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Sample records for fetal rat pancreas

  1. Constitutive protein secretion from the exocrine pancreas of fetal rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arvan, P.; Chang, A.

    1987-01-01

    Two general kinds of exocytotic secretion of proteins are known: that which is stimulated by secretagogues; and constitutive exocytosis, which is unable to be stimulated. The exocrine pancreas has often been cited as a model system for the first kind of secretion. However, the release of digestive enzymes from the exocrine pancreas of 1-day prenatal rats cannot be stimulated by secretagogues; therefore, its secretion is constitutive. To gain insight into the intracellular pathways which mediate secretion in the fetal gland, we examined the kinetics of release of newly synthesized proteins. We find that fetal pancreas in a steady state of secretion releases pulse-labeled secretory proteins in two kinetically distinct phases. The first phase occurring during 0-6.5 h of chase comprises approximately 12% of total incorporated radioactivity, the second phase beginning at greater than 7 h of chase comprises the remainder. Based on analysis by electron microscope autoradiography, radiolabel is localized during the first phase of secretion in immature granules/condensing vacuoles, Golgi compartments, and few mature granules. The second phase of secretion occurs when radiolabel is predominantly in mature granules. We propose that secretion occurs via (at least) 2 exocytotic routes, both of which are constitutive in fetal pancreatic tissue

  2. Fetal rat pancreas transplantation in BB rats: immunohistochemical and functional evaluation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yderstræde, Knud Bonnet; Starklint, Henrik; Steinbrüchel, Daniel Andreas

    1993-01-01

    Spontaneously diabetic BB/Wor rats received either a syngeneic fetal pancreas transplant or adult islets. In the former, 4-8 fetal pancreases were transplanted, and in the latter, 3-5000 islets. Transplantation was performed by transferring a blood clot containing the pancreases or islets...... to the renal subcapsular space. Insulin therapy was undertaken postoperatively, except in one experiment with adult islets. Of the fetal pancreas transplanted BB rats, 52% became normoglycaemic, and 21% remained so throughout an observation period of 10 months. Nephrectomy caused a prompt return of diabetes...... that recurrent diabetes is not inevitable following syngeneic fetal pancreas transplantation to spontaneously diabetic BB rats. Recurrent diabetes was only occasionally associated with mononuclear cell infiltration. Transplanted tissue was well-preserved and vascularized; mega-islets were a constant finding....

  3. Effect of Sodium Cyclamate on the Rat Fetal Exocrine Pancreas: a Karyometric and Stereological Study

    OpenAIRE

    MARTINS, Alex Tadeu; SANTOS, Fabiano de Sant`Ana dos; SCANNAVINO, Fabio Luiz Ferreira; PIRES, Juliana Rico; ZUZA, Elizangela Partata; PADOVANI JUNIOR, Joao Armando; AZOUBEL, Reinaldo; MATEO, Miguel Angel Sala Di; LOPES, Ruberval Armando

    2010-01-01

    The cyclamate, a sweetner substance derived from N-cyclo-hexyl-sulfamic acid, is largely utilized as a non-caloric artificial edulcorant in foods and beverages as well as in the pharmaceutical industry. The objective of this study was to evaluate karyometric and stereological alterations in the rat fetal pancreas resulting from the intraperitoneal administration of sodium cyclamate. The exocrine pancreas of ten fetuses of rats were evaluated, five treated and five controls chosen at random, i...

  4. The Normal Fetal Pancreas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kivilevitch, Zvi; Achiron, Reuven; Perlman, Sharon; Gilboa, Yinon

    2017-10-01

    The aim of the study was to assess the sonographic feasibility of measuring the fetal pancreas and its normal development throughout pregnancy. We conducted a cross-sectional prospective study between 19 and 36 weeks' gestation. The study included singleton pregnancies with normal pregnancy follow-up. The pancreas circumference was measured. The first 90 cases were tested to assess feasibility. Two hundred ninety-seven fetuses of nondiabetic mothers were recruited during a 3-year period. The overall satisfactory visualization rate was 61.6%. The intraobserver and interobserver variability had high interclass correlation coefficients of of 0.964 and 0.967, respectively. A cubic polynomial regression described best the correlation of pancreas circumference with gestational age (r = 0.744; P pancreas circumference percentiles for each week of gestation were calculated. During the study period, we detected 2 cases with overgrowth syndrome and 1 case with an annular pancreas. In this study, we assessed the feasibility of sonography for measuring the fetal pancreas and established a normal reference range for the fetal pancreas circumference throughout pregnancy. This database can be helpful when investigating fetomaternal disorders that can involve its normal development. © 2017 by the American Institute of Ultrasound in Medicine.

  5. Co-ordinated regulation of neurogenin-3 expression in the maternal and fetal pancreas during pregnancy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Søstrup, Birgitte; Gaarn, Louise W; Nalla, Amarnadh

    2014-01-01

    -3. Messenger RNA levels of neurogenin-3 and the transcription factor musculoaponeurotic fibrosarcoma oncogene family protein B in fetal rat pancreas cells, cultured with serum from pregnant women, were measured by quantitative polymerase chain reaction. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: The number...... of neurogenin-3-positive cells present in pregnant mice was increased compared with nonpregnant mice. Neurogenin-3 and musculoaponeurotic fibrosarcoma oncogene family protein B mRNA was detected in fetal rat pancreas exposed to serum from pregnant women. RESULTS: In pregnant mice we found a 3.6-fold increase...... beta cell mass in pregnancy and that circulating factors are involved. SAMPLES: Pancreatic tissue from mice and rat and serum from pregnant women. METHOD: Morphometric analysis of pancreas of pregnant and nonpregnant mice was carried out by immunocytochemical staining for the neogenic marker neurogenin...

  6. Ghrelin in the fetal pancreas - a digital quantitation study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hasselby, Jane Preuss; Maroun, Lisa Leth; Federspiel, Birgitte Hartnack

    2012-01-01

    Hasselby JP, Maroun LL, Federspiel BH, Vainer B. Ghrelin in the fetal pancreas - a digital quantitation study. APMIS 2011. Ghrelin is a hormone produced by specialized neuroendocrine cells located in the fetal pancreas. In the adult, ghrelin has multiple effects, but in the fetus the role...... of ghrelin and the distribution of ghrelin-producing cells is not well documented. The aim of this study was to describe and quantitate the number of ghrelin positive cells in the pancreas during gestation. The material consisted of pancreatic tissue from 19 fetuses at different gestational ages...

  7. Preganglionic innervation of the pancreas islet cells in the rat

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    LUITEN, PGM; TERHORST, GJ; KOOPMANS, SJ; RIETBERG, M; STEFFENS, AB

    1984-01-01

    The position and number of preganglionic somata innervating the insulin-secreting β-cells of the endocrine pancreas were investigated in Wistar rats. This question was approached by comparing the innervation of the pancreas of normal rats with the innervation of the pancreas in alloxan-induced

  8. Pancreas

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Page Transplant Living > Organ facts and surgeries > Pancreas Pancreas Beneath your ribs, you’ll find the pancreas, ... shape. Location of the pancreas How does the pancreas work? The pancreas controls your sugar levels and ...

  9. Exenatide Induces Impairment of Autophagy Flux to Damage Rat Pancreas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Zhiqiang; Huang, Lihua; Yu, Xiao; Yu, Can; Zhu, Hongwei; Li, Xia; Han, Duo; Huang, Hui

    2017-01-01

    The study aimed to explore the alteration of autophagy in rat pancreas treated with exenatide. Normal Sprague-Dawley rats and diabetes-model rats induced by 2-month high-sugar and high-fat diet and streptozotocin injection were subcutaneously injected with exenatide, respectively, for 10 weeks, with homologous rats treated with saline as control. Meanwhile, AR42J cells, pancreatic acinar cell line, were cultured with exenatide at doses of 5 pM for 3 days. The pancreas was disposed, and several sections were stained with hematoxylin-eosin. Immunohistochemistry was used to measure the expressions of glucagon-like peptide 1 receptor (GLP-1R) and cysteine-aspartic acid protease-3 in rat pancreas, and Western blot was used to test the expressions of GLP-1R, light chain 3B-I and -II, and p62 in rat pancreas and AR42J cells. The data were expressed as mean (standard deviation) and analyzed by unpaired Student's t-test. Exenatide can induce pathological changes in rat pancreas. The GLP-1R, p62, light chain 3B-II, and cysteine-aspartic acid protease-3 in rat pancreas and AR42J cells treated with exenatide were significantly overexpressed. Exenatide can activate and upregulate its receptor, GLP-1R, then impair autophagy flux and activate apoptosis in the pancreatic acinar cell, thus damaging rat pancreas.

  10. Histopathological effects of doxorubicin on pancreas in male albino rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I.A. Ali

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to investigate the histopathological side effects of doxorubicin on pancreas tissue in male albino rats Rattus norvegicus. This study were used 55 adult rats (2.5-3.5 month of age. The rats divided into two groups, the first group include (35 rats. The second group were (20 rats. Microscopial examination of pancreas lesion demonstrated oedema around the acini, swelling of the epithelial cells of acini, occurance of cystic fibrosis (mucoviscidosis at the concentration of (4,5 mg/kg of body weight ,occurrence of small islets that form of few cells and exocrine-endocrine transformation. There were thickness in the walls of blood vessels, thrombus, congestion of blood vessels, we conclude, that doxorubicin had histopathological effect on pancreas in sub-acute doses more than chronic doses.

  11. Histological Studies Of The Pancreas Of Wistar Rats Following ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study was to find the probable effect of Nicotiana tabacum (snuff) on the histological features of the pancreas of adult wistar rats. Nicotiana tabacum is a product of smokeless tobacco which contains many toxins and high levels of nicotine. Twenty male wistar rats weighing 200-210g were used for this study. The control ...

  12. Rat pancreas secretes particulate ecto-nucleotidase CD39

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Christiane Elisabeth; Amstrup, Jan; Rasmussen, Hans N

    2003-01-01

    In exocrine pancreas, acini release ATP and the excurrent ducts express several types of purinergic P2 receptors. Thereby, ATP, or its hydrolytic products, might play a role as a paracrine regulator between acini and ducts. The aim of the present study was to elucidate whether this acinar......-ductal signalling is regulated by nucleotidase(s), and to characterize and localize one of the nucleotidases within the rat pancreas. Using RT-PCR and Western blotting we show that pancreas expresses the full length ecto-nucleoside triphosphate diphosphohydrolase, CD39. Immunofluorescence shows CD39 localization...... relocalizes in clusters towards the lumen and is secreted. As a result, pancreatic juice collected from intact pancreas stimulated with CCK-8 contained nucleotidase activity, including that of CD39, and no detectable amounts of ATP. Anti-CD39 antibodies detected the full length (78 kDa) CD39 in pancreatic...

  13. Immunohistochemistry detected and localized cannabinoid receptor type 2 in bovine fetal pancreas at late gestation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cecilia Dall'Aglio

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available At present, data on the endocannabinoid system expression and distribution in the pancreatic gland appear scarce and controversial as descriptions are limited to humans and laboratory animals. Since the bovine pancreas is very similar to the human in endocrine portion development and control, studies on the fetal gland could prove to be very interesting, as an abnormal maternal condition during late pregnancy may be a predisposing trigger for adult metabolic disorders. The present investigation studied cannabinoid receptor type 2 presence and distribution in the bovine fetal pancreas towards the end of gestation. Histological analyses revealed numerous endocrinal cell clusters or islets which were distributed among exocrine adenomeri in connectival tissue. Immunohistochemistry showed that endocrine-islets contained some CB2-positive cells with a very peculiar localization that is a few primarily localized at the edges of islets and some of them also scattered in the center of the cluster. Characteristically, also the epithelium of the excretory ducts and the smooth muscle layers of the smaller arteries, in the interlobular glandular septa, tested positive for the CB2 endocannabinoid receptor. Conse - quently, the endocannabinoid system, via the cannabinoid receptor type 2, was hypothesized to play a major role in controlling pancreas function from normal fetal development to correct metabolic functioning in adulthood.

  14. histological alterations of the pancreas of wistar rats following ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    bmjwa

    snuff) on the histological features of the pancreas of adult wistar rats. .... tobacco harvesters. J. Am. Med. Assoc. 229: 1880-8. Guyton, A. C. and Hall, J. E., 1996. Textbook of Medical. Physiology, 9th. Ed. W. B. Saunders Company,. Philadelphia, pp.

  15. Electrophoretic comparison of nuclear and nucleolar proteins II. Rat pancreas

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Poort, C.

    1961-01-01

    The nuclei and nucleoli from rat pancreas were isolated and extracted successively with 0.14 M NaCl, 1 M NaCl, and 0.1 N NaOH. In the 0.14 M NaCl and 0.1 N NaOH extracts agar electrophoresis revealed differences between the nucleolar proteins and those from the non-nucleolar part of the nucleus.

  16. [Exocrine function of the pancreas in rats with experimental obesity].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leshchenko, I V; Shevchuk, V H; Savcheniuk, O A; Falalieieva, T M; Sukhodolia, S A; Berehova, T V

    2014-01-01

    The influence of neonatal administration of hyperosmolar sodium chloride and sodium glutamate on the exocrine function of the pancreas in rats has been investigated. It was observed the development of acute pancreatitis under experimental obesity. The cross-section area of acini reduced by 12%, the cross-section area of acinocytes nuclei increased by 10%, the length between the lobes of the gland has grown by 48%. The level of amylase was increased by 43%, the levels of pancreatic amylase and lipase were increased by 68% and 24%, respectively.

  17. Study of the evolution of the placenta and fetal pancreas in the pathophysiology of growth retardation intrauterine due to restricted maternal diet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marilza Vieira Cunha Rudge

    1999-03-01

    Full Text Available CONTEXT: Intrauterine growth retard (IUGR continues to be a significant perinatology problem at the end of this century. The nature of the etiologic agent, the time when the attack occurred during pregnancy and its duration affect the type of IUGR. OBJECTIVE: To study the evolution of fetal pancreas and placenta between the 18th and 21st day of pregnancy in rats submitted to maternal protein-calorie restriction. DESIGN: Randomized controlled trial on laboratory animal. SAMPLE: Forty-one normoglycemic pregnant Wistar rats. INTERVENTION: Rats were divided into six experimental groups according to their access to food and date of cesarean section (18th or 21st day: control with free access to food; diet restricted to 25% introduced on 1st day of pregnancy; and diet restricted to 25% after the 3rd day of pregnancy. MAIN MEASUREMENTS: Newborn weight, placenta weight, histopathological study (morphological histochemistry RESULTS: Maternal protein-calorie malnutrition caused intrauterine growth retard (IUGR after the 18th day of pregnancy. Dietary restriction did not interfere with the morphology of the fetal pancreas and the immunohistochemical study of the placenta showed that glycogen stores were decreased between the 18th and 21st day in the control group and in a diet restricted to 25% from the first day of pregnancy. Dietary restriction after the 3rd day of pregnancy led to low placental glycogen concentrations on the 18th day and disappearance on the 21st day. CONCLUSION: The pathophysiology of IUGR due to maternal protein-calorie restriction in rats is related to lower placental weight and low placental glycogen stores.

  18. Phosphorus nuclear magnetic resonance in isolated perfused rat pancreas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsumoto, Takehisa; Kanno, Tomio; Seo, Yoshiteru; Murakami, Masataka; Watari, Hiroshi

    1988-01-01

    Phosphorus nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy was applied to measure phosphorus energy metabolites in isolated perfused rat pancreas. The gland was perfused with a modified Krebs-Henseleit solution at room temperature (25 degree C). 31 P resonances of creatine phosphate (PCr), ATP, ADP, inorganic phosphate (P i ) and phosphomonoesters (PMEs) were observed in all the preparations of pancreas. In different individual preparations, the resonance of PCr varied, but those of ATP were almost the same. The initial levels of PCr and ATP in individual preparations, however, remained almost unchanged during perfusion with the standard solution for 2 h. When the perfusion was stopped, the levels of ATP and PCr decreased, while the levels of PME and P i increased. At that time, the P i resonance shfted to a higher magnetic field, indicating that the tissue pH decreased. On reperfusion, the tissue levels of phosphorus compounds and the tissue pH were restored to their initial resting levels. Continuous infusion of 0.1 μM acetylcholine caused marked and sustained increases in the flow of pancreatic juice and protein output. During the stimulation the tissue levels of phosphorus compounds remained unchanged, while the tissue pH was decreased slightly

  19. Modification of postirradiation hydroproteolytic activity of rat's pancreas by some drugs. [Trasylol, morphine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kocmierska-Grodzka, D; Radwan, J; Romatowska, A [Akademia Medyczna, Bialystok (Poland)

    1975-01-01

    Influence of Trasylol and morphine on hydroproteolytic activity of rat's pancreas was investigated. Trasylol, administered in vivo, caused moralization of activity of some pancreatic enzymes in the rats single and fractionated irradiated. In vitro, however, Trasylol did not affect the catheptic (pH 5.4) and amylolytic activity of the pancreas. After in vivo administration of morphine, the return to control values of amylolytic activity in the serum of single irradiated animals was observed.

  20. Sex-dependent effects of high-fat-diet feeding on rat pancreas oxidative stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gómez-Pérez, Yolanda; Gianotti, Magdalena; Lladó, Isabel; Proenza, Ana M

    2011-07-01

    The objective of the study was to investigate whether sex differences in oxidative stress-associated insulin resistance previously reported in rats could be attributed to a possible sex dimorphism in pancreas redox status. Fifteen-month-old male and female Wistar rats were fed a control diet or a high-fat diet for 14 weeks. Serum glucose, lipids, and hormone levels were measured. Insulin immunohistochemistry and morphometric analysis of islets were performed. Pancreas triglyceride content, oxidative damage, and antioxidant enzymatic activities were determined. Lipoprotein lipase, hormone-sensitive lipase, and uncoupling protein 2 (UCP2) levels were also measured. Male rats showed a more marked insulin resistance profile than females. In control female rats, pancreas Mn-superoxide dismutase activity and UCP2 levels were higher, and oxidative damage was lower compared with males. High-fat-diet feeding decreased pancreas triglyceride content in female rats and UCP2 levels in male rats. High-fat-diet female rats showed larger islets than both their control and sex counterparts. These results confirm the existence of a sex dimorphism in pancreas oxidative status in both control and high-fat-diet feeding situations, with female rats showing higher protection against oxidative stress, thus maintaining pancreatic function and contributing to a lower risk of insulin resistance.

  1. Fetal contamination with cadmium following chronic exposure of rat ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Fetal contamination with cadmium following chronic exposure of rat dams during gestation. ... African Journal of Applied Zoology and Environmental Biology ... It was concluded that cadmium, contrary to previous reports, can pass through the placenta in appreciable quantity to contaminate the fetus to possibly cause fetal ...

  2. Immunohistochemical and morphometric study of the development of fetal and newborn rat pancreatic islets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Badawoud, Mohammed H.

    2003-01-01

    Aim of this study is to perform a detailed morphometric immunohistochemichal study of develpment of fetal and newborn rat pancreatic islets. 24 pancreas were obtained from 19 and 21-day-old fetal rats,1 and 4-day-old newborn rats. They were fixed in a buffered neutral formalin ,dehydrated and embedded in paraplast. Sections were stained with anti-insulin antibodies. Study was performed at Department of Anatomy, King Abdul-Aziz University, Jeddah,Kingdom of Saudi Arabia, between 2001 and 2002. The volume density of B cells showed a grdual increase during the last days of gestation and a slight increase during the first 4 days after birth. All the other morphometric parameters showed a gradual increase during the last days of gestation and during the first days after birth.The B cell nuclear diameter and volume showed a slight increase after birth. B cells were stained and present in the central part of of fetal and new born islets,while the other islet cells were present in the periphery of the islets. The size of endocrine tissue, which was represented by the islet diameter, islet volume, islet volume density, total number of islet cells,number of B cells and volume density of B cells showed a progressive increase during the prenatal period. (author)

  3. Immunohistochemical localization of glucagon and pancreatic polypeptide on rat endocrine pancreas: coexistence in rat islet cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    YH Huang

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available We used immunofluorescence double staining method to investigate the cellular localization of glucagon and pancreatic polypeptide (PP in rat pancreatic islets. The results showed that both A-cells (glucagon-secreting cells and PP-cells (PPsecreting cells were located in the periphery of the islets. However, A-cells and PP-cells had a different regional distribution. Most of A-cells were located in the splenic lobe but a few of them were in the duodenal lobe of the pancreas. In contrast, the majority of PP-cells were found in the duodenal lobe and a few of them were in the splenic lobe of the pancreas. Furthermore, we found that 67.74% A-cells had PP immunoreactivity, 70.92% PP-cells contained glucagon immunoreactivity with immunofluorescence double staining. Our data support the concept of a common precursor stem cell for pancreatic hormone-producing cells.

  4. Hemorrhage Near Fetal Rat Bone: Preliminary Results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bigelow, Timothy A.; Miller, Rita J.; Blue, James P.; O'Brien, William D.

    2006-05-01

    High-intensity ultrasound has shown potential in treating many ailments requiring noninvasive tissue necrosis. However, little work has been done on using ultrasound to ablate pathologies on or near the developing fetus. For example, Congenital Cystic Adenomatoid Malformation (cyst on lungs), Sacrococcygeal Teratoma (benign tumor on tail bone), and Twin-Twin Transfusion Syndrome (one twin pumps blood to other twin) are selected problems that will potentially benefit from noninvasive ultrasound treatments. Before these applications can be explored, potential ultrasound-induced bioeffects should be understood. Specifically, ultrasound-induced hemorrhage near the fetal rat skull was investigated. An f/1 spherically focused transducer (5.1-cm focal length) was used to expose the skull of 18- to 19-day-gestation exteriorized rat fetuses. The ultrasound pulse had a center frequency of 0.92 MHz and pulse duration of 9.6 μs. The fetuses were exposed to 1 of 4 exposure conditions (denoted A, B, C, and D) in addition to a sham exposure. Three of the exposures consisted of a peak compressional pressure of 10 MPa, a peak rarefactional pressure of 6.7 MPa, and pulse repetition frequencies of 100 Hz (A), 250 Hz (B), and 500 Hz (C), corresponding to time-average intensities of 1.9 W/cm2, 4.7 W/cm2, and 9.4 W/cm2, respectively. Exposure D consisted of a peak compressional pressure of 6.7 MPa, a peak rarefactional pressure of 5.0 MPa, and a PRF of 500 Hz corresponding to a time-average intensity of 4.6 W/cm2. Hemorrhage occurrence increased slightly with increasing time-average intensity (i.e., 11% for A, 28% for B, 31% for C, and 19% for D with a 9% occurrence when the fetuses were not exposed). The low overall occurrence of hemorrhaging may be attributed to fetal motion (observed in over half of the fetuses from the backscattered echo during the exposure). The mean hemorrhage sizes were 3.1 mm2 for A, 2.5 mm2 for B, 2.7 mm2 for C, and 5.1 mm2 for D. The larger lesions at D may

  5. Influence of trichlorfon and fractionated irradiation on hydroproteolytic activity of pancreas and intestinal tissues of rats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kocmierska-Grodzka, D [Akademia Medyczna, Bialystok (Poland). Zaklad Farmakologii

    1976-03-01

    Investigations were carried out of the hydroproteolytic activity of pancreas, small intestine and colon of rats after fractionated irradiation (5x150 R). Marked postirradiation enhancement of lipase activity was found in pancreas and duodenal part of intestine as well as an increase of B-glucuronidase and acid phosphatase activity in nearly all parts of the intestinal tissues. Fractionated irradiation resulted in an increase of pancreatic catheptic (proteolytic) activity, causing simultaneous decrease of proteolytic activity in intestine and colon. Preventive administation of Trichlorfon ten days before irradiation (10 mg or 30 mg/kg) evoked modification of hydroproteolytic activity in intestinal tissues of healthy and irradiated rats. 30mg/kg Trichlorfon exerted antilipolytic and anticatheptic effects in pancreas and intestinal tissues of irradiated rats.

  6. Cadmium-induced fetal toxicity in the rat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Levin, A.A.

    1980-01-01

    Cadmium, a heavy metal environment contaminant, induces fetal death and placental necrosis in the Wistar rat. This study investigated fetal, maternal, and placental responses to cadmium intoxication. Subcutaneous injection of CdCl 2 to dams on day 18 of pregnancy produced a high incidence of fetal death (75%) and placental necrosis. Death in the fetus was produced despite limited fetal accumulations of cadmium. Distribution studies using 109 Cd-labeled CdCl 2 demonstrated that less than 0.1% of the injected dose was associated with the fetus. To determine if fetuses were sensitive to these low levels of cadmium, direct injections of CdCl 2 into fetuses were performed in utero. Direct injections produced fetal accumulations 8-fold greater than those following maternal injections. The 8-fold greater fetal accumulations following direct injection were associated with only a 12% fetal mortality compared to the 75% mortality following maternal injections. The data indicated that the fetal toxicity of cadmium following maternal injections was not the result of direct effects of cadmium on the fetus. In conclusion, cadmium-induced fetal death was not the result of direct effects of cadmium on the fetus but may have been induced by placental cellular injury resulting from high accumulations of cadmium in the placenta. A vascular response to placental injury, leading to decreased utero-placental bood flow and cadmium-induced alterations in trophoblastic function, resulted in fetal death

  7. Comparison of rat and rabbit embryo-fetal developmental ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    Regulatory non-clinical safety testing of human pharmaceutical compounds typically requires embryo fetal developmental toxicity (EFDT) testing in two species, (one rodent and one non-rodent, usually the rat and the rabbit). The question has been raised whether under some conditions EFDT testing could be limited to one species, or whether the need for testing in a second species could be decided on a case by case basis. As part of an RIVM/CBG-MEB/HESI/US EPA consortium initiative, we built and queried a database of 379 EFDT studies conducted for marketed and non-marketed pharmaceutical compounds. The animal models (rat and rabbit) were assessed for their potential for adverse developmental and maternal outcomes. The database was analyzed for the prevalence of EFDT incidence and the nature and severity of adverse findings in the two species. Some manifestation of EFDT in either one or both species (rat and rabbit) was demonstrated for 282 compounds (74%), and EFDT was detected in only one species (rat or rabbit) in almost a third (31%, 118 compounds), with approximately 58% rat and 42% rabbit studies identifying an EFDT signal among the 379 compounds tested. For 24 compounds (6%), fetal malformations were observed in one species (rat or rabbit) in the absence of any EFDT in the second species. In general, growth retardation, fetal variations, and malformations were more prominent in the rat, whereas embryo-fetal death was observed more often in the rabbit. Discor

  8. Intra-peritoneal administration of interleukin-1 beta induces impaired insulin release from the perfused rat pancreas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wogensen, L; Helqvist, S; Pociot, F

    1990-01-01

    Previous studies have demonstrated a stimulatory effect of interleukin-1 beta (IL-1 beta) on insulin and glucagon release from the perfused rat pancreas, accompanied by selective lysis of 20% of beta-cells as assessed by electronmicroscopy. However, we have not observed an inhibitory action of IL-1...... beta on insulin release from the perfused pancreas as shown for isolated islets. To test whether periodical exposure of the endocrine pancreas to circulating IL-1 beta in vivo affects insulin release from the intact perfused pancreas, rats were treated with daily intraperitoneal injections of 4...

  9. Tissue-type plasminogen activator in somatostatin cells of rat pancreas and hypothalamus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, P; Larsson, L I; Danø, K

    1987-01-01

    -PA, and immunoblotting analysis demonstrated one band with a similar electrophoretic mobility. No urokinase-type PA immunoreactivity was found in the rat endocrine pancreas. A granular t-PA immunoreactivity resembling that found in adjacent sections with somatostatin antiserum was found in the median eminence...

  10. Immunosuppressive effect of the anti-IL-2-receptor monoclonal antibody, AMT-13, on organ-cultured fetal pancreas allograft survival

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burkhardt, K.; Loughnan, M.S.; Diamantstein, T.; Mandel, T.E.

    1988-01-01

    Recently, prolongation of cardiac allograft survival in mice was reported using a rat anti-IL-2R mAb (AMT-13). However, its immunosuppressive action in vivo, alone and in combination with other immunosuppressants, and its effect on other organ transplants has not been extensively studied. We grafted cultured fetal pancreas from CBA (H-2k) donors to Balb/c (H-2d) mice. Recipients were treated with 10 consecutive daily injections each of 20 micrograms AMT-13 only, or with an additional mild immunosuppression of 350 rads irradiation. Control groups received rat immunoglobulin or 350 rads irradiation. Graft survival and the phenotype of infiltrating cells were assessed histologically and immunocytochemically on days 12, 17, and 21, and soluble IL-2R levels were measured in the serum with a quantitative ELISA in all recipients. Two of five grafts in the AMT-13-treated group had islets on day 12 posttransplantation despite lymphocytic infiltration in all grafts, while at this time all grafts of rat Ig treated control mice were completely rejected with only scar tissue and a few lymphocytes remaining. Additional immunosuppression with 350 rads irradiation had a marked additive effect with AMT-13. Soluble IL-2R levels in the serum of untreated recipients were not elevated compared with normal serum levels, but recipients injected with AMT-13 had multifold increased soluble IL-2R levels. The percentage of IL-2R+ cells in the grafts of AMT-13-treated animals was either normal (less than 5%) or increased (20%) in the additionally irradiated mice, providing strong evidence that the immunosuppressive effect of AMT-13 is not due to a depletion of activated IL-2R+ lymphocytes

  11. Comparing rat and rabbit embryo-fetal developmental toxicity ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    A database of embryo-fetal developmental toxicity (EFDT) studies of 379 pharmaceutical compounds in rat and rabbit was analyzed for species differences based on toxicokinetic parameters of area under the curve (AUC) and maximum concentration (Cmax) at the developmental adverse effect level (dLOAEL). For the vast majority of cases (83% based on AUC of n=283), dLOAELs in rats and rabbits were within the same order of magnitude (less than 10-fold different) when compared based on available data on AUC and Cmax exposures. For 13.5% of the compounds the rabbit was more sensitive and for 3.5% of compounds the rat was more sensitive when compared based on AUC exposures. For 12% of the compounds the rabbit was more sensitive and for 1.3% of compounds the rat was more sensitive based on Cmax exposures. When evaluated based on human equivalent dose (HED) conversion using standard factors, the rat and rabbit were equally sensitive. The relative extent of embryo-fetal toxicity in the presence of maternal toxicity was not different between species. Overall effect severity incidences were distributed similarly in rat and rabbit studies. Individual rat and rabbit strains did not show a different general distribution of systemic exposure LOAELs as compared to all strains combined for each species. There were no apparent species differences in the occurrence of embryo-fetal variations. Based on power of detection and given differences in the nature of developmental effects betwe

  12. Expression and Localization of microRNAs in Perinatal Rat Pancreas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Louise; Rosenstierne, Maiken Worsøe; Gaarn, Louise Winkel

    2011-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To investigate the expression of pancreatic microRNAs (miRNAs) during the period of perinatal beta-cell expansion and maturation in rats, determine the localization of these miRNAs and perform a pathway analysis with predicted target mRNAs expressed in perinatal pancreas. RESEARCH DESIGN...... AND METHODS: RNA was extracted from whole pancreas at embryonic day 20 (E20), on the day of birth (P0) and two days after birth (P2) and hybridized to miRNA microarrays. Differentially expressed miRNAs were verified by northern blotting and their pancreatic localization determined by in situ hybridization...

  13. Demonstration of epidermal growth factor binding sites in the adult rat pancreas by light microscopic autoradiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chabot, J.G.; Walker, P.; Pelletier, G.

    1987-01-01

    The distribution of epidermal growth factor (EGF) receptors was studied in the pancreas using light microscopic autoradiography, which was performed at different time intervals (2-60 min) after injecting 125 I-labeled EGF intravenously into the adult rat. In the exocrine pancreas, a labeling was found to occur over the pyramidal cells of the acini and cells lining the intercalated ducts. Moreover, substantial binding of EGF to cells of the islets of Langerhans was also revealed. At the 2-min time interval, most silver grains were found at the periphery of the target cells. The localization, as well as the diminution of silver grains over the cytoplasm of these cells, between 7 and 60 min, suggested the internalization and degradation of 125 I-labeled EGF. Control experiments indicated that the autoradiography reaction was due to specific interaction of 125 I-labeled EGF with its receptor. These results clearly indicate that EGF receptors are present in the acinar cells and the cells of intercalated ducts of the exocrine pancreas, as well as the cells of the endocrine pancreas. Finding that there are EGF binding sites in pancreatic acinar cells supports the physiological role of EGF in the regulation of pancreatic exocrine function. The presence of EGF receptors in cells of the islets of Langerhans suggests that EGF may play a role in the regulation of the endocrine pancreas

  14. Three-dimensional contrasted visualization of pancreas in rats using clinical MRI and CT scanners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Ting; Coudyzer, Walter; Peeters, Ronald; Liu, Yewei; Cona, Marlein Miranda; Feng, Yuanbo; Xia, Qian; Yu, Jie; Jiang, Yansheng; Dymarkowski, Steven; Huang, Gang; Chen, Feng; Oyen, Raymond; Ni, Yicheng

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this work was to visualize the pancreas in post-mortem rats with local contrast medium infusion by three-dimensional (3D) magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and computed tomography (CT) using clinical imagers. A total of 16 Sprague Dawley rats of about 300 g were used for the pancreas visualization. Following the baseline imaging, a mixed contrast medium dye called GadoIodo-EB containing optimized concentrations of Gd-DOTA, iomeprol and Evens blue was infused into the distally obstructed common bile duct (CBD) for post-contrast imaging with 3.0 T MRI and 128-slice CT scanners. Images were post-processed with the MeVisLab software package. MRI findings were co-registered with CT scans and validated with histomorphology, with relative contrast ratios quantified. Without contrast enhancement, the pancreas was indiscernible. After infusion of GadoIodo-EB solution, only the pancreatic region became outstandingly visible, as shown by 3D rendering MRI and CT and proven by colored dissection and histological examinations. The measured volume of the pancreas averaged 1.12 ± 0.04 cm(3) after standardization. Relative contrast ratios were 93.28 ± 34.61% and 26.45 ± 5.29% for MRI and CT respectively. We have developed a multifunctional contrast medium dye to help clearly visualize and delineate rat pancreas in situ using clinical MRI and CT scanners. The topographic landmarks thus created with 3D demonstration may help to provide guidelines for the next in vivo pancreatic MRI research in rodents. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  15. Detection of expressional changes induced by intrauterine growth restriction in the developing rat pancreas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Lin; Chen, Wei; Dai, Yuee; Zhu, Ziyang; Liu, Qianqi

    2016-07-01

    Intrauterine growth retardation (IUGR) is a disorder that can result in permanent changes in the physiology and metabolism of the newborn, which increased the risk of disease in adulthood. Evidence supports IUGR as a risk factor for the development of diabetes mellitus, which could reflect changes in pancreas developmental pathways. We sought to characterize the IUGR-induced alterations of the complex pathways of pancreas development in a rat model of IUGR. We analyzed the pancreases of Sprague Dawley rats after inducing IUGR by feeding a maternal low calorie diet from gestational day 1 until term. IUGR altered the pancreatic structure, islet areas, and islet quantities and resulted in abnormal morphological changes during pancreatic development, as determined by HE staining and light microscopy. We identified multiple differentially expressed genes in the pancreas by RT-PCR. The genes of the insulin/FoxO1/Pdx1/MafA signaling pathway were first expressed at embryonic day 14 (E14). The expressions of insulin and MafA increased as the fetus grew while the expressions of FoxO1 and Pdx1 decreased. Compared with the control rats, the expressions of FoxO1, Pdx1, and MafA were lower in the IUGR rats, whereas insulin levels showed no change. Microarray profiling, in combination with quantitative real-time PCR, uncovered a subset of microRNAs that changed in their degree of expression throughout pancreatic development. In conclusion, our data support the hypothesis that IUGR influences the development of the rat pancreas. We also identified new pathways that appear to be programmed by IUGR. © 2016 by the Society for Experimental Biology and Medicine.

  16. A comparative immunohistochemical study on amylase localization in the rat and human exocrine pancreas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aughsteen, Adib A.

    2001-01-01

    Objective was to localize amylase enzyme immunohistochemically in the pancreatic acinar cells of rats and humans using polyclonal sheep anti-human amylase antibody, and to compare between the intensities of their amylase-immunostaining. Indirect immunofluorescence method was applied on formaldehyde-fixed, and paraffin-embedded pancreatic sections obtained from adult male Wistar rats and autopsied human samples. Primary incubation was performed using sheep anti-amylase antibody followed by secondary incubation with fluorescein isothiocyanate-labeled rabbit anti-sheep IgG serum. Control tests of amylase immunospecificity were also undertaken either by incubation with primary antibodies previously pre-adsorbed with an excess of human pancreatic amylase, or only with secondary antibodies. The amylase immunofluorescence was positively and homogenously detected in all acinar cells of both rat and human pancreatic stained sections. The immunostaining was clearly demonstrated in the cell apices and peri-nuclear areas, but it was consistently brighter and more intense in the human acinar cells compared with that of the rat pancreas. Control tests of amylase immunofluorescence revealed the specificity of the antibodies applied for amylase localization in rat and human pancreas. Although many previous immunohisto- and cytochemical reports have successfully localized amylase in the pancreas of different mammalian species, but all of them have used locally prepared anti-amylase antibodies. The present report successfully illustrates immuno-localization of amylase in the pancreatic acinar cells of rats and humans using commercial polyclonal sheep anti-human pancreatic amylase antibodies, and also suggests their useful application in the immunochemical studies on various mammalian species. Additionally, the results indicate a structural similarity between the human and rat pancreatic amylases, a concept required further exploration. (author)

  17. Fetal and neonatal nicotine exposure in Wistar rats causes progressive pancreatic mitochondrial damage and beta cell dysfunction.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennifer E Bruin

    Full Text Available Nicotine replacement therapy (NRT is currently recommended as a safe smoking cessation aid for pregnant women. However, fetal and neonatal nicotine exposure in rats causes mitochondrial-mediated beta cell apoptosis at weaning, and adult-onset dysglycemia, which we hypothesize is related to progressive mitochondrial dysfunction in the pancreas. Therefore in this study we examined the effect of fetal and neonatal exposure to nicotine on pancreatic mitochondrial structure and function during postnatal development. Female Wistar rats were given saline (vehicle control or nicotine bitartrate (1 mg/kg/d via subcutaneous injection for 2 weeks prior to mating until weaning. At 3-4, 15 and 26 weeks of age, oral glucose tolerance tests were performed, and pancreas tissue was collected for electron microscopy, enzyme activity assays and islet isolation. Following nicotine exposure mitochondrial structural abnormalities were observed beginning at 3 weeks and worsened with advancing age. Importantly the appearance of these structural defects in nicotine-exposed animals preceded the onset of glucose intolerance. Nicotine exposure also resulted in significantly reduced pancreatic respiratory chain enzyme activity, degranulation of beta cells, elevated islet oxidative stress and impaired glucose-stimulated insulin secretion compared to saline controls at 26 weeks of age. Taken together, these data suggest that maternal nicotine use during pregnancy results in postnatal mitochondrial dysfunction that may explain, in part, the dysglycemia observed in the offspring from this animal model. These results clearly indicate that further investigation into the safety of NRT use during pregnancy is warranted.

  18. Opposite Expression of SPARC between the Liver and Pancreas in Streptozotocin-Induced Diabetic Rats.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kanikkai Raja Aseer

    Full Text Available Secreted protein acidic and rich in cysteine (SPARC is a matricellular protein that regulates several cellular events, including inflammation and tissue remodelling. In this study, we investigated the tissue-specific expression of SPARC in streptozotocin (STZ-induced diabetes, and found that SPARC was significantly up-regulated in the liver while down-regulated in the pancreas of STZ-induced diabetic rats. Chronic inflammation occurred in the diabetic pancreas accompanied by up-regulation of CCAAT/enhancer-binding protein beta (C/EBPβ and its targets (TNFα, Il6, CRP, and Fn1 as well as myeloperoxidase (Mpo and C-X-C chemokine receptor type 2 (Cxcr2. Diabetic liver showed significant up-regulation of Tgfb1 as well as moderately less up-regulated TNFα and reduced Fn1, resulting in elevated fibrogenesis. PARP-1 was not up-regulated during CD95-mediated apoptosis, resulting in restoration of high ATP levels in the diabetic liver. On the contrary, CD95-dependent apoptosis was not observed in the diabetic pancreas due to up-regulation of PARP-1 and ATP depletion, resulting in necrosis. The cytoprotective machinery was damaged by pancreatic inflammation, whereas adequate antioxidant capacity indicates low oxidative stress in the diabetic liver. High and low cellular insulin content was found in the diabetic liver and pancreas, respectively. Furthermore, we identified six novel interacting partner proteins of SPARC by co-immunoprecipitation in the diabetic liver and pancreas, and their interactions with SPARC were predicted by bioinformatics tools. Taken together, opposite expression of SPARC in the diabetic liver and pancreas may be related to inflammation and immune cell infiltration, degrees of apoptosis and fibrosis, cytoprotective machinery, and cellular insulin levels.

  19. Opposite Expression of SPARC between the Liver and Pancreas in Streptozotocin-Induced Diabetic Rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aseer, Kanikkai Raja; Kim, Sang Woo; Choi, Myung-Sook; Yun, Jong Won

    2015-01-01

    Secreted protein acidic and rich in cysteine (SPARC) is a matricellular protein that regulates several cellular events, including inflammation and tissue remodelling. In this study, we investigated the tissue-specific expression of SPARC in streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetes, and found that SPARC was significantly up-regulated in the liver while down-regulated in the pancreas of STZ-induced diabetic rats. Chronic inflammation occurred in the diabetic pancreas accompanied by up-regulation of CCAAT/enhancer-binding protein beta (C/EBPβ) and its targets (TNFα, Il6, CRP, and Fn1) as well as myeloperoxidase (Mpo) and C-X-C chemokine receptor type 2 (Cxcr2). Diabetic liver showed significant up-regulation of Tgfb1 as well as moderately less up-regulated TNFα and reduced Fn1, resulting in elevated fibrogenesis. PARP-1 was not up-regulated during CD95-mediated apoptosis, resulting in restoration of high ATP levels in the diabetic liver. On the contrary, CD95-dependent apoptosis was not observed in the diabetic pancreas due to up-regulation of PARP-1 and ATP depletion, resulting in necrosis. The cytoprotective machinery was damaged by pancreatic inflammation, whereas adequate antioxidant capacity indicates low oxidative stress in the diabetic liver. High and low cellular insulin content was found in the diabetic liver and pancreas, respectively. Furthermore, we identified six novel interacting partner proteins of SPARC by co-immunoprecipitation in the diabetic liver and pancreas, and their interactions with SPARC were predicted by bioinformatics tools. Taken together, opposite expression of SPARC in the diabetic liver and pancreas may be related to inflammation and immune cell infiltration, degrees of apoptosis and fibrosis, cytoprotective machinery, and cellular insulin levels. PMID:26110898

  20. New method of isolation and perfusion of rat pancreas for phosphorus nucletic resonance study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matsumoto, Takehisa; Kanno, Tomio; Murakami, Masataka; Watari, Hiroshi; Seo, Yoshiteru

    1988-02-01

    Phosphorus nuclear magnetic resonance (/sup 31/P-NMR) was applied to measure phosphorus metabolites in the pancreas. Rat pancreatic gland was isolated and perfused with a modified Krebs-Henseleit solution at room temperature (25 deg C). Removal of the duodenum from the pancreas made it possible to record /sup 31/P-NMR spectra only from the pancreatic tissue. /sup 31/P signals of creatine phosphate (PCr), ATP and inorganic phosphate (Pi) were observed in all the glands. In different individual glands, the Signal intensity of PCr varied, but those of ATP were almost the same. The initial levels of all the phosphorus metabolites in individual glands remained almost unchanged during perfusion with the standard solution for 2 hours. When the perfusion was stopped, signal intensity of ATP and PCr decreased while Pi resonance increased and shifted to a higher magnetic field, indicating tissue acidification. On re-perfusion, each resonance and tissue pH were restored to the respective initial resting levels. Continuous stimulation with 0.3 ..mu..M acetylcholine (ACh) or 0.1 nM CCK-8 caused a markedly larger increase in pancreatic exocrine secretion than that observed in the perfused pancreas which was prepared by the previous method. Continuous stimulation with 0.1 ..mu..M ACh caused a marked and sustained increase in pancreatic exocrine secretion. During the stimulation, the resonances of phosphorus energy metabolites and tissue pH remained almost unchanged. These results indicate that the isolated perfused rat pancreas which is prepared by our new method is a useful preparation for analysis of secretion-metabolism coupling in the exocrine pancreas.

  1. Reproducible insulin secretion from isolated rat pancreas preparations using an organ bath.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morita, Asuka; Ouchi, Motoshi; Terada, Misao; Kon, Hiroe; Kishimoto, Satoko; Satoh, Keitaro; Otani, Naoyuki; Hayashi, Keitaro; Fujita, Tomoe; Inoue, Ken-Ichi; Anzai, Naohiko

    2018-02-09

    Diabetes mellitus is a lifestyle-related disease that is characterized by inappropriate or diminished insulin secretion. Ex vivo pharmacological studies of hypoglycemic agents are often conducted using perfused pancreatic preparations. Pancreas preparations for organ bath experiments do not require cannulation and are therefore less complex than isolated perfused pancreas preparations. However, previous research has generated almost no data on insulin secretion from pancreas preparations using organ bath preparations. The purpose of this study was to investigate the applicability of isolated rat pancreas preparations using the organ bath technique in the quantitative analysis of insulin secretion from β-cells. We found that insulin secretion significantly declined during incubation in the organ bath, whereas it was maintained in the presence of 1 µM GLP-1. Conversely, amylase secretion exhibited a modest increase during incubation and was not altered in the presence of GLP-1. These results demonstrate that the pancreatic organ bath preparation is a sensitive and reproducible method for the ex vivo assessment of the pharmacological properties of hypoglycemic agents.

  2. Studies On Some Fetal Rat Organs Following Maternal Hyperthermia

    OpenAIRE

    El Shabaka, H. A. [حمزة احمد الشبكة

    1993-01-01

    The present investigation was carried out to determine the histological changes in brain, liver and kidneys of rat fetuses maternally heatstressed at early stage of pregnancy to either high "spiking" temperature of short duration or low temperature of long duration. The number of viable fetuses as well as the fetal weight of the heatstressed groups was significantly reduced compared with corresponding controls. Edema and microphthalmia are the only malformations detected among the viable 18 d...

  3. Enhanced insulin-like growth factor I gene expression in regenerating rat pancreas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, F.E.; Rosen, K.M.; Villa-Komaroff, L.; Weir, G.C.; Bonner-Weir, S.

    1991-01-01

    Insulin-like growth factor I (IGF-I) mRNA expression was studied after 90% partial pancreatectomy in the rat to determine whether IGF-I was associated with pancreatic regeneration. The level of IGF-I mRNA was maximally increased (4-fold above control value) 3 days after pancreatectomy, but thereafter gradually decreased, returning to control levels by 14 days after surgery. By in situ hybridization, IGF-I mRNA in both pancreatectomized and sham-operated rats was localized to capillary endothelial cells, indicating that this is the site of IGF-I expression in the normal rat pancreas. However, enhanced IGF-I mRNA expression was localized to focal areas of regeneration unique to pancreatectomized rats. In these areas, epithelial cells of proliferating ductules and individual connective tissue cells expressed IGF-I, suggesting that IGF-I may play an important role in the growth or differentiation of pancreatic tissue

  4. Enhanced insulin-like growth factor I gene expression in regenerating rat pancreas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, F.E.; Rosen, K.M.; Villa-Komaroff, L.; Weir, G.C.; Bonner-Weir, S. (E. P. Joslin Research Laboratory, Joslin Diabetes Center, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA (USA))

    1991-07-15

    Insulin-like growth factor I (IGF-I) mRNA expression was studied after 90% partial pancreatectomy in the rat to determine whether IGF-I was associated with pancreatic regeneration. The level of IGF-I mRNA was maximally increased (4-fold above control value) 3 days after pancreatectomy, but thereafter gradually decreased, returning to control levels by 14 days after surgery. By in situ hybridization, IGF-I mRNA in both pancreatectomized and sham-operated rats was localized to capillary endothelial cells, indicating that this is the site of IGF-I expression in the normal rat pancreas. However, enhanced IGF-I mRNA expression was localized to focal areas of regeneration unique to pancreatectomized rats. In these areas, epithelial cells of proliferating ductules and individual connective tissue cells expressed IGF-I, suggesting that IGF-I may play an important role in the growth or differentiation of pancreatic tissue.

  5. Maternal endotoxin-induced fetal growth restriction in rats: Fetal responses in toll-like receptor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Banun Kusumawardani

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Porphyromonas gingivalis as a major etiology of periodontal disease can produce virulence factor, lipopolysaccharide/LPS, which is expected to play a role in the intrauterine fetal growth. Trophoblast at the maternal-fetal interface actively participates in response to infection through the expression of a family of natural immune receptors, toll-like receptor (TLR. Purpose: the aims of study were to identify endotoxin concentration in maternal blood serum of Porphyromonas gingivalis-infected pregnant rats, to characterize the TLR-4 expression in trophoblast cells, and to determine its effect on fetal growth. Methods: Female rats were infected with live-Porphyromonas gingivalis at concentration of 2 x 109 cells/ml into subgingival sulcus area of the maxillary first molar before and/or during pregnancy. They were sacrified on 14th and 20th gestational day. Fetuses were evaluated for weight and length. Endotoxin was detected by limulus amebocyte lysate assay in the maternal blood serum. The TLR-4 expression in trophoblast cells was detected by immunohistochemistry. N-stearoylethanolamine restores pancreas lipid composition in obesity-induced insulin resistant rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Onopchenko, Oleksandra V; Kosiakova, Galina V; Oz, Murat; Klimashevsky, Vitaliy M; Gula, Nadiya M

    2015-01-01

    This study investigates the protective effect of N-stearoylethanolamine (NSE), a bioactive N-acylethanolamine , on the lipid profile distribution in the pancreas of obesity-induced insulin resistant (IR) rats fed with prolonged high fat diet (58% of fat for 6 months). The phospholipid composition was determined using 2D thin-layer chromatography. The level of individual phospholipids was estimated by measuring inorganic phosphorus content. The fatty acid (FA) composition and cholesterol level were investigated by gas-liquid chromatography. Compared to controls, plasma levels of triglycerides and insulin were significantly increased in IR rats. The pancreas lipid composition indicated a significant reduction of the free cholesterol level and some phospholipids such as phosphatidylcholine (PtdCho), phosphatidylethanolamine (PtdEtn), phosphatidylinositol (PtdIns), phosphatidylserine (PtdSer) compared to controls. Moreover, the FA composition of pancreas showed a significant redistribution of the main FA (18:1n-9, 18:2n-6, 18:3n-6 and 20:4n-6) levels between phospholipid, free FA, triglyceride fractions under IR conditions that was accompanied by a change in the estimated activities of Δ9-, Δ6-, Δ5-desaturase. Administration of N-stearoylethanolamine (NSE, 50 mg/kg daily per os for 2 weeks) IR rats triggered an increase in the content of free cholesterol, PtdCho and normalization of PtdEtn, PtdSer level. Furthermore, the NSE modulated the activity of desaturases, thus influenced FA composition and restored the FA ratios in the lipid fractions. These NSE-induced changes were associated with a normalization of plasma triglyceride content, considerable decrease of insulin and index HOMA-IR level in rats under IR conditions.

  6. Somatomedin-C stimulates glycogen synthesis in fetal rat hepatocytes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Freemark, M.; D'Ercole, A.J.; Handwerger, S.

    1985-01-01

    The effects of somatomedin-C/insulin-like growth factor I (Sm-C) on glycogen metabolism in cultured hepatocytes from 20-day-old rat fetuses have been examined and compared with the effects of insulin. Sm-C (25-375 ng/ml; 3.25-50 nM) stimulated dose-dependent increases in [ 14 C]glucose incorporation into glycogen (14.4-72.9% and total cell glycogen content (10.6-34.3%. Maximal stimulation of glycogen synthesis by Sm-C occurred at 2-4 h of incubation. Insulin (10 nM to 10 microM) also stimulated [ 14 C]glucose incorporation but its potency was only 1/20th that of Sm-C. The time course of stimulation of glucose incorporation by insulin was identical to that of Sm-C, the dose-response curves of the two hormones were parallel, and the maximal effects of insulin were not enhanced by simultaneous exposure of cells to Sm-C. These findings suggest that Sm-C and insulin stimulate glycogenesis in fetal liver through similar or identical mechanisms. Since the potency of Sm-C was 20 times greater than that of insulin, the glycogenic action of insulin in fetal liver may be mediated through binding to a hepatic receptor which also binds Sm-C. In addition to having mitogenic effects on fetal tissues, Sm-C may have direct anabolic effects on fetal carbohydrate metabolism

  7. Passive stiffness of rat skeletal muscle undernourished during fetal development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Elisa Toscano

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: The aim of the study was to investigate the effect of fetal undernutrition on the passive mechanical properties of skeletal muscle of weaned and young adult rats. INTRODUCTION: A poor nutrition supply during fetal development affects physiological functions of the fetus. From a mechanical point of view, skeletal muscle can be also characterized by its resistance to passive stretch. METHODS: Male Wistar rats were divided into two groups according to their mother's diet during pregnancy: a control group (mothers fed a 17% protein diet and an isocaloric low-protein group (mothers fed a 7.8% protein diet. At birth, all mothers received a standardized meal ad libitum. At the age of 25 and 90 days, the soleus muscle and extensor digitorum longus (EDL muscles were removed in order to test the passive mechanical properties. A first mechanical test consisted of an incremental stepwise extension test using fast velocity stretching (500 mm/s enabling us to measure, for each extension stepwise, the dynamic stress (σd and the steady stress (σs. A second test consisted of a slow velocity stretch in order to calculate normalized stiffness and tangent modulus from the stress-strain relationship. RESULTS: The results for the mechanical properties showed an important increase in passive stiffness in both the soleus and EDL muscles in weaned rat. In contrast, no modification was observed in young adult rats. CONCLUSIONS: The increase in passive stiffness in skeletal muscle of weaned rat submitted to intrauterine undernutrition it is most likely due to changes in muscle passive stiffness.

  8. Fibronectin distribution during the development of fetal rat skin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gibson, W T; Couchman, J R; Weaver, A C

    1983-01-01

    Fibronectin distribution during fetal rat skin development has been studied immunocytochemically at the light and electron microscope level from 16 days of gestation to birth. The dermal-epidermal junction, the dermis, and connective tissue around developing muscle were shown by light microscopy......, and there was also staining associated with the underlying fine collagen fibrils. These observations are further evidence for the proposed role of fibronectin as a mediator of the cell-matrix interactions which are of importance for tissue development and maintenance....

  9. Effects of chronic isoproterenol administration of β1-adrenoceptors and growth of pancreas of young and adult rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schneyer, C.A.; Humphreys-Beher, M.

    1988-01-01

    [ 3 H]Dihydroalprenolol (DHA) binding of membranes of adult pancreas differed from that of pancreas of young rats, and the DHA binding in the presence of atenolol or butoxamine also was different in the two age groups. The adult pancreas had 93% β 2 - and 7% β 1 -adrenoceptors and did not exhibit an increased incorporation of [ 3 H]thymidine into deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) following 2 days of DL-isoproterenol (ISO) administration; in contrast, pancreas of the 20-day-old rat had 71% β 2 -adrenoceptors and 27% β 1 -adrenoceptors and exhibited a 34-fold increase over that of adult, and a 6-fold increase over that of the control 20-day-old pancreas. Acinar cell differentiation was also accelerated by a 7-day regimen of ISO administration from 13 to 20 days of age. These growth responses to ISO appear to be β 1 mediated. The lack of β 1 -adrenoceptors in the adult may account for the failure of the adult pancreas to exhibit a growth response to ISO

  10. Tributyltin chloride leads to adiposity and impairs metabolic functions in the rat liver and pancreas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bertuloso, Bruno D; Podratz, Priscila L; Merlo, Eduardo; de Araújo, Julia F P; Lima, Leandro C F; de Miguel, Emilio C; de Souza, Leticia N; Gava, Agata L; de Oliveira, Miriane; Miranda-Alves, Leandro; Carneiro, Maria T W D; Nogueira, Celia R; Graceli, Jones B

    2015-05-19

    Tributyltin chloride (TBT) is an environmental contaminant used in antifouling paints of boats. Endocrine disruptor effects of TBT are well established in animal models. However, the adverse effects on metabolism are less well understood. The toxicity of TBT in the white adipose tissue (WAT), liver and pancreas of female rats were assessed. Animals were divided into control and TBT (0.1 μg/kg/day) groups. TBT induced an increase in the body weight of the rats by the 15th day of oral exposure. The weight gain was associated with high parametrial (PR) and retroperitoneal (RP) WAT weights. TBT-treatment increased the adiposity, inflammation and expression of ERα and PPARγ proteins in both RP and PR WAT. In 3T3-L1 cells, estrogen treatment reduced lipid droplets accumulation, however increased the ERα protein expression. In contrast, TBT-treatment increased the lipid accumulation and reduced the ERα expression. WAT metabolic changes led to hepatic inflammation, lipid accumulation, increase of PPARγ and reduction of ERα protein expression. Accordingly, there were increases in the glucose tolerance and insulin sensitivity tests with increases in the number of pancreatic islets and insulin levels. These findings suggest that TBT leads to adiposity in WAT specifically, impairing the metabolic functions of the liver and pancreas. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.

  11. [Effects of octreotide on fatty infiltration of the pancreas in high-fat diet induced obesity rats].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Tao; Liu, Rui; Li, Mao; Li, Xian; Qiang, Ou; Huang, Wei; Tang, Chengwei

    2014-03-01

    To investigate effects of octreotide on fatty infiltration of the pancreas in high-fat diet induced obesity rats. SD rats were divided into control group (n = 14) and high-fat diet group (n = 36). Obese rats from the high-fat diet group were further divided into 2 groups: the obese group (n = 14) and the octreotide-treated group (n = 16). Rats in the octreotide-treated group were subcutaneously injected with octreotide per 12 h (40 mg/kg BW) for 8 days. Body weight, fasting plasma glucose (FPG), fasting serum insulin, triglyceride (TG), total cholesterol (TC), high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) levels, pancreatic TG and FFA content were measured. Homeostatic model assessment (HOMA) index was calculated. Somatostatin (SST) and the expression of adipose differentiation-related protein (ADFP) in pancrea were measured. Pathological changes of pancreas were examined with light microscopy. Body weight, Lee's index, FPG, fasting serum insulin, TG, TC levels and HOMA index in the obese group were higher than those in the control group (P pancreas, and lowering the levels of plasma glucose and lipid in the high-fat diet induced obesity rats.

  12. Exercise Ameliorates Endocrine Pancreas Damage Induced by Chronic Cola Drinking in Rats.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matilde Otero-Losada

    Full Text Available This study evaluates whether the daily practice of an exercise routine might protect from endocrine pancreas damage in cola drinking rats.Forty-eight Wistar rats were randomly assigned to 4 groups depending on a beverage consumption ad libitum, water (W or cola beverage (C, and b physical activity, sedentary (S or treadmill running (R. Accordingly, 4 groups were studied: WS (water sedentary, WR (water runner, CS (cola sedentary and CR (cola runner. Body weight, nutritional data, plasma levels of glucose, creatinine, total cholesterol and cholesterol fractions, and triglycerides (enzymocolorimetry, and systolic blood pressure (plethysmography were measured. After 6 months, euthanasia was performed (overdose sodium thiopental. Pancreatic tissue was immediately excised and conventionally processed for morphometrical and immunohistochemical determinations.The effects of running and chronic cola drinking on pancreas morphology showed interaction (p<0.001 rather than simple summation. Cola drinking (CS vs WS reduced median pancreatic islet area (-30%, 1.8 104 μm2 vs 2.58 104 μm2, p<0.0001 and median β-cell mass (-43%, 3.81 mg vs 6.73 mg, p<0.0001, and increased median α/β ratio (+49%, 0.64 vs 0.43, p< 0.001. In water drinking rats (WR vs WS, running reduced median α-cell mass (-48%, 1.48 mg vs 2.82 mg, p<0.001 and α/β ratio (-56%, 0.19 vs 0.43, p<0.0001. Differently, in cola drinking rats (CR vs CS, running partially restored median islet area (+15%, 2.06 104 μm2 vs 1.79 104 μm2, p<0.05, increased median β-cell mass (+47%, 5.59 mg vs 3.81 mg, p <0.0001 and reduced median α/β ratio (-6%, 0.60 vs 0.64, p<0.05.This study is likely the first reporting experimental evidence of the beneficial effect of exercise on pancreatic morphology in cola-drinking rats. Presently, the increase of nearly 50% in β cells mass by running in cola drinking rats is by far the most relevant finding. Moderate running, advisably indicated in cola consumers and

  13. Maternal-fetal hepatic and placental metabolome profiles are associated with reduced fetal growth in a rat model of maternal obesity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mumme, Karen; Gray, Clint; Reynolds, Clare M.

    2016-01-01

    : Metabolomic profiling was used to reveal altered maternal and fetal metabolic pathways in a model of diet induced obesity during pregnancy, leading to reduced fetal growth. Methods: We examined the metabolome of maternal and fetal livers, and placenta following a high fat and salt intake. Sprague–Dawley rats...

  14. Intercellular adhesion molecule-1 blockade attenuates inflammatory response and improves microvascular perfusion in rat pancreas grafts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Preissler, Gerhard; Eichhorn, Martin; Waldner, Helmut; Winter, Hauke; Kleespies, Axel; Massberg, Steffen

    2012-10-01

    After pancreas transplantation (PTx), early capillary malperfusion and leukocyte recruitment indicate the manifestation of severe ischemia/reperfusion injury (IRI). Oscillatory blood-flow redistribution (intermittent capillary perfusion, IP), leading to an overall decrease in erythrocyte flux, precedes complete microvascular perfusion failure with persistent blood flow cessation. We addressed the role of intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1) for leukocyte-endothelial interactions (LEIs) after PTx and evaluated the contribution of IP and malperfusion. Pancreas transplantation was performed in rats after 18-hour preservation, receiving either isotype-matched IgG or monoclonal anti-ICAM-1 antibodies (10 mg/kg intravenously) once before reperfusion. Leukocyte-endothelial interaction, IP, erythrocyte flux, and functional capillary density, respectively, were examined in vivo during 2-hour reperfusion. Nontransplanted animals served as controls. Tissue samples were analyzed by histomorphometry. In grafts of IgG-treated animals, IP was encountered already at an early stage after reperfusion and steadily increased over 2 hours, whereas erythrocyte flux declined continuously. In contrast, inhibition of ICAM-1 significantly improved erythrocyte flux and delayed IP appearance by 2 hours. Further, anti-ICAM-1 significantly reduced LEI and leukocyte tissue infiltration when compared to IgG; edema development was less pronounced in response to anti-ICAM-1 monoclonal antibody. Intercellular adhesion molecule-1 blockade significantly attenuates IRI via immediate reduction of LEI and concomitant improvement of capillary perfusion patterns, emphasizing its central role during IRI in PTx.

  15. Palmitate attenuates osteoblast differentiation of fetal rat calvarial cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yeh, Lee-Chuan C.; Ford, Jeffery J. [Department of Biochemistry, The University of Texas Health Science Center at San Antonio, TX (United States); Lee, John C. [Department of Biochemistry, The University of Texas Health Science Center at San Antonio, TX (United States); The Sam and Ann Barshop Institute for Longevity and Aging Studies, The University of Texas Health Science Center at San Antonio, TX (United States); Adamo, Martin L., E-mail: adamo@biochem.uthscsa.edu [Department of Biochemistry, The University of Texas Health Science Center at San Antonio, TX (United States); The Sam and Ann Barshop Institute for Longevity and Aging Studies, The University of Texas Health Science Center at San Antonio, TX (United States)

    2014-07-18

    Highlights: • Palmitate inhibits osteoblast differentiation. • Fatty acid synthase. • PPARγ. • Acetyl Co-A carboxylase inhibitor TOFA. • Fetal rat calvarial cell culture. - Abstract: Aging is associated with the accumulation of ectopic lipid resulting in the inhibition of normal organ function, a phenomenon known as lipotoxicity. Within the bone marrow microenvironment, elevation in fatty acid levels may produce an increase in osteoclast activity and a decrease in osteoblast number and function, thus contributing to age-related osteoporosis. However, little is known about lipotoxic mechanisms in intramembraneous bone. Previously we reported that the long chain saturated fatty acid palmitate inhibited the expression of the osteogenic markers RUNX2 and osteocalcin in fetal rat calvarial cell (FRC) cultures. Moreover, the acetyl CoA carboxylase inhibitor TOFA blocked the inhibitory effect of palmitate on expression of these two markers. In the current study we have extended these observations to show that palmitate inhibits spontaneous mineralized bone formation in FRC cultures in association with reduced mRNA expression of RUNX2, alkaline phosphatase, osteocalcin, and bone sialoprotein and reduced alkaline phosphatase activity. The effects of palmitate on osteogenic marker expression were inhibited by TOFA. Palmitate also inhibited the mRNA expression of fatty acid synthase and PPARγ in FRC cultures, and as with osteogenic markers, this effect was inhibited by TOFA. Palmitate had no effect on FRC cell proliferation or apoptosis, but inhibited BMP-7-induced alkaline phosphatase activity. We conclude that palmitate accumulation may lead to lipotoxic effects on osteoblast differentiation and mineralization and that increases in fatty acid oxidation may help to prevent these lipotoxic effects.

  16. Palmitate attenuates osteoblast differentiation of fetal rat calvarial cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yeh, Lee-Chuan C.; Ford, Jeffery J.; Lee, John C.; Adamo, Martin L.

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Palmitate inhibits osteoblast differentiation. • Fatty acid synthase. • PPARγ. • Acetyl Co-A carboxylase inhibitor TOFA. • Fetal rat calvarial cell culture. - Abstract: Aging is associated with the accumulation of ectopic lipid resulting in the inhibition of normal organ function, a phenomenon known as lipotoxicity. Within the bone marrow microenvironment, elevation in fatty acid levels may produce an increase in osteoclast activity and a decrease in osteoblast number and function, thus contributing to age-related osteoporosis. However, little is known about lipotoxic mechanisms in intramembraneous bone. Previously we reported that the long chain saturated fatty acid palmitate inhibited the expression of the osteogenic markers RUNX2 and osteocalcin in fetal rat calvarial cell (FRC) cultures. Moreover, the acetyl CoA carboxylase inhibitor TOFA blocked the inhibitory effect of palmitate on expression of these two markers. In the current study we have extended these observations to show that palmitate inhibits spontaneous mineralized bone formation in FRC cultures in association with reduced mRNA expression of RUNX2, alkaline phosphatase, osteocalcin, and bone sialoprotein and reduced alkaline phosphatase activity. The effects of palmitate on osteogenic marker expression were inhibited by TOFA. Palmitate also inhibited the mRNA expression of fatty acid synthase and PPARγ in FRC cultures, and as with osteogenic markers, this effect was inhibited by TOFA. Palmitate had no effect on FRC cell proliferation or apoptosis, but inhibited BMP-7-induced alkaline phosphatase activity. We conclude that palmitate accumulation may lead to lipotoxic effects on osteoblast differentiation and mineralization and that increases in fatty acid oxidation may help to prevent these lipotoxic effects

  17. Development of the insulin secretion mechanism in fetal and neonatal rat pancreatic B-cells: response to glucose, K+, theophylline, and carbamylcholine

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    A.C. Mendonça

    1998-06-01

    Full Text Available We studied the development of the insulin secretion mechanism in the pancreas of fetal (19- and 21-day-old, neonatal (3-day-old, and adult (90-day-old rats in response to stimulation with 8.3 or 16.7 mM glucose, 30 mM K+, 5 mM theophylline (Theo and 200 µM carbamylcholine (Cch. No effect of glucose or high K+ was observed on the pancreas from 19-day-old fetuses, whereas Theo and Cch significantly increased insulin secretion at this age (82 and 127% above basal levels, respectively. High K+ also failed to alter the insulin secretion in the pancreas from 21-day-old fetuses, whereas 8.3 mM and 16.7 mM glucose significantly stimulated insulin release by 41 and 54% above basal levels, respectively. Similar results were obtained with Theo and Cch. A more marked effect of glucose on insulin secretion was observed in the pancreas of 3-day-old rats, reaching 84 and 179% above basal levels with 8.3 mM and 16.7 mM glucose, respectively. At this age, both Theo and Cch increased insulin secretion to close to two-times basal levels. In islets from adult rats, 8.3 mM and 16.7 mM glucose, Theo, and Cch increased the insulin release by 104, 193, 318 and 396% above basal levels, respectively. These data indicate that pancreatic B-cells from 19-day-old fetuses were already sensitive to stimuli that use either cAMP or IP3 and DAG as second messengers, but insensitive to stimuli such as glucose and high K+ that induce membrane depolarization. The greater effect of glucose on insulin secretion during the neonatal period indicates that this period is crucial for the maturation of the glucose-sensing mechanism in B-cells.

  18. Hypoglycemic Effect of Aquatic Extract of Stevia in Pancreas of Diabetic Rats: PPARγ-dependent Regulation or Antioxidant Potential

    Science.gov (United States)

    Assaei, Raheleh; Mokarram, Pooneh; Dastghaib, Sanaz; Darbandi, Sara; Darbandi, Mahsa; Zal, Fatemeh; Akmali, Masoumeh; Ranjbar Omrani, Gholam Hossein

    2016-01-01

    Background: Traditional medicines with anti-diabetic effects are considered suitable supplements to treat diabetes. Among medicinal herbs, Stevia Rebaudiana Bertoni is famous for its sweet taste and beneficial effect in regulation of glucose. However, little is known about the exact mechanism of stevia in pancreatic tissue. Therefore, this study investigated the possible effects of stevia on pancreas in managing hyperglycemia seen in streptozotocin-induced Sprague-Dawley rats. Methods: Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into four groups including normoglycemic, diabetic and two more diabetic groups in which, one was treated with aquatic extract of stevia (400 mg/kg) and the other with pioglitazone (10 mg/kg) for the period of 28 days. After completion of the experimental duration, rats were dissected; blood samples and pancreas were further used for detecting biochemical and histopathological changes. FBS, TG, cholestrol, HDL, LDL, ALT and AST levels were measured in sera. Moreover, MDA (malondialdehyde) level, catalase activity, levels of insulin and PPARγ mRNA expression were also measured in pancreatic tissue. Results: Aquatic extract of stevia significantly reduced the FBS, triglycerides, MDA, ALT, AST levels and normalized catalase activity in treated rats compared with diabetic rats (pstevia surprisingly, increased PPARγ and insulin mRNA levels in treated rats (pstevia compensated for the histopathological damage in diabetic rats. Conclusion: It is concluded that stevia acts on pancreatic tissue to elevate the insulin level and exerts beneficial anti-hyperglycemic effects through the PPARγ-dependent mechanism and stevia’s antioxidant properties. PMID:27141265

  19. Effects of exendin-4 and selenium on the expression of GLP-1R, IRS-1, and preproinsulin in the pancreas of diabetic rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barakat, Ghinwa; Moustafa, Mohamed E; Khalifeh, Ibrahim; Hodroj, Mohammad H; Bikhazi, Anwar; Rizk, Sandra

    2016-08-01

    The mechanisms by which exendin-4 and selenium exert their antidiabetic actions are still unclear. Here, we investigated the effects of exendin-4 or selenium administration on the expression of glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor (GLP-1R), insulin receptor substrate-1 (IRS-1), and preproinsulin in the pancreas of diabetic rats. Diabetes was induced by streptozotocin administration. Diabetic rats were injected intraperitoneally with 0.03 μg exendin-4/kg body weight/daily or treated with 5 ppm selenium in drinking water for a period of 4 weeks. GLP-1R and IRS-1 levels were decreased while the level of preproinsulin messenger RNA (mRNA) was increased in the pancreas of diabetic untreated rats, as compared to that in control rats. Treatment of diabetic rats with exendin-4 increased protein and mRNA levels of GLP-1R, and IRS-1, and the mRNA level of preproinsulin in the pancreas, as compared to their levels in diabetic untreated rats. Selenium treatment of diabetic rats increased the pancreatic mRNA levels of GLP-1R, IRS-1, and preproinsulin. Exendin-4 or selenium treatment of diabetic rats also increased the numbers of pancreatic islets and GLP-1R molecules in the pancreas. Therefore, exendin-4 and selenium may exert their antidiabetic effects by increasing GLP-1R, IRS-1, and preproinsulin expression in the pancreas and by increasing the number of pancreatic islets.

