WorldWideScience

Sample records for fescue root extracts

  1. Development of a fescue toxicosis model using a fescue seed extract

    Science.gov (United States)

    This study was designed to examine the efficacy of a fescue seed extract for inducing fescue toxicosis in cattle. Four growing Holstein steers (BW = 309±36kg) surgically fitted with ruminal cannulas were utilized in a four phase crossover design experiment. The basal diet consisted of endophyte fr...

  2. Tall fescue seed extraction and partial purification of ergot alkaloids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lowell eBush

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Many substances in the tall fescue/endophyte association (Schedonorus arundinaceus/Epichloë coenophiala have biological activity. Of these compounds only the ergot alkaloids are known to have significant mammalian toxicity and the predominant ergot alkaloids are ergovaline and ergovalinine. Because synthetically produced ergovaline is difficult to obtain, we developed a seed extraction and partial purification protocol for ergovaline/ergovalinine that provided a biologically active product. Tall fescue seed was ground and packed into several different sized columns for liquid extraction. Smaller particle size and increased extraction time increased efficiency of extraction. Our largest column was a 114 × 52 × 61 cm (W×L×D stainless steel tub. Approximately 150 kg of seed could be extracted in this tub. The extraction was done with 80% ethanol. When the solvent front migrated to bottom of the column, flow was stopped and seed was allowed to steep for at least 48 h. Light was excluded from the solvent from the beginning of this step to the end of the purification process. Following elution, ethanol was removed from the eluate by evaporation at room temperature. Resulting syrup was freeze-dried. About 80% recovery of alkaloids was achieved with 18-fold increase in concentration of ergovaline. Initial purification of the dried product was accomplished by extracting with hexane/water (6:1, v/v and the hexane fraction was discarded. The aqueous fraction was extracted with chloroform, the aqueous layer discarded, after which the chloroform was removed with a resulting 20-fold increase of ergovaline. About 65% of the ergovaline was recovered from the chloroform residue for an overall recovery of 50%. The resultant partially purified ergovaline had biological activities in in vivo and in vitro bovine bioassays that approximate that of synthetic ergovaline.

  3. Tall fescue seed extraction and partial purification of ergot alkaloids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ji, Huihua; Fannin, F; Klotz, J; Bush, Lowell

    2014-01-01

    Many substances in the tall fescue/endophyte association (Schedonorus arundinaceus/Epichloë coenophiala) have biological activity. Of these compounds only the ergot alkaloids are known to have significant mammalian toxicity and the predominant ergot alkaloids are ergovaline and ergovalinine. Because synthetically produced ergovaline is difficult to obtain, we developed a seed extraction and partial purification protocol for ergovaline/ergovalinine that provided a biologically active product. Tall fescue seed was ground and packed into several different sized columns for liquid extraction. Smaller particle size and increased extraction time increased efficiency of extraction. Our largest column was a 114 × 52 × 61 cm (W × L × D) stainless steel tub. Approximately 150 kg of seed could be extracted in this tub. The extraction was done with 80% ethanol. When the solvent front migrated to bottom of the column, flow was stopped and seed was allowed to steep for at least 48 h. Light was excluded from the solvent from the beginning of this step to the end of the purification process. Following elution, ethanol was removed from the eluate by evaporation at room temperature and the resulting syrup was freeze-dried. About 80% recovery of alkaloids was achieved with 18-fold increase in concentration of ergovaline. Initial purification of the dried product was accomplished by extracting with hexane/water (6:1, v/v). The aqueous fraction was extracted with chloroform, the aqueous layer discarded, after which the chloroform was removed with a resulting 20-fold increase of ergovaline. About 65% of the ergovaline was recovered from the chloroform residue for an overall recovery of 50%. The resultant partially purified ergovaline had biological activities in in vivo and in vitro bovine bioassays that approximate that of synthetic ergovaline.

  4. Tall fescue seed extraction and partial purification of ergot alkaloids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bush, Lowell

    2014-12-01

    Many substances in the tall fescue/endophyte association (Schedonorus arundinaceus/Epichloë coenophiala) have biological activity. Of these compounds only the ergot alkaloids are known to have significant mammalian toxicity and the predominant ergot alkaloids are ergovaline and ergovalinine. Because synthetically produced ergovaline is difficult to obtain, we developed a seed extraction and partial purification protocol for ergovaline/ergovalinine that provided a biologically active product. Tall fescue seed was ground and packed into several different sized columns for liquid extraction. Smaller particle size and increased extraction time increased efficiency of extraction. Our largest column was a 114 × 52 × 61 cm (W×L×D) stainless steel tub. Approximately 150 kg of seed could be extracted in this tub. The extraction was done with 80% ethanol. When the solvent front migrated to bottom of the column, flow was stopped and seed was allowed to steep for at least 48 h. Light was excluded from the solvent from the beginning of this step to the end of the purification process. Following elution, ethanol was removed from the eluate by evaporation at room temperature. Resulting syrup was freeze-dried. About 80% recovery of alkaloids was achieved with 18-fold increase in concentration of ergovaline. Initial purification of the dried product was accomplished by extracting with hexane/water (6:1, v/v) and the hexane fraction was discarded. The aqueous fraction was extracted with chloroform, the aqueous layer discarded, after which the chloroform was removed with a resulting 20-fold increase of ergovaline. About 65% of the ergovaline was recovered from the chloroform residue for an overall recovery of 50%. The resultant partially purified ergovaline had biological activities in in vivo and in vitro bovine bioassays that approximate that of synthetic ergovaline.

  5. Tall fescue cultivar and fungal endophyte combinations influence plant growth and root exudate composition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Jingqi; McCulley, Rebecca L; McNear, David H

    2015-01-01

    Tall fescue [Lolium arundinaceum (Schreb.)] is a cool-season perennial grass used in pastures throughout the Southeastern United States. The grass can harbor a shoot-specific fungal endophyte (Epichloë coenophiala) thought to provide the plant with enhanced resistance to biotic and abiotic stresses. Because alkaloids produced by the common variety of the endophyte cause severe animal health issues, focus has been on replacing the common-toxic strain with novel varieties that do not produce the mammal-toxic alkaloids but maintain abiotic and biotic stress tolerance benefits. Little attention has been given to the influence of the plant-fungal symbiosis on rhizosphere processes. Therefore, our objective was to study the influence of this relationship on plant biomass production and root exudate composition in tall fescue cultivars PDF and 97TF1, which were either not infected with the endophyte (E-), infected with the common toxic endophyte (CTE+) strain or with one of two novel endophytes (AR542E+, AR584E+). Plants were grown sterile for 3 weeks after which plant biomass, total organic carbon, total phenolic content and detailed chemical composition of root exudates were determined. Plant biomass production and exudate phenolic and organic carbon content were influenced by endophyte status, tall fescue cultivar, and their interaction. GC-TOF MS identified 132 compounds, including lipids, carbohydrates and carboxylic acids. Cluster analysis showed that the interaction between endophyte and cultivar resulted in unique exudate profiles. This is the first detailed study to assess how endophyte infection, notably with novel endophytes, and tall fescue cultivar interact to influence root exudate composition. Our results illustrate that tall fescue cultivar and endophyte status can influence plant growth and root exudate composition, which may help explain the observed influence of this symbiosis on rhizosphere biogeochemical processes.

  6. Tall fescue cultivar and fungal endophyte combinations influence plant growth and root exudate composition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jingqi eGuo

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Tall fescue (Lolium arundinaceum (Schreb. is a cool-season perennial grass used in pastures throughout the Southeastern United States. The grass can harbor a shoot-specific fungal endophyte (Epichloë coenophiala thought to provide the plant with enhanced resistance to biotic and abiotic stresses. Because alkaloids produced by the common variety of the endophyte cause severe animal health issues, focus has been on replacing the common-toxic strain with novel varieties that do not produce the mammal-toxic alkaloids but maintain abiotic and biotic stress tolerance benefits. Little attention has been given to the influence of the plant-fungal symbiosis on rhizosphere processes. Therefore, our objective was to study the influence of this relationship on plant biomass production and root exudate composition in tall fescue cultivars PDF and 97TF1, which were either not infected with the endophyte (E-, infected with the common toxic endophyte (CTE+ strain or with one of two novel endophytes (AR542E+, AR584E+. Plants were grown sterile for three weeks after which plant biomass, total organic carbon, total phenolic content and detailed chemical composition of root exudates were determined. Plant biomass production and exudate phenolic and organic carbon content were influenced by endophyte status, tall fescue cultivar, and their interaction. GC-TOF MS identified 132 compounds, including lipids, carbohydrates and carboxylic acids. Cluster analysis showed that the interaction between endophyte and cultivar resulted in unique exudate profiles. This is the first detailed study to assess how endophyte infection, notably with novel endophytes, and tall fescue cultivar interact to influence root exudate composition. Our results illustrate that tall fescue cultivar and endophyte status can influence plant growth and root exudate composition, which may help explain the observed influence of this symbiosis on rhizosphere biogeochemical processes.

  7. Ruminal tryptophan-utilizing bacteria degrade ergovaline from tall fescue seed extract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harlow, B E; Goodman, J P; Lynn, B C; Flythe, M D; Ji, H; Aiken, G E

    2017-02-01

    The objectives of this study were to evaluate degradation of ergovaline in a tall fescue [ (Schreb.) Darbysh.] seed extract by rumen microbiota ex vivo and to identify specific bacteria capable of ergovaline degradation in vitro. Rumen cell suspensions were prepared by harvesting rumen fluid from fistulated wether goats ( = 3), straining, and differential centrifugation. Suspensions were dispensed into anaerobic tubes with added Trypticase with or without extract (∼10 μg kg ergovaline). Suspensions were incubated for 48 h at 39°C. Samples were collected at 0, 24, and 48 h for ergovaline analysis and enumeration of hyper-ammonia producing (HAB) and tryptophan-utilizing bacteria. Ergovaline values were analyzed by repeated measures using the mixed procedure of SAS. Enumeration data were log transformed for statistical analysis. When suspensions were incubated with extract, 11 to 15% of ergovaline disappearance was observed over 48 h ( = 0.02). After 24 h, suspensions with added extract had 10-fold less HAB than controls ( = 0.04), but treatments were similar by 48 h ( = 1.00). However, after 24 h and 48 h, suspensions with extract had 10-fold more tryptophan-utilizing bacteria ( bacteria tested did not degrade ergovaline. The results of this study indicate which rumen bacteria may play an important role in ergovaline degradation and that microbiological strategies for controlling their activity could have ramifications for fescue toxicosis and other forms of ergotism in ruminants.

  8. Ascorbic acid enhances the accumulation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs in roots of tall fescue (Festuca arundinacea Schreb..

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yanzheng Gao

    Full Text Available Plant contamination by polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs is crucial to food safety and human health. Enzyme inhibitors are commonly utilized in agriculture to control plant metabolism of organic components. This study revealed that the enzyme inhibitor ascorbic acid (AA significantly reduced the activities of peroxidase (POD and polyphenol oxidase (PPO, thus enhancing the potential risks of PAH contamination in tall fescue (Festuca arundinacea Schreb.. POD and PPO enzymes in vitro effectively decomposed naphthalene (NAP, phenanthrene (PHE and anthracene (ANT. The presence of AA reduced POD and PPO activities in plants, and thus was likely responsible for enhanced PAH accumulation in tall fescue. This conclusion is supported by the significantly enhanced uptake of PHE in plants in the presence of AA, and the positive correlation between enzyme inhibition efficiencies and the rates of metabolism of PHE in tall fescue roots. This study provides a new perspective, that the common application of enzyme inhibitors in agricultural production could increase the accumulation of organic contaminants in plants, hence enhancing risks to food safety and quality.

  9. Ascorbic acid enhances the accumulation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in roots of tall fescue (Festuca arundinacea Schreb.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Yanzheng; Li, Hui; Gong, Shuaishuai

    2012-01-01

    Plant contamination by polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) is crucial to food safety and human health. Enzyme inhibitors are commonly utilized in agriculture to control plant metabolism of organic components. This study revealed that the enzyme inhibitor ascorbic acid (AA) significantly reduced the activities of peroxidase (POD) and polyphenol oxidase (PPO), thus enhancing the potential risks of PAH contamination in tall fescue (Festuca arundinacea Schreb.). POD and PPO enzymes in vitro effectively decomposed naphthalene (NAP), phenanthrene (PHE) and anthracene (ANT). The presence of AA reduced POD and PPO activities in plants, and thus was likely responsible for enhanced PAH accumulation in tall fescue. This conclusion is supported by the significantly enhanced uptake of PHE in plants in the presence of AA, and the positive correlation between enzyme inhibition efficiencies and the rates of metabolism of PHE in tall fescue roots. This study provides a new perspective, that the common application of enzyme inhibitors in agricultural production could increase the accumulation of organic contaminants in plants, hence enhancing risks to food safety and quality.

  10. Tall fescue cultivar and fungal endophyte combinations influence plant growth and root exudate composition

    OpenAIRE

    Jingqi eGuo; Rebecca Lynne McCulley; McNear, David H.

    2015-01-01

    Tall fescue (Lolium arundinaceum (Schreb.)) is a cool-season perennial grass used in pastures throughout the Southeastern United States. The grass can harbor a shoot-specific fungal endophyte (Epichloë coenophiala) thought to provide the plant with enhanced resistance to biotic and abiotic stresses. Because alkaloids produced by the common variety of the endophyte cause severe animal health issues, focus has been on replacing the common-toxic strain with novel varieties that do not produce t...

  11. Tall fescue cultivar and fungal endophyte combinations influence plant growth and root exudate composition

    OpenAIRE

    Guo, Jingqi; Rebecca L. McCulley; McNear, David H.

    2015-01-01

    Tall fescue [Lolium arundinaceum (Schreb.)] is a cool-season perennial grass used in pastures throughout the Southeastern United States. The grass can harbor a shoot-specific fungal endophyte (Epichloë coenophiala) thought to provide the plant with enhanced resistance to biotic and abiotic stresses. Because alkaloids produced by the common variety of the endophyte cause severe animal health issues, focus has been on replacing the common-toxic strain with novel varieties that do not produce th...

  12. Effect of root death and decay on dissipation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in the rhizosphere of yellow sweet clover and tall fescue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parrish, Zakia D; Banks, M Katherine; Schwab, A Paul

    2005-01-01

    A 12-mo greenhouse study was conducted to evaluate the contribution of root death and decay on the dissipation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in rhizosphere soil. The contaminated soil was previously treated by land-farming, but residual PAHs remained after treatment. Tall fescue (Festuca arundinacea Schreb.) and yellow sweet clover (Melilotus officinalis Lam.) were the target plants. To specifically evaluate the effect of root decay on contaminant dissipation, plants were treated with glyphosate, a broad spectrum herbicide, to induce root decay. Although tall fescue treatments had the highest root and shoot biomass and root surface area, this plant did not result in the highest contaminant degradation rates. Significant differences were noted between treatments for seven PAHs, with the active yellow sweet clover resulting in 60 to 75% degradation of these compounds. Induced root death and decay did not produce a significant enhancement of PAH degradation. The PAH microbial degrader populations in the vegetated treatments were more than 100 times greater than those in the unvegetated control. The phospholipid fatty acid (PLFA) structural group profile shifted over the growing period, indicating a change in the community structure. In conclusion, phytoremediation was shown to be an effective polishing tool for PAH-affected soil previously subjected to biological treatment.

  13. Seasonal Change of Loline Alkaloids in Endophyte-lnfected Meadow Fescue

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    TONG De-wen; WANG Jin-yi; Brain Patchett; Ravi Gooneratne

    2006-01-01

    Lolines are a group of saturated pyrrolizidine alkaloids that possess broad bioactivity against a wide array of herbivorous insects. However, they do not exhibit toxicity to ruminants such as cattle and sheep. In order to study the direct and potential physiological effects on ruminants and the mechanism of insecticide/insectifuge, the distribution of loline alkaloids in endophyte-infected meadow fescue and the seasonal change of the distribution were analyzed. The crowns,roots and leaves of endophyte-infected meadow fescue at its four different growth periods, i.e., spring, summer, early autumn and late autumn, in New Zealand were colleted. After powdering, organic solvent extraction and purification by column chromatography, all loline alkaloid samples were analyzed by capillary gas chromatography with 4-phenylmorpholine (PM) as an internal standard. The analytic results showed that the loline contents in the roots, crowns and leaves of endophyte-infected meadow fescue vary with seasons. Even within the same season, the distribution of lolines in endophyte-infected meadow fescue varies. During summer, lolines mainly existed in the leaves and roots, but in early autumn, they are produced in the crowns. It was concluded that, lolines were mainly produced in the leaves and roots of endophyte-infected meadow fescue. In gas chromatographic analysis, N-formylloline, the major component of loline alkaloid in the plant, was employed to assay the alkaloids.

  14. Tasco-Forage: I. Influence of a seaweed extract on antioxidant activity in tall fescue and in ruminants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fike, J H; Allen, V G; Schmidt, R E; Zhang, X; Fontenot, J P; Bagley, C P; Ivy, R L; Evans, R R; Coelho, R W; Wester, D B

    2001-04-01

    Seaweed (Ascophyllum nodosum) is a known source of plant growth regulators, and application to turfgrasses has increased activity of the antioxidant superoxide dismutase (SOD) and specific vitamin precursors. Increased antioxidant activity in both plants and animals diminishes oxidative stress. Two pasture experiments investigated effects of Tasco-Forage (a proprietary seaweed-based product) applied to tall fescue (Festuca arundinacea) on antioxidant activity in plants and in ruminants that grazed the forage. In Exp. 1, fescue was 70 to 100% infected with the endophyte fungus Neotyphodium coenophialum ([Morgan-Jones and Gams] Glenn, Bacon, and Hanlin). Twenty-four wether lambs (initial BW 41 kg; SD = 5) grazed fescue treated with 0, 1.7, or 3.4 kg Tasco/ha applied in April and July, 1994, with four replications per treatment. Grazing occurred for 26 d beginning April 21 and for 22 d beginning July 19. In July, there was a linear increase in daily gains (P Prairie, MS, where 1/4 Brahman x 3/4 Angus steers were used. Forty-eight steers were included at each location in each year (n = 192 total steers for 1996 and 1997). Steers that grazed infected tall fescue in Mississippi had lower (P antioxidant activity in grazing steers, whereas Tasco seemed to increase antioxidant activity in both the forage and the grazing ruminant. Tasco may provide opportunities to reduce oxidative stress in plants and animals.

  15. Seedling Performance Associated with Live or Herbicide Treated Tall Fescue

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonathan J. Halvorson

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Tall fescue is an important forage grass which can host systemic fungal endophytes. The association of host grass and endophyte is known to influence herbivore behavior and host plant competition for resources. Establishing legumes into existing tall fescue sods is a desirable means to acquire nitrogen and enhance the nutritive value of forage for livestock production. Competition from existing tall fescue typically must be controlled to ensure interseeding success. We used a soil-on-agar method to determine if soil from intact, living (L, or an herbicide killed (K tall fescue sward influenced germination and seedling growth of three cultivars of tall fescue (E+, MaxQ, and E− or legumes (alfalfa, red clover, and white clover. After 30 days, seedlings were larger and present in greater numbers when grown in L soil rather than K soil. Root growth of legumes (especially white clover and tall fescue (especially MaxQ were not as vigorous in K soil as L soil. While shoot biomass was similar for all cultivars of tall fescue in L soil, MaxQ produced less herbage when grown in K soil. Our data suggest establishing legumes or fescue cultivars may not be improved by first killing the existing fescue sod and seedling performance can exhibit significant interseasonal variation, related only to soil conditions.

  16. EFFECT OF CALITROPIS PROCERA AQUEOUS ROOT EXTRACT ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ABUBAKAR

    The hepatocurative effect of aqueous root extract of Calitropis Procera on CCl4 induced hepatotoxicity in rabbits was studied in groups of rabbit and the levels of liver enzymes; aspartate .... and inhibitors and presence of pyridoxine (vitamin.

  17. Cryptographic Protocols Based on Root Extracting

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Koprowski, Maciej

    In this thesis we design new cryptographic protocols, whose security is based on the hardness of root extracting or more speci cally the RSA problem. First we study the problem of root extraction in nite Abelian groups, where the group order is unknown. This is a natural generalization of the...... complexity of root extraction, even if the algorithm can choose the "public exponent'' itself. In other words, both the standard and the strong RSA assumption are provably true w.r.t. generic algorithms. The results hold for arbitrary groups, so security w.r.t. generic attacks follows for any cryptographic...... construction based on root extracting. As an example of this, we modify Cramer-Shoup signature scheme such that it becomes a genericm algorithm. We discuss then implementing it in RSA groups without the original restriction that the modulus must be a product of safe primes. It can also be implemented in class...

  18. Cryptographic Protocols Based on Root Extracting

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Koprowski, Maciej

    In this thesis we design new cryptographic protocols, whose security is based on the hardness of root extracting or more speci cally the RSA problem. First we study the problem of root extraction in nite Abelian groups, where the group order is unknown. This is a natural generalization of the...... construction based on root extracting. As an example of this, we modify Cramer-Shoup signature scheme such that it becomes a genericm algorithm. We discuss then implementing it in RSA groups without the original restriction that the modulus must be a product of safe primes. It can also be implemented in class......,  providing a currently acceptable level of security. This allows us to propose the rst practical blind signature scheme provably secure, without relying on heuristics called random oracle model (ROM). We obtain the protocol for issuing blind signatures by implementing our modi ed Fischlin's signing algorithm...

  19. Acremonium in fescue and ryegrass: boon or bane? A review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joost, R E

    1995-03-01

    Acremonium coenophialum Morgan-Jones and Gams, an endophytic fungus commonly found in tall fescue (Festuca arundinacea Schreb.), has been identified as the cause of poor performance of beef cattle and horses on tall fescue. Ryegrass staggers, a neurological disorder of sheep, has been linked to the presence of a similar fungus, A. lolii Latch, Christensen and Samuels, in perennial ryegrass (Lolium perenne L.). Renovation of endophyte-infected (E+) pastures with endophyte-free (E-) cultivars of tall fescue or perennial ryegrass has resulted in improved animal performance, but productivity and stand persistence of the grasses have been reduced. Stand loss of E- tall fescue has been attributed to a number of stresses, including insect attack, disease, root predation by nematodes, and drought stress. The Acremonium endophyte has been observed to stimulate the tall fescue plant's production of chitinase, an enzyme associated with disease resistance. Nematode resistance, which can also be enhanced in E+ plants, has been attributed, in part, to thickening of the root endodermal layer. Drought stress has been identified as the most common cause of E- tall fescue stand loss in the eastern United States. Endophyte-infected tall fescue plants exhibit several adaptive morphological and physiological responses to drought stress compared with E- plants. Drought-induced leaf rolling, leaf senescence, stomatal closure, and osmotic adjustment are more prevalent in E+ than in E- plants and may be mediated through endophyte enhancement of the production of phytohormones such as abscisic acid. Endophyte-infected tall fescue plants have been shown to be more productive and competitive than E- plants through improvement of germination, tillering, and biomass production per tiller.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  20. Evaluations of antidepressant activity of Anacyclus pyrethrum root extract

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Badhe S

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The present study was designed to screen antidepressant activity of Anacyclus pyrethrum (AP root extract. An experiment was designed by different method such as Locomotor activity, Haloperidol-induced catalepsy, Forced swim test (FST, Tail suspension test (TST, Clonidine-induced hypothermia and Reserpine-induced hypothermia on Swiss male albino mice. Standard root extract of Anacyclus pyrethrum (AP root extract showed an increase in ambulatory behaviour indicating a stimulant effect of the photoactometer. AP root extract produces a significant antidepressant effect in both FST and TST as they reduced the immobility. AP root extract was found to be effective in reversing hypothermia produced by clonidine and reserpine. In our study, we found that AP root extract inhibited haloperidol-induced catalepsy. These study suggest that AP root extract might produce antidepressant effect by interaction with adrenergic and dopamine receptor thereby increasing the level of noradrenaline and dopamine in brains of mice.

  1. Root water extraction under combined water and osmotic stress

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jong van Lier, de Q.; Dam, van J.C.; Metselaar, K.

    2009-01-01

    Using a numerical implicit model for root water extraction by a single root in a symmetric radial flow problem, based on the Richards equation and the combined convection-dispersion equation, we investigated some aspects of the response of root water uptake to combined water and osmotic stress. The

  2. Meadow Fescue: The Forgotten Grass

    Science.gov (United States)

    In 1990, we found an unknown grass growing on a farm in southwestern Wisconsin. We have identified this grass as meadow fescue, popular in the late 19th century and early 20th century before tall fescue was imported into the USA. The grass was established throughout the Charles Opitz farm by harve...

  3. Extraction of Roots of Quintics by Division Method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kulkarni, Raghavendra G.

    2009-01-01

    We describe a method to extract roots of a reducible quintic over the real field, which makes use of a simple division. A procedure to synthesize such quintics is given and a numerical example is solved to extract the roots of quintic with the proposed method.

  4. Antibacterial activity of Helleborus bocconei Ten. subsp. siculus root extracts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puglisi, S; Speciale, A; Acquaviva, R; Ferlito, G; Ragusa, S; De Pasquale, R; Iauk, L

    2009-08-17

    Roots of Helleborus bocconei Ten. subsp. siculus (Schiffner) Merxm. & Podl. are widely used in veterinary folk medicine in Sicily (Italy) to diagnose and cure lower respiratory tract infections in cattle. This study intended to evaluate the in vitro antibacterial activity of the methanolic root extract of Helleborus bocconei Ten. subsp. siculus, and of the bufadienolide and ecdysteroid fractions extracted from its roots, against strains belonging to species commonly associated with respiratory tract infections. The phytochemical screening of the previously prepared plant extracts was carried out by chemical, thin-layer chromatography and spectroscopic methods. The in vitro antibacterial activity of the extracts against seven different standard bacterial strains was evaluated by broth microdilution. According to the present study, Helleborus bocconei Ten. subsp. siculus roots contain bufadienolides and ecdysteroids, and the extracts containing these compounds, as well as the crude methanolic root extract, show antibacterial activity against microorganisms responsible for respiratory infections. In particular, the bufadienolide extract has the highest inhibitory activity against all the tested organisms, and, as the other extracts, shows the lowest MIC values (100mug/ml) against Moraxella catarrhalis and Streptococcus pneumoniae. Since the roots of Helleborus bocconei Ten. subsp. siculus contain substances with antibacterial activity, the traditional use of this plant may also derive from its antibacterial properties.

  5. Chondroprotective potential of root extracts of Withania somnifera in osteoarthritis

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Venil N Sumantran; Asavari Kulkarni; Sanjay Boddul; Trushna Chinchwade; Soumya J Koppikar; Abhay Harsulkar; Bhushan Patwardhan; Arvind Chopra; Ulhas V Wagh

    2007-03-01

    This is the first report describing two novel chondroprotective activities of aqueous extracts of Withania somnifera root powder. First, these extracts had a statistically significant, short-term chondroprotective effect on damaged human osteoarthritic cartilage matrix in 50% of the patients tested. Second, these extracts caused a significant and reproducible inhibition of the gelatinase activity of collagenase type 2 enzyme in vitro.

  6. Influence of crude extract of root of Telfairia occidentalis (fluted ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Influence of crude extract of root of Telfairia occidentalis (fluted pumpkin) on the cytoarchitecture of the rat kidney and body weight. ... The control group received distilled water throughout the duration of experiment. The administration lasted ...

  7. The effects of aqueous root extract of Senna italica subsp ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    USER

    2010-02-15

    Feb 15, 2010 ... ISSN 1684–5315 © 2010 Academic Journals. Full Length Research Paper. The effects of aqueous root extract of Senna italica subsp. arachoides on the feeding performance of ... which the nutritional value of grass is poor.

  8. Tall fescue endophyte effects on tolerance to water-deficit stress

    OpenAIRE

    Nagabhyru, Padmaja; Dinkins, Randy D; Wood, Constance L; Bacon, Charles W.; Schardl, Christopher L.

    2013-01-01

    Background The endophytic fungus, Neotyphodium coenophialum, can enhance drought tolerance of its host grass, tall fescue. To investigate endophyte effects on plant responses to acute water deficit stress, we did comprehensive profiling of plant metabolite levels in both shoot and root tissues of genetically identical clone pairs of tall fescue with endophyte (E+) and without endophyte (E-) in response to direct water deficit stress. The E- clones were generated by treating E+ plants with fun...

  9. Evaluation of Antimicrobial Activity of Root Extracts of Abitulon indicum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krishna Rao MORTHA

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Antimicrobial activity of Abitulon indicum roots was studied against seven pathogenic bacteria and three fungal strains by agar well diffusion method. Antimicrobial activity was recorded for hexane, chloroform, methanol, ethanol and aqueous extracts. Alcohol (ethanol and methanol extracts exhibited the highest degree of antimicrobial activity compared to aqueous, chloroform and hexane extracts. Pseudomonas aeruginosa was turned out to be the most susceptible bacterium to the crude root chemical constituents, using the standard Tetracycline and Clotrimazole. Minimum inhibition concentration values of hexane, chloroform, methanol, ethanol and aqueous extracts were determined by the agar dilution method and ranged between 62.5 and 1,000 µg. The study suggested that the root extracts possess bioactive compounds with antimicrobial activity against the tested bacteria and fungi, revealing a significant scope to develop a novel broad spectrum of antimicrobial drug formulation from Abitulon indicum.

  10. Novel endophyte provides fescue toxicosis relief

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tall fescue is extremely persistent and productive in the climatic and soil conditions in the fescue belt, which makes it extremely challenging to replace toxic endophyte-infected tall fescue with non-toxic grass alternatives. There is another option, which is to replace toxic endophyte-infected ta...

  11. Single-Rooted Extraction Sockets: Classification and Treatment Protocol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El Chaar, Edgar; Oshman, Sarah; Fallah Abed, Pooria

    2016-09-01

    Clinicians have many treatment techniques from which to choose when extracting a failing tooth and replacing it with an implant-supported restoration and when successful management of an extraction socket during the course of tooth replacement is necessary to achieve predictable and esthetic outcomes. This article presents a straightforward, yet thorough, classification for extraction sockets of single-rooted teeth and provides guidance to clinicians in the selection of appropriate and predictable treatment. The presented classification of extraction sockets for single-rooted teeth focuses on the topography of the extraction socket, while the protocol for treatment of each socket type factors in the shape of the remaining bone, the biotype, and the location of the socket whether it be in the mandible or maxilla. This system is based on the biologic foundations of wound healing and can help guide clinicians to successful treatment outcomes.

  12. Development and evaluation of novel lozenges containing marshmallow root extract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benbassat, Niko; Kostova, Bistra; Nikolova, Irina; Rachev, Dimitar

    2013-11-01

    Lozenges (tablets intended to be dissolved slowly in the mouth) were evaluated as delivery system for polysaccharides extract from Althaea officinalis L. (marshmallow) root. The aim of investigation was to improve of the efficacy of convenient preparations for the treatment of irritated oropharyngeal mucosa and associated dry irritable cough. The formulations studied were prepared with water extract of roots of Althaea officinalis L. The polysaccharides extract was obtained by ultrasonification. Acute oral toxicity (LD 50 p.o.) of the obtained extract was estimated in mice. Four models of lozenges based on different excipients were formulated. The characteristics of the preparations: resistance to crushing, friability testing, disintegration time and drug release properties were evaluated.

  13. Polysaccharide extraction from Sphallerocarpus gracilis roots by response surface methodology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Tingting; Sun, Xiangyu; Tian, Chengrui; Luo, Jiyang; Zheng, Cuiping; Zhan, Jicheng

    2016-07-01

    The extraction process of Sphallerocarpus gracilis root polysaccharides (SGRP) was optimized using response surface methodology with two methods [hot-water extraction (HWE) and ultrasonic-assisted extraction (UAE)]. The antioxidant activities of SGRP were determined, and the structural features of the untreated materials (HWE residue and UAE residue) and the extracted polysaccharides were compared by scanning electron microscopy. Results showed that the optimal UAE conditions were extraction temperature of 81°C, extraction time of 1.7h, liquid-solid ratio of 17ml/g, ultrasonic power of 300W and three extraction cycles. The optimal HWE conditions were 93°C extraction temperature, 3.6h extraction time, 21ml/g liquid-solid ratio and three extraction cycles. UAE offered a higher extraction yield with a shorter time, lower temperature and a lower solvent consumption compared with HWE, and the extracted polysaccharides possessed a higher antioxidant capacity. Therefore, UAE could be used as an alternative to conventional HWE for SGRP extraction.

  14. Toxicological assessment of Ricinus communis Linn root extracts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ilavarasan, Raju; Mallika, Moni; Venkataraman, Subramanian

    2011-03-01

    Ricinus communis Linn (Euphorbiaceae) plant parts are claimed to be used as carminative, asthma, bronchitis, leprosy, anti-inflammatory, cathartic, and aphrodisiac. The toxicological study was carried out in the root part of the plant. The collected root was extracted with methanol and water. The extracts were vacuum-dried to yield the respective aqueous (AE) and methanol (ME) extracts. Toxicological assessment sought to determine the safety of Ricinus communis root extracts. The extracts were evaluated in the acute toxicity study (OECD-423 guidelines) and 90 days repeated dose toxicological assessment in Wistar albino rats. The acute oral toxicity of the aqueous (AE) and methanol (ME) extracts did not produce any toxic symptoms or mortality at the dose level of 2000 mg/kg in rats. In the 90 days (sub-chronic toxicity) repeated dose toxicity study the extracts (AE and ME) were administered 1000 mg/kg daily through oral route. The sub-chronic toxicity study demonstrated no significant changes in body weight, food, and water intake. Hematology parameters RBC, WBC, DLC, Hb, blood clotting time, and the biochemical parameters glucose, blood urea nitrogen, creatinine, total cholesterol, total protein, total bilirubin AST, ALT, and ALP were estimated. Histopathology observation of the major vital organs (liver, kidney, heart, spleen, lungs, ovary, testis, and brain) were tested. The hematology, biochemical and histopathology evaluations did not show any adverse effects in any of the organs tested. These results demonstrate the non-toxic nature of the root extracts AE and ME can be used for long-term usage in clinical practice.

  15. ORAChromatography and total phenolics content of peanut root extracts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holland, Kevin W; Balota, Maria; Eigel, William N; Mallikarjunan, Parameswarakumar; Tanko, James M; Zhou, Kequan; O'Keefe, Sean F

    2011-04-01

    A large number of compounds have been reported in peanut plants. Many of these compounds are phytoalexins, which are produced by plants experiencing environmental stress and often exhibit antioxidant activity. It is difficult to determine which of the many compounds has the greatest impact on total antioxidant capacity in a mixture. The objectives of this research were to examine the oxygen-radical absorbing capacity (ORAC) value and total phenolic contents of peanut root extracts and peanut root extract fractions collected via HPLC. Peanut roots were extracted from four different cultivars (Brantley, NC-12, Phillips, and Wilson) with 70% aqueous ethanol with ultrasonic assistance. Each cultivar was sampled in duplicate. The extracts were fractionated into 18 3-min fractions by HPLC using a C-18 column. Fractions and crude extracts were freeze dried. ORAC values and total phenolic content were then determined for all fractions and crude extracts. Fractions had a significant effect on the μM TE/mg gallic acid equivalents (GAE). ORAC values ranged from -46.89 μM TE to 185 μM TE in HPLC fractions. ORAChromatography can be used to focus on antioxidants in complex samples.

