect h-BN is strongly reduced by desorption, so that pre-existing seeds are needed for the nucleation. The dominant nucleation seeds are C{sub N}C{sub B} and O{sub N}C{sub N} pairs and B{sub 2}O{sub 3} inclusions in the virgin substrate.

  7. Semiconductors and semimetals epitaxial microstructures

    CERN Document Server

    Willardson, Robert K; Beer, Albert C; Gossard, Arthur C

    1994-01-01

    Newly developed semiconductor microstructures can now guide light and electrons resulting in important consequences for state-of-the-art electronic and photonic devices. This volume introduces a new generation of epitaxial microstructures. Special emphasis has been given to atomic control during growth and the interrelationship between the atomic arrangements and the properties of the structures.Key Features* Atomic-level control of semiconductor microstructures* Molecular beam epitaxy, metal-organic chemical vapor deposition* Quantum wells and quantum wires* Lasers, photon(IR)detectors, heterostructure transistors

  8. Graphene Electrodes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pizzocchero, Filippo

    The production of graphene and the other 2D materials is presented in the beginning of this thesis. Micromechanical exfoliation is the best method for obtaining relatively small and top quality samples. The invention of Graphene Finder simplifies the procedure of finding the exfoliated flakes...... in copper thin films is studied and found to be detrimental for the growth of graphene. The modified synthesis of rGO is introduced, as rGO represents a cheap alternative to CVD for large scale production of graphene. The transfer of flakes is performed by several methods, such as with PVA/PMMA support, CAB...... wedging and the pick-up technique with hBN. Several important improvements of the pick-up technique are introduced. These allowed us to transfer any 2D crystals and patterned graphene flakes with PMMA residues. We also developed the drop-down technique, which is used to release any crystal on the surface...

  9. A single-stage functionalization and exfoliation method for the production of graphene in water: stepwise construction of 2D-nanostructured composites with iron oxide nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ihiawakrim, Dris; Ersen, Ovidiu; Melin, Frédéric; Hellwig, Petra; Janowska, Izabela; Begin, Dominique; Baaziz, Walid; Begin-Colin, Sylvie; Pham-Huu, Cuong; Baati, Rachid

    2013-10-07

    A practically simple top-down process for the exfoliation of graphene (GN) and few-layer graphene (FLG) from graphite is described. We have discovered that a biocompatible amphiphilic pyrene-based hexahistidine peptide is able to exfoliate, functionalize, and dissolve few layer graphene flakes in pure water under exceptionally mild, sustainable and virtually innocuous low intensity cavitation conditions. Large area functionalized graphene flakes with the hexahistidine oligopeptide (His₆-TagGN = His₆@GN) have been produced efficiently at room temperature and characterized by TEM, Raman, and UV spectroscopy. Conductivity experiments carried out on His₆-TagGN samples revealed superior electric performances as compared to reduced graphene oxide (rGO) and non-functionalized graphene, demonstrating the non-invasive features of our non-covalent functionalization process. We postulated a rational exfoliation mechanism based on the intercalation of the peptide amphiphile under cavitational chemistry. We also demonstrated the ability of His6-TagGN nanoassemblies to self-assemble spontaneously with inorganic iron oxide nanoparticles generating magnetic two-dimensional (2D) His₆-TagGN/Fe₃O₄ nanocomposites under mild and non-hydrothermal conditions. The set of original experiments described here open novel perspectives in the facile production of water dispersible high quality GN and FLG sheets that will improve and facilitate the interfacing, processing and manipulation of graphene for promising applications in catalysis, nanocomposite construction, integrated nanoelectronic devices and bionanotechnology.

  10. Graphene-Based Flexible and Transparent Tunable Capacitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Man, Baoyuan; Xu, Shicai; Jiang, Shouzheng; Liu, Aihua; Gao, Shoubao; Zhang, Chao; Qiu, Hengwei; Li, Zhen

    2015-12-01

    We report a kind of electric field tunable transparent and flexible capacitor with the structure of graphene-Bi1.5MgNb1.5O7 (BMN)-graphene. The graphene films with low sheet resistance were grown by chemical vapor deposition. The BMN thin films were fabricated on graphene by using laser molecular beam epitaxy technology. Compared to BMN films grown on Au, the samples on graphene substrates show better quality in terms of crystallinity, surface morphology, leakage current, and loss tangent. By transferring another graphene layer, we fabricated flexible and transparent capacitors with the structure of graphene-BMN-graphene. The capacitors show a large dielectric constant of 113 with high dielectric tunability of ~40.7 % at a bias field of 1.0 MV/cm. Also, the capacitor can work stably in the high bending condition with curvature radii as low as 10 mm. This flexible film capacitor has a high optical transparency of ~90 % in the visible light region, demonstrating their potential application for a wide range of flexible electronic devices.

  11. Superlubricating graphene and graphene oxide films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sumant, Anirudha V.; Erdemir, Ali; Choi, Junho; Berman, Diana

    2018-02-13

    A system and method for forming at least one of graphene and graphene oxide on a substrate and an opposed wear member. The system includes graphene and graphene oxide formed by an exfoliation process or solution processing method to dispose graphene and/or graphene oxide onto a substrate. The system further includes an opposing wear member disposed on another substrate and a gas atmosphere of an inert gas like N2, ambient, a humid atmosphere and a water solution.

  12. Nitrogen-doped graphene network supported copper nanoparticles encapsulated with graphene shells for surface-enhanced Raman scattering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xiang; Shi, Chunsheng; Liu, Enzuo; Li, Jiajun; Zhao, Naiqin; He, Chunnian

    2015-10-01

    In this study, we demonstrated nitrogen-doped graphene network supported few-layered graphene shell encapsulated Cu nanoparticles (NPs) (Cu@G-NGNs) as a sensing platform, which were constructed by a simple and scalable in situ chemical vapor deposition (CVD) technique with the assistance of a self-assembled three-dimensional (3D) NaCl template. Compared with pure Cu NPs and graphene decorated Cu NPs, the graphene shells can strengthen the plasmonic coupling between graphene and Cu, thereby contributing to an obvious improvement in the local electromagnetic field that was validated by finite element numerical simulations, while the 3D nitrogen-doped graphene walls with a large surface area facilitated molecule adsorption and the doped nitrogen atoms embedded in the graphene lattice can reduce the surface energy of the system. With these merits, a good surface enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS) activity of the 3D Cu@G-NGN painting film on glass was demonstrated using rhodamine 6G and crystal violet as model analytes, exhibiting a satisfactory sensitivity, reproducibility and stability. As far as we know, this is the first report on the in situ synthesis of nitrogen-doped graphene/copper nanocomposites and this facile and low-cost Cu-based strategy tends to be a good supplement to Ag and Au based substrates for SERS applications.In this study, we demonstrated nitrogen-doped graphene network supported few-layered graphene shell encapsulated Cu nanoparticles (NPs) (Cu@G-NGNs) as a sensing platform, which were constructed by a simple and scalable in situ chemical vapor deposition (CVD) technique with the assistance of a self-assembled three-dimensional (3D) NaCl template. Compared with pure Cu NPs and graphene decorated Cu NPs, the graphene shells can strengthen the plasmonic coupling between graphene and Cu, thereby contributing to an obvious improvement in the local electromagnetic field that was validated by finite element numerical simulations, while the 3D nitrogen

  13. Oxidation-assisted graphene heteroepitaxy on copper foil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reckinger, Nicolas; Tang, Xiaohui; Joucken, Frédéric; Lajaunie, Luc; Arenal, Raul; Dubois, Emmanuel; Hackens, Benoît; Henrard, Luc; Colomer, Jean-François

    2016-11-10

    We propose an innovative, easy-to-implement approach to synthesize aligned large-area single-crystalline graphene flakes by chemical vapor deposition on copper foil. This method doubly takes advantage of residual oxygen present in the gas phase. First, by slightly oxidizing the copper surface, we induce grain boundary pinning in copper and, in consequence, the freezing of the thermal recrystallization process. Subsequent reduction of copper under hydrogen suddenly unlocks the delayed reconstruction, favoring the growth of centimeter-sized copper (111) grains through the mechanism of abnormal grain growth. Second, the oxidation of the copper surface also drastically reduces the nucleation density of graphene. This oxidation/reduction sequence leads to the synthesis of aligned millimeter-sized monolayer graphene domains in epitaxial registry with copper (111). The as-grown graphene flakes are demonstrated to be both single-crystalline and of high quality.

  14. Spatially resolved mapping of electrical conductivity across individual domain (grain) boundaries in graphene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Kendal W; Zhang, X-G; Vlassiouk, Ivan V; He, Guowei; Feenstra, Randall M; Li, An-Ping

    2013-09-24

    All large-scale graphene films contain extended topological defects dividing graphene into domains or grains. Here, we spatially map electronic transport near specific domain and grain boundaries in both epitaxial graphene grown on SiC and CVD graphene on Cu subsequently transferred to a SiO2 substrate, with one-to-one correspondence to boundary structures. Boundaries coinciding with the substrate step on SiC exhibit a significant potential barrier for electron transport of epitaxial graphene due to the reduced charge transfer from the substrate near the step edge. Moreover, monolayer-bilayer boundaries exhibit a high resistance that can change depending on the height of substrate step coinciding at the boundary. In CVD graphene, the resistance of a grain boundary changes with the width of the disordered transition region between adjacent grains. A quantitative modeling of boundary resistance reveals the increased electron Fermi wave vector within the boundary region, possibly due to boundary induced charge density variation. Understanding how resistance change with domain (grain) boundary structure in graphene is a crucial first step for controlled engineering of defects in large-scale graphene films.

  15. Wafer-Scale Gigahertz Graphene Field Effect Transistors on SiC Substrates

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    潘洪亮; 金智; 麻芃; 郭建楠; 刘新宇; 叶甜春; 李佳; 敦少博; 冯志红

    2011-01-01

    Wafer-scale graphene field-effect transistors are fabricated using benzocyclobutene and atomic layer deposition Al2O3 as the top-gate dielectric.The epitaxial-graphene layer is formed by graphitization of a 2-inch-diameter Si-face semi-insulating 6H-SiC substrate.The graphene on the silicon carbide substrate is heavily n-doped and current saturation is not found.For the intrinsic characteristic of this particular channel material,the devices cannot be switched off.The cut-off frequencies of these graphene field-effect transistors,which have a gate length of l μm,are larger than 800 MHz.The largest one can reach 1.24 GHz.There are greater than 95% active devices that can be successfully applied.We thus succeed in fabricating wafer-scale gigahertz graphene field-effect transistors,which paves the way for high-performance graphene devices and circuits.%Wafer-scale graphene Beld-effect transistors are fabricated using benzocyclobutene and atomic layer deposition AI2O3 as the top-gate dielectric. The epitaxial-graphene layer is formed by graphitization of a 2-inch-diameter Si-face semi-insulating 6H-SiC substrate. The graphene on the silicon carbide substrate is heavily n-doped and current saturation is not found. For the intrinsic characteristic of this particular channel material, the devices cannot be switched off. The cut-off frequencies of these graphene field-effect transistors, which have a gate length of l μm, are larger than 800MHz. The largest one can reach 1.24 GHz. There are greater than 95% active devices that can be successfully applied. We thus succeed in fabricating wafer-scale gigahertz graphene Geld-effect transistors, which paves the way for high-performance graphene devices and circuits.