  1. Content of NCAM in the brain and pancreas of rats in response to endointoxication under conditions of experimental chronic pancreatitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. A. Makarchuk

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The study was undertaken to examine the influence of chronic pancreatitis on the distribution of neuronal cell adhesion molecule (NCAM in the pancreas and various brain regions of rats under the conditions of endogenous intoxication. The study was conducted using 36 white nonlinear male rats (6 months old, 190–220 g. To develop the state of chronic pancreatitis, animals were subjected tolaparotomy under general anesthesia and prolonged occlusion of the pancreatic duct. The morphological examination of pancreatic tissue hasbeen performed to confirm the chronic pancreatitis development in animals. Biochemical evaluation of the pancreatic fibrosis has been performed by measuring plasma levels of hyaluronic acid, hydroxyproline and protein-free hydroxyproline. The intensity of free radical oxidation has been assessed by the change in the concentration of TBA-active products in plasma. The level of endotoxemia has been determinedby the content of average weight molecules in plasma. Protein fractions were extracted from the pancreas and various parts of the rat brain and the levels of soluble (sNCAM and membrane (mNCAM proteins were studied with the use of the competitive ELISA. Total protein in the obtained fractions was measured by the Bradford assay. Occlusion of the pancreatic duct resultedin significant atrophy of acinar tissue, fibrosis and disfunction of the pancreas along with the decreasing in the antioxidant defense of animals. The present study shows developing of endointoxication in experimentalrats, signified by considerable increase of molecules with average weight in plasma due to the activation of lipid peroxidation. It was established that, as a result of the experimental pancreas dysfunction, significant redistribution of soluble and membrane forms of NCAM took place, more especially in the cerebellum and thalamus of rats; it caused changing of cell-cell adhesion in these brain regions. Multidirectional NCAM distribution in the

  2. The VGF-Derived Neuropeptide TLQP-21 Shows No Impact on Hormone Secretion in the Isolated Perfused Rat Pancreas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, Charlotte Bayer; Svendsen, B; Holst, Jens Juul

    2015-01-01

    investigated the impact of TLQP-21 on insulin, glucagon, and somatostatin secretion in the perfused rat pancreas. We found that administration of 5 and 50 nM TLQP-21 had no impact on pancreatic hormone secretion at 3.5 or 8 mM glucose levels. Increasing TLQP-21 (200 nM) and glucose concentration (3.5 and 16 m...

  3. Cholecystokinin receptors: Biochemical demonstration and autoradiographical localization in rat brain and pancreas using [3H] cholecystokinin8 as radioligand

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Van Dijk, A.; Richards, J.G.; Trzeciak, A.; Gillessen, D.; Moehler, H.

    1984-01-01

    Since cholecystokinin8 (CCK8) seems to be the physiological ligand of CCK receptors in the brain, it would be the most suitable probe for the characterization of CCK receptors in radioligand binding studies. [ 3 H]CCK8 was synthetized with a specific radioactivity sufficient for the detection of high affinity binding sites. [ 3 H]CCK8 binds saturably and reversibly to distinct sites in rat brain and pancreas with nanomolar affinity. While the C-terminal tetrapeptide of CCK is the minimal structure required for nanomolar affinity in the brain, the entire octapeptide sequence is required for binding affinity in pancreas. Desulfated CCK8 and several gastrin-I peptides, which are likewise unsulfated, show virtually no affinity to the binding sites in pancreas but high affinity in cerebral cortex. The ligand specificity of the CCK peptides corresponds to their electrophysiological potency in the brain and their stimulation of secretion in pancreas, respectively. Autoradiographically, high densities of [ 3 H]CCK8 binding sites were found in cerebral cortex and olfactory bulb, medium levels in nucleus accumbens, hippocampus, dentate gyrus, and striatum with virtually no labeling in cerebellum. This pattern is similar to the distribution of CCK-like immunoreactivity in the brain. In pancreas, equally high levels of [ 3 H]CCK8 labeling were found in the exocrine and endocrine region. [ 3 H]CCK8 binding sites differ from those identified previously with [ 125 I]Bolton-Hunter-CCK33 by their sensitivity to guanyl nucleotides in the brain, their ion dependency in the brain, and pancreas, and their different autoradiographical localization in some parts of the brain. The distribution of CCK binding sites labeled with [ 3 H]CCK8 appears to correlate better with the CCK immunoreactivity than those labeled with [ 125 I]Bolton-Hunter-CCK33. Thus, [ 3 H]CCK8 appears to be the radioligand of choice for the investigation of CCK receptors

  4. Glucose metabolism of fetal rat brain in utero, measured with labeled deoxyglucose

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dyve, S [Department of General Physiology and Biophysics, Panum Institute, Copenhagen (Denmark); Gjedde, A [Positron Imaging Laboratories, McConnell Brain Imaging Center, Montreal, Quebec (Canada)

    1991-01-01

    Mammals have low cerebral metabolic rates immediately after birth and, by inference, also before birth. In this study, we extended the deoxyglucose method to the fetal rat brain in utero. Rate constants for deoxyglucose transfer across the maternal placental and fetal blood-brain barriers, and lumped constant, have not been reported. Therefore, we applied a new method of determining the lumped constant regionally to the fetal rat brain in utero. The lumped constant averaged 0.55 +- 0.15 relative to the maternal circulation. On this basis, we determined the glucose metabolic rate of the fetal rat brain to be one third of the corresponding maternal value, or 19 +- 2 {mu}mol hg{sup -1} min{sup -1}. (author).

  5. Functional and morphological changes in endocrine pancreas following cola drink consumption in rats.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matilde Otero-Losada

    Full Text Available We report the effects of long-term cola beverage drinking on glucose homeostasis, endocrine pancreas function and morphology in rats.Wistar rats drank: water (group W, regular cola beverage (group C, sucrose sweetened or "light" cola beverage (group L, artificially sweetened. After 6 months, 50% of the animals in each group were euthanized and the remaining animals consumed water for the next 6 months when euthanasia was performed. Biochemical assays, insulinemia determination, estimation of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR, morphometry and immunohistochemistry evaluations were performed in pancreas.Hyperglycemia (16%, p<0.05, CoQ10 (coenzyme-Q10 decrease (-52%,p<0.01, strong hypertriglyceridemia (2.8-fold, p<0.01, hyperinsulinemia (2.4 fold, p<0.005 and HOMA-IR increase (2.7 fold, p<0.01 were observed in C. Group C showed a decrease in number of α cells (-42%, p<0.01 and β cells (-58%, p<0.001 and a moderate increase in α cells' size after wash-out (+14%, p<0.001. Group L showed reduction in β cells' size (-9%, p<0.001 and only after wash-out (L12 a 19% increase in size (p<0.0001 with 35% decrease in number of α cells (p<0.01. Groups C and L showed increase in α/β-cell ratio which was irreversible only in C (α/β = +38% in C6,+30% in C12, p<0.001vs.W6. Regular cola induced a striking increase in the cytoplasmic expression of Trx1 (Thioredoxin-1 (2.25-fold in C6 vs. W6; 2.7-fold in C12 vs. W12, p<0.0001 and Prx2 (Peroxiredoxin-2 (3-fold in C6 vs. W6; 2-fold in C12 vs. W12, p<0.0001. Light cola induced increase in Trx1 (3-fold and Prx2 (2-fold after wash-out (p<0.0001, L12 vs. W12.Glucotoxicity may contribute to the loss of β cell function with depletion of insulin content. Oxidative stress, suggested by increased expression of thioredoxins and low circulating levels of CoQ10, may follow sustained hyperglycemia. A likely similar panorama may result from the effects of artificially sweetened cola though via other downstream routes.

  6. Caspase Activation in Fetal Rat Brain Following Experimental Intrauterine Inflammation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharangpani, Aditi; Takanohashi, Asako; Bell, Michael J.

    2009-01-01

    Intrauterine inflammation has been implicated in developmental brain injuries, including the development of periventricular leukomalacia (PVL) and cerebral palsy (CP). Previous studies in our rat model of intrauterine inflammation demonstrated apoptotic cell death in fetal brains within the first 5 days after lipopolysaccharide (LPS) administration to mothers and eventual dysmyelination. Cysteine-containing, aspartate-specific proteases, or caspases, are proteins involved with apoptosis through both intracellular (intrinsic pathway) and extracellular (extrinsic pathway) mechanisms. We hypothesized that cell death in our model would occur mainly via activation of the extrinsic pathway. We further hypothesized that Fas, a member of the tumor necrosis factor receptor (TNFR) superfamily, would be increased and the death inducing signaling complex (DISC) would be detectable. Pregnant rats were injected intracervically with LPS at E15 and immunoblotting, immunohistochemical and immunoprecipitation analyses were performed. The presence of the activated form of the effector caspase (caspase-3) was observed 24 h after LPS administration. Caspase activity assays demonstrated rapid increases in (i) caspases-9 and -10 within 1 h, (ii) caspase-8 at 2 h and (iii) caspase-3 at 4 h. At 24 h after LPS, activated caspase-3+/Fas+ cells were observed within the developing white matter. Lastly, the DISC complex (caspase-8, Fas and Fas-associated Death Domain (FADD)) was observed within 30 min by immunoprecipitation. Apoptosis in our model occurs via both extrinsic and intrinsic pathways, and activation of Fas may play a role. Understanding the mechanisms of cell death in models of intrauterine inflammation may affect development of future strategies to mitigate these injuries in children. PMID:18289516

  7. Palmitate attenuates osteoblast differentiation of fetal rat calvarial cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeh, Lee-Chuan C; Ford, Jeffery J; Lee, John C; Adamo, Martin L

    2014-07-18

    Aging is associated with the accumulation of ectopic lipid resulting in the inhibition of normal organ function, a phenomenon known as lipotoxicity. Within the bone marrow microenvironment, elevation in fatty acid levels may produce an increase in osteoclast activity and a decrease in osteoblast number and function, thus contributing to age-related osteoporosis. However, little is known about lipotoxic mechanisms in intramembraneous bone. Previously we reported that the long chain saturated fatty acid palmitate inhibited the expression of the osteogenic markers RUNX2 and osteocalcin in fetal rat calvarial cell (FRC) cultures. Moreover, the acetyl CoA carboxylase inhibitor TOFA blocked the inhibitory effect of palmitate on expression of these two markers. In the current study we have extended these observations to show that palmitate inhibits spontaneous mineralized bone formation in FRC cultures in association with reduced mRNA expression of RUNX2, alkaline phosphatase, osteocalcin, and bone sialoprotein and reduced alkaline phosphatase activity. The effects of palmitate on osteogenic marker expression were inhibited by TOFA. Palmitate also inhibited the mRNA expression of fatty acid synthase and PPARγ in FRC cultures, and as with osteogenic markers, this effect was inhibited by TOFA. Palmitate had no effect on FRC cell proliferation or apoptosis, but inhibited BMP-7-induced alkaline phosphatase activity. We conclude that palmitate accumulation may lead to lipotoxic effects on osteoblast differentiation and mineralization and that increases in fatty acid oxidation may help to prevent these lipotoxic effects. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Magnetic resonance imaging of the pancreas in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats: Gadofluorine P and Gd-DOTA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Hye Rim; Lee, Youkyung; Doble, Philip; Bishop, David; Hare, Dominic; Kim, Young-Jae; Kim, Kwang Gi; Jung, Hye Seung; Park, Kyong Soo; Choi, Seung Hong; Moon, Woo Kyung

    2015-05-21

    To investigate the performance of Gadofluorine P-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) on the diagnosis of diabetes in a streptozotocin (STZ) -induced diabetic rat model. Fischer 344 rats were treated with STZ. Rats not treated with STZ served as controls. T1-weighted MRI was performed using a 3T scanner before and after the injection of Gd-DOTA or Gadofluorine P (6 diabetic rats, 5 controls). The normalized signal intensity (SI) and the enhancement ratio (ER) of the pancreas were measured at each time point, and the values were compared between the normal and diabetic rats using the Mann-Whitney test. In addition, the values were correlated with the mean islet number. Optimal cut-off values were calculated using a positive test based on receiver operating characteristics. Intrapancreatic Gd concentration after the injection of each contrast media was measured using laser ablation-inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry in a separate set of rats (4 diabetic rats, 4 controls for Gadofluorine P; 2, 2 for Gd-DOTA). The normalized SI and ER of the pancreas using Gd-DOTA were not significantly different between diabetic rats and controls. With Gadofluorine P, the values were significantly higher in the diabetic rats than in the control rats 30 min after injection (P DOTA (0.967 vs 0.667, P = 0.085). An increase in normalized SI 30 min after Gadofluorine P was correlated with a decrease in the mean number of islets (r (2) = 0.510, P = 0.014). Intra-pancreatic Gd was higher in rats with Gadofluorine P injection than Gd-DOTA injection (Gadofluorine P vs Gd-DOTA, 7.37 vs 0.00, P < 0.01). A significant difference in the concentration of intrapancreatic Gd was observed between the control and diabetic animals that were sacrificed 30 min after Gadofluorine P injection (control vs diabetic, 3.25 ng/g vs 10.55 ng/g, P < 0.05) CONCLUSION: In this STZ-induced diabetes rat model, Gadofluorine P-enhanced MRI of the pancreas showed high accuracy in the diagnosis of diabetes.

  9. Antioxidant Protective Effect of Glibenclamide and Metformin in Combination with Honey in Pancreas of Streptozotocin-Induced Diabetic Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Omotayo Owomofoyon Erejuwa

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Hyperglycemia exerts toxic effects on the pancreatic β-cells. This study investigated the hypothesis that the common antidiabetic drugs glibenclamide and metformin, in combination with tualang honey, offer additional protection for the pancreas of streptozotocin (STZ-induced diabetic rats against oxidative stress and damage. Diabetes was induced in male Sprague Dawley rats by a single dose of STZ (60 mg/kg; ip. Diabetic rats had significantly elevated levels of lipid peroxidation (TBARS, up-regulated activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD and glutathione peroxidase (GPx while catalase (CAT activity was significantly reduced. Glibenclamide and metformin produced no significant effects on TBARS and antioxidant enzymes except GPx in diabetic rats. In contrast, the combination of glibenclamide, metformin and honey significantly up-regulated CAT activity and down-regulated GPx activity while TBARS levels were significantly reduced. These findings suggest that tualang honey potentiates the effect of glibenclamide and metformin to protect diabetic rat pancreas against oxidative stress and damage.

  10. Effect of long-term administration of dietary fiber on the exocrine pancreas in the rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sommer, H; Kasper, H

    1984-08-01

    Male Sprague-Dawley rats (50--70g) were fed a standard laboratory diet containing 6% dietary fiber substances (diet I), the same diet supplemented with 5% guar (diet II), 10% wheat bran (diet III), or 5% pectin of high (76%) methylic esterification (diet IV), or a fiber-free diet (diet V). After a 6-week feeding period, the body weight of the animals had increased to 300--350g. The common bile duct was then canulated and the exocrine pancreatic function tested under urethane anesthesia (1.5 g/kg body weight). The tested fiber substances had no effect on the basal pancreatic secretion of volume, bicarbonate, lipase, amylase or protein, or on the wet weight and histological appearance of the organ. However, the fiber substances influenced the pancreatic response to maximal exogenous stimulation with secretin (3.0 CU/100 g X hour) and cholecystokinin (0.6 IDU/100 g X hour) and the enzyme content of the gland significantly. Compared with diet V, diet I increased the DNA content of the pancreas and its secretion of bicarbonate and protein, and decreased the protein concentration in the gland. Diet II reduced the pancreatic content of trypsinogen and protein. Diet III decreased the protein content, but increased the bicarbonate secretion, which was also increased by diet IV. -- We conclude that fiber substances influence stimulated secretion and the enzyme content of the pancrease to a varying degree.

  11. Assessment of pancreas cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanoss, C. J.

    1978-01-01

    Pancreatic islets were obtained from guinea pig pancreas by the collagenase method and kept alive in tissue culture prior to further studies. Pancreas cell morphology was studied by standard histochemical techniques using light microscopy. Preparative vertical electrophoresis-levitation of dispersed fetal guinea pig pancreas cells was conducted in phosphate buffer containing a heavy water (D20) gradient which does not cause clumping of cells or alter the osmolarity of the buffers. The faster migrating fractions tended to be enriched in beta-cell content. Alpha and delta cells were found to some degree in most fractions. A histogram showing the cell count distribution is included.

  12. Oxidative stress and cannabinoid receptor expression in type-2 diabetic rat pancreas following treatment with Δ⁹-THC.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coskun, Zeynep Mine; Bolkent, Sema

    2014-10-01

    The objectives of study were (a) to determine alteration of feeding, glucose level and oxidative stress and (b) to investigate expression and localization of cannabinoid receptors in type-2 diabetic rat pancreas treated with Δ(9)-tetrahydrocannabinol (Δ(9)-THC). Rats were randomly divided into four groups: control, Δ(9)-THC, diabetes and diabetes + Δ(9)-THC groups. Diabetic rats were treated with a single dose of nicotinamide (85 mg/kg) 15 min before injection of streptozotocin (65 mg/kg). Δ(9)-THC was administered intraperitoneally at 3 mg/kg/day for 7 days. Body weights and blood glucose level of rats in all groups were measured on days 0, 7, 14 and 21. On day 15 after the Δ(9)-THC injections, pancreatic tissues were removed. Blood glucose levels and body weights of diabetic rats treated with Δ(9)-THC did not show statistically significant changes when compared with the diabetic animals on days 7, 14 and 21. Treatment with Δ(9)-THC significantly increased pancreas glutathione levels, enzyme activities of superoxide dismutase and catalase in diabetes compared with non-treatment diabetes group. The cannabinoid 1 receptor was found in islets, whereas the cannabinoid 2 receptor was found in pancreatic ducts. Their localization in cells was both nuclear and cytoplasmic. We can suggest that Δ(9) -THC may be an important agent for the treatment of oxidative damages induced by diabetes. However, it must be supported with anti-hyperglycaemic agents. Furthermore, the present study for the first time emphasizes that Δ(9)-THC may improve pancreatic cells via cannabinoid receptors in diabetes. The aim of present study was to elucidate the effects of Δ(9)-THC, a natural cannabinoid receptor agonist, on the expression and localization of cannabinoid receptors, and oxidative stress statue in type-2 diabetic rat pancreas. Results demonstrate that the cannabinoid receptors are presented in both Langerhans islets and duct regions. The curative effects

  13. Paternal genetic contribution influences fetal vulnerability to maternal alcohol consumption in a rat model of fetal alcohol spectrum disorder.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura J Sittig

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Fetal alcohol exposure causes in the offspring a collection of permanent physiological and neuropsychological deficits collectively termed Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorder (FASD. The timing and amount of exposure cannot fully explain the substantial variability among affected individuals, pointing to genetic influences that mediate fetal vulnerability. However, the aspects of vulnerability that depend on the mother, the father, or both, are not known.Using the outbred Sprague-Dawley (SD and inbred Brown Norway (BN rat strains as well as their reciprocal crosses, we administered ethanol (E, pair-fed (PF, or control (C diets to the pregnant dams. The dams' plasma levels of free thyroxine (fT4, triiodothyronine (T3, free T3 (fT3, and thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH were measured to elucidate potential differences in maternal thyroid hormonal environment, which affects specific aspects of FASD. We then compared alcohol-exposed, pair fed, and control offspring of each fetal strain on gestational day 21 (G21 to identify maternal and paternal genetic effects on bodyweight and placental weight of male and female fetuses.SD and BN dams exhibited different baseline hypothalamic-pituitary-thyroid function. Moreover, the thyroid function of SD dams was more severely affected by alcohol consumption while that of BN dams was relatively resistant. This novel finding suggests that genetic differences in maternal thyroid function are one source of maternal genetic effects on fetal vulnerability to FASD. The fetal vulnerability to decreased bodyweight after alcohol exposure depended on the genetic contribution of both parents, not only maternal contribution as previously thought. In contrast, the effect of maternal alcohol consumption on placental weight was consistent and not strain-dependent. Interestingly, placental weight in fetuses with different paternal genetic contributions exhibited opposite responses to caloric restriction (pair feeding. In summary

  14. Cigarette smoke-induced differential expression of the genes involved in exocrine function of the rat pancreas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wittel, Uwe A; Singh, Ajay P; Henley, Brandon J; Andrianifahanana, Mahefatiana; Akhter, Mohammed P; Cullen, Diane M; Batra, Surinder K

    2006-11-01

    Little is known about the molecular and biological aspects of the epidemiological association between smoking and pancreatic pathology, such as chronic pancreatitis and pancreatic cancer. Recently, we reported that tobacco smoke exposure induced morphological alterations in the rat pancreas. Here, we have investigated the alterations in the expression of genes associated with exocrine pancreatic function and cellular differentiation upon exposure to cigarette smoke. Female rats were exposed to environmental smoke inhalation for 2 d/wk (70 min/d) for 12 weeks. The expression profiles of trypsinogen, pancreas-specific trypsin inhibitor, cholecystokinin A receptor, cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR), carbonic anhydrase, and Muc1 and Muc4 mucins transcripts were analyzed by RNA slot blot analysis. Muc4 expression was also examined by immunohistochemistry. Our data revealed that the ratio of trypsinogen to that of the protective pancreas-specific trypsin inhibitor was elevated upon cigarette smoke exposure. The expression of carbonic anhydrase and CFTR remained unaltered when inflammatory signs were not detected in histological examinations. On the other hand, when pancreatic inflammation was present, the levels of CFTR and carbonic anhydrase were increased, indicating ductal and/or centroacinar cell involvement. No changes in the expression of Muc1 and Muc4 mucins were observed. Our data show that cigarette smoke exposure leads to an increased vulnerability to pancreatic self-digestion. Moreover, the concomitant involvement of pancreatic ducts occurs only when focal pancreatic inflammation is present.

  15. Chrysin treatment improves diabetes and its complications in liver, brain, and pancreas in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samarghandian, Saeed; Azimi-Nezhad, Mohsen; Samini, Fariborz; Farkhondeh, Tahereh

    2016-04-01

    Chrysin (CH) is a natural flavonoid with pharmacological influences. The purpose of the current study was the assessment of possible protective effects of CH against oxidative damage in the serum, liver, brain, and pancreas of streptozotocin (STZ)- induced diabetic rats. In the present study, the rats were divided into the following groups of 8 animals each: control, untreated diabetic, 3 CH (20, 40, 80 mg/kg/day)-treated diabetic groups. To find out the modulations of cellular antioxidant defense systems, malondialdehyde (MDA) level and antioxidant enzymes including glutathione-S-transferase (GST), superoxide dismutase (SOD), and catalase (CAT) activities were determined in the serum, liver, brain, and pancreas. STZ caused an elevation of glucose, MDA, TG, TC, LDL-C and with reduction of HDL-C, total protein, SOD, CAT, and GST in the serum, liver, brain, and pancreas (p < 0.01). The findings showed that the significant elevation in the glucose, MDA, TG, TC, LDL-C and reduction of HDL-C, total protein, SOD, CAT, and GST were ameliorated in the CH-treated diabetic groups versus to the untreated groups, in a dose dependent manner (p < 0.05). The current study offers that CH may be recovered diabetes and its complications by modification of oxidative stress.

  16. The Protective Effect of Aloe Vera on Histological Structure of Endocrine Portion of Pancreas Gland in the Diabetic Rat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N Erfani-Majd

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Since aloe vera plant has many medical benefits, the present study aimed to investigate the protective effects of Aloe vera gel on the pancreatic islets and beta cells. Methods: This experimental study consisted of 50 mature male rats aged 2-3 months and weighed 200-250 g, who were randomly divided into five groups (n=10. Group I (control did not receive any treatments, and group II were diabetized via Streptozotocin (IP in 65 mg/kg, whose blood sample was taken after one week. Rats with blood glucose more than 250 mg/dL were considered as diabetic. Group III diabetic rats received the Aloe vera gel daily with dosage of 400 mg/kg, and group IV diabetic rats received insulin in 10 units/rat. Group V involved healthy rats which received only Aloe vera gel. After the last Aloe vera gel administration, blood glucose and body weight of all groups were measured on 15th and 30th days. Animals were euthanized with ether. Then tissues samples were collected from pancreas gland and fixed in 10% neutral buffered formalin solution. The 5-6 µ sections were made by paraffin embedding method and stained using haematoxylin-eosin (H&E and Aldehyde fuchsin stains. Ultimately, the histomorphometrical parameters were evaluated. Results: The mean number and size of pancreatic islets and beta cells of Langerhans islets decreased significantly in the diabetic group compared to the control group. The number of beta cells and diameter of langerhans islets increased significantly in the rats treated by Aloe vera gel in comparison to diabetic group at the end of 15th and 30th days. Conclusion: Applying Aloe vera gel seems to improve the renewal and restoration of langerhans islets and beta cells of pancreas gland in the diabetic rat.

  17. FA1 immunoreactivity in endocrine tumours and during development of the human fetal pancreas; negative correlation with glucagon expression

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tornehave, D; Jensen, Charlotte Harken; Teisner, B

    1996-01-01

    Fetal antigen 1 (FA1) is a glycoprotein containing six epidermal growth factor (EGF)-like repeats. It is closely similar to the protein translated from the human delta-like (dlk) cDNA and probably constitutes a proteolytically processed form of dlk. dlk is homologous to the Drosophila homeotic...... proteins delta and notch and to the murine preadipocyte differentiation factor Pref-1. These proteins participate in determining cell fate choices during differentiation. We now report that FA1 immunoreactivity is present in a number of neuroectodermally derived tumours as well as in pancreatic endocrine...... tumours. A negative correlation between FA1 and glucagon immunoreactants in these tumours prompted a reexamination of FA1 immunoreactants during fetal pancreatic development. At the earliest stages of development, FA1 was expressed by most of the non-endocrine parenchymal cells and, with ensuing...

  18. High Fat Diet Exposure during Fetal Life Enhances Plasma and Hepatic Omega-6 Fatty Acid Profiles in Fetal Wistar Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marlon E. Cerf

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Pregnant rats were fed a high fat diet (HFD for the first (HF1, second (HF2, third (HF3 or all three weeks (HFG of gestation. Maintenance on a HFD during specific periods of gestation was hypothesized to alter fetal glycemia, insulinemia, induce insulin resistance; and alter fetal plasma and hepatic fatty acid (FA profiles. At day 20 of gestation, fetal plasma and hepatic FA profiles were determined by gas chromatography; body weight, fasting glycemia, insulinemia and the Homeostasis Model Assessment (HOMA-insulin resistance were also determined. HF3 fetuses were heaviest concomitant with elevated glycemia and insulin resistance (p < 0.05. HFG fetuses had elevated plasma linoleic (18:2 n-6 and arachidonic (20:4 n-6 acid proportions (p < 0.05. In the liver, HF3 fetuses displayed elevated linoleic, eicosatrienoic (20:3 n-6 and arachidonic acid proportions (p < 0.05. HFG fetuses had reduced hepatic docosatrienoic acid (22:5 n-3 proportions (p < 0.05. High fat maintenance during the final week of fetal life enhances hepatic omega-6 FA profiles in fetuses concomitant with hyperglycemia and insulin resistance thereby presenting a metabolically compromised phenotype.

  19. Synthesis of erythrocyte membrane proteins in dispersed cells from fetal rat liver

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kitagawa, Yasuo; Murakami, Akihiko; Sugimoto, Etsuro

    1984-01-01

    Protein synthesis in dispersed cells from fetal liver was studied by fluorography of SDS-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis of a [ 35 S] methionine labeled cell lysate. Synthesis of several proteins with molecular weights ranging from 45,000 to 220,000 was observed during erythropoiesis in fetal liver. Some of these proteins were demonstrated to be erythrocyte membrane proteins because they were immunoprecipitated with antiserum against rat red blood cells and the immunoprecipitation was competitive with non-radioactive proteins solubilized from erythrocyte ghosts. The same antiserum caused agglutination of dispered cells from fetal liver. This supported the possibility that these proteins are translocated onto plasma membranes of the dispersed cells. (author)

  20. In utero exposure to chloroquine alters sexual development in the male fetal rat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clewell, Rebecca A.; Pluta, Linda; Thomas, Russell S.; Andersen, Melvin E.

    2009-01-01

    Chloroquine (CQ), a drug that has been used extensively for the prevention and treatment of malaria, is currently considered safe for use during pregnancy. However, CQ has been shown to disrupt steroid homeostasis in adult rats and similar compounds, such as quinacrine, inhibit steroid production in the Leydig cell in vitro. To explore the effect of in utero CQ exposure on fetal male sexual development, pregnant Sprague-Dawley rats were given a daily dose of either water or chloroquine diphosphate from GD 16-18 by oral gavage. Chloroquine was administered as 200 mg/kg CQ base on GD 16, followed by two maintenance doses of 100 mg/kg CQ base on GD 16 and 18. Three days of CQ treatment resulted in reduced maternal and fetal weight on GD 19 and increased necrosis and steatosis in the maternal liver. Fetal livers also displayed mild lipid accumulation. Maternal serum progesterone was increased after CQ administration. Fetal testes testosterone, however, was significantly decreased. Examination of the fetal testes revealed significant alterations in vascularization and seminiferous tubule development after short-term CQ treatment. Anogenital distance was not altered. Microarray and RT-PCR showed down-regulation of several genes associated with cholesterol transport and steroid synthesis in the fetal testes. This study indicates that CQ inhibits testosterone synthesis and normal testis development in the rat fetus at human relevant doses.

  1. Pancreas Transplantation

    Science.gov (United States)

    The pancreas is a gland behind your stomach and in front of your spine. It produces the juices that ... hormones that help control blood sugar levels. A pancreas transplant is surgery to place a healthy pancreas ...

  2. Effect of behavior training on learning and memory of young rats with fetal growth restriction

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Li Xuelan; Gou Wenli; Huang Pu; Li Chunfang; Sun Yunping

    2008-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the effect of behavior training on the learning and memory of young rats with fetal growth restriction (FGR). Methods: The model of FGR was established by passive smoking method to pregnant rats.The new-born rats were divided into FGR group and normal group, and then randomly subdivided into trained and untrained group respectively. Morris water maze behavior training was performed on postnatal months 2 and 4, then learning and memory abilities of young rats were measured by dark-avoidance testing and step-down testing. Results: In the dark-avoidance and step-down testing, the young rats' performance of FGR group was worse than that of control group, and the trained group was better than the untrained group significantly. Conclusion: FGR young rats have descended learning and memory abilities. Behavior training could improve the young rats' learning and memory abilities, especially for the FGR young rats.

  3. A transcriptome-wide screen for mRNAs enriched in fetal Leydig cells: CRHR1 agonism stimulates rat and mouse fetal testis steroidogenesis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erin N McDowell

    Full Text Available Fetal testis steroidogenesis plays an important role in the reproductive development of the male fetus. While regulators of certain aspects of steroidogenesis are known, the initial driver of steroidogenesis in the human and rodent fetal testis is unclear. Through comparative analysis of rodent fetal testis microarray datasets, 54 candidate fetal Leydig cell-specific genes were identified. Fetal mouse testis interstitial expression of a subset of these genes with unknown expression (Crhr1, Gramd1b, Itih5, Vgll3, and Vsnl1 was verified by whole-mount in situ hybridization. Among the candidate fetal Leydig cell-specific factors, three receptors (CRHR1, PRLR, and PROKR2 were tested for a steroidogenic function using ex vivo fetal testes treated with receptor agonists (CRH, PRL, and PROK2. While PRL and PROK2 had no effect, CRH, at low (approximately 1 to 10 nM concentration, increased expression of the steroidogenic genes Cyp11a1, Cyp17a1, Scarb1, and Star in GD15 mouse and GD17 rat testes, and in conjunction, testosterone production was increased. Exposure of GD15 fetal mouse testis to a specific CRHR1 antagonist blunted the CRH-induced steroidogenic gene expression and testosterone responses. Similar to ex vivo rodent fetal testes, ≥ 10 nM CRH exposure of MA-10 Leydig cells increased steroidogenic pathway mRNA and progesterone levels, showing CRH can enhance steroidogenesis by directly targeting Leydig cells. Crh mRNA expression was observed in rodent fetal hypothalamus, and CRH peptide was detected in rodent amniotic fluid. Together, these data provide a resource for discovering factors controlling fetal Leydig cell biology and suggest that CRHR1 activation by CRH stimulates rat and mouse fetal Leydig cell steroidogenesis in vivo.

  4. Experimental studies on the scintigraphy of the pancreas in rats and dogs by using isotope labelled dye

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bando, A

    1976-06-01

    Tetraiodo-dye solutions such as eight percent erythrosine B solution, /sup 131/I-erythrosine B solution and /sup 131/I-rose bengal solution were administered to dogs and rats by the intravenous, intraperitoneal, or intramuscular routes. /sup 131/I-rose bengal, when injected by intraperitoneal route, was found to be accumulated more actively in the pancreas, showing a peak concentration per gram of tissue some fifteen times higher than that of the liver, and also significant intrapancreatic deposit of the dye was long sustained, and yielded pancreatic concentrations approximately four to six times of those usually produced by the conventional intravenous injection of /sup 75/Se-selenomethionine.

  5. Obesity Disrupts the Rhythmic Profiles of Maternal and Fetal Progesterone in Rat Pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crew, Rachael C; Mark, Peter J; Clarke, Michael W; Waddell, Brendan J

    2016-09-01

    Maternal obesity increases the risk of abnormal fetal growth, but the underlying mechanisms remain unclear. Because steroid hormones regulate fetal growth, and both pregnancy and obesity markedly alter circadian biology, we hypothesized that maternal obesity disrupts the normal rhythmic profiles of steroid hormones in rat pregnancy. Obesity was established by cafeteria (CAF) feeding for 8 wk prior to mating and throughout pregnancy. Control (CON) animals had ad libitum access to chow. Daily profiles of plasma corticosterone, 11-dehydrocorticosterone, progesterone, and testosterone were measured at Days 15 and 21 of gestation (term = 23 days) in maternal (both days) and fetal (Day 21) plasma. CAF mothers exhibited increased adiposity relative to CON and showed fetal and placental growth restriction. There was no change, however, in total fetal or placental mass due to slightly larger litter sizes in CAF. Nocturnal declines in progesterone were observed in maternal (39% lower) and fetal (45% lower) plasma in CON animals, but these were absent in CAF animals. CAF mothers were hyperlipidemic at both days of gestation, but this effect was isolated to the dark period at Day 21. CAF maternal testosterone was slightly lower at Day 15 (8%) but increased above CON by Day 21 (16%). Despite elevated maternal testosterone, male fetal testosterone was suppressed by obesity on Day 21. Neither maternal nor fetal glucocorticoid profiles were affected by obesity. In conclusion, obesity disrupts rhythmic profiles of maternal and fetal progesterone, preventing the normal nocturnal decline. Obesity subtly changed testosterone profiles but did not alter maternal and fetal glucocorticoids. © 2016 by the Society for the Study of Reproduction, Inc.

  6. Fetal frontal cortex transplant (14C) 2-deoxyglucose uptake and histology: survival in cavities of host rat brain motor cortex

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sharp, F.R.; Gonzalez, M.F.

    1984-01-01

    Fetal frontal neocortex from 18-day-old rat embryonic brain was transplanted into cavities in 30-day-old host motor cortex. Sixty days after transplantation, 5 of 15 transplanted rats had surviving fetal transplants. The fetal cortex transplants were physically attached to the host brain, completely filled the original cavity, and had numerous surviving cells including pyramidal neurons. Cell lamination within the fetal transplant was abnormal. The ( 14 C) 2-deoxyglucose uptake of all five of the fetal neocortex transplants was less than adjacent cortex and contralateral host motor-sensory cortex, but more than adjacent corpus callosum white matter. The results indicate that fetal frontal neocortex can be transplanted into damaged rat motor cortex. The metabolic rate of the transplants suggests they could be partially functional

  7. CdSe/ZnS Quantum Dots-Labeled Mesenchymal Stem Cells for Targeted Fluorescence Imaging of Pancreas Tissues and Therapy of Type 1 Diabetic Rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Haoqi; Tang, Wei; Li, Chao; Lv, Pinlei; Wang, Zheng; Liu, Yanlei; Zhang, Cunlei; Bao, Yi; Chen, Haiyan; Meng, Xiangying; Song, Yan; Xia, Xiaoling; Pan, Fei; Cui, Daxiang; Shi, Yongquan

    2015-06-01

    Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) have been used for therapy of type 1 diabetes mellitus. However, the in vivo distribution and therapeutic effects of transplanted MSCs are not clarified well. Herein, we reported that CdSe/ZnS quantum dots-labeled MSCs were prepared for targeted fluorescence imaging and therapy of pancreas tissues in rat models with type 1 diabetes. CdSe/ZnS quantum dots were synthesized, their biocompatibility was evaluated, and then, the appropriate concentration of quantum dots was selected to label MSCs. CdSe/ZnS quantum dots-labeled MSCs were injected into mouse models with type 1 diabetes via tail vessel and then were observed by using the Bruker In-Vivo F PRO system, and the blood glucose levels were monitored for 8 weeks. Results showed that prepared CdSe/ZnS quantum dots owned good biocompatibility. Significant differences existed in distribution of quantum dots-labeled MSCs between normal control rats and diabetic rats ( p pancreas of rats in the diabetes group, and was about 32 %, while that in the normal control group rats was about 18 %. The blood glucose levels were also monitored for 8 weeks after quantum dots-labeled MSC injection. Statistical differences existed between the blood glucose levels of the diabetic rat control group and MSC-injected diabetic rat group ( p pancreas tissues in diabetic rats, and significantly reduce the blood glucose levels in diabetic rats, and own potential application in therapy of diabetic patients in the near future.

  8. Effect of ethanol consumption during gestation on maternal-fetal amino acid metabolism in the rat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lin, G.W.

    1981-01-01

    The distribution of 14 C-alpha-aminoisobutyric acid (AIB), administered intravenously, in maternal, fetal and placental tissues was examined in the rat on gestation-day 21. Ethanol consumption during gestation (day 6 through 21) significantly reduced the uptake of AIB by the placenta and fetus while exerting no influence on maternal tissue AIB uptake. The concentration of fetal plasma free histidine was decreased 50% as a result of maternal ethanol ingestion, but the free histidine level of maternal plasma was not altered. Since no effect on protein content of fetal tissue could be detected, it is speculated that reduced histidine to the fetus might significantly alter the amounts of histamine and carnosine formed via their precursor. The significance of these findings in relation to the Fetal Alcohol Syndrome is discussed

  9. Immunohistochemical study on the fetal rat pituitary in hyperthermia-induced exencephaly

    OpenAIRE

    Watanabe, Yuichi G.; 渡辺, 勇一

    2002-01-01

    Hyperthermia of fetal rats is known to cause malformations of various organs including brain. The present study was carried out to investigate the effect of the hyperthermia-induced brain damages on the development of the adenohypophysis. Mother rats of Day 9.5 of pregnancy were anesthetized and immersed in hot water (43℃) for 15 min. At Day 21.5 of gestation, fetuses were removed by caesarian section and examined for exencephaly. Hyperthermal stress induced varying degrees of exencephaly in ...

  10. Immunohistochemical Study on the Fetal Rat Pituitary in Hyperthermia-lnduced Exencephaly(Endocrinology)

    OpenAIRE

    Yuichi G., Watanabe; Department of Biology, Faculty of Science, Niigata University

    2002-01-01

    Hyperthermia of fetal rats is known to cause malformations of various organs including brain. The present study was carried out to investigate the effect of the hyperthermia-induced brain damages on the development of the adenohypophysis. Mother rats of Day 9.5 of pregnancy were anesthetized and immersed in hot water (43℃) for 15 min. At Day 21.5 of gestation, fetuses were removed by caesarian section and examined for exencephaly. Hyperthermal stress induced varying degrees of exencephaly in ...

  11. Antenatal taurine reduces cerebral cell apoptosis in fetal rats with intrauterine growth restriction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jing; Wang, Xiaofeng; Liu, Ying; Yang, Na; Xu, Jing; Ren, Xiaotun

    2013-08-15

    From pregnancy to parturition, Sprague-Dawley rats were daily administered a low protein diet to establish a model of intrauterine growth restriction. From the 12(th) day of pregnancy, 300 mg/kg rine was daily added to food until spontaneous delivery occurred. Brain tissues from normal neonatal rats at 6 hours after delivery, neonatal rats with intrauterine growth restriction, and neonatal rats with intrauterine growth restriction undergoing taurine supplement were obtained for further experiments. The terminal deoxyribonucleotidyl transferase (TdT)-mediated biotin-16-dUTP nick-end labeling assay revealed that the number of apoptotic cells in the brain tissue of neonatal rats with intrauterine growth restriction significantly increased. Taurine supplement in pregnant rats reduced cell apoptosis in brain tissue from neonatal rats with intrauterine growth restriction. nohistochemical staining revealed that taurine supplement increased glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor expression and decreased caspase-3 expression in the cerebral cortex of intrauterine growth-restricted fetal rats. These results indicate that taurine supplement reduces cell apoptosis through the glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor-caspase-3 signaling pathway, resulting in a protective effect on the intrauterine growth-restricted fetal rat brain.

  12. Fingolimod against endotoxin-induced fetal brain injury in a rat model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yavuz, And; Sezik, Mekin; Ozmen, Ozlem; Asci, Halil

    2017-11-01

    Fingolimod is a sphingosine-1-phosphate receptor modulator used for multiple sclerosis treatment and acts on cellular processes such as apoptosis, endothelial permeability, and inflammation. We hypothesized that fingolimod has a positive effect on alleviating preterm fetal brain injury. Sixteen pregnant rats were divided into four groups of four rats each. On gestational day 17, i.p. endotoxin was injected to induce fetal brain injury, followed by i.p. fingolimod (4 mg/kg maternal weight). Hysterotomy for preterm delivery was performed 6 h after fingolimod. The study groups included (i) vehicle controls (i.p. normal saline only); (ii) positive controls (endotoxin plus saline); (iii) saline plus fingolimod; and (iv) endotoxin plus fingolimod treatment. Brain tissues of the pups were dissected for evaluation of interleukin (IL)-6, caspase-3, and S100β on immunohistochemistry. Maternal fingolimod treatment attenuated endotoxin-related fetal brain injury and led to lower immunoreactions for IL-6, caspase-3, and S100β compared with endotoxin controls (P < 0.0001 for all comparisons). Antenatal maternal fingolimod therapy had fetal neuroprotective effects by alleviating preterm birth-related fetal brain injury with inhibitory effects on inflammation and apoptosis. © 2017 Japan Society of Obstetrics and Gynecology.

  13. Placental and Fetal Disposition of Mercuric Ions in Rats Exposed to Methylmercury: Role of Mrp2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bridges, Christy C.; Joshee, Lucy; Zalups, Rudolfs K.

    2012-01-01

    Methylmercury is a prevalent environmental toxicant that can have deleterious effects on a developing fetus. Previous studies indicate that the multidrug resistance-associated protein 2 (Mrp2) is involved in renal and hepatic export of mercuric ions. Therefore, we hypothesize that Mrp2 is also involved in export of mercuric ions from placental trophoblasts and fetal tissues. To test this hypothesis, we assessed the disposition of mercuric ions in pregnant Wistar and TR– (Mrp2-deficient) rats exposed to a single dose of methylmercury. The amount of mercury in renal tissues (cortex and outer stripe of outer medulla), liver, blood, amniotic fluid, uterus, placentas and fetuses was significantly greater in TR– rats than in Wistar rats. Urinary and fecal elimination of mercury was greater in Wistar dams than in TR– dams. Thus, our findings suggest that Mrp2 may be involved in the export of mercuric ions from maternal and fetal organs following exposure to methylmercury. PMID:23059061

  14. Trefoil factors are expressed in human and rat endocrine pancreas: differential regulation by growth hormone

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jackerott, Malene; Lee, Ying C; Møllgård, Kjeld

    2006-01-01

    Trefoil factors (TFFs) 1, 2, and 3 are expressed in mucosal epithelia. TFFs are particular abundant in the intestine in which they play a crucial role in maintenance and restitution of the epithelium. Because pancreas developmentally arises from the primitive foregut, we explored the expression o...

  15. PPAR ligands improve impaired metabolic pathways in fetal hearts of diabetic rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurtz, Melisa; Capobianco, Evangelina; Martinez, Nora; Roberti, Sabrina Lorena; Arany, Edith; Jawerbaum, Alicia

    2014-10-01

    In maternal diabetes, the fetal heart can be structurally and functionally affected. Maternal diets enriched in certain unsaturated fatty acids can activate the nuclear receptors peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPARs) and regulate metabolic and anti-inflammatory pathways during development. Our aim was to investigate whether PPARα expression, lipid metabolism, lipoperoxidation, and nitric oxide (NO) production are altered in the fetal hearts of diabetic rats, and to analyze the putative effects of in vivo PPAR activation on these parameters. We found decreased PPARα expression in the hearts of male but not female fetuses of diabetic rats when compared with controls. Fetal treatments with the PPARα ligand leukotriene B4 upregulated the expression of PPARα and target genes involved in fatty acid oxidation in the fetal hearts. Increased concentrations of triglycerides, cholesterol, and phospholipids were found in the hearts of fetuses of diabetic rats. Maternal treatments with diets supplemented with 6% olive oil or 6% safflower oil, enriched in unsaturated fatty acids that can activate PPARs, led to few changes in lipid concentrations, but up-regulated PPARα expression in fetal hearts. NO production, which was increased in the hearts of male and female fetuses in the diabetic group, and lipoperoxidation, which was increased in the hearts of male fetuses in the diabetic group, was reduced by the maternal treatments supplemented with safflower oil. In conclusion, impaired PPARα expression, altered lipid metabolism, and increased oxidative and nitridergic pathways were evidenced in hearts of fetuses of diabetic rats and were regulated in a gender-dependent manner by treatments enriched with PPAR ligands. © 2014 Society for Endocrinology.

  16. Inhalative cadmium effects in pregnant and fetal rats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Prigge, E.

    1978-01-01

    Pregnant and non-pregnant rats were continuously exposed for 21 days to an aerosol containing 0.2, 0.4, and 0.6 mg cadmium/m/sup 3/ air. Pregnant and non-pregnant rats exposed to clean air served as controls. The aerosol was generated by an ultrasonic nebulizer and was carried into inhalation chambers. The median aerodynamic diameters were on the order of 0.6 ..mu..m. After inhalation of cadmium aerosols, serum iron levels were not lowered significantly in adult rats. A polycythaemic response of non-pregnant rats was observed due to a direct stimulatory effect of cadmium on erythropoiesis. Polycythaemia was less marked in pregnancy, presumably due to iron loss to placenta and fetus. Disturbances of pulmonary gas exchange or decreased plasma volumes were excluded as causative mechanisms of polycythaemia. In pregnant rats there was a marked dose dependent decrease of the activity of the alkaline phosphatase after cadmium inhalation, while there was no effect in exposed non-pregnant rats. This decreased enzyme activity, together with slowed growth rates and hemolytic effect indicate a higher sensitivity to cadmium in pregnancy. Proteinuria was not found in neither pregnant nor non-pregnant rats. Therefore, it is concluded that in this respect cadmium intoxication by inhalation does not resemble human toxemia of pregnancy, as discussed in the literature.

  17. N-Methyl-D-aspartate Receptor Excessive Activation Inhibited Fetal Rat Lung Development In Vivo and In Vitro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhengchang Liao

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Intrauterine hypoxia is a common cause of fetal growth and lung development restriction. Although N-methyl-D-aspartate receptors (NMDARs are distributed in the postnatal lung and play a role in lung injury, little is known about NMDAR’s expression and role in fetal lung development. Methods. Real-time PCR and western blotting analysis were performed to detect NMDARs between embryonic days (E 15.5 and E21.5 in fetal rat lungs. NMDAR antagonist MK-801’s influence on intrauterine hypoxia-induced retardation of fetal lung development was tested in vivo, and NMDA’s direct effect on fetal lung development was observed using fetal lung organ culture in vitro. Results. All seven NMDARs are expressed in fetal rat lungs. Intrauterine hypoxia upregulated NMDARs expression in fetal lungs and decreased fetal body weight, lung weight, lung-weight-to-body-weight ratio, and radial alveolar count, whereas MK-801 alleviated this damage in vivo. In vitro experiments showed that NMDA decreased saccular circumference and area per unit and downregulated thyroid transcription factor-1 and surfactant protein-C mRNA expression. Conclusions. The excessive activation of NMDARs contributed to hypoxia-induced fetal lung development retardation and appropriate blockade of NMDAR might be a novel therapeutic strategy for minimizing the negative outcomes of prenatal hypoxia on lung development.

  18. Inhibition of warm ischemic injury to rat liver, pancreas, and heart grafts by controlling the nutritional status of both donor and recipient.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishihara, V; Sumimoto, R; Fukuda, Y; Southard, J H; Asahara, T; Dohi, K

    1997-01-01

    In this study, we tested the effect of donor fasting with or without the use of an essential fatty acids deficiency (EFAD) diet in the recipient using rat heart, pancreas, and liver transplant models. We then compared the survivals, tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-alpha) response, and white cell accumulation in rats in order to clarify the mechanisms of the beneficial effect of donor fasting and recipient EFAD. It was found that when the grafts were obtained from fasted donors and then transplanted into fed recipients, the survival rate was significantly higher for all three grafts than for those obtained from fed rats and transplanted into fed rats. The best survival was seen for pancreas grafts obtained from fasted donors and then transplanted into EFAD recipients. TNF-alpha secretion was significantly suppressed in both fasted and EFAD rats, and both the total cell count and neutrophil count were suppressed in EFAD rats. These results clearly indicate that in addition to liver grafts, both heart and pancreas grafts obtained from fasted animals are more tolerant to warm ischemic injury. Furthermore, the combination of donor fasting and recipient EFAD acts synergistically to inhibit the post-transplantation inflammatory reaction (through decreased TNF-alpha secretion and white cell accumulation), thus resulting in an improved survival.

  19. Effects of focal lesions produced by beta irradiating the cerebellums in fetal and infant rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pulliam, J.A.

    1976-01-01

    A beam of beta radiation, 2mm in diameter, was used to irradiate the cerebellum in 29 rat fetuses and in 90 infant rats and to irradiate the cerebrum in 51 rat fetuses and in 72 infant rats. The age range of the rats was from the 15th fetal day to the 6th postnatal day. Localized beta radiation produced lesions limited to the cerebrum, to the cerebellum, to one cerebral hemisphere, or to one cerebellar hemisphere and the vermis in rat fetes and in infant rats. Varying degrees of ataxia were produced in the irradiated rats. This ataxia was proportional to the hypoplasia of the cerebellum. Severe reduction in the size of the cerebrum caused no motor deficits. The lesions produced by localized beta radiation were similar to lesions produced by x radiation, except that beta radiation produced lesions that were more localized and that were asymmetrical. Also the beta radiation offered the investigator more flexibility in selecting the site of the lesion regardless to the age of the rat fetus or the infant rat

  20. Antioxidant Activities of Basella alba Aqueous Leave Extract In Blood, Pancreas, and Gonadal Tissues of Diabetic Male Wistar Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arokoyo, Dennis Seyi; Oyeyipo, Ibukun Peter; Du Plessis, Stefan Simon; Aboua, Yapo Guillaume

    2018-01-01

    Oxidative stress is frequently identified as a key element in the pathophysiology of many complications of diabetes mellitus, including reproductive complications. The antioxidant potential of medicinal plants have been suggested for therapeutic focus of diseases in recent reports. To investigate the effect of Basella alba (Ba) aqueous leave extract on diabetes-induced oxidative stress. Forty male Wistar rats (8-10 weeks) were randomly divided into four groups ( n = 10) and treated as follows; Control (C + Ns) and Diabetic (D + Ns) animals received oral normal saline 0.5 ml/100 g body weight daily, while Healthy Treatment (H + Ba) and Diabetic Treatment (D + Ba) rats were given Ba extract at an oral dose of 200 mg/kg body weight daily. Treatment was by gavage and lasted 4 weeks in all groups. Diabetes was induced in D + Ns and D + Ba rats by single intraperitoneal injection of streptozotocin (55 mg/kg) and fasting blood sugar (FBS) recorded weekly in all rats afterwards. Animals were euthanized at the end of the experiment and blood samples, pancreas, testes, and epididymis were preserved for analysis of oxidative stress biomarkers. Oral administration of aqueous leave extract of Ba significantly ( P antioxidant power, but lower serum concentration of conjugated dienes and thiobarbituric acid reactive substances in D + Ba compared to D + Ns rats ( P antioxidant effects in the gonads by enhancing antioxidant parameters in circulating blood, but not necessarily in the gonadal tissues. Oral treatment of diabetic rats with aqueous leave extract of Basella alba exerts antioxidant effects in the gonads by enhancing antioxidant parameters in circulating blood, but not necessarily in the gonadal tissues. Abbreviations Used: AP - Antioxidant parameters, Ba - Basella alba , CAT - Catalase, CDs - Conjugated dienes, DM - Diabetes mellitus, FBS - Fasting blood sugar, FRAP - Ferric reducing antioxidant power, GSH - reduced glutathione, Ns - Normal saline, ORAC - oxygen radical

  1. Leukemia inhibitory factor in rat fetal lung development: expression and functional studies.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristina Nogueira-Silva

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Leukemia inhibitory factor (LIF and interleukin-6 (IL-6 are members of the family of the glycoprotein 130 (gp130-type cytokines. These cytokines share gp130 as a common signal transducer, which explains why they show some functional redundancy. Recently, it was demonstrated that IL-6 promotes fetal lung branching. Additionally, LIF has been implicated in developmental processes of some branching organs. Thus, in this study LIF expression pattern and its effects on fetal rat lung morphogenesis were assessed. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: LIF and its subunit receptor LIFRα expression levels were evaluated by immunohistochemistry and western blot in fetal rat lungs of different gestational ages, ranging from 13.5 to 21.5 days post-conception. Throughout all gestational ages studied, LIF was constitutively expressed in pulmonary epithelium, whereas LIFRα was first mainly expressed in the mesenchyme, but after pseudoglandular stage it was also observed in epithelial cells. These results point to a LIF epithelium-mesenchyme cross-talk, which is known to be important for lung branching process. Regarding functional studies, fetal lung explants were cultured with increasing doses of LIF or LIF neutralizing antibodies during 4 days. MAPK, AKT, and STAT3 phosphorylation in the treated lung explants was analyzed. LIF supplementation significantly inhibited lung growth in spite of an increase in p44/42 phosphorylation. On the other hand, LIF inhibition significantly stimulated lung growth via p38 and Akt pathways. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: The present study describes that LIF and its subunit receptor LIFRα are constitutively expressed during fetal lung development and that they have an inhibitory physiological role on fetal lung branching.

  2. Annular pancreas

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/001142.htm Annular pancreas To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. An annular pancreas is a ring of pancreatic tissue that encircles ...

  3. Mechanisms underlying the anti-androgenic effects of diethylhexyl phthalate in fetal rat testis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Borch, Julie; Metzdorff, Stine Broeng; Vinggaard, Anne Marie; Brokken, Leon; Dalgaard, Majken

    2006-01-01

    Diethylhexyl phthalate (DEHP) is widely used as a plasticizer in consumer products and is known to disturb the development of the male reproductive system in rats. The mechanisms by which DEHP exerts these effects are not yet fully elucidated, though some of the effects are related to reduced fetal testosterone production. The present study investigated the effects of four different doses of DEHP on fetal testicular histopathology, testosterone production and expression of proteins and genes involved in steroid synthesis in fetal testes. Pregnant Wistar rats were gavaged from GD 7 to 21 with vehicle, 10, 30, 100 or 300 mg/kg bw/day of DEHP. In male fetuses examined at GD 21, testicular testosterone production ex vivo and testicular testosterone levels were reduced significantly at the highest dose. Histopathological effects on gonocytes were observed at 100 and 300 mg/kg bw/day, whereas Leydig cell effects were mainly seen at 300 mg/kg bw/day. Quantitative RT-PCR revealed reduced testicular mRNA expression of the steroidogenesis related factors SR-B1, StAR, PBR and P450scc. Additionally, we observed reduced mRNA expression of the nuclear receptor SF-1, which regulates certain steps in steroid synthesis, and reduced expression of the cryptorchidism-associated Insl-3. Immunohistochemistry showed clear reductions of StAR, PBR, P450scc and PPARγ protein levels in fetal Leydig cells, indicating that DEHP affects regulation of certain steps in cholesterol transport and steroid synthesis. The suppression of testosterone levels observed in phthalate-exposed fetal rats was likely caused by the low expression of these receptors and enzymes involved in steroidogenesis. It is conceivable that the observed effects of DEHP on the expression of nuclear receptors SF-1 and PPARγ are involved in the downregulation of steroidogenic factors and testosterone levels and thereby underlie the disturbed development of the male reproductive system

  4. The effect of copper deficiency on fetal growth and liver anti-oxidant capacity in the Cohen diabetic rat model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ergaz, Zivanit, E-mail: zivanit@hadassah.org.il [Hebrew University Hadassah Medical School, Jerusalem (Israel); Shoshani-Dror, Dana [Hebrew University Hadassah Medical School, Jerusalem (Israel); Guillemin, Claire [Department of Pharmacology and Therapeutics, McGill University, Montreal (Canada); Neeman-azulay, Meytal; Fudim, Liza [Hebrew University Hadassah Medical School, Jerusalem (Israel); Weksler-Zangen, Sarah [Diabetes Research Unit, Hebrew University Hadassah Medical School and Hospital, Jerusalem (Israel); Stodgell, Christopher J.; Miller, Richard K. [Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, University of Rochester, Rochester, MN (United States); Ornoy, Asher [Hebrew University Hadassah Medical School, Jerusalem (Israel)

    2012-12-01

    High sucrose low copper diet induces fetal growth restriction in the three strains of the Cohen diabetic rats: an inbred copper deficient resistant (CDr), an inbred copper deficient sensitive (CDs that become diabetic on high sucrose low copper diet -HSD) and an outbred Wistar derived Sabra rats. Although those growth restricted fetuses also exhibit increased oxidative stress, antioxidants do not restore normal growth. In the present study, we evaluated the role of copper deficiency in the HSD induced fetal growth restriction by adding to the drinking water of the rats 1 ppm or 2 ppm of copper throughout their pregnancy. Fetal and placental growth in correlation with fetal liver copper content and anti-oxidant capacity was evaluated on day 21 of pregnancy. HSD compared to regular chow induced fetal growth restriction, which was most significant in the Cohen diabetic sensitive animals. The addition of 1 ppm and 2 ppm copper to the drinking water normalized fetal growth in a dose dependent manner and reduced the degree of hyperglycemia in the diabetes sensitive rats. The CDs fetuses responded to the HSD with lower catalase like activity, and less reduced superoxide dismutase levels compared to the Sabra strain, and had high malondialdehyde levels even when fed regular chow. Immunostaining was higher for nitrotyrosine among the CDr and higher for hypoxia factor 1 α among the CDs. We conclude that in our model of dietary-induced fetal growth restriction, copper deficiency plays a major etiologic role in the decrease of fetal growth and anti-oxidant capacity. -- Highlights: ► High sucrose low copper diet restricted fetal growth in the Cohen diabetic rat model ► Maternal copper blood levels directly correlated with fetal liver copper content ► Copper supplementation decreased embryonic resorption in the inbred strains ► Copper supplementation reduced hyperglycemia in the sucrose sensitive inbred strain ► Copper supplementation alleviated growth restriction and

  5. The effect of copper deficiency on fetal growth and liver anti-oxidant capacity in the Cohen diabetic rat model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ergaz, Zivanit; Shoshani-Dror, Dana; Guillemin, Claire; Neeman-azulay, Meytal; Fudim, Liza; Weksler-Zangen, Sarah; Stodgell, Christopher J.; Miller, Richard K.; Ornoy, Asher

    2012-01-01

    High sucrose low copper diet induces fetal growth restriction in the three strains of the Cohen diabetic rats: an inbred copper deficient resistant (CDr), an inbred copper deficient sensitive (CDs that become diabetic on high sucrose low copper diet -HSD) and an outbred Wistar derived Sabra rats. Although those growth restricted fetuses also exhibit increased oxidative stress, antioxidants do not restore normal growth. In the present study, we evaluated the role of copper deficiency in the HSD induced fetal growth restriction by adding to the drinking water of the rats 1 ppm or 2 ppm of copper throughout their pregnancy. Fetal and placental growth in correlation with fetal liver copper content and anti-oxidant capacity was evaluated on day 21 of pregnancy. HSD compared to regular chow induced fetal growth restriction, which was most significant in the Cohen diabetic sensitive animals. The addition of 1 ppm and 2 ppm copper to the drinking water normalized fetal growth in a dose dependent manner and reduced the degree of hyperglycemia in the diabetes sensitive rats. The CDs fetuses responded to the HSD with lower catalase like activity, and less reduced superoxide dismutase levels compared to the Sabra strain, and had high malondialdehyde levels even when fed regular chow. Immunostaining was higher for nitrotyrosine among the CDr and higher for hypoxia factor 1 α among the CDs. We conclude that in our model of dietary-induced fetal growth restriction, copper deficiency plays a major etiologic role in the decrease of fetal growth and anti-oxidant capacity. -- Highlights: ► High sucrose low copper diet restricted fetal growth in the Cohen diabetic rat model ► Maternal copper blood levels directly correlated with fetal liver copper content ► Copper supplementation decreased embryonic resorption in the inbred strains ► Copper supplementation reduced hyperglycemia in the sucrose sensitive inbred strain ► Copper supplementation alleviated growth restriction and

  6. Inhibition of Mammary Cancer Progression in Fetal Alcohol Exposed Rats by β-Endorphin Neurons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Changqing; Franklin, Tina; Sarkar, Dipak K

    2016-01-01

    Fetal alcohol exposure (FAE) increases the susceptibility to carcinogen-induced mammary cancer progression in rodent models. FAE also decreases β-endorphin (β-EP) level and causes hyperstress response, which leads to inhibition of immune function against cancer. Previous studies have shown that injection of nanosphere-attached dibutyryl cyclic adenosine monophosphate (dbcAMP) into the third ventricle increases the number of β-EP neurons in the hypothalamus. In this study, we assessed the therapeutic potential of stress regulation using methods to increase hypothalamic levels of β-EP, a neuropeptide that inhibits stress axis activity, in treatment of carcinogen-induced mammary cancer in fetal alcohol exposed rats. Fetal alcohol exposed and control Sprague Dawley rats were given a dose of N-Nitroso-N-methylurea (MNU) at postnatal day 50 to induce mammary cancer growth. Upon detection of mammary tumors, the animals were either transplanted with β-EP neurons or injected with dbcAMP-delivering nanospheres into the hypothalamus to increase β-EP peptide production. Spleen cytokines were detected using reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction assays. Metastasis study was done by injecting mammary cancer cells MADB106 into jugular vein of β-EP-activated or control fetal alcohol exposed animals. Both transplantation of β-EP neurons and injection of dbcAMP-delivering nanospheres inhibited MNU-induced mammary cancer growth in control rats, and reversed the effect of FAE on the susceptibility to mammary cancer. Similar to the previously reported immune-enhancing and stress-suppressive effects of β-EP transplantation, injection of dbcAMP-delivering nanospheres increased the levels of interferon-γ and granzyme B and decreased the levels of epinephrine and norepinephrine in fetal alcohol exposed rats. Mammary cancer cell metastasis study also showed that FAE increased incidence of lung tumor retention, while β-EP transplantation inhibited lung tumor growth in

  7. Effects of maternal acrolein exposure during pregnancy on testicular testosterone production in fetal rats

    OpenAIRE

    Yang, Yuzhuo; Zhang, Zhe; Zhang, Hongliang; Hong, Kai; Tang, Wenhao; Zhao, Lianming; Lin, Haocheng; Liu, Defeng; Mao, Jiaming; Wu, Han; Jiang, Hui

    2017-01-01

    Acrolein has been reported to have diverse toxic effects on various organs, including the reproductive system. However, little is known regarding the effects of maternal acrolein exposure on testicular steroidogenesis in male offspring. The present study investigated the effects of acrolein on fetal testosterone production and associated genes. Pregnant Sprague-Dawley rats were intraperitoneally injected with vehicle (normal saline) or 1, 2 or 5 mg/kg acrolein from gestational day (GD) 14?20,...

  8. Regenerating 1 and 3b gene expression in the pancreas of type 2 diabetic Goto-Kakizaki (GK rats.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sophie Calderari

    Full Text Available Regenerating (REG proteins are associated with islet development, β-cell damage, diabetes and pancreatitis. Particularly, REG-1 and REG-3-beta are involved in cell growth/survival and/or inflammation and the Reg1 promoter contains interleukin-6 (IL-6-responsive elements. We showed by transcriptome analysis that islets of Goto-Kakizaki (GK rats, a model of spontaneous type 2 diabetes, overexpress Reg1, 3α, 3β and 3γ, vs Wistar islets. Goto-Kakizaki rat islets also exhibit increased cytokine/chemokine expression/release, particularly IL-6. Here we analyzed Reg1 and Reg3β expression and REG-1 immuno-localization in the GK rat pancreas in relationship with inflammation. Isolated pancreatic islets and acinar tissue from male adult Wistar and diabetic GK rats were used for quantitative RT-PCR analysis. REG-1 immunohistochemistry was performed on paraffin sections with a monoclonal anti-rat REG-1 antibody. Islet cytokine/chemokine release was measured after 48 h-culture. Islet macrophage-positive area was quantified on cryostat sections using anti-CD68 and major histocompatibility complex (MHC class II antibodies. Pancreatic exocrine-to-endocrine Reg1 and Reg3β mRNA ratios were markedly increased in Wistar vs GK rats. Conversely, both genes were upregulated in isolated GK rat islets. These findings were unexpected, because Reg genes are expressed in the pancreatic acinar tissue. However, we observed REG-1 protein labeling in acinar peri-ductal tissue close to islets and around large, often disorganized, GK rat islets, which may retain acinar cells due to their irregular shape. These large islets also showed peri-islet macrophage infiltration and increased release of various cytokines/chemokines, particularly IL-6. Thus, IL-6 might potentially trigger acinar REG-1 expression and secretion in the vicinity of large diabetic GK rat islets. This increased acinar REG-1 expression might reflect an adaptive though unsuccessful response to deleterious

  9. The influence of X-rays, vitamin A and protease inhibitor on the hydroproteolytic activity and serotonin content in pancreas and intestine of rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kocmierska-Grodzka, D.

    1976-01-01

    Activity of MAO, hydroproteolytic enzymes including some lysosomal markers as well as serotonin content were examined in pancreas and intestinal tissue of rats 24 hours after irradiation with the dose of 800 R. It was stated that postirradiation disturbances of enzymatic activity in intestinal tract were accompanied by changes of serotonin content. Administration of vitamin A into rats caused in some parts of the intestine slight increase of acid phosphatase activity - and evident changes in serotonin content. Inhibitor of proteases (Trasylol) evidently prevented the disturbances of serotonin content both in rats exposed to X-rays or vitamin A administration - when simultaneously its influence on changes in hydroproteolytic activity (except of pancreas and colon) was of smaller degree. (orig.) [de

  10. Antihyperglycemic and histological effects on the pancreas of the aqueous leaves extract of Annona squamosa L. in normal and diabetic rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pornrut Rabintossaporn

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The purposes of our present study were to investigate the antihyperglycemic effect of aqueous leaves extract ofAnnona squamosa L. at different doses and histology of the pancreas in normal and diabetic rats after receiving the extract. The study of antihyperglycemic activities was undertaken by oral administration of vehicle, glibenclamide (3 mg/kg and water leaves extract of Annona squamosa L (125, 250 and 500 mg/kg for 12 days. Fasting blood glucose levels were recorded on the fifth and twelfth days of administration and the third day after stopping administration. The results showed that diabetic rats receiving the doses of 250 and 500 mg/kg leaves extract had statistically significant (pAnnona squamosa L. has an antihyperglycemic effect and is able toimprove the histological appearance of diabetic rat pancreas.

  11. Influence of X-rays, vitamin A and protease inhibitor on the hydroproteolytic activity and serotonin content in pancreas and intestine of rats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kocmierska-Grodzka, D [Akademia Medyczna, Bialystok (Poland). Zaklad Farmakologii

    1976-06-01

    Activity of MAO, hydroproteolytic enzymes including some lysosomal markers as well as serotonin content were examined in pancreas and intestinal tissue of rats 24 hours after irradiation with the dose of 800 R. It was stated that postirradiation disturbances of enzymatic activity in intestinal tract were accompanied by changes of serotonin content. Administration of vitamin A into rats caused in some parts of the intestine slight increase of acid phosphatase activity - and evident changes in serotonin content. Inhibitor of proteases (Trasylol) evidently prevented the disturbances of serotonin content both in rats exposed to X-rays or vitamin A administration - when simultaneously its influence on changes in hydroproteolytic activity (except of pancreas and colon) was of smaller degree.

  12. The intrauterine metabolic environment modulates the gene expression pattern in fetal rat islets: prevention by maternal taurine supplementation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Reusens, B; Sparre, T; Kalbe, L

    2008-01-01

    in gene expression in fetal islets affected by the LP diet and how taurine may prevent these changes. Methods  Pregnant Wistar rats were fed an LP diet (8% [wt/wt] protein) supplemented or not with taurine in the drinking water or a control diet (20% [wt/wt] protein). At 21.5 days of gestation, fetal......Aims/hypothesis  Events during fetal life may in critical time windows programme tissue development leading to organ dysfunction with potentially harmful consequences in adulthood such as diabetes. In rats, the beta cell mass of progeny from dams fed with a low-protein (LP) diet during gestation...

  13. EFFECT OF INSULIN ON ENDOCRINE PANCREAS FUNCTION DURING LATE PREGNANCY IN THE RAT

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    WIJKSTRA, S; MOES, H; SCHUILING, GA; KOITER, TR

    To partly or completely satisfy the increasing demand for insulin, pregnant rats were infused SC with human insulin (2.4 or 4.8 IU/day) from day 14 to day 20 of gestation. Cyclic control rats underwent the same procedure of 6 days of insulin-treatment. During the treatment all,stoups of rats were

  14. What Is the Pancreas?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Pancreas Function of the Pancreas What is the pancreas? The pancreas is a long flattened gland located ... controller of blood sugar levels. Where is the pancreas? The pancreas is located deep in the abdomen. ...

  15. Effects of glucose, insulin, and supernatant from pancreatic beta-cells on brain-pancreas relative protein in rat hippocampus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lin, Yan-Hua; Westenbroek, Christel; Tie, Lu; Liu, Ai-Hua; Yu, He-Ming; Ter Horst, Gert J.; Li, Xue-Jun

    2006-01-01

    Brain-pancreas relative protein (BPRP) is a novel protein that mainly expresses in brain and pancreas. In our previous study, we found that various stressors significantly decreased the expression of BPRP in pancreas in vivo, accompanied by changes in insulin and glucose levels, and that expression

  16. CdSe/ZnS Quantum Dots-Labeled Mesenchymal Stem Cells for Targeted Fluorescence Imaging of Pancreas Tissues and Therapy of Type 1 Diabetic Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Haoqi; Tang, Wei; Li, Chao; Lv, Pinlei; Wang, Zheng; Liu, Yanlei; Zhang, Cunlei; Bao, Yi; Chen, Haiyan; Meng, Xiangying; Song, Yan; Xia, Xiaoling; Pan, Fei; Cui, Daxiang; Shi, Yongquan

    2015-12-01

    Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) have been used for therapy of type 1 diabetes mellitus. However, the in vivo distribution and therapeutic effects of transplanted MSCs are not clarified well. Herein, we reported that CdSe/ZnS quantum dots-labeled MSCs were prepared for targeted fluorescence imaging and therapy of pancreas tissues in rat models with type 1 diabetes. CdSe/ZnS quantum dots were synthesized, their biocompatibility was evaluated, and then, the appropriate concentration of quantum dots was selected to label MSCs. CdSe/ZnS quantum dots-labeled MSCs were injected into mouse models with type 1 diabetes via tail vessel and then were observed by using the Bruker In-Vivo F PRO system, and the blood glucose levels were monitored for 8 weeks. Results showed that prepared CdSe/ZnS quantum dots owned good biocompatibility. Significant differences existed in distribution of quantum dots-labeled MSCs between normal control rats and diabetic rats (p quantum dots-labeled MSC injection. Statistical differences existed between the blood glucose levels of the diabetic rat control group and MSC-injected diabetic rat group (p < 0.01), and the MSC-injected diabetic rat group displayed lower blood glucose levels. In conclusion, CdSe/ZnS-labeled MSCs can target in vivo pancreas tissues in diabetic rats, and significantly reduce the blood glucose levels in diabetic rats, and own potential application in therapy of diabetic patients in the near future.

  17. Effects of combinations of maternal agents on the fetal cerebrum in rat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tanaka, Harumi; Iwasaki, Setsuo; Arima, Masataka; Nakazawa, Kazuharu

    1985-01-01

    Fetal cerebral development influenced by maternal ethanol or caffeine either singly or in combination with X-irradiation was investigated in rat. Female Wistar rats were given 20 % ethanol, 0.04 % caffeine and water during the premating period and pregnancy, and 0.03 % vitamin E only during pregnancy. Pregnant rats were X-irradiated with 100 R or sham-irradiated on gestational day 13. Ethanol-treatment alone much reduced the fetal body and cerebral weights, and X-irradiation alone resulted in great reductions in weight and DNA concentration in the fetal cerebrum. The reduction in body weight with ethanol exceeded that with X-irradiation, therefore, the addition of X-irradiation had no effect on that of ethanol. The reduction in cerebral weight on X-irradiation exceeded that with ethanol, thus the addition of ethanol had only a slight effect on that with X-irradiation. The decrease in body and cerebral weights and the increase in lipid peroxide (LP) formation on caffeine-treatment and the decrease in cerebral weight and the increase in LP on vitamin E-treatment were inhibited by X-irradiation as compared to the combined effects of the other drink treatments. The increase in placental weight and the decrease in cerebral weight on ethanol-treatment and the decrease in placental, body and cerebral weights on caffeine-treatment, which findings were covered by the addition of X-irradiation, became much clearer on single drink treatment. Independently of X-irradiation, ethanol-treatment resulted in increased fetal mortality and LP, and decreased body weight. These results suggest that the combined effects of maternal agents on live fetuses should be investigated as to whether they act independently of or dependently with each other and how the effects appear either singly or mixed. (author)

  18. Embryo-fetal development toxicity of honokiol microemulsion intravenously administered to pregnant rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Qianqian; Ye, Xiangfeng; Wang, Lingzhi; Peng, Bangjie; Zhang, Yingxue; Bao, Jie; Li, Wanfang; Wei, Jinfeng; Wang, Aiping; Jin, Hongtao; Chen, Shizhong

    2016-02-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the embryo-fetal development toxicity of honokiol microemulsion. The drug was intravenously injected to pregnant SD rats at dose levels of 0, 200, 600 and 2000 μg/kg/day from day 6-15 of gestation. All the pregnant animals were observed for body weights and any abnormal changes and subjected to caesarean-section on gestation day (GD) 20; all fetuses obtained from caesarean-section were assessed by external inspection, visceral and skeletal examinations. No treatment-related external alterations as well as visceral and skeletal malformations were observed in honokiol microemulsion groups. There was no significant difference in the body weight gain of the pregnant rats, average number of corpora lutea, and the gravid uterus weight in the honokiol microemulsion groups compared with the vehicle control group. However, at a dose level of 2000 μg/kg/day, there was embryo-fetal developmental toxicity observed, including a decrease in the body length and tail length of fetuses. In conclusion, the no-observed-adverse-effect level (NOAEL) of honokiol microemulsion is 600 μg/kg/day, 75 times above the therapeutic dosage and it has embryo-fetal toxicity at a dose level of 2000 μg/kg/day, which is approximately 250 times above the therapeutic dosage. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Aggregation patterns of fetal rat brain cells following exposure to X-irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shoji, R.; Suzuki, K.; Lee, I.P.