  16. Cerebroprotective effect of Glycyrrhiza glabra Linn. root extract

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Muralidharan

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available The present study was carried out to evaluate the cerebroprotective effect of the aqueous extract of the roots of Glycyrrhiza glabra Linn. (250 and 500 mg/kg in hypoxic rats. Hypoxia was induced by providing sodium nitrite drinking water to rats for 14 days. Extract at the tested doses promoted the locomotor activity and spatial behavior significantly, which was impaired in hypoxic rats. The extract administration restored the decreased levels of brain enzymes such as glutamate and dopamine and decreased acetylcholinesterase (AchE activity significantly. Levels of antioxidant enzymes such as superoxide dismutase, glutathione peroxidase, glutathione reductase and catalase were reduced due to hypoxia and were restored to near normalcy by administration of ethanol extract of G. glabra. Increased lipid peroxidation in hypoxic rats was also restored significantly by extract treatment. Thus, this study suggests that ethanol extract of G. glabra possess a cerebroprotective effect in hypoxic rats, which may be mediated by its antioxidant effects.

  17. Phytopharmacological evaluation of ethanol extract of Sida cordifolia L. roots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Momin, Mohammad Abdul Motalib; Bellah, Sm Faysal; Rahman, Sarder Mohammad Raussel; Rahman, Ahmed Ayedur; Murshid, Gazi Mohammad Monjur; Emran, Talha Bin

    2014-01-01

    To investigate the phytochemical screening (group determination) and selected pharmacological activities (antioxidant, antimicrobial and analgesic activity) of the plant Sida cordifolia Linn (S. cordifolia). Eighty percent concentrated ethanol extract of the roots was used. To identify the chemical constituents of plant extract standard procedures were followed. In phytochemical screening the crude extract was tested for the presence of different chemical groups like reducing sugar, tannins, saponins, steroids, flavonoids, gums, alkaloids and glycosides. The antioxidant property of ethanolic extract of S. cordifolia was assessed by DPPH free radical scavenging activity. Analgesic activity of the extract was tested using the model of acetic acid induced writhing in mice. Diclofenac sodium is used as reference standard drug for the analgesic activity test. Antibacterial activity of plant extract was carried out using disc diffusion method with five pathogenic bacteria comparison with kanamycin as a standard. Phytochemical analysis of the ethanolic extract of the roots of S. cordifolia indicated the presence of reducing sugar, alkaloids, steroids and saponins. In DPPH scavenging assay the IC50 value was found to be 50 μg/mL which was not comparable to the standard ascorbic acid. The crude extract produced 44.30% inhibition of writhing at the dose of 500 mg/kg body weight which is statistically significant (P>0.001). The in vitro antimicrobial activity of the ethanol extract of the roots of S. cordifolia showed no antimicrobial activity against five types of microorganisms. The experiment was conducted only with five species of bacteria as test species, which do not at all indicate the total inactivity against micro-organisms. The obtained results provide a support for the use of this plant in traditional medicine but further pharmacological studies are required. Copyright © 2014 Asian Pacific Tropical Biomedical Magazine. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights

  18. Phytopharmacological evaluation of ethanol extract of Sida cordifolia L. roots

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Mohammad Abdul Motalib Momin; Sm Faysal Bellah; Sarder Mohammad Raussel Rahman; Ahmed Ayedur Rahman; Gazi Mohammad Monjur Murshid; Talha Bin Emran

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the phytochemical screening (group determination) and selected pharmacological activities (antioxidant, antimicrobial and analgesic activity) of the plant Sida cordifolia Linn (S. cordifolia). Methods: Eighty percent concentrated ethanol extract of the roots was used. To identify the chemical constituents of plant extract standard procedures were followed. In phytochemical screening the crude extract was tested for the presence of different chemical groups like reducing sugar, tannins, saponins, steroids, flavonoids, gums, alkaloids and glycosides. The antioxidant property of ethanolic extract of S. cordifolia was assessed by DPPH free radical scavenging activity. Analgesic activity of the extract was tested using the model of acetic acid induced writhing in mice. Diclofenac sodium is used as reference standard drug for the analgesic activity test. Antibacterial activity of plant extract was carried out using disc diffusion method with five pathogenic bacteria comparison with kanamycin as a standard. Results:Phytochemical analysis of the ethanolic extract of the roots of S. cordifolia indicated the presence of reducing sugar, alkaloids, steroids and saponins. In DPPH scavenging assay the IC50 value was found to be 50 µg/mL which was not comparable to the standard ascorbic acid. The crude extract produced 44.30%inhibition of writhing at the dose of 500 mg/kg body weight which is statistically significant (P>0.001). The in vitro antimicrobial activity of the ethanol extract of the roots of S. cordifolia showed no antimicrobial activity against five types of microorganisms. The experiment was conducted only with five species of bacteria as test species, which do not at all indicate the total inactivity against micro-organisms. Conclusions: The obtained results provide a support for the use of this plant in traditional medicine but further pharmacological studies are required.

  19. Withania somnifera Root Extract Enhances Chemotherapy through ‘Priming’

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Ling; Chuang, Kun-Lin; Sahuri-Arisoylu, Meliz; Wu, Li-Hong; Bligh, S. W. Annie; Bell, Jimmy David

    2017-01-01

    Withania somnifera extracts are known for their anti-cancerous, anti-inflammatory and antioxidative properties. One of their mechanisms of actions is to modulate mitochondrial function through increasing oxidative stress. Recently ‘priming’ has been suggested as a potential mechanism for enhancing cancer cell death. In this study we demonstrate that ‘priming’, in HT-29 colon cells, with W. somnifera root extract increased the potency of the chemotherapeutic agent cisplatin. We have also showed the W. somnifera root extract enhanced mitochondrial dysfunction and that the underlying mechanism of ‘priming’ was selectively through increased ROS. Moreover, we showed that this effect was not seen in non-cancerous cells. PMID:28129345

  20. Solanum paniculatum root extract reduces diarrhea in rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonh A.B. Tenório

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Solanum paniculatum L., Solanaceae, locally known as "jurubeba", is widely used in Brazil for culinary purposes, and in folk medicine to treat of diverse disorder including gastric dysfunctions. In this study we investigated the antidiarrheal activity of S. paniculatum roots extract in rats at different concentrations (125, 250 and 500 mg/kg, p.o using different experimental models such as castor oil-induced diarrhea, enteropooling and gastrointestinal motility, determined by in vivo experimental models. The major compound of root extract was characterized as chlorogenic acid based in the IR, 1D and 2D NMR analysis. All the extract doses achieved antidiarrheal potency, as indicated by reduced weight of feces in castor oil-induced diarrhea, decreased intestinal motility and significantly inhibited castor oil-induced enteropooling compared to the vehicle group. The highest dose (500 mg/kg produced greater anti-motility effect and better reduction of enteropooling, similar to the reference drug Loperamide (5 mg/kg. Extract from S. paniculatum L. roots had antidiarrheal activity, as shown by the lower weight of the feces as well as decrease in the accumulation of intestinal fluid and slower transit, justifying the traditional use of plant for diarrhea.

  1. Genotypic evaluation of tall fescue dihaploids by capillary electrophoresis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Recent innovations in tall fescue breeding and selection allow for the generation of dihaploid tall fescue lines. During the dihaploid generation process, two possible products can be generated. These being tall fescue hybrids generated from outcrossing and homozygous dihaploid tall fescue lines. As...

  2. Quantifying Precambrian crustal extraction: the root is the answer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abbott, Dallas; Sparks, David; Herzberg, Claude; Mooney, Walter; Nikishin, Anatoly; Zhang, Yu Shen

    2000-07-01

    We use two different methods to estimate the total amount of continental crust that was extracted by the end of the Archean and the Proterozoic. The first method uses the sum of the seismic thickness of the crust, the eroded thickness of the crust, and the trapped melt within the lithospheric root to estimate the total crustal volume. This summation method yields an average equivalent thickness of Archean crust of 49±6 km and an average equivalent thickness of Proterozoic crust of 48± 9 km. Between 7 and 9% of this crust never reached the surface, but remained within the continental root as congealed, iron-rich komatiitic melt. The second method uses experimental models of melting, mantle xenolith compositions, and corrected lithospheric thickness to estimate the amount of crust extracted through time. This melt column method reveals that the average equivalent thickness of Archean crust was 65±6 km, and the average equivalent thickness of Early Proterozoic crust was 60±7 km. It is likely that some of this crust remained trapped within the lithospheric root. The discrepancy between the two estimates is attributed to uncertainties in estimates of the amount of trapped, congealed melt, overall crustal erosion, and crustal recycling. Overall, we find that between 29 and 45% of continental crust was extracted by the end of the Archean, most likely by 2.7 Ga. Between 51 and 79% of continental crust was extracted by the end of the Early Proterozoic, most likely by 1.8-2.0 Ga. Our results are most consistent with geochemical models that call upon moderate amounts of recycling of early extracted continental crust coupled with continuing crustal growth (e.g. McLennan, S.M., Taylor, S.R., 1982. Geochemical constraints on the growth of the continental crust. Journal of Geology, 90, 347-361; Veizer, J., Jansen, S.L., 1985. Basement and sedimentary recycling — 2: time dimension to global tectonics. Journal of Geology 93(6), 625-643). Trapped, congealed, iron-rich melt

  3. The annual frequency of root fillings, tooth extractions and pulp-related procedures in Danish adults during 1977-2003

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjørndal, L.; Reit, C.

    2004-01-01

    endodontic epidemiology, frequency of root fillings, pulp capping, stepwise excavation, tooth extractions......endodontic epidemiology, frequency of root fillings, pulp capping, stepwise excavation, tooth extractions...

  4. ECONOMIC ANALYSIS OF REPLACING WILD-TYPE ENDOPHYTE INFECTED TALL FESCUE WITH NOVEL ENDOPHYTE-INFECTED FESCUE

    OpenAIRE

    Lacy, Curt; Anderson, John D.; Andrae, John

    2003-01-01

    Empirical animal performance data is used in evaluating the decision to convert toxic endophyte fescue to novel endophyte fescue. Results indicate that producers at three risk aversion levels prefer replacing their existing toxic fescue stands when the expected stand life for novel endophyte fescue is more than five years.

  5. Extraction and DNA Digestion of 5'-Phosphodiesterase from Malt Root

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZOU Hechang; CAI Guangqi; CAI Wen; LI Hailong; GU Yi; PARK Yongdoo; MENG Fanguo

    2008-01-01

    This study investigated the extraction of 5'-phosphodiesterase from malt root and the degradation of nucleic acids by this enzyme.The extraction used grade precipitation with ammonium sulfate and enzy-matic hydrolysis.Samples were assayed using the modified Bradford method and high performance liquid chromatography.The results show that 5'-phosphodiesterase is isolated by grade precipitation with 30% and 80% saturation of ammonium sulfate and can be utilized to degrade deoxydbonucleic acid.The hydrolysate has four kinds of deoxynucleotides: 5'-dCMP,5'-dTMP,5'-dAMP,and 5'-dGMP.The optimum reaction tem-perature is 70℃,and the optimum pH is 5.5-6.0 for the reaction.The percentage of deoxynucleotides indi-ceted by the China Pharmacopoeia (2000 edition) in the product is over 70%.The extraction of 5'-phosphodiesterase from malt root is shown to be possible and economical.Products from the enzymatic hydrolysate of DNA meet the pharmacopoeia.

  6. In vitro antioxidant activity of Vetiveria Zizanioides root extract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Subhadradevi, Varadharajan; Asokkumar, Kuppusamy; Umamaheswari, Muthuswamy; Sivashanmugam, Andichettiarthirumalasia; Sankaranand, Rajakannu

    2010-10-01

    Free radicals induce numerous diseases by lipid peroxidation and DNA damage. It has been reported that some of the extracts from plants possess antioxidant properties capable of scavenging free radicals in vivo. Vetiveria zizanioides belonging to the family Gramineae, is a densely tufted grass which is widely used as a traditional plant for aromatherapy, to relieve stress, anxiety, nervous tension and insomnia. In this regard, the roots of V zizanioides was extracted with ethanol and used for the evaluation of various in vitro antioxidant activities such as reducing power ability, superoxide anion radical scavenging activity, deoxyribose degradation assay, total antioxidant capacity, total phenolics and total flavonoid composition. The various antioxidant activities were compared with suitable antioxidants such as butyl hydroxy toluene, ascorbic acid, quercetin, alpha tocopherol, pyrocatechol and curcumin respectively. The generation of free radicals O2, H2O2 OH and N O were effectively scavenged by the ethanolic extract of V zizanioides. In all these methods, the extract showed strong antioxidant activity in a dose dependent manner. The results obtained in the present study clearly indicates that V zizanioides scavenges free radicals, ameliorating damage imposed by oxidative stress in different disease conditions and serve as a potential source of natural antioxidant. The study provides a proof for the ethnomedical claims and reported biological activities. The plant has, therefore, very good therapeutic and antioxidant potential.

  7. Toxicological studies of aqueous extract of Acacia nilotica root

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alli Lukman Adewale

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Acacia nilotica is a widely used plant in traditional medical practice in Northern Nigeria and many African countries. The aim of this study was to determine the toxicological effects of a single dose (acute and of repeated doses (sub-acute administration of aqueous extract of A. nilotica root in rodents, following our earlier study on antiplasmodial activity. In the acute toxicity test, three groups of Swiss albino mice were orally administered aqueous extract of A. nilotica (50, 300 and 2000 mg/kg body weight and signs of toxicity were observed daily for 14 days. In the sub-acute toxicity study, four groups of 12 rats (6 male and 6 female were used. Group 1 received 10 ml/kg b.w distilled water (control, while groups 2, 3 and 4 received 125, 250 and 500 mg/kg b.w of the extract, respectively, for 28 consecutive days by oral gavage. Signs of toxicity/mortality, food and water intake and body weight changes were observed. Biochemical parameters were analysed in both plasma and liver homogenate. In the acute and sub-acute toxicity studies, the extract did not cause mortality. A significant reduction in the activity of lactate dehydrogenase was observed at 250 and 500 mg/kg b.w, while alanine aminotransferase, aspartate aminotransferase and alkaline phosphatase activities were significantly higher than control values at 500 mg/kg b.w. The aqueous extract of A. nilotica was found to be safe in single dose administration in mice but repeated administration of doses higher than 250 mg/kg b.w of the extract for 28 days in rats may cause hepatotoxicity.

  8. Effect of an herb root extract, herbal dentifrice and synthetic dentifrice on human salivary amylase

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gaurav Sapra

    2013-01-01

    Conclusion: The present study indicates that, the root extract of S. calva possess significant inhibitory activity for salivary amylase. Use of S. calva root extract will provide a wider protection against different pathogenic oral microflora. Use of this extract singly or in combination is strongly recommended in the dentifrice formulations.

  9. Neutralisation of lethality, myotoxicity and toxic enzymes of Naja kaouthia venom by Mimosa pudica root extracts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahanta, M; Mukherjee, A K

    2001-04-01

    Aqueous and alcoholic extracts of dried roots of Mimosa pudica were tested for their inhibitory activity on lethality, myotoxicity and toxic enzymes of Naja kaouthia venom. The aqueous extract, particularly the normal water extract, displayed a significant inhibitory effect on the lethality, myotoxicity and tested enzyme activities of venom compared with alcoholic extracts. The present finding suggests that aqueous extracts of M. pudica root possess compound(s), which inhibit the activity of cobra venom.

  10. Anti-Allergic Activity of a Platycodon Root Ethanol Extract

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dong-Yeul Kwon

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Platycodon grandiflorum (Campanulaceae is used as traditional medicine in Asian countries. In Korean traditional medicine, Platycodon root has been widely used since ancient times as a traditional drug to treat cold, cough and asthma. However, its effects on bone marrow-derived mast cell (BMMC-mediated allergy and inflammation mechanisms remain unknown. In this study, the biological effect of Platycodon root ethanol extract (PE was evaluated in BMMC after induction of allergic mediators by phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate (PMA plus calcium ionophore A23187 (A23187 stimulation. The effect of PE on the production of several allergic mediators, such as interleukin-6 (IL-6, prostaglandin D2 (PGD2, leukotriene C4 (LTC4, β-Hexosaminidase (β-Hex and cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2 protein, was investigated. The results demonstrate that PE inhibits PMA + A23187 induced production of IL-6, PGD2, LTC4, β-Hexosaminidase and COX-2 protein. Taken together, these results indicate that PE has the potential for use in the treatment of allergy.

  11. Does fungal endophyte infection improve tall fescue's growth response to fire and water limitation?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah L Hall

    Full Text Available Invasive species may owe some of their success in competing and co-existing with native species to microbial symbioses they are capable of forming. Tall fescue is a cool-season, non-native, invasive grass capable of co-existing with native warm-season grasses in North American grasslands that frequently experience fire, drought, and cold winters, conditions to which the native species should be better-adapted than tall fescue. We hypothesized that tall fescue's ability to form a symbiosis with Neotyphodium coenophialum, an aboveground fungal endophyte, may enhance its environmental stress tolerance and persistence in these environments. We used a greenhouse experiment to examine the effects of endophyte infection (E+ vs. E-, prescribed fire (1 burn vs. 2 burn vs. unburned control, and watering regime (dry vs. wet on tall fescue growth. We assessed treatment effects for growth rates and the following response variables: total tiller length, number of tillers recruited during the experiment, number of reproductive tillers, tiller biomass, root biomass, and total biomass. Water regime significantly affected all response variables, with less growth and lower growth rates observed under the dry water regime compared to the wet. The burn treatments significantly affected total tiller length, number of reproductive tillers, total tiller biomass, and total biomass, but treatment differences were not consistent across parameters. Overall, fire seemed to enhance growth. Endophyte status significantly affected total tiller length and tiller biomass, but the effect was opposite what we predicted (E->E+. The results from our experiment indicated that tall fescue was relatively tolerant of fire, even when combined with dry conditions, and that the fungal endophyte symbiosis was not important in governing this ecological ability. The persistence of tall fescue in native grassland ecosystems may be linked to other endophyte-conferred abilities not measured here

  12. Does fungal endophyte infection improve tall fescue's growth response to fire and water limitation?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, Sarah L; McCulley, Rebecca L; Barney, Robert J; Phillips, Timothy D

    2014-01-01

    Invasive species may owe some of their success in competing and co-existing with native species to microbial symbioses they are capable of forming. Tall fescue is a cool-season, non-native, invasive grass capable of co-existing with native warm-season grasses in North American grasslands that frequently experience fire, drought, and cold winters, conditions to which the native species should be better-adapted than tall fescue. We hypothesized that tall fescue's ability to form a symbiosis with Neotyphodium coenophialum, an aboveground fungal endophyte, may enhance its environmental stress tolerance and persistence in these environments. We used a greenhouse experiment to examine the effects of endophyte infection (E+ vs. E-), prescribed fire (1 burn vs. 2 burn vs. unburned control), and watering regime (dry vs. wet) on tall fescue growth. We assessed treatment effects for growth rates and the following response variables: total tiller length, number of tillers recruited during the experiment, number of reproductive tillers, tiller biomass, root biomass, and total biomass. Water regime significantly affected all response variables, with less growth and lower growth rates observed under the dry water regime compared to the wet. The burn treatments significantly affected total tiller length, number of reproductive tillers, total tiller biomass, and total biomass, but treatment differences were not consistent across parameters. Overall, fire seemed to enhance growth. Endophyte status significantly affected total tiller length and tiller biomass, but the effect was opposite what we predicted (E->E+). The results from our experiment indicated that tall fescue was relatively tolerant of fire, even when combined with dry conditions, and that the fungal endophyte symbiosis was not important in governing this ecological ability. The persistence of tall fescue in native grassland ecosystems may be linked to other endophyte-conferred abilities not measured here (e

  13. De Novo Assembly and Characterization of Tall Fescue Transcriptome under Water Stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. K. Talukder

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Water stress is a fundamental problem for tall fescue [ (Schreb. Darbysh.] cultivation in the south–central United States. Genetic improvement of tall fescue for water-stress tolerance is the key strategy for improving its persistence in the region. Genotypes with contrasting characteristics for relative water content and osmotic potential were identified from a tall fescue population. Transcriptome profiling between water-stress-tolerant (B400 and water-stress-susceptible (W279 genotypes was performed to unravel the genetic regulatory mechanism of water-stress responses in tall fescue. RNA samples from leaf, shoot, root, and inflorescence were pooled and sequenced through Illumina paired-end sequencing. A total of 199,399 contigs were assembled with an average length of 585 bp. Between the two genotypes, 2986 reference transcripts (RTs were significantly differentially expressed and 1048 of them could be annotated and found to associate with metabolic pathways and enzyme coding genes. In total, 175 differentially expressed RTs were reported for various stress-related functions. Among those, 65 encoded kinase proteins, 40 each encoded transposons, and transporter proteins were previously reported to be involved with abiotic stress responses. A total of 6348 simple sequence repeats and 6658 single-nucleotide polymorphisms were identified in the contig sequences. Primers were developed from the corresponding sequences, which might be used as candidate gene markers in tall fescue. This study will lead to identification of genes or transcription factors related to water-stress tolerance and development of a comprehensive molecular marker system to facilitate marker-assisted breeding in tall fescue.

  14. Tasco-Forage: IV. Influence of a seaweed extract applied to tall fescue pastures on sensory characteristics, shelf-life, and vitamin E status in feedlot-finished steers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montgomery, J L; Allen, V G; Pond, K R; Miller, M F; Wester, D B; Brown, C P; Evans, R; Bagley, C P; Ivy, R L; Fontenot, J P

    2001-04-01

    Tasco-Forage is an Ascophyllum nodosum seaweed-based product that has increased antioxidant activity in both plants and animals. Endophyte (Neotyphodium coenophialum ([Morgan-Jones and Gams] Glenn, Bacon, and Hanlin)-infected and uninfected tall fescue (Festuca arundinacea Schreb.) pastures in Virginia and Mississippi during 1997 were treated or not with 3.4 kg Tasco/ha in April and July. There were two replications of each treatment at each location. Forty-eight steers (6/replication) grazed pastures at each location (n = 96) from April to October prior to transportation to Texas Tech, Lubbock, for finishing during a 160-d period in the feedlot. Blood (antemortem) and liver (postmortem) samples were collected. After slaughter and chilling, the left strip loins (IMPS #180) were collected from three randomly selected steers from within each pasture replication (n = 48). Strip loins were vacuum-packaged and stored at 2 degrees C. At postmortem d 7, 14, 21, and 28, strip loins were removed from packaging and fabricated into 2.54-cm steaks. Following each fabrication day postmortem, the strip loins were repackaged and stored at 2 degrees C until the following postmortem time. After the prescribed fabrication, steaks were overwrapped with polyvinyl chloride film, subjected to simulated retail display at 2 degrees C for up to 3 d, and subjective and objective color were evaluated daily by a trained panel. Steaks from Mississippi steers that had grazed Tasco-treated fescue retained higher (P < 0.05) CIE a* color scores throughout retail display. Steaks were more uniform and had less discoloration and less browning (P < 0.05) if they were from steers that had grazed Tasco-treated fescue, and the effect was greatest for steers from Mississippi (location x Tasco interaction; P < 0.05). The endophyte in tall fescue may decrease uniformity and increase lean discoloration and two-toning of beef steaks when removed from vacuum packaging on or beyond d 21 postmortem (endophyte x

  15. Novel endophyte-infected tall fescue for growing beef cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gunter, S A; Beck, P A

    2004-01-01

    Tall fescue (Festuca arundinacea, Shreb.) is the predominant cool-season, perennial grass in the eastern half of the United States, and the majority is infected with the endemic endophyte (E+) Neotyphodium coenophialum, resulting in millions of dollars in revenues lost to the beef industry. Endophyte-free (E-) tall fescue was initially tapped as a "silver bullet" for the solution to fescue toxicosis, but drought intolerance and overgrazing have often resulted in nearly complete stand losses in 3 to 4 yr. Recently, the discovery of new endophytes that do not produce ergot alkaloids has resulted in the development of novel-endophyte-infected (NE+), stress-tolerant tall fescue plants. These NE+ tall fescue plants combine the plant persistence advantages of E+ (infected) tall fescue with the animal performance advantages of an E- tall fescue. Controlled studies from several locations in the southern United States have shown that the three commercially available cultivars of NE+ tall fescue persist as well as E+ tall fescues. Stocker cattle performance trials from five states have shown that the ADG in cattle grazing NE+ tall fescue was 47% greater than in cattle grazing E+ tall fescue and that cattle show no signs of fescue toxicosis. Economic evaluations of establishment cost and improved animal performance indicate that a stand of NE+ tall fescue would require 7 yr to pay off and begin to return profit to the enterprise if calves grazing E+ pasture are not discounted in price for fescue toxicosis at marketing. Average discounts at marketing for cattle showing signs of fescue toxicosis are $7.49/45.4 kg of BW. Assuming E+ cattle are discounted at sale and the quality of cattle is not decreased by the use of NE+ tall fescue, a stand of NE+ tall fescue would require 3 yr to pay the expense of establishment and begin to return profit to the enterprise.

  16. Effect of Allelochemicals of Chinese—fir root extracted by supercritical CO2 extraction on Chinese fir

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LINSi-zu; CAOGuang-qiu; DULing; WANGAi-ping

    2003-01-01

    Allelochemicals of Chinese-fir root was extracted by technology of supercritical CO2 extraction under orthogonal experiment design, and it was used to analyze allelopathic activity of Chinese-fir through bioassay of seed germination, The results showed that as to the available rate of allelochemicals, the pressure and temperature of extraction were the most im-portant factors, The allelochemicals of Chinese-fir root extracted by pure CO2 and ethanol mixed with CO2 have different al-lelopathic activities to seed germination, and the allelochemicals extracted by ethanol mixed with CO2 had stronger inhibitory effects on seed Qermination than that extracted by pure CO2.

  17. Root water extraction and limiting soil hydraulic conditions estimated by numerical simulation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jong van Lier, de Q.; Metselaar, K.; Dam, van J.C.

    2006-01-01

    Root density, soil hydraulic functions, and hydraulic head gradients play an important role in the determination of transpiration-rate-limiting soil water contents. We developed an implicit numerical root water extraction model to solve the Richards equation for the modeling of radial root water

  18. [Genetic effects of root extracts of Glycyrrhiza glabra L. on different test-systems].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agabeĭli, R A

    2012-01-01

    The antimutagenic and geroprotective activities of root extracts of Glycyrrhiza glabra have been demonstrated both on plant test systems--Allium fistulosum L., Allium cepa L., Vicia faba L. and on animals--Vistar rats. The possibilities of the mobilization of Glycyrrhiza glabra root extracts as antimutagenic agents are discussed.

  19. Extraction of Root Words using Morphological Analyzer for Devanagari Script

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sharvari S. Govilkar

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In India, more than 300 million people use Devanagari script for documentation. In Devanagari script, Marathi and Hindi are mainly used as primary language of Maharashtra state and national language of India respectively. As compared with English script, Devanagari script is reach of morphemes. Thus the lemmatization of Devanagari script is quite complex than that of English script. There is lack of resources for Devanagari script such as WordNet, ontology representation, parsing the keywords and their part of speech. Thus the overall task of information retrieval becomes complex and time consuming. Devanagari script document always carries suffixes which may cause problem in accurate information retrieval. We propose a method of extracting root words from Devanagari script document which can be used for information retrieval, text summarization, text categorization, ontology building etc. An attempt is made to design the Morphological Analyzer for Devanagari script. We have designed CORPUS containing more than 3000 possible stop words and suffixes for Marathi language. Morphological Analyzer can acts as a preliminary stage for developing any information retrieval application in Devanagari script. We have conducted the experiments on randomly selected Marathi documents and we found the accuracy of designed morphological analyzer is up to 96%.

  20. Survey of ABC transporter and metallothionein genes expressions in tall fescue inoculated with Funneliformis intraradices under Nickel toxicity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Massomeh Rafiei-Demneh

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available In plants, there are complex network of transport, chelation, and sequestration processes that functions in maintaining concentrations of essential metal ions in different cellular compartments, thus minimizing the damage caused by entry of non-essential metal ions into the cytosol. In the presence of toxic ones, arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM fungi are able to alleviate metal toxicity in the plant. In this study the effect of an arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi Funneliformis intraradices on growth, Nickel tolerance, and ABC transporter and metallothionein expression in leaves and roots of tall fescue (Festuca arundinacea plants cultivated in Ni polluted soil were evaluated. The fungi infected (M+ and uninfected (M- fescue plants were cultivated in soil under different Ni concentrations (0, 30, 90 and 180 ppm for 3 months. Results demonstrated the positive effect of fungi colonization on the increase in growth and reduction in Ni uptake (90 and 180 ppm and Ni translocation from roots to shoot of tall fescue under Ni stress. The results also demonstrated that the level of ABC transporterand metallothionein transcripts accumulation in roots was considerably higher for both M- and M+ plants compared to the control. Also, M+ plants showed less ABC and MET expression compared to the M- plants. These results demonstrated the importance of mycorrhizal colonization of F. intraradices in reduction of Ni transport from root to shoot of tall fescue which alleviates Ni-induced stress.

  1. meta-Tyrosine in Festuca rubra ssp. commutata (Chewings fescue) is synthesized by hydroxylation of phenylalanine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Tengfang; Rehak, Ludmila; Jander, Georg

    2012-03-01

    m-Tyrosine is a non-protein amino acid that is structurally similar to the common protein amino acids p-tyrosine and phenylalanine. Copious amounts of m-tyrosine can be found in root exudates of the fine fescue cultivar, Festuca rubra L. ssp. commutata (Chewings fescue). The phytotoxicity of m-tyrosine may contribute to the allelopathic potential of F. rubra. m-Tyrosine in Euphorbia myrsinites (donkey-tail spurge), was previously shown to be synthesized via transamination of m-hydroxyphenylpyruvate. Here we show that m-tyrosine biosynthesis in F. rubra occurs through direct hydroxylation of phenylalanine in the root tips, perhaps through the activity of a cytochrome P450 enzyme. Hence, E. myrsinites and F. rubra, the only two plant species known to produce m-tyrosine, use distinct biosynthetic pathways that likely arose independently in evolutionary history.

  2. Application of hybrid microwave thermal extraction techniques for mulberry root bark

    OpenAIRE

    Wang Cheng-Chi; Yau Her-Terng

    2013-01-01

    The main focus of this paper is the extraction of compounds from the mulberry root bark using a hybrid microwave thermal process. The shearing mechanism and an integrated circulation system, which increases the rate of contact between the solvent and extractive, are studied. The results are analyzed by the Taguchi method and verified by high performance liquid chromatography. Furthermore, the optimal operating parameters of the extraction of mulberry root b...

  3. A Robust Formant Extraction Algorithm Combining Spectral Peak Picking and Root Polishing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seo Kwang-deok

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available We propose a robust formant extraction algorithm that combines the spectral peak picking, formants location examining for peak merger checking, and the root extraction methods. The spectral peak picking method is employed to locate the formant candidates, and the root extraction is used for solving the peak merger problem. The location and the distance between the extracted formants are also utilized to efficiently find out suspected peak mergers. The proposed algorithm does not require much computation, and is shown to be superior to previous formant extraction algorithms through extensive tests using TIMIT speech database.

  4. Effects of aqueous extract of Arctium lappa L. roots on serum lipid metabolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hou, Bo; Wang, Wencheng; Gao, Hui; Cai, Shanglang; Wang, Chunbo

    2017-01-01

    Objective To identify potential genes that may be involved in lipid metabolism in rats after treatment with aqueous extract of Arctium lappa L (burdock). Methods Rats were randomly divided into six groups: (i) control (standard diet); (ii) model group (high-fat diet only); (iii) high-fat diet and low-dose aqueous burdock root extract (2 g/kg); (iv) high-fat diet and moderate-dose aqueous burdock root extract (4 g/kg); (v) high-fat diet and high-dose aqueous burdock root extract (8 g/kg); and (vi) a positive control group exposed to a high-fat diet and simvastatin (10 mg/kg). Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) analysis was performed to find the potential candidate genes involved in the modulation of blood lipids by treatment with aqueous burdock root extract. Results Burdock root extract reduced body weight and cholesterol levels in rats. KEGG analysis revealed 113 genes that were involved in metabolic pathways. Of these, 27 potential genes associated with blood lipid metabolism were identified. Conclusions Aqueous extract of burdock root reduced body weight and cholesterol in rats, possibly by modulating the differential expression of genes.

  5. Isolation and determination of ginsenosides in American ginseng leaves and root extracts by LC-MS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ligor, T; Ludwiczuk, A; Wolski, T; Buszewski, B

    2005-12-01

    Ginseng saponins (ginsenosides) were extracted from the root and leaves of locally cultivated American ginseng (Panax quinquefolium L.). For the isolation of compounds from plant samples three different extraction methods were utilized: accelerated solvent extraction, the ultrasound-assisted solvent extraction and mechanical shaking assisted solvent extraction. The separation of compounds was achieved with a water-acetonitrile gradient system using a C18 reversed-phase column. Target compounds were identified in MS(2) and MS(3) experiments. The relative distribution of these ginsenosides in each root and leaf extract was established. The limit of detection of the method was less than 30 ng/ml. Recovery of ginseng saponins in spiked samples exceeded 80%, while the relative standard deviation ranged from 7.1 to 9.1%. The total concentrations of ginsenosides were 41 and 13 mg/g in root and leaves.

  6. Effect of Mahogany (Khaya senegalensis L) Leaf Extract on Root ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    acer

    Department Of Biology, Shehu Shagari College Of Education, Sokoto, Nigeria. 2. Department of ... mahogany (Khaya senegalensis L) for the control of root-knot nematodes of tomato. ... group of invertebrates ranked as a phylum or a class in ...

  7. Effect of Withania somnifera root extract on the sexual behaviour of male rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    IlayI; RatnWD

    2002-01-01

    Aim:To determine the effect of a methanolic extract of Withania somnifera (L.) Dunal roots on sexual competence of male rats.Methods:Male rats were orally administered 3000 mg·kg-1·day-1 of root extract for 7 days.Their sexual behaviour was evaluated 7 days prior to treatment,day 3 and 7 of treatment,and day 7,14 and 30 posttreatment by pairing each male with a receptive female.Results:The root extract induced a marked impairment in libido,sexual performance,sexual vigour,and penile erectile dysfunction.These effects were partly reversible on cessation of treatment.These antimasculine effects ane not due to changes in testosterone levels or toxicity but may be attributed to hyperprolactinemic,GABAergic,serotonergic or sedative activities of the extract.Conclusion:Use of W.Somnifera roots may be detrimental to male sexual competence.