  16. Graphene Channel Liquid Container Field Effect Transistor as ph Sensor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, X.; Shi, J.; Pang, J.; Liu, W.; Wang, X.; Liu, H.

    2014-01-01

    Graphene channel liquid container field effect transistor ph sensor with interdigital micro trench for liquid ion testing is presented. Growth morphology and ph sensing property of continuous few-layer graphene (FLG) and quasi-continuous monolayer graphene (MG) channels are compared. The experiment results show that the source-to-drain current of the graphene channel FET has a significant and fast response after adsorption of the measured molecule and ion at the room temperature; at the same time, the FLG response time is less than 4 s. The resolution of MG (0.01) on ph value is one order of magnitude higher than that of FLG (0.1). The reason is that with fewer defects, the MG is more likely to adsorb measured molecule and ion, and the molecules and ions can make the transport property change. The output sensitivities of MG are from 34.5% to 57.4% when the ph value is between 7 and 8, while sensitivity of FLG is 4.75% when the Ph=6. The sensor fabrication combines traditional silicon technique and flexible electronic technology and provides an easy way to develop graphene-based electrolyte gas sensor or even biological sensors.

  17. Low-frequency 1/f noise in graphene devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balandin, Alexander A.

    2013-08-01

    Low-frequency noise with a spectral density that depends inversely on frequency has been observed in a wide variety of systems including current fluctuations in resistors, intensity fluctuations in music and signals in human cognition. In electronics, the phenomenon, which is known as 1/f noise, flicker noise or excess noise, hampers the operation of numerous devices and circuits, and can be a significant impediment to the development of practical applications from new materials. Graphene offers unique opportunities for studying 1/f noise because of its two-dimensional structure and widely tunable two-dimensional carrier concentration. The creation of practical graphene-based devices will also depend on our ability to understand and control the low-frequency noise in this material system. Here, the characteristic features of 1/f noise in graphene and few-layer graphene are reviewed, and the implications of such noise for the development of graphene-based electronics including high-frequency devices and sensors are examined.

  18. Rational and practical exfoliation of graphite using well-defined poly(3-hexylthiophene) for the preparation of conductive polymer/graphene composite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iguchi, Hiroki; Higashi, Chisato; Funasaki, Yuichi; Fujita, Keisuke; Mori, Atsunori; Nakasuga, Akira; Maruyama, Tatsuo

    2017-01-01

    Processing and manipulation of highly conductive pristine graphene in large quantities are still major challenges in the practical application of graphene for electric device. In the present study, we report the liquid-phase exfoliation of graphite in toluene using well-defined poly(3-hexylthiophene) (P3HT) to produce a P3HT/graphene composite. We synthesize and use regioregular P3HT with controlled molecular weights as conductive dispersants for graphene. Simple ultrasonication of graphite flakes with the P3HT successfully produces single-layer and few-layer graphene sheets dispersed in toluene. The produced P3HT/graphene composite can be used as conductive graphene ink, indicating that the P3HT/graphene composite has high electrical conductivity owing to the high conductivity of P3HT and graphene. The P3HT/graphene composite also works as an oxidation-resistant and conductive film for a copper substrate, which is due to the high gas-barrier property of graphene.

  19. Graphene Squeeze-Film Pressure Sensors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dolleman, Robin J; Davidovikj, Dejan; Cartamil-Bueno, Santiago J; van der Zant, Herre S J; Steeneken, Peter G

    2016-01-13

    The operating principle of squeeze-film pressure sensors is based on the pressure dependence of a membrane's resonance frequency, caused by the compression of the surrounding gas which changes the resonator stiffness. To realize such sensors, not only strong and flexible membranes are required, but also minimization of the membrane's mass is essential to maximize responsivity. Here, we demonstrate the use of a few-layer graphene membrane as a squeeze-film pressure sensor. A clear pressure dependence of the membrane's resonant frequency is observed, with a frequency shift of 4 MHz between 8 and 1000 mbar. The sensor shows a reproducible response and no hysteresis. The measured responsivity of the device is 9000 Hz/mbar, which is a factor 45 higher than state-of-the-art MEMS-based squeeze-film pressure sensors while using a 25 times smaller membrane area.

  20. A comparative density functional study on electrical properties of layered penta-graphene

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yu, Zhi Gen, E-mail: yuzg@ihpc.a-star.edu.sg; Zhang, Yong-Wei, E-mail: zhangyw@ihpc.a-star.edu.sg [Institute of High Performance Computing, Singapore 138632 (Singapore)

    2015-10-28

    We present a comparative study of the influence of the number of layers, the biaxial strain in the range of −3% to 3%, and the stacking misalignments on the electronic properties of a new 2D carbon allotrope, penta-graphene (PG), based on hybrid-functional method within the density functional theory (DFT). In comparison with local exchange-correlation approximation in the DFT, the hybrid-functional provides an accurate description on the degree of p{sub z} orbitals localization and bandgap. Importantly, the predicted bandgap of few-layer PG has a weak layer dependence. The bandgap of monolayer PG is 3.27 eV, approximately equal to those of GaN and ZnO; and the bandgap of few-layer PG decreases slowly with the number of layers (N) and converge to 2.57 eV when N ≥ 4. Our calculations using HSE06 functional on few-layer PG reveal that bandgap engineering by stacking misalignment can further tune the bandgap down to 1.37 eV. Importantly, there is no direct-to-indirect bandgap transition in PG by varying strain, layer number, and stacking misalignment. Owing to its tunable, robustly direct, and wide bandgap characteristics, few-layer PG is promising for optoelectronic and photovoltaic applications.

  1. Conductance Anisotropy in Epitaxial Graphene Sheets Generated by Substrate Interactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    0001) semi-insulating sub- strates with resistivity greater than 105 ohm -cm. After growth, the samples were characterized using Nomarski interference...Trans. 2009, 19, 117–124. (15) Emtsev, K. V.; Bostwick, A.; Horn, K.; Jobst, J.; Kellogg, G. L.; Ley , L.; McChesney, J. L.; Ohta, T.; Reshanov, S. A

  2. Rebar Graphene

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-01-01

    As the cylindrical sp2-bonded carbon allotrope, carbon nanotubes (CNTs) have been widely used to reinforce bulk materials such as polymers, ceramics, and metals. However, both the concept demonstration and the fundamental understanding on how 1D CNTs reinforce atomically thin 2D layered materials, such as graphene, are still absent. Here, we demonstrate the successful synthesis of CNT-toughened graphene by simply annealing functionalized CNTs on Cu foils without needing to introduce extraneous carbon sources. The CNTs act as reinforcing bar (rebar), toughening the graphene through both π–π stacking domains and covalent bonding where the CNTs partially unzip and form a seamless 2D conjoined hybrid as revealed by aberration-corrected scanning transmission electron microscopy analysis. This is termed rebar graphene. Rebar graphene can be free-standing on water and transferred onto target substrates without needing a polymer-coating due to the rebar effects of the CNTs. The utility of rebar graphene sheets as flexible all-carbon transparent electrodes is demonstrated. The in-plane marriage of 1D nanotubes and 2D layered materials might herald an electrical and mechanical union that extends beyond carbon chemistry. PMID:24694285

  3. Catastrophic degradation of the interface of epitaxial silicon carbide on silicon at high temperatures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pradeepkumar, Aiswarya; Mishra, Neeraj; Kermany, Atieh Ranjbar; Iacopi, Francesca [Queensland Micro and Nanotechnology Centre and Environmental Futures Research Institute, Griffith University, Nathan QLD 4111 (Australia); Boeckl, John J. [Materials and Manufacturing Directorate, Air Force Research Laboratories, Wright-Patterson Air Force Base, Ohio 45433 (United States); Hellerstedt, Jack; Fuhrer, Michael S. [Monash Centre for Atomically Thin Materials, Monash University, Monash, VIC 3800 (Australia)

    2016-07-04

    Epitaxial cubic silicon carbide on silicon is of high potential technological relevance for the integration of a wide range of applications and materials with silicon technologies, such as micro electro mechanical systems, wide-bandgap electronics, and graphene. The hetero-epitaxial system engenders mechanical stresses at least up to a GPa, pressures making it extremely challenging to maintain the integrity of the silicon carbide/silicon interface. In this work, we investigate the stability of said interface and we find that high temperature annealing leads to a loss of integrity. High–resolution transmission electron microscopy analysis shows a morphologically degraded SiC/Si interface, while mechanical stress measurements indicate considerable relaxation of the interfacial stress. From an electrical point of view, the diode behaviour of the initial p-Si/n-SiC junction is catastrophically lost due to considerable inter-diffusion of atoms and charges across the interface upon annealing. Temperature dependent transport measurements confirm a severe electrical shorting of the epitaxial silicon carbide to the underlying substrate, indicating vast predominance of the silicon carriers in lateral transport above 25 K. This finding has crucial consequences on the integration of epitaxial silicon carbide on silicon and its potential applications.

  4. Epitaxial Garnets and Hexagonal Ferrites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1982-04-20

    guide growth of the epitaxial YIG films. Aluminum or gallium substitu- tions for iron were used in combination with lanthanum substitutions for yttrium... gallate spinel sub- strates. There was no difficulty with nucleation in the melt and film quality appeared to be similar to that observed previously...hexagonal ferrites. We succeeded in growing the M-type lead hexaferrite (magnetoplumbite) on gallate spinel substrates. We found that the PbO-based

  5. Quantum Nanostructures by Droplet Epitaxy

    OpenAIRE

    Somsak Panyakeow

    2009-01-01

    Droplet epitaxy is an alternative growth technique for several quantum nanostructures. Indium droplets are distributed randomly on GaAs substrates at low temperatures (120-350'C). Under background pressure of group V elements, Arsenic and Phosphorous, InAs and InP nanostructures are created. Quantum rings with isotropic shape are obtained at low temperature range. When the growth thickness is increased, quantum rings are transformed to quantum dot rings. At high temperature range, anisotropic...

