WorldWideScience

Sample records for fetal goats applying

  1. Monitoring of embryonic and fetal losses in different breeds of goats using real-time B-mode ultrasonography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samir, Haney; Karen, Aly; Ashmawy, Tarek; Abo-Ahmed, Mostafa; El-Sayed, Mohamed; Watanabe, Gen

    2016-01-15

    Compared to cattle and sheep, few studies had been undertaken to evaluate the incidence of embryonic and fetal losses (EFL) in goats. The objectives of the present study were to characterize the timing of EFL and to identify the factors that are associated with EFL in goats such as breed, age, parity, method of estrous synchronization, and breeding. Moreover, this study aimed to ensure whether a relationship existed between serum progesterone (P4) and EFL. Goats (n = 151) of different breeds (70 Zaraiebi, 42 Damascus, and 39 Cross goats [Baladi × Damascus]) were evaluated by ultrasonography to monitor EFL during different stages of gestation (D20-23, D26-29, D33-36, D40-45, and D47-54 after breeding). Blood samples were collected at D7, D20, and at each ultrasonographic scanning to clarify changes of serum P4 levels concurrently with EFL. Results revealed that 45 of 109 goats (41.28%) were exposed to EFL. A higher EFL % was observed between D20 to 23 and D47 to 54 (19.61%) compared with D47 to 54 to birth (11.76%). Moreover, a higher EFL % was observed in Zaraiebi goats compared with others. Age and goat parity had no significant effect on the EFL % in all goats. A high EFL % were observed in goats synchronized by P4 sponge, as well as artificially inseminated goats compared with goats with spontaneous estrus, and bred by natural mating, respectively. Serum P4 at D7 or D20 after breeding showed nonsignificant difference between normal pregnant goats and goats that experienced EFL. Unlike goats that experienced partial EFL, goats that experienced total EFL between D20 to 23 and D26 to 29 showed an abrupt P4 reduction (85.06%; P < 0.01) suggesting the probability of endocrine disruption of the CL. However, goats that were exposed to total EFL between D26 and 29 to D33 to 36 showed a low P4 reduction (24.90%; P < 0.05), which might be considered as an effect rather than a cause of EFL. In conclusion, different factors such as breed, estrous synchronization

  2. Fetal sexing by ultrasonography identifying the genital tubercle or external genitalia of american alpine goats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Santos, M.H.B. dos; Morae, E.P.B.X. de; Aguiar Filho, C.R. de; Chaves, R. de M.; Neves, J.P.; Lima, P.F. de; Oliveira, M.A.L. de

    2007-01-01

    The aim of this study was to diagnostic previously the gender of American Alpine fetuses by ultrasonography identifying the final position of the genital tubercle (GT) or viewing the anatomical structures of external genitalia, as well as to evaluate the accuracy of fetal sexing by single or repeated exams. In Group I (GI), the gender was defined by the final position of the GT and in Group II (GII) by the anatomical structures of external genitalia. The examinations were carried out with an ultrasound device by via transrectal equipped with a linear transducer with 6.0 and 8.0 MHz. In GI, 52 fetuses of 32 goats were monitored each 12 hours, from 40th to the 60th day of pregnancy. In GII, the examination was performed only once in 34 fetuses of 24 goats with pregnancy between 45 and 70 days. The accuracy in GI was 100% in single, 87.5% in twin and 66.7% in triple pregnancy, with significant difference (P 0.05) between single and twin pregnancies. The final migration of GT occured on the 46.4 ± 2.1 days of pregnancy. The results allow to conclude that ultrasonography is a suitable method to early diagnostic the fetal sex by visualization of final position of GT or by identification of external genitalia structures and that repeated exams did not increase the accuracy of fetal sexing on the multiple pregnancy [pt

  3. Transfer of an expression YAC into goat fetal fibroblasts by cell fusion for mammary gland bioreactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Xufeng; Wu Guoxiang; Chen, Jian-Quan; Zhang Aimin; Liu Siguo; Jiao Binghua; Cheng Guoxiang

    2005-01-01

    Yeast artificial chromosomes (YACs) as transgenes in transgenic animals are likely to ensure optimal expression levels. Microinjection of YACs is the exclusive technique used to produce YACs transgenic livestock so far. However, low efficiency and high cost are its critical restrictive factors. In this study, we presented a novel procedure to produce YACs transgenic livestock as mammary gland bioreactor. A targeting vector, containing the gene of interest-a human serum albumin minigene (intron 1, 2), yeast selectable marker (G418R), and mammalian cell resistance marker (neo r ), replaced the α-lactalbumin gene in a 210 kb human α-lactalbumin YAC by homogeneous recombination in yeasts. The chimeric YAC was introduced into goat fetal fibroblasts using polyethylene glycol-mediated spheroplast fusion. PCR and Southern analysis showed that intact YAC was integrated in the genome of resistant cells. Perhaps, it may offer a cell-based route by nuclear transfer to produce YACs transgenic livestock

  4. Fetal muscle-type nicotinic acetylcholine receptor activation in TE-671 cells and inhibition of fetal movement in a day 40 pregnant goat model by optical isomers of the piperidine alkaloid coniine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, Benedict T; Lee, Stephen T; Welch, Kevin D; Pfister, James A; Panter, Kip E

    2013-01-01

    Coniine is an optically active toxic piperidine alkaloid and nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (nAChR) agonist found in poison hemlock (Conium maculatum L.). Coniine teratogenicity is hypothesized to be attributable to the binding, activation, and prolonged desensitization of fetal muscle-type nAChR, which results in the complete inhibition of fetal movement. However, pharmacological evidence of coniine actions at fetal muscle-type nAChR is lacking. The present study compared (-)-coniine, (+)-coniine, and nicotine for the ability to inhibit fetal movement in a day 40 pregnant goat model and in TE-671 cells that express fetal muscle-type nAChR. Furthermore, α-conotoxins (CTx) EI and GI were used to antagonize the actions of (+)- and (-)-coniine in TE-671 cells. (-)-Coniine was more effective at eliciting electrical changes in TE-671 cells and inhibiting fetal movement than was (+)-coniine, suggesting stereoselectivity by the receptor. The pyridine alkaloid nicotine did not inhibit fetal movement in a day 40 pregnant goat model, suggesting agonist specificity for the inhibition of fetal movement. Low concentrations of both CTxs potentiated the TE-671 cell response and higher concentrations of CTx EI, and GI antagonized the actions of both coniine enantiomers demonstrating concentration-dependent coagonism and selective antagonism. These results provide pharmacological evidence that the piperidine alkaloid coniine is acting at fetal muscle-type nAChR in a concentration-dependent manner.

  5. Genome-wide identification and characterization of long non-coding RNAs in developmental skeletal muscle of fetal goat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhan, Siyuan; Dong, Yao; Zhao, Wei; Guo, Jiazhong; Zhong, Tao; Wang, Linjie; Li, Li; Zhang, Hongping

    2016-08-22

    Long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) have been studied extensively over the past few years. Large numbers of lncRNAs have been identified in mouse, rat, and human, and some of them have been shown to play important roles in muscle development and myogenesis. However, there are few reports on the characterization of lncRNAs covering all the development stages of skeletal muscle in livestock. RNA libraries constructed from developing longissimus dorsi muscle of fetal (45, 60, and 105 days of gestation) and postnatal (3 days after birth) goat (Capra hircus) were sequenced. A total of 1,034,049,894 clean reads were generated. Among them, 3981 lncRNA transcripts corresponding to 2739 lncRNA genes were identified, including 3515 intergenic lncRNAs and 466 anti-sense lncRNAs. Notably, in pairwise comparisons between the libraries of skeletal muscle at the different development stages, a total of 577 transcripts were differentially expressed (P development-related processes, indicating they may be in cis-regulatory relationships. Additionally, Pearson's correlation coefficients of co-expression levels suggested 1737 lncRNAs and 19,422 mRNAs were possibly in trans-regulatory relationships (r > 0.95 or r development-related biological processes such as muscle system processes, regulation of cell growth, muscle cell development, regulation of transcription, and embryonic morphogenesis. This study provides a catalog of goat muscle-related lncRNAs, and will contribute to a fuller understanding of the molecular mechanism underpinning muscle development in mammals.

  6. Stable suppression of myostatin gene expression in goat fetal fibroblast cells by lentiviral vector-mediated RNAi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Utsav A; Patel, Amrutlal K; Joshi, Chaitanya G

    2015-01-01

    Myostatin (MSTN) is a secreted growth factor that negatively regulates skeletal muscle mass, and therefore, strategies to block myostatin-signaling pathway have been extensively pursued to increase the muscle mass in livestock. Here, we report a lentiviral vector-based delivery of shRNA to disrupt myostatin expression into goat fetal fibroblasts (GFFs) that were commonly used as karyoplast donors in somatic-cell nuclear transfer (SCNT) studies. Sh-RNA positive cells were screened by puromycin selection. Using real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR), we demonstrated efficient knockdown of endogenous myostatin mRNA with 64% down-regulation in sh2 shRNA-treated GFF cells compared to GFF cells treated by control lentivirus without shRNA. Moreover, we have also demonstrated both the induction of interferon response and the expression of genes regulating myogenesis in GFF cells. The results indicate that myostatin-targeting siRNA produced endogenously could efficiently down-regulate myostatin expression. Therefore, targeted knockdown of the MSTN gene using lentivirus-mediated shRNA transgenics would facilitate customized cell engineering, allowing potential use in the establishment of stable cell lines to produce genetically engineered animals. © 2014 American Institute of Chemical Engineers.

  7. Short-hairpin Mediated Myostatin Knockdown Resulted in Altered Expression of Myogenic Regulatory Factors with Enhanced Myoblast Proliferation in Fetal Myoblast Cells of Goats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Rohit; Singh, Satyendra Pal; Mitra, Abhijit

    2018-01-02

    Myostatin (MSTN) is a well-known negative regulator of skeletal muscle development. Reduced expression due to natural mutations in the coding region and knockout as well as knockdown of MSTN results in an increase in the muscle mass. In the present study, we demonstrated as high as 60 and 52% downregulation (p < 0.01) of MSTN mRNA and protein in the primary fetal myoblast cells of goats using synthetic shRNAs (n = 3), without any interferon response. We, for the first time, evaluated the effect of MSTN knockdown on the expression of MRFs (namely, MyoD, Myf5), follistatin (FST), and IGFs (IGF-1 & IGF-2) in goat myoblast cells. MSTN knockdown caused an upregulation (p < 0.05) of MyoD and downregulation (p < 0.01) of MYf5 and FST expression. Moreover, we report up to ∼four fold (p < 0.001) enhanced proliferation in myoblasts after four days of culture. The anti-MSTN shRNA demonstrated in the present study could be used for the production of transgenic goats to increase the muscle mass.

  8. Some criteria for landscape quality applied on an organic goat farm in Gelderland, the Netherlands.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hendriks, K.; Stobbelaar, D.J.; Mansvelt, van J.D.

    1997-01-01

    Within the framework of the concerted action 'The landscape and nature production capacity of organic/sustainable types of agriculture', the authors visited the organic goat farm Caprica to test some criteria on farm level

  9. Absorption, distribution, and metabolism of [14C]chlorpyrifos applied dermally to goats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cheng, T.; Bodden, R.M.; Puhl, R.J.; Bauriedel, W.R.

    1989-01-01

    Radiolabeled chlorpyrifos [O,O-diethyl O-(3,5,6-trichloro-2-pyridyl) phosphorothioate] was applied dermally to two male weanling goats, at a dose of 22 mg/kg of body weight. A blood sample was drawn before dosing and every 4 h thereafter. The animals were sacrificed approximately 18 h after dosing, when blood radioactivity levels at 16 h had declined from maximum values (12 h) in both animals. Radioanalysis of blood and selected tissues (liver, kidney, heart, fat, muscle) indicated that radioactivity levels were, in general, very low, ranging from 0.04 ppm (chlorpyrifos equivalents) in muscle to 0.90 ppm in omental fat. Tissue extracts contained 80-96% of the 14 C residue, most of which was organosoluble. High-performance liquid chromatography analysis of tissue extracts showed that the predominant 14 C residue in liver and kidney was [ 14 C]-3,5,6-trichloro-2-pyridinol (chlorpyridinol) whereas [ 14 C]chlorpyrifos was predominant in fat and heart extracts. In muscle, in addition to approximately equal amounts of [ 14 C]chlorpyridinol and [ 14 C]chlorpyrifos, 18.6% of the radioactivity was unidentified; alkaline hydrolysis quantitatively converted the latter radioactivity to pyridinol

  10. Comparative performance of fetal goat tongue cell line ZZ-R 127 and fetal porcine kidney cell line LFBK-αvβ6 for Foot-and-mouth disease virus isolation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fukai, Katsuhiko; Morioka, Kazuki; Yamada, Manabu; Nishi, Tatsuya; Yoshida, Kazuo; Kitano, Rie; Yamazoe, Reiko; Kanno, Toru

    2015-07-01

    The fetal goat tongue cell line ZZ-R 127 and the fetal porcine kidney cell line LFBK-α(v)β(6) have been reported to have high sensitivity to various Foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV) strains. The suitability of ZZ-R 127 cells for FMDV isolation not only from epithelial suspensions but also from other clinical samples has already been confirmed in a previous study. However, to our knowledge, the suitability of LFBK-α(v)β(6) cells has not been evaluated using clinical samples other than epithelial materials. In addition, both cell lines have never been compared, in terms of use for FMDV isolation, under the same conditions. Therefore, in the current study, the virus isolation rates of both cell lines were compared using clinical samples collected from animals infected experimentally with FMDV. Viruses were successfully isolated from clinical samples other than epithelial suspensions for both cell lines. The virus isolation rates for the 2 cell lines were not significantly different. The Cohen kappa coefficients between the virus isolation results for both cell lines were significantly high. Taken together, these results confirmed the suitability of LFBK-α(v)β(6) cells for FMDV isolation from clinical samples other than epithelial suspensions. The levels of susceptibility of both cell lines to FMDV isolation were also confirmed to be almost the same. © 2015 The Author(s).

  11. Comparative Transcriptome Analysis of Fetal Skin Reveals Key Genes Related to Hair Follicle Morphogenesis in Cashmere Goats.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ye Gao

    Full Text Available Cashmere goat skin contains two types of hair follicles (HF: primary hair follicles (PHF and secondary hair follicles (SHF. Although multiple genetic determinants associated with HF formation have been identified, the molecules that determine the independent morphogenesis of HF in cashmere goats remain elusive. The growth and development of SHF directly influence the quantity and quality of cashmere production. Here, we report the transcriptome profiling analysis of nine skin samples from cashmere goats using 60- and 120-day-old embryos (E60 and E120, respectively, as well as newborns (NB, through RNA-sequencing (RNA-seq. HF morphological changes indicated that PHF were initiated at E60, with maturation from E120, while differentiation of SHF was identified at E120 until formation of cashmere occurred after birth (NB. The RNA-sequencing analysis generated over 20.6 million clean reads from each mRNA library. The number of differentially expressed genes (DEGs in E60 vs. E120, E120 vs. NB, and E60 vs. NB were 1,024, 0 and 1,801, respectively, indicating that no significant differences were found at transcriptomic levels between E120 and NB. Key genes including B4GALT4, TNC, a-integrin, and FGFR1, were up-regulated and expressed in HF initiation from E60 to E120, while regulatory genes such as GPRC5D, PAD3, HOXC13, PRR9, VSIG8, LRRC15, LHX2, MSX-2, and FOXN1 were up-regulated and expressed in HF keratinisation and hair shaft differentiation from E120 and NB to E60. Several genes belonging to the KRT and KRTAP gene families were detected throughout the three HF developmental stages. The transcriptional trajectory analyses of all DEGs indicated that immune privilege, glycosaminoglycan biosynthesis, extracellular matrix receptor interaction, and growth factor receptors all played dominant roles in the epithelial-mesenchymal interface and HF formation. We found that the Wnt, transforming growth factor-beta/bone morphogenetic protein, and Notch family

  12. Comparative Transcriptome Analysis of Fetal Skin Reveals Key Genes Related to Hair Follicle Morphogenesis in Cashmere Goats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Ye; Wang, Xiaolong; Yan, Hailong; Zeng, Jie; Ma, Sen; Niu, Yiyuan; Zhou, Guangxian; Jiang, Yu; Chen, Yulin

    2016-01-01

    Cashmere goat skin contains two types of hair follicles (HF): primary hair follicles (PHF) and secondary hair follicles (SHF). Although multiple genetic determinants associated with HF formation have been identified, the molecules that determine the independent morphogenesis of HF in cashmere goats remain elusive. The growth and development of SHF directly influence the quantity and quality of cashmere production. Here, we report the transcriptome profiling analysis of nine skin samples from cashmere goats using 60- and 120-day-old embryos (E60 and E120, respectively), as well as newborns (NB), through RNA-sequencing (RNA-seq). HF morphological changes indicated that PHF were initiated at E60, with maturation from E120, while differentiation of SHF was identified at E120 until formation of cashmere occurred after birth (NB). The RNA-sequencing analysis generated over 20.6 million clean reads from each mRNA library. The number of differentially expressed genes (DEGs) in E60 vs. E120, E120 vs. NB, and E60 vs. NB were 1,024, 0 and 1,801, respectively, indicating that no significant differences were found at transcriptomic levels between E120 and NB. Key genes including B4GALT4, TNC, a-integrin, and FGFR1, were up-regulated and expressed in HF initiation from E60 to E120, while regulatory genes such as GPRC5D, PAD3, HOXC13, PRR9, VSIG8, LRRC15, LHX2, MSX-2, and FOXN1 were up-regulated and expressed in HF keratinisation and hair shaft differentiation from E120 and NB to E60. Several genes belonging to the KRT and KRTAP gene families were detected throughout the three HF developmental stages. The transcriptional trajectory analyses of all DEGs indicated that immune privilege, glycosaminoglycan biosynthesis, extracellular matrix receptor interaction, and growth factor receptors all played dominant roles in the epithelial-mesenchymal interface and HF formation. We found that the Wnt, transforming growth factor-beta/bone morphogenetic protein, and Notch family members

  13. Two-dimensional and three-dimensional ultrasonography for pregnancy diagnosis and antenatal fetal development in Beetal goats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kailash Kumar

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The objective of this study was to compare two-dimensional (2D and three-dimensional (3D study of the pregnant uterus and antenatal development of the fetus. Materials and Methods: 2D and 3D ultrasound were performed from day 20 to 120 of gestation, twice in week from day 20 to 60 and once in week from day 60 to 120 of gestation on six goats. The ultrasonographic images were obtained using Toshiba, Nemio-XG (Japan 3D ultrasound machine. Results: On the 20th day of gestation, earliest diagnosis of pregnancy was done. First 3D ultrasonographic image of the conceptus, through transabdominal approach, was obtained on day 24. On 39th day, clear pictures of conceptus, amniotic membrane, and umbilicus were seen. On 76th day of gestation, internal organs of fetus viz heart, kidney, liver, urinary bladder, and stomach were seen both in 2D and 3D images. 3D imaging showed better details of uterine structures and internal organs of the fetus. Conclusions: Comparing 3D images with 2D images, it is concluded that 2D was better in visualizing fluid while 3D images were better to view details of attachment of fetus with endometrium.

  14. Occurrence and risk factors associated with infection by Toxoplasma gondii in goats in the State of Alagoas, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giulliano Aires Anderlini

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Goats are considered very susceptible to infection by Toxoplasma gondii and when this occurs during pregnancy, it may cause fetal death with subsequent fetal resorption, abortion, mummification, stillborn or the birth of weak goats. The objective of this work was to determine the occurrence of and identify risk factors for T. gondii infection in goats in different mesoregions in the State of Alagoas. METHODS: The research was conducted on 24 goat breeding farms in 10 municipalities. A total of 454 blood samples were examined for anti-T. gondii antibodies by indirect immunofluorescence antibody test. To evaluate the risk factors of toxoplasmosis in goats, questionnaires were applied analyzing the farm's production system and nutritional, reproductive and sanitary management. RESULTS: Disease occurrence was 39% with 95.8% of farms presenting seropositive animals. Significant associations were observed for mesoregion (OR = 0.23; 95%CI = 0.09 - 0.57, age (OR = 0.36; 95%CI = 0.20 - 0.64, semi-intensive herd management (OR = 8.70; 95%CI = 1.87 - 40.43, access of cats to water provided for goats (OR = 3.38; 95%CI = 1.89-6.02 and cats feeding on placental remnants (OR = 2.73; 95%CI = 1.38 - 5.40. CONCLUSIONS: Toxoplasma gondii infection is disseminated in the State of Alagoas and the adoption of a program that monitors infection foci is required to reduce the risk factors identified in the present study.

  15. Complete inhibition of fetal movement in the day 40 pregnant goat model by the piperidine alkaloid anabasine but not related alkaloids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Four chemically similar alkaloids, anabasine, anabaseine, epibatidine and dimethylphenylpiperazinium (DMPP), are potent nicotinic acetylcholine receptor agonists of fetal muscle nicotinic acetylcholine receptors in human TE-671 cells. Based on results with these cells, we hypothesized that these alk...

  16. Fetal MRI; Fetales MRT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blondin, D. [Inst. fuer Diagn. Radiologie, Uniklinikum Duesseldorf (Germany); Turowski, B. [Inst. fuer Diagn. Radiologie, Neuroradiologie, Uniklinikum Duesseldorf (Germany); Schaper, J. [Inst. fuer Diagn. Radiologie, Kinderradiologie, Uniklinikum Duesseldorf (Germany)

    2007-02-15

    Ultrasonography is the method of choice for prenatal malformation screening, but it does not always provide sufficient information for correct diagnosis or adequate abnormality evaluation. Fetal MRI is increasingly being used to complete sonographic findings. It was initially used for evaluation of cerebral abnormalities but is increasingly being applied to other fetal areas. In vivo investigation of fetal brain maturation has been enhanced by MRI. An adequate analysis of fetal chest and abdomen can be achieved with fast T2-, T1-weighted and diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI). The advantages include the great field of view and the excellent soft tissue contrast. This allows correct diagnosis of congenital diaphragmatic hernia and evaluation of the consequences on pulmonary growth. Other pulmonary malformations, such as cystic adenomatoid malformation, sequestration and brochogenic cysts, can also be easily identified. Renal position can be quickly determined using DWI sequences and renal agenesia can be easily diagnosed with only one sequence. Prenatal MRI is virtually as effective as postnatal examination, dispenses with transport of a potentially very ill newborn, and provides logistic advantages. Therefore, prenatal MRI is useful for adequate postnatal treatment of newborns with malformations. (orig.)

  17. Fetal-muscle type nicotinic acetylcholine receptor activation in TE-671 cells, and inhibition of fetal movement in a day 40 pregnant goat model by optical isomers of the piperidine alkaloid coniine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coniine is an optically active toxic piperidine alkaloid and nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (nAChR) agonist found in poison hemlock (Conium maculatum L.). Coniine teratogenicity is hypothesized to be due to the binding, activation, and prolonged desensitization of fetal muscle-type nAChR which re...

  18. Angora goat

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Angora goat, tables of nutritional requirements (NRC, 1981) have been derived by ..... may fall as low as 0.38%/min in diabetic cows (Kaneko,. 1989). The diagnostic ... dependent on glucose oxidation via the pentose-phosphate pathway in ...

  19. Dairy goat nutrition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruno Ronchi

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Good goat nutrition is fundamental to the success and sustainability of dairy goat farming in terms of economics, goat health, high quality products, and minimizing environmental impact.

  20. Goat for Azazel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sylwester Jędrzejewski

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available The rite included in Leviticus 16 belongs to penitential rites of purification. It may be a reminiscence of antic religious medical-magic rites, practiced in multiple regions of ancient world. The rites contained the idea of substitution, “magic elimination.” Sending the goat represents rejection of anything that should not and can not exist among the people of Israel. The desert as an “infertile” place, the theological idea of separating the good from the evil as well as the ancient idea of substitution point at the theology of penance expressed in the rite of separation. The text of Leviticus 16 applies the term sa‘ir for the goat. The same term is also applied in priestly text to describe demons relating to the misshapen form of Israel religion. There is an undoubted connection with the idea of Convenant that constitutes the basic background and point of reference for the rite of Leviticus 16.

  1. Optimum stocking rate for goat production on improved highland ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The effects of four stocking rates (SR; 7.5, 15, 30 and 45 goats ha-1) on goat performance and herbage productivity were examined on the perennial pastures. The experiment was applied by grazing 65 six-months old Chinese Yunling black goat wethers for two years. Significant year × SR interactions were observed on ...

  2. A sightability model for mountain goats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rice, C.G.; Jenkins, K.J.; Chang, W.-Y.

    2009-01-01

    Unbiased estimates of mountain goat (Oreamnos americanus) populations are key to meeting diverse harvest management and conservation objectives. We developed logistic regression models of factors influencing sightability of mountain goat groups during helicopter surveys throughout the Cascades and Olympic Ranges in western Washington during summers, 20042007. We conducted 205 trials of the ability of aerial survey crews to detect groups of mountain goats whose presence was known based on simultaneous direct observation from the ground (n 84), Global Positioning System (GPS) telemetry (n 115), or both (n 6). Aerial survey crews detected 77 and 79 of all groups known to be present based on ground observers and GPS collars, respectively. The best models indicated that sightability of mountain goat groups was a function of the number of mountain goats in a group, presence of terrain obstruction, and extent of overstory vegetation. Aerial counts of mountain goats within groups did not differ greatly from known group sizes, indicating that under-counting bias within detected groups of mountain goats was small. We applied HorvitzThompson-like sightability adjustments to 1,139 groups of mountain goats observed in the Cascade and Olympic ranges, Washington, USA, from 2004 to 2007. Estimated mean sightability of individual animals was 85 but ranged 0.750.91 in areas with low and high sightability, respectively. Simulations of mountain goat surveys indicated that precision of population estimates adjusted for sightability biases increased with population size and number of replicate surveys, providing general guidance for the design of future surveys. Because survey conditions, group sizes, and habitat occupied by goats vary among surveys, we recommend using sightability correction methods to decrease bias in population estimates from aerial surveys of mountain goats.

  3. The residual efficacy of a cypermethrin pour-on formulation applied on goats on the mortality and blood intake of Triatoma infestans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivana Amelotti

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Triatoma infestans is the main vector of Trypanosoma cruzi, the aetiological agent of Chagas disease in the Gran Chaco region of South America. As a frequent blood meal source for triatomine bugs, domestic goats play a key role in the eco-epidemiology of Chagas disease. The aim of this study was to evaluate the mortality and blood intake of T. infestans fed on goats that had been treated with different doses of pour-on insecticide. Third-instar nymphs were fed on goats that had been treated with 0 cc, 5 cc, 10 cc or 15 cc of a pour-on formulation of cypermethrin. The exposure of T. infestans to animals treated at different post-application intervals revealed a residual activity of the insecticide. The mortality rate in the treated groups was higher than in the control groups until 30 days post-insecticide application (p = 0.03, except in the group treated with 5 cc, in which no mortality was detected after seven days of insecticide application. Rainfall affected the triatomicide effect, reducing the time of residual activity. The cypermethrin pour-on treatment decreased the blood intake of T. infestans. Thirty days after the cypermethrin application, nymph mortality was 16% (± 13 with both doses (10 cc and 15 cc. The 15 cc dose did not result in higher insect mortality or increased persistence compared to the 10 cc dose.

  4. Fetal echocardiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chaubal, Nitin G.; Chaubal, Jyoti

    2009-01-01

    USG performed with a high-end machine, using a good cine-loop facility is extremely helpful in the diagnosis of fetal cardiac anomalies. In fetal echocardiography, the four-chamber view and the outflow-tract view are used to diagnose cardiac anomalies. The most important objective during a targeted anomaly scan is to identify those cases that need a dedicated fetal echocardiogram. Associated truncal and chromosomal anomalies need to be identified. This review shows how fetal echocardiography, apart from identifying structural defects in the fetal heart, can be used to look at rhythm abnormalities and other functional aspects of the fetal heart

  5. Goat production check list

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henriksen, Jørgen; Nielsen, Mette Benedicte Olaf; Madsen, Jørgen

    2009-01-01

    This check list, financed by DanChurchAid, highlights all issues should be carefully investigated before investing in distribution of goats and in interventions to assist poor rural communities to improve their livelihood through goat production.......This check list, financed by DanChurchAid, highlights all issues should be carefully investigated before investing in distribution of goats and in interventions to assist poor rural communities to improve their livelihood through goat production....

  6. Fetal abdominal magnetic resonance imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brugger, Peter C.; Prayer, Daniela

    2006-01-01

    This review deals with the in vivo magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) appearance of the human fetal abdomen. Imaging findings are correlated with current knowledge of human fetal anatomy and physiology, which are crucial to understand and interpret fetal abdominal MRI scans. As fetal MRI covers a period of more than 20 weeks, which is characterized not only by organ growth, but also by changes and maturation of organ function, a different MR appearance of the fetal abdomen results. This not only applies to the fetal intestines, but also to the fetal liver, spleen, and adrenal glands. Choosing the appropriate sequences, various aspects of age-related and organ-specific function can be visualized with fetal MRI, as these are mirrored by changes in signal intensities. Knowledge of normal development is essential to delineate normal from pathological findings in the respective developmental stages

  7. Fetal abdominal magnetic resonance imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brugger, Peter C. [Center of Anatomy and Cell Biology, Integrative Morphology Group, Medical University of Vienna, Waehringerstrasse 13, 1090 Vienna (Austria)]. E-mail: peter.brugger@meduniwien.ac.at; Prayer, Daniela [Department of Radiology, Medical University of Vienna, Waehringerguertel 18-20, 1090 Vienna (Austria)

    2006-02-15

    This review deals with the in vivo magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) appearance of the human fetal abdomen. Imaging findings are correlated with current knowledge of human fetal anatomy and physiology, which are crucial to understand and interpret fetal abdominal MRI scans. As fetal MRI covers a period of more than 20 weeks, which is characterized not only by organ growth, but also by changes and maturation of organ function, a different MR appearance of the fetal abdomen results. This not only applies to the fetal intestines, but also to the fetal liver, spleen, and adrenal glands. Choosing the appropriate sequences, various aspects of age-related and organ-specific function can be visualized with fetal MRI, as these are mirrored by changes in signal intensities. Knowledge of normal development is essential to delineate normal from pathological findings in the respective developmental stages.

  8. Horny Goat Weed

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horny goat weed is an herb. The leaves are used to make medicine. As many as 15 horny goat weed species are known as “yin yang huo” in Chinese medicine. Horny goat weed is used for weak back and knees, ...

  9. Fetal echocardiography

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/007340.htm Fetal echocardiography To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Fetal echocardiography is a test that uses sound waves ( ultrasound ) ...

  10. Galveston Orientation Amnesia Test (GOAT Galveston Orientation Amnesia Test (GOAT Galveston Orientation Amnesia Test (GOAT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvia Cristina Fürbringer e Silva

    2009-12-01

    en el uso de esa encuesta.Closed head injury (CHI is frequently followed by post-traumatic amnesia (PTA and is characterized by a transitory state of confusion and disorientation. The PTA duration has been used to quantify the CHI severity and to predict disorders in cognitive functions, as well as to foresee any alteration in the functional capacity of post-trauma victims. The Galveston Orientation Amnesia Test (GOAT is the first systematized instrument created, and the most broadly applied, to assess PTA. This article presents the GOAT, the conceptual basis for the development of the instrument, and its adaptation and validation to the Brazilian culture. In addition, the article describes the application of the instrument and makes comments on the restrictions of its use. Brazilian research results showed evidences of the GOAT's validity. They also point to the indicators of post-trauma conditions in which the GOAT must be applied, and highlight the difficulties in the application of the instrument.

  11. Goats and/or cattle on Mopani veld. | C.H. | African Journal of Range ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This phenomenon had a marked influence on the outcome of the results of the trial. It was concluded that the use of both cattle and goats is desirable in order to utilize and control woody plants. A cattle:goat ratio of less than 1:2 should be applied if the goats are to attain optimum production. Keywords: animal performance ...

  12. Fetal MSCs

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    First page Back Continue Last page Overview Graphics. Derived from extra embryonic tissues (amniotic fluid, placenta, cord blood, Wharton's Jelly) and fetal tissues (aborted fetuses). Derived from extra embryonic tissues (amniotic fluid, placenta, cord blood, Wharton's Jelly) and fetal tissues (aborted fetuses). In comparison ...

  13. FATTY ACID COMPOSITION OF ORGANIC GOAT KID MEAT FROM DAIRY GOAT AND CROSSBRED MEAT GOAT KIDS

    OpenAIRE

    Bender, Sophia; Ude, Gracia; Rahmann, Gerold; Aulrich, Karen; Georg, Heiko

    2014-01-01

    In contrast to the increasing demand for dairy goat products in Germany, a market for goat kid meat as a related product does not exist. Thus, the objective of this study was to develop a concept for organic goat kid meat production for dairy goat farms. In collaboration with a wholesaler, organic dairy goat farmers and marketing research the experimental part of this study was to find out if cross-breeding of meat-goats could improve meat quality and performance of fattening goat kids togeth...

  14. Fetal magnetic resonance: technique applications and normal fetal anatomy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martin, C.; Darnell, A.; Duran, C.; Mellado, F.; Corona, M

    2003-01-01

    Ultrasonography is the preferred diagnostic imaging technique for intrauterine fetal examination. Nevertheless, circumstances sometimes dictate the use of other techniques in order to analyze fetal structures. The advent of ultra rapid magnetic resonance (MR) sequencing has led to the possibility of doing MR fetal studies, since images are obtained in an extradordiarily short time and are not affected by either maternal or fetal movements. It does not employ ionizing radiations, it provides high-contrast images and it can obtain such images in any plane of space without being influenced by either the child bearer's physical characteristics of fetal position. MR provides good quality images of most fetal organs. It is extremely useful in analysing distinct structures, as well as permitting an evaluation of cervical structures, lungs, diaphragms, intra-abdominal and retroperitoneal structures, and fetal extremities. It can also provide useful information regarding the placenta,umbilical cord, amniotic fluid and uterus. The objective of this work is to describe MR technique as applied to intrauterine fetal examination, and to illustrate normal fetal anatomy as manifested by MR and its applications. (Author) 42 refs

  15. Fetal Ultrasound

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... isn't recommended simply to determine a baby's sex. Similarly, fetal ultrasound isn't recommended solely for the purpose of producing keepsake videos or pictures. If your health care provider doesn' ...

  16. Fetal Macrosomia

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... re more likely to have a large baby. Maternal obesity. Fetal macrosomia is more likely if you're ... is more likely to be a result of maternal diabetes, obesity or weight gain during pregnancy than other causes. ...

  17. Expression of fox-related genes in the skin follicles of Inner Mongolia cashmere goat

    OpenAIRE

    Wenjing Han; Xiaoyan Li; Lele Wang; Honghao Wang; Kun Yang; Zhixin Wang; Ruijun Wang; Rui Su; Zhihong Liu; Yanhong Zhao; Yanjun Zhang; Jinquan Li

    2018-01-01

    Objective This study investigated the expression of genes in cashmere goats at different periods of their fetal development. Methods Bioinformatics analysis was used to evaluate data obtained by transcriptome sequencing of fetus skin samples collected from Inner Mongolia cashmere goats on days 45, 55, and 65 of fetal age. Results We found that FoxN1, FoxE1, and FoxI3 genes of the Fox gene family were probably involved in the growth and development of the follicle and the formation of hair, wh...

  18. Unraveling the genetic history of the European wild goats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ureña, I.; Ersmark, E.; Samaniego, J. A.; Galindo-Pellicena, M. A.; Crégut-Bonnoure, E.; Bolívar, H.; Gómez-Olivencia, A.; Rios-Garaizar, J.; Garate, D.; Dalén, L.; Arsuaga, J. L.; Valdiosera, C. E.

    2018-04-01

    The population history of the Iberian wild goat and the Alpine ibex has been closely related to that of humans since the Palaeolithic. Current molecular and paleontological studies differ substantially on the phylogenetic origin of the European wild goats, possibly due the loss of genetic variation through time. We investigated the phylogenetic relationship between the Alpine ibex (Capra ibex) and the Iberian wild goat (Capra pyrenaica) including different Iberian wild goat subspecies by applying ancient DNA techniques combined with Next Generation Sequencing technologies. We analysed the cytochrome b gene of the mitochondrial genome in 33 ancient and modern European wild goats from Spain and France together with publicly available genetic information of modern wild goats. This work uncovers for the first time ancient genetic information of the Iberian wild goat and the Alpine ibex, spanning a time range of approximately 40,000 years to the present. Our results suggest genetic continuity between ancient and modern populations and indicate a monophyletic origin of the Alpine ibex and the Iberian wild goat when compared to other Capra species. The monophyly of both species is in agreement with other molecular studies based only on modern populations, therefore supporting one-wave migration of wild goats into Western Europe followed by possible allopatric speciation. We observe three major clades of wild goats in Western Europe: Capra ibex, Capra pyrenaica pyrenaica and the group containing the subspecies Capra pyrenaica hispanica and Capra pyrenaica victoriae. This genetic structure recognizes the distinctiveness of the bucardo (C. p. pyrenaica) from the rest of Iberian wild goats and thus supports the idea that this group is an Evolutionary Significant Unit. The divergence time estimated here indicates an almost contemporaneous split between the three clades around 50,000-90,000 years BP.

  19. Interview with Alison Goate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goate, Alison

    2008-12-01

    Alison M Goate is the Samuel & Mae S Ludwig Professor of Genetics in Psychiatry, Professor of Genetics and Professor of Neurology at Washington University School of Medicine in St Louis (MO, USA). Dr Goate studied for her undergraduate degree in biochemistry at the University of Bristol (UK) and received her graduate training at Oxford University (UK). She performed postdoctoral studies with Professor Theodore Puck, Professor Louis Lim and Dr John Hardy before receiving a Royal Society University Research Fellowship to support her independent research program at St Mary's Hospital Medical School in London. In 1991, Dr Goate and colleagues reported the first mutation linked to an inherited form of Alzheimer's disease, in the amyloid precursor protein (APP) gene on chromosome 21. The mutation was found to be linked to inherited cases of early-onset Alzheimer's disease. In 1992, Dr Goate moved to Washington University as an Associate Professor in Genetics and Psychiatry. Dr Goate and colleagues have since identified mutations in four other genes, including two that cause Alzheimer's disease and two that cause the related dementia frontotemporal dementia. In addition to her work on dementia, Dr Goate's laboratory also studies the genetics of alcohol and nicotine dependence. Dr Goate has received numerous awards including the Potamkin Award from the American Academy of Neurology, the Zenith Award from the Alzheimer's Association, the Senior Investigator Award from the Metropolitan Life Foundation, the St Louis Academy of Science Innovation Award and the Carl and Gerty Cori Faculty Achievement Award at Washington University. Dr Goate has been a member of many scientific Review Boards and currently serves on the Editorial Boards of several journals.

  20. Fetal cardiology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meijboom, E.J.; Rijsterborgh, N.; Bom, N.

    1986-01-01

    Doppler echocardiography makes it possible to diagnose congenital heart disease in early pregnancy. It allows us to study the anatomical configuration of the fetal heart, and additionally, to evaluate the physiological conditions of the fetus. Evaluation of the direction, velocity, wave form pattern, and quantification of blood flow at the various sites in the fetal heart helps us to assess the characteristics of the fetal circulation and condition of the fetal heart. In order to use this technique in pathological situations, an initial study of the developing normal human fetal circulation was necessary. The authors studied 34 uncomplicated pregnancies by serial Doppler echocardiography. The studies were performed every 4 weeks from 16-weeks gestation to term. The pulsed Doppler sector scanner provided cardiac cross-sectional images, mitral and tricuspid blood velocities were obtained from apical four-chamber views. Angle corrected maximal and mean temporal velocities were calculated by digitizing the Doppler frequency shift recording on a graphic tablet computed with a minicomputer. The angle between the Doppler interrogation beam and the direction of blood flow was kept as small as possible in order to minimize the error

  1. Thermal equilibrium of goats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maia, Alex S C; Nascimento, Sheila T; Nascimento, Carolina C N; Gebremedhin, Kifle G

    2016-05-01

    The effects of air temperature and relative humidity on thermal equilibrium of goats in a tropical region was evaluated. Nine non-pregnant Anglo Nubian nanny goats were used in the study. An indirect calorimeter was designed and developed to measure oxygen consumption, carbon dioxide production, methane production and water vapour pressure of the air exhaled from goats. Physiological parameters: rectal temperature, skin temperature, hair-coat temperature, expired air temperature and respiratory rate and volume as well as environmental parameters: air temperature, relative humidity and mean radiant temperature were measured. The results show that respiratory and volume rates and latent heat loss did not change significantly for air temperature between 22 and 26°C. In this temperature range, metabolic heat was lost mainly by convection and long-wave radiation. For temperature greater than 30°C, the goats maintained thermal equilibrium mainly by evaporative heat loss. At the higher air temperature, the respiratory and ventilation rates as well as body temperatures were significantly elevated. It can be concluded that for Anglo Nubian goats, the upper limit of air temperature for comfort is around 26°C when the goats are protected from direct solar radiation. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Fetal MRI

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prayer, D.; Brugger, P.C.

    2004-01-01

    New, ultrafast sequences have made it possible to obtain MR images of the fetus without maternal sedation or immobilization of the fetus itself. While fetal MRI began as an adjunct to ultrasound, it has now been shown that MRI can provide additional information that may change prognosis, the management of pregnancy, or the treatment of the newborn child. It is of particular value in the assessment of malformations of the central nervous system. The steady development and adaptation of MR-sequences to the needs of fetal imaging has led to new indications that can support prognostic and therapeutic decisions. (orig.)

  3. Fetal MRI

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Prayer, D.; Brugger, P.C. [University Hospital of Vienna (Austria). Division of Neuroradiology

    2004-07-01

    New, ultrafast sequences have made it possible to obtain MR images of the fetus without maternal sedation or immobilization of the fetus itself. While fetal MRI began as an adjunct to ultrasound, it has now been shown that MRI can provide additional information that may change prognosis, the management of pregnancy, or the treatment of the newborn child. It is of particular value in the assessment of malformations of the central nervous system. The steady development and adaptation of MR-sequences to the needs of fetal imaging has led to new indications that can support prognostic and therapeutic decisions. (orig.)

  4. Fetal pain

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Adama van Scheltema, Phebe

    2011-01-01

    Recent studies have suggested that the fetus is capable of exhibiting a stress response to intrauterine needling, resulting in alterations in fetal stress hormone levels. Intrauterine transfusions are performed by inserting a needle either in the umbilical cord root at the placental surface (PCI),

  5. Bioethics in the evaluation of the fetal central nervous system in third world countries: applying Rotary International’s four way test

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pablo Emilio Hernández-Rojas

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Evaluation of fetal central nervous system (CNS can be performed with invasive and non-invasive tests but, the implementation of any of both present ethical dilemmas in the prenatal obstetrical management and perinatal therapy. Severely sick fetuses are usually aborted, and such practice is hazardous in third world countries, especially in current times with worldwide spread of Zika virus infection. Rotary International’s four way test give the practitioners a guideline to perform a moral and ethical medical pattern in order to respect the woman and her fetus rights, beneficence and autonomy. Bioethical guidelines in case of an adverse fetal CNS diagnosis is proposed based in this Rotarian moral model.

  6. Glioma in a goat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marshall, C.L.; Weinstock, D.; Kramer, R.W.; Bagley, R.S.

    1995-01-01

    An adult goat was examined because of behavioral changes and circling. Results of neurologic examination, CSF analysis, hematologic evaluation, and computed tomography of the brain were suggestive of an intra-axial mass. The goat was euthanatized because of worsening neurologic condition and poor prognosis. Necropsy revealed a large mass in the right cerebral hemisphere and caudal brain herniation through the foramen magnum. The mass was diagnosed as a glioma, with oligodendrocyte differentiation. Results of immunohistochemical evaluation were compatible with a malignant, poorly differentiated tumor

  7. Evidence of scrapie transmission to sheep via goat milk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konold, Timm; Thorne, Leigh; Simmons, Hugh A; Hawkins, Steve A C; Simmons, Marion M; González, Lorenzo

    2016-09-17

    Previous studies confirmed that classical scrapie can be transmitted via milk in sheep. The current study aimed to investigate whether scrapie can also be transmitted via goat milk using in vivo (new-born lambs fed milk from scrapie-affected goats due to the unavailability of goat kids from guaranteed scrapie-free herds) and in vitro methods (serial protein misfolding cyclic amplification [sPMCA] on milk samples). In an initial pilot study, new-born lambs of two different prion protein gene (PRNP) genotypes (six VRQ/VRQ and five ARQ/ARQ) were orally challenged with 5 g brain homogenate from two scrapie-affected goats to determine susceptibility of sheep to goat scrapie. All sheep challenged with goat scrapie brain became infected based on the immunohistochemical detection of disease-associated PrP (PrP(sc)) in lymphoid tissue, with an ARQ/ARQ sheep being the first to succumb. Subsequent feeding of milk to eight pairs of new-born ARQ/ARQ lambs, with each pair receiving milk from a different scrapie-affected goat, resulted in scrapie in the six pairs that received the largest volume of milk (38-87 litres per lamb), whereas two pairs fed 8-9 litres per lamb, and an environmental control group raised on sheep milk from healthy ewes, did not show evidence of infection when culled at up to 1882 days of age. Infection in those 12 milk recipients occurred regardless of the clinical status, PrP(sc) distribution, caprine arthritis-encephalitis virus infection status and PRNP polymorphisms at codon 142 (II or IM) of the donor goats, but survival time was influenced by PRNP polymorphisms at codon 141. Serial PMCA applied to a total of 32 milk samples (four each from the eight donor goats collected throughout lactation) detected PrP(sc) in one sample each from two goats. The scrapie agent was present in the milk from infected goats and was able to transmit to susceptible species even at early preclinical stage of infection, when PrP(sc) was undetectable in the brain of the

  8. Muerte fetal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Andrés Pons, DR

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available La muerte fetal es un evento poco frecuente pero de gran repercusión afectiva para los padres involucrados y su entorno. En el presente artículo revisaremos la epidemiología, las causas, orientaremos a los médicos en los pasos a seguir para realizar adecuadamente el estudio, la resolución del embarazo y el manejo del embarazo siguiente junto con las estrategias para prevenirlo.

  9. Muerte fetal

    OpenAIRE

    Andrés Pons, G.; Eduardo Sepúlveda, S.; Juan Luis Leiva, B.; Gustavo Rencoret, P.; Alfredo Germain, A.

    2014-01-01

    La muerte fetal es un evento poco frecuente pero de gran repercusión afectiva para los padres involucrados y su entorno. En el presente artículo revisaremos la epidemiología, las causas, orientaremos a los médicos en los pasos a seguir para realizar adecuadamente el estudio, la resolución del embarazo y el manejo del embarazo siguiente junto con las estrategias para prevenirlo.

  10. 7 CFR 65.150 - Goat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ..., PORK, LAMB, CHICKEN, GOAT MEAT, PERISHABLE AGRICULTURAL COMMODITIES, MACADAMIA NUTS, PECANS, PEANUTS, AND GINSENG General Provisions Definitions § 65.150 Goat. Goat means meat produced from goats. ... 7 Agriculture 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Goat. 65.150 Section 65.150 Agriculture Regulations of...

  11. Kudzu -- Goat Interactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peter R. Mount

    1994-01-01

    Researchers at Tuskegee University have joined together to study the impact of grazing Angora goats on kudzu (Pueraria lobata). A pilot project funded by the Southern Forest Experiment Station of the USDA Forest Service was started in 1990. The problem was to find an environmentally acceptable way to control and eradicate kudzu in forest situations...

  12. Brock Cole's The Goats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scales, Pat

    1997-01-01

    Summarizes Brock Cole's novel for young adolescents: "The Goats." Provides discussion questions and classroom activities in language arts, drama, research; mathematics, creative writing, similes; and presents an annotated bibliography of fiction for young adolescents dealing with runaways, self-reliance, family, friendship, courage, overweight,…

  13. Dystocia in sheep and goats: outcome and fertility following surgical and non-surgical management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zuhair Bani Ismail

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Cesarean section is a life-saving surgical procedure usually undertaken in sheep and goats that fail to deliver vaginally (dystocia. Unfortunately, there are no recent review articles in literature that summarize the results of published case reports and clinical trials concerning indications, surgical approaches and procedures and outcomes following cesarean section in sheep and goats. Therefore, the aim of this article was to compile available data related to dystocia and cesarean section in small ruminants. Fortunately, the incidence of dystocia in small ruminants is considered to be low. It can be caused by either maternal or fetal factors. Maternal-related dystocia is most commonly because of failure of cervical dilation, narrow birth canal and uterine inertia. Those related to fetal causes are usually associated with fetal malposition/presentation, feto-pelvic disproportion/fetal oversize, and fetal malformation. Manual extraction of the fetus may be attempted in most cases, however, early surgical intervention by performing cesarean section ensures satisfactory outcome. Cesarean section is usually performed in lateral recumbency through left paralumbar fossa or left paralumbar fossa oblique celiotomy under local analgesia. The success rates and post-operative complications in sheep and goats are underreported; however, early surgical intervention using aseptic technique usually results in a satisfactory outcome for both the dam and newborn with acceptable prognosis for future breeding soundness.

  14. Genetic distances and taxonomic trees between goats of Ceará State (Brazil and goats of the Mediterranean region (Europe and Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Machado Théa M.M.

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available Goats of an undefined breed (called UDB from the State of Ceará, northeastern Brazil (N = 447, European Mediterranean goats (N = 3,847 and African Mediterranean goats (N = 325 were compared to establish genetic distances and taxonomic trees. Allelic frequencies in each population for presence or absence of the following traits were used: horns, reduced ears, long hair, wattles, beard, roan color, brown eumelanin and eumelanic standard pigmentation. The genetic distance, applying the method developed by Nei (1972, was: least between goats from different meso-regions of the State of Ceará (0.0008 to 0.0120; small between all UDB of Ceará and French goats of Rove and Haute Roya (0.0236 and 0.0459; greater between all UDB of Ceará and northern Spanish goats (0.1166, and greatest between all UDB of Ceará and northern African goats (Moroccan of Drâa, Rhâali and Zagora, Balkan goats (Sakhar from Bulgaria and Macedonia from Greece and some insular Mediterranean populations (Corsica, Sicily and Sardinia, which ranged from 0.1237 to 0.2714. Brazilian UDB goats are more closely related to Continental and Western European populations than to North African, Balkan or Insular Mediterranean populations.

  15. [Fetal urology].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jakobovits, Akos; Jakobovits, Antal

    2009-06-14

    Although it becomes vitally important only after birth, renal function already plays significant role in maintaining fetal metabolic equilibrium. The kidneys significantly contribute to production of amniotic fluid. Adequate amount of amniotic fluid is needed to stimulate the intrauterine fetal respiratory activity. Intrauterine breathing is essential for lung development. As a result, oligohydramnion is conducive to pulmonary hypoplasia. The latter may lead to neonatal demise soon after birth. In extrauterine life kidneys eliminate nitrogen containing metabolic byproducts. Inadequate renal function results therefore lethal uremia. Integrity of ureters and the urethra is essential for the maintenance of renal function. Retention of urine causes degeneration of the functional units of the kidneys and ensuing deterioration of renal function. Intrauterine kidney puncture or shunt procedure may delay this process in some cases. On the other hand, once renal function has been damaged, no therapy can restart it. Certain anomalies of renal excretory pathways may also be associated with other congenital abnormalities, making the therapeutic efforts pointless. Presence of these associated intrauterine defects makes early pregnancy termination a management alternative, as well as it affects favorably perinatal mortality rates.

  16. [BLG gene knockout and hLF gene knock-in at BLG locus in goat by TALENs].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Shaozheng; Zhu, Mengmin; Yuan, Yuguo; Rong, Yao; Xu, Sheng; Chen, Si; Mei, Junyan; Cheng, Yong

    2016-03-01

    To knock out β-lactoglobulin (BLG) gene and insert human lactoferrin (hLF) coding sequence at BLG locus of goat, the transcription activator-like effector nucleases (TALEN) mediated recombination was used to edit the BLG gene of goat fetal fibroblast, then as donor cells for somatic cell nuclear transfer. We designed a pair of specific plasmid TALEN-3-L/R for goat BLG exon III recognition sites, and BLC14-TK vector containing a negative selection gene HSV-TK, was used for the knock in of hLF gene. TALENs plasmids were transfected into the goat fetal fibroblast cells, and the cells were screened three days by 2 μg/mL puromycin. DNA cleavage activities of cells were verified by PCR amplification and DNA production sequencing. Then, targeting vector BLC14-TK and plasmids TALEN-3-L/R were co-transfected into goat fetal fibroblasts, both 700 μg/mL G418 and 2 μg/mL GCV were simultaneously used to screen G418-resistant cells. Detections of integration and recombination were implemented to obtain cells with hLF gene site-specific integration. We chose targeting cells as donor cells for somatic cell nuclear transfer. The mutagenicity of TALEN-3-L/R was between 25% and 30%. A total of 335 reconstructed embryos with 6 BLG-/hLF+ targeting cell lines were transferred into 16 recipient goats. There were 9 pregnancies confirmed by ultrasound on day 30 to 35 (pregnancy rate of 39.1%), and one of 50-day-old fetus with BLG-/hLF+ was achieved. These results provide the basis for hLF gene knock-in at BLG locus of goat and cultivating transgenic goat of low allergens and rich hLF in the milk.

  17. Medio ambiente fetal Fetal environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    César Bernardo Ospina Arcila

    1996-04-01

    Full Text Available Con base en el artículo clásico "Monte Everest in utero" se hace un análisis de la situación que afronta el feto con respecto a la disponibilidad de oxígeno; para una mejor comprensión del sufrimiento fetal se revisan los siguientes conceptos: presión barométrica, presión parcial del oxígeno atmosférico, presión parcial del oxígeno inspirado, presión barométrica intranasal, ecuación del gas alveolar y difusión de gases a través de la membrana alvéolo capilar. Based on the classical paper by Eastman "Mount Everest in utero" an analysis is made of the situation faced by the fetus with respect to the availability of oxygen; for a better under. standing of fetal distress the following concepts are reviewed: barometric pressure, partial pressure of atmosferic oxygen, partial pressure of inspired oxygen, barometric intranasal pressure, alveolar gas equation and gas diffusion through alveolo-capilar membrane.

  18. Fate and metabolism of radiolabelled insecticide Coumaphos in egyptian lactating goats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Osman, A.Z.; Zayed, S.M.A.D.; Hazzaa, N.I.

    1986-01-01

    Our study was initiated to determine the residues of 14 C-coumaphos and its metabolites which might appear in milk, meat and other different organs of lactating goats subjected to coumaphos treatment. 14 C-coumaohos (Asunto) was synthesized and applied dermally on two lactating goats. Two equal dermal applications, with 2 weeks interval, were applied on each goat. One goat was sacrificed 24 hours after the second application, and the second animal after a withdrawal period of two weeks. The results indicate that coumaphos has a slow absorption rate when dermally applied to lactating goats. After the withdrawal period, liver, kidney, skin and subcutaneous fat were found to contain considerable amounts of coumaphos residues in comparison with other different organs and milk. Thin layer chromatography showed the presence of coumaphos, its oxygen analogue, and two unknown metabolites.3 fig.,2 tab

  19. Experimental studies on hemolysis following extracorporcal blood irradiation in sheep and goat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heilmann, E.; Vogel, M.; Richter, K.D.; Widmer, H.W.

    1978-01-01

    In experimental studies extracorporal blood irradiation was performed in 3 sheep and 1 goat by means of a 500 Ci 137 Cs source. The sheep died of the sequelae of narcosis, with anemia being only moderately marked. In the goat a transit dosis of 466,566 rad could be applied before the animal died of the sequelae of hemolytic anemia. (author)

  20. The Goat in the Rug.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blood, Charles L.; Link, Martin

    Based on the activities of the real Window Rock weaver, Glenmae, and her goat, Geraldine, this illustrated story incorporates authentic details relative to the Navajo art of rug weaving and is designed for children aged four to eight. Capitalizing on the humor inherent in Geraldine's point of view, the story centers on the goat's observation of…

  1. 7 CFR 65.165 - Ground goat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Ground goat. 65.165 Section 65.165 Agriculture... OF BEEF, PORK, LAMB, CHICKEN, GOAT MEAT, PERISHABLE AGRICULTURAL COMMODITIES, MACADAMIA NUTS, PECANS, PEANUTS, AND GINSENG General Provisions Definitions § 65.165 Ground goat. Ground goat means comminuted...

  2. Evaluation of carcass performance of Matebele goats managed ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    users

    KEYWORDS: Permanent Incisors; Carcass; Matebele Goats. INTRODUCTION ... Africa's goat population increased by ... local farmers to maximize on pricing of their goats. The ..... goats of Northern Mexico: Part 1- The effects of body weight on ...

  3. Fetal behavioral teratology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Visser, Gerard H A; Mulder, Eduard J H; Tessa Ververs, F F

    2010-10-01

    Ultrasound studies of fetal motor behavior provide direct – in vivo – insight in the functioning of the motor component of the fetal central nervous system. In this article, studies are reviewed showing changes in the first timetable of appearance of fetal movements, changes in quality and/or quantity of movements and disturbances in the development of fetal behavioral states in case of endogenous malfunctions, maternal diseases and exogenous behavioral teratogens.

  4. Extinction of Harrington's mountain goat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mead, J.I.; Martin, P.S.; Euler, R.C.; Long, A.; Jull, A.J.T.; Toolin, L.J.; Donahue, D.J.; Linick, T.W.

    1986-01-01

    Keratinous horn sheaths of the extinct Harrington's mountain goat, Oreamnos harringtoni, were recovered at or near the surface of dry caves of the Grand Canyon, Arizona. Twenty-three separate specimens from two caves were dated nondestructively by the tandem accelerator mass spectrometer (TAMS). Both the TAMS and the conventional dates indicate that Harrington's mountain goat occupied the Grand Canyon for at least 19,000 years prior to becoming extinct by 11,160 +/- 125 radiocarbon years before present. The youngest average radiocarbon dates on Shasta ground sloths, Nothrotheriops shastensis, from the region are not significantly younger than those on extinct mountain goats. Rather than sequential extinction with Harrington's mountain goat disappearing from the Grand Canyon before the ground sloths, as one might predict in view of evidence of climatic warming at the time, the losses were concurrent. Both extinctions coincide with the regional arrival of Clovis hunters

  5. Prevalence and Risk Factor Assessment of Peste des petits ruminants in Goats in Rajshahi, Bangladesh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Subir Sarker

    Full Text Available The study was carried out to investigate the prevalence of Peste des petitis ruminants (PPR in goats in Rajshahi District of Bangladesh, and its relation to age, sex, breeds and seasonal influence. In total, 627 goats were examined where 305 were males and 322 were females. The overall prevalence of PPR in goats was found to be 20.57% (n=129. From the various risk factors analysed, age categories of goats, sex, breed and seasonal influence were found to be significantly associated (p<0.01 with the prevalence of PPR. Findings suggested that the seasonal influence on outbreaks of this disease was significantly higher. The clinical prevalence of PPR was highest in the month of December (31.68% and lowest in June (9.52%. The influence of sex on PPR outbreaks was found to be higher in male (28.52% than female (13.04% goats. As regards to age, PPR was significantly higher in young (31.06% compared to sucklers (13.14% and adult (10.15%. The susceptibility of Black Bengal goats to PPR was higher than other breeds. The results of this study showed that PPR is an important goat disease in the studied areas. Thus, an appropriate control strategy has to be designed and applied, which could involve prevention of contact with infected goats and vaccination against the PPR virus. [Vet. World 2011; 4(12.000: 546-549

  6. Bridging gender gaps with dairy goats and root crops

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    tolerant and nutrient-rich ... to increase income from the animals and from sales of root crops. The methodology applied also addresses ... 1.5 - 2 litres per goat per day as the animal matures. Women control the income earned from milk, which ...

  7. Assessment of Helminth Infections in Goats Slaughtered in an ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    User

    West African Journal of Applied Ecology, vol. 23(2), 2015: ... The proportions of goats infected with each parasite type were 100%, 94.4%, 88.6%,80.5%, 68.6 ... northern rural Ghana (Otchere, 1986; ... to improve the livelihood of farmers. This.

  8. The Production of Goat Milk under Organic Requests

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roger Stan

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Organic farming has turned into a very important subject who consists in a food production label and it has become very popular. That is because, especially in the EU the majority of the dairy goat farms want or have already applied the organic farming in order to benefit not only from the good price of milk but also from the given positive image. The main issue of this study is the high production of goat milk using organic farming under specific regulations. Therefore, the organic farming is based on a safe environment, 100% organic feedstuffs, healthy animals (by prevention of diseases, natural mating, reduced stress in animal rearing, modern stables and milking equipment. A few feeding rations were established to improve the quantity and quality of goat milk.

  9. GOATS Image Projection Component

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haber, Benjamin M.; Green, Joseph J.

    2011-01-01

    When doing mission analysis and design of an imaging system in orbit around the Earth, answering the fundamental question of imaging performance requires an understanding of the image products that will be produced by the imaging system. GOATS software represents a series of MATLAB functions to provide for geometric image projections. Unique features of the software include function modularity, a standard MATLAB interface, easy-to-understand first-principles-based analysis, and the ability to perform geometric image projections of framing type imaging systems. The software modules are created for maximum analysis utility, and can all be used independently for many varied analysis tasks, or used in conjunction with other orbit analysis tools.