  8. Natriuretic and saluretic effects of Hemidesmus indicus R. Br. root extracts in rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Navneet B Gadge

    2011-01-01

    Conclusions : These effects demonstrate possible diuretic actions of H. indicus root extracts and support its folklore use in various urinary ailments. Further study need to be done to characterize active phytoconstituents.

  9. Biogenic silver and gold nanoparticles synthesized using red ginseng root extract, and their applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Priyanka; Kim, Yeon Ju; Wang, Chao; Mathiyalagan, Ramya; El-Agamy Farh, Mohamed; Yang, Deok Chun

    2016-05-01

    In the present study, we report a green methodology for the synthesis of silver and gold nanoparticles, using the root extract of the herbal medicinal plant Korean red ginseng. The silver and gold nanoparticles were synthesized within 1 h and 10 min respectively. The nanoparticles generated were not aggregated, and remained stable for a long time, which suggests the nature of nanoparticles. The phytochemicals and ginsenosides present in the root extract assist in reducing and stabilizing the synthesized nanoparticles. The red ginseng root extract-generated silver nanoparticles exhibit antimicrobial activity against pathogenic microorganisms including Vibrio parahaemolyticus, Staphylococcus aureus, Bacillus cereus, and Candida albicans. In addition, the silver nanoparticles exhibit biofilm degrading activity against S. aureus and Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Thus, the present study opens up a new possibility of synthesizing silver and gold nanoparticles in a green and rapid manner using Korean red ginseng root extract, and explores their biomedical applications.

  10. Effect of Ethanol Root Extract of Equisetum arvense (L) on Urinary ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Purpose: To investigate the mechanism of action by which ethanol root extract of Equisetum arvense influences urinary ..... age and muscle stretching on acetylcholine release in isolated human bladder smooth muscles. J Urol. 2002; 167: 40.

  11. Hyaluronidase and protease activities from Indian snake venoms: neutralization by Mimosa pudica root extract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Girish, K S; Mohanakumari, H P; Nagaraju, S; Vishwanath, B S; Kemparaju, K

    2004-06-01

    The aqueous root extract of Mimosa pudica dose dependently inhibited the hyaluronidase and protease activities of Indian snakes (Naja naja, Vipera russelii and Echis carinatus) venom. Copyright 2004 Elsevier B.V.

  12. Nephroprotective effect of ethanolic extract of abutilon indicum root in gentamicin induced acute renal failure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacob Jesurun RS

    2016-06-01

    Conclusions: The ethanolic extract of abutilon indicum root has nephron protective effect in gentamicin induced acute renal failure. Nephro protective action in this study could be due to the antioxidant and other phytochemical of abutilon indicum root. [Int J Basic Clin Pharmacol 2016; 5(3.000: 841-845

  13. The lifespan-extending effects of Nymphaea hybrid root extract in the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhuang, Ziheng; Lv, Ting; Li, Min; Zhang, Yusi; Xue, Ting; Yang, Linsong; Liu, Hui; Zhang, Weiming

    2014-12-01

    Nymphaea hybrid, a water lily from the Nymphaeaceae family, has been found to exhibit some in vivo beneficial effects. In the present study we investigated the lifespan-extending effects of Nymphaea hybrid root extract in the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans. We found that Nymphaea hybrid root extract significantly extended the lifespan of C.elegans and improved its locomotion during aging. Moreover, Nymphaea hybrid root extract increased the resistance of C.elegans to both heat stress and oxidative stress. We found that the ability of Nymphaea hybrid root extract to increase lifespan was independent of its antimicrobial effects and was probably associated with its effects on the reproduction of C.elegans. In addition, the lifespan-extending effects of Nymphaea hybrid root extract were found to be dependent on the insulin/IGF signaling pathway. We also found that total flavones of Nymphaea hybrid could increase survival of C.elegans in both normal and adverse conditions, indicating that total flavones comprise the major fractions with lifespan-extending effects. Therefore, Nymphaea hybrid root extract has lifespan-extending effects in C.elegans and could be developed as a functional food.

  14. Tall fescue endophyte effects on tolerance to water-deficit stress

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background The endophytic fungus, Neotyphodium coenophialum, can enhance drought tolerance of its host grass, tall fescue. To investigate endophyte effects on plant responses to acute water deficit stress, we did comprehensive profiling of plant metabolite levels in both shoot and root tissues of genetically identical clone pairs of tall fescue with endophyte (E+) and without endophyte (E-) in response to direct water deficit stress. The E- clones were generated by treating E+ plants with fungicide and selectively propagating single tillers. In time course studies on the E+ and E- clones, water was withheld from 0 to 5 days, during which levels of free sugars, sugar alcohols, and amino acids were determined, as were levels of some major fungal metabolites. Results After 2–3 days of withholding water, survival and tillering of re-watered plants was significantly greater for E+ than E- clones. Within two to three days of withholding water, significant endophyte effects on metabolites manifested as higher levels of free glucose, fructose, trehalose, sugar alcohols, proline and glutamic acid in shoots and roots. The fungal metabolites, mannitol and loline alkaloids, also significantly increased with water deficit. Conclusions Our results suggest that symbiotic N. coenophialum aids in survival and recovery of tall fescue plants from water deficit, and acts in part by inducing rapid accumulation of these compatible solutes soon after imposition of stress. PMID:24015904

  15. ABC transporter and metallothionein expression affected by NI and Epichloe endophyte infection in tall fescue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mirzahossini, Zahra; Shabani, Leila; Sabzalian, Mohammad R; Sharifi-Tehrani, Majid

    2015-10-01

    Epichloe endophytes are symbiotic fungi which unlike mycorrhiza grow within aerial parts of host plants. The fungi may increase host tolerance to both biotic and abiotic stresses. In this study, the effect of endophyte infection on growth and tolerance, carbohydrate contents and ABC (ABC transporter) and MET (metallothionein) expression in the leaves of tall fescue (Festuca arundinacea) plants cultivated in Ni polluted soil were evaluated. The endophyte infected (E+) and non-infected (E-) fescue plants were cultivated in soil under different Ni concentrations (30, 90 and 180mgkg(-1)). Growth parameters including root, shoot, total biomass, tiller number and total chlorophyll content of plants and H2O2 content of shoots were measured at the end of experiment. Ni translocation to the shoots, carbohydrate contents in roots and expression of ABC and MET of the leaves were also measured after 10 weeks of growth. Results demonstrated the beneficial effect of endophyte association on growth and Ni tolerance of tall fescue under Ni stress through an avoidance mechanism (reduction of Ni accumulation and translocation to the shoots). Endophyte infected plants showed less ABC and MET expression compared to the endophyte free plants. In endophyte free plants, H2O2 production had a significant positive correlation with genes expression, indicating that an increase in H2O2 might be involved in the up-regulation of ABC and MET under Ni stress.

  16. Antioxidative and in vitro antiproliferative activity of Arctium lappa root extracts

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    Background Arctium lappa, known as burdock, is widely used in popular medicine for hypertension, gout, hepatitis and other inflammatory disorders. Pharmacological studies indicated that burdock roots have hepatoprotective, anti-inflammatory, free radical scavenging and antiproliferative activities. The aim of this study was to evaluate total phenolic content, radical scavenging activity by DPPH and in vitro antiproliferative activity of different A. lappa root extracts. Methods Hot and room temperature dichloromethanic, ethanolic and aqueous extracts; hydroethanolic and total aqueous extract of A. lappa roots were investigated regarding radical scavenging activity by DPPH, total phenolic content by Folin-Ciocalteau method and antiproliferative in vitro activity was evaluated in human cancer cell lines. The hydroethanolic extract analyzed by high-resolution electrospray ionization mass spectroscopy. Results Higher radical scavenging activity was found for the hydroethanolic extract. The higher phenolic contents were found for the dichloromethane, obtained both by Soxhlet and maceration extraction and hydroethanolic extracts. The HRESI-MS demonstrated the presence of arctigenin, quercetin, chlorogenic acid and caffeic acid compounds, which were identified by comparison with previous data. The dichloromethane extracts were the only extracts that exhibited activity against cancer cell lines, especially for K562, MCF-7 and 786-0 cell lines. Conclusions The hydroethanolic extracts exhibited the strongest free radical scavenging activity, while the highest phenolic content was observed in Soxhlet extraction. Moreover, the dichloromethanic extracts showed selective antiproliferative activity against K562, MCF-7 and 786-0 human cancer cell lines. PMID:21429215

  17. Antioxidative and in vitro antiproliferative activity of Arctium lappa root extracts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Predes, Fabricia S; Ruiz, Ana L T G; Carvalho, João E; Foglio, Mary A; Dolder, Heidi

    2011-03-23

    Arctium lappa, known as burdock, is widely used in popular medicine for hypertension, gout, hepatitis and other inflammatory disorders. Pharmacological studies indicated that burdock roots have hepatoprotective, anti-inflammatory, free radical scavenging and antiproliferative activities. The aim of this study was to evaluate total phenolic content, radical scavenging activity by DPPH and in vitro antiproliferative activity of different A. lappa root extracts. Hot and room temperature dichloromethanic, ethanolic and aqueous extracts; hydroethanolic and total aqueous extract of A. lappa roots were investigated regarding radical scavenging activity by DPPH, total phenolic content by Folin-Ciocalteau method and antiproliferative in vitro activity was evaluated in human cancer cell lines. The hydroethanolic extract analyzed by high-resolution electrospray ionization mass spectroscopy. Higher radical scavenging activity was found for the hydroethanolic extract. The higher phenolic contents were found for the dichloromethane, obtained both by Soxhlet and maceration extraction and hydroethanolic extracts. The HRESI-MS demonstrated the presence of arctigenin, quercetin, chlorogenic acid and caffeic acid compounds, which were identified by comparison with previous data. The dichloromethane extracts were the only extracts that exhibited activity against cancer cell lines, especially for K562, MCF-7 and 786-0 cell lines. The hydroethanolic extracts exhibited the strongest free radical scavenging activity, while the highest phenolic content was observed in Soxhlet extraction. Moreover, the dichloromethanic extracts showed selective antiproliferative activity against K562, MCF-7 and 786-0 human cancer cell lines. © 2011 Predes et al; licensee BioMed Central Ltd.

  18. Antioxidative and in vitro antiproliferative activity of Arctium lappa root extracts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carvalho João E

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Arctium lappa, known as burdock, is widely used in popular medicine for hypertension, gout, hepatitis and other inflammatory disorders. Pharmacological studies indicated that burdock roots have hepatoprotective, anti-inflammatory, free radical scavenging and antiproliferative activities. The aim of this study was to evaluate total phenolic content, radical scavenging activity by DPPH and in vitro antiproliferative activity of different A. lappa root extracts. Methods Hot and room temperature dichloromethanic, ethanolic and aqueous extracts; hydroethanolic and total aqueous extract of A. lappa roots were investigated regarding radical scavenging activity by DPPH, total phenolic content by Folin-Ciocalteau method and antiproliferative in vitro activity was evaluated in human cancer cell lines. The hydroethanolic extract analyzed by high-resolution electrospray ionization mass spectroscopy. Results Higher radical scavenging activity was found for the hydroethanolic extract. The higher phenolic contents were found for the dichloromethane, obtained both by Soxhlet and maceration extraction and hydroethanolic extracts. The HRESI-MS demonstrated the presence of arctigenin, quercetin, chlorogenic acid and caffeic acid compounds, which were identified by comparison with previous data. The dichloromethane extracts were the only extracts that exhibited activity against cancer cell lines, especially for K562, MCF-7 and 786-0 cell lines. Conclusions The hydroethanolic extracts exhibited the strongest free radical scavenging activity, while the highest phenolic content was observed in Soxhlet extraction. Moreover, the dichloromethanic extracts showed selective antiproliferative activity against K562, MCF-7 and 786-0 human cancer cell lines.

  19. Antioxidant, antimicrobial and urease inhibiting activities of methanolic extracts from Cyphostemma digitatum stem and roots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Rasool; Saif, Abdullah Qasem; Quradha, Mohammed Mansour; Ali, Jawad; Rauf, Abdur; Khan, Ajmal

    2016-01-01

    Cyphostemma digitatum stem and roots extracts were investigated for antioxidant, antimicrobial, urease inhibition potential and phytochemical analysis. Phytochemical screening of the roots and stem extract revealed the presence of secondary metabolites including flavonoids, alkaloids, coumarins, saponins, terpenoids, tannins, carbohydrates/reducing sugars and phenolic compounds. The methanolic extracts of the roots displayed highest antioxidant activity (93.518%) against DPPH while the crude methanolic extract of the stem showed highest antioxidant activity (66.163%) at 100 μg/mL concentration. The methanolic extracts of both stem and roots were moderately active or even found to be less active against the selected bacterial and fungal strains (Tables S2 and S3). The roots extract (methanol) showed significant urease enzyme inhibition activity (IC50 = 41.2 ± 0.66; 0.2 mg/mL) while the stem extract was found moderately active (IC50 = 401.1 ± 0.58; 0.2 mg/mL) against thiourea (IC50 = 21.011; 0.2 mg/mL).

  20. Evaluation of extraction sites for evidence of retained tooth roots and periapical pathology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, James I; Niemiec, Brook

    2014-01-01

    The objective of this retrospective clinical study was to determine the frequency and pathogenicity of unintentional retained tooth root fragments after extraction of the maxillary fourth premolar (108 and 208) and mandibular first molar teeth (309 and 409) in 74 canine and 42 feline client-owned patients. Radiographs of client-owned animals with historical evidence of extraction of teeth 309 and 409 were reviewed. All patients had dental extraction(s) for clinical reasons, and all extractions were deemed successful by the practitioners. Extraction sites were radiographed to identify tooth root fragments and pathology. Twenty-five canine and 25 feline patients that had extractions utilizing preoperative and postoperative radiography were also included. Sixty-one of 74 canine patients (82.4%; P retained tooth root fragments. In total, 100 of 116 cases (86.4%; P retained tooth root fragments, and periapical pathology was found in 66 of 116 (56.8%; P = 0.000000743) radiographs, including 39 of 74 canine cases (52.7%; P = 0.00002765) and 27 of 42 feline cases (64.3%; P = 0.01589). The control group had no evidence of retained root fragments. Further veterinary dental training and routine use of pre- and postoperative dental radiology are recommended.

  1. OPTIMIZATION OF FRUCTANS EXTRACTION FROM in vitro CULTIVATED CHICORY ‘HAIRY’ ROOTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. S. Maznik

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Dependence of efficiency of fructans extraction on soaking time, temperature and time of high temperature extraction was investigated. Dried and powdered chicory Cichorium intybus L. cv Pala rossa «hairy» roots obtained by Agrobacterium rhizogenes-mediated transformation with pCB161 vector were used for study. There were used low- and high-temperature extractions without heating at +22 °C during 0.5; 1 and 24 hours and with heating at +70 °C, +80 °C and +90 °C during 10, 20 and 30 minutes. Fructans fractionation was conducted by two ways: separation of high molecular weight fraction by crystallization at +4 °C and low molecular weight separation by extraction with 95% ethanol. To determine fructans concentration in the extracts McRary and Slattery method was used. Based on the experimental data, a mathematical model of fructan extraction process was created. Its adequacy was tested with the Fisher criterion and coefficient of determination. Optimal parameters of the extraction process chosen using the methods of linear programming were determined. Extraction for 30 minutes at 90 °C without soaking identified as the most tech nological one. It allowed to extract fructans general amount from transgenic roots (146 ±8,77 mg/g of root dry weight. Optimal regime of fructan obtaining from chicory «hairy» roots is extraction at +90 °C for 30 min. Preliminary soaking time does not affect any effectiveness for such extraction. The most effective mode of obtaining of low- and high molecular fractions of fructans from transgenic chicory roots is twostage extraction with 95% ethanol at +80 °C and water at +90 °C with the duration of each stage of 30 minutes.

  2. Evaluation of Phenolic Contents and Bioactivity of Root and Nutgall Extracts from Iraqian Quercus infectoria Olivier

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hewa Omar Hamad

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The extracts of powdered root and nutgall of Iraqian Aleppo oak (Q. infectoria were obtained by using three different solvents along with two extraction methods. Liquid chromatography and tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS was implemented to identify phytochemicals in the extracts. Antioxidant activity was determined by DPPH radical scavenging activity. Also, for measurement of antibacterial activity, disc diffusion and microdilution assays were used. Specifically, the nutgall extracts were found to have higher concentration of phenolic acid contents, and to some extent flavonoids and greater antioxidant and antimicrobial activities in comparison with the root extracts. Furthermore, microwave extraction technique was proven to be much more effective than conventional one in view of extraction yield for both plant parts used here.

  3. Evaluation of the Sporicidal Activity of Ethanol Extract of Arctium lappa Root against Bacillus cereus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vajihe Karbasizade

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: Bacillus cereus is one of the most common causes of food spoilage, keratitis, endophthalmitis, and panophthalmitis. These bacteria produce spores which are resistant to chemical and physical agents. Nowadays, the sporicidal properties of plants have been considered as alternatives to chemical sporicidal agents. Materials and Methods: In this empirical-experimental study the effect of ethanol extract of edible burdock (Arctium lappa root has been studied on Bacillus cereus spores. In this investigation, the suspensions of tested microorganisms were cultured in sporulating agar. Sporulation process was assessed by optical microscopy following the staining of spores. Then the produced spores were exposed to various concentrations (100, 150, 200, 250, 300 mg/mL of ethanol extract of edible burdock (Arctium lappa root and finally the remaining spores were counted. With increasing concentrations of ethanol extract, the number of spores declined. Results: Pearson correlation showed inverse relation between the spores count and concentration of ethanol extract of edible burdock (Arctium lappa root (r=-0.765, p<0.001. The most effective extract concentration was 300 mg /mL. Conclusion: Ethanol extract of edible burdock (Arctium lappa root, has sporicidal activity. Only, the sporicidal nature of ethanol extract has been evaluated by this study; therefore, the assessment of other extracts and essences is necessary.

  4. Antimalarial, antiplasmodial and analgesic activities of root extract of Alchornea laxiflora.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okokon, Jude E; Augustine, Nkemnele Bensella; Mohanakrishnan, Dinesh

    2017-12-01

    Alchornea laxiflora (Benth.) Pax. & Hoffman (Euphorbiaceae) root decoctions are traditionally used in the treatment of malaria and pain in Nigeria. To assess the antimalarial, antiplasmodial and analgesic potentials of root extract and fractions against malarial infections and chemically-induced pains. The root extract and fractions of Alchornea laxiflora were investigated for antimalarial activity against Plasmodium berghei infection in mice, antiplasmodial activity against chloroquine sensitive (Pf 3D7) and resistant (Pf INDO) strains of Plasmodium falciparum using SYBR green assay method and analgesic activity against experimentally-induced pain models. Acute toxicity study of the extract, cytotoxic activity against HeLa cells and GCMS analysis of the active fraction were carried out. The root extract (75-225 mg/kg, p.o.) with LD50 of 748.33 mg/kg exerted significant (p 100 μg/mL. The crude extract and ethyl acetate fraction exerted significant (p < 0.05-0.001) analgesic activity in all pain models used. These results suggest that the root extract/fractions of A. laxiflora possess antimalarial, antiplasmodial and analgesic potentials and these justify its use in ethnomedicine to treat malaria and pain.

  5. Antioxidant Activity of Essential Oil and Extracts of Valeriana jatamansi Roots

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sakshima Thusoo

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Valeriana jatamansi is an indigenous medicinal plant used in the treatment of a number of diseases. In the present study, chemical composition of the essential oil was determined by GC-MS. Seven major components were identified in Valeriana jatamansi essential oil, namely, β-vatirenene, β-patchoulene, dehydroaromadendrene, β-gurjunene, patchoulic alcohol, β-guaiene, and α-muurolene. Methanolic, aqueous, and chloroform extracts of Valeriana jatamansi roots were also prepared and analyzed for their polyphenols and flavonoid content. Antioxidant activity of essential oil and different extracts of Valeriana jatamansi roots was determined by DPPH radical scavenging and chelation power assay. A linear correlation has been obtained by comparing the antioxidant activity and polyphenols and flavonoid content of the extracts. Results indicated that antioxidant activity of methanolic extract could be attributed to the presence of rich amount of polyphenols and flavonoid. Essential oil of Valeriana jatamansi roots showed moderate antioxidant activity.

  6. Toxicity evaluation of hydroalcoholic extract of Ferula gummosa root.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghorbani, Ahmad; Mohebbati, Reza; Jafarian, Amir Hossein; Vahedi, Mohammad Mahdi; Hosseini, Seyed Mahmoud; Soukhtanloo, Mohammad; Sadeghnia, Hamid Reza; Azar Hosseini

    2016-06-01

    Traditionally, people use harvested Ferula gummosa for medicinal purposes. However, no information about its safety and toxicity is available. In the present study, the toxicological profile of sub-chronic oral administration of hydroalcoholic extract of F. gummosa radix is evaluated in rats. The extract was orally administrated at 100 and 600 mg/kg to male rats for 28 days. After 28 days, clinical signs, mortality, body weights, food and water consumption, organ weights, hematology, serum biochemistry, as well as histopathological and neurobehavioral changes were examined. Also, the sedative effect of this extract was evaluated in mice at the doses of 100, 600, and 800 mg/kg. Its cytotoxicity against human stroma-vascular cells and human renal epithelial cells were also evaluated. No lethality or adverse toxic signs were seen during the experimental period. There were no significant changes in body and organ weights, hematology, serum biochemistry, and histopathological examination. The extract decreased the rotarod performance, but did not increase pentobarbital-induced hypnosis. Also, F. gummosa extract significantly decreased cell viability at the concentrations of higher than 400 μg/mL. In conclusion, the sub-chronic toxicity study of F. gummosa hydroalcoholic extract demonstrated the extract to be safe for the tested dosage and route of administration. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Antibronchoconstrictor Effects of Securidaca Longipedunculata (Fresen.)Root Bark Methanolic Extract in Guinea-pigs

    OpenAIRE

    Ojewole, John AO; Ilesanmi, Olapade RS; Olayiwola, Gbola

    2001-01-01

    This study was designed to examine the antibronchoconstrictor effects of Securidaca longipedunculata (Fresen.) root bark methanolic extract (MESL) in guinea-pigs. The plant extract relaxed spasmogen-(acetylcholine-, histamine-, serotonin-, and potassium-) induced contractions of the guinea-pig isolated tracheal muscle prepations in a concentration-related manner. The plant extract also protected guinea-pigs against histamine aerosol-induced bronchospasm in vivo. Neither the relaxant effects o...

  8. Effect of methanolic extract of Asparagus pubescens root on non ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    It also inhibited acetylcholine, ergometrine, oxytocin, prostaglandin E2, ... smooth muscle may in part be related to its non-specific mechanism of action. Keywords: Asparagus pubescens, non-vascular smooth muscle, methanolic extract, ...

  9. In vitro antioxidant activity of Vetiveria zizanioides root extract

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In all these methods, the extract showed strong antioxidant activity in a dose dependent manner. ... Preliminary phytochemical screening of the powdered leaves was performed for the presence of ..... Using various in vitro and ex vivo models.

  10. Hypoglycemic potential of alcoholic root extract of Cassia occidentalis Linn. in streptozotocin induced diabetes in albino mice

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    Surbhi Sharma

    2014-12-01

    Conclusion: The results suggest that ethanolic roots extract of C. occidentalis Linn. possesses hypoglycemic potential for the NIDDM and support the traditional use of the roots of plant as hypoglycemic agent.

  11. The ability of 5% Tamarindus indica extract as cleaner of the root canal wall smear layer

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    Erawati Wulandari

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Tamarindus indica is one of traditional medicines. Pulpa tamaridorum consist of organic acid that is usually used as irrigant and to remove root canal wall smear layer. The aimed of this study was to elucidate the ability of 5% Tamarindus indica extract as a root canal irrigant to remove root canal wall smear layer. Eighteen tooth samples were cut on cervical line and divided into 2 then groups were prepared with K file and irrigated. Group 1 was irrigated by sterile aquabidest and group 2 was irrigated by 5% Tamarindus indica extract. Samples were cut longitudinally and formed 7 × 2× 2 mm specimen. Each specimen was photographed by scanning electron microscope, scored and summed. The total score obtained is used as the hygiene value of root canal wall. The collected data were statistically analyzed by using independent t test at 0.05 level. The result of the study showed there was a significant difference between 5% Tamarindus indica extract and sterile aquabidest (p < 0.05, the hygiene value of 5% Tamarindus indica extract was higher than sterile aquabidest. The conclusion of this investigation showed that 5% Tamarindus indica extract remove root canal wall smear layer.

  12. Resource Limitations Influence Growth and Vigor of Idaho Fescue, a Common Understory Species in Pacific Northwest Ponderosa Pine Forests

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    Craig A. Carr

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Alterations in under-canopy resource availability associated with elevated ponderosa pine (Pinus ponderosa Dougl. abundance can negatively influence understory vegetation. Experimental evidence linking under-canopy resource availability and understory vegetation is scarce. Yet this information would be beneficial in developing management strategies to recover desired understory species. We tested the effects of varying nitrogen (N and light availability on Idaho fescue (Festuca idahoensis Elmer, the dominant understory species in ponderosa pine/Idaho fescue plant associations in eastern Oregon. In a greenhouse experiment, two levels of N (50 kg∙N∙ha−1 and 0 kg∙N∙ha−1 and shade (80% shade and 0% shade were applied in a split-plot design to individual potted plants grown in soil collected from high abundance pine stands. Plants grown in unshaded conditions produced greater root (p = 0.0027 and shoot (p = 0.0017 biomass and higher cover values (p = 0.0378 compared to those in the shaded treatments. The addition of N had little effect on plant growth (p = 0.1602, 0.5129, and 0.0853 for shoot biomass, root biomass, and cover, respectively, suggesting that soils in high-density ponderosa pine stands that lack understory vegetation were not N deficient and Idaho fescue plants grown in these soils were not N limited. Management activities that increase under-canopy light availability will promote the conditions necessary for Idaho fescue recovery. However, successful restoration may be constrained by a lack of residual fescue or the invasion of more competitive understory vegetation.

  13. Neotyphodium coenophialum-infected tall fescue and its potential application in the phytoremediation of saline soils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, L; Ren, A; Wei, M; Wu, L; Zhou, Y; Li, X; Gao, Y

    2014-01-01

    The growth response of endophyte-infected (EI) and endophyte-free (EF) tall fescue to salt stress was investigated under two growing systems (hydroponic and soil in pots). The hydroponic experiment showed that endophyte infection significantly increased tiller and leaf number, which led to an increase in the total biomass of the host grass. Endophyte infection enhanced Na accumulation in the host grass and improved Na transport from the roots to the shoots. With a 15 g l(-1) NaCl treatment, the phytoextraction efficiency of EI tall fescue was 2.34-fold higher than EF plants. When the plants were grown in saline soils, endophyte infection also significantly increased tiller number, shoot height and the total biomass of the host grass. Although EI tall fescue cannot accumulate Na to a level high enough for it to be termed a halophyte, the increased biomass production and stress tolerance suggested that endophyte/plant associations had the potential to be a model for endophyte-assisted phytoextraction in saline soils.

  14. Starch extraction process coupled to protein recovery from leguminous tuberous roots (Pachyrhizus ahipa).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Díaz, Andrea; Dini, Cecilia; Viña, Sonia Z; García, María A

    2016-11-05

    The objective of this work was to fit together the starch extraction from Pachyrhizus ahipa roots and the recovery of the proteins present in these storage organs, making an improved use of this novel raw material. The replacement of water by buffer PO4(-3)/NaCl as solvent in the first extraction steps improved protein extraction without lowering the starch yield. The starches obtained from the traditional and the proposed methods exhibited some differences in appearance and technological and thermal properties, which were endorsed to the adjustment in the methodology of extraction rather than to the use of buffer as solvent. Thus, P. ahipa starch obtaining procedure could be coupled to protein extraction with a minimum change in the methodology. This innovation did not significantly shift the characteristics of the starch obtained and allowed to obtain a protein yield of 135.7mg BSA equivalent protein/100g of fresh roots.

  15. Protective efficacy of Solanum xanthocarpum root extracts against free radical damage: phytochemical analysis and antioxidant effect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, S; Sharma, U K; Sharma, A K; Pandey, A K

    2012-12-22

    Free radicals have been implicated in many diseases. They attack biological macromolecules in healthy human cells and cause protein and DNA damage along with lipid peroxidation. Present study reports the phytochemical analysis as well as free radical scavenging and antioxidant activities of Solanum xanthocarpum root extracts. Tannins, flavonoids, terpenoids, alkaloids, saponins and steroids were present in different extracts. Total flavonoid content in extracts was quantified and maximum contents were found in ethyl acetate fraction followed by chloroform and ethyl alcohol fractions, respectively. Dose dependent response was observed in metal ion chelating activity of extracts. Comparatively better chelating activity was found in polar extracts. Most of the extracts exhibited significant free radical scavenging activity in DPPH radical scavenging assay. Ethanolic and aqueous extracts accounted for about 40—50% lipid peroxidation inhibition (LPOI) in rat liver homogenate. Antioxidant activity did not show direct correlation with the amount of flavonoid contents in the extracts. However, direct correlation was observed between DPPH free radical scavenging activity and LPOI. Antioxidant activity of the extracts was compared with standard antioxidants. The differential activity observed in extracts could be attributed to the presence of other phytochemicals such as tannins and terpenoids in addition to flavonoids. The study demonstrated appreciable protective efficacy in S. xanthocarpum root extracts against free radical damage.

  16. Evaluation of allelopathic impact of aqueous extract of root and aerial root of Tinospora cordifolia (Willd. miers on some weed plants

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    K. M. Abdul RAOOF

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available The present laboratory experimental study was conducted to evaluate the allelopathic potential of Tinospora cordifolia (Willd. Miers on seed germination and seedling growth of weed plants (Chenopodium album L. Chenopodium murale L., Cassia tora L. and Cassia sophera L.. Root and aerial root aqueous extracts of Tinospora at 0.5, 1.0, 2.0 and 4.0% concentrations were applied to determine their effect on seed germination and seedling growth of test plants under laboratory conditions. Germination was observed for 15 days after that the root length and shoot length was measured. Dry weight was measured after oven drying the seedlings. The aqueous extracts from root and aerial root had inhibitory effect on seed germination of test plants. Aqueous extracts from root and aerial root significantly inhibited not only germination and seedling growth but also reduced dry weight of the seedlings. Root length, shoot length of weed species decreased progressively when plants were exposed to increasing concentration (0.5, 1, 2 and 4%. Aqueous extract of aerial root shows the least inhibition. The pH of aqueous extracts of different parts of T. cordifolia does not show any major change when the concentration increases.

  17. GC/GCMS analysis of the petroleum ether and dichloromethane extracts of Moringa oleifera roots

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Shaheen Faizi; Saima Sumbul; Muhammed Ali Versiani; Rubeena Saleem; Aisha Sana; Hira Siddiqui

    2014-01-01

    Objective:To explore the phytochemical constituents from petroleum ether and dichloromethane extracts of Moringa oleifera (M. oleifera) roots using GC/GC-MS. Methods: A total of 5.11 kg fresh and undried crushed root of M. oleifera were cut into small pieces and extracted with petroleum ether and dichloromethane (20 L each) at room temperature for 2 d. The concentrated extracts were subjected to their GC-MS analysis. Results:The GC-MS analysis of the petroleum ether and dichloromethane extracts of M. oleifera roots, which showed promising biological activities, has resulted in the identification 102 compounds. These constituents belong to 15 classes of compounds including hydrocarbons, fatty acids, esters, alcohols, isothiocyanate, thiocyanate, pyrazine, aromatics, alkamides, cyanides, steroids, halocompounds, urea and N-hydroxyimine derivatives, unsaturated alkenamides, alkyne and indole. GC/GC-MS studies on petroleum ether extract of the roots revealed that it contained 39 compounds, belonging to nine classes. Cyclooctasulfur S8 has been isolated as a pure compound from the extract. The major compounds identified from petroleum ether extract were trans-13-docosene (37.9%), nonacosane (32.6%), cycloartenol (28.6%) nonadecanoic acid (13.9%) and cyclooctasulfur S8 (13.9%). Dichloromethane extract of the roots was composed of 63 compounds of which nasimizinol (58.8%) along with oleic acid (46.5%), N-benzyl-N-(7-cyanato heptanamide (38.3%), N-benzyl-N-(1-chlorononyl) amide (30.3%), bis [3-benzyl prop-2-ene]-1-one (19.5%) and N, N-dibenzyl-2-ene pent 1, 5-diamide (11.6%) were the main constituents. Conclusions:This study helps to predict the formula and structure of active molecules which can be used as drugs. This result also enhances the traditional usage of M. oleifera which possesses a number of bioactive compounds.

  18. Tall Fescue for the Twenty-first Century

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tall Fescue for the Twenty-first Century is a comprehensive monograph by experts from around the world about the science of tall fescue [Lolium arundinaceum (Schreb.) Darbysh. = Schedonorus arundinaceus (Schreb.) Dumort., formerly Fes¬tuca arundinacea Schreb. var. arundinacea] and its applications. ...

  19. Seedling performance associated with live or herbicide treated tall fescue

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tall fescue is an important forage grass which can host systemic fungal endophytes. The association of host grass and endophyte is known to influence herbivore behavior and host plant competition for resources. Establishing legumes into existing tall fescue sods is a desirable means to acquire nitro...

  20. ANTI-STRESS ACTIVITY OF EUPHORBIA THYMIFOLIA L. AQUEOUS ROOT EXTRACT IN FEMALE RATS

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    SIVAPRASAD GUDIPUDI

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Euphorbia thymifolia root is having the protective effect against female reproductive dysfunctions. This study is to evaluate the anti-stress activity of aqueous extract of Euphorbia thymifolia root in treating female reproductive dysfunction induced by stress. Forced swimming stress (15min/day for 28 days and restraint stress (3h/day for 28 days were the methods employed to induce female reproductive dysfunction in rats. Aqueous extract of Euphorbia thymifolia root was given to rats in two doses, 100 mg/kg and 200 mg/kg for 28 days along with induction of stress and its effectiveness was assessed by observing changes in estrous cycle and organs weight. The results were analyzed by using one-way ANOVA followed by Dunnett’s test. Euphorbia thymifolia root extract showed a significant protective effect which is evident by decrease in the duration of proestrous and increase in duration of estrous, metestrous, and diestrous phases. Whereas the weight of adrenal glands noticeably decreased in aqueous extract treated group confirming the anti-stress activity which was found to be dose dependent. The anti-stress activity may be due to the presence of various phytochemical constituents like alkaloids, flavonoids and other constituents present in the Euphorbia thymifolia root.

  1. ANTIOXIDANT AND ANTI-INFLAMMATORY ACTIVITY OF ETHANOLIC EXTRACT OF BETA VULGARIS LINN. ROOTS

    OpenAIRE

    Chakole, Rita; Zade, Shubhangi; Charde, Manoj

    2011-01-01

    The present study deals with evaluation of antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activity of ethanolic extract of Beta Vulgaris roots. The ethanolic extract was subjected to screen forantioxidant activity using DPPH radical scavenging method. The anti-inflammatory activity was carried out by using carageenan induced rat paw edema method. The tested extract ofdifferent dilutions in range 200 µg/ml to 1000 µg/ml shows activity in range of 4.34% to 18.55%. The extract shows prominent anti-inflamma...