  6. Separating nano graphene oxide from the residual strong-acid filtrate of the modified Hummers method with alkaline solution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hu, Xuebing, E-mail: xuebinghu2010@gmail.com [Key Laboratory of Inorganic Membrane, Jingdezhen Ceramic Institute, Jingdezhen 333001 (China); Key Laboratory of Inorganic Coating Materials, Shanghai Institute of Ceramics, Chinese Academy of Science, Shanghai 201800 (China); Yu, Yun, E-mail: yunyush@mail.sic.ac.cn [Key Laboratory of Inorganic Coating Materials, Shanghai Institute of Ceramics, Chinese Academy of Science, Shanghai 201800 (China); Wang, Yongqing; Zhou, Jianer [Key Laboratory of Inorganic Membrane, Jingdezhen Ceramic Institute, Jingdezhen 333001 (China); Song, Lixin [Key Laboratory of Inorganic Coating Materials, Shanghai Institute of Ceramics, Chinese Academy of Science, Shanghai 201800 (China)

    2015-02-28

    Graphical abstract: By adding an alkaline (NaOH or KOH) solution, the unprecipitated nano graphene oxide undergoes fast aggregation from the residual strong-acid filtrate of the modified Hummers method and forms the stable floccules when the pH value of the filtrate is about 1.7. The acid–base interaction with the surface functional groups of the carbon layers plays a role in the aggregation of the unprecipitated nano graphene oxide. - Highlights: • The novel and high-efficient method for separating graphene oxide was showed. • Graphene oxide undergoes aggregation and forms the floccules when pH value is ∼1.7. • The acid–base interaction plays a role in the aggregation of graphene oxide. - Abstract: In the modified Hummers method for preparing graphene oxide, the yellow slurry can be obtained. After filtering through a quantitative filter paper, the strong-acid filtrate containing the unprecipitated nano graphene oxide was gained. The corresponding filtrate was added gradually with an alkaline (NaOH or KOH) solution at room temperature. The unprecipitated nano graphene oxide could undergo fast aggregation when the pH value of the filtrate was about 1.7 and formed the stable floccules. X-ray diffraction analysis shows the dominant peak of the floccules is about 11°, which accords to the peak of graphene oxide. Spectra of X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy confirm the presence in the floccules of an abundance of oxygen functional groups and the purified graphene oxide floccules can be obtained. Atomic force microscopy measurement shows the graphene oxide floccules consists of sheet-like objects, mostly containing only a few layers (about 5 layers). Zeta potential analysis demonstrates the surface charge of the graphene oxide is pH-sensitive and its isoelectric point is ∼1.7. The flocculation mechanism of graphene oxide ascribes to the acid–base interaction with the surface functional groups of the carbon layers.

  7. Epitaxial rare-earth superlattices and films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salamon, M.B.; Beach, R.S.; Flynn, C.P.; Matheny, A.; Tsui, F.; Rhyne, J.J.

    1992-01-01

    This paper reports on epitaxial growth of rare-earth superlattices which is demonstrated to have opened important new areas of research on magnetic materials. The propagation magnetic order through non-magnetic elements, including its range and anisotropy, has been studied. The importance of magnetostriction in determining the phase diagram is demonstrated by the changes induced by epitaxial clamping. The cyrstallinity of epitaxial superlattices provides the opportunity to study interfacial magnetism by conventional x-ray and neutron scattering methods

  8. Nano-Architecture of nitrogen-doped graphene films synthesized from a solid CN source.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maddi, Chiranjeevi; Bourquard, Florent; Barnier, Vincent; Avila, José; Asensio, Maria-Carmen; Tite, Teddy; Donnet, Christophe; Garrelie, Florence

    2018-02-19

    New synthesis routes to tailor graphene properties by controlling the concentration and chemical configuration of dopants show great promise. Herein we report the direct reproducible synthesis of 2-3% nitrogen-doped 'few-layer' graphene from a solid state nitrogen carbide a-C:N source synthesized by femtosecond pulsed laser ablation. Analytical investigations, including synchrotron facilities, made it possible to identify the configuration and chemistry of the nitrogen-doped graphene films. Auger mapping successfully quantified the 2D distribution of the number of graphene layers over the surface, and hence offers a new original way to probe the architecture of graphene sheets. The films mainly consist in a Bernal ABA stacking three-layer architecture, with a layer number distribution ranging from 2 to 6. Nitrogen doping affects the charge carrier distribution but has no significant effects on the number of lattice defects or disorders, compared to undoped graphene synthetized in similar conditions. Pyridinic, quaternary and pyrrolic nitrogen are the dominant chemical configurations, pyridinic N being preponderant at the scale of the film architecture. This work opens highly promising perspectives for the development of self-organized nitrogen-doped graphene materials, as synthetized from solid carbon nitride, with various functionalities, and for the characterization of 2D materials using a significant new methodology.

  9. Microwave assisted synthesis of MnO2 on nickel foam-graphene for electrochemical capacitor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bello, A.; Fashedemi, O.O.; Fabiane, M.; Lekitima, J.N.; Ozoemena, K.I.; Manyala, N.

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: •Three-dimensional synthesis of graphene using CVD. •Hydrothermal deposition (microwave irradiation) of MnO 2 on graphene. •Morphologies of the composite reveals flower-like nanostructures of MnO 2 on graphene. •Composite exhibit excellent electrochemical performance. -- Abstract: A green chemistry approach (hydrothermal microwave irradiation) has been used to deposit manganese oxide on nickel foam-graphene. The 3D graphene was synthesized using nickel foam template by chemical vapor deposition (CVD) technique. Raman spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron and transmission electron microscopies (SEM and TEM) have been used to characterize structure and surface morphology of the composite, respectively. The Raman spectroscopy measurements on the samples reveal that 3D graphene consists of mostly few layers with low defect density. The composite was tested in a three electrode configuration for electrochemical capacitor, and exhibited a specific capacitance of 305 F g −1 at a current density of 1 A g −1 and showed excellent cycling stability. The obtained results demonstrate that microwave irradiation technique could be a promising approach to synthesis graphene based functional materials for electrochemical applications

  10. Fabrication of transparent, tough, and conductive shape-memory polyurethane films by incorporating a small amount of high-quality graphene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Yong Chae; Kim, Jin Hee; Hayashi, Takuya; Kim, Yoong Ahm; Endo, Morinobu; Terrones, Mauricio; Dresselhaus, Mildred S

    2012-04-23

    We report a mechanically strong, electrically and thermally conductive, and optically transparent shape-memory polyurethane composite which was fabricated by introducing a small amount (0.1 wt%) of high-quality graphene as a filler. Geometrically large (≈4.6 μm(2)), but highly crystallized few-layer graphenes, verified by Raman spectroscopy and transmission electron microscopy, were prepared by the sonication of expandable graphite in an organic solvent. Oxygen- containing functional groups at the edge plane of graphene were crucial for an effective stress transfer from the graphene to polyurethane. Homogeneously dispersed few-layered graphene enabled polyurethane to have a high shape recovery force of 1.8 MPa cm(-3). Graphene, which is intrinsically stretchable up to 10%, will enable high-performance composites to be fabricated at relatively low cost and we thus envisage that such composites may replace carbon nanotubes for various applications in the near future. Copyright © 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  11. Effects of a modular two-step ozone-water and annealing process on silicon carbide graphene

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Webb, Matthew J., E-mail: matthew.webb@cantab.net; Lundstedt, Anna; Grennberg, Helena [Department of Chemistry—BMC, Uppsala University, Box 576, SE-751 23 Uppsala (Sweden); Polley, Craig; Niu, Yuran; Zakharov, Alexei A.; Balasubramanian, Thiagarajan [MAX IV Laboratory, Lund University, 22100 Lund (Sweden); Dirscherl, Kai [DFM—Danish Fundamental Metrology, Matematiktorvet 307, DK-2800 Lyngby (Denmark); Burwell, Gregory; Guy, Owen J. [College of Engineering, Faraday Tower, Singleton Park, Swansea University, Swansea SA2 8PP (United Kingdom); Palmgren, Pål [VG Scienta Scientific AB, Box 15120, Vallongatan 1, SE-750 15 Uppsala (Sweden); Yakimova, Rositsa [Department of Physics, Chemistry, and Biology, Linköping University, SE-581 83 Linköping (Sweden)

    2014-08-25

    By combining ozone and water, the effect of exposing epitaxial graphene on silicon carbide to an aggressive wet-chemical process has been evaluated after high temperature annealing in ultra high vacuum. The decomposition of ozone in water produces a number of oxidizing species, however, despite long exposure times to the aqueous-ozone environment, no graphene oxide was observed after the two-step process. The systems were comprehensively characterized before and after processing using Raman spectroscopy, core level photoemission spectroscopy, and angle resolved photoemission spectroscopy together with low energy electron diffraction, low energy electron microscopy, and atomic force microscopy. In spite of the chemical potential of the aqueous-ozone reaction environment, the graphene domains were largely unaffected raising the prospect of employing such simple chemical and annealing protocols to clean or prepare epitaxial graphene surfaces.

  12. Surface-directed molecular assembly of pentacene on monolayer graphene for high-performance organic transistors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Wi Hyoung; Park, Jaesung; Sim, Sung Hyun; Lim, Soojin; Kim, Kwang S; Hong, Byung Hee; Cho, Kilwon

    2011-03-30

    Organic electronic devices that use graphene electrodes have received considerable attention because graphene is regarded as an ideal candidate electrode material. Transfer and lithographic processes during fabrication of patterned graphene electrodes typically leave polymer residues on the graphene surfaces. However, the impact of these residues on the organic semiconductor growth mechanism on graphene surface has not been reported yet. Here, we demonstrate that polymer residues remaining on graphene surfaces induce a stand-up orientation of pentacene, thereby controlling pentacene growth such that the molecular assembly is optimal for charge transport. Thus, pentacene field-effect transistors (FETs) using source/drain monolayer graphene electrodes with polymer residues show a high field-effect mobility of 1.2 cm(2)/V s. In contrast, epitaxial growth of pentacene having molecular assembly of lying-down structure is facilitated by π-π interaction between pentacene and the clean graphene electrode without polymer residues, which adversely affects lateral charge transport at the interface between electrode and channel. Our studies provide that the obtained high field-effect mobility in pentacene FETs using monolayer graphene electrodes arises from the extrinsic effects of polymer residues as well as the intrinsic characteristics of the highly conductive, ultrathin two-dimensional monolayer graphene electrodes.

  13. Graphene based d-character Dirac Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yuanchang; Zhang, S. B.; Duan, Wenhui

    From graphene to topological insulators, Dirac material continues to be the hot topics in condensed matter physics. So far, almost all of the theoretically predicted or experimentally observed Dirac materials are composed of sp -electrons. By using first-principles calculations, we find the new Dirac system of transition-metal intercalated epitaxial graphene on SiC(0001). Intrinsically different from the conventional sp Dirac system, here the Dirac-fermions are dominantly contributed by the transition-metal d-electrons, which paves the way to incorporate correlation effect with Dirac-cone physics. Many intriguing quantum phenomena are proposed based on this system, including quantum spin Hall effect with large spin-orbital gap, quantum anomalous Hall effect, 100% spin-polarized Dirac fermions and ferromagnet-to-topological insulator transition.