  10. Prognostic Significance of Preterm Isolated Decreased Fetal Movement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ertuğrul Karahanoğlu

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Our aim is to evaluate the prognostic significance of isolated, preterm decreased fetal movement following normal initial full diagnostic workup. Study design: A retrospective observational study was conducted at a tertiary centre. The applied protocol was approved by the Medical Research Ethics Department of the hospital where the research was conducted. Obstetrics outcomes of preterm- and term-decreased fetal movement were compared following an initial, normal diagnostic work up. Evaluated outcomes were birth weight, mode of delivery, stillbirth rate, induction of labour, development of gestational hypertension, small for gestational age and oligohydramnios, polyhydramnios during the follow up period. Result: Obstetric complications related to placental insufficiency develops more frequently for decreased fetal movement in preterm cases with respect to that of in term cases. Following the diagnosis of decreased fetal movement, pregnancy hypertension occurred in 17% of preterm decreased fetal movement cases and in 4.7% of term decreased fetal movement cases. Fetal growth restriction developed in 6.6% of preterm decreased fetal movement and in 2.3% of term decreased fetal movement. Amniotic fluid abnormalities more frequently developed in preterm decreased fetal movement. Conclusion: Following an initial normal diagnostic workup, preterm decreased fetal movement convey a higher risk for the development of pregnancy complications associated with placental insufficiency. The patient should be monitored closely and management protocols must be developed for initial normal diagnostic workups in cases of preterm decreased fetal movement.

  11. Comparative pharmacokinetics and bioavailability of albendazole sulfoxide in sheep and goats, and dose-dependent plasma disposition in goats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aksit, Dilek; Yalinkilinc, Hande Sultan; Sekkin, Selim; Boyacioğlu, Murat; Cirak, Veli Yilgor; Ayaz, Erol; Gokbulut, Cengiz

    2015-05-27

    The aims of this study were to compare the pharmacokinetics of albendazole sulfoxide (ABZ-SO, ricobendazole) in goats and sheep at a dose of 5 g/kg bodyweight (BW), after intravenous (IV) and subcutaneous (SC) administrations, and to investigate the effects of increased doses (10 and 15 mg/kg BW) on the plasma disposition of ABZ-SO in goats following SC administration. A total of 16 goats (Capra aegagrus hircus, eight males and eight females) and 8 sheep (Ovis aries, four males and four females) 12-16 months old and weighing 20-32 kg, were used. The study was designed according to two-phase crossover study protocol. In Phase-1, eight sheep were assigned as Group I and 16 goats were allocated into two groups (Group II and Group III). ABZ-SO was applied to Group I (sheep) and Group II (goats) animals subcutaneously, and to Group III (goats) animals intravenously, all at a dose rate of 5 mg/kg BW. In Phase-2, the sheep in the Group I received ABZ-SO intravenously in a dose of 5 mg/kg BW; the goats in Group II and Group III received ABZ-SO subcutaneously at a dose of 10 mg/kg and 15 mg/kg BW, respectively. Blood samples were collected from the jugular vein at different times between 1 and 120 h after drug administrations. The plasma concentrations of ABZ-SO and its metabolites were analysed by high performance liquid chromatography. In goats, the area under the curve, terminal half-life and plasma persistence of ABZ-SO were significantly smaller and shorter, respectively, compared with those observed in sheep following both IV and SC administrations at a dose of 5 mg/kg BW. On the other side, dose-dependent plasma dispositions of ABZ-SO were observed following SC administration at increased doses (10 and 15 mg/kg) in goats. Consequently, ABZ-SO might be used at higher doses to provide higher plasma concentration and thus to achieve greater efficacy against the target parasites.

  12. 9 CFR 91.6 - Goats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Goats. 91.6 Section 91.6 Animals and... EXPORTATION Diagnostic Tests, Treatments § 91.6 Goats. (a) In order to be eligible for export, goats shall be...) Tuberculosis. All goats over 1 month of age shall be negative to a caudal intradermal tuberculin test using 0.1...

  13. Nutritional fibrous osteodystrophy in goats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo M Bandarra

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Seven out of 25 goats from a southern Brazilian flock developed nutritional fibrous osteodystrophy. Affected animals were younger than 1 year of age and were confined in stalls and fed a concentrate ration containing 1:6 calcium:phosphorus ratio. The remaining flock (35 goats was managed at pasture and showed no disease. Clinical signs were characterized by mandibular and maxillary enlargements, varying degrees of mouth opening and protruding tongue, dyspnea, apart of abnormalities of prehension and mastication. Affected animals had increased seric levels of phosphorus and parathormone, as well as higher alkaline phosphatase activity. Postmortem examination on three succumbed goats revealed bilateral enlargement of the maxilla and mandibula, and loose teeth, apart of multiple incomplete rib fractures in one of them. Severe diffuse proliferation of loose connective tissue surrounded the osteoid trabeculae, many of which were partially or completely non-mineralized. Mineralized osteoid trabeculae showed osteoclasts in the Howship's lacunae.

  14. Production System of Peranakan Etawah Goat under Application of Feed Technology: Productivity and Economic Efficiency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akhmad Sodiq

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Feed resources are the major constraint in increasing goat production in the village. The main constraints to goat raising are related to feeds (i the high cost of transport of crop residues and grass to the homesteads, (ii the low nutritive value of feeds used, particularly in the dry period. This research was design to evaluate goat productivity and economic efficiency of goat farming under application of feed technology production system in Peranakan Etawah goat farmer group of Gumelar Banyumas Central Java. All farmers were taken as respondents using census methods. On farm research with participative focused group discussion, indepth interview, and farm observation. Descriptive analysis and independent t test methods were used to analyze the data. Results of this study showed that there was a significant improvement goat productivity on production system with the application of feed technology. Body weight at weaning, survival rate till weaning, and doe productivity were increased 7%, 2% and 5%, respectively. There was no evidence of significant different of farmers income and economic efficiency before and after the applied feed technology (P>0.05. The calculation was based on cash flow. Before application, farmers income per year and economic efficiency were Rp14.404.520,00 and 1.21, then insignificantly improve into Rp16.487.100,00 and 1.27, respectively. (Animal Production 11(3: 202-208 (2009 Key Words: Livestock production system, Peranakan Etawah goat, feed technology aplication, productivity and economic efficiency

  15. GOATS - Orbitology Component

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haber, Benjamin M.; Green, Joseph J.

    2010-01-01

    The GOATS Orbitology Component software was developed to specifically address the concerns presented by orbit analysis tools that are often written as stand-alone applications. These applications do not easily interface with standard JPL first-principles analysis tools, and have a steep learning curve due to their complicated nature. This toolset is written as a series of MATLAB functions, allowing seamless integration into existing JPL optical systems engineering modeling and analysis modules. The functions are completely open, and allow for advanced users to delve into and modify the underlying physics being modeled. Additionally, this software module fills an analysis gap, allowing for quick, high-level mission analysis trades without the need for detailed and complicated orbit analysis using commercial stand-alone tools. This software consists of a series of MATLAB functions to provide for geometric orbit-related analysis. This includes propagation of orbits to varying levels of generalization. In the simplest case, geosynchronous orbits can be modeled by specifying a subset of three orbit elements. The next case is a circular orbit, which can be specified by a subset of four orbit elements. The most general case is an arbitrary elliptical orbit specified by all six orbit elements. These orbits are all solved geometrically, under the basic problem of an object in circular (or elliptical) orbit around a rotating spheroid. The orbit functions output time series ground tracks, which serve as the basis for more detailed orbit analysis. This software module also includes functions to track the positions of the Sun, Moon, and arbitrary celestial bodies specified by right ascension and declination. Also included are functions to calculate line-of-sight geometries to ground-based targets, angular rotations and decompositions, and other line-of-site calculations. The toolset allows for the rapid execution of orbit trade studies at the level of detail required for the

  16. Preference for goat meat and milk products consumption in Bauchi ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Very few people were involved in the consumption of goat milk and milk products, with the highest percentage coming from respondents who consume goat milk only on certain occasions. In general, the study indicated that goat meat is well cherished, while milk from goats is unpopular in the state. Since goat milk is known ...

  17. Fuzzy logic and A* algorithm implementation on goat foraging games

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harsani, P.; Mulyana, I.; Zakaria, D.

    2018-03-01

    Goat foraging is one of the games that apply the search techniques within the scope of artificial intelligence. This game involves several actors including players and enemies. The method used in this research is fuzzy logic and Algorithm A*. Fuzzy logic is used to determine enemy behaviour. The A* algorithm is used to search for the shortest path. There are two input variables: the distance between the player and the enemy and the anger level of the goat. The output variable that has been defined is the enemy behaviour. The A* algorithm is used to determine the closest path between the player and the enemy and define the enemy's escape path to avoid the player. There are 4 types of enemies namely farmers, planters, farmers and sellers of plants. Players are goats that aims to find a meal that is a plant. In this game goats aim to spend grass in the garden in the form of a maze while avoiding the enemy. The game provides an application of artificial intelligence and is made in four difficulty levels.

  18. Accounting for Fetal Origins

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dalgaard, Carl-Johan Lars; Hansen, Casper Worm; Strulik, Holger

    2017-01-01

    The Fetal Origins hypothesis has received considerable empirical support, both within epidemiology and economics. The present study compares the ability of two rival theoretical frameworks in accounting for the kind of path dependence implied by the Fetal Origins Hypothesis. We argue that while...

  19. Generation of beta-lactoglobulin knock-out goats using CRISPR/Cas9.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wenjun Zhou

    Full Text Available Goat's milk, considered a substitute for cow's milk, has a high nutritional value. However, goat's milk contains various allergens, predominantly β-lactoglobulin (BLG. In this study, we employed the CRISPR/Cas9 system to target the BLG locus in goat fibroblasts for sgRNA optimization and generate BLG knock-out goats through co-injection of Cas9 mRNA and small guide RNAs (sgRNAs into goat embryos at the one-cell stage. We firstly tested sgRNA editing efficiencies in goat fibroblast cells, and approximately 8.00%-9.09% of the cells were modified in single sgRNA-guided targeting experiment. Among the kids, the genome-targeting efficiencies of single sgRNA were 12.5% (10 ng/μL sg1 and 0% (10 ng/μL sg2 and efficiencies of dual sgRNAs were 25.0% (25 ng/μL sg2+sg3 group and 28.6% (50 ng/μL sg2+sg3 group. Relative expression of BLG in BLG knock-out goat mammary glands significantly (p < 0.01 decreased as well as other milk protein coding genes, such as CSN1S1, CSN1S2, CSN2, CSN3 and LALBA (p < 0.05. As expected, BLG protein had been abolished in the milk of the BLG knock-out goat. In addition, most of the targeted kids were chimeric (3/4, and their various body tissues were edited simultaneously. Our study thus provides a basis for optimizing the quality of goat milk, which can be applied to biomedical and agricultural research.

  20. 4-H Club Goat Guide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, R. Kipp

    This guide provides information for 4-H Club members who have decided on a club goat project. Topics include general information in the following areas: show rules; facilities and equipment (barns/sheds, fences, feeders, water containers, and equipment); selection (structural correctness, muscle, volume and capacity, style and balance, and growth…

  1. Fetal scalp pH testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fetal scalp blood; Scalp pH testing; Fetal blood testing - scalp; Fetal distress - fetal scalp testing; Labor - fetal scalp testing ... a baby. In these cases, testing the scalp pH can help the doctor decide whether the fetus ...

  2. INDONESIAN EFFORTS TO CONSERVE GEMBRONG GOATS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hasanatun Hasinah

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Gembrong goat are mainly found in eastern part of Bali Island, especially in the village of Tumbu, Karangasem. Throughout Indonesia these goats are found no more than 50 heads. This condition puts Gembrong goat in a critical status that indicates the need of emergency and quick action. The present study was carried out to assess the characteristic of this breed and to preserve it through some proposed action plan.  Information was obtained by personal observation and discussion with the leader of farmer group.  Body weight (BW and various body measurement were taken from 15 head of Gembrong goat. In general, the color of Gembrong goat body is white, or partly brown or solid brown. The average body weight is of 23.2 kg for females and 30.7 kg for males.  The averages Body length of males is 60 cm, height 58.2 cm, and 14.4 cm ear length in males, and in females body length is 56.2 cm, height 55.1 cm and ear length 14.2 cm. To preserve Gembrong goat population from extinction collaborative activities is needed, namely: (1 multiplication of existing Gembrong goat population, (2 Rescuing animal genetic material and (3 up-grading female Kacang goat with Gembrong male goat as to achieve 99% Gembrong goat genetic composition.

  3. Expression of fox-related genes in the skin follicles of Inner Mongolia cashmere goat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Wenjing; Li, Xiaoyan; Wang, Lele; Wang, Honghao; Yang, Kun; Wang, Zhixin; Wang, Ruijun; Su, Rui; Liu, Zhihong; Zhao, Yanhong; Zhang, Yanjun; Li, Jinquan

    2018-03-01

    This study investigated the expression of genes in cashmere goats at different periods of their fetal development. Bioinformatics analysis was used to evaluate data obtained by transcriptome sequencing of fetus skin samples collected from Inner Mongolia cashmere goats on days 45, 55, and 65 of fetal age. We found that FoxN1 , FoxE1 , and FoxI3 genes of the Fox gene family were probably involved in the growth and development of the follicle and the formation of hair, which is consistent with previous findings. Real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction detecting system and Western blot analysis were employed to study the relative differentially expressed genes FoxN1 , FoxE1 , and FoxI3 in the body skin of cashmere goat fetuses and adult individuals. This study provided new fundamental information for further investigation of the genes related to follicle development and exploration of their roles in hair follicle initiation, growth, and development.

  4. Expression of fox-related genes in the skin follicles of Inner Mongolia cashmere goat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wenjing Han

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective This study investigated the expression of genes in cashmere goats at different periods of their fetal development. Methods Bioinformatics analysis was used to evaluate data obtained by transcriptome sequencing of fetus skin samples collected from Inner Mongolia cashmere goats on days 45, 55, and 65 of fetal age. Results We found that FoxN1, FoxE1, and FoxI3 genes of the Fox gene family were probably involved in the growth and development of the follicle and the formation of hair, which is consistent with previous findings. Real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction detecting system and Western blot analysis were employed to study the relative differentially expressed genes FoxN1, FoxE1, and FoxI3 in the body skin of cashmere goat fetuses and adult individuals. Conclusion This study provided new fundamental information for further investigation of the genes related to follicle development and exploration of their roles in hair follicle initiation, growth, and development.

  5. The Tankwa Karoo National Park feral goat population: A unique ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The Tankwa Karoo National Park feral goat population: A unique genetic ... The feral goats from Tankwa Karoo National Park in the Northern Cape, South Africa, ... Park and former Tankwa goats, now kept on a private farm were genotyped, ...

  6. quality and consumer acceptability of goat milk with respect to goat

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ACSS

    African Crop Science Journal by African Crop Science Society is licensed under ... farmers' goats in Trans Nzoia County was also determined. ..... Consumer acceptability (panelists scores*) of goat milk products in the north rift region in Kenya.

  7. Management practices to control gastrointestinal parasites in dairy and beef goats in Minas Gerais; Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guimarães, Alessandro de Sá; Gouveia, Aurora Maria Guimarães; do Carmo, Filipe Borges; Gouveia, Gabriela Canabrava; Silva, Marcos Xavier; Vieira, Luiz da Silva; Molento, Marcelo Beltrão

    2011-03-10

    Parasitic infection is recognized worldwide as a limiting factor in the production of goats, and various control methods are used to reduce economic losses, often without considering the epidemiology of the parasites. This has led to the development of highly tolerant parasite populations and the presence of chemical residues in the beef and milk. The objective of this study was to determine the level of knowledge of goat farmers about parasitic diseases and to correlate this with the epidemiology of endoparasites and parasite control practices in goat farms in the state of Minas Gerais, Brazil. The analysis was based on a questionnaire applied by trained veterinarians. The sample was homogeneous throughout the state, covering 18.4% (157/853) of municipalities. Eighty-four dairy goat farms in 81 municipalities and 200 properties with beef goats in 76 municipalities were evaluated. The herd size per goat farm ranged from 4 to 57 (average 24) for beef herds and from 2 to 308 (average 63) for dairy farms. The majority of the beef herd production was extensive and semi-extensive (98.5%), while the dairy herds were maintained under intensive farming (98.8%). The mixed production of goats and sheep was reported by 36.5% of beef goat farmers and by 20.2% of dairy goat farmers. Among the beef goats farms on which the technological level was determined, 2.0% were categorized as having high technological level, 34.5% as medium, and 63.5% as low. Of the 84 dairy farms, 30% operated at a high, 47% at a medium, and 23% at a low technological level. The adoption of practices to reduce parasitism, such as the quarantine of animals, treatment of newly arrived animals, regular cleaning of the floor, and technical assistance, was significantly higher on dairy farms than on beef farms. Although 85.7% of dairy farmers and 83% of beef farmers medicate their animals, the treatments were performed without technical criteria, and deworming intervals ranged from 30 to 120 days or more. The

  8. MRI of normal and pathological fetal lung development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kasprian, Gregor; Balassy, Csilla; Brugger, Peter C.; Prayer, Daniela

    2006-01-01

    Normal fetal lung development is a complex process influenced by mechanical and many biochemical factors. In addition to ultrasound, fetal magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) constitutes a new method to investigate this process in vivo during the second and third trimester. The techniques of MRI volumetry, assessment of signal intensities, and MRI spectroscopy of the fetal lung have been used to analyze this process and have already been applied clinically to identify abnormal fetal lung growth. Particularly in conditions such as oligohydramnios and congenital diaphragmatic hernia (CDH), pulmonary hypoplasia may be the cause of neonatal death. A precise diagnosis and quantification of compromised fetal lung development may improve post- and perinatal management. The main events in fetal lung development are reviewed and MR volumetric data from 106 normal fetuses, as well as different examples of pathological lung growth, are provided

  9. MRI of normal and pathological fetal lung development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kasprian, Gregor [University Clinic of Radiodiagnostics, Medical University of Vienna (Austria)]. E-mail: gregor.kasprian@meduniwien.ac.at; Balassy, Csilla [University Clinic of Radiodiagnostics, Medical University of Vienna (Austria); Brugger, Peter C. [Center of Anatomy and Cell Biology, Medical University of Vienna (Austria); Prayer, Daniela [University Clinic of Radiodiagnostics, Medical University of Vienna (Austria)

    2006-02-15

    Normal fetal lung development is a complex process influenced by mechanical and many biochemical factors. In addition to ultrasound, fetal magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) constitutes a new method to investigate this process in vivo during the second and third trimester. The techniques of MRI volumetry, assessment of signal intensities, and MRI spectroscopy of the fetal lung have been used to analyze this process and have already been applied clinically to identify abnormal fetal lung growth. Particularly in conditions such as oligohydramnios and congenital diaphragmatic hernia (CDH), pulmonary hypoplasia may be the cause of neonatal death. A precise diagnosis and quantification of compromised fetal lung development may improve post- and perinatal management. The main events in fetal lung development are reviewed and MR volumetric data from 106 normal fetuses, as well as different examples of pathological lung growth, are provided.

  10. Fetal Abuse and the Criminalization of Behavior during Pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farr, Kathryn Ann

    1995-01-01

    Discusses efforts to criminalize fetal abuse, harm caused from a pregnant woman's use of illegal drugs. Such efforts have typically failed to withstand judicial scrutiny. Suggests that criminal prosecution for fetal abuse relies on questionable procedures, is unevenly applied, and may keep women from seeking drug treatment or prenatal care. (LKS)

  11. Fetal contamination with cadmium following chronic exposure of rat ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Fetal contamination with cadmium following chronic exposure of rat dams during gestation. ... African Journal of Applied Zoology and Environmental Biology ... It was concluded that cadmium, contrary to previous reports, can pass through the placenta in appreciable quantity to contaminate the fetus to possibly cause fetal ...

  12. Fetal Echocardiography and Indications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melih Atahan Güven

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Congenital heart diseases are encountered in 0.8% of live births and are among the most frequently diagnosed malformations. At least half of these anomalies end up with death or require surgical interventions and are responsible for 30% of the perinatal mortality. Fetal echocardiography is the sum of knowledge, skill and orientation rather than knowing the embryologic details of the fetal heart. The purpose of fetal echocardiography is to document the presence of normal fetal cardiac anatomy and rhythm in high risk group and to define the anomaly and arrhythmia if present. A certain sequence should be followed during the evaluation of fetal heart. Sequential segmental analysis (SSA and basic definition terminology made it possible to determine a lot of complex cardiac anomalies during prenatal period. By the end of 1970’s, Shinebourne started using sequential segmental analysis for fetal cardiac evaluation and today, prenatal diagnosis of congenital heart disease is possible without any confusion. In this manner, whole fetal heart can be evaluated as the relation of three segments (atria, ventricles and the great arteries with each other, irrelevant of complexity of a possible cardiac anomaly. Presence of increased nuchal thickness during early gestation and abnormal four-chamber-view during ultrasonography by the obstetrician presents a clear indication for fetal echocardiography,however, one should keep in mind that 80-90% of the babies born with a congenital heart disease do not have a familial or maternal risk factor. In addition, it should be remembered that expectant mothers with diabetes mellitus pose an indication for fetal echocardiography.

  13. Fetal tachycardia : diagnosis and treatment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oudijk, Martijn Alexander

    2003-01-01

    Part I: Fetal tachyarrhythmias Diagnosis Fetal tachycardia is a serious condition warranting specialized evaluation. In chapter 2, methods of diagnosis of fetal tachycardia are described, including doppler and M-mode echocardiography and fetal magnetocardiography. The study presented in chapter 3

  14. Fetal body movement monitoring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rayburn, W F

    1990-03-01

    Recording fetal activity serves as an indirect measure of central nervous system integrity and function. The coordination of whole body movement, which requires complex neurologic control, is likely similar to that of the newborn infant. Short-term observations of the fetus are best performed using real-time ultrasound imaging. Monitoring fetal motion has been shown to be clinically worthwhile in predicting impending death or compromise, especially when placental insufficiency is longstanding. The presence of a vigorous fetus is reassuring. Perceived inactivity requires a reassessment of any underlying antepartum complication and a more precise evaluation by fetal heart rate testing or real-time ultrasonography before delivery is contemplated.

  15. Fetal blood drawing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hobbins, J C; Mahoney, M J

    1975-07-19

    A small sample of fetal blood suitable for studies of haemoglobin synthesis was obtained from a placental vessel under endoscopic visualisation in 23 of 26 patients in whom the procedure was attempted prior to second-trimester abortion. Fetal blood loss, calculated in 23 cases, was between 0-2 ml. and 2-5 ml., and fetal blood-volume depletion varied from 0-5% to 15%. No short-term ill-effects were demonstrated in mother or fetus in any of 16 patients in whom the injection of aborti-facient was postponed for between 16 and 24 hours after the procedure.

  16. Prevalence of Campylobacter among goats and retail goat meat in Congo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    a Mpalang, Rosette Kabwang; Boreux, Raphaël; Melin, Pierrette; Akir Ni Bitiang, Khang'Mate; Daube, Georges; De Mol, Patrick

    2014-02-13

    The prevalence of Campylobacter jejuni and Campylobacter coli was determined in goat and goat meat sold at retail outlets in Lubumbashi, Democratic Republic of Congo (DR Congo). A total of 644 samples, including 177 goat meat, 86 goat stomachs, 139 ready to eat (RTE) goat skewers, and 242 goat faecal samples were examined for the presence of Campylobacter jejuni and Campylobacter coli using polymerase chain reaction. Overall, Campylobacter spp. were found in 34.6% of the examined samples. C. jejuni was isolated in 10.1% and C. coli in 26.7% of samples. Only 2.2% of all samples were positive for both species. There was a significant association between the prevalence of C. coli and the type of sample (p goat meat, goat stomachs, RTE goat skewers, and goat faecal samples, respectively. There was no significant difference (p > 0.05) between the prevalence observed in the rainy season (16.7%) and the dry season (20.0%). Moreover, the overall prevalence of Campylobacter in slaughter sites, open-air markets, warehouses, and semi-open-air markets was 28.2%, 34.2%, 35.4%, and 42.9%, respectively. Statistically, there was no influence of the sample collection site on the frequency of isolation of Campylobacter (p > 0.05). This study shows that, considering the relatively high prevalence of this pathogen, live goat and goat meat are major sources of human and environmental contamination by Campylobacter spp. in Lubumbashi.

  17. Meat quality of goat and sheep sausages

    OpenAIRE

    Teixeira, A.; Pereira, Etelvina; Rodrigues, Sandra

    2012-01-01

    The main objective of this work was to contribute to the characterization of a new product, based on goat and sheep meat with a strategy, which gives value-added to meat from culled goats and sheep, which have a very low commercial price. Carcasses from animals weighing more than the body weight allowed by PDO label specifications were used to produce fresh sausages. Sheep and goats sausages were produced in a traditional industry, in Northeast Portugal. The following character...

  18. Increasing Goat Productivity Through the Improvement of Endogenous Secretion of Pregnant Hormones Using Follicle Stimulating Hormone

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andriyanto Andriyanto

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract. Previous studies reported that the improvement of endogenous estrogen and progesterone secretions during gestation improved fetal prenatal growth, birth weight, mammary gland growth and development, milk production, litter size, pre- and post-weaning growths. An experiment was conducted to apply the improvement of endogenous secretion of pregnant hormones during pregnancy to increase goat productivity. Thirty-six female ettawah-cross does were divided into 2 groups. Group 1 (control: 18 does included does without improvement of endogenous secretion of pregnant hormones and Group 2 (treatment: 18 does included does with improvement of endogenous secretion of pregnant hormones using follicle stimulating hormones to stimulate super ovulation. The application of this technology increased total offspring born (control: 25 offspring; treatment: 42 offspring, average litter size (control: 1.88; treatment: 2.33, offspring birth weight (control: 2.85±0.50 kg; treatment: 3.82±0.40 kg, and does milk production (control: 1.36±0.34 L/does/day; treatment: 2.10±0.21 L/does/day. Offspring born to does with improved endogenous secretion of pregnant hormones had better weaning weight (control: 11.17±1.99 kg/offspring; treatment: 14.5±1.11 kg/offspring. At weaning period, does with improved endogenous secretion of pregnant hormones produced offspring with total weaning weight twice as heavy as control does (control: 189.9 kg; treatment: 403.6 kg. By a simple calculation of economic analysis, this technology application could increase gross revenue per does until weaning by Rp. 432.888,89. It was concluded that this technology is economically feasible to be applied in small-scale farm. Key Words: follicle stimulating hormone, pregnant hormones, endogenous secretion, super ovulation, ettawah-cross does

  19. Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alcohol can harm your baby at any stage during a pregnancy. That includes the earliest stages, before ... can cause a group of conditions called fetal alcohol spectrum disorders (FASDs). Children who are born with ...

  20. Fetal and neonatal thyrotoxicosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batra, Chandar Mohan

    2013-01-01

    Fetal thyrotoxicosis is a rare disease occurring in 1 out of 70 pregnancies with Grave's disease or in 1 out of 4000-50,000 deliveries. The mortality is 12-20%, usually from heart failure, but other complications are tracheal compression, infections and thrombocytopenia. It results from transfer of thyroid stimulating immunoglobulins from mother to fetus through the placenta. This transplacental transfer begins around 20th week of pregnancy and reaches its maximum by 30th week. These autoantibodies bind to the fetal thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) receptors and increase the secretion of the thyroid hormones. The mother has an active autoimmune thyroid disease or has been treated for it in the past. She may be absolutely euthyroid due to past treatment by drugs, surgery or radioiodine ablation, but still have active TSH receptor stimulating autoantibodies, which can cause fetal thyrotoxicosis. The other features of this disease are fetal tachycardia, fetal goiter and history of spontaneous abortions and findings of goiter, ascites, craniosyntosis, fetal growth retardation, maceration and hydrops at fetal autopsy. If untreated, this disease can result in intrauterine death. The treatment for this disease consists of giving carbimazole to the mother, which is transferred through the placenta to the fetus. The dose of carbimazole is titrated with the fetal heart rate. If the mother becomes hypothyroid due to carbimazole, thyroxine is added taking advantage of the fact that very little of thyroxine is transferred across the placenta. Neonatal thyrotoxicosis patients are very sick and require emergency treatment. The goal of the treatment is to normalize thyroid functions as quickly as possible, to avoid iatrogenic hypothyroidism while providing management and supportive therapy for the infant's specific signs and symptoms. PMID:24251220

  1. Fetal magnetic resonance imaging: indications, technique, anatomical considerations and a review of fetal abnormalities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ertl-Wagner, Birgit [Department of Radiology, Klinikum Grosshadern, University of Munich, Marchioninistrasse 15, 81377 Munich (Germany); Present address: Institute of Clinical Radiology, Klinikum Grosshadern, University of Munich, Marchioninistrasse 15, 81377 Munich (Germany); Lienemann, Andreas; Reiser, Maximilian F. [Department of Radiology, Klinikum Grosshadern, University of Munich, Marchioninistrasse 15, 81377 Munich (Germany); Strauss, Alexander [Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Klinikum Grosshadern, University of Munich, Marchioninistrasse 15, 81377 Munich (Germany)

    2002-08-01

    Fetal MR imaging often poses a diagnostic challenge for the radiologist. Both fetal anatomy and pathology differ decidedly from pediatric and adult MR imaging. While ultrasound remains the method of choice for screening examinations of the fetus, MR imaging is playing an increasingly important role in the detection and classification of malformations not diagnosable by ultrasonography alone. Recently, advances in fast single-shot MR sequences have allowed high-resolution, high-quality imaging of the moving fetus. Preferable sequences to be applied are a true fast imaging steady precession (true-FISP) or a half-Fourier acquired single-shot turbo spin-echo (HASTE) sequence. Premedication is generally no longer required. In all fetal MR imaging, every aspect of fetal anatomy has to be scrutinized. Subsequently, any abnormalities need to be described and classified. A close collaboration with the referring obstetrician is of paramount importance. (orig.)

  2. Cow's milk and goat's milk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turck, Dominique

    2013-01-01

    Cow's milk is increasingly suggested to play a role in the development of chronic degenerative, non-communicable disorders whereas goat's milk is advocated as having several health benefits. Cow's milk is a rich and cheap source of protein and calcium, and a valuable food for bone health. Despite their high content in saturated fats, consumption of full-fat dairy products does not seem to cause significant changes in cardiovascular disease risk variables. Early introduction of cow's milk is a strong negative determinant of iron status. Unmodified cow's milk does not meet nutritional requirements of infants although it is acceptable to add small volumes of cow's milk to complementary foods. Cow's milk protein allergy has a prevalence ranging from 2 to 7%, and the age of recovery is usually around 2-3 years. The evidence linking cow's milk intake to a later risk of type 1 diabetes or chronic degenerative, non-communicable disorders (obesity, metabolic syndrome, type 2 diabetes, hypertension) is not convincing. Milk probably protects against colorectal cancer, diets high in calcium are a probable cause of prostate cancer, and there is limited evidence suggesting that high consumption of milk and dairy products increases the risk for prostate cancer. There is no evidence to support the use of a cow's milk-free diet as a primary treatment for individuals with autistic spectrum disorders. Unmodified goat's milk is not suitable for infants because of the high protein and minerals content and of a low folate content. Goat's milk has no clear nutritional advantage over cow's milk and is not less allergenic. The European Food Safety Authority recently stated that proteins from goat's milk can be suitable as a protein source for infant and follow-on formula, provided the final product complies with the compositional criteria laid down in Directive 2006/141/EC. Copyright © 2013 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  3. Generation of Five Human Lactoferrin Transgenic Cloned Goats Using Fibroblast Cells and Their Methylation Status of Putative Differential Methylation Regions of IGF2R and H19 Imprinted Genes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Yanyan; Zhang, Yanli; Wang, Ziyu; Song, Yang; Wang, Feng

    2013-01-01

    Background Somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT) is a promising technique to produce transgenic cloned mammalian, including transgenic goats which may produce Human Lactoferrin (hLF). However, success percentage of SCNT is low, because of gestational and neonatal failure of transgenic embryos. According to the studies on cattle and mice, DNA methylation of some imprinted genes, which plays a vital role in the reprogramming of embryo in NT maybe an underlying mechanism. Methodology/Principal Findings Fibroblast cells were derived from the ear of a two-month-old goat. The vector expressing hLF was constructed and transfected into fibroblasts. G418 selection, EGFP expression, PCR, and cell cycle distribution were applied sequentially to select transgenic cells clones. After NT and embryo transfer, five transgenic cloned goats were obtained from 240 cloned transgenic embryos. These transgenic goats were identified by 8 microsatellites genotyping and southern blot. Of the five transgenic goats, 3 were lived after birth, while 2 were dead during gestation. We compared differential methylation regions (DMR) pattern of two paternally imprinted genes (H19 and IGF2R) of the ear tissues from the lived transgenic goats, dead transgenic goats, and control goats from natural reproduction. Hyper-methylation pattern appeared in cloned aborted goats, while methylation status was relatively normal in cloned lived goats compared with normal goats. Conclusions/Significance In this study, we generated five hLF transgenic cloned goats by SCNT. This is the first time the DNA methylation of lived and dead transgenic cloned goats was compared. The results demonstrated that the methylation status of DMRs of H19 and IGF2R were different in lived and dead transgenic goats and therefore this may be potentially used to assess the reprogramming status of transgenic cloned goats. Understanding the pattern of gene imprinting may be useful to improve cloning techniques in future. PMID:24204972

  4. Welfare effects of a disease eradication programme for dairy goats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muri, K; Leine, N; Valle, P S

    2016-02-01

    The Norwegian dairy goat industry has largely succeeded in controlling caprine arthritis encephalitis (CAE), caseous lymphadenitis (CLA) and paratuberculosis through a voluntary disease eradication programme called Healthier Goats (HG). The aim of this study was to apply an on-farm welfare assessment protocol to assess the effects of HG on goat welfare. A total of 30 dairy goat farms were visited, of which 15 had completed disease eradication and 15 had not yet started. Three trained observers assessed the welfare on 10 farms each. The welfare assessment protocol comprised both resource-based and animal-based welfare measures, including a preliminary version of qualitative behavioural assessments with five prefixed terms. A total of 20 goats in each herd were randomly selected for observations of human-animal interactions and physical health. The latter included registering abnormalities of eyes, nostrils, ears, skin, lymph nodes, joints, udder, claws and body condition score. For individual-level data, robust clustered logistic regression analyses with farm as cluster variable were conducted to assess the association with disease eradication. Wilcoxon rank-sum tests were used for comparisons of herd-level data between the two groups. Goats with swollen joints (indicative of CAE) and enlarged lymph nodes (indicative of CLA) were registered on 53% and 93% of the non-HG farms, respectively, but on none of the HG farms. The only other health variables with significantly lower levels in HG herds were skin lesions (P=0.008) and damaged ears due to torn out ear tags (PGoats on HG farms showed less fear of unknown humans (P=0.013), and the qualitative behavioural assessments indicated that the animals in these herds were calmer than in non-HG herds. Significantly more space and lower gas concentrations reflected the upgrading of buildings usually done on HG farms. In conclusion, HG has resulted in some welfare improvements beyond the elimination of infectious diseases

  5. Endogenous ghrelin-O-acyltransferase (GOAT) acylates local ghrelin in the hippocampus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murtuza, Mohammad I; Isokawa, Masako

    2018-01-01

    Ghrelin is an appetite-stimulating peptide. Serine 3 on ghrelin must be acylated by octanoate via the enzyme ghrelin-O-acyltransferase (GOAT) for the peptide to bind and activate the cognate receptor, growth hormone secretagogue receptor type 1a (GHSR1a). Interest in GHSR1a increased dramatically when GHSR1a mRNA was demonstrated to be widespread in the brain, including the cortex and hippocampus, indicating that it has multifaceted functions beyond the regulation of metabolism. However, the source of octanoylated ghrelin for GHSR1a in the brain, outside of the hypothalamus, is not well understood. Here, we report the presence of GOAT and its ability to acylate non-octanoylated ghrelin in the hippocampus. GOAT immunoreactivity is aggregated at the base of the dentate granule cell layer in the rat and wild-type mouse. This immunoreactivity was not affected by the pharmacological inhibition of GHSR1a or the metabolic state-dependent fluctuation of systemic ghrelin levels. However, it was absent in the GHSR1a knockout mouse hippocampus, pointing the possibility that the expression of GHSR1a may be a prerequisite for the production of GOAT. Application of fluorescein isothiocyanate (FITC)-conjugated non-octanoylated ghrelin in live hippocampal slice culture (but not in fixed culture or in the presence of GOAT inhibitors) mimicked the binding profile of FITC-conjugated octanoylated ghrelin, suggesting that extracellularly applied non-octanoylated ghrelin was acylated by endogenous GOAT in the live hippocampus while GOAT being mobilized out of neurons. Our results will advance the understanding for the role of endogenous GOAT in the hippocampus and facilitate the search for the source of ghrelin that is intrinsic to the brain. © 2017 International Society for Neurochemistry.

  6. Resistance to classical scrapie in experimentally challenged goats carrying mutation K222 of the prion protein gene

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Acutis Pier Luigi

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Susceptibility of sheep to scrapie, a transmissible spongiform encephalopathy of small ruminants, is strongly influenced by polymorphisms of the prion protein gene (PRNP. Breeding programs have been implemented to increase scrapie resistance in sheep populations; though desirable, a similar approach has not yet been applied in goats. European studies have now suggested that several polymorphisms can modulate scrapie susceptibility in goats: in particular, PRNP variant K222 has been associated with resistance in case-control studies in Italy, France and Greece. In this study we investigated the resistance conferred by this variant using a natural Italian goat scrapie isolate to intracerebrally challenge five goats carrying genotype Q/Q 222 (wild type and five goats carrying genotype Q/K 222. By the end of the study, all five Q/Q 222 goats had died of scrapie after a mean incubation period of 19 months; one of the five Q/K 222 goats died after 24 months, while the other four were alive and apparently healthy up to the end of the study at 4.5 years post-challenge. All five of these animals were found to be scrapie negative. Statistical analysis showed that the probability of survival of the Q/K 222 goats versus the Q/Q 222 goats was significantly higher (p = 0.002. Our study shows that PRNP gene mutation K222 is strongly associated with resistance to classical scrapie also in experimental conditions, making it a potentially positive target for selection in the frame of breeding programs for resistance to classical scrapie in goats.

  7. Fetal motion estimation from noninvasive cardiac signal recordings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biglari, Hadis; Sameni, Reza

    2016-11-01

    Fetal motility is a widely accepted indicator of the well-being of a fetus. In previous research, it has be shown that fetal motion (FM) is coherent with fetal heart rate accelerations and an indicator for active/rest cycles of the fetus. The most common approach for FM and fetal heart rate (FHR) assessment is by Doppler ultrasound (DUS). While DUS is the most common approach for studying the mechanical activities of the heart, noninvasive fetal electrocardiogram (ECG) and magnetocardiogram (MCG) recording and processing techniques have been considered as a possible competitor (or complement) for the DUS. In this study, a fully automatic and robust framework is proposed for the extraction, ranking and alignment of fetal QRS-complexes from noninvasive fetal ECG/MCG. Using notions from subspace tracking, two measures, namely the actogram and rotatogram, are defined for fetal motion tracking. The method is applied to four fetal ECG/MCG databases, including twin MCG recordings. By defining a novel measure of causality, it is shown that there is significant coherency and causal relationship between the actogram/rotatogram and FHR accelerations/decelerations. Using this measure, it is shown that in many cases, the actogram and rotatogram precede the FHR variations, which supports the idea of motion-induced FHR accelerations/decelerations for these cases and raises attention for the non-motion-induced FHR variations, which can be associated to the fetal central nervous system developments. The results of this study can lead to novel perspectives of the fetal sympathetic and parasympathetic brain systems and future requirements of fetal cardiac monitoring.

  8. Embryo transfer using cryopreserved Boer goat blastocysts ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The aim of this trial was to evaluate the effect of embryo cryopreservation techniques on the survivability of embryos and fertility following transfer to Boer goat does. The oestrous cycles of 27 mature recipients Boer goat does were synchronised using controlled internal drug release dispensers (CIDR's) for 16 days. At CIDR ...

  9. Thoracic radiographic anatomy in goats | Makungu | Tanzania ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The aim of this study was to describe the normal radiographic anatomy of the thorax of small East African goats as a reference for clinical use. Radiography of the thorax was performed under general anaesthesia in 10 healthy small East African goats. Right lateral (RL), left lateral (LL), dorsoventral (DV) and ventrodorsal ...

  10. Fetal programming and eating disorder risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Candace; Pearce, Brad; Barrera, Ingrid; Mummert, Amanda

    2017-09-07

    Fetal programming describes the process by which environmental stimuli impact fetal development to influence disease development later in life. Our analysis summarizes evidence for the role of fetal programming in eating disorder etiology through review of studies demonstrating specific obstetric complications and later eating risk of anorexia or bulimia. Using Pubmed, we found thirteen studies investigating obstetric factors and eating disorder risk published between 1999 and 2016. We then discuss modifiable maternal risk factors, including nutrition and stress, that influence anorexia or bulimia risk of their offspring. Translation of these findings applies to preventative strategies by health organizations and physicians to provide optimal health for mothers and their children to prevent development of medical and psychiatric illnesses. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. [Cloning goat producing human lactoferrin with genetically modified donor cells selected by single or dual markers].

    Science.gov (United States)

    An, Liyou; Yuan, Yuguo; Yu, Baoli; Yang, Tingjia; Cheng, Yong

    2012-12-01

    We compared the efficiency of cloning goat using human lactoferrin (hLF) with genetically modified donor cells marked by single (Neo(r)) or double (Neo(r)/GFP) markers. Single marker expression vector (pBLC14) or dual markers expression vector (pAPLM) was delivered to goat fetal fibroblasts (GFF), and then the transgenic GFF was used as donor cells to produce transgenic goats. Respectively, 58.8% (20/34) and 86.7% (26/30) resistant cell lines confirmed the transgenic integration by PCR. Moreover, pAPLM cells lines were subcultured with several passages, only 20% (6/30) cell lines was observed fluorescence from each cell during the cell passage. Somatic cell nuclear transfer using the donor cells harbouring pBLC14 or pAPLM construct, resulting in a total of 806 reconstructed embryos, a pregnancy rate at 35 d (53.8%, 39.1%) and 60 d (26.9%, 21.7%), and an offspring birth rate (1.9%, 1.4%) with 5 and 7 newborn cloned goats, respectively. Transgene was confirmed by PCR and southern-blot in all cloned offspring. There were no significant differences at the reconstructed embryo fusion rates, pregnancy rates and the birth rate (P > 0.05) between single and double markers groups. The Neo(r)/GFP double markers could improve the reliability for accurately and efficiently selecting the genetically modified donor cells. No adverse effect was observed on the efficiency of transgenic goat production by SCNT using somatic cells transfected with double (Neo(r)/GFP) markers vector.

  12. 36 CFR 13.1114 - May I collect goat hair?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false May I collect goat hair? 13... General Provisions § 13.1114 May I collect goat hair? The collection of naturally shed goat hair is... conditions for collecting goat hair is prohibited. ...

  13. Production Systems for the Muslim Goat's Meat Market | Asheim ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A goat's meat production system based on suckling cashmere goats might also be ... The demand for goat's meat is high when sold at equal price of lamb's meat, but ... It is concluded that goat farmers should be paid a premium when keeping ...

  14. Intrapartum fetal heart rate profiles with and without fetal asphyxia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Low, J A; Pancham, S R; Worthington, D N

    1977-04-01

    Fetal heart rate profiles for periods up to 12 hours prior to delivery have been reviewed in 515 patients with a fetus at risk. Mechanisms other than fetal asphyxia will cause fetal heart rate decelerations, and fetal asphyxia may in some instances develop in the absence of total or late decelerations. However, an increasing incidence of total decelerations and late decelerations and particularly a marked pattern of total decelerations and late decelerations are of value in the prediction of fetal asphyxia. Fetal heart rate deceleration patterns can predict the probability of fetal asphyxia at the time of initial intervention, while a progression of fetal heart rate deceleration patterns in the individual fetus can be of assistance in the subsequent scheduling of serial acid-base assessments during labor.

  15. The placenta shed from goats with classical scrapie is infectious to goat kids and lambs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneider, David A; Madsen-Bouterse, Sally A; Zhuang, Dongyue; Truscott, Thomas C; Dassanayake, Rohana P; O'Rourke, Katherine I

    2015-08-01

    The placenta of domestic sheep plays a key role in horizontal transmission of classical scrapie. Domestic goats are frequently raised with sheep and are susceptible to classical scrapie, yet potential routes of transmission from goats to sheep are not fully defined. Sparse accumulation of disease-associated prion protein in cotyledons casts doubt about the role of the goat's placenta. Thus, relevant to mixed-herd management and scrapie-eradication efforts worldwide, we determined if the goat's placenta contains prions orally infectious to goat kids and lambs. A pooled cotyledon homogenate, prepared from the shed placenta of a goat with naturally acquired classical scrapie disease, was used to orally inoculate scrapie-naïve prion genotype-matched goat kids and scrapie-susceptible lambs raised separately in a scrapie-free environment. Transmission was detected in all four goats and in two of four sheep, which importantly identifies the goat's placenta as a risk for horizontal transmission to sheep and other goats.

  16. Ultrasonic prediction of fetal mass

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    1983-02-19

    Feb 19, 1983 ... Summary. A clinically accurate method for estimating fetal. mass from fetal body parameters is reviewed. The abdominal circumference is first calculated from ... reliable clinical parameter is the impression of uterine volume,.

  17. Possibility of modifying the growth trajectory in Raeini Cashmere goat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghiasi, Heydar; Mokhtari, M S

    2018-03-27

    The objective of this study was to investigate the possibility of modifying the growth trajectory in Raeini Cashmere goat breed. In total, 13,193 records on live body weight collected from 4788 Raeini Cashmere goats were used. According to Akanke's information criterion (AIC), the sing-trait random regression model included fourth-order Legendre polynomial for direct and maternal genetic effect; maternal and individual permanent environmental effect was the best model for estimating (co)variance components. The matrices of eigenvectors for (co)variances between random regression coefficients of direct additive genetic were used to calculate eigenfunctions, and different eigenvector indices were also constructed. The obtained results showed that the first eigenvalue explained 79.90% of total genetic variance. Therefore, changing the body weights applying the first eigenfunction will be obtained rapidly. Selection based on the first eigenvector will cause favorable positive genetic gains for all body weight considered from birth to 12 months of age. For modifying the growth trajectory in Raeini Cashmere goat, the selection should be based on the second eigenfunction. The second eigenvalue accounted for 14.41% of total genetic variance for body weights that is low in comparison with genetic variance explained by the first eigenvalue. The complex patterns of genetic change in growth trajectory observed under the third and fourth eigenfunction and low amount of genetic variance explained by the third and fourth eigenvalues.

  18. Unexplained fetal death

    OpenAIRE

    Sepúlveda, Janer; Quintero, Eliana Maribel

    2004-01-01

    El porcentaje de muertes fetales inexplicadas oscila entre un 21% a 50%; se define como la muerte que ocurre en fetos con edad gestacional mayor de 20 semanas o peso superior a 500 g, en la cual ni la autopsia ni el examen histológico del cordón umbilical, placenta y membranas, se logra identificar la causa. Los factores asociados con muerte fetal inexplicada son edad materna mayor de 35 años, sobrepeso, nivel educativo menor de 10 años, cigarrillo y bajo nivel socioeconómico, entre otros. La...

  19. Human fetal anatomy: MR imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weinreb, J C; Lowe, T; Cohen, J M; Kutler, M

    1985-12-01

    Twenty-four pregnant women carrying 26 fetuses (two sets of twins) were imaged with magnetic resonance (MR) imaging at 0.35 T following sonographic evaluation. Each study was retrospectively evaluated to determine which of 33 normal fetal structures were visible on the images and which imaging parameters were most useful for depicting fetal anatomy. Fetal motion degraded fetal images in all but two cases, both with oligohydramnios and in the third trimester of gestation. Nevertheless, many fetal structures were identifiable, particularly in the third trimester. Visualization of fetal anatomy improved with intravenous maternal sedation in five cases. Relatively T1-weighted images occasionally offered the advantage of less image degradation owing to fetal motion and improved contrast between different fetal structures. More T2 weighting was believed to be advantageous in one case for outlining the fetal head and in one case for delineation of the brain. In many cases, structures were similarly identifiable (though with different signal intensities) regardless of the parameters selected. The authors conclude that MR imaging of many fetal structures is currently unsatisfactory and is probably of limited value, particularly in the first and second trimesters. However, the relative frequency and detail with which the fetal head and liver can be depicted indicate that these may be areas for further investigation, and the potential utility of imaging fetal fat warrants further investigation.

  20. Milk drink with goat milk and goat serum is alternative for exploitation of pulp umbu

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nkarthe Guerra Araújo

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available This research aimed to develop and evaluate the acceptance and intention to purchase two dairy beverages formulations prepared with fermented umbus, goat serum and goat milk in order to add greater economic value to the three raw materials. The treatments consisted of the variation in serum concentrations goat (28,5% and 44% and goat milk (44% and 28,5%, respectively. The pulp has previously been analyzed and showed 15,21mg/100g of ascorbic acid. The fermented dairy beverages showed microbiological characteristics within the established by the legislation. It was found that there was no significant difference (p > 0,05 for color attributes, flavor and consistency of both, however, the flavor attributes and global acceptance have been significantly affected. The formulation with 28,5% of goat serum and 44% goat milk had the best average from 10 days, and acceptances up to 25 days of storage.

  1. Eimeria infections in goats in Southern Portugal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liliana Machado Ribeiro da Silva

    Full Text Available Coccidiosis caused by Eimeria species is a major form of intestinal infection affecting intensively and semi-intensively reared goats. The province of Alentejo is the main goat-producing area in Portugal. Therefore, all 15 Serpentina goat farms in Alentejo were analyzed regarding the occurrence and diversity of Eimeria species. Fecal samples obtained from 144 animals (52.1% dairy goats, 47.9% pre-pubertal goats were examined using the modified McMaster technique to determine the number of oocysts per gram of feces. Eimeria spp. oocysts were present in 98.61% of the fecal samples and, overall, nine different Eimeria species were identified. The most prevalent species were E. ninakohlyakimovae (88% and E. arloingi (85%, followed by E. alijevi (63% and E. caprovina(63%. The average number of oocysts shed was significantly lower in dairy goats than in pre-adult animals. Astonishingly, no clinical signs of coccidiosis were observed in any of the animals examined, even though they were shedding high numbers of oocysts and were infected with highly pathogenic species. Thus, implementation of routine diagnostic investigation of the occurrence and diversity of caprine Eimeria species may be a useful tool for determination and better understanding of their potential economic impact on goat herds in southern Portugal.

  2. Flemingia macrophylla in goat feeding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isabel das Neves Oiticica

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACTThe objective of this work was to evaluate the inclusion of Fabaceae Flemingia macrophylla (Willd. Kuntze ex Merr. in the diet of lactating dairy goats arranged in a 5 × 5 Latin square. The diets were composed of 40% of concentrate and 60% of roughage, and the dietary treatments were defined by the level of Flemingia hay inclusion (0%, 8%, 16%, 24%, and 32% in the diet dry matter replacing Cynodon dactyloncv. Tifton 85 hay. The diets were isonitrogenous, with 14% crude protein. Feed intake, nutrient digestibility, feeding behavior, and ruminal pH and ammonia nitrogen were evaluated. There was no difference in dry matter intake with the inclusion of Flemingia hay in the diet. The digestibility of dry matter, organic matter, crude protein, neutral detergent fiber, and total carbohydrates decreased with the inclusion of Flemingia in the diet. The diet did not change rumen ammonia nitrogen concentration or ruminal pH. There were no differences in the feeding behavior or feed and rumination efficiencies. Flemingia macrophylla can be used up to the level of 32% in the dry matter in diets for lactating goats.

  3. Ovine fetal necrobacillosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Agerholm, J.S.; Boye, Mette; Aalbæk, B.

    2007-01-01

    were found in several tissues. Histologically, placental lesions were characterized by locally diffuse infiltration of neutrophils, closely associated with abundant small Gram-negative and FISH-positive rods, thrombosis and necrosis. Lesions in the fetal-maternal interface were multifocal and consisted...

  4. Fetal Alcohol Syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zerrer, Peggy

    The paper reviews Fetal Alcohol Syndrome (FAS), a series of effects seen in children whose mothers drink alcohol to excess during pregnancy. The identification of FAS and its recognition as a major health problem in need of prevention are traced. Characteristics of children with FAS are described and resultant growth retardation, abnormal physical…

  5. Fetal Alcohol Exposure

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... categories: 4 » Fetal Alcohol Syndrome (FAS) » Partial FAS (pFAS) » Alcohol-Related Neurodevelopmental Disorder (ARND) » Alcohol-Related Birth ... either prenatally, after birth, or both Partial FAS (pFAS) Partial FAS (pFAS) involves prenatal alcohol exposure, and ...

  6. Occurrence and risk factors associated with infection by Toxoplasma gondii in goats in the State of Alagoas, Brazil Ocorrência e fatores de risco associados à infecção por Toxoplasma gondii em caprinos do Estado de Alagoas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giulliano Aires Anderlini

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Goats are considered very susceptible to infection by Toxoplasma gondii and when this occurs during pregnancy, it may cause fetal death with subsequent fetal resorption, abortion, mummification, stillborn or the birth of weak goats. The objective of this work was to determine the occurrence of and identify risk factors for T. gondii infection in goats in different mesoregions in the State of Alagoas. METHODS: The research was conducted on 24 goat breeding farms in 10 municipalities. A total of 454 blood samples were examined for anti-T. gondii antibodies by indirect immunofluorescence antibody test. To evaluate the risk factors of toxoplasmosis in goats, questionnaires were applied analyzing the farm's production system and nutritional, reproductive and sanitary management. RESULTS: Disease occurrence was 39% with 95.8% of farms presenting seropositive animals. Significant associations were observed for mesoregion (OR = 0.23; 95%CI = 0.09 - 0.57, age (OR = 0.36; 95%CI = 0.20 - 0.64, semi-intensive herd management (OR = 8.70; 95%CI = 1.87 - 40.43, access of cats to water provided for goats (OR = 3.38; 95%CI = 1.89-6.02 and cats feeding on placental remnants (OR = 2.73; 95%CI = 1.38 - 5.40. CONCLUSIONS: Toxoplasma gondii infection is disseminated in the State of Alagoas and the adoption of a program that monitors infection foci is required to reduce the risk factors identified in the present study.INTRODUÇÃO: Caprinos são considerados susceptíveis à infecção por Toxoplasma gondii que quando ocorre durante a gestação pode causar morte fetal com subsequente reabsorção, aborto, mumificação, natimortos ou nascimento de cabritos fracos. Objetivou-se com este estudo determinar a ocorrência e identificar os fatores de risco associados à infecção por T. gondii em caprinos nas diferentes mesorregiões do Estado de Alagoas. MÉTODOS: A pesquisa foi realizada em 10 municípios, sendo analisadas 24 propriedades de produ

  7. Persistent infections after natural transmission of bovine viral diarrhoea virus from cattle to goats and among goats

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Bovine viral diarrhoea virus (BVDV) is an economically important pathogen of cattle worldwide. Infection of a pregnant animal may lead to persistent infection of the foetus and birth of a persistently infected (PI) calf that sheds the virus throughout its life. However, BVD viruses are not strictly species specific. BVDV has been isolated from many domesticated and wild ruminants. This is of practical importance as virus reservoirs in non-bovine hosts may hamper BVDV control in cattle. A goat given as a social companion to a BVDV PI calf gave birth to a PI goat kid. In order to test if goat to goat infections were possible, seronegative pregnant goats were exposed to the PI goat. In parallel, seronegative pregnant goats were kept together with the PI calf. Only the goat to goat transmission resulted in the birth of a next generation of BVDV PI kids whereas all goats kept together with the PI calf aborted. To our knowledge, this is the first report which shows that a PI goat cannot only transmit BVD virus to other goats but that such transmission may indeed lead to the birth of a second generation of PI goats. Genetic analyses indicated that establishment in the new host species may be associated with step-wise adaptations in the viral genome. Thus, goats have the potential to be a reservoir for BVDV. However, the PI goats showed growth retardation and anaemia and their survival under natural conditions remains questionable. PMID:23675947

  8. Persistent infections after natural transmission of bovine viral diarrhoea virus from cattle to goats and among goats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bachofen, Claudia; Vogt, Hans-Rudolf; Stalder, Hanspeter; Mathys, Tanja; Zanoni, Reto; Hilbe, Monika; Schweizer, Matthias; Peterhans, Ernst

    2013-05-15

    Bovine viral diarrhoea virus (BVDV) is an economically important pathogen of cattle worldwide. Infection of a pregnant animal may lead to persistent infection of the foetus and birth of a persistently infected (PI) calf that sheds the virus throughout its life. However, BVD viruses are not strictly species specific. BVDV has been isolated from many domesticated and wild ruminants. This is of practical importance as virus reservoirs in non-bovine hosts may hamper BVDV control in cattle. A goat given as a social companion to a BVDV PI calf gave birth to a PI goat kid. In order to test if goat to goat infections were possible, seronegative pregnant goats were exposed to the PI goat. In parallel, seronegative pregnant goats were kept together with the PI calf. Only the goat to goat transmission resulted in the birth of a next generation of BVDV PI kids whereas all goats kept together with the PI calf aborted. To our knowledge, this is the first report which shows that a PI goat cannot only transmit BVD virus to other goats but that such transmission may indeed lead to the birth of a second generation of PI goats. Genetic analyses indicated that establishment in the new host species may be associated with step-wise adaptations in the viral genome. Thus, goats have the potential to be a reservoir for BVDV. However, the PI goats showed growth retardation and anaemia and their survival under natural conditions remains questionable.

  9. BIOLOGICAL VALUE OF GOAT MILK CASEIN

    OpenAIRE

    Samir Ahmed Salem; Elsayed Ibrahim Elagamy; Fatma Salama; Nagwa Hussein Abosoliman

    2009-01-01

    The effect of feeding of goat and cow milk caseins on the body weight gain, body organs, erythrocytic & leukocytic counts and their parameters, plasma lipid profile, liver enzyme activities, renal function and plasma proteins of rats over a period of 45 days was studied. Feeding of goat or cow milk caseins had no significant effect on the parameters studied (P≤0.05) between rats fed either milk. However, rats fed on goat milk casein showed a significant increase in high density lipoproteins...

  10. GOAT MILK PRODUCTION UNDER ORGANIC FARMING STANDARS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gerold Hartmut Rahmann

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available Organic farming has emerged from its niche. This holds true for organic goat milk, yoghurt and cheese as well. Particularly in the EU many dairy goat farms have converted or want to convert towards organic farming to profit from the positive image and the good prices for milk (+100% in Western Europe and Alpine regions. High performance dairy goats demand excellent feedstuffs, a sound environment and top management. It was not clear how organic farming can fulfil these demands. The restrictive factors influencing the productivity of the animals in organic farming are as follows: limited concentrate feeding (

  11. Molecular Characterization and Expression Analysis of S6K1 in Cashmere Goats (

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wu Manlin

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available p70 ribosomal S6 kinase (p70S6K can integrate nutrient and growth factor signals to promote cell growth and survival. We report our molecular characterization of the complementary DNA (cDNA that encodes the goat p70S6K gene 40S ribosomal S6 kinase 1 (S6K1 (GenBank accession GU144017 and its 3′ noncoding sequence in Inner Mongolia Cashmere goats (Capra hircus. Goat S6K1 cDNA was 2,272 bp and include an open reading frame (ORF of 1,578 bp, corresponding to a polypeptide of 525 amino acids, and a 694-residue 3′ noncoding sequence with a polyadenylation signal at nucleotides 2,218 to 2,223. The relative abundance of S6K1 mRNA was measured by real-time PCR in 6 tissues, and p70S6K expression was examined by immunohistochemistry in heart and testis. The phosphorylation of p70S6K is regulated by mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK signaling in fetal fibroblasts.

  12. The effect of intermittent dosing of Nicotiana glauca on teratogenesis in goats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Welch, K D; Panter, K E; Lee, S T; Gardner, D R

    2015-01-01

    Sustained inhibition of fetal movement in livestock species, induced by several poisonous plants, can result in numerous skeletal-contracture malformations. Lupines are responsible for a condition in cattle referred to as "crooked calf syndrome" that occurs when pregnant cattle graze teratogenic lupines. Similar malformations are also seen in animals poisoned by Conium maculatum (coniine) and Nicotiana glauca (anabasine). A proposed management strategy to limit these types of birth defects includes utilizing an intermittent grazing schedule to allow short durations of grazing lupine-infested areas interrupted by movement to a lupine-free pasture. The objective of this study was to use a goat model to determine if an intermittent schedule of five continuous days on treatment followed by two days off treatment would be sufficient to decrease, or prevent, the incidence of anabasine-induced malformations. The data from this study suggest that, for N. glauca in goats, the intermittent grazing program of five days exposure with two days of non-exposure is insufficient to prevent significant skeletal malformations from occurring. However, this study did demonstrate an inverse relationship between the amount of serum anabasine in the dam and the extent of fetal movement. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  13. The effect of fetal sex on customized fetal growth charts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rizzo, Giuseppe; Prefumo, Federico; Ferrazzi, Enrico; Zanardini, Cristina; Di Martino, Daniela; Boito, Simona; Aiello, Elisa; Ghi, Tullio

    2016-12-01

    To evaluate the effect of fetal sex on singleton pregnancy growth charts customized for parental characteristics, race, and parity Methods: In a multicentric cross-sectional study, 8070 ultrasonographic examinations from low-risk singleton pregnancies between 16 and 40 weeks of gestation were considered. The fetal measurements obtained were biparietal diameter (BPD), head circumference (HC), abdominal circumference (AC), and femur length (FL). Quantile regression was used to examine the impact of fetal sex across the biometric percentiles of the fetal measurements considered together with parents' height, weight, parity, and race. Fetal gender resulted to be a significant covariate for BDP, HC, and AC with higher values for male fetuses (p ≤ 0.0009). Minimal differences were found among sexes for FL. Parity, maternal race, paternal height and maternal height, and weight resulted significantly related to the fetal biometric parameters considered independently from fetal gender. In this study, we constructed customized biometric growth charts for fetal sex, parental, and obstetrical characteristics using quantile regression. The use of gender-specific charts offers the advantage to define individualized normal ranges of fetal biometric parameters at each specific centile. This approach may improve the antenatal identification of abnormal fetal growth.