  2. ANTIDIURETIC ACTIVITY OF AQUEOUS AND ETHANOLIC EXTRACTS OF PROP ROOTS OF PANDANUS FASCICULARIS LAM.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jothimani Rajeswari et al.

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available The extracts of the prop roots of Pandanus fascicularis Lam (Family: Pandanaceae is claimed as an antidiuretic by some traditional practitioners. However, the validity of this claim has not been scientifically proven or refuted. The aim of this study was to evaluate the antidiuretic potential of ethanol and aqueous extracts of prop roots of P. fascicularis in rats following oral administration. Ethanol and aqueous extracts were prepared from P. facicularis by percolation and cold maturation, respectively. Furosemide was used as a diuretic agent to induce diuresis. Vasopressin (ADH was used as a standard. The results demonstrated both the ethanol and aqueous extracts of P. facicularis and ADH significantly impaired the total urine output. However, antidiuretic potential of ethanolic extract was similar to that of ADH. The extracts caused a significant decrease in natriuresis and kaliuresis. From this study, we can conclude that ethanol extract of prop roots of Pandanus fascicularis has beneficial effects on anti diuretic activity. It has the potential to impart therapeutic effect in diuretic.

  3. Nephroprotective effect ofCroton zambesicus root extract against gentimicin-induced kidney injury

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jude E Okokon; Paul A Nwafor; Kufre Noah

    2011-01-01

    Objective:To evaluate the kidney protective effect of ethanolic root extract ofCroton zambesicus (C. zambesicus) against gentimicin-induced kidney injury in rats.Methods: The root extract (27 -81 mg/kg) was administered to rats for eight days with concurrent administration of gentimicin (100mg/kg) daily for the same period of time. Protective effect of the extract was evaluated in serum levels of creatinine, urea, and uric acid as well as some ions like sodium, potassium and chloride. Histological examination of the kidneys from different treatment groups were also carried out.Results: Administration of the root extract significantly reduced histopathological changes in the kidneys of the extract-treated rats especially in the rats treated with lower doses of the extract (27and54 mg/kg). The levels of serum urea and creatinine were also reduced significantly (P<0.01) at these doses with no observable effect on the levels of uric acid and ions. Conclusions: The kidney - protective activity of this extract could be due to its antioxidant and free radical scavenging activities.

  4. Study on acute ulcerous pain in rats treated with aqueous root extract of Lonchocarpus cyanescens

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Adegbolagun Temitope Adeoye; Adeolu Alex Adedapo; Matthew Oluwole Abatan

    2016-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the antiulcer and analgesic effects of the aqueous root extract of Lonchocarpus cyanescens (L. cyanescens) since the plant is said to have medicinal properties. Methods: The filtrate of the aqueous root extract of the plant (100 mg/mL) was used to evaluate for antiulcer activity in 20 rats divided into five groups of four rats each, which were Groups A, B, and C that received 100, 200 and 300 mg/kg doses respectively, while Group D was served as negative control and animals of Group E received 20 mg/kg dose of ranitidine. Indomethacin at a dose of 15 mg/kg was used to induce ulcer on the day of sacrifice. For acetic writhing test (antinociception), same design was used except that Group E received 100 mg/kg dose of acetyl salicylic acid as standard drug. Abdominal contractions were induced in the animals by intraperitoneal administration of 10 mL/kg of 0.6%of acetic acid. Results: The aqueous root extract of L. cyanescens at all doses (100, 200 and 300 mg/kg) showed significant (P < 0.05) decrease in ulcer parameters compared with the negative control. The extract also produced a significant (P < 0.05) decrease in the number of writhing reflexes in treated rats compared with negative control. Conclusions: The aqueous root extract of L. cyanescens exhibited both antiulcer and analgesic effects justifying folklore claim for the health benefits of this plant.

  5. Effectiveness of castor oil extract on Escherichia coli and its endotoxins in root canals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valera, Marcia Carneiro; Maekawa, Lilian Eiko; Chung, Adriana; de Oliveira, Luciane Dias; Carvalho, Claudio Antonio Talge; Koga-Ito, Cristiane Yumi; Jorge, Antonio Olavo Cardoso

    2012-01-01

    This in vitro study sought to evaluate the effectiveness of castor oil extract used as an irrigating solution on Escherichia coli and its endotoxins in root canals. Sixty single-rooted teeth were prepared (using castor oil extract as irrigating solution) and divided into five groups (n = 12): Group 1 samples were treated with calcium hydroxide (Ca(OH)2), Group 2 samples were treated with polymyxin B, Group 3 samples were treated with Ca(OH)2 and 2% chlorhexidine gel (CHX), and Group 4 samples were treated with castor oil extract. A control group used physiological saline solution as an irrigant. Canal content samples were collected at four different times: immediately after instrumentation, seven days after instrumentation, after 14 days of intracanal medication, and seven days after removal of intracanal medication. A plating method was used to assess antimicrobial activity and the quantification of endotoxins was evaluated by the chromogenic Limulus lysate assay. Data were submitted to ANOVA and a Dunn test (a = 5%). Irrigation with castor oil extract decreased E. coli counts but had no effect on the level of endotoxins. Samples taken seven days after removal of medication revealed a significant reduction in endotoxin levels in Groups 3 and 4. Compared to the saline solution irrigation, castor oil extract decreased microorganism counts in root canals immediately after canal preparation. None of the medications used completely eliminated endotoxins in the root canal.

  6. Biochemical Characterization of Tunisian Cichorium Intybus L. Roots and Optimization of Ultrasonic Inulin Extraction

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    Youkabed Ouederni Zarroug

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available In this study Cichorium intybus L. roots were tested for its chemical composition, antioxidant activity, and phenolic profile. Optimization of ultrasonic inulin extraction using response surface methodology (RSM was further investigated. Chicory roots were found to have high value of total carbohydrates (70.43%, soluble fiber (66.93, Neutral detergent fiber (NDF (33.07%, potassium (380 mg/100g, calcium (540 mg/100g and sodium (140 mg/100g. Chicory roots exhibit a high content of flavonoids, polyphenols, and tannins. Antioxidant activity measurement reveals the capacity of Chicory roots to scavenge diphenylpicrylhydrazyl (DPPH radicals. Phenolic acids profile shows the abundance of vanillic acid (19.64% followed by protocatechuic acid (15.67%. The effect of three independent variables namely extraction time, the ratio of water to raw material and temperature on inulin extraction was studied. Optimum deciding responses were Inulin content, Total Soluble Solids (TSS content and Water produced inulin yield. The optimal ultrasonic extraction conditions were: extraction time 87 min, liquid to solid ratio 38 (ml/g and ultrasonic temperature 61 ̊ C. Under these conditions, the inulin content, TSS content and produced inulin yield were 35.92%, 24.72%, and 32.53%, respectively. The produced inulin was characterized by the Fourier infrared transformation (FTIR and observed by means of scanning electron microscopy (SEM.  

  7. Influence of anatomical barriers on maxillary incisor root resorption after orthodontic treatment with premolar extractions

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    Antonio Geraldo de Oliveira

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Apical root resorption is a frequent and occasionally critical problem in orthodontic patients undergoing induced tooth movement. One of the factors that might influence prognosis, especially in maxillary incisors, which most frequently present resorptions, are the so-called the anatomical barriers; that is, proximity of the buccal and palatal cortical bones to the maxillary incisor roots. OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this research was to investigate whether patients with excessive vertical growth really present a small distance between the alveolar cortical bones and the maxillary incisor roots, and whether there is a correlation between this distance and the root resorption index in comparison with patients presenting horizontal growth. METHODS: The sample comprised orthodontic records of 18 patients with extraction planning of first maxillary premolars and treatment by the standard and/or preadjusted edgewise brackets. Their initial and final periapical radiographs were evaluated to determine the amount of root resorption that occurred. RESULTS: On the palatal side, patients with excessive vertical growth (Group 2 - SN-GoGn > 43º showed a narrower alveolar bone than the horizontal growth patients (Group 1 - SN-GoGn < 29º. However, the distance between the buccal cortical bone and the central incisor root apex showed no significant difference between Groups 1 and 2; CONCLUSIONS: It was concluded that there are no correlations between the proximity of buccal cortical bone, maxillary incisor roots and the root resorption index.

  8. Cytotoxicity of 5% Tamarindus indica extract and 3% hydrogen peroxide as root canal irrigation

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    Erawati Wulandari

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Preparation of root canal is an important stage in endodontic treatment. During conducting preparation, it is always be followed with root canal irrigation that has aim to clean root canal from necrotic tissue remains, grind down dentin powder, micro organism, wet the root canal to make preparation process of root canal easier, and solute root canal content at area that can not be reached by equipment. Flesh of Tamarindus indica (pulpa tamarindorum is used as traditional medicine and it contains vitamin C (antioxidant, protein, fat, glucose, etc. Previous research shows that 5% tamarindus indica extract can clean smear layer but it is more cytotoxicity to cell line BHK–21 than sterilized aquabides. Purpose: This research is to compare cytotoxicity between 5% Tamarindus indica extract with 3% H2O2 as root canal irrigation material. Method: Four teen culture cell line BHK 21 divides into 2 groups. Group 1 is treated with 3% H2O2 and Group 2 is treated with 5% Tamarindus indica extract, for about 2.5 minutes in every group. Then, living and death cell percentage is measured. Data is analyzed with independent t test with significant level of 0.05%. Result: The research showed that death cell in group 1 was 29.3% and in group 2 was 21.1%. There was a significant different (p < 0.05 between group 1 and group 2. Conclusion: Cytotoxicity of 5% Tamarindus indica extract to the cell line BHK–21 is lower than 3% H2O2.

  9. [Allelopathy autotoxicity effects of aquatic extracts from rhizospheric soil on rooting and growth of stem cuttings in Pogostemon cablin].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Kun; Li, Ming; Dong, Shan; Li, Yun-qi; Huang, Jie-wen; Li, Long-ming

    2014-06-01

    To study the allelopathy effects of aquatic extracts from rhizospheric soil on the rooting and growth of stem cutting in Pogostemon cablin, and to reveal its mechanism initially. The changes of rhizogenesis characteristics and physic-biochemical during cutting seedlings were observed when using different concentration of aquatic extracts from rhizospheric soil. Aquatic extracts from rhizospheric soil had significant inhibitory effects on rooting rate, root number, root length, root activity, growth rate of cutting with increasing concentrations of tissue extracts; The chlorophyll content of cutting seedlings were decreased, but content of MDA were increased, and activities of POD, PPO and IAAO in cutting seedlings were affected. Aquatic extracts from rhizospheric soil of Pogostemon cablin have varying degrees of inhibitory effects on the normal rooting and growth of stem cuttings.

  10. Effect of Baliospermum montanum root extract on phagocytosis by human neutrophils

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    Patil Kalpana

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Aqueous extract of roots of Baliospermum montanum was evaluated on preliminary basis for immunomodulatory activity by studying neutrophil phagocytic function. The different concentration of (25, 50, 100 mg/ml of aqueous extract of roots of Baliospermum montanum was subjected to study its effect on different in vitro methods of phagocytosis such as neutrophil locomotion, chemotaxis, immunostimulant activity of phagocytosis of killed Candida albicans and qualitative nitroblue tetrazolium test by using human neutrophils. This preliminary study revealed that Baliospermum montanum extract has stimulated chemotactic, phagocytic and intracellular killing potency of human neutrophils at the different concentration. From the results obtained it can be observed that the aqueous extract of Baliospermum montanum stimulate cell-mediated immune system by increasing neutrophil function.

  11. Antitoxin activity of Mimosa pudica root extracts against Naja naja and Bangarus caerulus venoms

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    Subramani Meenatchisundaram, Selvin Priyagrace, Ramasamy Vijayaraghavan, Ambikapathi Velmurugan, Govindarajan Parameswari, Antonysamy Michael

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Aqueous extract of dried roots of Mimosa pudica was tested for inhibitory activity on lethality, phospholipase activity, edema forming activity, fibrinolytic activity and hemorrhagic activity of Naja naja and Bangarus caerulus venoms. The aqueous extract displayed a significant inhibitory effect on the lethality, phospholipase activity, edema forming activity, fibrinolytic activity and hemorrhagic activity. About 0.14 mg and 0.16 mg of M. pudica extracts were able to completely neutralize the lethal activity of 2LD50 of Naja naja and Bangarus caerulus venoms respectively. The present finding suggests that aqueous extract of M. pudica root possesses compounds, which inhibit the activity of Naja naja and Bangarus caerulus venoms.

  12. Antitoxin activity of Mimosa pudica root extracts against Naja naja and Bangarus caerulus venoms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Subramani Meenatchisundaram

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Aqueous extract of dried roots of Mimosa pudica was tested for inhibitory activity on lethality, phospholipase activity, edema forming activity, fibrinolytic activity and hemorrhagic activity of Naja naja and Bangarus caerulus venoms. The aqueous extract displayed a significant inhibitory effect on the lethality, phospholipase activity, edema forming activity, fibrinolytic activity and hemorrhagic activity. About 0.14 mg and 0.16 mg of M. pudica extracts were able to completely neutralize the lethal activity of 2LD50 of Naja naja and Bangarus caerulus venoms respectively. The present finding suggests that aqueous extract of M. pudica root possesses compounds, which inhibit the activity of Naja naja and Bangarus caerulus venoms.

  13. Protective effects of Arctium lappa L. root extracts (AREs) on high fat diet induced quail atherosclerosis

    OpenAIRE

    2016-01-01

    Background This study was designed to evaluate the protective effects of Arctium lappa L. root extracts (AREs) from different extraction methods (aqueous, ethanol, chloroform and flavone) on atherosclerosis. Methods Quails (Coturnix coturnix) were subjected to high fat diet, with or without one of the four different AREs or positive control simvastatin. Blood samples were collected before treatment, after 4.5 weeks or ten weeks to assess lipid profile (Levels of total cholesterol (TC), Triacy...

  14. Protective effect of root extract of Operculina turpethum linn. Against paracetamol-induced hepatotoxicity in rats

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    Suresh Kumar S

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The ethanolic extract obtained from roots of Operculina turpethum (Convolvulaceae were evaluated for hepatoprotective activity in rats by inducing liver damage by paracetamol. The ethanol extract at an oral dose of 200 mg/kg exhibited a significant protective effect by lowering serum levels of glutamic oxaloacetic transaminase, glutamic pyruvic transaminase, alkaline phosphatase and total bilirubin. These biochemical observations were supplemented by histopathological examination of liver sections. Silymarin was used as positive control.

  15. Role of Euphorbia thymifolia L. ethanolic root extract in treating female reproductive dysfunction in rats

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    Siva Prasad Gudipudi

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Euphorbia thymifolia root is having the protective effect against female reproductive dysfunctions. This study is to evaluate the antioxidant activity of ethanolic extract of Euphorbia thymifolia root in treating stress induced female reproductive dysfunctions. Forced swimming stress (15min/day for 28 days and restraint stress (3h/day for 28 days were the methods employed to induce female reproductive dysfunction in rats. Ethanolic extract of Euphorbia thymifolia root was given to rats in two doses, 100 mg/kg and 200 mg/kg for 28 days along with induction of stress and its effectiveness was assessed by observing changes in SOD, catalase and lipid peroxidation of uterus and ovary. The results were analyzed by using one-way ANOVA followed by Dunnett’s test. Euphorbia thymifolia root extract showed a significant antioxidant activity which is evident by increase in the levels of SOD and catalase, decrease in the levels of lipid peroxidation confirming the antioxidant effect which was found to be dose dependent. The antioxidant activity may be due to the presence of various phytochemical constituents like alkaloids, flavonoids and other constituents present in the Euphorbia thymifolia root.

  16. Total Soluble Protein Extraction for Improved Proteomic Analysis of Transgenic Rice Plant Roots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raorane, Manish L; Narciso, Joan O; Kohli, Ajay

    2016-01-01

    With the advent of high-throughput platforms, proteomics has become a powerful tool to search for plant gene products of agronomic relevance. Protein extractions using multistep protocols have been shown to be effective to achieve better proteome profiles than simple, single-step extractions. These protocols are generally efficient for above ground tissues such as leaves. However, each step leads to loss of some amount of proteins. Additionally, compounds such as proteases in the plant tissues lead to protein degradation. While protease inhibitor cocktails are available, these alone do not seem to suffice when roots are included in the plant sample. This is obvious given the lack of high molecular weight (HMW) proteins obtained from samples that include root tissue. For protein/proteome analysis of transgenic plant roots or of seedlings, which include root tissue, such pronounced protein degradation is especially undesirable. A facile protein extraction protocol is presented, which ensures that despite the inclusion of root tissues there is minimal loss in total protein components.

  17. MICROWAVE-ASSISTED EXTRACTION OF PHENOLIC COMPOUNDS FROM POLYGONUM MULTIFLORUM THUNB. ROOTS

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    Le Pham Tan Quoc

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Background. The aim of this study was to determine the best extraction conditions for total phenolic con- tent (TPC and antioxidant capacity (AC of Polygonum multiflorum Thunb. root using microwave-assisted extraction (MAE. Material and methods. The raw material used was Polygonum multiflorum Thunb. root powder. Five fac- tors such as solvent type, solvent concentrations, solvent/material ratio, extraction time and microwave power were studied; TPC and AC values were determined by the Folin-Ciocalteu method and DPPH free radical scavenging activity measurement, respectively. In addition, studies involved assaying the HPLC test of extracts and SEM of samples. Results. Optimal results pointed to acetone as the solvent, acetone concentration of 60%, solvent/material ratio of 40/1 (v/w, extraction time of 5 mins and microwave power of 127 W. TPC and AC obtained were approximates 44.3 ±0.13 mg GAE/g DW and 341.26 ±1.54 μmol TE/g DW, respectively. The effect of mi- crowaving on the cell destruction of Polygonum multiflorum Thunb. root was observed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM. Some phenolic compounds were determined by the HPLC method, for instance, gallic acid, catechin and resveratrol. Conclusion. These factors significantly affected TPC and AC. We can use acetone as a solvent with micro- wave-assisted extraction to achieve the best result.

  18. Antioxidant activity and fructan content in root extracts from elecampane (Inula helenium L.

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    NADEZHDA PETKOVA

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the present study was to investigate the antioxidant activity and fructans content in ethanol and water extracts of roots of elecampane (Inula helenium L., a Bulgarian medicinal plant. The extraction procedure included 95% (v/v ethanol extraction and subsequent water treatment. The antioxidant activity was evaluated by several reliable methods such as DPPH-, ABTS-, FRAP- and CUPRAC-assays, as well as the total phenolic content. In addition, the total fructans and sugar content were determinated by spectrophotomeric, TLC and HPLC-RID methods. The level of fructans in ethanol extracts was 14.1 g / 100 g dry weight, as nystose and 1-kestose were only 0.3 g / 100 g dry weight, and 0.5 g / 100g dry weight, respectively. The absence of fructooligosacharides and sugars in water extracts after the ethanol pretreatment was established. Inulin content was evaluated to be 32 g / 100 g dry weight. The metabolites profile of roots revealed their potential application as radical scavengers due to the presence of polyphenols. Therefore, the root extracts of elecampane could be assumed as a rich source of biologically active substance, in particular dietary fiber with potential prebiotic effect, due to the presence of polysaccharide inulin and fructooligosacharides.

  19. Phytochemistry and hepatoprotective activity of aqueous extract of Amaranthus tricolor Linn. roots

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    Simran Aneja

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The genus Amaranthus has potential activity as a hepatoprotective agent. Objective : The present pharmacological investigation focuses on evaluation of the efficacy of aqueous extract of roots of Amaranthus tricolor Linn. for their protection against paracetamol (PCM overdose induced hepatotoxicity . Materials and Methods: The aqueous extract of roots of A. tricolor Linn. was prepared and phytochemical screening was done. The biochemical investigation viz. serum glutamic oxaloacetate transaminase (SGOT, serum glutamic pyruvate transaminase (SGPT, alkaline phosphatase (ALP and total Bilirubin (TB was done against PCM-induced hepatotoxicity in wistar albino rats. The histopathological studies of liver were also done. Results: The phytochemical screening of the aqueous extract showed the presence of alkaloids, carbohydrates, flavanoids, amino acids, proteins, fixed oil, saponins and tannins, and phenolic compounds. Pretreatment with the aqueous extract of root significantly prevented the physical, biochemical, histological, and functional changes induced by paracetamol in the liver. The extract showed significant hepatoprotective effects as evidenced by decreased serum enzyme activities like SGPT, SGOT, ALP, and TB, which was supported by histopathological studies of liver. The aqueous extract showed significant hepatoprotective activity comparable with standard drug silymarin as well as hepatotoxin drug PCM. Conclusion: From these results, it is concluded that the A. tricolor has potential effectiveness in treating liver damage in a dose dependent manner.

  20. Withania somnifera Root Extract Has Potent Cytotoxic Effect against Human Malignant Melanoma Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halder, Babli; Singh, Shruti; Thakur, Suman S

    2015-01-01

    In Ayurveda, Withania somnifera is commonly known as Ashwagandha, its roots are specifically used in medicinal and clinical applications. It possesses numerous therapeutic actions which include anti-inflammatory, sedative, hypnotic and narcotic. Extracts from this plant have been reported for its anticancer properties. In this study we evaluated for the first time, the cytotoxic effect of Withania root extract on human malignant melanoma A375 cells. The crude extract of Withania was tested for cytotoxicity against A375 cells by MTT assay. Cell morphology of treated A375 cells was visualized through phase contrast as well as fluorescence microscopy. Agarose gel electrophoresis was used to check DNA fragmentation of the crude extract treated cells. Crude extract of Withania root has the potency to reduce viable cell count in dose as well as time dependent manner. Morphological change of the A375 cells was also observed in treated groups in comparison to untreated or vehicle treated control. Apoptotic body and nuclear blebbing were observed in DAPI stained treated cells under fluorescence microscope. A ladder of fragmented DNA was noticed in treated cells. Thus it might be said that the crude water extract of Withania somnifera has potent cytotoxic effect on human malignant melanoma A375 cells.

  1. In vitro Hypolipidemic and Antioxidant Effects of Leaf and Root Extracts of Taraxacum Officinale

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    Belén García-Carrasco

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Adipose tissue dysfunction constitutes a primary defect in obesity and might link this disease to severe chronic health problems. We aimed to evaluate the antioxidant activity of three extracts from Taraxacum officinale (dandelion as well as their effects on mature 3T3-L1 adipocytes concerning intracellular lipid accumulation and cytotoxicity, this would give indications regarding therapeutic interest of dandelion as potential anti-obesity candidate. Antioxidant activities of extracts from dandelion roots and leaves were evaluated in vitro using 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhyorazyl (DPPH and Ferric Reducing Antioxidant Power (FRAP methods at the concentration range used in cellular assays (300–600 µg/mL. The influence of the extracts on mature 3T3-L1 adipocyte viability was determined by the 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT assay. Lipid content was determined by Oil-red-O staining. The extracts showed effective antioxidant activity correlating with total flavonoid and polyphenol contents. However, the functionality level was weakly associated with the antioxidant activity. Further, our data demonstrated that mature 3T3-L1 adipocytes reduced in size and number when incubated with the extracts, which suggests a significant increase in lipolysis activity. Particularly, leaf extract and crude powdered root of dandelion reduced triglyceride accumulation in mature 3T3-L1 adipocytes to a greater extent that the extract from the root. Our study shows anti-lipogenic effects of dandelion extracts on adipocytes as well as radical scavenging and reducing activity. Importantly, along with previous results indicating that cell populations cultivated in the presence of the dandelion extracts decrease in 3T3-L1 adipogenesis capacity, these results suggests that these extracts might represent a treatment option for obesity-related diseases by affecting different processes during the adipocyte life cycle.

  2. Nootropic potential of Ashwagandha leaves: Beyond traditional root extracts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wadhwa, Renu; Konar, Arpita; Kaul, Sunil C

    2016-05-01

    Rapidly increasing aging population and environmental stressors are the two main global concerns of the modern society. These have brought in light rapidly increasing incidence of a variety of pathological conditions including brain tumors, neurodegenerative & neuropsychiatric disorders, and new challenges for their treatment. The overlapping symptoms, complex etiology and lack of full understanding of the brain structure and function to-date further complicate these tasks. On the other hand, several herbal reagents with a long history of their use have been asserted to possess neurodifferentiation, neuroregenerative and neuroprotective potentials, and hence been recommended as supplement to enhance and maintain brain health and function. Although they have been claimed to function by holistic approach resulting in maintaining body homeostasis and brain health, there are not enough laboratory studies in support to these and mechanism(s) of such beneficial activities remain largely undefined. One such herb is Ashwagandha, also called "Queen of Ayurveda" for its popular use in Indian traditional home medicine because of its extensive benefits including anticancer, anti-stress and remedial potential for aging and neurodegenerative pathologies. However, active principles and underlying mechanism(s) of action remain largely unknown. Here we provide a review on the effects of Ashwagandha extracts and active principles, and underlying molecular mechanism(s) for brain pathologies. We highlight our findings on the nootropic potential of Ashwagandha leaves. The effects of Ashwagandha leaf extracts are multidimensional ranging from differentiation of neuroblastoma and glioma cells, reversal of Alzheimer and Parkinson's pathologies, protection against environmental neurotoxins and enhancement of memory.

  3. Isolation and prebiotic activity of inulin-type fructan extracted from Pfaffia glomerata (Spreng) Pedersen roots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caleffi, Edilainy Rizzieri; Krausová, Gabriela; Hyršlová, Ivana; Paredes, Larry Ladislao Ramos; dos Santos, Marcelo Müller; Sassaki, Guilherme Lanzi; Gonçalves, Regina Aparecida Correia; de Oliveira, Arildo José Braz

    2015-09-01

    Pfaffia glomerata (Amaranthaceae) is popularly known as "Brazilian ginseng." Previous studies have shown that fructose is the major carbohydrate component present in its roots. Inulin-type fructans, polymers of fructose, are the most widespread and researched prebiotics. Here, we isolated and chemically characterized inulin extracted from P. glomerata roots and investigated its potential prebiotic effect. Fructans were isolated and their structures were determined using colorimetric, chromatography, polarimetry, and spectroscopic analysis. The degree of polymerization (DP) was determined, and an in vitro prebiotic test was performed. The structure of inulin was confirmed by chromatography and spectroscopic analysis and through comparison with existing data. Representatives from the genera Lactobacillus and Bifidobacterium utilized inulin from P. glomerata, because growth was significantly stimulated, while this ability is strain specific. The results indicated that inulin extracted from P. glomerata roots represents a promising new source of inulin-type prebiotics.

  4. The effect of Valerian root extract on the severity of pre menstrual syndrome symptoms

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    Zahra Behboodi Moghadam

    2016-07-01

    A significant difference was seen in mean emotional, behavioral and physical premenstrual symptom severity in the intervention group before and after the intervention (P < 0.001. However, this difference was not statistically significant in the control group. The results of this study showed that Valerian root extract may reduce emotional, physical, and behavioral symptoms of premenstrual syndrome.

  5. Behavioral differences of Heterodera glycines and Meloidogyne incognita infective juveniles exposed to root extracts in vitro

    Science.gov (United States)

    The in vitro behaviors of infective juveniles (J2) of Heterodera glycines and Meloidogyne incognita were compared in the presence and absence of plant root extracts. In an agar plate attraction-retention assay, H. glycines was 15-fold more responsive to a chemical attractant (CaCl2; P < 0.05) than w...

  6. Generic Lower Bounds for Root Extraction and Signature Schemes in General Groups

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Damgård, Ivan Bjerre; Koprowski, Maciej

    2002-01-01

    . The results hold for arbitrary groups, so security w.r.t. generic attacks follows for any cryptographic construction based on root extracting. As an example of this, we revisit Cramer-Shoup signature scheme [10]. We modify the scheme such that it becomes a generic algorithm. This allows us to implement...

  7. Antiplasmodial activity and cytotoxicity of ethanol extract of Zea mays root

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    Jude Efiom Okokon

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Objective:Zea mays root decoction that has been traditionally used for the treatment of malaria by various tribes in Nigeria, was evaluated for antimalarial potential against malaria parasites using in vivo and in vitro models. Materials and Methods: The root extract of Zea mays was investigated for antimalarial activity against Plasmodium berghei in mice using rodent malaria models; suppressive, prophylactic and curative tests and in vitro antiplasmodial activity against chloroquine-sensitive (Pf 3D7 and resistant (Pf INDO strains of Plasmodium falciparum using SYBR green assay method. Median lethal dose and cytotoxic activity against HeLa and HEKS cells were assessed and phytochemical screening was also carried out using standard procedures. Results: The LD50 value of root extract was found to be 474.34 mg/kg. The crude extract (45-135 mg/kg, p.o showed significant (p100 μg/ml against both HeLa and HEKS cell lines. Conclusion: These results suggest that the root extract of Zea mays possesses antimalarial activity against both chloroquine-sensitive and resistant malaria and these data justify its use in ethnomedicine to treat malaria infections.

  8. Glucosamine:chondroitin or ginger root extract have little effect on articular cartilage in swine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sows are culled at a high rate from breeding herds due to musclo-skeletal problems and lameness. Research in our laboratory has shown that even first-parity sows have significant amounts of osteochondritic lesions of their articular cartilage. Glusoamine chondroitin and ginger root extract have both...

  9. Inhibition of the emergence of multi drug resistant Staphylococcus aureus by Withania somnifera root extracts

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Shuvo Datta; Nishith Kumar Pal; Ashoke Kumar Nandy

    2011-01-01

    Objective:To search systematically for an alternative therapy with compounds particularly from plant origin.Methods: Efficacy test of different root extracts ofWithania somnifera (W. somnifera) (L) Dunalagainst multi drug resistant(MDR)Staphylococcus aureus(S. aureus)variants was performed following the agar well diffusion method. Evaluation of susceptibility pattern of the isolates was carried out by employing disk diffusion method using standard antibiotic disks. Results:In vitro study withW. somniferaroot extracts was found to be effective against all the MDRS. aureusstrains isolated from local and patient sources. Different root extracts of WS showed different degree of effectiveness against the isolates.Conclusions: The major active principles responsible for the antibacterial efficacy were mainly present in methanol(MeOH) extract and ethanol (EtOH)extracts as well as in butanol (BuOH) extract fraction. Amongst all the extracts the BuOH fraction was found to be most active against all the isolates but aqueous extract was the least active one. Finally it may be concluded that the antimicrobials fromW. somnifera may raise an alternative therapy forMDR staphylococcal infections in near future.

  10. Use of botanical extracts, cassava wastewater and nematicide for the control of root-knot nematode on carrot

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edson Luiz Lopes Baldin

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Aqueous extracts of several plant species have shown promising in controlling root-knot nematode, Meloidogyne incognita (Kofoid & White, one of the most limiting agents for carrot cultivation. The current study evaluated the effect of aqueous extracts from seven botanical species applied to 40, 50, 60, 70 and 80 days after sowing 'Nantes' carrots in soil infested with root-knot nematode. Three other treatments included cassava wastewater, distilled water (control, which were applied in the same periods of the extracts application, in addition to carbofuran 50G (80Kg/ha, which was applied once at 60 days after carrot sowing. Evaluations were performed at 90 days after inoculation to determine shoot and root fresh weight, as well as the diameter and the length of principal roots and the number of galls on primary and secondary roots. Plants treated with cassava wastewater, extracts of Ricinus communis L. seeds, Crotalaria juncea L. seeds, R. communis leaves + branches + fruits, Chenopodium ambrosioides L. leaves + branches + inflorescences and Azadirachta indica A. Juss. seeds showed the highest rates of total weight (root + shoot and shoot weight. The extract of R. communis leaves + branches + fruits provides the highest total root weight and principal root diameter. Cassava wastewater and extracts of R. communis seeds provided the highest principal root weight. The extract of R. communis seeds and cassava wastewater can be considered promising for the alternative control of M. incognita.

  11. Preliminary studies on allelopatic effect of some woody plants on seed germination of rye-grass and tall fescue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arouiee, H; Nazdar, T; Mousavi, A

    2010-11-01

    In order to investigation of allelopathic effects of some ornamental trees on seed germination of rye-grass (Lolium prenne) and tall fescue (Festuca arundinaceae), this experiment was conducted in a randomized complete block design with 3 replicates at the laboratory of Horticultural Sciences Department of Ferdowsi University of Mashhad, during 2008. In this research, we studied the effect of aqueous and hydro-alcoholic extracts of Afghanistan pine (Pinus eldarica), arizona cypress (Cupressus arizonica), black locust (Robinia psedue acacia) and box elder (Acer negundo) leaves that prepared in 1:5 ratio on seed germination percent and rate for two grasses. The results showed that all extracts decreased statistically seed germination in compared to control treatment. The highest germination percentage and germination rate of tested grass detected in control treatment. Hydro-alcoholic extracts of all woody plants (15, 30%) were completely inhibited seed germination of rye-grass and tall fescue. Also aqueous extract of arizona cypress was completely inhibited seed germination of tall fescue and had more inhibitory activity than other aqueous extracts on rye-grass. Between aqueous extracts, the highest and lowest seed germination of rye-grass was found in Afghanistan pine and arizona cypress, respectively.

  12. Antimicrobial activity and brine shrimp toxicity of extracts of Terminalia brownii roots and stem

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    Kapingu Modest C

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Ternimalia brownii Fresen (Combretaceae is widely used in traditional medicine to treat bacterial, fungal and viral infections. There is a need to evaluate extracts of this plant in order to provide scientific proof for it's wide application in traditional medicine system. Methods Extraction of stem bark, wood and whole roots of T. brownii using solvents of increasing polarity, namely, Pet ether, dichloromethane, dichloromethane: methanol (1:1, methanol and aqua, respectively, afforded dry extracts. The extracts were tested for antifungal and antibacterial activity and for brine shrimp toxicity test. Results Extracts of the stem bark, wood and whole roots of T. brownii exhibited antibacterial activity against standard strains of Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Salmonella typhi, and Bacillus anthracis and the fungi, Candida albicans and Cryptococcus neoformans. Aqueous extracts exhibited the strongest activity against both bacteria and fungi. Extracts of the roots and stem bark exhibited relatively mild cytotoxic activity against brine shrimp larvae with LC50 values ranging from 113.75–4356.76 and 36.12–1458.81 μg/ml, respectively. The stem wood extracts exhibited the highest toxicity against the shrimps (LC50 values 2.58–14.88 μg/ml, while that of cyclophosphamide, a standard anticancer drug, was 16.33 (10.60–25.15 μg/ml. Conclusion These test results support traditional medicinal use of, especially, aqueous extracts for the treatment of conditions such as diarrhea, and gonorrhea. The brine shrimp results depict the general trend among plants of the genus Terminalia, which are known to contain cytotoxic compounds such as hydrolysable tannins. These results warrant follow-up through bioassay-directed isolation of the active principles.