  14. In situ observations of the atomistic mechanisms of Ni catalyzed low temperature graphene growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patera, Laerte L; Africh, Cristina; Weatherup, Robert S; Blume, Raoul; Bhardwaj, Sunil; Castellarin-Cudia, Carla; Knop-Gericke, Axel; Schloegl, Robert; Comelli, Giovanni; Hofmann, Stephan; Cepek, Cinzia

    2013-09-24

    The key atomistic mechanisms of graphene formation on Ni for technologically relevant hydrocarbon exposures below 600 °C are directly revealed via complementary in situ scanning tunneling microscopy and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. For clean Ni(111) below 500 °C, two different surface carbide (Ni2C) conversion mechanisms are dominant which both yield epitaxial graphene, whereas above 500 °C, graphene predominantly grows directly on Ni(111) via replacement mechanisms leading to embedded epitaxial and/or rotated graphene domains. Upon cooling, additional carbon structures form exclusively underneath rotated graphene domains. The dominant graphene growth mechanism also critically depends on the near-surface carbon concentration and hence is intimately linked to the full history of the catalyst and all possible sources of contamination. The detailed XPS fingerprinting of these processes allows a direct link to high pressure XPS measurements of a wide range of growth conditions, including polycrystalline Ni catalysts and recipes commonly used in industrial reactors for graphene and carbon nanotube CVD. This enables an unambiguous and consistent interpretation of prior literature and an assessment of how the quality/structure of as-grown carbon nanostructures relates to the growth modes.

  15. Thermal treatment effects on charge storage performance of graphene-based materials for supercapacitors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Hongxin [ORNL; Bhat, Vinay V [ORNL; Gallego, Nidia C [ORNL; Contescu, Cristian I [ORNL

    2012-01-01

    Graphene materials were synthesized by reduction of exfoliated graphene oxide sheets by hydrazine hydrate and then thermally treated in nitrogen to improve the surface area and their electrochemical performance as electrical double-layer capacitor electrodes. The structural and surface properties of the prepared reduced graphite oxide (RGO) were investigated using atomic force microscopy, scanning electron microscopy, Raman spectra, X-ray diffraction, and nitrogen adsorption / desorption. RGO forms a continuous network of crumpled sheets, which consist of numerous few-layer and single-layer graphenes. Electrochemical studies were conducted by cyclic voltammetry, impedance spectroscopy, and galvanostatic charge-discharge measurements. The modified RGO materials showed enhanced electrochemical performance, with maximum specific capacitance of 96 F/g, energy density of 12.8 Wh/kg, and power density of 160 kW/kg. The results demonstrate that thermal treatment of RGO at selected conditions is a convenient and efficient method for improving specific capacitance, energy, and power density.

  16. Graphene-Au nanoparticle based vertical heterostructures: a novel route towards high- ZT Thermoelectric devices

    KAUST Repository

    Juang, Zhen-Yu; Tseng, Chien-Chih; Shi, Yumeng; Hsieh, Wen-Pin; Ryuzaki, Sou; Saito, Noboru; Hsiung, Chia-En; Chang, Wen-Hao; Hernandez, Yenny; Han, Yu; Tamada, Kaoru; Li, Lain-Jong

    2017-01-01

    Monolayer graphene exhibits impressive in-plane thermal conductivity (>1000Wm–1 K–1). However, the out-of-plane thermal transport is limited due to the weak van der Waals interaction, indicating the possibility of constructing a vertical thermoelectric (TE) device. Here, we propose a cross-plane TE device based on the vertical heterostructures of few-layer graphene and gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) on Si substrates, where the incorporation of AuNPs further inhibits the phonon transport and enhances the electrical conductivity along vertical direction. A measurable Seebeck voltage is produced vertically between top graphene and bottom Si when the device is put on a hot surface and the figure of merit ZT is estimated as 1 at room temperature from the transient Harman method. The polarity of the output voltage is determined by the carrier polarity of the substrate. The device concept is also applicable to a flexible and transparent substrate as demonstrated.

  17. Electrodeposited Reduced Graphene Oxide Films on Stainless Steel, Copper, and Aluminum for Corrosion Protection Enhancement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdulkareem Mohammed Ali Al-Sammarraie

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The enhancement of corrosion protection of metals and alloys by coating with simple, low cost, and highly adhered layer is still a main goal of many workers. In this research graphite flakes converted into graphene oxide using modified Hammers method and then reduced graphene oxide was electrodeposited on stainless steel 316, copper, and aluminum for corrosion protection application in seawater at four temperatures, namely, 20, 30, 40, and 50°C. All corrosion measurements, kinetics, and thermodynamics parameters were established from Tafel plots using three-electrode potentiostat. The deposited films were examined by FTIR, Raman, XRD, SEM, and AFM techniques; they revealed high percentages of conversion to the few layers of graphene with confirmed defects.

  18. Covalently Bonded Graphene-Carbon Nanotube Hybrid for High-Performance Thermal Interfaces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chen, Jie; Walther, Jens H.; Koumoutsakos, Petros

    2015-01-01

    The remarkable thermal properties of graphene and carbon nanotubes (CNTs) have been the subject of intensive investigations for the thermal management of integrated circuits. However, the small contact area of CNTs and the large anisotropic heat conduction of graphene have hindered...... their applications as effective thermal interface materials (TIMs). Here, a covalently bonded graphene–CNT (G-CNT) hybrid is presented that multiplies the axial heat transfer capability of individual CNTs through their parallel arrangement, while at the same time it provides a large contact area for efficient heat...... extraction. Through computer simulations, it is demonstrated that the G-CNT outperforms few-layer graphene by more than 2 orders of magnitude for the c-axis heat transfer, while its thermal resistance is 3 orders of magnitude lower than the state-of-the-art TIMs. We show that heat can be removed from the G...

  19. Graphene-Au nanoparticle based vertical heterostructures: a novel route towards high- ZT Thermoelectric devices

    KAUST Repository

    Juang, Zhen-Yu

    2017-06-03

    Monolayer graphene exhibits impressive in-plane thermal conductivity (>1000Wm–1 K–1). However, the out-of-plane thermal transport is limited due to the weak van der Waals interaction, indicating the possibility of constructing a vertical thermoelectric (TE) device. Here, we propose a cross-plane TE device based on the vertical heterostructures of few-layer graphene and gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) on Si substrates, where the incorporation of AuNPs further inhibits the phonon transport and enhances the electrical conductivity along vertical direction. A measurable Seebeck voltage is produced vertically between top graphene and bottom Si when the device is put on a hot surface and the figure of merit ZT is estimated as 1 at room temperature from the transient Harman method. The polarity of the output voltage is determined by the carrier polarity of the substrate. The device concept is also applicable to a flexible and transparent substrate as demonstrated.

  20. Large scale graphene/hexagonal boron nitride heterostructure for tunable plasmonics

    KAUST Repository

    Zhang, Kai

    2013-09-01

    Vertical integration of hexagonal boron nitride (h-BN) and graphene for the fabrication of vertical field-effect transistors or tunneling diodes has stimulated intense interest recently due to the enhanced performance offered by combining an ultrathin dielectric with a semi-metallic system. Wafer scale fabrication and processing of these heterostructures is needed to make large scale integrated circuitry. In this work, by using remote discharged, radio-frequency plasma chemical vapor deposition, wafer scale, high quality few layer h-BN films are successfully grown. By using few layer h-BN films as top gate dielectric material, the plasmon energy of graphene can be tuned by electrostatic doping. An array of graphene/h-BN vertically stacked micrometer-sized disks is fabricated by lithography and transfer techniques, and infrared spectroscopy is used to observe the modes of tunable graphene plasmonic absorption as a function of the repeating (G/h-BN)n units in the vertical stack. Interestingly, the plasmonic resonances can be tuned to higher frequencies with increasing layer thickness of the disks, showing that such vertical stacking provides a viable strategy to provide wide window tuning of the plasmons beyond the limitation of the monolayer. An array of graphene/h-BN vertically stacked micrometer-sized disks is fabricated by lithography and transfer techniques, and infrared spectroscopy is used to observe the modes of tunable graphene plasmonic absorption as a function of the repeating (G/h-BN)n units in the vertical stack. © 2013 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  1. Growth of bi- and tri-layered graphene on silicon carbide substrate via molecular dynamics simulation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Min, Tjun Kit; Yoon, Tiem Leong [School of Physics, Universiti Sains Malaysia, 11800 USM, Penang (Malaysia); Lim, Thong Leng [Faculty of Engineering and Technology, Multimedia University, Melaka Campus, 75450 Melaka (Malaysia)

    2015-04-24

    Molecular dynamics (MD) simulation with simulated annealing method is used to study the growth process of bi- and tri-layered graphene on a 6H-SiC (0001) substrate via molecular dynamics simulation. Tersoff-Albe-Erhart (TEA) potential is used to describe the inter-atomic interactions among the atoms in the system. The formation temperature, averaged carbon-carbon bond length, pair correlation function, binding energy and the distance between the graphene formed and the SiC substrate are quantified. The growth mechanism, graphitization of graphene on the SiC substrate and characteristics of the surface morphology of the graphene sheet obtained in our MD simulation compare well to that observed in epitaxially grown graphene experiments and other simulation works.

  2. Effects of graphene imperfections on the structure of self-assembled pentacene films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jung, W; Ahn, S J; Lee, S Y; Kim, Y; Shin, H-C; Moon, Y; Park, C-Y; Ahn, J R; Woo, S H

    2015-01-01

    The quality of pentacene films in pentacene-based devices significantly affects their performance. In this report, the effects of various defects in graphene on a pentacene film were studied with scanning tunneling microscopy. The two most common defects found in the epitaxial graphene grown on SiC(0 0 0 1) substrates were subsurface carbon nanotube (CNT) defects and step edges. The most significant perturbation of the pentacene films was induced by step edges between single-layer and bilayer graphene domains, while the effect of step edges between single-layer domains was marginal. The subsurface CNT defects slightly distorted the structure of the single-layer pentacene, but the influence of such defects decreased as the thickness of the pentacene film increased. These results suggest that the uniformity of the graphene layer is the most important parameter in the growth of high-quality pentacene films on graphene. (paper)

  3. In vitro study of biocompatibility of a graphene composite with gold nanoparticles and hydroxyapatite on human osteoblasts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crisan, Liana; Crisan, Bogdan; Soritau, Olga; Baciut, Mihaela; Biris, Alexandru Radu; Baciut, Grigore; Lucaciu, Ondine

    2015-10-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the biocompatibility of some composites consisting of different proportions of graphene in combination with gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) and nanostructured hydroxyapatite (HA) on osteoblast viability, proliferation and differentiation. Au/HA@graphene composites synthesized by the catalytic chemical vapor deposition induction heating method with acetylene as the carbon source and over an Au/HA catalyst, were characterized by transmission electron microscopy, thermogravimetric analysis and Raman spectroscopy and showed that the few-layer graphene was grown over the Au/HA catalyst. The cytocompatibility study was performed using the fluorescein diacetate assay for assessment of the viability and proliferation of osteoblasts cultivated in the presence of HA, Au/HA and Au/HA@graphene composites as colloidal suspensions or as substrates. The most favorable composites for cell adhesion and proliferation were HA, Au/HA and Au/HA composites with 1.6% and 3.15% concentration of graphenes. Immunocytochemical staining performed after 19 days of osteoblasts cultivation on substrates showed that the graphene composites induced low expression of alkaline phosphatase compared to the control group and HA and Au/HA substrates. The presence of graphene in the substrate composition also induced an increased level of intracellular osteopontin and cytoskeleton reorganization (actin-F) depending on graphene concentration, suggesting cell activation, increased cellular adhesion and acquisition of a mechanosensorial osteocyte phenotype. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  4. Epitaxial growth of CZT(S,Se) on silicon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bojarczuk, Nestor A.; Gershon, Talia S.; Guha, Supratik; Shin, Byungha; Zhu, Yu

    2016-03-15

    Techniques for epitaxial growth of CZT(S,Se) materials on Si are provided. In one aspect, a method of forming an epitaxial kesterite material is provided which includes the steps of: selecting a Si substrate based on a crystallographic orientation of the Si substrate; forming an epitaxial oxide interlayer on the Si substrate to enhance wettability of the epitaxial kesterite material on the Si substrate, wherein the epitaxial oxide interlayer is formed from a material that is lattice-matched to Si; and forming the epitaxial kesterite material on a side of the epitaxial oxide interlayer opposite the Si substrate, wherein the epitaxial kesterite material includes Cu, Zn, Sn, and at least one of S and Se, and wherein a crystallographic orientation of the epitaxial kesterite material is based on the crystallographic orientation of the Si substrate. A method of forming an epitaxial kesterite-based photovoltaic device and an epitaxial kesterite-based device are also provided.