  14. Expression profile of HSP genes during different seasons in goats (Capra hircus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dangi, Satyaveer Singh; Gupta, Mahesh; Maurya, Divakar; Yadav, Vijay Prakash; Panda, Rudra Prasanna; Singh, Gyanendra; Mohan, Nitai Haridas; Bhure, Sanjeev Kumar; Das, Bikash Chandra; Bag, Sadhan; Mahapatra, Ramkrishna; Taru Sharma, Guttalu; Sarkar, Mihir

    2012-12-01

    The present study has demonstrated the expression of HSP60, HSP70, HSP90, and UBQ in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) during different seasons in three different age groups (Groups I, II, and III with age of 0-2, 2-5, and >5 years, respectively) of goats of tropical and temperate regions. Real-time polymerase chain reaction was applied to investigate mRNA expression of examined factors. Specificity of the desired products was documented using analysis of the melting temperature and high-resolution gel electrophoresis to verify that the transcripts are of the exact molecular size predicted. The mRNA expression of HSP60, HSP90, and UBQ was significantly higher (P tropical and temperate region goats. HSP70 mRNA expression was significantly higher (P tropical region goats. However, in the temperate region, in goats from all the three age groups studied, a non-significant difference of HSP70 expression between summer and winter seasons was noticed. In conclusion, results demonstrate that (1) HSP genes are expressed in caprine PBMCs and (2) higher expression of HSPs during thermal stress suggest possible involvement of them to ameliorate deleterious effect of thermal stress so as to maintain cellular integrity and homeostasis in goats.

  15. Predicting the impact of selection for scrapie resistance on PRNP genotype frequencies in goats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sacchi, Paola; Rasero, Roberto; Ru, Giuseppe; Aiassa, Eleonora; Colussi, Silvia; Ingravalle, Francesco; Peletto, Simone; Perrotta, Maria Gabriella; Sartore, Stefano; Soglia, Dominga; Acutis, Pierluigi

    2018-03-06

    The European Union has implemented breeding programmes to increase scrapie resistance in sheep. A similar approach can be applied also in goats since the K222 allele provides a level of resistance equivalent to that of ARR in sheep. The European Food Safety Authority stated that breeding for resistance could be offered as an option for Member States to control classical scrapie in goats. We assessed the impact of different breeding strategies on PRNP genotype frequencies using a mathematical model that describes in detail the evolution of K222 in two goat breeds, Chamois Coloured and Saanen. Different patterns of age structure and replacement rate were modelled as factors affecting response to selection. Breeding for scrapie resistance can be implemented in goats, even though the initial K222 frequencies in these breeds are not particularly favourable and the rate at which the resistant animals increase, both breeding and slaughtered for meat production, is slow. If the goal is not to achieve the fixation of resistance allele, it is advisable to carry out selection only until a desired frequency of K222-carriers has been attained. Nucleus selection vs. selection on the overall populations is less expensive but takes longer to reach the desired output. The programme performed on the two goat breeds serves as a model of the response the selection could have in other breeds that show different initial frequencies and population structure. In this respect, the model has a general applicability.

  16. Gambaran Darah Kambing Gembrong, Kambing Peranakan Etawah, dan Kambing Kacang di Bali (BLOOD ILLUSTRATION OF GEMBRONG GOAT, ETAWAH CROSSBRED GOAT AND KACANG GOAT IN BALI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wayan Sayang Yupardhi

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available There were three kinds of goat developed in Bali since a long time ago i.e. Gembrong goat, EtawahCrossbred goat, and Kacang goat. Gembrong goat is nearly disappearingrecently due to decrease of itspopulation from year to year. The Gembrong goat has very interesting performance, funny, and this speciesis Balinese native goats. The objective of thisexperiment was to know the blood illustration among thethree speciesof the Balinese native goatwhere in the future it can be used as a guide to develop each ofthem. The experiment was used nine adults goats namely three adult male Gembrong goats, three adultmale Etawah Crossbred goats, and three adult male Kacang Goats respectively. The animal fed dailygreen feed grows around them and additional rice bran. Blood samples of the animals were collected forabout10-15 mL each with venoject, and then was kept in a cooler box and subsequently sent to the ProdiaClinic Laboratory at Denpasar. The results of the experiment showed that blood illustration of the threekinds of goat was not significantly different (P > 0.05 except the triglyseride.

  17. 16S rRNA and Omp31 Gene Based Molecular Characterization of Field Strains of B. melitensis from Aborted Foetus of Goats in India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Ajay; Gupta, Vivek Kumar; Kumar, Amit; Singh, Vikas Kumar; Nayakwadi, Shivasharanappa

    2013-01-01

    Brucellosis is a reemerging infectious zoonotic disease of worldwide importance. In human, it is mainly caused by Brucella melitensis, a natural pathogen for goats. In India, a large number of goats are reared in semi-intensive to intensive system within the close vicinity of human being. At present, there is no vaccination and control strategy for caprine brucellosis in the country. Thus, to formulate an effective control strategy, the status of etiological agent is essential. To cope up with these, the present study was conducted to isolate and identify the prevalent Brucella species in caprine brucellosis in India. The 30 samples (fetal membrane, fetal stomach content and vaginal swabs) collected throughout India from the aborted fetus of goats revealed the isolation of 05 isolates all belonging to Brucella melitensis biovars 3. All the isolates produced amplification products of 1412 and 720 bp in polymerase chain reaction with genus and species specific 16S rRNA and omp31 gene based primers, respectively. Moreover, the amplification of omp31 gene in all the isolates confirmed the presence of immuno dominant outer membrane protein (31 kDa omp) in all the field isolates of B. melitensis in aborted foetus of goats in India. These findings can support the development of omp31 based specific serodiagnostic test as well as vaccine for the control of caprine brucellosis in India. PMID:24453799

  18. Effects of transportation during the hot season, breed and electrical stimulation on histochemical and meat quality characteristics of goat longissimus muscle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kadim, Isam T; Mahgoub, Osman; Al-Marzooqi, Waleed; Khalaf, Samera; Al-Sinawi, Shadia S H; Al-Amri, Issa

    2010-06-01

    The effects of transportation and electrical stimulation (90 V) on physiological, histochemical and meat quality characteristics of two breeds of Omani goats were assessed. Twenty 1-year-old male goats from each breed (Batina and Dhofari) were divided into two groups: 3 h transported during the hot season (42 degrees C day time temperature) and non-transported. Animals were blood-sampled before loading and prior to slaughter. Electrical stimulation was applied 20 min postmortem to 50% randomly selected carcasses of both breeds. Temperature and pH decline of the Longissimus was monitored. Ultimate pH, shear force, sarcomere length, myofibrillar fragmentation index, expressed juice, cooking loss and colour were measured from samples of Longissimus dorsi muscles. Electrical stimulation and transportation had a significant effect on most biochemical and meat quality characteristics of Longissimus dorsi. The transported goats had higher plasma cortisol (P goats. Electrical stimulation resulted in a significantly (P Meat from transported goats had significantly higher pH, expressed juice and shear force, but contained significantly lower sarcomere length and L* values than non-transported goats. The proportion of the myosin ATPase staining did not change as a function of stimulation, transportation or breed. These results indicated that subjecting goats to transportation for 3 h under high ambient temperatures can generate major physiological and muscle metabolism responses. Electrical stimulation improved quality characteristics of meat from both groups. This indicates that electrical stimulation may reduce detrimental effects of transportation on meat quality of Omani goats.

  19. MEAT GOAT DEMOGRAPHICS AND NICHE MARKETING

    OpenAIRE

    Jeffrey Fisher; Richard Stock; David A. Mangione; Larry A. Nye

    2009-01-01

    Six focus groups were conducted with each having ten people who attend different Islamic Centers in Ohio. The objective of the focus groups was to understand Halal meat purchase patterns and consumption patterns of the Moslem population with special attention to goat. The Ohio State University Extension personnel are utilizing these results to work with meat goat producers to understand and meet the requirements of the Halal meat market.  Participants discussed the Zabiha approach to slaught...

  20. Moxidectin Efficacy in a Goat Herd with Chronic and Generalized Sarcoptic Mange

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nektarios D. Giadinis

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available A case of sarcoptic mange affecting almost all the animals of a dairy goat herd is described. This pruritic skin disease led progressively to high mortality and dramatic drop of milk yield. The lesions of the affected goats were typical of a chronic and generalized-diffuse sarcoptic mange. Diagnosis was confirmed by skin scrapings and histopathology in which many mites were demonstrated. All surviving goats were treated with injectable moxidectin solution 1% (CYDECTIN-Fort Dodge at the dose of 0.2 mg/kg, applied every 15 days for four times, subcutaneously. Although pruritus had decreased soon after the first treatment, a satisfactory healing of cutaneous lesions was witnessed 6 weeks after the beginning of moxidectin trial. Parasitological cure was achieved in all affected animals by the end of the trial. In the four monthly followups, no evidence of sarcoptic mange could be found.

  1. Differential diagnosis between fetal extrarenal pelvis and obstructive uropathy on fetal ultrasonogram

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Han, Byoung Hee; Cho, Jeong Yeon; Cho, Byung Jae; Lee, Kyung Sang [Samsung Cheil Hospital, Sungkyunkwan University School of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2003-03-15

    dilated portion. Meanwhile, 2/34 kidneys showed the intrarenal portion with the most dilatation while other 2/34 kidneys showed dilated intrarenal and junctional portions but the same diameter. The remaining one patients showed the dilated extrarenal and junctional portions with the same diameter. The E/I ratios of fetal and neonatal pelvic diameters showed a strong positive linear correlation. Neonatal and follow-up US of extrarenal dilatation in three kidneys before 33 weeks showed normalization of renal pelvis. Among 14 kidneys with extrarenal dilatation before 33 weeks of gestation, postnatal ultrasonogram revealed the normal pelvic diameter in seven, persistent extrarenal pelvis in one, ureteropelvic obstruction in two. Persistent calyectasis in two, and persistent pyelectasis in two patients. Six of seven kidneys with dilated extrarenal and intrarenal pelvis less than 5 mm showed the normal diameter on the postnatal exams whereas one patients showed the persistent extrarenal pelvis. If the intrarenal portion of the fetal renal pelvic diameter is less than 5 mm and if there is a presence of combined dilatation of the extrarenal portion of the fetal renal pelvis on third trimester ultrasonogram, it is more likely either the transient extrarenal dilatation of normal renal pelvis or neonatal extrarenal pelvis. When this guideline is applied, unnecessary postnatal follow-up studies may be avoided.

  2. Differential diagnosis between fetal extrarenal pelvis and obstructive uropathy on fetal ultrasonogram

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Han, Byoung Hee; Cho, Jeong Yeon; Cho, Byung Jae; Lee, Kyung Sang

    2003-01-01

    dilated portion. Meanwhile, 2/34 kidneys showed the intrarenal portion with the most dilatation while other 2/34 kidneys showed dilated intrarenal and junctional portions but the same diameter. The remaining one patients showed the dilated extrarenal and junctional portions with the same diameter. The E/I ratios of fetal and neonatal pelvic diameters showed a strong positive linear correlation. Neonatal and follow-up US of extrarenal dilatation in three kidneys before 33 weeks showed normalization of renal pelvis. Among 14 kidneys with extrarenal dilatation before 33 weeks of gestation, postnatal ultrasonogram revealed the normal pelvic diameter in seven, persistent extrarenal pelvis in one, ureteropelvic obstruction in two. Persistent calyectasis in two, and persistent pyelectasis in two patients. Six of seven kidneys with dilated extrarenal and intrarenal pelvis less than 5 mm showed the normal diameter on the postnatal exams whereas one patients showed the persistent extrarenal pelvis. If the intrarenal portion of the fetal renal pelvic diameter is less than 5 mm and if there is a presence of combined dilatation of the extrarenal portion of the fetal renal pelvis on third trimester ultrasonogram, it is more likely either the transient extrarenal dilatation of normal renal pelvis or neonatal extrarenal pelvis. When this guideline is applied, unnecessary postnatal follow-up studies may be avoided.

  3. Fetal cardiac assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Greene, K.R.

    1983-01-01

    The better understanding of fetal cardiovascular physiology coupled with improved technology for non-invasive study of the fetus now enable much more detailed assessment of fetal cardiac status than by heart rate alone. Even the latter, relatively simple, measurement contains much more information than was previously realized. It is also increasingly clear that no single measurement will provide the answer to all clinical dilemmas either on cardiac function or the welfare of the fetus as a whole. There are obvious clinical advantages in measuring several variables from one signal and the measurement of heart rate, heart rate variation and waveform from the ECG in labour is a potentially useful combination. Systolic time intervals or flow measurements could easily be added or used separately by combining real-time and Doppler ultrasound probes

  4. Fetal chromosome analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Philip, J; Tabor, A; Bang, J

    1983-01-01

    The aim of the study was to investigate the rationale of the current indications for fetal chromosome analysis. 5372 women had 5423 amniocentesis performed, this group constituting a consecutive sample at the chromosome laboratory, Rigshospitalet, Copenhagen from March 1973 to September 1980 (Group...... A + B). Pregnant women 35 years of age, women who previously had a chromosomally abnormal child, families with translocation carriers or other heritable chromosomal disease, families where the father was 50 years or more and women in families with a history of Down's syndrome (group A), were compared...... to women having amniocentesis, although considered not to have any increased risk of fetal chromosome abnormality (1390 pregnancies, group B). They were also compared with 750 consecutive pregnancies in women 25-34 years of age, in whom all heritable diseases were excluded (group C). The risk of unbalanced...

  5. Keeping goats or going north? Enhancing livelihoods of smallholder goat farmers through brucellosis control in Mexico

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oseguera Montiel, D.

    2014-01-01

    Smallholder Mexican farmers are embedded in an adverse context, due to neoliberal globalization policies, which threatens their livelihoods, and has caused an unprecedented surge of migration to the US. Keeping goats is one strategy to diversify livelihoods. Goat husbandry is dairy oriented and

  6. Vaccination against Louping Ill Virus Protects Goats from Experimental Challenge with Spanish Goat Encephalitis Virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salinas, L M; Casais, R; García Marín, J F; Dalton, K P; Royo, L J; Del Cerro, A; Gayo, E; Dagleish, M P; Alberdi, P; Juste, R A; de la Fuente, J; Balseiro, A

    2017-05-01

    Spanish goat encephalitis virus (SGEV) is a recently described member of the genus Flavivirus belonging to the tick-borne encephalitis group of viruses, and is closely related to louping ill virus (LIV). Naturally acquired disease in goats results in severe, acute encephalitis and 100% mortality. Eighteen goats were challenged subcutaneously with SGEV; nine were vaccinated previously against LIV and nine were not. None of the vaccinated goats showed any clinical signs of disease or histological lesions, but all of the non-vaccinated goats developed pyrexia and 5/9 developed neurological clinical signs, primarily tremors in the neck and ataxia. All non-vaccinated animals developed histological lesions restricted to the central nervous system and consistent with a lymphocytic meningomyeloencephalitis. Vaccinated goats had significantly (P goats throughout the experiment, but increased rapidly and were significantly (P goats against LIV confers highly effective protection against SGEV; this is probably mediated by IgG and prevents an increase in viral RNA load in serum such that vaccinated animals would not be an effective reservoir of the virus. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. The Normal Fetal Pancreas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kivilevitch, Zvi; Achiron, Reuven; Perlman, Sharon; Gilboa, Yinon

    2017-10-01

    The aim of the study was to assess the sonographic feasibility of measuring the fetal pancreas and its normal development throughout pregnancy. We conducted a cross-sectional prospective study between 19 and 36 weeks' gestation. The study included singleton pregnancies with normal pregnancy follow-up. The pancreas circumference was measured. The first 90 cases were tested to assess feasibility. Two hundred ninety-seven fetuses of nondiabetic mothers were recruited during a 3-year period. The overall satisfactory visualization rate was 61.6%. The intraobserver and interobserver variability had high interclass correlation coefficients of of 0.964 and 0.967, respectively. A cubic polynomial regression described best the correlation of pancreas circumference with gestational age (r = 0.744; P pancreas circumference percentiles for each week of gestation were calculated. During the study period, we detected 2 cases with overgrowth syndrome and 1 case with an annular pancreas. In this study, we assessed the feasibility of sonography for measuring the fetal pancreas and established a normal reference range for the fetal pancreas circumference throughout pregnancy. This database can be helpful when investigating fetomaternal disorders that can involve its normal development. © 2017 by the American Institute of Ultrasound in Medicine.

  8. Study on N-Amino, Protein and Total Glucose of Etawah Crossbreed Goat and Boer Crossbreed Goat Meat Sauce

    OpenAIRE

    Khothibul Umam Al Awwaly; Aris Sri Widati; Vina Rahmadani

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study was to know the difference between Etawah crossbreed goat meat sauce and Boer crossbreed goat meat sauce evaluated on N-amino, protein, and total glucose.The material used in the research were meat sauce from Etawah crossbreed goat and Boer crossbreed goat. The result showed that the different species of goat statistically gave  no significant  effect (P>0.05) on N-amino, protein and total glucose of goat meat sauce. Boer crossbreed meat sauce tend higher than Etawah cro...

  9. Body linear traits for identifying prolific goats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Avijit Haldar

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The present study was conducted on prolific goat breed to identify body linear type traits that might be associated with prolificacy trait in goats. Materials and Methods: Two-stage stratified random sample survey based data were collected from 1427 non-pregnant goats with the history of single, twin and triplet litter sizes (LZ between January 2008 to February 2011 for 3 years in 68 villages located in East and North East India. Data on sixteen body linear traits were analyzed using logistic regression model to do the step-wise selection for identifying the body linear traits that could determine LZ. An average value for each identified body linear trait was determined for classifying the goats into three categories: Goats having the history of single LZ, goats having the history of twin LZ and goats having the history of triplet LZ. Results: The LZ proportions for single, twin and triplet, were 29.50, 59.14 and 11.36%, respectively, with the prolificacy rate of 181.85% in Indian Black Bengal goats. A total of eight body linear traits that could determine LZ in prolific goats were identified. Heart girth (HG measurement (>60.90 cm, paunch girth (PG (>70.22 cm, wither height (WH (>49.75 cm, neck length (>21.45 cm, ear length (>12.80 cm and distance between trochanter major (DTM bones (>12.28 cm, pelvic triangle area (PTA (>572.25 cm2 and clearance at udder (CU (>23.16 cm showed an increase likelihood of multiple LZ when compared to single LZ. Further, HG measurement (>62.29 cm, WH (>50.54 cm, PG (>71.85 cm and ear length (>13.00 cm, neck length (>22.01 cm, PTA (>589.64 cm2, CU (>23.20 cm and DTM bones (>12.47 cm were associated with increased likelihood of triplet LZ, when compared with that of twin LZ. Conclusion: HG measurement was the best discriminating factor, while PG, neck length, DTM bones, CU, PTA, WH and ear length measurements were other important factors that could be used for identifying prolific goats to achieve economic

  10. Introduction of distillate rosemary leaves into the diet of the Murciano-Granadina goat: transfer of polyphenolic compounds to goats' milk and the plasma of suckling goat kids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jordán, Maria José; Moñino, María Inmaculada; Martínez, Cristina; Lafuente, Arturo; Sotomayor, José Antonio

    2010-07-28

    The effect of the introduction of distilled rosemary leaves into the diet of the Murciano-Granadina goat on the polyphenolic profile of the goats' milk during the physiological stages of gestation and lactation was studied. The inclusion of rosemary leaves into the animal diet modified neither animal productivity (milk yield) nor milk quality. The following components were found in increased concentration (P goats' milk after the introduction of rosemary leaves into their diet: flavonoids hesperidin, naringin, and genkwanin; gallic acid; and phenolic diterpenes carnosol and carnosic acid. With regard to the transfer of polyphenols to the plasma of the suckling goat kid, a statistically significant increase (P goats' milk and allow for an increased concentration of polyphenolic components in the goats' milk and in the plasma of the suckling goat kid.

  11. MRI of the fetal spine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Simon, Erin M.

    2004-01-01

    Magnetic resonance imaging of the fetal spine is a vital complement to fetal sonographic examination. Assessing the wide spectrum of spinal dysraphism, as well as spinal neoplasia, allows for more correct prenatal diagnoses, patient care planning, and patient counselling. Proper appraisal of the value of experimental procedures, such as fetal myelomeningocoele repair, requires a high level of diagnostic accuracy for the selection and follow-up of appropriate candidates. (orig.)

  12. MRI of the fetal spine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Simon, Erin M. [Departement of Radiology, Children' s Hospital of Philadelphia, PA (United States)

    2004-09-01

    Magnetic resonance imaging of the fetal spine is a vital complement to fetal sonographic examination. Assessing the wide spectrum of spinal dysraphism, as well as spinal neoplasia, allows for more correct prenatal diagnoses, patient care planning, and patient counselling. Proper appraisal of the value of experimental procedures, such as fetal myelomeningocoele repair, requires a high level of diagnostic accuracy for the selection and follow-up of appropriate candidates. (orig.)

  13. Growth and performance of indigenous and crossbred goats

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Mo

    breed is the most predominant in the country particularly in. Teso and Lango ... goats are the smallest in body size with average adult body. Uganda Journal of ... from crossbreeding indigenous breeds with exotic goats under different agro-.

  14. Antimicrobial residues screening in pigs and goats slaughtered in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Ekene Vivienne Ezenduka

    2012-07-17

    Jul 17, 2012 ... Samples of tissues/organs from pigs and goats slaughtered at the Nsukka. Municipal abattoir .... Pig and goat farming are the major food producing livestock farming in ... Northern part of Nigeria and locally reared West African.

  15. Prevalence of Strongyle ova in Goats and comparative studies of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ADOWIE PERE

    2018-01-16

    Jan 16, 2018 ... Keywords: Goats, Strongyle ova, Faecal Culture Techniques, Prevalence,. The Nigerian goat ... km located in the North eastern corner of Nigeria ... teaching and research farm, Maiduguri metropolitan ... West African Dwarf. 5.

  16. Marketing of Sahelian Goats in North -Eastern Nigeria: Experience ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Marketing of Sahelian Goats in North -Eastern Nigeria: Experience from Borno State. ... The study evaluated Sahelian goat marketing in Northeastern Nigeria, drawing experience from Borno State. ... EMAIL FULL TEXT EMAIL FULL TEXT

  17. Participatory disease surveillance (PDS) of sheep and goats ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Keywords: Afar,Goat, Participatory disease surveillance, Sheep, PPR, Sheep and goat ... the region favors the pastoral livestock production system. ..... yellow color on carcass, in ... Foroda/Surota/ Bronchopnemonia fever, coughing, nostrils.

  18. Occurrence of anti-Toxoplasma gondii antibodies in meat and dairy goat herds in Rio Grande do Norte, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medeiros, Andréa Dantas de; Andrade, Milena de Medeiros Clementino; Vítor, Ricardo Wagner de Almeida; Andrade-Neto, Valter Ferreira de

    2014-01-01

    Toxoplasmosis is caused by Toxoplasma gondii, which is the main causative agent of abortion in small ruminants. Goats are among the animals that are most susceptible to this protozoon, and the disease that it causes leads to significant economic losses and has implications for public health, since presence of the parasite in products of goat origin is one of the main sources of human infection. Because of the significant economic impact, there is an urgent need to study the prevalence of T. gondii infection among goats in Sertão do Cabugi, which is the largest goat-producing region in Rio Grande do Norte. In the present study, the ELISA assay was used to test 244 serum samples from nine farms, located in four different municipalities in the Sertão do Cabugi region, which is an important goat-rearing region. The results showed that the prevalence of anti-T. gondii antibodies was 47.1% and that there was a significant association between positivity and the variables of age (≥ 34 months), location (Lajes, Angicos and Afonso Bezerra) and farm (all the farms). The avidity test was applied to all the 115 ELISA-positive samples to distinguish between acute and chronic infection. One hundred and three samples (89.6%) displayed high-avidity antibodies, thus indicating that most of the animals presented chronic infection, with a consequent great impact on the development of the goat production system and a risk to human health.

  19. Occurrence of anti-Toxoplasma gondii antibodies in meat and dairy goat herds in Rio Grande do Norte, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andréa Dantas de Medeiros

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Toxoplasmosis is caused by Toxoplasma gondii, which is the main causative agent of abortion in small ruminants. Goats are among the animals that are most susceptible to this protozoon, and the disease that it causes leads to significant economic losses and has implications for public health, since presence of the parasite in products of goat origin is one of the main sources of human infection. Because of the significant economic impact, there is an urgent need to study the prevalence of T. gondii infection among goats in Sertão do Cabugi, which is the largest goat-producing region in Rio Grande do Norte. In the present study, the ELISA assay was used to test 244 serum samples from nine farms, located in four different municipalities in the Sertão do Cabugi region, which is an important goat-rearing region. The results showed that the prevalence of anti-T. gondii antibodies was 47.1% and that there was a significant association between positivity and the variables of age (≥ 34 months, location (Lajes, Angicos and Afonso Bezerra and farm (all the farms. The avidity test was applied to all the 115 ELISA-positive samples to distinguish between acute and chronic infection. One hundred and three samples (89.6% displayed high-avidity antibodies, thus indicating that most of the animals presented chronic infection, with a consequent great impact on the development of the goat production system and a risk to human health.

  20. Molecular epidemiology of goat pox viruses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roy, P; Jaisree, S; Balakrishnan, S; Senthilkumar, K; Mahaprabhu, R; Mishra, A; Maity, B; Ghosh, T K; Karmakar, A P

    2018-02-01

    Goat pox disease outbreaks were observed in different places affecting Black Bengal Goats in West Bengal (WB) and Tellicherry, Vembur and non-descriptive breeds in Tamil Nadu (TN) causing severe lesions and mortality up to 30%. Clinical specimens from all the outbreaks were screened by polymerase chain reaction followed by restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP) and confirmed the diseases as Goat Pox. Virus isolation in Vero cell line was done with randomly selected ten samples, cytopathic effects (CPE) characterized by syncytia and intracytoplasmic inclusion bodies were observed after several blind passages. Nucleotide sequence of complete p32 gene using randomly selected two isolates and three clinical specimens revealed presence of Goat pox virus (GTPV)-specific signature residues in all the sequences. Phylogenetic analysis using the present five sequences along with GenBank data of GTPV complete p32 gene sequences showed all the GTPV sequences cluster together except Pellor strain (NC004003) and FZ Chinese strain (KC951854). The five sequences either from WB or TN cluster more closely with GTPV isolates of Maharashtra state that were responsible for cross species outbreak of pox disease in both sheep (KF468759) and goats (KF468762) in India during the year 2010. All the Indian goat pox viruses, including the Mukteswar strain, isolated in 1946 and sequence reported in 2004 clustered together with the GTPVs causing the recent outbreaks. It was observed that GTPVs caused similar clinical manifestation irrespective of their geographical locations and breed characteristics, no variation observed among the Indian isolates based on p32 gene over the period of seventy years and disease outbreaks could not be observed or reported in vaccinated goats. © 2017 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  1. Parvovirus infection: an immunohistochemical study using fetal and placental tissue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jing Jing; Henwood, Tony; Van Hal, Sebastian; Charlton, Amanda

    2015-01-01

    Parvovirus B19 infection causes 5% to 15% of cases of nonimmune hydrops fetalis. The aim of our study was to evaluate the use of immunohistochemistry in diagnosing parvovirus infection in fetal and placental tissue during routine fetal and perinatal autopsies. Histology slides of 20 cases of confirmed parvovirus infection were reviewed, and immunohistochemistry was applied to selected blocks of fetal and placental tissue. Immunohistochemistry was positive in all 20 cases, and histologic viral inclusions were seen in 19 cases. Immunohistochemical staining was closely correlated with histology and was more sensitive than histology in detecting virally infected cells, especially in autolyzed tissue. All cases also had confirmatory evidence of parvovirus infection by polymerase chain reaction of fetal liver and positive maternal serology, where it was available. We conclude that parvovirus immunohistochemistry is a reliable method for diagnosing parvovirus infection, especially in autolyzed tissue where histologic assessment may be suboptimal.

  2. Context specificity of the ANS stress response during two regrouping experiments in goats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonia Patt

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present study was to analyze whether the activity of the autonomic nervous system (ANS differs between two regrouping procedures in goats, which would indicate stimulus specificity of these stressors. Applying two regrouping procedures, we evaluated heart rate and heart rate variability (RMSSD, SDNN, RMSSD/SDNN. The two regrouping procedures were 1 introduction of individual goats into established groups (introduction experiment and 2 temporary separation and subsequent reintegration of individuals from/into their group with two levels of contact during separation (separation experiment. In the introduction experiment, the heart rate of introduced goats while lying decreased continuously from an average 78 beats/minute to 68 beats/minute from before the introduction to the last day of the introduction period. Inversely, RMSSD increased continuously from 41 ms to 62 ms, which, on its own, would indicate an adaptation to the situation. During the separation experiment, heart rate while lying was higher when goats were separated in the acoustic contact treatment (82 beats/minute on average compared with the restricted physical contact treatment (75 beats/minute on average. This difference reflected a higher level of arousal during the acoustic contact treatment. However, heart rate activity did not allow detecting effects of separation or reintegration. Even though it can be assumed that both the separation and introduction of goats are stressful for goats, the ANS reactions observed in the present study differed between the two management procedures indicating that the ANS activation was specific to each situation. In addition, we discuss the ANS results in context with earlier findings of variables of the HPA-axis (fecal cortisol metabolites and behavior (lying and feeding. As correspondence between ANS, HPA, and behavioral reactions was limited both within and across experiments, the results of the present study underline the

  3. Context Specificity of the ANS Stress Response during Two Regrouping Experiments in Goats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patt, Antonia; Gygax, Lorenz; Wechsler, Beat; Hillmann, Edna; Langbein, Jan; Keil, Nina M.

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to analyze whether the activity of the autonomic nervous system (ANS) differs between two regrouping procedures in goats, which would indicate stimulus specificity of these stressors. Applying two regrouping procedures, we evaluated heart rate and heart rate variability (RMSSD, SDNN, and RMSSD/SDNN). The two regrouping procedures were (1) introduction of individual goats into established groups (“introduction experiment”) and (2) temporary separation and subsequent reintegration of individuals from/into their group with two levels of contact during separation (“separation experiment”). In the “introduction experiment,” the heart rate of introduced goats while lying decreased continuously from an average 78 to 68 beats/min from before the introduction to the last day of the introduction period. Inversely, RMSSD increased continuously from 41 to 62 ms, which, on its own, would indicate an adaptation to the situation. During the “separation experiment,” heart rate while lying was higher when goats were separated in the “acoustic contact treatment” (82 beats/min on average) compared with the “restricted physical contact treatment” (75 beats/min on average). This difference reflected a higher level of arousal during the “acoustic contact treatment.” However, heart rate activity did not allow detecting effects of separation or reintegration. Even though it can be assumed that both the separation and introduction of goats are stressful for goats, the ANS reactions observed in this study differed between the two management procedures indicating that the ANS activation was specific to each situation. In addition, we discuss the ANS results in context with earlier findings of variables of the hypothalamic pituitary adrenal (HPA) axis (fecal cortisol metabolites) and behavior (lying and feeding). As correspondence between ANS, HPA, and behavioral reactions was limited both within and across experiments, the results

  4. Clinical management of foot rot in goats: A case report of lameness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asinamai Athliamai Bitrus

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Foot rot is one of the most important causes of lameness and economic losses in sheep and goats world-wide. This case report described the clinical management of lameness due to foot rot in two female Boer goats aging 4-year both from two different farms in Selangor, Malaysia. Materials and methods: The goats were presented with the complaint of non-weight bearing lameness of the right forelimbs. The hoof was broken and the interdigital space was filled with dirt and exuding a foul smelling odor. Results: On clinical examination, the goats were looking as dull and isolated with body condition scores of 2.5/5 (case 1 and 3/5 (case 2, respectively. The goats had a rectal temperature of 38.8°C and 40.4°C, pulse rate of 80 and 100 beats per minutes, and respiratory rate of 44 and 24 cycles per minute, respectively. Blood sample was collected for complete blood count and serum biochemistry from case 1 only. The hoof was thoroughly washed and disinfected. Parenteral administrations of Flunixin meglumine (dosed at 2.2 mg/kg bwt, IM thrice daily and Oxytetracycline (dosed at 20 mg/kg bwt, IM case 1 once and Sulfadiazine+trimethoprim (dosed at 1 mL/16 kg bwt, IM case 2 for 3 days. Topical oxytetracycline was applied to the area for 5 days. Conclusion: The prognosis was very good as there was a significant improvement in the hoof injury of both animals. The goats were recovered after 7 days of treatment. [J Adv Vet Anim Res 2017; 4(1.000: 110-116

  5. Fetal Echocardiography/Your Unborn Baby's Heart

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Artery Disease Venous Thromboembolism Aortic Aneurysm More Fetal Echocardiography / Your Unborn Baby's Heart Updated:Oct 6,2016 ... Your Risk • Symptoms & Diagnosis Introduction Common Tests Fetal Echocardiography/Your Unborn Baby's Heart - Fetal Echocardiogram Test - Detection ...

  6. Fetal Alcohol Syndrome and Fetal Alcohol Effects in Child Development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pancratz, Diane R.

    This literature review defines Fetal Alcohol Syndrome (FAS) and Fetal Alcohol Effects (FAE) and considers their causes, diagnoses, prevalence, and educational ramifications. Effects of alcohol during each of the trimesters of pregnancy are summarized. Specific diagnostic characteristics of FAS are listed: (1) growth deficiency, (2) a…

  7. Reproductive Effeciency of an Indigenous Irabian Goat ( Capra Hircus)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    It is well known that goat can tolerate harsh conditions; however there are little information about its reproduction functions such as testis histomorphometry and efficiency of sertoli cells. This study aimed to estimate germ cell types and number per sertoli cell of an indigenous Iranian goat (Lori goat). Semen was collected ...

  8. Traditional goat husbandry may substantially contribute to human toxoplasmosis exposure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raising goats in settings that are highly contaminated with oocysts of Toxoplasma gondii may contribute significantly to human exposure to this zoonotic parasite. Increasing consumption of young goats in Romania, where goats are typically reared in backyards that are also home to cats (the definitiv...

  9. The Economics Of Goat Production In Southeastern Nigeria ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The West African Dwarf goat is indigenous to Southeastern Nigeria and is raised by many families under small·scale and intensive management systems. Results showed that the average households kept 6 goats, but that expansion was limited by hour and feed procurement problems. Both males and females owned goats ...

  10. Gastrointestinal nematodes and anthelmintic resistance in Danish goat herds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holm, Signe A.; Sørensen, Camilla; Thamsborg, Stig M.

    2014-01-01

    The prevalence of gastrointestinal parasites in Danish goats and the presence of anthelmintic resistance (AR) in 10 selected herds were investigated during April-September 2012. All Danish herds (n = 137) with 10 or more adult goats were invited to participate, and of these 27 herds met......, resistance to the most commonly used anthelmintics is widespread in larger goat herds throughout Denmark....

  11. 9 CFR 309.14 - Brucellosis-reactor goats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Brucellosis-reactor goats. 309.14 Section 309.14 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE... INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION ANTE-MORTEM INSPECTION § 309.14 Brucellosis-reactor goats. Goats which have...

  12. 9 CFR 93.435 - Sheep and goats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Sheep and goats. 93.435 Section 93.435... CONVEYANCE AND SHIPPING CONTAINERS Ruminants Additional General Provisions § 93.435 Sheep and goats. (a) Except as provided in paragraph (b) of this section, all sheep and goats imported into the United States...

  13. Behavioural responses of four goat genotypes to successive ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    eared, Nguni and Boer goats and their crosses were kept at the University of Fort Hare Farm, South Africa for eight weeks. The goats were randomly assigned to four pen groups with each pen having three goats of the same breed among the 12 ...

  14. Incidence and Pattern of Pneumonia in Goats Slaughtered at the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study aimed at determining the incidence and pattern of pneumonia, in slaughtered goats in Kumasi abattoir, Ghana. One thousand three hundred and fifty lungs of goats; (1,012 Sahelian and 338 West Africa Dwarf goats (WAD) lungs) of different ages (less than a year to above 4 years) were used in this study.

  15. MEAT GOAT DEMOGRAPHICS AND NICHE MARKETING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeffrey Fisher

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Six focus groups were conducted with each having ten people who attend different Islamic Centers in Ohio. The objective of the focus groups was to understand Halal meat purchase patterns and consumption patterns of the Moslem population with special attention to goat. The Ohio State University Extension personnel are utilizing these results to work with meat goat producers to understand and meet the requirements of the Halal meat market.  Participants discussed the Zabiha approach to slaughtering animals as the most merciful by causing the least pain. Many participants noted they had no way of knowing where the animal  came from and this held tremendous concerns relative to the feeding of animal by-products, use of hormones, and adulteration with pork. These trust concerns led to decisions about where to purchase their meat with 72% purchasing from a Moslem owned retail store. Only 13% purchased from a large grocery and 8% direct from a farmer.   Participants indicated their consumption patterns according to weekly, seasonal, and holiday use in addition to variations according to their personal geographic origin. The average meat purchase was 23 pounds with an average occurrence of 12.5 times per annum.  Purchasing trends indicated that 78% prefer lean over marbled cuts. Nearly 86% prefer fresh over frozen goat meat and nearly a third responded that they would pay more for fresh. Intact males were preferred by 42% of the respondents. Preferences for meat goat cuts were: Leg (71%, Chops (42%, Shoulder (24%, Breast (7%. Nearly a third indicated they also want the kidneys, heart, or head. Demographic shifts in the United States indicate that there are almost 53 million people who have a preference for goat meat. There are 2.4 million goats in the US according to the 2007 Agricultural Statistics. Based on consumption trends of this study, goat demand exceeds inventory by 160%. Meat goat consumer trends are changing regarding

  16. HEPATITIS ALOINMUNE FETAL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando Álvarez C., Dr.

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available La hepatitis aloinmune fetal, conocida anteriormente como hemocromatosis neonatal, ha demostrado en los últimos años ser una enfermedad completamente distinta a la hemocromatosis del adulto, tanto en su etiología como en su la fisiopatología. Este conocimiento abre nuevas perspectivas tanto en la prevención de la enfermedad en futuros embarazos, así como en el tratamiento con inmunoglobulina endovenosa en la madre durante el embarazo y eventualmente el tratamiento postnatal, en el que el trasplante de hígado juega un rol primordial.

  17. Demand Potential for Goat Meat in Southern States: Empirical Evidence from a Multi-State Goat Meat Consumer Survey

    OpenAIRE

    Nelson, Mack C.; Liu, Xuanli

    2005-01-01

    A survey conducted in 11 Southeastern states elicits consumers' demand and preferences for various goat meat products. The data permit examination of goat meat demand of ethnic populations and the diversity among the states surveyed. The study uses five econometric models to examine the current demand, potential demand, and demand related to season and occasions on the goat meat market. Our analysis suggests that there exist a substantial demand for goat meat and the potential increase in the...

  18. New Jersey 4-H Goat Extravaganza: Efficiently Meeting the Educational Needs of 4-H Goat Project Members, Volunteers, and Parents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ripberger, Chad

    2014-01-01

    The 4-H Goat Extravaganza maximizes limited resources to help youth and adults develop knowledge and skills in goat care and management. It capitalizes on the talents and interests of volunteers to efficiently combine a goat-themed art show, team presentation contest, quiz bowl, skillathon, and adult workshop into 1 day. This article outlines the…

  19. Goat Meat Consumer Preferences: Implications for Goat Meat Marketing in Metropolitan Nashville, Tennessee Area

    OpenAIRE

    Ekanem, Enefiok; Mafuyai-Ekanem, Mary; Tagegne, Fisseha; Singh, Surendra; Favors, Delicia

    2013-01-01

    Goat meat has become an increasingly good source of protein for meat eaters in the global marketplace. Goat meat constitutes about 63% of all red meat consumed worldwide. It is the main source of animal protein in many North African, Middle Eastern nations, Southeast Asia, the Caribbean, and other tropical regions. This notwithstanding, goat meat is yet to take such prominence in the U.S. diet. Despite the acknowledgement of the meat as lean, tasty and less fatty than other meats (USDA 2001),...

  20. Genetic Variation of Goat Interferon Regulatory Factor 3 Gene and Its Implication in Goat Evolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okpeku, Moses; Esmailizadeh, Ali; Adeola, Adeniyi C; Shu, Liping; Zhang, Yesheng; Wang, Yangzi; Sanni, Timothy M; Imumorin, Ikhide G; Peters, Sunday O; Zhang, Jiajin; Dong, Yang; Wang, Wen

    2016-01-01

    The immune systems are fundamentally vital for evolution and survival of species; as such, selection patterns in innate immune loci are of special interest in molecular evolutionary research. The interferon regulatory factor (IRF) gene family control many different aspects of the innate and adaptive immune responses in vertebrates. Among these, IRF3 is known to take active part in very many biological processes. We assembled and evaluated 1356 base pairs of the IRF3 gene coding region in domesticated goats from Africa (Nigeria, Ethiopia and South Africa) and Asia (Iran and China) and the wild goat (Capra aegagrus). Five segregating sites with θ value of 0.0009 for this gene demonstrated a low diversity across the goats' populations. Fu and Li tests were significantly positive but Tajima's D test was significantly negative, suggesting its deviation from neutrality. Neighbor joining tree of IRF3 gene in domesticated goats, wild goat and sheep showed that all domesticated goats have a closer relationship than with the wild goat and sheep. Maximum likelihood tree of the gene showed that different domesticated goats share a common ancestor and suggest single origin. Four unique haplotypes were observed across all the sequences, of which, one was particularly common to African goats (MOCH-K14-0425, Poitou and WAD). In assessing the evolution mode of the gene, we found that the codon model dN/dS ratio for all goats was greater than one. Phylogenetic Analysis by Maximum Likelihood (PAML) gave a ω0 (dN/dS) value of 0.067 with LnL value of -6900.3 for the first Model (M1) while ω2 = 1.667 in model M2 with LnL value of -6900.3 with positive selection inferred in 3 codon sites. Mechanistic empirical combination (MEC) model for evaluating adaptive selection pressure on particular codons also confirmed adaptive selection pressure in three codons (207, 358 and 408) in IRF3 gene. Positive diversifying selection inferred with recent evolutionary changes in domesticated goat IRF3

  1. Educational Possibilities of Keeping Goats in Elementary Schools in Japan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koda, Naoko; Kutsumi, Shiho; Hirose, Toshiya; Watanabe, Gen

    2016-01-01

    Many Japanese elementary schools keep small animals for educational purposes, and the effects and challenges have been investigated. Although goats are medium-sized animals that are familiar to Japanese, few practical studies have been conducted on keeping goats in schools. This study investigated the effects and challenges of keeping goats in elementary schools and discussed its educational possibilities. A semi-structured interview survey was conducted with 11 personnel that were responsible for keeping goats in 6 elementary schools in urban areas. They described benefits, problems, and tips related to keeping goats. Participant observation was also conducted on daily human–goat interactions in these schools. The results indicated that children in all six grades were able to care for goats. Goats were used for various school subjects and activities. As a result of keeping goats, children developed affection for them, attitude of respect for living things, greater sense of responsibility, and enhanced interpersonal interactional skills. Stronger ties between the schools and parents and community were developed through cooperation in goat-keeping. Some anxieties existed about the risk of injury to children when interacting with goats. Other challenges included the burden of taking care of the goats on holidays and insufficient knowledge about treatment in case of their illness or injury. The results suggested similarities to the benefits and challenges associated with keeping small animals in elementary schools, although the responsibility and the burden on the schools were greater for keeping goats than small animals because of their larger size and the need for children to consider the goats’ inner state and to cooperate with others when providing care. At the same time, goats greatly stimulated interest, cooperation, and empathy in children. Goats can expand educational opportunities and bring about many positive effects on child development. PMID:28083538

  2. Impact of fetal echocardiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Simpson, John M

    2009-01-01

    Prenatal diagnosis of congenital heart disease is now well established for a wide range of cardiac anomalies. Diagnosis of congenital heart disease during fetal life not only identifies the cardiac lesion but may also lead to detection of associated abnormalities. This information allows a detailed discussion of the prognosis with parents. For continuing pregnancies, appropriate preparation can be made to optimize the postnatal outcome. Reduced morbidity and mortality, following antenatal diagnosis, has been reported for coarctation of the aorta, hypoplastic left heart syndrome, and transposition of the great arteries. With regard to screening policy, most affected fetuses are in the “low risk” population, emphasizing the importance of appropriate training for those who undertake such obstetric anomaly scans. As a minimum, the four chamber view of the fetal heart should be incorporated into midtrimester anomaly scans, and where feasible, views of the outflow tracts should also be included, to increase the diagnostic yield. Newer screening techniques, such as measurement of nuchal translucency, may contribute to identification of fetuses at high risk for congenital heart disease and prompt referral for detailed cardiac assessment

  3. An economic analysis of communal goat production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sebel, P J; McCrindle, C M E; Webb, E C

    2004-03-01

    The economic impact of different extension messages used was calculated using enterprise budgeting (gross margin analysis). Input data were gleaned from the literature, from participatory appraisals, as well as a field study, spanning 12 months, of small-scale communal goat farming systems in Jericho in the Odi District of North West Province. The number of offspring weaned per annum, as a proportion of does owned, was selected as the desired output for analysis. This study has shown that small-scale communal goat farmers are not adopting or implementing extension messages to improve production capacity. In South Africa the majority of goats are slaughtered in the informal sector. If the informal sector is to be persuaded to market goats commercially through formal channels, then knowledge of the economics of goat farming on communal lands should be provided. The economic aspects of extension messages are probably an important factor in determining acceptance and sustainability yet appear to be seldom investigated. The probable reason for lack of adoption of standard extension messages, which promote improved nutrition, parasite control, vaccination and treatment of goats, was economic. In other words, the so-called 'poor management practices' used by communal farmers appeared to be economically more profitable than the 'good management practices' suggested to increase production. The price of communal goats was not related to their mass. A higher level of inputs would probably have resulted in a heavier kid, however it was established that this would not have influenced the price received as a majority of the goats were slaughtered for ritual purposes where age, colour and sex were more important to the purchaser than body mass. It is standard practice in commercial farming systems to evaluate the economic benefits of all management practices before they are implemented. Production animal veterinarians use veterinary economics to compare different scenarios to

  4. An economic analysis of communal goat production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P.J. Sebei

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available The economic impact of different extension messages used was calculated using enterprise budgeting (gross margin analysis. Input data were gleaned from the literature, from participatory appraisals, as well as a field study, spanning 12 months, of small-scalecommunal goat farming systems in Jericho in the Odi District of NorthWest Province. The number of offspring weaned per annum, as a proportion of does owned, was selected as the desired output for analysis. This study has shown that small-scale communal goat farmers are not adopting or implementing extension messages to improve production capacity. In south Africa the majority of goats are slaughtered in the informal sector. If the informal sector is to be persuaded to market goats commercially through formal channels, then knowledge of the economics of goat farming on communal lands should be provided. The economic aspects of extension messages are probably an important factor in determining acceptance and sustainability yet appear to be seldom investigated. The probable reason for lack of adoption of standard extension messages, which promote improved nutrition, parasite control, vaccination and treatment of goats, was economic. In other words, the so-called 'poor management practices' used by communal farmers appeared to be economically more profitable than the 'good management practices' suggested to increase production. The price of communal goats was not related to their mass. A higher level of inputs would probably have resulted in a heavier kid, however it was established that this would not have influenced the price received as a majority of the goats were slaughtered for ritual purposes where age, colour and sex were more important to the purchaser than body mass. It is standard practice in commercial farming systems to evaluate the economic benefits of all management practices before they are implemented. Production animal veterinarians use veterinary economics to compare different

  5. Thermoregulatory responses of goats in hot environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maia, Alex Sandro Campos; da Silva, Roberto Gomes; Nascimento, Sheila Tavares; Nascimento, Carolina Cardoso Nagib; Pedroza, Heloisa Paula; Domingos, Herica Girlane Tertulino

    2015-08-01

    Notwithstanding the solar radiation is recognized as a detrimental factor to the thermal balance and responses of animals on the range in tropical conditions, studies on the amount of thermal radiation absorbed by goats therein associated with data on their production and heat exchange are still lacking. Metabolic heat production and the heat exchange of goats in the sun and in the shade were measured simultaneously, aiming to observe its thermal equilibrium. The results showed that black goats absorb twice as much as the white goats under intense solar radiation (higher than 800 W m-2). This observation leads to a higher surface temperature of black goats, but it must not be seen as a disadvantage, because they increase their sensible heat flow in the coat-air interface, especially the convection heat flow at high wind speeds. In the shade, no difference between the coat colours was observed and both presented a lower absorption of heat and a lower sensible heat flow gain. When solar radiation levels increases from 300 to 1000 W m-2, we observed an increase of the heat losses through latent flow in both respiratory and cutaneous surface. Cutaneous evaporation was responsible for almost 90 % of the latent heat losses, independently of the coat colour. Goats decrease the metabolic heat production under solar radiation levels up to 800 W m-2, and increase in levels higher than this, because there is an increase of the respiratory rate and of the respiratory flow, but the fractions of consumed oxygen and produced carbon dioxide are maintained stable. The respiratory rate of black goats was higher than the white ones, under 300 W m-2 (55 and 45 resp min-1) and 1000 W m-2 (120 and 95 resp min-1, respectively). It was concluded that shade or any protection against solar radiation levels above 800 Wm-2 is critical to guarantee goat's thermal equilibrium. Strategies concerning the grazing period in accordance with the time of the day alone are not appropriate, because the

  6. PRODUCTIVITY COMPARISON BETWEEN BOER AND KACANG GOAT DAM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Elieser

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available A study to evaluate the productivity of Boer and Kacang goats dam was carried out for 2 years atResearch Institute for Goat Production, Sungei Putih-North Sumatera. The materials used were goatsowned by the institute. The parameters observed were total birth and weaning weights of kid, litter size,parity of dam, pre-weaning mortality and kidding interval. The rate of reproduction and productivity ofthe dam were estimated using Amir and Knipscheer methods and were statistically analyzed usingGeneral Linear Model. The results showed that the total birth and weaning weight of Boer goats werehigher (P<0.05 than that of Kacang goats, while litter size of Boer goats were higher (P<0.05 than thatof Kacang goats. The pre-weaning mortality of Boer goat 15.1 ± 6.02% was lower than that ofKacang. The kidding interval of Boer goats was higher (P<0.05 than that of Kacang. Parity of dam hadsignificant effect on all production traits (P<0.05 except for pre-weaning mortality. Dam reproductionrate of Boer (1.81 was higher than that of Kacang (1.78, while productivity of Boer goat (37.12kg/head/year was higher than that of Kacang (18.12. It can be concluded that the reproductivity ofBoer and Kacang goats were similar, however the productivity of Boer goat had better than Kacang.

  7. Communal goat production in Southern Africa: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rumosa Gwaze, F; Chimonyo, M; Dzama, K

    2009-10-01

    Despite the fact that about 64% of goats in sub-Saharan Africa (SSA) are located in rural arid (38%) and semi-arid (26%) agro-ecological zones and that more than 90% of goats in these zones are indigenous, information on indigenous breeds is inadequate. This paper reviews the social and economic importance of goats to the communal farmer and assesses the potential of using goats in rural development in Southern Africa. Farmers in Southern Africa largely use the village goat management system. There are various goat breeds in Southern Africa, of which the Mashona, Matabele, Tswana, Nguni and the Landim are the dominant ones. It is, however, not clear if these breeds are distinct. Major constraints to goat production include high disease and parasite prevalence, low levels of management, limited forage availability and poor marketing management. Potential research areas that are required to ensure that goats are vehicles for rural development include evaluation of constraints to goat production, assessing the contribution of goats to household economies and food securities throughout the year, genetic and phenotypic characterisation of the indigenous breeds to identify appropriate strains and sustainable methods of goat improvement through either selection or crossbreeding.

  8. Zootechnical Performances of Goats in Niger: Comparative Study of the Maradi Russet Goat with the Black-Coat Goat in Maradi Area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Marichatou

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available The main objective of this study was not only to contribute to the knowledge of the Maradi russet goat, but also to compare some of its parameters (reproduction, adult weight, measurements, growth with those of the black goat. Retrospective oral surveys were carried out on three groups of black, and russet goats, in which 106 goats gave birth 3 or 4 times, 97 of them twice and 87 were primiparous. Seven measurements as well as adult weights were recorded in 125 russet, and black females of 4 years ± 3 months of age. Weight changes in 38 black, and russet kids were monitored from birth to three months of age in village conditions. Data statistical analysis on both coat-type groups showed, overall, similar results in village conditions. Nevertheless, prolificacy in russet goats was systematically higher than that in black goats regardless of parity.

  9. Mathematical models of human cerebellar development in the fetal period.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dudek, Krzysztof; Nowakowska-Kotas, Marta; Kędzia, Alicja

    2018-04-01

    The evaluation of cerebellar growth in the fetal period forms a part of a widely used examination to identify any features of abnormalities in early stages of human development. It is well known that the development of anatomical structures, including the cerebellum, does not always follow a linear model of growth. The aim of the study was to analyse a variety of mathematical models of human cerebellar development in fetal life to determine their adequacy. The study comprised 101 fetuses (48 males and 53 females) between the 15th and 28th weeks of fetal life. The cerebellum was exposed and measurements of the vermis and hemispheres were performed, together with statistical analyses. The mathematical model parameters of fetal growth were assessed for crown-rump length (CRL) increases, transverse cerebellar diameter and ventrodorsal dimensions of the cerebellar vermis in the transverse plane, and rostrocaudal dimensions of the cerebellar vermis and hemispheres in the frontal plane. A variety of mathematical models were applied, including linear and non-linear functions. Taking into consideration the variance between models and measurements, as well as correlation parameters, the exponential and Gompertz models proved to be the most suitable for modelling cerebellar growth in the second and third trimesters of pregnancy. However, the linear model gave a satisfactory approximation of cerebellar growth, especially in older fetuses. The proposed models of fetal cerebellar growth constructed on the basis of anatomical examination and objective mathematical calculations could be useful in the estimation of fetal development. © 2018 Anatomical Society.

  10. Fetal liver T2* values: defining a standardized scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goitein, Orly; Eshet, Yael; Hoffmann, Chen; Raviv-Zilka, Lisa; Salem, Yishay; Hamdan, Ashraf; Goitein, David; Kushnir, Tamar; Eshed, Iris; Di-Segni, Elio; Konen, Eli

    2013-12-01

    To define the normal T2* values of liver in the third trimester of pregnancy in normal fetuses. Multi-echo gradient echo T2* sequence was applied to the fetal abdomen in the axial plane in women undergoing a fetal MRI (1.5 Tesla [T], MRI system). A region of interest, best visualizing in the liver parenchyma was used for measurements. Studies were independently read by two experienced readers to assess intra- and interobserver variability. The study cohort included 46 pregnant women undergoing fetal MRI for any indication other than liver pathology evaluation. Three scans were excluded due to fetal motion. Average maternal and gestational age were 33 ± 4 years and 31.9 ± 3 weeks, respectively. Average T2* values were found to be 19.7 ± 7.4 ms. The intra- and interobserver agreement were very good: 0.93 and 0.8-0.084, respectively. T2* MRI allows noninvasive evaluation liver iron content in the third trimester fetus. Measured values at this stage of pregnancy are significantly lower compared with values cited in the literature for adults. This is of major importance in the correct diagnosis of fetal iron overload states. We propose this as the standard reference when evaluating fetal iron overload pathology. Copyright © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  11. Risk factors and therapy for goat mastitis in a hospital-based case-control study in Bangladesh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koop, Gerrit; Islam, Md Nurul; Rahman, Md Mizanur; Khatun, Momena; Ferdous, Jinnat; Sayeed, Md Abu; Islam, Shariful; Ahaduzzaman, Md; Akter, Sazeda; Mannan, Abdul; Hassan, Mohammad Mahmudul; Dissanayake, Ravi; Hoque, Md Ahasanul

    2016-02-01

    Bangladesh has a large population of goats, which contribute to the income, nutrition and welfare of the households of many families. Mastitis in goats has a low incidence, but is often very severe, making veterinary care necessary. The aim of this study was to identify seasonality and risk factors for goat mastitis in a hospital-based matched case-control study in a teaching veterinary hospital in Chittagong, Bangladesh and to describe the range of antimicrobial treatments applied in this situation. Cases of mastitis and controls were drawn from the hospital patient recording system, along with their risk factor status. Multiple imputation was applied to deal with the missing values in the data analysis. Mastitis occurred somewhat more in the rainy season, and comprised about 3% of all goats admitted to the hospital during January 2011-June 2014. Free-ranging farming system, poor body condition score and non-native goat breeds were significantly associated with case status. Treatment of clinical mastitis was variable and unsystematic, but the use of gentamicin was commonly recorded. The need for more prudent and evidence-based antimicrobial therapies is discussed. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Production, composition, fatty acid profile and sensory analysis of goat milk in goats fed buriti oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morais, J S; Bezerra, L R; Silva, A M A; Araújo, M J; Oliveira, R L; Edvan, R L; Torreão, J N C; Lanna, D P D

    2017-01-01

    This study evaluated the effects of replacing ground corn with buriti oil ( L.) on feed intake and digestibility and on the production, composition, fatty acid profile and sensory characteristics of goat milk. A double Latin square (4 × 4) was used; eight goats were distributed in a completely randomized design. The square comprised four periods and four buriti oil concentration (0.00; 1.50; 3.00 and 4.50% of total DM) replacing corn. Intakes of DM, CP, NDF, ADF, non-fibrous carboydrates (NFC) and TDN were not affected by the replacement of corn with oil in the diet. However, lipids intake was increased ( goats with 4.50% oil inclusion, as total DM. DM and CP digestibility were similar between the buriti oil concentrations. However, lipid digestibility increased linearly ( = 0.01) and may have contributed to a quadratic reduction in NDF digestibility ( = 0.01) and a linear reduction of NFC ( = 0.04) with buriti oil content in the goat feed. Goat milk production, corrected production and chemical composition were not influenced by the concentration of buriti oil replacement; however, milk fat concentration ( = 0.04) and feed efficiency ( goat's diet. In contrast, the fatty acids C18:0 ( goats that were fed with buriti oil. However, CLA ( 0.05) by the replacement of corn with buriti oil in the goats' diet. It is recommended to replace corn with buriti oil in goat feed by up to 4.5% of total DM, resulting in improved feed efficiency and milk fat without affecting production; this recommendation satisfies the minimum requirements of the industry and preserves the organoleptic characteristics of the milk and its acceptability for human consumption. In addition, buriti oil replacing ground corn by up to 4.5% DM in the diet of lactating goats decrease medium-chain SFA which are hypercholesterolemic and increase the concentrations of the C18:19, CLA and DFA in goat milk fat, helping to protect against cardiovascular disease.

  13. Ultrasound studies of the effects of certain poisonous plants on uterine function and fetal development in livestock.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bunch, T D; Panter, K E; James, L F

    1992-05-01

    Ingestion of locoweed (Astragalus spp. and Oxytropis spp.) by pregnant livestock may result in fetal malformations, delayed placentation, reduced placental and uterine vascular development, hydrops amnii, hydrops allantois, abnormal cotyledonary development, interruption of fetal fluid balance, and abortion. Ultrasonography of pregnant sheep fed locoweed demonstrated that abortion was first preceded by changes in fetal heart rate and strength of contraction and structural changes of the cotyledons, followed by increased accumulation of fetal fluid within the placental membranes and death of the fetus. During pregnancy the toxic agent in locoweed (swainsonine) apparently passes through the placental barrier to the fetus and during lactation through the milk to the neonate. Poison-hemlock (Conium maculatum), wild tree tobacco (Nicotiana glauca), and lunara lupine (Lupinus formosus) all contain piperidine alkaloids and induce fetal malformations, including multiple congenital contractures and cleft palate in livestock. Ultrasonography studies of pregnant sheep and goats gavaged with these plants during 30 to 60 d of gestation suggests that the primary cause of multiple congenital contractures and cleft palate is the degree and the duration of the alkaloid-induced fetal immobilization.

  14. Transfer of Orally Administered Terpenes in Goat Milk and Cheese

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. Poulopoulou

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the present study was to investigate the relationships between terpenes’ intake and their presence in animal tissues (blood and milk as well as in the final product (cheese. Eight dairy goats were divided in two balanced groups, representing control (C and treatment (T group. In T group oral administration of a mixture of terpenes (α-pinene, limonene and β-caryophyllene was applied over a period of 18 d. Cheese was produced, from C and T groups separately, on three time points, twice during the period of terpenes’ oral administration and once after the end of experiment. Terpenes were identified in blood by extraction using petroleum ether and in milk and cheese by the use of solid phase micro-extraction (SPME method, followed by GC-MS analysis. Chemical properties of the milk and the produced cheeses were analyzed and found not differing between the two groups. Limonene and α-pinene were found in all blood and milk samples of the T group after a lag-phase of 3 d, while β-caryophyllene was determined only in few milk samples. Moreover, none of the terpenes were traced in blood and milk of C animals. In cheese, terpenes’ concentrations presented a more complicated pattern implying that terpenes may not be reliable feed tracers. We concluded that monoterpenes can be regarded as potential feed tracers for authentification of goat milk, but further research is required on factors affecting their transfer.

  15. DESIGNING STUDY FOR A FAMILY FARM WITH 600 GOATS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. PĂDEANU

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available In the hilly and plains area of Banat region, goat rearing for milk production haschances to become a profitable business. After Romania integration into the EUmarket there will be no quotas for goat milk and meat production. Also, importantlow-production arable land areas (over 3 million hectares will be laying fallow inthe next years, spectacularly increasing the fodder area for ruminants. There a fewgoat family farms having an efficient technological flow and with possibilities toprocess the milk in Romania. In this paper the bases are laid down for projecting afarm with 600 indigenous goats, to be exploited in an intensive system andgenetically improved with Sannen or French Alpine he-goats. The followingreproduction indices were planned for the 600 goats: goats in estrus per season96%, fecundity 95%, goats that keep the pregnancy 98%, kidding goats 90%,prolificacy 170%, and birth rate 152 kids for 100 dam goats. The total populationafter weaning the kids is 600 goats, 24 he-goats, and 173 reproduction female kids.For feeding this population 66.8 ha are required out of which 43.1 ha with grassespasture, 2.1 ha alfalfa, 10.2 ha corn, 4.2 ha barley, and 6.6 ha oats. Goats arehoused in 4 shelters, in 12 group pens of 48 heads. Goats will be fed year-round withgrass haylage, oats straw and concentrate mixtures. This farm will produce 2250 Hlmilk per year (mechanical milking, 150 reproduction female kids for selling at 8-9months of age, 500 fattening kids, and 120 culled goats sold for meat. The annuallyestimated gross income will be 34000 EUR.