    1980-01-01

    In our search for a simplified in vitro test system to assess the teratogenic effects of physical factors, we studied the effects of total maternal body X-irradiation on aggregation patterns of enzymatically isolated fetal rat brain cells and on ultrastructural aggregate changes. The fetal brain cells were derived from day 14 gestation fetuses of pregnant Sprague-Dawley (CD strain) rats exposed to X-irradiation (25 - 200 R) one hour prior to sacrifice. Notable changes in the cell aggregates following X-irradiation included a reduction in cell aggregate size and an increase in number. The frequency of cell aggregates was higher in the treated than in the control group, and the mean diameter of cell aggregates was inversely related to increasing X-irradiation doses. Transmission electron microscopy revealed in isolated cells features of degenerative process which were similar to those found in intact fetal brain lesions caused by maternal X-irradiation. Furthermore, scanning electron microscopy revealed that inhibition of cell aggregation following X-irradiation could probably be attributed to inhibition of membrane filopodia development and a consequent failure of cell aggregates to fuse into a greater cell aggregate mass. These results suggest that the membrane factors which influence cell aggregation may be a useful parameter to assess early effects of X-irradiation-induced brain deformity. Presently, the cell aggregation culture system is being further evaluated as a short term test system for environmental teratogens

  20. [Interference of vitamin E on the brain tissue damage by electromagnetic radiation of cell phone in pregnant and fetal rats].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Xian; Luo, Rui; Ma, Bin; Wang, Hui; Liu, Tian; Zhang, Jing; Lian, Zhishun; Cui, Xi

    2013-07-01

    To investigate the interlerence ot vitamin E on brain tissue damage by electromagnetic radiation of cell phone in pregnant and fetal rats. 40 pregnant rats were randomly divided into five groups (positive control, negative control, low, middle and high dosage of vitamin E groups). The low, middle and high dosage of vitamin E groups were supplemented with 5, 15 and 30 mg/ml vitamin E respectively since the first day of pregnancy. And the negative control group and the positive control group were given peanut oil without vitamin E. All groups except for the negative control group were exposed to 900MHz intensity of cell phone radiation for one hour each time, three times per day for 21 days. After accouchement, the right hippocampus tissue of fetal rats in each group was taken and observed under electron microscope. The vitality of superoxide dismutase (SOD) and glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px), and the content of malondialdehyde (MDA) in pregnant and fetal rats' brain tissue were tested. Compared with the negative control group, the chondriosomes in neuron and neuroglia of brain tissues was swelling, mild edema was found around the capillary, chromatin was concentrated and collected, and bubbles were formed in vascular endothelial cells (VEC) in the positive fetal rat control group, whereas the above phenomenon was un-conspicuous in the middle and high dosage of vitamin E groups. We can see uniform chromatin, abundant mitochondrion, rough endoplasmic reticulum and free ribosomes in the high dosage group. The apoptosis has not fond in all groups'sections. In the antioxidase activity analysis, compared with the negative control group, the vitality of SOD and GSH-Px significantly decreased and the content of MDA significantly increased both in the pregnant and fetal rats positive control group (P electromagnetic radiation of cell phone in pregnant rats and fetal rats.

  1. Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor ligands regulate lipid content, metabolism, and composition in fetal lungs of diabetic rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurtz, M; Capobianco, E; Careaga, V; Martinez, N; Mazzucco, M B; Maier, M; Jawerbaum, A

    2014-03-01

    Maternal diabetes impairs fetal lung development. Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPARs) are ligand-activated transcription factors relevant in lipid homeostasis and lung development. This study aims to evaluate the effect of in vivo activation of PPARs on lipid homeostasis in fetal lungs of diabetic rats. To this end, we studied lipid concentrations, expression of lipid metabolizing enzymes and fatty acid composition in fetal lungs of control and diabetic rats i) after injections of the fetuses with Leukotriene B4 (LTB4, PPARα ligand) or 15deoxyΔ(12,14)prostaglandin J2 (15dPGJ2, PPARγ ligand) and ii) fed during pregnancy with 6% olive oil- or 6% safflower oil-supplemented diets, enriched with PPAR ligands were studied. Maternal diabetes increased triglyceride concentrations and decreased expression of lipid-oxidizing enzymes in fetal lungs of diabetic rats, an expression further decreased by LTB4 and partially restored by 15dPGJ2 in lungs of male fetuses in the diabetic group. In lungs of female fetuses in the diabetic group, maternal diets enriched with olive oil increased triglyceride concentrations and fatty acid synthase expression, while those enriched with safflower oil increased triglyceride concentrations and fatty acid transporter expression. Both olive oil- and safflower oil-supplemented diets decreased cholesterol and cholesteryl ester concentrations and increased the expression of the reverse cholesterol transporter ATP-binding cassette A1 in fetal lungs of female fetuses of diabetic rats. In fetal lungs of control and diabetic rats, the proportion of polyunsaturated fatty acids increased with the maternal diets enriched with olive and safflower oils. Our results revealed important changes in lipid metabolism in fetal lungs of diabetic rats, and in the ability of PPAR ligands to modulate the composition of lipid species relevant in the lung during the perinatal period.

  2. Internal radiotherapy of liver cancer with rat hepato-carcinoma-intestine-pancreas gene as a liver tumor-specific promoter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Herve, J.; Cunha, A. Sa; Liu, B.; Valogne, Y.; Longuet, M.; Bregerie, O.; Guettier, C.; Samuel, D.; Brechot, C.; Faivre, J. [Hop Paul Brousse, INSERM, Hepatobiliary Ctr, U785, F-94800 Villejuif (France); Herve, J.; Cunha, A. Sa; Liu, B.; Valogne, Y.; Longuet, M.; Bregerie, O.; Guettier, C.; Samuel, D.; Brechot, C.; Faivre, J. [Univ Paris Sud, Fac Med, F-94800 Villejuif (France); Boisgard, R.; Tavitian, B. [INSERM, U803, F-91400 Orsay (France); Boisgard, R.; Tavitian, B. [CEA, Serv Hosp Frederic Joliot, Lab Imagerie Mol Expt, F-91400 Orsay (France); Roux, J.; Cales, P. [Univ Angers, UPRES EA 3859, Lab Hemodynam Interact Fibrose et Invas Tumorale H, Angers (France); Clerc, J. [Hop Cochin, AP HP, Dept Nucl Med, F-75014 Paris (France)

    2008-07-01

    The hepato-carcinoma-intestine-pancreas (HIP) gene, also called pancreatitis-associated protein-1 (PAP1) or Reg III {alpha}, is activated in most human hepatocellular carcinomas (HCCs) but not in normal liver, which suggests that HIP regulatory sequence could be used as efficient liver tumor-specific promoters to express a therapeutic polynucleotide in liver cancer. The sodium iodide sym-porter (NIS), which has recognized therapeutic and reporter gene properties, is appropriate to evaluate the transcriptional strength and specificity of the HIP promoter in HCC. For this purpose, we constructed a recombinant rat HIP-NIS adeno-viral vector (AdrHIP-NIS), and evaluated its performance as a mediator of selective radio-iodide uptake in tumor hepatocytes. Western blot, immunofluorescence, and iodide uptake assays were performed in AdrHIP-NIS-infected primary hepatocytes and transformed hepatic and non-hepatic cells. Nuclear imaging, tissue counting and immuno-histo-chemistry were performed in normal and HCC-bearing Wistar rats infected with AdrHIP-NIS intra-tumorally or via the hepatic artery. In AdrHIP-NIS-infected transformed hepatic cells, functional NIS was strongly expressed, as in cells infected with a cytomegalovirus-NIS vector. No NIS expression was found in AdrHIP-NIS-infected normal hepatocytes or transformed non-hepatic cells. In rats bearing multi-nodular HCC, AdrHIP-NIS triggered functional NIS expression that was preferential in tumor hepatocytes. Administration of 18 mCi of {sup 131}I resulted in the destruction of AdrHIP-NIS-injected nodules. This study has identified the rHIP regulatory sequence as a potent liver tumor-specific promoter for the transfer of therapeutic genes, and AdrHIP-NIS-mediated. {sup 131}I therapy as a valuable option for the treatment of multi-nodular HCC. (authors)

  3. Internal radiotherapy of liver cancer with rat hepato-carcinoma-intestine-pancreas gene as a liver tumor-specific promoter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Herve, J.; Cunha, A. Sa; Liu, B.; Valogne, Y.; Longuet, M.; Bregerie, O.; Guettier, C.; Samuel, D.; Brechot, C.; Faivre, J.; Herve, J.; Cunha, A. Sa; Liu, B.; Valogne, Y.; Longuet, M.; Bregerie, O.; Guettier, C.; Samuel, D.; Brechot, C.; Faivre, J.; Boisgard, R.; Tavitian, B.; Boisgard, R.; Tavitian, B.; Roux, J.; Cales, P.; Clerc, J.

    2008-01-01

    The hepato-carcinoma-intestine-pancreas (HIP) gene, also called pancreatitis-associated protein-1 (PAP1) or Reg III α, is activated in most human hepatocellular carcinomas (HCCs) but not in normal liver, which suggests that HIP regulatory sequence could be used as efficient liver tumor-specific promoters to express a therapeutic polynucleotide in liver cancer. The sodium iodide sym-porter (NIS), which has recognized therapeutic and reporter gene properties, is appropriate to evaluate the transcriptional strength and specificity of the HIP promoter in HCC. For this purpose, we constructed a recombinant rat HIP-NIS adeno-viral vector (AdrHIP-NIS), and evaluated its performance as a mediator of selective radio-iodide uptake in tumor hepatocytes. Western blot, immunofluorescence, and iodide uptake assays were performed in AdrHIP-NIS-infected primary hepatocytes and transformed hepatic and non-hepatic cells. Nuclear imaging, tissue counting and immuno-histo-chemistry were performed in normal and HCC-bearing Wistar rats infected with AdrHIP-NIS intra-tumorally or via the hepatic artery. In AdrHIP-NIS-infected transformed hepatic cells, functional NIS was strongly expressed, as in cells infected with a cytomegalovirus-NIS vector. No NIS expression was found in AdrHIP-NIS-infected normal hepatocytes or transformed non-hepatic cells. In rats bearing multi-nodular HCC, AdrHIP-NIS triggered functional NIS expression that was preferential in tumor hepatocytes. Administration of 18 mCi of 131 I resulted in the destruction of AdrHIP-NIS-injected nodules. This study has identified the rHIP regulatory sequence as a potent liver tumor-specific promoter for the transfer of therapeutic genes, and AdrHIP-NIS-mediated. 131 I therapy as a valuable option for the treatment of multi-nodular HCC. (authors)

  4. Regulation of caspase-3 expression to maintain fetal growth in Porphyromonas gingivalis-infected pregnant rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Banun Kusumawardani

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Periodontal disease has been involved in a variety of systemic disorders and suspected as a potential risk factor for fetal growth restriction. Periodontal pathogenic bacteria may actively regulate embryonic development, implantation and placental trophoblast cell invasion. This study aimed to analyze the role of TNF-α, IL-10 and caspase-3 to maintain fetal growth in Porphyromonasgingivalis-infected pregnant rats. Female rats were infected with live-Porphyromonas gingivalis at concentration of 2x109 cells/ml into subgingival sulcus area of the maxillary first molar before and during pregnancy. They were sacrificed on gestational day (GD-14 and GD20. The weight and length of placentas and fetuses were evaluated. The expression of TNF-α, IL-10 and caspase-3 in macrophages and trophoblast cells were detected by immunohistochemistry. On GD14, TNF-α (R2=0.416;P=0.000 and IL-10 (R2=0.187;P=0.012 had an important role to increase expression of caspase-3 in the placenta, but only TNF-α (R2=0.393;P=0.000 was able to increase the expression of caspase-3 on GD20. TNF-α and caspase-3 also had an important role (P0.000. The increasing expressions of TNF-α and IL-10 did not only enhance immune protection, but also maintained the trophoblast cells survival by regulating expression of caspase-3. Porphyromonas gingivalis infection in maternal periodontal tissue can lead to decrease in placental weight, fetal weight and fetal length which mediated by increasing expression of TNF-α, IL-10 and caspase-3 in the placenta.

  5. Blood flow and tissue oxygen pressures of liver and pancreas in rats: effects of volatile anesthetics and of hemorrhage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vollmar, B; Conzen, P F; Kerner, T; Habazettl, H; Vierl, M; Waldner, H; Peter, K

    1992-09-01

    The object of this investigation was to compare the effects of volatile anesthetics and of hemorrhage at comparable arterial blood pressures on splanchnic blood flow (radioactive microspheres) and tissue oxygenation of the liver and pancreas (surface PO2 [PSO2] electrodes). In contrast to earlier studies, we did not use identical minimum alveolar anesthetic concentration multiples as a reference to compare volatile anesthetics; rather, we used the splanchnic perfusion pressure. Under general anesthesia (intravenous chloralose) and controlled ventilation, 12 Sprague-Dawley rats underwent laparotomy to allow access to abdominal organs. Mean arterial pressure was decreased from 84 +/- 3 mm Hg (mean +/- SEM) at control to 50 mm Hg by 1.0 +/- 0.1 vol% halothane, 2.2 +/- 0.2 vol% enflurane, and 2.3 +/- 0.1 vol% isoflurane in a randomized sequence. For hemorrhagic hypotension, blood was withdrawn gradually until a mean arterial pressure of 50 mm Hg was attained. Volatile anesthetics and hemorrhage reduced cardiac output, and hepatic arterial, portal venous, and total hepatic blood flows by comparable degrees. Mean hepatic PSO2 decreased significantly from 30.7 +/- 2.6 mm Hg at control to 17.4 +/- 2 and 17.5 +/- 2 mm Hg during enflurane and isoflurane (each P less than 0.05) anesthesia, respectively. The decrease to 11.5 +/- 2.5 mm Hg was more pronounced during halothane anesthesia. Hemorrhagic hypotension was associated with the lowest hepatic PSO2 (3.4 +/- 1.3 mm Hg) and the highest number of hypoxic (0-5 mm Hg 86%) and anoxic PSO2 values (0 mm Hg 46%). Pancreatic blood flow and oxygenation remained unchanged from control during halothane and enflurane administration, whereas isoflurane increased both variables. Hemorrhagic hypotension slightly reduced pancreatic flow (-8%) but significantly decreased PSO2 from 58 +/- 5 mm Hg at control to 36 +/- 3 mm Hg, with 7% of all measured values in the hypoxic range. Thus, volatile anesthetics preserved pancreatic but not hepatic

  6. Effects of maternal acrolein exposure during pregnancy on testicular testosterone production in fetal rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Yuzhuo; Zhang, Zhe; Zhang, Hongliang; Hong, Kai; Tang, Wenhao; Zhao, Lianming; Lin, Haocheng; Liu, Defeng; Mao, Jiaming; Wu, Han; Jiang, Hui

    2017-07-01

    Acrolein has been reported to have diverse toxic effects on various organs, including the reproductive system. However, little is known regarding the effects of maternal acrolein exposure on testicular steroidogenesis in male offspring. The present study investigated the effects of acrolein on fetal testosterone production and associated genes. Pregnant Sprague‑Dawley rats were intraperitoneally injected with vehicle (normal saline) or 1, 2 or 5 mg/kg acrolein from gestational day (GD) 14‑20, and fetal testes were examined on GD 21. Fetal body and testicular weights were markedly reduced in pups following exposure to high doses of acrolein (5 mg/kg) in late pregnancy. Notably, in utero exposure of 5 mg/kg acrolein significantly decreased the testicular testosterone level and downregulated the expression levels of steroidogenic acute regulatory protein (StAR) and 3β‑hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase (3β‑HSD), whereas the levels of other steroidogenic enzymes, including scavenger receptor class B, cholesterol side‑chain cleavage enzyme and steroid 17 alpha‑hydroxylase/17,20 lyase, were unaffected. Furthermore, the 3β‑HSD immunoreactive area in the interstitial region of the fetal testes was reduced at a 5 mg/kg dose, whereas the protein expression levels of 4‑hydroxynonenalwere dose‑dependently increased following maternal exposure to acrolein. mRNA expression levels of insulin‑like factor 3, a critical gene involved in testicular descent, were unaltered following maternal acrolein exposure. Taken together, the results of the present study suggested that maternal exposure to high doses of acrolein inhibited fetal testosterone synthesis, and abnormal expression of StAR and 3β‑HSD may be associated with impairment of the steroidogenic capacity.

  7. Effects of fetal hypothyroidism on uterine smooth muscle contraction and structure of offspring rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bagheripuor, Fatemeh; Ghanbari, Mahboubeh; Piryaei, Abbas; Ghasemi, Asghar

    2018-05-01

    What is the central question of this study? Does fetal hypothyroidism in rats alter uterine contractions and structure in the adult offspring? What is the main finding and its importance? Our study indicated that maternal hypothyroidism during pregnancy increased gestational length and decreased litter size. In addition, maternal hypothyroidism caused delayed puberty onset, irregular uterine contractions and histological changes in the uterus in the female offspring. This model might contribute to a better understanding of the cellular and molecular mechanisms involved in uterine contractions in fetal hypothyroidism, studies which are not possible in humans, and might help to establish therapeutic methods for these disorders observed in uterine contractions. Thyroid hormones play an essential role in fetal growth. Hypothyroidism impairs reproductive function in both humans and animals. The aim of this study was to assess the effects of fetal hypothyroidism on uterine smooth muscle contraction and structure in the adult offspring. The control group of female Wistar rats consumed tap water, whereas the hypothyroid group received water containing 0.025% of 6-propyl-2-thiouracial throughout gestation from mating until delivery. Isometric contractility and histological changes in uterine tissue were evaluated in the adult female offspring. We tested the effects of carbachol (10 -10 -10 -3  m) and oxytocin (10 -13 -10 -8  m) on uterine smooth muscle contraction in the fetal hypothyroid (FH) and control groups. Compared with control uteri, carbachol induced contractions with lower amplitude in the FH group (area under the curve: 1820.0 ± 250.0 versus 1370.0 ± 125.0 a.u., control versus FH group, respectively, P muscle layer and the cross-sectional area of the uterus were also significantly lower in the FH group. Gestational length was longer and litter size smaller in FH rats compared with control animals; FH offspring also had delayed puberty. In conclusion

  8. Repercussions of mild diabetes on pregnancy in Wistar rats and on the fetal development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saito Felipe H

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Experimental models are necessary to elucidate diabetes pathophysiological mechanisms not yet understood in humans. Objective: To evaluate the repercussions of the mild diabetes, considering two methodologies, on the pregnancy of Wistar rats and on the development of their offspring. Methods In the 1st induction, female offspring were distributed into two experimental groups: Group streptozotocin (STZ, n = 67: received the β-cytotoxic agent (100 mg STZ/kg body weight - sc on the 1st day of the life; and Non-diabetic Group (ND, n = 14: received the vehicle in a similar time period. In the adult life, the animals were mated. After a positive diagnosis of pregnancy (0, female rats from group STZ presenting with lower glycemia than 120 mg/dL received more 20 mg STZ/kg (ip at day 7 of pregnancy (2nd induction. The female rats with glycemia higher than 120 mg/dL were discarded because they reproduced results already found in the literature. In the mornings of days 0, 7, 14 and 21 of the pregnancy glycemia was determined. At day 21 of pregnancy (at term, the female rats were anesthetized and killed for maternal reproductive performance and fetal development analysis. The data were analyzed using Student-Newman-Keuls, Chi-square and Zero-inflated Poisson (ZIP Tests (p Results STZ rats presented increased rates of pre (STZ = 22.0%; ND = 5.1% and post-implantation losses (STZ = 26.1%; ND = 5.7%, reduced rates of fetuses with appropriate weight for gestational age (STZ = 66%; ND = 93% and reduced degree of development (ossification sites. Conclusion Mild diabetes led a negative impact on maternal reproductive performance and caused intrauterine growth restriction and impaired fetal development.

  9. Analgesic exposure in pregnant rats affects fetal germ cell development with inter-generational reproductive consequences

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dean, Afshan; van den Driesche, Sander; Wang, Yili

    2016-01-01

    Analgesics which affect prostaglandin (PG) pathways are used by most pregnant women. As germ cells (GC) undergo developmental and epigenetic changes in fetal life and are PG targets, we investigated if exposure of pregnant rats to analgesics (indomethacin or acetaminophen) affected GC development...... smaller ovaries and reduced follicle numbers during puberty/adulthood; as similar changes were found for F2 offspring of analgesic-exposed F1 fathers or mothers, we interpret this as potentially indicating an analgesic-induced change to GC in F1. Assuming our results are translatable to humans, they raise...

  10. Relationship between TCF7L2 Relative Expression in Pancreas Tissue with Changes in Insulin by High Intensity Interval Training (HIIT in Type 2 Diabetes Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mojtaba Eizadi

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Both environmental and genetic factors have been implicated in the development of type 2 diabetes (T2D. The objectives of the present study were: 1 to investigate the effect of high intensity interval training (HIIT on fasting glucose, insulin and TCF7L2 expression in pancreas tissue of T2D rats, 2 to determine the relation between TCF7L2 expression with insulin changes in the HIIT and control groups. Methods: In the present applied-experimental study, T2D male Wistar rats induced by intraperitoneal streptozotocin-nicotinamide were assigned to control (no-training and HIIT (5 times/week/12-week groups. Fasting glucose, serum insulin and TCF7L2 expression in pancreas tissues of both groups were measured after lasted exercise and compared between 2 groups by independent T test. Also, the relation between TCF7L2 expression and insulin of HIIT to the control group was assessed by Pearson correlations. Results: The HIIT training in the training group was associated with improved fasting glucose compared with the control group (P<0.001. A significant increase was observed in serum insulin levels (P< 0.001. Also, there was seen a significant decrease in TCF7L2 expression in pancreas tissues in HIIT group compared with the control group (P= 0.038. Significant negative correlation was found between TCF7L2 expression and insulin changes of the HIIT to control groups (r=0.84, P=0.034. conclusion: HIIT training is associated with improvements in glycemic control and insulin secretion in T2D rats. Based on these data, this improvement can be attributed to decrease in TCF7L2 expression at pancreas tissues by HIIT training.

  11. Antioxidant properties of aqueous extracts of unripe Musa paradisiaca on sodium nitroprusside induced lipid peroxidation in rat pancreas in vitro

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shodehinde, Sidiqat Adamson; Oboh, Ganiyu

    2013-01-01

    Objective To evaluate and compare antioxidant activities of the aqueous extracts of unripe plantain (Musa paradisiaca), assess their inhibitory action on sodium nitroprusside induced lipid peroxidation in rat pancreas in vitro and to characterize the main phenolic constituents of the plantain products using gas chromatography analysis. Methods Aqueous extracts of plantain products (raw, elastic pastry, roasted and boiled) flour of 0.1 g/mL (each) were used to determine their total phenol, total flavonoid, 1,1 diphenyl-2 picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) and hydroxyl (OH) radical scavenging ability. The inhibitory effect of the extracts on sodium nitroprusside induced lipid peroxidation was also determined. Results The results revealed that all the aqueous extracts showed antioxidant activity. The boiled flour had highest DPPH and OH radical scavenging ability while raw flour had the highest Fe2+ chelating ability, sodium nitroprusside inhibitory effect and vitamin C content. The antioxidant results showed that elastic pastry had the highest total phenol and total flavonoid content. Characterization of the unripe plantain products for polyphenol contents using gas chromatography showed varied quantity of apigenin, myricetin, luteolin, capsaicin, isorhaemnetin, caffeic acid, kampferol, quercetin, p-hydroxybenzoic acid, shogaol, glycitein and gingerol per product on the spectra. Conclusions Considering the antioxidant activities and ability to inhibit lipid peroxidation of unripe plantain, this could justify their traditional use in the management/prevention of diseases related to stress. PMID:23730557

  12. Antioxidant properties of aqueous extracts of unripe Musa paradisiaca on sodium nitroprusside induced lipid peroxidation in rat pancreas in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shodehinde, Sidiqat Adamson; Oboh, Ganiyu

    2013-06-01

    To evaluate and compare antioxidant activities of the aqueous extracts of unripe plantain (Musa paradisiaca), assess their inhibitory action on sodium nitroprusside induced lipid peroxidation in rat pancreas in vitro and to characterize the main phenolic constituents of the plantain products using gas chromatography analysis. Aqueous extracts of plantain products (raw, elastic pastry, roasted and boiled) flour of 0.1 g/mL (each) were used to determine their total phenol, total flavonoid, 1,1 diphenyl-2 picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) and hydroxyl (OH) radical scavenging ability. The inhibitory effect of the extracts on sodium nitroprusside induced lipid peroxidation was also determined. The results revealed that all the aqueous extracts showed antioxidant activity. The boiled flour had highest DPPH and OH radical scavenging ability while raw flour had the highest Fe(2+) chelating ability, sodium nitroprusside inhibitory effect and vitamin C content. The antioxidant results showed that elastic pastry had the highest total phenol and total flavonoid content. Characterization of the unripe plantain products for polyphenol contents using gas chromatography showed varied quantity of apigenin, myricetin, luteolin, capsaicin, isorhaemnetin, caffeic acid, kampferol, quercetin, p-hydroxybenzoic acid, shogaol, glycitein and gingerol per product on the spectra. Considering the antioxidant activities and ability to inhibit lipid peroxidation of unripe plantain, this could justify their traditional use in the management/prevention of diseases related to stress.

  13. Distribution of Interstitial Cells of Cajal in the Esophagus of Fetal Rats with Esophageal Atresia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caner Isbir

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Aim: Scarcity of the interstitial cells of Cajal (ICC is related to motility disorders. In the study, we aimed to evaluate the number and density of ICCs in the fetal rat esophagus in the adriamycin - esophageal atresia (EA model. Material and Method: Rat fetuses were divided into three groups as a control, adriamycin group without EA and adriamycin group with EA. Four doses of adriamycin, 2 mg/kg each, were injected intraperitoneally to the adriamycin group rats between on 6 and 9 days of gestation. The presence of ICCs in the esophagus of the rat fetuses was determined by using an immunohistochemistry technique (c-kit, CD117. The average numbers of ICCs were calculated with microscopic evaluation by using a visual scoring system (range1 to 3. Results: Seven fetuses were included in each group. The ICCs score 3 distributions of fetuses were 5 (72% fetuses in the control group, 3 (43% fetuses in the adriamycin group without EA, 1 (14% fetus in the adriamycin group with EA. It have been found that there was a marked reduction of ICCs distribution in the adriamycin group with EA compared to control group (p 0.05. Discussion: ICCs density was significantly decreased in the rat fetuses with EA compared to the fetuses without EA. These findings support the idea that ICCs density may be congenitally abnormal in EA. This may be led to dismotility seen in the operated esophagus due to EA.

  14. Effect of fetal growth on maternal protein metabolism in postabsorptive rat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ling, P.R.; Bistrian, B.R.; Blackburn, G.L.; Istfan, N.

    1987-01-01

    Rates of protein synthesis were measured in whole fetuses and maternal tissues at 17 and 20 days of gestation in postabsorptive rats using continuous infusion of L-[1- 14 C]leucine. Fetal protein degradation rates were derived from the fractional rates of synthesis and growth. Whole-body (plasma) leucine kinetics in the mother showed a significant reduction of the fraction of plasma leucine oxidized in the mothers bearing older fetuses, a slight increase in the plasma flux, with total leucine oxidation and incorporation into protein remaining similar at the two gestational ages. Estimates of fractional protein synthesis in maternal tissues revealed an increase in placental and hepatic rates at 20 days of gestation, whereas the fractional synthetic rate in muscle remained unchanged. A model for estimation of the redistribution of leucine between plasma and tissues is described in detail. This model revealed a more efficient utilization of leucine in fetal protein synthesis in comparison with other maternal tissues, a greater dependency of the fetus on plasma supply of leucine, and a significant increase (2-fold) in the release of leucine from maternal muscle as the fetal requirements increased proportionately with its size. The latter conclusion, supported by nitrogen analysis and the ratio of bound-to-free leucine in maternal tissues, confirms the importance of maternal stores in maintaining the homeostasis of essential amino acids during late pregnancy

  15. Effects of ghrelin and des-acyl ghrelin on neurogenesis of the rat fetal spinal cord

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sato, Miho; Nakahara, Keiko; Goto, Shintaro; Kaiya, Hiroyuki; Miyazato, Mikiya; Date, Yukari; Nakazato, Masamitsu; Kangawa, Kenji; Murakami, Noboru

    2006-01-01

    Expressions of the growth hormone secretagogue receptor (GHS-R) mRNA and its protein were confirmed in rat fetal spinal cord tissues by RT-PCR and immunohistochemistry. In vitro, over 3 nM ghrelin and des-acyl ghrelin induced significant proliferation of primary cultured cells from the fetal spinal cord. The proliferating cells were then double-stained using antibodies against the neuronal precursor marker, nestin, and the cell proliferation marker, 5-bromo-2'-deoxyuridine (BrdU), and the nestin-positive cells were also found to be co-stained with antibody against GHS-R. Furthermore, binding studies using [ 125 I]des-acyl ghrelin indicated the presence of a specific binding site for des-acyl ghrelin, and confirmed that the binding was displaced with unlabeled des-acyl ghrelin or ghrelin. These results indicate that ghrelin and des-acyl ghrelin induce proliferation of neuronal precursor cells that is both dependent and independent of GHS-R, suggesting that both ghrelin and des-acyl ghrelin are involved in neurogenesis of the fetal spinal cord

  16. L-Citrulline Supplementation Enhances Fetal Growth and Protein Synthesis in Rats with Intrauterine Growth Restriction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bourdon, Aurélie; Parnet, Patricia; Nowak, Christel; Tran, Nhat-Thang; Winer, Norbert; Darmaun, Dominique

    2016-03-01

    Intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR) results from either maternal undernutrition or impaired placental blood flow, exposing offspring to increased perinatal mortality and a higher risk of metabolic syndrome and cardiovascular disease during adulthood. l-Citrulline is a precursor of l-arginine and nitric oxide (NO), which regulates placental blood flow. Moreover, l-citrulline stimulates protein synthesis in other models of undernutrition. The aim of the study was to determine whether l-citrulline supplementation would enhance fetal growth in a model of IUGR induced by maternal dietary protein restriction. Pregnant rats were fed either a control (20% protein) or a low-protein (LP; 4% protein) diet. LP dams were randomly allocated to drink tap water either as such or supplemented with l-citrulline (2 g · kg(-1) · d(-1)), an isonitrogenous amount of l-arginine, or nonessential l-amino acids (NEAAs). On day 21 of gestation, dams received a 2-h infusion of l-[1-(13)C]-valine until fetuses were extracted by cesarean delivery. Isotope enrichments were measured in free amino acids and fetal muscle, liver, and placenta protein by GC-mass spectrometry. Fetal weight was ∼29% lower in the LP group (3.82 ± 0.06 g) than in the control group (5.41 ± 0.10 g) (P growth in a model of IUGR, and the effect may be mediated by enhanced fetal muscle protein synthesis and/or increased NO production. © 2016 American Society for Nutrition.

  17. Fetal and infantile alcohol-mediated associative learning in the rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abate, P; Spear And, N E; Molina, J C

    2001-07-01

    Infant rats express conditioned responses to an odor experienced prenatally as a chemosensory cue associated with moderate alcohol intoxication. This study examined postnatal intake of a chemosensory cue (cineole) that had been paired with alcohol's unconditioned effects. It also tested the interaction between prenatal association and postnatal conditioning with cineole and alcohol. Pregnant female rats intubated with cineole were given ethanol (EtOH).25 or 4.0 hr later. Other groups received only water or water paired with ethanol. During postnatal day 15 (PD15), infant consumption of cineole solution was assessed. After the cineole drinking test, pups were intubated with EtOH or water to assess infant conditioning. On PD16, all pups were tested for mouthing to milk alone or to a milk-cineole solution. Statistical analysis confirmed fetal associative conditioning attributable to the unconditioned effects of prenatal alcohol. Fetuses given explicit pairings of cineole and alcohol ingested less cineole on PD15 than control fetuses given a 4-hr interval between cineole and alcohol. On PD16, consumption of cineole was significantly increased by prenatal exposure to cineole. Teratogenic effects of this dose of prenatal alcohol did not affect postnatal associative or nonassociative behavior. Prenatal associative learning can be established through temporal contiguity between fetal chemosensory stimulation and alcohol's unconditioned properties. This associative memory survives to infancy and modulates intake patterns and behavioral reactivity to substances that were prenatally paired with alcohol intoxication.

  18. Fetal development and renal function in adult rats prenatally subjected to sodium overload.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cardoso, Henriqueta D; Cabral, Edjair V; Vieira-Filho, Leucio D; Vieyra, Adalberto; Paixão, Ana D O

    2009-10-01

    The aims of this study were (1) to evaluate two factors that affect fetal development--placental oxidative stress (Ox) and plasma volume (PV)--in dams with sodium overload and (2) to correlate possible alterations in these factors with subsequent modifications in the renal function of adult offspring. Wistar dams were maintained on 0.17 M NaCl instead of water from 20 days before mating until either the twentieth pregnancy day/parturition or weaning. Colorimetric methods were used to measure Ox in maternal and offspring tissues, PV, 24-h urinary protein (U(Prot24 h)) and serum triacylglycerols (TG) and cholesterol (Chol). Renal hemodynamics was evaluated in the offspring at 90 days of age using a blood pressure transducer, a flow probe and inulin clearance to measure mean arterial pressure (MAP), renal blood flow and glomerular filtration rate (GFR), respectively. The number of nephrons (NN) was counted in kidney suspensions. Dams showed unchanged PV, placental Ox and fetal weight but increased U(Prot24 h) (150%, P sodium-overloaded pups showed increased U(Prot24 h) (45%, P sodium-overloaded rats showed increased U(Prot24 h) (27%, P sodium-overloaded group. We conclude that salt overload from the prenatal stage until weaning leads to alterations in lipid metabolism and in the renal function of the pups, which are additional to those alterations seen in rats only overloaded prenatally.

  19. Development of Eimeria nieschulzi (Coccidia, Apicomplexa Gamonts and Oocysts in Primary Fetal Rat Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hong Chen

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The in vitro production of gametocytes and oocysts of the apicomplexan parasite genus Eimeria is still a challenge in coccidiosis research. Until today, an in vitro development of gametocytes or oocysts had only been shown in some Eimeria species. For several mammalian Eimeria species, partial developments could be achieved in different cell types, but a development up to gametocytes or oocysts is still lacking. This study compares several permanent cell lines with primary fetal cells of the black rat (Rattus norvegicus concerning the qualitative in vitro development of the rat parasite Eimeria nieschulzi. With the help of transgenic parasites, the developmental progress was documented. The selected Eimeria nieschulzi strain constitutively expresses the yellow fluorescent protein and a macrogamont specific upregulated red tandem dimer tomato. In the majority of all investigated host cells the development stopped at the second merozoite stage. In a mixed culture of cells derived from inner fetal organs the development of schizont generations I-IV, macrogamonts, and oocysts were observed in crypt-like organoid structures. Microgamonts and microgametes could not be observed and oocysts did not sporulate under air supply. By immunohistology, we could confirm that wild-type E. nieschulzi stages can be found in the crypts of the small intestine. The results of this study may be helpful for characterization of native host cells and for development of an in vitro cultivation system for Eimeria species.

  20. Hepatic cholesterol metabolism following a chronic ingestion of cesium-137 starting at fetal stage in rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Racine, R.; Grandcolas, L.; Blanchardon, E.; Gourmelon, P.; Souidi, M.; Veyssiere, G.

    2010-01-01

    The Chernobyl accident released many radionuclides in the environment. Some are still contaminating the ground and thus the people through dietary intake. The long-term sanitary consequences of this disaster are still unclear and several biological systems remain to be investigated. Cholesterol metabolism is of particular interest, with regard to the link established between atherosclerosis and exposure to high-dose ionizing radiations. This study assesses the effect of cesium-137 on cholesterol metabolism in rats, after a chronic exposure since fetal life. To achieve this, rat dams were contaminated with cesium-137-supplemented water from two weeks before mating until the weaning of the pups. Thereafter, the weaned rats were given direct access to the contaminated drinking water until the age of 9 months. After the sacrifice, cholesterol metabolism was investigated in the liver at gene expression and protein level. The cholesterolemia was preserved, as well as the cholesterol concentration in the liver. At molecular level, the gene expressions of ACAT 2 (a cholesterol storage enzyme), of Apolipoprotein A-I and of RXR (a nuclear receptor involved in cholesterol metabolism) were significantly decreased. In addition, the enzymatic activity of CYP27A1, which catabolizes cholesterol, was increased. The results indicate that the rats seem to adapt to the cesium-137 contamination and display modifications of hepatic cholesterol metabolism only at molecular level and within physiological range. (author)

  1. Artifical Pancreas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fei, Jiangfeng

    2013-03-01

    In 2006, JDRF launched the Artificial Pancreas Project (APP) to accelerate the development of a commercially-viable artificial pancreas system to closely mimic the biological function of the pancreas individuals with insulin-dependent diabetes, particularly type 1 diabetes. By automating detection of blood sugar levels and delivery of insulin in response to those levels, an artificial pancreas has the potential to transform the lives of people with type 1 diabetes. The 6-step APP development pathway serves as JDRF's APP strategic funding plan and defines the priorities of product research and development. Each step in the plan represents incremental advances in automation beginning with devices that shut off insulin delivery to prevent episodes of low blood sugar and progressing ultimately to a fully automated ``closed loop'' system that maintains blood glucose at a target level without the need to bolus for meals or adjust for exercise.

  2. Fetal hypothalamic transplants into brain irradiated rats: Graft morphometry and host behavioral responses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pearlman, S.H.; Rubin, P.; White, H.C.; Wiegand, S.J.; Gash, D.M.

    1990-01-01

    This study was designed to test the hypothesis that neural implants can ameliorate or prevent some of the long-term changes associated with CNS irradiation. Using a rat model, the initial study focused on establishing motor, regulatory, and morphological changes associated with brain radiation treatments. Secondly, fetal hypothalamic tissue grafts were placed into the third ventricle of rats which had been previously irradiated. Adult male Long Evans rats received one of three radiation doses (15, 22.5, ampersand 30 Gy) or no radiation. Three days after irradiation, 7 animals in each dose group received an embryonic day 17 hypothalamic graft into the third ventricle while the remaining 8-9 animals in each group received injections of vehicle solution (sham). Few changes were observed in the 15 and 22.5 Gy animals, however rats in the 30 Gy treatment group showed stereotypic and ambulatory behavioral hyperactivity 32 weeks after irradiation. Regulatory changes in the high dose group included decreased growth rate and decreased urine osmolalities, but these measures were extremely variable among animals. Morphological results demonstrated that 30 Gy irradiated animals showed extensive necrosis primarily in the fimbria, which extended into the internal capsule, optic nerve, hippocampus, and thalamus. Hemorrhages were found in the hippocampus, thalamus, and fimbria. Defects in the blood-brain barrier also were evident by entry of intravascularly injected horseradish peroxidase into the parenchyma of the brain. Animals in the 30 Gy grafted group showed fewer behavioral changes and less brain damage than their sham grafted counterparts. Specifically, activity measures were comparable to normal levels, and a dilute urine was not found in the 30 Gy implanted rats. Morphological changes support these behavioral results since only two 30 Gy implanted rats showed necrosis

  3. Suprachiasmatic nuclei of the fetal rat: characterization of a functional circadian clock using 14C-labeled deoxyglucose

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reppert, S.M.; Schwartz, W.J.

    1984-01-01

    The circadian clock located in the suprachiasmatic nuclei (SCN) was characterized in the fetal rat by using 14 C-labeled deoxyglucose to monitor glucose utilization (metabolic activity) of the nuclei. A clear day-night oscillation of metabolic activity was detectable in the fetal SCN from the 19th through the 21st days of gestation; the nuclei were metabolically active during the subjective day and metabolically inactive during the subjective night. During the subjective day on gestational day 21, the fetal SCN were found to manifest high metabolic activity for most of the subjective day. The authors were able to acutely dissociate SCN metabolic activity in the mother rat from that in the fetus by exposing the pregnant animals to light during the normal dark period of diurnal lighting on gestational day 20. The results show the utility of the deoxyglucose method for directly investigating prenatally the function of the biological clock located in the SCN

  4. Effect of zinc oxide nanoparticles on dams and embryo–fetal development in rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hong J

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Jeong-Sup Hong,1,2 Myeong-Kyu Park,1 Min-Seok Kim,1 Jeong-Hyeon Lim,1 Gil-Jong Park,1 Eun-Ho Maeng,1 Jae-Ho Shin,3 Yu-Ri Kim,4 Meyoung-Kon Kim,4 Jong-Kwon Lee,5 Jin-A Park,2 Jong-Choon Kim,6 Ho-Chul Shin2 1Health Care Research Laboratory, Korea Testing and Research Institute, Gimpo, 2College of Veterinary Medicine, Konkuk University, Seoul, 3Department of Biomedical Laboratory Science, Eulji University, Seongnam-si, 4Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Korea University Medical School and College, Seoul, 5Toxicological Research Division, National Institute of Food and Drug Safety Evaluation, Chungcheongbuk-do, 6College of Veterinary Medicine, Chonnam National University, Gwangju, Korea Abstract: This study investigated the potential adverse effects of zinc oxide nanoparticles (ZnOSM20[-] NPs; negatively charged, 20 nm on pregnant dams and embryo–fetal development after maternal exposure over the period of gestational days 5–19 with Sprague Dawley rats. ZnOSM20(- NPs were administered to pregnant rats by gavage at 0 mg/kg/day, 100 mg/kg/day, 200 mg/kg/day, and 400 mg/kg/day. All dams were subjected to caesarean section on gestational day 20, and all the fetuses were examined for external, visceral, and skeletal alterations. Toxicity in the dams manifested as significantly decreased body weight at 400 mg/kg/day and decreased liver weight, and increased adrenal glands weight at 200 mg/kg/day and 400 mg/kg/day. However, no treatment-related difference in the number of corpora lutea, the number of implantation sites, the implantation rate (%, resorption, dead fetuses, litter size, fetal deaths, fetal and placental weights, and sex ratio were observed between the groups. Morphological examinations of the fetuses demonstrated no significant difference in the incidences of abnormalities between the groups. No significant difference was found in the Zn content of fetal tissue between the control and high-dose groups. These results showed

  5. Deficits in Beam-Walking After Neonatal Motor Cortical Lesions are not Spared by Fetal Cortical Transplants in Rats

    OpenAIRE

    Swenson, R. S.; Danielsen, E. H.; Klausen, B. S.; Erlich, E.; Zimmer, J.; Castro, A. J.

    1989-01-01

    Adult rats that sustained unilateral motor cortical lesions at birth demonstrated deficits in traversing an elevated narrow beam. These deficits, manifested by hindlimb slips off the edge of the beam, were not spared in animals that received fetal cortical transplants into the lesion cavity immediately after lesion placement.

  6. Biosynthesis of the D2 cell adhesion molecule: pulse-chase studies in cultured fetal rat neuronal cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lyles, J M; Norrild, B; Bock, E

    1984-01-01

    D2 is a membrane glycoprotein that is believed to function as a cell adhesion molecule (CAM) in neural cells. We have examined its biosynthesis in cultured fetal rat brain neurones. We found D2-CAM to be synthesized initially as two polypeptides: Mr 186,000 (A) and Mr 136,000 (B). With increasing...

  7. Establishing the Biological Relevance of Dipentyl Phthalate Reductions in Fetal Rat Testosterone Production and Plasma and Testis Testosterone Levels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phthalate esters (PEs) constitute a large class of compounds that are used for many consumer product applications. Many of the C2-C7 di-ortho PEs reduce fetal testicular hormone and gene expression levels in rats resulting in adverse effects seen later in life but it appears that...

  8. The effect of dietary seaweed of Caulerpa sp. and Gracilaria sp. on blood glucose levels and histological pancreas of diabetic rats.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ni Luh Ari Yusasrini

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this research was to determine the effect of dietary seaweed of Caulerpa sp. and Gracilaria sp. on blood glucose levels and histological pancreas of diabetic rats. A total of 28 male Wistar rats were used in this study. Rats were divided into 4 groups and given different diets i.e. PSN, PSA, PBN and PBS. Bioassay was conducted for 30 days. The analysis conducted on the macronutrient content of the seaweed flour as well as blood glucose levels on day 0, day 1 and day 30 after alloxan injection. At the end of the implementation of  bioassay, animal surgery were performed and pancreas organs were taken for histology observation. The results showed that  Gracilaria sp. and Caulerpa sp. had a crude fiber content respectively 20.48% and 12.47%. Blood glucose levels in all four groups of mice on day 0 ranged from 123.18 mg / dL - 131.96 mg / dL. Feeding PBN and PBS for 30 days lowered blood glucose levels of mice, respectively for 51.63% (from 384.4 mg / dL to 168.52 mg / dL and 35.24% (from 328.05 mg / dL be 212.42 mg / dL. Histological observation showed that feeding PBN and PBS capable of helping the regeneration of pancreatic cells, thereby feeding both types of seaweed showed hypoglycemic effects in comparison with standard feed.

  9. Effects of the pesticide amitraz and its metabolite BTS 27271 on insulin and glucagon secretion from the perfused rat pancreas: involvement of alpha2D-adrenergic receptors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abu-Basha, E A; Yibchok-Anun, S; Hopper, D L; Hsu, W H

    1999-11-01

    The study purpose was to investigate the direct effect of amitraz, a formamidine insecticide/acaricide, and its active metabolite BTS 27271 on insulin and glucagon secretion from the perfused rat pancreas. Amitraz and BTS 27271 (0.01, 0.1, 1, and 10 micromol/L) inhibited insulin secretion in a concentration-dependent manner. Amitraz increased glucagon secretion at 10 micromol/L, whereas BTS 27271 increased glucagon secretion at 1 and 10 micromol/L. Amitraz- and BTS 27271-induced decreases in insulin secretion and increases in glucagon secretion were not abolished during the 10-minute washout period. During the arginine treatment, both amitraz and BTS 27271 groups (0.1, 1, and 10 micromol/L) had lower insulin secretion and higher glucagon secretion than the control group. Idazoxan, an alpha2A/2D-adrenergic receptor (AR) antagonist, prevented the inhibitory effect of amitraz on insulin secretion in a concentration-dependent manner, but prazosin, an alpha1- and alpha2B/2C-AR antagonist, failed to antagonize the effect of amitraz. These results demonstrate that (1) amitraz and BTS 27271 inhibit insulin and stimulate glucagon secretion from the perfused rat pancreas, (2) amitraz inhibits insulin secretion by activation of alpha2D-ARs, since rats have alpha2D- but not alpha2A-ARs, and (3) amitraz and BTS 27271 may have a high binding affinity to the alpha2D-ARs of pancreatic islets.

  10. Amylase and chymotrypsinogen synthesis and secretion by the anesthetized rat pancreas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iovanna, J.; Giorgi, D.; Dagorn, J.C.

    1987-01-01

    To investigate the origin of nonparallel secretion, pancreatic juice was collected in the anesthetized rat, during infusion of [ 3 H]phenylalanine. In the basal state, the amylase to chymotrypsinogen ratios of activities and of [ 3 H] incorporations were 3.5 and 2.5 times higher than in the homogenate, respectively. Both ratios decreased to the value in the homogenate upon caerulein stimulation (600 ng/kg). Inhibition of protein synthesis by cycloheximide (15 ng/kg) did not alter enzyme secretion ratios, and depressed basal protein output only partly, suggesting similar secretory pathways for basal and stimulated secretion. Finally, when [ 3 H]phenylalanine was given before anesthesia, the amylase to chymotrypsinogen ratio of incorporations was again higher in basal secretion than in homogenate, even when further protein synthesis was blocked by cycloheximide before urethane injection. Hence, basal secretion comes from a pancreatic compartment which is functional, although minor, in the conscious animal, and shows a higher rate of amylase synthesis, compared to chymotrypsinogen, than the rest of the gland. It could consist of a subpopulation of acinar cells

  11. Release of immunoreactive and radioactively prelabelled endogenous (pro-)insulin from isolated islets of rat pancreas in the presence of exogenous insulin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schatz, H [Giessen Univ. (Germany, F.R.). Zentrum fuer Innere Medizin; Pfeiffer, E F

    1977-01-01

    To study the influence of insulin on its secretion, collagenase-isolated islets of rat pancreas were prelabelled with (/sup 3/H)leucine for 2 h. After washing the islets, (pro-)insulin release was stimulated by glucose in the presence or absence of exogenous insulin (up to 2.5 mu./ml. Hormone release was unchanged by the presence of exogenous insulin as judged by determination of both immunoreactive insulin and radioactivity incorporated into the proinsulin and insulin fractions of the medium. No direct feedback mechanism for insulin secretion was apparent from this study.

  12. Caspase 3 activity in isolated fetal rat lung fibroblasts and rat periodontal ligament fibroblasts: cigarette smoke-induced alterations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James Elliot Scott

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Background Cigarette smoking is the leading cause of preventable death in the world. It has been implicated in the pathogenesis of pulmonary, oral and systemic diseases. Smoking during pregnancy is clearly a risk factor for the developing fetus and may be a major cause of infant mortality. Moreover, the oral cavity is the first site of exposure to cigarette smoke and may be a possible source for the spread of toxins to other organs of the body. Fibroblasts in general are morphologically heterogeneous connective tissue cells with diverse functions. Apoptosis or programmed cell death is a crucial process during embryogenesis and for the maintenance of homeostasis throughout life. Deregulation of apoptosis has been implicated in abnormal lung development in the fetus and disease progression in adults. Caspases, are proteases which belong to the family of cysteine aspartic acid proteases and are the key components for the downstream amplification of intra-cellular apoptotic signals. Of the 14 caspases known, caspase-3 is the key executioner of apoptosis. Fetal rat lung fibroblasts but not PDL viability is reduced by exposure to CSE. In addition Caspase 3 activity is elevated after CSE exposure in fetal lung fibroblasts but not in PDLs. Expression of caspase 3 is induced in CSE exposed lung fibroblasts but not in PDLs. Caspase 3 was localized to the cytoplasm in both cell types.

  13. Pancreas cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamada, Shigeru; Kato, Hirotoshi; Hara, Ryusuke

    2006-01-01

    Adenocarcinoma of the pancreas continues to be a significant source of cancer mortality in Japan, resulting in approximately 19,000 deaths a year. It is the fifth leading cause of cancer-related deaths in Japan, with a less than 5% 5-year expected survival rate. About 70-75% of patients with pancreas cancer present with locally advanced disease or distant metastases and have a median survival time of only 6 months. For unresectable pancreas cancer, the median survival time with external beam radiation (EBRT) was better than with surgical bypass or stents alone. The median survival of EBRT alone was 4 to 7 months. The median survival with combined EBRT and chemotherapy for locally unresectable tumor are 8 to 10 months and better than with the EBRT alone. Local failure of these combined therapies was still 26 to 48%. On the other hand, surgery with curative intent is undertaken in 15-20% of patients. Even after resection, the predicted 5-year survival rates are still less than 20%. Local recurrences in the pancreatic bed are seen in 50% of the patients undergoing presumed curative resection. We examined the effect of carbon ion therapy in terms of reducing the rate of local recurrence in patients with locally advanced adenocarcinoma of the pancreas or undergoing resection for adenocarcinoma of the pancreas. (author)

  14. Characterization of insulin-like growth factor I produced by fetal rat pancreatic islets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scharfmann, R.; Corvol, M.; Czernichow, P.

    1989-01-01

    Pancreatic islets were prepared from 22-day-old rat fetuses. After 5 days of culture in dishes allowing cell attachment, neoformed islets were kept free floating in RPMI-1640 medium (16.5 mM glucose, 1% fetal calf serum). The islets were then pulsed with [ 3 H]leucine and [ 35 S]methionine for 24 h. The conditioned medium was acidified with acetic acid (final pH 2.7), desalted, concentrated, and gel filtered on Bio-Gel P100 in acid conditions. The radioactive material that comigrated with immunoreactive insulinlike growth factor I (IGF-I) produced by the islets was pooled, concentrated, and further characterized by reverse-phase high-performance liquid chromatography on a C18 Bondapak column with a linear gradient of acetonitrile (20-80%). The radioactive material that eluted as pure IGF-I (40% acetonitrile) was further studied by chromatofocusing on a Pharmacia PBE 94 column. A sharp radioactive peak containing [ 3 H]leucine and [ 35 S]methionine was eluted at pH 8.55. This material was immunoprecipitated with an antiserum to IGF-I. This study demonstrated that fetal islet cells synthesize molecules that are, by several criteria, equivalent to native IGF-I

  15. Mechanisms underlying the anti-androgenic effects of diethylhexyl phthalate in fetal rat testis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boberg, Julie; Metzdorff, Stine Broeng; Vinggaard, Anne

    2006-01-01

    Diethylhexyl phthalate (DEHP) is widely used as a plasticizer in consumer products and is known to disturb the development of the male reproductive system in rats. The mechanisms by which DEHP exerts these effects are not yet fully elucidated, though some of the effects are related to reduced fetal...... in the downregulation of steroidogenic factors and testosterone levels and thereby underlie the disturbed development of the male reproductive system. (c) 2006 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved......., 30, 100 or 300 mg/kg bw/day of DEHP. In male fetuses examined at GD 21, testicular testosterone production ex vivo and testicular testosterone levels were reduced significantly at the highest dose. Histopathological effects on gonocytes were observed at 100 and 300 mg/kg bw/day, whereas Leydig cell...

  16. Ca uptake and its influence by growth hormone in osteoblasts of fetal rat calvaria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Hongfu; Jin Weifang; Sekimoto Haku

    1994-01-01

    Uptake and release of Ca 2+ are important functions of osteoblasts. In the paper we studied the uptake of calcium and influence by Growth Hormone in osteoblasts of fetal rat calvaria by liquid scintillation spectrometry of 45 Ca 2+ . In short-term cultures of the bone derived cells, the uptake of 45 Ca 2+ increased steadily. The activity of 45 Ca 2+ in the cells of 15 minute cultures was 2∼3 times of that in the 0 minute cultures. It continued to increase in the cells of 30 minute cultures. Exposure of the bone cells to GH at 55.3 ng/ml increased the uptake of 45 Ca 2+ by 2.3 times in the 30 minute cultures and 1.5 times in the 60 minute cultures than those of the control

  17. Effects of Gum acacia aqueous extract on the histology of the intestine and enzymes of both the intestine and the pancreas of albino rats treated with Meloxicam

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abd El-Mawla, Ahmed M. A.; Osman, Husam Eldien H.

    2011-01-01

    Background: Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) cause gastrointestinal damage both in the upper and lower gastrointestinal tract, in addition to their undesirable side effects on the pancreas. Meloxicam like all NSAIDs has damaging effects on the gastrointestinal tract including perforations, ulcers and bleeding. Objective: The present work describes the effects of Gum acacia aqueous extract on the histology of intestine and enzymes of both intestine and Pancreas of albino rats treated with Meloxicam. Materials and Methods: This study was performed on four groups of equally weighed male rats, each group included ten animals; the first group was received a diet containing 0.2 mg/kg bw meloxicam per day; the second was given 1gm Gum acacia per day in its diet; the third was given meloxicam followed by gum in the same doses per day; while the fourth group (control rats) was placed on a normal diet and water. All rats were received their diet for a period of 21 days. Results: A considerable protective effect of Gum acacia aqueous extract on the histology of intestine of albino rats treated with meloxicam was recorded. In addition, the study displayed a significant increase (P < 0.001) in the intestinal enzymes; lipase, amylase, alkaline phosphatase (ALP) and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) in the 1st and 3rd groups animals while these enzymes were significantly decreased (P < 0.001) in the 2nd group when compared with the 4th control group. Conclusion: This study concluded that Gum acacia provides a protection and defense against the harmful effects of meloxicam therapy used as one of the novel anti-Cox-1 and Cox-2 NSAIDs. PMID:21772755

  18. Effects of Gum acacia aqueous extract on the histology of the intestine and enzymes of both the intestine and the pancreas of albino rats treated with Meloxicam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abd El-Mawla, Ahmed M A; Osman, Husam Eldien H

    2011-04-01

    Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) cause gastrointestinal damage both in the upper and lower gastrointestinal tract, in addition to their undesirable side effects on the pancreas. Meloxicam like all NSAIDs has damaging effects on the gastrointestinal tract including perforations, ulcers and bleeding. The present work describes the effects of Gum acacia aqueous extract on the histology of intestine and enzymes of both intestine and Pancreas of albino rats treated with Meloxicam. This study was performed on four groups of equally weighed male rats, each group included ten animals; the first group was received a diet containing 0.2 mg/kg bw meloxicam per day; the second was given 1gm Gum acacia per day in its diet; the third was given meloxicam followed by gum in the same doses per day; while the fourth group (control rats) was placed on a normal diet and water. All rats were received their diet for a period of 21 days. A considerable protective effect of Gum acacia aqueous extract on the histology of intestine of albino rats treated with meloxicam was recorded. In addition, the study displayed a significant increase (P < 0.001) in the intestinal enzymes; lipase, amylase, alkaline phosphatase (ALP) and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) in the 1(st) and 3(rd) groups animals while these enzymes were significantly decreased (P < 0.001) in the 2(nd) group when compared with the 4(th) control group. This study concluded that Gum acacia provides a protection and defense against the harmful effects of meloxicam therapy used as one of the novel anti-Cox-1 and Cox-2 NSAIDs.

  19. Effects of environmental stress during pregnancy on maternal and fetal plasma corticosterone and progesterone in the rat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fleming, D.E.; Rhees, R.W.; Williams, S.R.; Kurth, S.M.

    1986-01-01

    Prenatal stress applied during a presumed critical period (third trimester) for sexual differentiation of the brain has been shown to alter development and influence sexual behavior. This experiment was designed to study the effects of environmental stress (restraint/illumination/heat) on maternal and fetal plasma corticosterone and progesterone titers. These hormones were studied since corticosterone has been shown to alter brain differentiation and progesterone has anti-androgen properties and since the secretion of both from the adrenal cortex is stimulated by ACTH. Plasma corticosterone and progesterone titers of both stressed and control gravid rats and their fetuses were measured on gestational days 18 and 20 by radioimmunoassay. Prenatal stress significantly reduced fetal body weight and fetal adrenal weight. Maternal pituitary weight was significantly increased. Prenatal stress caused a significant elevation in maternal corticosterone and progesterone titers and in fetal corticosterone titers. There was no difference between prenatal stressed and control fetal plasma progesterone levels. These data demonstrate that environmental stress significantly increases adrenal activity beyond that brought about naturally by pregnancy, and therefore may modify sequential hormonal events during fetal development

  20. Fetal uptake of 60CoCl2 and 57Co-cyanocobalamin in different gestation stages of rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nishimura, Yoshikazu; Inaba, Jiro; Ichikawa, Ryushi

    1978-01-01

    Fetal uptake of 60 CoCl 2 and 57 Co-cyanocobalamin was investigated in different gestation stages of rats. The fetal uptake of 60 CoCl 2 24 hrs after administration to pregnant rat slightly increased with the progress of gestation age at the administration but taking account of the growth of the fetus the value expressed in terms of concentration of 60 Co 24 hrs after injection decreased on the contrary. In the case of 57 Co-cyanocobalamin the fetal uptake 24 hrs after administration to pregnant rat increased markedly when the time of injection was in later stage of pregnancy. Fetal accumulation of 57 Co-cyanocobalamin increased with time after injection and the retrograde transfer from fetus to mother was not observed. The amount of 57 Co-cyanocobalamin in the placenta is the greatest immediately after administration followed by a gradual decrease thereafter. Since the amount of radiocobalt transferred through placenta in both chemical forms is greater than that accumulated in placenta, this organ does not seem to play a role as a barrier to both forms of radiocobalt. It was observed that 1 - 2% of maternal dose of 57 Co-cyanocobalamin were transferred to sucklings via milk. The amount of milk-born cyanocobalamin in sucklings is dependent on the gestation age at the time of dosing. (author)

  1. Aerobic capacity of rats recovered from fetal malnutrition with a fructose-rich diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cambri, Lucieli Teresa; Dalia, Rodrigo Augusto; Ribeiro, Carla; Rostom de Mello, Maria Alice

    2010-08-01

    The objective of this study was to analyze the aerobic capacity, through the maximal lactate steady-state (MLSS) protocol, of rats subjected to fetal protein malnutrition and recovered with a fructose-rich diet. Pregnant adult Wistar rats that were fed a balanced (17% protein) diet or a low-protein (6% protein) diet were used. After birth, the offspring were distributed into groups according to diet until 60 days of age: balanced (B), balanced diet during the whole experimental period; balanced-fructose (BF), balanced diet until birth and fructose-rich diet (60% fructose) until 60 days; low protein-balanced (LB), low-protein diet until birth and balanced diet until 60 days; and low protein-fructose (LF), low protein diet until birth and fructose-rich diet until 60 days. It was verified that the fructose-rich diet reduced body growth, mainly in the BF group. There was no difference among the groups in the load corresponding to the MLSS (B, 7.5+/-0.5%; BF, 7.4+/-0.6%; LB, 7.7+/-0.4%; and LF, 7.7+/-0.6% relative to body weight). However, the BF group presented higher blood lactate concentrations (4.8+/-0.9 mmol.L(-1)) at 25 min in the load corresponding to the MLSS (B, 3.2+/-0.9 mmol.L(-1); LB, 3.4+/-0.9 mmol.L(-1); and LF, 3.2+/-1.0 mmol.L(-1)). Taken together, these results indicate that the ability of young rats to perform exercise was not altered by intrauterine malnutrition or a fructose-rich diet, although the high fructose intake after the balanced diet in utero increased blood lactate during swimming exercises in rats.

  2. Fetal rat metabonome alteration by prenatal caffeine ingestion probably due to the increased circulatory glucocorticoid level and altered peripheral glucose and lipid metabolic pathways

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Yansong [Department of Pharmacology, Basic Medical School of Wuhan University, Wuhan University, Wuhan, 430071 (China); Xu, Dan [Department of Pharmacology, Basic Medical School of Wuhan University, Wuhan University, Wuhan, 430071 (China); Research Center of Food and Drug Evaluation, Wuhan University, Wuhan, 430071 (China); Feng, Jianghua, E-mail: jianghua.feng@xmu.edu.cn [Wuhan Institute of Physics and Mathematics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Wuhan, 430071 (China); Department of Electronic Science, Fujian Provincial Key Laboratory of Plasma and Magnetic Resonance, Xiamen University, Xiamen, 361005 (China); Kou, Hao; Liang, Gai [Department of Pharmacology, Basic Medical School of Wuhan University, Wuhan University, Wuhan, 430071 (China); Yu, Hong; He, Xiaohua; Zhang, Baifang; Chen, Liaobin [Research Center of Food and Drug Evaluation, Wuhan University, Wuhan, 430071 (China); Magdalou, Jacques [UMR 7561 CNRS-Nancy Université, Faculté de Médicine, Vandoeuvre-lès-Nancy (France); Wang, Hui, E-mail: wanghui19@whu.edu.cn [Department of Pharmacology, Basic Medical School of Wuhan University, Wuhan University, Wuhan, 430071 (China); Research Center of Food and Drug Evaluation, Wuhan University, Wuhan, 430071 (China)

    2012-07-15

    The aims of this study were to clarify the metabonome alteration in fetal rats after prenatal caffeine ingestion and to explore the underlying mechanism pertaining to the increased fetal circulatory glucocorticoid (GC). Pregnant Wistar rats were daily intragastrically administered with different doses of caffeine (0, 20, 60 and 180 mg/kg) from gestational days (GD) 11 to 20. Metabonome of fetal plasma and amniotic fluid on GD20 were analyzed by {sup 1}H nuclear magnetic resonance-based metabonomics. Gene and protein expressions involved in the GC metabolism, glucose and lipid metabolic pathways in fetal liver and gastrocnemius were measured by real-time RT-PCR and immunohistochemistry. Fetal plasma metabonome were significantly altered by caffeine, which presents as the elevated α- and β‐glucose, reduced multiple lipid contents, varied apolipoprotein contents and increased levels of a number of amino acids. The metabonome of amniotic fluids showed a similar change as that in fetal plasma. Furthermore, the expressions of 11β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase 2 (11β-HSD-2) were decreased, while the level of blood GC and the expressions of 11β-HSD-1 and glucocorticoid receptor (GR) were increased in fetal liver and gastrocnemius. Meanwhile, the expressions of insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1), IGF-1 receptor and insulin receptor were decreased, while the expressions of adiponectin receptor 2, leptin receptors and AMP-activated protein kinase α2 were increased after caffeine treatment. Prenatal caffeine ingestion characteristically change the fetal metabonome, which is probably attributed to the alterations of glucose and lipid metabolic pathways induced by increased circulatory GC, activated GC metabolism and enhanced GR expression in peripheral metabolic tissues. -- Highlights: ► Prenatal caffeine ingestion altered the metabonome of IUGR fetal rats. ► Caffeine altered the glucose and lipid metabolic pathways of IUGR fetal rats. ► Prenatal caffeine

  3. Fetal rat metabonome alteration by prenatal caffeine ingestion probably due to the increased circulatory glucocorticoid level and altered peripheral glucose and lipid metabolic pathways

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, Yansong; Xu, Dan; Feng, Jianghua; Kou, Hao; Liang, Gai; Yu, Hong; He, Xiaohua; Zhang, Baifang; Chen, Liaobin; Magdalou, Jacques; Wang, Hui

    2012-01-01

    The aims of this study were to clarify the metabonome alteration in fetal rats after prenatal caffeine ingestion and to explore the underlying mechanism pertaining to the increased fetal circulatory glucocorticoid (GC). Pregnant Wistar rats were daily intragastrically administered with different doses of caffeine (0, 20, 60 and 180 mg/kg) from gestational days (GD) 11 to 20. Metabonome of fetal plasma and amniotic fluid on GD20 were analyzed by 1 H nuclear magnetic resonance-based metabonomics. Gene and protein expressions involved in the GC metabolism, glucose and lipid metabolic pathways in fetal liver and gastrocnemius were measured by real-time RT-PCR and immunohistochemistry. Fetal plasma metabonome were significantly altered by caffeine, which presents as the elevated α- and β‐glucose, reduced multiple lipid contents, varied apolipoprotein contents and increased levels of a number of amino acids. The metabonome of amniotic fluids showed a similar change as that in fetal plasma. Furthermore, the expressions of 11β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase 2 (11β-HSD-2) were decreased, while the level of blood GC and the expressions of 11β-HSD-1 and glucocorticoid receptor (GR) were increased in fetal liver and gastrocnemius. Meanwhile, the expressions of insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1), IGF-1 receptor and insulin receptor were decreased, while the expressions of adiponectin receptor 2, leptin receptors and AMP-activated protein kinase α2 were increased after caffeine treatment. Prenatal caffeine ingestion characteristically change the fetal metabonome, which is probably attributed to the alterations of glucose and lipid metabolic pathways induced by increased circulatory GC, activated GC metabolism and enhanced GR expression in peripheral metabolic tissues. -- Highlights: ► Prenatal caffeine ingestion altered the metabonome of IUGR fetal rats. ► Caffeine altered the glucose and lipid metabolic pathways of IUGR fetal rats. ► Prenatal caffeine ingestion

  4. Impact of an Energy Drink on the Structure of Stomach and Pancreas of Albino Rat: Can Omega-3 Provide a Protection?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayuob, Nasra; ElBeshbeishy, Rana

    2016-01-01

    A controversy developed between the benefits of energy drinks (EDs) versus the possible health threats since its revolution. Lack of information was a call to assess the effect of chronic consumption of Power Horse (PH) as one of the EDs, on the structure of pancreas and fundic mucosa of stomach in rats, and possible protective role of Omega-3. Thirty two adult male albino rats were divided equally into 4 groups; control received group which only received a standard diet, Omega-3 group, PH group which given PH and PH plus Omega-3 group received both PH plus Omega-3 for 4 weeks. Biochemical assessment of blood glucose, serum insulin, gastrin, tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α) and inducible nitric oxide synthetase (iNOS) was performed. The antioxidant activity and histopathological examination of both pancreatic tissue and fundic mucosa of stomach were assessed. Administration of PH significantly increased serum insulin and glucose levels while it significantly reduced serum gastrin level compared to control. PH also caused oxidants/antioxidants imbalance in both pancreas and fundic mucosa. The latter revealed degenerative changes and increased apoptosis which was evident by increased caspase-3 immunoexpression. Pancreas exhibited signs of β-cells overstimulation. Fundic mucosa showed reduced number of parietal cells, gastrin hormone expression compared to control group. Omega-3 administration could alleviate, to some extent, these changes. It significantly decreased TNF-α, iNOS and reduced glutathione (GSH) as well as significantly increasing superoxide dismutase (SOD) and glutathione peroxidase (GPx) activities compared to the group which received PH alone. Power Horse intake significantly injures islet cells, pancreatic acini as well as the glandular cells of the fundic mucosa. Omega-3 decreases these detrimental effects mostly through its antioxidant and anti-inflammatory action.

  5. Distribution of 131I-labeled recombinant human erythropoietin in maternal and fetal organs following intravenous administration in pregnant rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yilmaz, O.; Lambrecht, F.Y.; Durkan, K.; Gokmen, N.; Erbayraktar, S.

    2007-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to demonstrate the possible transplacental transmission of 131 I labeled recombinant human erythropoietin ( 131 I-rh-EPO) in pregnant rats and its distribution through maternal and fetal organs. Six Wistar Albino Rats in their pregnancy of 18 days were used 131 I labeled recombinant human erythropoietin (specific activity = 2.4 μCi/IU) was injected into the tail vein of rats. After 30 minutes labeled erythropoietin infusion maternal stomach, kidney, lung, liver, brain and heart as well as fetus were removed. Then, the same organs were removed from each fetus. Measuring weight of maternal and fetal organs as well as placenta were followed by radioactivity count via Cd(Te) detector. 131 I labeled recombinant human erythropoietin was found to be able to pass rat placenta and its distribution order in fetal organs was similar to those of maternal organs. Besides, as measurements were performed closer to cornu uteri, uptakes were decreasing in every fetus and its corresponding placenta. (author)

  6. The effect of N-2-cyano-ethylamphetamine. HCl on total lipid contents of placenta and some material and fetal tissues of the rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kulay, L; Oliveira-Filho, R M; Siciliano, S F; Kulay, M N

    1978-12-01

    Female rats received 1.25 mg/kg body weight of N-2-cyano-ethylamphetamine. HCl (Fenproporex chlorhydrate) by oral route, once daily from the 5th to the 21st day of pregnancy, and compared to untreated pregnant rats, showed an increased total lipid content in maternal blood and fetal hearts; liver and heart have had total lipids decrease, while in placenta and fetal livers they were not observed significant differences.