  5. Ultralow friction of ink-jet printed graphene flakes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buzio, R; Gerbi, A; Uttiya, S; Bernini, C; Del Rio Castillo, A E; Palazon, F; Siri, A S; Pellegrini, V; Pellegrino, L; Bonaccorso, F

    2017-06-08

    We report the frictional response of few-layer graphene (FLG) flakes obtained by the liquid phase exfoliation (LPE) of pristine graphite. To this end, we inkjet print FLG on bare and hexamethyldisilazane-terminated SiO 2 substrates, producing micrometric patterns with nanoscopic roughness that are investigated by atomic force microscopy. Normal force spectroscopy and atomically-resolved morphologies indicate reduced surface contamination by solvents after a vacuum annealing process. Notably, the printed FLG flakes show ultralow friction comparable to that of micromechanically exfoliated graphene flakes. Lubricity is retained on flakes with a lateral size of a few tens of nanometres, and with a thickness as small as ∼2 nm, confirming the high crystalline quality and low defects density in the FLG basal plane. Surface exposed step edges exhibit the highest friction values, representing the preferential sites for the origin of the secondary dissipative processes related to edge straining, wear or lateral displacement of the flakes. Our work demonstrates that LPE enables fundamental studies on graphene friction to the single-flake level. The capability to deliver ultralow-friction-graphene over technologically relevant substrates, using a scalable production route and a high-throughput, large-area printing technique, may also open up new opportunities in the lubrication of micro- and nano-electromechanical systems.

  6. Spatial variation of the number of graphene layers formed on the scratched 6H-SiC(0 0 0 1) surface

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Osaklung, J. [School of Physics, Suranaree University of Technology, Nakhon Ratchasima 30000 (Thailand); Department of Physics, Faculty of Science, Kasetsart University, Bangkok 10900 (Thailand); Euaruksakul, C. [Synchrotron Light Research Institute, Nakhon Ratchasima 30000 (Thailand); Thailand Center of Excellence in Physics, CHE, Bangkok 10400 (Thailand); Meevasana, W., E-mail: worawat@g.sut.ac.th [School of Physics, Suranaree University of Technology, Nakhon Ratchasima 30000 (Thailand); Synchrotron Light Research Institute, Nakhon Ratchasima 30000 (Thailand); Thailand Center of Excellence in Physics, CHE, Bangkok 10400 (Thailand); Songsiriritthigul, P. [School of Physics, Suranaree University of Technology, Nakhon Ratchasima 30000 (Thailand); Synchrotron Light Research Institute, Nakhon Ratchasima 30000 (Thailand); Thailand Center of Excellence in Physics, CHE, Bangkok 10400 (Thailand)

    2012-03-01

    The unique properties of graphene can vary greatly depending on the number of graphene layers; therefore, spatial control of graphene thickness is desired to fully exploit these properties in promising new devices. Using low energy electron microscopy (LEEM), we investigate how scratches on the surface of 6H-SiC(0 0 0 1) affect the epitaxial growth of graphene. Oscillations in the LEEM-image intensity as a function of electron energy (I-V LEEM analysis) show that the number of graphene layers clearly differs between regions of scratched and smooth substrate. The extent of the thicker graphene layers formed above scratches is found to be significantly larger than the width of the scratch itself. This finding can be implemented as an additional technique for spatially modulating graphene thickness.

  7. A new direct growth method of graphene on Si-face of 6H-SiC by synergy of the inner and external carbon sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Zhiyuan; Xu, Shicai; Zhao, Lili; Zhang, Jing; Wang, Zhengping; Chen, Xiufang; Cheng, Xiufeng; Yu, Fapeng; Zhao, Xian

    2018-04-01

    Graphene is a promising two-dimensional material that has possible application in various disciplines, due to its super properties, including high carrier mobility, chemical stability, and optical transparency etc. In this paper, we report an inner and external carbon synergy (IECS) method to grow graphene on Si-face of 6H-SiC. This method combined the advantages of chemical vapor deposition (CVD) and traditional epitaxial growth (EG) based on silicon carbide, which providing a feasible approach for growing graphene on the SiC substrates. The graphene was synthesized within just 3 min, which was more than one order of magnitude faster than the graphene grown on 6H-SiC substrates by the traditional EG method. The growth temperature was ∼200 °C lower than the EG process. The directly grown graphene maintained the compatibility with the semiconductor technique, which is benefit for use in graphene-based microelectronic devices.

  8. In Situ Exfoliation of Graphene in Epoxy Resins: A Facile Strategy to Efficient and Large Scale Graphene Nanocomposites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yan; Zhang, Han; Crespo, Maria; Porwal, Harshit; Picot, Olivier; Santagiuliana, Giovanni; Huang, Zhaohui; Barbieri, Ettore; Pugno, Nicola M; Peijs, Ton; Bilotti, Emiliano

    2016-09-14

    Any industrial application aiming at exploiting the exceptional properties of graphene in composites or coatings is currently limited by finding viable production methods for large volumes of good quality and high aspect ratio graphene, few layer graphene (FLG) or graphite nanoplatelets (GNP). Final properties of the resulting composites are inherently related to those of the initial graphitic nanoparticles, which typically depend on time-consuming, resource-demanding and/or low yield liquid exfoliation processes. In addition, efficient dispersion of these nanofillers in polymer matrices, and their interaction, is of paramount importance. Here we show that it is possible to produce graphene/epoxy nanocomposites in situ and with high conversion of graphite to FLG/GNP through the process of three-roll milling (TRM), without the need of any additives, solvents, compatibilisers or chemical treatments. This readily scalable production method allows for more than 5 wt % of natural graphite (NG) to be directly exfoliated into FLG/GNP and dispersed in an epoxy resin. The in situ exfoliated graphitic nanoplatelets, with average aspect ratios of 300-1000 and thicknesses of 5-17 nm, were demonstrated to conferee exceptional enhancements in mechanical and electrical properties to the epoxy resin. The above conclusions are discussed and interpreted in terms of simple analytical models.

  9. Fabry-Perot enhanced Faraday rotation in graphene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ubrig, Nicolas; Crassee, Iris; Levallois, Julien; Nedoliuk, Ievgeniia O; Fromm, Felix; Kaiser, Michl; Seyller, Thomas; Kuzmenko, Alexey B

    2013-10-21

    We demonstrate that giant Faraday rotation in graphene in the terahertz range due to the cyclotron resonance is further increased by constructive Fabry-Perot interference in the supporting substrate. Simultaneously, an enhanced total transmission is achieved, making this effect doubly advantageous for graphene-based magneto-optical applications. As an example, we present far-infrared spectra of epitaxial multilayer graphene grown on the C-face of 6H-SiC, where the interference fringes are spectrally resolved and a Faraday rotation up to 0.15 radians (9°) is attained. Further, we discuss and compare other ways to increase the Faraday rotation using the principle of an optical cavity.

  10. Epitaxy, thin films and superlattices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jagd Christensen, Morten

    1997-05-01

    This report is the result of structural investigations of 3d transition metal superlattices consisting of Fe/V, Cr/Mn, V/Mn and Fe/Mn, and a structural and magnetic study of a series of Ho/Pr alloys. The work includes preparation and characterization of substrates as well as growth of thin films and Fe/V superlattices by molecular beam epitaxy, including in-situ characterization by reflection high energy electron diffraction and Auger electron spectroscopy. Structural characterization has been done by x-ray diffraction and neutron diffraction. The x-ray diffraction experiments have been performed on the rotating copper anode at Risoe, and at synchrotron facilities in Hamburg and Brookhaven, and the neutron scattering was done at the Danish research reactor DR3 at Risoe. In addition to longitudinal scans, giving information about the structural parameters in the modulation direction, non-specular scans were also performed. This type of scans gives information about in-plane orientation and lattice parameters. From the analysis, structural information is obtained about lattice parameters, epitaxial strain, coherence lengths and crystallographic orientation for the superlattice systems, except Fe/Mn superlattices, which could not be modelled. For the Ho/Pr alloys, x-ray magnetic scattering was performed, and the crystal and magnetic structure was investigated. (au)

  11. Epitaxy, thin films and superlattices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jagd Christensen, Morten

    1997-05-01

    This report is the result of structural investigations of 3d transition metal superlattices consisting of Fe/V, Cr/Mn, V/Mn and Fe/Mn, and a structural and magnetic study of a series of Ho/Pr alloys. The work includes preparation and characterization of substrates as well as growth of thin films and Fe/V superlattices by molecular beam epitaxy, including in-situ characterization by reflection high energy electron diffraction and Auger electron spectroscopy. Structural characterization has been done by x-ray diffraction and neutron diffraction. The x-ray diffraction experiments have been performed on the rotating copper anode at Risoe, and at synchrotron facilities in Hamburg and Brookhaven, and the neutron scattering was done at the Danish research reactor DR3 at Risoe. In addition to longitudinal scans, giving information about the structural parameters in the modulation direction, non-specular scans were also performed. This type of scans gives information about in-plane orientation and lattice parameters. From the analysis, structural information is obtained about lattice parameters, epitaxial strain, coherence lengths and crystallographic orientation for the superlattice systems, except Fe/Mn superlattices, which could not be modelled. For the Ho/Pr alloys, x-ray magnetic scattering was performed, and the crystal and magnetic structure was investigated. (au) 14 tabs.; 58 ills., 96 refs.