  16. Assessment of food safety risks associated with preslaughter activities during the traditional slaughter of goats in Gauteng, South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qekwana, Nenene Daniel; Oguttu, James Wabwire

    2014-06-01

    goats from known and traceable sources, and ensuring that animals have sufficient rest before slaughter. However, given the rudimentary nature of these activities, they may not offer adequate protection to consumers of such meat. The lack of understanding of the importance of a obtaining a health declaration certificate and minimizing stress in animals waiting to be slaughtered should be addressed to minimize the potential for propagation of foodborne diseases. The Meat Safety Act 40 of 2000 should be enforced where it applies and should be reviewed to provide guidelines that would help mitigate human health risks associated with traditional slaughter of goats.

  17. Genetic differentiation of chinese indigenous meat goats ascertained using microsatellite information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ling, Y H; Zhang, X D; Yao, N; Ding, J P; Chen, H Q; Zhang, Z J; Zhang, Y H; Ren, C H; Ma, Y H; Zhang, X R

    2012-02-01

    To investigate the genetic diversity of seven Chinese indigenous meat goat breeds (Tibet goat, Guizhou white goat, Shannan white goat, Yichang white goat, Matou goat, Changjiangsanjiaozhou white goat and Anhui white goat), explain their genetic relationship and assess their integrity and degree of admixture, 302 individuals from these breeds and 42 Boer goats introduced from Africa as reference samples were genotyped for 11 microsatellite markers. Results indicated that the genetic diversity of Chinese indigenous meat goats was rich. The mean heterozygosity and the mean allelic richness (AR) for the 8 goat breeds varied from 0.697 to 0.738 and 6.21 to 7.35, respectively. Structure analysis showed that Tibet goat breed was genetically distinct and was the first to separate and the other Chinese goats were then divided into two sub-clusters: Shannan white goat and Yichang white goat in one cluster; and Guizhou white goat, Matou goat, Changjiangsanjiaozhou white goat and Anhui white goat in the other cluster. This grouping pattern was further supported by clustering analysis and Principal component analysis. These results may provide a scientific basis for the characteristization, conservation and utilization of Chinese meat goats.

  18. Socio-economic and cultural functions of goats in Niger Delta of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Results showed that goat keeping was not popular in the study area because the people did not cherish goat meat; they see goats as destructive, dirty, and often associated with witchcraft. Forty-six percent of the respondents practised free range, and 18 per cent confined their goats. Goats were, however, found to be widely ...

  19. MR evaluation of fetal demise

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Victoria, Teresa; Chauvin, Nancy Anne; Johnson, Ann M.; Kramer, Sandra Sue; Epelman, Monica; Capilla, Elena

    2011-01-01

    Fetal demise is an uncommon event encountered at MR imaging. When it occurs, recognition by the interpreting radiologist is important to initiate appropriate patient management. To identify MR findings of fetal demise. Following IRB approval, a retrospective search of the radiology fetal MR database was conducted searching the words ''fetal demise'' and ''fetal death.'' Fetuses with obvious maceration or no sonographic confirmation of death were excluded. Eleven cases formed the study group. These were matched randomly to live fetuses of similar gestational age. Images were reviewed independently by three pediatric radiologists. The deceased fetus demonstrates decreased MR soft-tissue contrast and definition of tissue planes, including loss of gray-white matter differentiation in the brain. The signal within the cardiac chambers, when visible, is bright on HASTE sequences from the stagnant blood; the heart is small. Pleural effusions and decreased lung volumes may be seen. Interestingly, the fetal orbits lose their anatomical round shape and become smaller and more elliptical; a dark, irregular rim resembling a mask may be seen. Although fetal demise is uncommonly encountered at MR imaging, radiologists should be aware of such imaging findings so prompt management can be instituted. (orig.)

  20. Large Scale Immune Profiling of Infected Humans and Goats Reveals Differential Recognition of Brucella melitensis Antigens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Li; Leng, Diana; Burk, Chad; Nakajima-Sasaki, Rie; Kayala, Matthew A.; Atluri, Vidya L.; Pablo, Jozelyn; Unal, Berkay; Ficht, Thomas A.; Gotuzzo, Eduardo; Saito, Mayuko; Morrow, W. John W.; Liang, Xiaowu; Baldi, Pierre; Gilman, Robert H.; Vinetz, Joseph M.; Tsolis, Renée M.; Felgner, Philip L.

    2010-01-01

    Brucellosis is a widespread zoonotic disease that is also a potential agent of bioterrorism. Current serological assays to diagnose human brucellosis in clinical settings are based on detection of agglutinating anti-LPS antibodies. To better understand the universe of antibody responses that develop after B. melitensis infection, a protein microarray was fabricated containing 1,406 predicted B. melitensis proteins. The array was probed with sera from experimentally infected goats and naturally infected humans from an endemic region in Peru. The assay identified 18 antigens differentially recognized by infected and non-infected goats, and 13 serodiagnostic antigens that differentiate human patients proven to have acute brucellosis from syndromically similar patients. There were 31 cross-reactive antigens in healthy goats and 20 cross-reactive antigens in healthy humans. Only two of the serodiagnostic antigens and eight of the cross-reactive antigens overlap between humans and goats. Based on these results, a nitrocellulose line blot containing the human serodiagnostic antigens was fabricated and applied in a simple assay that validated the accuracy of the protein microarray results in the diagnosis of humans. These data demonstrate that an experimentally infected natural reservoir host produces a fundamentally different immune response than a naturally infected accidental human host. PMID:20454614

  1. Effect of goat manure on some soil properties and growth, yield and nutrient status of tomato

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ojeniyi, S.O.; Awodun, M.A.; Akanni, D. A.

    2007-01-01

    Field experiment were conducted at Akure, Negeria, in a rainforest zone of Southwest Nigeria to study the effect of goat manure (droppings) on some soil physical and chemical properties and nutrient status, growth and yied of tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum). Five levels of manure (0, 10, 25, 40 and 50 t/ha) were applied on the soil surface to two crops of tomato at each of two sites, namely, Federal College of Agriculture and Federal University of Technology. Soils were deficient in organic matter (OM), total N, exchangeable Ca and available P. Soil OM, total N, available P and moisture content increased with the level of manure, while soil bulk density decreased. Leaf N, P, K, Ca and Mg, growth and fruit yield of tomato were significantly increased by goat manure treatments. Leaf K, Ca and Mg, plant height, number of branches, leaf area, root length, number of fruits and fruit diameter increased with the level of manure, However, the 25 t/ha manure gave optimum values of number and weight of fruits. The mean fruit yields recorded for 0, 10, 25, 40 and 50 t/ha goat manure were 15.0, 19.7, 23.7, 24.3 and 22.3 t/ha, respectively. It is concluded that goat manure is suitable for impoving soil physical and chemical properties and growth and yield of tomato.(Author)

  2. Stereotaxic approach to hypothalamic nuclei of the shiba goat with radiographic monitoring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mori, Y.; Takeuchi, Y.; Shimada, M.; Hayashi, S.; Hoshino, K.

    1990-01-01

    Practical method was devised for precise approach to hypothalamic nuclei in the Shiba goat. A stereotaxic instrument and a brain atlas with stereotaxic coordinates were developed. For an accurate placement of probes into specific hypothalamic regions a radiographic method was employed in which radio-opaque material was injected into the lateral ventricle and the ventricular outline was depicted. A sagittal diagram showing the arrangement of hypothalamic nuclei in relation to the brain ventricular system was constructed from the transverse stereotaxic atlas. This diagram was revealed extremely useful in pinpointing the target on the radiographs of lateral view. Precision of this method was evaluated in female Shiba goats (n = 4) by comparing radiographically estimated positions of hypothalamic nuclei with those histologically determined. Despite of cranial variability among individual animals these two parameters matched well each other in all the nuclei examined. Furthermore, chronic cannulae were implanted into different hypothalamic structures of one goat and the accuracy of their placement was confirmed histologically. Thus, it was revealed that the stereotaxy by aid of radiography herein described was accurate enough to apply to various neuroendocrinological studies in the Shiba goat

  3. Application of microsatellite markers as potential tools for traceability of Girgentana goat breed dairy products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sardina, Maria Teresa; Tortorici, Lina; Mastrangelo, Salvatore; Di Gerlando, Rosalia; Tolone, Marco; Portolano, Baldassare

    2015-08-01

    In livestock, breed assignment may play a key role in the certification of products linked to specific breeds. Traceability of farm animals and authentication of their products can contribute to improve breed profitability and sustainability of animal productions with significant impact on the rural economy of particular geographic areas and on breed and biodiversity conservation. With the goal of developing a breed genetic traceability system for Girgentana dairy products, the aim of this study was to identify specific microsatellite markers able to discriminate among the most important Sicilian dairy goat breeds, in order to detect possible adulteration in Girgentana dairy products. A total of 20 microsatellite markers were analyzed on 338 individual samples from Girgentana, Maltese, and Derivata di Siria goat breeds. Specific microsatellite markers useful for traceability of dairy products were identified. Eight microsatellite markers showed alleles present at the same time in Maltese and Derivata di Siria and absent in Girgentana and, therefore, they were tested on DNA pools of the three breeds. Considering the electropherograms' results, only FCB20, SRCRSP5, and TGLA122 markers were tested on DNA samples extracted from cheeses of Girgentana goat breed. These three microsatellite markers could be applied in a breed genetic traceability system of Girgentana dairy products in order to detect adulteration due to Maltese and Derivata di Siria goat breeds. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Effect of epidural tramadol and lignocaine on physiological and behavioural changes in goats subjected to castration with a high tension band.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ajadi, R A; Owanikin, A O; Martins, M M; Gazal, O S

    2012-11-01

    To compare the effect of a single epidural injection of either lignocaine or tramadol on behavioural changes, anaesthetic indices, leucocyte parameters, erythrocyte sedimentation rates and concentration of cortisol in plasma in goats subjected to castration by high tension band. Ten male goats weighing 14.4 (SD 0.7) kg were randomly allocated to anaesthesia with epidural injections of tramadol (3 mg/kg), or lignocaine (4 mg/kg). Following anaesthesia, a rubber ring was applied and tensioned to the scrotal neck of each goat. Behavioural changes were noted as they occurred, and the onset of drug action (time between epidural injection and loss of pedal reflex) and duration of antinociception (time interval between disappearance and reappearance of pedal withdrawal reflex) were determined. Hearts rates, respiratory rates and rectal temperatures were determined every 15 minutes for a 90-minute period, while blood was obtained for determination of white cell counts, erythrocyte sedimentation rates and concentrations of cortisol. Anaesthetic indices were compared using Student's t-test, while physiological parameters were compared using an ANOVA for repeated measurements. Goats treated with epidural tramadol were not recumbent and continued rumination while goats treated with epidural lignocaine were recumbent and did not continue rumination. The onset of analgesia was longer (p=0.01) in goats treated with epidural tramadol (5.0 minutes; SD 1.2) than goats treated with epidural lignocaine (3.0 minutes; SD 1.1), while duration of analgesia was shorter (p=0.003) in goats treated with epidural tramadol (47.2 minutes; SD 13.1) than goats treated with epidural lignocaine (89.8 minutes; SD 23.1). There was no significant difference in heart rates, respiratory rates and erythrocyte sedimentation rates, while the concentration of cortisol in plasma differed (pcattle and where the ability of the animal to maintain standing is desired.

  5. 21 CFR 884.2900 - Fetal stethoscope.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Fetal stethoscope. 884.2900 Section 884.2900 Food... Fetal stethoscope. (a) Identification. A fetal stethoscope is a device used for listening to fetal heart... conventional stethoscopes. (b) Classification. Class I (general controls). The device is exempt from the...

  6. [Incidence of fetal macrosomia: maternal and fetal morbidity].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez-Rojas, R R; Cantú-Esquivel, M G; Benavides-de la Garza, L; Benavides-de Anda, L

    1996-06-01

    The macrosomia is an obstetric eventuality associated to high maternal-fetal morbidity-mortality. This assay was planned in order to know the incidence of macrosomia in our institution, the relation between vaginal and abdominal deliveries and the fetal-maternal morbidity we reviewed 3590 records and we found 5.6% incidence of macrosomia in the global obstetric population. There was 58% of vaginal deliveries, 68% of the newborn were male. The main complications were in the C. sections, 2 laceration of the hysterectomy, and 2 peroperative atonias. In the vaginal deliveries, the lacerations of III and IV grade were 9 of each grade. The main fetal complications were 5 slight to severe asphyxia and 4 shoulder dystocias. This assay concludes that the macrosomia in our service is similar to the already published ones, a 42% were C. section and the maternal-fetal morbidity was low.

  7. Digital communication with fetal monitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bozóki, Z

    1997-11-01

    Fetal heart rate (FHR) values in the averaged format that are provided by commercial computed cardiotocography analysis systems may be unsuitable for special analysis purposes. I developed a communication software program to obtain any measured values of fetal monitors for individual analysis of computed cardiotocography. The software program was used to study the data continuity of beat-to-beat FHR values as an experiment for chaos theory and power spectrum analysis. The results indicated that the signal loss was recognized at a precision of 95%. The described method of digital communication with fetal monitors was found to be useful for individual purposes in the field of computed cardiotocography analysis.

  8. Ultrasonographic determination of fetal gender

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Il Young; Kim, Dae Ho; Lee, Byung Ho; Bae, Dong Han

    1985-01-01

    Sonographic determination of fetal gender was attempted prospectively in most pregnancies of more than 26 weeks. We studied 193 cases of pregnancies with ultrasound for recent 9 months from June 1984 to February 1985 at department of radiology, Soonchunhyang university, Soonchunhyang Chunan hospital, and analysed ultrasonographic finding of fetal gender. The results were as follows; 1. Overall accuracy rate for fetal gender is 90%. 2. Accuracy rate for male fetus is 97.8%. 3. Accuracy rate for female fetus is 88.2%

  9. MRI of the fetal abdomen

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoermann, M.; Brugger, P.C.; Witzani, L.; Prayer, D.

    2006-01-01

    Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is an important diagnostic component for central nervous system and thoracic diseases during fetal development. Although ultrasound remains the method of choice for observing the fetus during pregnancy, fetal MRI is being increasingly used as an additional technique for the accurate diagnosis of abdominal diseases. Recent publications confirm the value of MRI in the diagnosis of fetal gastrointestinal tract and urogenital system diseases. The following report provides an overview of MRI-examination techniques for the most frequent diseases of the abdomen. (orig.) [de

  10. The Danish fetal medicine database

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ekelund, Charlotte Kvist; Kopp, Tine Iskov; Tabor, Ann

    2016-01-01

    trimester ultrasound scan performed at all public hospitals in Denmark are registered in the database. Main variables/descriptive data: Data on maternal characteristics, ultrasonic, and biochemical variables are continuously sent from the fetal medicine units’Astraia databases to the central database via...... analyses are sent to the database. Conclusion: It has been possible to establish a fetal medicine database, which monitors first-trimester screening for chromosomal abnormalities and second-trimester screening for major fetal malformations with the input from already collected data. The database...

  11. The effects of prenatal stocking densities on the fear responses and sociality of goat (Capra hircus kids.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rachel M Chojnacki

    Full Text Available Prenatal stress (stress experienced by a pregnant mother and its effects on offspring have been comprehensively studied but relatively little research has been done on how prenatal social stress affects farm animals such as goats. Here, we use the operational description of 'stress' as "physical or perceived threats to homeostasis." The aim of this study was to investigate the prenatal effects of different herd densities on the fear responses and sociality of goat kids. Pregnant Norwegian dairy goats were exposed to high, medium or low prenatal animal density treatments throughout gestation (1.0, 2.0 or 3.0 m2 per animal, respectively. One kid per litter was subjected to two behavioral tests at 5 weeks of age. The 'social test' was applied to assess the fear responses, sociality and social recognition skills when presented with a familiar and unfamiliar kid and the 'separation test' assessed the behavioral coping skills when isolated. The results indicate goat kids from the highest prenatal density of 1.0 m2 were more fearful than the kids from the lower prenatal densities (i.e. made more escape attempts (separation test: P < 0.001 and vocalizations (social test: P < 0.001; separation test: P < 0.001. This effect was more pronounced in females than males in the high density (vocalizations; social test: P < 0.001; separation test: P  =  0.001 and females were generally more social than males. However, goat kids did not differentiate between a familiar and an unfamiliar kid at 5 weeks of age and sociality was not affected by the prenatal density treatment. We conclude that high animal densities during pregnancy in goats produce offspring that have a higher level of fear, particularly in females. Behavioral changes in offspring that occur as an effect of prenatal stress are of high importance as many of the females are recruited to the breeding stock of dairy goats.

  12. Infiltrative Cutaneous Hemangiolipoma in a Goat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jessica R. Collier

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available An approximately 4-year-old castrated male, Saanen cross goat presented to the Colorado State University Veterinary Teaching Hospital for evaluation and removal of a 22 cm × 22 cm, dark red, thickened, and crusted cutaneous lesion along the left ventrolateral thorax. An initial incisional biopsy performed approximately 8 weeks earlier was suspicious for cutaneous hemangiosarcoma. Surgical excision was deemed to be the most appropriate treatment option for this goat. A complete physical exam, complete blood count, and chemistry profile were performed and results were within normal limits. Thoracic radiographs and abdominal ultrasound were performed to rule out metastatic disease and comorbid conditions; no metastatic lesions or other abnormalities were observed. En bloc surgical excision of the affected skin was performed and the entire tissue was submitted for histopathology. A final diagnosis of cutaneous hemangiolipoma was reached upon extensive sectioning and histologic examination of the larger tissue specimen. The goat recovered well from surgery and has had no further complications up to 9 months postoperatively. To our knowledge, this is the first case report of a hemangiolipoma in a goat and surgical excision for such lesions appears to be a viable treatment method.

  13. Artificial insemination of Argora goat does with

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    with fresh or deep-frozen semen. The results achieved were. 76,7o/o;90oh and 34,804 respectively. Although a signif icanily lower kidding percentage was obtained when frozen semen was used, these results warrant further investigation of techni- ques for freezing goat semen. S. Af r. J. Anim. Sci. 1983, 13: 134 - 135.

  14. Coxiella burnetii infections in sheep or goats

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brom, Van den R.; Engelen, van E.; Roest, H.I.J.; Hoek, van der W.; Vellema, P.

    2015-01-01

    Q fever is an almost ubiquitous zoonosis caused by Coxiella burnetii, which is able to infect several animal species, as well as humans. Cattle, sheep and goats are the primary animal reservoirs. In small ruminants, infections are mostly without clinical symptoms, however, abortions and

  15. Plasma progesterone levels following breeding in goats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jain, G.C.; Arora, R.C.; Pahwa, G.S.; Batra, S.K.; Pandey, R.S.

    1980-01-01

    Progesterone concentration in the peripheral blood plasma of ten lactating goats of mixed breeds following breeding were determined by radioimmunoassay to diagnose early pregnancy. The mean concentration was very low (0.25 +- 0.15 ng/ml) on the day of oestrus and reached at peak level on day 13 (1.30 +- 0.07 ng/ml) and on day 19 (2.77 +- 1.18 ng/ml) in non-pregnant and pregnant goats, respectively. The level sharply declined on day 19 (0.40 +- 0.07 ng/ml) of oestrous cycle in non-pregnant goats. However, the level remained below 1.5 ng/ml on day 9, 13, 15 and 17 and 3 ng/ml on day 9, 13, 15, 17, 19, 21 and 23 in nonpregnant and pregnant goats, respectively. The progesterone concentration continued to increase to 2.94 +- 0.70, 4.42 +- 0.92 and 6.2 +- 0.61 ng/ml on day 45, 60 and 75 of gestation, respectively. (auth.)

  16. Anti-Bacterial Activity of Recombinant Human β-Defensin-3 Secreted in the Milk of Transgenic Goats Produced by Somatic Cell Nuclear Transfer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Chengquan; Zhang, Hui; Wang, Yongsheng; Su, Jianmin; Quan, Fusheng; Gao, Mingqing; Zhang, Yong

    2013-01-01

    The present study was conducted to determine whether recombinant human β-defensin-3 (rHBD3) in the milk of transgenic goats has an anti-bacterial activity against Escherichia coli (E. coli), Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus) and Streptococcus agalactiae (S. agalactiae) that could cause mastitis. A HBD3 mammary-specific expression vector was transfected by electroporation into goat fetal fibroblasts which were used to produce fourteen healthy transgenic goats by somatic cell nuclear transfer. The expression level of rHBD3 in the milk of the six transgenic goats ranged from 98 to 121 µg/ml at 15 days of lactation, and was maintained at 90–111 µg/ml during the following 2 months. Milk samples from transgenic goats showed an obvious inhibitory activity against E. coli, S. aureus and S. agalactiae in vitro. The minimal inhibitory concentrations of rHBD3 in milk against E. coli, S. aureus and S. agalactiae were 9.5–10.5, 21.8–23.0 and 17.3–18.5 µg/mL, respectively, which was similar to those of the HBD3 standard (P>0.05). The in vivo anti-bacterial activities of rHBD3 in milk were examined by intramammary infusion of viable bacterial inoculums. We observed that 9/10 and 8/10 glands of non-transgenic goats infused with S. aureus and E. coli became infected. The mean numbers of viable bacteria went up to 2.9×103 and 95.4×103 CFU/ml at 48 h after infusion, respectively; the mean somatic cell counts (SCC) in infected glands reached up to 260.4×105 and 622.2×105 cells/ml, which were significantly higher than the SCC in uninfected goat glands. In contrast, no bacteria was presented in glands of transgenic goats and PBS-infused controls, and the SSC did not significantly change throughout the period. Moreover, the compositions and protein profiles of milk from transgenic and non-transgenic goats were identical. The present study demonstrated that HBD3 were an effective anti-bacterial protein to enhance the mastitis resistance of dairy animals. PMID:23799010

  17. Clinical implications from monitoring fetal activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rayburn, W F

    1982-12-15

    The monitoring of fetal motion in high-risk pregnancies has been shown to be worthwhile in predicting fetal distress and impending fetal death. The maternal recording of perceived fetal activity is an inexpensive surveillance technique which is most useful when there is chronic uteroplacental insufficiency or when a stillbirth may be expected. The presence of an active, vigorous fetus is reassuring, but documented fetal inactivity required a reassessment of the underlying antepartum complication and further fetal evaluation with real-time ultrasonography, fetal heart rate testing, and biochemical testing. Fetal distress from such acute changes as abruptio placentae or umbilical cord compression may not be predicted by monitoring fetal motion. Although not used for routine clinical investigation, electromechanical devices such as tocodynamometry have provided much insight into fetal behavioral patterns at many stages of pregnancy and in pregnancies with an antepartum complication.

  18. Ovarian Follicular Dynamics around Estrus in Beetal and Teddy Goats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hasan Riaz, Nasim Ahmad* and Muhammad Rizwan Yousuf

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Due to higher fecundity rate over Beetal goats, it is assumed that Teddy goats have higher ovarian activity. Therefore, the current study tested the hypothesis that ovarian follicular population i.e. number of small (2-4 mm, medium (>4-6 mm and large follicles (>6 mm, size of the ovulatory follicle, and ovulation rate (No. of CL/No of ovulated goats, using transrectal ultrasonography are different between Beetal and Teddy goats of Pakistani origin. Beetal (n=6 and Teddy (n=8 does were synchronized using double PGF2a injections 10 d apart and were scanned on Days -2, 0 (estrus and +2. The onset of estrus was assessed by aproned bucks. Mean number of small follicles were higher (P<0.05 in Beetal goats, compared to Teddy goats, on days -2, estrus and +2. The ovulatory follicle diameter, and ovulation rate were found non-significant between Beetal and Teddy goats. It is concluded that Beetal goats have greater population of small follicles around estrus compared to Teddy goats. Future studies can be based on the follicle recruitment and atretic factors in Beetal goats to enhance the production.

  19. In vitro oocyte culture and somatic cell nuclear transfer used to produce a live-born cloned goat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohkoshi, Katsuhiro; Takahashi, Seiya; Koyama, Shin-Ichiro; Akagi, Satoshi; Adachi, Noritaka; Furusawa, Tadashi; Fujimoto, Jun-Ichiro; Takeda, Kumiko; Kubo, Masanori; Izaike, Yoshiaki; Tokunaga, Tomoyuki

    2003-01-01

    The use of an in vitro culture system was examined for production of somatic cells suitable for nuclear transfer in the goat. Goat cumulus-oocyte complexes were incubated in tissue culture medium TCM-199 supplemented with 10% fetal bovine serum (FBS) for 20 h. In vitro matured (IVM) oocytes were enucleated and used as karyoplast recipients. Donor cells obtained from the anterior pituitary of an adult male were introduced into the perivitelline space of enucleated IVM oocytes and fused by an electrical pulse. Reconstituted oocytes were cultured in chemically defined medium for 9 days. Two hundred and twenty-eight oocytes (70%) were fused with donor cells. After in vitro culture, seven somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT) oocytes (3%) developed to the blastocyst stage. SCNT embryos were transferred to the oviducts of recipient females (four 8-cell embryos per female) or uterine horn (two blastocysts per female). One male clone (NT1) was produced at day 153 from an SCNT blastocyst and died 16 days after birth. This study demonstrates that nuclear transferred goat oocytes produced using an in vitro culture system could develop to term and that donor anterior pituitary cells have the developmental potential to produce term offspring. In this study, it suggested that the artificial control of endocrine system in domestic animal might become possible by the genetic modification to anterior pituitary cells.

  20. Effect of roscovitine treated donor cells and different activation methods on development of handmade cloned goat (Capra hircus) embryos.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akshey, Y S; Malakar, D; De, A Kumar; Jena, M Kumar; Pawar, S Kumar; Dutta, R; Sahu, S

    2011-05-01

    The aim of the present investigation was to find out the effects of roscovitine treatment of donor cells and different activation methods on development of HMC goat embryos. Goat fetal fibroblast cells were cultured and divided into three treatment groups-contact inhibition group, roscovitine treatment group and serum starvation group. There was a significant decrease in blastocyst yield in serum starvation group (6.82%) compared to roscovitine treatment group (19.31%) and contact inhibition group (18.52%), however, no significant difference was found between roscovitine treatment group and contact inhibition group. To see the effect of different methods of activation, the reconstructed embryos were randomly divided into two groups and activated by two methods-one half by 2 μM Ca ionophore and another half by 2.31 kV/cm for 15 μSec electrical pulse. Subsequently, cloned embryos were cultured in TCM-199 based embryo development medium supplemented with 10 mg/mL bovine serum albumin in WOW culture system. There was a significant increase in the rate of cleavage and blastocyst production in electric pulse activation of 78.57% and 21.43% than Ca ionophore activation of 62.63% and 10.61% respectively. In conclusion, treatment of donor cells with roscovitine yields a significantly increased blastocyst than serum starved donor cells but equivalent blastocyst to contact inhibition group and electrical pulse activation (EPA) improves the production of HMC goat embryos. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Fetal MRI: techniques and protocols

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prayer, Daniela; Brugger, Peter Christian; Prayer, Lucas

    2004-01-01

    The development of ultrafast sequences has led to a significant improvement in fetal MRI. Imaging protocols have to be adjusted to the rapidly developing fetal central nervous system (CNS) and to the clinical question. Sequence parameters must be changed to cope with the respective developmental stage, to produce images free from motion artefacts and to provide optimum visualization of the region and focus of interest. In contrast to postnatal studies, every suspect fetal CNS abnormality requires examination of the whole fetus and the extrafetal intrauterine structures including the uterus. This approach covers both aspects of fetal CNS disorders: isolated and complex malformations and cerebral lesions arising from the impaired integrity of the feto-placental unit. (orig.)

  2. Fetal programming of renal function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dötsch, Jörg; Plank, Christian; Amann, Kerstin

    2012-04-01

    Results from large epidemiological studies suggest a clear relation between low birth weight and adverse renal outcome evident as early as during childhood. Such adverse outcomes may include glomerular disease, hypertension, and renal failure and contribute to a phenomenon called fetal programming. Other factors potentially leading to an adverse renal outcome following fetal programming are maternal diabetes mellitus, smoking, salt overload, and use of glucocorticoids during pregnancy. However, clinical data on the latter are scarce. Here, we discuss potential underlying mechanisms of fetal programming, including reduced nephron number via diminished nephrogenesis and other renal (e.g., via the intrarenal renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system) and non-renal (e.g., changes in endothelial function) alterations. It appears likely that the outcomes of fetal programming may be influenced or modified postnatally, for example, by the amount of nutrients given at critical times.

  3. Fetal MRI: techniques and protocols

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Prayer, Daniela [Department of Neuroradiology, University Clinics of Radiodiagnostics, Medical University Vienna, Waehringerguertel 18-10, 1090, Vienna (Austria); Brugger, Peter Christian [Department of Anatomy, Integrative Morphology Group, Medical University Vienna (Austria); Prayer, Lucas [Diagnosezentrum Urania, Vienna (Austria)

    2004-09-01

    The development of ultrafast sequences has led to a significant improvement in fetal MRI. Imaging protocols have to be adjusted to the rapidly developing fetal central nervous system (CNS) and to the clinical question. Sequence parameters must be changed to cope with the respective developmental stage, to produce images free from motion artefacts and to provide optimum visualization of the region and focus of interest. In contrast to postnatal studies, every suspect fetal CNS abnormality requires examination of the whole fetus and the extrafetal intrauterine structures including the uterus. This approach covers both aspects of fetal CNS disorders: isolated and complex malformations and cerebral lesions arising from the impaired integrity of the feto-placental unit. (orig.)

  4. Analysis of fetal movements by Doppler actocardiogram and fetal B-mode imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maeda, K; Tatsumura, M; Utsu, M

    1999-12-01

    We have presented that fetal surveillance may be enhanced by use of the fetal actocardiogram and by computerized processing of fetal motion as well as fetal B-mode ultrasound imaging. Ultrasonic Doppler fetal actogram is a sensitive and objective method for detecting and recording fetal movements. Computer processing of the actograph output signals enables powerful, detailed, and convenient analysis of fetal physiologic phenomena. The actocardiogram is a useful measurement tool not only in fetal behavioral studies but also in evaluation of fetal well-being. It reduces false-positive, nonreactive NST and false-positive sinusoidal FHR pattern. It is a valuable tool to predict fetal distress. The results of intrapartum fetal monitoring are further improved by the antepartum application of the actocardiogram. Quantified fetal motion analysis is a useful, objective evaluation of the embryo and fetus. This method allows monitoring of changes in fetal movement, as well as frequency, amplitude, and duration. Furthermore, quantification of fetal motion enables evaluation of fetal behavior states and how these states relate to other measurements, such as changes in FHR. Numeric analysis of both fetal actogram and fetal motion from B-mode images is a promising application in the correlation of fetal activity or behavior with other fetal physiologic measurements.

  5. Hand-made cloned goat (Capra hircus) embryos—a comparison of different donor cells and culture systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akshey, Yogesh S; Malakar, Dhruba; De, Arun K; Jena, Manoj K; Garg, Shweta; Dutta, Rahul; Pawar, Sachin Kumar; Mukesh, Manisha

    2010-10-01

    Nuclear transfer is a very effective method for propagation of valuable, extinct, and endangered animals. Hand-made cloning (HMC) is an efficient alternative to the conventional micromanipulator-based technique in some domestic species. The present study was carried out for the selection of suitable somatic cells as a nuclear donor and development of an optimum culture system for in vitro culture of zona-free goat cloned embryos. Cleavage and blastocyst rates were observed 72.06 ± 2.94% and 0% for fresh cumulus cells, 81.95 ± 3.40% and 12.74 ± 2.12% for cultured cumulus cells, and 92.94 ± 0.91% and 23.78 ± 3.33% for fetal fibroblast cells, respectively. There was a significant (p cloned embryos and donor cells. In conclusion, the present study describes that the fetal fibroblast cell is a suitable candidate as nuclear donor, and the flat surface culture system is suitable for zona-free blastocyst development by the hand-made cloning technique in the goat.

  6. Prenatal diagnosis of fetal syndromes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Murthy, BS Rama

    2008-01-01

    A syndrome is a pattern of multiple anomalies arising due to a single known causative factor. Ultrasonography has enabled us to recognize many fetal anomalies and dysmorphic features. Recognition of the anomaly pattern leads to the diagnosis of a particular syndrome. This enables us to counsel prospective parents and aids in management. We present a selection of fetal syndromes in the form of a pictorial essay

  7. Molecular Characterization and Expression Pattern of Gene IGFBP-5 in the Cashmere Goat (

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    X. J. Wang

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Insulin-like growth factor-binding protein-5 (IGFBP-5 is one of the six members of IGFBP family, important for cell growth, apoptosis and other IGF-stimulated signaling pathways. In order to explore the significance of IGFBP-5 in cells of the Inner Mongolian Cashmere goat (Capra hircus, IGFBP-5 gene complementary DNA (cDNA was amplified by reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR from the animal’s fetal fibroblasts and tissue-specific expression analysis was performed by semi-quantitative RT-PCR. The gene is 816 base pairs (bp in length and includes the complete open reading frame, encoding 271 amino acids (GenBank accession number JF720883. The full cDNA nucleotide sequence has a 99% identity with sheep, 98% with cattle and 95% with human. The amino acids sequence shares identity with 99%, 99% and 99%, respectively. The bioinformatics analysis showed that IGFBP-5 has an insulin growth factor-binding protein homologues (IB domain and a thyroglobulin type-1 (TY domain, four protein kinase C phosphorylation sites, five casein kinase II phosphorylation sites, three prenyl group binding sites (CaaX box. The IGFBP-5 gene was expressed in all the tested tissues including testis, brain, liver, lung, mammary gland, spleen, and kidney, suggesting that IGFBP-5 plays an important role in goat cells.

  8. Epigenetic regulation and fetal programming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gicquel, Christine; El-Osta, Assam; Le Bouc, Yves

    2008-02-01

    Fetal programming encompasses the role of developmental plasticity in response to environmental and nutritional signals during early life and its potential adverse consequences (risk of cardiovascular, metabolic and behavioural diseases) in later life. The first studies in this field highlighted an association between poor fetal growth and chronic adult diseases. However, environmental signals during early life may lead to adverse long-term effects independently of obvious effects on fetal growth. Adverse long-term effects reflect a mismatch between early (fetal and neonatal) environmental conditions and the conditions that the individual will confront later in life. The mechanisms underlying this risk remain unclear. However, experimental data in rodents and recent observations in humans suggest that epigenetic changes in regulatory genes and growth-related genes play a significant role in fetal programming. Improvements in our understanding of the biochemical and molecular mechanisms at play in fetal programming would make it possible to identify biomarkers for detecting infants at high risk of adult-onset diseases. Such improvements should also lead to the development of preventive and therapeutic strategies.

  9. Amino Acid Profile, Group of Functional and Molecular Weight Distribution of Goat Skin Gelatin That Produced Through Acid Process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Irfan Said

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Gelatin is a product of hydrolysis of collagen protein from animals that are partially processed.  Gelatin used in food and non food industries.  Gelatin is produced when many import of raw skins and bones of pigs and cows.  Goat skins potential as a raw material substitution that still doubt its halal. Process production of gelatin determine the properties of gelatin. The objectives of this research were to determine amino acid profile, group of functional and molecular weight distribution of gelatin made from goat skins which was produced through a process of acid. The skin of male Bligon goat, 1.5 to 2.5 year old was used as raw materials. Process production of gelatin was using acid type acetic acid (CH3COOH 0.5 M (v/v as curing material. The experimental design applied in this study and commercial gelatin was used as control. The results showed that gelatin produced from goat skin through the process of acid had properties identical with commercial gelatin. It can be concluded that the gelatin has the potential substitute product of commercial gelatin. Keywords: collagen, gelatin, goat skin, curing, acid process

  10. The utilization of alfalfa that planted at Tobasa highland, North Sumatra for growing Boerka goat feed

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juniar Sirait

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Alfalfa (Medicago sativa L. is a herbaceus legume which is potential to be used as goat feed for it’s high production and nutritive value. This research was aimed to study the adaptation of alfalfa planted at highland-moderate climate and it’s utilization for goat feed. This research concists of two activities, ie 1 Agronomy of alfalfa that adapted to highland as a goat feed resource, and 2 The alfalfa usage technology as goat feed. On the first activity alfalfa was planted on highland-moderate climate Gurgur, Tobasa District, North Sumatra Province. Data was collected included: growth percentage, morphology and production aspects, and nutritive value. The harvesting was conducted for three times, where the first cutting had done at 100 days after planting. Investigation of morphology characterirtics was done before alfalfa harvesting. The utilization of alfalfa as goat feed was carried out on the second activity which was arranged in a completely randomized design. Twenty male Boer x Kacang crossbred (Boerka goats of 5-6 months of age with average body weight 14.2±0.8 kg were randomly assigned to four feed treatments where each treatment consited of five replications. The four feed treatments were: P1 = 100% grass + 0% alfalfa; P2 = 90% grass + 10% alfalfa, P3 = 80% grass + 20% alfalfa, and P4 = 70% grass + 30% alfalfa. Data observation included dry matter intake, average daily gain, feed efficiency, and income over feed cost. Results showed that alfalfa growth percentage was 65% with good growth and high either production or nutritive value. The average shoot dry matter production was 438.6 g/m2 which was equivalent to 26.3 t/ha/yr. The crude protein content of alfalfa on the first, second and third harvesting were 17.93; 21.89 and 17.73 per cent, respectively. The utilization of alfalfa that had been processed to be crude-meal can be applied as goat feed. Supplementation of 70% grass and 30% alfalfa meal showed the best results: ADG 59

  11. Potential disease agents in domestic goats and relevance to bighorn sheep (Ovis canadensis) management

    OpenAIRE

    Drew, Mark L.; Weiser, Glen C.

    2017-01-01

    Domestic goats are raised for meat, milk and hair production, in herds for rangeland weed control, and as pack animals. Domestic sheep, goats and wild bighorn sheep are all susceptible to a multifactorial pneumonia. We sampled 43 herd goats from 7 herds and 48 pack goats from 11 herds for viral and bacterial serology, parasitology, and Pasteurellaceae microbiology. The goats in this study were in generally good health, although most goats did harbor various pathogens and parasites including s...

  12. Multivariate factor analysis of Girgentana goat milk composition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pietro Giaccone

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The interpretation of the several variables that contribute to defining milk quality is difficult due to the high degree of  correlation among them. In this case, one of the best methods of statistical processing is factor analysis, which belongs  to the multivariate groups; for our study this particular statistical approach was employed.  A total of 1485 individual goat milk samples from 117 Girgentana goats, were collected fortnightly from January to July,  and analysed for physical and chemical composition, and clotting properties. Milk pH and tritable acidity were within the  normal range for fresh goat milk. Morning milk yield resulted 704 ± 323 g with 3.93 ± 1.23% and 3.48±0.38% for fat  and protein percentages, respectively. The milk urea content was 43.70 ± 8.28 mg/dl. The clotting ability of Girgentana  milk was quite good, with a renneting time equal to 16.96 ± 3.08 minutes, a rate of curd formation of 2.01 ± 1.63 min-  utes and a curd firmness of 25.08 ± 7.67 millimetres.  Factor analysis was performed by applying axis orthogonal rotation (rotation type VARIMAX; the analysis grouped the  milk components into three latent or common factors. The first, which explained 51.2% of the total covariance, was  defined as “slow milks”, because it was linked to r and pH. The second latent factor, which explained 36.2% of the total  covariance, was defined as “milk yield”, because it is positively correlated to the morning milk yield and to the urea con-  tent, whilst negatively correlated to the fat percentage. The third latent factor, which explained 12.6% of the total covari-  ance, was defined as “curd firmness,” because it is linked to protein percentage, a30 and titatrable acidity. With the aim  of evaluating the influence of environmental effects (stage of kidding, parity and type of kidding, factor scores were anal-  ysed with the mixed linear model. Results showed significant effects of the season of

  13. MARINATED WITH EFFECT OF NaCl AND SODIUM TRIPOLYPHOSPHATE BROMATOLOGICAL PROPERTIES ON THE MEAT GOAT

    OpenAIRE

    Ricardo Peña F.; Daniel Salvador Duran O; Luis Carlos Baleta M.

    2014-01-01

    Goat meat has all the significant nutritional characteristics by consumers to be an excellent alternative supply; therefore, this study proposes the use of a mixture of NaCl, sodium tripolyphosphate, laurel and rosemary extracts as marginalisers agents using maceration technique marinade as facilitator system and applying vacuum packaging and storage at refrigeration of an overall strategy of modernization. In the finished product bromatologic variables pH, fat, protein, water holding c...

  14. Fetal dosimetry in diagnostic radiology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Faulkner, K.

    2002-01-01

    Diagnostic radiology examinations are frequently performed in all countries because of the benefit that the patient derives from the resultant diagnosis. Given that so many examinations are performed it is inevitable that there will be occasions when the planned exposure of a woman who is known to be pregnant is contemplated. In these circumstances, there must be rigorous justification of the examination and the procedure itself must be optimised as well. Radiation risks from fetal irradiation are well established. These risks fall into three categories: 1) a cancer induction risk (mainly leukaemia); 2) hereditary effects (as the fetus is a potential parent); 3) a risk of serious mental retardation (if the fetus is exposed in the critical 8-15 weeks period when the forebrain is being developed). Risk factors for these effects have been reviewed by the International Commission on Radiological Protection. Special rules apply to the radiology of women who are or who may be pregnant. These rules have been developed to avoid he unintended irradiation of the fetus. These rules have been variously referred to as the 10-day rule and the 28-day rules, in which radiology of potentially pregnant women is restricted to the first 10 or 28 days following menstruation. It is apparent that the advice provided by national bodies varies, as different rules apply internationally, due presumably to a lack of an international consensus on the subject. The advice from the National Radiological Protection Board, the College of Radiographers and the Royal College of Radiologists applies in the United Kingdom. In summary, the advice is that women of child bearing age are asked before a diagnostic radiology examination in which the pelvis is in, or near, the primary beam are asked if they are, or may be, pregnant. If pregnancy can be excluded then the examination can proceed. If it is likely that the patient is pregnant, then the proposed examination must undergo rigorous justification. If

  15. Microsatellite-based phylogeny of Indian domestic goats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rout, Pramod K; Joshi, Manjunath B; Mandal, Ajoy; Laloe, D; Singh, Lalji; Thangaraj, Kumarasamy

    2008-01-01

    Background The domestic goat is one of the important livestock species of India. In the present study we assess genetic diversity of Indian goats using 17 microsatellite markers. Breeds were sampled from their natural habitat, covering different agroclimatic zones. Results The mean number of alleles per locus (NA) ranged from 8.1 in Barbari to 9.7 in Jakhrana goats. The mean expected heterozygosity (He) ranged from 0.739 in Barbari to 0.783 in Jakhrana goats. Deviations from Hardy-Weinberg Equilibrium (HWE) were statistically significant (P goat breeds. Both a phylogenetic tree and Principal Component Analysis showed the distribution of breeds in two major clusters with respect to their geographic distribution. Conclusion Our study concludes that Indian goat populations can be classified into distinct genetic groups or breeds based on the microsatellites as well as mtDNA information. PMID:18226239

  16. High prevalence of hepatitis E virus infection in goats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Long, Feiyan; Yu, Wenhai; Yang, Chenchen; Wang, Jue; Li, Yunlong; Li, Yi; Huang, Fen

    2017-11-01

    Hepatitis E virus (HEV) is a major cause of acute hepatitis worldwide, primarily transmitted by fecal-oral route. Zoonotic transmission of HEV from HEV-infected pigs (pork) or cows (milk) to human or non-human primate has been confirmed, but the risk of HEV in goat is still rarely assessed. In the present study, stool, blood, tissues, and milk of goat were collected for HEV infection investigation from Dali City of Yunnan Province in China, where raw mutton and goat milk are traditionally consumed. Surprisingly, a high prevalence of HEV infection in goat was found. Phylogenetic analysis revealed that all HEV isolates from goat belong to genotype 4 and subtype 4h, and shared a high similarity homology (>99.6%) with HEV isolated from human, swine, and cows in the same area. Results suggested that goats are a previously unrecognized HEV host. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  17. Average fetal depth in utero: data for estimation of fetal absorbed radiation dose

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ragozzino, M.W.; Breckle, R.; Hill, L.M.; Gray, J.E.

    1986-01-01

    To estimate fetal absorbed dose from radiographic examinations, the depth from the anterior maternal surface to the midline of the fetal skull and abdomen was measured by ultrasound in 97 pregnant women. The relationships between fetal depth, fetal presentation, and maternal parameters of height, weight, anteroposterior (AP) thickness, gestational age, placental location, and bladder volume were analyzed. Maternal AP thickness (MAP) can be estimated from gestational age, maternal height, and maternal weight. Fetal midskull and abdominal depths were nearly equal. Fetal depth normalized to MAP was independent or nearly independent of maternal parameters and fetal presentation. These data enable a reasonable estimation of absorbed dose to fetal brain, abdomen, and whole body

  18. Observation of physiological changes after Detomidine administration in Pateri goat

    OpenAIRE

    Ahmed Tunio; Shamasuddin Bughio; Jam Kashif Sahito; Muhammad Ghiasuddin Shah; Mahdi Ebrahimi; Shazia Parveen Tunio

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the physiological effects of detomidine on Pateri goats. A total of six female Pateri goats were randomly treated with three different dose rates of Detomidine at 40 μg, 50 μg and 60 μg/kg body weights. The effects of Detomidine on respiratory and heart rate, rectal temperature and serum glucose level were investigated. Following detomidine intravenous administration in goats, it produced dose dependent effect on physiological parameters. Respirato...

  19. Alveolar ridge augmentation by osteoinductive materials in goats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pinholt, E M; Haanaes, H R; Roervik, M

    1992-01-01

    The purpose of the present study was to determine whether alveolar ridge augmentation could be induced in goats. In 12 male goats allogenic, demineralized, and lyophilized dentin or bone was implanted subperiosteally on the buccal sides of the natural edentulous regions of the alveolar process...... of the mandible. Light microscopic evaluation revealed fibrous encapsulation, a few multinuclear giant cells, little inflammatory reaction, and no osteoinduction. It was concluded that no osteoinduction took place in goats....

  20. Reproduction performance of Saanen goats raised under extensive ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    hope&shola

    2010-11-29

    Nov 29, 2010 ... and 150.1 day, respectively, while 2-5 age kidding rate, infertility and litter size were 81 and 81.3%, 11.5 and 0.09% ... Female goats. 27. -. 64. -. Goats in estrous. 25. 92.6. 60. 93.7. Kidding rate. 24. 81. 58. 81.3. Infertility rate. 3. 11.5. 6. 0.09. The goat's single birth. 22. 77.3. 57 .... adequate nutrition for twins.

  1. The Danish Fetal Medicine Database

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ekelund CK

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Charlotte Kvist Ekelund,1 Tine Iskov Kopp,2 Ann Tabor,1 Olav Bjørn Petersen3 1Department of Obstetrics, Center of Fetal Medicine, Rigshospitalet, University of Copenhagen, Copenhagen, Denmark; 2Registry Support Centre (East – Epidemiology and Biostatistics, Research Centre for Prevention and Health, Glostrup, Denmark; 3Fetal Medicine Unit, Aarhus University Hospital, Aarhus Nord, Denmark Aim: The aim of this study is to set up a database in order to monitor the detection rates and false-positive rates of first-trimester screening for chromosomal abnormalities and prenatal detection rates of fetal malformations in Denmark. Study population: Pregnant women with a first or second trimester ultrasound scan performed at all public hospitals in Denmark are registered in the database. Main variables/descriptive data: Data on maternal characteristics, ultrasonic, and biochemical variables are continuously sent from the fetal medicine units' Astraia databases to the central database via web service. Information about outcome of pregnancy (miscarriage, termination, live birth, or stillbirth is received from the National Patient Register and National Birth Register and linked via the Danish unique personal registration number. Furthermore, results of all pre- and postnatal chromosome analyses are sent to the database. Conclusion: It has been possible to establish a fetal medicine database, which monitors first-trimester screening for chromosomal abnormalities and second-trimester screening for major fetal malformations with the input from already collected data. The database is valuable to assess the performance at a regional level and to compare Danish performance with international results at a national level. Keywords: prenatal screening, nuchal translucency, fetal malformations, chromosomal abnormalities

  2. Principle study on the signal connection at transabdominal fetal pulse oximetry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Böttrich Marcel

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Transabdominal fetal pulse oximetry is an approach to measure oxygen saturation of the unborn child non-invasively. The principle of pulse oximetry is applied to the abdomen of a pregnant woman, such that the measured signal includes both, the maternal and the fetal pulse curve. One of the major challenges is to extract the shape of the fetal pulse curve from the mixed signal for computation of the oxygen saturation. In this paper we analyze the principle kind of connection of the fetal and maternal pulse curves in the measured signal. A time varying finite element model is used to rebuild the basic measurement environment, including a bulk tissue and two independently pulsing arteries to model the fetal and maternal blood circuit. The distribution of the light fluence rate in the model is computed by applying diffusion equation. From the detectors we extracted the time dependent fluence rate and analyzed the signal regarding its components. The frequency spectra of the signals show peaks at the fetal and maternal basic frequencies. Additional signal components are visible in the spectra, indicating multiplicative coupling of the fetal and maternal pulse curves. We conclude that the underlying signal model of algorithms for robust extraction of the shape of the fetal pulse curve, have to consider additive and multiplicative signal coupling.

  3. Genetic characterization of the Mascaruna goat, a Sicilian ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Genetic characterization of the Mascaruna goat, a Sicilian autochthonous population, using molecular markers. Salvatore Mastrangelo, Marco Tolone, Maria Teresa Sardina, Rosalia Di Gerlando, Baldassare Portolano ...

  4. A new polymorphism in goat β-lactoglobulin promoter region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mirella Graziano

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available An individual variability in β-lactoglobulin content has been previously observed in Girgentana goat milk by HPLC analysis. To identify eventual mutations affecting the transcription level of the gene, the prooter region was characterized in goats showing an anomalous phenotype, consisting in a reduced content of β-lactoglobulin respect to α-lactoalbumine. A single nucleotide substitution not previously reported has been detected. A PCR-RFLP procedure was developed for fast detection of the mutation in different goat breeds: Girgentana, Garganica, Sarda, Alpine, Montefalcone and Saanen. The Montefalcone goat showed the highest frequency of the mutation, confirming one more the peculiarity of this breed.

  5. Goat paddock cryptoexplosion crater, Western Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harms, J.E.; Milton, D.J.; Ferguson, J.; Gilbert, D.J.; Harris, W.K.; Goleby, B.

    1980-01-01

    Goat Paddock, a crater slightly over 5 km in diameter (18??20??? S, 126??40???E), lies at the north edge of the King Leopold Range/Mueller Range junction in the Kimberley district, Western Australia (Fig. 1). It was noted as a geological anomaly in 1964 during regional mapping by the Bureau of Mineral Resources, Geology and Geophysics and the Geological Survey of Western Australia. The possibility of its being a meteorite impact crater has been discussed1, although this suggestion was subsequently ignored2. Two holes were drilled by a mining corporation in 1972 to test whether kimberlite underlay the structure. Here we report the findings of five days of reconnaissance in August 1979 which established that Goat Paddock is a cryptoexplosion crater containing shocked rocks and an unusually well exposed set of structural features. ?? 1980 Nature Publishing Group.

  6. Policy or poverty trap? Attitude of goat farmers towards the conservation rule on goat rearing in Bhutan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kesang Wangchuk

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The study objectives were to gather feedback and opinions of goat farmers on the Forest and Nature Conservation Rule on goat rearing in Bhutan and identify field constraints arising from the conservation rule. Focus group and individual farmer survey methods were employed, and a semi-structured questionnaire was used to interview 180 goat farmers of six districts. All respondents were aware of the conservation rule. Majority of respondents knew goats as a threat to forest and crops. The vast majority of respondents felt that the conservation rule is not relevant in modern times, and all respondents felt the need to revise the rule. The main problem faced by farmers was difficulty in maintaining their goat numbers to four. The other problems faced were frequent conflicts with Forest personnel and restricted opportunities to earn more income. While the expected changes in the conservation rule included provisions to allow a farmer to rear more number of goats under stall-fed conditions, the additional rule suggested by farmers was allowing goats to browse freely in the forest. Majority of farmers reared goats under stall-fed conditions. The most common practice of managing goat populations was selling goats to fellow farmers. Despite the constraints, a majority of farmers expressed their willingness to continue goat rearing in the future, mainly to generate more income. The study findings suggest revision of the rule on goat rearing, with strong consideration of the needs of the modern farming system and growing economic demands. In revising the rule, the study recommends balanced representation from stakeholders and technical experts from both forest and livestock disciplines.

  7. Fetal electrocardiogram (ECG) for fetal monitoring during labour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neilson, James P

    2015-12-21

    Hypoxaemia during labour can alter the shape of the fetal electrocardiogram (ECG) waveform, notably the relation of the PR to RR intervals, and elevation or depression of the ST segment. Technical systems have therefore been developed to monitor the fetal ECG during labour as an adjunct to continuous electronic fetal heart rate monitoring with the aim of improving fetal outcome and minimising unnecessary obstetric interference. To compare the effects of analysis of fetal ECG waveforms during labour with alternative methods of fetal monitoring. The Cochrane Pregnancy and Childbirth Group's Trials Register (latest search 23 September 2015) and reference lists of retrieved studies. Randomised trials comparing fetal ECG waveform analysis with alternative methods of fetal monitoring during labour. One review author independently assessed trials for inclusion and risk of bias, extracted data and checked them for accuracy. One review author assessed the quality of the evidence using the GRADE approach. Seven trials (27,403 women) were included: six trials of ST waveform analysis (26,446 women) and one trial of PR interval analysis (957 women). The trials were generally at low risk of bias for most domains and the quality of evidence for ST waveform analysis trials was graded moderate to high. In comparison to continuous electronic fetal heart rate monitoring alone, the use of adjunctive ST waveform analysis made no obvious difference to primary outcomes: births by caesarean section (risk ratio (RR) 1.02, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.96 to 1.08; six trials, 26,446 women; high quality evidence); the number of babies with severe metabolic acidosis at birth (cord arterial pH less than 7.05 and base deficit greater than 12 mmol/L) (average RR 0.72, 95% CI 0.43 to 1.20; six trials, 25,682 babies; moderate quality evidence); or babies with neonatal encephalopathy (RR 0.61, 95% CI 0.30 to 1.22; six trials, 26,410 babies; high quality evidence). There were, however, on average

  8. Chlamydia pecorum: fetal and placental lesions in sporadic caprine abortion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giannitti, Federico; Anderson, Mark; Miller, Myrna; Rowe, Joan; Sverlow, Karen; Vasquez, Marce; Cantón, Germán

    2016-03-01

    Chlamydial abortion in small ruminants is usually associated with Chlamydia abortus infection. Although Chlamydia pecorum has been detected in aborted ruminants and epidemiological data suggests that C. pecorum is abortigenic in these species, published descriptions of lesions in fetuses are lacking. This work describes fetoplacental lesions in a caprine abortion with C. pecorum infection, and further supports the abortigenic role of C. pecorum in ruminants. A 16-month-old Boer goat aborted twin fetuses at ~130 days of gestation. Both fetuses (A and B) and the placenta of fetus A were submitted for postmortem examination and diagnostic workup. At autopsy, the fetuses had moderate anasarca, intermuscular edema in the hindquarters (A), and brachygnathia and palatoschisis (B). In the placenta, the cotyledons were covered by yellow fibrinosuppurative exudate that extended into the adjacent intercotyledonary areas. Histologically, there was severe suppurative and necrotizing placentitis with vasculitis (arteriolitis) and thrombosis, multifocal lymphohistiocytic and neutrophilic hepatitis (A), and fibrinosuppurative enteritis in both fetuses. Chlamydia antigen was detected in the placenta by the direct fluorescent antibody test and in fetal intestines by immunohistochemistry. Nested polymerase chain reaction of DNA extracted from formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded sections of placenta and intestine amplified 400 bp of the Chlamydia 16S rRNA gene that was sequenced and found to be 99% identical to C. pecorum by BLAST analysis. Other known abortigenic infectious agents were ruled out by specific testing. It is concluded that C. pecorum infection is associated with fetoplacental lesions and sporadic abortion in goats. © 2015 The Author(s).

  9. An economic analysis of communal goat production

    OpenAIRE

    P.J. Sebei; C.M.E. McCrindle; E.C. Webb

    2004-01-01

    The economic impact of different extension messages used was calculated using enterprise budgeting (gross margin analysis). Input data were gleaned from the literature, from participatory appraisals, as well as a field study, spanning 12 months, of small-scalecommunal goat farming systems in Jericho in the Odi District of NorthWest Province. The number of offspring weaned per annum, as a proportion of does owned, was selected as the desired output for analysis. This study has shown that small...

  10. Fetal Programming and Cardiovascular Pathology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexander, Barbara T.; Dasinger, John Henry; Intapad, Suttira

    2016-01-01

    Low birth weight serves as a crude proxy for impaired growth during fetal life and indicates a failure for the fetus to achieve its full growth potential. Low birth weight can occur in response to numerous etiologies that include complications during pregnancy, poor prenatal care, parental smoking, maternal alcohol consumption or stress. Numerous epidemiological and experimental studies demonstrate that birth weight is inversely associated with blood pressure and coronary heart disease. Sex and age impact the developmental programming of hypertension. In addition, impaired growth during fetal life also programs enhanced vulnerability to a secondary insult. Macrosomia, which occurs in response to maternal obesity, diabetes and excessive weight gain during gestation, is also associated with increased cardiovascular risk. Yet, the exact mechanisms that permanently change the structure, physiology and endocrine health of an individual across their lifespan following altered growth during fetal life are not entirely clear. Transmission of increased risk from one generation to the next in the absence of an additional prenatal insult indicates an important role for epigenetic processes. Experimental studies also indicate that the sympathetic nervous system, the renin angiotensin system, increased production of oxidative stress and increased endothelin play an important role in the developmental programming of blood pressure in later life. Thus, this review will highlight how adverse influences during fetal life and early development program an increased risk for cardiovascular disease including high blood pressure and provide an overview of the underlying mechanisms that contribute to the fetal origins of cardiovascular pathology. PMID:25880521

  11. Fetal programming and cardiovascular pathology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexander, Barbara T; Dasinger, John Henry; Intapad, Suttira

    2015-04-01

    Low birth weight serves as a crude proxy for impaired growth during fetal life and indicates a failure for the fetus to achieve its full growth potential. Low birth weight can occur in response to numerous etiologies that include complications during pregnancy, poor prenatal care, parental smoking, maternal alcohol consumption, or stress. Numerous epidemiological and experimental studies demonstrate that birth weight is inversely associated with blood pressure and coronary heart disease. Sex and age impact the developmental programming of hypertension. In addition, impaired growth during fetal life also programs enhanced vulnerability to a secondary insult. Macrosomia, which occurs in response to maternal obesity, diabetes, and excessive weight gain during gestation, is also associated with increased cardiovascular risk. Yet, the exact mechanisms that permanently change the structure, physiology, and endocrine health of an individual across their lifespan following altered growth during fetal life are not entirely clear. Transmission of increased risk from one generation to the next in the absence of an additional prenatal insult indicates an important role for epigenetic processes. Experimental studies also indicate that the sympathetic nervous system, the renin angiotensin system, increased production of oxidative stress, and increased endothelin play an important role in the developmental programming of blood pressure in later life. Thus, this review will highlight how adverse influences during fetal life and early development program an increased risk for cardiovascular disease including high blood pressure and provide an overview of the underlying mechanisms that contribute to the fetal origins of cardiovascular pathology. © 2015 American Physiological Society.

  12. Effect of sunflower cake supplementation on meat quality of indigenous goat genotypes of South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xazela, N M; Chimonyo, M; Muchenje, V; Marume, U

    2012-01-01

    The effect of four castrated goat genotypes and sunflower cake supplementation on goat meat quality was determined. Supplemented Boer (BOR) and Xhosa-Boer cross (XBC) goats had significantly higher (Pgoats had higher pH24 (Pgoats. For each genotype, the sunflower cake supplemented and non-supplemented goats had similar a* values, except for the XLE goats. In the XLE goats, the a* values were lower in the sunflower cake supplemented goats. Sunflower cake supplemented BOR goats had higher L*values than their non-supplemented counterparts (Pgoats also had higher b* values as compared to their non-supplemented counterparts. In comparison with the Boer goat, the XLE and NGN goats had lower CDM, L* and WBF values but generally had higher CL and a* values. Sunflower cake supplementation improved meat quality attributes of the goats. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Comparative efficacy of pour-on and subcutaneous injection of ivermectin on Melophagus ovinus (L.) in Darab ecotype goats of Southern Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jafari Shoorijeh, S; Noori, A; Tamadon, A

    2007-09-01

    The efficacy of ivermectin was evaluated against Melophagus ovinus in Darab ecotype goats of Iran. Twenty-four healthy Iranian crossbreed male goats were randomly divided into three equal groups (n = 8). An experimental infestation was induced in all animals of the three groups with 100 M. ovinus on the body of each animal. Groups 1 and 2 were treated with 1% ivermectin solution at a dosage of 0.5 mg/kg of body weight applied as a pour-on along the dorsal midline and 0.2 mg/kg subcutaneously, respectively; while group 3 was kept as control group. Seven days after infestation ivermectin was administered then the goats were observed for a period of 7 days. Body surface of each goat of three groups was inspected daily and decreases in M. ovinus were recorded. The rate of elimination in keds was assessed on the basis of decrease in keds count on the skin and hairs. The results revealed that complete absence of keds were observed in 6 and 7 days post-treatment with injection and pour-on routes, respectively. The results of present study showed that subcutaneous injection of ivermectin more rapidly eliminated M. ovinus than pour-on route. Both routes were 100% effective against this parasite in the goats. Ivermectin can be a drug of choice against M. ovinus in long-hair Iranian goats due to its high efficacy, easy applicability and wide safety margin.