  7. Inhibition of key enzymes linked to type 2 diabetes and sodium nitroprusside-induced lipid peroxidation in rat pancreas by water extractable phytochemicals from some tropical spices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adefegha, Stephen Adeniyi; Oboh, Ganiyu

    2012-07-01

    Spices have been used as food adjuncts and in folklore for ages. Inhibition of key enzymes (α-amylase and α-glucosidase) involved in the digestion of starch and protection against free radicals and lipid peroxidation in pancreas could be part of the therapeutic approach towards the management of hyperglycemia and dietary phenolics have shown promising potentials. This study investigated and compared the inhibitory properties of aqueous extracts of some tropical spices: Xylopia aethiopica [Dun.] A. Rich (Annonaceae), Monodora myristica (Gaertn.) Dunal (Annonaceae), Syzygium aromaticum [L.] Merr. et Perry (Myrtaceae), Piper guineense Schumach. et Thonn (Piperaceae), Aframomum danielli K. Schum (Zingiberaceae) and Aframomum melegueta (Rosc.) K. Schum (Zingiberaceae) against α-amylase, α-glucosidase, 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radicals and sodium nitroprusside (SNP)-induced lipid peroxidation in rat pancreas--in vitro using different spectrophotometric method. Aqueous extract of the spices was prepared and the ability of the spice extracts to inhibit α-amylase, α-glucosidase, DPPH radicals and SNP-induced lipid peroxidation in rat pancreas--in vitro was investigated using various spectrophotometric methods. All the spice extracts inhibited α-amylase (IC(50) = 2.81-4.83 mg/mL), α-glucosidase (IC(50) = 2.02-3.52 mg/mL), DPPH radicals (EC(50) = 15.47-17.38 mg/mL) and SNP-induced lipid peroxidation (14.17-94.38%), with the highest α-amylase & α-glucosidase inhibitory actions and DPPH radical scavenging ability exhibited by X. aethiopica, A. danielli and S. aromaticum, respectively. Also, the spices possess high total phenol (0.88-1.3 mg/mL) and flavonoid (0.24-0.52 mg/mL) contents with A. melegueta having the highest total phenolic and flavonoid contents. The inhibitory effects of the spice extracts on α-amylase, α-glucosidase, DPPH radicals and SNP-induced lipid peroxidation in pancreas (in vitro) could be attributed to the presence of biologically

  8. Simultaneous Transplantation of Fetal Ventral Mesencephalic Tissue and Encapsulated Genetically Modified Cells Releasing GDNF in a Hemi-Parkinsonian Rat Model of Parkinson’s Disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Perez-Bouza, Alberto; Di Santo, Stefano; Seiler, Stefanie

    2017-01-01

    Transplantation of fetal ventral mesencephalic (VM) neurons for Parkinson's disease (PD) is limited by poor survival and suboptimal integration of grafted tissue into the host brain. In a 6-OHDA rat model of PD we investigated the feasibility of simultaneous transplantation of rat fetal VM tissue...... between groups were observed for the number of surviving TH-ir neurons or graft volume. In conclusion, our findings demonstrate that simultaneous transplantation of fetal VM tissue and encapsulated GDNF-releasing cells is feasible and support the graft survival and function. Pre-treatment of donor tissue...

  9. Quercetin-Rich Guava (Psidium guajava) Juice in Combination with Trehalose Reduces Autophagy, Apoptosis and Pyroptosis Formation in the Kidney and Pancreas of Type II Diabetic Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Chia-Fa; Kuo, Yen-Ting; Chen, Tsung-Ying; Chien, Chiang-Ting

    2016-03-10

    We explored whether the combination of anti-oxidant and anti-inflammatory guava (Psidium guajava) and trehalose treatment protects the kidney and pancreas against Type II diabetes (T2DM)-induced injury in rats. We measured the active component of guava juice by HPLC analysis. T2DM was induced in Wistar rats by intraperitoneal administration of nicotinamide and streptozotocin and combination with high fructose diets for 8 weeks. The rats fed with different dosages of guava juice in combination with or without trehalose for 4 weeks were evaluated the parameters including OGTT, plasma insulin, HbA1c, HOMA-IR (insulin resistance) and HOMA-β (β cell function and insulin secretion). We measured oxidative and inflammatory degrees by immunohistochemistry stain, fluorescent stain, and western blot and serum and kidney reactive oxygen species (ROS) by a chemiluminescence analyzer. High content of quercetin in the guava juice scavenged H2O2 and HOCl, whereas trehalose selectively reduced H2O2, not HOCl. T2DM affected the levels in OGTT, plasma insulin, HbA1c, HOMA-IR and HOMA-β, whereas these T2DM-altered parameters, except HbA1c, were significantly improved by guava and trehalose treatment. The levels of T2DM-enhanced renal ROS, 4-hydroxynonenal, caspase-3/apoptosis, LC3-B/autophagy and IL-1β/pyroptosis were significantly decreased by guava juice and trehalose. The combination with trehalose and guava juice protects the pancreas and kidney against T2DM-induced injury.

  10. Disposition of cefixime in the material-fetal unit after an i.v. dose to pregnant rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Halperin-Walega, E.; Barr, A.; Tonelli, A.P.; Shin, K.; Batra, V.K.

    1986-01-01

    Cefixime, a potent, broad spectrum oral cephalosporin, is currently undergoing clinical trials. To determine the extent of transfer of cefixime across the placenta to the fetus, a single dose of 17.8 mg/kg 14 C-cefixime was administered to rats on day 18 of gestation via the caudal vein. Maternal serum and urine, fetal plasma and tissues, and placentae were sampled at appropriate times after dosing. Separate rats were subjected to whole body autoradiography. The half-life for elimination of radioactivity from both maternal serum and placentae was 6.9 hours. Elimination from fetal plasma and tissues was somewhat longer, 12.5 and 13.7 hours, respectively. However, based on a comparison of area under the curve, relative to maternal dose, exposure of the fetuses to cefixime was far less than that of placentae. Peak radioactivity in fetal plasma occurred at 2 hours and was less than 2% of the maternal peak at 0.5 hours after dosing. Whole body autoradiography showed the greatest radioactivity in maternal liver, kidney and intestines. Somewhat less radioactivity appeared in placentae and virtually none could be visualized within the amniotic sac. Overall, the data indicate that exposure of the rat fetus to cefixime after a single maternal dose is limited by the placenta

  11. TRANSPLANTATION OF CRYOPRESERVED FETAL LIVER CELLS SEEDED INTO MACROPOROUS ALGINATE-GELATIN SCAFFOLDS IN RATS WITH LIVER FAILURE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. V. Grizay

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim. To study the therapeutic potential of cryopreserved fetal liver cells seeded into macroporous alginategelatin scaffolds after implantation to omentum of rats with hepatic failure.Materials and methods.Hepatic failure was simulated by administration of 2-acetyl aminofl uorene followed partial hepatectomy. Macroporous alginate-gelatin scaffolds, seeded with allogenic cryopreserved fetal liver cells (FLCs were implanted into rat omentum. To prevent from colonization of host cells scaffolds were coated with alginate gel shell. Serum transaminase activity, levels of albumin and bilirubin as markers of hepatic function were determined during 4 weeks after failure model formation and scaffold implantation. Morphology of liver and scaffolds after implantation were examined histologically. Results. Macroporous alginate-gelatin scaffolds after implantation to healthy rats were colonized by host cells. Additional formation of alginate gel shell around scaffolds prevented the colonization. Implantation of macroporous scaffolds seeded with cryopreserved rat FLCs and additionally coated with alginate gel shell into omentum of rats with hepatic failure resulted in signifi cant improvement of hepatospecifi c parameters of the blood serum and positive changes of liver morphology. The presence of cells with their extracellular matrix within the scaffolds was confi rmed after 4 weeks post implantation.Conclusion. The data above indicate that macroporous alginate-gelatin scaffolds coated with alginate gel shell are promising cell carriers for the development of bioengineered liver equivalents.

  12. A Soxhlet Extract of Gongronema latifolium Retains Moderate Blood Glucose Lowering Effect and Produces Structural Recovery in the Pancreas of STZ-Induced Diabetic Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bassel Al-Hindi

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: Gongronema latifolium Benth. (GL possesses considerable glucose lowering effects able to be utilized on a large-scale. This paper investigates the effects of a Soxhlet extract on hyperglycemia, Langerhans islets and glucose uptake by abdominal muscles. Methods: Ethanol and a Soxhlet apparatus were used to obtain GL ethanolic Soxhlet extract (GLES. It was then administered to randomly-segregated male Sprague-Dawley, normal and STZ-induced diabetic rats, using oral gavage to evaluate blood glucose levels (BGLs, serum lipid profile, insulin levels and the pancreas post-treatment. Results: GLES significantly (p < 0.05 decreased BGLs of normal rats in glucose tolerance testing at a dose of 2 g/kg b.w. but failed to do so in diabetic rats undergoing acute 7-h treatment. Given twice-daily, 1 g/kg b.w. of GLES moderately controlled diabetic BGLs starting from day 10. After 14 days of treatment, 1 g/kg and 0.5 g/kg b.w. of GLES caused 44% and 50% respective increases in the average area of Langerhans islets compared to DC. Using isolated rat abdominal muscle, GLES was found to be a mild insulin-sensitizer. GC-MS analysis revealed the presence of the known glucose-lowering phytosterol, Sitostenone. Conclusion: Despite retaining moderate antidiabetic activity, Soxhlet extraction of Gongronema latifolium probably leads to the destruction of active heat-liable compounds.

  13. Automated Image Analysis of Lung Branching Morphogenesis from Microscopic Images of Fetal Rat Explants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodrigues, Pedro L.; Rodrigues, Nuno F.; Duque, Duarte; Granja, Sara; Correia-Pinto, Jorge; Vilaça, João L.

    2014-01-01

    Background. Regulating mechanisms of branching morphogenesis of fetal lung rat explants have been an essential tool for molecular research. This work presents a new methodology to accurately quantify the epithelial, outer contour, and peripheral airway buds of lung explants during cellular development from microscopic images. Methods. The outer contour was defined using an adaptive and multiscale threshold algorithm whose level was automatically calculated based on an entropy maximization criterion. The inner lung epithelium was defined by a clustering procedure that groups small image regions according to the minimum description length principle and local statistical properties. Finally, the number of peripheral buds was counted as the skeleton branched ends from a skeletonized image of the lung inner epithelia. Results. The time for lung branching morphometric analysis was reduced in 98% in contrast to the manual method. Best results were obtained in the first two days of cellular development, with lesser standard deviations. Nonsignificant differences were found between the automatic and manual results in all culture days. Conclusions. The proposed method introduces a series of advantages related to its intuitive use and accuracy, making the technique suitable to images with different lighting characteristics and allowing a reliable comparison between different researchers. PMID:25250057

  14. Automated Image Analysis of Lung Branching Morphogenesis from Microscopic Images of Fetal Rat Explants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro L. Rodrigues

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Regulating mechanisms of branching morphogenesis of fetal lung rat explants have been an essential tool for molecular research. This work presents a new methodology to accurately quantify the epithelial, outer contour, and peripheral airway buds of lung explants during cellular development from microscopic images. Methods. The outer contour was defined using an adaptive and multiscale threshold algorithm whose level was automatically calculated based on an entropy maximization criterion. The inner lung epithelium was defined by a clustering procedure that groups small image regions according to the minimum description length principle and local statistical properties. Finally, the number of peripheral buds was counted as the skeleton branched ends from a skeletonized image of the lung inner epithelia. Results. The time for lung branching morphometric analysis was reduced in 98% in contrast to the manual method. Best results were obtained in the first two days of cellular development, with lesser standard deviations. Nonsignificant differences were found between the automatic and manual results in all culture days. Conclusions. The proposed method introduces a series of advantages related to its intuitive use and accuracy, making the technique suitable to images with different lighting characteristics and allowing a reliable comparison between different researchers.

  15. Cadmium accelerates bone loss in ovariectomized mice and fetal rat limb bones in culture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bhattacharyya, M.H.; Whelton, B.D.; Stern, P.H.; Peterson, D.P.

    1988-01-01

    Loss of bone mineral after ovariectomy was studied in mice exposed to dietary cadmium at 0.25, 5, or 50 ppm. Results show that dietary cadmium at 50 ppm increased bone mineral loss to a significantly greater extent in ovariectomized mice than in sham-operated controls. These results were obtained from two studies, one in which skeletal calcium content was determined 6 months after ovariectomy and a second in which 45 Ca release from 45 Ca-prelabeled bones was measured immediately after the start of dietary cadmium exposure. Furthermore, experiments with 45 Ca-prelabeled fetal rat limb bones in culture demonstrated that Cd at 10 nM in the medium, a concentration estimated to be in the plasma of mice exposed to 50 ppm dietary Cd, strikingly increased bone resorption. These in vitro results indicate that cadmium may enhance bone mineral loss by a direct action on bone. Results of the in vivo studies are consistent with a significant role of cadmium in the etiology of Itai-Itai disease among postmenopausal women in Japan and may in part explain the increased risk of postmenopausal osteoporosis among women who smoke

  16. Taurine protects against As2O3-induced autophagy in pancreas of rat offsprings through Nrf2/Trx pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bai, Jie; Yao, Xiaofeng; Jiang, Liping; Qiu, Tianming; Liu, Shuang; Qi, Baoxu; Zheng, Yue; Kong, Yuan; Yang, Guang; Chen, Min; Liu, Xiaofang; Sun, Xiance

    2016-04-01

    Arsenic was increasingly to blame as a risk factor for type 2 diabetes mellitus. In our previous study, we had found iAs stimulated autophagic flux and caused autophagic cell death through ROS pathway in INS-1 cells. Since NF-E2-related factor 2 (Nrf2) and the thioredoxin (Trx) system was a crucial line of defense against ROS, we investigated whether Nrf2/Trx pathway contributed to As2O3-stimulated autophagy and the role of taurine in this study. After treatment with 2 mg/kg BW-8 mg/kg BW As2O3 for 57 d, the expression of Nrf2 protein was decreased significantly in offsprings' pancreas. The expression of Trx gene was decreased significantly in pancreas subsequently. Finally, the generation of reactive oxygen species stimulated autophagy in arsenic-treated pancreas. Taurine could reverse arsenic-inhibited Nrf2 and Trx and inhibit autophagy. In short, inhibition of Nrf2/Trx pathway might play an important role in the pathogenesis of arsenic-related diabetes. Taurine could serve as nutrition supplementation against arsenic-related diabetes in high arsenic exposure area. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. and Société Française de Biochimie et Biologie Moléculaire (SFBBM). All rights reserved.

  17. Impact of diisobutyl phthalate and other PPAR agonists on steroidogenesis and plasma insulin and leptin levels in fetal rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boberg, Julie; Metzdorff, Stine; Wortziger, Rasmus; Axelstad, Marta; Brokken, Leon; Vinggaard, Anne Marie; Dalgaard, Majken; Nellemann, Christine

    2008-01-01

    Endocrine disrupting chemicals can induce malformations and impairment of reproductive function in experimental animals and may have similar effects in humans. Recently, the environmental obesogen hypothesis was proposed, suggesting that environmental chemicals contribute to the development of obesity and insulin resistance. These effects could be related to chemical interaction with nuclear receptors such as the peroxisome proliferator activated receptors (PPARs). As several testosterone-reducing drugs are PPAR activators, we aimed to examine whether four PPAR agonists were able to affect fetal testosterone production and masculinization of rats. Additionally, we wished to examine whether these chemicals affected fetal plasma levels of insulin and leptin, which play important roles in the developmental programming of the metabolic system. Pregnant Wistar rats were exposed from gestation day (GD) 7-21 to diisobutyl phthalate (DiBP), butylparaben, perfluorooctanoate, or rosiglitazone (600, 100, 20, or 1 mg/kg bw/day, respectively). Endocrine endpoints were studied in offspring at GD 19 or 21. DiBP, butylparaben and rosiglitazone reduced plasma leptin levels in male and female offspring. DiBP and rosiglitazone additionally reduced fetal plasma insulin levels. In males, DiBP reduced anogenital distance, testosterone production and testicular expression of Insl-3 and genes related to steroidogenesis. PPARα mRNA levels were reduced by DiBP at GD 19 in testis and liver. In females, DiBP increased anogenital distance and increased ovarian aromatase mRNA levels. This study reveals new targets for phthalates and parabens in fetal male and female rats and contributes to the increasing concern about adverse effects of human exposure to these compounds

  18. Prenatal iron deficiency causes sex-dependent mitochondrial dysfunction and oxidative stress in fetal rat kidneys and liver.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woodman, Andrew G; Mah, Richard; Keddie, Danae; Noble, Ronan M N; Panahi, Sareh; Gragasin, Ferrante S; Lemieux, Hélène; Bourque, Stephane L

    2018-06-01

    Prenatal iron deficiency alters fetal developmental trajectories, which results in persistent changes in organ function. Here, we studied the effects of prenatal iron deficiency on fetal kidney and liver mitochondrial function. Pregnant Sprague-Dawley rats were fed partially or fully iron-restricted diets to induce a state of moderate or severe iron deficiency alongside iron-replete control rats. We assessed mitochondrial function via high-resolution respirometry and reactive oxygen species generation via fluorescence microscopy on gestational d 21. Hemoglobin levels were reduced in dams in the moderate (-31%) and severe groups (-54%) compared with controls, which was accompanied by 55% reductions in fetal hemoglobin levels in both moderate and severe groups versus controls. Male iron-deficient kidneys exhibited globally reduced mitochondrial content and respiration, as well as increased cytosolic superoxide and decreased NO. Female iron-deficient kidneys exhibited complex II down-regulation and increased mitochondrial oxidative stress. Male iron-deficient livers exhibited reduced complex IV respiration and increased cytosolic superoxide, whereas female liver tissues exhibited no alteration in oxidant levels or mitochondrial function. These findings indicate that prenatal iron deficiency causes changes in mitochondrial content and function as well as oxidant status in a sex- and organ-dependent manner, which may be an important mechanism that underlies the programming of cardiovascular disease.-Woodman, A. G., Mah, R., Keddie, D., Noble, R. M. N., Panahi, S., Gragasin, F. S., Lemieux, H., Bourque, S. L. Prenatal iron deficiency causes sex-dependent mitochondrial dysfunction and oxidative stress in fetal rat kidneys and liver.

  19. Normal Pancreas Anatomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... hyphen, e.g. -historical Searches are case-insensitive Pancreas Anatomy Add to My Pictures View /Download : Small: ... 1586x1534 View Download Large: 3172x3068 View Download Title: Pancreas Anatomy Description: Anatomy of the pancreas; drawing shows ...

  20. Effect of orally administered betel leaf (Piper betle Linn.) on digestive enzymes of pancreas and intestinal mucosa and on bile production in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prabhu, M S; Platel, K; Saraswathi, G; Srinivasan, K

    1995-10-01

    The influence of two varieties of betel leaf (Piper betle Linn.) namely, the pungent Mysore and non-pungent Ambadi, was examined on digestive enzymes of pancreas and intestinal mucosa and on bile secretion in experimental rats. The betel leaves were administered orally at two doses which were either comparable to human consumption level or 5 times this. The results indicated that while these betel leaves do not influence bile secretion and composition, they have a significant stimulatory influence on pancreatic lipase activity. Besides, the Ambadi variety of betel leaf has a positive stimulatory influence on intestinal digestive enzymes, especially lipase, amylase and disaccharidases. A slight lowering in the activity of these intestinal enzymes was seen when Mysore variety of betel leaf was administered, and this variety also had a negative effect on pancreatic amylase. Further, both the betel leaf varieties have shown decreasing influence on pancreatic trypsin and chymotrypsin activities.

  1. EFFECTS ON THE FETAL RAT INTESTINE OF MATERNAL MALNUTRITION AND EXPOSURE TO NITROFEN (2,4-DICHLOROPHENYL-P-NITROPHENYL ETHER)

    Science.gov (United States)

    The effects of maternal protein-energy malnutrition and exposure to nitrofen on selected aspects of intestinal morphology and function were studied in the fetal rat. Pregnant rats were fed, throughout gestation, diets containing 24% or 6% casein as the sole source of protein. Red...

  2. Pancreas transplants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chandra, J.; Phillips, R.R.; Boardman, P.; Gleeson, F.V.; Anderson, E.M.

    2009-01-01

    Cadaveric, whole pancreas transplantation has proved an effective therapy in the treatment of long-standing type 1 diabetes mellitus and is capable of achieving an insulin-independent eugyclaemic state. As a result, this procedure is being increasingly performed. However, the surgical procedure is complex and unfamiliar to many radiologists. Imaging with computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) gives excellent results and can be used confidently to diagnose vascular, enteric, and immune-mediated complications. We present a review of the normal post-transplantation appearance and the features of early and late complications.

  3. Pancreas transplants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chandra, J.; Phillips, R.R.; Boardman, P.; Gleeson, F.V. [Department of Radiology, Churchill Hospital, Headington, Oxford (United Kingdom); Anderson, E.M. [Department of Radiology, Churchill Hospital, Headington, Oxford (United Kingdom)], E-mail: ewan.anderson@orh.nhs.uk

    2009-07-15

    Cadaveric, whole pancreas transplantation has proved an effective therapy in the treatment of long-standing type 1 diabetes mellitus and is capable of achieving an insulin-independent eugyclaemic state. As a result, this procedure is being increasingly performed. However, the surgical procedure is complex and unfamiliar to many radiologists. Imaging with computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) gives excellent results and can be used confidently to diagnose vascular, enteric, and immune-mediated complications. We present a review of the normal post-transplantation appearance and the features of early and late complications.

  4. Pancreas transplantation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Snider, J.F.; Hunter, D.W.; Castaneda-Zuniga, W.R.; Letourneau, J.G.

    1989-01-01

    Pancreas transplantation can be complicated by vascular thrombosis, stenosis, or anastomotic leak, complications that predispose to transplant pancreatectomy. The relative roles of noninvasive radiologic studies in such vascular complications have been correlated with angiographic or pathologic data. The results of 54 scintigraphic studies, 25 CT studies, 16 sonograms, and 23 color Doppler examinations have been correlated with those of 40 angiograms and 28 pathologic studies in a population of 185 recipients. CT (sensitivity, 100%; specificity, 75%; accuracy, 92%) and US (sensitivity, 88%; specificity, 80%; accuracy, 85%) were most helpful in noninvasive screening for vascular complications, while angiography remains nearly definite in the radiographic diagnosis of these problems

  5. Pancreas grafts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hahn, D.; Buell, U.; Land, W.; Unertl, K.

    1981-01-01

    Perfusion studies with sup(99m)Tc-DTPA, which has hitherto been used routinely to investigate renal grafts, have also proved useful for monitoring the perfusion of pancreas grafts. A total perfusion failure is equally reliably demonstrable as in renal grafts. Quantitatively smaller perfusion alterations can be demonstrated by monitoring the course. It seems possible to differentiate the salivary edema of a rejection reaction, well known from animal experiments, with the help of other paramters (e.g. creatinine). Further clinical studies are however necessary to confirm these results. (orig.) [de

  6. Assessment of estrous cycle, ovarian and uterine tissue and fetal parameters of Wistar rats treated with Topiramate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isabel Cristina Cherici Camargo

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Topiramate (TPM is included in the newer generation of antiepileptic drugs and is known to have multiple mechanisms of action. The drug has also been used for reducing body weight. Its effect on reproductive tissues and estrous cycle deserve greater attention. Then, this study aimed to investigate possible effects of the drug on ovarian and uterine tissues, estrous cycle and some fetal parameters of non-epileptic Wistar rats. In Experiment I, females received tap water (C - Control group; n=8 or Topiramate (TPM group; 100 mg/kg; n=8, orally for 6 weeks. The estrous cycle and food consumption were monitored. Ovarian and uterine sections were examined under light microscopy. In Experiment II, pregnant rats of C and TPM groups received treatments during the pre-implantation, implantation or organogenesis period. In females of Experiment I, TPM had no effect on the food consumption, final body weight, weekly body weight and estrous cycle. Ovarian and uterine weight was similar in both groups. The kinetics of folliculogenesis was unaffected by treatment with the drug. There was a significant (p<0.05 decrease in endometrial thickness of TPM-group. In Experiment II, fetal weight was decreased (p<0.05 in all periods of TPM exposure. There was no effect of treatment on fetal external morphology. In conclusion, the findings indicate that TPM promotes discrete alterations in the uterine tissue, and causes decrease on the fetus weight after exposure in different gestational periods.

  7. Contribution of maternal thyroxine to fetal thyroxine pools in normal rats near term

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morreale de Escobar, G.; Calvo, R.; Obregon, M.J.; Escobar Del Rey, F.

    1990-01-01

    Normal dams were equilibrated isotopically with [ 125 I]T4 infused from 11 to 21 days of gestation, at which time maternal and fetal extrathyroidal tissues were obtained to determine their [ 125 I]T4 and T4 contents. The specific activity of the [ 125 I]T4 in the fetal tissues was lower than in maternal T4 pools. The extent of this change allows evaluation of the net contribution of maternal T4 to the fetal extrathyroidal T4 pools. At 21 days of gestation, near term, this represents 17.5 +/- 0.9% of the T4 in fetal tissues, a value considerably higher than previously calculated. The methodological approach was validated in dams given a goitrogen to block fetal thyroid function. The specific activities of the [ 125 I]T4 in maternal and fetal T4 pools were then similar, confirming that in cases of fetal thyroid impairment the T4 in fetal tissues is determined by the maternal contribution. Thus, previous statements that in normal conditions fetal thyroid economy near term is totally independent of maternal thyroid status ought to be reconsidered

  8. Genotoxicity and fetal abnormality in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats exposed to cigarette smoke prior to and during pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Damasceno, D C; Volpato, G T; Sinzato, Y K; Lima, P H O; Souza, M S S; Iessi, I L; Kiss, A C I; Takaku, M; Rudge, M V C; Calderon, I M P

    2011-10-01

    Maternal hyperglycemia during early pregnancy is associated with increased risk of abnormalities in the offspring. Malformation rates among the offspring of diabetic mothers are 2-5-fold higher than that of the normal population, and congenital malformations are the major cause of mortality and morbidity in the offspring of diabetic mothers. Metabolic changes, such as hyperglycemia and the metabolites obtained from cigarettes both increase the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in the embryo or fetus, causing DNA damage. To evaluate the maternal and fetal genotoxicity, and to assess the incidence of fetal anomaly in diabetic female rats exposed to cigarette smoke at different stages of pregnancy in rats. Diabetes was induced by streptozotocin administration and cigarette smoke exposure was produced by a mechanical smoking device that generated mainstream smoke that was delivered into a chamber. Female Wistar rats were randomly assigned to: non-diabetic (ND) and diabetic (D) groups exposed to filtered air; a diabetic group exposed to cigarette smoke prior to and during pregnancy (DS) and a diabetic group only exposed to cigarette smoke prior to pregnancy (DSPP). On pregnancy day 21, blood samples were obtained for DNA damage analysis and fetuses were collected for congenital anomaly assessment. Statistical significance was set at p<0.05 for all analysis. Exposure of diabetic rats to tobacco smoke prior to pregnancy increased fetal DNA damage, but failed to induce teratogenicity. Thus, these results reinforce the importance for women to avoid exposure to cigarette smoke long before they become pregnant. © J. A. Barth Verlag in Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  9. Dietary fatty acid composition during pregnancy and lactation in the rat programs growth and glucose metabolism in the offspring.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Siemelink, M.; Verhoef, A.; Dormans, J.A.M.A.; Span, P.N.; Piersma, A.H.

    2002-01-01

    AIMS/HYPOTHESIS. We investigated of the effects of fatty acid composition of the maternal diet on fetal and postnatal growth, morphology of the pancreas and glucose metabolism and muscle hexosamine concentrations in the adult offspring of rats. METHODS. High-fat diets enriched with either saturated

  10. Rapamycin inhibits BMP-7-induced osteogenic and lipogenic marker expressions in fetal rat calvarial cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeh, Lee-Chuan C; Ma, Xiuye; Ford, Jeffery J; Adamo, Martin L; Lee, John C

    2013-08-01

    Bone morphogenetic proteins (BMPs) promote osteoblast differentiation and bone formation in vitro and in vivo. BMPs canonically signal through Smad transcription factors, but BMPs may activate signaling pathways traditionally stimulated by growth factor tyrosine kinase receptors. Of these, the mTOR pathway has received considerable attention because BMPs activate P70S6K, a downstream effector of mTOR, suggesting that BMP-induced osteogenesis is mediated by mTOR activation. However, contradictory effects of the mTOR inhibitor rapamycin (RAPA) on bone formation have been reported. Since bone formation is thought to be inversely related to lipid accumulation and mTOR is also important for lipid synthesis, we postulated that BMP-7 may stimulate lipogenic enzyme expression in a RAPA-sensitive mechanism. To test this hypothesis, we determined the effects of RAPA on BMP-7-stimulated expression of osteogenic and lipogenic markers in cultured fetal rat calvarial cells. Our study showed that BMP-7 promoted the expression of osteogenic and lipogenic markers. The effect of BMP-7 on osteogenic markers was greater in magnitude than on lipogenic markers and was temporally more sustained. RAPA inhibited basal and BMP-7-stimulated osteogenic and lipogenic marker expression and bone nodule mineralization. The acetyl CoA carboxylase inhibitor TOFA stimulated the expression of osteoblast differentiation markers, whereas palmitate suppressed their expression. We speculate that the BMP-7-stimulated adipogenesis is part of the normal anabolic response to BMPs, but that inappropriate activation of the lipid biosynthetic pathway by mTOR could have deleterious effects on bone formation and could explain paradoxical effects of RAPA to promote bone formation. Copyright © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  11. Ultrastructural analysis of bone nodules formed in vitro by isolated fetal rat calvaria cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bhargava, U.; Bar-Lev, M.; Bellows, C.G.; Aubin, J.E.

    1988-01-01

    When cells enzymatically digested from 21 d fetal rat calvaria are grown in ascorbic acid and Na beta-glycerophosphate, they form discrete three-dimensional nodular structures with the histological and immunohistochemical appearance of woven bone. The present investigation was undertaken to verify that bone-like features were identifiable at the ultrastructural level. The nodules formed on top of a fibroblast-like multilayer of cells. The upper surface of the nodules was lined by a continuous layer of cuboidal osteoblastic cells often seen to be joined by adherens junctions. Numerous microvilli, membrane protrusions, and coated pits could be seen on the upper surface of these cells, their cytoplasm contained prominent RER and Golgi membranes, and processes extended from their lower surfaces into a dense, highly organized collagenous matrix. Some osteocyte-like cells were completely embedded within this matrix; they also displayed RER and prominent processes which extended through the matrix and often made both adherens and gap junctional contacts with the processes of other cells. The fibroblastic cells not participating in nodule formation were surrounded by a less dense collagenous matrix and, in contrast to the matrix of the nodules, it did not mineralize. An unmineralized osteoid-like layer was seen directly below the cuboidal top layer of cells. A mineralization front was detectable below this in which small, discrete structures resembling matrix vesicles and feathery mineral crystals were evident and frequently associated with the collagen fibrils. More heavily mineralized areas were seen further into the nodule. Electron microprobe and electron and X-ray diffraction analysis confirmed the mineral to be hydroxyapatite

  12. Cerebellar cytokine expression in a rat model for fetal asphyctic preconditioning and perinatal asphyxia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vlassaks, Evi; Brudek, Tomasz; Pakkenberg, Bente

    2014-01-01

    the effects of perinatal asphyxia and fetal asphyctic preconditioning on the inflammatory cytokine response in the cerebellum. Fetal asphyxia was induced at embryonic day 17 by clamping the uterine vasculature for 30 min. At term birth, global perinatal asphyxia was induced by placing the uterine horns...... was decreased 96 h postfetal asphyxia. When applied as preconditioning stimulus, fetal asphyxia attenuates the cerebellar cytokine response. These results indicate that sublethal fetal asphyxia may protect the cerebellum from perinatal asphyxia-induced damage via inhibition of inflammation.......Asphyctic brain injury is a major cause of neuronal inflammation in the perinatal period. Fetal asphyctic preconditioning has been shown to modulate the cerebral inflammatory cytokine response, hereby protecting the brain against asphyctic injury at birth. This study was designated to examine...

  13. Effects of heavy ions on the development of male gonads in fetal rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Bing; Murakami, Masahiro; Eguchi-Kasai, Kiyomi; Shang, Yi; Tanaka, Kaoru; Hayata, Isamu

    2004-01-01

    Effects of exposure to accelerated heavy ion beam on the development of rats in late organogenesis were studied both in utero and in vitro, with a special focus to the response of male gonads. Either rat fetuses in utero or the cultured fetal testes in vitro were irradiated with carbon or Ne ion beams at a dose range from 0.1 Gy to 2.5 Gy. In addition to the linear energy transfer (LET) value of 13 keV/μm of carbon ion beams and of 30 keV/m of Ne ion beams for the in utero irradiation, the LET values at 40, 60, and 80 keV/μm of carbon ion beams were also applied for the in vitro investigation. In the mean time, effects from X-irradiations estimated under the same biological endpoints were studied comparatively for the relative biological effectiveness (RBE) estimation of the accelerated heavy ion irradiations. Although the statistical analysis of results was not finished, certain tendencies were found as follows: For the in utero studies, pups from dams received the accelerated heavy ion irradiations showed higher incidences of prenatal death and preweaning mortality, markedly delayed accomplishment in their physiological markers and reflexes and gain in body weight compared to that exposed to X-irradiations at the same doses. Significantly reduced ratios of main organ weight to body weight including brain, heart, thymus, lung, liver, kidney and testis were also observed in the pups from dams received the accelerated heavy ion irradiations compared to that exposed to X-irradiations at the same doses at postnatal ages of 1, 2 and three months. In addition, testes obtained at these postnatal ages are being studied on testicular development including conditions of the seminiferous tubules, the numbers of germ cells and Sertoli cells. For the in vitro experiments, pathological analysis of apoptosis occurrence in the cultured testes after X-irradiation or exposure to accelerated heavy ion beam is also now under investigation. From the third year, we would like to

  14. Administration of Ketamine Causes Autophagy and Apoptosis in the Rat Fetal Hippocampus and in PC12 Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xinran Li

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Drug abuse during pregnancy is a serious problem. Like alcohol, anticonvulsants, sedatives, and anesthetics, such as ketamine, can pass through the placental barrier and affect the growing fetus. However, the mechanism by which ketamine causes damage to fetal rats is not well understood. Therefore, in this study, we anesthetized pregnant rats with ketamine and evaluated the Total Antioxidant Capacity (T-AOC, Reactive Oxygen Species (ROS, and Malondialdehyde (MDA. Moreover, we determined changes in the levels of Cleaved-Caspase-3 (C-Caspase-3, Beclin-1, B-cell lymphoma-2 (Bcl-2, Bcl-2 Associated X Protein (Bax, Autophagy-related gene 4 (Atg4, Atg5, p62 (SQSTM1, and marker of autophagy Light Chain 3 (LC3. In addition, we cultured PC12 cells in vitro to determine the relationship between ROS, autophagy, and apoptosis following ketamine treatment. The results showed that ketamine induced changes in autophagy- and apoptosis-related proteins, reduced T-AOC, and generated excessive levels of ROS and MDA. In vitro experiments showed similar results, indicating that apoptosis levels can be inhibited by 3-MA. We also found that autophagy and apoptosis can be inhibited by N-acetyl-L-cysteine (Nac. Thus, anesthesia with ketamine in pregnant rats may increase the rate of autophagy and apoptosis in the fetal hippocampus and the mechanism may be through inhibition of antioxidant activity and ROS accumulation.

  15. The Effects of Acoustic White Noise on the Rat Central Auditory System During the Fetal and Critical Neonatal Periods: A Stereological Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salehi, Mohammad Saied; Namavar, Mohammad Reza; Tamadon, Amin; Bahmani, Raziyeh; Jafarzadeh Shirazi, Mohammad Reza; Khazali, Homayoun; Dargahi, Leila; Pandamooz, Sareh; Mohammad-Rezazadeh, Farzad; Rashidi, Fatemeh Sadat

    2017-01-01

    To evaluate the effects of long-term, moderate level noise exposure during crucial periods of rat infants on stereological parameters of medial geniculate body (MGB) and auditory cortex. Twenty-four male offspring of 12 pregnant rats were divided into four groups: fetal-to-critical period group, which were exposed to noise from the last 10 days of fetal life till postnatal day (PND) 29; fetal period group that exposed to noise during the last 10 days of fetal life; critical period group, exposed to noise from PND 15 till PND 29, and control group. White noise at 90 dB for 2 h per day was used. Variance for variables was performed using Proc GLM followed by mean comparison by Duncan's multiple range test. Numerical density of neurons in MGB of fetal-to-critical period group was lower than control group. Similar results were seen in numerical density of neurons in layers IV and VI of auditory cortex. Furthermore, no significant difference was observed in the volume of auditory cortex among groups, and only MGB volume in fetal-to-critical period group was higher than other groups. Estimated total number of neurons in MGB was not significantly different among groups. It seems necessary to prevent long-term moderate level noise exposure during fetal-to-critical neonatal period.

  16. The perinatal effects of maternal caffeine intake on fetal and neonatal brain levels of testosterone, estradiol, and dihydrotestosterone in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karaismailoglu, S; Tuncer, M; Bayrak, S; Erdogan, G; Ergun, E L; Erdem, A

    2017-08-01

    Testosterone, estradiol, and dihydrotestosterone are the main sex steroid hormones responsible for the organization and sexual differentiation of brain structures during early development. The hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenocortical axis, adrenal cells, and gonads play a key role in the production of sex steroids and express adenosine receptors. Caffeine is a non-selective adenosine antagonist; therefore, it can modulate metabolic pathways in these tissues. Besides, the proportion of pregnant women that consume caffeine is ∼60%. That is why the relationship between maternal caffeine consumption and fetal development is important. Therefore, we aimed to investigate this modulatory effect of maternal caffeine consumption on sex steroids in the fetal and neonatal brain tissues. Pregnant rats were treated with a low (0.3 g/L) or high (0.8 g/L) dose of caffeine in their drinking water during pregnancy and lactation. The testosterone, estradiol, and dihydrotestosterone levels in the frontal cortex and hypothalamus were measured using radioimmunoassay at embryonic day 19 (E19), birth (PN0), and postnatal day 4 (PN4). The administration of low-dose caffeine increased the body weight in PN4 male and female rats and anogenital index in PN4 males. The administration of high-dose caffeine decreased the adrenal weight in E19 male rats and increased testosterone levels in the frontal cortex of E19 female rats and the hypothalamus of PN0 male rats. Maternal caffeine intake during pregnancy affects sex steroid levels in the frontal cortex and hypothalamus of the offspring. This concentration changes of the sex steroids in the brain may influence behavioral and neuroendocrine functions at some point in adult life.

  17. Embryo-fetal transfer of bevacizumab (Avastin) in the rat over the course of gestation and the impact of neonatal Fc receptor (FcRn) binding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thorn, Mitchell; Piche-Nicholas, Nicole; Stedman, Donald; Davenport, Scott W; Zhang, Ning; Collinge, Mark; Bowman, Christopher J

    2012-10-01

    There is concern about embryo-fetal exposure to antibody-based biopharmaceuticals based on the increase of such therapies being prescribed to women of childbearing potential. Therefore, there is a desire to better characterize embryo-fetal exposure of these molecules. The pregnant rat is a standard model for evaluating the potential consequences of exposure but placental transfer of antibody-based biopharmaceuticals is not well understood in this model. The relative embryo-fetal distribution of an antibody-based biopharmaceutical was evaluated in the rat. Bevacizumab (Avastin) was chosen as a tool antibody since it does not have significant target binding in the rat that might influence embryo-fetal biodistribution. Avastin was labeled with a fluorescent dye, characterized, and injected into pregnant rats at different gestation ages. Labeled Avastin in fetal tissues was visualized ex vivo using an IVIS 200 (Caliper, A PerkinElmer Company, Alameda, CA). Avastin localized to the fetus as early as 24-hr post intravenous injection of the dam, and was taken up by the fetus in a dose-dependent manner. Avastin was detectable in the developing embryo as early as gestation day 13 and continued to be transferred until the end of gestation. Fetal transfer of Avastins mutated in the portion of the antibody that binds the neonatal Fc receptor (FcRn) was tested in late gestation and was found to correlate with affinities of the mutant Avastin antibody to FcRn. The novel application of this imaging technology was used to characterize the onset and duration of Avastin maternal-fetal transfer in rats and the importance of FcRn binding. © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  18. Differentiated cells derived from fetal neural stem cells improve motor deficits in a rat model of Parkinson’s disease

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wei Wang; Hao Song; Aifang Shen; Chao Chen; Yanming Liu; Yabing Dong; Fabin Han

    2015-01-01

    Objective: Parkinson’s disease(PD), which is one of the most common neuro‐degenerative disorders, is characterized by the loss of dopamine(DA) neurons in the substantia nigra in the midbrain. Experimental and clinical studies have shown that fetal neural stem cells(NSCs) have therapeutic effects in neurological disorders. The aim of this study was to examine whether cells that were differentiated from NSCs had therapeutic effects in a rat model of PD. Methods: NSCs were isolated from 14‐week‐old embryos and induced to differentiate into neurons, DA neurons, and glial cells, and these cells were characterized by their expression of the following markers: βⅢ‐tubulin and microtubule‐associated protein 2(neurons), tyrosine hydroxylase(DA neurons), and glial fibrillary acidic protein(glial cells). After a 6‐hydroxydopamine(6‐OHDA)‐lesioned rat model of PD was generated, the differentiated cells were transplanted into the striata of the 6‐OHDA‐lesioned PD rats. Results: The motor behaviors of the PD rats were assessed by the number of apomorphine‐induced rotation turns. The results showed that the NSCs differentiated in vitro into neurons and DA neurons with high efficiencies. After transplantation into the striata of the PD rats, the differentiated cells significantly improved the motor deficits of the transplanted PD rats compared to those of the control nontransplanted PD rats by decreasing the apomorphine‐induced turn cycles as early as 4 weeks after transplantation. Immunofluorescence analyses showed that the differentiated DA neurons survived more than 16 weeks. Conclusions: Our results showed that cells that were differentiated from NSCs had therapeutic effects in a rat PD model, which suggests that differentiated cells may be an effective treatment for patients with PD.

  19. 1,25(OH)2D3 and Ca-binding protein in fetal rats: Relationship to the maternal vitamin D status

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Verhaeghe, J.; Thomasset, M.; Brehier, A.; Van Assche, F.A.; Bouillon, R.

    1988-01-01

    The autonomy and functional role of fetal 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D 3 [1,25(OH) 2 D 3 ] were investigated in nondiabetic and diabetic BB rats fed diets containing 0.85% calcium-0.7% phosphorus or 0.2% calcium and phosphorus and in semistarved rats on the low calcium-phosphorus diet. The changes in maternal and fetal plasma 1,25(OH) 2 D 3 were similar: the levels were increased by calcium-phosphorus restriction and decreased by diabetes and semistarvation. Maternal and fetal 1,25(OH) 2 D 3 levels were correlated. The vitamin D-dependent calcium-binding proteins (CaBP 9K and CaBP 28K ) were measured in multiple maternal and fetal tissues and in the placenta of nondiabetic, diabetic, and calcium-phosphorus-restricted rats. The distributions of CaBP 9K and CaBP 28K in the pregnant rat were similar to that of the growing rat. The increased maternal plasma 1,25(OH) 2 D 3 levels in calcium-phosphorus-restricted rats were associated with higher duodenal CaBP 9K and renal CaBPs, but placental CaBP 9K was not different. In diabetic pregnant rats, duodenal CaBP 9K was not different. In diabetic pregnant rats, duodenal CaBP 9K tended to be lower, while renal CaBPs were normal; placental CaBP 9K was decreased. The results indicate that in the rat fetal 1,25(OH) 2 D 3 depends on maternal 1,25(OH) 2 D 3 or on factors regulating maternal 1,25(OH) 2 D 3 . The lack of changes in fetal CaBP in the presence of altered fetal plasma 1,25(OH) 2 D 3 levels confirms earlier data showing that 1,25(H) 2 D 3 has a limited hormonal function during perinatal development in the rat

  20. Gestational exposure to BDE-99 produces toxicity through upregulation of CYP isoforms and ROS production in the fetal rat liver.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blanco, Jordi; Mulero, Miquel; Domingo, José L; Sánchez, Domènec J

    2012-05-01

    On gestation day (GD) 6 to GD 19, pregnant Sprague Dawley rats were orally exposed to 0, 0.5, 1, and 2 mg/kg/day to one of the most prevalent polybrominated diphenyl ethers congeners found in humans, 2,2',4,4',5-pentaBDE (BDE-99). All dams were euthanized on GD 20, and live fetuses were evaluated for sex, body weight, and external, internal, and skeletal malformations and developmental variations. The liver from one fetus of each litter was excised for the evaluation of oxidative stress markers and the messenger RNA expression of multiple cytochrome P450 (CYP) isoforms. Exposure to BDE-99 during the gestational period produced delayed ossification, slight hypertrophy of the heart, and enlargement of the liver in fetuses. A transplacental effect of BDE-99, evidenced by the activation of nuclear hormones receptors that induce the upregulation of CYP1A1, CYP1A2, CYP2B1, and CYP3A2 isoforms, was also found in fetal liver. These isoforms are correlated with the activity level of the enzyme catalase and the levels of thiobarbituric acid reactive substances. However, teratogenic effects from BDE-99 exposure were not observed. Clear signs of embryo/fetal toxicity, due to a possible hormonal disruption, were evidenced by a large increase in the CYP system and the production of reactive oxygen species in fetal liver.

  1. Suppressed osteoclast differentiation at the chondro-osseous junction mediates endochondral ossification retardation in long bones of Wistar fetal rats with prenatal ethanol exposure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pan, Zhengqi [Department of Orthopedic Surgery, Zhongnan Hospital of Wuhan University, Wuhan 430071 (China); Department of Pharmacology, Basic Medical School of Wuhan University, Wuhan 430071 (China); Zhang, Xianrong [Hubei Provincial Key Laboratory of Developmentally Originated Disease, Wuhan 430071 (China); Shangguan, Yangfan; Hu, Hang [Department of Orthopedic Surgery, Zhongnan Hospital of Wuhan University, Wuhan 430071 (China); Chen, Liaobin, E-mail: lbchen@whu.edu.cn [Department of Orthopedic Surgery, Zhongnan Hospital of Wuhan University, Wuhan 430071 (China); Hubei Provincial Key Laboratory of Developmentally Originated Disease, Wuhan 430071 (China); Wang, Hui, E-mail: wanghui19@whu.edu.cn [Department of Pharmacology, Basic Medical School of Wuhan University, Wuhan 430071 (China); Hubei Provincial Key Laboratory of Developmentally Originated Disease, Wuhan 430071 (China)

    2016-08-15

    Prenatal ethanol exposure (PEE) inhibits longitudinal growth of fetal bones, but the underlying mechanisms remain unknown. In this study, we aimed to investigate how PEE induces the retardation of long bone development in fetal rats. Pregnant Wistar rats were treated with ethanol or distilled water (control group) by gavage from gestational day (GD) 9 to 20. Fetuses were delivered by cesarean section on GD20. Fetal sera were collected for assessing corticosterone (CORT) level. Fetal long bones were harvested for histochemical, immunohistochemical and gene expression analysis. Primary chondrocytes were treated with ethanol or CORT for analyzing genes expression. PEE fetuses showed a significant reduction in birth weight and body length. The serum CORT concentration in PEE group was significantly increased, while the body weight, body length and femur length all were significantly decreased in the PEE group. The length of the epiphyseal hypertrophy zone was enlarged, whereas the length of the primary ossification center was significantly reduced in PEE fetuses. TUNEL assay showed reduced apoptosis in the PEE group. Further, the gene expression of osteoprotegerin (OPG) was markedly up-regulated. In vitro experiments showed that CORT (but not ethanol) treatment significantly activated the expression of OPG, while the application of glucocorticoid receptor inhibitor, mifepristone, attenuated these change induced by CORT. These results indicated that PEE-induced glucocorticoid over-exposure enhanced the expression of OPG in fetal epiphyseal cartilage and further lead to the suppressed osteoclast differentiation in the chondro-osseous junction and consequently inhibited the endochondral ossification in long bones of fetal rats. - Highlights: • Glucocorticoid but not ethanol enhanced the expression of OPG in chondrocytes. • PEE reduced osteoclast differentiation relative with over-expression of OPG. • PEE inhibited endochondral ossification in fetal long bones of

  2. Developmental aspects of the rat brain insulin receptor: loss of sialic acid and fluctuation in number characterize fetal development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brennan, W.A. Jr.

    1988-01-01

    In this study, I have investigated the structure of the rat brain insulin receptor during fetal development. There is a progressive decrease in the apparent molecular size of the brain alpha-subunit during development: 130K on day 16 of gestation, 126K at birth, and 120K in the adult. Glycosylation was investigated as a possible reason for the observed differences in the alpha-subunit molecular size. The results show that the developmental decrease in the brain alpha-subunit apparent molecular size is due to a parallel decrease in sialic acid content. This was further confirmed by measuring the retention of autophosphorylated insulin receptors on wheat germ agglutinin (WGA)-Sepharose. An inverse correlation between developmental age and retention of 32 P-labeled insulin receptors on the lectin column was observed. Insulin binding increases 6-fold between 16 and 20 days of gestation [61 +/- 25 (+/- SE) fmol/mg protein and 364 +/- 42 fmol/mg, respectively]. Thereafter, binding in brain membranes decreases to 150 +/- 20 fmol/mg by 2 days after birth, then reaches the adult level of 63 +/- 15 fmol/mg. In addition, the degree of insulin-stimulated autophosphorylation closely parallels the developmental changes in insulin binding. Between 16 and 20 days of fetal life, insulin-stimulated phosphorylation of the beta-subunit increases 6-fold. Thereafter, the extent of phosphorylation decreases rapidly, reaching adult values identical with those in 16-day-old fetal brain. These results suggest that the embryonic brain possesses competent insulin receptors whose expression changes markedly during fetal development. This information should be important in defining the role of insulin in the developing nervous system

  3. Effects of transplantation and resection of a radiation-induced rat insulinoma on glucose homeostasis and the endocrine pancreas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Flatt, P.R.; Tan, K.S.; Powell, C.J.; Swanston-Flatt, S.K.; Marks, V.; Bailey, C.J.

    1986-01-01

    Twenty-one days after s.c. subscapular transplantation of a radiation-induced insulinoma, male NEDH rats exhibited hyperinsulinaemia and hypoglycaemia. These features were associated with islet atrophy, degenerative changes in pancreatic A and B cells, and decreases in the pancreatic contents of insulin, glucagon and somatostatin. The immunoreactive glucagon and somatostatin contents of extrapancreatic tissues of insulinoma-bearing rats were unchanged. Surgical resection of the tumour resulted in an immediate fall of plasma insulin, attaining concentrations similar to those of anaesthetised control rats by 10 min. The estimated half-life of insulin was 3.5 min. Hypoglycaemia persisted until 60 min after resection, followed by hyperglycaemia of 1-2 days duration. Glucose tolerance was impaired 1 day after tumour resection despite the coexistence of raised insulin concentrations. Evidence for abnormal pancreatic B cell function was gained by injection of arginine which failed to evoke a plasma insulin response in the resected rats. Two days after resection, plasma glucose and insulin concentrations were similar to those of control rats. Plasma glucose and insulin responses to glucose and arginine were suggestive of tumour recurrence by 12 days. A single large encapsulated tumour was eventually observed in each rat, with resection giving a 17-56 day prolongation of life. (author)

  4. Fetal Nicotine Exposure Increases Preference for Nicotine Odor in Early Postnatal and Adolescent, but Not Adult, Rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mantella, Nicole M.; Kent, Paul F.; Youngentob, Steven L.

    2013-01-01

    Human studies demonstrate a four-fold increased possibility of smoking in the children of mothers who smoked during pregnancy. Nicotine is the active addictive component in tobacco-related products, crossing the placenta and contaminating the amniotic fluid. It is known that chemosensory experience in the womb can influence postnatal odor-guided preference behaviors for an exposure stimulus. By means of behavioral and neurophysiologic approaches, we examined whether fetal nicotine exposure, using mini-osmotic pumps, altered the response to nicotine odor in early postnatal (P17), adolescent (P35) and adult (P90) progeny. Compared with controls, fetal exposed rats displayed an altered innate response to nicotine odor that was evident at P17, declined in magnitude by P35 and was absent at P90 - these effects were specific to nicotine odor. The behavioral effect in P17 rats occurred in conjunction with a tuned olfactory mucosal response to nicotine odor along with an untoward consequence on the epithelial response to other stimuli – these P17 neural effects were absent in P35 and P90 animals. The absence of an altered neural effect at P35 suggests that central mechanisms, such as nicotine-induced modifications of the olfactory bulb, bring about the altered behavioral response to nicotine odor. Together, these findings provide insights into how fetal nicotine exposure influences the behavioral preference and responsiveness to the drug later in life. Moreover, they add to a growing literature demonstrating chemosensory mechanisms by which patterns of maternal drug use can be conveyed to offspring, thereby enhancing postnatal vulnerability for subsequent use and abuse. PMID:24358374

  5. Getting a New Pancreas: Facts about Pancreas Transplants

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... 2003 December 2006 March 2012 Getting A New Pancreas Facts About Pancreas Transplants American Society of Transplantation 1120 Route 73, ... the views of the Society. _________________________________________________________________ Getting a New Pancreas Facts About Pancreas Transplants When you get a ...

  6. Correction of protein metabolic disorders by composite extract of Musa paradisiaca and Coccinia indica in streptozotocin-induced diabetic albino rat: an approach through the pancreas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mallick, Chhanda; De, Debasis; Ghosh, Debidas

    2009-04-01

    The study focused on the ability of the extracts of Musa paradisiaca and Coccinia indica on protein metabolic disorders in streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetes. Wistar strain rats were divided into 6 groups as control, control + composite extract treated, STZ-induced diabetes, diabetic + composite extract treated, composite extract-pretreated diabetes, and composite extract-pretreated diabetes + composite extract treated. Protein metabolic status was assessed by serum levels of urea, uric acid, albumin, and creatinine along with urine urea and albumin levels. Diabetic therapeutic ability was assessed by blood glucose, glycated hemoglobin, and serum insulin levels. Histology of the pancreas, liver, and kidney was evaluated. Indices of protein metabolic disorders were deviated from control in STZ-induced diabetes, which were protected significantly after the treatment of composite extract of M. paradisiaca and C. indica. This protection was more prominent when the extract-pretreated animals were subjected to diabetes induction by STZ. The composite extract has a protective therapeutic effect against diabetes through beta-cell regeneration capacity.

  7. Prostaglandins, masculinization and its disorders: effects of fetal exposure of the rat to the cyclooxygenase inhibitor- indomethacin.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Afshan Dean

    Full Text Available Recent studies have established that masculinization of the male reproductive tract is programmed by androgens in a critical fetal 'masculinization programming window' (MPW. What is peculiar to androgen action during this period is, however, unknown. Studies from 20 years ago in mice implicated prostaglandin (PG-mediation of androgen-induced masculinization, but this has never been followed up. We therefore investigated if PGs might mediate androgen effects in the MPW by exposing pregnant rats to indomethacin (which blocks PG production by inhibiting cyclooxygenase activity during this period and then examining if androgen production or action (masculinization was affected. Pregnant rats were treated with indomethacin (0.8 mg/kg/day; e15.5-e18.5 to encompass the MPW. Indomethacin exposure decreased fetal bodyweight (e21.5, testis weight (e21.5 and testicular PGE2 (e17.5, e21.5, but had no effect on intratesticular testosterone (ITT; e17.5 or anogenital index (AGI; e21.5. Postnatally, AGI, testis weight and blood testosterone were unaffected by indomethacin exposure and no cryptorchidism or hypospadias occurred. Penis length was normal in indomethacin-exposed animals at Pnd25 but was reduced by 26% (p<0.001 in adulthood, an effect that is unexplained. Our results demonstrate that indomethacin can effectively decrease intra-testicular PGE2 level. However, the resulting male phenotype does not support a role for PGs in mediating androgen-induced masculinization during the MPW in rats. The contrast with previous mouse studies is unexplained but may reflect a species difference.

  8. Nicotine-induced retardation of chondrogenesis through down-regulation of IGF-1 signaling pathway to inhibit matrix synthesis of growth plate chondrocytes in fetal rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deng, Yu; Cao, Hong; Cu, Fenglong; Xu, Dan; Lei, Youying; Tan, Yang; Magdalou, Jacques; Wang, Hui; Chen, Liaobin

    2013-01-01

    Previous studies have confirmed that maternal tobacco smoking causes intrauterine growth retardation (IUGR) and skeletal growth retardation. Among a multitude of chemicals associated with cigarette smoking, nicotine is one of the leading candidates for causing low birth weights. However, the possible mechanism of delayed chondrogenesis by prenatal nicotine exposure remains unclear. We investigated the effects of nicotine on fetal growth plate chondrocytes in vivo and in vitro. Rats were given 2.0 mg/kg·d of nicotine subcutaneously from gestational days 11 to 20. Prenatal nicotine exposure increased the levels of fetal blood corticosterone and resulted in fetal skeletal growth retardation. Moreover, nicotine exposure induced the inhibition of matrix synthesis and down-regulation of insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1) signaling in fetal growth plates. The effects of nicotine on growth plates were studied in vitro by exposing fetal growth plate chondrocytes to 0, 1, 10, or 100 μM of nicotine for 10 days. Nicotine inhibited matrix synthesis and down-regulated IGF-1 signaling in chondrocytes in a concentration-dependent manner. These results suggest that prenatal nicotine exposure induces delayed chondrogenesis and that the mechanism may involve the down-regulation of IGF-1 signaling and the inhibition of matrix synthesis by growth plate chondrocytes. The present study aids in the characterization of delayed chondrogenesis caused by prenatal nicotine exposure, which might suggest a candidate mechanism for intrauterine origins of osteoporosis and osteoarthritis. - Highlights: ► Prenatal nicotine-exposure could induce delayed chondrogenesis in fetal rats. ► Nicotine inhibits matrix synthesis of fetal growth plate chondrocytes. ► Nicotine inhibits IGF-1 signaling pathway in fetal growth plate chondrocytes

  9. Nicotine-induced retardation of chondrogenesis through down-regulation of IGF-1 signaling pathway to inhibit matrix synthesis of growth plate chondrocytes in fetal rats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Deng, Yu; Cao, Hong; Cu, Fenglong [Department of Orthopedic Surgery, Zhongnan Hospital of Wuhan University, Wuhan 430071 (China); Xu, Dan [Department of Pharmacology, Basic Medical School of Wuhan University, Wuhan 430071 (China); Research Center of Food and Drug Evaluation, Wuhan University, Wuhan 430071 (China); Lei, Youying [Department of Pharmacology, Basic Medical School of Wuhan University, Wuhan 430071 (China); Tan, Yang [Department of Orthopedic Surgery, Zhongnan Hospital of Wuhan University, Wuhan 430071 (China); Magdalou, Jacques [UMR 7561 CNRS-Nancy Université, Faculté de Médicine, Vandoeuvre-lès-Nancy (France); Wang, Hui [Department of Pharmacology, Basic Medical School of Wuhan University, Wuhan 430071 (China); Research Center of Food and Drug Evaluation, Wuhan University, Wuhan 430071 (China); Chen, Liaobin, E-mail: lbchen@whu.edu.cn [Department of Orthopedic Surgery, Zhongnan Hospital of Wuhan University, Wuhan 430071 (China)

    2013-05-15

    Previous studies have confirmed that maternal tobacco smoking causes intrauterine growth retardation (IUGR) and skeletal growth retardation. Among a multitude of chemicals associated with cigarette smoking, nicotine is one of the leading candidates for causing low birth weights. However, the possible mechanism of delayed chondrogenesis by prenatal nicotine exposure remains unclear. We investigated the effects of nicotine on fetal growth plate chondrocytes in vivo and in vitro. Rats were given 2.0 mg/kg·d of nicotine subcutaneously from gestational days 11 to 20. Prenatal nicotine exposure increased the levels of fetal blood corticosterone and resulted in fetal skeletal growth retardation. Moreover, nicotine exposure induced the inhibition of matrix synthesis and down-regulation of insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1) signaling in fetal growth plates. The effects of nicotine on growth plates were studied in vitro by exposing fetal growth plate chondrocytes to 0, 1, 10, or 100 μM of nicotine for 10 days. Nicotine inhibited matrix synthesis and down-regulated IGF-1 signaling in chondrocytes in a concentration-dependent manner. These results suggest that prenatal nicotine exposure induces delayed chondrogenesis and that the mechanism may involve the down-regulation of IGF-1 signaling and the inhibition of matrix synthesis by growth plate chondrocytes. The present study aids in the characterization of delayed chondrogenesis caused by prenatal nicotine exposure, which might suggest a candidate mechanism for intrauterine origins of osteoporosis and osteoarthritis. - Highlights: ► Prenatal nicotine-exposure could induce delayed chondrogenesis in fetal rats. ► Nicotine inhibits matrix synthesis of fetal growth plate chondrocytes. ► Nicotine inhibits IGF-1 signaling pathway in fetal growth plate chondrocytes.

  10. Rat N-ERC/mesothelin as a marker for in vivo screening of drugs against pancreas cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fukamachi, Katsumi; Iigo, Masaaki; Hagiwara, Yoshiaki; Shibata, Koji; Futakuchi, Mitsuru; Alexander, David B; Hino, Okio; Suzui, Masumi; Tsuda, Hiroyuki

    2014-01-01

    Pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDA) is a highly lethal disease, which is usually diagnosed in an advanced stage. We have established transgenic rats carrying a mutated K-ras gene controlled by Cre/loxP activation. The animals develop PDA which is histopathologically similar to that in humans. Previously, we reported that serum levels of N-ERC/mesothelin were significantly higher in rats bearing PDA than in controls. In the present study, to determine whether serum levels of N-ERC/mesothelin correlated with tumor size, we measured N-ERC/mesothelin levels in rats bearing PDA. Increased serum levels of N-ERC/mesothelin correlated with increased tumor size. This result indicates an interrelationship between the serum level of N-ERC/mesothelin and tumor size. We next investigated the effect of chemotherapy on serum N-ERC/mesothelin levels. Rat pancreatic cancer cells were implanted subcutaneously into the flank of NOD-SCID mice. In the mice treated with 200 mg/kg gemcitabine, tumor weight and the serum level of N-ERC/mesothelin were significantly decreased compared to controls. These results suggest that serum N-ERC/mesothelin measurements might be useful for monitoring response to therapy.

  11. GSM 900 MHz Microwave RadiationInduced Alterations of Insulin Level and Histopathological Changes of Liver and Pancreas in Rat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mortazavi S. M. J.

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: The rapidly increasing use of mobile phones has led to public concerns about possible health effects of these popular communication devices. This study is an attempt to investigate the effects of radiofrequency (RF radiation produced by GSM mobile phones on the insulin release in rats. Methods: Forty two female adult Sprague Dawley rats were randomly divided into 4 groups. Group1 were exposed to RF radiation 6 hours per day for 7 days. Group 2 received sham exposure (6 hours per day for 7 days. Groups 3 and 4 received RF radiation 3 hours per day for 7 days and sham exposure (3 hours per day, respectively. The specific absorption rate (SAR of RF was 2.0W/kg. Results: Our results showed that RF radiations emitted from mobile phone could not alter insulin release in rats. However, mild to severe inflammatory changes in the portal spaces of the liver of rats as well as damage in the cells of islet of Langerhans were observed. These changes were linked with the duration of the exposures. Conclusion: RF exposure can induce inflammatory changes in the liver as well causing damage in the cells of islet of Langerhans.

  12. National Pancreas Foundation

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Stay Informed - Join The Fight Animated Pancreas Patient Animations, Expert and Patient interviews on Pancreas Diseases State ... pancreatic experts at the American Pancreatic Association … Continue Reading More NPF News Social Media Post Read More ...

  13. Pancreas transplant - slideshow

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/presentations/100129.htm Pancreas transplant - series—Normal anatomy To use the sharing ... to slide 6 out of 6 Overview The pancreas resides in the back of the abdomen. It ...

  14. Annular pancreas (image)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Annular pancreas is an abnormal ring or collar of pancreatic tissue that encircles the duodenum (the part of the ... intestine that connects to stomach). This portion of pancreas can constrict the duodenum and block or impair ...

  15. Comparison of rat and rabbit embryo-fetal developmental toxicity data for 379 pharmaceuticals: on the nature and severity of developmental effects (Critical Reviews in Toxicology)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Regulatory non-clinical safety testing of human pharmaceutical compounds typically requires embryo fetal developmental toxicity (EFDT) testing in two species, (one rodent and one non-rodent, usually the rat and the rabbit). The question has been raised whether under some conditio...

  16. Comparing rat and rabbit embryo-fetal developmental toxicity studies for 379 pharmaceuticals: On systemic dose and developmental effects (Critical Reviews in Toxicology)

    Science.gov (United States)

    A database of embryo-fetal developmental toxicity (EFDT) studies of 379 pharmaceutical compounds in rat and rabbit was analyzed for species differences based on toxicokinetic parameters of area under the curve (AUC) and maximum concentration (Cmax) at the developmental adverse ef...

  17. PHTHALATE ESTER-INDUCED MALFORMATIONS ARE ASSOCIATED WITH CHANGES IN GENE EXPRESSION AND STEROID HORMONE PRODUCTION IN THE FETAL RAT TESTIS DURING SEXUAL DIFFERENTIATION

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phthalate ester-induced gubernacular ligament lesions are associated with reduced Insl3 gene expression in the fetal rat testis during sexual differentiation.Vickie S Wilson, Christy Lambright, Johnathan Furr, Joseph Ostby, Carmen Wood, Gary Held, L.Earl Gray Jr.U.S. EPA,...

  18. Fucosylated glycans in the periventricular structures and the cerebrospinal fluid of the fetal rat forebrain. An autoradiographic and lectin binding histiotopic study

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Mareš, Vladislav; Brückner, G.

    2001-01-01

    Roč. 19, č. 3 (2001), s. 297-303 ISSN 0736-5748 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z5011922 Keywords : fetal rat brain * fucosylated glycans * cerebrospinal fluid Subject RIV: FH - Neurology Impact factor: 2.156, year: 2001

  19. Zinc might protect oxidative changes in the retina and pancreas at the early stage of diabetic rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moustafa, Sohair A.

    2004-01-01

    It is well documented that oxidative stress is a basic mechanism behind the development of diabetic retinopathy (DR). The current study was undertaken to elucidate the possible role of zinc as an antioxidant and a biological membrane stabilizer in the protection against (DR). Male Wistar rats weighing 250 ± 50 g were made diabetic by injection with a single ip dose of alloxan (100 mg/kg). Another group of rats was simultaneously treated with alloxan (100 mg/kg) and a single ip dose of zinc chloride (ZnCl 2 ) (5 mg/kg). Blood and tissue samples were collected at 24, 48, and 72 h post-treatment in both groups. Diabetic state was confirmed by the determination of plasma glucose levels (significantly elevated at any time of the experiment when compared with controls receiving vehicle). Plasma insulin was significantly increased 24 h after treatment in both alloxan and alloxan plus ZnCl 2 -treated groups, and then decreased markedly 48 and 72 h post treatment in both groups. Alloxan treatment depleted both retinal and liver glutathione contents. The decrease in retinal and liver GSH in alloxan-treated rats was accompanied with a sustained increase in their thiobarbituric acid (TBA) content. Simultaneous treatment of rats with alloxan and ZnCl 2 blunted the sustained increment in plasma glucose induced by alloxan. The combined administration of alloxan and zinc reversed the depleting effect on retinal and hepatic GSH in alloxan-treated rats and reduced the elevations in TBA content of both retinas and livers. At variance with many other antioxidants the current results clearly indicate the beneficial effects of Zn in both controlling hyperglycemia and the protection of the retina against oxidative stress in diabetes which may help set a new direction toward the development of effective treatments of DR

  20. In utero glucocorticoid (GLC) exposure reduces fetal skeletal muscle growth in rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maternal undernutrition and stress expose the fetus to above normal levels of GLC and predispose to intrauterine growth restriction. The aim of this study was to determine if fetal GLC exposure impairs skeletal muscle growth independently of maternal undernutrition. Three groups (n=7/group) of timed...

  1. The fetal programming of dietary fructose and saturated fat on hepatic quercetin glucuronidation in rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Objective Phase II biotransformation of flavonoids generates bioactive metabolites in vivo. However, data on the effect of environmental and physiological factors and fetal programming on phase II pathways toward flavonoids are limited. We examined the effect of parental exposure to a diet high in s...

  2. Hemodynamic properties and arterial structure in male rat offspring with fetal hypothyroidism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghanbari, Mahboubeh; Bagheripuor, Fatemeh; Piryaei, Abbas; Zahediasl, Saleh; Noroozzadeh, Mahsa; Ghasemi, Asghar

    2016-10-01

    Thyroid hormones (THs) play a crucial role in the development of different systems during fetal life; fetal hypothyroidism (FH) is associated with reduced cardiac function and dimensions in neonates. The aim of this study is to determine whether TH deficiency during fetal life is associated with arterial structural and hemodynamic changes during adulthood. Hypothyroidism was induced by adding 0.025% 6-propyl-2-thiouracil in drinking water throughout pregnancy, while controls consumed only tap water. Hemodynamic parameters, cross-sectional area, intima-media thickness (IMT), and density of nuclei of smooth muscle cells and endothelial cells (ECs) in the aorta and mesenteric arteries were measured. Compared to controls, in the FH group, baseline systolic blood pressure (105.7 ± 3.1 vs. 87.9 ± 3.3 mm Hg, p < 0.01), diastolic blood pressure (64.4 ± 1.7 vs. 53.2 ± 2.1 mm Hg, p < 0.05), and mean arterial pressure (80.9 ± 2.1 vs. 67.1 ± 2.1 mm Hg, p < 0.01) were significantly lower. In addition, in the FH group, intensity and latency of response to phenylephrine were significantly lower and longer, respectively, as were the IMT and density of ECs in the aorta and superior mesenteric arteries. In conclusion, this study showed that TH deficiency during fetal life can have long-lasting functional and histological effects, which can compromise cardiovascular function during adulthood.

  3. Pancreas preservation for pancreas and islet transplantation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iwanaga, Yasuhiro; Sutherland, David E.R.; Harmon, James V.; Papas, Klearchos K.

    2010-01-01

    Purpose of review To summarize advances and limitations in pancreas procurement and preservation for pancreas and islet transplantation, and review advances in islet protection and preservation. Recent findings Pancreases procured after cardiac death, with in-situ regional organ cooling, have been successfully used for islet transplantation. Colloid-free Celsior and histidine-tryptophan-ketoglutarate preservation solutions are comparable to University of Wisconsin solution when used for cold storage before pancreas transplantation. Colloid-free preservation solutions are inferior to University of Wisconsin solution for pancreas preservation prior to islet isolation and transplantation. Clinical reports on pancreas and islet transplants suggest that the two-layer method may not offer significant benefits over cold storage with the University of Wisconsin solution: improved oxygenation may depend on the graft size; benefits in experimental models may not translate to human organs. Improvements in islet yield and quality occurred from pancreases treated with inhibitors of stress-induced apoptosis during procurement, storage, isolation or culture. Pancreas perfusion may be desirable before islet isolation and transplantation and may improve islet yields and quality. Methods for real-time, noninvasive assessment of pancreas quality during preservation have been implemented and objective islet potency assays have been developed and validated. These innovations should contribute to objective evaluation and establishment of improved pancreas preservation and islet isolation strategies. Summary Cold storage may be adequate for preservation before pancreas transplants, but insufficient when pancreases are processed for islets or when expanded donors are used. Supplementation of cold storage solutions with cytoprotective agents and perfusion may improve pancreas and islet transplant outcomes. PMID:18685343

  4. Role of fetal nutrient restriction and postnatal catch-up growth on structural and mechanical alterations of rat aorta.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gutiérrez-Arzapalo, Perla Y; Rodríguez-Rodríguez, Pilar; Ramiro-Cortijo, David; López de Pablo, Ángel L; López-Giménez, María Rosario; Condezo-Hoyos, Luis; Greenwald, Stephen E; González, Maria Del Carmen; Arribas, Silvia M

    2017-12-26

    Intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR), induced by maternal undernutrition, leads to impaired aortic development. This is followed by hypertrophic remodelling associated with accelerated growth during lactation. Fetal nutrient restriction is associated with increased aortic compliance at birth and at weaning, but not in adult animals. This mechanical alteration may be related to a decreased perinatal collagen deposition. Aortic elastin scaffolds purified from young male and female IUGR animals also exhibit increased compliance, only maintained in adult IUGR females. These mechanical alterations may be related to differences in elastin deposition and remodelling. Fetal undernutrition induces similar aortic structural and mechanical alterations in young male and female rats. Our data argue against an early mechanical cause for the sex differences in hypertension development induced by maternal undernutrition. However, the larger compliance of elastin in adult IUGR females may contribute to the maintenance of a normal blood pressure level. Fetal undernutrition programmes hypertension development, males being more susceptible. Deficient fetal elastogenesis and vascular growth is a possible mechanism. We investigated the role of aortic mechanical alterations in a rat model of hypertension programming, evaluating changes at birth, weaning and adulthood. Dams were fed ad libitum (Control) or 50% of control intake during the second half of gestation (maternal undernutrition, MUN). Offspring aged 3 days, 21 days and 6 months were studied. Blood pressure was evaluated in vivo. In the thoracic aorta we assessed gross structure, mechanical properties (intact and purified elastin), collagen and elastin content and internal elastic lamina (IEL) organization. Only adult MUN males developed hypertension (systolic blood pressure: MUN males  = 176.6 ± 5.6 mmHg; Control males  = 136.1 ± 4.9 mmHg). At birth MUN rats were lighter, with smaller aortic cross-sectional area

  5. Effect of Bauhinia forficata aqueous extract on the maternal-fetal outcome and oxidative stress biomarkers of streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Volpato, G T; Damasceno, D C; Rudge, M V C; Padovani, C R; Calderon, I M P

    2008-02-28

    Bauhinia forficata Link, commonly known as "paw-of-cow", is widely used in Brazilian folk medicine for the treatment of diabetes. To evaluate the effect of Bauhinia forficata treatment on maternal-fetal outcome and antioxidant systems of streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats. Virgin female Wistar rats were injected with 40 mg/kg streptozotocin before mating. Oral administration of an aqueous extract of Bauhinia forficata leaves was given to non-diabetic and diabetic pregnant rats at increasing doses: 500 mg/kg from 0 to 4th day of pregnancy, 600 mg/kg from 5th to 14th day and 1000 mg/kg from 15th to 20th day. At day 21 of pregnancy the rats were anaesthetized with ether and a maternal blood sample was collected for the determination superoxide dismutase (SOD) and reduced glutathione (GSH). The gravid uterus was weighed with its contents and fetuses were analyzed. The data showed that the diabetic dams presented an increased glycemic level, resorption, placental weight, placental index, and fetal anomalies, and reduced GSH and SOD determinations, live fetuses, maternal weight gain, gravid uterine weight, and fetal weight. It was also verified that Bauhinia forficata treatment had no hypoglycemic effect, did not improve maternal outcomes in diabetic rats, but it contributed to maintain GSH concentration similarly to non-diabetic groups, suggesting relation with the decreased incidence of visceral anomalies.