  12. Metal-Free CVD Graphene Synthesis on 200 mm Ge/Si(001) Substrates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lukosius, M; Dabrowski, J; Kitzmann, J; Fursenko, O; Akhtar, F; Lisker, M; Lippert, G; Schulze, S; Yamamoto, Y; Schubert, M A; Krause, H M; Wolff, A; Mai, A; Schroeder, T; Lupina, G

    2016-12-14

    Good quality, complementary-metal-oxide-semiconductor (CMOS) technology compatible, 200 mm graphene was obtained on Ge(001)/Si(001) wafers in this work. Chemical vapor depositions were carried out at the deposition temperatures of 885 °C using CH 4 as carbon source on epitaxial Ge(100) layers, which were grown on Si(100), prior to the graphene synthesis. Graphene layer with the 2D/G ratio ∼3 and low D mode (i.e., low concentration of defects) was measured over the entire 200 mm wafer by Raman spectroscopy. A typical full-width-at-half-maximum value of 39 cm -1 was extracted for the 2D mode, further indicating that graphene of good structural quality was produced. The study also revealed that the lack of interfacial oxide correlates with superior properties of graphene. In order to evaluate electrical properties of graphene, its 2 × 2 cm 2 pieces were transferred onto SiO 2 /Si substrates from Ge/Si wafers. The extracted sheet resistance and mobility values of transferred graphene layers were ∼1500 ± 100 Ω/sq and μ ≈ 400 ± 20 cm 2 /V s, respectively. The transferred graphene was free of metallic contaminations or mechanical damage. On the basis of results of DFT calculations, we attribute the high structural quality of graphene grown by CVD on Ge to hydrogen-induced reduction of nucleation probability, explain the appearance of graphene-induced facets on Ge(001) as a kinetic effect caused by surface step pinning at linear graphene nuclei, and clarify the orientation of graphene domains on Ge(001) as resulting from good lattice matching between Ge(001) and graphene nucleated on such nuclei.

  13. Graphene crystal growth by thermal precipitation of focused ion beam induced deposition of carbon precursor via patterned-iron thin layers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rius Gemma

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Recently, relevant advances on graphene as a building block of integrated circuits (ICs have been demonstrated. Graphene growth and device fabrication related processing has been steadily and intensively powered due to commercial interest; however, there are many challenges associated with the incorporation of graphene into commercial applications which includes challenges associated with the synthesis of this material. Specifically, the controlled deposition of single layer large single crystal graphene on arbitrary supports, is particularly challenging. Previously, we have reported the first demonstration of the transformation of focused ion beam induced deposition of carbon (FIBID-C into patterned graphitic layers by metal-assisted thermal treatment (Ni foils. In this present work, we continue exploiting the FIBID-C approach as a route for graphene deposition. Here, thin patterned Fe layers are used for the catalysis of graphenization and graphitization. We demonstrate the formation of high quality single and few layer graphene, which evidences, the possibility of using Fe as a catalyst for graphene deposition. The mechanism is understood as the minute precipitation of atomic carbon after supersaturation of some iron carbides formed under a high temperature treatment. As a consequence of the complete wetting of FIBID-C and patterned Fe layers, which enable graphene growth, the as-deposited patterns do not preserve their original shape after the thermal treatment

  14. The Many Faces of Graphene as Protection Barrier. Performance under Microbial Corrosion and Ni Allergy Conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gentil, Dana; del Campo, Valeria; Henrique Rodrigues da Cunha, Thiago; Henríquez, Ricardo; Garín, Carolina; Ramírez, Cristian; Flores, Marcos; Seeger, Michael

    2017-01-01

    In this work we present a study on the performance of CVD (chemical vapor deposition) graphene coatings grown and transferred on Ni as protection barriers under two scenarios that lead to unwanted metal ion release, microbial corrosion and allergy test conditions. These phenomena have a strong impact in different fields considering nickel (or its alloys) is one of the most widely used metals in industrial and consumer products. Microbial corrosion costs represent fractions of national gross product in different developed countries, whereas Ni allergy is one of the most prevalent allergic conditions in the western world, affecting around 10% of the population. We found that grown graphene coatings act as a protective membrane in biological environments that decreases microbial corrosion of Ni and reduces release of Ni2+ ions (source of Ni allergic contact hypersensitivity) when in contact with sweat. This performance seems not to be connected to the strong orbital hybridization that Ni and graphene interface present, indicating electron transfer might not be playing a main role in the robust response of this nanostructured system. The observed protection from biological environment can be understood in terms of graphene impermeability to transfer Ni2+ ions, which is enhanced for few layers of graphene grown on Ni. We expect our work will provide a new route for application of graphene as a protection coating for metals in biological environments, where current strategies have shown short-term efficiency and have raised health concerns. PMID:29292763

  15. Surface enhanced Raman spectroscopy platform based on graphene with one-year stability

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tite, Teddy [Univ Lyon, UJM-Saint-Etienne, CNRS, Laboratoire Hubert Curien UMR 5516, 18 rue Professeur Benoit Lauras, F-42000 Saint-Etienne (France); Barnier, Vincent [Ecole Nationale Supérieure des Mines, CNRS, Laboratoire Georges Friedel UMR 5307, 158 cours Fauriel, F-42023 Saint-Etienne (France); Donnet, Christophe, E-mail: Christophe.Donnet@univ-st-etienne.fr [Univ Lyon, UJM-Saint-Etienne, CNRS, Laboratoire Hubert Curien UMR 5516, 18 rue Professeur Benoit Lauras, F-42000 Saint-Etienne (France); Loir, Anne–Sophie; Reynaud, Stéphanie; Michalon, Jean–Yves; Vocanson, Francis; Garrelie, Florence [Univ Lyon, UJM-Saint-Etienne, CNRS, Laboratoire Hubert Curien UMR 5516, 18 rue Professeur Benoit Lauras, F-42000 Saint-Etienne (France)

    2016-04-01

    We report the synthesis, characterization and use of a robust surface enhanced Raman spectroscopy platform with a stable detection for up to one year of Rhodamine R6G at a concentration of 10{sup −6} M. The detection of aminothiophenol and methyl parathion, as active molecules of commercial insecticides, is further demonstrated at concentrations down to 10{sup −5}–10{sup −6} M. This platform is based on large scale textured few-layer (fl) graphene obtained without any need of graphene transfer. The synthesis route is based on diamond-like carbon films grown by pulsed laser deposition, deposited onto silicon substrates covered by a Ni layer prior to diamond-like carbon deposition. The formation of fl-graphene film, confirmed by Raman spectroscopy and mapping, is obtained by thermal annealing inducing the diffusion of Ni atoms and the concomitant formation of nickel silicide compounds, as identified by Raman and Auger electron spectroscopies. The textured fl-graphene films were decorated with gold nanoparticles to optimize the efficiency of the SERS device to detect organic molecules at low concentrations. - Highlights: • Synthesis of graphene film from amorphous carbon by pulsed laser deposition with nickel catalyst • Large scale textured graphene with nanoscale roughness obtained through nickel silicide formation • Films used for surface enhanced Raman spectroscopy detection of organophosphate compounds • Stability of the SERS platforms over up to one year.

  16. Nondestructive and in situ determination of graphene layers using optical fiber Fabry–Perot interference

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Cheng; Peng, Xiaobin; Liu, Qianwen; Fan, Shangchun; Gan, Xin; Lv, Ruitao

    2017-01-01

    Thickness measurement plays an important role for characterizing optomechanical behaviors of graphene. From the view of graphene-based Fabry–Perot (F–P) sensors, a simple, nondestructive and in situ method of determining the thickness of nanothick graphene membranes was demonstrated by using optical fiber F–P interference. Few-layer/multilayer graphene sheets were suspendedly adhered onto the endface of a ferrule with a 125 µ m inner diameter by van der Waals interactions to construct micro F–P cavities. Along with the Fresnel’s law and complex index of refraction of the membrane working as a light reflector of an F–P interferometer, the optical reflectivity of graphene was modeled to investigate the effects of light wavelength and temperature. Then the average thickness of graphene membranes were extracted by F–P interference demodulation, and yielded a very strong cross-correlation coefficient of 99.95% with the experimental results observed by Raman spectrum and atomic force microscope. The method could be further extended for determining the number of layers of other 2D materials. (paper)

  17. Field Emission of Wet Transferred Suspended Graphene Fabricated on Interdigitated Electrodes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Ji; Wang, Qilong; Tao, Zhi; Qi, Zhiyang; Zhai, Yusheng; Wu, Shengqi; Zhang, Xiaobing; Lei, Wei

    2016-02-10

    Suspended graphene (SG) membranes could enable strain-engineering of ballistic Dirac fermion transport and eliminate the extrinsic bulk disorder by annealing. When freely suspended without contact to any substrates, graphene could be considered as the ultimate two-dimensional (2D) morphology, leading to special field characteristics with the 2D geometrical effect and effectively utilized as an outstanding structure to explore the fundamental electronic or optoelectronic mechanism. In this paper, we report field emission characterization on an individual suspended few-layer graphene. A controllable wet transfer method is used to obtain the continuous and suspended graphene membrane on interdigitated gold electrodes. This suspended structure displays an overall field emission from the entirely surface, except for the variation in the emitting positions, acquiring a better enhancement than the exfoliated graphene on the conventional flat substrate. We also observe the transition process from space charge flow at low bias to the Fowler-Nordheim theory at high current emission regime. It could enable theoretical and experimental investigation of the typical electron emission properties of the 2D regime. Numerical simulations are also carried out to study the electrical properties of the suspended structure. Further improvement on the fabrication would realize low disorder, high quality, and large-scale suspended graphene devices.

  18. The Many Faces of Graphene as Protection Barrier. Performance under Microbial Corrosion and Ni Allergy Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carolina Parra

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available In this work we present a study on the performance of CVD (chemical vapor deposition graphene coatings grown and transferred on Ni as protection barriers under two scenarios that lead to unwanted metal ion release, microbial corrosion and allergy test conditions. These phenomena have a strong impact in different fields considering nickel (or its alloys is one of the most widely used metals in industrial and consumer products. Microbial corrosion costs represent fractions of national gross product in different developed countries, whereas Ni allergy is one of the most prevalent allergic conditions in the western world, affecting around 10% of the population. We found that grown graphene coatings act as a protective membrane in biological environments that decreases microbial corrosion of Ni and reduces release of Ni2+ ions (source of Ni allergic contact hypersensitivity when in contact with sweat. This performance seems not to be connected to the strong orbital hybridization that Ni and graphene interface present, indicating electron transfer might not be playing a main role in the robust response of this nanostructured system. The observed protection from biological environment can be understood in terms of graphene impermeability to transfer Ni2+ ions, which is enhanced for few layers of graphene grown on Ni. We expect our work will provide a new route for application of graphene as a protection coating for metals in biological environments, where current strategies have shown short-term efficiency and have raised health concerns.