  13. BIOLOGICAL AND PHYTOCHEMICAL INVESTIGATIONS OF EXTRACTS FROM PTEROCARPUS ERINACEUS POIR (FABACEAE) ROOT BARKS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noufou, Ouédraogo; Anne-Emmanuelle, Hay; Claude W, Ouédraogo Jean; Richard, Sawadogo W; André, Tibiri; Marius, Lompo; Jean-Baptiste, Nikiema; Jean, Koudou; Marie-Genevieve, Dijoux-Franca; Pierre, Guissou Innocent

    2017-01-01

    Pterocarpus erinaceus Poir. belonging to Fabacae familly is used as medicinal plant in Burkina Faso's folk medicine. Roots of P. erinaceus are used to treat ulcer, stomach ache and inflammatory diseases. The objective of the present study was to carry out phytochemical composition of methanol (MeOH) and dichloromethane (DCM) extracts from Pterocarpus erinaceus roots, to isolate pure compounds, and to evaluate their pharmacological activities. Chromatographic fractionation led to the isolation of active components of the extracts. The structures were established by NMR analysis and comparison with data from literature. The anti-inflammatory activity was evaluated using croton oil-induced edema of mice ear as well as the effect of extracts against lipoxygenase and lipid peroxidation was evaluated. 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) and Cupric-reducing antioxidant capacity (CUPRAC) methods were used to evaluate the antioxidant activity of the extracts. Friedelin (1), 3a-hydroxyfriedelan-2-one (2), a-sophoradiol (3) and stigmasterol (4) were isolated from DCM extract and maltol-6-O-apiofuranoside-glucopyranoside (5) isolated from MeOH. DCM extract and friedelin, 3a-hydroxyfriedelan-2-one, a-sophoradiol showed a significant anti-inflammatory effect against ear edema. Friedelin (1), α-sophoradiol (3) and maltol-6-O-apiofuranoside-glucopyranoside (5) exhibited lipoxygenase inhibition. MeOH extract (100 μg/mL) inhibited lipoxygenase and lipid peroxidation activities at 45.1 ± 3% and 30.7 ± 0.5% respectively. MeOH extract, ethyl acetate fraction and butanol fraction exhibited antioxidant property with both two methods used. The results suggested that the extracts and compounds from roots of Pterocarpus erinaceus possessed local anti-inflammatory effect, antioxidant properties and inhibitor effect against lipoxygenase and lipid peroxidation activities.

  14. Evaluation of wound healing and antimicrobial potentials ofIxora coccinea root extract

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Nagaraj Selvaraj; Baskar Lakshmanan; Papiya Mitra Mazumder; Muthukumar Karuppasamy; Simon Santosh Jena; Ashok Kumar Pattnaik

    2011-01-01

    Objective:To evaluate the wound healing and antimicrobial activity of root extracts of Ixora coccinea (I. coccinea).Methods: To investigate the wound healing efficacy of root extract of I. coccinea Linn, five groups of animals were divided each containing six animals. Two wound models including incision and excision wound models were used in this study. The parameters studied were tensile strength on incision wound model and in terms of wound contraction for excision wound model were compared with standard Nitrofurazone(NFZ) ointment (0.2% w/w). Six extracts (ethanol, aqueous, petroleum ether, benzene, chloroform and ethyl acetate ) ofI. coccinea were screened forin vitro growth inhibiting activity against different bacterial strainsviz, Staphylococcus aureus, Bacillus pumilius, Enterococcus faecalis, Escherichia coli, Salmonella typhi andPseudomonas aeruginosa and fungi Candida albicans and Aspergillus niger were compared with the standard drugs ciprofloxacin and chloramphenicol for antibacterial and griseofulvin for antifungal screening. The serial dilution and cup (or) well plate methods were used for the antimicrobial study andMIC was determined.Results: The ethanolic extract showed significant (P<0.001) wound healing activity when compared to standard drugNFZ with respect to normal control group. Amongst all, ethanolic extract showed highly significant antibacterial activity against all bacterial strains used in this study when compared to standard. The aqueous extract showed moderate significant inhibition against all bacterial strains when compared to standard. All the extracts were shown negligible activity against the fungal strains used in this study. Conclusions: The ethanolic root extract of I. coccinea showed pronounced wound healing and antibacterial activity. The probable reason to heal the wound was that the external application of the extract prevented the microbes to invade through the wound thus the protection of wound occurs against the

  15. Effects of Cymbidium Root Ethanol Extract on Atopic Dermatitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wan-Joong Kim

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Cymbidium has known antibacterial and antiedema activity and has been used as an ingredient in cosmetics and fragrances. The effects of Cymbidium ethanol extract (CYM on allergic response and the underlying mechanisms of action have not been reported. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to determine the effect of CYM on allergic responses. Topical application of CYM was effective against immunoglobulin E (IgE/dinitrophenyl-conjugated bovine serum albumin- (DNP-BSA- induced degranulation of RBL-2H3 cells and anaphylaxis in ICR mice. An allergic dermatitis-like mouse model was used to evaluate the therapeutic potential of CYM in vivo. Continuous application of 2,4-dinitrochlorobenzene (DNCB not only induced dermatitis in ICR mice but also aggravated the skin lesioning. However, the application of CYM decreased skin lesion severity, scratching behavior, and IgE levels. In addition, CYM downregulated the expression of the proinflammatory cytokines interleukin- (IL- 4, IL-13, and tumor necrosis factor- (TNF- α. Studies of signal transduction pathways showed that CYM suppressed the phosphorylation of spleen tyrosine kinase (Syk, an upstream molecule. It also inhibited the phosphorylation of Akt, phospholipase C- (PLC- γ, and mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase kinase (MEKK. These results indicate that CYM may be effective in preventing and reducing allergic response and may have therapeutic potential as an antiallergic agent in disorders such as atopic dermatitis.

  16. Characterisation of antimicrobial extracts from dandelion root (Taraxacum officinale) using LC-SPE-NMR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kenny, O; Brunton, N P; Walsh, D; Hewage, C M; McLoughlin, P; Smyth, T J

    2015-04-01

    Plant extracts have traditionally been used as sources of natural antimicrobial compounds, although in many cases, the compounds responsible for their antimicrobial efficacy have not been identified. In this study, crude and dialysed extracts from dandelion root (Taraxacum officinale) were evaluated for their antimicrobial properties against Gram positive and Gram negative bacterial strains. The methanol hydrophobic crude extract (DRE3) demonstrated the strongest inhibition of microbial growth against Staphylococcus aureus, methicillin-resistant S. aureus and Bacillus cereus strains. Normal phase (NP) fractionation of DRE3 resulted in two fractions (NPF4 and NPF5) with enhanced antimicrobial activity. Further NP fractionation of NPF4 resulted in two fractions (NPF403 and NPF406) with increased antimicrobial activity. Further isolation and characterisation of compounds in NPF406 using liquid chromatography solid phase extraction nuclear magnetic resonance LC-SPE-NMR resulted in the identification of 9-hydroxyoctadecatrienoic acid and 9-hydroxyoctadecadienoic acid, while the phenolic compounds vanillin, coniferaldehyde and p-methoxyphenylglyoxylic acid were also identified respectively. The molecular mass of these compounds was confirmed by LC mass spectroscopy (MS)/MS. In summary, the antimicrobial efficacy of dandelion root extracts demonstrated in this study support the use of dandelion root as a source of natural antimicrobial compounds.

  17. In vitroevaluation of free radical scavenging activity ofCodariocalyx motorius root extract

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Uma Chidambaram; Vanitha Pachamuthu; Suganya Natarajan; Bhakkiyalakshmi Elango; Suriyanarayanan; Kunga Mohan Ramkumar

    2013-01-01

    Objective:To determine the phenolic content inCodariocalyx motorius root extract and to evaluate its antioxidant properties using variousin vitro assay systems.Methods: The antioxidant activity was evaluated based on scavenging of 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl, hydroxyl radicals, superoxide anions, nitric oxide, hydrogen peroxide, peroxynitrite, reducing power and by inhibition of lipid peroxidation which was estimated in terms of thiobarbituric acid reactive substances.Results: The root extract of theCodariocalyx motorius (C. motorius)exhibited potent total antioxidant activity that increased with increasing amount of extract concentration, which was compared with standard drug such as quercetin, butylated hydroxytoluene, tocopherol at different concentrations. The different concentrations of the extracts showed inhibition on lipid peroxidation. In addition, the extracts had effective reducing power, free radical scavenging, super oxide anion scavenging, nitric oxide scavenging, lipid peroxidation, and total phenolic content depending on concentration. High correlation between total phenolic contents and scavenging potential of different reactive oxygen species (r2=0.831-0.978) indicated the polyphenols as the main antioxidants.Conclusions:Codariocalyx motorius (C. motorius) root possess the highly active antioxidant substance which can be used for the treatment of oxidative stress-related diseases.

  18. REVERSAL EFFECT OF ASPARAGUS RACEMOSUS WILD (LILIACEAE ROOT EXTRACT ON MEMORY DEFICITS OF MICE

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    Ashwlayan Vrish Dhwaj

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Methanolic extract of roots of Asparagus racemosus wild (Liliaceae was investigated for its reversal effect on memory deficits in mice. Two doses the extract (75 and 150 mg/kg, i.p. were administered for seven consecutive days. Scopolamine (0.4 mg/kg, i.p., sodium nitrite (75 mg/kg, i.p. were used to induce memory deficits (amnesia. Elevated plus maze (EPM and Morris water maze (MWM were employed to evaluate short and long term memory respectively. Scopolamine and sodium nitrite treatment produced significant impairment of elevated plus maze and Morris water maze performance indicating impairment of memory. The methanolic root extract (150 mg/kg, i.p. significantly (p<0.05 improved EPM and MWM performance of scopolamine and sodium nitrite treated mice. The results indicated potential of the plant in relieving memory deficits.

  19. Chromatographic Evaluation and Characterization of Components of Gentian Root Extract Used as Food Additives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amakura, Yoshiaki; Yoshimura, Morio; Morimoto, Sara; Yoshida, Takashi; Tada, Atsuko; Ito, Yusai; Yamazaki, Takeshi; Sugimoto, Naoki; Akiyama, Hiroshi

    2016-01-01

    Gentian root extract is used as a bitter food additive in Japan. We investigated the constituents of this extract to acquire the chemical data needed for standardized specifications. Fourteen known compounds were isolated in addition to a mixture of gentisin and isogentisin: anofinic acid, 2-methoxyanofinic acid, furan-2-carboxylic acid, 5-hydroxymethyl-2-furfural, 2,3-dihydroxybenzoic acid, isovitexin, gentiopicroside, loganic acid, sweroside, vanillic acid, gentisin 7-O-primeveroside, isogentisin 3-O-primeveroside, 6'-O-glucosylgentiopicroside, and swertiajaposide D. Moreover, a new compound, loganic acid 7-(2'-hydroxy-3'-O-β-D-glucopyranosyl)benzoate (1), was also isolated. HPLC was used to analyze gentiopicroside and amarogentin, defined as the main constituents of gentian root extract in the List of Existing Food Additives in Japan.

  20. Effect of Argyreia speciosa root extract on cafeteria diet-induced obesity in rats

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    Shiv Kumar

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives : To evaluate the antiobesity effects of the ethanolic extract of Argyreia speciosa roots in rats fed with a cafeteria diet (CD. Materials and Methods : Obesity was induced in albino rats by feeding them a CD daily for 42 days, in addition to a normal diet. Body weight and food intake was measured initially and then every week thereafter. On day 42, the serum biochemical parameters were estimated and the animals were sacrificed with an overdose of ether. The, liver and parametrial adipose tissues were removed and weighed immediately. The liver triglyceride content was estimated. The influence of the extract on the pancreatic lipase activity was also determined by measuring the rate of release of oleic acid from triolein. Results : The body weight at two-to-six weeks and the final parametrial adipose tissue weights were significantly lowered (P < 0.01 and P < 0.05, respectively in rats fed with the CD with Argyreia speciosa extract 500 mg/kg/day as compared to the CD alone. The extract also significantly reduced (P < 0.01 the serum contents of leptin, total cholesterol, low density lipoprotein (LDL, and triglycerides, which were elevated in rats fed with CD alone. In addition, the extract inhibited the induction of fatty liver with the accumulation of hepatic triglycerides. The extract also showed inhibition of pancreatic lipase activity by using triolein as a substrate. Conclusions : The ethanolic extract of Argyreia speciosa roots produces inhibitory effects on cafeteria diet-induced obesity in rats.

  1. Analgesic effects of various extracts of the root of Abutilon indicum linn

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    Naveen Goyal

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose : Abutilon indicum (Linn. sweet (Malvaceae commonly called ′Country Mallow′ is a perennial plant up to 3 m in height. It is abundantly found as a weed in the sub-Himalayan tract and in the hotter parts of India. The plant is traditionally used for treatment of several diseases like bronchitis, body ache, toothache, jaundice, diabetes, fever, piles, leprosy, ulcers, cystitis, gonorrhea, diarrhea, and so on. Abutilon indicum Linn. is reported to have hepatoprotective, hypoglycemic, antimicrobial, male contraceptive, and antidiarrheal activities. The present study was done to evaluate the analgesic potential of various extracts of the root of Abutilon indicum Linn. Materials and Methods : The powdered root (900 g was subjected to successive solvent extraction, with solvents in increasing order of polarity, namely, petroleum ether (60 - 80΀C, methanol, and ethanol, using the soxhlet apparatus for 72 hours. The marc was extracted by cold maceration for 72 hours, to obtain a water-soluble extract. The peripheral analgesic activity was studied using acetic acid-induced writhing method in Swiss albino mice (20 - 30 g, while the central analgesic activity was evaluated by the tail flick method and the tail immersion method. Results : Results indicated that all the tested extracts, except the methanol extract, exhibited significant analgesic activity in both animals′ models. Petroleum ether extract showed higher analgesic activity. The activity may be related to the central mechanism or may be due to the peripheral analgesic mechanisms. Conclusion : The present study authenticates the traditional use.

  2. Hepatoprotective potential of ethanolic extract of Pandanus odoratissimus root against paracetamol-induced hepatotoxicity in rats

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    Garima Mishra

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Pandanus odoratissimus (Pandanaceae is popular in the indigenous system of medicines like Ayurveda, Siddha, Unani and Homoeopathy. In the traditional system of medicine various plant parts such as leaves, root, flowers, and oils are used as anthelmintic, tonic, stomachic, digestive and in the treatment of jaundice and various liver disorders. Objective: The aim was to investigate the hepatoprotective activity of ethanolic extract of the root of P. odoratissimus against paracetamol (PCM induced hepatotoxicity in rats. Materials and Methods: Hepatotoxicity was induced in male Wistar rat by PCM (2 g/kg b.w. p.o. for 7 days. The ethanolic extract of P. odoratissimus root was administered at the dose level of 200 mg/kg and 400 mg/kg b.w. orally for 7 days and silymarin (100 mg/kg b.w. p.o. as standard drug was administered once daily for a week. The hepatoprotective effect of ethanolic extract was evaluated by assessment of biochemical parameters such as serum glutamic oxaloacetic transaminase, serum glutamic-pyruvic transaminase, serum alkaline phosphatase, total and direct bilirubin and triglycerides. Histopathological study of rat liver was also done. Results: Experimental findings revealed that the extract at dose level of 200 mg/kg and 400 mg/kg of b.w. showed dose dependant hepatoprotective effect against PCM induced hepatotoxicity by significantly restoring the levels of serum enzymes to normal that was comparable to that of silymarin, but the extract at dose level of 400 mg/kg was found to be more potent when compared to that of 200 mg/kg. Besides, the results obtained from histopathological study also support the study. Conclusion: From the results, it can be concluded that ethanolic extract of the root of P. odoratissimus afforded significant protection against PCM induced hepatotoxicity in rats.

  3. In vitro thrombolytic potential of root extracts of four medicinal plants available in Bangladesh

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hussain, Fahad; Islam, Ariful; Bulbul, Latifa; Moghal, Mizanur Rahman; Hossain, Mohammad Salim

    2014-01-01

    Context: Thrombus formation inside the blood vessels obstructs blood flow through the circulatory system leading hypertension, stroke to the heart, anoxia, and so on. Thrombolytic drugs are widely used for the management of cerebral venous sinus thrombosis patients, but they have certain limitations. Medicinal plants and their components possessing antithrombotic activity have been reported before. However, plants that could be used for thrombolysis has not been reported so far. Aims: This study's aim was to evaluate the thrombolytic potential of selected plants’ root extracts. Settings and Design: Plants were collected, dried, powdered and extracted by methanol and then fractionated by n-hexane for getting the sample root extracts. Venous blood samples were drawn from 10 healthy volunteers for the purposes of investigation. Subjects and Methods: An in vitro thrombolytic model was used to check the clot lysis potential of four n-hexane soluble roots extracts viz., Acacia nilotica, Justicia adhatoda, Azadirachta indica, and Lagerstroemia speciosa along with streptokinase as a positive control and saline water as a negative control. Statistical Analysis Used: Dunnett t-test analysis was performed using SPSS is a statistical analysis program developed by IBM Corporation, USA. on Windows. Results: Using an in vitro thrombolytic model, A. nilotica, L. speciosa, A. indica, and J. adhatoda at 5 mg extract/ml NaCl solution concentration showed 15.1%, 15.49%, 21.26%, and 19.63% clot lysis activity respectively. The reference streptokinase showed 47.21%, and 24.73% clot lysis for 30,000 IU and 15,000 IU concentrations, respectively whereas 0.9% normal saline showed 5.35% clot lysis. Conclusions: The selected extracts of the plant roots possess marked thrombolytic properties that could lyse blood clots in vitro; however, in vivo clot dissolving properties and active components responsible for clot lysis are yet to be discovered. PMID:25538351

  4. Toxicological and melanin synthesis effects of Polygonum multiflorum root extracts on zebrafish embryos and human melanocytes

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    Thanh Thi Hoai Dang

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Polygonum multiflorum (PM has been commmonly used as folk medicine for treatment of various conditions, such as early graying of hair in humans. However, there have been limited studies which have evaluated the toxicological and biological effects of PM in vitro as well as in vivo. In this study, PM root extracts in ethyl acetate (PM-E and in distilled water (PM-W were examined for their effects on the development of teratogenic defects/deaths. Additionally, they were evaluated for their effects on melanin formation in human melanocytes and pigmentation in embryos/larvae of wild type strain AB zebrafish (Danio rerio. Our results showed that PM root extracts at concentrations of 40 mg/L and 105 mg/L induced the development of teratogenic defects, including yolk sac edema (or heart edema, hemovascular defects, necrosis and abnormal trunk in zebrafish embryos at 4 days post fertilization; teratogenic indexes (TIs were 1.43 and 0.63 for ethyl acetate extract and distilled water extract, respectively. Our results also demonstrated that PM-W significantly increased the pigmentation level of embryos/larvae and induced melanin formation in human melanocytes. The amount of melanin in PM-W-exposed embryos/larvae was 2.2-fold and 1.71-fold greater than those in the control embryos/larvae and control melanocytes, respectively. Our study also showed that the increased level of pigmentation in PM-W embryos/larvae or melanin biosynthesis in melanocytes were both regulated by activation of tyrosinase. Conclusively, our study suggests that PM root extracts could be used as potential agents for treatment of early hair graying as well as various other diseases related to loss of pigmentation. However, these PM root extracts may also have some negative effects on embryos; therefore it should be careful when using for women during pregnancy. [Biomed Res Ther 2016; 3(9.000: 808-818

  5. In vitro thrombolytic potential of root extracts of four medicinal plants available in Bangladesh

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    Fahad Hussain

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Context: Thrombus formation inside the blood vessels obstructs blood flow through the circulatory system leading hypertension, stroke to the heart, anoxia, and so on. Thrombolytic drugs are widely used for the management of cerebral venous sinus thrombosis patients, but they have certain limitations. Medicinal plants and their components possessing antithrombotic activity have been reported before. However, plants that could be used for thrombolysis has not been reported so far. Aims: This study′s aim was to evaluate the thrombolytic potential of selected plants′ root extracts. Settings and Design: Plants were collected, dried, powdered and extracted by methanol and then fractionated by n-hexane for getting the sample root extracts. Venous blood samples were drawn from 10 healthy volunteers for the purposes of investigation. Subjects and Methods: An in vitro thrombolytic model was used to check the clot lysis potential of four n-hexane soluble roots extracts viz., Acacia nilotica, Justicia adhatoda, Azadirachta indica, and Lagerstroemia speciosa along with streptokinase as a positive control and saline water as a negative control. Statistical Analysis Used: Dunnett t-test analysis was performed using SPSS is a statistical analysis program developed by IBM Corporation, USA. on Windows. Results: Using an in vitro thrombolytic model, A. nilotica, L. speciosa, A. indica, and J. adhatoda at 5 mg extract/ml NaCl solution concentration showed 15.1%, 15.49%, 21.26%, and 19.63% clot lysis activity respectively. The reference streptokinase showed 47.21%, and 24.73% clot lysis for 30,000 IU and 15,000 IU concentrations, respectively whereas 0.9% normal saline showed 5.35% clot lysis. Conclusions: The selected extracts of the plant roots possess marked thrombolytic properties that could lyse blood clots in vitro; however, in vivo clot dissolving properties and active components responsible for clot lysis are yet to be discovered.

  6. Root Canal Irrigation: Chemical Agents and Plant Extracts Against Enterococcus faecalis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borzini, Letizia; Condò, Roberta; De Dominicis, Paolo; Casaglia, Adriano; Cerroni, Loredana

    2016-01-01

    Background: There are various microorganisms related to intra and extra-radicular infections and many of these are involved in persistent infections. Bacterial elimination from the root canal is achieved by means of the mechanical action of instruments and irrigation as well as the antibacterial effects of the irrigating solutions. Enterococcus faecalis can frequently be isolated from root canals in cases of failed root canal treatments. Antimicrobial agents have often been developed and optimized for their activity against endodontic bacteria. An ideal root canal irrigant should be biocompatible, because of its close contact with the periodontal tissues during endodontic treatment. Sodium hypoclorite (NaOCl) is one of the most widely recommended and used endodontic irrigants but it is highly toxic to periapical tissues. Objectives: To analyze the literature on the chemotherapeutic agent and plant extracts studied as root canal irrigants. In particularly, the study is focused on their effect on Enterococcus faecalis. Method: Literature search was performed electronically in PubMed (PubMed Central, MEDLINE) for articles published in English from 1982 to April 2015. The searched keywords were “endodontic irrigants” and “Enterococcus faecalis” and “essential oil” and “plant extracts”. Results: Many of the studied chemotherapeutic agents and plant extracts have shown promising results in vitro. Conclusion: Some of the considered phytotherapic substances, could be a potential alternative to NaOCl for the biomechanical treatment of the endodontic space. PMID:28217184

  7. Safety Profile of Meswak Root Extract on Liver, Kidney, Sexual Hormones and Hematological Parameters of Rats

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    Abeer Y. IBRAHIM

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available This study was conducted to investigate the safety profile of Salvadora persica (Salvadoraceae aqueous alcoholic root extract by carrying out acute and sub-chronic toxicity assessment in order to find out any side effect of the traditionally using of these root sticks. Regarding to acute toxicity test, mice were administered the extract up to 5 g kg-1, intraperitoneally. Animals were then observed for behavioural changes; signs of toxicity, and mortality within 24 h. Surviving mice were monitored for 7 days for signs of delayed toxicity. In the sub-chronic toxicity test, rats were daily treated with the extract at a dose of 400 mg kg-1 intraperitoneally, for 30 days. At the end of the test period, hematological and biochemical parameters were determined in blood and serum samples with determination of vital organs weights. In the acute toxicity test, the extract was practically non-toxic showing no mortality and visible signs of delayed toxicity. The LD50, given intraperitoneally, was estimated to be 4 g kg-1. Administration of extract (at a dose of 400 mg Kg-1 b.wt. to male and female rats for 30 days did not produce any significant (P < 0.05 effect on hematological and most biochemical parameters also vital organs weights. The root extract showed adverse effects on sexual hormones, by increasing estrogen secretion and reducing testosterone level in male rats. At the same time, the extract reduces progesterone level in female satellite group. Overall, Meswak aqueous extract is safe concerning liver and kidney functions and hematological assessments; however, it induces reversal effect on sexual hormones levels determined in sera.

  8. Chemometric profile of root extracts of Rhodiola imbricata Edgew. with hyphenated gas chromatography mass spectrometric technique.

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    Amol B Tayade

    Full Text Available Rhodiola imbricata Edgew. (Rose root or Arctic root or Golden root or Shrolo, belonging to the family Crassulaceae, is an important food crop and medicinal plant in the Indian trans-Himalayan cold desert. Chemometric profile of the n-hexane, chloroform, dichloroethane, ethyl acetate, methanol, and 60% ethanol root extracts of R. imbricata were performed by hyphenated gas chromatography mass spectrometry (GC/MS technique. GC/MS analysis was carried out using Thermo Finnigan PolarisQ Ion Trap GC/MS MS system comprising of an AS2000 liquid autosampler. Interpretation on mass spectrum of GC/MS was done using the NIST/EPA/NIH Mass Spectral Database, with NIST MS search program v.2.0g. Chemometric profile of root extracts revealed the presence of 63 phyto-chemotypes, among them, 1-pentacosanol; stigmast-5-en-3-ol, (3β,24S; 1-teracosanol; 1-henteracontanol; 17-pentatriacontene; 13-tetradecen-1-ol acetate; methyl tri-butyl ammonium chloride; bis(2-ethylhexyl phthalate; 7,8-dimethylbenzocyclooctene; ethyl linoleate; 3-methoxy-5-methylphenol; hexadecanoic acid; camphor; 1,3-dimethoxybenzene; thujone; 1,3-benzenediol, 5-pentadecyl; benzenemethanol, 3-hydroxy, 5-methoxy; cholest-4-ene-3,6-dione; dodecanoic acid, 3-hydroxy; octadecane, 1-chloro; ethanone, 1-(4-hydroxyphenyl; α-tocopherol; ascaridole; campesterol; 1-dotriacontane; heptadecane, 9-hexyl were found to be present in major amount. Eventually, in the present study we have found phytosterols, terpenoids, fatty acids, fatty acid esters, alkyl halides, phenols, alcohols, ethers, alkanes, and alkenes as the major group of phyto-chemotypes in the different root extracts of R. imbricata. All these compounds identified by GC/MS analysis were further investigated for their biological activities and it was found that they possess a diverse range of positive pharmacological actions. In future, isolation of individual phyto-chemotypes and subjecting them to biological activity will definitely prove fruitful

  9. Pharmacological evaluation of anxiolytic property of aqueous root extract of Cymbopogon citratus in mice

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    David Arome

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim: This study was designed to evaluate the anxiolytic property of aqueous root extract of Cymbopogon citratus in mice. Materials and Methods: In this study, stress induced hyperthermia (SIH, elevated plus maze (EPM and open field experimental models were employed. Results: In SIH model, the extract caused a significant (P 0.05 effect. In open field model, 200 mg/kg and 600 mg/kg extract doses significantly (P < 0.05 increased locomotion of the mice more than the standard, while rearing and defecation were less in the extract groups. Conclusion: In different experimental models used significant anxiolytic effect was observed of the aqueous extract at different dose levels in comparison to reference standard and normal saline group. This clearly justified its folkloric application in the treatment of anxiety disorders.

  10. Measuring root disease suppression in response to a compost water extract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curlango-Rivera, Gilberto; Pew, Tom; VanEtten, Hans D; Zhongguo, Xiong; Yu, Naitong; Hawes, Martha C

    2013-03-01

    Commercial application of compost to prevent plant disease is hindered by variable performance. Here, we describe the use of a growth pouch assay to measure impact of a compost water extract (CWE) on root infection under controlled conditions. Most pea roots (≥95%) inoculated with Fusarium solani or Phoma pinodella spores rapidly develop a single local lesion in the region of elongation. In the presence of CWE, infection of pea roots grown in pouches was reduced by 93 to 100%. CWE used as a drench on pea seedlings grown in sand also resulted in 100% protection but, in a heavy clay soil, infection was reduced by roots. CWE inhibited mycelial growth of both pea- and cucumber-infecting isolates of F. solani in culture but exerted root infection. CWE treatment of pea but not cucumber was associated with retention of a sheath of border cells interspersed with bacteria covering the region of elongation. Growth pouch assays may provide a system to monitor effects of specific compost mixtures on root-rhizosphere interactions, and to identify variables influencing disease control.

  11. The Extraction, Isolation and Identiifcation of Exudates from the Roots of Flaveria bidentis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YANG Xing; ZHANG Li-hui; SHI Cui-ping; SHANG Yan; ZHANG Jin-lin; HAN Jian-min; DONG Jin-gao

    2014-01-01

    Large amounts of Flaveria bidentis’s root culturing solution were obtained by using DFT (deep lfow technique) equipment and these solution which was vacuum concentrated (10, 20 mg mL-1) can have a certain inhibition on Triticum aestivum, Cucumis sativus, Raphanus sativus, Amaranthus retrolfexus, Setaria viridis, Chenopodium album, Echinochloa crusgalli and Chloris virgata. This outcome suggested some active compounds in the root exudates of Flaveria bidentis can inhibit the germination, seedling elongation and root length. The dichloromethane extract of root exudates was identiifcated by GC-MS, and 29 kinds of compounds, including esters, hydrocarbons, ketones, thiazole, amines, etc. were obtained and the phthalate n-octyl ester, phthalate 2-ethylhexyl ester were proved to be allelochemicals. The culturing solution of root exudates was separated through the resin column and silica gel column and a component inhibiting seedling height, root length and fresh weight of wheat was got. There were 6 kinds of organic compounds in this component including dioctyl phthalate, 1,2-phthalate, mono(2-ethylhexyl) ester by GC-MS.

  12. Green Approach for the Effective Reduction of Graphene Oxide Using Salvadora persica L. Root (Miswak) Extract

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Mujeeb; Al-Marri, Abdulhadi H.; Khan, Merajuddin; Shaik, Mohammed Rafi; Mohri, Nils; Adil, Syed Farooq; Kuniyil, Mufsir; Alkhathlan, Hamad Z.; Al-Warthan, Abdulrahman; Tremel, Wolfgang; Tahir, Muhammad Nawaz; Siddiqui, Mohammed Rafiq H.

    2015-07-01

    Recently, green reduction of graphene oxide (GRO) using various natural materials, including plant extracts, has drawn significant attention among the scientific community. These methods are sustainable, low cost, and are more environmentally friendly than other standard methods of reduction. Herein, we report a facile and eco-friendly method for the bioreduction of GRO using Salvadora persica L. ( S. persica L.) roots (miswak) extract as a bioreductant. The as-prepared highly reduced graphene oxide (SP-HRG) was characterized using powder X-ray diffraction (XRD), ultraviolet-visible (UV-vis) spectroscopy, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), Raman spectroscopy, X-ray photoelectron (XPS) spectroscopy, and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Various results have confirmed that the biomolecules present in the root extract of miswak not only act as a bioreductant but also functionalize the surface of SP-HRG by acting as a capping ligand to stabilize it in water and other solvents. The dispersion quality of SP-HRG in deionized water was investigated in detail by preparing different samples of SP-HRG with increasing concentration of root extract. Furthermore, the dispersibility of SP-HRG was also compared with chemically reduced graphene oxide (CRG). The developed eco-friendly method for the reduction of GRO could provide a better substitute for a large-scale production of dispersant-free graphene and graphene-based materials for various applications in both technological and biological fields such as electronics, nanomedicine, and bionic materials.

  13. Effect of an herb root extract, herbal dentifrice and synthetic dentifrice on human salivary amylase

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sapra, Gaurav; Vyas, Yogesh Kumar; Agarwal, Rahul; Aggarwal, Ashish; Chandrashekar, K T; Sharma, Kanika

    2013-01-01

    Background: Salivary amylase is an enzyme, which plays a vital role in formation of dental plaque. It has the ability to bind on the bacterial surfaces and to hydrolyze starch, giving rise to products that are transformed into acids leading to dental caries. Suppression of salivary amylase activity can lead to decrease in risk of dental caries and plaque associated periodontal diseases. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of an herb, Spilanthes calva (in form of a test dentifrice) on human salivary amylase activity and to compare it with other dentifrices. Materials and Methods: A total of 80 subjects of age 18-35 years were randomly selected and divided equally into 4 groups. Group 1 subjects were assigned to use Test Dentifrice (with S. calva root extract), while Group 2, Group 3, and Group 4 subjects were assigned to use Herbal Dentifrice (Arodent™), Synthetic Dentifrice (Colgate®), and Control Dentifrice respectively. Salivary amylase activity was determined by Bernfeld method in each group, before and after using the given dentifrices. Results: Maximum inhibition of salivary amylase activity was found in the group using test dentifrice as compared to others. Conclusion: The present study indicates that, the root extract of S. calva possess significant inhibitory activity for salivary amylase. Use of S. calva root extract will provide a wider protection against different pathogenic oral microflora. Use of this extract singly or in combination is strongly recommended in the dentifrice formulations. PMID:24130585

  14. Effect of an herb root extract, herbal dentifrice and synthetic dentifrice on human salivary amylase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sapra, Gaurav; Vyas, Yogesh Kumar; Agarwal, Rahul; Aggarwal, Ashish; Chandrashekar, K T; Sharma, Kanika

    2013-07-01

    Salivary amylase is an enzyme, which plays a vital role in formation of dental plaque. It has the ability to bind on the bacterial surfaces and to hydrolyze starch, giving rise to products that are transformed into acids leading to dental caries. Suppression of salivary amylase activity can lead to decrease in risk of dental caries and plaque associated periodontal diseases. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of an herb, Spilanthes calva (in form of a test dentifrice) on human salivary amylase activity and to compare it with other dentifrices. A total of 80 subjects of age 18-35 years were randomly selected and divided equally into 4 groups. Group 1 subjects were assigned to use Test Dentifrice (with S. calva root extract), while Group 2, Group 3, and Group 4 subjects were assigned to use Herbal Dentifrice (Arodent(™)), Synthetic Dentifrice (Colgate(®)), and Control Dentifrice respectively. Salivary amylase activity was determined by Bernfeld method in each group, before and after using the given dentifrices. Maximum inhibition of salivary amylase activity was found in the group using test dentifrice as compared to others. The present study indicates that, the root extract of S. calva possess significant inhibitory activity for salivary amylase. Use of S. calva root extract will provide a wider protection against different pathogenic oral microflora. Use of this extract singly or in combination is strongly recommended in the dentifrice formulations.

  15. Toxicological Evaluation of Root Methanolic Extract of Strobilanthes heyneanus Nees Using Allium Test

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    Renjana P. K.