  6. Autoradiographic localization of target cells for 1α, 25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 in bones from fetal rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Narbaitz, R.; Stumpf, W.E.; Sar, M.; Huang, S.; DeLuca, H.F.

    1983-01-01

    Thaw-mount autoradiographic studies after injection of 3 H-1,25-D 3 were conducted on 18- and 20-day-old rat fetuses. In maxillary bones, ribs, and tibia, nuclear concentration of radioactivity was found in osteoprogenitor cells and osteoblasts. Osteocytes and chondrocytes in epiphyseal plates were either unlabeled or weakly labeled. In competition experiments, nuclear concentration of radioactivity was blocked by the injection of a high dose of nonradioactive 1,25-D 3 prior to the administration of the labeled hormone, but not by a similar dose of nonradioactive 25-D 3 . The results are interpreted as indicating that osteoprogenitor cells and osteoblasts are target cells for the direct action of 1,25-D 3 on fetal bone. (orig.)

  7. Localization of Alkaline Phosphatase and Cathepsin D during Cell Restoration after Colchicine Treatment in Primary Cultures of Fetal Rat Hepatocytes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chida, Kohsuke; Taguchi, Meiko

    2011-01-01

    Localization of alkaline phosphatase (ALP) and cathepsin D (CAPD) in primary cultures of fetal rat hepatocytes was examined using double immunofluorescent staining in order to investigate the relationship between lysosome movement and the fate of ALP during cell restoration after microtubule disruption by colchicine. At 3 hr and 24 hr after colchicine treatment, numerous coarse dots containing ALP were observed throughout the cytoplasm, and some of these showed colocalization with CAPD. At 48 hr and 72 hr after colchicine treatment, although most of the dots containing ALP in the cytoplasm disappeared, dots containing CAPD remained. The present results suggest that the denatured ALP proteins remaining in the cytoplasm of hepatocytes during cell restoration after colchicine treatment are digested by lysosomes

  8. Effects of an overload of animal protein on the rat: brain DNA alterations and tissue morphological modifications during fetal and post-natal stage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greco, A M; Sticchi, R; Boschi, G; Vetrani, A; Salvatore, G

    1985-01-01

    On account of many literature reports about the definite correlation between high animal protein intake and cardiovascular diseases, we have studied the effect of a hyperproteic purified diet (casein 40%, lactalbumin 20%) on fetal and post-natal (not further than 40th day) stage of the rat, when cell subdivision process is faster and therefore damage by nutritional imbalance is certainly more serious. Litters of rats were grouped according to mother's (either hyperproteic or common basic) and rat's (after lactation) diet. Brain DNA and histology of various organs were studied. Hyperproteic diet during fetal stage and lactation would inhibit brain cell subdivision since overall content of brain DNA would be decreased on autoptic finding. Structural changes were also shown in liver, heart, kidney and adrenal cortex, especially when hyperproteic diet was continued even after lactation.

  9. Long-term effects of 239Pu injection in adult, weanling, newborn and fetal rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sikov, M.R.; Mahlum, D.D.; Hess, J.O.; Carr, D.B.

    1979-01-01

    We have completed biological evaluations comparing long-term effects in rats exposed to 239 Pu citrate as adults, weanlings, newborns, or late fetuses, and statistical analyses have been initiated. In rats exposed postnatally, statistically significant alterations in terminal body weight and in weights of several organs were found at higher doses. Survivorship decreased with increasing dose in the postnatal groups, but not in rats exposed prenatally

  10. PPARγ regulates exocrine pancreas lipase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Danino, Hila; Naor, Ronny Peri-; Fogel, Chen; Ben-Harosh, Yael; Kadir, Rotem; Salem, Hagit; Birk, Ruth

    2016-12-01

    Pancreatic lipase (triacylglycerol lipase EC 3.1.1.3) is an essential enzyme in hydrolysis of dietary fat. Dietary fat, especially polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA), regulate pancreatic lipase (PNLIP); however, the molecular mechanism underlying this regulation is mostly unknown. As PUFA are known to regulate expression of proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPARγ), and as we identified in-silico putative PPARγ binding sites within the putative PNLIP promoter sequence, we hypothesized that PUFA regulation of PNLIP might be mediated by PPARγ. We used in silico bioinformatics tools, reporter luciferase assay, PPARγ agonists and antagonists, PPARγ overexpression in exocrine pancreas AR42J and primary cells to study PPARγ regulation of PNLIP. Using in silico bioinformatics tools we mapped PPARγ binding sites (PPRE) to the putative promoter region of PNLIP. Reporter luciferase assay in AR42J rat exocrine pancreas acinar cells transfected with various constructs of the putative PNLIP promoter showed that PNLIP transcription is significantly enhanced by PPARγ dose-dependently, reaching maximal levels with multi PPRE sites. This effect was significantly augmented in the presence of PPARγ agonists and reduced by PPARγ antagonists or mutagenesis abrogating PPRE sites. Over-expression of PPARγ significantly elevated PNLIP transcript and protein levels in AR42J cells and in primary pancreas cells. Moreover, PNLIP expression was up-regulated by PPARγ agonists (pioglitazone and 15dPGJ2) and significantly down-regulated by PPARγ antagonists in non-transfected rat exocrine pancreas AR42J cell line cells. PPARγ transcriptionally regulates PNLIP gene expression. This transcript regulation resolves part of the missing link between dietary PUFA direct regulation of PNLIP. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Defective trophoblast invasion underlies fetal growth restriction and preeclampsia-like symptoms in the stroke-prone spontaneously hypertensive rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrientos, G; Pussetto, M; Rose, M; Staff, A C; Blois, S M; Toblli, J E

    2017-07-01

    What is the impact of chronic hypertension on placental development, fetal growth and maternal outcome in the stroke-prone spontaneously hypertensive rat (SHRSP)? SHRSP showed an impaired remodeling of the spiral arteries and abnormal pattern of trophoblast invasion during placentation, which were associated with subsequent maternal glomerular injury and increased baseline hypertension as well as placental insufficiency and asymmetric fetal growth restriction (FGR). A hallmark in the pathogenesis of preeclampsia (PE) is abnormal placentation with defective remodeling of the spiral arteries preceding the onset of the maternal syndrome. Pregnancies affected by chronic hypertension display an increased risk for PE, often associated with poor maternal and fetal outcomes. However, the impact of chronic hypertension on the placentation process as well as the nature of the factors promoting the development of PE in pregnant hypertensive women remain elusive. Timed pregnancies [n = 5] were established by mating 10-12-week-old SHRSP and Wistar Kyoto (WKY, normotensive controls) females with congenic males. Maternal systolic blood pressures (SBPs) were recorded pre-mating, throughout pregnancy (GD1-19) and post-partum by the tail-cuff method. On selected dates, 24 h urine- and blood samples were collected, and animals were euthanized for isolation of implantation sites and kidneys for morphometrical analyses. The 24 h proteinuria and the albumin:creatinine ratio were used for evaluation of maternal renal function. Renal injury was assessed on periodic acid Schiff, Masson's trichrome and Sirius red stainings. Placental and fetal weights were recorded on gestation day (GD)18 and GD20, followed by determination of fetal cephalization indexes and developmental stage, according to the Witschi scale. Morphometric analyses of placental development were conducted on hematoxylin-eosin stained tissue sections collected on GD14 and GD18, and complemented with immunohistochemical

  12. The Study of Fetal Rat Model of Intra-Amniotic Isoproterenol Injection Induced Heart Dysfunction and Phenotypic Switch of Contractile Proteins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yifei Li

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available To establish a reliable isoproterenol induced heart dysfunction fetal rat model and understand the switches of contractile proteins, 45 pregnant rats were divided into 15 mg/kg-once, 15 mg/kg-twice, sham-operated once, sham-operated twice, and control groups. And 18 adult rats were divided into isoproterenol-treated and control groups. H&E staining, Masson staining, and transmission electron microscope were performed. Apoptotic rate assessed by TUNEL analysis and expressions of ANP, BNP, MMP-2, and CTGF of hearts were measured. Intra-amniotic injections of isoproterenol were supplied on E14.5 and E15.5 for fetuses and 7-day continuous intraperitoneal injections were performed for adults. Then echocardiography was performed with M-mode view assessment on E18.5 and 6 weeks later, respectively. Isoproterenol twice treated fetuses exhibited significant changes in histological evaluation, and mitochondrial damages were significantly severe with increased apoptotic rate. ANP and BNP increased and that of MMP-2 increased in isoproterenol twice treated group compared to control group, without CTGF. The isoforms transition of troponin I and myosin heavy chain of fetal heart dysfunction were opposite to adult procedure. The administration of intra-amniotic isoproterenol to fetal rats could induce heart dysfunction and the regulation of contractile proteins of fetuses was different from adult procedure.

  13. DI(N-BUTYL) PHTHALATE AND DIETHYLHEXYL PHTHALATE IN COMBINATION ALTER SEXUAL DIFFERENTIATION IN A CUMULATIVE MANNER AS A RESULT OF DEPRESSED FETAL TESTOSTERONE PRODUCTION AND INSL3 GENE EXPRESSION IN MALE RATS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plasticizers di(n-butyl) phthalate (DBP) and diehtylhexyl phthalate (DEHP) have similar modes of action: in utero exposure reduces testosterone (T) production in fetal male rats, inhibits reproductive tract differentiation, and induces reproductive organ malformations. In utero e...

  14. Endogenous lysophosphatidic acid participates in vascularisation and decidualisation at the maternal-fetal interface in the rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sordelli, Micaela S; Beltrame, Jimena S; Zotta, Elsa; Gomez, Natalia; Dmytrenko, Ganna; Sales, María Elena; Blois, Sandra M; Davio, Carlos; Martinez, Silvina Perez; Franchi, Ana M; Ribeiro, María L

    2017-10-01

    Lysophosphatidic acid (LPA) affects several female reproductive functions through G-protein-coupled receptors. LPA contributes to embryo implantation via the lysophospholipid LPA 3 receptor. In the present study we investigated the participation of endogenous LPA signalling through the LPA 3 receptor in vascularisation and decidualisation, two crucial events at the maternal-fetal interface. Pregnant rats were treated with diacylglycerol pyrophosphate (DGPP), a highly selective antagonist of LPA 3 receptors, on Day 5 of gestation. Pregnant rats received intrauterine (i.u.) injections of single doses of DGPP (0.1mgkg -1 ) in a total volume of 2μL in the left horn (treated horn) in the morning of GD5. DGPP treatment produced aberrant embryo spacing and increased embryo resorption. The LPA 3 receptor antagonist decreased the cross-sectional length of the uterine and arcuate arteries and induced histological anomalies in the decidua and placentas. Marked haemorrhagic processes, infiltration of immune cells and tissue disorganisation were observed in decidual and placental tissues from sites of resorption. The mRNA expression of three vascularisation markers, namely interleukin 10 (Il10), vascular endothelial growth factor (Vegfa) and vascular endothelial growth factor receptor 1 (Vegfr1), was reduced at sites of resorption from Day 8. The results show that the disruption of endogenous LPA signalling by blocking the LPA 3 receptor modified the development of uterine vessels with consequences in the formation of the decidua and placenta and in the growth of embryos.

  15. Possible promotion of neuronal differentiation in fetal rat brain neural progenitor cells after sustained exposure to static magnetism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakamichi, Noritaka; Ishioka, Yukichi; Hirai, Takao; Ozawa, Shusuke; Tachibana, Masaki; Nakamura, Nobuhiro; Takarada, Takeshi; Yoneda, Yukio

    2009-08-15

    We have previously shown significant potentiation of Ca(2+) influx mediated by N-methyl-D-aspartate receptors, along with decreased microtubules-associated protein-2 (MAP2) expression, in hippocampal neurons cultured under static magnetism without cell death. In this study, we investigated the effects of static magnetism on the functionality of neural progenitor cells endowed to proliferate for self-replication and differentiate into neuronal, astroglial, and oligodendroglial lineages. Neural progenitor cells were isolated from embryonic rat neocortex and hippocampus, followed by culture under static magnetism at 100 mT and subsequent determination of the number of cells immunoreactive for a marker protein of particular progeny lineages. Static magnetism not only significantly decreased proliferation of neural progenitor cells without affecting cell viability, but also promoted differentiation into cells immunoreactive for MAP2 with a concomitant decrease in that for an astroglial marker, irrespective of the presence of differentiation inducers. In neural progenitors cultured under static magnetism, a significant increase was seen in mRNA expression of several activator-type proneural genes, such as Mash1, Math1, and Math3, together with decreased mRNA expression of the repressor type Hes5. These results suggest that sustained static magnetism could suppress proliferation for self-renewal and facilitate differentiation into neurons through promoted expression of activator-type proneural genes by progenitor cells in fetal rat brain.

  16. ATP Release and Effects in Pancreas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Novak, Ivana; Amstrup, Jan; Henriksen, Katrine Lütken

    2003-01-01

    ATP and other nucleotides are released from various cells, but the pathway and physiological stimulus for ATP release are often unclear. The focus of our studies is the understanding of ATP release and signaling in rat exocrine pancreas. In acinar suspension mechanical stimulation, hypotonic shock...

  17. Pancreas Center Data Profile

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Composite Allograft Organ Transport Living Donation Informing Patients Ethics Guidance Calendar of Events Glossary Organ Procurement and Transplantation Network Pancreas Home Data Organ Datasource ...

  18. Transitional change in rat fetal cell proliferation in response to ghrelin and des-acyl ghrelin during the last stage of pregnancy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Inoue, Yoshiyuki; Nakahara, Keiko [Department of Veterinary Physiology, Faculty of Agriculture, University of Miyazaki, Miyazaki 889-2192 (Japan); Kangawa, Kenji [Department of Biochemistry, National Cardiovascular Center Research Institute, Fujishirodai 5-7-1, Suita, Osaka 565-8565 (Japan); Murakami, Noboru, E-mail: a0d201u@cc.miyazaki-u.ac.jp [Department of Veterinary Physiology, Faculty of Agriculture, University of Miyazaki, Miyazaki 889-2192 (Japan)

    2010-03-12

    Expression of mRNA for the ghrelin receptor, GHS-R1a, was detected in various peripheral and central tissues of fetal rats, including skin, bone, heart, liver, gut, brain and spinal cord, on embryonic day (ED)15 and ED17. However, its expression in skin, bone, heart and liver, but not in gut, brain and spinal cord, became relatively weak on ED19 and disappeared after birth (ND2). Ghrelin and des-acyl ghrelin facilitated the proliferation of cultured fetal (ED17, 19), but not neonatal (ND2), skin cells. On the other hand, with regard to cells from the spinal cord and hypothalamus, the proliferative effect of ghrelin continued after birth, whereas the effect of des-acyl ghrelin on neurogenesis in these tissues was lost at the ED19 fetal and ND2 neonatal stages. Immunohistochemistry revealed that the cells in the hypothalamus induced to proliferate by ghrelin at the ND2 stage were positive for nestin and glial fibrillary acidic protein. These results suggest that in the period immediately prior to, and after birth, rat fetal cells showing proliferation in response to ghrelin and des-acyl ghrelin are at a transitional stage characterized by alteration of the expression of GHS-R1a and an undefined des-acyl ghrelin receptor, their responsiveness varying among different tissues.

  19. Transitional change in rat fetal cell proliferation in response to ghrelin and des-acyl ghrelin during the last stage of pregnancy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Inoue, Yoshiyuki; Nakahara, Keiko; Kangawa, Kenji; Murakami, Noboru

    2010-01-01

    Expression of mRNA for the ghrelin receptor, GHS-R1a, was detected in various peripheral and central tissues of fetal rats, including skin, bone, heart, liver, gut, brain and spinal cord, on embryonic day (ED)15 and ED17. However, its expression in skin, bone, heart and liver, but not in gut, brain and spinal cord, became relatively weak on ED19 and disappeared after birth (ND2). Ghrelin and des-acyl ghrelin facilitated the proliferation of cultured fetal (ED17, 19), but not neonatal (ND2), skin cells. On the other hand, with regard to cells from the spinal cord and hypothalamus, the proliferative effect of ghrelin continued after birth, whereas the effect of des-acyl ghrelin on neurogenesis in these tissues was lost at the ED19 fetal and ND2 neonatal stages. Immunohistochemistry revealed that the cells in the hypothalamus induced to proliferate by ghrelin at the ND2 stage were positive for nestin and glial fibrillary acidic protein. These results suggest that in the period immediately prior to, and after birth, rat fetal cells showing proliferation in response to ghrelin and des-acyl ghrelin are at a transitional stage characterized by alteration of the expression of GHS-R1a and an undefined des-acyl ghrelin receptor, their responsiveness varying among different tissues.

  20. Prenatal exposure to a novel antipsychotic quetiapine: impact on neuro-architecture, apoptotic neurodegeneration in fetal hippocampus and cognitive impairment in young rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, K P; Tripathi, Nidhi

    2015-05-01

    Reports on prenatal exposure to some of the first generation antipsychotic drugs like, haloperidol, their effects on fetal neurotoxicity and functional impairments in the offspring, are well documented. But studies on in utero exposure to second generation antipsychotics, especially quetiapine, and its effects on fetal neurotoxicity, apoptotic neurodegeneration, postnatal developmental delay and neurobehavioral consequences are lacking. Therefore, the present study was undertaken to evaluate the effect of prenatal administration to equivalent therapeutic doses of quetiapine on neuro-architectural abnormalities, neurohistopathological changes, apoptotic neurodegeneration in fetal hippocampus, and postnatal development and growth as well as its long-lasting imprint on cognitive impairment in young-adult offspring. Pregnant Wistar rats (n=24) were exposed to selected doses (55 mg, 80 mg and 100mg/kg) of quetiapine, equivalent to human therapeutic doses, from gestation day 6 to 21 orally with control subjects. Half of the pregnant subjects of each group were sacrificed at gestation day 21 for histopathological, confocal and electron microscopic studies and rest of the dams were allowed to deliver naturally. Their pups were reared postnatally up to 10 weeks of age for neurobehavioral observations. In quetiapine treated groups, there was significant alterations in total and differential thickness of three typical layers of hippocampus associated with neuronal cells deficit and enhanced apoptotic neurodegeneration in the CA1 area of fetal hippocampus. Prenatally drug treated rat offspring displayed post-natal developmental delay till postnatal day 70, and these young-adult rats displayed cognitive impairment in Morris water maze and passive avoidance regimes as long-lasting impact of the drug. Therefore, quetiapine should be used with cautions considering its developmental neurotoxicological and neurobehavioral potential in animal model, rat. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier

  1. The consequence of fetal ethanol exposure and adolescent odor re-exposure on the response to ethanol odor in adolescent and adult rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Molina Juan C

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background An epidemiologic predictive relationship exists between fetal ethanol exposure and the likelihood for adolescent use. Further, an inverse relationship exists between the age of first experience and the probability of adult abuse. Whether and how the combined effects of prenatal and adolescent ethanol experiences contribute to this progressive pattern remains unknown. Fetal ethanol exposure directly changes the odor attributes of ethanol important for both ethanol odor preference behavior and ethanol flavor perception. These effects persist only to adolescence. Here we tested whether adolescent ethanol odor re-exposure: (Experiment 1 augments the fetal effect on the adolescent behavioral response to ethanol odor; and/or (Experiment 2 perpetuates previously observed adolescent behavioral and neurophysiological responses into adulthood. Methods Pregnant rats received either an ethanol or control liquid diet. Progeny (observers experienced ethanol odor in adolescence via social interaction with a peer (demonstrators that received an intragastric infusion of either 1.5 g/kg ethanol or water. Social interactions were scored for the frequency that observers followed their demonstrator. Whole-body plethysmography evaluated the unconditioned behavioral response of observers to ethanol odor in adolescence (P37 or adulthood (P90. The olfactory epithelium of adults was also examined for its neural response to five odorants, including ethanol. Results Experiment 1: Relative to fetal or adolescent exposure alone, adolescent re-exposure enhanced the behavioral response to ethanol odor in P37 animals. Compared to animals with no ethanol experience, rats receiving a single experience (fetal or adolescent show an enhanced, yet equivalent, ethanol odor response. Fetal ethanol experience also increased olfactory-guided following of an intoxicated peer. Experiment 2: Combined exposure yielded persistence of the behavioral effects only in adult

  2. Fetal effects of epidermal growth factor deficiency induced in rats by autoantibodies against epidermal growth factor

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Raaberg, Lasse; Nexø, Ebba; Jørgensen, P E

    1995-01-01

    , the amount of surfactant protein-A was decreased, suggesting a delayed lung maturation. The offspring of EGF-immunized rats had dry and wrinkled skin. The skin was thin and the hair follicles were immature. This suggests a role for EGF in the growth and development of the skin. The liver/body weight ratio...

  3. Maternal and fetal toxicity of Wistar rats exposed to herbicide metolachlor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kátia Cristina de Melo Tavares Vieira

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Metolachlor is a selective pre-emergent herbicide widely used in agriculture to control weeds. The aim of this study was to evaluate the possible effects of metolachlor on reproductive performance of adult rats, as well as its teratogenic potential when administered during the period of organogenesis. Pregnant adult female rats were allocated into 4 experimental groups (n = 10 group-1, that received 0 (control; 150 (TA; 300 (TB; or 1000 mg kg-1 bw day-1 (TC of metolachlor, by gavage, from the 6th to 15th gestational day (GD. There is reduction in the weight gain of the animals from TB and TC groups compared to the control group. Liver and placenta weights were reduced in TB and TC groups, respectively, while the percentage of post-implantation loss was increased in the TC group. There were no external malformations in either rat of the control or treated groups. However, an increased incidence of skeletal anomalies and visceral anomalies (especially in the urogenital system was observed in TC group. These results demonstrate that exposure of pregnant rats to metolachlor can lead to signs of general toxicity, late embryonic losses and congenital anomalies.

  4. A FETAL RAT TESTIS ENDOCRINE AND GENOMIC "SIGNATURE"ACCURATELY PREDICTS THE PHTHALATE SYNDROME OF MALFORMATIONS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    ABSTRACT BODY: Phthalate esters (PE) vary greatly in their potency to induce malformations during sexual differentiation in the male rat. Since in vitro assay batteries are currently unable to generate useful information on the potential of chemicals within this class to disrupt ...

  5. Radiology of the pancreas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baert, A.L.; Delorme, G.

    1994-01-01

    This book, written by internationally recognized experts, fully illustrates the diagnosis of both common and rarer diseases of the pancreas, the latest technical developments in relevant imaging modalities are thoroughly discussed and appraised with respect to the pancreas. The book will appeal to both clinicians and researchers in radiology and oncology. (orig.)

  6. Effect of acute ethanol on beta-endorphin secretion from rat fetal hypothalamic neurons in primary cultures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sarkar, D.K.; Minami, S. (Washington State Univ., Pullman (USA))

    1990-01-01

    To characterize the effect of ethanol on the hypothalamic {beta}-endorphin-containing neurons, rat fetal hypothalamic neurons were maintained in primary culture, and the secretion of {beta}-endorphin ({beta}-EP) was determined after ethanol challenges. Constant exposure to ethanol at doses of 6-50 mM produced a dose-dependent increase in basal secretion of {beta}-EP from these cultured cells. These doses of ethanol did not produce any significant effect on cell viability, DNA or protein content. The stimulated secretion of {beta}-EP following constant ethanol exposure is short-lasting. However, intermittent ethanol exposures maintained the ethanol stimulatory action on {beta}-EP secretion for a longer time. The magnitude of the {beta}-EP response to 50 mM ethanol is similar to that of the {beta}-EP response to 56 mM of potassium. Ethanol-stimulated {beta}-EP secretion required extracellular calcium and was blocked by a calcium channel blocker; a sodium channel blocker did not affect ethanol-stimulated secretion. These results suggest that the neuron culture system is a useful model for studying the cellular mechanisms involved in the ethanol-regulated hypothalamic opioid secretion.

  7. Housekeeping gene expression during fetal brain development in the rat-validation by semi-quantitative RT-PCR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Bader, Maie Dawoud; Al-Sarraf, Hameed Ali

    2005-04-21

    Mammalian gene expression is usually carried out at the level of mRNA where the amount of mRNA of interest is measured under different conditions such as growth and development. It is therefore important to use a "housekeeping gene", that does not change in relative abundance during the experimental conditions, as a standard or internal control. However, recent data suggest that expression of some housekeeping genes may vary with the extent of cell proliferation, differentiation and under various experimental conditions. In this study, the expression of various housekeeping genes (18S rRNA [18S], glyceraldehydes-3-phosphate dehydrogenase [G3PDH], beta-glucuronidase [BGLU], histone H4 [HH4], ribosomal protein L19 [RPL19] and cyclophilin [CY]) was investigated during fetal rat brain development using semi-quantitative RT-PCR at 16, 19 and 21 days gestation. It was found that all genes studied, with exception to G3PDH, did not show any change in their expression levels during development. G3PDH, on the other hand, showed increased expression with development. These results suggest that the choice of a housekeeping gene is critical to the interpretation of experimental results and should be modified according to the nature of the study.

  8. Combined fetal inflammation and postnatal hypoxia causes myelin deficits and autism-like behavior in a rat model of diffuse white matter injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Tilborg, Erik; Achterberg, E J Marijke; van Kammen, Caren M; van der Toorn, Annette; Groenendaal, Floris; Dijkhuizen, Rick M; Heijnen, Cobi J; Vanderschuren, Louk J M J; Benders, Manon N J L; Nijboer, Cora H A

    2018-01-01

    Diffuse white matter injury (WMI) is a serious problem in extremely preterm infants, and is associated with adverse neurodevelopmental outcome, including cognitive impairments and an increased risk of autism-spectrum disorders. Important risk factors include fetal or perinatal inflammatory insults and fluctuating cerebral oxygenation. However, the exact mechanisms underlying diffuse WMI are not fully understood and no treatment options are currently available. The use of clinically relevant animal models is crucial to advance knowledge on the pathophysiology of diffuse WMI, allowing the definition of novel therapeutic targets. In the present study, we developed a multiple-hit animal model of diffuse WMI by combining fetal inflammation and postnatal hypoxia in rats. We characterized the effects on white matter development and functional outcome by immunohistochemistry, MRI and behavioral paradigms. Combined fetal inflammation and postnatal hypoxia resulted in delayed cortical myelination, microglia activation and astrogliosis at P18, together with long-term changes in oligodendrocyte maturation as observed in 10 week old animals. Furthermore, rats with WMI showed impaired motor performance, increased anxiety and signs of autism-like behavior, i.e. reduced social play behavior and increased repetitive grooming. In conclusion, the combination of fetal inflammation and postnatal hypoxia in rats induces a pattern of brain injury and functional impairments that closely resembles the clinical situation of diffuse WMI. This animal model provides the opportunity to elucidate pathophysiological mechanisms underlying WMI, and can be used to develop novel treatment options for diffuse WMI in preterm infants. © 2017 The Authors GLIA Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  9. Long Term Depression in Rat Hippocampus and the Effect of Ethanol during Fetal Life

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olivier Pierrefiche

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Alcohol (ethanol disturbs cognitive functions including learning and memory in humans, non-human primates, and laboratory animals such as rodents. As studied in animals, cellular mechanisms for learning and memory include bidirectional synaptic plasticity, long-term potentiation (LTP, and long-term depression (LTD, primarily in the hippocampus. Most of the research in the field of alcohol has analyzed the effects of ethanol on LTP; however, with recent advances in the understanding of the physiological role of LTD in learning and memory, some authors have examined the effects of ethanol exposure on this particular signal. In the present review, I will focus on hippocampal LTD recorded in rodents and the effects of fetal alcohol exposure on this signal. A synthesis of the findings indicates that prenatal ethanol exposure disturbs LTD concurrently with LTP in offspring and that both glutamatergic and γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA neurotransmissions are altered and contribute to LTD disturbances. Although the ultimate mode of action of ethanol on these two transmitter systems is not yet clear, novel suggestions have recently appeared in the literature.

  10. Serous cystadenocarcinoma of pancreas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rathore, M. U.; Arif, A.; Umair, B.

    2013-01-01

    Serous cystic neoplasms of pancreas are relatively rare tumours. Malignancy in these tumours is even more rare which is confirmed by metastasis to other organs or by perineural, vascular or surrounding soft tissue invasion. A 60 years old lady presented with vague upper abdominal pain. Computed tomography scan showed multiloculated cystic mass in the body of pancreas measuring 9 x 6 x 5 cm and not involving spleen. Pancreatectomy specimen showed a multicystic tumour having sponge-like appearance which showed vascular and soft tissue invasion of surrounding stroma on microscopic examination and was diagnosed as serous cystadenocarcinoma of pancreas. (author)

  11. Histological and autoradiographic studies on the kinetics of bronchial epithelium cells of fetal rat lungs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aue, L.; Schneider, K.

    1978-01-01

    The kinetics of bronchial epithelium cells was investigated in 14- to 20-days old rats of an inbred strain (Wistar-WU, Mueller/Haan). In agreement with the data of the relevant literature, light microscopy revealed a successive evolution of the bronchial tree which consists of a glandular, a canalicular, and an alveolar part. Prophases, metaphases and reconstruction phases are relatively long mitotic phases, while anaphases and telophases are relatively short ones. Combined nuclear volumetry and autoradiography showed that the G-1 phase nuclei are smaller than the 3 H-labelled nuclei at the onset of the S phase and these, in turn, are smaller than the nuclei at the end of the S phase with double 14 C- or 3 H-label or with 'strong' 3H label. (orig./MG) [de

  12. Arterioscanning of pancreas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Petrovskij, B.V.; Rabkin, I.Kh.; Matevosov, A.L.

    1980-01-01

    Investigated is the state of precapillary and capillary net of pancreas vessels by way of intra-arterial MAA 1 +H3+H1I injection. Posiible variants of pancreas form, shape and position, and the main sources of blood supply are presented. The knowledge of the above factors is necessary to avoid mistakes in the desiphering of arterioscannograms. Techniques for angiography and arterioscanning in cases of pancreas cancer, benign tumours, pancreas cyst and chronic pancreatitis are described. Arterioscanning is shown to be a valuable addition to angiography, which permits to judge on the angiographically invisible part of the organ arteriolocapillary channel, clarifying the nature of the process and damage length. The summary estimate of results of angiographic and arterioscannographic investigations considerably increases the diagnostic effectiveness

  13. Pancreas and cyst segmentation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dmitriev, Konstantin; Gutenko, Ievgeniia; Nadeem, Saad; Kaufman, Arie

    2016-03-01

    Accurate segmentation of abdominal organs from medical images is an essential part of surgical planning and computer-aided disease diagnosis. Many existing algorithms are specialized for the segmentation of healthy organs. Cystic pancreas segmentation is especially challenging due to its low contrast boundaries, variability in shape, location and the stage of the pancreatic cancer. We present a semi-automatic segmentation algorithm for pancreata with cysts. In contrast to existing automatic segmentation approaches for healthy pancreas segmentation which are amenable to atlas/statistical shape approaches, a pancreas with cysts can have even higher variability with respect to the shape of the pancreas due to the size and shape of the cyst(s). Hence, fine results are better attained with semi-automatic steerable approaches. We use a novel combination of random walker and region growing approaches to delineate the boundaries of the pancreas and cysts with respective best Dice coefficients of 85.1% and 86.7%, and respective best volumetric overlap errors of 26.0% and 23.5%. Results show that the proposed algorithm for pancreas and pancreatic cyst segmentation is accurate and stable.

  14. Xenon and sevoflurane provide analgesia during labor and fetal brain protection in a perinatal rat model of hypoxia-ischemia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ting Yang

    Full Text Available It is not possible to identify all pregnancies at risk of neonatal hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy (HIE. Many women use some form of analgesia during childbirth and some anesthetic agents have been shown to be neuroprotective when used as analgesics at subanesthetic concentrations. In this study we sought to understand the effects of two anesthetic agents with presumptive analgesic activity and known preconditioning-neuroprotective properties (sevoflurane or xenon, in reducing hypoxia-induced brain damage in a model of intrauterine perinatal asphyxia. The analgesic and neuroprotective effects at subanesthetic levels of sevoflurane (0.35% or xenon (35% were tested in a rat model of intrauterine perinatal asphyxia. Analgesic effects were measured by assessing maternal behavior and spinal cord dorsal horn neuronal activation using c-Fos. In separate experiments, intrauterine fetal asphyxia was induced four hours after gas exposure; on post-insult day 3 apoptotic cell death was measured by caspase-3 immunostaining in hippocampal neurons and correlated with the number of viable neurons on postnatal day (PND 7. A separate cohort of pups was nurtured by a surrogate mother for 50 days when cognitive testing with Morris water maze was performed. Both anesthetic agents provided analgesia as reflected by a reduction in the number of stretching movements and decreased c-Fos expression in the dorsal horn of the spinal cord. Both agents also reduced the number of caspase-3 positive (apoptotic neurons and increased cell viability in the hippocampus at PND7. These acute histological changes were mirrored by improved cognitive function measured remotely after birth on PND 50 compared to control group. Subanesthetic doses of sevoflurane or xenon provided both analgesia and neuroprotection in this model of intrauterine perinatal asphyxia. These data suggest that anesthetic agents with neuroprotective properties may be effective in preventing HIE and should be

  15. Fetal MRI; Fetales MRT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blondin, D. [Inst. fuer Diagn. Radiologie, Uniklinikum Duesseldorf (Germany); Turowski, B. [Inst. fuer Diagn. Radiologie, Neuroradiologie, Uniklinikum Duesseldorf (Germany); Schaper, J. [Inst. fuer Diagn. Radiologie, Kinderradiologie, Uniklinikum Duesseldorf (Germany)

    2007-02-15

    Ultrasonography is the method of choice for prenatal malformation screening, but it does not always provide sufficient information for correct diagnosis or adequate abnormality evaluation. Fetal MRI is increasingly being used to complete sonographic findings. It was initially used for evaluation of cerebral abnormalities but is increasingly being applied to other fetal areas. In vivo investigation of fetal brain maturation has been enhanced by MRI. An adequate analysis of fetal chest and abdomen can be achieved with fast T2-, T1-weighted and diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI). The advantages include the great field of view and the excellent soft tissue contrast. This allows correct diagnosis of congenital diaphragmatic hernia and evaluation of the consequences on pulmonary growth. Other pulmonary malformations, such as cystic adenomatoid malformation, sequestration and brochogenic cysts, can also be easily identified. Renal position can be quickly determined using DWI sequences and renal agenesia can be easily diagnosed with only one sequence. Prenatal MRI is virtually as effective as postnatal examination, dispenses with transport of a potentially very ill newborn, and provides logistic advantages. Therefore, prenatal MRI is useful for adequate postnatal treatment of newborns with malformations. (orig.)

  16. In vitro inhibition activity of polyphenol-rich extracts from Syzygium aromaticum (L.) Merr. & Perry (Clove) buds against carbohydrate hydrolyzing enzymes linked to type 2 diabetes and Fe(2+)-induced lipid peroxidation in rat pancreas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adefegha, Stephen Adeniyi; Oboh, Ganiyu

    2012-10-01

    To investigate and compare the inhibitory properties of free and bound phenolic extracts of clove bud against carbohydrate hydrolyzing enzymes (alpha-amylase & alpha-glucosidase) and Fe(2+)-induced lipid peroxidation in rat pancreas in vitro. The free phenolics were extracted with 80% (v/v) acetone, while bound phenolics were extracted from the alkaline and acid hydrolyzed residue with ethyl acetate. Then, the interaction of the extracts with alpha-amylase and alpha-glucosidase was subsequently assessed. Thereafter, the total phenolic contents and antioxidant activities of the extracts were determined. The result revealed that both extracts inhibited alpha-amylase and alpha-glucosidase in a dose-dependent manner. However, the alpha-glucosidase inhibitory activity of the extracts were significantly (Ppancreas in vitro. This study provides a biochemical rationale by which clove elicits therapeutic effect on type 2 diabetes.

  17. Essential Oil from Clove Bud (Eugenia aromatica Kuntze) Inhibit Key Enzymes Relevant to the Management of Type-2 Diabetes and Some Pro-oxidant Induced Lipid Peroxidation in Rats Pancreas in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oboh, Ganiyu; Akinbola, Ifeoluwa A; Ademosun, Ayokunle O; Sanni, David M; Odubanjo, Oluwatoyin V; Olasehinde, Tosin A; Oyeleye, Sunday I

    2015-01-01

    The inhibition of enzymes involved in the breakdown of carbohydrates is considered a therapeutic approach to the management of type-2 diabetes. This study sought to investigate the effects of essential oil from clove bud on α-amylase and α-glucosidase activities. Essential oil from clove bud was extracted by hydrodistillation, dried with anhydrous Na2SO4 and characterized using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). The effects of the essential oil on α-amylase and α-glucosidase activities were investigated. The antioxidant properties of the oil and the inhibition of Fe(2+) and sodium nitroprusside-induced malondialdehyde (MDA) production in rats pancreas homogenate were also carried out. The essential oil inhibited α-amylase (EC50=88.9 μl/L) and α-glucosidase (EC50=71.94 μl/L) activities in a dose-dependent manner. Furthermore, the essential oil inhibited Fe(2+) and SNP-induced MDA production and exhibited antioxidant activities through their NO*, OH*, scavenging and Fe(2+)- chelating abilities. The total phenolic and flavonoid contents of the essential oil were 12.95 mg/g and 6.62 mg/g respectively. GC-MS analysis revealed the presence of α-pinene, β-pinene, neral, geranial, gamma terpinene, cis-ocimene, allo ocimene, 1,8-cineole, linalool, borneol, myrcene and pinene-2-ol in significant amounts. Furthermore, the essential oils exhibited antioxidant activities as typified by hydroxyl (OH) and nitric oxide (NO)] radicals scavenging and Fe(2+)-chelating abilities. The inhibition of α-amylase and α-glucosidase activities, inhibition of pro-oxidant induced lipid peroxidation in rat pancreas and antioxidant activities could be possible mechanisms for the use of the essential oil in the management and prevention of oxidative stress induced type-2 diabetes.

  18. Fetal echocardiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chaubal, Nitin G.; Chaubal, Jyoti

    2009-01-01

    USG performed with a high-end machine, using a good cine-loop facility is extremely helpful in the diagnosis of fetal cardiac anomalies. In fetal echocardiography, the four-chamber view and the outflow-tract view are used to diagnose cardiac anomalies. The most important objective during a targeted anomaly scan is to identify those cases that need a dedicated fetal echocardiogram. Associated truncal and chromosomal anomalies need to be identified. This review shows how fetal echocardiography, apart from identifying structural defects in the fetal heart, can be used to look at rhythm abnormalities and other functional aspects of the fetal heart

  19. Portal Annular Pancreas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harnoss, Jonathan M.; Harnoss, Julian C.; Diener, Markus K.; Contin, Pietro; Ulrich, Alexis B.; Büchler, Markus W.; Schmitz-Winnenthal, Friedrich H.

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Portal annular pancreas (PAP) is an asymptomatic congenital pancreas anomaly, in which portal and/or mesenteric veins are encased by pancreas tissue. The aim of the study was to determine the role of PAP in pancreatic surgery as well as its management and potential complication, specifically, postoperative pancreatic fistula (POPF). On the basis of a case report, the MEDLINE and ISI Web of Science databases were systematically reviewed up to September 2012. All articles describing a case of PAP were considered. In summary, 21 studies with 59 cases were included. The overall prevalence of PAP was 2.4% and the patients' mean (SD) age was 55.9 (16.2) years. The POPF rate in patients with PAP (12 pancreaticoduodenectomies and 3 distal pancreatectomies) was 46.7% (in accordance with the definition of the International Study Group of Pancreatic Surgery). Portal annular pancreas is a quite unattended pancreatic variant with high prevalence and therefore still remains a clinical challenge to avoid postoperative complications. To decrease the risk for POPF, attentive preoperative diagnostics should also focus on PAP. In pancreaticoduodenectomy, a shift of the resection plane to the pancreas tail should be considered; in extensive pancreatectomy, coverage of the pancreatic remnant by the falciform ligament could be a treatment option. PMID:25207658

  20. Passive immunization of fetal rats with antiserum to luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone (LHRH) or transection of the central roots of the nervus terminalis does not affect rat pups' preference for home nest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwanzel-Fukuda, M; Pfaff, D W

    1987-01-01

    Luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone (LHRH) is found immunocytochemically in cell bodies and fibers of the nervus terminalis, a cranial nerve which courses from the nasal septum through the cribriform plate of the ethmoid bone (medial to the olfactory and vomeronasal nerves) and enters the forebrain, caudal to the olfactory bulbs. Immunoreactive LHRH is first detected in the nervus terminalis of the fetal rat at 15 days of gestation, preceding its detection by immunocytochemistry in any other area of the brain, including the median eminence, and preceding detection of immunoreactive luteinizing hormone (LH) in the anterior pituitary. During development of the rat fetus, the nervus terminalis is the principal source of LHRH in the nervous system from days 15 through 19 of a 21 day gestation period. We tested the notion that the LHRH system of the nervus terminalis is important for olfactory performance by examining the effects of administration of antisera to LHRH during fetal development (versus saline controls), or medial olfactory peduncle transections, in the neonatal rat, which would sever the central projections of the nervus terminalis (versus lateral peduncle transection, complete transection of the olfactory peduncles and the central nervus terminalis or controls) on preferences of rat pups for home nest. The hypothesis that LHRH is important for this chemosensory response was not confirmed. Neither antisera to LHRH nor medical olfactory peduncle transection disrupted preference for home shavings. Only complete olfactory peduncle transection had a significant effect compared to unoperated and sham-operated controls.

  1. Fetal echocardiography

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/007340.htm Fetal echocardiography To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Fetal echocardiography is a test that uses sound waves ( ultrasound ) ...

  2. Maternal diets deficient in folic acid and related methyl donors modify mechanisms associated with lipid metabolism in the fetal liver of the rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McNeil, Christopher J; Hay, Susan M; Rucklidge, Garry J; Reid, Martin D; Duncan, Gary J; Rees, William D

    2009-11-01

    Previously we have examined the effects of diets deficient in folic acid ( - F) or folate deficient with low methionine and choline ( - F LM LC) on the relative abundance of soluble proteins in the liver of the pregnant rat. In the present study we report the corresponding changes in the fetal liver at day 21 of gestation. The abundance of eighteen proteins increased when dams were fed the - F diet. When dams were fed the - F LM LC diet, thirty-three proteins increased and eight decreased. Many of the differentially abundant proteins in the fetal liver could be classified into the same functional groups as those previously identified in the maternal liver, namely protein synthesis, metabolism, lipid metabolism and proteins associated with the cytoskeleton and endoplasmic reticulum. The pattern was consistent with reduced cell proliferation in the - F LM LC group but not in the - F group. Metabolic enzymes associated with lipid metabolism changed in both the - F and - F LM LC groups. The mRNA for carnitine palmitoyl transferase were up-regulated and CD36 (fatty acid translocase) down-regulated in the - F group, suggesting increased mitochondrial oxidation of fatty acids as an indirect response to altered maternal lipid metabolism. In the - F LM LC group the mRNA for acetyl CoA carboxylase was down-regulated, suggesting reduced fatty acid synthesis. The mRNA for transcriptional regulators including PPARalpha and sterol response element-binding protein-1c were unchanged. These results suggest that an adequate supply of folic acid and the related methyl donors may benefit fetal development directly by improving lipid metabolism in fetal as well as maternal tissues.

  3. Insulin Treatment Cannot Promote Lipogenesis in Rat Fetal Lung in Gestational Diabetes Mellitus Because of Failure to Redress the Imbalance Among SREBP-1, SCAP, and INSIG-1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jinyan; Qian, Guanhua; Zhong, Xiaocui; Yu, Tinghe

    2018-03-01

    Gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) has a higher incidence of neonatal respiratory distress syndrome, and lipogenesis is required for the synthesis of pulmonary surfactants. The aim of this study was to determine the effect of insulin treatment in GDM on the production of lipids in the lungs of fetal rats. GDM was induced by streptozotocin, and insulin was used to manage diabetes. Type II alveolar epithelial cells (AEC II), bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF), and lung tissues of the neonatal rats were sampled for analyses. Insulin treatment could not decrease plasma glucose to normal level at a later gestational stage. Lipids/phospholipids in AEC II, BALF, and lung tissues decreased in GDM, and insulin treatment could not increase the levels; quantitative PCR and western blotting demonstrated a lower level of sterol regulator element-binding protein 1 (SREBP-1), SREBP cleavage-activating protein (SCAP), and insulin-induced gene 1 (INSIG-1) in GDM, but insulin treatment upregulated only SREBP-1. Nuclear translocation of the SREBP-1 protein in AEC II was impaired in GDM, which could not be ameliorated by insulin treatment. These findings indicated that insulin treatment in GDM cannot promote lipogenesis in the fetal lung because of failure to redress the imbalance among SREBP-1, SCAP, and INSIG-1.

  4. Sulfasalazine inhibits inflammation and fibrogenesis in pancreas via NF-κB signaling pathway in rats with oxidative stress-induced pancreatic injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ya-Ru; Tian, Fei-Long; Yan, Ming-Xian; Fan, Jin-Hua; Wang, Li-Yun; Kuang, Rong-Guang; Li, Yan-Qing

    2016-01-01

    Pathogenesis and effective therapeutics of chronic pancreatic inflammation and fibrosis remain uncertain. To investigate the effects of sulfasalazine (SF) on pancreatic inflammation and fibrogenesis. Chronic pancreatic injury in rats was induced by diethyldithiocarbamate (DDC) and interfered by SF through intraperitoneal injection. The rats were divided into five groups: group N, normal control group, rats were treated with dilated water only; group DS1, rats received SF (10 mg/kg) 2 hours before DDC treatment; group DS2, rats were treated with DDC and then SF (100 mg/kg, twice a week); group DS3, rats were treated with DDC, then SF (100 mg/kg, thrice a week); and group DDC, rats were treated with DDC only. Pancreatic inflammation and fibrosis were determined by hematoxylin and eosin staining and Sirius red staining. The genes and proteins related to NF-κB pathway and fibrogenesis including NF-κB/p65, TNF-α, ICAM-1, α-SMA, and Con 1 were detected by immunohistochemical staining, reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction, and Western blotting. Rats in the DDC and DS1 groups showed the highest histological scores after DDC treatment, but the scores of DS2 and DS3 groups decreased significantly when compared with the DDC group. Sirius red staining showed collagen formation clearly in DDC and DS1 rats rather than in DS2 and DS3 rats. NF-κB/p65, ICAM-1, and α-SMA were strongly expressed in DDC and DS1 rats, while DS2 and DS3 rats showed mild to moderate expression by immunohistochemistry. Reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction showed increased levels of NF-κB/p65, ICAM-1, TNF-α, α-SMA, and Con 1 mRNA in DDC and DS1 rats in comparison to normal controls. The mRNA levels of these molecules in DS2 and DS3 rats were significantly lower than those in DS1 and DDC rats. Western blotting demonstrated that the NF-κB/p65, ICAM-1, and α-SMA expressions in pancreatic tissues of the rats of the DDC group were more clear than those of the normal control, DS2

  5. Method of pancreas scintigraphy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Michele, E.; Schmidt, H.A.E.

    1976-01-01

    Scintigraphy of the pancreas is important because of a lack of simple internal and x-ray pancreas diagnostic examination methods, non-burdening to the patient, yet providing sufficient evidence. We conceived a double isotope subtraction method aimed at widespread application; financially, it should be within the range even of smaller nuclear medicine departments. A scanner is combined with double impulse processing and a subtraction unit (Picker Dualscanner) and an adapted x-ray unit with the x-ray tube aimed at the scan-field. Commercial sup(Se-75)selenium methionine is used for pancreas imagining. sup(TC-99m)colloidal sulphur is used as a liver indicator. After barium-brei application orally, an x-ray is taken of the gastro-intestinal tract, so as to be able to delineate the pancreas from other epigastric organs also able to accumulate methionine. The subtraction photoscan is then inscribed on this pre-exposed film without any shift of the patient. It is also possible to use two parallel films (x-ray/photoscan) and then to superposition them

  6. Carcinoma of the pancreas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Humphrey, L.J.; Hartman, G.V.

    1974-01-01

    Experience with 17 patients with incurable carcinoma of the pancreas treated by radiation therapy and immunotherapy is described. Results observed have prompted a program of aggressive surgery, radiation therapy, immunotherapy, and long-term chemotherapy. Optimism for significant palliation and survival for these patients with curable and incurable pancreatic carcinoma is warranted. (U.S.)

  7. Agenesis of pancreas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Voldsgaard, P; Kryger-Baggesen, N; Lisse, I

    1994-01-01

    Complete agenesis of pancreas is a rare and lethal condition. Four cases have previously been reported in combination with other malformations, such as severe intrauterine growth retardation, hyperglycaemia and meconium ileus. We report a case of pancreatic agenesis as a single anomaly. The child...

  8. Estimation of ellagic acid and/or repaglinide effects on insulin signaling, oxidative stress, and inflammatory mediators of liver, pancreas, adipose tissue, and brain in insulin resistant/type 2 diabetic rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amin, Mohamed M; Arbid, Mahmoud S

    2017-02-01

    Even though ellagic acid has previously been valued in many models of cancer, so far its full mechanistic effect as a natural antiapoptotic agent in the prevention of type 2 diabetes complications has not been completely elucidated, which was the goal of this study. We fed albino rats a high-fat fructose diet (HFFD) for 2 months to induce insulin resistance/type 2 diabetes and then treated the rats with ellagic acid (10 mg/kg body weight, orally) and/or repaglinide (0.5 mg/kg body weight, orally) for 2 weeks. At the serum level, ellagic acid challenged the consequences of HFFD, significantly improving the glucose/insulin balance, liver enzymes, lipid profile, inflammatory cytokines, redox level, adipokines, ammonia, and manganese. At the tissue level (liver, pancreas, adipose tissue, and brain), ellagic acid significantly enhanced insulin signaling, autophosphorylation, adiponectin receptors, glucose transporters, inflammatory mediators, and apoptotic markers. Remarkably, combined treatment with both ellagic acid and repaglinide had a more pronounced effect than treatment with either alone. These outcomes give new insight into the promising molecular mechanisms by which ellagic acid modulates numerous factors induced in the progression of diabetes.

  9. Differential susceptibilities of Holtzman and Sprague-Dawley rats to fetal death and placental dysfunction induced by 2,3,7,8-teterachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) despite the identical primary structure of the aryl hydrocarbon receptor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kawakami, Takashige; Ishimura, Ryuta; Nohara, Keiko; Takeda, Ken; Tohyama, Chiharu; Ohsako, Seiichiroh

    2006-01-01

    A single oral dose of 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioin (TCDD) administered to pregnant Holtzman (HLZ) rats on gestational days 15 (GD15) caused placental dysfunction, resulting in fetal death (Ishimura, R., Ohsako, S., Miyabara, Y., Sakaue, M., Kawakami, T., Aoki, Y., Yonemoto, J., Tohyama, C., 2002a. Increased glycogen content and glucose transporter 3 mRNA level in the placenta of Holtzman rats after exposure to 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin. Toxicol. Appl. Pharmacol. 178, 161-171; Ishimura, R., Ohsako, S., Kawakami, T., Sakaue, M., Aoki, Y., Tohyama, C., 2002b. Altered protein profile and possible hypoxia in the placenta of 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin-exposed rats. Toxicol. Appl. Pharmacol. 185, 197-206). In order to investigate the mechanism underlying the TCDD-induced fetal death, we compared two outbred strains of rats, namely, the HLZ and the Sprague-Dawley International Genetic Standard rats (SD-IGS), a strain with characteristics resembling those of the HLZ rats. Pregnant HLZ and SD-IGS rats were administered TCDD as a single dose by gavage on GD15, as described within the parentheses (HLZ, 0, 1.6 μg TCDD/kg; SD-IGS, 0, 2, 5, 10 μg TCDD/kg). Whereas a high incidence (14%) of fetal death was observed on GD20 in the HLZ rats, no fetal deaths occurred in the SD-IGS rats, even at the highest dose of TCDD. A histological marker of cellular abnormality at the placental junctional zone, i.e., delay in the disappearance of the glycogen cells and cysts filled with an eosinophilic material (GC-EM), which normally disappear by GD20, was observed in the HLZ rats after exposure to the lowest dose of TCDD (1.6 μg TCDD/kg), but not in the SD-IGS rats even after exposure to the highest dose of TCDD. Furthermore, maternal blood sinusoids in the labyrinth zone were constricted following exposure to TCDD in the HLZ, but not SD-IGS rats. These observations indicate that HLZ rats are more susceptible to the adverse effects of TCDD on fetal growth and

  10. Sulfasalazine inhibits inflammation and fibrogenesis in pancreas via NF-κB signaling pathway in rats with oxidative stress-induced pancreatic injury

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wang YR

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Ya-Ru Wang,1,* Fei-Long Tian,2,* Ming-Xian Yan,1 Jin-Hua Fan,1 Li-Yun Wang,1 Rong-Guang Kuang,1 Yan-Qing Li3 1Department of Gastroenterology, Shandong Qianfoshan Hospital, Shandong University, 2Shandong University School of Medicine, 3Department of Gastroenterology, Qilu Hospital, Shandong University, Ji’nan, Shandong Province, People’s Republic of China *These authors contributed equally to this work Background: Pathogenesis and effective therapeutics of chronic pancreatic inflammation and fibrosis remain uncertain.Purpose: To investigate the effects of sulfasalazine (SF on pancreatic inflammation and fibrogenesis.Methods: Chronic pancreatic injury in rats was induced by diethyldithiocarbamate (DDC and interfered by SF through intraperitoneal injection. The rats were divided into five groups: group N, normal control group, rats were treated with dilated water only; group DS1, rats received SF (10 mg/kg 2 hours before DDC treatment; group DS2, rats were treated with DDC and then SF (100 mg/kg, twice a week; group DS3, rats were treated with DDC, then SF (100 mg/kg, thrice a week; and group DDC, rats were treated with DDC only. Pancreatic inflammation and fibrosis were determined by hematoxylin and eosin staining and Sirius red staining. The genes and proteins related to NF-κB pathway and fibrogenesis including NF-κB/p65, TNF-α, ICAM-1, α-SMA, and Con 1 were detected by immunohistochemical staining, reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction, and Western blotting.Results: Rats in the DDC and DS1 groups showed the highest histological scores after DDC treatment, but the scores of DS2 and DS3 groups decreased significantly when compared with the DDC group. Sirius red staining showed collagen formation clearly in DDC and DS1 rats rather than in DS2 and DS3 rats. NF-κB/p65, ICAM-1, and α-SMA were strongly expressed in DDC and DS1 rats, while DS2 and DS3 rats showed mild to moderate expression by immunohistochemistry. Reverse tran

  11. Radioautographic study of the proliferative activity and cell migration in the fetal and neonatal rat adrenal cortex

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bertholet, J.-Y.; Idelman, Simon

    1978-01-01

    On the 20th day of fetal life the cell proliferation is higher in the zona glomerulosa. The fate of marked cells in each cell compartment shows centripetal migration. Their displacement, from the 20th day of pregnancy up to five days post-partum, while at that time the adrenal growth is slowered down, suggests a real migration [fr

  12. Effect of aqueous extracts of alligator pear seed (Persea americana mill) on blood glucose and histopathology of pancreas in alloxan-induced diabetic rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edem, Do; Ekanem, Is; Ebong, Pe

    2009-07-01

    Effects of aqueous extract of alligator pear seed on normal and alloxan-induced diabetic rats were investigated in 6 groups of rats (5 rats per group). Test groups were made diabetic with intra-peritoneal injection of alloxan and treated with 300 mg and 600 mg/kg body weight of alligator pear seed extract. Two non-diabetic groups were also administered with 300 mg and 600 mg/kg body weight extract. The levels of blood glucose were examined in all 6 experimental groups. In diabetic rats, blood glucose levels were significantly reduced (pblood glucose levels were significantly reduced (palligator pear seed may contribute significantly to the reduction of blood glucose levels and can be useful in the treatment of diabetes.

  13. Characterisation of the maternal response to chronic phase shifts during gestation in the rat: implications for fetal metabolic programming.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tamara J Varcoe

    Full Text Available Disrupting maternal circadian rhythms through exposure to chronic phase shifts of the photoperiod has lifelong consequences for the metabolic homeostasis of the fetus, such that offspring develop increased adiposity, hyperinsulinaemia and poor glucose and insulin tolerance. In an attempt to determine the mechanisms by which these poor metabolic outcomes arise, we investigated the impact of chronic phase shifts (CPS on maternal and fetal hormonal, metabolic and circadian rhythms. We assessed weight gain and food consumption of dams exposed to either CPS or control lighting conditions throughout gestation. At day 20, dams were assessed for plasma hormone and metabolite concentrations and glucose and insulin tolerance. Additionally, the expression of a range of circadian and metabolic genes was assessed in maternal, placental and fetal tissue. Control and CPS dams consumed the same amount of food, yet CPS dams gained 70% less weight during the first week of gestation. At day 20, CPS dams had reduced retroperitoneal fat pad weight (-15%, and time-of-day dependent decreases in liver weight, whereas fetal and placental weight was not affected. Melatonin secretion was not altered, yet the timing of corticosterone, leptin, glucose, insulin, free fatty acids, triglycerides and cholesterol concentrations were profoundly disrupted. The expression of gluconeogenic and circadian clock genes in maternal and fetal liver became either arrhythmic or were in antiphase to the controls. These results demonstrate that disruptions of the photoperiod can severely disrupt normal circadian profiles of plasma hormones and metabolites, as well as gene expression in maternal and fetal tissues. Disruptions in the timing of food consumption and the downstream metabolic processes required to utilise that food, may lead to reduced efficiency of growth such that maternal weight gain is reduced during early embryonic development. It is these perturbations that may contribute to

  14. Characterisation of the maternal response to chronic phase shifts during gestation in the rat: implications for fetal metabolic programming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varcoe, Tamara J; Boden, Michael J; Voultsios, Athena; Salkeld, Mark D; Rattanatray, Leewen; Kennaway, David J

    2013-01-01

    Disrupting maternal circadian rhythms through exposure to chronic phase shifts of the photoperiod has lifelong consequences for the metabolic homeostasis of the fetus, such that offspring develop increased adiposity, hyperinsulinaemia and poor glucose and insulin tolerance. In an attempt to determine the mechanisms by which these poor metabolic outcomes arise, we investigated the impact of chronic phase shifts (CPS) on maternal and fetal hormonal, metabolic and circadian rhythms. We assessed weight gain and food consumption of dams exposed to either CPS or control lighting conditions throughout gestation. At day 20, dams were assessed for plasma hormone and metabolite concentrations and glucose and insulin tolerance. Additionally, the expression of a range of circadian and metabolic genes was assessed in maternal, placental and fetal tissue. Control and CPS dams consumed the same amount of food, yet CPS dams gained 70% less weight during the first week of gestation. At day 20, CPS dams had reduced retroperitoneal fat pad weight (-15%), and time-of-day dependent decreases in liver weight, whereas fetal and placental weight was not affected. Melatonin secretion was not altered, yet the timing of corticosterone, leptin, glucose, insulin, free fatty acids, triglycerides and cholesterol concentrations were profoundly disrupted. The expression of gluconeogenic and circadian clock genes in maternal and fetal liver became either arrhythmic or were in antiphase to the controls. These results demonstrate that disruptions of the photoperiod can severely disrupt normal circadian profiles of plasma hormones and metabolites, as well as gene expression in maternal and fetal tissues. Disruptions in the timing of food consumption and the downstream metabolic processes required to utilise that food, may lead to reduced efficiency of growth such that maternal weight gain is reduced during early embryonic development. It is these perturbations that may contribute to the programming of

  15. Early Life Exposure to Fructose Alters Maternal, Fetal and Neonatal Hepatic Gene Expression and Leads to Sex-Dependent Changes in Lipid Metabolism in Rat Offspring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clayton, Zoe E.; Vickers, Mark H.; Bernal, Angelica; Yap, Cassandra; Sloboda, Deborah M.

    2015-01-01

    Aim Fructose consumption is associated with altered hepatic function and metabolic compromise and not surprisingly has become a focus for perinatal studies. We have previously shown that maternal fructose intake results in sex specific changes in fetal, placental and neonatal outcomes. In this follow-up study we investigated effects on maternal, fetal and neonatal hepatic fatty acid metabolism and immune modulation. Methods Pregnant rats were randomised to either control (CON) or high-fructose (FR) diets. Fructose was given in solution and comprised 20% of total caloric intake. Blood and liver samples were collected at embryonic day 21 (E21) and postnatal day (P)10. Maternal liver samples were also collected at E21 and P10. Liver triglyceride and glycogen content was measured with standard assays. Hepatic gene expression was measured with qPCR. Results Maternal fructose intake during pregnancy resulted in maternal hepatic ER stress, hepatocellular injury and increased levels of genes that favour lipogenesis. These changes were associated with a reduction in the NLRP3 inflammasome. Fetuses of mothers fed a high fructose diet displayed increased hepatic fructose transporter and reduced fructokinase mRNA levels and by 10 days of postnatal age, also have hepatic ER stress, and elevated IL1β mRNA levels. At P10, FR neonates demonstrated increased hepatic triglyceride content and particularly in males, associated changes in the expression of genes regulating beta oxidation and the NLRP3 inflammasome. Further, prenatal fructose results in sex-dependant changes in levels of key clock genes. Conclusions Maternal fructose intake results in age and sex-specific alterations in maternal fetal and neonatal free fatty acid metabolism, which may be associated in disruptions in core clock gene machinery. How these changes are associated with hepatic inflammatory processes is still unclear, although suppression of the hepatic inflammasome, as least in mothers and male neonates may

  16. Pancreas transplantation: an overview

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andre Ibrahim David

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Pancreas transplantation is the only treatment able to reestablish normal glucose and glycated hemoglobin levels in insulin-dependent diabetic patients without the use of exogenous insulin. The evolution of pancreas transplantation in treatment of diabetes was determined by advances in the fields of surgical technique, organ preservation and immunosuppressants. The main complication leading to graft loss is technical failure followed by acute or chronic rejection. Technical failure means graft loss within the first three months following transplantation due to vascular thrombosis (50%, pancreatitis (20%, infection (18%, fistula (6.5% and bleeding (2.4%. Immunological complications still affect 30% of patients, and rejection is the cause of graft loss in 10% of cases. Chronic rejection is the most common late complication. Cardiovascular diseases are the most common causes of late mortality in pancreas transplantation, so it remains the most effective treatment for type 1 diabetes patients. There is a significant improvement in quality of life and in patient’s survival rates. The development of islet transplantation could eliminate or minimize surgical complications and immunosuppression.

  17. Improved glycemic control, pancreas protective and hepatoprotective effect by traditional poly-herbal formulation “Qurs Tabasheer” in streptozotocin induced diabetic rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background The present study was undertaken to evaluate the antihyperglycemic, antihyperlipidemic and hepatoprotective effect of a traditional unani formulation “Qurs Tabasheer” in streptozotocin (STZ) induced diabetic wistar rats. Up till now no study was undertaken to appraise the efficacy of “Qurs Tabasheer” in the diabetic rats. Qurs Tabasheer is a unani formulation restraining preparations from five various herbs namely Tukhme Khurfa (Portulaca oleracea seed), Gule Surkh (Rosa damascena flower), Gulnar (Punica granatum flower), Tabasheer (Bambusa arundinasia dried exudate on node), Tukhme Kahu (Lactuca sativa Linn seed). Methods Effect of Qurs Tabasheer was assessed in STZ (60 mg/kg, i.p single shot) induced diabetic wistar rats. STZ produced a marked increase in the serum glucose, Total Cholesterol, LDL cholesterol, VLDL Cholesterol, Triglycerides and trim down the HDL level. We have weighed up the effect of Qurs Tabasheer on hepatic activity through estimating levels of various liver enzymes viz. Hexokinase, Glucose-6-Phosphatase and Fructose-1-6-biphosphatase in STZ diabetic wistar rats. Results In STZ-induced diabetic wistar rats level of Hexokinase, and Glucose-6-Phosphatase was decreased to a significant level while the level of fructose-1-6-biphophatase was augmented. Therapy with Qurs Tabasheer for 28 days to STZ-induced diabetic rats significantly reduces the level of serum glucose, total cholesterol, triglycerides, glucose-6-phosphatase and fructose-1-6-biphosphatase, while magnitude of HDL cholesterol and hexokinase was amplified. Conclusion Antihyperglycemic, antihyperlipidemic activity of Qurs Tabasheer extract in STZ- induced wistar rats was found to be more effective than standard oral hypoglycemic drug Glimepiride. PMID:23305114

  18. Synthetic protease substrate n-benzoyl-L-argininyl-p-nitroanilide activates specific binding of [3H]estradiol to a protein in rat pancreas: relationship of structure to activity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grossman, A.

    1984-01-01

    N-benzoyl-L-argininyl-p-nitroanilide (BAN), a synthetic substrate for trypsin-like proteolytic enzymes, is a potent activator of [ 3 H]estradiol-binding to a protein present in rat pancreas. When partially purified, this protein is almost devoid of [ 3 H]estradiol-binding activity in the absence of an endogenous accessory factor. BAN can mimic the natural coligand in this steroid binding reaction. The effect of BAN is specific since a number of derivatives of this substance are inactive or may even inhibit steroid binding. It is unlikely that BAN exerts this stimulatory action indirectly, possibly by preventing proteolytic inactivation of the [ 3 H]estradiol-binding protein, since preincubation of the protein in the absence of BAN resulted neither in reduced rate, nor extent, of steroid binding following BAN addition. Also, a number of protease inhibitors had no effect on the binding reaction. Of those inhibitors tested, only antipain significantly enhanced binding of [ 3 H]estradiol, but only about 20 percent as effectively as BAN. 13 references, 1 figure, 2 tables

  19. CT diagnosis of annular pancreas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ueno, Eiko; Isobe, Yoshinori; Niimi, Akiko; Shimizu, Yasushi; Yamada, Akiyoshi; Hanyu, Fujio

    1987-01-01

    CT scan was performed in two cases of annular pancreas which could be found in one case preoperatively and in the other case retrospectively. CT scan demonstrated secondary changes of annular pancreas such as medial displacement and dilatation of the duodenal bulb in the former case and stenosis of the duodenal loop and thickened soft tissue density around the narrow segment of the duodenal loop in the latter case, although it failed to demonstrate the peninsular protrusion of the parenchyma of the pancreas head. These findings suggest high possibility of diagnosing annular pancreas by CT scan. (author)

  20. Fetal MSCs

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    First page Back Continue Last page Overview Graphics. Derived from extra embryonic tissues (amniotic fluid, placenta, cord blood, Wharton's Jelly) and fetal tissues (aborted fetuses). Derived from extra embryonic tissues (amniotic fluid, placenta, cord blood, Wharton's Jelly) and fetal tissues (aborted fetuses). In comparison ...

  1. Histomorphometry and expression of Cdc47 and caspase-3 in hyperthyroid rat uteri and placentas during gestation and postpartum associated with fetal development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freitas, E S; Leite, E D; Souza, C A; Ocarino, N M; Ferreira, E; Cassali, G D; Gomes, M G; Serakides, R

    2007-01-01

    In two different experiments, the effects of hyperthyroidism on the histomorphometry and expression of Cdc47 and caspase-3 were evaluated in the uteri and placentas during gestation and postpartum. Fetal development was also evaluated during gestation. In the first experiment, 36 adult female Wistar rats were divided into two groups of 18 animals each: (1) hyperthyroid; and (2) euthyroid (control). Female rats were mated and killed at 7, 14 and 19 days of gestation. Uteri and placentas were weighed and subjected to histomorphometric and immunohistochemical evaluation to determine the expression of Cdc47 and caspase-3. Ovaries were also evaluated for weight and subjected to morphometric analysis. Fetuses were quantified and weighed individually. In the second experiment, 12 adult female Wistar rats were divided into two groups of six animals each: (1) hyperthyroid; and (2) euthyroid (control). Female rats were mated and killed 2 days postpartum. Uteri were evaluated in the same way as for the first experiment. Hyperthyroidism increased ovulation and conception rates without disturbing the size and viability of the fetuses. In the pregnant uteri, hyperthyroidism did not change the thickness of the layers or the expression of Cdc47 and caspase-3. However, in the placentas, hyperthyroidism increased the medium diameter of trophoblast cells, as well as the thickness and the expression of Cdc47 of spongiotrophoblast cells, at 14 days of gestation. During uterine involution, hyperthyroidism significantly increased the expression of Cdc47 and reduced the expression of caspase-3 in the uterine layers. In conclusion, hyperthyroidism increased the conception rate because of an ovulation gain, induced significant placental changes during pregnancy and, in the uterus, increased Cdc47 expression and decreased caspase-3 expression after parturition.

  2. Tracer kinetic studies of the low density lipoprotein metabolism in the fetal rat: An example for estimation of flux rates in the nonsteady state

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Plonne, D.; Schlag, B.; Winkler, L.; Dargel, R.

    1990-01-01

    To get insight into the low density lipoprotein (LDL)-apoB flux in the rat fetus near term and in the early postnatal period, homologous apoE-free 125I-labeled LDL was injected into the umbilical vein of the rat fetus immediately after Caesarean section. Since the serum LDL-apoB spontaneously declined after birth, a time-dependent two-pool model was used to calculate the flux rates in the neonate from the specific activities of LDL-apoB up to 15 h post partum. An approximate value of LDL-apoB flux in the fetus at birth was obtained by extrapolation of the kinetic data to the time of injection of the tracer. The data revealed that the turnover of LDL-apoB in the fetus (18.6 micrograms LDL-apoB/h per g body weight) exceeded that in the adult rat (0.4 microgram/h per g body weight) by at least one order of magnitude. Even 15 h after delivery, the LDL-apoB influx amounted to 2.5 micrograms/h per g body weight. The fractional catabolic rate of LDL-apoB in the fetus at term (0.39, h-1) slightly exceeded that in the adult animal (0.15, h-1) and reached the adult level within the first 3 h after birth and remained constant thereafter. In the rat fetus, LDL-apoB flux greatly exceeds that of VLDL-apoB. The data support the view of a direct synthesis and secretion of LDL, most probably by the fetal membranes

  3. [Effect of antepartum taurine supplementation in regulating the activity of Rho family factors and promoting the proliferation of neural stem cells in neonatal rats with fetal growth restriction].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xiang-Wen; Li, Fang; Liu, Jing; Wang, Yan; Fu, Wei

    2016-11-01

    To study the possible effect of antepartum taurine supplementation in regulating the activity of Rho family factors and promoting the proliferation of neural stem cells in neonatal rats with fetal growth restriction (FGR), and to provide a basis for antepartum taurine supplementation to promote brain development in children with FGR. A total of 24 pregnant Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly divided into three groups: control, FGR, and taurine (n=8 each ). A rat model of FGR was established by food restriction throughout pregnancy. RT-PCR, immunohistochemistry, and Western blot were used to measure the expression of the specific intracellular markers for neural stem cells fatty acid binding protein 7 (FABP7), Rho-associated coiled-coil containing protein kinase 2 (ROCK2), ras homolog gene family, member A (RhoA), and Ras-related C3 botulinum toxin substrate (Rac). The FGR group had significantly lower OD value of FABP7-positive cells and mRNA and protein expression of FABP7 than the control group, and the taurine group had significantly higher OD value of FABP7-positive cells and mRNA and protein expression of FABP7 than the FGR group (Ptaurine group had significantly higher mRNA expression of RhoA and ROCK2 than the control group and significantly lower expression than the FGR group (Ptaurine group had significantly higher mRNA expression of Rac than the FGR and control groups (Ptaurine group had significantly lower protein expression of RhoA and ROCK2 than the FGR group (Ptaurine supplementation can promote the proliferation of neural stem cells in rats with FGR, and its mechanism may be related to the regulation of the activity of Rho family factors.

  4. Pancreas Protective Effect of Button Mushroom Agaricus bisporus (JE Lange) Imbach (Agaricomycetidae) Extract on Rats with Streptozotocin-Induced Dia betes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yamac, M.; Kanbak, G.; Zeytinoglu, M.; Senturk, H.; Bayramoglu, G.; Dokumacioglu, A.; Griensven, van L.J.L.D.

    2010-01-01

    In the present study we describe the effects of hot water extract of the culinary-medicinal button mushroom, Agaricus bisporus, on the symptoms of streptozotocin-induced diabetes in Sprague Dawley rats. A. bisporus extract at the doses of 0, 100, 200, and 400 mg/kg body weight (bw) per day were

  5. Structural imaging of the pancreas in rat using micro-CT: application to a non-invasivelongitudinal evaluation of pancreatic ductal carcinoma monitoring

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akladios CY

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study was to evaluate the feasibility of a longitudinal non-invasive monitoring of rat pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC using microCTscans (μCT. The identification of the pancreatic gland on (μCT was performed at first using contrast products (Fenestra LC and VC, v/v at a dosage of 0.5 ml/Kg of body weight. Then orthotopic PDAC developed in adult Lewis rat was detected and monitored. In vivo μCT measurement of tumor was compared to actual size ex vivo in 12 rats. Gemcitabine treatment of PDAC was monitored at two week intervals until defined endpoints (liver metastasis or ascitis in 10 rats versus 10 controls. μCT had a 100% positive predictive value in the detection of orthotropic PDAC. Regression analysis showed a linear correlation between ex vivo and in vivo μCT tumor measurements. Longitudinal evaluation of tumor progression showed a reduction in tumor growth (P<0.05 at 8 weeks and a slightly prolonged survival (P=0.15 under gemcitabine treatment. In conclusion μCT appears to be a cost-effective mean for preclinical study of PDAC saving time, animals, while respecting animal welfare. It could be considered as an efficient tool in anticancer drug research and development.