  14. Use of a commercial probiotic supplement in meat goats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitley, N C; Cazac, D; Rude, B J; Jackson-O'Brien, D; Parveen, S

    2009-02-01

    Sixty-three Boer crossbred goats were used in 5 separate experiments (Exp. 1 to 5) to evaluate the effects of a commercial probiotic supplement on growth performance (Exp. 1 to 4), diet digestibility (Exp. 5), carcass traits (Exp. 3), and fecal bacterial populations (Exp. 4). Goats were either fed a commercially pelleted concentrate diet and supplemented with a commercial probiotic (PRO) that had shown anecdotal positive effects on goat growth and performance according to local goat producers, or they remained as controls. The dose of PRO used was within the labeled dose for sheep for all studies. For Exp. 1, goat BW and feed intake were measured and G:F was calculated every 7 d for 56 d. For Exp. 2 to 4, BW and feed intake were measured and G:F was calculated every 14 d. The first day of supplementation was considered d 0. Carcass traits were also collected at slaughter on d 57 for Exp. 3, and fecal samples were collected every 14 d for microbial culture for Exp. 4. For Exp. 5, which was a digestibility trial that lasted for 10 d, animals were placed in metabolic pens for collection of feces and orts. Growth performance of goats was not affected by probiotic supplementation, with the exception of performance in Exp. 2, in which ADG and G:F were improved (P goats compared with control goats on d 56 only (treatment x day interaction; P goats and 0.11 +/- 0.02 kg/d for control goats for ADG and 0.17 +/- 0.02 for PRO goats and 0.10 +/- 0.02 for control goats for G:F. Carcass weights and weights of fabricated cuts (shoulder, loin, leg, rack, shank, and total parts) as well as carcass length, leg circumference, loin eye area, and backfat were not influenced by PRO supplementation. Apparent digestibilities of OM, DM, NDF, ADF, CP, and GE (on a DM basis) were similar for the PRO and control treatments. Fecal culture analysis of Escherichia coli and coliforms, Lactobacillus, and Bifidobacterium populations were not influenced by the PRO treatment. Overall, although the PRO

  15. INFLUENCE OF BETAINE ON GOAT MILK YIELD AND BLOOD METABOLITES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Javier Fernandez

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available Betaine is a natural occurring compound with methyl donor properties which is increasingly being used in animal feeding. Betaine, an oxidative product of choline is able to replace methionine in some physiologically important body processes. The subject of this work was to study the effect of betaine added to the diet on milk production and blood metabolites on Murciano-Granadina dairy goats.  Sixty lactating goats were selected from a commercial Murciano-Granadina goat herd (EXCAMUR S.L. located in Murcia Region (Spain. Goats were selected from a 250 goats herd, taken  into account the age, stage of lactation (2.5 as average, live weight (36 kg as average and type of birth (2 kids. Two homogenous groups of 30 goats were made and fed with 1.5 kg of compound feed and 1 kg of alfalfa hay per day and goat. Goats were fed twice a day and water was provided ad libitum. Both groups received the same diet but for the second group the diet was supplemented with 4 g∙kg-1 betaine (betaine anhydrous, Danisco Animal Nutrition. The feeds, presented in pellets, were formulated in based on recommendations of INRA (2007. The experimental period was 6 months and the experimental diets were provided 15 days before parturition. The herd was machine milked once at day. Chemical composition, milk production and blood metabolites of each goat were recorded and analyzed at the end of the trial. Variance analysis and means comparison were carried out using the general lineal model procedure and Tukey test for mean comparison. Goats fed with betaine diet had higher milk fat than goats fed control diet (4.8 vs. 5.2 % for control and betaine respectively; P

  16. Characterization of local goat breeds using RAP-DNA markers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Barzinji, Yousif M. S.; Hamad, Aram O.

    2017-09-01

    The present study was conducted on different colors of local goat breeds. A number of 216 does were sampled from the seven groups. Genomic DNA was extracted from the blood samples. From the twenty used RAPD primers 12 of them were amplified, and presence of bands. The total fragment number of 12 primers over all the goat breed samples was 485 fragments. Out of the 485 fragments, 90 of them were Polymorphic fragments numbers (PFN). From all bands obtained, 20 of them possessed unique bands. The highest unique band was found in locus RAP 6 which has 4 unique bands, three of them in the Maraz Brown and one in the local Koor. Nei's gene diversity and Shanon's information index in this study were averaged 0.38 and 0.60, respectively. The genetic distance among several goat breeds ranged from 9.11 to 43.33%. The highest genetic distance 43.33% recorded between Maraz goat and other goat breeds and between local Koor and other goat (except Maraz goats) breeds (37.79%). However, the lowest genetic distance recorded between local white and Pnok. The distance between (local Black and Pnok) and (local Black and local white) was 22.75%. In conclusions, the high distance among these goat breeds, polymorphism and high numbers of unique bands found in present study indicates that these goat breeds have the required amount of genetic variation to made genetic improvement. This study helps us to clarify the image of the genetic diversity of the local goat breeds and the breeders can used it for mating system when need to make the crossing among these goat breeds.

  17. [Fetal version as ambulatory intervention].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nohe, G; Hartmann, W; Klapproth, C E

    1996-06-01

    The external cephalic version (ECV) of the fetus at term reduces the maternal and fetal risks of intrapartum breech presentation and Caesarean delivery. Since 1986 over 800 external cephalic versions were performed in the outpatient Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology of the Städtische Frauenklinik Stuttgart. 60.5% were successful. NO severe complications occurred. Sufficient amniotic fluid as well as the mobility of the fetal breech is a major criterion for the success of the ECV. Management requires a safe technique for mother and fetus. This includes ultrasonography, elektronic fetal monitoring and the ability to perform immediate caesarean delivery as well as the performance of ECV without analgesicas and sedatives. More than 70% of the ECV were successful without tocolysis. In unsuccessful cases the additional use of tocolysis improves the success rate only slightly. Therefore routine use of tocolysis does not appear necessary. External cephalic version can be recommended as an outpatient treatment without tocolysis.

  18. The Danish Fetal Medicine Database

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ekelund, Charlotte K; Petersen, Olav B; Jørgensen, Finn S

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To describe the establishment and organization of the Danish Fetal Medicine Database and to report national results of first-trimester combined screening for trisomy 21 in the 5-year period 2008-2012. DESIGN: National register study using prospectively collected first-trimester screening...... data from the Danish Fetal Medicine Database. POPULATION: Pregnant women in Denmark undergoing first-trimester screening for trisomy 21. METHODS: Data on maternal characteristics, biochemical and ultrasonic markers are continuously sent electronically from local fetal medicine databases (Astraia Gmbh...... software) to a central national database. Data are linked to outcome data from the National Birth Register, the National Patient Register and the National Cytogenetic Register via the mother's unique personal registration number. First-trimester screening data from 2008 to 2012 were retrieved. MAIN OUTCOME...

  19. Fetal exposure in diagnostic radiology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baker, M.L.; Vandergrift, J.F.; Dalrymple, G.V.

    1979-01-01

    The problem of possible radiation damage to the fetus or embryo as a result of diagnostic radiography during pregnancy, particularly in the early stages, is discussed. Recommendations of therapeutic abortion after fetal exposure require an adequate knowledge of the doses involved. In the absence of actual dose measurements or estimates, approximate exposure levels may be determined from the literature. A summary of published values for radiography involving the lower abdomen is given. Data is also presented from a series of fetal exposures resulting mostly from routine diagnostic radiography when pregnancy was not known at the time but was established later. Results of actual dose measurements using a phantom and of dose calculations based on published values are in reasonable agreement indicating that literature values of dose provide a satisfactory alternative to measurement. These data suggest that diagnostic radiography rarely, if ever, results in fetal exposures high enough to justify therapeutic abortion. (author)

  20. MARINATED WITH EFFECT OF NaCl AND SODIUM TRIPOLYPHOSPHATE BROMATOLOGICAL PROPERTIES ON THE MEAT GOAT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo Peña F.

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Goat meat has all the significant nutritional characteristics by consumers to be an excellent alternative supply; therefore, this study proposes the use of a mixture of NaCl, sodium tripolyphosphate, laurel and rosemary extracts as marginalisers agents using maceration technique marinade as facilitator system and applying vacuum packaging and storage at refrigeration of an overall strategy of modernization. In the finished product bromatologic variables pH, fat, protein, water holding capacity, tenderness and moisture during the days 0, 7, 14, 21 and 28 were evaluated in chilled storage. The results showed that the treatment is marinated improves water retention, protein retention and raises the pH of the product from the first day of storage because we can say that the application of the marinating process by mashing influences bromatological significantly on properties of meat goat breed Santander , becoming an alternative to industrialization

  1. CYTOLOGICAL QUALITY OF GOAT MILK ON THE BASIS OF THE SOMATIC CELL COUNT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henryka BERNACKA

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present paper was to evaluate the cytological quality of goat milk based on the somatic cell count in respective months of lactation. Besides there was defined the effect of somatic cell on the milk production and chemical composition of milk. The research covered goats of color improved breed in the 2nd and 3rd lactation. Daily milk yield, chemical composition of milk and its somatic cell count were defined based on monthly morning and evening control milkings from both teats, following the A4 method applied in District Animal Evaluation Stations. The research indicated that the greater the somatic cell count in milk, the lower the daily milk yield, however the greater the somatic cell count, the greater the percentage content of fat and dry matter and the lower the content of lactose.

  2. Expression analysis of NOS family and HSP genes during thermal stress in goat ( Capra hircus)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yadav, Vijay Pratap; Dangi, Satyaveer Singh; Chouhan, Vikrant Singh; Gupta, Mahesh; Dangi, Saroj K.; Singh, Gyanendra; Maurya, Vijay Prakash; Kumar, Puneet; Sarkar, Mihir

    2016-03-01

    Approximately 50 genes other than heat shock protein (HSP) expression changes during thermal stress. These genes like nitric oxide synthase (NOS) need proper attention and investigation to find out their possible role in the adaptation to thermal stress in animals. So, the present study was undertaken to demonstrate the expressions of inducible form type II NOS (iNOS), endothelial type III NOS (eNOS), constitutively expressed enzyme NOS (cNOS), HSP70, and HSP90 in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) during different seasons in Barbari goats. Real-time polymerase chain reaction, western blot, and immunocytochemistry were applied to investigate messenger RNA (mRNA) expression, protein expression, and immunolocalization of examined factors. The mRNA and protein expressions of iNOS, eNOS, cNOS, HSP70, and HSP90 were significantly higher ( P goats.

  3. SELECTING ANGORA GOATS TO CONSUME MORE JUNIPER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher John Lupton

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available This research project was initiated in 2003 to develop a more effective tool for biological management of invading juniper species on rangelands through herbivory by Angora goats.  After we had established that juniper consumption in free-ranging goats has a genetic component (heritability = 13%, male and female goats were bred selectively for above- (high and below-average (low juniper consumption that was estimated by fecal near-infrared reflectance spectroscopy. Divergent lines are being produced to facilitate the identification of physiological mechanisms that permit some goats to consume considerably more juniper than others as a regular component of their diet.  Because diet is known to affect growth and fiber production, another objective of the project is to establish the effects of the selection protocol on body weights, fleece weights, and fiber characteristics.  Mature females (age > 1.5 yr and kids were maintained on rangeland and shorn twice a year.  Extreme high- and low-consuming yearling males (10 of each per year were evaluated annually in a central performance test.  The selection protocol resulted in average EBV for percentage juniper consumption of 3.9 and -0.4 (P 0.1 in body weight, mohair production and properties between high and low consumers.  However, the adult data for the extreme males indicated that high consuming males have lower body weights than low consumers (53.8 vs. 57.9 kg, P = 0.01. Differences in body weight and several mohair production and quality traits have also been detected in the mature females but at this early stage of the selection program, no substantial differences have been observed and certainly none that would have an economic impact for producers.  Ultimately, we expect to demonstrate that the high-consuming line controls juniper more effectively than either the low-consuming line or unselected Angora goats.  Subsequently, we plan to release high juniper

  4. Cerebellar cytokine expression in a rat model for fetal asphyctic preconditioning and perinatal asphyxia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vlassaks, Evi; Brudek, Tomasz; Pakkenberg, Bente

    2014-01-01

    the effects of perinatal asphyxia and fetal asphyctic preconditioning on the inflammatory cytokine response in the cerebellum. Fetal asphyxia was induced at embryonic day 17 by clamping the uterine vasculature for 30 min. At term birth, global perinatal asphyxia was induced by placing the uterine horns...... was decreased 96 h postfetal asphyxia. When applied as preconditioning stimulus, fetal asphyxia attenuates the cerebellar cytokine response. These results indicate that sublethal fetal asphyxia may protect the cerebellum from perinatal asphyxia-induced damage via inhibition of inflammation.......Asphyctic brain injury is a major cause of neuronal inflammation in the perinatal period. Fetal asphyctic preconditioning has been shown to modulate the cerebral inflammatory cytokine response, hereby protecting the brain against asphyctic injury at birth. This study was designated to examine...

  5. Fetal Heart Rate Monitoring during Labor

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... What are the types of monitoring? • How is auscultation performed? • How is electronic fetal monitoring performed? • How ... methods of fetal heart rate monitoring in labor. Auscultation is a method of periodically listening to the ...

  6. Births and deaths including fetal deaths

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — Access to a variety of United States birth and death files including fetal deaths: Birth Files, 1968-2009; 1995-2005; Fetal death file, 1982-2005; Mortality files,...

  7. Fetal scalp blood sampling during labor

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chandraharan, Edwin; Wiberg, Nana

    2014-01-01

    Fetal cardiotocography is characterized by low specificity; therefore, in an attempt to ensure fetal well-being, fetal scalp blood sampling has been recommended by most obstetric societies in the case of a non-reassuring cardiotocography. The scientific agreement on the evidence for using fetal...... scalp blood sampling to decrease the rate of operative delivery for fetal distress is ambiguous. Based on the same studies, a Cochrane review states that fetal scalp blood sampling increases the rate of instrumental delivery while decreasing neonatal acidosis, whereas the National Institute of Health...... and Clinical Excellence guideline considers that fetal scalp blood sampling decreases instrumental delivery without differences in other outcome variables. The fetal scalp is supplied by vessels outside the skull below the level of the cranial vault, which is likely to be compressed during contractions...

  8. The Effects of Prenatal Stocking Densities on the Fear Responses and Sociality of Goat (Capra hircus) Kids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chojnacki, Rachel M.; Vas, Judit; Andersen, Inger Lise

    2014-01-01

    Prenatal stress (stress experienced by a pregnant mother) and its effects on offspring have been comprehensively studied but relatively little research has been done on how prenatal social stress affects farm animals such as goats. Here, we use the operational description of ‘stress’ as “physical or perceived threats to homeostasis.” The aim of this study was to investigate the prenatal effects of different herd densities on the fear responses and sociality of goat kids. Pregnant Norwegian dairy goats were exposed to high, medium or low prenatal animal density treatments throughout gestation (1.0, 2.0 or 3.0 m2 per animal, respectively). One kid per litter was subjected to two behavioral tests at 5 weeks of age. The ‘social test’ was applied to assess the fear responses, sociality and social recognition skills when presented with a familiar and unfamiliar kid and the ‘separation test’ assessed the behavioral coping skills when isolated. The results indicate goat kids from the highest prenatal density of 1.0 m2 were more fearful than the kids from the lower prenatal densities (i.e. made more escape attempts (separation test: P kids did not differentiate between a familiar and an unfamiliar kid at 5 weeks of age and sociality was not affected by the prenatal density treatment. We conclude that high animal densities during pregnancy in goats produce offspring that have a higher level of fear, particularly in females. Behavioral changes in offspring that occur as an effect of prenatal stress are of high importance as many of the females are recruited to the breeding stock of dairy goats. PMID:24710177

  9. Capture and treatment of goat manure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    João Elzeário Castelo Branco Iapichini

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The appropriate management and disposal of feces and urine derived from goat production systems can help minimize the environmental impact of the activity reflecting in animal welfare, good sanitary conditions, viable indexes and increase revenue by aggregating the activity value of the manure generated. Aiming to take advantage of zootechnical installation already used for the manure in rabbits’ husbandry, it was carried out the suitability of a 15.40 m² pen (5.7 x 2.7 meters, filled with dirt in the goat rearing of UPD Itapetininga/APTA-SAA being deployed on slatted floor system for capturing and processing goat manure. It was dug in the floor of the bay rectangular holes with 15 m² of surface and 80 cm of depth for capturing of the excrements, filled with layers of gravel (0.20 m, coal (0.20 m, medium sand (0, 15 m and clay (0.05 m being the surface in direct contact with feces and urine. The gap of 40 cm between the back of the slatted floor and the last layer allowed the accumulation of manure during the occupation of the stall. We used the pens for 10 consecutive months for the management of newly calved Saanen and crossbred Saanen/Boer goats for 10 to 15 days postpartum in controlled feeding and termination of 27 confined kids. The maintenance of the collection system and treatment of manure was done through constant sweeps in the slatted floor and periodical aplication of 30 g of superphosphate per m² directly in feces, in order to acidifying the compound. This measure contributed to the ambience and animal comfort, controlling flies and neutralizing odors and harmful actions of ammonia coming from the urine. To carry out the sanitary break in the stall, needed for new production cycle, the frames of the slatted floor were raised and about 2500 kg of manure was removed, followed by cleaning and disinfection of floors and pillars of support and rest for 45 days unused until the entry of the new batch of goats recently calved. Using

  10. Nutrient selection by cattle, goats and sheep on natural Karoo ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Nutrient selection by cattle, goats and sheep on natural. Karoo pasture. 2. Nitrogen. P.J.L.Zeeman, P.G. Marais and M.J. Coetsee. Research Institute of the Karoo Region, Middelburg, Cape. The nitrogen (N) content of material selected by cattle, Boer goats,. Dorper and Merino sheep on natural Karoo pasture was ...

  11. Prion Protein Gene Polymorphisms in Turkish Native Goat Breeds ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Navya

    In these diseases, a neuronal glycoprotein known as prion protein PrPC ... sheep or goats in Turkey, but the OIE (World Organisation for Animal Health) does not .... Turkish goat breeds was approximately 6.3%, which is a low starting point for ...

  12. Characterization of Smallholder Sheep and Goat Farming in Bauchi ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Characterization of Smallholder Sheep and Goat Farming in Bauchi, Northeastern Nigeria. ... Farmers kept more sheep (58.75%) than goats (41.25%). ... Disease occurrence showed that enteritis, foot rot, fracture/ dislocation, helmenthosis, mange/scabies, nutritional disorder, PPR, pneumonia and others having incidence ...

  13. Feed resources management of smallholder sheep and goat ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study was conducted with the aid of questionnaires, farm visits and personal interviews, to determine the feed and feed resources management of smallholder sheep and goat producers in the area. Materials fed to sheep and goats included cut forage such as grasses, weeds, herbs, forbs, trees and shrubs, lianas, crop ...

  14. Goat meat does not cause increased blood pressure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sunagawa, Katsunori; Kishi, Tetsuya; Nagai, Ayako; Matsumura, Yuka; Nagamine, Itsuki; Uechi, Shuntoku

    2014-01-01

    While there are persistent rumors that the consumption of goat meat dishes increases blood pressure, there is no scientific evidence to support this. Two experiments were conducted to clarify whether or not blood pressure increases in conjunction with the consumption of goat meat dishes. In experiment 1, 24 Dahl/Iwai rats (15 weeks old, body weight 309.3±11.1 g) were evenly separated into 4 groups. The control group (CP) was fed a diet containing 20% chicken and 0.3% salt on a dry matter basis. The goat meat group (GM) was fed a diet containing 20% goat meat and 0.3% salt. The goat meat/salt group (GS) was fed a diet containing 20% goat meant and 3% to 4% salt. The Okinawan mugwort (Artemisia Princeps Pampan)/salt group (GY) was fed a diet containing 20% goat meat, 3% to 4% salt and 5% of freeze-dried mugwort powder. The experiment 1 ran for a period of 14 weeks during which time the blood pressure of the animals was recorded. The GS, and GY groups consumed significantly more water (pgoat meat does not cause increased blood pressure, rather the large amount of salt used in the preparation of goat meat dishes is responsible for the increase in blood pressure.

  15. The antibody loci of the domestic goat (Capra hircus)

    Science.gov (United States)

    The domestic goat (Capra hircus) is an important ruminant species, both as a source of antibody-based reagents for research and biomedical applications, and as an economically important animal for agriculture, particularly for developing nations that maintain most of the global goat population. Char...

  16. Physiological and haematological indices of two Nigerian goat ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Introducing an indigenous or exotic breed to unfamiliar environment paves way for livestock improvement. This study examined the physiological and haematological indices of 24Red Sokoto (RS) and West African Dwarf (WAD) goats reared under uniform condition in Ilorin, to determine adaptability of RS goats over a ...

  17. Effects of Genotypes on Economic Traits in Chinese Dairy Goats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    X. P. Yue

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to investigate allele frequencies at the CSN1S2 locus in two Chinese dairy goat breeds and the effects of its variation on dairy goat economic traits. Seven hundred and eight goats from Xinong Saanen (XS, n = 268 and Guanzhong (GZ, N = 440 breeds were selected. The milk samples of 268 XS goats were collected during the middle of lactation, body size parameters (708 goats and daily milk yield (202 goats were registered. The RFLP (restriction fragment length polymorphism and SSCP (single strand conformation polymorphism were used to detect the polymorphisms in CSN1S2. The Hardy-Weinberg (HW equilibrium and the associations between body size, milk yield and composition and the genotypes were calculated. The results revealed that only A and F CSN1S2 alleles were found in the two Chinese dairy goat breeds. Allelic frequencies of A and F were 0.795, 0.205 and 0.739, 0.261 in Xinong Saanen and Guanzhong population respectively. Xinong Saanen breed was in Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium, while Guanzhong breed deviated from Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium (p<0.05. The association of polymorphism with economic traits indicated that the goats with FF genotype have higher milk fat and total solid concentration than those with AA and AF genotypes (p<0.05.

  18. The responses of three nigerian indigenous goat breeds to primary ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Responses of three Nigerian breeds of goat; Red Sokoto (RS), West African Dwarf (WAD) and Sahel White (SW) were investigated following primary and secondary experimental infections ... On day 42 post infection, (n=12) goats, (4 per breed) of the infected animals were humanely euthanized and worm count determined.

  19. Anthelmintic resistant nematodes in goats in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Borgsteede, F.H.M.; Pekelder, J.J.; Dercksen, D.P.

    1996-01-01

    A suspected case of anthelmintic resistance on a farm with Angora and Anglo-Nubian goats was confirmed in a controlled test. Twelve lambs of sheep were infected with larvae cultured from faeces of the goats. The lambs were allocated to four groups: untreated controls and lambs treated 21 days after

  20. Coat pigmentation effects in West African Dwarf goats: live weights ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Although coat pigmentation had no significant effect on all the body dimensions studied except leg length, it was observed that the white and or tan goats had the largest frame size on the average followed by the brown (Bbl) goats. They however, had shorter legs when compared with either 1he brown or black goals.

  1. Transcervical embryo recovery in Saanen goats | Lima-Verde ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In order to study the embryo recovery rate using the transcervical technique in Saanen goats raised in the tropics, 20 donors were submitted to an oestrus synchronisation treatment using intravaginal progestagen sponges for 11 days. On the ninth day of treatment, goats received intramuscular injections of 50 µg ...

  2. Cryosurvival of goat spermatozoa in tris-egg yolk extender ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The effect of vitamin E supplementation in tris-egg yolk extender on sperm parameters of West African Dwarf (WAD) goat bucks was determined. Tris-egg yolk extenders supplemented with different levels of ... of WAD goat bucks during cryopreservation. Keywords: Antioxidants, bucks, freezing, oxidative stress, sperm ...

  3. Primarity and biometric indices of native goats in western Cameroon ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Goats are well integrally part of communities' livelihoods in both rural and urban regions in Cameroon. Our study intended to contribute to genetic characterization of native goats populations found in one of the highest populated region based on morphometric indices as developed by Lauvergne and COGNOSAG ...

  4. Smallholder goat farmers' market participation in Choma District ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    With recent increases in demand for animal products smallholder goat producers have an opportunity to improve their livelihoods by increased market access and market participation. Thus this study was carried out to identify the live goat chain actors, their role, linkages, power relations and practices in the supply chain; ...

  5. Performance of West African Dwarf Goats fed maize stover based ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study was carried out to investigate the effect of exogenous fibrolytic enzyme additive (containing cellulase, xylanase and beta glucanase) on the growth performance and nutrient digestibility parameters of West African dwarf (WAD) goats fed total mixed ration in the dry season. A total of sixteen (16) WAD goats were ...

  6. Dairy goat demography and Q fever infection dynamics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hogerwerf, Lenny; Courcoul, Aurélie; Klinkenberg, Don; Beaudeau, François; Vergu, Elisabeta; Nielen, Mirjam

    2013-04-26

    Between 2007 and 2009, the largest human Q fever epidemic ever described occurred in the Netherlands. The source was traced back to dairy goat farms, where abortion storms had been observed since 2005. Since one putative cause of these abortion storms is the intensive husbandry systems in which the goats are kept, the objective of this study was to assess whether these could be explained by herd size, reproductive pattern and other demographic aspects of Dutch dairy goat herds alone. We adapted an existing, fully parameterized simulation model for Q fever transmission in French dairy cattle herds to represent the demographics typical for Dutch dairy goat herds. The original model represents the infection dynamics in a herd of 50 dairy cows after introduction of a single infected animal; the adapted model has 770 dairy goats. For a full comparison, herds of 770 cows and 50 goats were also modeled. The effects of herd size and goat versus cattle demographics on the probability of and time to extinction of the infection, environmental bacterial load and abortion rate were studied by simulation. The abortion storms could not be fully explained by demographics alone. Adequate data were lacking at the moment to attribute the difference to characteristics of the pathogen, host, within-herd environment, or a combination thereof. The probability of extinction was higher in goat herds than in cattle herds of the same size. The environmental contamination was highest within cattle herds, which may be taken into account when enlarging cattle farming systems.

  7. Relative Occurrence of Fasciola species in cattle, sheep and goats ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    All liver flukes detected in cattle, sheep and goats were collected and transported to laboratory for analysis to determine the relative occurrence of Fasciola gigantica and Fasciola hepatic in slaughtered cattle, sheep, and goats by observing their size and morphology. The study showed that all the liver flukes collected in ...

  8. A genetic polymorphism and its genetic effects on goat myogenin ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Administrator

    2011-06-15

    Jun 15, 2011 ... higher than those of BB genotype goats for three growth traits, in the order of AA > AB > BB. These results suggest that the myogenin genotype has some effects on partial growth traits of goat, and selecting the individuals with A allele could be favorable to the birth weight, 1-month body weight and.

  9. Prevalence of tuberculosis-like lesions in goats slaughtered at ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ADEYEYE

    2016-02-12

    Feb 12, 2016 ... Tuberculosis in goat and sheep is caused by members of Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex predominantly. Mycobacterium bovis and. Mycobacterium caprae (Crawshaw et al., 2008) and in some cases by Mycobacterium tuberculosis. (Cadmus et al., 2009). In goats, the disease normally spread through ...

  10. The GOAT Effect's Impact upon Educational R and D.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kean, Michael H.; McNamara, Thomas C.

    1979-01-01

    The "Goodbye To All That" (GOAT) Effect is introduced as a special research and evaluation "outcome" effect characterizing decision making unduly influenced by abandoning "write-off" tendencies. The "gradual refinement" approach offers an antidote to the GOAT Effect because it does not use the systems…

  11. Cardiac fiber orientation in goat measured with Diffusion Tensor Imaging

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ossevoort, L.; Bovendeerd, P.H.M.; Nicolaij, K.; Arts, M.G.J.

    2000-01-01

    We therefore hypothesize that fiber reorientation could be a local adaptive mechanism by which the strain distribution across the cardiac wall is homogenized. To test this hypothesis we measured fiber orientation in normal goat hearts and in goat hearts in which the mechanical load was locally

  12. Dataset: Multi Sensor-Orientation Movement Data of Goats

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kamminga, Jacob Wilhelm

    2018-01-01

    This is a labeled dataset. Motion data were collected from six sensor nodes that were fixed with different orientations to a collar around the neck of goats. These six sensor nodes simultaneously, with different orientations, recorded various activities performed by the goat. We recorded the

  13. QUALITY OF MILK FATTY ACID DURING LATE LACTATION IN DAIRY GOAT FED ON PUFA-DIET SUPPLEMENTED WITH YEAST AND

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Sulistyowati

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Yeast and curcumin of C. xanthorrhiza Roxb could be added into concentrate containingpolyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA to improve milk fatty acid quality of dairy goat. There were fivetreatments (PD0: PUFA- diet with no additive; PDA: PUFA- diet with 3 Asifit tablets; PDY: PUFA- dietwith 5 g yeast; PDC: PUFA- diet with 20 g curcuma powder; and PDM: PUFA- diet with a mixture of 5g yeast and 20 g curcuma powder applied onto 20 dairy goats during late lactation (4.6 ± 0.55 monthsof lactation. The treatments were allocated according to a completely completely randomized blockdesign. Results demonstrated that diet containing PUFA supplemented with 5 g yeast and 20 g curcumawere high in total fatty acid, medium chain fatty acid (MCFA, and long chain fatty acid (LCFA. Milkof goats with this treatment showed high in mono unsaturated fatty acid (MUFA and MUFA; while itwas low in short chain fatty acid (SCFA, n6/n3 ratio, and atherogenicity index. These qualities wereoptimally considered good in terms of healthier product. Therefore, the PUFA- diet with 5 g yeast and20 g curcuma was a reasonable choice to be applied for dairy goat.

  14. Fetal QRS detection and heart rate estimation: a wavelet-based approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Almeida, Rute; Rocha, Ana Paula; Gonçalves, Hernâni; Bernardes, João

    2014-01-01

    Fetal heart rate monitoring is used for pregnancy surveillance in obstetric units all over the world but in spite of recent advances in analysis methods, there are still inherent technical limitations that bound its contribution to the improvement of perinatal indicators. In this work, a previously published wavelet transform based QRS detector, validated over standard electrocardiogram (ECG) databases, is adapted to fetal QRS detection over abdominal fetal ECG. Maternal ECG waves were first located using the original detector and afterwards a version with parameters adapted for fetal physiology was applied to detect fetal QRS, excluding signal singularities associated with maternal heartbeats. Single lead (SL) based marks were combined in a single annotator with post processing rules (SLR) from which fetal RR and fetal heart rate (FHR) measures can be computed. Data from PhysioNet with reference fetal QRS locations was considered for validation, with SLR outperforming SL including ICA based detections. The error in estimated FHR using SLR was lower than 20 bpm for more than 80% of the processed files. The median error in 1 min based FHR estimation was 0.13 bpm, with a correlation between reference and estimated FHR of 0.48, which increased to 0.73 when considering only records for which estimated FHR > 110 bpm. This allows us to conclude that the proposed methodology is able to provide a clinically useful estimation of the FHR. (paper)

  15. Identification of goat milk powder by manufacturer using multiple chemical parameters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLeod, Rebecca J; Prosser, Colin G; Wakefield, Joshua W

    2016-02-01

    varied among samples and individual elements. The findings of this study support the use of trace elements and stable isotope ratios to test the authenticity of goat WMP, which can likely be applied to other dairy goat products. This approach could be used test to the factory of origin (and potentially batch of origin) of products in the supply chain, thus providing the ability to audit the supply chain and monitor for fraudulent activity. Copyright © 2016 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. The Norwegian Healthier Goats program--modeling lactation curves using a multilevel cubic spline regression model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagel-Alne, G E; Krontveit, R; Bohlin, J; Valle, P S; Skjerve, E; Sølverød, L S

    2014-07-01

    In 2001, the Norwegian Goat Health Service initiated the Healthier Goats program (HG), with the aim of eradicating caprine arthritis encephalitis, caseous lymphadenitis, and Johne's disease (caprine paratuberculosis) in Norwegian goat herds. The aim of the present study was to explore how control and eradication of the above-mentioned diseases by enrolling in HG affected milk yield by comparison with herds not enrolled in HG. Lactation curves were modeled using a multilevel cubic spline regression model where farm, goat, and lactation were included as random effect parameters. The data material contained 135,446 registrations of daily milk yield from 28,829 lactations in 43 herds. The multilevel cubic spline regression model was applied to 4 categories of data: enrolled early, control early, enrolled late, and control late. For enrolled herds, the early and late notations refer to the situation before and after enrolling in HG; for nonenrolled herds (controls), they refer to development over time, independent of HG. Total milk yield increased in the enrolled herds after eradication: the total milk yields in the fourth lactation were 634.2 and 873.3 kg in enrolled early and enrolled late herds, respectively, and 613.2 and 701.4 kg in the control early and control late herds, respectively. Day of peak yield differed between enrolled and control herds. The day of peak yield came on d 6 of lactation for the control early category for parities 2, 3, and 4, indicating an inability of the goats to further increase their milk yield from the initial level. For enrolled herds, on the other hand, peak yield came between d 49 and 56, indicating a gradual increase in milk yield after kidding. Our results indicate that enrollment in the HG disease eradication program improved the milk yield of dairy goats considerably, and that the multilevel cubic spline regression was a suitable model for exploring effects of disease control and eradication on milk yield. Copyright © 2014

  17. Endovenous radiofrequency ablation using stent-type electrode for varicose veins: an experimental study in goats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Won, Je Hwan; Han, Jae Ho; Oh, Chang Kwon [Ajou University Hospital, Suwon (Korea, Republic of); Kwak, Young Lan [Yonsei University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Park, Sung Il [Ulsan University GangNeung Asan Hospital, Gangeung (Korea, Republic of)

    2004-10-15

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the feasibility and the optimal conditions of radiofrequency (RF) ablation by using the stent-type electrode upon the saphenous vein of goats for the endovenous treatment of varicose veins. A self-expandable nitinol stent electrode (6 mm diameter, 2 cm length, cell size; 1.3 x 2 mm) was designed to expose the distal 1 cm segment to allow for contact with the venous wall. The proximal part of the electrode was connected to the RF generator by insulated copper wires located within the stent electrode introducer. Initially, to optimize the power setting, ablation of 6 saphenous veins in 3 goats was performed with power settings of 10, 20 and 30 W. Pull back rate of the electrode was 2 and 4 cm/min for each power level, respectively. The goats were sacrificed 4-6 weeks later and histologic examinations of the saphenous veins were done. For the second part of the experiment, RF ablation of 4 saphenous veins from 2 goats was done by applying the optimal power, based upon the first examination; these procedure was performed with variable pull back rates. Again, the goats were sacrificed 1-6 weeks later and histologic examinations were done. Endovenous ablation of the goat saphenous veins at 20 W caused complete obliteration without complication. There was incomplete occlusion at 10 W, and there were vessel perforation, extravasation, and adjacent tissue injury at 30 W. In second part of the study, the complete circumferential obliteration of the vein was demonstrated at a pull back rate of 1 cm/min and 3 cm/min with the power of 20 W. The stent-type electrode may be useful in endovenous RF ablation for treatment of varicose veins. For stents with a diameter of 6 mm, the optional combination of 20 W of power with a pull back rate of 1-3 cm/min produced the most favorable results. Further study and clinical investigations are warranted.

  18. Endovenous radiofrequency ablation using stent-type electrode for varicose veins: an experimental study in goats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Won, Je Hwan; Han, Jae Ho; Oh, Chang Kwon; Kwak, Young Lan; Park, Sung Il

    2004-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the feasibility and the optimal conditions of radiofrequency (RF) ablation by using the stent-type electrode upon the saphenous vein of goats for the endovenous treatment of varicose veins. A self-expandable nitinol stent electrode (6 mm diameter, 2 cm length, cell size; 1.3 x 2 mm) was designed to expose the distal 1 cm segment to allow for contact with the venous wall. The proximal part of the electrode was connected to the RF generator by insulated copper wires located within the stent electrode introducer. Initially, to optimize the power setting, ablation of 6 saphenous veins in 3 goats was performed with power settings of 10, 20 and 30 W. Pull back rate of the electrode was 2 and 4 cm/min for each power level, respectively. The goats were sacrificed 4-6 weeks later and histologic examinations of the saphenous veins were done. For the second part of the experiment, RF ablation of 4 saphenous veins from 2 goats was done by applying the optimal power, based upon the first examination; these procedure was performed with variable pull back rates. Again, the goats were sacrificed 1-6 weeks later and histologic examinations were done. Endovenous ablation of the goat saphenous veins at 20 W caused complete obliteration without complication. There was incomplete occlusion at 10 W, and there were vessel perforation, extravasation, and adjacent tissue injury at 30 W. In second part of the study, the complete circumferential obliteration of the vein was demonstrated at a pull back rate of 1 cm/min and 3 cm/min with the power of 20 W. The stent-type electrode may be useful in endovenous RF ablation for treatment of varicose veins. For stents with a diameter of 6 mm, the optional combination of 20 W of power with a pull back rate of 1-3 cm/min produced the most favorable results. Further study and clinical investigations are warranted

  19. Goats on alpine grazing: study on metabolic and hematologic profiles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Gaviraghi

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Summering on alpine pastures from June to October has long been the traditional management of goat flocks in the mountain areas of Lombardy. At present most of the 50.000 goats farmed in Lombardy are still summered, even though only a few thousands - belonging to local breed - are regularly milked. For these goats summering appears to be fundamental not only to allow milk production but also to restore body reserves. The increasing interest in commercial goat milk production in Lombardy involves mainly intensive farming with zero or minimum grazing. However, semi-extensive goat milk production, including summering, could respond to social and environmental goals (Citterio et al., 2002 being able to exploit some economic opportunities...

  20. Forage selection by teddy goats versus sheep on thal ranges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jasra, A.W.; Hanjra, S.H.

    2007-01-01

    Grazing behaviours of Teddy goats and Thalli sheep were studied on rangelands of ThaI. Bite count method was used to determine the dietary composition of both animal species. The overall preference of Teddy goats was higher for Khabble grass (Cynodon dactylon), which was 40.57% of the total number of bite made on different plant species during the study period (March-July). Teddy goats utilized a wide range of browsing plant species like Wan (Salvadora oleoides), Phog (Calligonum polygonoides), Babil (Acacia jacquemontii), Jandi (Prosopis spicigera) etc. Browsing species were major component (>50%) of goat diets dur- ing March through June. Whereas Thalli sheep had been consistent in their heavy use of Khabble grass (overall 89.27%). Browsing plant species were not an important component of their diets. Teddy goats and Thalli sheep were competitive for Khabble grass particularly at its vegetative growth stage. (author)

  1. Evaluation of MAP-specific peptides following vaccination of goats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lybeck, Kari; Sjurseth, Siri K.; Melvang, Heidi Mikkelsen

    species or 2) selected based on “experience”. Peptides predicted to bind bovine MHC II by in silico analysis were included in further studies, resulting in two panels 1) genome-based and 2) selected. Initially, two groups of 15 healthy goats were vaccinated with one of the two panels (50 µg/peptide in CAF......01 adjuvant/CAF04 for boosting). Four MAP-infected goats were also vaccinated. In a second vaccination trail, groups of 8 healthy goat kids were vaccinated with genome-based peptides, selected peptides or selected peptides linked together in a recombinant protein (20 µg/peptide or 50 µg protein...... peptides. IFN-γ responses in healthy goats after the first vaccination were low, but testing of T cell lines from MAP-infected goats identified peptides inducing strong proliferative responses. Peptides for a second vaccination were selected by combining results from this study with a parallel cattle study...

  2. Fetal growth disorders in twin gestations.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Breathnach, Fionnuala M

    2012-06-01

    Twin growth is frequently mismatched. This review serves to explore the pathophysiologic mechanisms that underlie growth aberrations in twin gestations, the prenatal recognition of abnormal twin growth, and the critical importance of stratifying management of abnormal twin growth by chorionicity. Although poor in utero growth of both twins may reflect maternal factors resulting in global uteroplacental dysfunction, discordant twin growth may be attributed to differences in genetic potential between co-twins, placental dysfunction confined to one placenta only, or one placental territory within a shared placenta. In addition, twin-twin transfusion syndrome represents a distinct entity of which discordant growth is a common feature. Discordant growth is recognized as an independent risk factor for adverse perinatal outcome. Intertwin birth weight disparity of 18% or more should be considered to represent a discordance threshold, which serves as an independent risk factor for adverse perinatal outcome. At this cutoff, perinatal morbidity is found to increase both for the larger and the smaller twin within a discordant pair. There remains uncertainty surrounding the sonographic parameters that are most predictive of discordance. Although heightening of fetal surveillance in the face of discordant twin growth follows the principles applied to singleton gestations complicated by fetal growth restriction, the timing of intervention is largely influenced by chorionicity.

  3. Reasons for U.S. Producer Selection of a Goat Enterprise

    OpenAIRE

    Dunn, Brittany; Nyaupane, Narayan; Gillispie, Jeffrey; McMillan, Kenneth

    2014-01-01

    This paper addresses 14 possible reasons why meat goat producers selected to engage in meat goat production, with results having implications for research, extension, and teaching efforts. A survey of meat goat producers was conducted. Reasons for entering meat goat production were assessed and analyzed using ordered probit models.

  4. A report on the metabolism of iron in goats artificially infected with Haemonchus contortus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perpuse, W.G.; Yumul, B.Y.; Anden, A.

    1976-03-01

    The determination of iron metabolism in goats artificially infected with N. contortus using tracer method has been conducted. Radioferric chloride ( 59 Fe) was given orally and intravenously and the distribution and utilization in goats were determined. Results showed that anemic goats have a higher absorption rate compared to non-anemic goats. Of all the organs examined the bone marrow showed the highest activity

  5. Use of goats in poverty alleviation and potential effects on the environment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Jørgen; Nielsen, Mette Benedicte Olaf; Henriksen, Jørgen

    2009-01-01

    to this paper, financed by DanChurchAid, the solution to the dilemma between the very efficient and useful goats for the poor people and the potential very destructive goats for the environment is found in intelligent management of the goats and not in preventing poor people to keep goats. Education...

  6. 9 CFR 51.27 - Identification of goats, sheep, and horses to be destroyed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Identification of goats, sheep, and... DISEASES ANIMALS DESTROYED BECAUSE OF BRUCELLOSIS Indemnity for Sheep, Goats, and Horses § 51.27 Identification of goats, sheep, and horses to be destroyed. The claimant must ensure that any goats, sheep, and...

  7. 9 CFR 51.28 - Moving goats, sheep, and horses to be destroyed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Moving goats, sheep, and horses to be... DESTROYED BECAUSE OF BRUCELLOSIS Indemnity for Sheep, Goats, and Horses § 51.28 Moving goats, sheep, and horses to be destroyed. Goats, sheep, and horses to be destroyed because of brucellosis must be...

  8. Carbon footprint of dairy goat milk production in New Zealand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robertson, Kimberly; Symes, Wymond; Garnham, Malcolm

    2015-07-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the cradle-to-farm gate carbon footprint of indoor and outdoor dairy goat farming systems in New Zealand, identifying hotspots and discussing variability and methodology. Our study was based on the International Organization for Standardization standards for life cycle assessment, although only results for greenhouse gas emissions are presented. Two functional units were included: tonnes of CO2-equivalents (CO2e) per hectare (ha) and kilograms of CO2e per kilogram of fat- and protein-corrected milk (FPCM). The study covered 5 farms, 2 farming systems, and 3yr. Two methods for the calculation of enteric methane emissions were assessed. The Lassey method, as used in the New Zealand greenhouse gas inventory, provided a more robust estimate of emissions from enteric fermentation and was used in the final calculations. The alternative dry matter intake method was shown to overestimate emissions due to use of anecdotal assumptions around actual consumption of feed. Economic allocation was applied to milk and co-products. Scenario analysis was performed on the allocation method, nitrogen content of manure, manure management, and supplementary feed choice. The average carbon footprint for the indoor farms (n=3) was 11.05 t of CO2e/ha and 0.81kg of CO2e/kg of FPCM. For the outdoor farms (n=2), the average was 5.38 t of CO2e/ha and 1.03kg of CO2e/kg of FPCM. The average for all 5 farms was 8.78 t of CO2e/ha and 0.90kg of CO2e/kg of FPCM. The results showed relatively high variability due to differences in management practices between farms. The 5 farms covered 10% of the total dairy goat farms but may not be representative of an average farm. Methane from enteric fermentation was a major emission source. The use of supplementary feed was highly variable but an important contributor to the carbon footprint. Nitrous oxide can contribute up to 18% of emissions. Indoor goat farming systems produced milk with a significantly higher carbon

  9. Fetal Alcohol Syndrome "Chemical Genocide."

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asetoyer, Charon

    In the Northern Plains of the United States, 100% of Indian reservations are affected by alcohol related problems. Approximately 90% of Native American adults are currently alcohol users or abusers or are recovering from alcohol abuse. Alcohol consumption has a devastating effect on the unborn. Fetal Alcohol Syndrome (FAS) is an irreversible birth…

  10. Fetal programming and environmental exposures ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fetal programming is an enormously complex process that relies on numerous environmental inputs from uterine tissue, the placenta, the maternal blood supply, and other sources. Recent evidence has made clear that the process is not based entirely on genetics, but rather on a delicate series of interactions between genes and the environment. It is likely that epigenctic (“above the genome”) changes are responsible for modifying gene expression in the developing fetus, and these modifications can have long-lasting health impacts. Determining which epigenetic regulators are most vital in embryonic development will improve pregnancy outcomes and our ability to treat and prevent disorders that emerge later in life. “Fetal Programming and Environmental Exposures: Implications for Prenatal Care and Preterm Birth’ began with a keynote address by Frederick vom Saal, who explained that low-level exposure to endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs) perturbs hormone systems in utero and can have negative effects on fetal development. vom Saal presented data on the LOC bisphenol A (BPA), an estrogen-mimicking compound found in many plastics. He suggested that low-dose exposure to LOCs can alter the development process and enhance chances of acquiring adult diseases, such as breastcancer, diabetes, and even developmental disorders such as attention deficit disorder (ADHD).’ Fetal programming is an enormously complex process that relies on numerous environmental inputs

  11. Fetal programming of neuropsychiatric disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faa, Gavino; Manchia, Mirko; Pintus, Roberta; Gerosa, Clara; Marcialis, Maria Antonietta; Fanos, Vassilios

    2016-09-01

    Starting from the Developmental Origins of Health and Disease (DOHaD) hypotheses proposed by David Barker, namely fetal programming, in the past years, there is a growing evidence of the major role played by epigenetic factors during the intrauterine life and the perinatal period. Furthermore, it has been assessed that these factors can affect the health status in infancy and even in adulthood. In this review, we focus our attention on the fetal programming of the brain, analyzing the most recent literature concerning the epigenetic factors that can influence the development of neuropsychiatric disorders such as bipolar disorders, major depressive disorders, and schizophrenia. The perinatal epigenetic factors have been divided in two main groups: maternal factors and fetal factors. The maternal factors include diet, smoking, alcoholism, hypertension, malnutrition, trace elements, stress, diabetes, substance abuse, and exposure to environmental toxicants, while the fetal factors include hypoxia/asphyxia, placental insufficiency, prematurity, low birth weight, drugs administered to the mother or to the baby, and all factors causing intrauterine growth restriction. A better comprehension of the possible mechanisms underlying the pathogenesis of these diseases may help researchers and clinicians develop new diagnostic tools and treatments to offer these patients a tailored medical treatment strategy to improve their quality of life. Birth Defects Research (Part C) 108:207-223, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  12. Improvement of goat TSE discriminative diagnosis and susceptibility based assessment of BSE infectivity in goat milk and meat

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bossers, A.; Langeveld, J.P.M.

    2012-01-01

    In light of the known ability of the BSE agent to cross the animal/human species barrier, the evidence establishing the presence of BSE in goat is especially alarming, as it represents a potential risk of food-born contamination to human consumers of goat milk and meat products. The main objective

  13. INFLUENCE OF AUTOLYTIC TRANSFORMATIONS ON ELECTROPHYSICAL PROPERTIES OF GOAT MEAT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. V. Antipova

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Functional foods represented an important element of a balanced, healthy diet. They play an important role in improving the structure of the diet of the population, are a means of prevention, correction and prevention of early transition premorbid conditions and various diseases. Meat and meat products based on it can be considered as a promising raw material for functional foods. Goat has certain dietary properties and can be used in manufacturing, but the production of high-grade products from goat meat, capable of long-term storage is not well developed. The chemical composition of the new raw meat - goat meat, on the example of the longissimus muscle of back is rich in protein, moisture, ash, and low-fat compared with other types of raw meat, which lets you create based on goat meat sector wide functional meat products. Therefore investigated the possibility of using goat meat in the production technology of functional foods. Showing the prospects for the development of goat in Russia. Investigated character of autolysis goat meat electro-physical methods and histological analysis. In the process of autolysis of goat meat are changing the electrical properties of raw meat, which are correlated with the morphological characteristics. Basic autolytic changes occurring in muscle tissue in the early stages of ripening, were reduced to a small extent the political process involving varying degrees of muscle structure in the early stages. In the later stages of maturation revealed changing widespread. Revealed that autolysis has characteristic periods and develops within 12 hours, further changes are irreversible. Shows the change in pH, carbohydrate fractions in the longissimus muscle of back goat. Results of the study of dynamics of change in pH, carbohydrate fractions in the longissimus muscle of back goat show compliance with the laws of classical autolysis noted in other sources, but differ in the time period. Defined stages of autolysis in

  14. Milk yield of some goat breeds in Croatia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boro Mioč

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available In Croatia, goats are primarily bred for meat production. However, for the past twenty years the interest in goat milk production was based on imported breeds such as Alpine-French, Saanen and German Improved Fawn goat. The purpose of this paper is to establish litter size of the principal goat breeds in Croatia and the indicators related to milk yield and chemical composition. The largest average litter size has been determined on the German Improved Fawn (1.72, then with the Boer (1.54, the Saanen (1.53 and the Croatian coloured goat (1.51, while the Alpine-French goat was the smallest (1.31. The longest lactation period (259 days has been determined on the Alpine-French goat, while the largest milk yield during lactation (724.4 kg and the largest milk fat yield (20.16 kg and protein yield (18.64 kg have been determined on the Saanen goat. However, it has been established that the Alpine-French goat milk has the highest average fat content (3.55 %, while the German Improved Fawn’s milk has the highest protein content (3.23 %. The Saanen goat had the longest milking period (222 days and the shortest suckling period (32 days, while the Alpine-French and the German Improved Fawn had the longest suckling period (51 and 45 days, respectively. The lowest quantity of milk during the suckling period (102.97 kg, i.e. 14 % was suckled by Saanen kids, while the Alpine-French (122.08 kg, i.e. 22 % and the German Improved Fawn kids suckled the greatest quantity (116.31 kg, i.e. 22 %.

  15. Evaluation of recombinant multi-epitope proteins for diagnosis of goat schistosomiasis by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lv, Chao; Hong, Yang; Fu, Zhiqiang; Lu, Ke; Cao, Xiaodan; Wang, Tao; Zhu, Chuangang; Li, Hao; Xu, Rui; Jia, Bingguang; Han, Qian; Dou, Xuefeng; Shen, Yuanxi; Zhang, Zuhang; Zai, Jinli; Feng, Jintao; Lin, Jiaojiao

    2016-03-09

    Schistosomiasis is a huge threat to human and animal health. Apart from bovines, goats play an important role in the transmission of schistosomiasis in some endemic areas of China. An accessible, quality-assured goat schistosomiasis diagnostic technique is needed. Recently, our laboratory identified two recombinant diagnostic antigens, SjPGM and SjRAD23 via an immuno-proteomic method. The application of these two recombinant antigens to develop a higher sensitivity and specificity technique for the sheep schistosomiasis diagnosis is urgently needed. Epitopes of SjPGM and SjRAD23 were predicted and three polypeptides, two from SjRAD23 and one from SjPGM, were selected. Recombinant plasmids containing two to three DNA sequences encoding predicted polypeptides or large hydrophilic region of Sj23 (LHD-Sj23) were constructed and expressed. Eight recombinant schistosome antigens including four multi-epitope proteins and four recombinant single-molecule antigens as well as SEA, were assessed by ELISA in 91 sera from schistosome-infected goats, 44 sera from non-infected goats, 37 sera from Orientobilharzia-infected goats, and 12 from Haemonchus contortus-infected goats. ELISA tests showed that three multi-epitope proteins had higher sensitivity than the four single-molecule antigens (rSjRAD23, rSjPGM, rBSjRAD23-1, rBSj23) and the multi-epitope protein rBSjPGM-BSjRAD23-1-BSj23 had the highest sensitivity (97.8 %, 89/91) and maintained good specificity (100 %, 44/44) as well as low cross-reactivity with haemonchosis (8.33 %, 3/12) and orientobilharziasis (13.51 %, 5/37) in the diagnosis of goat schistosomiasis. In contrast, when SEA was applied as a diagnosis antigen, it had 100 % (91/91) sensitivity, 75 % (33/44) specificity, 25 and 83.78 % cross-reactivity with haemonchosis (3/12) and orientobilharziasis (31/37), respectively. The application of recombinant multi-epitope proteins may increase the sensitivity of diagnosis technique and retain high specificity of single

  16. Fetal magnetic resonance imaging and human genetics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hengstschlaeger, Markus

    2006-01-01

    The use of fetal magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), in addition to prenatal genetic testing and sonography, has the potential to improve prenatal diagnosis of genetic disorders. MRI plays an important role in the evaluation of fetal abnormalities and malformations. Fetal MRI often enables a differential diagnosis, a determination of the extent of the disorder, the prognosis, and an improvement in therapeutic management. For counseling of parents, as well as to basically understand how genetic aberrations affect fetal development, it is of great importance to correlate different genotypes with fetal MRI data

  17. Fetal magnetic resonance imaging and human genetics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hengstschlaeger, Markus [Medical Genetics, Obstetrics and Gynecology, Medical University of Vienna, Waehringer Guertel 18-20, 1090 Vienna (Austria)]. E-mail: markus.hengstschlaeger@meduniwien.ac.at

    2006-02-15

    The use of fetal magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), in addition to prenatal genetic testing and sonography, has the potential to improve prenatal diagnosis of genetic disorders. MRI plays an important role in the evaluation of fetal abnormalities and malformations. Fetal MRI often enables a differential diagnosis, a determination of the extent of the disorder, the prognosis, and an improvement in therapeutic management. For counseling of parents, as well as to basically understand how genetic aberrations affect fetal development, it is of great importance to correlate different genotypes with fetal MRI data.

  18. Viral articular deformations in a goat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Périe, P.; Maillard, R.; Polack, B.; Millemann, Y.

    2006-01-01

    A goat belonging to an animal aid association was presented for bilateral deformation of the tarsus and carpus and signs of high-grade pain. ELISA serology was positive for Caprine Arthritis-Encephalitis Virus. Radiography revealed marked osseous remodelling of the tarsus. The blood fibrinogen concentration was very elevated. On infected commercial farms, it is recommended that both seropositive animals and their offspring are culled when the level of infected is low, or to separate the kids from the mothers at an early age. In this case, palliative treatment was prescribed based on non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, antibiotics and articular puncture-lavages [it

  19. Analysis of Goat Farming on Integrated Farming System in Banyumas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    NN Hidayat

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this research were : 1 to find out the income generated from goat farming and its contribution to farmer income in several farming combination, 2 to find out the economic efficiency in goat farming with paddy and fish production, 3 to determine factors affecting level of production and income in different farming system, partially and aggregately, and 4 to determine the best combination of farming which generated maximum income. Household farmer survey method was performed to conduct this research. Farming model chosen in this research was partial and average aggregate. Cobb-Douglas function were chosen to predict functional relationship. Result stated from this research were : 1 goat farming has a significant contribution in integrated farming system, 2 integrated farming (goat and paddy, goat and fish, and goat, fish and paddy in Banyumas district was economically efficient. 3 partially, factor affecting production level in goat farming was number of goat owned (P<0.01, factor affecting paddy production were urea application and number of land owned (P<0.01, TSP application (P<0.05 and man power (P<0.10. Furthermore, factor affecting fish farming were feed, breed and number of land owned (P<0.01; 4 aggregately, factor affecting integrated farming I were urea application and number of land owned (P<0.01, feed and number of land owned (P<0.01, number of goat owned (P<0.10 integrated farming II, where as in integrated farming III were number of paddy land area and breed (P<0.01 also number of goat owned (P<0.10; 5 integrated farming III (goat, paddy and fish farming gave the highest profit, which gave Rp 6.219.283,81 with relatively high efficiency. Therefore, goat farming could be an alternative solution to be developed in integrated farming and could be combined with other farming activities such as paddy and fish farming. (Animal Production 9(2: 105-110 (2007 Key Words : Goat, income, economic efficiency, survey, contribution

  20. Fetal anatomy revealed with fast MR sequences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levine, D; Hatabu, H; Gaa, J; Atkinson, M W; Edelman, R R

    1996-10-01

    Although all the imaging studies in this pictorial essay were done for maternal rather than fetal indications, fetal anatomy was well visualized. However, when scans are undertaken for fetal indications, fetal motion in between scout views and imaging sequences may make specific image planes difficult to obtain. Of the different techniques described in this review, we preferred the HASTE technique and use it almost exclusively for scanning pregnant patients. The T2-weighting is ideal for delineating fetal organs. Also, the HASTE technique allows images to be obtained in 430 msec, limiting artifacts arising from maternal and fetal motion. MR imaging should play a more important role in evaluating equivocal sonographic cases as fast scanning techniques are more widely used. Obstetric MR imaging no longer will be limited by fetal motion artifacts. When complex anatomy requires definition in a complicated pregnant patient, MR imaging should be considered as a useful adjunct to sonography.

  1. Antithyroid drug-induced fetal goitrous hypothyroidism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bliddal, Sofie; Rasmussen, Ase Krogh; Sundberg, Karin

    2011-01-01

    Maternal overtreatment with antithyroid drugs can induce fetal goitrous hypothyroidism. This condition can have a critical effect on pregnancy outcome, as well as on fetal growth and neurological development. The purpose of this Review is to clarify if and how fetal goitrous hypothyroidism can...... be prevented, and how to react when prevention has failed. Understanding the importance of pregnancy-related changes in maternal thyroid status when treating a pregnant woman is crucial to preventing fetal goitrous hypothyroidism. Maternal levels of free T(4) are the most consistent indication of maternal...... and fetal thyroid status. In patients with fetal goitrous hypothyroidism, intra-amniotic levothyroxine injections improve fetal outcome. The best way to avoid maternal overtreatment with antithyroid drugs is to monitor closely the maternal thyroid status, especially estimates of free T(4) levels....

  2. Anaerobic digestion of goat manure: bio-conversion of energy and bio fertilizer; Digestao anaerobica de dejetos de caprinos: conversor biologico de energia e biofertilizante

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Canafistula, Francisco Jose Firmino; Carvalho, Paulo Cesar Marques de; Teixeira, Adunias dos Santos [Universidade Federal do Ceara (UFC), Fortaleza, CE (Brazil). Dept. Engenharia Eletrica], Emails: firmino@ufc.br, carvalho@dee.ufc.br, adunias@ufc.com

    2009-07-01

    This research aims at analyzing biogas produced by anaerobic digestion of goat excrements related to energy generation, in addition to analyzing the bio-fertilizer as a byproduct of the process. Therefore, new products are generated from semi-intensive and extensive of goats, increasing its economical and environmental viability of the activity. The biogas was applied as the fuel for an Otto cycle internal combustion engine of 5.5 HP used to drive a hydraulic pump that supplied water to an area of one hectare of pasture. In addition, the spreadsheet GDER was applied to compute the kWh cost of the following electricity sources: biogas from goat excrement, diesel, electrical grid, wind and solar. It was found tat the biogas can substitute 30% of the daily energy requirements, and one can state that 1 m{sup 3} of biogas is equivalent to 740 mL of gasoline. (author)

  3. Efficacy of albendazole against Taenia multiceps larvae in experimentally infected goats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Afonso, Sónia M S; Neves, Luis; Pondja, Alberto; Macuamule, Cristiano; Mukaratirwa, Samson; Arboix, Margarita; Cristòfol, Carles; Capece, Bettencourt P S

    2014-12-15

    A controlled trial was conducted to evaluate the efficacy of three therapeutics regimes of albendazole (ABZ) against Taenia multiceps larvae in experimental infected goats. Forty-nine goats experimentally infected with 3000 T. multiceps eggs were selected and randomly divided into treatment or control groups. Treatment with 10mg/kg for 3 days for group 1 (G1), 10mg/kg for group 2 (G2) and 20mg/kg/day for group 3 (G3) was applied 2 months after infection; group 4 (G4) served as a control group. A treatment with doses of 10mg/kg/day for 3 days on group 5 (G5) and group 6 (G6) was used as control, 5 months after the infection. The efficacy of ABZ was assessed as percentage of non-viable cysts which were determined by morphologic characteristics, movement and methyl blue staining technique. The efficacy of ABZ against 2 months old cysts was significantly different from the control and were 90.3% (28/31), 72.7% (8/11) and 73.9% (14/19) for G1, G2 and G3, respectively. No differences were observed in cyst viability between treated and control groups for 5-month old cysts. The results in this study indicate that ABZ is effective in goats against 2-month-old cysts of T. multiceps larva located in tissues outside the brain. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Diagnosis of Caprine Arthritis Encephalitis Virus infection in dairy goats by ELISA, PCR and Viral Culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panneum, S; Rukkwamsuk, T

    2017-03-01

    For preventive and control strategies of Caprine Arthritis Encephalitis Virus (CAEV) infection in dairy goats, performance of the available diagnostic tests was described as one of the most important and necessary aspects. The study aimed at evaluating the diagnostic test performance, including PCR, ELISA and viral culture, for CAEV infection in dairy goats in Thailand. Blood samples of 29 dairy goats from five low- to medium-prevalence herds and one very low-prevalence herd were collected for PCR and ELISA methods. The performance of these two diagnostic methods was evaluated by comparing with cytopathic effects (CPE) in the co-cultivation of CAEV and primary synovial cells. Results indicated that sensitivity, specificity were, respectively, 69.6%, 100%, for PCR; and 95.7%, 83.3% for ELISA. The PCR assay tended to have lower sensitivity and higher specificity than ELISA. When multiple tests were applied, parallel testing provided sensitivity and specificity of 98.7% and 83.3%, while series testing showed sensitivity and specificity of 66.6% and 100% respectively. These results indicated that combination of ELISA and PCR provided some advantages and possibly offered optimal methods to detect CAEV-infected goats. Kappa value of the agreement between PCR and ELISA test was 0.34, indicating fair agreement. Regarding the possibility of antigenic variation between CAEV strains used in both PCR and ELISA assays, the actual circulating CAEV strain should be reviewed in order to develop and enhance the diagnostic tests using the CAE viral antigens derived from specific local strains of Thailand.