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Cytotoxic and genotoxic effects of methanolic extract of the roots of Strobilanthes heyneanus Nees have been studied on the root meristem cells of Allium cepa. Roots of A. cepa were exposed to different concentrations (0.01%, 0.05%, 0.1% and 0.5% of the extract for ½, 1, 2 and 3 h. Mitotic index and chromosomal aberrations in the treated cells were analysed. Distilled water has been used as control. Mitotic index val¬ues were decreased with increasing concentrations and longer treatment durations compared to the control (p < 0.05 in dose and time dependent manner. Additionally, different abnormal mitotic figures were observed in all treatments. Among these abnormalities were nuclear and chromosome lesions, anaphase bridges, C-mitosis, pulverization, stathmo-anaphases, diagonal orientation, chromosome fragments etc. The total percentage of aberrations generally increased with increasing concentrations of the extract and longer durations of exposure. The observations of the present study are a clear indication of clastogenic and non-clastogenic property of the extract, which is evident from the direct actions on the chromosomes and manifestation of spindle abnormalities.

  16. Antifertility Effects of Ethanolic Root Bark Extract of Chrysophyllum albidum in Male Albino Rats

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    A C Onyeka

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Summary: The present study was conducted to investigate the antifertility activity of the ethanol root bark extract of Chrysophyllum albidum on sperm parameter and hormonal levels in rats. Eighteen male rats were divided into three groups of six animals each. The first group (A received distilled water and served as control. The second and third group (B & C of animals were administered the ethanol root bark extract daily at 100mg/kg body weight and 200mg/kg decrease in the caudal epididymal sperm count, motility and sperm morphology was observed compared with the control. Serum gonadotrophins and testosterone were measured and C. albidum extract also caused a dose related significant reduction (p<0.05 of serum testosterone, Luteinizing hormones and FSH concentrations in all treatment groups as compared to the control. The result showed that ethanol extract of the root bark of C. albidum suppresses the hormonal levels and sperm production in rats and deserves to be further investigated as a potential male contraceptive agent. Industrial relevance: The unique advantages of this antifertility option is that they are safer, reliable, affordable, long-lasting, acceptable and can be taken without consulting a health worker in comparison to pharmaceutical drugs that are expensive and have negative side effect. Keywords: Chrysophyllum albidum; Infertility; testosterone; gonadotrophin; testis

  17. Inhibition of Human Cervical Cancer Cell Growth by Ethanolic Extract of Boerhaavia diffusa Linn. (Punarnava Root

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    Rakhi Srivastava

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available In Indian traditional medicine, Boerhaavia diffusa (punarnava roots have been widely used for the treatment of dyspepsia, jaundice, enlargement of spleen, abdominal pain and as an anti-stress agent. Pharmacological evaluation of the crude ethanolic extract of B. diffusa roots has been shown to possess antiproliferative and immunomodulatory properties. The extract of B. diffusa was studied for anti-proliferative effects on the growth of HeLa cells and for its effect on cell cycle. Bio-assays of extracts from B. diffusa root showed that a methanol : chloroform fraction (BDF 5 had an antiproliferative effect on HeLa cells. After 48 h of exposure, this fraction at a concentration of 200 μg mL−1 significantly reduced cell proliferation with visible morphological changes in HeLa cells. Cell cycle analysis suggests that antiproliferative effect of BDF 5 could be due to inhibition of DNA synthesis in S-phase of cell cycle in HeLa cells, whereas no significant change in cell cycle was detected in control cells. The fraction BDF 5 caused cell death via apoptosis as evident from DNA fragmentation and caspase-9 activation. Thus the extract has potential to be evaluated in detail to assess the molecular mechanism-mediated anticancer activities of this plant.

  18. Evaluation of antiosteoporotic activity of Root extract of Rubia Cordifolia in Ovariectomized Rats

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    Kasabi Shivakumar

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The present study was carried out to investigate the antiosteoporotic activity of ethanolic extract from the root of Rubia cordifolia (RC in bilateral-overiectomy induced osteoporotic rats. The study was performed on female Sprague-dawley rats. Two different doses (200 and 400 mg/kg of ethanolic extract of RC root were evaluated by acute oral toxicity test. Raloxifene (5.4 mg/kg was used as a reference standard. Rats were randomly divided into 5 groups with 10 per group. Bilateral-overiectomy was performed for all the rats except for the rats from group-1, which were sham-operated and served as a basal control. Rats from group-2 were served as an OVX-control and received vehicle. Group-3 was administered with raloxifene (5.4 mg/kg, p.o. and served as a standard control. Group-4 and 5 were administered with suspension of ethanolic root extract of RC (200 and 400 mg/kg, p.o. respectively. Treatment was given for 90 days starting from the 15th day after surgery. At the end of the study, the blood samples from all the groups were withdrawn to assess biochemical parameters. The animals were then sacrificed and femur bones were isolated for biomechanical and scanning electron microscopy (SEM studies. Increased biomechanical strength, calcium absorption, minimal osteoclastic activity and enhanced osteoblastic activity were observed in the rats treated with ethanolic extract of RC root. SEM data adds a confirmatory note to the findings. All these results demonstrate significantly antiosteoporotic activity of RC extract. Further studies are required to determine the active components that are responsible for its antiosteoporotic activity.

  19. The Effect of Hydroalcoholic Extract of Glycyrriza Glabra Root on Anxiety in Gonadectomized Male Rats

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    F Akhavan Tavakoli

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Anxiety is a common psychiatric disorder affecting many people in the society. Glycyrriza glabra is a herbal medicine, which carries a lot of traditional effects, this plant contains antioxidants and phytoestrogens. Phytoestrogens are plant sterols that are similar to estrogen in structure and function. The purpose of this study was to dinvestigate the effect of hydroalcoholic extract of Glycyrriza glabra root on anxiety in gonadectomized male rats. Methods: In this experimental study, 48 male rats with an average weight of 230-250g were used in the study. Rats were randomly divided into 6 groups. These groups included: healthy treatment group with saline , gonadectomized  group with no treatment, gonadectomized group with treatment of saline or solvent extract (0.5 cc and gonadectomized group with treatment doses of 2, 5 & 15 mg/kg Glycyrriza glabra root extract intraperitoneally (n=8. In a surgery, the testicles were removed. 30 minutes after injection. The Data were analyzed by one way variance analysis and Tukey’s test using SPSS (p<0.05. Results: Anxiety was significantly increased in gonadectomy rats (P<0.001 when compared with the normal ones. At doses of 5 and 15 mg/kg/bw of hydro-alcholic extract of Glycyrriza glabra root, the time spent in open arms of maze were significantly increased and the time spent in maze close arms were decreased in compared to controls (P<0.05. None of the doses showed any significant effect on locomotor activites. Conclusion: Hydro-alcholic extract of Glycyrriza glabra root in rats not gonadectomized and Gonadectomy serve to reduce anxiety.

  20. In Vitro Scolicidal Effects of Salvadora persica Root Extract against Protoscolices of Echinococcus granulosus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdel-Baki, Abdel-Azeem S; Almalki, Esam; Mansour, Lamjed; Al-Quarishy, Saleh

    2016-02-01

    It has been known that Arak, Salvadora persica, has a number of medicinal properties. We tried to investigate in vitro scolicidal effect of root extracts of this plant against protoscolices from hydatid cysts of Echinococcus granulosus. Protoscolices were aseptically collected from sheep livers containing hydatid cysts. S. persica root extract was used in 10, 30, and 50 mg/ml concentration for 10, 20, and 30 min. The viability of protoscolices was ascertained by 0.1% eosin staining. Scolicidal activity of S. persica extract at a concentration of 10 mg/ml was 36.3%, 50.3%, and 70.8% after 10, 20, and 30 min of exposure, respectively. The scolicidal effect of this extract at a concentration of 30 mg/ml was 52.9%, 86.7%, and 100% after 10, 20, and 30 min of exposure, respectively. S. persica extract at a concentration of 50 mg/ml, meanwhile, killed 81.4%, 100%, and 100% of protoscolices after 10, 20, and 30 min, respectively. Also, the cytotoxic potential of S. persica was assessed on human liver cells (HepG2) using trypan blue exclusion test. No cytotoxic effect was observed on HepG2 cell line. The present study confirmed for the first time that the ethanolic extract of S. persica has high scolicidal power in vitro. However, in vivo effect of this material remains to be studied for treatment of echinococcosis in humans and herbivorous animals.

  1. GC/GCMS analysis of the petroleum ether and dichloromethane extracts of Moringa oleifera roots

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Shaheen; Faizi; saima; sumbul; Muhammed; Ali; Versiani; Rubeena; Saleem; Aisha; Sana; Hira; Siddiqui

    2014-01-01

    Objective:To explore the phytochemical constituents from petroleum ether and diehloromethane extracts of Moringa oleifera(M.oleufera)roots using GC/GC—MS.Methods:A total of 5.11 kg fresh and undried crashed root of M.oleifera were cut into small pieces and extracted with petroleum ether and diehloromethane(20 L.each) at room temperature for 2 d.The concentrated extracts were subjected to their GC—MS analysis.Results:The GC-MS analysis of the petroleum ether and diehloromethane extracts of M.oleifern roots,which showed promising biological activities,has resulted in the identification 102 compounds.These constituents belong to 15 classes of compounds including hydrocarbons,fatty acids,esters,alcohols,isolhioeyanate.thiocyanale,pyrazine,aromalics.alkamides.cyanides,steroids,halocompounds.urea and N-hydroxyimine derivatives,unsaturated alkenamides.alkyne and indole.GC/GC-MS studies on petroleum ether extraet of the roots revealed that it contained 39 compounds,belonging to nine classes.Cyclooctasulfur S8 has been isolated as a pure compound from the extract.The major compounds identified from petroleum ether extract were trans-13-clocosene(37.9%).nonacosane(32.6%).cycloartenol(28.6%) nonadecanoic acid(13.9%) and cyclooctasulfur S8(13.9%).Dichloromethane extract of the roots was composed of 63 compounds of which nasimizinol(58.8%) along with oleic acid(46.5%),N—benzyl-N-(7—cyanato heptanamide(38.3%),N—benzyl-N—(1—chlorononyl) amide(30.3%),bis[3—benzyl prop-2-ene]-1-one(19.5%) and N.N-dibeuzyl—2-ene pent 1.5—diamide(11.6%) were the main constituents.Conclusions:This study helps to predict the formula and structure of active molecules which can be used as drugs.This result also enhances the traditional usage of M.oleifera which possesses a number of bioactive compounds.

  2. HEPATOPROTECTIVE ACTIVITY OF METHANOLIC EXTRACT OF ECBOLIUM VIRIDE (FORSSK. ALSTON ROOTS AGAINST CARBON TETRACHLORIDE INDUCED HEPATOTOXICITY

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    Ashoka Babu V.L

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available In the present study, the methanolic extract of Ecbolium viride root was evaluated for its hepatoprotective effect against CCl4 induced hepatic injury in rats. Alteration in the levels of biochemical markers of hepatic damage like SGOT, SGPT, ALP, triglycerides, bilirubin, total proteins and liver weight were tested in both treated and untreated groups. CCl4 (1ml/kg enhanced the SGPT, SGOT, ALP, triglycerides, liver weight and reduced total proteins significantly. Treatment with methanolic extract of Ecbolium viride roots (200mg/kg and 400mg/kg has brought back the altered levels of altered levels of biochemical markers significantly to the near normal levels in the dose dependant manner.

  3. C-methylated and C-prenylated isoflavonoids from root extract of Desmodium uncinatum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guchu, Salome M; Yenesew, Abiy; Tsanuo, Muniru K; Gikonyo, Nicholas K; Pickett, John A; Hooper, Antony M; Hassanali, Ahmed

    2007-03-01

    A pterocarpan, 1,9-dihydroxy-3-methoxy-2-methylpterocarpan (named uncinacarpan) and two isoflavanones, 5,7-dihydroxy-2',3',4'-trimethoxy-6-(3-methylbut-2-enyl)isoflavanone (named uncinanone D) and 5,4'-dihydroxy-7,2'-dimethoxy-6-methylisoflavanone (named uncinanone E), were isolated from the CH(2)Cl(2) root extract of Desmodium uncinatum (Jacq.) DC and characterised by spectroscopic methods. In addition, a rare pterocarpan edudiol and two known abietane diterpenes, 7-oxo-15-hydroxydehydroabietic acid and 7-hydroxycallitrisic acid were identified. The fraction of the root extract that was analysed induced germination of Striga hermonthica seeds, but none of the isolated compounds showed this activity.

  4. IN VIVO ANTI INFLAMMATORY AND ANTI ARTHRITIC ACTIVITY OF ETHANOLIC EXTRACT OF ASPARAGUS RACEMOSUS ROOTS

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    Suchita Mittal

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The present study is aimed to appraise the anti-inflammatory and anti-arthritic activity of ethanolic extract of Asparagus racemosus roots belonging to family Liliaceae. Carrageenan is used to induce inflammation and Freund’s Complete Adjuvant is used to induce arthritis. The result of this study revealed that Asparagus racemosus show potent effect on both the condition at a dose of 200mg/kg and 400mg/kg respectively.

  5. Hexane soluble extract of Mallotus philippensis (Lam.) Muell. Arg. root possesses anti-leukaemic activity

    OpenAIRE

    Khan, Musa; Qureshi, Rizwana Aleem; Hussain, Masroor; Mehmood, Khalid; Khan, Rahmat Ali

    2013-01-01

    Background Mallotus philippensis (Lam.) Muell. Arg. is a well known medicinal plant of Asia and Australia. Various compounds from different aerial parts of the plant have been reported possessing potent pharmacological, antiviral, antibacterial and cytotoxic activities. We were interested to determine the effects of some root extracts from M. philippensis on human promyelocytic leukemia HL-60 cell proliferation, cell cycle regulators and apoptosis in order to investigate its anti-leukemic pot...

  6. The Effect of Hydroalcoholic Extract of Glycyrriza Glabra Root on Anxiety in Gonadectomized Male Rats

    OpenAIRE

    F Akhavan Tavakoli; N Heydarieh; M Khoshsokhan

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: Anxiety is a common psychiatric disorder affecting many people in the society. Glycyrriza glabra is a herbal medicine, which carries a lot of traditional effects, this plant contains antioxidants and phytoestrogens. Phytoestrogens are plant sterols that are similar to estrogen in structure and function. The purpose of this study was to dinvestigate the effect of hydroalcoholic extract of Glycyrriza glabra root on anxiety in gonadectomized male rats. Methods: In this experime...

  7. The Efficacy of Dandelion Root Extract in Inducing Apoptosis in Drug-Resistant Human Melanoma Cells

    OpenAIRE

    Chatterjee, S. J.; P. Ovadje; M. Mousa; Hamm, C.; Pandey, S.

    2010-01-01

    Notoriously chemoresistant melanoma has become the most prevalent form of cancer for the 25–29 North American age demographic. Standard treatment after early detection involves surgical excision (recurrence is possible), and metastatic melanoma is refractory to immuno-, radio-, and most harmful chemotherapies. Various natural compounds have shown efficacy in killing different cancers, albeit not always specifically. In this study, we show that dandelion root extract (DRE) specifically and eff...

  8. Evaluation of the Sporicidal Activity of Ethanol Extract of Arctium lappa Root against Bacillus cereus

    OpenAIRE

    Vajihe Karbasizade; Arezoo Dabiri

    2014-01-01

    Background: Bacillus cereus is one of the most common causes of food spoilage, keratitis, endophthalmitis, and panophthalmitis. These bacteria produce spores which are resistant to chemical and physical agents. Nowadays, the sporicidal properties of plants have been considered as alternatives to chemical sporicidal agents. Materials and Methods: In this empirical-experimental study the effect of ethanol extract of edible burdock (Arctium lappa) root has been studied on Bacillus cereus spo...

  9. Hypoglycemic Activity of Aqueous Root Bark Extract Zanthoxylum chalybeum in Alloxan-Induced Diabetic Rats

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    Moses Solomon Agwaya

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Medicinal plants offer cheaper and safer treatment options to current diabetic drugs. The present study evaluated the effect of aqueous root bark extract of Zanthoxylum chalybeum on oral glucose tolerance and pancreas histopathology in alloxanized rats. Method. Diabetes was induced in rats by administration of alloxan monohydrate. Root extract of Z. chalybeum was administered to rats at 200 and 400 mg/kg BW daily for 28 days. Blood glucose was measured by glucometer and pancreatic histopathology evaluated microscopically. Results. Initial increase was observed in blood glucose of the rats after oral administration of glucose from time zero. Two hours after treatment with Z. chalybeum, a significant reduction in blood glucose was observed within treatment groups (p<0.05 compared to 0.5 hr and 1 hr. There was no significant difference between treatment group receiving 400mg/Kg BW extract and the normal groups (p=0.27, implying that the former group recovered and were able to regulate their blood sugar, possibly via uptake of glucose into cells. The reversal in pancreatic histopathology further supports the protective effect of Z. chalybeum extract towards diabetic damage. Conclusion. Extract of Z. chalybeum is effective in controlling blood glucose in diabetes and protecting pancreatic tissues from diabetic damage.

  10. Effect of Salvia leriifolia Benth. root extracts on ischemia-reperfusion in rat skeletal muscle

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    Nassiri-Asl Marjan

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Salvia leriifolia have been shown to decrease ischemia-reperfusion (I/R injury in brain tissues. In this study, the effects of S. leriifolia aqueous and ethanolic extracts were evaluated on an animal model of I/R injury in the rat hind limb. Methods Ischemia was induced using free-flap surgery in skeletal muscle. The aqueous and ethanolic extracts of S. leriifolia (100, 200 and 400 mg/kg root and normal saline (10 ml/kg were administered intraperitoneally 1 h prior reperfusion. During preischemia, ischemia and reperfusion conditions the electromyographic (EMG potentials in the muscles were recorded. The markers of oxidative stress including thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS, total sulfhydryl (SH groups and antioxidant capacity of muscle (using FRAP assay were measured. Results In peripheral ischemia, the average peak-to-peak amplitude during ischemic-reperfusion was found to be significantly larger in extracts groups in comparison with control group. Following extracts administration, the total SH contents and antioxidant capacity were elevated in muscle flap. The MDA level was also declined significantly in test groups. Conclusion It is concluded that S. leriifolia root extracts have some protective effects on different markers of oxidative damage in muscle tissue injury caused by lower limb ischemia-reperfusion.

  11. AKTIVITAS ANTIOKSIDAN EKSTRAK UMBI AKAR GINSENG JAWA (Talinum triangulare Willd. [Antioxidant Activity of Javanese Ginseng (Talinum triangulare Willd. Root Extracts

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    Teti Estiasih1

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Antioxidant activity of some extracts of javanese ginseng root was investigated. Javanese ginseng root extracts were prepared by solvent extraction using methanol, ethanol (96%, ethanol (70%, acetone, and hexane. Total antioxidant activity of the extracts was measured by ferric thiocyanate method, whereas radical scavenging capacity and reducing power were measured by the 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl and the reducing potential methods, respectively. The result showed that the highest total antioxidant activity was observed in acetone and methanol extracts. It was supposed that the ability of these extracts for partitioning at the interface of the emulsion in the tested oxidation system was the highest among other extracts, therefore it had the best activity to inhibit oxidation. The highest radical scavenging capacity measured by EC50 was observed in acetone extract. The type of phenolic compounds of this extract was suggested to be responsible for the highest radical scavenging capacity. Different phenomena occurred for reducing power. Methanol extract had the highest reducing power and the least is hexane and acetone extract. It was suggested that each extracts comprised different types of phenolic based on different polarity of solvents used for extraction. The antioxidant compounds of javanese ginseng root extracts were primary antioxidant based on these ability to scavenge free radical. It could be concluded that acetone was the best solvent for antioxidant extraction of javanese ginseng root. However, all tested antioxidant mechanisms in this research showed that vitamin E (1000 ppm had better activity than javanese ginseng root extracts (1000 ppm for all types of solvent. Javanese ginseng extracts might contain other compounds that not responsible for antioxidant activity, therefore at the same concentration the activity were lower than vitamin E.

  12. Effect of the Aqueous Root Extract of Urena lobata (Linn on the Liver of Albino Rat

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    I.Y. Mshelia

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The effects of the aqueous root extract of urena lobata on the rat liver was investigated using a total of (25 adult Wister rats of both sexes that were randomly divided into five groups of five rats each. Group I served as the control, while rats in groups II-IV where administered 100, 200 and 300 mg/kg body weight of the extract, respectively for 28 days. Rats in group V were administered 300 mg/kg of the extract for 28 days and allowed to stay for 14 days post treatment to observe for reversibility, persistence or delayed occurrence of toxic effects. At the end of the experimental period the animals were sacrificed and liver weight taken and fixed for routine histological examinations. Administration of the extract to rats had no effects on liver and body weights but the extract caused a decrease in albumin level and increases in the levels of Aspartate Transaminases (AST, Alanine Transaminases (ALT and Alkaline Phosphatase (ALP. Histopathological assessment of the liver revealed mild to severe interstitial hemorrhage, mononuclear cell infiltration, necrosis, congestion and edema in the liver of the treated rats while withdrawal of the extract for 14 days showed a slight degree of recovery in the rats. This findings suggest that the biochemical and morphological organization of the liver can significantly be altered with continues and increase use of the extract, but further studies on the long term effect of the extract and a prolonged recovery period is recommended in further studies.

  13. Green synthesis of silver nanoparticles using methanolic root extracts of Diospyros paniculata and their antimicrobial activities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rao, N.Hanumanta [Advanced Analytical Laboratory, DST-PURSE Programme, Andhra University, Visakhapatnam 530003 (India); Lakshmidevi, N. [Department of Microbiology, College of Science and Technology, Andhra University, Visakhapatnam 530003 (India); Pammi, S.V.N. [Advanced Analytical Laboratory, DST-PURSE Programme, Andhra University, Visakhapatnam 530003 (India); Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Chungnam National University, Daeduk Science Town, 305-764, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Kollu, Pratap [DST-INSPIRE Faculty, Department of Metallurgical Engineering & Materials Science, Indian Institute of Technology Bombay, Mumbai 400076 (India); Ganapaty, S. [GITAM Institute of Pharmacy, GITAM University, Visakhapatnam (India); Lakshmi, P., E-mail: lmkandregula@gmail.com [Department of Microbiology, College of Science and Technology, Andhra University, Visakhapatnam 530003 (India)

    2016-05-01

    Since the discovery and subsequent widespread use of antibiotics, a variety of bacterial species of human and animal origin have developed numerous mechanisms that render bacteria resistant to some, and in certain cases to nearly all antibiotics, thereby limiting the treatment options and compromising effective therapy. In the present study, the green synthesis of nanoparticles is carried out by the reduction of silver acetate in the presence of crude methanolic root extracts of Diospyros paniculata, a member of family Ebenaceae. The UV–Vis absorption spectrum of the biologically reduced reaction mixture showed the surface plasmon peak at 428 nm, a characteristic peak of silver nanoparticles. X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis confirmed the face-centered cubic crystalline structure of metallic silver. The average diameter of Ag NPs is about 17 nm from Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM) which is in good agreement with the average crystallite size (19 nm) calculated from XRD analysis. Further the study has been extended to the antimicrobial activity against test pathogenic Gram (+), Gram (−) bacterial and fungal strains. The biologically synthesized silver nanoparticles showed promising activity against all the tested pathogenic strains and the activity has been enhanced with the increased dose levels. - Highlights: • Biosynthesis of silver nanoparticles (Ag NPs) using root extracts of Diospyros paniculata. • Average diameter of Ag NPs is about 17 nm from TEM analysis which is in good agreement with XRD analysis. • Antimicrobial activities of root extract mediated synthesis of silver Ag NPs were discussed in detail.

  14. Diuretic Activity of Ethanolic Root Extract of Mimosa Pudica in Albino Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hl, Kalabharathi; Sl, Shruthi; Ps, Vaibhavi; Vh, Pushpa; Am, Satish; Sibgatullah, Mohammad

    2015-12-01

    Diuretics are the drugs which increase the urine output. This property is useful in various pathological conditions of fluid overload. The presently available diuretics have lot of adverse effects. Our study has evaluated the diuretic activity of ethanolic root extract of Mimosa pudica as an alternative/new drug which may induce diuresis. To evaluate the diuretic activity of ethanolic root extract of Mimosa pudicaa in albino rats. Ethanolic root extract of Mimosa pudica (EEMP) was prepared using soxhlet's apparatus. Albino rats were divided into 5 groups of 6 rats each. Group-I (Control) received distilled water 25ml/kg orally. Group-II (Standard) received Furosemide 20mg/kg orally. Group-III received EEMP 100 mg/kg, Group-IV received EEMP 200 mg/kg and Group-V received EEMP 400 mg/kg. The urine samples were collected for all the groups upto 5 hours after dosing and urine volume was measured. Urine was analysed for electrolytes (Na+, K+ and Cl-). ANOVA, Dunnet's test and p-values were measured and data was analysed. EEMP exhibited significant diuretic activity by increasing urine volume and also by enhancing elimination of Sodium (Na+), Potassium (K+) and Chloride (Cl-) at doses of 100 and 200mg/kg. EEMP possesses significant diuretic activity and has a beneficial role in volume overload conditions.

  15. Yam (Dioscorea batatas) Root and Bark Extracts Stimulate Osteoblast Mineralization by Increasing Ca and P Accumulation and Alkaline Phosphatase Activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Suji; Shin, Mee-Young; Son, Kun-Ho; Sohn, Ho-Yong; Lim, Jae-Hwan; Lee, Jong-Hwa; Kwun, In-Sook

    2014-09-01

    Yam (Dioscorea batatas) is widely consumed as functional food for health promotion mainly in East Asia countries. We assessed whether yam root (tuber) or bark (peel) extracts stimulated the activity of osteoblasts for osteogenesis. MC3T3-E1 cells (mouse osteoblasts) were treated with yam root extracts (water or methanol) (study I) or bark extracts (water or hexane) (study II) within 0~10 μg/mL during the periods of osteoblast proliferation (5~10 day), matrix maturation (11~15 day) and mineralization (16~20 day) as appropriate. In study I, both yam root water and methanol extracts increased cell proliferation as concentration-dependent manner. Cellular collagen synthesis and alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity, both the indicators of bone matrix protein and inorganic phosphate production for calcification respectively, were also increased by yam root water and methanol extract. Osteoblast calcification as cell matrix Ca and P accumulation was also increased by the addition of yam root extracts. In study II, yam bark extracts (water and hexane) increased osteoblast proliferation and differentiation, as collagen synthesis and ALP activity and osteoblast matrix Ca and P deposition. The study results suggested that both yam root and bark extracts stimulate osteogenic function in osteoblasts by stimulating bone matrix maturation by increasing collagen synthesis, ALP activity, and matrix mineralization.

  16. A RAPID DNA EXTRACTION METHOD IS SUCCESSFULLY APPLIED TO ITS-RFLP ANALYSIS OF MYCORRHIZAL ROOT TIPS

    Science.gov (United States)

    A rapid method for extracting DNA from intact, single root tips using a Xanthine solution was developed to handle very large numbers of analyses of ectomycorrhizas. By using an extraction without grinding we have attempted to bias the extraction towards the fungal DNA in the man...

  17. Devil's Claw to suppress appetite--ghrelin receptor modulation potential of a Harpagophytum procumbens root extract.

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    Cristina Torres-Fuentes

    Full Text Available Ghrelin is a stomach-derived peptide that has been identified as the only circulating hunger hormone that exerts a potent orexigenic effect via activation of its receptor, the growth hormone secretagogue receptor (GHS-R1a. Hence, the ghrelinergic system represents a promising target to treat obesity and obesity-related diseases. In this study we analysed the GHS-R1a receptor activating potential of Harpagophytum procumbens, popularly known as Devil's Claw, and its effect on food intake in vivo. H. procumbens is an important traditional medicinal plant from Southern Africa with potent anti-inflammatory and analgesic effects. This plant has been also used as an appetite modulator but most evidences are anecdotal and to our knowledge, no clear scientific studies relating to appetite modulation have been done to this date. The ghrelin receptor activation potential of an extract derived from the dried tuberous roots of H. procumbens was analysed by calcium mobilization and receptor internalization assays in human embryonic kidney cells (Hek stably expressing the GHS-R1a receptor. Food intake was investigated in male C57BL/6 mice following intraperitoneal administration of H. procumbens root extract in ad libitum and food restricted conditions. Exposure to H. procumbens extract demonstrated a significant increased cellular calcium influx but did not induce subsequent GHS-R1a receptor internalization, which is a characteristic for full receptor activation. A significant anorexigenic effect was observed in male C57BL/6 mice following peripheral administration of H. procumbens extract. We conclude that H. procumbens root extract is a potential novel source for potent anti-obesity bioactives. These results reinforce the promising potential of natural bioactives to be developed into functional foods with weight-loss and weight maintenance benefits.

  18. Analgesic Effects of Various Extracts of Root of Abutilon indicum linn.

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    Sumitra Singh

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available

    Abutilon indicum (Linn. sweet (Malvaceae commonly called “Country Mallow” is a perennial plant up to 3m in
    height. It is abundantly found as weed in sub-Himalayan tract and in hotter parts of India. The plant is traditionally
    used for treatment of several diseases like bronchitis, body ache, toothache, jaundice, diabetes, fever, piles,
    leprosy, ulcers, cystitis, gonorrhea, diarrhoea etc. Abutilon indicum Linn. is reported to have hepatoprotective,
    hypoglycemic, antimicrobial, male contraceptive and antidiarrhoeal activities. The present study was done to
    evaluate the analgesic potential of various extracts of root of Abutilon indicum Linn. The powdered root (900 g
    was subjected to successive solvent extraction with solvents in increasing order of polarity viz. petroleum ether
    (60-80 C°, methanol and ethanol by soxhlet apparatus for 72 hrs. The marc was extracted by cold maceration for
    72 hrs. to obtain water soluble extract. Peripheral analgesic activity was studied using acetic acid induced writhing
    method in Swiss albino mice (20-30 g while central analgesic activity was evaluated by tail flick method and
    tail immersion method. Results indicated that all the tested extracts except methanol extract exhibited significant
    analgesic activity in both animals’ models. Petroleum ether extract showed higher analgesic activity. The activity
    may be related with central mechanism or due to peripheral analgesic mechanisms. Thus the present study authenticates
    the traditional use.

  19. Seedling Establishment of Tall Fescue Exposed to Long-Term Starvation Stress

    Science.gov (United States)

    Damiani, Claudia Roberta; Stefanini, Sara; Vernieri, Paolo; Huarancca Reyes, Thais; Volterrani, Marco; Guglielminetti, Lorenzo

    2016-01-01

    In germinating seeds under unfavorable environmental conditions, the mobilization of stores in the cotyledons is delayed, which may result in a different modulation of carbohydrates balance and a decrease in seedling vigor. Tall fescue (Festuca arundinacea Schreb.) caryopses grown at 4°C in the dark for an extended period in complete absence of nutrients, showed an unexpected ability to survive. Seedlings grown at 4°C for 210 days were morphologically identical to seedlings grown at 23°C for 21 days. After 400 days, seedlings grown at 4°C were able to differentiate plastids to chloroplast in just few days once transferred to the light and 23°C. Tall fescue exposed to prolonged period at 4°C showed marked anatomical changes: cell wall thickening, undifferentiated plastids, more root hairs and less xylem lignification. Physiological modifications were also observed, in particular related to sugar content, GA and ABA levels and amylolytic enzymes pattern. The phytohormones profiles exhibited at 4 and 23°C were comparable when normalized to the respective physiological states. Both the onset and the completion of germination were linked to GA and ABA levels, as well as to the ratio between these two hormones. All plants showed a sharp decline in carbohydrate content, with a consequent onset of gradual sugar starvation. This explained the slowed then full arrest in growth under both treatment regimes. The analysis of amylolytic activity showed that Ca2+ played a central role in the stabilization of several isoforms. Overall, convergence of starvation and hormone signals meet in crosstalk to regulate germination, growth and development in tall fescue. PMID:27832166

  20. Phytochemistry, proximate analysis, mineral and vitamin compositions of Psidium guajava linn in methanol root and leaf extracts

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    Essiet Grace Akanimo

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Psidium guajava Linn, is a medicinal plant and food crop cultivated in tropical and subtropical countries and used widely as food, and in folk medicine in the treatment and prevention of many diseases around the universe. But, the Pharmacological  basis for its various therapeutic  applications has not been elucidated. Samples of P. guajava L. Root and leaf extracts were analysed and its Phytochemistry, proximate analysis, vitamins and mineral constituents were revealed. The Phytochemical analysis indicated that P. guajava L. Root and leaf methanol  extracts contain Gallic Acid (Root 0.01mg, leaf 0.02mg, malic acid (Root 0.02mg, leaf 0.01mg, Tannin (Root 0.022mg, Leaf 0.01mg, Leukocyanidins  (Root 0.01mg, leaf 0.03mg, Sterols (Root 0.011mg, leaf 0.02mg, Flavonoid (Root 0.11mg, leaf 0.32mg, chlorogenic Acid (Root 0.12mg, leaf 0.13mg, Ferulic acid (Root 0.01mg, leaf 0.01mg, Ellagic acid (Root 0.011mg, leaf 0.021mg, Avicularin (Root 0.001mg, leaf 0.003mg, and Limonene (Root 0.001mg, leaf 0.001mg, the proximate analysis revealed the presence of moisture (Root 81%, leaf 83%, Protein (Root 0.62%, leaf 0.58%, Carbohydrate (Root 6.22%, leaf 6.31%, Total Fat (Root 0.55%, leaf 0.61%, Saturate Fat (Root 0.163%, leaf 0.158%, and Ash (Root 0.62%, leaf 0.63%. Psidium guajava also contain these minerals K  (Root 301mg, Leaf 300mg, Na (Root 3.42mg, Leaf 3.40mg, Zn (Root 0.36mg, Leaf  0.35mg, Fe (Root 0.62mg, Leaf 0.59mg, Mg (Root 13mg, Leaf 13.8mg, P (Root 28mg, Leaf 30mg, Ca (Root 22mg, Leaf 23mg, and also vitamins including Vit. A  (Root 79µg, Leaf 78.2µg, Vit.B (Root 0.06mg, Leaf 0.05mg, Vit. B2 (Root 0.08mg, Leaf 0.09mg, Vit B6 (Root 0.136mg, Leaf 0.140mg, Vit. C (Root 102mg, Leaf 100mg, Vit. E (Root 1.36mg, Leaf 1.39mg, Niacin (Root 1.52mg, Leaf 1.49mg, Folate (Root 16µg, Leaf 13µg. These Phytochemicals, Proximates, Minerals and Vitamins found in these medicinal plant has justified its scientific rationale behind its folklore medicinal uses.

  1. Evaluation of Allelopathic Potential of Rumex dentatus Root Extract and Allelochemicals on Cicer arietinum

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    Hamed M. El-Shora

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The present study aimed to evaluate the allelopathic potential of root extract of Rumex dentatus L. and various allelochemicals on some physiological parameters in roots of Cicer arietinum L. The tested allelochemicals were benzoic, caffeic, cinnamic, ferulic, gallic, sinapic and vanillic acids. Seed germination of Cicer was inhibited by Rumex extract. Lipid peroxidation and hydrogen peroxide production increased gradually in response to extract concentration as well as allelochemicals treatment. The total soluble protein decreased whereas the total phenol increased under the various treatments. The activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD: 1.15.1.1 and catalase (CAT: 1.11.1.6 increased continuously with increasing extract concentration. However, peroxidase (POD: 1.11.1.7 increased sharply at 2% (w/v followed by reduction at the higher concentrations and reached 1.1 U g-1 fresh weight at 10% (w/v which was still higher than that of the control value. Ferulic acid was the most effective inducer for SOD activity followed by cinnamic acid. The POD activity increased remarkably particularly with cinnamic, benzoic and gallic acids. Sinapic, ferulic and coumaric acids enhanced CAT activity by 150.4%, 139.5% and 124.4%, respectively. The results reveal the possible use of R. dentatus as bioherbicide.