  6. Complete pancreas traumatic transsection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Hodžić

    2005-02-01

    Full Text Available This report presents a case of a twenty-year old male with complete pancreas breakdown in the middle of its corpus, which was caused by a strong abdomen compression, with injuries of the spleen, the firstjejunumcurve,mesocolon transversum, left kidney, and appereance of retroperitoneal haemathoma. Surgical treatment started 70 minutes after the injury. The treatment consisted of left pancreatectomy with previous spleenectomy, haemostasis of ruptured mesocolon transversum blood vessels, left kidney exploration, suturing of the firstjejunumcurvelession and double abdomen drainage. Posttraumatic pancreatitis which appeared on the second postoperative day and prolonged drain secretion were successfully solved by conservative treatment.

  7. PRESENTED AT THE TRIANGLE CONSORTIUM FOR REPRODUCTIVE BIOLOGY MEETING ON 2/11/06: DI(N-BUTYL) PHTHALATE AND DIETHYLHEXYL PHTHALATE IN COMBINATION ALTER SEXUAL DIFFERENTIATION IN A CUMULATIVE MANNER AS A RESULT OF DEPRESSED FETAL TESTOSTERONE PRODUCTION AND INSL3 GENE EXPRESSION IN MALE RATS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plasticizers di(n-butyl) phthalate (DBP) and diehtylhexyl phthalate (DEHP) have similar modes of action: in utero exposure reduces testosterone (T) production in fetal male rats, inhibits reproductive tract differentiation, and induces reproductive organ malformations. In utero e...

  8. Impact of prenatal antimicrobial treatment on fetal brain damage due to autogenous fecal peritonitis in Wistar rats: A Histomorphometric Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neylane Gadelha

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: To investigate brain neuronal density in newborn rats whose mothers were subjected to fecal peritonitis and compare findings between rats born to mothers treated and not treated with antimicrobials. Methods: Peritonitis was induced with a 10% fecal suspension (4mL/kg in 2 pregnant rats. Of these, 1 received antimicrobial treatment 24 hours after peritonitis induction: moxifloxacin and dexamethasone plus 2 mL of the inner bark of the Schinus terebinthifolius raddi extract. One pregnant rat underwent no intervention and served as a control. Results: The newborn brains of rats born to mothers with fecal peritonitis were significantly smaller and of less firm consistency. Brain neuronal density was lower in the untreated group than in the control and treated groups (P<0.01. Conclusions: Untreated peritonitis caused brain damage in the offspring, which was averted by effective early antimicrobial treatment. This approach may provide an early avenue for translation of such therapy in humans. Keywords: peritonitis, brain injuries, rats

  9. Fetal Ultrasound

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... isn't recommended simply to determine a baby's sex. Similarly, fetal ultrasound isn't recommended solely for the purpose of producing keepsake videos or pictures. If your health care provider doesn' ...

  10. Fetal Macrosomia

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... re more likely to have a large baby. Maternal obesity. Fetal macrosomia is more likely if you're ... is more likely to be a result of maternal diabetes, obesity or weight gain during pregnancy than other causes. ...

  11. Unraveling the role of the ghrelin gene peptides in the endocrine pancreas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Granata, Riccarda; Baragli, Alessandra; Settanni, Fabio; Scarlatti, Francesca; Ghigo, Ezio

    2010-09-01

    The ghrelin gene peptides include acylated ghrelin (AG), unacylated ghrelin (UAG), and obestatin (Ob). AG, mainly produced by the stomach, exerts its central and peripheral effects through the GH secretagogue receptor type 1a (GHS-R1a). UAG, although devoid of GHS-R1a-binding affinity, is an active peptide, sharing with AG many effects through an unknown receptor. Ob was discovered as the G-protein-coupled receptor 39 (GPR39) ligand; however, its physiological actions remain unclear. The endocrine pancreas is necessary for glucose homeostasis maintenance. AG, UAG, and Ob are expressed in both human and rodent pancreatic islets from fetal to adult life, and the pancreas is the major source of ghrelin in the perinatal period. GHS-R1a and GPR39 expression has been shown in beta-cells and islets, as well as specific binding sites for AG, UAG, and Ob. Ghrelin colocalizes with glucagon in alpha-islet cells, but is also uniquely expressed in epsilon-islet cells, suggesting a role in islet function and development. Indeed, AG, UAG, and Ob regulate insulin secretion in beta-cells and isolated islets, promote beta-cell proliferation and survival, inhibit beta-cell and human islet cell apoptosis, and modulate the expression of genes that are essential in pancreatic islet cell biology. They even induce beta-cell regeneration and prevent diabetes in streptozotocin-treated neonatal rats. The receptor(s) mediating their effects are not fully characterized, and a signaling crosstalk has been suggested. The present review summarizes the newest findings on AG, UAG, and Ob expression in pancreatic islets and the role of these peptides on beta-cell development, survival, and function.

  12. XYLITOL IMPROVES ANTI-OXIDATIVE DEFENSE SYSTEM IN SERUM, LIVER, HEART, KIDNEY AND PANCREAS OF NORMAL AND TYPE 2 DIABETES MODEL OF RATS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chukwuma, Chika Ifeanyi; Islam, Shahidul

    2017-05-01

    The present study investigated the anti-oxidative effects of xylitol both in vitro and in vivo in normal and type 2 diabetes (T2D) rat model. Free radical scavenging and ferric reducing potentials of different concentrations of xylitol were investigated in vitro. For in vivo study, six weeks old male Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into four groups, namely: Normal Control (NC), Diabetic Control (DBC), Normal Xylitol (NXYL) and Diabetic Xylitol (DXYL). T2D was induced in the DBC and DXYL groups. After the confirmation of diabetes, a 10% xylitol solution was supplied instead of drinking water to NXYL and DXYL, while normal drinking water was supplied to NC and DBC ad libitum. After five weeks intervention period, the animals were sacri- ficed and thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) and reduced glutathione (GSH) concentrations as well as superoxide dismutase, catalase glutathione reductase and glutathione peroxidase activities were determined in the liver, heart, kidney, pancreatic tissues and serum samples. Xylitol exhibited significant (p foods and food products.

  13. Studies on the different forms of material reacting with antiinsulin antibodies in the fetal and adult rat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Felix, J.M.; Sutter-Dub, M.T.; Legrele, C.; Reims Univ., 51

    1975-01-01

    The nature of peak B (MW = 10-12,000, proinsulin) and peak C (MW = 50-100,000, 'big big' insulin) materials detected by the double antibody (DA) procedure in elution profiles of rat sera after Sephadex G 50 or G 100 chromatography (cf. preceding companion paper) is further investigated. Peak B is converted by mild tryptic digestion in an immunoreactive material behaving in rechromatography exactly like insulin monomer. Peak C is less easily detected by the dextran coated charcoal (DCC) method; it resists 8 M urea 37 0 C for 1 hr, is not an artifact due to the complement system; its relative importance is very much reduced in pancreatic extracts or perifusates. Incubation of biologically active 125 I labelled insulin in rat sera results in appearance of labelled material behaving on chromatography like peak C natural material, having the electrophoretic mobility of rat α 1 globulins and albumin, and resisting 8 M urea, acidic pHs and 0.5 M NaCl. Similar incubation in buffer supplemented with bovine albumin results in appearance of a labelled material having the electrophoretic mobility of beef albumin; N-ethyl-maleimide provides against this binding, which might result from (S-S)-(SH) interchanges. Rat α globulins and albumin (but not beef albumin) cross-react with the DA procedure; they do not react with the DCC method. Insulin bound to plasma proteins react with both methods. It is suggested that peak C material, as detected by the DA method in rat serum, consists both of insulin covalently bound to plasma proteins and of certain plasma proteins; the DCC method detects only bound insulin. In streptozotocin treated rats, peak C material persists after the complete disappearance of insulin and proinsulin when detected by the (DA) procedure, but disappears when detected by the DCC procedure. (orig.) [de

  14. Studies on the different forms of material reacting with antiinsulin antibodies in the fetal and adult rat

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Felix, J M; Sutter-Dub, M T; Legrele, C [Reims Univ., 51 (France). Lab. de Physiologie Animale; Reims Univ., 51 (France). Centre de Biologie et de Biochimie du Developpement)

    1975-09-01

    The nature of peak B (MW = 10-12,000, proinsulin) and peak C (MW = 50-100,000, 'big big' insulin) materials detected by the double antibody (DA) procedure in elution profiles of rat sera after Sephadex G 50 or G 100 chromatography (cf. preceding companion paper) is further investigated. Peak B is converted by mild tryptic digestion in an immunoreactive material behaving in rechromatography exactly like insulin monomer. Peak C is less easily detected by the dextran coated charcoal (DCC) method; it resists 8 M urea 37/sup 0/C for 1 hr, is not an artifact due to the complement system; its relative importance is very much reduced in pancreatic extracts or perifusates. Incubation of biologically active /sup 125/I labelled insulin in rat sera results in appearance of labelled material behaving on chromatography like peak C natural material, having the electrophoretic mobility of rat ..cap alpha../sub 1/ globulins and albumin, and resisting 8 M urea, acidic pHs and 0.5 M NaCl. Similar incubation in buffer supplemented with bovine albumin results in appearance of a labelled material having the electrophoretic mobility of beef albumin; N-ethyl-maleimide provides against this binding, which might result from (S-S)-(SH) interchanges. Rat ..cap alpha.. globulins and albumin (but not beef albumin) cross-react with the DA procedure; they do not react with the DCC method. Insulin bound to plasma proteins react with both methods. It is suggested that peak C material, as detected by the DA method in rat serum, consists both of insulin covalently bound to plasma proteins and of certain plasma proteins; the DCC method detects only bound insulin. In streptozotocin treated rats, peak C material persists after the complete disappearance of insulin and proinsulin when detected by the (DA) procedure, but disappears when detected by the DCC procedure.

  15. Mitochondrial Respiration Is Decreased in Rat Kidney Following Fetal Exposure to a Maternal Low-Protein Diet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah Engeham

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Maternal protein restriction in rat pregnancy is associated with impaired renal development and age-related loss of renal function in the resulting offspring. Pregnant rats were fed either control or low-protein (LP diets, and kidneys from their male offspring were collected at 4, 13, or 16 weeks of age. Mitochondrial state 3 and state 4 respiratory rates were decreased by a third in the LP exposed adults. The reduction in mitochondrial function was not explained by complex IV deficiency or altered expression of the complex I subunits that are typically associated with mitochondrial dysfunction. Similarly, there was no evidence that LP-exposure resulted in greater oxidative damage to the kidney, differential expression of ATP synthetase β-subunit, and ATP-ADP translocase 1. mRNA expression of uncoupling protein 2 was increased in adult rats exposed to LP in utero, but there was no evidence of differential expression at the protein level. Exposure to maternal undernutrition is associated with a decrease in mitochondrial respiration in kidneys of adult rats. In the absence of gross disturbances in respiratory chain protein expression, programming of coupling efficiency may explain the long-term impact of the maternal diet.

  16. Catecholaminergic development of fetal rat ventral mesencephalon : Characterization by high-performance liquid chromatography with electrochemical detection and immunohistochemistry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tomasini, R; Kema, IP; Muskiet, FAJ; Meiborg, G; Staal, MJ; Go, KG

    We determined dopamine (DA), noradrenaline (NA), and adrenaline (A), as well as immunohistochemically stained tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) and DA in dissected rat ventral mesencephalon (VM) tissue from Embryonic Day (ED) 14 to Postnatal Day (P) 17. Whole VM tissue DA, NA, and A contents increased with

  17. Diisobutyl phthalate has comparable anti-androgenic effects to di-n-butyl phthalate in fetal rat testis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boberg, Julie; Petersen, Marta Axelstad; Vinggaard, Anne

    2006-01-01

    Phthalates are widely used as plasticizers in various consumer products and building materials. Some of the phthalates are known to interfere with male reproductive development in rats, and di-n-butyl phthalate (DBP), diethylhexyl phthalate (DEHP) and butyl benzyl phthalate (BBP) were recently...

  18. Protective effect of pumpkin powder (Cucurbita pepo L. on fetal testicular tissue damage in alloxan- induced diabetic rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The occurrence of abnormalities in different organs of the fetus and newborn of diabetic mothers has been proven today. Considering the irreversible damages of the disease in newborns’ reproductive system any action to reduce the abnormalities has an especial importance and necessity. In this experimental study, the protective effects of pumpkin powder on reducing testicular tissue damages of rats born from diabetic mothers has been studied. The pregnant rats were divided into 4 groups of 10 rats, as follows: 1 treatment group with pumpkin powder, 2 diabetic control group, 3 treatment group (diabetic animals treated with pumpkin powder and 4 healthy control group. Experimental diabetes was induced in pregnant rats by intraperitoneal injection of 120 mg/kg b.w. alloxan monohydrate. The first and third groups received 2 g/kg b.w. pumpkin powder for 4 weeks via gavage. The histological and morphometric changes such as weight, seminiferous tubules diameter, spermatogonia, leydig and sertoli cell numbers were compared. Data was analyzed using the ANOVA and Tukey multiple comparisons test and p

  19. Computed tomography of the pancreas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kolmannskog, F.; Kolbenstvedt, A.; Aakhus, T.; Bergan, A.; Fausa, O.; Elgjo, K.

    1980-01-01

    The findings by computed tomography in 203 cases of suspected pancreatic tumours, pancreatitis or peripancreatic abnormalities were evaluated. The appearances of the normal and the diseased pancreas are described. Computed tomography is highly accurate in detecting pancreatic masses, but can not differentiate neoplastic from inflammatory disease. The only reliable signs of pancreatic carcinoma are a focal mass in the pancreas, together with liver metastasis. When a pancreatic mass is revealed by computed tomography, CT-guided fine-needle aspiration biopsy of the pancreas is recommended. Thus the need for more invasive diagnostic procedures and explorative laparotomy may be avoided in some patients. (Auth.)

  20. Fetal cardiology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meijboom, E.J.; Rijsterborgh, N.; Bom, N.

    1986-01-01

    Doppler echocardiography makes it possible to diagnose congenital heart disease in early pregnancy. It allows us to study the anatomical configuration of the fetal heart, and additionally, to evaluate the physiological conditions of the fetus. Evaluation of the direction, velocity, wave form pattern, and quantification of blood flow at the various sites in the fetal heart helps us to assess the characteristics of the fetal circulation and condition of the fetal heart. In order to use this technique in pathological situations, an initial study of the developing normal human fetal circulation was necessary. The authors studied 34 uncomplicated pregnancies by serial Doppler echocardiography. The studies were performed every 4 weeks from 16-weeks gestation to term. The pulsed Doppler sector scanner provided cardiac cross-sectional images, mitral and tricuspid blood velocities were obtained from apical four-chamber views. Angle corrected maximal and mean temporal velocities were calculated by digitizing the Doppler frequency shift recording on a graphic tablet computed with a minicomputer. The angle between the Doppler interrogation beam and the direction of blood flow was kept as small as possible in order to minimize the error

  1. Response of blood capillaries in albino rat ovaries to gamma-radiation in fetal period of ontogenesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ablekovskaya, O.N.; Amvros'ev, A.P.

    1999-01-01

    The character and direction of structural transformations of blood capillaries of micro circulatory channel of 20-days white rat foetus in normal conditions and after single external 1 Gy dose irradiation by 10 and 14 days of embryogenesis were examined. Electron-microscopical, stereo logical and statistical analyses were used. The peculiarities of reactions of hemo capillaries and their cell structure to gamma-rays action in embryogenesis were revealed. It was shown the reduction of diameters of capillaries, changes in section area of cytoplasm of endotheliocytes, diminution the size of nuclei of these cells. The injury effect was more pronounced in the case of irradiation on 14 days of embryogenesis. Polyploid endotheliocytes were found in the experimental conditions. Prenatal acute irradiation in low doses leaded to reduction of the number of microvessels and mitochondria in cytoplasm of cells of blood capillaries of rat foetus ovary

  2. Computerized tomography of the pancreas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dondelinger, R.; Campos, R.O.; Lamarque, J.L.

    1979-01-01

    Pancreatic anatomy is briefly reviewed. Tomographic images from normal pancreas and from pathological states (different kinds of pancreatitis; pancreatic tumors) of this organ are discussed. (M.A.) [pt

  3. Endoscopic ultrasound and pancreas divisum

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rana, Surinder S; Gonen, Can; Vilmann, Peter

    2012-01-01

    Pancreas divisum is the most common congenital anatomic variation of the pancreatic ductal anatomy and in most of the individuals it is asymptomatic. However, in minority of individuals it is presumed to cause recurrent acute pancreatitis and chronic pancreatitis. Endoscopic retrograde cholangiop......Pancreas divisum is the most common congenital anatomic variation of the pancreatic ductal anatomy and in most of the individuals it is asymptomatic. However, in minority of individuals it is presumed to cause recurrent acute pancreatitis and chronic pancreatitis. Endoscopic retrograde...... of the parenchyma also. Therefore EUS, both radial and linear, has potential for being a minimally invasive diagnostic modality for pancreas divisum. A number of EUS criteria have been suggested for the diagnosis of pancreas divisum. These criteria have varying sensitivity and specificity and hence there is a need...

  4. Changes in Expression of Connexin 32, Bile Canaliculus-Like Structures, and Localization of Alkaline Phosphatase in Primary Cultures of Fetal Rat Hepatocytes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fukazawa, Shoko; Chida, Kohsuke; Taguchi, Meiko; Takeuchi, Akihiro; Ikeda, Noriaki

    2013-01-01

    We devised an experimental design in primary cultures of fetal rat hepatocytes for studying hepatocyte differentiation over a short period. In the present study, hepatocytes were first cultured for 3 days in dexamethasone-supplemented medium and then for an additional 3 days in dexamethasone- or epidermal growth factor-supplemented medium. In hepatocytes cultured continuously in dexamethasone-supplemented medium, the expression of connexin 32 increased and bile canaliculus-like structures and localization of alkaline phosphatase in the plasma membrane around bile canaliculus-like structures were maintained. Few cells incorporated bromodeoxyuridine. On the other hand, in most of the hepatocytes cultured in epidermal growth factor-supplemented medium, the expression of connexin 32 was minimally recognized, bile canaliculus-like structures were shortened or eliminated, and alkaline phosphatase was localized as numerous fine spots throughout the cytoplasm. More than 20% of all hepatocytes incorporated bromodeoxyuridine. The present study suggests that in hepatocytes, there is a close relationship among connexin 32 expression, the maintenance of bile canaliculus-like structures, and the localization of alkaline phosphatase to the plasma membrane around the bile canaliculus-like structures, and this indicates that the present experimental model is useful for studying hepatocyte differentiation over a short period

  5. Parathyroid hormone blocks the stimulatory effect of insulin-like growth factor-I on collagen synthesis in cultured 21-day fetal rat calvariae

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kream, B.E.; Petersen, D.N.; Raisz, L.G.

    1990-01-01

    We examined the interaction of parathyroid hormone (PTH) and recombinant human insulin-like growth factor I (IGF-I) on collagen synthesis in 21-day fetal rat calvariae as assessed by measuring the incorporation of [ 3 H]proline into collagenase-digestible protein. After 96 hours of culture, 10 nM PTH antagonized the stimulation of collagen synthesis and partially blocked the increase in dry weight produced by 10 nM IGF-I. The effect of PTH to block IGF-I stimulated collagen synthesis was observed in the central bone of calvariae and was mimicked by forskolin and phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate, but not by 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3, transforming growth factor-alpha or dexamethasone. Our data are consistent with the concept that the direct effect of PTH is to inhibit basal CDP labeling and fully oppose IGF-I stimulated CDP labeling. The finding that this effect of PTH is mimicked by forskolin and PMA suggests that this block in IGF-I stimulation of CDP labeling involves both cAMP and protein kinase C mediated pathways

  6. Fetal kidney programming by severe food restriction: effects on structure, hormonal receptor expression and urinary sodium excretion in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaccari, Barbara; Mesquita, Flavia F; Gontijo, Jose A R; Boer, Patricia A

    2015-03-01

    The present study investigates, in 23-day-old and adult male rats, the effect of severe food restriction in utero on blood pressure (BP), and its association with nephron structure and function changes, angiotensin II (AT1R/AT2R), glucocorticoid (GR) and mineralocorticoid (MR) receptor expression. The daily food supply to pregnant rats was measured and one group (n=15) received normal quantity of food (NF) while the other received 50% of that (FR50%) (n=15). Kidneys were processed to AT1R, AT2R, MR, and GR immunolocalization and for western blotting analysis. The renal function was estimated by creatinine and lithium clearances in 12-week-old offspring. By stereological analyses, FR50% offspring present a reduction of nephron numbers (35%) with unchanged renal volume. Expression of AT1R and AT2R was significantly decreased in FR50% while the expression of GR and MR increased in FR50%. We also verified a pronounced decrease in urinary sodium excretion accompanied by increased BP in 12-week-old FR50% offspring. The current data suggest that changes in renal function are conducive to excess sodium tubule reabsorption, and this might potentiate the programming of adult hypertension. It is plausible to arise in the current study an association between decreasing natriuresis, reciprocal changes in renal AngII and steroid receptors with the hypertension development found in FR50% compared with age-matched NF offspring. © The Author(s) 2013.

  7. The aryl hydrocarbon receptor is indispensable for dioxin-induced defects in sexually-dimorphic behaviors due to the reduction in fetal steroidogenesis of the pituitary-gonadal axis in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hattori, Yukiko; Takeda, Tomoki; Nakamura, Arisa; Nishida, Kyoko; Shioji, Yuko; Fukumitsu, Haruki; Yamada, Hideyuki; Ishii, Yuji

    2018-05-16

    Many forms of the toxic effects produced by dioxins and related chemicals take place following activation of the aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AHR). Our previous studies have demonstrated that treating pregnant rats with 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD), a highly toxic dioxin, attenuates the pituitary expression of gonadotropins to reduce testicular steroidogenesis during the fetal stage, resulting in the impairment of sexually-dimorphic behaviors after the offspring reach maturity. To investigate the contribution of AHR to these disorders, we examined the effects of TCDD on AHR-knockout (AHR-KO) Wistar rats. When pregnant AHR-heterozygous rats were given an oral dose of 1 µg/kg TCDD at gestational day (GD) 15, TCDD reduced the expression of pituitary gonadotropins and testicular steroidogenic proteins in male wild-type fetuses at GD20 without affecting body weight, sex ratio and litter size. However, the same defect did not occur in AHR-KO fetuses. Further, fetal exposure to TCDD impaired the activity of masculine sexual behavior after reaching adulthood only in the wild-type offspring. Also, in female offspring, not only the fetal gonadotropins production but also sexual dimorphism, such as saccharin preference, after growing up were suppressed by TCDD only in the wild-type. Interestingly, in the absence of TCDD, deleting AHR reduced masculine sexual behavior, as well as fetal steroidogenesis of the pituitary-gonadal axis. These results provide novel evidence that 1) AHR is required for TCDD-produced defects in sexually-dimorphic behaviors of the offspring, and 2) AHR signaling plays a role in gonadotropin synthesis during the developmental stage to acquire sexual dimorphism after reaching adulthood. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Fetal MRI

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prayer, D.; Brugger, P.C.

    2004-01-01

    New, ultrafast sequences have made it possible to obtain MR images of the fetus without maternal sedation or immobilization of the fetus itself. While fetal MRI began as an adjunct to ultrasound, it has now been shown that MRI can provide additional information that may change prognosis, the management of pregnancy, or the treatment of the newborn child. It is of particular value in the assessment of malformations of the central nervous system. The steady development and adaptation of MR-sequences to the needs of fetal imaging has led to new indications that can support prognostic and therapeutic decisions. (orig.)

  9. Fetal MRI

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Prayer, D.; Brugger, P.C. [University Hospital of Vienna (Austria). Division of Neuroradiology

    2004-07-01

    New, ultrafast sequences have made it possible to obtain MR images of the fetus without maternal sedation or immobilization of the fetus itself. While fetal MRI began as an adjunct to ultrasound, it has now been shown that MRI can provide additional information that may change prognosis, the management of pregnancy, or the treatment of the newborn child. It is of particular value in the assessment of malformations of the central nervous system. The steady development and adaptation of MR-sequences to the needs of fetal imaging has led to new indications that can support prognostic and therapeutic decisions. (orig.)

  10. Ontogeny of neuro-insular complexes and islets innervation in the human pancreas.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandra E. Proshchina

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The ontogeny of the neuro-insular complexes (NIC and the islets innervation in human pancreas has not been studied in detail. Our aim was to describe the developmental dynamics and distribution of the nervous system structures in the endocrine part of human pancreas. We used doublestaining with antibodies specific to pan-neural markers (neuron-specific enolase (NSE and S100 protein and to hormones of pancreatic endocrine cells. NSE and S100-positive nerves and ganglia were identified in the human fetal pancreas from gestation week (gw 10 onwards. Later the density of S100 and NSE-positive fibers increased. In adults this network was sparse. The islets innervation started to form from gw 14. NSE-containing endocrine cells were identified from gw 12 onwards. Additionally, S100-positive cells were detected both in the periphery and within some of the islets starting at gw 14. The analysis of islets innervation has shown that the fetal pancreas contained neuro-insular complexes and the number of these complexes was reduced in adults. The highest density of neuro-insular complexes is detected during middle and late fetal periods, when the mosaic islets, typical for adults, form. The close integration between the developing pancreatic islets and the nervous system structures may play an important role not only in the hormone secretion, but also in the islets morphogenesis.

  11. Ontogeny of neuro-insular complexes and islets innervation in the human pancreas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Proshchina, Alexandra E; Krivova, Yulia S; Barabanov, Valeriy M; Saveliev, Sergey V

    2014-01-01

    The ontogeny of the neuro-insular complexes (NIC) and the islets innervation in human pancreas has not been studied in detail. Our aim was to describe the developmental dynamics and distribution of the nervous system structures in the endocrine part of human pancreas. We used double-staining with antibodies specific to pan-neural markers [neuron-specific enolase (NSE) and S100 protein] and to hormones of pancreatic endocrine cells. NSE and S100-positive nerves and ganglia were identified in the human fetal pancreas from gestation week (gw) 10 onward. Later the density of S100 and NSE-positive fibers increased. In adults, this network was sparse. The islets innervation started to form from gw 14. NSE-containing endocrine cells were identified from gw 12 onward. Additionally, S100-positive cells were detected both in the periphery and within some of the islets starting at gw 14. The analysis of islets innervation has shown that the fetal pancreas contained NIC and the number of these complexes was reduced in adults. The highest density of NIC is detected during middle and late fetal periods, when the mosaic islets, typical for adults, form. The close integration between the developing pancreatic islets and the nervous system structures may play an important role not only in the hormone secretion, but also in the islets morphogenesis.

  12. Autoradiographic studies on the kinetics of fetal supporting cells and wall cells in rats 19 days after conception

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lugani-Mehta, S.

    1980-01-01

    The duration of the S-phase of supporting cells and wall cells of rat fetuses aged 19 days was determined by the ''labelled mitosis'' method. The supporting cells are predecessors of the sertoli cells while the wall cells are predecessors of the boundary tissue and, possibly, of part of the peritubular Leydig cell system. The S-phase of the supporting cells was found to last 10.1 h while the S-phase of the wall cells lasted 9.2 h. The data were not in agreement with the data of other authors. (orig./MG) [de

  13. Fetal pain

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Adama van Scheltema, Phebe

    2011-01-01

    Recent studies have suggested that the fetus is capable of exhibiting a stress response to intrauterine needling, resulting in alterations in fetal stress hormone levels. Intrauterine transfusions are performed by inserting a needle either in the umbilical cord root at the placental surface (PCI),

  14. Plasma concentrations and placental immunostaining of interleukin-10 and tumornecrosis factor-α as predictors of alterations in the embryo-fetal organism and the placental development of diabetic rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y.K. Sinzato

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Interleukin-10 (IL-10 appears to be the key cytokine for the maintenance of pregnancy and inhibits the secretion of inflammatory cytokines such as tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α. However, there are no studies evaluating the profile of these cytokines in diabetic rat models. Thus, our aim was to analyze IL-10 and TNF-α immunostaining in placental tissue and their respective concentrations in maternal plasma during pregnancy in diabetic rats in order to determine whether these cytokines can be used as predictors of alterations in the embryo-fetal organism and in placental development. These parameters were evaluated in non-diabetic (control; N = 15 and Wistar rats with streptozotocin (STZ-induced diabetes (N = 15. At term, the dams (100 days of life were killed under anesthesia and plasma and placental samples were collected for IL-10 and TNF-α determinations by ELISA and immunohistochemistry, respectively. The reproductive performance was analyzed. Plasma IL-10 concentrations were reduced in STZ rats compared to controls (7.6 ± 4.5 vs 20.9 ± 8.1 pg/mL. The placental scores of immunostaining intensity did not differ between groups (P > 0.05. Prevalence analysis showed that the IL-10 expression followed TNF-α expression, showing a balance between them. STZ rats also presented impaired reproductive performance and reduced plasma IL-10 levels related to damage during early embryonic development. However, the increased placental IL-10 as a compensatory mechanism for the deficit of maternal regulation permitted embryo development. Therefore, the data suggest that IL-10 can be used as a predictor of changes in the embryo-fetal organism and in placental development in pregnant diabetic rats.

  15. Simvastatin and Dipentyl Phthalate Display Different Mechanisms of Action but Exhibit Dose Additive Effects on Fetal Testicular Testosterone Production in Sprague Dawley Rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sex differentiation of the male reproductive tract in mammals is driven, in part, by fetal androgen production. In utero exposure to some phthalate esters (PEs) alters fetal Leydig cell differentiation, reducing the expression of several genes associated with steroid synthesis/tr...

  16. Simvastatin and Dipentyl Phthalate Lower Ex vivo Testicular Testosterone Production and Exhibit Additive Effects on Testicular Testosterone and Gene Expression Via Distinct Mechanistic Pathways in the Fetal Rat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sex differentiation of the male reproductive tract in mammals is driven, in part, by fetal androgen production. In utero, some phthalate esters (PEs) alter fetal Leydig cell differentiation, reducing the expression of several genes associated with steroid synthesis/transport, and...

  17. Effects of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs on cell proliferation and death in cultured epiphyseal-articular chondrocytes of fetal rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chang, J.-K.; Wu, S.-C.; Wang, G.-J.

    2006-01-01

    Previous reports indicated that non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) suppress bone repair. Our previous study further found that ketorolac delayed the endochondral bone formation, and the critical effective timing was at the early stage of repair. Furthermore, we found that NSAIDs suppressed proliferation and induced cell death of cultured osteoblasts. In this study, we hypothesized that chondrocytic proliferation and death, which plays an important role at the early stage of endochondral bone formation, might be affected by NSAIDs. Non-selective NSAIDs, indomethacin, ketorolac, diclofenac and piroxicam; cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) selective NSAIDs, celecoxib and DFU (an analog of rofecoxib); prostaglandins (PGs), PGE1, PGE2 and PGF2α; and each NSAID plus each PG were tested. The effects of NSAIDs on proliferation, cell cycle kinetics, cytotoxicity and cell death of epiphyseal-articular chondrocytes of fetal rats were examined. The results showed that all the tested NSAIDs, except DFU, inhibited thymidine incorporation of chondrocytes at a concentration range (10 -8 to 10 -4 M) covering the theoretic therapeutic concentrations. Cell cycle was arrested by NSAIDs at the G /G 1 phase. Upon a 24 h treatment, LDH leakage and cell death (both apoptosis and necrosis) were significantly induced by the four non-selective NSAIDs in chondrocyte cultures. However, COX-2 inhibitors revealed non-significant effects on cytotoxicity of chondrocytes except higher concentration of celecoxib (10 -4 M). Replenishments of PGE1, PGE2 or PGF2α could not reverse the effects of NSAIDs on chondrocytic proliferation and cytotoxicity. In this study, we found that therapeutic concentrations of non-selective NSAIDs caused proliferation suppression and cell death of chondrocytes, suggesting these adverse effects may be one of the reasons that NSAIDs delay the endochondral ossification during bone repair found in previous studies. Furthermore, these effects of NSAIDs may act via PG

  18. Muerte fetal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Andrés Pons, DR

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available La muerte fetal es un evento poco frecuente pero de gran repercusión afectiva para los padres involucrados y su entorno. En el presente artículo revisaremos la epidemiología, las causas, orientaremos a los médicos en los pasos a seguir para realizar adecuadamente el estudio, la resolución del embarazo y el manejo del embarazo siguiente junto con las estrategias para prevenirlo.

  19. Muerte fetal

    OpenAIRE

    Andrés Pons, G.; Eduardo Sepúlveda, S.; Juan Luis Leiva, B.; Gustavo Rencoret, P.; Alfredo Germain, A.

    2014-01-01

    La muerte fetal es un evento poco frecuente pero de gran repercusión afectiva para los padres involucrados y su entorno. En el presente artículo revisaremos la epidemiología, las causas, orientaremos a los médicos en los pasos a seguir para realizar adecuadamente el estudio, la resolución del embarazo y el manejo del embarazo siguiente junto con las estrategias para prevenirlo.

  20. [Acute necrotizing pancreatitis and postmortem autolysis of pancreas].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ye, Guang-Hua; Zhang, Yi-Gu; Yu, Lin-Sheng; Li, Xing-Biao; Han, Jun-Ge

    2008-04-01

    To compare the pathomorphologic changes between the pancreas in acute necrotizing pancreatitis (ANP) and that in acute deaths of rats (within 48 hours) so as to find the distinctions. The animal models of ANP and other acute deaths (electroshock, mechanic asphyxia/strangle, and acute poisoning with tetramine) were established according to the criteria. Half-quantitative grading and image quantitative analysis methods were employed to observe the gross and microscopic changes of the pancreases. Three features including inflammation infiltrate, fat necrosis and calcium deposit in the ANP group were considerably different from that in other acutely died rat group (Pautolysis.

  1. Clinical imaging of the pancreas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    May, G.; Gardiner, R.

    1987-01-01

    Featuring more than 300 high-quality radiographs and scan images, clinical imaging of the pancreas systematically reviews all appropriate imaging modalities for diagnosing and evaluating a variety of commonly encountered pancreatic disorders. After presenting a succinct overview of pancreatic embryology, anatomy, and physiology, the authors establish the clinical indications-including postoperative patient evaluation-for radiologic examination of the pancreas. The diagnostic capabilities and limitations of currently available imaging techniques for the pancreas are thoroughly assessed, with carefully selected illustrations depicting the types of images and data obtained using these different techniques. The review of acute and chronic pancreatitis considers the clinical features and possible complications of their variant forms and offers guidance in selecting appropriate imaging studies

  2. Microcystic adenoma of the pancreas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Čolović Radoje B.

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Microcystic adenoma of the pancreas is a rare benign tumour of the pancreas without malignant potential which usually appears in older women. Pain weight loss, palpable mass and jaundice (if the tumor is localized in the head of the pancreas are the main symptoms. Thanks to the modern imaging techniques (US, CT, FNB the tumor is discovered and with rising frequency exactly preoperatively diagnosed. Surgical excision is the treatment of choice. In risk patients without symptoms surgery is not necessary but patients have to be regularly followed-up. The authors present a 70-year old woman in whom, because of constant epigastric pain, a multicystic mass of the pancreatic body, 58 x 40 mm in diameter, was discovered and removed by distal pancreatectomy. The spleen could not be saved. Histologic examination showed a microcystic adenoma. Three years after surgery the patient is symptom-free with normal ultra-sonographic findings.

  3. Design of a bioartificial pancreas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pareta, Rajesh A; Farney, Alan C; Opara, Emmanuel C

    2013-01-01

    Summary Islet transplantation has been shown to be a viable treatment option for patients afflicted with Type 1 diabetes. However, the severe shortage of human pancreas and the need to use risky immunosuppressive drugs to prevent transplant rejection remain two major obstacles to routine use of islet transplantation in diabetic patients. Successful development of a bioartificial pancreas using the approach of microencapsulation with perm-selective coating of islets in hydrogels for graft immunoisolation holds tremendous promise for diabetic patients because it has great potential to overcome these two barriers. In this review article, we will discuss the need for bioartificial pancreas, provide a detailed description of the microencapsulation process, and review the status of the technology in clinical development. We will also critically review the various factors that need to be taken into consideration in order to achieve the ultimate goal of routine clinical application. PMID:23652283

  4. Antagonistic effects of gestational dietary exposure to low-dose vinclozolin and genistein on rat fetal germ cell development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lehraiki, Abdelali; Messiaen, Sébastien; Berges, Raymond; Canivenc-Lavier, Marie-Chantal; Auger, Jacques; Habert, René; Levacher, Christine

    2011-05-01

    Continuous, low-dose exposure to a phytoestrogen (1 mg/kg/day genistein) and/or to an antiandrogenic food contaminant (1 mg/kg/day vinclozolin) has been recently reported to affect male reproductive tract and fertility [1] in adults. We investigated whether alterations of the testis are already present at the end of in utero exposure using the same rat model and doses following exposure from conception to delivery. After vinclozolin exposure, we observed in the neonate a slight but significant alteration of steroidogenesis and gametogenesis with a reduction of testosterone secretion and of the number of gonocytes. In contrast, genistein exposure had no effect. While the vinclozolin-genistein mixture acts in a synergistic manner to induce the most significant alterations in the adult, interestingly, genistein antagonized the deleterious effect of vinclozolin on germ cells in the neonate. This difference emphasizes the importance of studying the effects of endocrine disruptors during various developmental stages to understand their effects. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. The economics of pancreas surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vollmer, Charles M

    2013-06-01

    Pancreas surgery is a paradigm for high-acuity surgical specialization. Given the current intrigue over containing health care expenditures, pancreas surgery provides an ideal model to investigate the cost of care. This article explores the economics of this field from literature accrued over the last 2 decades. The cost of performing a pancreatic resection is established and then embellished with a discussion of the effects of clinical care paths. Then the influence of complications on costs is explored. Next, cost is investigated as an emerging outcome metric regarding variations in pancreatic surgical care. Finally, the societal-level fiscal impact is considered. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Tachykinins in the porcine pancreas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schmidt, P T; Tornøe, K; Poulsen, Steen Seier

    2000-01-01

    The localization, release, and effects of substance P and neurokinin A were studied in the porcine pancreas and the localization of substance P immunoreactive nerve fibers was examined by immunohistochemistry. The effects of electrical vagus stimulation and capsaicin infusion on tachykinin release...... and the effects of substance P and neurokinin A infusion on insulin, glucagon, somatostatin, and exocrine secretion were studied using the isolated perfused porcine pancreas with intact vagal innervation. NK-1 and NK-2 receptor antagonists were used to investigate receptor involvement. Substance P immunoreactive...

  7. MR imaging of pancreas in cystic fibrosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Murayama, S.; Robinson, A.E.; Mulvihill, D.M.; Stallworth, J.M.; Goyco, P.G.; Beckerman, R.C.; Hines, M.R.

    1990-01-01

    The pancreatic regions of 18 patients with cystic fibrosis were analyzed with a 1.5 Tesla MR unit. Signal intensity of the pancreas was correlated with clinical data and ultrasound. A hyperintense pancreas on T1-weighted image was consistent with fatty replacement of pancreatic insufficiency. A pancreas of normal soft tissue intensity was found in two asymptomatic and one symptomatic patient. A very hypointense pancreas on any pulse sequence was considered to be an intermediate stage of pancreatic degeneration. (orig.)

  8. A COMPARATIVE STUDY OF HUMAN PANCREAS WITH OTHER MAMMALIAN PANCREAS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jyotsna Bhuyan

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Human pancreas is the largest digestive gland in the body. It has both endocrine and exocrine functions. Pancreas secretes the hormones insulin and glucagon. Insulin keeps the body in euglycaemic state as the main function of insulin is metabolism of carbohydrate. Diabetes is a disease of altered carbohydrate metabolism. At present, pancreatic transplantation is the only definitive therapy that can establish a euglycaemic state. AIM AND OBJECTIVE Keeping the importance of pancreatic hormones in human, the present study was carried out where we compared the pancreatic morphology of human with that of pig and goat in terms of length, breadth and weight. MATERIALS AND METHODS This study was conducted in the Department of Anatomy, Assam Medical College, Dibrugarh. A total of 90 specimens were included in the study and these were obtained from human, pig and goat. The human specimen (30 in number were collected from the Forensic Medicine Department of AMCH after fulfilling the official requirements. The specimen of pig and goat (30 each in number were collected from the local slaughter house after obtaining ethical clearance from the concerned authority. In all specimens, the length, breadth and weight was recorded with the help of measuring tape, vernier callipers and electronic weighing machine. INCLUSION AND EXCLUSION CRITERIA Specimen showing signs of putrefaction, any cut or crush injury and congenital anomalies were excluded from the study. RESULT AND OBSERVATIONS In human, the length of the pancreas ranged from 12.11 to 15.09 cm. Maximum breadth of the human pancreas ranged from 4.03 to 5.12 cm and the weight ranged from 79.13 to 102.22 gram. In goat, the length of the pancreas ranged from 12.43 to 13.79 cm, the breadth ranged from 3.03 to 4.93 cm and the weight ranged from 48.43 to 70.03 gram. In pig, the length of the pancreas ranged from 12.46 to 15.87 cm. Maximum breadth of pig pancreas ranged from 3.76 to 4.78 cm and the weight ranged

  9. Serglycin proteoglycan is not implicated in localizing exocrine pancreas enzymes to zymogen granules

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Niemann, Carsten U; Cowland, Jack B; Ralfkiaer, Elisabeth

    2009-01-01

    Storage and release of proteins from granules forms the basis of cellular functions as diverse as cell mediated cytotoxicity, neuronal communication, activation of muscle fibres, and release of hormones or digestive enzymes from endocrine and exocrine glands, such as the pancreas. Serglycin...... is the major intracellular proteoglycan of haematopoietic cells. Serglycin is important for localization of proteins in granules of different haematopoietic cell types. Previous reports have indicated a role for serglycin in granule formation and localization of zymogens in granules of the exocrine pancreas...... in rat. We here present data showing that serglycin is not present at the protein level in human or murine pancreas. Furthermore, the amount and localization of three exocrine pancreas zymogens (amylase, trypsinogen, and carboxypeptidase A) is not affected by the absence of serglycin in a serglycin knock...

  10. Assessment of fetal testis function and postnatal development of the male rat following in utero exposure to diethylhexyl phthalate, dipentyl phthalate, diisobutyl phthalate, diisoheptyl phthalate and diisononyl phthalate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phthalate esters are a large class of plasticizer compounds widely used in many consumer product applications. Some phthalates induce male fetal endocrine toxicity and reproductive malformations through disruption of hormone production during sexual differentiation. Regulatory ag...

  11. [Fetal urology].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jakobovits, Akos; Jakobovits, Antal

    2009-06-14

    Although it becomes vitally important only after birth, renal function already plays significant role in maintaining fetal metabolic equilibrium. The kidneys significantly contribute to production of amniotic fluid. Adequate amount of amniotic fluid is needed to stimulate the intrauterine fetal respiratory activity. Intrauterine breathing is essential for lung development. As a result, oligohydramnion is conducive to pulmonary hypoplasia. The latter may lead to neonatal demise soon after birth. In extrauterine life kidneys eliminate nitrogen containing metabolic byproducts. Inadequate renal function results therefore lethal uremia. Integrity of ureters and the urethra is essential for the maintenance of renal function. Retention of urine causes degeneration of the functional units of the kidneys and ensuing deterioration of renal function. Intrauterine kidney puncture or shunt procedure may delay this process in some cases. On the other hand, once renal function has been damaged, no therapy can restart it. Certain anomalies of renal excretory pathways may also be associated with other congenital abnormalities, making the therapeutic efforts pointless. Presence of these associated intrauterine defects makes early pregnancy termination a management alternative, as well as it affects favorably perinatal mortality rates.

  12. A pancreas imaging agent-131I-HIPDM: the animal experiment and preliminary clinical application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shao Hesheng

    1988-01-01

    131 I-HIPDM has been used clinically for studying regional cerebral perfusion. The [ 131 I] HIPDM was prepared in a kit. The labelling yields were consistently more than 95%, as analyzed by the TLC-Silica gel. The labelled compound is stable in vitro and in vivo. S D Strain rats (170-220 g) and mice (18-22 g) were used. The pancreatic uptake of [ 131 I] HIPDM is rather slow in mice and rats. At 8 hr after iv, the pancreas activity and the pancreas to liver (P/L) ratio are highest in mice and rats. The effect of carrier loading dose from 0.010 to 6.0 mg/kg on blodistribution in mice has been studied. The liver uptake was increased by adding carrier HIPDM. The result indicates that administration between 0.010 and 0.05 mg/kg carrier dose is most suitable for the pancreas imaging. Gamma camera imaging of dog at 6 hr after iv with 300 μCi [ 131 I] HIPMD, 0.05 mg/kg body weight showed clear pancreas image. The P/L ratio of the dog is 0.40. Preliminary clinical tests were satisfactory. Using 1 to 1.5 mCi of [ 131 I] HIPDM, 0.05 mg/kg, the pancreas imaging was operated in 4 cases of volunteers and pancreas cyst respectively with the good diagnostic quality. The authors are of the opinion that this pancreas imaging agent may have potential value for routine use

  13. Insulinoterapia na prenhez de ratas diabéticas: repercussões fetais e placentárias Effect of insulin therapy in on pregnancy of diabetic rats: fetal and placental repercussions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marilza V.C. Rudge

    1998-02-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi estudar as repercussões feto-placentárias da insulinoterapia na prenhez de ratas diabéticas. A droga diabetogênica foi aloxana na dose de 42 mg/kg de peso por via intravenosa. Formaram-se cinco grupos experimentais: controle (G1, n=12; diabete moderado não-tratado (G2, n=10; diabete moderado tratado com insulina (G3, n=11; diabete grave não-tratado (G4, n=12 e diabete grave tratado com insulina (G5, n=10. Foram obtidos 634 recém-nascidos e respectivas placentas. O resultado perinatal do tratamento com insulina teve relação direta com a qualidade do controle glicêmico. O tratamento inadequado do diabete moderado determinou níveis de hiperglicemia moderada nos recém-nascidos, não interferiu com o peso corporal dos filhotes e diminuiu a proporção de recém-nascidos grandes para a idade da prenhez (GIP. O controle adequado do diabete grave normalizou a glicemia dos recém-nascidos, aumentou o peso dos filhotes e diminuiu a proporção de recém-nascidos pequenos para a idade da prenhez (PIP. A administração de doses adequadas de insulina no grupo de ratas diabéticas grave diminuiu o peso das placentas mas sem modificar o índice placentário.Fetal and placental effects of insulin therapy on pregnancy of diabetic rats were studied. Alloxan was administered intravenously at the dose of 42 mg/kg of body weight. Five experimental groups were formed: control (G1, n=12, non-treated rats with moderate diabetes (G2, n=10, insulin-treated rats with moderate diabetes (G3, n=11,non-treated rats with severe diabetes (G4, n=12 and insulin-treated rats with severe diabetes (G5, n=10. Six hundred and thirty-four newborn rats and placentas wereprocured. The perinatal result of insulin therapy was directly related to the quality of glycemia control. Thus, inadequate control of moderate diabetes produced levels of moderate hyperglycemia, did not interfere with the newborn rats' body weight and decreased the proportion

  14. Medio ambiente fetal Fetal environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    César Bernardo Ospina Arcila

    1996-04-01

    Full Text Available Con base en el artículo clásico "Monte Everest in utero" se hace un análisis de la situación que afronta el feto con respecto a la disponibilidad de oxígeno; para una mejor comprensión del sufrimiento fetal se revisan los siguientes conceptos: presión barométrica, presión parcial del oxígeno atmosférico, presión parcial del oxígeno inspirado, presión barométrica intranasal, ecuación del gas alveolar y difusión de gases a través de la membrana alvéolo capilar. Based on the classical paper by Eastman "Mount Everest in utero" an analysis is made of the situation faced by the fetus with respect to the availability of oxygen; for a better under. standing of fetal distress the following concepts are reviewed: barometric pressure, partial pressure of atmosferic oxygen, partial pressure of inspired oxygen, barometric intranasal pressure, alveolar gas equation and gas diffusion through alveolo-capilar membrane.

  15. Computed tomography in pancreas cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fujita, Nobuyuki; Matsuoka, Yoshisuke; Choji, Kiyoshi; Mizuo, Hideyo; Shinohara, Masahiro; Morita, Yutaka; Irie, Goro

    1985-01-01

    We reviewed CT pictures of 31 cases of pancreas cancer to examine detectability of vascular involvement. To demonstrate vascular abnormalities distinctly, we performed bolus injection of contrast medium, followed by drip infusion. The vessels included in this study were portal vein, superior mesenteric vein, and splenic vein. We concluded as below, 1) CT is valuable tool for detection of the vascular abnormality, and can demonstrate vascular involvement distinctly in a case of pancreas cancer. 2) The detectability of the vascular abnormality was correlated well with the result of angiography. 3) The differentiation between stenosis and obstruction was thought to be impossible only with the local vascular changes. But with an information of the collateral pathway, the diagnosis of obstruction was possible. CT can demonstrate these collaterals in 7 of 8 cases. (author)

  16. Neuroendocrine tumors of the pancreas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holzapfel, Konstantin; Rummeny, Ernst J.; Gaertner, Florian C.

    2011-01-01

    Neuroendocrine tumors (NET) of the pancreas are rare entities. Functioning tumors tend to present early with specific symptoms and typical abnormalities in laboratory values. In contrast, non-functioning NET are often diagnosed with delay and become evident by tumor-related symptoms like pain, weight-loss or jaundice. The role of imaging is to localize and delineate the primary tumor and to detect metastases. In the diagnosis of NET radiologic techniques like computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) are applied. In certain cases nuclear medicine techniques like somatostatin receptor scintigraphy (SRS) and positron emission tomography (PET) using radioactively labelled somatostatin analogues are used. The present article reviews characteristic imaging findings of both functioning and non-functioning NET of the pancreas. (orig.)

  17. Ultrasonography of the canine pancreas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michelle L Avante

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available This study describes the ultrasonographic techniques currently used in the evaluation of the canine pancreas. Ultrasonography was the first method to enable direct visualization of the pancreas in humans and it has been subsequently applied to animals. Currently, it is the method of choice for pancreatic evaluation and is essential as a diagnostic tool in the detection of abnormalities, especially tumors. Innovative equipment technology has led to the emergence of techniques complementary to B-mode ultrasound; such as Doppler, elastography, and contrast-enhanced ultrasonography, which have enabled more accurate diagnosis. Doppler provides information on vascular architecture and the hemodynamic aspect of blood vessels in multiple organs. ARFI elastography provides detailed images of the alterations detected by conventional examination (qualitative method and assists in differentiating between benign and malignant processes (quantitative method. Microbubble contrast agents determine parameters related to homogeneous and heterogeneous filling of organs with microbubbles, mainly nodular areas, thus defining high and low intensity patterns.

  18. Fibromyxoid sarcoma of the pancreas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Čolović Radoje

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Fibromyxoid sarcoma is a rare mesenchymal neoplasm, usually appearing in the soft tissue of the extremities, less frequently in the groin, trunk, neck, and upper extremities. Within the abdomen, the tumour is usually localised within the retroperitoneum. Case OutlineWe present a 56-year-old woman in whom, during the routinely performed investigation for atacks of choking with lots of bronchial secretion, and arterial hypertension, an ultrasonographer found a tumour within the head of the pancreas 6×6 cm in diameter. At operation, a dark pink, lobulated soft tumour, surrounded by a tiny capsule, clearly different from the completely normal pancreatic tissue of the posterior side of the head of the pancreas, was easily and ideally excised.The postoperative recovery was stormy. She developed postoperative pancreatitis, temporary biliary and duodenal fistula, which all settled by conservative treatment. The histology of the 80 g weighing tumour showed a circumscribed fibromyxoid sarcoma of low malignancy. Immunohistochemistry showed diffuse vimentin and CD34 strong positivity, as well as focal anti-SMA and anti-EMA immunopositivity. Six months after surgery, she died with signs of cerebrovascular insult, asthmatic status, and recurrent suppurative abdominal fistula, probably related to the previous pancreatitis. Ultrasonography showed a possible liver secondary. The exact cause of death was not confirmed as the autopsy was refused by the family. Conclusion Primary sarcomas of the pancreas are very rare, but should be considered in differential diagnosis of pancreatic neoplasms. To the best of our knowledge, there has been no previously described fibromyxoid sarcoma of the pancreas. .

  19. "Ductal adenocarcinoma in anular pancreas".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benassai, Giacomo; Perrotta, Stefano; Furino, Ermenegildo; De Werra, Carlo; Aloia, Sergio; Del Giudice, Roberto; Amato, Bruno; Vigliotti, Gabriele; Limite, Gennaro; Quarto, Gennaro

    2015-09-01

    The annular pancreas is a congenital anomaly in which pancreatic tissue partially or completely surrounds the second portion of the duodenum. Its often located above of papilla of Vater (85%), rarely below (15%). This pancreatic tissue is often easily dissociable to the duodenum but there is same cases where it the tissue is into the muscolaris wall of the duodenum. We describe three case of annular pancreas hospitalized in our facility between January 2004 and January 2009. There were 2 male 65 and 69 years old respectively and 1 female of 60 years old, presented complaining of repeated episodes of mild epigastric pain. Laboratory tests (including tumor markers), a direct abdomen X-ray with enema, EGDS and total body CT scan were performed to study to better define the diagnosis. EUS showed the presence of tissue infiltrating the muscle layer all around the first part of duodenum. Biopsies performed found the presence of pancreatic tissue with focal areas of adenocarcinoma. Subtotal gastrectomy with Roux was performed. The histological examinations shows an annular pancreas of D1 with multiple focal area of adenocarcinoma. (T1aN0M0). We performed a follow up at 5 years. One patients died after 36 months for cardiovascular hit. Two patients, one male and one female, was 5-years disease-free. Annular pancreas is an uncommon congenital anomaly which usually presents itself in infants and newborn. Rarely it can present in late adult life with wide range of clinical severities thereby making its diagnosis difficult. Pre-operative diagnosis is often difficult. CT scan can illustrate the pancreatic tissue encircling the duodenum. ERCP and MRCP are useful in outlining the annular pancreatic duct. Surgery still remains necessary to confirm diagnosis and bypassing the obstructed segment. Copyright © 2015 IJS Publishing Group Limited. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Physiology of fish endocrine pancreas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plisetskaya, E M

    1989-06-01

    From the very beginning of physiological studies on the endocine pancreas, fish have been used as experimental subjects. Fish insulin was one of the first vertebrate insulins isolated and one of the first insulins whose primary and then tertiary structures were reported. Before a second pancreatic hormone, glucagon, was characterized, a physiologically active 'impurity', similar to that in mammalian insulin preparations, was found in fish insulins.Fish have become the most widely used model for studies of biosynthesis and processing of the pancreatic hormones. It seems inconceivable, therefore, that until the recent past cod and tuna insulins have been the only purified piscine islet hormones available for physiological experiments. The situation has changed remarkably during the last decade.In this review the contemporary status of physiological studies on the fish pancreas is outlined with an emphasis on the following topics: 1) contents of pancreatic peptides in plasma and in islet tissue; 2) actions of piscine pancreatic hormones in fish; 3) specific metabolic consequences of an acute insufficiency of pancreatic peptides; 4) functional interrelations among pancreatic peptides which differ from those of mammals. The pitfalls, lacunae and the perspectives of contemporary physiological studies on fish endocrine pancreas are outlined.

  1. Agenesis of the dorsal pancreas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schnedl, Wolfgang J; Piswanger-Soelkner, Claudia; Wallner, Sandra J; Krause, Robert; Lipp, Rainer W

    2009-01-01

    During the last 100 years in medical literature, there are only 54 reports, including the report of Pasaoglu et al (World J Gastroenterol 2008; 14: 2915-2916), with clinical descriptions of agenesis of the dorsal pancreas in humans. Agenesis of the dorsal pancreas, a rare congenital pancreatic malformation, is associated with some other medical conditions such as hyperglycemia, abdominal pain, pancreatitis and a few other diseases. In approximately 50% of reported patients with this congenital malformation, hyperglycemia was demonstrated. Evaluation of hyperglycemia and diabetes mellitus in all patients with agenesis of the dorsal pancreas including description of fasting blood glucose, oral glucose tolerance test, glycated hemoglobin and medical treatment would be a future goal. Since autosomal dominant transmission has been suggested in single families, more family studies including imaging technologies with demonstration of the pancreatic duct system are needed for evaluation of this disease. With this letter to the editor, we aim to increase available information for the better understanding of this rare disease. PMID:19140241

  2. Cystic tumors of the pancreas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brambs, H.J.; Juchems, M.

    2008-01-01

    Cystic lesions of the pancreas encompass a broad spectrum of benign, premalignant, and malignant tumors which are primarily cystic or result from cystic necroses of solid neoplasms. Because of the wide use of cross-sectional imaging techniques they are increasingly being identified in asymptomatic patients as well as in patients presenting with abdominal pain, jaundice or pancreatitis. Among these lesions, intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasms, serous cystic neoplasms and mucinous cystic neoplasms represent the majority of cases. With increasing experience with these tumors, a refinement of our understanding of their morphology and of their natural course has emerged. It is important to be familiar with the CT and MR imaging features of these lesions to differentiate these tumors and to orient the diagnosis towards benign or malignant forms. Because characterization of cystic tumors of the pancreas can sometimes be difficult due to overlapping imaging features, additional criteria such as clinical symptoms, localization, age and gender have to be taken into account. If appropriately treated, these tumors can usually be cured by resection and the decreasing risk of pancreatic surgery has led to an increasing number of resections of pancreatic tumors. The management of cystic tumors of the pancreas has not yet been standardized and the correct evaluation and subsequent management of the disease in asymptomatic patients have not been fully defined. (orig.) [de

  3. Where have all the Na+ channels gone? In search of functional ENaC in exocrine pancreas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Novak, Ivana; Hansen, Mette R

    2002-01-01

    was to investigate if pancreatic ducts express functional ENaC. Membrane voltages (V) of ducts isolated from rat pancreas were measured with microelectrodes or whole-cell patch-clamp technique. Amiloride and benzamil given from bath or luminal sides did not hyperpolarize V. Lowering of extracellular Na...... with glucocorticoids had no effect on pancreatic fluid secretion evoked from ducts, or from acini. Hence, our study shows that pancreas especially pancreatic ducts do not express functional ENaC....

  4. Dissection of the Mouse Pancreas for Histological Analysis and Metabolic Profiling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veite-Schmahl, Michelle J; Regan, Daniel P; Rivers, Adam C; Nowatzke, Joseph F; Kennedy, Michael A

    2017-08-19

    We have been investigating the pancreas specific transcription factor, 1a cre-recombinase; lox-stop-lox- Kristen rat sarcoma, glycine to aspartic acid at the 12 codon (Ptf1a cre/+ ;LSL-Kras G12D/+ ) mouse strain as a model of human pancreatic cancer. The goal of our current studies is to identify novel metabolic biomarkers of pancreatic cancer progression. We have performed metabolic profiling of urine, feces, blood, and pancreas tissue extracts, as well as histological analyses of the pancreas to stage the cancer progression. The mouse pancreas is not a well-defined solid organ like in humans, but rather is a diffusely distributed soft tissue that is not easily identified by individuals unfamiliar with mouse internal anatomy or by individuals that have little or no experience performing mouse organ dissections. The purpose of this article is to provide a detailed step-wise visual demonstration to guide novices in the removal of the mouse pancreas by dissection. This article should be especially valuable to students and investigators new to research that requires harvesting of the mouse pancreas by dissection for metabolic profiling or histological analyses.

  5. Annular pancreas in adult: a case report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moreira Neto, M.

    1992-01-01

    A case of a patient complaining of recurrent symptomatology of the upper abdomen and sub occlusion of the gastrointestinal tract with stenosis of the second portion of duodenum and mass evolving the head of pancreas at echographic study, confirmed by CT is presented. Contrasted oral studies confirmed that the mass evolved the stenotic segment, suggesting annular pancreas. Surgery confirmed the presence of annular pancreas surrounding the second portion of duodenum. (author)

  6. Dose addition models based on biologically-relevant reductions in fetal testosterone accurately predict postnatal reproductive tract alterations by a phthalate mixture in rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Challenges in cumulative risk assessment of anti-androgenic phthalate mixtures include a lack of data on all the individual phthalates and difficulty determining the biological relevance of reduction in fetal testosterone (T) on postnatal development. The objectives of the curren...

  7. Di-pentyl phthalate dosing during sexual differentiation disrupts fetal testis function and postnatal development of the male Sprague dawley rat with greater relative potency than other phthalates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phthalate esters (PEs) constitute a large class of plasticizer compounds that are widely used for many consumer product applications. Ten or more members of the PE class of compounds have been shown to induce male fetal endocrine toxicity and postnatal reproductive malformations ...

  8. Liquid chromatography--tandem mass spectrometry analysis of cocaine and its metabolites from blood, amniotic fluid, placental and fetal tissues: study of the metabolism and distribution of cocaine in pregnant rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srinivasan, K; Wang, P P; Eley, A T; White, C A; Bartlett, M G

    2000-08-18

    The ability to simultaneously quantitate cocaine and its 12 metabolites from pregnant rat blood, amniotic fluid, placental and fetal tissue homogenates aids in elucidating the metabolism and distribution of cocaine. An efficient extraction method was developed to simultaneously recover these 13 components using underivatized silica solid-phase extraction (SPE) cartridges. The overall recoveries for cocaine and its metabolites were studied from pregnant rat blood (47-100%), amniotic fluid (61-100%), placental homogenate (31-83%), and fetal homogenate (39-87%). Extraction of the samples using silica is not classical SPE, but rather allows for the concentration of the sample into a small volume prior to injection and the removal of the proteins due to their strong interaction with the active silica surface. A positive ion mode electrospray ionization liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS-MS) method was used and validated to simultaneously quantitate cocaine and 12 metabolites from these four biological matrices. A gradient elution method with a Zorbax XDB C8 reversed-phase column was used to separate the components. Multiple reaction monitoring (MRM) of a product ion arising from the corresponding precursor ion was used in order to enhance the selectivity and sensitivity of the method. Low background noise was observed from the complex biological matrices due to efficient SPE and the selectivity of the MRM mode. Linear calibration curves were generated from 0.01 to 2.50 ppm. The method also showed high intra-day (n =3) and inter-day (n=9) precision (% RSD) and accuracy (% error) for all components. The limits of detection (LODs) for the method ranged from 0.15 to 10 ppb. The LODs of cocaine and its major metabolites were less than 1 ppb from all four biological matrices. This method was applied to the study of the metabolism and distribution of cocaine in pregnant rats following intravenous infusion to a steady state plasma drug concentration. The

  9. Genetics Home Reference: Pearson marrow-pancreas syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Health Conditions Pearson marrow-pancreas syndrome Pearson marrow-pancreas syndrome Printable PDF Open All Close All Enable ... view the expand/collapse boxes. Description Pearson marrow-pancreas syndrome is a severe disorder that usually begins ...

  10. The Perlman syndrome: familial renal dysplasia with Wilms tumor, fetal gigantism and multiple congenital anomalies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neri, G; Martini-Neri, M E; Katz, B E; Opitz, J M

    1984-09-01

    We describe a familial syndrome of renal dysplasia, Wilms tumor, hyperplasia of the endocrine pancreas, fetal gigantism, multiple congenital anomalies and mental retardation. This condition was previously described by Perlman et al [1973, 1975] and we propose to call it the "Perlman syndrome." It appears to be transmitted as an autosomal recessive trait. The possible relationships between dysplasia, neoplasia and malformation are discussed.

  11. The effects of X-irradiation, N-ethyl-N-nitrosourea or combined treatment on O6-alkylguanine-DNA alkyltransferase activity in fetal rat brain and liver and the induction of CNS tumours

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stammberger, I.; Nice, L.; Schmahl, W.

    1990-01-01

    Wistar rats were treated in utero on day 16 of gestation either by X-irradiation, N-ethyl-N-nitrosourea (ENU), or both in combination. The O 6 -alkylguanine-DNA alkyltransferase (AT) activity of the fetal brain and liver was analyzed and long-term observations were made to reveal any relationship between the O 6 -ethylguanine repair capability and tumour incidence in the organs of the offspring. The AT activity in the brain was affected to the same extent in the fetuses as in the dams. There was a 60.9% decrease in AT activity in fetuses 24 h after ENU treatment. This correlates with a significant increase in the incidence of brain tumours in the treated offspring (44.1%) compared to control animals. The inductive effect of X-irradiation on AT activity corresponded in turn with a reduction of the incidence of tumours after the combined treatment. In the liver of the rat fetuses, there was generally no effect of treatment on AT activity in contrast to the results obtained for the dams, where an increased AT activity was observed. There were no tumours of the liver observed in the offspring after either treatment alone or after combined treatment. It is suggested that the combined treatment of rat fetuses could significantly reduce the incidence of brain tumours in adult life. (author)

  12. The effects of X-irradiation, N-ethyl-N-nitrosourea or combined treatment on O sup 6 -alkylguanine-DNA alkyltransferase activity in fetal rat brain and liver and the induction of CNS tumours

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stammberger, I.; Nice, L. (Muenchen Univ. (Germany, F.R.). Walter-Straub-Institut fuer Pharmakologie und Toxikologie); Schmahl, W. (Gesellschaft fuer Strahlen- und Umweltforschung mbH Muenchen, Neuherberg (Germany, F.R.). Inst. fuer Pathologie)

    1990-02-01

    Wistar rats were treated in utero on day 16 of gestation either by X-irradiation, N-ethyl-N-nitrosourea (ENU), or both in combination. The O{sup 6}-alkylguanine-DNA alkyltransferase (AT) activity of the fetal brain and liver was analyzed and long-term observations were made to reveal any relationship between the O{sup 6}-ethylguanine repair capability and tumour incidence in the organs of the offspring. The AT activity in the brain was affected to the same extent in the fetuses as in the dams. There was a 60.9% decrease in AT activity in fetuses 24 h after ENU treatment. This correlates with a significant increase in the incidence of brain tumours in the treated offspring (44.1%) compared to control animals. The inductive effect of X-irradiation on AT activity corresponded in turn with a reduction of the incidence of tumours after the combined treatment. In the liver of the rat fetuses, there was generally no effect of treatment on AT activity in contrast to the results obtained for the dams, where an increased AT activity was observed. There were no tumours of the liver observed in the offspring after either treatment alone or after combined treatment. It is suggested that the combined treatment of rat fetuses could significantly reduce the incidence of brain tumours in adult life. (author).

  13. The pancreas from Aristotle to Galen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsuchiya, Ryoichi; Kuroki, Tamotsu; Eguchi, Susumu

    2015-01-01

    The first description of the pancreas in literature is found in Aristotle's Historia Animalium, but it is modified by "so-called". Therefore, the origin is pursued more extensively. The Greek-English Lexicon recommends three treatises as a possible original source. These three and Galen's other papers are investigated. In 2005, Sachs et al. suggested an origin of the pancreas might have derived from the intestinal divination using the avian pancreas. This report is evaluated. The avian pancreas which is the intraperitoneal organ, might have been well known by the intestinal divination, and people have called the organ pankreas or kallikreas. Anatomical dissection on human body was not accepted before the Aristotle's time. "So-called pancreas" in Historia must have been interpolated by Theophrastus. He was the most faithful and reliable disciple of Aristotle and succeeded the Aristotle's school. He and Macedonian ruler of Egypt Ptolemy I had known each other and there had been a strong link between them. The contemporary Herophilus performed many public dissections on both human and animal bodies in Alexandria. He named the various parts of the human body and designated the beginning intestine as duodenum. Yet in his extant works, the pancreas is not found. It is surmised that Herophilus may be the first to recognize the human pancreas, which is fixed with retroperitoneal tissue, and he named it "so-called pancreas". Theophrastus might have interpolated Herophilus' designation in Historia Animalium. Galen also uses "so-called pancreas" to designate the human pancreas. Galen's descriptions, that is, "Nature created 'so-called pancreas 'and spread it beneath all vessels" are not generally acceptable but propose the very rare portal vein anomalies. Since the early years of the 20th century, cases with a preduodenal portal vein or a prepancreatic portal vein have been reported. Although the incidence is very rare, its surgical importance is emphasized. Copyright © 2014

  14. CT-arteriography of pancreas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoshikawa, Jun; Matsui, Osamu; Kitagawa, Kiyohide; Kamimura, Ryoichi; Kadoya, Masumi; Suzuki, Masayuki; Takashima, Tutomu

    1985-01-01

    To evaluate diagnostic effectiveness of CT-arteriography (CTA) in pancreatic disease, the pictures of pancreatic CTA were analysed in 50 cases without pancreatic disease. In the pancreatic body, irregular spotty stain was seen in 15 out of 50 cases(30%). Especially, in patients who had dorsal pancreatic artery arising from superior mesenteric artery, this stain was seen in 9 out of 13 cases(69%) and its mechanism was considered to be double blood supply both from celiac artery and superior mesenteric artery. As a consequence, we think that CTA of pancreas is unusefull in diagnosis of pancreatic insulinomas or carcinomas. (author)

  15. Physiology of the endocrine pancreas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engelking, L R

    1997-11-01

    The endocrine pancreas is composed of nests of cells called the islets of Langerhans, which comprise only about 20% of pancreatic cell mass and secrete insulin, glucagon, somatostatin, and pancreatic polypeptide. Insulin is anabolic, increasing storage of glucose, fatty acids and amino acids, while glucagon namely stimulates hepatic glycogenolysis, gluconeogenesis, and ketogenesis. Somatostatin acts as a paracrine agent to inhibit both insulin and glucagon release, and, therefore, to modulate their output. This article explores factors controlling release of these hormones, as well as the way in which they affect fuel metabolism in the whole animal.

  16. Diagnostic imaging of the pancreas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Araki, Tsutomu; Itai, Yuji

    1981-01-01

    Diagnostic imaging of the pancreas, ultrasonography (US), computed tomography (CT), radionuclide (RN) scintigraphy, angiography, and endoscopic retrograde pancreaticography (ERP). First three noninvasive methods, were the most effective to diagnose psudo-cyst or cystoadenoma. Especially, CT gives the clear image of inflammation and shows pancreatic stones and calcification, with high sensitivity. As for pancreatic carcinomas there was no noninvasive methods to apply at an early stage. In order to diagnose the cancer the combination of angiography and ERP was preferable. The problem was how to select the candidates for the investigation of combined method out of the patients with negative CT or US. (Tsunoda, M.)

  17. Cybersecurity in Artificial Pancreas Experiments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Keeffe, Derek T; Maraka, Spyridoula; Basu, Ananda; Keith-Hynes, Patrick; Kudva, Yogish C

    2015-09-01

    Medical devices have transformed modern health care, and ongoing experimental medical technology trials (such as the artificial pancreas) have the potential to significantly improve the treatment of several chronic conditions, including diabetes mellitus. However, we suggest that, to date, the essential concept of cybersecurity has not been adequately addressed in this field. This article discusses several key issues of cybersecurity in medical devices and proposes some solutions. In addition, it outlines the current requirements and efforts of regulatory agencies to increase awareness of this topic and to improve cybersecurity.

  18. CT-arteriography of pancreas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoshikawa, Jun; Matsui, Osamu; Kitagawa, Kiyohide; Kamimura, Ryoichi; Kadoya, Masumi; Suzuki, Masayuki; Takashima, Tutomu

    1985-01-01

    To evaluate diagnostic effectiveness of CT-arteriography (CTA) in pancreatic disease, the pictures of pancreatic CTA were analysed in 50 cases without pancreatic disease. In the pancreatic body, irregular spotty stain was seen in 15 out of 50 cases(30%). Especially, in patients who had dorsal pancreatic artery arising from superior mesenteric artery, this stain was seen in 9 out of 13 cases(69%) and its mechanism was considered to be double blood supply both from celiac artery and superior mesenteric artery. As a consequence, we think that CTA of pancreas is unusefull in diagnosis of pancreatic insulinomas or carcinomas. (author).

  19. Arteriovenous Malformation of the Pancreas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandros Charalabopoulos

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Pancreatic arteriovenous malformation (PAVM is a very rare and mostly congenital lesion, with less than 80 cases described in the English-published literature. It is defined as a tumorous vascular abnormality that is constructed between an anomalous bypass anastomosis of the arterial and venous networks within the pancreas. It represents about 5% of all arteriovenous malformations found in the gastrointestinal tract. Herein, we present a 64-year-old patient with symptomatic PAVM involving the body and tail of the organ, which was successfully treated by transcatheter arterial embolization. The disease spectrum and review of the literature are also presented.

  20. Management of pregnancy in pancreas alone transplant recipient complicated with stage-4 chronic renal insufficiency and superimposed pre-eclampsia: Case report and literature review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yung-Shih Lee

    2017-10-01

    Conclusion: Child-bearing in solid organ transplantation recipients has become more promising nowadays, even for a difficult case of pancreas-alone transplant recipient complicated with chronic renal insufficiency and superimposed pre-eclampsia. Thorough antepartum counseling and cautious monitoring of maternal, fetal and graft conditions by multidisciplinary specialties are key to favorable pregnancy outcomes.