  5. Protective value of immune responses developed in goats vaccinated with insoluble proteins from Sarcoptes Scabiei

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simson Tarigan

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available Vaccines developed from certain membrane proteins lining the lumen of arthropod’s gut have been demonstrated effective in the control of some arthropod ectoparasites. A similar approach could also be applied to Sarcoptes scabiei since this parasite also ingests its host immunoglobulins. To evaluate immune protection of the membrane proteins, insoluble mite proteins were fractionated by successive treatment in the solutions of 1.14 M NaCl, 2% SB 3-14 Zwitterion detergent, 6 M urea, 6 M guanidine-HCl and 5% SDS. Five groups of goats (6 or 7 goats per group were immunised respectively with the protein fractions. Vaccination was performed 6 times, each with a dosage of 250 μg proteins, and 3 week intervals between vaccination. Group 6 (7 goats received PBS and adjuvant only, and served as an unvaccinated control. One week after the last vaccination, all goats were challenged with 2000 live mites on the auricles. The development of lesions were examined at 1 day, 2 days, and then every week from week 1 to 8. All animals were bled and weighed every week, and at the end of the experiment, skin scrapings were collected to determine the mite burden. Antibody responses induced by vaccination and challenge were examined by ELISA and Western blotting. This experiment showed that vaccination with the insoluble-protein fractions resulted in the development of high level of specific antibodies but the responses did not have any protective value. The severity of lesions and mite burden in the vaccinated animals were not different from those in the unvaccinated control.

  6. Numerical tension adjustment of x-ray membrane to represent goat skin kompang

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siswanto, Waluyo Adi; Abdullah, Muhammad Syiddiq Bin

    2017-04-01

    This paper presents a numerical membrane model of traditional musical instrument kompang that will be used to find the parameter of membrane tension of x-ray membrane representing the classical goat-skin membrane of kompang. In this study, the experiment towards the kompang is first conducted in an acoustical anechoic enclosure and in parallel a mathematical model of the kompang membrane is developed to simulate the vibration of the kompang membrane in polar coordinate by implementing Fourier-Bessel wave function. The wave equation in polar direction in mode 0,1 is applied to provide the corresponding natural frequencies of the circular membrane. The value of initial and boundary conditions in the function is determined from experiment to allow the correct development of numerical equation. The numerical mathematical model is coded in SMath for the accurate numerical analysis as well as the plotting tool. Two kompang membrane cases with different membrane materials, i.e. goat skin and x-ray film membranes with fixed radius of 0.1 m are used in the experiment. An alternative of kompang's membrane made of x-ray film with the appropriate tension setting can be used to represent the sound of traditional goat-skin kompang. The tension setting of the membrane to resemble the goat-skin is 24N. An effective numerical tool has been develop to help kompang maker to set the tension of x-ray membrane. In the future application, any tradional kompang with different size can be replaced by another membrane material if the tension is set to the correct tension value. The developed numerical tool is useful and handy to calculate the tension of the alternative membrane material.

  7. MicroRNA-Mediated Myostatin Silencing in Caprine Fetal Fibroblasts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhong, Bushuai; Zhang, Yanli; Yan, Yibo; Wang, Ziyu; Ying, Shijia; Huang, Mingrui; Wang, Feng

    2014-01-01

    Myostatin functions as a negative regulator of skeletal muscle growth by suppressing proliferation and differentiation of myoblasts. Dysfunction of the myostatin gene, either due to natural mutation or genetic manipulations such as knockout or knockdown, has been reported to increase muscle mass in mammalian species. RNA interference (RNAi) mediated by microRNAs (miRNAs) is a promising method for gene knockdown studies. In the present study, transient and stable silencing of the myostatin gene in caprine fetal fibroblasts (CFF) was evaluated using the two most effective constructs selected from four different miRNA expression constructs screened in 293FT cells. Using these two miRNA constructs, we achieved up to 84% silencing of myostatin mRNA in transiently transfected CFF cells and up to 31% silencing in stably transfected CFF cells. Moreover, off-target effects due to induction of interferon (IFN) response genes, such as interferon beta (IFN-β) and 2′-5′-oligoadenylate synthetase 2 (OAS2), were markedly fewer in stably transfected CFF cells than in transiently transfected cells. Stable expression of anti-myostatin miRNA with minimal induction of interferon shows great promise for increasing muscle mass in transgenic goats. PMID:25244645

  8. MicroRNA-mediated myostatin silencing in caprine fetal fibroblasts.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bushuai Zhong

    Full Text Available Myostatin functions as a negative regulator of skeletal muscle growth by suppressing proliferation and differentiation of myoblasts. Dysfunction of the myostatin gene, either due to natural mutation or genetic manipulations such as knockout or knockdown, has been reported to increase muscle mass in mammalian species. RNA interference (RNAi mediated by microRNAs (miRNAs is a promising method for gene knockdown studies. In the present study, transient and stable silencing of the myostatin gene in caprine fetal fibroblasts (CFF was evaluated using the two most effective constructs selected from four different miRNA expression constructs screened in 293FT cells. Using these two miRNA constructs, we achieved up to 84% silencing of myostatin mRNA in transiently transfected CFF cells and up to 31% silencing in stably transfected CFF cells. Moreover, off-target effects due to induction of interferon (IFN response genes, such as interferon beta (IFN-β and 2'-5'-oligoadenylate synthetase 2 (OAS2, were markedly fewer in stably transfected CFF cells than in transiently transfected cells. Stable expression of anti-myostatin miRNA with minimal induction of interferon shows great promise for increasing muscle mass in transgenic goats.

  9. Fetal body weight and the development of the control of the cardiovascular system in fetal sheep.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frasch, M G; Müller, T; Wicher, C; Weiss, C; Löhle, M; Schwab, K; Schubert, H; Nathanielsz, P W; Witte, O W; Schwab, M

    2007-03-15

    Reduced birth weight predisposes to cardiovascular diseases in later life. We examined in fetal sheep at 0.76 (n = 18) and 0.87 (n = 17) gestation whether spontaneously occurring variations in fetal weight affect maturation of autonomic control of cardiovascular function. Fetal weights at both gestational ages were grouped statistically in low (LW) and normal weights (NW) (P fetal sheep not constituting a major malnutritive condition. Mean fetal blood pressure (FBP) of all fetuses was negatively correlated to fetal weight at 0.76 but not 0.87 gestation (P fetal heart rate depended on fetal weight (P fetal weight within the normal weight span is accompanied by a different trajectory of development of sympathetic blood pressure and vagal heart rate control. This may contribute to the development of elevated blood pressure in later life. Examination of the underlying mechanisms and consequences may contribute to the understanding of programming of cardiovascular diseases.

  10. Detecting Positive Selection of Korean Native Goat Populations Using Next-Generation Sequencing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Wonseok; Ahn, Sojin; Taye, Mengistie; Sung, Samsun; Lee, Hyun-Jeong; Cho, Seoae; Kim, Heebal

    2016-12-01

    Goats ( Capra hircus ) are one of the oldest species of domesticated animals. Native Korean goats are a particularly interesting group, as they are indigenous to the area and were raised in the Korean peninsula almost 2,000 years ago. Although they have a small body size and produce low volumes of milk and meat, they are quite resistant to lumbar paralysis. Our study aimed to reveal the distinct genetic features and patterns of selection in native Korean goats by comparing the genomes of native Korean goat and crossbred goat populations. We sequenced the whole genome of 15 native Korean goats and 11 crossbred goats using next-generation sequencing (Illumina platform) to compare the genomes of the two populations. We found decreased nucleotide diversity in the native Korean goats compared to the crossbred goats. Genetic structural analysis demonstrated that the native Korean goat and crossbred goat populations shared a common ancestry, but were clearly distinct. Finally, to reveal the native Korean goat's selective sweep region, selective sweep signals were identified in the native Korean goat genome using cross-population extended haplotype homozygosity (XP-EHH) and a cross-population composite likelihood ratio test (XP-CLR). As a result, we were able to identify candidate genes for recent selection, such as the CCR3 gene, which is related to lumbar paralysis resistance. Combined with future studies and recent goat genome information, this study will contribute to a thorough understanding of the native Korean goat genome.

  11. Selective termination, fetal reduction and analogical reasoning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pennings, G

    2013-06-01

    Analogical reasoning is a basic method in bioethics. Its main purpose is to transfer the rule from an existing or known situation to a new and problematic situation. This commentary applies the lifeboat analogy to the context of selective termination and fetal reduction. It turns out that the analogy is only partially helpful as the main principle in the case of selective termination is the procreative beneficence principle. However, the wide person-affecting form of this principle doubly justifies selective termination: i.e. one prevents the harm caused by the birth of an affected child and one increases the life chances of the remaining fetuses. I conclude, however, that all analogies are basically flawed since they assume that fetuses as such have interests. I argue that fetuses only have interests to the extent that they are potential future persons. Copyright © 2013 Reproductive Healthcare Ltd. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Assessment of the colorimetric and fluorometric assays for alkaline phosphatase activity in cow's, goat's, and sheep's milk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klotz, V; Hill, Art; Warriner, K; Griffiths, M; Odumeru, J

    2008-09-01

    Raw milk is a well-established vehicle for the carriage of human pathogens, and many regulatory bodies have consequently mandated compulsory pasteurization as a food safety intervention. The residual activity of alkaline phosphatase (ALP) has historically been used to verify the adequacy of pasteurization of cow's milk. However, there is uncertainty on how the current ALP standards and methods of analysis can be applied to sheep's and goat's milk, which naturally contain different levels of the enzyme than that found in cow's milk. The official ALP methods applied in Canada (colorimetric assay; MFO-3) and in the United States (Fluorophos) were assessed for their ability to detect enzyme activity in raw and pasteurized milk derived from cows, sheep, and goats. The detection limit and the limit of quantitation were 0.8 and 2.02 microg/ml phenol, respectively, for the MFO-3 method and 43 and 85 mU/liter, respectively, for the Fluorophos method. The average ALP levels in raw goat's, cow's, and sheep's milk were 165, 1,562, and 3,512 microg/ml phenol, respectively. Raw milk detection limits, which correspond to raw milk phosphatase levels, were 0.051, 0.485, and 0.023% in cow's, goat's, and sheep's milk, respectively, for the MFO-3 method and 0.007, 0.070, and 0.004%, respectively, for the Fluorophos method. Although both methods can be used for ALP determination in cow's, goat's, and sheep's milk, the Fluorophos assay was superior to the colorimetric MFO-3 method based on sensitivity and time required to complete the analysis.

  13. Genetic characterisation of CSN2 gene in Girgentana goat breed

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lina Tortorici

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Among calcium sensitive caseins, β-casein is the most abundant in goat milk, representing up to 50% of total casein content. The goat β-casein locus has been widely investigated and at least ten alleles have been identified in different goat breeds. The aim of this work was to investigate the polymorphisms of β-casein gene in Girgentana dairy goat breed in order to assess the genotype distribution and evaluate how frequencies have changed during the last 10 years, as genotype is known to influence technological and nutritional milk properties. Sequencing analysis and alignment of the obtained sequences of β-casein exon 7, showed the presence of C, C1, and A strong alleles, and 0' null allele, with frequencies of 0.597, 0.326, 0.023, and 0.054, respectively. Seven genotypic classes were found in Girgentana goat breed and the most frequent genotype was CC1 (0.423 followed by CC (0.326, C1C1 (0.110, and C0' (0.096. No AA nor 0'0' homozygous individuals were found. The presence of strong alleles at CSN2 gene in Girgentana goat breed could be useful for the production of milk with high protein content and good cheese-making properties. Moreover, food business operators should consider the possibility of reviving interest in Girgentana goat milk using weak and null genotypes at CSN2 locus to make peculiar food products, such as drinking milk.

  14. Seroprevalence of Toxoplasma gondii infection in Norwegian dairy goats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stormoen Marit

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Toxoplasma gondii is a major problem for the sheep industry as it may cause reproduction problems. The importance of T. gondii in Norwegian goat herds is uncertain, but outbreaks of toxoplasmosis in dairy goat farms have been recorded. The aim of this study was to describe the prevalence of T. gondii infection in Norwegian dairy goats by using serology. Findings Goat serum originally collected as part of two nationwide surveillance and control programmes between 2002 and 2008 were examined for T. gondii antibodies by using direct agglutination test. In total, 55 of 73 herds (75% had one or more serologically positive animals, while 377 of 2188 (17% of the individual samples tested positive for T. gondii antibodies. Conclusions This is the first prevalence study of T. gondii infection in Norwegian goats. The results show that Norwegian goat herds are commonly exposed to T. gondii. Nevertheless, the majority of goat herds have a low prevalence of antibody positive animals, which make them vulnerable to infections with T. gondii during the gestation period.

  15. Intoxication of goats by Plumbago scandens in Northeastern Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medeiros, R M; Barbosa, R C; Lima, E F; Simões, S V; Riet-Correa, F

    2001-06-01

    In the State of Paraiba, Northeastern Brazil, goat mortality occurred with the ingestion of Plumbago scandens. The fresh plant was then given experimentally to 4 goats at 5, 10, 17.5 or 25 g/kg bw. Depression, anorexia, salivation with foamy saliva, bellowing, bruxism, humpbacked posture, bloat, ruminal atony, continuous lateral head movements, tachycardia, dyspnea and dark brown to black urine were observed in the goats given 17.5 or 25 g/kg bw. The goats receiving 5 or 10 g/kg bw had less severe signs. The goat dosed with 25 g/kg bw died after 18-20 h. All others recovered in 3-9 d. At necropsy of the high dose goat, the main lesions were dark violet to black discoloration of the mucosa of the tongue, esophagus, reticulum and ventral sac of the rumen, and gelatinous edema in the visceral ruminal peritoneum. Histologically the reticulum and ventral rumen sac had diffuse epithelial necrosis and severe edema and neutrophilic infiltration of the submucosa. Separation of the ruminal epithelium from the submucosa was observed. Epithelial degeneration and necrosis was also seen in the omasum, esophagus and tongue. Reproduction of the disease with clinical signs similar to those observed by the farmer in the spontaneously affected goats suggests that the clinical mortality was caused by ingestion of Plumbago scandens.

  16. Dairy goat production systems: status quo, perspectives and challenges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Escareño, Luis; Salinas-Gonzalez, Homero; Wurzinger, Maria; Iñiguez, Luiz; Sölkner, Johann; Meza-Herrera, Cesar

    2013-01-01

    Goat production concentrated in developing countries (tropics, dry areas), contributes largely to the livelihoods of low and medium income farmers. Farming systems in these areas have evolved to cope with the formidable constraints imposed by harsh natural and economic conditions by adapting integrated crop/livestock production strategies. In Asia, Africa and Latin America, due to its almost exclusive extensive nature, goat production relies mainly on grazing on communal lands that hardly provide the minimum nutrient requirements due to overstocking and degradation. While some of these production systems are becoming semi-intensive, appropriate breeding strategies should be designed to promote conservation and improvement of their unique attributes, such as adaptability, water use efficiency and suitability under harsh climatic conditions. In Europe, dairy goat production is more common around the Mediterranean basin, where it is important from an economic, environmental and sociological perspective to the Mediterranean countries: Spain, France, Italy and Greece. Europe owns only 5.1 % of the world's dairy goat herds, but produces 15.6 % of the world's goat milk; this is the only continent where goat milk has such an economic importance and organization. In developing countries the dairy goat sector requires a systemic approach, whereby nutrition, animal health, breeding, know-how, inputs and technologies must be assembled. This would allow the optimization of natural and local resources and would promote the transition from a risk reduction strategy towards an increased productivity strategy. Such an increase would privilege production efficiency based on clean, green and ethical practices for responsible innovation.

  17. Fetal Intelligent Navigation Echocardiography (FINE): a novel method for rapid, simple, and automatic examination of the fetal heart.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeo, Lami; Romero, Roberto

    2013-09-01

    To describe a novel method (Fetal Intelligent Navigation Echocardiography (FINE)) for visualization of standard fetal echocardiography views from volume datasets obtained with spatiotemporal image correlation (STIC) and application of 'intelligent navigation' technology. We developed a method to: 1) demonstrate nine cardiac diagnostic planes; and 2) spontaneously navigate the anatomy surrounding each of the nine cardiac diagnostic planes (Virtual Intelligent Sonographer Assistance (VIS-Assistance®)). The method consists of marking seven anatomical structures of the fetal heart. The following echocardiography views are then automatically generated: 1) four chamber; 2) five chamber; 3) left ventricular outflow tract; 4) short-axis view of great vessels/right ventricular outflow tract; 5) three vessels and trachea; 6) abdomen/stomach; 7) ductal arch; 8) aortic arch; and 9) superior and inferior vena cava. The FINE method was tested in a separate set of 50 STIC volumes of normal hearts (18.6-37.2 weeks of gestation), and visualization rates for fetal echocardiography views using diagnostic planes and/or VIS-Assistance® were calculated. To examine the feasibility of identifying abnormal cardiac anatomy, we tested the method in four cases with proven congenital heart defects (coarctation of aorta, tetralogy of Fallot, transposition of great vessels and pulmonary atresia with intact ventricular septum). In normal cases, the FINE method was able to generate nine fetal echocardiography views using: 1) diagnostic planes in 78-100% of cases; 2) VIS-Assistance® in 98-100% of cases; and 3) a combination of diagnostic planes and/or VIS-Assistance® in 98-100% of cases. In all four abnormal cases, the FINE method demonstrated evidence of abnormal fetal cardiac anatomy. The FINE method can be used to visualize nine standard fetal echocardiography views in normal hearts by applying 'intelligent navigation' technology to STIC volume datasets. This method can simplify

  18. Feasibility and validity of animal-based indicators for on-farm welfare assessment of thermal stress in dairy goats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Battini, Monica; Barbieri, Sara; Fioni, Luna; Mattiello, Silvana

    2016-02-01

    This investigation tested the feasibility and validity of indicators of cold and heat stress in dairy goats for on-farm welfare assessment protocols. The study was performed on two intensive dairy farms in Italy. Two different 3-point scale (0-2) scoring systems were applied to assess cold and heat stress. Cold and heat stress scores were visually assessed from outside the pen in the morning, afternoon and evening in January-February, April-May and July 2013 for a total of nine sessions of observations/farm. Temperature (°C), relative humidity (%) and wind speed (km/h) were recorded and Thermal Heat Index (THI) was calculated. The sessions were allocated to three climatic seasons, depending on THI ranges: cold (65). Score 2 was rarely assessed; therefore, scores 1 and 2 were aggregated for statistical analysis. The amount of goats suffering from cold stress was significantly higher in the cold season than in neutral ( P farm feasibility of both indicators: No constraint was found and time required was less than 10 min. Our results show that cold and heat stress scores are valid indicators to detect thermal stress in intensively managed dairy goats. The use of a binary scoring system (presence/absence), merging scores 1 and 2, may be a further refinement to improve the feasibility. This study also allows the prediction of optimal ranges of THI for dairy goat breeds in intensive husbandry systems, setting a comfort zone included into 55 and 70.

  19. BIO-ECOLGICAL PHENOMENON OF POLY-PARASITISM – ACTUAL MAJOR PROBLEM IN BREEDING OF SHEEP AND GOATS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DOINA ARDELEANU

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents the results of a extensive study concerning the parasites andcomplexe problems of the poly-parasitism on sheep and goats in Dobrudja. In thispaper we proposed ourselves to establish the sheep and goats endoparasites, thedistribution and frequency of these function to age, sex and maintenance conditions.The increase of morbidity through parasitical diseases, as well as the ecological andeconomic consequences of poly-parasitism represent a important problem in theintegration conditions of Romania in UE and imposes to apply some efficientmethods of prophylaxis and control of parasitosis and parasito- zoonozis. Thedrawing of copro-parazitologic samples was effected directly from rectum of sheepand goats, testing 10% of each lot, during grazing season and in period of keepingin sheds. The copro-parasitological examinations were carried out ovoscopicaly(flotation, by next methods: Willis, Mc. Master and sediment, by Benedect-Nemesseri and polyvalent methods, as well as larvoscopicaly by Baermann method.After copro-parasitological examinations of samples which were harvested fromthese animals it comes out that both sheep and goats presents poly-parasitism withsporozoa (coccidiae: Eimeria spp. , cestodae (Moniezia expansa and Monieziabenedeni, gastro-intestinal nematodes (Nematodirus spp. ,Trichostrongylidae,Strongyloides papillosus and pulmonary nematodes (Protostrongylus rufescens,Dictyocaulus filaria, Muellerius capillaris, the degree of parasitical infestationdepending on species, age, sex, maintenance conditions and environmental factors.

  20. Feasibility and validity of animal-based indicators for on-farm welfare assessment of thermal stress in dairy goats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Battini, Monica; Barbieri, Sara; Fioni, Luna; Mattiello, Silvana

    2016-02-01

    This investigation tested the feasibility and validity of indicators of cold and heat stress in dairy goats for on-farm welfare assessment protocols. The study was performed on two intensive dairy farms in Italy. Two different 3-point scale (0-2) scoring systems were applied to assess cold and heat stress. Cold and heat stress scores were visually assessed from outside the pen in the morning, afternoon and evening in January-February, April-May and July 2013 for a total of nine sessions of observations/farm. Temperature (°C), relative humidity (%) and wind speed (km/h) were recorded and Thermal Heat Index (THI) was calculated. The sessions were allocated to three climatic seasons, depending on THI ranges: cold (65). Score 2 was rarely assessed; therefore, scores 1 and 2 were aggregated for statistical analysis. The amount of goats suffering from cold stress was significantly higher in the cold season than in neutral (P stress were recorded only in the hot season (P stress scores are valid indicators to detect thermal stress in intensively managed dairy goats. The use of a binary scoring system (presence/absence), merging scores 1 and 2, may be a further refinement to improve the feasibility. This study also allows the prediction of optimal ranges of THI for dairy goat breeds in intensive husbandry systems, setting a comfort zone included into 55 and 70.

  1. Microbiological quality of goat's milk obtained under different production systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.K. Kyozaire

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available In order to determine the safety of milk produced by smallholder dairy goat farms, a farm-based research study was conducted on commercial dairy goat farms to compare the microbiological quality of milk produced using 3 different types of dairy goat production systems (intensive, semi-intensive and extensive. A survey of dairy goat farms in and around Pretoria carried out by means of a questionnaire revealed that most of the smallholder dairy goat farms surveyed used an extensive type of production system. The method of milking varied with the type of production system, i.e. machine milking; bucket system machine milking and hand-milking, respectively. Udder half milk samples (n=270 were analysed, of which 31.1 % were infected with bacteria. The lowest intra-mammary infection was found amongst goats in the herd under the extensive system (13.3 %, compared with 43.3 % and 36.7 % infection rates under the intensive and semi-intensive production systems, respectively. Staphylococcus intermedius (coagulase positive, Staphylococcus epidermidis and Staphylococcus simulans (both coagulase negative, were the most common cause of intramammary infection with a prevalence of 85.7 % of the infected udder halves. The remaining 14.3 % of the infection was due to Staphylococcus aureus. Bacteriology of bulk milk samples on the other hand, showed that raw milk obtained by the bucket system milking machine had the lowest total bacterial count (16 450 colony forming units (CFU/mℓ compared to that by pipeline milking machine (36 300 CFU/mℓ or handmilking (48 000 CFU/mℓ. No significant relationship was found between the somatic cell counts (SCC and presence of bacterial infection in goat milk. In comparison with the herds under the other 2 production systems, it was shown that dairy goat farming under the extensive production system, where hand-milking was used, can be adequate for the production of safe raw goat milk.

  2. Studies on bio climatic acclimatization in goats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kassab, F.M.A.H.

    1994-01-01

    The present investigation was conducted to study the effect of temperature on some aspects of baladi goats (Caprahircus). The study was carried out on 14 female Baladi goats (2.5 year average and 15-30 kg weight). The study includes two experiments : In experiment I: 8 animals are maintained under hot condition (35 degree C and 25% R.H.) 8 h rs/day for one week to study the effect of heat stress on total body water content, water turnover rate and biological half life time of tritiated water by using tritiated water dilution technique in comparison to those of cold conditions (15 degree C and 50% R.H.) for 8 h rs/day for one week. The second experiment is concerned with the effect of high and low ambient temperatures on blood parameters (RBC count, Hb content and PCV) blood gases, acid-base status and blood oxygen dissociation curve. The results indicated that total body water content and water turnover rate increased significantly as a result of heat stress but biological half-life time decreased significantly

  3. Can Chlamydia abortus be transmitted by embryo transfer in goats?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oseikria, M; Pellerin, J L; Rodolakis, A; Vorimore, F; Laroucau, K; Bruyas, J F; Roux, C; Michaud, S; Larrat, M; Fieni, F

    2016-10-01

    The objectives of this study were to determine (i) whether Chlamydia abortus would adhere to or penetrate the intact zona pellucida (ZP-intact) of early in vivo-derived caprine embryos, after in vitro infection; and (ii) the efficacy of the International Embryo Transfer Society (IETS) washing protocol for bovine embryos. Fifty-two ZP-intact embryos (8-16 cells), obtained from 14 donors were used in this experiment. The embryos were randomly divided into 12 batches. Nine batches (ZP-intact) of five embryos were incubated in a medium containing 4 × 10(7)Chlamydia/mL of AB7 strain. After incubation for 18 hours at 37 °C in an atmosphere of 5% CO2, the embryos were washed in batches in 10 successive baths of a phosphate buffer saline and 5% fetal calf serum solution in accordance with IETS guidelines. In parallel, three batches of ZP-intact embryos were used as controls by being subjected to similar procedures but without exposure to C. abortus. The 10 wash baths were collected separately and centrifuged for 1 hour at 13,000 × g. The washed embryos and the pellets of the 10 centrifuged wash baths were frozen at -20 °C before examination for evidence of C. abortus using polymerase chain reaction. C. abortus DNA was found in all of the infected batches of ZP-intact embryos (9/9) after 10 successive washes. It was also detected in the 10th wash fluid for seven batches of embryos, whereas for the two other batches, the last positive wash bath was the eighth and the ninth, respectively. In contrast, none of the embryos or their washing fluids in the control batches were DNA positive. These results report that C. abortus adheres to and/or penetrates the ZP of in vivo caprine embryos after in vitro infection, and that the standard washing protocol recommended by the IETS for bovine embryos, failed to remove it. The persistence of these bacteria after washing makes the embryo a potential means of transmission of the bacterium during embryo transfer from

  4. Pulmonary Hypoplasia Caused by Fetal Ascites in Congenital Cytomegalovirus Infection Despite Fetal Therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kazumichi Fujioka

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available We report two cases of pulmonary hypoplasia due to fetal ascites in symptomatic congenital cytomegalovirus (CMV infections despite fetal therapy. The patients died soon after birth. The pathogenesis of pulmonary hypoplasia in our cases might be thoracic compression due to massive fetal ascites as a result of liver insufficiency. Despite aggressive fetal treatment, including multiple immunoglobulin administration, which was supposed to diminish the pathogenic effects of CMV either by neutralization or immunomodulatory effects, the fetal ascites was uncontrollable. To prevent development of pulmonary hypoplasia in symptomatic congenital CMV infections, further fetal intervention to reduce ascites should be considered.

  5. Fetal evaluation of spine dysraphism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bulas, Dorothy

    2010-01-01

    Spinal dysraphism or neural tube defects (NTD) encompass a heterogeneous group of congenital spinal anomalies that result from the defective closure of the neural tube early in gestation with anomalous development of the caudal cell mass. Advances in ultrasound and MRI have dramatically improved the diagnosis and therapy of spinal dysraphism and caudal spinal anomalies both prenatally and postnatally. Advances in prenatal US including high frequency linear transducers and three dimensional imaging can provide detailed information concerning spinal anomalies. MR imaging is a complementary tool that can further elucidate spine abnormalities as well as associated central nervous system and non-CNS anomalies. Recent studies have suggested that 3-D CT can help further assess fetal spine anomalies in the third trimester. With the advent of fetal therapy including surgery, accurate prenatal diagnosis of open and closed spinal dysraphism becomes critical in appropriate counselling and perinatal management. (orig.)

  6. Fetal origin of vascular aging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shailesh Pitale

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Aging is increasingly regarded as an independent risk factor for development of cardiovascular diseases such as atherosclerosis and hypertension and their complications (e.g. MI and Stroke. It is well known that vascular disease evolve over decades with progressive accumulation of cellular and extracellular materials and many inflammatory processes. Metabolic syndrome, obesity and diabetes are conventionally recognized as risk factors for development of coronary vascular disease (CVD. These conditions are known to accelerate ageing process in general and vascular ageing in particular. Adverse events during intrauterine life may programme organ growth and favour disease later in life, popularly known as, ′Barker′s Hypothesis′. The notion of fetal programming implies that during critical periods of prenatal growth, changes in the hormonal and nutritional milieu of the conceptus may alter the full expression of the fetal genome, leading to permanent effects on a range of physiological.

  7. Fetal evaluation of spine dysraphism

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bulas, Dorothy [George Washington University Medical Center, Division of Diagnostic Imaging and Radiology, Children' s National Medical Center, Washington, DC (United States)

    2010-06-15

    Spinal dysraphism or neural tube defects (NTD) encompass a heterogeneous group of congenital spinal anomalies that result from the defective closure of the neural tube early in gestation with anomalous development of the caudal cell mass. Advances in ultrasound and MRI have dramatically improved the diagnosis and therapy of spinal dysraphism and caudal spinal anomalies both prenatally and postnatally. Advances in prenatal US including high frequency linear transducers and three dimensional imaging can provide detailed information concerning spinal anomalies. MR imaging is a complementary tool that can further elucidate spine abnormalities as well as associated central nervous system and non-CNS anomalies. Recent studies have suggested that 3-D CT can help further assess fetal spine anomalies in the third trimester. With the advent of fetal therapy including surgery, accurate prenatal diagnosis of open and closed spinal dysraphism becomes critical in appropriate counselling and perinatal management. (orig.)

  8. Gastrointestinal parasites in Danish goats - prevalence and risk factors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sörensen, C.; Holm, S. A.; Thamsborg, S. M.

    2012-01-01

    The aims were to examine prevalence of gastrointestinal parasites in Danish goats, based on faecal examination, in relation to geographical distribution and risk factors, and to investigate the occurrence of anthelmintic resistance in nematodes in selected farms. In April 2012 all Danish goat farms...... with ≥10 female goats (N=132) according to the Central Husbandry Register, were invited to participate. Of these, 25 herds each submitted faecal samples, collected approximately 1 month after turn out, from 4‐12 kids born earlier the same year. During May‐July, a total of 232 samples were examined using...

  9. Development of conditioned taste aversion to Mascagnia rigida in goats

    OpenAIRE

    Barbosa,Raquel Ribeiro; Silva,Idalécio Pacífico da; Soto-Blanco,Benito

    2008-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine whether goats could be averted from consuming Mascagnia rigida, a toxic plant found in the semiarid region of northeastern Brazil. Fourteen male goats not previously familiarized to M. rigida were randomly allocated to two treatment groups: control (treated with 5.5mL water orally by a drenching gun) and lithium group (treated with 100mg LiCl/kg body weight orally by a drenching gun). For conditioning, goats were allowed to feed on M. rigida leaves for 1...

  10. Clinical significance of perceptible fetal motion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rayburn, W F

    1980-09-15

    The monitoring of fetal activity during the last trimester of pregnancy has been proposed to be useful in assessing fetal welfare. The maternal perception of fetal activity was tested among 82 patients using real-time ultrasonography. All perceived fetal movements were visualized on the scanner and involved motion of the lower limbs. Conversely, 82% of all visualized motions of fetal limbs were perceived by the patients. All combined motions of fetal trunk with limbs were preceived by the patients and described as strong movements, whereas clusters of isolated, weak motions of the fetal limbs were less accurately perceived (56% accuracy). The number of fetal movements perceived during the 15-minute test period was significantly (p fetal motion was present (44 of 45 cases) than when it was absent (five of 10 cases). These findings reveal that perceived fetal motion is: (1) reliable; (2) related to the strength of lower limb motion; (3) increased with ruptured amniotic membranes; and (4) reassuring if considered to be active.

  11. Fetal programming in meat production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Min; Wang, Bo; Fu, Xing; Yang, Qiyuan; Zhu, Mei-Jun

    2015-11-01

    Nutrient fluctuations during the fetal stage affects fetal development, which has long-term impacts on the production efficiency and quality of meat. During the early development, a pool of mesenchymal progenitor cells proliferate and then diverge into either myogenic or adipogenic/fibrogenic lineages. Myogenic progenitor cells further develop into muscle fibers and satellite cells, while adipogenic/fibrogenic lineage cells develop into adipocytes, fibroblasts and resident fibro-adipogenic progenitor cells. Enhancing the proliferation and myogenic commitment of progenitor cells during fetal development enhances muscle growth and lean production in offspring. On the other hand, promoting the adipogenic differentiation of adipogenic/fibrogenic progenitor cells inside the muscle increases intramuscular adipocytes and reduces connective tissue, which improves meat marbling and tenderness. Available studies in mammalian livestock, including cattle, sheep and pigs, clearly show the link between maternal nutrition and the quantity and quality of meat production. Similarly, chicken muscle fibers develop before hatching and, thus, egg and yolk sizes and hatching temperature affect long-term growth performance and meat production of chicken. On the contrary, because fishes are able to generate new muscle fibers lifelong, the impact of early nutrition on fish growth performance is expected to be minor, which requires further studies. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Fetal growth and developmental programming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galjaard, Sander; Devlieger, Roland; Van Assche, Frans A

    2013-01-01

    The environment in utero and in early neonatal life may induce a permanent response in the fetus and the newborn, leading to enhanced susceptibility to later diseases. This review concentrates on the role and mechanisms of events during the antenatal and immediate postnatal period resulting in later life diseases, concentrating on abnormal growth patterns of the fetus. Fetal overgrowth is related to exposure to a diabetic intra uterine environment, increasing the vulnerability to transgenerational obesity and hence an increased sensitivity to more diabetic mothers. This effect has been supported by animal data. Fetal growth restriction is complex due to malnutrition in utero, catch up growth due to a high caloric intake and low physical activity in later life. Metabolic changes and a transgenerational effect of intra uterine malnutrition has been supported by animal data. In recent years the discovery of alterations of the genome due to different influences during embryonic life, called epigenetics, has led to the phenomenon of fetal programming resulting in changing transgenerational metabolic effects.

  13. The use of non-invasive fetal electrocardiography in diagnosing second-degree fetal atrioventricular block.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lakhno, Igor; Behar, Joachim A; Oster, Julien; Shulgin, Vyacheslav; Ostras, Oleksii; Andreotti, Fernando

    2017-01-01

    Complete atrioventricular block in fetuses is known to be mostly associated with autoimmune disease and can be irreversible if no steroids treatment is provided. Conventional methods used in clinical practice for diagnosing fetal arrhythmia are limited since they do not reflect the primary electrophysiological conduction processes that take place in the myocardium. The non-invasive fetal electrocardiogram has the potential to better support fetal arrhythmias diagnosis through the continuous analysis of the beat to beat variation of the fetal heart rate and morphological analysis of the PQRST complex. We present two retrospective case reports on which atrioventricular block diagnosis could have been supported by the non-invasive fetal electrocardiogram. The two cases comprised a 22-year-old pregnant woman with the gestational age of 31 weeks and a 25-year-old pregnant woman with the gestational age of 41 weeks. Both women were admitted to the Department of Maternal and Fetal Medicine at the Kyiv and Kharkiv municipal perinatal clinics. Patients were observed using standard fetal monitoring methods as well as the non-invasive fetal electrocardiogram. The non-invasive fetal electrocardiographic recordings were analyzed retrospectively, where it is possible to identify the presence of the atrioventricular block. This study demonstrates, for the first time, the feasibility of the non-invasive fetal electrocardiogram as a supplementary method to diagnose of the fetal atrioventricular block. Combined with current fetal monitoring techniques, non-invasive fetal electrocardiography could support clinical decisions.

  14. Prepubertal goat oocytes from large follicles result in similar blastocyst production and embryo ploidy than those from adult goats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romaguera, R; Moll, X; Morató, R; Roura, M; Palomo, M J; Catalá, M G; Jiménez-Macedo, A R; Hammami, S; Izquierdo, D; Mogas, T; Paramio, M T

    2011-07-01

    Developmental competence of oocytes from prepubertal females is lower than those from adult females. Oocyte development competence is positively related to follicular diameter. Most of the follicles of prepubertal goat ovaries are smaller than 3 mm. The aim of this study was to compare oocytes of two follicle sizes (goats with oocytes from adult goats in relation to their in vitro production and quality of blastocysts. Oocytes from prepubertal goats were obtained from slaughterhouse ovaries and selected according to the follicle diameter whereas oocytes from adult goats were recovered in vivo by LOPU technique without prior selection of follicle size. COCs were IVM for 27 h, IVF at the conventional conditions with fresh semen and presumptive zygotes were cultured in SOF medium for 8 days. Blastocysts obtained were vitrified and after warming their blastocoele re-expansion and the ploidy by FISH technique were assessed. We found significant differences between blastocysts yield of oocytes recovered from follicles smaller than 3 mm of prepubertal goats compared to those from adult goats (5.45% vs 20. 83%, respectively) however, these differences disappear if oocytes were recovered form large follicles (18.07%). A total of 28 blastocysts were analysed and 96.43% showed mixoploidy. Age did not affect the number of embryos with abnormal ploidy or blastocyst re-expansion after warming. Furthermore, the percentage of diploid blastomeres per embryo was similar in the 3 groups studied, adult, prepubertal from follicles ≥ 3 mm and goats 45 days old were not different to the blastocysts produced from adult goats, both in terms of quantity and quality. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Real-time 3-dimensional fetal echocardiography with an instantaneous volume-rendered display: early description and pictorial essay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sklansky, Mark S; DeVore, Greggory R; Wong, Pierre C

    2004-02-01

    Random fetal motion, rapid fetal heart rates, and cumbersome processing algorithms have limited reconstructive approaches to 3-dimensional fetal cardiac imaging. Given the recent development of real-time, instantaneous volume-rendered sonographic displays of volume data, we sought to apply this technology to fetal cardiac imaging. We obtained 1 to 6 volume data sets on each of 30 fetal hearts referred for formal fetal echocardiography. Each volume data set was acquired over 2 to 8 seconds and stored on the system's hard drive. Rendered images were subsequently processed to optimize translucency, smoothing, and orientation and cropped to reveal "surgeon's eye views" of clinically relevant anatomic structures. Qualitative comparison was made with conventional fetal echocardiography for each subject. Volume-rendered displays identified all major abnormalities but failed to identify small ventricular septal defects in 2 patients. Important planes and views not visualized during the actual scans were generated with minimal processing of rendered image displays. Volume-rendered displays tended to have slightly inferior image quality compared with conventional 2-dimensional images. Real-time 3-dimensional echocardiography with instantaneous volume-rendered displays of the fetal heart represents a new approach to fetal cardiac imaging with tremendous clinical potential.

  16. Effect of Q211 and K222 PRNP polymorphic variants in the susceptibility of goats to oral infections with Goat Bovine Spongiform Encephalopathy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Aguilar-Calvo, Patricia; Fast, C.; Tauscher, Kerstin; Espinosa, J.C.; Groschup, M.H.; Muhammad, Nadeem; Goldmann, W.; Langeveld, J.P.M.; Bossers, A.; Andreoletti, O.

    2015-01-01

    Background. The prion protein-encoding gene (PRNP) is one of the major determinants for scrapie occurrence in sheep and goats. However, its effect on bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE) transmission to goats is not clear.

    Methods. Goats harboring wild-type, R/Q211 or Q/K222 PRNP

  17. Multi-channel non-invasive fetal electrocardiography detection using wavelet decomposition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almeida, Javier; Ruano, Josué; Corredor, Germán.; Romo-Bucheli, David; Navarro-Vargas, José Ricardo; Romero, Eduardo

    2017-11-01

    Non-invasive fetal electrocardiography (fECG) has attracted the medical community because of the importance of fetal monitoring. However, its implementation in clinical practice is challenging: the fetal signal has a low Signal- to-Noise-Ratio and several signal sources are present in the maternal abdominal electrocardiography (AECG). This paper presents a novel method to detect the fetal signal from a multi-channel maternal AECG. The method begins by applying filters and signal detrending the AECG signals. Afterwards, the maternal QRS complexes are identified and subtracted. The residual signals are used to detect the fetal QRS complex. Intervals of these signals are analyzed by using a wavelet decomposition. The resulting representation feds a previously trained Random Forest (RF) classifier that identifies signal intervals associated to fetal QRS complex. The method was evaluated on a public available dataset: the Physionet2013 challenge. A set of 50 maternal AECG records were used to train the RF classifier. The evaluation was carried out in signals intervals extracted from additional 25 maternal AECG. The proposed method yielded an 83:77% accuracy in the fetal QRS complex classification task.

  18. Study of Goat Herdering System in Sawohan Village, Buduran District, Sidoarjo

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nasich, M.; Suyadi; Ciptadi, G.; Budiarto, A.

    2018-02-01

    The aim of this research was to evaluate and analyze goat herdering system in group of goat “Oro-oro” in Sawohan Village, Buduran District, Sidoarjo. This research was conducted by case study method, using 5 members of goat farmers “Oro-oro” with 298 goats. The results of this study indicate that the average number of goat ownership was more than 50 head/farmer. The goat breed that raising by the farmers was Kacang goats. Average daily gains was 53.32 + 36.01 gram, litter size 1.34 + 0.51 head, mean of kidding interval 7,41 + 0,99 month and mortality of kid prenatal period was 20,4%. From this research can be concluded that productivity of goat in Sawohan village was good with herdering system, so it can be used as one of alternative in developing goat farming system in other area.

  19. Detecting Positive Selection of Korean Native Goat Populations Using Next-Generation Sequencing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Wonseok; Ahn, Sojin; Taye, Mengistie; Sung, Samsun; Lee, Hyun-Jeong; Cho, Seoae; Kim, Heebal

    2016-01-01

    Goats (Capra hircus) are one of the oldest species of domesticated animals. Native Korean goats are a particularly interesting group, as they are indigenous to the area and were raised in the Korean peninsula almost 2,000 years ago. Although they have a small body size and produce low volumes of milk and meat, they are quite resistant to lumbar paralysis. Our study aimed to reveal the distinct genetic features and patterns of selection in native Korean goats by comparing the genomes of native Korean goat and crossbred goat populations. We sequenced the whole genome of 15 native Korean goats and 11 crossbred goats using next-generation sequencing (Illumina platform) to compare the genomes of the two populations. We found decreased nucleotide diversity in the native Korean goats compared to the crossbred goats. Genetic structural analysis demonstrated that the native Korean goat and crossbred goat populations shared a common ancestry, but were clearly distinct. Finally, to reveal the native Korean goat’s selective sweep region, selective sweep signals were identified in the native Korean goat genome using cross-population extended haplotype homozygosity (XP-EHH) and a cross-population composite likelihood ratio test (XP-CLR). As a result, we were able to identify candidate genes for recent selection, such as the CCR3 gene, which is related to lumbar paralysis resistance. Combined with future studies and recent goat genome information, this study will contribute to a thorough understanding of the native Korean goat genome. PMID:27989103

  20. Gamma ray irradiated goat milk: comparative sensorial analysis with pasteurized goat milk

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gurgel, Maria Sylvia de C.C. do Amaral; Domarco, Rachel E.; Spoto, Marta H.F.

    2002-01-01

    Goat milk consumption has increased in the last years, due to its better digestibility and for constituting a good alternative to cow milk for intolerant people. Brazil has over 10 millions goats, mainly in the Northeast area. Considering that it is very important to increase the shelf-life for this product, this work was done to test the gamma-radiation as a preservation method, evaluating acceptability by sensorial analysis compared with pasteurized milk. The goat milk was bought in the Animal Production Department/ESALQ/USP, Piracicaba, and irradiated with 3,5 kGy in the Food Irradiation Laboratory/CENA/USP, using a cobalt-60 irradiator, type Gammabeam-650, from Nordion, Canada. After irradiation, the samples were maintained under refrigeration at 5 deg C and submitted to sensorial analysis at 1 st , 7 th and 15 th days by 30 untrained tasters. The results indicated, by Tukey test, a significant preference for the pasteurized milk in comparison to the irradiated one, because a hard caprine flavor was developed by the irradiation. (author)

  1. Meat quality parameters of descendants by grading hybridization of Boer goat and Guanzhong Dairy goat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, W; Kou, L; Cao, B; Wei, Y

    2010-03-01

    Chemical composition, cholesterol levels, fatty acid profile, meat taste, and quality parameters were evaluated in 48 buck kids from goats of the Guanzhong Dairy breed (Group G) and their crosses (Group F1: 1/2 Boermale symbolx1/2 Guanzhong Dairyfemale symbol; Group F2: 3/4 Boermale symbolx1/4 Guanzhong Dairyfemale symbol; Group F3: 7/8 Boermale symbolx1/8 Guanzhong Dairyfemale symbol) at different ages of slaughter (6, 8 and 10 months). Results indicated that grading hybridization (Pmeat nutritive value. The muscle of hybrid goats had lower crude fat and cholesterol, higher crude protein, and greater proportion of C18:2 and C18:3 than that of Group G at each age. Group F1 goats had better (Pgoats were tenderer and juicier compared to Group G. In all four groups, cholesterol levels increased (Pmeat quality, and the higher ratio of unsaturated to SFA in Group F1 indicate better quality for human consumption. Copyright 2009. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  2. Proximate analysis of two breeds of goat meat (chevon) and assessment of perception on goat consumption

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baharuddin, Azan Azuwan; Abdullah, Aminah

    2015-09-01

    Goat Meat (chevon) has been used as a source of protein and its demand for consumption is increasing yearly in Malaysia. The objective of the research was to determine proximate composition namely moisture, protein, fat and ash level in chevon from different type of breed i.e. Boer and Katjang. The goat breed proximate analyses were compared with sheep meat (mutton). The results for goat breeds were showing that the percentage of moisture, fat, protein and ash were of 73.06 - 74.99, 2.76 - 2.94, 20.81 - 22.47 and 0.97 - 1.21 respectively. Meanwhile the concentration of moisture, fat, protein and ash for mutton were 73.52, 5.06, 22.50 and 1.17 respectively. The pilot study on perception survey indicated that the highest respondent percentage on consumption of chevon was once in a month. Based on the survey, Boer was the most known breed compared to the other breed. Majority of respondents reported that chevon was fairly expensive meat but easier to obtain in the survey area.

  3. Study Regarding Goat Milk Composition and the Growth Rate in Kids of Carpatina Goat Breed

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sorin Voia

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study was to determine the fat and protein content from goat colostrum and milk at weaning the kids. Also, the growth rate of kids was determined during the 50 days of milk feeding period. The experiment was carried out on 8 Carpatina breed goats with their twin male/female couple kids (n=16. Fat and protein content is significant higher (p<0,001 by 8.12 and 13.2 percentage points, respectively compared to normal goat milk. Body weight at birth was on average 2.72 kg for females and 2.89 kg for males. At the end of experimental period, body weight of males was 2.15 kg higher compared to females. Average daily gain during the milk feeding period was 41.97 g/day significantly higher (p<0.001 in males (168.85 g/day than in females (126.88 g/day.

  4. Fetal microchimeric cells in autoimmune thyroid diseases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lepez, Trees; Vandewoestyne, Mado; Deforce, Dieter

    2013-01-01

    Autoimmune thyroid diseases (AITD) show a female predominance, with an increased incidence in the years following parturition. Fetal microchimerism has been suggested to play a role in the pathogenesis of AITD. However, only the presence of fetal microchimeric cells in blood and in the thyroid gland of these patients has been proven, but not an actual active role in AITD. Is fetal microchimerism harmful for the thyroid gland by initiating a Graft versus Host reaction (GvHR) or being the target of a Host versus Graft reaction (HvGR)? Is fetal microchimerism beneficial for the thyroid gland by being a part of tissue repair or are fetal cells just innocent bystanders in the process of autoimmunity? This review explores every hypothesis concerning the role of fetal microchimerism in AITD. PMID:23723083

  5. Ethical analysis of non-medical fetal ultrasound.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leung, John Lai Yin; Pang, Samantha Mei Che

    2009-09-01

    Obstetric ultrasound is the well-recognized prenatal test used to visualize and determine the condition of a pregnant woman and her fetus. Apart from the clinical application, some businesses have started promoting the use of fetal ultrasound machines for nonmedical reasons. Non-medical fetal ultrasound (also known as 'keepsake' ultrasound) is defined as using ultrasound to view, take a picture, or determine the sex of a fetus without a medical indication. Notwithstanding the guidelines and warnings regarding ultrasound safety issued by governments and professional bodies, the absence of scientifically proven physical harm to fetuses from this procedure seems to provide these businesses with grounds for rapid expansion. However, this argument is too simplistic because current epidemiological evidence is not synchronous with advancing ultrasound technology. As non-medical fetal ultrasound has aroused very significant public attention, a thorough ethical analysis of this topic is essential. Using a multifaceted approach, we analyse the ethical perspective of non-medical fetal ultrasound in terms of the expectant mother, the fetus and health professionals. After applying four major theories of ethics and principles (the precautionary principle; theories of consequentialism and impartiality; duty-based theory; and rights-based theories), we conclude that obstetric ultrasound practice is ethically justifiable only if the indication for its use is based on medical evidence. Non-medical fetal ultrasound can be considered ethically unjustifiable. Nevertheless, the ethical analysis of this issue is time dependent owing to rapid advancements in ultrasound technology and the safety issue. The role of health professionals in ensuring that obstetric ultrasound is an ethically justifiable practice is also discussed.

  6. Integrated crop and goat breeding in Tanzania | IDRC - International ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    English · Français ... Researchers will test improved cassava and sweet potato varieties to ... Integrating improved goat breeds with new varieties of sweetpotatoes and cassava in the agro-pastoral systems of Tanzania : a gendered analysis.

  7. Prion protein gene polymorphisms in Turkish native goat breeds

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    HASAN MEYDAN

    3The Roslin Institute and Royal (Dick) School of Veterinary Studies, University of ... Eighteen single-nucleotide polymorphisms were detected in the caprine PRNP .... Sampling localities, sample size (n) and sex of Turkish native goat breeds.

  8. Dietary overlap between Boer goats and indigenous browsers in a ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Highly preferred species were Capparis sepiaria, Phyllanthus verrucosus and Scolopia zeyheri, while Rhoicissus tridentata, Calpurnia aurea, Acacia ataxacantha, Euclea natalensis, Clerodendrum glabrum, Zanthoxylum capense and Hippobromus paucifolia were strongly avoided. Goats fed between ground level and 1m, ...

  9. (zp) antibodies in west african dwarf (wad) goats

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Dr. Olaleye

    Sera from 967 adult female West African Dwarf (WAD) goats previously screened for Trypanosome ... There is the possibility of damage to the blood-ovary barrier as a result of trypanosome ... eggs using glass pipettes with bores a little.

  10. Radiographic evaluation of experimentally induced nephrosis in goats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kumar, R.; Pandey, N. N.; Singh, G. R.; Setia, H. C. [Indian Veterinary Research Institute, Izatnagar (India)

    1995-06-15

    Intravenous pyelography (IVP) with pneumoperitoneum (PP) was undertaken in normal and induced nephrotic goats. In normal goats, the technique provided visualization of both the kidneys, renal pelvis, ureter and urinary bladder at 10 min post-administration of sodium iothalamate (70%). In mercuric chloride- and oxytetracycline-induced nephrosis in goats, the urinary tract could not be visualized even 60 min post-administration of dye indicating sever failure of renal excretory function. However, in gentamicin-abused goats, renal excretory function was not significantly altered owing to a very mild renal damage. It was concluded that IVP with PP could be a dependable diagnostic test for varied degree of renal insufficiency in ruminants.

  11. Radiographic evaluation of experimentally induced nephrosis in goats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kumar, R.; Pandey, N.N.; Singh, G.R.; Setia, H.C.

    1995-01-01

    Intravenous pyelography (IVP) with pneumoperitoneum (PP) was undertaken in normal and induced nephrotic goats. In normal goats, the technique provided visualization of both the kidneys, renal pelvis, ureter and urinary bladder at 10 min post-administration of sodium iothalamate (70%). In mercuric chloride- and oxytetracycline-induced nephrosis in goats, the urinary tract could not be visualized even 60 min post-administration of dye indicating sever failure of renal excretory function. However, in gentamicin-abused goats, renal excretory function was not significantly altered owing to a very mild renal damage. It was concluded that IVP with PP could be a dependable diagnostic test for varied degree of renal insufficiency in ruminants

  12. Oxidative stress biomarkers in West African Dwarf goats reared ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    DAMLOLA

    2017-03-30

    Mar 30, 2017 ... 2Department of Animal Science, School of Agricultural Sciences, Faculty of Agriculture, Science and Technology, North ... West African dwarf (WAD) goats are an extremely important livestock species in developing countries.

  13. Predicting live weight using body measurements in Afar goats in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Bheema

    Predicting live weight using body measurements in Afar goats in north eastern. Ethiopia ... farmers get value for their stock rather than the middlemen. However ..... of West African long-legged and West African dwarf sheep in Northern Ghana.

  14. Genetic diversity in Egyptian and Saudi goat breeds using ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    SARAH

    2013-12-30

    Dec 30, 2013 ... rational breeding strategy for genetic improvement of goats in Egypt and Saudi Arabia. The studied. Mediterranean breeds sampled from African and Asian populations seem to have ..... West Asia and North Africa, Vol. 2.

  15. Growth performance of crossbred kids (Boer x Indigenous Goat Breeds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tsegay Teklebrhan

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available The study was conducted to evaluate growth performance of crossbred (Boer x Hararaghe Highland and Boer x Short Eared Somali kids at Haramaya University Goat Farm in Eastern Ethiopia. Breed (p

  16. Use of computed tomography to diagnose sinusitis in a goat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barrington, G.M.; Tucker, R.L.

    1996-01-01

    Radiographic examination proved incapable of determining the extent and severity of chronic sinusitis in a goat. Computed tomography was subsequently used to clearly define the nature and extent of the lesion

  17. Genetic characterization of two Sudanese goat breeds (Capra hircus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2009-05-18

    May 18, 2009 ... study offer useful information about some Sudanese goat breeds. Key words: Capra hircus ... the College of Agricultural Studies, Sudan University, while those for the Nilotic ..... hircus) in Schuan P R China, Zool. Sci. 23: 29-234.

  18. Financial analysis of brucellosis control for small-scale goat farming in the Bajío region, Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oseguera Montiel, David; Bruce, Mieghan; Frankena, Klaas; Udo, Henk; van der Zijpp, Akke; Rushton, Jonathan

    2015-03-01

    Brucellosis is an endemic disease in small-scale goat husbandry systems in Mexico. It is a zoonosis and the economic consequences can be large, although estimates are not available for the Mexican goat sector. Our objective was to conduct a financial analysis of brucellosis control in a prominent dairy goat production area of the Bajío region, Mexico. We used three models: (1) a brucellosis transmission model at village flock level (n=1000 head), (2) a flock growth model at smallholder flock level (n=23 head) using output of model 1 and (3) cost-benefit analysis of several brucellosis control scenarios based on output of model 2. Scenarios consisted of test-and-slaughter or vaccination or a combination of both compared to the base situation (no control). The average net present values (NPV) of using vaccination over a 5-year period was 3.8 US$ (90% CI: 1.3-6.6) and 20 US$ (90% CI: 11.3-28.6) over a 10-year period per goat. The average benefit-cost ratios over a 5-year period and 10-year period were 4.3 US$ (90% CI: 2.2-6.9) and 12.3 US$ (90% CI: 7.5-17.3) per goat, respectively. For the total dairy goat population (38,462 head) of the study area (the Bajío of Jalisco and Michoacán) the NPV's over a 5-year and 10-year period were 0.15 million US$ and 0.8 million US$. However, brucellosis prevalence was predicted to remain relatively high at about 12%. Control scenarios with test-and-slaughter predicted to reduce brucellosis prevalence to less than 3%, but this produced a negative NPV over a 5-year period ranging from -31.6 to -11.1 US$ and from -31.1 to 7.5 US$ over a 10-year period. A brucellosis control campaign based on vaccination with full coverage is economically profitable for the goat dairy sector of the region although smallholders would need financial support in case test-and-slaughter is applied to reduce the prevalence more quickly. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Increasing fetal ovine number per gestation alters fetal plasma clinical chemistry values.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zywicki, Micaela; Blohowiak, Sharon E; Magness, Ronald R; Segar, Jeffrey L; Kling, Pamela J

    2016-08-01

    Intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR) is interconnected with developmental programming of lifelong pathophysiology. IUGR is seen in human multifetal pregnancies, with stepwise rises in fetal numbers interfering with placental nutrient delivery. It remains unknown whether fetal blood analyses would reflect fetal nutrition, liver, and excretory function in the last trimester of human or ovine IUGR In an ovine model, we hypothesized that fetal plasma biochemical values would reflect progressive placental, fetal liver, and fetal kidney dysfunction as the number of fetuses per gestation rose. To determine fetal plasma biochemical values in singleton, twin, triplet, and quadruplet/quintuplet ovine gestation, we investigated morphometric measures and comprehensive metabolic panels with nutritional measures, liver enzymes, and placental and fetal kidney excretory measures at gestational day (GD) 130 (90% gestation). As anticipated, placental dysfunction was supported by a stepwise fall in fetal weight, fetal plasma glucose, and triglyceride levels as fetal number per ewe rose. Fetal glucose and triglycerides were directly related to fetal weight. Plasma creatinine, reflecting fetal renal excretory function, and plasma cholesterol, reflecting placental excretory function, were inversely correlated with fetal weight. Progressive biochemical disturbances and growth restriction accompanied the rise in fetal number. Understanding the compensatory and adaptive responses of growth-restricted fetuses at the biochemical level may help explain how metabolic pathways in growth restriction can be predetermined at birth. This physiological understanding is important for clinical care and generating interventional strategies to prevent altered developmental programming in multifetal gestation. © 2016 The Authors. Physiological Reports published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of the American Physiological Society and The Physiological Society.

  20. Coexistence of tuberculosis and mammary carcinoma in a goat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quintas, H; Alegria, N; Mendonça, A; Botelho, A; Alves, A; Pires, I

    2014-08-01

    Synchronic occurrence of tuberculosis mastitis and mammary cancer is rare in humans and, to the best of our knowledge, not reported in domestic animals. Here, we present a case of a female adult goat of Serrana breed with simultaneous occurrence of a granulomatous mastitis, due to Mycobacterium caprae, and a mammary carcinoma. Both pathological conditions are rare in goats and should be included in differential diagnosis of mammary lesions. © 2014 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  1. Coexistence of tuberculosis and mammary carcinoma in a goat

    OpenAIRE

    Quintas, Hélder; Alegria, Nuno; Mendonça, Álvaro; Botelho, A.; Alves, A.; Pires, Isabel

    2014-01-01

    Synchronic occurrence of tuberculosis mastitis and mammary cancer is rare in humans and, to the best of our knowledge, not reported in domestic animals. Here, we present a case of a female adult goat of Serrana breed with simultaneous occurrence of a granulomatous mastitis, due to Mycobacterium caprae, and a mammary carcinoma. Both pathological conditions are rare in goats and should be included in differential diagnosis of mammary lesions. info:eu-repo/semantics/publishedVersion

  2. Effect of goat breed on the meat quality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivanović Snežana D.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The quality of goat meat has recently become an important aspect in the marketing of goats in Serbia. The aim of this study was to compare some goat meat quality parameters of various races and to determine the differences between them. Goat breeds were Balkan goat and Serbian White goat, both female in the age of four years. Analysis of quality parameters: chemical composition (moisture, protein, total fat, ash,, pH value, fatty acids, amino acids, microelements content, tenderness, cooking loss and colour measurements were done. Statistically significant difference was found between the samples of two groups of goat meat (P <0.05 in relation to: live weight (kg, water (%, fat (%, protein (%, ash (%, among 11 of 15 tested fatty acids, amino acid leucin, sensory examination of fresh meat for the palpatory evaluated firmness and in the content of copper and zinc. Statistically significant differences between the groups did not existed regarding the pH value, fatty acids eicosenoic, cis-heptadecenoic, t-elaidic, t-linolelaidic and amino acids alanine, arginine, aspartic acid, cysteine, glutamic acid, glycine, histidine, isoleucine, lysine, methionine, phenylalanine, proline, serine, threonine, tryptophan, tyrosine, valine. Also there was no statistically significant difference in instrumental testing of the meat color, sensory evaluation of surface color, visual evaluated structure, olfactory evaluated odor and iron and manganese. These results suggest that the race of animal has an impact on meat quality. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. TR 31053: Implementation of new biotechnological solutions in breeding of cattle, sheep and goats for the purpose of obtaining biologically valuable and safe food

  3. Spatial epidemiology of Toxoplasma gondii infection in goats in Serbia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vitomir Djokić

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available A major risk factor for Toxoplasma gondii infection is consumption of undercooked meat. Increasing demand for goat meat is likely to promote the role of this animal for human toxoplasmosis. As there are virtually no data on toxoplasmosis in goats in Serbia, we undertook a cross-sectional serological study, including prediction modelling using geographical information systems (GIS. Sera from 431 goats reared in 143 households/farms throughout Serbia, sampled between January 2010 and September 2011, were examined for T. gondii antibodies by a modified agglutination test. Seroprevalence was 73.3% at the individual level and 84.6% at the farm level. Risk factor analysis showed above two-fold higher risk of infection for goats used for all purposes compared to dairy goats (P = 0.012, almost seven-fold higher risk for goats kept as sole species versus those kept with other animals (P = 0.001 and a two-fold lower risk for goats introduced from outside the farm compared to those raised on the farm (P = 0.027. Moreover, households/farms located in centre-eastern Serbia were found to be less often infected than those in northern Serbia (P = 0.004. The risk factor analysis was fully supported by spatial analysis based on a GIS database containing data on origin, serology, land cover, elevation, meteorology and a spatial prediction map based on kriging analysis, which showed western Serbia as the area most likely for finding goats positive for T. gondii and centre-eastern Serbia as the least likely. In addition, rainfall favoured seropositivity, whereas temperature, humidity and elevation did not.