  2. Cichorium intybus root extract: A "vitamin D-like" active ingredient to improve skin barrier function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maia Campos, P M B G; G Mercurio, D; O Melo, M; Closs-Gonthier, B

    2017-02-01

    During the aging process, the human skin suffers many alterations including dryness, skin barrier function damage. The skin barrier function is important to the prevention of skin alterations and maintenance of homeostasis. So, the objective of this study was to assess the clinical efficacy on skin barrier function of Cichorium intybus root extract in cosmetic formulations with or without UV filters. Fifty women, aged between 45 and 60 years, were divided into two groups. One group received vehicle formulations containing UV filters, and the other group received formulations without UV filters. Both groups received a formulation containing the extract and the vehicle. The formulations were applied twice daily to the upper arms after washing with sodium lauryl sulphate. Transepidermal water loss (TEWL) and skin microrelief were evaluated before and after a 14- and 28-day period of treatment. The control regions and regions where the vehicles were applied showed an increase in the TEWL. For the formulations containing the extract, decreased TEWL and improved microrelief were observed when compared to the vehicle and control areas after a 28-day period. In conclusion, Cichorium intybus root extract showed protective and restructuring effects on the skin and stands out as an innovative ingredient to improve skin barrier function.

  3. Anticancer activity of Cynodon dactylon L. root extract against diethyl nitrosamine induced hepatic carcinoma

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    R Kowsalya

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Hepatocellular carcinoma is one of the most common cancers and a lethal disease. In view of the limited treatment and a grave prognosis of liver cancer, preventive control has been emphasized. Materials and Methods: The methanolic extract of roots of Cynodon dactylon was screened for its hepato-protective activity in diethyl nitrosamine (DEN induced liver cancer in Swiss albino mice. The plant extract at a dose of 50 mg/kg was administered orally once a week, up to 30 days after DEN administration. The animals were sacrificed; blood sample and liver tissue were collected and used for enzyme assay such as, asparatate amino transferase (AST, alanine aminotransferase (ALT, catalase (CAT, glutathione peroxidase (GPx and glutathione-S-transferase (GST. The liver marker enzymes AST and ALT produced signifi cant results in the protective action. Results: The antioxidant enzyme assay results concerning the improved activity of GPx, GST and CAT. These results concluded that enhanced levels of antioxidant enzyme and reduced amount of serum amino transaminase, which are suggested to be the major mechanisms of C. dactylon root extract in protecting the mice from hepatocarcinoma induced by DEN. These biochemical observations were supplemented by histopathological examination of liver sections. Conclusion: The methanolic extract of C. dactylon possesses signifi cant anticancer properties

  4. In Vitro Skin Diffusion Study of Pure Forskolin versus a Forskolin-Containing Plectranthus barbatus Root Extract

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jing; Hammell, Dana C.; Spry, Malinda; D’Orazio, John A.; Stinchcomb, Audra L.

    2016-01-01

    An in vitro skin diffusion study of pure forskolin (1) versus a 1-containing Plectranthus barbatus root extract (P. barbatus extract) in hairless guinea pig skin and human skin in a flow-through diffusion cell system was conducted and is being reported for the first time. Both topical agents were formulated in a solution of 70% ethanol and 30% propylene glycol (v/v). The results showed that forskolin can be delivered through the stratum corneum and that the flux of this compound was enhanced when 1 was delivered as a constituent of the P. barbatus extract as compared to an equivalent amount in pure form. These results suggest that the P. barbatus extract used contains permeation enhancement activity from other compound(s) contained in the crude root extract. It is possible that P. barbatus root extract may be used as an economical source of 1 to perform topical chemical manipulation of pigmentation in high-risk populations. PMID:19281221

  5. Study of root aqueous extract of Prosopis farcta effect on wound healing of diabetic adult male rats

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    Azadeh Ranjbar Heidari

    2012-12-01

    Conclusion: Considering the above findings, the extract of Prosopis farcta root, has effective roles on wound healing in diabetic rats, probably due to its anti- inflammatory, reepithelization, and neovascularization properties. However, more studies are needed in this respect.

  6. Assessment of the antiulcer potential of Moringa oleifera root-bark extract in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choudhary, Manoj Kumar; Bodakhe, Surendra H; Gupta, Sanjay Kumar

    2013-08-01

    In the present study, an ethanolic root-bark extract of Moringa oleifera (MO) was examined for its antiulcer potential in albino Wistar rats using two experimental models: ethanol-induced and pylorus ligation-induced gastric ulceration. The extract was orally administered at three different doses (150, 350, and 500 mg/kg) for 15 consecutive days. The antiulcer effects in rats treated with different doses of the extract and omeprazole (30 mg/kg, p.o.) were determined and compared statistically with the antiulcer effects in the control rats treated with saline (NaCl, 0.9%). The MO at doses of 350 and 500 mg/kg decreased the ulcer index significantly as compared to the control group (p Moringa oleifera can be used as source for an antiulcer drug.

  7. Hepatoprotective effects of Astragalus kahiricus root extract against ethanol-induced liver apoptosis in rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Rasha M.Allam; Dina A.Selim; Asser I.Ghoneim; Mohamed M.Radwan; Salwa M.Nofal; Amani E.Khalifa; Ola A.Sharaf; Soad M.Toaima; Aya M.Asaad

    2013-01-01

    The hepatoprotective activity of the ethanol extract of Astragalus kahiricus (Fabaceae) roots against ethanol-induced liver apoptosis was evaluated and it showed very promising hepatoprotective actions through different mechanisms.The extract counteracted the ethanol-induced liver enzymes leakage and glutathione depletion.In addition,it demonstrated anti-apoptotic effects against caspase-3 activation and DNA fragmentation that were confirmed by liver histopathological examination.Moreover,the phytochemical study of this extract led to the isolation of four cycloartane-type treiterpenes identified as astrasieversianin Ⅱ (1),astramembrannin Ⅱ (2),astrasieversianin ⅩⅣ (3),and cycloastragenol (4).The structures of these isolates were established by HRESI-MS and 1D and 2D NMR experiments.The antimicrobial,antimalarial,and cytotoxic activities of the isolates were further evaluated,but none of them showed any activity.

  8. Evaluation of protein extraction methods for enhanced proteomic analysis of tomato leaves and roots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vilhena, Milca B; Franco, Mônica R; Schmidt, Daiana; Carvalho, Giselle; Azevedo, Ricardo A

    2015-09-01

    Proteomics is an outstanding area in science whose increasing application has advanced to distinct purposes. A crucial aspect to achieve a good proteome resolution is the establishment of a methodology that results in the best quality and wide range representation of total proteins. Another important aspect is that in many studies, limited amounts of tissue and total protein in the tissue to be studied are found, making difficult the analysis. In order to test different parameters, combinations using minimum amount of tissue with 4 protocols for protein extraction from tomato (Solanum lycopersicum L.) leaves and roots were evaluated with special attention to their capacity for removing interferents and achieving suitable resolution in bidimensional gel electrophoresis, as well as satisfactory protein yield. Evaluation of the extraction protocols revealed large protein yield differences obtained for each one. TCA/acetone was shown to be the most efficient protocol, which allowed detection of 211 spots for leaves and 336 for roots using 500 µg of leaf protein and 800 µg of root protein per gel.

  9. Evaluation of protein extraction methods for enhanced proteomic analysis of tomato leaves and roots

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    MILCA B. VILHENA

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Proteomics is an outstanding area in science whose increasing application has advanced to distinct purposes. A crucial aspect to achieve a good proteome resolution is the establishment of a methodology that results in the best quality and wide range representation of total proteins. Another important aspect is that in many studies, limited amounts of tissue and total protein in the tissue to be studied are found, making difficult the analysis. In order to test different parameters, combinations using minimum amount of tissue with 4 protocols for protein extraction from tomato (Solanum lycopersicum L. leaves and roots were evaluated with special attention to their capacity for removing interferents and achieving suitable resolution in bidimensional gel electrophoresis, as well as satisfactory protein yield. Evaluation of the extraction protocols revealed large protein yield differences obtained for each one. TCA/acetone was shown to be the most efficient protocol, which allowed detection of 211 spots for leaves and 336 for roots using 500 µg of leaf protein and 800 µg of root protein per gel.

  10. Anti-diabetic effect of Capparis spinosa L. root extract in diabetic rats

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    Mostafa Kazemian Mansur Abad

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Diabetes mellitus is the most common metabolic disorders with severe impact on quality of life. Reducing serum glucose levels and normalization of serum lipid is of great clinical importance for treating diabetes. To our knowledge, there are not any evidences about the anti-diabetic action of capparis spinosa root. In the present study the effects of the C. spinosa root extract on diabetic metabolic disorders have been studied in experimental diabetes. Materials and Methods: Rats were divided into six groups: normal control (NC, diabetic control (DC, diabetic rats receiving 0.2, 0.4 g/kg of plant extract or 0.6 mg/kg glibenclamide (groups D0.2, D0.4 or DG respectively. A normal group of rats was also designed to receive 0.2 g/kg of plant extract (N0.2. Rats were rendered diabetic (streptozotocin 60 mg/kg, i.p. and treated with 0.2, 0.4 g/ kg of plant extract or glibenclamide for four weeks. At the end of the experiment, blood was drawn through heart puncture under deep anesthesia. Weight was measured weekly, glucose levels were measured at the first and fourth week and lipid profiles, insulin and liver enzymes at the end of the study. Results: Glucose levels significantly decreased after treating with plant extract (p=0.003. However, insulin levels did not increase in any treating groups. Plant extract could significantly raise HDL and reduce levels of LDL and liver enzymes (ALT and ALP. Conclusion: These results showed that C. spinosa rootextract could improve diabetic related metabolic derangement such as hyperglycemia, dyslipidemia, and elevated liver markers in an insulin-independent manner.

  11. In vitro anti-inflammatory, mutagenic and antimutagenic activities of ethanolic extract of Clerodendrum paniculatum root.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phuneerub, Pravaree; Limpanasithikul, Wacharee; Palanuvej, Chanida; Ruangrungsi, Nijsiri

    2015-01-01

    Clerodendrum paniculatum L. (Family Verbenaceae) has been used as an antipyretic and anti-inflammatory drug in traditional Thai medicine. This present study investigated the in vitro anti-inflammatory, mutagenic and antimutagenic activities of the ethanolic extract of C. paniculatum (CPE) dried root collected from Sa Kaeo Province of Thailand. Murine macrophage J774A.1 cells were stimulated by lipopolysaccharide (LPS) to evaluate nitric oxide (NO), tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) and prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) production in the anti-inflammatory test while the mutagenic and antimutagenic potential was performed by the Ames test. The outcome of this study displayed that the CPE root significantly inhibited LPS-induced NO, TNF-α, and PGE2 production in macrophage cell line. In addition, the CPE root was not mutagenic toward Salmonella typhimurium strain TA98 and TA100 with and without nitrite treatment. Moreover, it inhibited the mutagenicity of nitrite treated 1-aminopyrene on both strains. The findings suggested the anti-inflammatory and antimutagenic potentials of CPE root.

  12. From the Lab Bench: Should you plant a non-toxic endophyte tall fescue?

    Science.gov (United States)

    A column was written to discuss planting novel endophyte tall fescue for alleviating fescue toxicosis. Endophyte-free tall fescue cultivars can be grazed as a non-toxic alternative, but it maust be understood that it is the endophyte, through production of alkaloids other than ergot alkaloids, that...

  13. Extracts and Fractions from Edible Roots of Sechium edule (Jacq. Sw. with Antihypertensive Activity

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    Galia Lombardo-Earl

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Sechium edule is traditionally used in Mexico as a therapeutic resource against renal diseases and to control high blood pressure. The purpose of this work is to evaluate the antihypertensive effect of the hydroalcoholic extract obtained from the roots of this plant, including its fractions and subfractions, on different hypertension models induced with angiotensin II (AG II. The hydroalcoholic extract was tested on an in vitro study of isolated aorta rings denuded of endothelial cells, using AG II as the agonist; this assay proved the vasorelaxant effect of this extract. Vagotomized rats were administered different doses of AG II as well as the Hydroalcoholic extract, which reduced blood pressure in 30 mmHg approximately; subsequently this extract was separated into two fractions (acetone and methanol which were evaluated in the acute hypertension mouse model induced with AG II, where the acetone fraction was identified as the most effective one and was subsequently subfractioned using an open chromatographic column packed with silica gel. The subfractions were also evaluated in the acute hypertension model. Finally, the extract, fraction, and active subfraction were analyzed by MS-PDA-HPLC, identifying cinnamic derivative compounds like cinnamic acid methyl ester.

  14. Hypoglycemic effects of a standardized extract of salvia miltiorrhiza roots in rats

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    Mauro A. M. Carai

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background and Aims: Salvia miltiorrhiza Bunge (Labiatae is a Chinese medicinal plant, the dried roots of which (known as Dan-Shen have been used for hundreds of years in the treatment of a series of ailments, including hyperglycemia. This study was designed to evaluate the hypoglycemic effect of a new, standardized extract of S. miltiorrhiza. Materials and Methods: S. miltiorrhiza extract (containing 21% total tanshinones and 3.7% tanshinone IIA was administered acutely and intragastrically at the doses of 0, 50, 100, and 200 mg/kg to male, healthy, fasted Wistar rats 60 min before the intragastric infusion of a bolus of starch (3 g/kg; a semi-naturalistic experimental condition (Experiment 1 or glucose (2 g/kg (Experiment 2. Results: In both experiments, treatment with S. miltiorrhiza extract produced a dose-related decrease in glycemia, evidenced in terms of reduction of peak value and/or area under the curve of the time-course of glycemia. The effect of S. miltiorrhiza extract occurred at doses devoid of any behavioral toxicity in rats. Conclusion: The results of this study suggest that the hypoglycemic effect of S. miltiorrhiza extract was likely secondary to an action on carbohydrate metabolism. These results are consistent with several preclinical and clinical data and add further support to the hypothesis that S. miltiorrhiza extracts may act as effective anti-hyperglycemic remedies.

  15. The root extract of the medicinal plant Pelargonium sidoides is a potent HIV-1 attachment inhibitor.

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    Markus Helfer

    Full Text Available Global HIV-1 treatment would benefit greatly from safe herbal medicines with scientifically validated novel anti-HIV-1 activities. The root extract from the medicinal plant Pelargonium sidoides (PS is licensed in Germany as the herbal medicine EPs®7630, with numerous clinical trials supporting its safety in humans. Here we provide evidence from multiple cell culture experiments that PS extract displays potent anti-HIV-1 activity. We show that PS extract protects peripheral blood mononuclear cells and macrophages from infection with various X4 and R5 tropic HIV-1 strains, including clinical isolates. Functional studies revealed that the extract from PS has a novel mode-of-action. It interferes directly with viral infectivity and blocks the attachment of HIV-1 particles to target cells, protecting them from virus entry. Analysis of the chemical footprint of anti-HIV activity indicates that HIV-1 inhibition is mediated by multiple polyphenolic compounds with low cytotoxicity and can be separated from other extract components with higher cytotoxicity. Based on our data and its excellent safety profile, we propose that PS extract represents a lead candidate for the development of a scientifically validated herbal medicine for anti-HIV-1 therapy with a mode-of-action different from and complementary to current single-molecule drugs.

  16. The root extract of the medicinal plant Pelargonium sidoides is a potent HIV-1 attachment inhibitor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helfer, Markus; Koppensteiner, Herwig; Schneider, Martha; Rebensburg, Stephanie; Forcisi, Sara; Müller, Constanze; Schmitt-Kopplin, Philippe; Schindler, Michael; Brack-Werner, Ruth

    2014-01-01

    Global HIV-1 treatment would benefit greatly from safe herbal medicines with scientifically validated novel anti-HIV-1 activities. The root extract from the medicinal plant Pelargonium sidoides (PS) is licensed in Germany as the herbal medicine EPs®7630, with numerous clinical trials supporting its safety in humans. Here we provide evidence from multiple cell culture experiments that PS extract displays potent anti-HIV-1 activity. We show that PS extract protects peripheral blood mononuclear cells and macrophages from infection with various X4 and R5 tropic HIV-1 strains, including clinical isolates. Functional studies revealed that the extract from PS has a novel mode-of-action. It interferes directly with viral infectivity and blocks the attachment of HIV-1 particles to target cells, protecting them from virus entry. Analysis of the chemical footprint of anti-HIV activity indicates that HIV-1 inhibition is mediated by multiple polyphenolic compounds with low cytotoxicity and can be separated from other extract components with higher cytotoxicity. Based on our data and its excellent safety profile, we propose that PS extract represents a lead candidate for the development of a scientifically validated herbal medicine for anti-HIV-1 therapy with a mode-of-action different from and complementary to current single-molecule drugs.

  17. Study of Polyphenol Content and Antioxidant Capacity of Myrianthus Arboreus (Cecropiaceae Root Bark Extracts

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    Pierre Betu Kasangana

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available In order to evaluate the therapeutic potential of polyphenolic extracts from root bark of M. arboreus, we have determined the content of various polyphenols in aqueous and ethanol (EtOH extract as well as two sub-fractions of the latter: ethyl acetate (EAc and hexane (Hex. The total phenols, flavonoids, hydroxycinnamic acids and proanthocyanidins have been determined for all studied extracts/fractions by spectrophotometric methods. Both TP content (331.5 ± 2.5 mg GAE/g and HCA content (201 ± 1.5 mg CAE/g were determined to be the highest in EAc fraction of EtOH extract. All studied extracts were however determined to have a low content in flavonoids. The determination of antioxidant capacities of the studied extracts has also been performed by the following in vitro antioxidant tests: DPPH scavenging, phosphomolybdenum method and oxygen radical absorbance (ORACFl and ORACPRG assay. The results of the DPPH free radical and ORACFl assays showed that there is no significant difference between the EAc fraction and Oligopin®, but the EAc fraction exhibited the highest antioxidant capacity as determined by the phosphomolybdenium method. In addition, the EtOH extract was determined to have the same antioxidant efficiency as the synthetic antioxidant BHT or commercial extract Oligopin® by phosphomolybdenum method. On the other hand, a positive correlation (r < 0.6 was found between different classes of polyphenols and the results of the phosphomolybdenum method, ORACFl as well as ORACPRG, except for the DPPH assay, for which a negative correlation was indicated (r < 0.62. Interestingly, it seems that the content in hydroxycinnamic acids played a big role in all assays with r < 0.9. According to the present study, EAc fraction and EtOH extract should be further studied for the potential use in the pharmaceutical and food industry.

  18. Irradiation effects on color and functional properties of persimmon (Diospyros kaki L. folium) leaf extract and licorice (Glycyrrhiza Uralensis Fischer) root extract during storage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jo, Cheorun; Son, J.H.; Shin, M.G.; Byun, M.W. E-mail: mwbyun@kaeri.re.kr

    2003-06-01

    Irradiation effects on color and functional properties of persimmon (Diospyros kaki L. folium) leaf extract and licorice (Glycyrrhiza Uralensis Fischer) root extract were studied. Persimmon leaf and licorice root extracts were irradiated using {sup 60}Co gamma irradiator at 0 and 20 kGy absorbed dose and stored at 4 deg. C or -20 deg. C for 2 weeks. Tyrosinase inhibition effect (TIE) of both extracts was not different by 20 kGy-irradiation but reduced during storage. Electron donating ability (EDA) of the persimmon leaf extract was generally consistent, but that of licorice root extract was reduced by irradiation except for 1 week of storage. Both TIE and EDA of persimmon leaf extract were higher than that of licorice root. Hunter color L*-, a*-, and b*-values were changed, resulting in a desirable brighter color by irradiation. During storage, the bright yellow color of irradiated sample changed to brown gradually, and especially the changes in the refrigeration condition (4 deg. C) was faster than frozen (-20 deg. C). Results indicate that irradiation can be a useful method to produce value-added natural ingredients with functions such as persimmon leaf or licorice root for food or cosmetic industry in addition to elimination of microbial load.

  19. Anticonvulsant potential of ethanol extracts and their solvent partitioned fractions from Flemingia strobilifera root

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    Kavita Gahlot

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Flemingia strobilifera (FS R.Br. (Fabaceae is an important medicinal plant. In wealth of India it has been reported that roots of FS are used by santals in epilepsy, hysteria, insomnia, and to relieve pain. In Burma also the roots of F. strobilifera are used to treat epilepsy. Objective: To investigate anticonvulsant potential of 95% ethanol extract and four subsequent fractions (petroleum ether, chloroform, ethyl acetate, and aqueous fractions of the roots of FS against pentylenetetrazole (PTZ and maximal electroshock (MES induced convulsions. Material and Methods: All the fractions and crude ethanol extract were administered (i.e., 200, 400, 600 mg/kg, p.o. for 7 days and at the end of the treatment convulsions were induced experimentally using pentylenetetrazole and Maximal electroshock Test. Diazepam and phenytoin (4 mg/kg, i.p. and 20 mg/kg, i.p., respectively were used as reference anticonvulsant drugs against experimentally induced convulsions. The latency of tonic convulsions and the numbers of animals protected from tonic convulsions were noted. Results: High doses (200 and 300 mg/kg, p.o. of ethyl acetate fraction and 95% ethanol crude extract (400 and 600 mg/kg, p.o. significantly reduced the duration of seizure induced by maximal electroshock (MES. The same dose also protected from pentylenetetrzole-induced tonic seizures and significantly delayed the onset of tonic seizures. However, pet, ether, chloroform, and aqueous fraction at any of the doses used (i.e., 100, 200, 300 mg/kg, p.o. did not show any significant effect on PTZ and MES induced convulsions. The treatment with crude ethanolic extract and ethyl acetate fraction caused signs of central nervous system depressant action in the locomotor activity test, confirmed by the potentiation of sodium pentobarbital sleeping time. Both did not cause disturbance in motor coordination assessed by rotarod test. Conclusion: The data suggest that crude ethanol extract and ethyl

  20. Effect of Mimosa pudica root extract on vaginal estrous and serum hormones for screening of antifertility activity in albino mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ganguly, Mausumi; Devi, Nirada; Mahanta, Rita; Borthakur, Mridul K

    2007-12-01

    Several plants are traditionally used as birth control agents by the rural people in India. Mimosa pudica is one of the folk medicinal plants commonly used as antifertility agent in some places in India. The present work was carried out to evaluate the claimed antifertility effect of the plant by carrying out pharmacological studies with the root extract of the plant. Air-dried roots of M. pudica were extracted using methanol. Dried methanol extract of the root was administered orally to Swiss albino mice for 21 consecutive days. Estrous cycle, reproductive hormones (LH, FSH, prolactin, estradiol and progesterone) and number of litters produced were studied in both control and extract-administered groups by using standard methods. Phytochemical studies of the methanolic root extract were carried out using qualitative and thin-layer chromatography methods. M. pudica root extract, when administered orally at a dose of 300 mg/kg body weight/day, prolonged the length of the estrous cycle with significant increase in the duration of the diestrous phase and reduced the number of litters in albino mice. The number of litters was increased in the posttreatment period. The analysis of the principal hormones (LH, FSH, prolactin, estradiol and progesterone) involved in the regulation of the estrous cycle showed that the root extract altered gonadotropin release and estradiol secretion. The root extract of M. pudica has antifertility effect as it prolongs the estrous cycle and disturbs the secretion of gonadotropin hormones in albino mice. The decrease in FSH level in the proestrus and estrus stages in the extract-administered group compared with those of control animals indicates the disturbance of estrous cycle and ovulation through suppression of FSH.

  1. A Study of Noncultured Extracted Hair Follicle Outer Root Sheath Cell Suspension for Transplantation in Vitiligo

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shah, Aarti N; Marfatia, Ritu K; Saikia, Siddhartha S

    2016-01-01

    Context: Vitiligo surgeries have come a long way from tissue grafts to cultured and non cultured cell transplantation. Extracted hair follicle outer root sheath cell transplantation (EHF ORS) suspension is more enriched with melanocyte. In a hair bulb, there is one melanocyte for every five keratinocytes which is much higher than the epidermal melanin unit. Aims: To analyse the effectiveness of cultured EHF ORS and to perform objective evaluation based on clinical improvement & photographic evidence. To observe any untoward events or side effects. Settings and Design: The study was open and uncontrolled. All the patients were screened at preliminary visit. Reviews were done every two weeks. The endpoint selected was six months post procedure. Materials and Methods: Twenty five patients of stable Vitiligo were included in the study and follicular unit were harvested by Follicular Unit Extraction method. Outer root sheath cells were extracted by trypsinization. The solution was transplanted over dermabraded recipient site. Pressure dressing was given. Patients were followed up regularly. Statistical Analysis Used: Descriptive Statistics, Chi-Square. Results: Mean ± SD repigmentation was 80.15% ± 22.9% with excellent repigmentation (90-100%) in 60% of patients. Conclusions: This method is safe, effective, and simpler than the other methods involving cell culturing and requiring a laboratory set-up but selection of patients is crucial for the success of the outcome. PMID:27601859

  2. A Novel Approach for Oral Delivery of Insulin via Desmodium gangeticum Aqueous Root Extract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurian, Ga; Seetharaman, Av; Subramanian, Nr; Paddikkala, J

    2010-04-01

    Many challenges are associated with the oral delivery of insulin, relating to the physical and chemical stability of the hormone, and its absorption and metabolism in the human body. The present study aims to demonstrate the oral delivery of insulin in both normal and steptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetic rats with the help of the aqueous extract of Desmodium gangeticum (DG) root. Human insulin was mixed with the aqueous extract of DG root (0.1 mg/ml) with human insulin (40 IU/ml) in ratio 1:1(v/v), to prepare oral insulin drug. Decreased plasma glucose level and increased plasma insulin in normal and STZ-induced diabetic rat suggested the probable absorption of insulin through GI tract when insulin was administered by mixing with DG extract. Indeed, insulin mixed DG potentially stimulates the release of insulin in STZ-induced diabetic rat rather than in normal animal. In vivo insulin secretaguage action of oral insulin drug was determined by isolated rat heart model and the results showed a significant cardio protection in STZ rat. The finding of this study suggests that insulin mixed with DG extract can be a promising vehicle for oral delivery of insulin. However, further studies are required to explore the exact compound(s) responsible for the protective delivery of insulin orally. Increased plasma insulin level by insulin mixed DG extract administration in STZ-treated diabetic rat indicates not only insulin secretaguage action of the mixture but also a probable altered insulin release mechanism in diabetic condition.

  3. Medicinal potential of Morella serata (Lam.) Killick (Myricaceae) root extracts: biological and pharmacological activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashafa, Anofi Omotayo Tom

    2013-07-08

    Morella serata is a South African medicinal plant used in the treatment of microbial infections and to enhance male sexual performance. There is dearth of information in scientific literature on its efficacy and safety. In the present study, the root extracts were investigated for the phytochemicals that may be present the antibacterial, anticandida activity using 96 wells microtitre plate method and cytotoxicity using brine shrimp (Artemia salina) lethality assay. The qualitative phytochemical screening revealed the presence of tannins, saponins, flavonoids, terpenoids and steroids. All the extracts including water inhibited both Gram positive and Gram negative bacteria strains at minimum inhibitory concentrations (MIC) ranging from 0.09 - 6.25 mgmL-1. The best activity was observed in the acetone extract inhibiting all the bacteria tested at MIC range of 0.09 - 0.78 mgmL-1 except Shigella flexneri KZN that was inhibited at 1.56 mgmL-1. Similarly, all the extracts suppressed the growth of all Candida species and Trichophyton mucoides at MIC ranging from 0.13 - 3.13 mgmL-1. The cytotoxicity assay revealed potent cytotoxic potential of M. serata methanol and ethanol root extracts by displaying LC50 of 0.26 and 0.18 μgmL-1 respectively. The results obtained from the present study indicated broad spectrum antimicrobial activity and justifies the use of the plant in the treatment of infectious diseases. Also the species could be a good natural source of antitumor compounds considering its lethality against brine shrimp nauplii.

  4. Beneficial effect of aqueous root extract of Glycyrrhiza glabra on learning and memory using different behavioral models: An experimental study

    OpenAIRE

    2013-01-01

    Background: In the traditional system of medicine, the roots and rhizomes of Glycyrrhiza glabra (Gg) (family: Leguminosae) have been studied for their ability to improve a variety of health ailments. Aims: The present study was designed to investigate the beneficial effects of Gg root extract on learning and memory in 1-month-old male Wistar albino rats. Four doses (75, 150, 225, and 300 mg/kg) of aqueous extract of root of Gg was administered orally for six successive weeks. Materials and Me...

  5. The Physiological, Morphological and Bio-Chemical Comparison of the Current Grass Shiraz City’s Green Space withTall Fescue (Festuca arundinacea Schreb

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    M. Zadehbagheri

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available One of the main problems of Shiraz city’s green space is the change of color and visual quality of turf during cold months. Therefore, we aimed to evaluate tall fescue in order to find if it is suitable for replacement. This experiment was in the form of complete random blocks and it was done during two consecutive years. Each treatment had 4 repetitions. Data were analyzed using SPSS software, version 16.0, and the means were compared using t or LSD tests at a significance level of 5%. The results showed that tall fescue was superior to normal sport grass in cold months with respect to its chlorophyll, catalase, protein, prolin, and soluble sugar content, as well as its visual quality and root depth. Prolin fluctuations in tall fescue were very high which showed that these types of grass can increase the plant’s prolin content under stress. Therefore, there is a fivefold increase in the prolin content of the grass in cold months (cold tension compared to the beginning of spring (best condition for growth. However, this change does not exist in sport grass. Based on the obtained results we can conclude that tall fescue can resist environmental tension, especially coldness, using different mechanisms, and is a good substitute for normal sport grass.

  6. Synthesis of silver nanoparticles using Catharanthus roseus root extract and its larvicidal effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajagopal, Thangavel; Jemimah, Irudayaraj Anto Amal; Ponmanickam, Ponnirul; Ayyanar, Muniappan

    2015-11-01

    Phytosynthesis of silver nanoparticles has attracted considerable attention due to their biocompatibility, low toxicity, cost-effectiveness and being a novel method has an eco-friendly approach. Biological activity of root extracts as well as synthesized silver nanoparticles of Catharanthus roseus were evaluated against larvae of Aedes aegyptiand Culex quinquefasciatus. The structure and proportion of the synthesized nanoparticles was defined by exploitation ultraviolet spectrophotometry, X-ray diffraction, fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy and scanning electron microscopy methods. Reduction of silver ions occurred when silver nitrate solution was treated with aqueous root extract at 60°C. Synthesized silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) were confirmed by analyzing the excitation of surface plasmon resonance (SPR) using UV-vis spectrophotometer at 423 nm. FTIR showed aliphatic amines and alkanes corresponding peaks to be presence of responsible compounds to produced nanoparticles in the reaction mixture. Spherical shaped and crystalline nature of particles was recorded under XRD analysis. Presence of silver metal and 35-55nm sized particles were recorded using EDAX and SEM respectively. Larvicidal activitywas observed after24 hrs of exposure to root extracts and synthesized silver nanoparticles. The highest larval mortality was observed in synthesized silver nanopartiucles against Aedes aegypti (LC50= 2.01 ± 0.34; LC90= 5.29 ± 0.07 at 5.0 mg(-1) concentration) and Culex quinquefasciatus (LC50= 1.18 ± 0.15; LC90= 2.55 ± 0.76 at 3.5 to 5.0 mgl(-1) concentration) respectively. The present study provides evidence that synthesized silver nanoparticles of Catharanthus roseus offer potential source for larvicidal activity againstthe larvae of both dengue and filariasis vectors.

  7. The Effect of Withania Somnifera Root Extract on Open Wound Healing in the Male Rats

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    N Ajand

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Healing cutaneous wounds is regarded as one of the most important issues in the medicine. Different chemical agents have been used in regard with promoting wound healing, most of which unfortunately present some side effects and defects. Since natural combinations have proposed less disadvantages, this study aimed to investigate the effect of Withania Somnifera root extract on cutaneous wound healing in the male rats. Methods: This study was performed on 36 rats weighing 180-220g that were divided into 6 groups (n=6. First, wounds (2x2 were made on the dorsal skin of the animals. The first group was left without treatment (control group, the second was treated with Eucerin(negative control, the third group received 1% of phenytoin cream and in the other groups, different concentrations of hydroalcoholic extract of Withania Somnifera (20%, 40%, 60% w/w combined with Eucerin base were administrated once per day. The area of wounds was measured by Autocad software every day, from the 2nd day to 14th day. The study data were analyzed via SPSS software (ver.16 at the significant level of P<0.05. Results:The reduction of incisional wound area in the all groups treated with root extract of Withania Somnifera  ointment was significantly higher on the 8th  day. Moreover, dose of 60% and 90% revealed better effects (p<0.001. Conclusion: The findings of the present study demonstrated that Withania Somnifera root, due to its significant reduction in the healing time as well as wound area, can be used as an effective material in regard with the cutaneous wound healing.

  8. Cell cycle arrest in antheridial extract-treated root meristems of Allium cepa and Melandrium noctiflorum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maszewski, J; Kaźmierczak, A; Polit, J

    1998-01-01

    Previous results have demonstrated that extracts derived from maturing male sex organs of Chara tomentosa are capable of inducing profound structural and functional effects upon M-phase cells in the primary root meristems of Melandrium noctiflorum and Allium cepa. Evident changes produced by a putative factor engaged in morphogenesis of antheridial filaments are manifested by: (1) significant shortening of chromosomes, (2) decreased mitotic indices, and (3) altered proportions estimated for the prophase and telophase transit times. The present image analysis of late G2 phase nuclei in antheridial filaments of C. tomentosa supports the concepts that progressive changes of their functional activities correspond closely to the increasing proportion of condensed chromatin. Cytophotometric measurements of Feulgen-stained cell nuclei in root meristems after a prolonged incubation in antheridial extracts revealed that cells which previously divided asynchronously became preferentially arrested in G1 (M. noctiflorum) and G2 (A. cepa). The stages at which the cells arrest are supposed to counterpart restriction checkpoints that prevent the initiation of DNA synthesis and mitosis. This assumption has been confirmed by autoradiographic studies using 3H-thymidine. In terms of the "Principal Control Points" (PCP) hypothesis, the obtained results suggest that two PCPs regulate G1-->S and G2-->M transition in a nuclear structure-dependent and a species-specific manner. Although in antheridial extract-treated roots of both M. noctiflorum and A. cepa there are only slight changes in the levels of chromatin condensation, the relative proportions of G1- and G2-arrested cells and their nuclear density profiles differ, as compared with the control and carbohydrate-starved plants.