  1. Ectopic pancreas with pseudocyst and pseudoaneurysm formation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Surov, A.; Hainz, M.; Hinz, L.; Holzhausen, H.-J.; Finke, R.; Spielmann, R.-P.; Kunze, C.

    2009-01-01

    Ectopic pancreas is a rare congenital anomaly. It is usually asymptomatic, or presents with non specific gastrointestinal symptoms. We describe here a case of ectopic pancreas in the gastric antrum, with pseudocyst and pseudoaneurysm formation. This entity has not been reported previously in the literature.

  2. Ectopic pancreas in a giant mediastinal cyst

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Li, Wilson W.; van Boven, Wim Jan; Jurhill, Roy R.; Bonta, Peter I.; Annema, Jouke T.; de Mol, Bas A.

    2016-01-01

    Ectopic pancreas located in the mediastium is an extremely rare anomaly. We present a case of an ectopic pancreas located in a giant mediastinal cyst in an 18-year-old man. He presented with symptoms of dyspnea due to external compression of the cyst on the left main bronchus. Complete surgical

  3. Developmental biology of the Psammomys obesus pancreas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vedtofte, Louise; Bödvarsdóttir, Thóra B; Karlsen, Allan E

    2007-01-01

    The desert gerbil Psammomys obesus, an established model of type 2 diabetes (T2D), has previously been shown to lack pancreatic and duodenal homeobox gene 1 (Pdx-1) expression. Pdx-1 deficiency leads to pancreas agenesis in both mice and humans. We have therefore further examined the pancreas of ...

  4. Primary hydatid cysts of the pancreas

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Kurt

    Hydatid cysts of the pancreas are rare. The reported incidence varies from 0.1% to 2% of patients with hydatid disease.4-7. Management may be diffi- cult as a hydatid cyst in the head of the pancreas may closely simulate a cystic tumour. In this study we report 4 cases of primary hydatid cysts involving the head of the ...

  5. Resection for secondary malignancy of the pancreas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hung, Jui-Hsia; Wang, Shin-E; Shyr, Yi-Ming; Su, Cheng-Hsi; Chen, Tien-Hua; Wu, Chew-Wun

    2012-01-01

    This study tried to clarify the role of pancreatic resection in the treatment of secondary malignancy with metastasis or local invasion to the pancreas in terms of surgical risk and survival benefit. Data of secondary malignancy of the pancreas from our 19 patients and cases reported in the English literature were pooled together for analysis. There were 329 cases of resected secondary malignancy of the pancreas, including 241 cases of metastasis and 88 cases of local invasion. The most common primary tumor metastatic to the pancreas and amenable to resection was renal cell carcinoma (RCC) (73.9%). More than half (52.3%) of the primary cancers with local invasion to the pancreas were colon cancer, and nearly half (40.9%) were stomach cancer. The median metastatic interval was 84 months (7 years) for overall primary tumors and 108 months (9 years) for RCC. The 5-year survival for secondary malignancy of the pancreas after resection was 61.1% for metastasis and 58.9% for local invasion, with 72.8% for RCC metastasis, 69.0% for colon cancer, and 43.8% for stomach cancer with local invasion to the pancreas. Pancreatic resection should not be precluded for secondary malignancy of the pancreas because long-term survival could be achieved with acceptable surgical risk in selected patients.

  6. Minimally Invasive Management of Ectopic Pancreas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vitiello, Gerardo A; Cavnar, Michael J; Hajdu, Cristina; Khaykis, Inessa; Newman, Elliot; Melis, Marcovalerio; Pachter, H Leon; Cohen, Steven M

    2017-03-01

    The management of ectopic pancreas is not well defined. This study aims to determine the prevalence of symptomatic ectopic pancreas and identify those who may benefit from treatment, with a particular focus on robotically assisted surgical management. Our institutional pathology database was queried to identify a cohort of ectopic pancreas specimens. Additional clinical data regarding clinical symptomatology, diagnostic studies, and treatment were obtained through chart review. Nineteen cases of ectopic pancreas were found incidentally during surgery for another condition or found incidentally in a pathologic specimen (65.5%). Eleven patients (37.9%) reported prior symptoms, notably abdominal pain and/or gastrointestinal bleeding. The most common locations for ectopic pancreas were the duodenum and small bowel (31% and 27.6%, respectively). Three out of 29 cases (10.3%) had no symptoms, but had evidence of preneoplastic changes on pathology, while one harbored pancreatic cancer. Over the years, treatment of ectopic pancreas has shifted from open to laparoscopic and more recently to robotic surgery. Our experience is in line with existing evidence supporting surgical treatment of symptomatic or complicated ectopic pancreas. In the current era, minimally invasive and robotic surgery can be used safely and successfully for treatment of ectopic pancreas.

  7. Functional imaging of the pancreas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakanishi, Fumiko

    1984-01-01

    An image processing technique for functional imaging of the pancreas was developed and is here reported. In this paper, clinical efficacy of the technique for detecting pancreatic abnormality is evaluated in comparison with conventional pancreatic scintigraphy and CT. For quantitative evaluation, functional rate, i.e. the rate of normal functioning pancreatic area, was calculated from the functional image and subtraction image. Two hundred and ninety-five cases were studied using this technique. Conventional image had a sensitivity of 65 % and a specificity of 78 %, while the use of functional imaging improved sensitivity to 88 % and specificity to 88 %. The mean functional rate in patients with pancreatic disease was significantly lower (33.3+-24.5 in patients with chronic pancreatitis, 28.1+-26.9 in patients with acute pancreatitis, 43.4+-22.3 in patients with diabetes mellitus, 20.4+-23.4 in patients with pancreatic cancer) than the mean functional rate in cases without pancreatic disease (86.4+-14.2). It is suggested that functional image of the pancreas reflecting pancreatic exocrine function and functional rate is a useful indicator of pancreatic exocrine function. (author)

  8. Postoperative CT in pancreas transplantation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Powell, F.E.; Harper, S.J.F.; Callaghan, C.J.; Shaw, A.; Godfrey, E.M.; Bradley, J.A.; Watson, C.J.E.; Pettigrew, G.J.

    2015-01-01

    Aim: To examine the usage and value of computed tomography (CT) following simultaneous pancreas and kidney (SPK) transplantation. Materials and methods: Indications for postoperative CT, key findings, and their influence on management were determined by retrospective analysis. Results: Ninety-eight patients underwent 313 CT examinations. Common indications for the examinations included suspected intra-abdominal collection (31.1%) and elevated serum amylase/lipase (24.1%). CT findings most frequently showed non-specific mild inflammation (27.6%), a normal scan (17.1%) and fluid collections (16.3%). High capillary blood glucose (CBG) was associated with resultant CT demonstration of graft vascular abnormalities, but otherwise, particular clinical indications were not associated with specific CT findings. Conclusion: Clinical findings in patients with SPK transplants are non-specific. The pattern of abnormalities encountered is significantly different to those seen in native pancreatic disease and demands a tailored protocol. CT enables accurate depiction of vascular abnormalities and fluid collections, thus reducing the number of surgical interventions that might otherwise be required. Elevated CBG should prompt urgent CT to exclude potentially reversible vascular complications. - Highlights: • The value of CT following simultaneous pancreas and kidney transplantation was assessed. • 313 CT scans were performed on 98 patients between January 2005 and August 2010. • Elevated blood glucose was associated with CT findings of graft vascular anomalities. • CT was particularly useful in directing operative versus non-operative intervention.

  9. Cellular and molecular mechanisms coordinating pancreas development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bastidas-Ponce, Aimée; Scheibner, Katharina; Lickert, Heiko; Bakhti, Mostafa

    2017-08-15

    The pancreas is an endoderm-derived glandular organ that participates in the regulation of systemic glucose metabolism and food digestion through the function of its endocrine and exocrine compartments, respectively. While intensive research has explored the signaling pathways and transcriptional programs that govern pancreas development, much remains to be discovered regarding the cellular processes that orchestrate pancreas morphogenesis. Here, we discuss the developmental mechanisms and principles that are known to underlie pancreas development, from induction and lineage formation to morphogenesis and organogenesis. Elucidating such principles will help to identify novel candidate disease genes and unravel the pathogenesis of pancreas-related diseases, such as diabetes, pancreatitis and cancer. © 2017. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  10. Antioxidant treatment ameliorates experimental diabetes-induced depressive-like behaviour and reduces oxidative stress in brain and pancreas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Réus, Gislaine Z; Dos Santos, Maria Augusta B; Abelaira, Helena M; Titus, Stephanie E; Carlessi, Anelise S; Matias, Beatriz I; Bruchchen, Livia; Florentino, Drielly; Vieira, Andriele; Petronilho, Fabricia; Ceretta, Luciane B; Zugno, Alexandra I; Quevedo, João

    2016-03-01

    Studies have shown a relationship between diabetes mellitus (DM) and the development of major depressive disorder. Alterations in oxidative stress are associated with the pathophysiology of both diabetes mellitus and major depressive disorder. This study aimed to evaluate the effects of antioxidants N-acetylcysteine and deferoxamine on behaviour and oxidative stress parameters in diabetic rats. To this aim, after induction of diabetes by a single dose of alloxan, Wistar rats were treated with N-acetylcysteine or deferoxamine for 14 days, and then depressive-like behaviour was evaluated. Oxidative stress parameters were assessed in the prefrontal cortex, hippocampus, amygdala, nucleus accumbens and pancreas. Diabetic rats displayed depressive-like behaviour, and treatment with N-acetylcysteine reversed this alteration. Carbonyl protein levels were increased in the prefrontal cortex, hippocampus and pancreas of diabetic rats, and both N-acetylcysteine and deferoxamine reversed these alterations. Lipid damage was increased in the prefrontal cortex, hippocampus, amygdala and pancreas; however, treatment with N-acetylcysteine or deferoxamine reversed lipid damage only in the hippocampus and pancreas. Superoxide dismutase activity was decreased in the amygdala, nucleus accumbens and pancreas of diabetic rats. In diabetic rats, there was a decrease in catalase enzyme activity in the prefrontal cortex, amygdala, nucleus accumbens and pancreas, but an increase in the hippocampus. Treatment with antioxidants did not have an effect on the activity of antioxidant enzymes. In conclusion, animal model of diabetes produced depressive-like behaviour and oxidative stress in the brain and periphery. Treatment with antioxidants could be a viable alternative to treat behavioural and biochemical alterations induced by diabetes. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  11. Fetal behavioral teratology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Visser, Gerard H A; Mulder, Eduard J H; Tessa Ververs, F F

    2010-10-01

    Ultrasound studies of fetal motor behavior provide direct – in vivo – insight in the functioning of the motor component of the fetal central nervous system. In this article, studies are reviewed showing changes in the first timetable of appearance of fetal movements, changes in quality and/or quantity of movements and disturbances in the development of fetal behavioral states in case of endogenous malfunctions, maternal diseases and exogenous behavioral teratogens.

  12. Somatostatin ontogenesis in the gastrointestinal and pancreatic tract: study in normal rats and during a induced diabetes in neonates rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cunha, M.C.

    1980-01-01

    The ontogenic studies of somatostatin of pancreas, ileum and duodenum of Wistar rats and the rats with induced diabetes were done. The radioimmunologic method to dose the somatostatin was used. (L.M.J.)

  13. An Integrated Cell Purification and Genomics Strategy Reveals Multiple Regulators of Pancreas Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benitez, Cecil M.; Qu, Kun; Sugiyama, Takuya; Pauerstein, Philip T.; Liu, Yinghua; Tsai, Jennifer; Gu, Xueying; Ghodasara, Amar; Arda, H. Efsun; Zhang, Jiajing; Dekker, Joseph D.; Tucker, Haley O.; Chang, Howard Y.; Kim, Seung K.

    2014-01-01

    The regulatory logic underlying global transcriptional programs controlling development of visceral organs like the pancreas remains undiscovered. Here, we profiled gene expression in 12 purified populations of fetal and adult pancreatic epithelial cells representing crucial progenitor cell subsets, and their endocrine or exocrine progeny. Using probabilistic models to decode the general programs organizing gene expression, we identified co-expressed gene sets in cell subsets that revealed patterns and processes governing progenitor cell development, lineage specification, and endocrine cell maturation. Purification of Neurog3 mutant cells and module network analysis linked established regulators such as Neurog3 to unrecognized gene targets and roles in pancreas development. Iterative module network analysis nominated and prioritized transcriptional regulators, including diabetes risk genes. Functional validation of a subset of candidate regulators with corresponding mutant mice revealed that the transcription factors Etv1, Prdm16, Runx1t1 and Bcl11a are essential for pancreas development. Our integrated approach provides a unique framework for identifying regulatory genes and functional gene sets underlying pancreas development and associated diseases such as diabetes mellitus. PMID:25330008

  14. An integrated cell purification and genomics strategy reveals multiple regulators of pancreas development.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cecil M Benitez

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The regulatory logic underlying global transcriptional programs controlling development of visceral organs like the pancreas remains undiscovered. Here, we profiled gene expression in 12 purified populations of fetal and adult pancreatic epithelial cells representing crucial progenitor cell subsets, and their endocrine or exocrine progeny. Using probabilistic models to decode the general programs organizing gene expression, we identified co-expressed gene sets in cell subsets that revealed patterns and processes governing progenitor cell development, lineage specification, and endocrine cell maturation. Purification of Neurog3 mutant cells and module network analysis linked established regulators such as Neurog3 to unrecognized gene targets and roles in pancreas development. Iterative module network analysis nominated and prioritized transcriptional regulators, including diabetes risk genes. Functional validation of a subset of candidate regulators with corresponding mutant mice revealed that the transcription factors Etv1, Prdm16, Runx1t1 and Bcl11a are essential for pancreas development. Our integrated approach provides a unique framework for identifying regulatory genes and functional gene sets underlying pancreas development and associated diseases such as diabetes mellitus.

  15. Pregnancy following Radical Resection of Solid Pseudopapillary Tumor of the Pancreas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James M. O’Brien

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Solid pseudopapillary tumor of the pancreas is a rare tumor seen in predominately young women and carries a low malignant potential. We discuss a patient, who presented to our high risk clinic, with a clinical history of solid pseudopapillary tumor of the pancreas, predating her pregnancy. The patient had undergone previous surgery and imaging which had excluded recurrence of disease; however, increased attention was paid to the patient during her pregnancy secondary to elevated hormonal levels of progesterone, which any residual disease would have a heightened sensitivity to. In cases of pregnant patients with a history of pancreatic tumors, a multidisciplinary approach with maternal fetal medicine, medicine, and general surgery is appropriate and can result in a healthy mother and healthy term infant.

  16. Cystic tumours of the pancreas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Itai, Y. [Dept. of Radiology, Inst. of Clinical Medicine, Tsukuba Univ. (Japan); Ohtomo, K. [Univ. of Tokyo Hospital, Tokyo (Japan)

    1996-12-01

    In this pictorial essay we present the typical appearances of cystic pancreatic tumours, the wide spectrum of their features, and differential features among cystic pancreatic masses with an emphasis on CT. Pseudocysts are the most common cystic lesion in the pancreas and can be induced by pancreatitis, trauma or surgery. Pseudocysts appear as a round cystic mass with a definite wall. However, they can mimic cystic tumours associated with internal septation and/or necrotic mass of various shapes. Conversely, cystic tumours can appear as a simple cyst lacking any thickening of wall, septation or mural nodule. Pancreatic carcinoma not infrequently induces secondary cysts upstream of the obstructed pancreatic duct. The cysts are pseudocysts or retention cysts in nature. When cysts are formed in the pancreatic parenchyma or adjacent to pancreatic carcinoma they may mimic cystic tumour. (orig./VHE)

  17. Cystic tumours of the pancreas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Itai, Y.; Ohtomo, K.

    1996-01-01

    In this pictorial essay we present the typical appearances of cystic pancreatic tumours, the wide spectrum of their features, and differential features among cystic pancreatic masses with an emphasis on CT. Pseudocysts are the most common cystic lesion in the pancreas and can be induced by pancreatitis, trauma or surgery. Pseudocysts appear as a round cystic mass with a definite wall. However, they can mimic cystic tumours associated with internal septation and/or necrotic mass of various shapes. Conversely, cystic tumours can appear as a simple cyst lacking any thickening of wall, septation or mural nodule. Pancreatic carcinoma not infrequently induces secondary cysts upstream of the obstructed pancreatic duct. The cysts are pseudocysts or retention cysts in nature. When cysts are formed in the pancreatic parenchyma or adjacent to pancreatic carcinoma they may mimic cystic tumour. (orig./VHE)

  18. Robotic surgery of the pancreas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joyce, Daniel; Morris-Stiff, Gareth; Falk, Gavin A; El-Hayek, Kevin; Chalikonda, Sricharan; Walsh, R Matthew

    2014-01-01

    Pancreatic surgery is one of the most challenging and complex fields in general surgery. While minimally invasive surgery has become the standard of care for many intra-abdominal pathologies the overwhelming majority of pancreatic surgery is performed in an open fashion. This is attributed to the retroperitoneal location of the pancreas, its intimate relationship to major vasculature and the complexity of reconstruction in the case of pancreatoduodenectomy. Herein, we describe the application of robotic technology to minimally invasive pancreatic surgery. The unique capabilities of the robotic platform have made the minimally invasive approach feasible and safe with equivalent if not better outcomes (e.g., decreased length of stay, less surgical site infections) to conventional open surgery. However, it is unclear whether the robotic approach is truly superior to traditional laparoscopy; this is a key point given the substantial costs associated with procuring and maintaining robotic capabilities. PMID:25356035

  19. Maternal feeding controls fetal biological clock.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hidenobu Ohta

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: It is widely accepted that circadian physiological rhythms of the fetus are affected by oscillators in the maternal brain that are coupled to the environmental light-dark (LD cycle. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: To study the link between fetal and maternal biological clocks, we investigated the effects of cycles of maternal food availability on the rhythms of Per1 gene expression in the fetal suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN and liver using a transgenic rat model whose tissues express luciferase in vitro. Although the maternal SCN remained phase-locked to the LD cycle, maternal restricted feeding phase-advanced the fetal SCN and liver by 5 and 7 hours respectively within the 22-day pregnancy. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Our results demonstrate that maternal feeding entrains the fetal SCN and liver independently of both the maternal SCN and the LD cycle. This indicates that maternal-feeding signals can be more influential for the fetal SCN and particular organ oscillators than hormonal signals controlled by the maternal SCN, suggesting the importance of a regular maternal feeding schedule for appropriate fetal molecular clockwork during pregnancy.

  20. Toxicity of Atorvastatin on Pancreas Mitochondria: A Justification for Increased Risk of Diabetes Mellitus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadighara, Melina; Amirsheardost, Zahra; Minaiyan, Mohsen; Hajhashemi, Valiollah; Naserzadeh, Parvaneh; Salimi, Ahmad; Seydi, Enayatollah; Pourahmad, Jalal

    2017-02-01

    Statins (including atorvastatin) are a widely used class of drugs, and like all medications, they have a potential for adverse effects. Recently, it has been shown that statins also exert side effects on the pancreas. In vitro studies have suggested that this class of drugs induced a reduction in insulin secretion. Also, the use of statins is associated with a raised risk of diabetes mellitus (DM), but the mechanisms underlying statin-induced diabetes are poorly known. Literature data indicate that several statins are able to induce apoptosis signalling. This study was designed to examine the mechanism of atorvastatin on mitochondria obtained from rat pancreas. In our study, mitochondria were obtained from the pancreas and then exposed to atorvastatin and vehicle to investigate probable toxic effects. The results showed that atorvastatin (25, 50, 75, 100 and 125 μM) increased reactive oxygen species (ROS) production, mitochondrial swelling, collapse of mitochondrial membrane potential and cytochrome c release, the orchestrating factor for mitochondria-mediated apoptosis signalling. Atorvastatin also reduced the ATP levels. These results propose that the toxicity of atorvastatin on pancreas mitochondria is a key point for drug-induced apoptotic cell loss in the pancreas and therefore a justification for increased risk of DM. © 2016 Nordic Association for the Publication of BCPT (former Nordic Pharmacological Society).

  1. The effects of profound hypothermia on pancreas ischemic injury: a new experimental model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rocha-Santos, Vinicius; Ferro, Oscar Cavalcante; Pantanali, Carlos Andrés; Seixas, Marcel Povlovistsch; Pecora, Rafael Antonio Arruda; Pinheiro, Rafael Soares; Claro, Laura Carolina López; Abdo, Emílio Elias; Chaib, Eleazar; D'Albuquerque, Luiz Augusto Carneiro

    2014-08-01

    Pancreatic ischemia-reperfusion (IR) has a key role in pancreas surgery and transplantation. Most experimental models evaluate the normothermic phase of the IR. We proposed a hypothermic model of pancreas IR to evaluate the benefic effects of the cold ischemic phase. We performed a reproducible model of hypothermic pancreatic IR. The ischemia was induced in the pancreatic tail portion (1-hour ischemia, 4-hour reperfusion) in 36 Wistar rats. They are divided in 3 groups as follows: group 1 (control), sham; group 2, normothermic IR; and group 3, hypothermic IR. In group 3, the temperature was maintained as close to 4.5°C. After reperfusion, serum amylase and lipase levels, inflammatory mediators (tumor necrosis factor α, interleukin 6), and pancreas histology were evaluated. In pancreatic IR groups, amylase, cytokines, and histological damage were significantly increased when compared with group 1. In the group 3, we observed a significant decrease in tumor necrosis factor α (P = 0.004) and interleukin 6 (P = 0.001) when compared with group 2. We did not observe significant difference in amylase (P = 0.867), lipase (P = 0.993), and histology (P = 0.201). In our experimental model, we reproduced the cold phase of pancreas IR, and the pancreas hypothermia reduced the inflammatory mediators after reperfusion.

  2. Adult Intussusception Caused by Heterotopic Pancreas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Va-Kei Kok

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available Heterotopic pancreas causing small bowel intussusception is rare. We report the case of a 24-year-old woman who presented with intermittent episodes of abdominal cramping and pain that had persisted for 10 days. A target-shaped lesion consisting of multiple concentric rings was found on the left side on contrast-enhanced computed tomography. Surgical intervention demonstrated jejunal intussusception caused by a jejunal heterotopic pancreas. Microscopically, several nesidioblastoses of pancreas were identified. Although very rare, small intestinal pancreatic rests may cause subacute bowel obstruction.

  3. Genetic loci for ventricular dilatation in the LEW/Jms rat with fetal-onset hydrocephalus are influenced by gender and genetic background

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mayorga David A

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The LEW/Jms rat strain has inherited hydrocephalus, with more males affected than females and an overall expression rate of 28%. This study aimed to determine chromosomal positions for genetic loci causing the hydrocephalus. Methods An F1 backcross was made to the parental LEW/Jms strain from a cross with non-hydrocephalic Fischer 344 rats. BC1 rats were generated for two specific crosses: the first with a male LEW/Jms rat as parent and grandparent, [(F × L × L], designated B group, and the second with a female LEW/Jms rat as the parent and grandparent [L × (L × F], designated C group. All hydrocephalic and a similar number of non-hydrocephalic rats from these two groups were genotyped with microsatellite markers and the data was analyzed separately for each sex by MAPMAKER. Results The frequency of hydrocephalus was not significantly different between the two groups (18.2 and 19.9 %, but there was a significant excess of males in the B group. The mean severity of hydrocephalus, measured as the ventricle-to-brain width ratio, was ranked as B group Conclusion Phenotypic expression of hydrocephalus in Lew/Jms, although not X-linked, has a strong male bias. One, and possibly two chromosomal regions are associated with the hydrocephalus.

  4. Case Study: Pancreas cancer with Whipple's operation

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Keywords: pancreas cancer, Whipple procedure, SASPEN case study ..... Grade A. Grade B. Grade C. Nasogastric tube required. 4-7 days or reinserted > postoperative day 3 .... malabsorption and vitamin and mineral deficiencies are the most.

  5. Computed tomographic evaluation of the pancreas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stanley, R.J.; Sagel, S.S.

    1979-01-01

    Analysis of the clinical experience in the evaluation of the pancreas with computed tomography (CT) since October 1975 indicates that it is a reliable, often specific and relatively noninvasive method for the detection of pancreatic neoplasms and the varied manifestations of pancreatitis and its complications. The normal pancreas is clearly imaged in all but the leanest or uncooperative patients. Tumors of pancreas are identified as focal alteration in the size or contour of the gland. Obliteration of contiguous fat planes, areas of necrosis within the tumor, and secondary effects on the uninvolved parts of the pancreas and biliary tree can be identified. CBT has substantially reduced the need for pancreatic angiography, percutaneous transhepatic cholangiography, and endoscopic retrograde pancreatocholangiography at this medical center. Although a definitive comparison of ultrasound and CT has not yet been accomplished, initial experience indicates that a complementary rather than competitive relationship will develop between the two imaging methods. (orig.) 891 MG/orig. 892 MB [de

  6. Solitary pancreas retransplant: Study of 22 cases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tércio Genzini

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To present our experience with pancreas retransplantin patients previously submitted to simultaneous pancreas-kidneytransplant, pancreas after kidney transplant and pancreastransplant alone. Methods: Between January/1996 and December/2005, 330 pancreas transplants were performed: 308 primarytransplants and 22 (6% retransplants of solitary pancreas. Thefollowing variables were analyzed: patient age; time elapsedbetween the first and the second transplant; causes of loss of thefirst graft; technical characteristics of the transplant andretransplant and the criteria for selecting donors for retransplant.These clinical data were submitted to statistical analysis. Results:The mean age of patients was 34.3 years and the mean elapsedtime between the first and second transplant was 19.3 months.The causes of the first graft loss were venous (8; 35% and arterial(5; 23% thrombosis, chronic rejection (4; 18%, ischemia/reperfusion injury (2, reflux pancreatitis (1, primary non-function(1 and sepsis (1. A second transplant was performed in thesame iliac fossa in 16 patients (72%. Venous drainage wasperformed in the iliac vein in 16 patients (72%, in the inferior venacava in 5 patients (22% and in the portal vein in one patient. 6 allbladder drainage was the technique used in 18 (82% cases andenteric drainage, in 4 patients (18%. Immunosuppressive regimenapplied to all cases was quadruple therapy with antilymphocyteinduction, tacrolimus, mycophenolate mofetil and steroids. Therewas one early death due to sepsis. One-year patient and pancreasgraft survival rates for retransplants were, respectively, 95% and85%. There was no additional risk for removing the pancreas graftat retransplant. Conclusion: Pancreas retransplant was technicallyfeasible in all cases and results similar to those described in theliterature were found for primary pancreas transplant.

  7. Diagnosis and surgical therapy of pancreas tumors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heid, A.

    1981-01-01

    The efficiency of surgery and presurgical diagnosis on several tumorous diseases of the pancreas is investigated. If there is the clinical suspicion of a pancreas carcinoma, sonography computerized tomography, and endoscopic-retrograde cholangio-pancreaticography (ERCP) bring the best diagnostic results. In case of pancreatogenic hyperinsulinism a selective angiography should be carried out in any case for an exact presurgical localisation. (orig./MG) [de

  8. Gatekeepers of pancreas: TEAD and YAP

    OpenAIRE

    Rodríguez Seguí, Santiago Andrés; Bessa, José

    2017-01-01

    The pancreas hosts some of the most debilitating and deadly diseases, including pancreatic cancer and diabetes mellitus. In autoimmune diabetes, for example, there is a massive destruction of the insulin producing cells of the pancreas. Pancreatic developmental defects can also result in a deficit of this cell type. To revert these important pancreatic diseases, researchers are currently trying to artificially generate insulin producing beta-cells for implantation and, in this way, suppress i...

  9. Impact of experimental endogenous gram-negative peritonitis on the pancreas of the rat as evaluated by cationic trypsin-like immunoreactivity in peritoneal fluid and serum and by electron microscopy of pancreatic tissue

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Florholmen, J.; Almdahl, S.M.; Myklebust, R.; Burhol, P.G.; Malm, D.; Riepl, R.; Giercksky, K.E.

    1987-01-01

    Endogenous gram-negative peritonitis leading to septic shock was induced in rats by a defined perforation of the coecum. Cationic trypsin-like immunoreactivity (CTLI) was measured in peritoneal fluid and serum by a radioimmunoassay method. 5, 10 and 15 h after the coecal perforation, CTLI in peritoneal fluid was significantly higher than before the coecal perforation and also higher than in the corresponding control rats. Moreover, CTLI in serum was under the same conditions significantly higher 10 and 15 h after the induction of peritonitis. Gel chromatography of peritoneal fluid and serum during peritonitis showed free CTLI and CTLI bound to both alpha-1-antitrypsin and alpha-2-macroglobulin, wheras only free CTLI could be detected in serum from control rats. These findings were accompanied by local ultrastructural changes in the acinar cells as evaluated by electron microscopy. The pathophysiologic implications of the findings are discussed

  10. Modelo experimental para restrição do crescimento fetal em ratos: efeito sobre o glicogênio hepático e morfometria intestinal e renal Experimental rat model for fetal growth restriction: effects on liver glycogen and intestinal and renal morphometry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Márcia Pereira Bueno

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: avaliar a eficácia do modelo de RCIU por ligadura da artéria uterina simulando insuficiência placentária em ratos. MÉTODOS: fetos de ratas prenhes Sprague-Dawley foram divididos em três grupos: RCIU (restrição de crescimento intrauterino, com fetos submetidos à ligadura da artéria uterina com 18,5 dias de gestação (termo = 22 dias, C-RCIU (controle da restrição, com fetos do corno contralateral à ligadura, CE (Controle Externo, com fetos de ratas sem manipulação. Com 21,5 dias de gestação, foi realizada cesárea, os fetos foram pesados e dissecados para análise morfométrica e histológica do fígado, intestino e rins. RESULTADOS: os dados morfométricos avaliados mostraram o peso corpóreo (PC, hepático (PH e intestinal (PI dos fetos com RCIU menor que C-RCIU e CE (pPURPOSE: to evaluate the effectiveness of the IUGR model by uterine artery ligation mimicking placental insufficiency in rats. METHODS: sprague-Dawley rat fetuses were divided into three groups: IUGR (intrauterine growth restriction, with fetuses in the right horn of pregnant rats subjected to right uterine artery ligation at 18.5 days of gestation (term = 22 days; C-IUGR (control of restriction, with control fetuses in the left horn, and EC (external control, with fetuses of intact rats. Animals were harvested by cesarean section at day 21.5 days of gestation. Fetuses were weighed and then sacrificed. The intestine, liver, kidney and placenta were weighed and dissected for morphometric and histological analysis. RESULTS: the morphometric data showed decreased body weight (BW, liver weight (LW and intestinal weight (IW of fetuses with IUGR compared to C-IUGR and EC (p<0.001. The placental weight (PW, renal weight (RW and LW/BW, IW/BW, and RW/BW ratios did not change. IUGR fetuses had decreased kidney thickness (p<0.001 and decreased thickness of the intestinal mucosa and submucosa (p<0.05. Histological evaluation showed reduction of liver glycogen

  11. CT features of gastric heterotopic pancreas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu Guangyao; Tian Zhixiong; Zhang Zaipeng; Huang Xiong

    2007-01-01

    Objective: To analyze CT findings correlated with pathologic findings in ectopic pancreas of the stomach. Methods: CT scans of 15 surgically proven eases of ectopic pancreas of the stomach were reviewed, and enhanced CT scan was performed in 11 cases. CT findings were correlated with the pathologic findings. Results: All cases had single lesion, and all lesions showed homogeneous density on plain scans without cystic or malignant changes. The size ranged from 1.3 to 3.1 cm, with mean diameter of (1.9±0.2) cm. The lesions were round or oval in shape with broad base against the gastric wall. Two showed central umbilication sign. Only 2 cases were correctly diagnosed prior to operation and the rest were misdiagnosed or diagnosed indistinctly. The locations were in the gastric antrum in 11 cases, in the body in 3, and in fundus in one; The ectopic pancreas located in the greater curvature in 10, and in the lesser curvature in 5. Homogeneous or inhomogeneous strong enhancement similar to the pancreas was seen in 8 cases and they consisted mainly of pancreatic acini with the same histologic features as the pancreas. Three cases showed poor enhancement and consisted mainly of ducts and hypertrophied muscle, pancreatic acini were a minor component. Conclusion: Ectopic pancreas of the stomach showed characteristic locations with the findings of submucosal diseases. Different enhancing patterns were correlated with their pathologic findings. (authors)

  12. Diabetic Foot Complications Despite Successful Pancreas Transplantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seo, Dong-Kyo; Lee, Ho Seong; Park, Jungu; Ryu, Chang Hyun; Han, Duck Jong; Seo, Sang Gyo

    2017-06-01

    It is known that successful pancreas transplantation enables patients with diabetes to maintain a normal glucose level without insulin and reduces diabetes-related complications. However, we have little information about the foot-specific morbidity in patients who have undergone successful pancreas transplantation. The purpose of this study was to investigate the prevalence and predisposing factors for foot complications after successful pancreas transplantation. This retrospective study included 218 patients (91 males, 127 females) who had undergone pancreas transplantation for diabetes. The mean age was 40.7 (range, 15-76) years. Diabetes type, transplantation type, body mass index, and diabetes duration before transplantation were confirmed. After pancreas transplantation, the occurrence and duration of foot and ankle complications were assessed. Twenty-two patients (10.1%) had diabetic foot complications. Fifteen patients (6.9%) had diabetic foot ulcer and 7 patients (3.2%) had Charcot arthropathy. Three patients had both diabetic foot ulcer and Charcot arthropathy. Three insufficiency fractures (1.4%) were included. Mean time of complications after transplantation was 18.5 (range, 2-77) months. Creatinine level 1 year after surgery was higher in the complication group rather than the noncomplication group ( P = .02). Complications of the foot and ankle still occurred following pancreas transplantation in patients with diabetes. Level III, comparative study.

  13. Publication rates following pancreas meetings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Timmer, A; Blum, T; Lankisch, P G

    2001-08-01

    Publication rates and determinants of publication were studied based on abstracts presented at pancreatic meetings. All abstracts presented at the 1994 and 1995 annual meetings of the European Pancreatic Club (EPC) and the American Pancreatic Association (APA) were followed up by searching MEDLINE. Publication rates were compared using log-rank tests and multiple logistic regression. The prestige of the publishing journals was compared using Kruskal-Wallis tests on scientific impact factors (SIF). Overall, 340 abstracts were presented at the EPC, and 254 were presented at the APA. Of these, 203 (59.7%, EPC) and 138 (54.3%, APA) were later published in peer-reviewed journals. Publication rates did not differ by study type or country region of origin. In addition, median SIFs were similar by conference (APA vs. EPC) and research type (basic science vs. clinical studies) (overall, 1.7). However, North American and North/West European articles were published in higher impact journals as compared with those from other countries. Publication rates and median journal SIFs in pancreas research are similar to those reported from other medical specialty meetings. There is no difference by conference, type of research, or origin (North American vs. European).

  14. Giant serous microcystic pancreas adenoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mustafa Kerem

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Serous cystadenomas are rare tumors comprising 1-2% of exocrine pancreas tumors. They are mostly known as benign conditions but malign transformation as serous cystadenocarcinoma is also reported. It is usually seen in females. Non-specific symptoms, such as abdominal pain or symptoms due to mass affect, are usually seen. A 64-year old female patient was investigated for abdominal pain. Physical and laboratory findings were normal. Abdomen ultrasonography confirmed an 11x9.5 cm solid cystic lesion and abdomen computed tomography scan confirmed a 12x11 cm lobulated cystic solid lesion which had central cystic necrotic areas extending from liver hilus inferiorly. Fine needle biopsy confirmed benign cytology and trucut biopsy of the pan creatic mass reported chronic inflamation. Nevertheless, this mass could have malignant contents and transformation potential. A laparatomy was decided due to patient’s symptoms and mass effect. Due to vascular invasion of the tumor, Whipple procedure was performed. The pathology report confirmed serous microcystic adenoma. These rare tumors are usually benign but pre-operative malignity criterias are not identified. There are few differential diagnostic tools for excluding malignity. We suggest surgical resection as best treatment approach for selected cases.

  15. MicroRNA signature of the human developing pancreas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Correa-Medina Mayrin

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background MicroRNAs are non-coding RNAs that regulate gene expression including differentiation and development by either inhibiting translation or inducing target degradation. The aim of this study is to determine the microRNA expression signature during human pancreatic development and to identify potential microRNA gene targets calculating correlations between the signature microRNAs and their corresponding mRNA targets, predicted by bioinformatics, in genome-wide RNA microarray study. Results The microRNA signature of human fetal pancreatic samples 10-22 weeks of gestational age (wga, was obtained by PCR-based high throughput screening with Taqman Low Density Arrays. This method led to identification of 212 microRNAs. The microRNAs were classified in 3 groups: Group number I contains 4 microRNAs with the increasing profile; II, 35 microRNAs with decreasing profile and III with 173 microRNAs, which remain unchanged. We calculated Pearson correlations between the expression profile of microRNAs and target mRNAs, predicted by TargetScan 5.1 and miRBase altgorithms, using genome-wide mRNA expression data. Group I correlated with the decreasing expression of 142 target mRNAs and Group II with the increasing expression of 876 target mRNAs. Most microRNAs correlate with multiple targets, just as mRNAs are targeted by multiple microRNAs. Among the identified targets are the genes and transcription factors known to play an essential role in pancreatic development. Conclusions We have determined specific groups of microRNAs in human fetal pancreas that change the degree of their expression throughout the development. A negative correlative analysis suggests an intertwined network of microRNAs and mRNAs collaborating with each other. This study provides information leading to potential two-way level of combinatorial control regulating gene expression through microRNAs targeting multiple mRNAs and, conversely, target mRNAs regulated in

  16. The pancreas responds to remote damage and systemic stress by secretion of the pancreatic secretory proteins PSP/regI and PAP/regIII.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reding, Theresia; Palmiere, Cristian; Pazhepurackel, Clinsyjos; Schiesser, Marc; Bimmler, Daniel; Schlegel, Andrea; Süss, Ursula; Steiner, Sabrina; Mancina, Leandro; Seleznik, Gitta; Graf, Rolf

    2017-05-02

    In patients with infection and sepsis serum levels of Pancreatic Stone protein/regenerating protein I (PSP) are highly elevated. The origin of PSP during these conditions is presumably the pancreas, however, an intestinal origin cannot be excluded. Similarly, pancreatitis-associated protein (PAP) was identified in the pancreas. These proteins were also localized in intestinal organs. Here we aim to elucidate the bio-distribution of PSP and PAP in animal models of sepsis and in healthy humans. PSP and PAP responded to remote lesions in rats although the pancreatic response was much more pronounced than the intestinal. Tissue distribution of PSP demonstrated a 100-fold higher content in the pancreas compared to any other organ while PAP was most abundant in the small intestine. Both proteins responded to CLP or sham operation in the pancreas. PSP also increased in the intestine during CLP. The distribution of PSP and PAP in human tissue mirrored the distribution in the murine models. Distribution of PSP and PAP was visualized by immunohistochemistry. Rats and mice underwent midline laparotomies followed by mobilization of tissue and incision of the pancreatic duct or duodenum. Standard cecum-ligation-puncture (CLP) procedures or sham laparotomies were performed. Human tissue extracts were analyzed for PSP and PAP. The pancreas reacts to remote lesions and septic insults in mice and rats with increased PSP synthesis, while PAP is selectively responsive to septic events. Furthermore, our results suggest that serum PSP in septic patients is predominantly derived through an acute phase response of the pancreas.

  17. In vivo imaging of vesicular monoamine transporter 2 in pancreas using an {sup 18}F epoxide derivative of tetrabenazine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kung, Hank F. [Department of Radiology, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA 19104 (United States); Department of Pharmacology, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA 19104 (United States)], E-mail: kunghf@sunmac.spect.upenn.edu; Lieberman, Brian P. [Department of Radiology, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA 19104 (United States); Zhuang Zhiping [Avid Radiopharmaceuticals, Inc., Philadelphia, PA 19104 (United States); Oya, Shunichi; Kung Meiping [Department of Radiology, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA 19104 (United States); Choi, Seok Rye [Avid Radiopharmaceuticals, Inc., Philadelphia, PA 19104 (United States); Poessl, Karl; Blankemeyer, Eric; Hou, Catherine [Department of Radiology, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA 19104 (United States); Skovronsky, Daniel [Avid Radiopharmaceuticals, Inc., Philadelphia, PA 19104 (United States); Kilbourn, Michael [Department of Radiology, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI 48109 (United States)

    2008-11-15

    Objectives: Development of imaging agents for pancreatic beta cell mass may provide tools for studying insulin-secreting beta cells and their relationship with diabetes mellitus. In this paper, a new imaging agent, [{sup 18}F](+)-2-oxiranyl-3-isobutyl-9-(3-fluoropropoxy)-10-methoxy-2,3,4,6,7, 11b-hexahydro-1H-pyrido[2,1-a]isoquinoline [{sup 18}F](+)4, which displays properties targeting vesicular monoamine transporter 2 (VMAT2) binding sites of beta cells in the pancreas, was evaluated as a positron emission tomography (PET) agent for estimating beta cell mass in vivo. The hydrolyzable epoxide group of (+)4 may provide a mechanism for shifting biodistribution from liver to kidney, thus reducing the background signal. Methods: Both {sup 18}F- and {sup 19}F-labeled (+) and (-) isomers of 4 were synthesized and evaluated. Organ distribution was carried out in normal rats. Uptake of [{sup 18}F](+)4 in pancreas of normal rats was measured and correlated with blocking studies using competing drugs, (+)dihydrotetrabenazine [(+)-DTBZ] or 9-fluoropropyl-(+)dihydro tetrabenazine [FP-(+)-DTBZ, (+)2]. Results: In vitro binding study of VMAT2 using rat brain striatum showed a K{sub i} value of 0.08 and 0.15 nM for the (+)4 and ({+-})4, respectively. The in vivo biodistribution of [{sup 18}F](+)4 in rats showed the highest uptake in the pancreas (2.68 %ID/g at 60 min postinjection). In vivo competition experiments with cold FP-(+)-DTBZ, (+)2, (3.5 mg/kg, 5 min iv pretreatment) led to a significant reduction of pancreas uptake (85% blockade at 60 min). The inactive isomer [{sup 18}F](-)4 showed significantly lower pancreas uptake (0.22 %ID/g at 30 min postinjection). Animal PET imaging studies of [{sup 18}F](+)4 in normal rats demonstrated an avid pancreatic uptake in rats. Conclusion: The preliminary results suggest that the epoxide, [{sup 18}F](+)4, is highly selective in binding to VMAT2 and it has an excellent uptake in the pancreas of rats. The liver uptake was significantly

  18. Accounting for Fetal Origins

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dalgaard, Carl-Johan Lars; Hansen, Casper Worm; Strulik, Holger

    2017-01-01

    The Fetal Origins hypothesis has received considerable empirical support, both within epidemiology and economics. The present study compares the ability of two rival theoretical frameworks in accounting for the kind of path dependence implied by the Fetal Origins Hypothesis. We argue that while...

  19. Studies on the fate of poisonous metals in experimental animal. III. Distribution and transference of /sup 115m/Cd in pregnant rat and fetus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Omori, Y; Takanaka, A; Onoda, K; Nakaura, S; Urakubo, G [National Inst. of Hygienic Sciences, Tokyo (Japan)

    1975-08-01

    Distribution of sup(115m)Cd in pregnant rat, transference to fetus and distribution in fetal organs were investigated by means of intraveneous injection of sup(115m)CdCl/sub 2/ solution to dam at 20th day after mating, dissection at 1 hr later and measurement of radioactivities. In the pregnant rat, the thickest accumulation of radioactivity in liver, and much thicker concentration in pancreas, pituitary, kidney and adrenal than in blood were found. Besides, 24.6% of dose remained in gastrointestinal tract. The transference of sup(115m)Cd to fetus was not so remarkable. Concerning the distribution of partially transfered metal in fetus, outstanding accumulation were observed in adrenal, spleen and testis, and secondly thicker concentrations were seen in liver and bone. The distribution pattern in fetus was not similar to that of dam, and rather thicker concentrations of sup(115m)Cd were observed in fetal spleen, bone, adrenal and brain, comparing with the corresponding organs of dam. In conclusion, cadmium introduced in dam body was transfered partially to fetus through placenta and was distributed in many parts of fetal body.

  20. Abdominal MR: liver and pancreas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bartolozzi, C.; Lencioni, R.; Donati, F.; Cioni, D.

    1999-01-01

    Following the introduction of rapid, high-quality scan techniques and the development of new, tissue-specific contrast agents, the applications of MRI for abdominal imaging are experiencing unprecedented growth. This article examines the current status of liver and pancreatic MRI, highlighting technical and methodological approach, use of contrast agents, and main clinical applications. The MRI technique appears to be the ideal diagnostic tool for detection and characterization of benign and malignant liver neoplasms, and for evaluating tumor response after nonsurgical treatments. Dynamic imaging after bolus injection of a gadolinium chelate is currently a fundamental component of an MRI examination of the liver in many instances. Optimal dynamic scanning depends on the use of a multisection spoiled gradient-echo technique that allows one to image the entire region of interest during a single suspended respiration. Images are obtained during four phases relative to the injection of the contrast agent: precontrast, arterial (pre-sinusoidal), portal (sinusoidal), and delayed (extracellular) phase. Liver-specific contrast agents, including hepatobiliary agents and reticuloendothelial system-targeted iron oxide particles, however, may offer advantages over gadolinium chelates in some clinical settings. Computed tomography is still preferred to MRI for imaging the pancreas. However, state-of-the-art MRI may currently be at least as accurate as spiral CT for depiction of inflammatory and neoplastic pancreatic diseases. Moreover, MRI has the advantage of allowing simultaneous investigation of the biliary tree, owing to cholangiopancreatography techniques. Hence, a comprehensive assessment of most pancreatic diseases can be achieved with a single examination. (orig.)

  1. Non-invasive glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor imaging in pancreas with {sup 18}F-Al labeled Cys{sup 39}-exendin-4

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mi, Baoming [Department of Nuclear Medicine, The First Affiliated Hospital of Soochow University, Suzhou, Jiangsu, 215006 (China); Department of Nuclear Medicine, Affiliated Hospital of Jiangnan University (Wuxi 4th People' s Hospital), Wuxi, Jiangsu, 214062 (China); Xu, Yuping [Key Laboratory of Nuclear Medicine, Ministry of Health, Jiangsu Key Laboratory of Molecular Nuclear Medicine, Jiangsu Institute of Nuclear Medicine, Wuxi, Jiangsu, 214063 (China); Nanjing Medical University, Nanjing, Jiangsu, 210029 (China); Pan, Donghui; Wang, Lizhen; Yang, Runlin [Key Laboratory of Nuclear Medicine, Ministry of Health, Jiangsu Key Laboratory of Molecular Nuclear Medicine, Jiangsu Institute of Nuclear Medicine, Wuxi, Jiangsu, 214063 (China); Yu, Chunjing; Wan, Weixing [Department of Nuclear Medicine, Affiliated Hospital of Jiangnan University (Wuxi 4th People' s Hospital), Wuxi, Jiangsu, 214062 (China); Wu, Yiwei, E-mail: wuyiwei3988@gmail.com [Department of Nuclear Medicine, The First Affiliated Hospital of Soochow University, Suzhou, Jiangsu, 215006 (China); Yang, Min, E-mail: ymzfk@yahoo.com.hk [Key Laboratory of Nuclear Medicine, Ministry of Health, Jiangsu Key Laboratory of Molecular Nuclear Medicine, Jiangsu Institute of Nuclear Medicine, Wuxi, Jiangsu, 214063 (China); Nanjing Medical University, Nanjing, Jiangsu, 210029 (China)

    2016-02-26

    Purpose: Glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor (GLP-1R) is abundantly expressed on beta cells and may be an ideal target for the pancreas imaging. Monitoring the GLP-1R of pancreas could be benefit for understanding the pathophysiology of diabetes. In the present study, {sup 18}F-Al labeled exendin-4 analog, {sup 18}F-Al-NOTA-MAL-Cys{sup 39}-exendin-4, was evaluated for PET imaging GLP-1R in the pancreas. Methods: The targeting of {sup 18}F-Al labeled exendin-4 analog was examined in healthy and streptozotocin induced diabetic rats. Rats were injected with {sup 18}F-Al-NOTA-MAL-Cys{sup 39}-exendin-4 and microPET imaging was performed at 1 h postinjection, followed by ex vivo biodistribution. GLP-1R expression in pancreas was determined through post mortern examinations. Results: The pancreas of healthy rats was readily visualized after administration of {sup 18}F-Al-NOTA-MAL-Cys{sup 39}-exendin-4, whereas the pancreas of diabetic rats, as well as those from rats co-injected with excess of unlabeled peptides, was barely visible by microPET. At 60 min postinjection, the pancreatic uptakes were 1.02 ± 0.15%ID/g and 0.23 ± 0.05%ID/g in healthy and diabetic rats respectively. Under block, the pancreatic uptakes of non-diabetic rats reduced to 0.21 ± 0.07%ID/g at the same time point. Biodistribution data and IHC staining confirmed the findings of the microPET imaging. Conclusion: The favorable preclinical data indicated that {sup 18}F-Al-NOTA-MAL-Cys{sup 39}-exendin-4may be suitable for non-invasive monitoring functional pancreatic beta cells.

  2. Non-invasive glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor imaging in pancreas with (18)F-Al labeled Cys(39)-exendin-4.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mi, Baoming; Xu, Yuping; Pan, Donghui; Wang, Lizhen; Yang, Runlin; Yu, Chunjing; Wan, Weixing; Wu, Yiwei; Yang, Min

    2016-02-26

    Glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor (GLP-1R) is abundantly expressed on beta cells and may be an ideal target for the pancreas imaging. Monitoring the GLP-1R of pancreas could be benefit for understanding the pathophysiology of diabetes. In the present study, (18)F-Al labeled exendin-4 analog, (18)F-Al-NOTA-MAL-Cys(39)-exendin-4, was evaluated for PET imaging GLP-1R in the pancreas. The targeting of (18)F-Al labeled exendin-4 analog was examined in healthy and streptozotocin induced diabetic rats. Rats were injected with (18)F-Al-NOTA-MAL-Cys(39)-exendin-4 and microPET imaging was performed at 1 h postinjection, followed by ex vivo biodistribution. GLP-1R expression in pancreas was determined through post mortern examinations. The pancreas of healthy rats was readily visualized after administration of (18)F-Al-NOTA-MAL-Cys(39)-exendin-4, whereas the pancreas of diabetic rats, as well as those from rats co-injected with excess of unlabeled peptides, was barely visible by microPET. At 60 min postinjection, the pancreatic uptakes were 1.02 ± 0.15%ID/g and 0.23 ± 0.05%ID/g in healthy and diabetic rats respectively. Under block, the pancreatic uptakes of non-diabetic rats reduced to 0.21 ± 0.07%ID/g at the same time point. Biodistribution data and IHC staining confirmed the findings of the microPET imaging. The favorable preclinical data indicated that (18)F-Al-NOTA-MAL-Cys(39)-exendin-4may be suitable for non-invasive monitoring functional pancreatic beta cells. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Fetal scalp pH testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fetal scalp blood; Scalp pH testing; Fetal blood testing - scalp; Fetal distress - fetal scalp testing; Labor - fetal scalp testing ... a baby. In these cases, testing the scalp pH can help the doctor decide whether the fetus ...

  4. MR imaging of the normal pancreas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Itoh, Hisao; Takahashi, Norio; Uchida, Yoshie; Nakayama, Gen; Bito, Kaoru; Haba, Hirotsugu; Kawamura, Masashi; Kataoka, Masaaki; Hamamoto, Ken.

    1989-01-01

    To evaluate current 1.5-T MR imaging with respiratory ordered phase encoding (ROPE) technique in the identification of pancreatic contour and main pancreatic duct, 100 normal subjects examined with spin echo technique including transaxial scans of T 1 -WI,T 2 -WI, and proton density (PD)-WI were reviewed. The results of MR imaging were then compared with computed tomography (CT). Pancreatic contour was divided into 3 parts; head, body, and tail. T 1 -WI was the best pulse sequence in describing pancreas and the rates of specific identification of head, body, and tail were 69%, 97%, and 92%, respectively. While these rates were 62%, 90%, and 92% with plain CT and 69%, 94%, and 94% with contrast-enhanced CT, respectively. A combination of MR imaging and CT yielded better rates of identification. The main pancreatic duct was visible in 44% as a low intensity line on T 1 -WI and in 16% on plain CT. Dorsal to pancreas, all of the major vessels were seen in every patients. Ventrally, retroperitoneal fat was important, however, it was not a limiting factor. When respiratory compensation using ROPE functioned well, it was possible to differentiate bowel from pancreas in patients with sparse fat because signal intensity of the pancreas tended to be higher than that of gastrointestinal wall and its contents on T 1 -WI. Current MR imaging seemed to be a complementary method with CT in the identification of the pancreas. (author)

  5. Expanding the indications of pancreas transplantation alone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehrabi, Arianeb; Golriz, Mohammad; Adili-Aghdam, Fatemeh; Hafezi, Mohammadreza; Ashrafi, Maryam; Morath, Christian; Zeier, Martin; Hackert, Thilo; Schemmer, Peter

    2014-11-01

    Total pancreatectomy (TP) is associated with postoperative endocrine and exocrine insufficiency. Especially, insulin therapy reduces quality of life and may lead to long-term complications. We review the literature with regard to the potential option of pancreas transplantation alone (PTA) after TP in patients with chronic pancreatitis or benign tumors. A MEDLINE search (1958-2013) using the terminologies pancreas transplantation, pancreas transplantation alone, total pancreatectomy, morbidity, mortality, insulin therapy, and quality of life was performed. In addition, the current book and congress publications were reviewed. Total pancreatectomy after benign and borderline tumors as well as chronic pancreatitis is continuously increasing. Despite improvement of exogenous insulin therapy, more than 50% of these patients experience severe glucose control problems, which cause up to 50% long-term mortality. Pancreas transplantation alone can cure both endocrine and exocrine insufficiency and reduce the associated risks. The 3-year graft and patient survival rates after PTA are up to 73% and 100%, respectively. Pancreas transplantation alone after TP in patients with pancreatitis or benign tumors improves the recipient's quality of life and reduces long-term mortality. Considering the amount of available organs and potential candidates, PTA can be a treatment option for patients after TP with chronic pancreatitis or benign tumors.

  6. Progress and challenges of the bioartificial pancreas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hwang, Patrick T. J.; Shah, Dishant K.; Garcia, Jacob A.; Bae, Chae Yun; Lim, Dong-Jin; Huiszoon, Ryan C.; Alexander, Grant C.; Jun, Ho-Wook

    2016-11-01

    Pancreatic islet transplantation has been validated as a treatment for type 1 diabetes since it maintains consistent and sustained type 1 diabetes reversal. However, one of the major challenges in pancreatic islet transplantation is the body's natural immune response to the implanted islets. Immunosuppressive drug treatment is the most popular immunomodulatory approach for islet graft survival. However, administration of immunosuppressive drugs gives rise to negative side effects, and long-term effects are not clearly understood. A bioartificial pancreas is a therapeutic approach to enable pancreatic islet transplantation without or with minimal immune suppression. The bioartificial pancreas encapsulates the pancreatic islets in a semi-permeable environment which protects islets from the body's immune responses, while allowing the permeation of insulin, oxygen, nutrients, and waste. Many groups have developed various types of the bioartificial pancreas and tested their efficacy in animal models. However, the clinical application of the bioartificial pancreas still requires further investigation. In this review, we discuss several types of bioartificial pancreases and address their advantages and limitations. We also discuss recent advances in bioartificial pancreas applications with microfluidic or micropatterning technology.

  7. The Miracle of an Artificial Pancreas | NIH MedlinePlus the Magazine

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Diabetes Follow us The Miracle of an Artificial Pancreas Four NIH-funded Artificial Pancreas Research Efforts Underway Thanks to investments in new ... diabetes are on the horizon, including the artificial pancreas. The artificial pancreas is an integrated system that ...

  8. Ação da Betametasona em Ratas Prenhes: Impacto sobre os Níveis de Corticosterona e Glândulas Adrenais Maternas e Fetais Effect of Betamethasone on Pregnant Rats: Impact on Corticosterone Level and Maternal and Fetal Adrenal Glands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo de Souza

    2001-12-01

    Full Text Available Objetivo: a utilização repetitiva do corticóide antenatal objetivando acelerar a maturidade pulmonar fetal tem sido muito empregada no risco de parto prematuro, o que nos motivou a estudar a dosagem de corticosterona no termo e aspectos morfológicos das glândulas adrenais maternas e fetais de ratas albinas submetidas à ação da betametasona na segunda metade da prenhez, para verificar conseqüências dessa terapêutica. Métodos: utilizamos 30 ratas prenhes, distribuídas em 3 grupos numericamente iguais. As do Grupo I receberam betametasona nos dias 11, 12, 18 e 19 da prenhez. As do Grupo II receberam água destilada nesses dias (grupo controle, e as do Grupo III não receberam qualquer medicamento, constituindo grupo controle de estresse. Foram todas sacrificadas no 20º dia de prenhez, quando dosamos a corticosterona no sangue das matrizes e extirpamos as glândulas adrenais maternas e fetais para exame de microscopia óptica. Resultados: a dosagem de corticosterona plasmática foi significantemente menor no grupo tratado com betametasona (4,8 mg/dL, quando comparada aos grupos controles (17,7 e 26,8 mg/dL. À microscopia óptica observou-se intensa vacuolização citoplasmática na zona fasciculada das adrenais maternas e fetais no grupo que utilizou a betametasona, indicando intensa supressão adrenal secundária ao uso do medicamento. Conclusões: o uso repetitivo e prolongado de corticóides, em ratas prenhes, para acelerar a maturidade pulmonar fetal determina supressão adrenal materna e fetal.Purpose: the repetitive use of antenatal corticosteroid therapy for acceleration of fetal lung maturation has been common in cases at risk of preterm delivery. We studied the corticosterone levels at term and the morphologic aspects in the maternal and fetal adrenal glands submitted to the effect of betamethasone in the second half of rat pregnancy in order to verify its consequences. Methods: thirty female pregnant rats were divided into

  9. Endoscopic findings following retroperitoneal pancreas transplantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinchuk, Alexey V; Dmitriev, Ilya V; Shmarina, Nonna V; Teterin, Yury S; Balkarov, Aslan G; Storozhev, Roman V; Anisimov, Yuri A; Gasanov, Ali M

    2017-07-01

    An evaluation of the efficacy of endoscopic methods for the diagnosis and correction of surgical and immunological complications after retroperitoneal pancreas transplantation. From October 2011 to March 2015, 27 patients underwent simultaneous retroperitoneal pancreas-kidney transplantation (SPKT). Diagnostic oesophagogastroduodenoscopy (EGD) with protocol biopsy of the donor and recipient duodenal mucosa and endoscopic retrograde pancreatography (ERP) were performed to detect possible complications. Endoscopic stenting of the main pancreatic duct with plastic stents and three-stage endoscopic hemostasis were conducted to correct the identified complications. Endoscopic methods showed high efficiency in the timely diagnosis and adequate correction of complications after retroperitoneal pancreas transplantation. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  10. Solid and papillary neoplasm of the pancreas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, L J; Hansen, A B; Burcharth, F

    1992-01-01

    In two cases of solid and papillary neoplasm of the pancreas (SPN), positive staining for argyrophil granules, chromogranin-A, neuron-specific enolase, chymotrypsin, alpha 1-antitrypsin, vimentin, cytokeratin, and estrogen receptors was present. Ultrastructurally, neurosecretory as well as zymoge......In two cases of solid and papillary neoplasm of the pancreas (SPN), positive staining for argyrophil granules, chromogranin-A, neuron-specific enolase, chymotrypsin, alpha 1-antitrypsin, vimentin, cytokeratin, and estrogen receptors was present. Ultrastructurally, neurosecretory as well...... as zymogenlike granules were demonstrated. Measurements of mean nuclear volume and volume-corrected mitotic index discriminated between SPN and well-differentiated ductal adenocarcinoma of the pancreas, with notably lower values being seen in SPN. Silver-stained nucleolar organizer region counts showed wide...

  11. Evaluation of the pancreas by MRI

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Imanishi, Yoshimasa; Hou, V.Y.; Chako, A.C.; Tempany, C.M.C.; Herold, C.J.; Zerhouni, E.A.

    1994-01-01

    Using T1-, P- and T2-weighted images of the upper abdomen obtained on 1.5 T MRI system, 18 items on the pancreas were evaluated in 89 controls. The items included pancreas sizes on T1-weighted image, pancreatic intensity compared with those of renal cortex, subcutaneous fat tissue, liver and spleen, obliteration of pancreas margin, and diameter of pancreatic duct on all images. Normal criteria, which were determined from data in the controls, were applied to images in the 40 patients with pancreatic or peripancreatic diseases. All 4 patients with an extrapancreatic tumor had no abnormality of pancreatic intensity, pancreatic margin, and pancreatic duct on T2-weighted image, except for pancreatic sizes and intensities at tumor sites. In contrast, 34 of 36 patients with pancreatic disease had abnormalities which pathologically depended on acute and/or chronic pancreatitis. (orig.)

  12. Fatty Pancreas: Should We Be Concerned?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Majumder, Shounak; Philip, Nissy A; Takahashi, Naoki; Levy, Michael J; Singh, Vijay P; Chari, Suresh T

    The metabolic consequences of visceral fat deposition are well known, and the presence of intrapancreatic fat (IPF) has been recognized for decades. However, our knowledge about the distribution of fat in the pancreas and its clinical implications is in a nascent stage. Various terms have been proposed to describe IPF; for the purpose of this narrative review, we chose the general term fatty pancreas. Herein, we describe the radiologic, endoscopic, and histopathologic aspects of diagnosing fatty pancreas and provide an overview of the diseases associated with this condition. Our purpose is to highlight diagnostic challenges and identify specific clinical questions that would benefit from further study. As evident in this review, IPF is associated with various metabolic diseases, pancreatitis, pancreatic cancer, and precancer-yet establishing causality needs careful, further study.

  13. Studies on the isolation, structural analysis and tissue localization of fetal antigen 1 and its relation to a human adrenal-specific cDNA, pG2

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Charlotte Harken; Teisner, Børge; Højrup, Peter

    1993-01-01

    Fetal antigen 1 was purified from second trimester human amniotic fluid by immunospecific affinity chromatography followed by reversed-phase chromatography. Fetal antigen 1 is a single chain glycoprotein with a M(r) of 32-38 kDa. The amino acid composition revealed a high content of cysteines......, prolines and amino acids (aa) with acidic side-chains indicating that fetal antigen 1 is a compactly folded, strongly hydrophilic molecule. The N-terminal amino acid sequence (37 aa) revealed no homology to other known protein sequences, implying that fetal antigen 1 is a 'novel' human protein. When the aa...... sequence was back-translated into the appropriate degenerate sequence of nucleic acids, fetal antigen 1 could be partially aligned to a 'human adrenal-specific mRNA, pG2'. The indirect immunoperoxidase technique demonstrated fetal antigen 1 in fetal hepatocytes, glandular cells of fetal pancreas...

  14. Clinical evaluation of computed tomography of the pancreas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miura, Takashi; Nakao, Morio; Takayasu, Yukio; Inamoto, Kazuo; Yamazaki, Hideo

    1980-01-01

    The pancreas was observed from many directions on conventional CT images and reconstructed coronal and sagittal tomograms. Absorbed values of x-ray in the pancreas were also counted by setting ROI on conventional CT images. The subjects were 37 patients with pancreatic diseases or normal pancreas. Equipments used were Somatom SD and Evaluskop for analysis of images. Slice width and feed for reconstruction of CT images were 4 mm and 3 mm, respectively. Absorbed values of x-ray was significantly lower in patients with pancreatic carcinoma than in patients with normal pancreas. Slightly low absorbed values of x-ray in pancreas tail could suggest small carcinoma of pancreas even when CT images could not visualize it clearly. There was not a significant difference in absorbed values between chronic pancreatitis and normal pancreas, but their variations were big. Observation of the pancreas from many directions on reconstructed CT images were very useful for the diagnosis of pancreatic diseases. (Tsunoda, M.)

  15. Power of Your Pancreas: Keep Your Digestive Juices Flowing

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... 2017 Print this issue The Power of Your Pancreas Keep Your Digestive Juices Flowing En español Send ... in Check Better Check Your Bowels Wise Choices Pancreas Problems? Talk to your doctor if you have ...

  16. In Vivo Senescence in the Sbds-Deficient Murine Pancreas: Cell-Type Specific Consequences of Translation Insufficiency.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marina E Tourlakis

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Genetic models of ribosome dysfunction show selective organ failure, highlighting a gap in our understanding of cell-type specific responses to translation insufficiency. Translation defects underlie a growing list of inherited and acquired cancer-predisposition syndromes referred to as ribosomopathies. We sought to identify molecular mechanisms underlying organ failure in a recessive ribosomopathy, with particular emphasis on the pancreas, an organ with a high and reiterative requirement for protein synthesis. Biallelic loss of function mutations in SBDS are associated with the ribosomopathy Shwachman-Diamond syndrome, which is typified by pancreatic dysfunction, bone marrow failure, skeletal abnormalities and neurological phenotypes. Targeted disruption of Sbds in the murine pancreas resulted in p53 stabilization early in the postnatal period, specifically in acinar cells. Decreased Myc expression was observed and atrophy of the adult SDS pancreas could be explained by the senescence of acinar cells, characterized by induction of Tgfβ, p15(Ink4b and components of the senescence-associated secretory program. This is the first report of senescence, a tumour suppression mechanism, in association with SDS or in response to a ribosomopathy. Genetic ablation of p53 largely resolved digestive enzyme synthesis and acinar compartment hypoplasia, but resulted in decreased cell size, a hallmark of decreased translation capacity. Moreover, p53 ablation resulted in expression of acinar dedifferentiation markers and extensive apoptosis. Our findings indicate a protective role for p53 and senescence in response to Sbds ablation in the pancreas. In contrast to the pancreas, the Tgfβ molecular signature was not detected in fetal bone marrow, liver or brain of mouse models with constitutive Sbds ablation. Nevertheless, as observed with the adult pancreas phenotype, disease phenotypes of embryonic tissues, including marked neuronal cell death due to apoptosis

  17. In Vivo Senescence in the Sbds-Deficient Murine Pancreas: Cell-Type Specific Consequences of Translation Insufficiency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tourlakis, Marina E.; Zhang, Siyi; Ball, Heather L.; Gandhi, Rikesh; Liu, Hongrui; Zhong, Jian; Yuan, Julie S.; Guidos, Cynthia J.; Durie, Peter R.; Rommens, Johanna M.

    2015-01-01

    Genetic models of ribosome dysfunction show selective organ failure, highlighting a gap in our understanding of cell-type specific responses to translation insufficiency. Translation defects underlie a growing list of inherited and acquired cancer-predisposition syndromes referred to as ribosomopathies. We sought to identify molecular mechanisms underlying organ failure in a recessive ribosomopathy, with particular emphasis on the pancreas, an organ with a high and reiterative requirement for protein synthesis. Biallelic loss of function mutations in SBDS are associated with the ribosomopathy Shwachman-Diamond syndrome, which is typified by pancreatic dysfunction, bone marrow failure, skeletal abnormalities and neurological phenotypes. Targeted disruption of Sbds in the murine pancreas resulted in p53 stabilization early in the postnatal period, specifically in acinar cells. Decreased Myc expression was observed and atrophy of the adult SDS pancreas could be explained by the senescence of acinar cells, characterized by induction of Tgfβ, p15Ink4b and components of the senescence-associated secretory program. This is the first report of senescence, a tumour suppression mechanism, in association with SDS or in response to a ribosomopathy. Genetic ablation of p53 largely resolved digestive enzyme synthesis and acinar compartment hypoplasia, but resulted in decreased cell size, a hallmark of decreased translation capacity. Moreover, p53 ablation resulted in expression of acinar dedifferentiation markers and extensive apoptosis. Our findings indicate a protective role for p53 and senescence in response to Sbds ablation in the pancreas. In contrast to the pancreas, the Tgfβ molecular signature was not detected in fetal bone marrow, liver or brain of mouse models with constitutive Sbds ablation. Nevertheless, as observed with the adult pancreas phenotype, disease phenotypes of embryonic tissues, including marked neuronal cell death due to apoptosis, were determined to

  18. Effect of the lectins wheat germ agglutinin (WGA) and Ulex europaeus agglutinin (UEA-I) on the alpha-amylase secretion of rat pancreas in vitro and in vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mikkat, U; Damm, I; Schröder, G; Schmidt, K; Wirth, C; Weber, H; Jonas, L

    1998-05-01

    Lectins are able to bind to cholecystokinin (CCK) receptors and other glycosylated membrane proteins. The lectins wheat germ agglutinin (WGA) and Ulex europaeus agglutinin (UEA-I) are used for affinity chromatography to isolate the highly glycosylated CCK-A receptor of pancreatic acinar cells. According to the working hypothesis that lectin binding to the CCK receptor should alter the ligand-receptor interaction, the effect of WGA and UEA-I on CCK-8-induced enzyme secretion was studied on isolated rat pancreatic acini in vitro. In vitro both lectins showed a dosage-dependent inhibition of CCK-8-induced alpha-amylase secretion of acini over 60 min. WGA showed a strong inhibitory effect on amylase secretion, approximately 40%, in vitro. UEA-I caused a smaller, but significant decrease, approximately 20%, in enzyme secretion of isolated acini. Additionally, both lectins inhibited cerulein/secretin- or cerulein-induced pancreatic secretion of rats in vivo, but not after secretin alone. The results are discussed with respect to a possible influence of both lectins on the interaction of CCK or cerulein with the CCK-A receptor.

  19. Torsion of wandering spleen and distal pancreas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sheflin, J.R.; Lee, C.M.; Kretchmar, K.A.

    1984-01-01

    Wandering spleen is the term applied to the condition in which a long pedicle allows the spleen to lie in an abnormal location. Torsion of a wandering spleen is an unusual cause of an acute abdomen and is rarely diagnosed preoperatively. Associated torsion of the distal pancreas is even more uncommon. The authors describe a patient with torsion of a wandering spleen and distal pancreas, who was correctly diagnosed, and define the merits of the imaging methods used. The initial examination should be 99 /sup m/Tc-sulfur colloid liner-spleen scanning

  20. Fetal Echocardiography and Indications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melih Atahan Güven

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Congenital heart diseases are encountered in 0.8% of live births and are among the most frequently diagnosed malformations. At least half of these anomalies end up with death or require surgical interventions and are responsible for 30% of the perinatal mortality. Fetal echocardiography is the sum of knowledge, skill and orientation rather than knowing the embryologic details of the fetal heart. The purpose of fetal echocardiography is to document the presence of normal fetal cardiac anatomy and rhythm in high risk group and to define the anomaly and arrhythmia if present. A certain sequence should be followed during the evaluation of fetal heart. Sequential segmental analysis (SSA and basic definition terminology made it possible to determine a lot of complex cardiac anomalies during prenatal period. By the end of 1970’s, Shinebourne started using sequential segmental analysis for fetal cardiac evaluation and today, prenatal diagnosis of congenital heart disease is possible without any confusion. In this manner, whole fetal heart can be evaluated as the relation of three segments (atria, ventricles and the great arteries with each other, irrelevant of complexity of a possible cardiac anomaly. Presence of increased nuchal thickness during early gestation and abnormal four-chamber-view during ultrasonography by the obstetrician presents a clear indication for fetal echocardiography,however, one should keep in mind that 80-90% of the babies born with a congenital heart disease do not have a familial or maternal risk factor. In addition, it should be remembered that expectant mothers with diabetes mellitus pose an indication for fetal echocardiography.

  1. Radiologic findings of annular pancreas divisum : a case report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choi, Dong Sik; Lee, Dong Ho; Ko, Young Tae; Han, Tae Il; Yoon, Youp; Dong, Suk Ho

    1996-01-01

    Annular pancreas divisum is a very rare congenital anomaly involving the coexistence of an annular pancreas and pancreatic divisum in one pancreas, and showing characteristic radiologic findings of ring-like pancreatic tissue surrounding the second portion of the duodenum and no evidence of connection between ventral and dorsal ductal systems. We described the radiologic findings of annular pancreas divisum, diagnosed by hypotonic duodenography, CT and ERCP

  2. Fetal tachycardia : diagnosis and treatment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oudijk, Martijn Alexander

    2003-01-01

    Part I: Fetal tachyarrhythmias Diagnosis Fetal tachycardia is a serious condition warranting specialized evaluation. In chapter 2, methods of diagnosis of fetal tachycardia are described, including doppler and M-mode echocardiography and fetal magnetocardiography. The study presented in chapter 3

  3. Fetal body movement monitoring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rayburn, W F

    1990-03-01

    Recording fetal activity serves as an indirect measure of central nervous system integrity and function. The coordination of whole body movement, which requires complex neurologic control, is likely similar to that of the newborn infant. Short-term observations of the fetus are best performed using real-time ultrasound imaging. Monitoring fetal motion has been shown to be clinically worthwhile in predicting impending death or compromise, especially when placental insufficiency is longstanding. The presence of a vigorous fetus is reassuring. Perceived inactivity requires a reassessment of any underlying antepartum complication and a more precise evaluation by fetal heart rate testing or real-time ultrasonography before delivery is contemplated.

  4. Fetal blood drawing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hobbins, J C; Mahoney, M J

    1975-07-19

    A small sample of fetal blood suitable for studies of haemoglobin synthesis was obtained from a placental vessel under endoscopic visualisation in 23 of 26 patients in whom the procedure was attempted prior to second-trimester abortion. Fetal blood loss, calculated in 23 cases, was between 0-2 ml. and 2-5 ml., and fetal blood-volume depletion varied from 0-5% to 15%. No short-term ill-effects were demonstrated in mother or fetus in any of 16 patients in whom the injection of aborti-facient was postponed for between 16 and 24 hours after the procedure.