  4. Metabolism of 181W - labeled sodium tungstate in goats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ekman, L.; Figueiras, H.D.; Jones, B.E.V.; Myamoto, S.

    1977-11-01

    Radiotungsten was given as Na 2 181 WO 4 orally to 4 goats and intravenously to 3 goats. Blood, milk, urine and faeces were collected regularly during an 8-day period. Thereafter the animals were slaughtered and different tissues were taken for analyses of 181 W. The data obtained suggest that radiotungsten is unlikely to be a significant environmental pollutant source for man, as far as its concentration in milk and meat are concerned

  5. Morphometric and Phylogenic Analysis of Six Population Indonesian Local Goats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Batubara

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The research objectives were to characterize morphometric and genetic distance between populations of Indonesian local goats. The morphological discriminant and canonical analysis were carried out to estimate the phylogenic relationship and determine the discriminant variable between Benggala goats (n= 96, Marica (n= 60, Jawarandu (n= 94, (Kacang (n= 217, Muara (n= 30 and Samosir (n= 42. Discriminant analysis used to clasify body weight and body measurements. In the analysis of variance showed that body weight and body measurement (body length, height at withers, thorax width, thorax height, hert girth, skull width and height, tail length and width, ear length and width of Muara goats was higher (P<0.05 compared to the other groups, and the lowest was in Marica goats. The smallest genetic distance was between Marica and Samosir (11.207 and the highest were between Muara and Benggala (255.110. The highest similarity between individual within population was found in Kacang (99.28% and the lowest in Samosir (82.50%. The canonical analysis showed high correlation on canon circumference, body weight, skull width, skull height, and tail width variables so these six variables can be used as distinguishing variables among population. The result from Mahalonobis distance for phenogram tree and canonical analysis showed that six populations of Indonesian local goats were divided into six breed of goats: the first was Muara, the second was Jawarandu, the third was Kacang, the fourth was Benggala, the fifth was Samosir and the sixth was Marica goats. The diversity of body size and body weight of goats was observed quite large, so the chances of increasing productivity could be made through selection and mating programs.

  6. Cell kinetic and radiosensitivity of PHA stimulated goat lymphocytes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Debuyst, B.; Rosenthal, M.; Leonard, A.

    1982-01-01

    The harlequin-staining method has been used to study the cell kinetic of goat peripheral blood lymphocytes stimulated by phytohemagglutinin and to assess their radiosensitivity. At 48 h, the standardized culture time employed for human lymphocytes, 71% of the goat lymphocytes are in first mitosis, 23% are in second mitosis and 5% in third. Irradiation with 200 rads X-rays induces an average of 24,5 dicentric chromosomes per hundred cells in first mitosis [fr

  7. Milk production of Tswana goats fed diets containing different levels ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The aim of this experiment was to characterize the milk yield of the Tswana goat of Botswana. Twenty-one Tswana goat does were allocated to one of three diets formulated to provide energy for maintenance and a milk yield of either 1.5 kg/d, 1.0 kg/d or 0.5 kg/d. Intake, milk yield and kid growth rate was monitored for 14 ...

  8. Analysis of Goat Farming on Integrated Farming System in Banyumas

    OpenAIRE

    Hidayat, NN

    2007-01-01

    The objective of this research were : 1) to find out the income generated from goat farming and its contribution to farmer income in several farming combination, 2) to find out the economic efficiency in goat farming with paddy and fish production, 3) to determine factors affecting level of production and income in different farming system, partially and aggregately, and 4) to determine the best combination of farming which generated maximum income. Household farmer survey method was performe...

  9. Ultrasonography of the omasum in 30 Saanen goats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacquat Désirée

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Primary diseases of the omasum are uncommon in goats, although the omasum may be involved in various gastrointestinal disorders. Examination of the caprine omasum via ultrasonography requires a good understanding of the normal appearance of the organ. However, in contrast to cattle, there is a lack of reference information on this topic in goats. Thus, the goal of the present study was to describe the results of ultrasonography of the omasum in 30 healthy Saanen goats. Results Ultrasonography was carried out in standing, non-sedated goats using a 5.0 MHz linear transducer. The location and size of the omasum, thickness of the omasal wall and visualisation of the abomasal laminae, contents and contractions were assessed. The omasum was visible from the 9th intercostal space (ICS in all the goats, and from the 8th and 10th ICSs in 29 and 24 goats, respectively. The omasum was seen medial to the liver, but only the omasal wall closest to the transducer was visible. The dorsal omasal limit formed a dorsally convex curve running from cranioventral to caudodorsal and was furthest from the dorsal midline in the 6th ICS. The ventral omasal limit formed a ventrally convex curve. The size of the omasum was largest (10.2 ± 3.1 cm in the 9th ICS and decreased cranially and caudally from this position. Active omasal motility was recorded in 20 goats with 0.3 to 2.0 contractions per minute. Conclusions The findings of this study provide reference ranges for the interpretation of the location and size of the omasum in goats with suspected omasal abnormalities. Ultrasonography is an ideal diagnostic tool for evaluation of the omasum, which is not accessible to conventional examination techniques, such as inspection, palpation, percussion and auscultation.

  10. Net mineral requirements of dairy goats during pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Härter, C J; Lima, L D; Castagnino, D S; Silva, H O; Figueiredo, F O M; St-Pierre, N R; Resende, K T; Teixeira, I A M A

    2017-09-01

    Mineral requirements of pregnant dairy goats are still not well defined; therefore, we investigated the net Ca, P, Mg, Na and K requirements for pregnancy and for maintenance during pregnancy in two separate experiments. Experiment 1 was performed to estimate the net Ca, P, Mg, Na and K requirements in goats carrying single or twin fetuses from 50 to 140 days of pregnancy (DOP). The net mineral requirements for pregnancy were determined by measuring mineral deposition in gravid uterus and mammary gland after comparative slaughter. In total, 57 dairy goats of two breeds (Oberhasli or Saanen), in their third or fourth parturition, were randomly assigned to groups based on litter size (single or twin) and day of slaughter (50, 80, 110 and 140 DOP) in a fully factorial design. Net mineral accretion for pregnancy did not differ by goat breed. The total daily Ca, P, Mg, Na and K requirements for pregnancy were greatest in goats carrying twins (Pgoat maintenance during pregnancy. In total, 58 dairy goats (Oberhasli and Saanen) carrying twin fetuses were assigned to groups based on slaughter day (80, 110 and 140 DOP) and feed restriction (ad libitum, 20% and 40% feed restriction) in a randomized block design. The net Ca, P and Mg requirements for maintenance did not vary by breed or over the course of pregnancy. The daily net requirements of Ca, P and Mg for maintenance were 60.4, 31.1 and 2.42 mg/kg live BW (LBW), respectively. The daily net Na requirement for maintenance was greater in Saanen goats (11.8 mg/kg LBW) than in Oberhasli goats (8.96 mg/kg LBW; Pgoats throughout their pregnancy.

  11. The World Health Organization Fetal Growth Charts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kiserud, Torvid; Piaggio, Gilda; Carroli, Guillermo

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Perinatal mortality and morbidity continue to be major global health challenges strongly associated with prematurity and reduced fetal growth, an issue of further interest given the mounting evidence that fetal growth in general is linked to degrees of risk of common noncommunicable...... longitudinal study of fetal growth in low-risk singleton pregnancies of women of high or middle socioeconomic status and without known environmental constraints on fetal growth. Centers in ten countries (Argentina, Brazil, Democratic Republic of the Congo, Denmark, Egypt, France, Germany, India, Norway...

  12. Digital atlas of fetal brain MRI.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chapman, Teresa; Matesan, Manuela; Weinberger, Ed; Bulas, Dorothy I

    2010-02-01

    Fetal MRI can be performed in the second and third trimesters. During this time, the fetal brain undergoes profound structural changes. Interpretation of appropriate development might require comparison with normal age-based models. Consultation of a hard-copy atlas is limited by the inability to compare multiple ages simultaneously. To provide images of normal fetal brains from weeks 18 through 37 in a digital format that can be reviewed interactively. This will facilitate recognition of abnormal brain development. T2-W images for the atlas were obtained from fetal MR studies of normal brains scanned for other indications from 2005 to 2007. Images were oriented in standard axial, coronal and sagittal projections, with laterality established by situs. Gestational age was determined by last menstrual period, earliest US measurements and sonogram performed on the same day as the MR. The software program used for viewing the atlas, written in C#, permits linked scrolling and resizing the images. Simultaneous comparison of varying gestational ages is permissible. Fetal brain images across gestational ages 18 to 37 weeks are provided as an interactive digital atlas and are available for free download from http://radiology.seattlechildrens.org/teaching/fetal_brain . Improved interpretation of fetal brain abnormalities can be facilitated by the use of digital atlas cataloging of the normal changes throughout fetal development. Here we provide a description of the atlas and a discussion of normal fetal brain development.

  13. MR imaging of the fetal brain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Glenn, Orit A.

    2010-01-01

    Fetal MRI is clinically performed to evaluate the brain in cases where an abnormality is detected by prenatal sonography. These most commonly include ventriculomegaly, abnormalities of the corpus callosum, and abnormalities of the posterior fossa. Fetal MRI is also increasingly performed to evaluate fetuses who have normal brain findings on prenatal sonogram but who are at increased risk for neurodevelopmental abnormalities, such as complicated monochorionic twin pregnancies. This paper will briefly discuss the common clinical conditions imaged by fetal MRI as well as recent advances in fetal MRI research. (orig.)

  14. MR imaging of the fetal brain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Glenn, Orit A. [University of California, San Francisco, Department of Radiology, Neuroradiology Section, San Francisco, CA (United States)

    2010-01-15

    Fetal MRI is clinically performed to evaluate the brain in cases where an abnormality is detected by prenatal sonography. These most commonly include ventriculomegaly, abnormalities of the corpus callosum, and abnormalities of the posterior fossa. Fetal MRI is also increasingly performed to evaluate fetuses who have normal brain findings on prenatal sonogram but who are at increased risk for neurodevelopmental abnormalities, such as complicated monochorionic twin pregnancies. This paper will briefly discuss the common clinical conditions imaged by fetal MRI as well as recent advances in fetal MRI research. (orig.)

  15. Cyolane residues in milk of lactating goats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zayed, S.M.A.D.; Osman, A.; Fakhr, I.M.I.

    1981-01-01

    Consecutive feeding of lactating goats with 14 C-alkyl labelled cyolane for 5 days at dietary levels 8 and 16 ppm resulted in the appearance of measurable insecticide residues in milk (0.02-0.04 mg/kg). The residue levels were markedly reduced after a withdrawal period of 7 days. Analysis of urine and milk residues showed the presence of similar metabolites in addition to the parent compound. The major part of the residue consisted of mono-, diethyl phosphate and 2 hydrophilic unknown metabolites. The erythrocyte cholinesterase activity was reduced to about 50% after 24 hours whereas the plasma enzyme was only slightly affected. The animals remained symptom-free during the experimental period. (author)

  16. [The seaweed Sargassum (Sargassaceae) as tropical alternative for goats' feeding].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casas-Valdez, M; Hernández-Contreras, H; Marín-Alvarez, A; Aguila-Ramírez, R N; Hernández-Guerrero, C J; Sánchez-Rodríguez, I; Carrillo-Domínguez, S

    2006-03-01

    The seaweed Sargassum (Sargassaceae) as tropical alternative for goats' feeding. The nutritive value of seaweed (Sargassum spp.) was studied in Baja California Sur, Mexico. Twenty female Nubian goats (43-weeks old) were randomly distributed into two groups of 10 goats each and were housed in individual pens. One group was fed with a control diet and the other with a diet supplemented with 25% of Sargassum spp. Feed and water intake were recorded daily and individually for 60 days. The weight of each goat was recorded every 15 days. The nutritional content of Sargassum spp. was 89% dry mater, 8% crude protein, 31% ash, 2% ether extract, and 39% carbohydrates. Fiber fractions, minerals, vitamins, fatty acids, and antinutritional factors were also determined. There were no significant differences in body weight (8.6 kg control and 9 kg experimental), feed intake (1.3 kg control and 1.6 kg experimental), and feed conversion rate (11.1 control and 12.6 experimental). Water consumption was greater in the goats that ate the Sargassum diet (5.3 1). From these results, Sargassum spp. can be considered as an alternative feedstuff for goats.

  17. Comparison of the Fecal Microbiota in Feral and Domestic Goats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María G. Domínguez-Bello

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Animals have co-evolved with mutualistic microbial communities, known as the microbiota, which are essential for organ development and function. We hypothesize that modern animal husbandry practices exert an impact on the intestinal microbiota. In this study, we compared the structure of the fecal microbiota between feral and domestic goats using the G2 PhyloChip and assessed the presence of five tetracycline resistance genes [tet(M, tet(S, tet(O, tet(Q and tet(W] by PCR. Feces were collected from 10 goats: 5 domestic from a farm in the main island of Puerto Rico and 5 feral from the remote dry island of Mona. There were 42 bacterial phyla from 153 families detected in the goats’ feces. A total of 84 PhyloChip-OTUs were different in the fecal microbiota of feral and domestic goat. Both feral and domestic goats carried antibiotic resistance genes tet(O and tet(W, but domestic goats additionally carried tet(Q. Diet, host genetics and antibiotic exposure are likely determinant factors in shaping the intestinal microbiota and may explain the differences observed between feral and domestic goats fecal microbiota.

  18. Carnivore fecal chemicals suppress feeding by Alpine goats (Capra hircus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weldon, P J; Graham, D P; Mears, L P

    1993-12-01

    The efficacy of carnivore and ungulate fecal chemicals in suppressing the feeding behavior of Alpine goats (Capra hircus) was examined. In the first four experiments, goats were offered food covered with paper strips treated with fecal extracts of the Bengal tiger, Siberian tiger, African lion, and brown bear, respectively; food covered with solvent-treated and untreated (plain) papers served as controls in each experiment. Goats made fewer head entries into, and ate less food from, buckets containing fecal extracts. In the fifth experiment, goats were offered food covered with paper strips treated with fecal extracts of the puma, Dorcas gazelle, white-bearded gnu, and conspecifics; food covered with solvent-treated and plain papers again served as controls. The amounts of food consumed from buckets containing puma, gazelle, gnu, and solvent treatments were statistically indistinguishable, but less food was consumed from them than from buckets containing the goat-scented or plain papers. No significant differences among treatments were detected with respect to head entries. Field experiments are needed on the use of predator-derived chemicals to reduce damage by goats to vegetation.

  19. Survey on coenurosis in sheep and goats in Egypt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Enas A. Desouky

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available A total of 75 sheep and goats from apparently healthy and from clinically affected flocks were examined for Coenurus cerebralis cysts from different localities in Egypt. Of 25 animals examined from clinically diseased sheep and goats, 25 (100% revealed the presence of infestation with one to four coenuri in the brain. The sites of predilection were the left hemisphere (48%, followed by the right hemisphere (40% and the cerebellum (12%. There was no apparent effect of the age of sheep and goats on susceptibility to infestation with C. cerebralis. Another 50 animals from apparently healthy sheep and goat herds presented no C. cerebralis cysts. The cysts from infested sheep could infest newborn puppies experimentally, with a prepatent period of 60 days post infestation. A total of 15 immature worms that were recovered from one puppy did not reach patency until 105 days post infestation with C. cerebralis cyst scolices. Pathological changes in C. cerebralis-infested sheep brain revealed parasitic elements, demyelinated nerve tracts, hyperaemic blood vessels with round cell infiltration, encephalomalacia with round cell infiltration and palisading macrophages and giant cells, as well as focal replacement of the brain parenchyma with caseated and calcified materials. The morphological characteristics of both the larval stage from sheep and goats and adult worms of Taenia multiceps from experimentally infested dogs are described. The results conclude that C. cerebralis is one of the principal causes of nervous manifestations of coenurosis in clinically diseased sheep and goats in Egypt.

  20. Total intravenous anaesthesia in a goat undergoing craniectomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vieitez, Verónica; Álvarez Gómez de Segura, Ignacio; López Rámis, Víctor; Santella, Massimo; Ezquerra, Luis Javier

    2017-09-15

    Cerebral coenurosis is a disease of the central nervous system in sheep and goats, and is usually fatal unless surgical relief is provided. Information regarding neuroanaesthesia in veterinary medicine in goats is scant. We describe anaesthetic management of an intact female goat (2 years; 16 kg) presented for craniectomy. The goat was sedated with xylazine (0.05 mg kg -1 , i.m.) and morphine (0.05 mg kg -1 , i.m.). General anaesthesia was induced 20 min later with propofol and maintained with a constant rate infusion of propofol (0.2 mg kg -1  min -1 ). A cuffed endotracheal tube was placed and connected to a rebreathing (circle) system and mechanical ventilation with 100% oxygen was initiated. A bolus of lidocaine (1 mg kg -1 ), midazolam (0.25 mg kg -1 ) and fentanyl 2.5 μg kg -1 was delivered via the intravenous route followed immediately by a constant rate infusion of lidocaine (50 μg kg -1  min -1 ), midazolam (0.15 mg kg -1  h -1 ) and fentanyl (6 μg kg -1  h -1 ) administered via the intravenous route throughout surgery. Craniectomy was undertaken and the goat recovered uneventfully. Total intravenous anaesthesia with propofol, lidocaine, fentanyl and midazolam could be an acceptable option for anaesthesia during intracranial surgery in goats.

  1. Effect of cortisol on gluconeogenesis in goats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sastradipradja, D.

    1976-01-01

    Three non-pregnant goats of local Malaysian breed with body weights between 15.9 and 22.6 kg were arranged in a 3 x 3 Latin square design to study the effect of daily cortisol injections for 5-6 days on gluconeogenesis. The treatments consisted of cortisol injection at a daily level of 1 mg/kg BW (body weight), 2.5 mg/kg BW, and a control. An extra goat (14.0 kg) received the same treatments for comparison and to check the accuracy of the methods employed. NaH 14 CO 3 , preceded by a primer dose, was infused continuously for 4-5 h to estimate quantitatively the extent to which gluconeogenesis may be affected by cortisol administration. Glucose-2- 3 H was also injected as a single pulse to assess kinetic parameters of the glucose pool. There was strong tendency (P=0.08) indicating that cortisol administration increased plasma glucose concentration. The mean increases above pre-treatment levels were 6.6, 21.3 and 53.5 mg/100 ml plasma for control, low and high cortisol treatment respectively. The transfer quotient from CO 2 to glucose for the treatments was significantly different (P 2 fixation expressed in absolute amounts was not significantly different among treatments (0.24, 0.33 and 0.36 mg/min per kg BW for control, low and high cortisol doses respectively). The insignificant result of the statistical test seemed to be caused by the low precision inherent in the experimental design. The data also show that glucose utilization was not impaired following cortisol treatment, and rather suggest normal glucose utilization at a higher level of plasma glucose concentration. (author)

  2. Glucose metabolism of fetal rat brain in utero, measured with labeled deoxyglucose

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dyve, S [Department of General Physiology and Biophysics, Panum Institute, Copenhagen (Denmark); Gjedde, A [Positron Imaging Laboratories, McConnell Brain Imaging Center, Montreal, Quebec (Canada)

    1991-01-01

    Mammals have low cerebral metabolic rates immediately after birth and, by inference, also before birth. In this study, we extended the deoxyglucose method to the fetal rat brain in utero. Rate constants for deoxyglucose transfer across the maternal placental and fetal blood-brain barriers, and lumped constant, have not been reported. Therefore, we applied a new method of determining the lumped constant regionally to the fetal rat brain in utero. The lumped constant averaged 0.55 +- 0.15 relative to the maternal circulation. On this basis, we determined the glucose metabolic rate of the fetal rat brain to be one third of the corresponding maternal value, or 19 +- 2 {mu}mol hg{sup -1} min{sup -1}. (author).

  3. Seroprevalence and risk factors of Q fever in goats on commercial dairy goat farms in the Netherlands, 2009-2010

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schimmer Barbara

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The aim of this study was to estimate the seroprevalence of Coxiella burnetii in dairy goat farms in the Netherlands and to identify risk factors for farm and goat seropositivity before mandatory vaccination started. We approached 334 eligible farms with more than 100 goats for serum sampling and a farm questionnaire. Per farm, median 21 goats were sampled. A farm was considered positive when at least one goat tested ELISA positive. Results In total, 2,828 goat serum samples from 123 farms were available. Farm prevalence was 43.1% (95%CI: 34.3%-51.8%. Overall goat seroprevalence was 21.4% (95%CI: 19.9%-22.9% and among the 53 positive farms 46.6% (95%CI: 43.8%-49.3%. Multivariable logistic regression analysis included 96 farms and showed that farm location within 8 kilometres proximity from a bulk milk PCR positive farm, location in a municipality with high cattle density (≥ 100 cattle per square kilometre, controlling nuisance animals through covering airspaces, presence of cats or dogs in the goat stable, straw imported from abroad or unknown origin and a herd size above 800 goats were independent risk factors associated with Q fever on farm level. At animal level almost identical risk factors were found, with use of windbreak curtain and artificial insemination as additional risk factors. Conclusion In 2009-2010, the seroprevalence in dairy goats in the Netherlands increased on animal and farm level compared to a previous study in 2008. Risk factors suggest spread from relatively closely located bulk milk-infected small ruminant farms, next to introduction and spread from companion animals, imported straw and use of artificial insemination. In-depth studies investigating the role of artificial insemination and bedding material are needed, while simultaneously general biosecurity measures should be updated, such as avoiding companion animals and vermin entering the stables, next to advice on farm stable constructions on

  4. Seroprevalence and risk factors of Q fever in goats on commercial dairy goat farms in the Netherlands, 2009-2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schimmer, Barbara; Luttikholt, Saskia; Hautvast, Jeannine L A; Graat, Elisabeth A M; Vellema, Piet; Duynhoven, Yvonne T H P van

    2011-12-30

    The aim of this study was to estimate the seroprevalence of Coxiella burnetii in dairy goat farms in the Netherlands and to identify risk factors for farm and goat seropositivity before mandatory vaccination started. We approached 334 eligible farms with more than 100 goats for serum sampling and a farm questionnaire. Per farm, median 21 goats were sampled. A farm was considered positive when at least one goat tested ELISA positive. In total, 2,828 goat serum samples from 123 farms were available. Farm prevalence was 43.1% (95%CI: 34.3%-51.8%). Overall goat seroprevalence was 21.4% (95%CI: 19.9%-22.9%) and among the 53 positive farms 46.6% (95%CI: 43.8%-49.3%). Multivariable logistic regression analysis included 96 farms and showed that farm location within 8 kilometres proximity from a bulk milk PCR positive farm, location in a municipality with high cattle density (≥ 100 cattle per square kilometre), controlling nuisance animals through covering airspaces, presence of cats or dogs in the goat stable, straw imported from abroad or unknown origin and a herd size above 800 goats were independent risk factors associated with Q fever on farm level. At animal level almost identical risk factors were found, with use of windbreak curtain and artificial insemination as additional risk factors. In 2009-2010, the seroprevalence in dairy goats in the Netherlands increased on animal and farm level compared to a previous study in 2008. Risk factors suggest spread from relatively closely located bulk milk-infected small ruminant farms, next to introduction and spread from companion animals, imported straw and use of artificial insemination. In-depth studies investigating the role of artificial insemination and bedding material are needed, while simultaneously general biosecurity measures should be updated, such as avoiding companion animals and vermin entering the stables, next to advice on farm stable constructions on how to prevent introduction and minimize airborne

  5. Seroprevalence and risk factors of Q fever in goats on commercial dairy goat farms in the Netherlands, 2009-2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    Background The aim of this study was to estimate the seroprevalence of Coxiella burnetii in dairy goat farms in the Netherlands and to identify risk factors for farm and goat seropositivity before mandatory vaccination started. We approached 334 eligible farms with more than 100 goats for serum sampling and a farm questionnaire. Per farm, median 21 goats were sampled. A farm was considered positive when at least one goat tested ELISA positive. Results In total, 2,828 goat serum samples from 123 farms were available. Farm prevalence was 43.1% (95%CI: 34.3%-51.8%). Overall goat seroprevalence was 21.4% (95%CI: 19.9%-22.9%) and among the 53 positive farms 46.6% (95%CI: 43.8%-49.3%). Multivariable logistic regression analysis included 96 farms and showed that farm location within 8 kilometres proximity from a bulk milk PCR positive farm, location in a municipality with high cattle density (≥ 100 cattle per square kilometre), controlling nuisance animals through covering airspaces, presence of cats or dogs in the goat stable, straw imported from abroad or unknown origin and a herd size above 800 goats were independent risk factors associated with Q fever on farm level. At animal level almost identical risk factors were found, with use of windbreak curtain and artificial insemination as additional risk factors. Conclusion In 2009-2010, the seroprevalence in dairy goats in the Netherlands increased on animal and farm level compared to a previous study in 2008. Risk factors suggest spread from relatively closely located bulk milk-infected small ruminant farms, next to introduction and spread from companion animals, imported straw and use of artificial insemination. In-depth studies investigating the role of artificial insemination and bedding material are needed, while simultaneously general biosecurity measures should be updated, such as avoiding companion animals and vermin entering the stables, next to advice on farm stable constructions on how to prevent introduction

  6. Prenatal smoking exposure and asymmetric fetal growth restriction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Delpisheh, Ali; Brabin, Loretta; Drummond, Sandra; Brabin, Bernard J.

    2008-01-01

    Background: Prenatal smoking exposure causes intrauterine fetal growth restriction ( IUGR), although its effects on fetal proportionality are less clearly defined. Aim: The present study assessed fetal proportionality in babies with IUGR using maternal salivary cotinine to indicate maternal smoking

  7. Efficacy of albendazole against nematode parasites isolated from a goat farm in Ethiopia: relationship between dose and efficacy in goats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eguale, Tadesse; Chaka, Hassen; Gizaw, Daniel

    2009-10-01

    A suspected case of albendazole resistance in a goat farm of Hawassa University was examined using faecal egg count reduction test (FECRT), controlled anthelmintic efficacy test and egg hatch assay (EHA) to verify the development of resistance and/or the need for higher doses of the drug in goats than in sheep. The experiment was conducted in 12 sheep (2 groups: treatment versus control) and 24 goats (4 groups: 3 treatments versus control, n = 6; per group) following artificial infection with infective larvae of Haemonchus contortus and Oesophagostomum columbianum. The first group of sheep and goats were treated orally with albendazole at the dose rate of 3.8 mg/kg body weight (i.e. manufacturer's recommended dose for sheep) while the second group of sheep and the fourth group of goats were left untreated. The second and the third group of goats were treated with albendazole at 5.7 and 7.6 mg/kg respectively. The FECRT showed an efficacy of albendazole in goats to be 65.5, 81.4 and 84.1% at the dose rate of 3.8, 5.7 and 7.6 mg/kg body weight respectively while in sheep it was 62% at the dose rate of 3.8 mg/kg. Increasing the dose to 1.5 the sheep recommended dose induced minor improvement of efficacy in goats; however the efficacy was almost the same at 1.5 and twice the dose recommended for sheep. Worm counts at day 15 post-treatment revealed that H. contortus has developed resistance to albendazole. EHA results also supported these findings. On the other hand, O. columbianum was 100% susceptible at all dose levels tested.

  8. Imaging of fetal chest masses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barth, Richard A. [Lucile Packard Children' s Hospital, Stanford University School of Medicine, Department of Radiology, Stanford, CA (United States)

    2012-01-15

    Prenatal imaging with high-resolution US and rapid acquisition MRI plays a key role in the accurate diagnosis of congenital chest masses. Imaging has enhanced our understanding of the natural history of fetal lung masses, allowing for accurate prediction of outcome, parental counseling, and planning of pregnancy and newborn management. This paper will focus on congenital bronchopulmonary malformations, which account for the vast majority of primary lung masses in the fetus. In addition, anomalies that mimic masses and less common causes of lung masses will be discussed. (orig.)

  9. Analysis of polymorphisms in milk proteins from cloned and sexually reproduced goats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xing, H; Shao, B; Gu, Y Y; Yuan, Y G; Zhang, T; Zang, J; Cheng, Y

    2015-12-08

    This study evaluates the relationship between the genotype and milk protein components in goats. Milk samples were collected from cloned goats and normal white goats during different postpartum (or abortion) phases. Two cloned goats, originated from the same somatic line of goat mammary gland epithelial cells, and three sexually reproduced normal white goats with no genetic relationships were used as the control. The goats were phylogenetically analyzed by polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism. The milk protein components were identified by sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. The results indicated that despite the genetic fingerprints being identical, the milk protein composition differed between the two cloned goats. The casein content of cloned goat C-50 was significantly higher than that of cloned goat C-4. Conversely, although the genetic fingerprints of the normal white goats N-1, N-2, and N-3 were not identical, the milk protein profiles did not differ significantly in their milk samples (obtained on postpartum day 15, 20, 25, 30, and 150). These results indicated an association between milk protein phenotypes and genetic polymorphisms, epigenetic regulation, and/or non-chromosomal factors. This study extends the knowledge of goat milk protein polymorphisms, and provides new strategies for the breeding of high milk-yielding goats.

  10. Capturing goats: documenting two hundred years of mitochondrial DNA diversity among goat populations from Britain and Ireland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cassidy, Lara M; Teasdale, Matthew D; Carolan, Seán; Enright, Ruth; Werner, Raymond; Bradley, Daniel G; Finlay, Emma K; Mattiangeli, Valeria

    2017-03-01

    The domestic goat ( Capra hircus ) plays a key role in global agriculture, being especially prized in regions of marginal pasture. However, the advent of industrialized breeding has seen a dramatic reduction in genetic diversity within commercial populations, while high extinction rates among feral herds have further depleted the reservoir of genetic variation available. Here, we present the first survey of whole mitochondrial genomic variation among the modern and historical goat populations of Britain and Ireland using a combination of mtDNA enrichment and high throughput sequencing. Fifteen historical taxidermy samples, representing the indigenous 'Old Goat' populations of the islands, were sequenced alongside five modern Irish dairy goats and four feral samples from endangered populations in western Ireland. Phylogenetic and network analyses of European mitochondrial variation revealed distinct groupings dominated by historical British and Irish samples, which demonstrate a degree of maternal genetic structure between the goats of insular and continental Europe. Several Irish modern feral samples also fall within these clusters, suggesting continuity between these dwindling populations and the ancestral 'Old Goats' of Ireland and Britain. © 2017 The Author(s).

  11. Male goat vocalizations stimulate the estrous behavior and LH secretion in anestrous goats that have been previously exposed to bucks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delgadillo, José Alberto; Vielma, Jesús; Hernandez, Horacio; Flores, José Alfredo; Duarte, Gerardo; Fernández, Ilda Graciela; Keller, Matthieu; Gelez, Hélène

    2012-09-01

    We investigated whether live vocalizations emitted by bucks interacting with anestrous females stimulate secretion of LH, estrous behavior and ovulation in anestrous goats. In experiment 1, bucks rendered sexually active by exposure to long days followed by natural photoperiod were exposed in a light-proof-building to five anestrous females. Buck vocalizations were reproduced through a microphone-amplifier-loudspeaker system to an open pen where one group of goats (n=6) was exposed for 10 days to these live vocalizations. Another group of females (n=6) was isolated from males and vocalizations. The proportion of goats displaying estrous behavior was significantly higher in females exposed to buck vocalizations than in females isolated from males. The proportion of goats that ovulated did not differ between the 2 groups (exposed to males versus isolated). In experiment 2, female goats that either had previous contact with males (n=7), or no previous contact with males (n=7) were exposed to live buck vocalizations, reproduced as described in experiment 1, for 5 days. The number and amplitude of LH pulses did not differ between groups before exposition to buck vocalizations. Five days of exposure to male vocalizations significantly increased LH pulsatility only in females that had previous contact with males, while LH pulse amplitude was not modified. We concluded that live buck vocalizations can stimulate estrous behavior and LH secretion in goats if they have had previous contact with bucks. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Physiological reactions in goat breeds maintained under shade, sun and partially shaded areas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luís Fernando Dias Medeiros

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT. Medeiros L.F.D., Rodrigues V.C., Vieira D.H., Souza S.L.G. de, Neto O.C., Figueiredo N. de, Pinto C.F.D., Miranda A.L. & Violento C.B. [Physiological reactions in goat breeds maintained under shade, sun and partially shaded areas.] Reações fisiológicas de cabras em diferentes ambientes e coeficiente de tolerância ao calor em cabritos. Revista Brasileira de Medicina Veterinária, 37(4:286-296, 2015. Departamento de Reprodução e Avaliação Animal, Instituto de Zootecnia, Universidade Federal Rural do Rio de Janeiro, BR 465 Km 7, Seropédica, RJ 23851-970, Brasil. E-mail: diasmedeiros@yahoo.com.br The experiment was carried out to measure the effects of thermal stress on the rectal temperature (RT and respiratory frequency (RF, in animals of Boer and Saanen breeds, under the conditions of hot and humid climate of city of Rio de Janeiro, Baixada Fluminense, South East Region of Brazil; also the heat tolerance coefficient (HTC of Amakiri e Funcho was applied on pure and crossbreeds kids. The goats were divided into three groups, each group consisting of four females from each breed group. Each group was subjected to different surroundings, constituted by three experimental treatment: treatment A, with a sun protected enclosed area; treatment B, a sun exposed area without covering; and treatment C, area with a 50% covered section and a 50% sun exposed area, which permitted free circulation of the goats. A Balanced Latin Square was used. The RT and RF of the goats, in the afternoon periods (l5h00, were higher, than in the morning periods (09h00. The animals kept in the sun presented much higher results, especially in the afternoon periods, than the animals in the other two confinement areas. There were no differences in the RT and RF of the groups maintained in the shade or in partially covered area. There were differences in the RT and RF measurements between the two breeds, in the morning periods and in the afternoon periods

  13. Goat farm management and Brucella serological test among goat keepers and livestock officers, 2011-2012, Nakhon Si Thammarat Province, southern Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Te-Chaniyom, Thanidtha; Geater, Alan F; Kongkaew, Wandee; Chethanond, Usa; Chongsuvivatwong, Virasakdi

    2016-12-01

    Brucellosis, a zoonotic disease particularly affecting goats, emerged in Thailand in 2003, resulting in both an occupational hazard for goat keepers and livestock officers, and production losses. Farm management practices have been identified as risk factors associated with Brucella sero-positivity in many studies. Our finding in this study should be considered in order to strengthen the system of biosecurity control in farm animals as one health approach. The objectives of the study were to describe the distribution of potential risk factors by types of goat farms and to document the prevalence of human Brucella sero-positivity among goat keepers and livestock officers in Nakhon Si Thammarat, Thailand. A cross-sectional study was conducted from September to December 2012. The study population included three types of goat farms: standard, community enterprise and private goat farms that were located in Nakhon Si Thammmarat Province in southern Thailand. Information on whether the farm had any Brucella sero-positivity goats since 2011 was retrieved from the local livestock office records. Information on farming management was also traced back to 2011. Field researchers collected information from goat keepers of the selected farms using a structured questionnaire. Goat keepers on all farms pre-identified (January to June 2012) as having had at least one positive goat were considered to have been exposed. Goat keepers on a random sample of farms having all goats with negative results were considered to be unexposed. Venous blood samples were collected from goat keepers exposed and unexposed and from livestock officers and the samples were tested by IgG ELISA. Statistical analysis was done under the complex survey design in R software. Fourteen standard farms, 66 community enterprise farms and 68 private farms participated in the study; 82.4% (122/148) used public pasture and 53.4% (79/148) shared breeder goats with other farms. Farm management practices corresponding

  14. Digital atlas of fetal brain MRI

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chapman, Teresa; Weinberger, E.; Matesan, Manuela; Bulas, Dorothy I.

    2010-01-01

    Fetal MRI can be performed in the second and third trimesters. During this time, the fetal brain undergoes profound structural changes. Interpretation of appropriate development might require comparison with normal age-based models. Consultation of a hard-copy atlas is limited by the inability to compare multiple ages simultaneously. To provide images of normal fetal brains from weeks 18 through 37 in a digital format that can be reviewed interactively. This will facilitate recognition of abnormal brain development. T2-W images for the atlas were obtained from fetal MR studies of normal brains scanned for other indications from 2005 to 2007. Images were oriented in standard axial, coronal and sagittal projections, with laterality established by situs. Gestational age was determined by last menstrual period, earliest US measurements and sonogram performed on the same day as the MR. The software program used for viewing the atlas, written in C, permits linked scrolling and resizing the images. Simultaneous comparison of varying gestational ages is permissible. Fetal brain images across gestational ages 18 to 37 weeks are provided as an interactive digital atlas and are available for free download. Improved interpretation of fetal brain abnormalities can be facilitated by the use of digital atlas cataloging of the normal changes throughout fetal development. Here we provide a description of the atlas and a discussion of normal fetal brain development. (orig.)

  15. Fetal microchimerism in breast and colon cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kamper-Jørgensen, M; Biggar, R J; Stamper, Casey L

    2011-01-01

    1574 Background: Cells acquired by a woman from her baby that durably persist in her blood and tissues is known as fetal microchimerism (FMc). In women with breast cancer, frequency and quantity of FMc in blood and breast tissue is reduced compared to healthy women. Whether the absence of fetal...

  16. Digital atlas of fetal brain MRI

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chapman, Teresa; Weinberger, E. [Department of Radiology, Seattle Children' s Hospital, Seattle, WA (United States); Matesan, Manuela [University of Washington, Department of Radiology, Seattle, WA (United States); Bulas, Dorothy I. [Division of Diagnostic Imaging and Radiology, Children' s National Medical Center, Washington, DC (United States)

    2010-02-15

    Fetal MRI can be performed in the second and third trimesters. During this time, the fetal brain undergoes profound structural changes. Interpretation of appropriate development might require comparison with normal age-based models. Consultation of a hard-copy atlas is limited by the inability to compare multiple ages simultaneously. To provide images of normal fetal brains from weeks 18 through 37 in a digital format that can be reviewed interactively. This will facilitate recognition of abnormal brain development. T2-W images for the atlas were obtained from fetal MR studies of normal brains scanned for other indications from 2005 to 2007. Images were oriented in standard axial, coronal and sagittal projections, with laterality established by situs. Gestational age was determined by last menstrual period, earliest US measurements and sonogram performed on the same day as the MR. The software program used for viewing the atlas, written in C, permits linked scrolling and resizing the images. Simultaneous comparison of varying gestational ages is permissible. Fetal brain images across gestational ages 18 to 37 weeks are provided as an interactive digital atlas and are available for free download. Improved interpretation of fetal brain abnormalities can be facilitated by the use of digital atlas cataloging of the normal changes throughout fetal development. Here we provide a description of the atlas and a discussion of normal fetal brain development. (orig.)

  17. Expert systems for fetal assessment in labour

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lutomski, J.E.; Meaney, S.; Greene, R.A.; Ryan, A.C.; Devane, D.

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Cardiotocography (CTG) records the fetal heart rate in relation to maternal uterine contractions and is one of the most common forms of fetal assessment during labour. Despite guidelines for CTG interpretation, substantial inter- and intra-observer variation in interpretation has been

  18. PREVENTION FETAL ALCOHOL SYNDROME IN RUSSIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. V. Skitnevskaya

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The article is devoted to the influence of alcohol problems in women of childbearing age during pregnancy on the unborn child. The concept of a fetal alcohol syndrome (FAS. We describe the stages of the research project "Prevention of fetal FAS in Russia."

  19. New treatment of early fetal chylothorax

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nygaard, Ulrikka; Sundberg, Karin; Nielsen, Henriette Svarre

    2007-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To evaluate OK-432, a preparation of Streptococcus pyogenes, in the treatment of early fetal chylothorax. METHODS: A prospective study of all fetuses (n=7) with persistent early chylothorax (gestational ages 16-21 weeks) referred to the tertiary center of fetal medicine in Denmark in 2...

  20. Fetal hydronephrosis: is there hope for consensus?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Toiviainen-Salo, Sanna; Dubois, Josee; Rypens, Francoise; Boisvert, Jacques; Perreault, Gilles; Decarie, Jean Claude; Filiatrault, Denis; Lapierre, Chantale; Miron, Marie-Claude; Bechard, Nancy [Department of Medical Imaging, Hopital Ste-Justine, 3175 Cote Ste-Catherine, H3T 1C5, Montreal, Quebec (Canada); Garel, Laurent; Grignon, Andree [Department of Medical Imaging, Hopital Ste-Justine, 3175 Cote Ste-Catherine, H3T 1C5, Montreal, Quebec (Canada); Department of Radiology, Universite de Montreal, 3175 Cote Ste-Catherine, H3T 1C5, Montreal, Quebec (Canada)

    2004-07-01

    This review article aims at summarizing the data regarding fetal and neonatal hydronephrosis, at correlating controversial data with the differences in the practice of obstetrical sonography from one country to another, and finally, at presenting our own criteria for fetal renal collecting system dilatation along with our own guidelines of postnatal investigation. (orig.)

  1. Fetal DNA: strategies for optimal recovery

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Legler, Tobias J.; Heermann, Klaus-Hinrich; Liu, Zhong; Soussan, Aicha Ait; van der Schoot, C. Ellen

    2008-01-01

    For fetal DNA extraction, in principle each DNA extraction method can be used; however, because most methods have been optimized for genomic DNA from leucocytes, we describe here the methods that have been optimized for the extraction of fetal DNA from maternal plasma and validated for this purpose

  2. Ultrasonic Diagnosis of Fetal Ascites and Toxoplasmosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blaakær, Jan

    1986-01-01

    The ultrasonic diagnosis of fetal ascites caused by Toxoplasma Gondii is presented. When a diagnosis of fetal ascites without obvious etiological malformation is established, toxoplasmosis should be suspected. A serological test should be performed, in view of the possibility of antenatal treatme...

  3. Fetal behavior in normal dichorionic twin pregnancy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mulder, E. J. H.; Derks, J. B.; de Laat, M. W. M.; Visser, G. H. A.

    2012-01-01

    Objectives: A prospective study was performed to compare fetal behavioral development in healthy dichorionic twins and singletons, and identify twin intra-pair associations (synchrony) of fetal movements and rest-activity cycles using different criteria to define synchrony. Subjects and methods:

  4. Value of amniocentesis versus fetal tissue for cytogenetic analysis in cases of fetal demise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bryant Borders, Ann E; Greenberg, Jessica; Plaga, Stacey; Shepard-Hinton, Megan; Yates, Carin; Elias, Sherman; Shulman, Lee P

    2009-01-01

    Use of fetal tissue for cytogenetic analysis in cases of second- and third-trimester fetal demise frequently results in unacceptably high failure rates. We reviewed our ongoing use of amniocentesis prior to uterine evacuation to determine if this provided a better source of cells for cytogenetic analysis. We compared cytogenetic results using fetal tissues obtained following uterine evacuation to our ongoing use of amniotic fluid cell obtained by transabdominal amniocentesis prior to uterine evacuation from 2003 to 2008. In 49 of the 63 cases evaluated by fetal tissue biopsies performed after uterine evacuation, a karyotypic analysis was obtained (77.8%). Among the 38 cases evaluated by amniocentesis, an amniotic fluid sample and fetal cytogenetic results were obtained in all 38 (100%) cases. Our findings indicate that amniocentesis is a more reliable source of cytogenetic information than fetal tissue in cases of second- and third-trimester fetal demise.

  5. Fetal Origin of Sensorimotor Behavior

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaqueline Fagard

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this article is to track the fetal origin of infants’ sensorimotor behavior. We consider development as the self-organizing emergence of complex forms from spontaneously generated activity, governed by the innate capacity to detect and memorize the consequences of spontaneous activity (contingencies, and constrained by the sensory and motor maturation of the body. In support of this view, we show how observations on fetuses and also several fetal experiments suggest that the fetus’s first motor activity allows it to feel the space around it and to feel its body and the consequences of its movements on its body. This primitive motor babbling gives way progressively to sensorimotor behavior which already possesses most of the characteristics of infants’ later behavior: repetition of actions leading to sensations, intentionality, some motor control and oriented reactions to sensory stimulation. In this way the fetus can start developing a body map and acquiring knowledge of its limited physical and social environment.

  6. Seasonal variations in diet selection of Nguni goats: effects of physical and chemical traits of browse

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Fomum, SW

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Goats select some browse species more than others, given options. Seasonal trends of diet selection of Nguni goats indexed by intake were investigated in cafeteria-style experiments. The relationships between diet selection and plant chemical...

  7. Potential disease agents in domestic goats and relevance to bighorn sheep (Ovis canadensis) management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drew, Mark L; Weiser, Glen C

    2017-01-01

    Domestic goats are raised for meat, milk and hair production, in herds for rangeland weed control, and as pack animals. Domestic sheep, goats and wild bighorn sheep are all susceptible to a multifactorial pneumonia. We sampled 43 herd goats from 7 herds and 48 pack goats from 11 herds for viral and bacterial serology, parasitology, and Pasteurellaceae microbiology. The goats in this study were in generally good health, although most goats did harbor various pathogens and parasites including several bacteria, specifically Pasteurellaceae, which have been associated with pneumonia in free-ranging bighorn sheep. It is not known if domestic goats can transmit the Pasteurellaceae or other pathogens found in this study readily to wild bighorn sheep. However, due the possibility of transmission, domestic goats in areas in or near bighorn sheep habitat should be managed to minimize the risk of spreading disease agents to bighorn sheep.

  8. Potential disease agents in domestic goats and relevance to bighorn sheep (Ovis canadensis management.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark L Drew

    Full Text Available Domestic goats are raised for meat, milk and hair production, in herds for rangeland weed control, and as pack animals. Domestic sheep, goats and wild bighorn sheep are all susceptible to a multifactorial pneumonia. We sampled 43 herd goats from 7 herds and 48 pack goats from 11 herds for viral and bacterial serology, parasitology, and Pasteurellaceae microbiology. The goats in this study were in generally good health, although most goats did harbor various pathogens and parasites including several bacteria, specifically Pasteurellaceae, which have been associated with pneumonia in free-ranging bighorn sheep. It is not known if domestic goats can transmit the Pasteurellaceae or other pathogens found in this study readily to wild bighorn sheep. However, due the possibility of transmission, domestic goats in areas in or near bighorn sheep habitat should be managed to minimize the risk of spreading disease agents to bighorn sheep.

  9. Genetic polymorphism of CSN1S2 in South African dairy goat ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Rulien

    2016-12-24

    Dec 24, 2016 ... variation for αs2-casein in the South African goat populations ... of Pretoria's experimental farm (Saanens) and commercial goat farms in the provinces of Gauteng. (Toggenburg), North West (British Alpine and Toggenburg), ...

  10. Potential disease agents in domestic goats and relevance to bighorn sheep (Ovis canadensis) management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weiser, Glen C.

    2017-01-01

    Domestic goats are raised for meat, milk and hair production, in herds for rangeland weed control, and as pack animals. Domestic sheep, goats and wild bighorn sheep are all susceptible to a multifactorial pneumonia. We sampled 43 herd goats from 7 herds and 48 pack goats from 11 herds for viral and bacterial serology, parasitology, and Pasteurellaceae microbiology. The goats in this study were in generally good health, although most goats did harbor various pathogens and parasites including several bacteria, specifically Pasteurellaceae, which have been associated with pneumonia in free-ranging bighorn sheep. It is not known if domestic goats can transmit the Pasteurellaceae or other pathogens found in this study readily to wild bighorn sheep. However, due the possibility of transmission, domestic goats in areas in or near bighorn sheep habitat should be managed to minimize the risk of spreading disease agents to bighorn sheep. PMID:28282407

  11. Income analysis of goat farmers on the farmers group in district of Serdang Bedagai

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manurung, J. N.; Hasnudi; Supriana, T.

    2018-02-01

    The farmers group are expected to reduce the production cost of goat breeding and improve the income of farmers which impact on the welfare of goat farmers. This research aim to analyze the factors that influence the income of farmers group, in sub-district Dolok Masihul Pegajahan, and Dolok Merawan, Serdang Bedagai. The method used is survey method with 90 respondents. Data was analysed by multiple linear regression. The result showed, simultaneously goat cost, sale price of goat, fixed cost and variable cost had significant effect on income of goat farmers. Partially, goat cost, variable cost and sale price of goat had significant effect on income of goat farmers, while fixed cost had no significant effect.

  12. Inequality in Fetal Autopsy in Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Auger, Nathalie; Tiandrazana, Rémi-Claude; Healy-Profitós, Jessica; Costopoulos, André

    2016-01-01

    Inequality in use of fetal autopsy is poorly understood, despite the importance of autopsy in establishing the cause of stillbirth for future prevention. We examined fetal autopsy rates between linguistic minorities in Quebec, Canada, and assessed trends over three decades. Using registry data on 11,992 stillbirths from 1981-2011, we calculated fetal autopsy rates for Francophones, Anglophones, and Allophones by decade. We found lower fetal autopsy rates for Allophones (54.4%) than Francophones (68.5%) and Anglophones (63.4%), but rates decreased over time for all language groups. After 2000, Allophones had 25% higher risk of non-autopsy relative to Francophones, with 8.8 fewer autopsies for every 100 stillbirths. Allophones who were not autopsied had 32% higher risk of having an undetermined cause of death. Inequality in use of fetal autopsy may be widespread for minorities in Canada. Efforts to decrease stillbirth in minorities may require policies to increase autopsy rates.

  13. Fetal activity patterns in hypertensive pregnancies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rayburn, W F

    1982-01-01

    This prospective investigation attempts to determine whether the maternal recording of perceived fetal motion is useful for fetal assessment in pregnancies complicated by hypertension. During a 21 month period, 124 patients whose pregnancies were complicated by either chronic or pregnancy-induced hypertension participated. The number of perceived movements per hour (24 +/- 11, mean +/- S.D.) and evidence for fetal inactivity (7 cases, 6%) did not vary significantly from a control group of normotensive pregnancies (p greater than 0.05). Fetal inactivity was predictive of an unfavorable perinatal outcome in 6 of 7 cases, including the three stillborn infants. No perinatal deaths occurred among the 117 hypertensive pregnancies with active fetuses, and the 6 cases with an unfavorable outcome were associated with mild intrauterine growth delay, prematurity, or acute changes such as placental abruption or umbilical cord accidents. Realizing these limitations, a record of fetal inactivity is worthwhile in managing the pregnancy complicated by hypertension.

  14. Fetal neonatal hyperthyroidism: diagnostic and therapeutic approachment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurtoğlu, Selim; Özdemir, Ahmet

    2017-01-01

    Fetal and neonatal hyperthyroidism may occur in mothers with Graves’ disease. Fetal thyrotoxicosis manifestation is observed with the transition of TSH receptor stimulating antibodies to the fetus from the 17th–20th weeks of pregnancy and with the fetal TSH receptors becoming responsive after 20 weeks. The diagnosis is confirmed by fetal tachycardia, goiter and bone age advancement in pregnancy and maternal treatment is conducted in accordance. The probability of neonatal hyperthyroidism is high in the babies of mothers that have ongoing antithyroid requirement and higher antibody levels in the last months of pregnancy. Clinical manifestation may be delayed by 7–17 days because of the antithyroid drugs taken by the mother. Neonatal hyperthyroidism symptoms can be confused with sepsis and congenital viral infections. Herein, the diagnosis and therapeutic approach are reviewed in cases of fetal neonatal hyperthyroidism. PMID:28439194

  15. Factors affecting somatic cell count in dairy goats: a review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jimenez-Granda, R.; Sanchez-Rodriguez, M.; Arce, C.; Rodriguez-Estevez, V.

    2014-06-01

    Somatic cell count (SCC) in monitoring udder health has been described in numerous studies as a useful method for the diagnosis of intramammary infection (IMI), and it is considered in standards of quality and hygiene of cows milk in many countries. However, several authors have questioned the validity of SCC as a reliable IMI diagnosis tool in dairy goats. This review attempts to reflect the importance of different infectious and non-infectious factors that can modify SCC values in goat milk, and must, therefore, be taken into account when using the SCC as a tool in the improvement of udder health and the quality of milk in this species. In dairy goats, some investigations have shown that mammary bacterial infections are a major cause of increased SCC and loss of production. In goats however, the relationship between bacterial infections and SCC values is not as simple as in dairy cattle, since non-infectious factors also have a big impact on SCC. Intrinsic factors are those that depend directly on the animal: time and number of lactation (higher SCC late in lactation and in aged goats), prolificity (higher SCC in multiple births), milking time (higher SCC in evening compared to morning milking) and number of milkings per day, among others. Extrinsic factors include: milking routine (lower SCC in machine than in manual milking), seasonality and food. In addition, milk secretion in goats is mostly apocrine and therefore characterized by the presence of epithelial debris or cytoplasmic particles, which makes the use of DNA specific counters mandatory. All this information is of interest in order to correctly interpret the SCC in goat milk and to establish differential SCC standards. (Author)

  16. Laryngeal Neuropathy in Adult Goats With Copper Deficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sousa, R F A; Almeida, V M; Neto, J E; Nascimento, C W A; Medeiros, G X; Medeiros, R M T; Riet-Correa, F; Mendonça, F S

    2017-07-01

    The aim of this study was to elucidate the cause of a neurological syndrome characterized by stridor in adult goats with clinical signs of copper deficiency. The main clinical signs consisted of apathy, emaciation, pale mucous membranes, mucous nasal discharge, dyspnea, severe achromotrichia, diffuse alopecia, torpor, ataxia, and stridor. When the goats were forced to move, the stridor increased. In a herd of 194 Toggenburg goats, 10 adult goats with clinical signs of copper deficiency were removed from the herd and divided into 2 groups: group 1, which consisted of 4 nannies and 1 buck with stridor, and group 2, which consisted of 4 nannies and 1 buck without stridor. Group 3, used as a control, consisted of 5 adult goats from another flock without any clinical signs of disease. The mean serum copper concentrations were 1.3 ± 0.3 μmol/L in group 1, 8.1 ± 1.1 μmol/L in group 2, and 11.3 ± 2.2 μmol/L in group 3. The mean serum iron concentrations were 42.3 ± 14.2 μmol/L in group 1, 39.1 ± 8.2 μmol/L in group 2, and 20.6 ± 6.1 μmol/L in group 3. The main histological lesions in goats from group 1 were axonal degeneration of the recurrent laryngeal nerves and atrophy of the muscles of vocal folds and of the dorsal cricoarytenoid and right and left cricothyroid muscles. Goats with ataxia had neuronal degeneration and necrosis of cerebellar Purkinje cells and of the cranial cervical ganglion. We concluded that the stridor was caused by axonal degeneration of the recurrent laryngeal nerves due to the severe copper deficiency.

  17. Factors affecting somatic cell count in dairy goats: a review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rocío Jiménez-Granado

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Somatic cell count (SCC in monitoring udder health has been described in numerous studies as a useful method for the diagnosis of intramammary infection (IMI, and it is considered in standards of quality and hygiene of cow’s milk in many countries. However, several authors have questioned the validity of SCC as a reliable IMI diagnosis tool in dairy goats. This review attempts to reflect the importance of different infectious and non-infectious factors that can modify SCC values in goat milk, and must, therefore, be taken into account when using the SCC as a tool in the improvement of udder health and the quality of milk in this species. In dairy goats, some investigations have shown that mammary bacterial infections are a major cause of increased SCC and loss of production. In goats however, the relationship between bacterial infections and SCC values is not as simple as in dairy cattle, since non-infectious factors also have a big impact on SCC. Intrinsic factors are those that depend directly on the animal: time and number of lactation (higher SCC late in lactation and in aged goats, prolificity (higher SCC in multiple births, milking time (higher SCC in evening compared to morning milking and number of milkings per day, among others. Extrinsic factors include: milking routine (lower SCC in machine than in manual milking, seasonality and food. In addition, milk secretion in goats is mostly apocrine and therefore characterized by the presence of epithelial debris or cytoplasmic particles, which makes the use of DNA specific counters mandatory. All this information is of interest in order to correctly interpret the SCC in goat milk and to establish differential SCC standards.

  18. Variation in the prion protein sequence in Dutch goat breeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Windig, J J; Hoving, R A H; Priem, J; Bossers, A; van Keulen, L J M; Langeveld, J P M

    2016-10-01

    Scrapie is a neurodegenerative disease occurring in goats and sheep. Several haplotypes of the prion protein increase resistance to scrapie infection and may be used in selective breeding to help eradicate scrapie. In this study, frequencies of the allelic variants of the PrP gene are determined for six goat breeds in the Netherlands. Overall frequencies in Dutch goats were determined from 768 brain tissue samples in 2005, 766 in 2008 and 300 in 2012, derived from random sampling for the national scrapie surveillance without knowledge of the breed. Breed specific frequencies were determined in the winter 2013/2014 by sampling 300 breeding animals from the main breeders of the different breeds. Detailed analysis of the scrapie-resistant K222 haplotype was carried out in 2014 for 220 Dutch Toggenburger goats and in 2015 for 942 goats from the Saanen derived White Goat breed. Nine haplotypes were identified in the Dutch breeds. Frequencies for non-wild type haplotypes were generally low. Exception was the K222 haplotype in the Dutch Toggenburger (29%) and the S146 haplotype in the Nubian and Boer breeds (respectively 7 and 31%). The frequency of the K222 haplotype in the Toggenburger was higher than for any other breed reported in literature, while for the White Goat breed it was with 3.1% similar to frequencies of other Saanen or Saanen derived breeds. Further evidence was found for the existence of two M142 haplotypes, M142 /S240 and M142 /P240 . Breeds vary in haplotype frequencies but frequencies of resistant genotypes are generally low and consequently selective breeding for scrapie resistance can only be slow but will benefit from animals identified in this study. The unexpectedly high frequency of the K222 haplotype in the Dutch Toggenburger underlines the need for conservation of rare breeds in order to conserve genetic diversity rare or absent in other breeds. © 2016 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  19. Reproductive performance of primiparous and multiparous Saanen goats after laparoscopic intrauterine insemination: a field study

    OpenAIRE

    KULAKSIZ, Recai; DAŞKIN, Ali

    2014-01-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the reproductive performance of primiparous and multiparous Saanen goats after intrauterine laparoscopic artificial insemination with frozen semen. Twenty-four Saanen goats, divided in 2 groups: group 1 consisted of 11 primiparous goats and group 2 consisted of 13 multiparous goats. Estrus was synchronized by 20 mg fluorogestone acetate (FGA)-impregnated intravaginal sponges and the IM administration of 125 mg of cloprostenol (PGF2a) and eCG (400 IU...

  20. Applicability of initial optimal maternal and fetal electrocardiogram combination vectors to subsequent recordings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yan Hua-Wen; Huang Xiao-Lin; Zhao Ying; Si Jun-Feng; Liu Hong-Xing; Liu Tie-Bing

    2014-01-01

    A series of experiments are conducted to confirm whether the vectors calculated for an early section of a continuous non-invasive fetal electrocardiogram (fECG) recording can be directly applied to subsequent sections in order to reduce the computation required for real-time monitoring. Our results suggest that it is generally feasible to apply the initial optimal maternal and fetal ECG combination vectors to extract the fECG and maternal ECG in subsequent recorded sections. (interdisciplinary physics and related areas of science and technology)

  1. Genetic polymorphism of CSN1S2 in South African dairy goat ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The aim of this study was to investigate the polymorphism and genetic variation of CSN1S2 in South African dairy goats, using DNA sequencing technology. Sixty dairy goats (20 Saanes, 20 British Alpine, and 20 Toggenburg) and 20 meat-type goats were sequenced with four primers to distinguish among the seven known ...

  2. A survey of goat production in the developing areas of the North ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Unknown

    kidding rate, fecundity, herd health care, herd management, live weight and withers height, coat color, skin condition ... were collected on breed and type of goat, reasons for keeping goats, health care, management, fertility, fecundity, sex, mature ... The main reasons given for keeping goats were for milk, meat and social ...

  3. Induction of estrus during the non-breeding season in Egyptian Baladi goats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medan, Mohamed; Shalaby, Abdel-Hamid; Sharawy, Sayed; Watanabe, Gen; Taya, Kazuyoshi

    2002-01-01

    The induction of estrus during the non-breeding season was investigated in 100 Egyptian Baladi goats (Capra hircus). All animals assigned to treatments had low progesterone concentrations (Baladi goats using norgestomet and PGF2alpha and the injection of GnRH 24 hr after norgestomet implant removal synchronized ovulation in a higher percentage of goats.

  4. Genetic and phenotypic parameter estimates for growth traits of Hainan Black goat in southern China

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zhou, Han Lin; Gu, Li Hong; Sun, Yanyan; Xu, Tie Shan; Rong, Guang

    2015-01-01

    Genetic improvement of the growth of Hainan Black goats is a major concern as the breed is an important meat-type goat raised in southern China. To estimate genetic and phenotypic parameters for growth traits for this breed, a population of 1354 Hainan Black goats born and maintained at the

  5. Genome-wide population structure and admixture analysis reveals weak differentiation among Ugandan goat breeds

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Onzima, R.B.; Upadhyay, M.R.; Mukiibi, R.; Kanis, E.; Groenen, M.A.M.; Crooijmans, R.P.M.A.