  19. Highly resolving scanning-force microscopy on graphene and carbon monoxide; Hochaufloesende Rasterkraftmikroskopie auf Graphen und Kohlenmonoxid

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hofmann, Thomas

    2014-08-01

    Scanning-force microscopes are essential means for the study of the atomic structure of surfaces. For the interpretation of the measurements it is though in many cases necessary to have precise informations about the chemical and structural properties of the tip cluster. In the first part of the thesis it is shown that both the crystallographic orientation and the chemical identity of the tip atom of a metal tip can be determined by scanning of a CO molecule, which is adsorbed on a copper surface. In the second part the mapping of epitaxial graphene on SiC is studied with so characterized metal tips as well as with a CO tip. Thereby it is show that graphene cannot be accurately mapped with metal tips. Furthermore the strong attraction between metal tips and graphene, respectively on graphene adsorbed molecules, leads to problems in the mapping, like instabilities or a contamination of the metal tip. With the inert CO tip the graphene surface at moderate distances between tip and sample is realistically mapped. For small distances the relaxation of the CO tip though leads to artefacts in the images. Furthermore the oscillation of the force sensor becomes anharmonic, which is related to the formation of a binding between the graphene layer and the underlying carbon layer.

  20. Pumping requirements and options for molecular beam epitaxy and gas source molecular beam epitaxy/chemical beam epitaxy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McCollum, M.J.; Plano, M.A.; Haase, M.A.; Robbins, V.M.; Jackson, S.L.; Cheng, K.Y.; Stillman, G.E.

    1989-01-01

    This paper discusses the use of gas sources in growth by MBE as a result of current interest in growth of InP/InGaAsP/InGaAs lattice matched to InP. For gas flows greater than a few sccm, pumping speed requirements dictate the use of turbomolecular or diffusion pumps. GaAs samples with high p-type mobilities have been grown with diffusion pumped molecular beam epitaxial system. According to the authors, this demonstration of the inherent cleanliness of a properly designed diffusion pumping system indicates that a diffusion pump is an excellent inexpensive and reliable choice for growth by molecular beam epitaxy and gas source molecular beam epitaxy/chemical beam epitaxy

  1. Antiwear performance of ionic liquid+graphene dispersions with anomalous viscosity-temperature behavior

    OpenAIRE

    Pamies Porras, Ramón Francisco; Arias Pardilla, Joaquín; Espinosa Rodríguez, Tulia; Carrión Vilches, Francisco José; Bermúdez Olivares, María Dolores; Sanes Molina, José; Avilés González, María Dolores

    2018-01-01

    New dispersions of few-layers graphene (G) in 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium ([EMIM]) ionic liquids (ILs) with dicyanamide ([DCA]) or bis(trifluoromethylsulfonyl)imide ([TFSI]) anions have been obtained by mechanical mixing and sonication. IL+0.5 wt% G dispersions show constant viscosity values from 357K (for IL = [EMIM][DCA]) or from 385K (for IL = [EMIM][TFSI]) to 393K. IL + G dispersions with G > 0.5 wt% show linear viscosity increases with increasing temperature, from 306K (for [EMIM][DCA]+1...

  2. The sensitivity of graphene “snap-through” to substrate geometry

    KAUST Repository

    Wagner, Till J. W.

    2012-01-01

    We study theoretically the deposition of few layer graphene sheets onto a grooved substrate incorporating adhesion between substrate and sheet. We develop a model to understand the equilibrium of the sheet allowing for partial conformation of sheet to substrate. This model gives physical insight into recent observations of snap-through from flat to conforming states and emphasizes the crucial role of substrate shape in determining the nature of this transition. Our analytical results are consistent with numerical simulations using a van der Waals-like interaction. Finally, we propose a substrate shape that should exhibit a continuous, rather than snap-through, transition. © 2012 American Institute of Physics.

  3. Bromination of graphene: a new route to making high performance transparent conducting electrodes with low optical losses

    KAUST Repository

    Mansour, Ahmed

    2015-09-03

    The high optical transmittance, electrical conductivity, flexibility and chemical stability of graphene have triggered great interest in its application as a transparent conducting electrode material and as a potential replacement for indium doped tin oxide. However, currently available large scale production methods such as chemical vapor deposition produce polycrystalline graphene, and require additional transfer process which further introduces defects and impurities resulting in a significant increase in its sheet resistance. Doping of graphene with foreign atoms has been a popular route for reducing its sheet resistance which typically comes at a significant loss in optical transmission. Herein, we report the successful bromine doping of graphene resulting in air-stable transparent conducting electrodes with up to 80% reduction of sheet resistance reaching ~180 Ω/ at the cost of 2-3% loss of optical transmission in case of few layer graphene and 0.8% in case of single layer graphene. The remarkably low tradeoff in optical transparency leads to the highest enhancements in figure of merit reported thus far. Furthermore, our results show a controlled increase in the workfunction up to 0.3 eV with the bromine content. These results should help pave the way for further development of graphene as potentially a highly transparent substitute to other transparent conducting electrodes in optoelectronic devices.

  4. Three-dimensional strutted graphene grown by substrate-free sugar blowing for high-power-density supercapacitors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xuebin; Zhang, Yuanjian; Zhi, Chunyi; Wang, Xi; Tang, Daiming; Xu, Yibin; Weng, Qunhong; Jiang, Xiangfen; Mitome, Masanori; Golberg, Dmitri; Bando, Yoshio

    2013-01-01

    Three-dimensional graphene architectures in the macroworld can in principle maintain all the extraordinary nanoscale properties of individual graphene flakes. However, current 3D graphene products suffer from poor electrical conductivity, low surface area and insufficient mechanical strength/elasticity; the interconnected self-supported reproducible 3D graphenes remain unavailable. Here we report a sugar-blowing approach based on a polymeric predecessor to synthesize a 3D graphene bubble network. The bubble network consists of mono- or few-layered graphitic membranes that are tightly glued, rigidly fixed and spatially scaffolded by micrometre-scale graphitic struts. Such a topological configuration provides intimate structural interconnectivities, freeway for electron/phonon transports, huge accessible surface area, as well as robust mechanical properties. The graphene network thus overcomes the drawbacks of presently available 3D graphene products and opens up a wide horizon for diverse practical usages, for example, high-power high-energy electrochemical capacitors, as highlighted in this work. PMID:24336225

  5. Quantum Nanostructures by Droplet Epitaxy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Somsak Panyakeow

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available Droplet epitaxy is an alternative growth technique for several quantum nanostructures. Indium droplets are distributed randomly on GaAs substrates at low temperatures (120-350'C. Under background pressure of group V elements, Arsenic and Phosphorous, InAs and InP nanostructures are created. Quantum rings with isotropic shape are obtained at low temperature range. When the growth thickness is increased, quantum rings are transformed to quantum dot rings. At high temperature range, anisotropic strain gives rise to quantum rings with square holes and non-uniform ring stripe. Regrowth of quantum dots on these anisotropic quantum rings, Quadra-Quantum Dots (QQDs could be realized. Potential applications of these quantum nanostructures are also discussed.

  6. Graphene prehistory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Geim, A K

    2012-01-01

    After the 2010 Nobel Prize recognized the research breakthrough reported by our group in a 2004 paper, I feel that, as my contribution to the proceedings of the Nobel symposium held earlier in 2010, it is both appropriate and important to review pre-2004 scientific literature and acknowledge early ideas. With the benefit of hindsight, I also try to analyze why our first graphene paper has attracted so much interest.

  7. The Preparation of Graphene

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chen Yanyan

    2015-01-01

    Graphene has unique structure and possesses excellent physical and chemical properties, and it has received a great deal of attention in related research fields. The quality, quantity and application of graphene are related to its preparation methods. At present the bottleneck of graphene research is that both high-quality and large quantity of graphene could not be obtained simultaneously and the reason is that the basic mechanism of graphene formation has mot been wel understood.

  8. Evaluating Graphene as a Channel Material in Spintronic Logic Devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anugrah, Yoska

    Spintronics, a class of devices that exploit the spin properties of electrons in addition to the charge properties, promises the possibility for nonvolatile logic and memory devices that operate at low power. Graphene is a material in which the spin orientation of electrons can be conserved over a long distance, which makes it an attractive channel material in spintronics devices. In this dissertation, the properties of graphene that are interesting for spintronics applications are explored. A robust fabrication process is described for graphene spin valves using Al2O3 tunnel tunnel barriers and Co ferromagnetic contacts. Spin transport was characterized in both few-layer exfoliated and single-layer graphene, and spin diffusion lengths and spin relaxation times were extracted using the nonlocal spin valve geometry and Hanle measurements. The effect of input-output asymmetry on the spin transport was investigated. The effect of an applied drift electric field on spin transport was investigated and the spin diffusion length was found to be tunable by a factor of 8X (suppressed to 1.6 microm and enhanced to 13 microm from the intrinsic length of 4.6 microm using electric field of +/-1800 V/cm). A mechanism to induce asymmetry without excess power dissipation is also described which utilizes a double buried-gate structure to tune the Fermi levels on the input and output sides of a graphene spin logic device independently. It was found that different spin scattering mechanisms were at play in the two halves of a small graphene strip. This suggests that the spin properties of graphene are strongly affected by its local environment, e.g. impurities, surface topography, defects. Finally, two-dimensional materials beyond graphene have been explored as spin channels. One such material is phosphorene, which has low spin-orbit coupling and high mobility, and the interface properties of ferromagnets (cobalt and permalloy) with this material were explored. This work could

  9. Graphene and Graphene Metamaterials for Terahertz Absorbers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andryieuski, Andrei; Pizzocchero, Filippo; Booth, Tim

    2013-01-01

    Graphene, due to the possibility to tune its conductivity, is the promising material for a range of the terahertz (THz) applications, such as tunable reflectors, absorbers, modulators, filters and polarization converters. Subwavelength structuring of graphene in order to form metamaterials allows...... for even more control over the THz waves. In this poster presentation I will show an elegant way to describe the graphene metamaterials and the design of graphene based absorbers. I will also present our recent experimental results on the graphene absorbers characterization....

  10. Epitaxial growth of silicon for layer transfer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teplin, Charles; Branz, Howard M

    2015-03-24

    Methods of preparing a thin crystalline silicon film for transfer and devices utilizing a transferred crystalline silicon film are disclosed. The methods include preparing a silicon growth substrate which has an interface defining substance associated with an exterior surface. The methods further include depositing an epitaxial layer of silicon on the silicon growth substrate at the surface and separating the epitaxial layer from the substrate substantially along the plane or other surface defined by the interface defining substance. The epitaxial layer may be utilized as a thin film of crystalline silicon in any type of semiconductor device which requires a crystalline silicon layer. In use, the epitaxial transfer layer may be associated with a secondary substrate.