  5. Complete agenesis of the dorsal pancreas: Case report with ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    pancreatic head and uncinate process were normal, but the distal neck, body ... The neck, body, tail, and cephalic aspects of the head of the pancreas originate from the .... Embryology, normal variation, and congenital anomalies of the pancreas. ... M. A 3D reconstruction of pancreas development in the human embryos.

  6. Neutron induced teratogenesis and spermatogenesis inhibitor fertilysin induced fetal bis-diamine syndrome in the rat. An animal model for DiGeorge and CATCH22 syndromes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shoji, Shuneki

    2003-01-01

    To develop preventive and regenerative medicine measures and to clarify the effect of neutron-irradiation and Fertilysin on vasculogenesis and teratogenesis, we decided to investigate the pathogenesis of these abnormalities in this study and compare them to abnormalities reported in humans. Pregnant rats were exposed to graded doses of 14.1 MeV neutron irradiation or Fertilysin on day 10 of gestation. The rats were sacrificed on day 18 of gestation, examined for lethality and surviving fetuses, and were microdissected for malformations. Our studies showed that neutron irradiation of rats commonly induced abnormalities whose types included eye, limb and tail defects, transposition of the great arteries, riding aorta, right aortic arch and aortic arch anomalies. These results suggest that maternal exposure to neutron-irradiation may have caused DNA damage and neural crest deficiency in offspring. These results are similar to those found in animal models with Retinoic acid syndrome and human fetuses with DiGeorge syndrome, a condition considered as a pharyngeal arch syndrome related to a cephalic neurocristopathy. In addition, multi-organ malformations associated with the highest incidences of abnormal vasculogenesis, cardiac outflow tracts and aortic arch anomalies such as right aortic arch and aberrant subclavian artery were found to be consistently produced following maternal exposure to Fertilysin on day 10 of gestation. Evidently the crucial scenario for administering Fertilysin to cause the cardiovascular defects of all surviving fetuses, in which over 80% of the fetuses were persistent truncus arteriosus (PTA) and the remainder was tetralogy of Fallot (TOF), is 200 mg for day 10 of gestation. This corresponds in humans to approximately day 21 after conception. A mechanism involving DNA damage, disruption of neural crest cells and growth and transcription factors, as well as growth failure of the branchial arches from apoptosis and neurocristopathy of the third

  7. Neutron induced teratogenesis and spermatogenesis inhibitor fertilysin induced fetal bis-diamine syndrome in the rat. An animal model for DiGeorge and CATCH22 syndromes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shoji, Shuneki [Hiroshima Univ., Research Institute for Radiation Biology and Medicine, Hiroshima (Japan)

    2003-07-01

    To develop preventive and regenerative medicine measures and to clarify the effect of neutron-irradiation and Fertilysin on vasculogenesis and teratogenesis, we decided to investigate the pathogenesis of these abnormalities in this study and compare them to abnormalities reported in humans. Pregnant rats were exposed to graded doses of 14.1 MeV neutron irradiation or Fertilysin on day 10 of gestation. The rats were sacrificed on day 18 of gestation, examined for lethality and surviving fetuses, and were microdissected for malformations. Our studies showed that neutron irradiation of rats commonly induced abnormalities whose types included eye, limb and tail defects, transposition of the great arteries, riding aorta, right aortic arch and aortic arch anomalies. These results suggest that maternal exposure to neutron-irradiation may have caused DNA damage and neural crest deficiency in offspring. These results are similar to those found in animal models with Retinoic acid syndrome and human fetuses with DiGeorge syndrome, a condition considered as a pharyngeal arch syndrome related to a cephalic neurocristopathy. In addition, multi-organ malformations associated with the highest incidences of abnormal vasculogenesis, cardiac outflow tracts and aortic arch anomalies such as right aortic arch and aberrant subclavian artery were found to be consistently produced following maternal exposure to Fertilysin on day 10 of gestation. Evidently the crucial scenario for administering Fertilysin to cause the cardiovascular defects of all surviving fetuses, in which over 80% of the fetuses were persistent truncus arteriosus (PTA) and the remainder was tetralogy of Fallot (TOF), is 200 mg for day 10 of gestation. This corresponds in humans to approximately day 21 after conception. A mechanism involving DNA damage, disruption of neural crest cells and growth and transcription factors, as well as growth failure of the branchial arches from apoptosis and neurocristopathy of the third

  8. Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alcohol can harm your baby at any stage during a pregnancy. That includes the earliest stages, before ... can cause a group of conditions called fetal alcohol spectrum disorders (FASDs). Children who are born with ...

  9. Fetal and neonatal thyrotoxicosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batra, Chandar Mohan

    2013-01-01

    Fetal thyrotoxicosis is a rare disease occurring in 1 out of 70 pregnancies with Grave's disease or in 1 out of 4000-50,000 deliveries. The mortality is 12-20%, usually from heart failure, but other complications are tracheal compression, infections and thrombocytopenia. It results from transfer of thyroid stimulating immunoglobulins from mother to fetus through the placenta. This transplacental transfer begins around 20th week of pregnancy and reaches its maximum by 30th week. These autoantibodies bind to the fetal thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) receptors and increase the secretion of the thyroid hormones. The mother has an active autoimmune thyroid disease or has been treated for it in the past. She may be absolutely euthyroid due to past treatment by drugs, surgery or radioiodine ablation, but still have active TSH receptor stimulating autoantibodies, which can cause fetal thyrotoxicosis. The other features of this disease are fetal tachycardia, fetal goiter and history of spontaneous abortions and findings of goiter, ascites, craniosyntosis, fetal growth retardation, maceration and hydrops at fetal autopsy. If untreated, this disease can result in intrauterine death. The treatment for this disease consists of giving carbimazole to the mother, which is transferred through the placenta to the fetus. The dose of carbimazole is titrated with the fetal heart rate. If the mother becomes hypothyroid due to carbimazole, thyroxine is added taking advantage of the fact that very little of thyroxine is transferred across the placenta. Neonatal thyrotoxicosis patients are very sick and require emergency treatment. The goal of the treatment is to normalize thyroid functions as quickly as possible, to avoid iatrogenic hypothyroidism while providing management and supportive therapy for the infant's specific signs and symptoms. PMID:24251220

  10. MR imaging in pancreas head cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yokota, Hajime; Yamanouchi, Baisetsu; Takarada, Akira; Tonami, Hisao; Okimura, Tetsuro; Miyamura, Toshio; Yamamoto, Itaru; Kinami, Yoshio

    1989-01-01

    To reduce artifacts associated with MRI, we used abdominal belts and anticholinergic during the examinations in patients with pancreas head cancer. In selected cases, foric pyrophosphate was injected into the common bile duct as a contrast medium. We made a comparative study of the results of MRI with those of CT with regard to lesion detectability and diagnostic ability of tumor invasion. MR examinations were performed at 0.5 Tesla superconducting unit using spin-echo (SE) pulse sequences. Eleven patients with pancreas head cancer were enrolled in this study. As to the lesion detectability, eight cases (73%) were detected clearly or moderately clearly on MRI, almost corresponding to 9 cases (82%) on CT. With regard to the neoplastic infiltration to the surrounding area, MRI and CT were almost equally efficient as to the capsular and the arterial invasion. However, as to the invasion to the posterion surface of pancreas and the portal system, MRI was a little superior to CT. In patients to whom foric pyrophosphate was injected, the choledochal duct was clearly separated from the tumor. In conclusion, our results suggest that MRI using abdominal belts, anticholinergic and foric pyrophosphate solution is extremely effective in the diagnosis of pancreas head cancer and is almost as efficient as CT. (author)

  11. Vascular development in the vertebrate pancreas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azizoglu, D. Berfin; Chong, Diana C.; Villasenor, Alethia; Magenheim, Judith; Barry, David M.; Lee, Simon; Marty-Santos, Leilani; Fu, Stephen; Dor, Yuval; Cleaver, Ondine

    2016-01-01

    The vertebrate pancreas is comprised of a highly branched tubular epithelium, which is intimately associated with an extensive and specialized vasculature. While we know a great deal about basic vascular anatomy of the adult pancreas, as well as islet capillaries, surprisingly little is known about the ontogeny of its blood vessels. Here, we analyze development of the pancreatic vasculature in the mouse embryo. We show that pancreatic epithelial branches intercalate with the fine capillary plexus of the surrounding pancreatic mesenchyme. Endothelial cells (ECs) within this mesenchyme are heterogeneous from the onset of organogenesis. Pancreatic arteries take shape before veins, in a manner analogous to early embryonic vessels. The main central artery forms during mid-gestation, as a result of vessel coalescence and remodeling of a vascular plexus. In addition, we show that vessels in the forming pancreas display a predictable architecture that is dependent on VEGF signaling. Over-expression of VEGF disrupts vascular patterning and arteriovenous differentiation within the developing pancreas. This study constitutes a first-time cellular and molecular characterization of pancreatic blood vessels, as they coordinately grow along with the pancreatic epithelium. PMID:27789228

  12. Periduodenal Tuberculosis masquerading as Annular Pancreas ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    We report a patient who succumbed to an isolated mid duodenal tuberculosis, diagnosed at laparatomy, whose clinical presentation, endoscopy and computerised tomography scans resembled annular pancreas. The limitations of clinical evaluation, endoscopy and radiology are highlighted as the importance of diagnostic ...

  13. Vascular development in the vertebrate pancreas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azizoglu, D Berfin; Chong, Diana C; Villasenor, Alethia; Magenheim, Judith; Barry, David M; Lee, Simon; Marty-Santos, Leilani; Fu, Stephen; Dor, Yuval; Cleaver, Ondine

    2016-12-01

    The vertebrate pancreas is comprised of a highly branched tubular epithelium, which is intimately associated with an extensive and specialized vasculature. While we know a great deal about basic vascular anatomy of the adult pancreas, as well as islet capillaries, surprisingly little is known about the ontogeny of its blood vessels. Here, we analyze development of the pancreatic vasculature in the mouse embryo. We show that pancreatic epithelial branches intercalate with the fine capillary plexus of the surrounding pancreatic mesenchyme. Endothelial cells (ECs) within this mesenchyme are heterogeneous from the onset of organogenesis. Pancreatic arteries take shape before veins, in a manner analogous to early embryonic vessels. The main central artery forms during mid-gestation, as a result of vessel coalescence and remodeling of a vascular plexus. In addition, we show that vessels in the forming pancreas display a predictable architecture that is dependent on VEGF signaling. Over-expression of VEGF disrupts vascular patterning and arteriovenous differentiation within the developing pancreas. This study constitutes a first-time in-depth cellular and molecular characterization of pancreatic blood vessels, as they coordinately grow along with the pancreatic epithelium. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. The cystic fibrosis of exocrine pancreas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wilschanski, Michael; Novak, Ivana

    2013-01-01

    The cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) protein is highly expressed in the pancreatic duct epithelia and permits anions and water to enter the ductal lumen. This results in an increased volume of alkaline fluid allowing the highly concentrated proteins secreted by the acina...... (CF) and pancreatitis, and outline present and potential therapeutic approaches in CF treatment relevant to the pancreas....

  15. Stochastic Differential Equations in Artificial Pancreas Modelling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Duun-Henriksen, Anne Katrine

    Type 1 diabetes accounts for approximately 5% of the total diabetes population. It is caused by the destruction of insulin producing β-cells in the pancreas. Various treatment strategies are available today, some of which include advanced technological devices such as an insulin pump and a contin......Type 1 diabetes accounts for approximately 5% of the total diabetes population. It is caused by the destruction of insulin producing β-cells in the pancreas. Various treatment strategies are available today, some of which include advanced technological devices such as an insulin pump...... of the insulin pump and the CGM has paved the way for a fully automatic treatment regime, the artificial pancreas. The idea is to connect the CGM with the insulin pump via a control algorithm running on e.g. the patients smart phone. The CGM observations are sent to the smart phone and based on this information...... of the system directly. The purpose of this PhD-project was to investigate the potential of SDEs in the artificial pancreas development. Especially, the emerging continuous monitoring of glucose levels makes SDEs highly applicable to this field. The current thesis aims at demonstrating and discussing...

  16. The artificial pancreas : From logic to life

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kropff, J.

    2017-01-01

    In this thesis we investigated the efficacy of real-life use of an artificial pancreas starting with use of these systems in a hotel setting and finally 24/7 long-term use at home. We investigated the accuracy of continuous glucose monitoring (CGM) systems that act as input for the artificial

  17. A comparative study of the ultrastructure of submandibular, parotid and exocrine pancreas in diabetes and fasting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Take, G.; Ilgaz, C.; Erdogan, D.; Ozogul, C.; Elmas, C.

    2007-01-01

    To comparatively analyze the ultrastructural changes in the submandibular and parotid glands and in the exocrine pancreas following diabetes induced by Streptozotocin exposure and the effects of fasting and insulin treatment on these alterations. For experimental procedure, we included 48 Sprague-Dawley type rats in July 2001-March 2002 at Gazi University, Turkey. We divided the rats into 8 groups following the infusion of Streptozotocin. While the degeneration manifested itself as accumulation of secretions within the mucous cells in the submandibular gland, lipid droplets were absent, being replaced by vacuolar structures. The parotid gland and exocrine pancreas, having similar properties, were affected similarly. Diabetes-induced loss of granules was observed in the serous cells in both glands. There was diffuse lipid accumulation within these cells. Regarding granule content, we observed the most prominent degenerative changes in the parotid gland. While cellular loss was observed in neither the submandibular, nor the parotid gland, we noted presence of apoptotic cells was noted in the pancreas. State of fasting was found to cause alterations within the glands indicating increased activity. While insulin treatment was seen to restore the structure to normal in general was in both of the 3 glands. This study demonstrated that both of the 3 glands are affected by diabetes and concomitant fasting, and this effect manifests itself via the granule content. (author)

  18. Laparoscopic removal of a needle from the pancreas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amit Jain

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Foreign bodies inside the pancreas are rare and usually occur after the ingestion of sharp objects like fish bone, sewing needle and toothpick. Most of the ingested foreign bodies pass spontaneously through the anus without being noticed but about 1% of them can perforate through the wall of stomach or duodenum to reach solid organs like pancreas or liver. Once inside the pancreas they can produce complications like abscess, pseudoaneurysm or pancreatits. Foreign bodies of pancreas should be removed by endoscopic or surgical methods. We hereby report our experience of successful removal one a sewing needle from pancreas.

  19. Intraoperative radiotherapy for cancer of the pancreas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Manabe, Tadao; Nagai, Toshihiro; Tobe, Takayoshi; Shibamoto, Yuta; Takahashi, Masaharu; Abe, Mitsuyuki

    1985-01-01

    Seven patients treated by intraoperative radiotherapy for cancer of the pancreas were evaluated. Three patients undergoing pancreaticoduodenectomy for cancer of the head of the pancreas received a dose of 2,500--3,000 rad (6--10 MeV Betatron) intraoperatively with or without external beam irradiation at a dose of 2,520 rad (10 MeV lineac X-ray). One patient developed radiation pancreatitis and died 0.8 month after surgery. Autopsy revealed the degeneration of cancer cells in the involved superior mesenteric artery. One died of hepatic metastasis 8.5 months after surgery, however, recurrence was not found in the irradiation field. The other patient who had external beam irradiation combined with intraoperative radiotherapy is alive 7.5 months after surgery. Four patients with unresectable cancer of the body of the pancreas received a dose of 2,500--3,000 rad (13--18 MeV Betatron) intraoperatively with or without external beam irradiation at a dose of 1,500--5,520 rad (10 MeV lineac X-ray). One patient died of peritonitis carcinomatosa 3.0 months after surgery. One patient died of DIC 0.6 month after surgery. Two patients are alive 1.0 and 6.5 months after surgery. In these patients with intraoperative radiotherapy for unresectable cancer of the pancreas, remarkable effects on relief of pain and shrinkage of tumor were obtained. Further pursuit of intraoperative and external beam radiotherapies in combination with pancreatectomy should be indicated in an attempt to prolong survival of patient with cancer of the pancreas. (author)

  20. Disorders of the pediatric pancreas: imaging features

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nijs, Els; Callahan, Michael J.; Taylor, George A.

    2005-01-01

    The purpose of this manuscript is to provide an overview of the normal development of the pancreas as well as pancreatic pathology in children. Diagnostic imaging plays a major role in the evaluation of the pancreas in infants and children. Familiarity with the range of normal appearance and the diseases that commonly affect this gland is important for the accurate and timely diagnosis of pancreatic disorders in the pediatric population. Normal embryology is discussed, as are the most common congenital anomalies that occur as a result of aberrant development during embryology. These include pancreas divisum, annular pancreas, agenesis of the dorsal pancreatic anlagen and ectopic pancreatic tissue. Syndromes that can manifest pancreatic pathology include: Beckwith Wiedemann syndrome, von Hippel-Lindau disease and autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease. Children and adults with cystic fibrosis and Shwachman-Diamond syndrome frequently present with pancreatic insufficiency. Trauma is the most common cause of pancreatitis in children. In younger children, unexplained pancreatic injury must always alert the radiologist to potential child abuse. Pancreatic pseudocysts are a complication of trauma, but can also be seen in the setting of acute or chronic pancreatitis from other causes. Primary pancreatic neoplasms are rare in children and are divided into exocrine tumors such as pancreatoblastoma and adenocarcinoma and into endocrine or islet cell tumors. Islet cell tumors are classified as functioning (insulinoma, gastrinoma, VIPoma and glucagonoma) and nonfunctioning tumors. Solid-cystic papillary tumor is probably the most common pancreatic tumor in Asian children. Although quite rare, secondary tumors of the pancreas can be associated with certain primary malignancies. (orig.)

  1. Disorders of the pediatric pancreas: imaging features

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nijs, Els [University Hospital Gasthuisberg, Department of Radiology, Leuven (Belgium); Callahan, Michael J.; Taylor, George A. [Boston Children' s Hospital, Department of Radiology, Boston, MA (United States)

    2005-04-01

    The purpose of this manuscript is to provide an overview of the normal development of the pancreas as well as pancreatic pathology in children. Diagnostic imaging plays a major role in the evaluation of the pancreas in infants and children. Familiarity with the range of normal appearance and the diseases that commonly affect this gland is important for the accurate and timely diagnosis of pancreatic disorders in the pediatric population. Normal embryology is discussed, as are the most common congenital anomalies that occur as a result of aberrant development during embryology. These include pancreas divisum, annular pancreas, agenesis of the dorsal pancreatic anlagen and ectopic pancreatic tissue. Syndromes that can manifest pancreatic pathology include: Beckwith Wiedemann syndrome, von Hippel-Lindau disease and autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease. Children and adults with cystic fibrosis and Shwachman-Diamond syndrome frequently present with pancreatic insufficiency. Trauma is the most common cause of pancreatitis in children. In younger children, unexplained pancreatic injury must always alert the radiologist to potential child abuse. Pancreatic pseudocysts are a complication of trauma, but can also be seen in the setting of acute or chronic pancreatitis from other causes. Primary pancreatic neoplasms are rare in children and are divided into exocrine tumors such as pancreatoblastoma and adenocarcinoma and into endocrine or islet cell tumors. Islet cell tumors are classified as functioning (insulinoma, gastrinoma, VIPoma and glucagonoma) and nonfunctioning tumors. Solid-cystic papillary tumor is probably the most common pancreatic tumor in Asian children. Although quite rare, secondary tumors of the pancreas can be associated with certain primary malignancies. (orig.)

  2. Maternal protein restriction induces alterations in insulin signaling and ATP sensitive potassium channel protein in hypothalami of intrauterine growth restriction fetal rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xiaomei; Qi, Ying; Gao, Hong; Jiao, Yisheng; Gu, Hui; Miao, Jianing; Yuan, Zhengwei

    2013-01-01

    It is well recognized that intrauterine growth restriction leads to the development of insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes mellitus in adulthood. To investigate the mechanisms behind this "metabolic imprinting" phenomenon, we examined the impact of maternal undernutrition on insulin signaling pathway and the ATP sensitive potassium channel expression in the hypothalamus of intrauterine growth restriction fetus. Intrauterine growth restriction rat model was developed through maternal low protein diet. The expression and activated levels of insulin signaling molecules and K(ATP) protein in the hypothalami which were dissected at 20 days of gestation, were analyzed by western blot and real time PCR. The tyrosine phosphorylation levels of the insulin receptor substrate 2 and phosphatidylinositol 3'-kinase p85α in the hypothalami of intrauterine growth restriction fetus were markedly reduced. There was also a downregulation of the hypothalamic ATP sensitive potassium channel subunit, sulfonylurea receptor 1, which conveys the insulin signaling. Moreover, the abundances of gluconeogenesis enzymes were increased in the intrauterine growth restriction livers, though no correlation was observed between sulfonylurea receptor 1 and gluconeogenesis enzymes. Our data suggested that aberrant intrauterine milieu impaired insulin signaling in the hypothalamus, and these alterations early in life might contribute to the predisposition of the intrauterine growth restriction fetus toward the adult metabolic disorders.

  3. Alcohol and acute pancreatitis. An experimental study in the rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jalovaara, P; Apaja, M

    1978-01-01

    The effect of chronic alcohol pretreatment and various pancreatobiliary secretions on the severity of experimental pancreatitis was studied in the rat. 95 rats were pretreated with ethanol (20% w/v, 1.1 ml/100 g body weight) five times weekly for 10 to 12 weeks by gastric intubation. 88 rats served as controls. Pancreatic lesions were produced by retograde injection of different pancreatobiliary secretions into the pancreatic ducts. The secretions were collected from both normal and chronically alcohol-fed rats, and each was used for induction of experimental pancreatitis in the control and alcohol pretreated rats. Bile obtained from normal rats was no more toxic to the pancreas than 0.9% saline solution, while bile obtained from the chronically alcohol-fed rats caused significantly more serious lesions to the pancreas than did normal rat bile. Bile-pancreatic juice (mixture of secretions at papilla of Vater) of normal and chronically alcohol-fed rats was as toxic as the bile of the alcohol-fed rats. Alcohol pretreatment had no significant effect on the severity of pancreatitis when control and alcohol-fed groups separately or the whole material according to pretreatment was examined. These results suggest that the metabolic effects of ethanol on the pancreas as such do not sensitize the pancreas to acute pancreatitis. An exogenous mechanism is required. The reflux of toxic alcoholic bile into the pancreas might act as an induction factor in acute alcohol pancreatitis.

  4. Effect of donor fasting on survival of pancreas and heart grafts after warm ischemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishihara, M; Sumimoto, R; Asahara, T; Fukuda, Y; Southard, J H; Dohi, K

    1996-09-01

    Livers from fasted animals are believed to be more vulnerable to ischemic injury than those from fed donors. However, we have recently shown the opposite: livers from fasted rats were more tolerant to ischemic injury. Indeed, the survival rate of 60 min warm ischemic damaged livers increased from 0 to 90% if donor rats were fasted for three days. In this study, we examined how donor fasting affects the outcome of pancreas and heart preservation. BN rats were used as both donors and recipients, and recipients of pancreatic grafts were rendered diabetic prior to transplantation. Pancreatic or heart grafts were subjected to 90 min or 25 min of warm ischemia and were transplanted into the right side of the necks of recipients rats. The viability rate of hearts transplanted from fed donors into fed recipients was only about 11% (1/9) after transplantation. However, the viability rate with fasted donors was 75% (6/8). The rate of successful pancreatic grafting from fed donors into fed recipients was 28.6% (2/7), and that from fasted donors to fed recipients was 41.7% (5/12). These results confirm that the nutritional status of the donor is an important factor in the outcome of not only liver, but also pancreas and heart preservation during transplantation, although the effect of fasting on pancreatic graft is marginal.

  5. Expression, biosynthesis and release of preadipocyte factor-1/ delta-like protein/fetal antigen-1 in pancreatic beta-cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Friedrichsen, B N; Carlsson, C; Møldrup, Annette

    2003-01-01

    Preadipocyte factor-1 (Pref-1)/delta-like protein/fetal antigen-1 (FA1) is a member of the epidermal growth factor-like family. It is widely expressed in embryonic tissues, whereas in adults it is confined to the adrenal gland, the anterior pituitary, the endocrine pancreas, the testis...

  6. Australia and New Zealand Islets and Pancreas Transplant Registry Annual Report 2017—Pancreas Waiting List, Recipients, and Donors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Webster, Angela C; Hedley, James; Patekar, Abhijit; Robertson, Paul; Kelly, Patrick J

    2017-01-01

    Abstract This is a registry report from the Australia and New Zealand Islet and Pancreas Transplant Registry. We report data for all solid organ pancreas transplant activity from inception in 1984 to end of 2016. Data analysis was performed using Stata Software version 14 (StataCorp, College Station, Tex). From 1984 to 2016 a total of 756 solid organ pancreas transplants have been performed in Australia and New Zealand, in 738 individuals. In 2016, 55 people received a pancreas transplant. These transplants were performed in Auckland (4), Monash (22), and Westmead (29). In 2016, 50 transplants were simultaneous pancreas kidney, 4 were pancreas after kidney, and 1 was a pancreas transplant alone. PMID:29026874

  7. Intrapartum fetal heart rate profiles with and without fetal asphyxia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Low, J A; Pancham, S R; Worthington, D N

    1977-04-01

    Fetal heart rate profiles for periods up to 12 hours prior to delivery have been reviewed in 515 patients with a fetus at risk. Mechanisms other than fetal asphyxia will cause fetal heart rate decelerations, and fetal asphyxia may in some instances develop in the absence of total or late decelerations. However, an increasing incidence of total decelerations and late decelerations and particularly a marked pattern of total decelerations and late decelerations are of value in the prediction of fetal asphyxia. Fetal heart rate deceleration patterns can predict the probability of fetal asphyxia at the time of initial intervention, while a progression of fetal heart rate deceleration patterns in the individual fetus can be of assistance in the subsequent scheduling of serial acid-base assessments during labor.

  8. Fetal Toxicity and Cytotoxicity of Lannea kerstingii Engl and Krause ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Purpose: To evaluate the fetal toxicity and cytotoxicity of L. kerstingii in pregnant rats exposed in the organogenic ... was performed and uterine horns were removed. The number of .... microplate reader (Dynatech MR 4000, .... activity, diarrhoea and vaginal bleeding. .... abnormal Savda Munziq aqueous extract in human.

  9. Comparsion between Intravenous Delivered Human Fetal Bone Marrow Mesenchymal Stromal Cells and Mononuclear Cells in the Treatment of Rat Cerebral Infarct.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Ai-Hua; Zhang, Ping-Ping; Zhang, Bin; Ma, Bu-Qing; Guan, Yun-Qian; Zhou, Yi-Dan

    2016-10-10

    Objective To compare the effecacy of human mesenchymal stromal cell (hMSC) with human mononuclear cell (hMNC) in treating rat cerebral infarct.Methods The SD rat models of cerebral infarct were established by distal middle cerebral artery occlusion (dMCAO). Rats were divided into four groups: sham,ischemia vehicle,MSC,and MNC transplantation groups. For the transplantation group,1×10 6 hMSCs or hMNCs were intravascularly transplanted into the tail vein 1 hour after the ischemia onset. The ischemia vehicle group received dMCAO surgery and intravascular saline injection 1,3,5,and 7 days after the ischemia onset,and then behavioral tests were performed. At 48 h after the ischemia onset,the abundance of Iba- 1,the symbol of activated microglia,was evaluated in the peri-ischemia striatum area; meanwhile,the neurotrophic factors such as glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF) and brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) in ipsilateral peri-ischemia striatum area were also measured. Results The relative infarct volume in ischemia vehicle group,hMSC group,and hMNC transplantation group were (37.85±4.40)%,(33.41±3.82)%,and (30.23±3.63)%,respectively. The infarct volumes of MSC group (t=2.100,P=0.034) and MNC group (t=2.109,P=0.0009) were significantly smaller than that of ischemia vehicle group,and that of MNC group was significantly smaller than that of MSC group (t=1.743,P=0.043). One day after transplantation,the score of ischemia vehicle group in limb placing test was (4.32±0.71)%,which was significantly lower than that in sham group (9.73±0.36)% (t=2.178,P=8.61×10 -11 ). The scores of MSC and MNC group,which were (5.09±0.62)% (t=2.1009,P=0.024) and (5.90±0.68)% (t=2.1008,P=0.0001),respectively,were significantly higher than that of ischemia vehicle group; also,the score of MNC group was significantly higher than that of MSC group(t=2.1009,P=0.0165). The contralateral forelimb scores of MSC and MNC groups in beam walking test were (5.56±0.86)% (t=2

  10. Pancreas retransplantation: a second chance for diabetic patients?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buron, Fanny; Thaunat, Olivier; Demuylder-Mischler, Sandrine; Badet, Lionel; Brunet, Maria; Ber, Charles-Eric; Thivolet, Charles; Martin, Xavier; Berney, Thierry; Morelon, Emmanuel

    2013-01-27

    If pancreas transplantation is a validated alternative for type 1 diabetic patients with end-stage renal disease, the management of patients who have lost their primary graft is poorly defined. This study aims at evaluating pancreas retransplantation outcome. Between 1976 and 2008, 569 pancreas transplantations were performed in Lyon and Geneva, including 37 second transplantations. Second graft survival was compared with primary graft survival of the same patients and the whole population. Predictive factors of second graft survival were sought. Patient survival and impact on kidney graft function and survival were evaluated. Second pancreas survival of the 17 patients transplanted from 1995 was close to primary graft survival of the whole population (71% vs. 79% at 1 year and 59% vs. 69% at 5 years; P=0.5075) and significantly better than their first pancreas survival (71% vs. 29% at 1 year and 59% vs. 7% at 5 years; P=0.0008) regardless of the cause of first pancreas loss. The same results were observed with all 37 retransplantations. Survival of second simultaneous pancreas and kidney transplantations was better than survival of second pancreas after kidney. Patient survival was excellent (89% at 5 years). Pancreas retransplantation had no impact on kidney graft function and survival (100% at 5 years). Pancreas retransplantation is a safe procedure with acceptable graft survival that should be proposed to diabetic patients who have lost their primary graft.

  11. Comparative functional scintigraphic and angiographic examination in pancreas diseases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mendizov, A.; Brilski, V.; Bozhiyanov, A.; Romanova, A.; Mardzhanov, I.; Glavincheva, I.; Meditsinska Akademiya, Sofia

    1979-01-01

    Pancreas scintigraphy with 75 seleno-methionine, pancreocimine-secretine test and selective abdominal angiography was carried out in patients with chronic pancreatitis, pancreas carcinoma and subjects without any pancreas diseases. Scintigraphic changes in pancreas was found in 95,6 per cent of the patients with chronic pancreatitis (136 patients), in 92 per cent of them with pancreas carcinoma (25 patients) and in 53,4 per cent from the subjects without pancreas diseases (30 examined). Pathological changes in pancreatic secretion was found in 93,4 per cent of the patients with chronic pancreatitis (105 patients), in 93,8 per cent of the subjects with pancreas carcinoma (32 patients) and only in 3,9 per cent from the examined without pancreatic diseases. The angiographic examination is informative mainly in case of tumours and cysts of the pancreas. The diagnostic potentialities of the separate methods for pancreas examination were critically assessed. The basic diagnostic problems in pancreas diseases are solved to a great extent with the combined examination with scintigraphy pancreocimine test and angiography (76 patients). (author)

  12. Annular pancreas causing extrahepatic biliary obstruction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ogulin, M.; Jamar, B.

    2004-01-01

    Background. Annular pancreas is an uncommon congenital abnormality, consisting of a flat band of pancreatic tissue, which encircles duodenum or extrahepatic biliary duct. We present a case of obstructive jaundice, caused by annular pancreas. Case report. A 46 years old female was admitted because of a sudden onset of abdominal pain, vomiting and jaundice. For the last six years she occasionally noticed her skin was light yellow, in the last year she felt distension in the upper abdomen, especially after fatty meals. Conclusions. Two US examinations, the first one six months before the admission, showed dilated hepatic ducts. The reason of dilatation was unclear, even after the endoscopic US examination. At operation an almost complete obstruction of the common hepatic duct was found, caused by a narrow band of pancreatic tissue. (author)

  13. Solid pseudopapillary pancreas tumors. Often neglected

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Herrmann, K.A.; Reiser, M.F.; Zech, C.J.; Helmberger, T.; Bruns, C.

    2008-01-01

    Solid pseudopapillary tumors of the pancreas (SPTP) are rare tumors of the pancreas with low malignancy potential and a very good prognostic outcome after surgery. They typically occur in young women or adolescents and consist of solid, cystic and cystic-hemorrhagic components. Imaging findings in these tumors are characteristic and include a fibrotic capsule with a clear delineation and exhibit solid and cystic-hemorrhagic signal and density characteristics. Calcifications may be present in the periphery of the tumor. The tumor capsule shows contrast enhancement, the solid components in the periphery enhance in the early phase and gradually and inhomogeneously in late phases. MRI is superior to CT and other imaging modalities for characterization of SPTP. Awareness and knowledge of this tumor entity with an excellent prognosis is crucial to guide the patient towards effective, predominantly organ-sparing surgical treatment. (orig.) [de

  14. Fetal abdominal magnetic resonance imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brugger, Peter C.; Prayer, Daniela

    2006-01-01

    This review deals with the in vivo magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) appearance of the human fetal abdomen. Imaging findings are correlated with current knowledge of human fetal anatomy and physiology, which are crucial to understand and interpret fetal abdominal MRI scans. As fetal MRI covers a period of more than 20 weeks, which is characterized not only by organ growth, but also by changes and maturation of organ function, a different MR appearance of the fetal abdomen results. This not only applies to the fetal intestines, but also to the fetal liver, spleen, and adrenal glands. Choosing the appropriate sequences, various aspects of age-related and organ-specific function can be visualized with fetal MRI, as these are mirrored by changes in signal intensities. Knowledge of normal development is essential to delineate normal from pathological findings in the respective developmental stages

  15. Fetal abdominal magnetic resonance imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brugger, Peter C. [Center of Anatomy and Cell Biology, Integrative Morphology Group, Medical University of Vienna, Waehringerstrasse 13, 1090 Vienna (Austria)]. E-mail: peter.brugger@meduniwien.ac.at; Prayer, Daniela [Department of Radiology, Medical University of Vienna, Waehringerguertel 18-20, 1090 Vienna (Austria)

    2006-02-15

    This review deals with the in vivo magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) appearance of the human fetal abdomen. Imaging findings are correlated with current knowledge of human fetal anatomy and physiology, which are crucial to understand and interpret fetal abdominal MRI scans. As fetal MRI covers a period of more than 20 weeks, which is characterized not only by organ growth, but also by changes and maturation of organ function, a different MR appearance of the fetal abdomen results. This not only applies to the fetal intestines, but also to the fetal liver, spleen, and adrenal glands. Choosing the appropriate sequences, various aspects of age-related and organ-specific function can be visualized with fetal MRI, as these are mirrored by changes in signal intensities. Knowledge of normal development is essential to delineate normal from pathological findings in the respective developmental stages.

  16. Ultrasonic prediction of fetal mass

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    1983-02-19

    Feb 19, 1983 ... Summary. A clinically accurate method for estimating fetal. mass from fetal body parameters is reviewed. The abdominal circumference is first calculated from ... reliable clinical parameter is the impression of uterine volume,.

  17. Unexplained fetal death

    OpenAIRE

    Sepúlveda, Janer; Quintero, Eliana Maribel

    2004-01-01

    El porcentaje de muertes fetales inexplicadas oscila entre un 21% a 50%; se define como la muerte que ocurre en fetos con edad gestacional mayor de 20 semanas o peso superior a 500 g, en la cual ni la autopsia ni el examen histológico del cordón umbilical, placenta y membranas, se logra identificar la causa. Los factores asociados con muerte fetal inexplicada son edad materna mayor de 35 años, sobrepeso, nivel educativo menor de 10 años, cigarrillo y bajo nivel socioeconómico, entre otros. La...

  18. Human fetal anatomy: MR imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weinreb, J C; Lowe, T; Cohen, J M; Kutler, M

    1985-12-01

    Twenty-four pregnant women carrying 26 fetuses (two sets of twins) were imaged with magnetic resonance (MR) imaging at 0.35 T following sonographic evaluation. Each study was retrospectively evaluated to determine which of 33 normal fetal structures were visible on the images and which imaging parameters were most useful for depicting fetal anatomy. Fetal motion degraded fetal images in all but two cases, both with oligohydramnios and in the third trimester of gestation. Nevertheless, many fetal structures were identifiable, particularly in the third trimester. Visualization of fetal anatomy improved with intravenous maternal sedation in five cases. Relatively T1-weighted images occasionally offered the advantage of less image degradation owing to fetal motion and improved contrast between different fetal structures. More T2 weighting was believed to be advantageous in one case for outlining the fetal head and in one case for delineation of the brain. In many cases, structures were similarly identifiable (though with different signal intensities) regardless of the parameters selected. The authors conclude that MR imaging of many fetal structures is currently unsatisfactory and is probably of limited value, particularly in the first and second trimesters. However, the relative frequency and detail with which the fetal head and liver can be depicted indicate that these may be areas for further investigation, and the potential utility of imaging fetal fat warrants further investigation.

  19. Does Fetal antigen 1 (FA1) identify cells with regenerative, endocrine and neuroendocrine potentials?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Charlotte Floridon; Jensen, Charlotte Harken; Thorsen, Poul

    2000-01-01

    Fetal antigen 1 (FA1) is a circulating EGF multidomain glycoprotein. FA1 and its membrane-associated precursor is defined by the mRNAs referred to as delta-like (dlk), preadipocyte factor 1 (pref-1) or zona glomerulosa-specific factor (ZOG). Using a polyclonal antibody recognising both forms......, the localisation of FA1/dlk was analysed in embryonic and fetal tissues between week 5 to 25 of gestation and related to germinal origin and development. FA1 was observed in endodermally derived hepatocytes, glandular cells of the pancreas anlage, and in respiratory epithelial cells. FA1 was also present...... in mesodermally derived cells of the renal proximal tubules, adrenal cortex, Leydig and Hilus cells of the testes and ovaries, fetal chondroblasts, and skeletal myotubes. Ectodermally derived neuro- and adenohypophysial cells, cells in the floor of the 3rd ventricle and plexus choroideus were also FA1 positive...

  20. De novo malignancy after pancreas transplantation in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomimaru, Y; Ito, T; Marubashi, S; Kawamoto, K; Tomokuni, A; Asaoka, T; Wada, H; Eguchi, H; Mori, M; Doki, Y; Nagano, H

    2015-04-01

    Long-term immunosuppression is associated with an increased risk of cancer. Especially, the immunosuppression in pancreas transplantation is more intensive than that in other organ transplantation because of its strong immunogenicity. Therefore, it suggests that the risk of post-transplant de novo malignancy might increase in pancreas transplantation. However, there have been few studies of de novo malignancy after pancreas transplantation. The aim of this study was to analyze the incidence of de novo malignancy after pancreas transplantation in Japan. Post-transplant patients with de novo malignancy were surveyed and characterized in Japan. Among 107 cases receiving pancreas transplantation in Japan between 2001 and 2010, de novo malignancy developed in 9 cases (8.4%): post-transplant lymphoproliferative disorders in 6 cases, colon cancer in 1 case, renal cancer in 1 case, and brain tumor in 1 case. We clarified the incidence of de novo malignancy after pancreas transplantation in Japan. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Metastatic Renal Cell Carcinoma to the Pancreas: A Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Shaun Kian Hong; Chuah, Khoon Leong

    2016-06-01

    The pancreas is an unusual site for tumor metastasis, accounting for only 2% to 5% of all malignancies affecting the pancreas. The more common metastases affecting the pancreas include renal cell carcinomas, melanomas, colorectal carcinomas, breast carcinomas, and sarcomas. Although pancreatic involvement by nonrenal malignancies indicates widespread systemic disease, metastatic renal cell carcinoma to the pancreas often represents an isolated event and is thus amenable to surgical resection, which is associated with long-term survival. As such, it is important to accurately diagnose pancreatic involvement by metastatic renal cell carcinoma on histology, especially given that renal cell carcinoma metastasis may manifest more than a decade after its initial presentation and diagnosis. In this review, we discuss the clinicopathologic findings of isolated renal cell carcinoma metastases of the pancreas, with special emphasis on separating metastatic renal cell carcinoma and its various differential diagnoses in the pancreas.

  2. Lesions induced in rodent pancreas by azaserine and other pancreatic carcinogens

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Longnecker, D.S.

    1984-06-01

    Focal proliferative changes in the acinar cells of the pancreas of rats have been induced by several systemically administered carcinogens including azaserine, N-nitrosobis(2-oxopropyl)amine, N-nitroso(2-hydroxypropyl) (2-oxopropyl)amine, and Ndelta-(N-methyl-N-nitrosocarbamoyl)-L-ornithine (MNCO). Foci, nodules, and adenomas induced by these carcinogens are usually made up of atypical-appearing acinar cells that maintain a high degree of differentiation, but a minority of these lesions exhibit anaplastic cellular changes that suggest the development of malignant potential. Such anaplasia may occupy the whole of smaller lesions or may occur as a secondary focal change within larger nodules or adenomas. Many foci and nodules per pancreas have been induced by single or multiple exposures to these known genotoxic carcinogens, but relatively few of them develop into carcinomas. Azaserine and MNCO have induced acinar cell carcinomas in rats. Those induced by azaserine have exhibited a broad spectrum of histologic variants, including ductlike, cystic and undifferentiated patterns. Higher doses of MNCO have induced a second pattern of change in the pancreatic lobules of rats, which includes cystic and tubular ductlike structures that have been called cystic and tubular ductal complexes. MNCO has also induced focal acinar cell lesions, cystic and tubular ductal complexes, and adenocarcinomas in the pancreas of Syrian golden hamsters. In this species, ductal complexes are much more numerous than are proliferative lesions of acinar cells, and the histologic appearance of the carcinomas is ductlike. Hyperplasia and atypical changes were also seen in the epithelium of the intralobular ducts of hamsters. 20 references, 5 figures, 1 table.

  3. Ovine fetal necrobacillosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Agerholm, J.S.; Boye, Mette; Aalbæk, B.

    2007-01-01

    were found in several tissues. Histologically, placental lesions were characterized by locally diffuse infiltration of neutrophils, closely associated with abundant small Gram-negative and FISH-positive rods, thrombosis and necrosis. Lesions in the fetal-maternal interface were multifocal and consisted...

  4. Fetal Alcohol Syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zerrer, Peggy

    The paper reviews Fetal Alcohol Syndrome (FAS), a series of effects seen in children whose mothers drink alcohol to excess during pregnancy. The identification of FAS and its recognition as a major health problem in need of prevention are traced. Characteristics of children with FAS are described and resultant growth retardation, abnormal physical…

  5. Fetal Alcohol Exposure

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... categories: 4 » Fetal Alcohol Syndrome (FAS) » Partial FAS (pFAS) » Alcohol-Related Neurodevelopmental Disorder (ARND) » Alcohol-Related Birth ... either prenatally, after birth, or both Partial FAS (pFAS) Partial FAS (pFAS) involves prenatal alcohol exposure, and ...

  6. Laparoscopic robot-assisted pancreas transplantation: first world experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boggi, Ugo; Signori, Stefano; Vistoli, Fabio; D'Imporzano, Simone; Amorese, Gabriella; Consani, Giovanni; Guarracino, Fabio; Marchetti, Piero; Focosi, Daniele; Mosca, Franco

    2012-01-27

    Surgical complications are a major disincentive to pancreas transplantation, despite the undisputed benefits of restored insulin independence. The da Vinci surgical system, a computer-assisted electromechanical device, provides the unique opportunity to test whether laparoscopy can reduce the morbidity of pancreas transplantation. Pancreas transplantation was performed by robot-assisted laparoscopy in three patients. The first patient received a pancreas after kidney transplant, the second a simultaneous pancreas kidney transplantation, and the third a pancreas transplant alone. Operations were carried out through an 11-mm optic port, two 8-mm operative ports, and a 7-cm midline incision. The latter was used to introduce the grafts, enable vascular cross-clamping, and create exocrine drainage into the jejunum. The two solitary pancreas transplants required an operating time of 3 and 5 hr, respectively; the simultaneous pancreas kidney transplantation took 8 hr. Mean warm ischemia time of the pancreas graft was 34 min. All pancreatic transplants functioned immediately, and all recipients became insulin independent. The kidney graft, revascularized after 35 min of warm ischemia, also functioned immediately. No patient had complications during or after surgery. At the longer follow-up of 10, 8, and 6 months, respectively, all recipients are alive with normal graft function. We have shown the feasibility of laparoscopic robot-assisted solitary pancreas and simultaneous pancreas and kidney transplantation. If the safety and feasibility of this procedure can be confirmed by larger series, laparoscopic robot-assisted pancreas transplantation could become a new option for diabetic patients needing beta-cell replacement.

  7. Solitary Fibrous Tumor of the Pancreas: Imaging Findings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kwon, Heon Ju; Byun, Jae Ho; Kang, Jun; Park, Seong Ho; Lee, Moon Gyu

    2008-01-01

    We report here a case of a pathologically proven solitary fibrous tumor of the pancreas. A 54-year-old man was referred to our hospital for further evaluation of a pancreatic mass that was found incidentally. CT, MR imaging, and endoscopic ultrasonography showed a well-defined, enhancing mass with cystic portions of the pancreas body. MR cholangiopancreatography showed no pancreatic duct dilatation. A solitary fibrous tumor of the pancreas is a very rare lesion

  8. GLUT4 in the endocrine pancreas--indicating an impact in pancreatic islet cell physiology?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bähr, I; Bazwinsky-Wutschke, I; Wolgast, S; Hofmann, K; Streck, S; Mühlbauer, E; Wedekind, D; Peschke, E

    2012-06-01

    The glucose transporter GLUT4 is well known to facilitate the transport of blood glucose into insulin-sensitive muscle and adipose tissue. In this study, molecular, immunohistochemical, and Western blot investigations revealed evidence that GLUT4 is also located in the mouse, rat, and human endocrine pancreas. In addition, high glucose decreased and insulin elevated the GLUT4 expression in pancreatic α-cells. In contrast, high glucose increased GLUT4 expression, whereas insulin led to a reduced expression level of the glucose transporter in pancreatic β-cells. In vivo experiments showed that in pancreatic tissue of type 2 diabetic rats as well as type 2 diabetic patients, the GLUT4 expression is significantly increased compared to the nondiabetic control group. Furthermore, type 1 diabetic rats exhibited reduced GLUT4 transcript levels in pancreatic tissue, whereas insulin treatment of type 1 diabetic animals enhanced the GLUT4 expression back to control levels. These data provide evidence for the existence of GLUT4 in the endocrine pancreas and indicate a physiological relevance of this glucose transporter as well as characteristic changes in diabetic disease. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  9. Result of radiation therapy for inoperable pancreas cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Okawa, Tomohiko; Ikeda, Michio; Tazaki, Eisei; Kaneda, Koichi; Tsuya, Akira.

    1978-01-01

    Twenty cases of the pancreas cancer were treated by means of 60 Co γ or Linac x-rays during the period between 1958 and 1977 at the Cancer Institute Hospital and Tokyo Women's Medical College. 11 were irradiated by external radiation and 9 by intraoperative radiation. Pancreas irradiation was indicated for relief of pain and alleviation of jaundice although the effect was symptomatic. 2500 rad of intraoperative radiation was reasonable dose in about 10 x 10 cm radiation field. Radical curative irradiation for pancreas cancer might be rarely indicated. Radiotherapy of pancreas cancer should be considered in conjunction with multimodal treatment in the future. (author)

  10. Human pancreas scintigraphy using iodine-123-labeled HIPDM and SPECT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamamoto, K.; Shibata, T.; Saji, H.; Kubo, S.; Aoki, E.; Fujita, T.; Yonekura, Y.; Konishi, J.; Yokoyama, A.

    1990-01-01

    The pancreatic affinity of iodine-123-labeled HIPDM (N,N,N'-trimethyl-N'-(2-hydroxy-3-methyl-5-iodobenzyl)-1,3-propane diamine) ([ 123 I]HIPDM) was studied in 18 cases (5 normal volunteers, 7 cases with pancreas cancer, and 6 with chronic pancreatitis). In the normal cases, the pancreas was visualized in the planar images as early as 3 hr, and again at 20 hr postinjection. Single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) performed following 3-hr planar scintigraphy, provided excellent pancreas images without an overlap of activity in the liver or spleen. The mean pancreas-to-liver (P/L) ratio was 1.26 +/- 0.22 in normal controls. With the exception of one case of massive calcification in the pancreas, the entire pancreas could be observed in the cases with chronic pancreatitis, but the P/L ratio was 0.74 +/- 0.15, significantly lower than that of normal cases. Defective areas of the distal portion of the pancreas were clearly seen in those with cancer of the pancreas. The results of our study indicate that [ 123 I] HIPDM may have clinical potential as a human pancreas imaging agent

  11. CLINICAL AND FUNCTIONAL FEATURES OF PANCREAS STATE IN RHEUMATOID ARTHRITIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. O. Basieva

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim of study: complex pancreas study in rheumatoid arthritis (RA. Material and methods: 120 RA pts were examined clinically Pancreas US-and biochemical study (level of a-amylase and lipase of blood serum by kinetic-calorimetric method was performed in this grouh. Results: 50.8% of pts demonstrated increase of pancreas echo, in 23.3%- widened Wirsung s duct, in 45%- single small focal indurations, more often in the body and cauda pancreatis. Decrease of lipolitic and amylolytic pancreas activity is characteristic for RA, especially in systemic process and long-term disease. Clinical and functional disturbances are connected with morphological changes.

  12. A Study on Pancreas Scanning with Selenium75-Selenomethionine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shin, Hyun Chan; Toh, Sang Hee; Ra, Woo Youn; Suh, Chul Sung

    1968-01-01

    Radiographic visualization of the pancreas is a difficult problem, but the direct visualization of the pancreas is possible by the injection of the amino-acid methionine tagged with selenium 75 (Se 75 ). In order to know the diagnostic value of pancreas scanning, scans were performed on 23 cases using selenium 75 -Selenomethionine. These cases were also given egg white, probanthine and morphine. 1) Good visualization of the pancreas scanning was observed on 19 cases, presumably with normal pancreas. 2) A case which showed diffusely decreased uptake on pancreas scanning was proven to have lesions in the bile duct and the gall bladder. 3) Of those two cases which showed localized cold area, one had pancreas cyst and the other one was not explored. 4) A case which showed no visualization of the pancreas was proven to have pancreatic carcinoma. 5) Two cases which showed widened duodenal loop by upper gastro-intestinal series revealed normal pancreas scanning, and no pancreatic disease was found in both cases.

  13. The molecular and morphogenetic basis of pancreas organogenesis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Hjalte List; Grapin-Botton, Anne

    2017-01-01

    The pancreas is an essential endoderm-derived organ that ensures nutrient metabolism via its endocrine and exocrine functions. Here we review the essential processes governing the embryonic and early postnatal development of the pancreas discussing both the mechanisms and molecules controlling...... review of human pancreas development (Jennings et al., 2015) [1]. The understanding of pancreas development in model organisms provides a framework to interpret how human mutations lead to neonatal diabetes and may contribute to other forms of diabetes and to guide the production of desired pancreatic...

  14. Effect of restricted motion in high temperature on enzymatic activity of the pancreas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdusattarov, A.; Smirnova, G. I.

    1980-01-01

    Effects of 30 day hypodynamia coupled with high temperature (35-36 C) on enzymatic activity of the pancreas of male adult rats were studied. The test animals were divided into four groups. Group one served as controls (freedom of movement and a temperature of 25-26 C, considered optimal). The remaining animals were divided into three additional groups: Group two freedom of movement but high temperature (35-36 C); group three hypodynamia but an optimal temperature; group four hypodynamia and 35-36 C. Considerable change in the enzymatic activity in the pancreas of the four groups is observed in three experimental groups (two, three, and four) as compared to the control (group one). The results indicate that adaption of the organism to the thermal factor and restricted movement is accompanied by a change in the enzymatic spectrum of the pancreas. With the combined effect of these two stresses under conditions of the adaption of the organism especially sharp shifts occur in the enzymatic activity.

  15. Maternal bisphenol A alters fetal endocrine system: Thyroid adipokine dysfunction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmed, R G

    2016-09-01

    Because bisphenol A (BPA) has been detected in animals, the aim of this study was to investigate the possible effects of maternal BPA exposure on the fetal endocrine system (thyroid-adipokine axis). BPA (20 or 40 μg/kg body weight) was orally administered to pregnant rats from gestation day (GD) 1-20. In both treated groups, the dams and their fetuses had lower serum thyroxine (T4) and triiodothyronine (T3) levels, and higher thyrotropin (TSH) level than control dams and fetuses at GD 20. Some histopathological changes in fetal thyroid glands were observed in both maternal BPA groups at embryonic day (ED) 20, including fibroblast proliferation, hyperplasia, luminal obliteration, oedema, and degeneration. These disorders resulted in the suppression of fetal serum growth hormone (GH), insulin growth factor-1 (IGF1) and adiponectin (ADP) levels, and the elevation of fetal serum leptin, insulin and tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNFα) levels in both treated groups with respect to control. The depraved effects of both treated groups were associated with reduced maternal and fetal body weight compared to the control group. These alterations were dose dependent. Thus, BPA might penetrate the placental barrier and perturb the fetal thyroid adipokine axis to influence fat metabolism and the endocrine system. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Pregnancy outcomes in simultaneous pancreas and kidney transplant recipients: a national French survey study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Normand, Gabrielle; Brunner, Flora; Badet, Lionel; Buron, Fanny; Catton, Marielle; Massardier, Jérôme; Esposito, Laure; Grimbert, Philippe; Mourad, Georges; Serre, Jean E; Caillard, Sophie; Karam, Georges; Cantarovich, Diego; Morelon, Emmanuel; Thaunat, Olivier

    2017-09-01

    Simultaneous pancreas and kidney transplantation (SPK) is currently the best therapeutic option for patients with type 1 diabetes and terminal renal failure. Renal transplantation restores fertility enabling women to pursue pregnancies. However, scarcity of available data on pregnancy outcomes in SPK impedes fair medical counseling. Medical files of all pregnancies that lasted ≥3 months among recipients of functional SPK performed between 1990 and 2015 in France were retrospectively analyzed. Twenty-six pregnancies in 22 SPK recipients were identified. Main maternal complications included gestational hypertension (53.8%) and infections (50%). Cesarean section was performed in 73% of cases. Overall fetal survival was 92.6% with a mean gestational age of 34.2 ± 3 weeks. Four children (16.7% of live births) had a birth weight pregnancy. An acute kidney rejection occurred in two patients, one of which resulting in graft loss. Kidney and pancreas graft survival was, respectively, 96% and 100% at 1 year postconception and did not differ from controls. Pregnancy in SPK is feasible, but patients should be informed of the risks for the fetus, the mother, and the grafts. Planning of pregnancy in SPK women is key to allow a personalized multidisciplinary monitoring, which represents the most straightforward approach to optimize outcomes. © 2017 Steunstichting ESOT.

  17. Computed tomography of pancreas in diabetic patients in relation to diabetic retinopathy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Katsumata, K.; Katsumata, Y.; Sakuma, S.; Kaii, O.; Shimamoto, K.; Hirabayashi, N.; Nakagawa, T.

    1987-01-01

    Lipomatous pancreas is hardly diagnosed in living humans and usually recognized at autopsy. In the present work, it is proposed that lipomatous pancreas can be diagnosed in living humans by computed tomography (CT) of the pancreas. 2 refs.; 1 figure

  18. File list: Pol.Emb.20.AllAg.Embryonic_pancreas [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Pol.Emb.20.AllAg.Embryonic_pancreas mm9 RNA polymerase Embryo Embryonic pancreas ht...tp://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/assembled/Pol.Emb.20.AllAg.Embryonic_pancreas.bed ...

  19. File list: Unc.Emb.05.AllAg.Embryonic_pancreas [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Unc.Emb.05.AllAg.Embryonic_pancreas mm9 Unclassified Embryo Embryonic pancreas http...://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/assembled/Unc.Emb.05.AllAg.Embryonic_pancreas.bed ...

  20. File list: Unc.Emb.20.AllAg.Embryonic_pancreas [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Unc.Emb.20.AllAg.Embryonic_pancreas mm9 Unclassified Embryo Embryonic pancreas http...://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/assembled/Unc.Emb.20.AllAg.Embryonic_pancreas.bed ...

  1. File list: Pol.Emb.10.AllAg.Embryonic_pancreas [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Pol.Emb.10.AllAg.Embryonic_pancreas mm9 RNA polymerase Embryo Embryonic pancreas ht...tp://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/assembled/Pol.Emb.10.AllAg.Embryonic_pancreas.bed ...

  2. File list: Unc.Emb.10.AllAg.Embryonic_pancreas [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Unc.Emb.10.AllAg.Embryonic_pancreas mm9 Unclassified Embryo Embryonic pancreas http...://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/assembled/Unc.Emb.10.AllAg.Embryonic_pancreas.bed ...

  3. File list: Pol.Emb.05.AllAg.Embryonic_pancreas [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Pol.Emb.05.AllAg.Embryonic_pancreas mm9 RNA polymerase Embryo Embryonic pancreas ht...tp://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/assembled/Pol.Emb.05.AllAg.Embryonic_pancreas.bed ...

  4. File list: Unc.Emb.50.AllAg.Embryonic_pancreas [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Unc.Emb.50.AllAg.Embryonic_pancreas mm9 Unclassified Embryo Embryonic pancreas http...://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/assembled/Unc.Emb.50.AllAg.Embryonic_pancreas.bed ...

  5. The effect of fetal sex on customized fetal growth charts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rizzo, Giuseppe; Prefumo, Federico; Ferrazzi, Enrico; Zanardini, Cristina; Di Martino, Daniela; Boito, Simona; Aiello, Elisa; Ghi, Tullio

    2016-12-01

    To evaluate the effect of fetal sex on singleton pregnancy growth charts customized for parental characteristics, race, and parity Methods: In a multicentric cross-sectional study, 8070 ultrasonographic examinations from low-risk singleton pregnancies between 16 and 40 weeks of gestation were considered. The fetal measurements obtained were biparietal diameter (BPD), head circumference (HC), abdominal circumference (AC), and femur length (FL). Quantile regression was used to examine the impact of fetal sex across the biometric percentiles of the fetal measurements considered together with parents' height, weight, parity, and race. Fetal gender resulted to be a significant covariate for BDP, HC, and AC with higher values for male fetuses (p ≤ 0.0009). Minimal differences were found among sexes for FL. Parity, maternal race, paternal height and maternal height, and weight resulted significantly related to the fetal biometric parameters considered independently from fetal gender. In this study, we constructed customized biometric growth charts for fetal sex, parental, and obstetrical characteristics using quantile regression. The use of gender-specific charts offers the advantage to define individualized normal ranges of fetal biometric parameters at each specific centile. This approach may improve the antenatal identification of abnormal fetal growth.

  6. Computer tomography (CT) finding of normal pancreas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cho, Chi Ja; Kim, Byung Tae; Lee, Jeung Suk

    1983-01-01

    Conventional radiology of the pancreas are too often unsatisfactory. It is well known that the whole body CT is very useful in identifying retroperitoneal pathology. The authors intended to present normal pancreatic morphology and data for preparation of basis for interpretation of abnormalities. We results were as follows; 1. There were 36 male and 24 female patients, and their ages ranged from 7 to 78 years. 2. 1) The organs adjacent pancreas were stomach, inferior vena cava, duodenum, caudate lobe of the liver left kidney, left adrenal gland, superior mesenteric vessels, spleen. 2) In 19 patients, pancreatic tail at the level of left kidney in the transverse plane, it was either ventral in 13 (68%), ventromedial in 2 (19%), ventrolateral in 4 (21%) to left kidney, in the other 41 patients, it was cranial to the upper pole of left kidney, ventral in 25 (61%), ventromedial in 1 (2%), ventrolateral in 15 (37%). 3) Pancreatic tail was cranial to the pancreatic body, 3 cm cranial in 2 (4%), 2-3 cm in 5 (8%), 1-2 cm in 6 (10%), less than 1 cm in 11 (18%). In the other, caudal in 3 (5%). 4) Pancreatic tail was cranial to the level of the splenic hilum in 36 (60%), 0-2 cm caudal in 24 (40%). 3. Pancreatic shape was uniform tapering form in 37 (62%), lobulated form in 23 (38%). 4. Pancreatic orientation was horizontal in 13 (22%), vertical 56 (76%), S-shaped in 1 (2%). 5. Pancreatic margin was smooth in 22 (37%), lobulated in 38 (63%). 6. In most patients, pancreas was uniform in density. 7. Pancreatic size was 0.5 ± 0.1 in measurement ratio of the head in 48 (80%), 0.4 ± 0.1 of the body in 49 (88%), 0.5 ± 0.1 of the tail in 47 (78%)

  7. Well differentiated endocrine carcinomas of the pancreas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Čolović Radoje

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. For the difference from poorly differentiated, well differentiated endocrine carcinomas of the pancreas are the tumours in whom with aggressive surgery and chemotherapy fair results can be achieved. Objective. The aim of the study was to point out the importance of such treatment. Methods. Over a 6-year period eight patients (seven female and one male of average age 51 years (ranging from 23 to 71 years were operated on for well differentiated endocrine carcinoma: six of the head and two of the tail of the pancreas. There were two functional and six nonfunctional tumours. Pain in the upper part of the abdomen in seven, mild loss in weight in two, strong heartburn in two, obstructive jaundice in three, diarrhoea in one, sudden massive bleeding from gastric varicosities due to prehepatic portal hypertension caused by pancreatic head tumour in one, and bruise in one patient were registered preoperatively. US and CT in all, angiography in one, octreoscan in two and PET scan in one patient were performed. Whipple’s procedure was performed in six and distal pancreatectomy in two patients, as well as systemic lymphadenectomy in all and excision of liver secondary tumours in two patients. In the patient with massive gastric bleeding a total gastrectomy was performed first, followed by Whipple’s procedure a month later. Results. R0 resection was achieved in all patients. Lymph nodes metastases were found in six patients. Six patients were given chemotherapy. One patient died 3 years after surgery, seven are still alive, on average 2.5 years. A local recurrence after distal pancreatectomy that occurred 5 years after surgery was successfully reresected and the patient is on peptide-receptor radiotherapy. In other six patients there were no local recurence or distant metastases. Conclusion. With aggressive surgery and chemotherapy fair results can be achieved in well differentiated endocrine carcinomas of the pancreas.

  8. Intraoperative radiotherapy for adenocarcinoma of the pancreas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yasue, Mitsunori; Yasui, Kenzo; Morimoto, Takeshi; Miyaishi, Seiichi; Morita, Kozo

    1986-01-01

    Thirty-six patients were given intraoperative radiotherapy for adenocarcinoma of the pancreas between April 1980 and March 1986. Twenty-six of those with well-advanced cancer underwent palliative intraoperative radiotherapy of their main primary lesions (1,500 to 3,000 rads). Fourteen of the 19 patients in this group who had intractable back pain before surgery achieved relief within one week after treatment. Of the remaining 10 patients who underwent pancreatectomy and received adjuvant intraoperative radiotherapy (2,000 to 3,000 rads), two remain clinically free of disease five years and six months and four years and six months after palliative distal pancreatectomy. (author)

  9. Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexey Kondrashov

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available We aimed to perform a chemical analysis of both Alibernet red wine and an alcohol-free Alibernet red wine extract (AWE and to investigate the effects of AWE on nitric oxide and reactive oxygen species production as well as blood pressure development in normotensive Wistar Kyoto (WKY and spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHRs. Total antioxidant capacity together with total phenolic and selected mineral content was measured in wine and AWE. Young 6-week-old male WKY and SHR were treated with AWE (24,2 mg/kg/day for 3 weeks. Total NOS and SOD activities, eNOS and SOD1 protein expressions, and superoxide production were determined in the tissues. Both antioxidant capacity and phenolic content were significantly higher in AWE compared to wine. The AWE increased NOS activity in the left ventricle, aorta, and kidney of SHR, while it did not change NOS activity in WKY rats. Similarly, increased SOD activity in the plasma and left ventricle was observed in SHR only. There were no changes in eNOS and SOD1 expressions. In conclusion, phenolics and minerals included in AWE may contribute directly to increased NOS and SOD activities of SHR. Nevertheless, 3 weeks of AWE treatment failed to affect blood pressure of SHR.

  10. A Case of Successful Simultaneous Pancreas-Kidney Transplantation Using the Injured Pancreas Graft.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyagi, S; Shimizu, K; Miyazawa, K; Nakanishi, W; Hara, Y; Tokodai, K; Nakanishi, C; Satomi, S; Goto, M; Unno, M; Kamei, T

    2017-12-01

    Graft injuries sometimes occur and may cause complications such as the leakage of pancreatic secretions, which is often lethal. We report our experience of a case of successful simultaneous pancreas-kidney transplantation using injured pancreas graft. The recipient was a 57-year-old woman with type 1 diabetes mellitus, and the donor was a 30-year-old man with a brain injury. In the donation, the pancreas parenchyma, splenic artery, and gastroduodenal artery were injured iatrogenically. We therefore reconstructed these arteries using vessel grafts and then performed simultaneous pancreas-kidney transplantation. Five days after transplantation, we noted a high titer of amylase in the ascites; therefore, we performed an urgent laparotomy. The origin of the amylase was the injured pancreatic parenchyma, and continued washing and drainage were carried out. We reconstructed the duodenojejunostomy using the Roux-en-Y technique to separate the passage of food from the pancreas graft to prevent injury to other organs due to exposure to pancreatic secretions. Thereafter, we inserted a decompression tube into the anastomosis thorough the blind end of the jejunum. Finally, we inserted 3 drainage tubes for lavage. Following this procedure, the patient recovered gradually and no longer required hemodialysis and insulin therapy. She was discharged from our hospital 56 days after transplantation. The restoration of the injured graft was possible by management of pancreatic secretions and use of the donor's vessel grafts. Shortage of donors is a problem throughout the world; thus, it is important to use injured grafts for transplantation if possible. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Fetal cardiac assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Greene, K.R.

    1983-01-01

    The better understanding of fetal cardiovascular physiology coupled with improved technology for non-invasive study of the fetus now enable much more detailed assessment of fetal cardiac status than by heart rate alone. Even the latter, relatively simple, measurement contains much more information than was previously realized. It is also increasingly clear that no single measurement will provide the answer to all clinical dilemmas either on cardiac function or the welfare of the fetus as a whole. There are obvious clinical advantages in measuring several variables from one signal and the measurement of heart rate, heart rate variation and waveform from the ECG in labour is a potentially useful combination. Systolic time intervals or flow measurements could easily be added or used separately by combining real-time and Doppler ultrasound probes

  12. Fetal chromosome analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Philip, J; Tabor, A; Bang, J

    1983-01-01

    The aim of the study was to investigate the rationale of the current indications for fetal chromosome analysis. 5372 women had 5423 amniocentesis performed, this group constituting a consecutive sample at the chromosome laboratory, Rigshospitalet, Copenhagen from March 1973 to September 1980 (Group...... A + B). Pregnant women 35 years of age, women who previously had a chromosomally abnormal child, families with translocation carriers or other heritable chromosomal disease, families where the father was 50 years or more and women in families with a history of Down's syndrome (group A), were compared...... to women having amniocentesis, although considered not to have any increased risk of fetal chromosome abnormality (1390 pregnancies, group B). They were also compared with 750 consecutive pregnancies in women 25-34 years of age, in whom all heritable diseases were excluded (group C). The risk of unbalanced...

  13. Fluoxetine effect on gestation and fetal development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ösz Bianca Eugenia

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The prenatal exposure to selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs is very controversial. There is no conclusive evidence for increased risk of malformations after SSRI use in pregnancy. The aim of the study was to determine how fluoxetine is affecting gestation and fetal development in rats. Twenty sexually mature female Wistar rats weighting between 250-260 g received 20 mg/kg body weight fluoxetine from the first day of gestation and during the entire gestation period.The drug was administered by oral route. Healthy, primipareus animals were selected along with 20 female Wistar rats, as control group. Mature males were caged with virgin females for an entire week. Rat’s behaviour during gestation, after birth and rats body weight was examined. The number of healthy pups was also noted. The females not giving birth after 21 days to any pup were anesthetized (halothane through gas scavenging apparatus untilled death and the gravid uterus were dissected out and examined. Compared to the controlled group, in which weight gain was more significant, the animals from the experimental group had a slight increase in body weight. The weight gain normally induced by gestation, is less significant in fluoxetine treated rats due to the increase serotonin levels in the brain. The uteri examination of pregnant rats showed an increase in the number of dead and resorbed rat embryos. Preclinical studies suggest that the inclusion of fluoxetine in pregnancy category C is justified and the appropriateness of its administration in pregnancy is still an unresolved issue.

  14. The fetal/neonatal mouse liver exhibits transcriptional features of the adult pancreas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Metabolic homeostasis of the organism is maintained by the liver’s ability to detoxify and eliminate xenobiotics through the expression of xenobiotic metabolism enxymes (XME). The fetus and neonate have been hypothesized to exhibit increased sensitivity to xenobiotic toxicity. T...

  15. Ectopic pancreas causing partial gastric outlet obstruction: a case ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Ectopic pancreas causing partial gastric outlet obstruction: a case report and review of literature. ... Nigerian Journal of Surgery ... Gastric outlet obstruction resulting from ectopic pancreas in an adult is the first of its kind in our center; we, therefore, present this case to describe the challenges faced with diagnosis, treatment, ...

  16. Lymphoepithelial cyst of the pancreas: a case report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Joo, Seung Ho; Kim, Myeong Jin; Kim, Ki Whang; Park, Young Nyun; Shim, Hyp Sup; Lim, Joon Seok

    2005-01-01

    We present a case of lymphoepithelial cyst of the pancreas. The cyst showed moderate echogenicity, mimicking a solid lesion on ultrasonography (US), and had a cystic appearance on computed tomography (CT). This ambivalent finding may be a distinctive feature of lymphoepithelial cysts of the pancreas

  17. Beta-Cell Replacement: Pancreas and Islet Cell Transplantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niclauss, Nadja; Meier, Raphael; Bédat, Benoît; Berishvili, Ekaterine; Berney, Thierry

    2016-01-01

    Pancreas and islet transplantation are 2 types of beta-cell replacement therapies for type 1 diabetes mellitus. Since 1966, when pancreas transplantation was first performed, it has evolved to become a highly efficient procedure with high success rates, thanks to advances in surgical technique and immunosuppression. Pancreas transplantation is mostly performed as simultaneous pancreas-kidney transplantation in patients with end-stage nephropathy secondary to diabetes. In spite of its efficiency, pancreas transplantation is still a major surgical procedure burdened by high morbidity, which called for the development of less invasive and hazardous ways of replacing beta-cell function in the past. Islet transplantation was developed in the 1970s as a minimally invasive procedure with initially poor outcomes. However, since the report of the 'Edmonton protocol' in 2000, the functional results of islet transplantation have substantially and constantly improved and are about to match those of whole pancreas transplantation. Islet transplantation is primarily performed alone in nonuremic patients with severe hypoglycemia. Both pancreas transplantation and islet transplantation are able to abolish hypoglycemia and to prevent or slow down the development of secondary complications of diabetes. Pancreas transplantation and islet transplantation should be seen as two complementary, rather than competing, therapeutic approaches for beta-cell replacement that are able to optimize organ donor use and patient care. © 2016 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  18. Pancreas preserving total duodenectomy for complex duodenal injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wig, Jai Dev; Kudari, Ashwinikumar; Yadav, Thakur Deen; Doley, Rudra Prasad; Bharathy, Kishore Gurumoorthy Subramanya; Kalra, Naveen

    2009-07-06

    To assess the feasibility and safety of a pancreas-preserving total duodenectomy in the management of severe duodenal injury caused by abdominal trauma. Two patients with both extensive injury of the duodenum and diffuse peritonitis underwent pancreas preserving total duodenectomy at our tertiary care centre. These two young male patients (age 20 and 22 years) presented 2 days and 6 hours respectively following blunt abdominal trauma. The duodenum was almost completely separated from the pancreas. Ampulla was seen as a button on the pancreas. Following total duodenectomy, reconstruction was performed by suturing the jejunum to the head of the pancreas anteriorly and posteriorly away from the ampulla (invagination of the pancreas into the jejunum). There were no complications attributable to the procedure. Both patients are well on follow up. A Pancreas-preserving total duodenectomy offers a safe alternative to the Whipple procedure in managing complex duodenal injury. This procedure avoids unnecessary resection of the adjacent pancreas and anastomosis to undilated hepatic and pancreatic ducts.

  19. Huge mucinous cystadenoma of the pancreas mistaken for a ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Cystic tumors of the pancreas are rare and can be confused with pseudocysts.We present a 50 year old woman with a huge mucinous cystadenoma of the pancreas initially diagnosed and managed with a cystojejunostomy and cyst wall biopsy. She required another laparotomy and tumor excision after histological ...

  20. Ectopic Pancreas Causing Partial Gastric Outlet Obstruction: A Case ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Ectopic pancreas is a rare cause of gastric outlet obstruction, perhaps rarer still among Africans. Although the entity is known, the diagnostic challenges are enormous, especially in the poor‑resource environment. Gastric outlet obstruction resulting from ectopic pancreas in an adult is the first of its kind in our center;.