    2018-01-01

    Uganda has a large population of goats, predominantly from indigenous breeds reared in diverse production systems, whose existence is threatened by crossbreeding with exotic Boer goats. Knowledge about the genetic characteristics and relationships among these Ugandan goat breeds and the potential

  6. Strain characterization of West African Dwarf goats of Ogun State II ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The West African Dwarf (WAD) goat presents variable coat colours, ranging from black, brown, gray, red and white and sometimes combinations of these variety of patterns. In this study, strains of West African Dwarf (WAD) goat were characterized using linear body measurement. The WAD goat included the chocolate, white ...

  7. Strain characterization of West African Dwarf Goats of Ogun State I ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Characterization of West African Dwarf goat is an approach to a sustainable use of its great potentials. In this study, strains of WAD goat were characterized using linear body measurement. The WAD goat included the gold (brown), black, buckskin and chaimose of ages 1, 2, 3 and 4 years,raised under extensive system of ...

  8. Feeding Chromonaela odorata during pregnancy to goat dams affects acceptance of this feedstuff by their offspring

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hai, P.V.; Everts, H.; Tien, van D.; Schonewille, J.T.; Hendriks, W.H.

    2012-01-01

    We investigated the effect of Chromonaela odorata ingestion by goat dams during pregnancy on intake of C. odorata by their kids. Alteration of prenatal feed preference may be used to increase feed intake of novel feeds and the transit from outdoor to indoor goat farming in Vietnam. Ten female goats

  9. Diet preferences of goats in a subtropical dry forest and implications for habitat management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Genie M. Fleming; Joseph Wunderle Jr.; David N. Ewert

    2016-01-01

    As part of an experimental study of using controlled goat grazing to manage winter habitat of the Kirtland’s warbler (Setophaga kirtlandii), an endangered Nearctic neotropical migratory bird, we evaluated diet preferences of domesticated goats within early successional subtropical dry forest in The Bahamas. We expected goats would show a low preference for two plants (...

  10. 76 FR 29991 - Live Goats and Swine for Export; Removal of Certain Testing Requirements

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-24

    ...-0067] RIN 0579-AD18 Live Goats and Swine for Export; Removal of Certain Testing Requirements AGENCY... testing of goats and breeding swine intended for export to countries that do not require such tests. This action will facilitate the exportation of goats and breeding swine by eliminating the need to conduct pre...

  11. 75 FR 56912 - Live Goats and Swine for Export; Removal of Certain Testing Requirements

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-17

    .... APHIS-2009-0067] RIN 0579-AD18 Live Goats and Swine for Export; Removal of Certain Testing Requirements... tuberculosis and brucellosis testing of goats and breeding swine intended for export to countries that do not require such tests. This action would facilitate the exportation of goats and breeding swine by...

  12. 9 CFR 51.22 - Payment to owners for goats, sheep, and horses destroyed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Payment to owners for goats, sheep... DISEASES ANIMALS DESTROYED BECAUSE OF BRUCELLOSIS Indemnity for Sheep, Goats, and Horses § 51.22 Payment to owners for goats, sheep, and horses destroyed. (a) The Administrator may authorize the payment of Federal...

  13. Molecular cloning, polymorphisms, and expression analysis of the RERG gene in indigenous Chinese goats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sui, M X; Wang, H H; Wang, Z W

    2015-11-24

    The current study aimed to investigate the coding sequence, polymorphisms, and expression of the RERG gene in indigenous Chinese goats. cDNA of RERG, obtained through reverse transcription PCR was analyzed using bioinformatic techniques. Polymorphisms in the exon regions of the RERG gene were identified and their associations with growth traits in three varieties of indigenous Chinese goats were investigated. Expression of the RERG gene in three goat breeds of the same age was detected using real-time quantitative PCR. The results revealed that the cDNA of RERG, which contained a complete open reading frame of 20-620 bp, was 629 bp in length. The associated accession numbers in GenBank are JN672576, JQ917222, and JN580309 for the QianBei Ma goat, the GuiZhou white goat, and the GuiZhou black goat, respectively. Four consistent SNP sites were found in the exon regions of the RERG gene for the three goat breeds. mRNA expression of the RERG gene differed between different tissues in adult goats of same age. The highest expression was observed in lung and spleen tissues, while the lowest expression was recorded in thymus gland tissue. In addition, the expression of the RERG gene in the muscle of Guizhou white goat, GuiZhou black goat, and QianBei Ma goat decreased sequentially. Our results lay the foundations for further investigation into the role of the RERG gene in goat growth traits.

  14. THE CHROME-TANNED GOAT LEATHER FOR HIGH QUALITY OF BATIK

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W. Pancapalaga

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available in which the first stage aimed to evaluate sodium silica as batik wax releasing agent on chrome leather.Completely randomized design (CRD was applied in this study. The concentration of sodium silica wastreated as treatments, in which Tl = 0, T2 = 2 g/L, T3: 4 g/L and T4 = 6 g/L. The second stage of thestudy was aimed to evaluate the type of dye used in batik method dyeing on chrome-tanned goat leather.CRD was used and the treatments were types of dye, i.e. T'1 = acid, T'2= indigosol, T'3 = napthol, T'4 =remazol. In both studies, 9 replicates were applied for each treatment. The use of sodium silicateconcentration of 2 g/L resulted in the percentage of release wax of 91.4% and did not degrade the qualityof chrome leather. The type of acid dyes and naphthol provided the best adhesion and color brightnessand resistance to washing treatment, water, sweat, bend, and rub at 4/5 to 5 on a scale of gray. Inconclusion, chrome tanned goat leather with batik dyeing method was recommended to become one ofthe raw materials of leather goods.

  15. Elimination, distribution and metabolism of lindane (gamma Hexachloro cyclohexane) in male goat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Elozargani, Gaafar A.; Elfahal, Rihab Ali

    2001-01-01

    Elimination, distribution in tissues and metabolic degradation of lindane insecticide (gamma hexachlorocyclohexane) were studied in male Nubian goat (Cappara aegagrus Hircus). The goat was dosed orally with 262.76 mg 14 C-lindane equivalent to one fourth of its lethal dose (LD50). Urine and faeces were collected for two weeks following the application date and the radioactivity was measured in order to determine the rate of the insecticide elimination from the animal body. Lindane elimination was found to be initially fairly rapid, principally via urine (19.6% of the applied dose was detected in urine and 3.1% in faeces). However, it was observed that total recovery of the insecticide via faeces and urine is low. After two weeks, the animal was sacrificed and samples of the brain, liver, kidneys, heart, lungs, legs muscles, and abdominal fat were collected. The percentage of the total radioactivity detected in all tissue sample was 0.29% of the applied radioactive Lindane. The fat contained 48.25% of this percentage, 29.78% was detected in the liver, 9.05% in the lungs and 8.72% in the heart. Smaller percentages were detected in the other tissues. Urine and faeces extracted, analysed and their contents of lindane metabolites were Identified using autoradiography. It was found that 23% of the labeled lindane detected in urine was extracted unchanged. A nonpolar compound possibly a trichlorophenol represented 26% of the radioactivity detected in urine, while 51% was represented in highly polar compound and conjugates

  16. Goat Meat Does Not Cause Increased Blood Pressure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katsunori Sunagawa

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available While there are persistent rumors that the consumption of goat meat dishes increases blood pressure, there is no scientific evidence to support this. Two experiments were conducted to clarify whether or not blood pressure increases in conjunction with the consumption of goat meat dishes. In experiment 1, 24 Dahl/Iwai rats (15 weeks old, body weight 309.3±11.1 g were evenly separated into 4 groups. The control group (CP was fed a diet containing 20% chicken and 0.3% salt on a dry matter basis. The goat meat group (GM was fed a diet containing 20% goat meat and 0.3% salt. The goat meat/salt group (GS was fed a diet containing 20% goat meant and 3% to 4% salt. The Okinawan mugwort (Artemisia Princeps Pampan/salt group (GY was fed a diet containing 20% goat meat, 3% to 4% salt and 5% of freeze-dried mugwort powder. The experiment 1 ran for a period of 14 weeks during which time the blood pressure of the animals was recorded. The GS, and GY groups consumed significantly more water (p<0.01 than the CP and GM groups despite the fact that their diet consumption levels were similar. The body weight of animals in the CP, GM, and GS groups was similar while the animals in the GY group were significantly smaller (p<0.01. The blood pressure in the GM group was virtually the same as the CP group throughout the course of the experiment. In contrast, while the blood pressure of the animals in the GS and GY group from 15 to 19 weeks old was the same as the CP group, their blood pressures were significantly higher (p<0.01 after 20 weeks of age. The GY group tended to have lower blood pressure than the GS group. In experiment 2, in order to clarify whether or not the increase in blood pressure in the GS group and the GY group in experiment 1 was caused by an excessive intake of salt, the effects on blood pressure of a reduction of salt in diet were investigated. When amount of salt in the diet of the GS and GY group was reduced from 4% to 0.3%, the animal

  17. Factors of welfare reduction in dairy sheep and goats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Pazzona

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Scientific research on factors causing the reduction of well-being in sheep and goats is rather recent, as are studies of strategies to minimize the adverse effects of environmental challenges and improper management practices on flock welfare. Sheep and goats, considered very rustic animals, are reared prevalently under extensive production systems and are widespread mainly in marginal areas. For these reasons, only few studies on the welfare of these species have been carried out in the past. More recently, the scenario has changed, due to a gradual diffusion of intensive and semi-intensive production systems, especially in dairy sheep and goat breeds, to the growing concern of consumers about the life conditions of farmed animals, and to the issuing of a number of rules and laws on the safety of animal products and well-being of farmed livestock. As a consequence, several research groups have turned their attention to the welfare of sheep and goats. Nevertheless, information on this topic is still scarce. This paper reviews major critical points regarding the endangerment of welfare in farmed sheep and goats. Climatic extremes and seasonal fluctuations in herbage amount and quality are discussed as important causes of the reduction of well-being in extensive production systems, which can impair production efficiency of grazing animals and dramatically affect the welfare and health status of sheep and goats. Space allowance and structures of sheep and goat houses are described as the main potential sources of discomfort for housed flocks, together with inadequate control of micro-environment, and inappropriate milking procedures and human-animal interactions. Recent studies on the impact of high ambient temperature, different ventilation regimes, high stocking densities, reduced airspace and poor litter management on behaviour, immune and endocrine response, and on performance of sheep and goats are discussed. The effects of inadequate milking

  18. Comparative Response of the West African Dwarf Goats to Experimental Infections with Red Sokoto and West African Dwarf Goat Isolates of Haemonchus contortus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucas Atehmengo Ngongeh

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Response of the West African Dwarf (WAD goats to two different isolates of Haemonchus contortus, the Red Sokoto (RS goat isolate (RSHc and the WAD goat isolate (WADHc (isolated from WAD goats, was studied by experimental infections of 4–6-month-old male WAD goat kids. Group 1 and Group 2 goats were each infected with 4500 infective larvae (L3 of RSHc and WADHc, respectively. Group 3 animals served as uninfected control. Prepatent period (PPP, faecal egg counts (FEC, worm burden (WB, body weight (BW, packed cell volume (PCV, and body condition score (BCS were determined. WAD goats infected with RSHc isolate and the ones infected with WADHc isolate had mean PPP of 19.63±0.26 and 19.50±0.19, respectively. Goats infected with WADHc isolate had significantly higher FEC (P=0.004 and WB (P=0.001. BW were significantly higher (P=0.004 both in the controls and in Group 2 goats infected with WADHc isolate than in Group 1 goats infected with the RSHc isolate. BCS of animals in both infected groups dropped significantly (P=0.001. There was a significant drop in PCV (P=0.004 of both infected groups in comparison. Both isolates of H. contortus were pathogenic to the host.

  19. Comparative Response of the West African Dwarf Goats to Experimental Infections with Red Sokoto and West African Dwarf Goat Isolates of Haemonchus contortus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ngongeh, Lucas Atehmengo; Onyeabor, Amaechi

    2015-01-01

    Response of the West African Dwarf (WAD) goats to two different isolates of Haemonchus contortus, the Red Sokoto (RS) goat isolate (RSHc) and the WAD goat isolate (WADHc) (isolated from WAD goats), was studied by experimental infections of 4-6-month-old male WAD goat kids. Group 1 and Group 2 goats were each infected with 4500 infective larvae (L3) of RSHc and WADHc, respectively. Group 3 animals served as uninfected control. Prepatent period (PPP), faecal egg counts (FEC), worm burden (WB), body weight (BW), packed cell volume (PCV), and body condition score (BCS) were determined. WAD goats infected with RSHc isolate and the ones infected with WADHc isolate had mean PPP of 19.63 ± 0.26 and 19.50 ± 0.19, respectively. Goats infected with WADHc isolate had significantly higher FEC (P = 0.004) and WB (P = 0.001). BW were significantly higher (P = 0.004) both in the controls and in Group 2 goats infected with WADHc isolate than in Group 1 goats infected with the RSHc isolate. BCS of animals in both infected groups dropped significantly (P = 0.001). There was a significant drop in PCV (P = 0.004) of both infected groups in comparison. Both isolates of H. contortus were pathogenic to the host.

  20. Immunological and biochemical studies of fascioliasis in goats and cattle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reddington, J.J.

    1985-01-01

    Using the goat as a susceptible host and cattle as a resistant species to Fasciola hepatica infections, the humoral response of these animals to the surface of the newly excysted juvenile (NEJ) fluke was examined. Tegumental proteins of the NEJ were labeled with /sup 125/I by lactoperoxidase and analyzed after immunoprecipitation using a double antibody system. In addition, a comparison was made between the infected sera's capacity to immunoprecipitate surface antigens and their in vitro cytotoxic activity against the NEJ. In both goats and cattle the levels of NEJ surface antigens precipitated increased during the first 4 weeks PI. The peak immunoprecipitation of NEJ surface antigens by cattle sera (58%) was significantly higher than that of infected goat sera (33%). Immunoprecipitation of the available radiolabeled NEJ surface proteins by the infected cattle sera remained consistently higher than goat sera until the 16th week PI. The cytotoxic effects of these same caprine sera on NEJs in vitro was limited, while the cytotoxicity of the infected bovine sera closely approximated the sera's ability to precipitate NEJ surface antigens. There was also a qualitative difference between the species in their recognition of /sup 35/S and /sup 125/I radiolabeled NEJ surface antigens. Uninfected goat or cattle sera failed to precipitate any /sup 125/I or /sup 35/S-labeled surface proteins.

  1. COMPARATIVE PHARMACOKINETIC STUDIES ON OXYTETRACYCLINE IN CAMELS, SHEEP AND GOATS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammed H. Al-Nazawi

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available Kinetics of long-acting oxytetracycline (OTC injected intravenously (IV at a dose of 5 mg/kg was determined in each of eight camels, sheep and goats. The disposition of OTC was described by two-compartment open model. Two elimination half-lives were recorded for the camel (81 min and 46.1 h, whereas in sheep and goats these were 3.2 and 3.4 h, respectively. The peak plasma concentration was 10.2, 850 and 780 g/ml at 5 minutes in camel, sheep and goats, respectively. The values of volume of distribution were 1.4, 13.4 and 12.1 litre/kg for the camels, sheep and goats, respectively. In sheep and goats, values of t1/2, Vd and clearance were found similar but different from camel, indicating exclusive distribution and substantial storage which were consistent with oxytetracycline lipophilicity and the large fat content of camel body.

  2. Laparoscopic ovarian biopsy pick-up method for goats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brandão, Fabiana A S; Alves, Benner G; Alves, Kele A; Souza, Samara S; Silva, Yago P; Freitas, Vicente J F; Teixeira, Dárcio I A; Gastal, Eduardo L

    2018-02-01

    Biopsy pick-up (BPU) has been considered a safe method to harvest ovarian fragments from live animals. However, no studies have been reported on the use of BPU to collect in vivo ovarian tissue in goats. The goals of this study were: (i) to test different biopsy needle sizes to collect ovarian tissue in situ using the BPU method (Experiment 1), and (ii) to study ovarian tissue features such as preantral follicle density, morphology, class distribution, and stromal cell density in ovarian fragments obtained in vivo through a laparoscopic BPU method (Experiment 2). In Experiment 1, goat ovaries (n = 20) were collected in a slaughterhouse and subjected to in situ BPU. Three needles (16, 18, and 20G) were tested. In Experiment 2, the most efficient biopsy needle from Experiment 1 was used to perform laparoscopic BPU in goats (n = 8). In Experiment 1, the recovery rate was greater (P rate). Overall, 2054 preantral follicles were recorded in 5882 histological sections analyzed. Mean preantral follicular density was 28.4 ± 1.3 follicles per cm 2 . The follicular density differed (P rate in goats. Furthermore, this study described for the first time that goat ovarian biopsy fragments have a high heterogeneity in follicular density, morphology, class distribution, and stromal cell density. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Observation of physiological changes after Detomidine administration in Pateri goat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmed Tunio

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to determine the physiological effects of detomidine on Pateri goats. A total of six female Pateri goats were randomly treated with three different dose rates of Detomidine at 40 μg, 50 μg and 60 μg/kg body weights. The effects of Detomidine on respiratory and heart rate, rectal temperature and serum glucose level were investigated. Following detomidine intravenous administration in goats, it produced dose dependent effect on physiological parameters. Respiratory and heart rate decreased after intravenous administration in all goats. The heart rate decreased at 5 min with all dose rates and returned to the base line at 60 min. This change in heart rate was dose dependent and there was no significant (P>0.05 change observed with 40 μg and 50 μg/kg of Detomidine. However, there was significant difference (P<0.05 at 75 min between the 40 μg and 60 μg/kg of Detomidine in all goats. However, significant (P<0.01 increase in serum glucose level occurred with all dose rates at 30 min compared with control groups. It is concluded that Detomidine has produced no adverse effect on physiological parameters.

  4. Immunological and biochemical studies of fascioliasis in goats and cattle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reddington, J.J.

    1985-01-01

    Using the goat as a susceptible host and cattle as a resistant species to Fasciola hepatica infections, the humoral response of these animals to the surface of the newly excysted juvenile (NEJ) fluke was examined. Tegumental proteins of the NEJ were labeled with 125 I by lactoperoxidase and analyzed after immunoprecipitation using a double antibody system. In addition, a comparison was made between the infected sera's capacity to immunoprecipitate surface antigens and their in vitro cytotoxic activity against the NEJ. In both goats and cattle the levels of NEJ surface antigens precipitated increased during the first 4 weeks PI. The peak immunoprecipitation of NEJ surface antigens by cattle sera (58%) was significantly higher than that of infected goat sera (33%). Immunoprecipitation of the available radiolabeled NEJ surface proteins by the infected cattle sera remained consistently higher than goat sera until the 16th week PI. The cytotoxic effects of these same caprine sera on NEJs in vitro was limited, while the cytotoxicity of the infected bovine sera closely approximated the sera's ability to precipitate NEJ surface antigens. There was also a qualitative difference between the species in their recognition of 35 S and 125 I radiolabeled NEJ surface antigens. Uninfected goat or cattle sera failed to precipitate any 125 I or 35 S-labeled surface proteins

  5. HEMATOLOGICAL PARAMETERS IN THE ALPINE GOATS DURING LACTATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zvonko Antunović

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to present haematological parameters in the Alpine goats during lactation. The study included 15 goats average age of 5 years in the 4th lactation. The blood sampling of goats was conducted on the 30th, 60th, 90th and 120th days of lactation. In the blood of goats, significant decrease in the number of red blood cells was determined, as lactation progressed, and their growth in the latter measure, but with no significant difference. Also, a significant decrease was found in the number of leukocytes as lactation progressed, whereas the 120th day of lactation showed their increase compared to the 90th day. A similar trend was found out for the content of hemoglobin and hematocrit. The mean volume of red blood cells and a significant proportion of monocytes were declining as lactation advance, while the mean concentration of hemoglobin significantly increased, and in the end of the study significantly decreased, compared to the measurement of 90th day. The above mentioned changes in hematological parameters indicate the quality of recovery and adjustment of goats in lactation.

  6. Epidemiology of Maternal and Fetal`s Burn in Iran: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abbas Aghaei

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: Burn is one of the public health problems, especially in low-income and middle-income countries, and this problem is far more important for pregnant women and their fetus. There was no a systematic study to comprehensively review the epidemiology of Maternal and Fetal`s Burn inIran, this study was conducted for this purpose. Materials and Methods: In this systematic review and meta-analysis study, all related studies (Published in 2017 and earlier extracted by two independent groups from national and international databases (Magiran, SID, Web of Science, Medline, Scopus, etc.. Meta-analysis has been applied to obtain the overall outcomes of maternal and fetal mortality in pregnant women in Iran. Forest plot, τ2, and I2 tests are applied to evaluate heterogeneity, significance and its percentage, respectively. The analysis of meta-regression is applied because of the existence of heterogeneity. Publication bias is investigated by Funnel plot and Egger test. Results: The range of maternal and fetal mortality was 29.2% to 66.67% and 38.5% to 72.8%, respectively. Also, 48.4% and 54.2% were the overall outcome of maternal and fetal mortality based on meta-analysis, respectively. The highest maternal mortality is reported for pregnant women with Total Body Surface Area (TBSA over 50%, intentional burns, and acute respiratory failures. Finally, reduction of maternal mortality had a statistically significant relationship with passing time based on the univariate analysis. Conclusion:It can be inferred from our results that some hazards of burn in pregnant women are average age of 22-27 years, living in rural areas, low levels of socio-economic, low education level and being housewife. Also, according to meta-analysis results, about half of mothers and fetuses died in pregnant women as a result of burns in Iran.

  7. Diversity of Campylobacter in retail meat and liver of lambs and goat kids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lazou, Thomai; Dovas, Chrysostomos; Houf, Kurt; Soultos, Nikolaos; Iossifidou, Eleni

    2014-04-01

    The presence, genetic diversity, and antimicrobial susceptibility profile of Campylobacter spp. in retail lamb and goat kid carcasses were assessed. A total of 200 samples consisting of 100 meat and 100 liver surface swabs were collected from 47 lamb and 53 goat kid carcasses at 23 retail markets in Northern Greece, and 125 Campylobacter isolates were recovered from 32 meat surfaces (32%) and 44 liver surfaces (44%). Multiplex polymerase chain reaction and restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis specified Campylobacter coli as the most frequently detected species (59.2%) followed by C. jejuni (40.8%). Pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) was applied in order to typify a subset of randomly selected isolates (n=80). SmaI-PFGE successfully clustered the 80 isolates in 38 SmaI-PFGE types, indicating high heterogeneity among the analyzed Campylobacter isolates, and provided data regarding the dissemination of Camplobacter among carcasses stored in the same retail market. Antimicrobial susceptibility profiles of Campylobacter isolates, assessed by the disk-diffusion method, indicated that 31 isolates (24.8%) were multidrug resistant, and the most common profile was the concurrent resistance to tetracycline and streptomycin. Overall, 56.8% of isolates (n=71, multidrug-resistant isolates included) exhibited resistance to at least one antimicrobial (tetracycline 34.4%, quinolones 27.2%, and streptomycin 20.8%). However, all isolates were susceptible to erythromycin and gentamicin. The findings of this study verify the contamination of retail lamb and goat kid carcasses with a heterogeneous population of thermotolerant campylobacters. These data underscore the fact that retail meat and liver of small ruminants could serve as vehicles for consumer contamination with Campylobacter and that further investigation is necessary in order to evaluate the risk imposed by such products within the epidemiology of human campylobacteriosis cases.

  8. SOCIAL INDICATORS FOR EVALUATING SUSTAINABILITY OF GOAT LIVESTOCK FARMS: METHODOLOGICAL APPROACH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco de Asís Ruiz Morales

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available Currently, sustainability is an objective for any economic activity or development process. Many studies with theoretical reflections relating to the concept of sustainability exist, but few methodological contributions adequately quantify and evaluate the level of sustainability of agraricultural systems, specifically with respect to small ruminant. The level of sustainability of these systems should be estimated taking into account not only economic and environmental aspects, but also social ones. Despite its importance to the functioning of agraricultural systems, the social dimension has been little addressed, and is frequently ignored in studies of this nature. Then, the objective of this study is to carry out methodological reflections based on identification and quantification of social indicators applied to goat livestock farms. Furthermore, this study forms part of a broader comparative study on sustainable development of animal systems in Andalusia (Spain and Chiapas (Mexico, in which economic, environmental, and social indicators are used in an integrated manner. The methodology used to obtain indicators is based on the authors´ knowledge of the functioning of goat livestock systems, focus groups and opinions of experts in the field, and revision of the available bibliography. As a result of the study, we propose a group of indicators made up of several variables based on the logical-mathematical principals of different scales of measurement as well as on multicriteria analysis. The social indicators proposed refer to several themes: i multi-functionality; ii membership in professional associations; iii implication for local life; iv social well-being (quality of life, especially that related to work; and v continuity of the goats livestock activity.

  9. [FETAL PROGRAMMING OF METABOLIC DISORDERS].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varadinova, M R; Metodieva, R; Boyadzhieva, N

    2015-01-01

    Our knowledge of fetal programming has developed notably over the years and recent data suggest that an unbalanced diet prior and during pregnancy can have early-onset and long-lasting consequences on the health of the offspring. Specific negative influences of high dietary glucose and lipid consumption, as well as undernutrition, are associated with development of metabolic syndrome, insulin resistance and diabetes in the offspring. The mechanisms underlying the effects of maternal hyperglycemia on the fetus may involve structural, metabolic and epigenetic changes. The aim of this review is to illustrate how adverse intrauterine environment may influence molecular modifications in the fetus and cause epigenetic alterations in particular. It has been demonstrated that prenatal epigenetic modifications may be linked to the pathogenesis and progression of the adult chronic disorders. Studies on epigenetic alterations will contribute to a better understanding of the long-term effects of in utero exposure and may open new perspectives for disease prevention and treatment.

  10. An intelligent fetal monitoring system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Inaba, J.; Akatsuka, T.; Kubo, T.; Iwasaki, H.

    1986-01-01

    An intelligent monitoring system is constructed by a multi-micro-computer system. The monitoring signals are fetal heart rate (FHR) and uterine contraction (UC) through the conventional monitoring device for a day until the delivery. These signals are fed to a micro-computer in digital format, and evaluated by the computer in real time according to the diagnostic algorithm of the expert physician. Monitoring signals are always displayed on the CRT screen and in the case of dangerous state of the fetus, warning signal will appear on the screen and the doctor or nurse will be called. All these signals are sent to the next micro-computer with 10MB hard disk system. On this computer, the doctor and nurse can retrieve and inspect the details of the process by clock-key and/or events-key. After finishing monitoring process, summarized report is constructed and printed out on the paper

  11. Gender- and parity-specific reference charts for fetal size in low risk singleton pregnancies at the onset of the third trimester.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Reu, Paul; Smits, Luc J; Oosterbaan, Herman P; Snijders, Rosalinde J; De Reu-Cuppens, Marga J; Nijhuis, Jan G

    2007-01-01

    To determine fetal growth in low risk pregnancies at the beginning of the third trimester and to assess the relative importance of fetal gender and maternal parity. Dutch primary care midwifery practice. Retrospective cohort study on 3641 singleton pregnancies seen at a primary care midwifery center in the Netherlands. Parameters used for analysis were fetal abdominal circumference (AC), fetal head circumference (HC), gestational age, fetal gender and maternal parity. Regression analysis was applied to describe variation in AC and HC with gestational age. Means and standard deviations in the present population were compared with commonly used reference charts. Multiple regression analysis was applied to examine whether gender and parity should be taken into account. The fetal AC and HC increased significantly between the 27th and the 33rd week of pregnancy (AC r2=0.3652, Pgender was a significant determinant for both AC (PParity contributed significantly to AC only but the difference was small (beta=0.00464). At the beginning of the third trimester, fetal size is associated with fetal gender and, to a lesser extent, with parity. Some fetal growth charts (e.g., Chitty et al.) are more suitable for the low-risk population in the Netherlands than others.

  12. Hypoxia: From Placental Development to Fetal Programming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fajersztajn, Lais; Veras, Mariana Matera

    2017-10-16

    Hypoxia may influence normal and different pathological processes. Low oxygenation activates a variety of responses, many of them regulated by hypoxia-inducible factor 1 complex, which is mostly involved in cellular control of O 2 consumption and delivery, inhibition of growth and development, and promotion of anaerobic metabolism. Hypoxia plays a significant physiological role in fetal development; it is involved in different embryonic processes, for example, placentation, angiogenesis, and hematopoiesis. More recently, fetal hypoxia has been associated directly or indirectly with fetal programming of heart, brain, and kidney function and metabolism in adulthood. In this review, the role of hypoxia in fetal development, placentation, and fetal programming is summarized. Hypoxia is a basic mechanism involved in different pregnancy disorders and fetal health developmental complications. Although there are scientific data showing that hypoxia mediates changes in the growth trajectory of the fetus, modulates gene expression by epigenetic mechanisms, and determines the health status later in adulthood, more mechanistic studies are needed. Furthermore, if we consider that intrauterine hypoxia is not a rare event, and can be a consequence of unavoidable exposures to air pollution, nutritional deficiencies, obesity, and other very common conditions (drug addiction and stress), the health of future generations may be damaged and the incidence of some diseases will markedly increase as a consequence of disturbed fetal programming. Birth Defects Research 109:1377-1385, 2017.© 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  13. Awareness of fetal echo in Indian scenario

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Warrier, Dhanya; Saraf, Rahul; Maheshwari, Sunita; Suresh, PV; Shah, Sejal

    2012-01-01

    Fetal echocardiography is a well established sensitive tool to diagnose congenital heart disease (CHD) in utero. One of the determinants of effective utilization of fetal echocardiography is its awareness in the general population. The present hospital based study was undertaken to assess the awareness of the need for fetal echocardiography amongst Indian parents. One thousand one hundred and thirty eight consecutive parents who visited the pediatric cardiology outpatient department of a tertiary care centre over a period of two months were asked to fill up a questionnaire that included their demographic data, educational status, history of CHD in children, awareness of fetal echocardiography and source of information and timing of fetal echocardiogram if performed. The data was categorized and awareness was noted in different groups. The awareness in the study population was 2.2%. Awareness was found to be similar across the study population irrespective of the demographics and high risk status of the parents. The awareness of fetal echocardiography, an important tool in reducing the incidence of complex CHD, thereby impacting public health, is alarmingly low in the population studied. Appropriate action to increase awareness of fetal echocardiography needs to be looked into

  14. Fetal stimulation by pulsed diagnostic ultrasound.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fatemi, M; Ogburn, P L; Greenleaf, J F

    2001-08-01

    To show that pulsed ultrasound from a clinical ultrasonic imaging system can stimulate the fetus. Stimulation is defined mainly as increased fetal gross body movements in response to excitation. Fetuses of a group of 9 volunteer women (mean gestational age, 33.37 weeks; range, 25-40 weeks) were evaluated for body movement under 3 different conditions: (1) control, with no ultrasound exposure; (2) ultrasound in continuous wave Doppler mode; and (3) pulsed ultrasound in pulsed Doppler and B modes. A conventional external fetal monitor, with negligible ultrasonic output, was used to monitor fetal gross body motions. After an initial rest period of 3 minutes with 1 or no fetal motion, fetuses were monitored for an additional 3 minutes under the exposure criterion defined for each condition. Resulting fetal motions under the 3 conditions were compared using the Wilcoxon signed rank test. The test showed that fetuses moved significantly more frequently under condition 3 (mean +/- SD, 3.43 +/- 1.93 movements per minute) than under condition 1 (0.40 +/- 7.33 movements per minute) or condition 2 (0.63 +/- 7.67 movements per minute); P = .004 and .016, respectively. Fetal movements under conditions 1 and 2 did not differ significantly. Diagnostic ultrasound may stimulate fetal body motion.

  15. MRI of fetal acquired brain lesions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prayer, Daniela; Brugger, Peter C.; Kasprian, Gregor; Witzani, Linde; Helmer, Hanns; Dietrich, Wolfgang; Eppel, Wolfgang; Langer, Martin

    2006-01-01

    Acquired fetal brain damage is suspected in cases of destruction of previously normally formed tissue, the primary cause of which is hypoxia. Fetal brain damage may occur as a consequence of acute or chronic maternal diseases, with acute diseases causing impairment of oxygen delivery to the fetal brain, and chronic diseases interfering with normal, placental development. Infections, metabolic diseases, feto-fetal transfusion syndrome, toxic agents, mechanical traumatic events, iatrogenic accidents, and space-occupying lesions may also qualify as pathologic conditions that initiate intrauterine brain damage. MR manifestations of acute fetal brain injury (such as hemorrhage or acute ischemic lesions) can easily be recognized, as they are hardly different from postnatal lesions. The availability of diffusion-weighted sequences enhances the sensitivity in recognizing acute ischemic lesions. Recent hemorrhages are usually readily depicted on T2 (*) sequences, where they display hypointense signals. Chronic fetal brain injury may be characterized by nonspecific changes that must be attributable to the presence of an acquired cerebral pathology. The workup in suspected acquired fetal brain injury also includes the assessment of extra-CNS organs that may be affected by an underlying pathology. Finally, the placenta, as the organ that mediates oxygen delivery from the maternal circulation to the fetus, must be examined on MR images

  16. Fetal Primary Cardiac Tumors During Perinatal Period

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shi-Min Yuan

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Fetal primary cardiac tumors are rare, but they may cause complications, which are sometimes life threatening, including arrhythmias, hydrops fetalis, ventricular outflow/inflow obstruction, cardiac failure, and even sudden death. Among fetal primary cardiac tumors, rhabdomyomas are most common, followed by teratomas, fibromas, hemangiomas, and myxomas. Everolimus, a mammalian target of rapamycin inhibitor, has been reported to be an effective drug to cause tumor remission in three neonates with multiple cardiac rhabdomyomas. Neonatal cardiac surgery for the resection of primary cardiac tumors found by fetal echocardiography has been reported sporadically. However, open fetal surgery for pericardial teratoma resection, which was performed successfully via a fetal median sternotomy in one case report, could be a promising intervention to rescue these patients with large pericardial effusions. These recent achievements undoubtedly encourage further development in early management of fetal cardiac tumors. Owing to the rarity of fetal primary cardiac tumors, relevant information in terms of prenatal diagnosis, treatment, and prognosis remains to be clarified.

  17. First Trimester Fetal Gender Assignment by Ultrasound

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sabahattin Altunyurt

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To investigate the efficiency of genital tubercule angle on detecting fetal gender in first trimester by ultrasonography. Material-Method: Fetal sex assignment by ultrasound was carried out in 172 pregnancies at 11-13+6 weeks between 2007 June and 2007 December. Gestational age was determined by the measurement of crown-rump length (CRL. The ultrasound predictions were compared with actual sex at birth. Mid-sagittal planes of a section of the fetal genital tubercle were performed to identify the gender. Results: 155 of 172 patients’ data were achieved. The overall success rate was 92.3 % in sonographic assignment of fetal sex. The correct assignment rate in female fetuses was significantly higher than males (95.9 % - 88.8 % [p=0,001]. The correct identification of fetal sex improved with advancing gestational age from 89.3 % between 11-11+6 weeks, 92.5 % between 12-12+6 weeks and 93.4 % between 13-13+6 weeks (p=0,96. Conclusion: The fetal sex assignment by ultrasonography between 11-13+6 weeks had high success rate. The sensitivity of fetal sex assignment was not affected with fetus position and gestational age.

  18. MRI of fetal acquired brain lesions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Prayer, Daniela [Department of Radiodiagnostics, Medical University of Vienna (Austria)]. E-mail: daniela.prayer@meduniwien.ac.at; Brugger, Peter C. [Center of Anatomy and Cell Biology, Medical University of Vienna (Austria); Kasprian, Gregor [Department of Radiodiagnostics, Medical University of Vienna (Austria); Witzani, Linde [Department of Radiodiagnostics, Medical University of Vienna (Austria); Helmer, Hanns [Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Medical University of Vienna (Austria); Dietrich, Wolfgang [Department of Neurosurgery, Medical University of Vienna (Austria); Eppel, Wolfgang [Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Medical University of Vienna (Austria); Langer, Martin [Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Medical University of Vienna (Austria)

    2006-02-15

    Acquired fetal brain damage is suspected in cases of destruction of previously normally formed tissue, the primary cause of which is hypoxia. Fetal brain damage may occur as a consequence of acute or chronic maternal diseases, with acute diseases causing impairment of oxygen delivery to the fetal brain, and chronic diseases interfering with normal, placental development. Infections, metabolic diseases, feto-fetal transfusion syndrome, toxic agents, mechanical traumatic events, iatrogenic accidents, and space-occupying lesions may also qualify as pathologic conditions that initiate intrauterine brain damage. MR manifestations of acute fetal brain injury (such as hemorrhage or acute ischemic lesions) can easily be recognized, as they are hardly different from postnatal lesions. The availability of diffusion-weighted sequences enhances the sensitivity in recognizing acute ischemic lesions. Recent hemorrhages are usually readily depicted on T2 (*) sequences, where they display hypointense signals. Chronic fetal brain injury may be characterized by nonspecific changes that must be attributable to the presence of an acquired cerebral pathology. The workup in suspected acquired fetal brain injury also includes the assessment of extra-CNS organs that may be affected by an underlying pathology. Finally, the placenta, as the organ that mediates oxygen delivery from the maternal circulation to the fetus, must be examined on MR images.

  19. Metabolic fate of cinmethylin in goat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Woodward, M.D.; Stearns, S.M.; Lee, P.W.

    1989-01-01

    The metabolic fate of [phenyl- 14 C]cinmethylin (1), a novel cineole herbicide, in a lactating goat was examined. The test animal was administered four consecutive daily doses equivalent to approximately 100 ppm cinmethylin in the daily diet. The animal was sacrificed 6 h after the last dosing. A rapid and extensive metabolism of cinmethylin was observed. The major route of elimination was via urine: 40% of the administered dose and feces (20%). [ 14 C]Carbon dioxide or radioactive material in the respired air and residual radioactivity in the digestive tract were not monitored. A complex degradation pattern in the excreta and liver tissue was observed. In addition to the undegraded cinmethylin, recovered only in the feces, at least 25 metabolites were isolated and identified as both organic-extractable and conjugated products. They were classified as mono-, di-, trihydroxylated, dehydrated, carboxylated, methoxylated, and ether linkage cleavage products. The level of 14 C residues in the milk and tissues was low and combined to account for less than 1% of the administered radioactivity

  20. Quantitative determination of casein genetic variants in goat milk: Application in Girgentana dairy goat breed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montalbano, Maria; Segreto, Roberta; Di Gerlando, Rosalia; Mastrangelo, Salvatore; Sardina, Maria Teresa

    2016-02-01

    The study was conducted to develop a high-performance liquid chromatographic (HPLC) method to quantify casein genetic variants (αs2-, β-, and κ-casein) in milk of homozygous individuals of Girgentana goat breed. For calibration experiments, pure genetic variants were extracted from individual milk samples of animals with known genotypes. The described HPLC approach was precise, accurate and highly suitable for quantification of goat casein genetic variants of homozygous individuals. The amount of each casein per allele was: αs2-casein A = 2.9 ± 0.8 g/L and F = 1.8 ± 0.4 g/L; β-casein C = 3.0 ± 0.8 g/L and C1 = 2.0 ± 0.7 g/L and κ-casein A = 1.6 ± 0.3 g/L and B = 1.1 ± 0.2 g/L. A good correlation was found between the quantities of αs2-casein genetic variants A and F, and β-casein C and C1 with other previously described method. The main important result was obtained for κ-casein because, till now, no data were available on quantification of single genetic variants for this protein. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Genetic profile of scrapie codons 146, 211 and 222 in the PRNP gene locus in three breeds of dairy goats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vouraki, Sotiria; Gelasakis, Athanasios I; Alexandri, Panoraia; Boukouvala, Evridiki; Ekateriniadou, Loukia V; Banos, Georgios; Arsenos, Georgios

    2018-01-01

    Polymorphisms at PRNP gene locus have been associated with resistance against classical scrapie in goats. Genetic selection on this gene within appropriate breeding programs may contribute to the control of the disease. The present study characterized the genetic profile of codons 146, 211 and 222 in three dairy goat breeds in Greece. A total of 766 dairy goats from seven farms were used. Animals belonged to two indigenous Greek, Eghoria (n = 264) and Skopelos (n = 287) and a foreign breed, Damascus (n = 215). Genomic DNA was extracted from blood samples from individual animals. Polymorphisms were detected in these codons using Real-Time PCR analysis and four different Custom TaqMan® SNP Genotyping Assays. Genotypic, allelic and haplotypic frequencies were calculated based on individual animal genotypes. Chi-square tests were used to examine Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium state and compare genotypic distribution across breeds. Genetic distances among the three breeds, and between these and 30 breeds reared in other countries were estimated based on haplotypic frequencies using fixation index FST with Arlequin v3.1 software; a Neighbor-Joining tree was created using PHYLIP package v3.695. Level of statistical significance was set at P = 0.01. All scrapie resistance-associated alleles (146S, 146D, 211Q and 222K) were detected in the studied population. Significant frequency differences were observed between the indigenous Greek and Damascus breeds. Alleles 222K and 146S had the highest frequency in the two indigenous and the Damascus breed, respectively (ca. 6.0%). The studied breeds shared similar haplotypic frequencies with most South Italian and Turkish breeds but differed significantly from North-Western European, Far East and some USA goat breeds. Results suggest there is adequate variation in the PRNP gene locus to support breeding programs for enhanced scrapie resistance in goats reared in Greece. Genetic comparisons among goat breeds indicate that separate

  2. Clinical management of parasitic gastroenteritis (PGE concurrent with moderate pneumonia in a goat: a clinical veterinary case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Faez Firdaus Abdullah Jesse

    2017-09-01

    Materials and methods: The Jamnapari cross goat aged two years and weighing 40 Kg was presented to the Universiti Veterinary Hospital, Universiti Putra Malaysia with the history of diarrhea and depression. The goat was examined physically. Blood and fecal samples were collected for complete blood count, serum biochemistry analysis and parasitological examination. Standard treatment plan was applied for the correction of the the problem. Results: Physical examination findings revealed the goat was in poor body condition, dull and depressed. Wet and dry fecal traces were observed around the groin region. The temperature was slightly elevated (39.5°C, the heart rate was increased (160 b/min while other parameters were within normal range. Upon auscultation of the thoracic region, moderate crackle lung sound was determined. Visual observation of the nasal cavity indicated a bilateral mucopurulent nasal discharge. The hemogram result revealed evidence of a normocytic normochromic anemia, leukocytosis, neutrophilia with left shift and monocytosis. Serum biochemistry revealed increases in gamma-glutamyl transferase (GGT, sodium, chloride, creatine kinase (CK, and hyperglobulinemia. Fecal examination revealed increased in Strongyle egg count of about 2,700 eggs per gram of feces using the Modified Mcmaster technique. From the history, physical examination and laboratory findings the goat was diagnosed with clinical parasitic gastroenteritis (PGE concurrent with moderate pneumonia infection. The therapeutic plan for this case were 45 mL of kaolin-pectin (30 mL/Kg body weight orally SID for 3 days as anti-diarrhea, 12 mL Levamisole (12 mg/Kg bwt was administered orally once as anthelminthic, fluid therapy was instituted using 1.5 L of Lactated Ringers’ solution once via intravenously. Trimethoprim-Sulfamethoxazole (1 mL/16 Kg bwt was administered intramuscularly SID for 3 days. Conclusion: Follow up examination of the goat a week post treatment indicated a good prognosis

  3. 78 FR 15645 - Mandatory Country of Origin Labeling of Beef, Pork, Lamb, Chicken, Goat Meat, Wild and Farm...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-12

    ... Labeling of Beef, Pork, Lamb, Chicken, Goat Meat, Wild and Farm-Raised Fish and Shellfish, Perishable...), lamb, chicken, goat, and pork; ground beef, ground lamb, ground chicken, ground goat, and ground pork... The baseline for this analysis is the present state of the beef, chicken, goat, lamb and pork...

  4. Genetic characterization of Istrian goat: the key-point for a long-term conservation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ante Ivanković

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Istrian goat is an autochthonous Croatian breed which inhabited Istrian peninsula and was important in milk production and human nutrition, especially for poor people. For centuries Istrian goat was a recognizable heraldic symbol of Istria, but in her real form almost disappeared from the breeding area. The revitalization and reaffirmation of Istrian goat began with several dozen remaining breeding animals, after a decade-long breeding ban. Genetic characterization of the Istrian goat population is necessary for providing insight into the state of genetically preserved structure within population as well as positioning Istrian goats within phylogenetically related breeds. Microsatellite and mtDNA analysis of reproductive individuals of Istrian goat and related breeds, Croatian White goat and Saanen goat was carried out. In the population of Istrian goat, higher allelic variability (nA = 9.7; AR = 7.4 were found as well as significant genetic distance (FST = 0.068 - 0.086 in relation to other two breeds. Such results indicated that Istrian goat constitutes a separate genetic identity. The observed ten haplotype sequences of the D-loop mtDNA also confirm the significant genetic richness of the maternal hereditary component. The observed haplotypes in the population of Istrian goat belong to lineage A. A smaller number of haplotypes shows similarity to the group of “white” goats, indicating traces of earlier limited but targeted crossing of Istrian goats. The genetic profile analysis of Istrian goats indicates a high level of genetic variability and provides guidelines for a long-term conservation program. The preserved genetic and promising potential of milk production of Istrian goat makes a significant basis for her economic reaffirmation. Orientation of the breed towards milk production could be an efficient strategy for its effective preservation.

  5. Goats in the city: prevalence of Giardia duodenalis and Cryptosporidium spp. in extensively reared goats in northern India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Utaaker, Kjersti Selstad; Myhr, Nina; Bajwa, Rajinder Singh; Joshi, Himanshu; Kumar, Anil; Robertson, Lucy J

    2017-12-22

    Various characteristics of goats mean they are highly suitable livestock for backyard rearing by people with limited resources. They are a popular livestock choice in India, where they are often kept to supplement an already scarce income. In these settings, hygiene and sanitation standards tend to be low, and weakens the interface between humans and animals, thus reducing the barrier between them and thereby increasing the likelihood that zoonotic and anthroponotic infections will occur. This study reports an investigation of the occurrence of Cryptosporidium spp. and Giardia duodenalis in goats being reared in different settings in urban and peri-urban areas in northern India, and addressed the zoonotic potential of these important protozoan parasites shed from goats living close to humans. The overall prevalence of G. duodenalis was 33.8 and 0.5% for Cryptosporidium spp.; the relatively low prevalence of cryptosporidiosis may reflect that most samples were derived from adult animals. The prevalence of G. duodenalis excretion was found to be similar to that reported in other studies. However, although other studies have reported a predominance of non-zoonotic Assemblage E in goats, in this study potentially zoonotic Assemblages predominated [Assemblage A (36%) and Assemblage B (32%)]. The results of this study indicate that in this area where goats and humans are living in close proximity, there may be sharing of intestinal parasites, which can be detrimental for both host species.

  6. Advanced MRI techniques of the fetal brain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schoepf, V.; Dittrich, E.; Berger-Kulemann, V.; Kasprian, G.; Kollndorfer, K.; Prayer, D.

    2013-01-01

    Evaluation of the normal and pathological fetal brain. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Advanced MRI of the fetal brain. Diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) is used in clinical practice, all other methods are used at a research level. Serving as standard methods in the future. Combined structural and functional data for all gestational ages will allow more specific insight into the developmental processes of the fetal brain. This gain of information will help provide a common understanding of complex spatial and temporal procedures of early morphological features and their impact on cognitive and sensory abilities. (orig.) [de

  7. Fetal abuse and neglect: an emerging controversy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landwirth, J

    1987-04-01

    Advances in fetal medicine have expanded opportunities for protection of fetal health and intrauterine management of an increasing number of fetal disorders. The legal rights and duties of parents to provide necessary medical treatment for the child may extend to the prenatal period. Resolution of the conflict between the rights of the fetus to be born healthy and the pregnant woman's right of privacy is difficult and controversial. It is suggested that intrusion into a woman's individual fundamental rights for the potential benefit of her fetus should be permissible only in narrowly defined circumstances.

  8. Ultrasonic fetal size measurements in Brisbane, Australia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schluter, P.J.; Pritchard, G.; Gill, M.A.

    2004-01-01

    The purpose of this paper was to construct population-specific charts of fetal biometry for 11-41 weeks gestation in relation to known gestational age from a large population of normal Australian pregnancies when examination is performed to a standard protocol by experienced operators. All consenting eligible women attending a large Brisbane clinic between January 1993 and April 2003 were recruited. Menstrual history was taken prior to examination. Measurements were performed to a standard protocol. Prospective assessment was made about the association between gestational age from the last menstrual period and biometry. Exclusion principles were applied. Statistical analyses were performed using polynomial regression models and thorough diagnostic checks were undertaken. Included within the study were separate scans for 20 555 pregnancies from 17 660 women. Equations, means and 95th reference intervals were derived and reported for the following sonographic measurements: biparietal diameter (BPD), head circumference (HC), abdominal circumference (AC) and femur length (FL). Population-specific regression equations for BPD, HC, AC and FL have been proposed for Australian pregnancies. Once validated by others, we believe they will warrant consideration for adoption by the Australasian Society for Ultrasound in Medicine. Copyright (2004) Blackwell Publishing Asia Pty Ltd

  9. Experimental intoxication of pregnant goats with Tetrapterys multiglandulosa A. Juss. (Malpighiaceae Intoxicação experimental por Tetrapterys multiglandulosa A. Juss. (Malpighiaceae em cabras gestantes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.M. Melo

    2001-02-01

    Full Text Available Green leaves of Tetrapterys multiglandulosa A. Juss were fed to pregnant goats from day 35 of pregnancy. Five goats received 10g/kgBW (group I, five received 20g/kgBW (group II and five were used as control (group III, and received only hay, fresh grass and commercial ration. All animals were clinically examined daily and submitted to ultrasonography every three days. Fetal death and vulvar catarrhal discharge with subsequent abortion were observed at the end of the second month of pregnancy in group II and at the third month of pregnancy in group I. Animals from groups I and II were slaughtered after abortion and necropsied. Goats from the control group were necropsied at the same time. The main lesions in the aborted goats were focal placentitis with early involution (apoptosis and placentary coagulation necrosis, acute focal endometritis and vulvo-vaginal petechiae. All aborted fetuses were underdeveloped when compared to control fetuses, probably due to fetal malnutrition, since no congenital malformations could be noted. The majority of aborted fetuses showed some degree of autolysis, as fetal death occurred five and three days before abortion, in groups I and II, respectively. The most remarkable fetal lesions were focal or diffuse hemorrhages in the skin, meninges and visceral serosae.Com o objetivo de investigar a toxicidade da Tetrapterys multiglandulosa A. Juss. foram utilizadas 15 cabras gestantes, divididas aleatoriamente em três grupos (GI, GII e GIII com cinco animais cada. Após estabelecer o diagnóstico de gestação no tempo médio de 35 dias, eram oferecidas diariamente doses de 10 e 20g/kg PV das folhas (jovens e maduras de Tetrapterys multiglandulosa para os grupos I e II, respectivamente, junto ao capim picado, feno e concentrado. Para o grupo III, usado como controle, foram fornecidos somente capim picado, feno e concentrado. Todos os animais foram submetidos a exames clínicos diários e a ultra-sonografia a cada tr

  10. Necrotizing granulomatous pneumonia caused by fungal infection in a goat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wapf, P.; Braun, U.; Ossent, P.; Scharf, G.

    2011-01-01

    This case report describes the clinical and postmortem findings in a 2.5-year-old goat with necrotizing granulomatous pneumonia. The goat was referred to our clinic because of swelling of the head and neck, which was unresponsive to treatment, dysphagia, and deterioration in general condition. Thoracic radiographs showed two soft tissue densities, about 10 cm in diameter, in the left caudodorsal lung. The goat was euthanized and a necropsy was carried out. The two lesions in the left caudodorsal lung were round, firm and clearly demarcated from the surrounding lung tissue. They contained purulent material and compromised about 70 % of the diaphragmatic lung lobe. Histological examination of the lesions revealed a dense network of hyphae characteristic of Mucorales spp

  11. Reproductive performance of the Saanen goat in China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Jianchen; Duan Enkui; Huang Qunshan; Hao Zhiming; Wu Hao

    1991-01-01

    Reproductive endocrinology of Saanen dairy goats in China was studied during puberty, pregnancy, parturition and different breeding seasons. The effect of controlled release melatonin (CRM) on ovarian function in the non-breeding season was also evaluated. The average pubertal live weight, age and length of the pubertal oestrous cycle were 10.2 kg, 54.7 days and 8.3 days, respectively. The average length of pregnancy was 150.6 days. Diurnal changes of plasma concentrations of 17β-oestradiol, cortisol and progesterone during pregnancy and parturition are described. The breeding season began in the middle of August for adult Saanen goats. No significant differences were observed in 17β-oestradiol and progesterone concentrations in the milk of goats treated with CRM during June in the non-breeding season. (author). 18 refs, 5 figs, 2 tabs

  12. The immunogenic effect of irradiated Hemonchus contortus larvae in goats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    de la Cruz, B.; Perfuse, W.

    1980-01-01

    The development of radiation-attenuated vaccines against parasitic disease has been reported in literature. The use of irradiated larvae as vaccines enables one to take advantage of the special immunological properties of living parasites; the radiation treatment can largely suppress the pathogenic effects of the vaccines and the reproductive capacity of the parasites involved. This report deals with our attempts to produce a radiation-attenuated vaccine against Hemonchus contortus infection in adult goats. Hemonchus contortus infection in ruminants is prevalent in the Philippines, especially among cattle and goats. The results presented indicate that a certain degree of resistance against Hemonchus contortus infection can be induced in adult goats immunized with irradiated larvae. The shelf-life of the vaccine was also determined. (author)

  13. Cassava dreg as replacement of corn in goat kid diets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferraz, Lucíola Vilarim; Guim, Adriana; Véras, Robson Magno Liberal; de Carvalho, Francisco Fernando Ramos; de Freitas, Marciela Thais Dino

    2018-02-01

    The effects of corn replacement by cassava dreg in diets of crossbred goat kids were evaluated. We tested the impacts of 0, 33, 66 and 100% replacement on intake, digestibility, feeding behaviour, performance and carcass characteristics. Thirty-six goat kids, aged between 4 and 5 months and with initial body weights of 17.61 ± 1.98 kg, were used in a completely randomised design. Analysis of regression revealed a negative linear effect on neutral detergent fibre (NDF) intake and a positive linear effect on non-fibrous carbohydrates (NFC) and hydrocyanic acids (HCN) intake. Cassava dreg use had a positive linear effect on organic matter digestibility and non-fibrous carbohydrates. Based on our results, cassava dreg use did not negatively impact animal performance, feeding behaviour and carcass characteristics, suggesting that it may replace corn up to 100% in the diets of confined goat kids.

  14. Consumer Willingness to Pay a Premium for Halal Goat Meat: A Case from Atlanta, Georgia

    OpenAIRE

    Ibrahim, Mohammed

    2011-01-01

    The growth in goat meat demand is attributed to the influx of immigrants from goat-meat-eating countries into the U.S. This Paper examines the willingness to pay a premium for halal goat meat. The factors that significantly impact the willingness to pay a premium for halal goat meat in Atlanta include income, current consumption, household size, and marital status. Results suggest that the mean willingness to pay a premium for the halal attribute is 50 cents per pound of goat meat.

  15. Effects of electrical stimulation on meat quality of lamb and goat meat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cetin, Omer; Bingol, Enver Baris; Colak, Hilal; Hampikyan, Hamparsun

    2012-01-01

    Effect of various voltage of electrical stimulation (ES) on meat quality of lamb and goat was investigated by using a total of 36 animals at 3-5 years old. Constant 50 Hz frequency and 50, 100, and 250 V, 90 sec of ES were administered to 1/2 carcasses and were examined according their textural, physicochemical, and sensorial characteristics. ES decreased the pH values of lamb and goat meat, and accelerated the rigor mortis (P goat meat, and tenderness was improved depending on voltage range used (P goat meat compared with the control groups (P meat quality of lamb and goat, in contrast to undesirable consumer preferences.

  16. A Pilot Study of Halal Goat-Meat Consumption in Atlanta, Georgia

    OpenAIRE

    Ibrahim, Mohammed; Liu, Xuanli; Nelson, Mack C.

    2008-01-01

    Atlanta is a relatively large market for goat meat. As in most metropolitan areas around the U.S., goat-meat consumption has grown steadily in Atlanta over the past decade (Northwest Cooperative Development Center 2005; Nettles and Bukenya 2004). This growth is attributed to the influx of immigrants from goat-meat-eating countries into the U.S. over the same period (Gipson 1999). The increase in demand for goat meat has made the U.S. a net importer of competitively priced goat meat from Austr...

  17. A robust physiology-based source separation method for QRS detection in low amplitude fetal ECG recordings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vullings, R; Bergmans, J W M; Peters, C H L; Hermans, M J M; Wijn, P F F; Oei, S G

    2010-01-01

    The use of the non-invasively obtained fetal electrocardiogram (ECG) in fetal monitoring is complicated by the low signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) of ECG signals. Even after removal of the predominant interference (i.e. the maternal ECG), the SNR is generally too low for medical diagnostics, and hence additional signal processing is still required. To this end, several methods for exploiting the spatial correlation of multi-channel fetal ECG recordings from the maternal abdomen have been proposed in the literature, of which principal component analysis (PCA) and independent component analysis (ICA) are the most prominent. Both PCA and ICA, however, suffer from the drawback that they are blind source separation (BSS) techniques and as such suboptimum in that they do not consider a priori knowledge on the abdominal electrode configuration and fetal heart activity. In this paper we propose a source separation technique that is based on the physiology of the fetal heart and on the knowledge of the electrode configuration. This technique operates by calculating the spatial fetal vectorcardiogram (VCG) and approximating the VCG for several overlayed heartbeats by an ellipse. By subsequently projecting the VCG onto the long axis of this ellipse, a source signal of the fetal ECG can be obtained. To evaluate the developed technique, its performance is compared to that of both PCA and ICA and to that of augmented versions of these techniques (aPCA and aICA; PCA and ICA applied on preprocessed signals) in generating a fetal ECG source signal with enhanced SNR that can be used to detect fetal QRS complexes. The evaluation shows that the developed source separation technique performs slightly better than aPCA and aICA and outperforms PCA and ICA and has the main advantage that, with respect to aPCA/PCA and aICA/ICA, it performs more robustly. This advantage renders it favorable for employment in automated, real-time fetal monitoring applications

  18. Cumulative Effective Hölder Exponent Based Indicator for Real-Time Fetal Heartbeat Analysis during Labour

    Science.gov (United States)

    Struzik, Zbigniew R.; van Wijngaarden, Willem J.

    We introduce a special purpose cumulative indicator, capturing in real time the cumulative deviation from the reference level of the exponent h (local roughness, Hölder exponent) of the fetal heartbeat during labour. We verify that the indicator applied to the variability component of the heartbeat coincides with the fetal outcome as determined by blood samples. The variability component is obtained from running real time decomposition of fetal heartbeat into independent components using an adaptation of an oversampled Haar wavelet transform. The particular filters used and resolutions applied are motivated by obstetricial insight/practice. The methodology described has the potential for real-time monitoring of the fetus during labour and for the prediction of the fetal outcome, allerting the attending staff in the case of (threatening) hypoxia.

  19. Genetic Resistance to Scrapie Infection in Experimentally Challenged Goats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lacroux, Caroline; Perrin-Chauvineau, Cécile; Corbière, Fabien; Aron, Naima; Aguilar-Calvo, Patricia; Torres, Juan Maria; Costes, Pierrette; Brémaud, Isabelle; Lugan, Séverine; Schelcher, François; Barillet, Francis

    2014-01-01

    In goats, several field studies have identified coding mutations of the gene encoding the prion protein (I/M142, N/D146, S/D146, R/Q211, and Q/K222) that are associated with a lower risk of developing classical scrapie. However, the data related to the levels of resistance to transmissible spongiform encephalopathies (TSEs) of these different PRNP gene mutations are still considered insufficient for developing large-scale genetic selection against scrapie in this species. In this study, we inoculated wild-type (WT) PRNP (I142R154R211Q222) goats and homozygous and/or heterozygous I/M142, R/H154, R/Q211, and Q/K222 goats with a goat natural scrapie isolate by either the oral or the intracerebral (i.c.) route. Our results indicate that the I/M142 PRNP polymorphism does not provide substantial resistance to scrapie infection following intracerebral or oral inoculation. They also demonstrate that H154, Q211, and K222 PRNP allele carriers are all resistant to scrapie infection following oral exposure. However, in comparison to WT animals, the H154 and Q211 allele carriers displayed only moderate increases in the incubation period following i.c. challenge. After i.c. challenge, heterozygous K222 and a small proportion of homozygous K222 goats also developed the disease, but with incubation periods that were 4 to 5 times longer than those in WT animals. These results support the contention that the K222 goat prion protein variant provides a strong but not absolutely protective effect against classical scrapie. PMID:24284317

  20. Real-Time Automatic Fetal Brain Extraction in Fetal MRI by Deep Learning

    OpenAIRE

    Salehi, Seyed Sadegh Mohseni; Hashemi, Seyed Raein; Velasco-Annis, Clemente; Ouaalam, Abdelhakim; Estroff, Judy A.; Erdogmus, Deniz; Warfield, Simon K.; Gholipour, Ali

    2017-01-01

    Brain segmentation is a fundamental first step in neuroimage analysis. In the case of fetal MRI, it is particularly challenging and important due to the arbitrary orientation of the fetus, organs that surround the fetal head, and intermittent fetal motion. Several promising methods have been proposed but are limited in their performance in challenging cases and in real-time segmentation. We aimed to develop a fully automatic segmentation method that independently segments sections of the feta...