  11. Eco-friendly one-pot synthesis of highly dispersible functionalized graphene nanosheets with free amino groups

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Zhiting; Duan Xuezhi; Qian Gang; Zhou Xinggui; Yuan Weikang

    2013-01-01

    An eco-friendly, facile and scalable hydrothermal approach, in which the reduction and functionalization of graphite oxide (GO) are completed in one pot, is proposed for the synthesis of monolayer 3-aminopropyltriethoxysilane (APTES)-functionalized graphenes (A-FGs). Atomic force microscopy, transmission electron microscopy and x-ray diffraction analyses indicate that the as-synthesized A-FGs consist of only one or a few layered graphenes, while x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and thermogravimetric analysis reveal that APTES is bonded to graphene by the dehydration reaction between the Si–OH (produced by APTES hydration) and the –OH on the GO surface. As a result, free amino groups are left on the A-FGs. Moreover, A-FGs are highly dispersible in dimethylsulfoxide, APTES and ethylene glycol, and their solubilities are up to 0.89, 4.03 and 0.90 mg ml −1 , respectively. (paper)

  12. Molecular beam epitaxy a short history

    CERN Document Server

    Orton, J W

    2015-01-01

    This volume describes the development of molecular beam epitaxy from its origins in the 1960s through to the present day. It begins with a short historical account of other methods of crystal growth, both bulk and epitaxial, to set the subject in context, emphasising the wide range of semiconductor materials employed. This is followed by an introduction to molecular beams and their use in the Stern-Gerlach experiment and the development of the microwave MASER.

  13. Optimising the visibility of graphene and graphene oxide on gold with multilayer heterostructures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Velický, Matěj; Hendren, William R; Donnelly, Gavin Eugene; Katzen, Joel Michael; Bowman, Robert M; Huang, Fumin

    2018-04-17

    Metals have been increasingly used as substrates in devices based on two-dimensional (2D) materials. However, the high reflectivity of bulk metals results in low optical contrast (<3%) and therefore poor visibility of transparent mono- and few-layer 2D materials on these surfaces. Here we demonstrate that by engineering the complex reflectivity of a purpose-designed multilayer heterostructure composed of thin Au films (2 - 8 nm) on SiO2/Si substrate, the optical contrast of graphene and graphene oxide (GO) can be significantly enhanced in comparison to bulk Au, up to about 3 and 5 times, respectively. In particular, we achieved ~17% optical contrast for monolayer GO, which is even 2 times higher than that on bare SiO2/Si substrate. The experimental results are in good agreement with theoretical simulations. This concept is demonstrated for Au, but the methodology is applicable to other metals and can be adopted to design a variety of high-contrast metallic substrates. This will facilitate research and applications of 2D materials in areas such as plasmonics, photonics, catalysis and sensors. © 2018 IOP Publishing Ltd.

  14. Epitaxial Graphene on SiC%碳化硅表面的外延Graphene

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴孝松

    2009-01-01

    Graphene具有优异的电学性质,是非常有前途的纳米电子材料,有希望替代硅成为下一代集成电路材料,尽管目前有很多种制备Graphene的方法,但就Graphene在将来集成电路方面的应用而言,在碳化硅上的外延生长法最具潜力,文章首先从Graphene的能带结构开始,简单介绍为什么Graphene具有诸多优异的电学性质,比如异常霍尔效应、室温下的高迁移率、碳纳米管的弹道输运等,然后介绍这种外延生长方法及其发展现状,通过比较在不同碳化硅晶面和在不同条件下生长的Graphene的表面形貌,得出结论,在加热炉内,生长在碳化硅晶体碳面的Graphene拥有特别高的质量,最后文章着重讨论对碳面Graphene的电学表征实验,这些实验证明这种材料中的电子是狄拉克电子,同时也发现材料具有优异的电学性质.

  15. Effects of UV light intensity on electrochemical wet etching of SiC for the fabrication of suspended graphene

    Science.gov (United States)

    O, Ryong-Sok; Takamura, Makoto; Furukawa, Kazuaki; Nagase, Masao; Hibino, Hiroki

    2015-03-01

    We report on the effects of UV light intensity on the photo assisted electrochemical wet etching of SiC(0001) underneath an epitaxially grown graphene for the fabrication of suspended structures. The maximum etching rate of SiC(0001) was 2.5 µm/h under UV light irradiation in 1 wt % KOH at a constant current of 0.5 mA/cm2. The successful formation of suspended structures depended on the etching rate of SiC. In the Raman spectra of the suspended structures, we did not observe a significant increase in the intensity of the D peak, which originates from defects in graphene sheets. This is most likely explained by the high quality of the single-crystalline graphene epitaxially grown on SiC.

  16. Electrochemical Exfoliation of Graphite in Aqueous Sodium Halide Electrolytes toward Low Oxygen Content Graphene for Energy and Environmental Applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munuera, J M; Paredes, J I; Enterría, M; Pagán, A; Villar-Rodil, S; Pereira, M F R; Martins, J I; Figueiredo, J L; Cenis, J L; Martínez-Alonso, A; Tascón, J M D

    2017-07-19

    Graphene and graphene-based materials have shown great promise in many technological applications, but their large-scale production and processing by simple and cost-effective means still constitute significant issues in the path of their widespread implementation. Here, we investigate a straightforward method for the preparation of a ready-to-use and low oxygen content graphene material that is based on electrochemical (anodic) delamination of graphite in aqueous medium with sodium halides as the electrolyte. Contrary to previous conflicting reports on the ability of halide anions to act as efficient exfoliating electrolytes in electrochemical graphene exfoliation, we show that proper choice of both graphite electrode (e.g., graphite foil) and sodium halide concentration readily leads to the generation of large quantities of single-/few-layer graphene nanosheets possessing a degree of oxidation (O/C ratio down to ∼0.06) lower than that typical of anodically exfoliated graphenes obtained with commonly used electrolytes. The halide anions are thought to play a role in mitigating the oxidation of the graphene lattice during exfoliation, which is also discussed and rationalized. The as-exfoliated graphene materials exhibited a three-dimensional morphology that was suitable for their practical use without the need to resort to any kind of postproduction processing. When tested as dye adsorbents, they outperformed many previously reported graphene-based materials (e.g., they adsorbed ∼920 mg g -1 for methyl orange) and were useful sorbents for oils and nonpolar organic solvents. Supercapacitor cells assembled directly from the as-exfoliated products delivered energy and power density values (up to 15.3 Wh kg -1 and 3220 W kg -1 , respectively) competitive with those of many other graphene-based devices but with the additional advantage of extreme simplicity of preparation.

  17. Photoenhanced atomic layer epitaxy. Hikari reiki genshiso epitaxy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mashita, M.; Kawakyu, Y. (Toshiba corp., Tokyo (Japan))

    1991-10-01

    The growth temperature range was greatly expanded of atomic layer epitaxy (ALE) expected as the growth process of ultra-thin stacks. Ga layers and As layers were formed one after the other on a GaAs substrate in the atmosphere of trimethylgallium (TMG) or AsH{sub 2} supplied alternately, by KrF excimer laser irradiation normal to the substrate. As a result, the growth temperature range was 460-540{degree}C nearly 10 times that of 500 {plus minus} several degrees centigrade in conventional thermal growth method. Based on the experimental result where light absorption of source molecules adsorbed on a substrate surface was larger than that under gaseous phase condition, new adsorbed layer enhancement model was proposed to explain above irradiation effect verifying it by experiments. As this photoenhancement technique is applied to other materials, possible fabrication of new crystal structures as a super lattice with ultra-thin stacks of single atomic layers is expected because of a larger freedom in material combination for hetero-ALE. 11 refs., 7 figs.

  18. Nanotoxicity of graphene and graphene oxide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seabra, Amedea B; Paula, Amauri J; de Lima, Renata; Alves, Oswaldo L; Durán, Nelson

    2014-02-17

    Graphene and its derivatives are promising candidates for important biomedical applications because of their versatility. The prospective use of graphene-based materials in a biological context requires a detailed comprehension of the toxicity of these materials. Moreover, due to the expanding applications of nanotechnology, human and environmental exposures to graphene-based nanomaterials are likely to increase in the future. Because of the potential risk factors associated with the manufacture and use of graphene-related materials, the number of nanotoxicological studies of these compounds has been increasing rapidly in the past decade. These studies have researched the effects of the nanostructural/biological interactions on different organizational levels of the living system, from biomolecules to animals. This review discusses recent results based on in vitro and in vivo cytotoxicity and genotoxicity studies of graphene-related materials and critically examines the methodologies employed to evaluate their toxicities. The environmental impact from the manipulation and application of graphene materials is also reported and discussed. Finally, this review presents mechanistic aspects of graphene toxicity in biological systems. More detailed studies aiming to investigate the toxicity of graphene-based materials and to properly associate the biological phenomenon with their chemical, structural, and morphological variations that result from several synthetic and processing possibilities are needed. Knowledge about graphene-based materials could ensure the safe application of this versatile material. Consequently, the focus of this review is to provide a source of inspiration for new nanotoxicological approaches for graphene-based materials.

  19. Controlled synthesis of graphene sheets with tunable sizes by hydrothermal cutting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ma Chen; Chen Zhongxin; Fang Ming; Lu Hongbin

    2012-01-01

    We report a hydrothermal method that directly reduces graphene oxide (GO) into graphene nanosheets (GNs) with different sizes. In the presence of NaOH and hydrazine, the hydrothermal reaction at 80 °C resulted in the formation of GNs with a lateral size of ∼1 μm but the size of GNs decreased to ∼300 and ∼100 nm upon increasing the reaction temperature to 150 and 200 °C, respectively. The morphology of the resulting GNs was observed by atomic force microscopy and transmission electron microscopy. The thickness of GNs is basically <3 nm, indicates the GNs stack together in a few-layer manner. XRD, XPS, FTIR, and Raman spectroscopy were used to characterize the structural changes before and after reduction. The results suggested that the defect stability in GO and reduced GNs could be responsible for the temperature dependence of the size of reduced GNs.Graphical AbstractA hydrothermal method is proposed to simultaneously reduce and cut graphene oxide into graphene sheets with different sizes in a controlled manner, in which the reaction temperature as a critical parameter is used to control the size of resulting graphene sheets.

  20. Crumpled Nitrogen-Doped Graphene for Supercapacitors with High Gravimetric and Volumetric Performances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jie; Ding, Bing; Xu, Yunling; Shen, Laifa; Dou, Hui; Zhang, Xiaogang

    2015-10-14

    Graphene is considered a promising electrochemical capacitors electrode material due to its high surface area and high electrical conductivity. However, restacking interactions between graphene nanosheets significantly decrease the ion-accessible surface area and impede electronic and ionic transfer. This would, in turn, severely hinder the realization of high energy density. Herein, we report a strategy for preparation of few-layer graphene material with abundant crumples and high-level nitrogen doping. The two-dimensional graphene nanosheets (CNG) feature high ion-available surface area, excellent electronic and ion transfer properties, and high packing density, permitting the CNG electrode to exhibit excellent electrochemical performance. In ionic liquid electrolyte, the CNG electrode exhibits gravimetric and volumetric capacitances of 128 F g(-1) and 98 F cm(-3), respectively, achieving gravimetric and volumetric energy densities of 56 Wh kg(-1) and 43 Wh L(-1). The preparation strategy described here provides a new approach for developing a graphene-based supercapacitor with high gravimetric and volumetric energy densities.