  9. Evaluation of safety and protective effects of Potentilla fulgens root extract in experimentally induced diarrhoea in mice

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    V. Tangpu

    2014-06-01

    Methods: The protective effects of P. fulgens root extract was investigated against experimentally induced diarrhoea in mice, using four experimental models, i.e. measurement of faecal output, castor oil model, prostaglandin E2 (PGE2 enteropooling assay and gastrointestinal transit test. The safety assessment of root extract was done in mice on the basis of general signs and symptoms of toxicity, food water intake and mortality of animals following their treatment with various doses of extract (100 and ndash;3200 mg/kg. In addition, the serum glutamate oxaloacetate transaminase (SGOT, serum glutamate pyruvate transaminase (SGPT, cholesterol and total protein of experimental mice were also monitored to assess the toxicity of root extract. Results: In the safety assessment studies, P. fulgens root extract did not showed any visible signs of toxicity, but mortality was observed in a single animal at 3200 mg/kg dose of extract. The extract also did not showed any adverse effects on the studied serum parameters of experimental animals. In the antidiarrhoeal tests, administration of 800 mg/kg dose of extract to mice showed 50% protection from diarrhoea evoked by castor oil. In addition, the extract also showed 29.27% reduction in PGE2-induced intestinal secretion as compared to 30.31% recorded for loperamide, a standard anti-diarrhoeal drug. Conclusions: The results of this study indicate that P. fulgens root extract possesses significant anti-diarrhoeal properties. Therefore, the roots of this plant can be an effective traditional medicine for the protection from diarrhoea. [J Intercult Ethnopharmacol 2014; 3(3.000: 103-108

  10. Effects of root, shoot, leaf and seed extracts of seven Artemisia species on HIV-1 replication and CD4 expression

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    Hassan Mohabatkar

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To investigate the effects of flower, leaf, shoot and root extracts of seven Artemisia species on peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs toxicity and HIV-1 replication. Methods: The studied Artemisia species were Artemisia absinthium, Artemisia khorasanica, Artemisia deserti, Artemisia fragrans, Artemisia aucheri, Artemisia sieberi and Artemisia vulgaris. The activity of these plant extracts on HIV-1 replication and CD4 expression was performed by HIV-1 p24 antigen kit and flow cytometry respectively. Results: The results demonstrated that flower extracts of all species increased PBMCs number more than shoot, leaf and root extracts. However, the frequency of CD4 expression in PBMC was not increased in the presence of all flower extracts. The flower extracts of all species had inhibitory effect on HIV-1 replication. Conclusions: In conclusion, the results demonstrated that flower extracts of Artemisia species are good candidates for further studies as anticancer agents.

  11. Environment friendly route of iron oxide nanoparticles from Zingiber officinale (ginger) root extract

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xin Hui, Yau; Yi Peng, Teoh; Wei Wen, Liu; Zhong Xian, Ooi; Peck Loo, Kiew

    2016-11-01

    Iron oxide nanoparticles were prepared from the reaction between the Zingiber officinale (ginger) root extracts and ferric chloride solution at 50°C for 2 h in mild stirring condition. The synthesized powder forms of nanoparticles were further characterized by using UV-Vis spectroscopy and X-ray Diffraction spectrometry. UV-Vis analysis shows the absorption peak of iron oxide nanoparticles is appeared at 370 nm. The calculation of crystallite size from the XRD showed that the average particle size of iron oxide nanoparticles was 68.43 nm. Therefore, this eco-friendly technique is low cost and large scale nanoparticles synthesis to fulfill the demand of various applications.

  12. Indole alkaloid sulfonic acids from an aqueous extract of Isatis indigotica roots and their antiviral activity

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    Lingjie Meng

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Six new indole alkaloid sulfonic acids (1–6, together with two analogues (7 and 8 that were previously reported as synthetic products, were isolated from an aqueous extract of the Isatis indigotica root. Their structures including the absolute configurations were determined by spectroscopic data analysis, combined with enzyme hydrolysis and comparison of experimental circular dichroism and calculated electronic circular dichroism spectra. In the preliminary assay, compounds 2 and 4 showed antiviral activity against Coxsackie virus B3 and influenza virus A/Hanfang/359/95 (H3N2, respectively.

  13. ANTIHYPERGLYCEMIC, ANTIOXIDANT AND ANTIDYSLIPIDEMIC PROPERTIES OF HEMIDESMUS INDICUS ROOT EXTRACT STUDIED IN ALLOXAN-INDUCED EXPERIMENTAL DIABETES IN RATS

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    S. Subramanian et al.

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Diabetes mellitus is a chronic metabolic disorder associated with hyperglycemia, oxidative stress and dyslipidemia. Hemidesmus indicus is employed as an indigenous medicine for a variety of ailments from earlier days. The present study was aimed to evaluate the role of Hemidesmus indicus in alloxan-induced experimental diabetic rats. The effect of oral administration of Hemidesmus indicus root extract (400 mg/kg b.w. on glucose tolerance, the levels of blood glucose, hemoglobin, glycosylated hemoglobin, plasma insulin, protein, lipid peroxides, enzymatic and non-enzymatic antioxidants, lipid profile, muscle glycogen content were determined in control and experimental groups of rats. The altered levels of blood glucose, hemoglobin, glycosylated hemoglobin, plasma insulin, and protein in the diabetic rats were significantly reverted back to near basal values by the administration of ethanol extract of Hemidesmus indicus root to diabetic rats for 30 days. The levels of lipid peroxides in the plasma and pancreatic tissues of diabetic rats were elevated significantly and were normalized by the administration of Hemidesmus indicus root extract. The activities of pancreatic enzymic antioxidants and the levels of plasma non-enzymic antioxidants were markedly declined in the diabetic rats. Upon treatment with Hemidesmus indicus root extract to diabetic rats, these decreased levels were elevated to near normal values. The reduced level of glycogen content in muscle tissues of diabetic rats was significantly improved upon treatment with Hemidesmus indicus root extract. The altered levels of lipid profile were reverted back to near normalcy upon the extract treatment. The results of the study indicate that Hemidesmus indicus root extract possesses antihyperglycemic, antioxidant and antidyslipidemic activity. The results are comparable with glyclazide, an oral standard hypoglycemic drug. The phytochemicals present in the Hemidesmus indicus root extract may

  14. Studies on antidyslipidemic effects of Morinda citrifolia (Noni fruit, leaves and root extracts

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    Mandukhail Saf-ur

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The objective of present study was to provide the pharmacological basis for the medicinal use of Morinda citrifolia Linn in dyslipidemia using the aqueous-ethanolic extracts of its fruits (Mc.Cr.F, leaves (Mc.Cr.L and roots (Mc.Cr.R. Results Mc.Cr.F, Mc.Cr.L and Mc.Cr.R showed antidyslipidemic effects in both triton (WR-1339 and high fat diet-induced dyslipidemic rat models to variable extents. All three extracts caused reduction in total cholesterol and triglyceride levels in triton-induced dyslipidemia. In high fat diet-induced dyslipidemia all these extracts caused significant reduction in total cholesterol, triglyceride, low density lipoprotein-cholesterol (LDL-C, atherogenic index and TC/HDL ratio. Mc.Cr.R extract also caused increase in high density lipoprotein-cholesterol (HDL-C. The Mc.Cr.L and Mc.Cr.R reduced gain in body weight with a reduction in daily diet consumption but Mc.Cr.F had no effect on body weight and daily diet consumption. Conclusions These data indicate that the antidyslipidemic effect of the plant extracts was meditated through the inhibition of biosynthesis, absorption and secretion of lipids. This may be possibly due partly to the presence of antioxidant constituents in this plant. Therefore, this study rationalizes the medicinal use of Morinda citrifolia in dyslipidemia.

  15. Protective effects of Arctium lappa L. root extracts (AREs) on high fat diet induced quail atherosclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zhi; Li, Ping; Wang, Chenjing; Jiang, Qixiao; Zhang, Lei; Cao, Yu; Zhong, Weizhen; Wang, Chunbo

    2016-01-08

    This study was designed to evaluate the protective effects of Arctium lappa L. root extracts (AREs) from different extraction methods (aqueous, ethanol, chloroform and flavone) on atherosclerosis. Quails (Coturnix coturnix) were subjected to high fat diet, with or without one of the four different AREs or positive control simvastatin. Blood samples were collected before treatment, after 4.5 weeks or ten weeks to assess lipid profile (Levels of total cholesterol (TC), Triacylglycerol (TG), low-density lipoprotein (LDL) and high-density lipoprotein (HDL)). After ten weeks, the serum levels of nitric oxide (NO) as well as antioxidant and pro-oxidative status (Levels of malondialdehyde (MDA), superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), glutathione (GSH), nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADPH) and glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px)) were measured. Furthermore, aortas were collected after ten weeks treatment, aorta lipid contents (TC, TG and LDL) were assessed, and histology was used to confirm atherosclerotic changes. The results indicated that high fat diet significantly deteriorated lipid profile and antioxidant status in quail serum, while all the extracts significantly reverted the changes similar to simvastatin. Aorta lipid profile assessment revealed similar results. Histology on aortas from quails treated for ten weeks confirmed atherosclerotic changes in high fat diet group, while the extracts significantly alleviated the atherosclerotic changes similar to simvastatin. Among the different extracts, flavones fraction exerted best protective effects. Our data suggest that the protective effects of AREs were medicated via hypolipidemic and anti-oxidant effects. Underlying molecular mechanisms are under investigation.

  16. Short-term temporal dynamics of yeast abundance on the tall fescue phylloplane.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nix, Shannon S; Burpee, Leon L; Jackson, Kimberly L; Buck, James W

    2008-04-01

    Six replicate trials were conducted to determine the short-term temporal dynamics and the effects of foliar applications of nutrients on the phylloplane yeast community of tall fescue (Festuca arundinacea Schreb.). In each trial, 2% sucrose + 0.5% yeast extract solution or sterile deionized water (control) was applied to the experiment plots. Twelve hours post-treatment (at 0600 hours), leaf samples were collected and yeast colony-forming units (cfu) were enumerated by dilution plating. This process was repeated at 1200, 1800, and 2400 hours in each trial. Significant differences were observed between the number of yeast cfu and the time at which the samples were collected. On average, the number of yeast cfu recovered was significantly less at 1800 hours and significantly greatest at 2400 hours when compared with all other sampling times. Averaged over all time intervals, we observed a trend of increased yeast abundance in turf treated with the nutrient solution compared with control treatments. In a separate investigation, atmospheric yeast abundance above the canopy of tall fescue was assessed in the morning (0900) and in the afternoon (1500) using a Thermo Andersen single stage viable particle sampler. In 5 of the 6 trials of this experiment, atmospheric yeast abundance was significantly greater in the morning than in the afternoon. Results suggest the following colonization model: phylloplane yeasts on tall fescue reproduce during the late evening and early morning, stabilize during the late morning and early afternoon through exchange of immigrants and emigrants, and decline during the late afternoon and (or) early evening.

  17. Effect of Argyreia speciosa root extract on cafeteria diet-induced obesity in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Shiv; Alagawadi, K R; Rao, M Raghavendra

    2011-04-01

    To evaluate the antiobesity effects of the ethanolic extract of Argyreia speciosa roots in rats fed with a cafeteria diet (CD). Obesity was induced in albino rats by feeding them a CD daily for 42 days, in addition to a normal diet. Body weight and food intake was measured initially and then every week thereafter. On day 42, the serum biochemical parameters were estimated and the animals were sacrificed with an overdose of ether. The, liver and parametrial adipose tissues were removed and weighed immediately. The liver triglyceride content was estimated. The influence of the extract on the pancreatic lipase activity was also determined by measuring the rate of release of oleic acid from triolein. The body weight at two-to-six weeks and the final parametrial adipose tissue weights were significantly lowered (P cafeteria diet-induced obesity in rats.

  18. The Green synthesis of gold nanoparticles using an aqueous root extract of Morinda citrifolia L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suman, T Y; Rajasree, S R Radhika; Ramkumar, R; Rajthilak, C; Perumal, P

    2014-01-24

    In the present work, we describe the synthesis of gold nanoparticles using an aqueous root extract of Morinda citrifolia. UV-vis spectroscopy, XRD, FTIR, FE-SEM, EDX and TEM were performed to characterize the formation of gold nanoparticles. The synthesized gold nanoparticles were characterized by a peak at 540 nm in the UV-vis spectrum. The XRD peaks at 38°, 44°, 64° and 77° can be indexed to the (111), (200), (220) and (311) Bragg's reflections of cubic structure of metallic gold, respectively. The FTIR result showed that extract containing protein might be responsible for the formation of the nanoparticles and may play an important role in the stabilization of the formed nanoparticles. FESEM images revealed that the particles were triangle and mostly spherical in shape. TEM images clearly revealed the size of the nanoparticles were 12.17-38.26 nm in size.

  19. The Green synthesis of gold nanoparticles using an aqueous root extract of Morinda citrifolia L

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suman, T. Y.; Radhika Rajasree, S. R.; Ramkumar, R.; Rajthilak, C.; Perumal, P.

    2014-01-01

    In the present work, we describe the synthesis of gold nanoparticles using an aqueous root extract of Morinda citrifolia. UV-vis spectroscopy, XRD, FTIR, FE-SEM, EDX and TEM were performed to characterize the formation of gold nanoparticles. The synthesized gold nanoparticles were characterized by a peak at 540 nm in the UV-vis spectrum. The XRD peaks at 38°, 44°, 64° and 77° can be indexed to the (1 1 1), (2 0 0), (2 2 0) and (3 1 1) Bragg's reflections of cubic structure of metallic gold, respectively. The FTIR result showed that extract containing protein might be responsible for the formation of the nanoparticles and may play an important role in the stabilization of the formed nanoparticles. FESEM images revealed that the particles were triangle and mostly spherical in shape. TEM images clearly revealed the size of the nanoparticles were 12.17-38.26 nm in size.

  20. Antidiabetic activity of alcoholic root extract of Caesalpinia digyna in streptozotocin-nicotinamide induced diabetic rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    R Kumar; DK Patel; SK Prasad; K Sairam; S Hemalatha

    2012-01-01

    Objective: The present investigation deals with evaluation of antidiabetic (Type 2) activity of standardized alcoholic root extracts of Caesalpinia digyna in STZ-nicotinamide induced diabetic rats. Methods: Alcoholic root extract of Caesalpinia digyna (ACD), obtained from Soxhlet extractor was standardized by HPLC. Type 2 diabetes was induced by single intraperitoneal injection of nicotinamide (110 mg/kg) followed by streptozotocin (65 mg/kg). Diabetic rats ware administered ACD at doses of 250, 500, and 750 mg/kg (p.o.) and different parameters such as normoglycemic and oral glucose tolerance test were evaluated. The study also included estimations of blood plasma glucose, lipid profile, liver glycogen, body weight and anti-oxidant status in normal and diabetic rats. Results: Normoglycemic rats did not reduce the blood glucose level, whereas oral glucose tolerance test showed better tolerance of glucose in treated rats. The alcoholic extract showed a dose dependent reduction in fasting blood glucose level i.e. more pronounced at 750 mg/kg (P<0.05). ACD showed significant reduction in plasma lipid like triglycerides, total cholesterol and improvement in high density lipo-protein cholesterol (HDL-C) in treated groups. The decrease in lipid peroxides and increase in superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase (CAT) in liver clearly showed the antioxidant potential while rat hemi-diaphragm glucose uptake study revealed increases in peripheral glucose uptake of treated rats. Conclusions: Results showed that standardized alcoholic extract of C. digyna possessed significant antidiabetic activity which may be attributed to increase in glycogen storage, hypolipidemic and antioxidant activity thus, rationalizing its traditional use.

  1. Evaluation of Protein Extraction Methods for Vitis vinifera Leaf and Root Proteome Analysis by Two-Dimensional Electrophoresis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Neila Jellouli; Asma Ben Salem; Abdelwahed Ghorbel; Hatem Ben Jouira

    2010-01-01

    An efficient protein extraction method is crucial to ensure successful separation by two-dimensional electrophoresis(2-DE)for recalcitrant plant species, in particular for grapevine(Vitis vinifera L.). Trichloroacetic acid-acetone(TCA-acetone)and phenol extraction methods were evaluated for proteome analysis of leaves and roots from the Tunisian cultivar 'Razegui'. The phenol-based protocol proved to give a higher protein yield,a greater spot resolution, and a minimal streaking on 2-DE gels for both leaf and root tissues compared with the TCA-based protocol. Furthermore, the highest numbers of detected proteins on 2-DE gels were observed using the phenol extraction from leaves and roots as compared with TCA-acetone extraction.

  2. Exogenous Application of Citric Acid Ameliorates the Adverse Effect of Heat Stress in Tall Fescue (Lolium arundinaceum).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Longxing; Zhang, Zhifei; Xiang, Zuoxiang; Yang, Zhijian

    2016-01-01

    Citric acid may be involved in plant response to high temperature. The objective of this study was to investigate whether exogenous citric acid could improve heat tolerance in a cool-season turfgrass species, tall fescue (Lolium arundinaceum), and to determine the physiological mechanisms of citric acid effects on heat stress tolerance. The grasses were subjected to four citric acid levels (0, 0.2, 2, and 20 mM) and two temperature levels (25/20 and 35/30 ± 0.5°C, day/night) treatments in growth chambers. Heat stress increased an electrolyte leakage (EL) and malonaldehyde (MDA) content, while reduced plant growth, chlorophyll (Chl) content, photochemical efficiency (Fv/Fm), root activity and antioxidant enzyme activities (superoxide dismutase, SOD; catalase, CAT; peroxidase, POD). External citric acid alleviated the detrimental effects of heat stress on tall fescue, which was evidenced by decreased EL and MDA content, and improved plant growth under stress conditions. Additionally, the reduction in Chl content, Fv/Fm, SOD, POD, CAT and root activity were ameliorated in citric acid treated plants under heat stressed conditions. High temperature induced the expression of heat shock protein (HSP) genes, which exhibited greater expression levels after citric acid treatment under heat stress. These results suggest that exogenous citric acid application may alleviate growth and physiological damage caused by high temperature. In addition, the exogenously applied citric acid might be responsible for maintaining membrane stability, root activity, and activation of antioxidant response and HSP genes which could contribute to the protective roles of citric acid in tall fescue responses to heat stress.

  3. ISOLATION AND SPECTRAL IDENTIFICATION OF QUERCETIN FROM THE ALCOHOLIC ROOT EXTRACT OF Clerodendrum paniculatum Linn.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leena.P.N

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Plant materials are used throughout developed and developing countries as home remedies, over the counter drug products and raw materials for the pharmaceutical industry and represent a substantial proportion of the global drug market. It is therefore essential to establish internationally recognized guidelines for assessing their quality. Some of quality control parameters of the root Clerodendrum species belonging to Verbenceae family were analyzed. It includes root powder characters, moisture content determination by LOD method, FOM determination, Rf value detection by TLC, using different solvents, Ash values, extractive values, bitterness value, Haemolytic activity, detection of tannins, Foaming Index, Detection of Arsenic and heavy metals, determination of micro organism .The isolation of the compound from the extract by column chromatography by using different solvents ,purified ,analysed by various spectral studies . The study ensures that the quality control parameters do help in the proper standard of the crude drugs in drug development process for global acceptances. The current study may be useful to progress further investigation on the isolation of other flavonoids and their biological potential for the treatment of human ailments.

  4. Micellar LC Separation of Sesquiterpenic Acids and Their Determination in Valeriana officinalis L. Root and Extracts

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    Artem U. Kulikov

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available A simple micellar liquid chromatography (MLC method was developed and validated according to ICH Guidelines for the determination of sesquiterpenic acids (valerenic, hydroxyvalerenic, and acetoxyvalerenic acids in root and rhizome extract from Valeriana officinalis L. and valerian dry hydroalcoholic extract. Samples were analyzed on Nucleosil C18 column (150mm×4.6mm, 5 μm using an isocratic mobile phase which consisted of Brij 35 (5% (w/v aqueous solution; pH 2.3±0.1 by phosphoric acid and 1-butanol (6% (v/v; UV detection was at 220 nm. Micellar mobile phase using allows to fully separate valerenic acids within 25 minutes. Linearity for hydroxyvalerenic, acetoxyvalerenic, and valerenic acids was 1.9–27.9, 4.2–63.0, and 6.1–91·3 μg.mL−1, and limit of detection was 0.14, 0.037, and 0.09 μg·mL−1, respectively. Intraday and interday precisions were not less than 2% for all investigated compounds. The proposed method was found to be reproducible and convenient for quantitative analysis of sesquiterpenic acids in valerian root and related preparations.

  5. Green synthesis, characterisation and bioactivity of plant-mediated silver nanoparticles using Decalepis hamiltonii root extract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rashmi, Venkatasubbaiah; Sanjay, Konasur R

    2017-04-01

    Consistent search of plants for green synthesis of silver nanoparticles (SNPs) is an important arena in Nanomedicine. This study focuses on synthesis of SNPs using bioreduction of silver nitrate (AgNO3) by aqueous root extract of Decalepis hamiltonii. The biosynthesis of SNPs was monitored by UV-vis analysis at absorbance maxima 432 nm. The fluorescence emission spectra of SNPs illustrated the broad emission peak 450-483 nm at different excitation wavelengths. The surface characteristics were studied by scanning electron microscope and atomic force microscopy, showed spherical shape of SNPs and dynamic light scattering analysis confirmed the average particle size 32.5 nm and the presence of metallic silver was confirmed by energy dispersive X-ray. Face centred cubic structure with crystal size 33.3 nm was revealed by powder X-ray diffraction. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy indicated the biomolecules involved in the reduction mainly polyols and phenols present in root extracts were found to be responsible for the synthesis of SNPs. The stability and charge on SNPs were revealed by zeta potential analysis. In addition, on therapeutic forum, the synthesised SNPs elicit antioxidant and antimicrobial activity against Bacillus cereus, Bacillus licheniformis, Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Staphylococcus aureus.

  6. Biosynthesis and Characterization of Zinc Oxide Nanoparticles Using Root Extract of Zingiber Officinale

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    L. F. A. Anand Raj

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The synthesis of ZnO nanoparticles using biological method is always eco friendly and attractive. The current study focuses on the production of ZnO nanoparticles using the aqueous root extracts of Zingiber officinale (ginger. The root extracts were found to be rich in flavonoids which were confirmed by the flavonoid test thereby enhancing the biogenic synthesis of ZnO nanoparticle. The Scanning Electron Microscope with the Energy Dispersive X-ray studies were used for characterization that provides the size and the elemental composition of the synthesized ZnO nanoparticles. The average size of the nanoparticles was found to be 30-50nm. The FTIR analysis played a pivotal role in displaying the important functional groups present in the ZnO nanoparticle, which showed that the sample had strong absorbance in the range of 1600 – 1450 cm-1. Hence the biogenic synthesis of ZnO nanoparticles using Zingiber officinale, can be an alternative to chemical synthesis.

  7. Evaluation of the antipsychotic potential of aqueous fraction of Securinega virosa root bark extract in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magaji, M G; Mohammed, M; Magaji, R A; Musa, A M; Abdu-Aguye, I; Hussaini, I M

    2014-03-01

    Securinega virosa (Roxb ex. Willd) Baill. is a plant which is commonly used in African traditional medicine in management of mental illness. Previous study showed that the crude methanolic root bark extract of the plant possesses antipsychotic activity. In this study, the antipsychotic potential of the residual aqueous fraction of the plant was evaluated using two experimental models, apomorphine induced stereotypic climbing behaviour and swim induced grooming, all in mice. The effect of the fraction on haloperidol-induced catalepsy was also evaluated. The fraction significantly reduced the mean climbing score at the highest dose tested (500 mg/kg). In the swim-induced grooming test, the fraction significantly and dose-dependently (125-500 mg/kg) decreased the mean number and mean duration of swim-induced grooming activity in mice. Similarly, the standard haloperidol (1 mg/kg) significantly (p < 0.001) decreased the mean grooming episodes and duration. However, the fraction did not significantly potentiate haloperidol-induced catalepsy. These results suggest that the residual aqueous fraction of methanol root bark extract of Securinega virosa contains biological active principle with antipsychotic potential.

  8. ANTIOXIDANT PROPERTIES OF METHANOLIC EXTRACTS FROM THE SHOOTS AND ROOTS OF pRi-TRANSFORMED PLANTS OF REHMANNIA GLUTINOSA LIBOSCH.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piatczak, Ewelina; Dfbska, Marta; Kontek, Bogdan; Olas, Beata; Wysokinskai, Halina

    2016-01-01

    The antioxidant activity of methanolic extracts derived from shoots (HR-shoots) and roots (HR-roots) of pRi-transformed Rehmannia glutinosa plants were determined. The activity was indicated by the ability of the plant extracts to inhibit superoxide anion (O2(-·)) generation and thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) production in resting blood platelets and platelets activated by thrombin. The strongest activity was exhibited by the HR-shoot extract (50 μg/mL). The present study also examines the antioxidant properties of the plant extracts against human plasma lipid peroxidation induced by strong biological oxidants: hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) and H2O2/Fe. The study shows that extracts from transformed R. glutinosa plants may be a promising source of natural antioxidants, which would be valuable in various cardiovascular diseases. The extracts may also protect lipids against oxidative modifications.

  9. Antioxidant, antimicrobial activity and in silico PASS prediction of Annona reticulata Linn. root extract

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    Prasad G. Jamkhande

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Microbial infections and diseases are frequently associated with several pathogenic strains of bacteria and fungi. Plants of the reticulata genus are a notable source of new therapeutic agents including antioxidant and antimicrobial. This study reports the antioxidant and antimicrobial activities of methanolic root extract of Annona reticulata Linn. The antioxidant property of extract was evaluated using DPPH free radical scavenging and hydrogen peroxide assay. Antibacterial tests were performed using the agar cup method whereas Poison plate method was used to assess sensitivity of fungal strains. The biological potential of major phytoconstituents as antimicrobial agent was screened by new software based tool, PASS. The dose dependent scavenging was observed at concentrations 20, 40, 60, 80 and 100 μg/ml which were compared to ascorbic acid. The probable activity (Pa of neoannonin using PASS was found to be 0.541. The extract was significantly active against all strains of bacteria but the largest zone of inhibition was found against B. cereus. Predominant growth reduction was observed in fungi Tricoderma viride and Candida albicans. The results indicate that the extract show potential as a source of new antimicrobial drug and may impart health benefits by its antioxidant property.

  10. Vasoconstrictor and inotropic effects induced by the root bark extracts of Anthocleista schweinfurthii.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ngombe, Nadège Kabamba; Kalenda, Dibungi T; Quetin-Leclercq, Joëlle; Morel, Nicole

    2010-03-01

    The present study was undertaken to investigate the cardiovascular effect of three extracts from the root bark of Anthocleista schweinfurthii Gilg.: an aqueous extract (AE), a dichloromethane extract (DCMR) and a fraction enriched in cardiac glycoside type compounds (CARDAN). In isolated perfused frog heart, bolus injection of the extracts produced a positive inotropic effect. The responses to AE and DCMR, but not to CARDAN, were depressed by propranolol. In isolated rat aorta, DCMR produced a transient increase in contractile tension while AE and CARDAN induced a sustained constriction. AE vasoconstrictor effect was abolished by phentolamine, while contraction evoked by CARDAN was antagonized by verapamil. In aortic rings contracted in low K+ media, the addition of K+ evoked a relaxation, which was abolished by ouabain, depressed by DCMR but not affected by either A(E) or CARDAN. These observations indicate that Anthocleista schweinfurthii contains substances that promote vasoconstriction and increase cardiac contraction. The effect of DCMR was only partially mediated by inhibition of the Na+ pump while the mechanism of action of A(E) and CARDAN was distinct from the inhibition of the Na+, K+ - ATPase pump, but could involve adrenergic receptors, or either direct or indirect activation of L-type calcium channels.

  11. Growth inhibition of struvite crystals by the aqueous root extract of Rotula aquatica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chauhan, C K; Joshi, M J; Vaidya, A D B

    2011-06-01

    Formation of urinary stone is a serious and debilitating problem throughout the world. In the present study, the inhibitory effect of aqueous extract of root of Rotula aquatica was investigated against struvite crystals (one of the components of urinary stone) grown in vitro using single diffusion gel growth technique. For setting the gel, sodium metasilicate solution (specific gravity 1.05) and 0.5 M aqueous solution of ammonium dihydrogen phosphate were mixed, so that the pH of the mixture could be set at 7.0. Equal amounts of supernatant solution of magnesium acetate (1.0 M) prepared with 0.0%, 0.5% and 1% concentrations of the extract were gently poured on the set gels. It was observed that the number, dimension, total mass, total volume, growth rate and depth of growth of struvite crystals decreased with the increasing extract concentrations in the supernatant solutions. The enhancement of dissolution rate and fragmentation of struvite crystals suggested potential application of the extract for inhibition of struvite type urinary stone.

  12. Use of potato extract broth for culturing root-nodule bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martyniuk, Stefan; Oroń, Jadwiga

    2011-01-01

    Liquid media containing potato extract and 1% of glucose or sucrose were used to culture root-nodule bacteria (rhizobia) in shaken Erlenmeyer flasks. For comparison, these bacteria were also cultured in yeast extract-mannitol broth (YEMB) as a standard medium. Proliferation of rhizobia was monitored by measuring optical densities (OD550) of the cultures and by plate counting of the viable cells (c.f.u) of the bacteria. In general, multiplication of the rhizobia in potato extract-glucose broth (PEGB) and potato extract-sucrose broth (PESB) was markedly faster, as indicated by higher values of OD550, than in YEMB. The numbers of R. leguminosarum by. vicae GGL and S. meliloti 330 in PEGB and PEGB were high and ranged from 1.2 x 10(10) to 4.9 x 10(10) mL(-1) after 48 h of incubation at 28 degrees C. B. japonicum B3S culture in PEGB contained 6.4 x 10(9) c.f.u. ml(-1) after 72 h of incubation. PEGB and YEMB cultures of the rhizobia were similar with respect to their beneficial effects on nodulation of the host-plants of these bacteria.

  13. Effect of Ferula hermonis root extract on rat skeletal muscle adaptation to exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allouh, Mohammed Z

    2011-12-01

    Ferula hermonis Boiss. is an aphrodisiac plant that grows in the Mediterranean region. It has been reported that treatment with acetonic extract from the root of this plant acutely increases serum testosterone in the rat. This study investigated the effects of F. hermonis extract alone or combined with exercise on rat skeletal muscle fibers. Adult male rats were divided into four groups: control-sedentary (CS) that had no treatment or exercise; ferula-sedentary (FS) that was orally treated with ferula extract at a dose of 60 mg/kg/rat every other day over a period of 20 d; control-exercised (CE) that was trained by swimming for 40 min every other day; and ferula-exercised (FE) that received ferula and performed exercise. At the end of experiments, the fiber diameter and number of muscle nuclei of tibialis anterior were measured by using immunofluorescent techniques and software analyses. The FE group showed significant increases in muscle weight, fiber size and nuclear number compared with the other groups. However, no significant changes in the aforementioned parameters were found among the CS, FS and CE groups. Ferula treatment and exercise were additive to each other. In conclusion, short-term exercise combined with administration of F. hermonis extract was more effective in enhancing the growth of skeletal muscle fibers than exercise alone.

  14. In vitro antibacterial effect of Withania somnifera root extract on Escherichia coli

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    Mamta Kumari

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The aim was to investigate antibacterial activity of Withania somnifera (Ashwagandha, an Indian traditional medicinal plant against Escherichia coli O78, a pathogenic strain. Materials and Methods: Two-fold serial dilutions of 20% aqueous W. somnifera root (WSR extract were inoculated with E. coli O78 @ 1x107 colony forming units grown in nutrient broth. Following inoculation, turbidity optical density was measured by spectrophotometer at 600 nm in all the tubes at 0, 2, 4, 6 and 8 h of incubation at 37°C. Result: The results revealed that the maximum inhibition of bacterial growth was observed at 1:8 dilution of WSR extract. The highest dilution of the extract that showed inhibited growth of the test organism when compared with control was 1:16. Therefore, the minimum inhibitory concentration of aqueous extract of WSR is 1:16. Conclusion: It is concluded that WSR possessed good antibacterial activity, confirming the great potential of bioactive compounds and its rationalizing use in health care.

  15. Desmodium gangeticum root extract attenuates isoproterenol-induced cardiac hypertrophic growth in rats.

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    Divya Hitler

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Context: Desmodium gangeticum (L DC (Fabaceae; DG, a medicinal plant that grows in tropical habitats, is widely used to treat various ailments including digestive and inflammatory disorders. Aims: To investigate the possible cardioprotective activity of a DG root extract against isoproterenol (ISO-induced left ventricular cardiac hypertrophy (LVH in adult Wistar rats. Methods: Daily intraperitoneal administration of ISO (10 mg/kg body weight, single injection for 7 days induced LVH in rats. The LVH rats were post-treated orally with DG (100 mg/kg body weight for a period of 30 days. Thereafter, changes in heart weight (HW and body weight (BW, HW/BW ratio, percent of hypertrophy, collagen accumulation, activities of matrix metalloproteinase (MMP -2 and -9, superoxide dismutase (SOD and catalase (CAT enzymes, and the level of an oxidative stress marker, lipid peroxide (LPO, were determined. Results: HW/BW ratio, an indicator of hypertrophic growth, was significantly reduced in DG root post-treated LVH rats as compared with that for the non-treated LVH rats. The altered levels of ventricular LPO, collagen, MMPs-2 and -9, and antioxidant enzymes in the ISO-treated animals reverted back to near normal upon DG treatment. Further, the anti-hypertrophic activity of DG was comparable to that of the standard drug losartan (10 mg/kg. Conclusions: The results of the present study suggest that the aqueous root extract of DG exhibited anti-hypertrophic activity in-vivo by inhibiting ISO-induced ROS generation and MMP activities.

  16. High anti-inflammatory activity of harpagoside-enriched extracts obtained from solvent-modified super- and subcritical carbon dioxide extractions of the roots of Harpagophytum procumbens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Günther, M; Laufer, S; Schmidt, P C

    2006-01-01

    Solvent-modified carbon dioxide extractions of the roots of Harpagophytum procumbens have been investigated with respect to extraction efficiency and content of harpagoside, and compared with a conventional extract. The effects of pressure, temperature, type and concentration of the modifier have been examined. Two extraction steps were necessary in order to achievehigh anti-inflammatory harpagoside-enriched extracts. The first extraction step was carried out in the supercritical state using carbon dioxide modified with n-propanol to remove undesired lipophilic substances. The main extraction was performed either in the supercritical or in the subcritical state with carbon dioxide modified with ethanol. The supercritical fluid extraction resulted in extracts containing up to 30% harpagoside. The subcritical extracts showed a harpagoside content of ca. 20%, but the extraction yield was nearly three times greater compared with supercritical conditions. The total harpagoside recovery resulting from the sum of the extract and the crude drug residue was greater than 99% in all experiments. The conventional extract and two carbon dioxide extracts were tested for in-vitro inhibition of 5-lipoxygenase or cyclooxygenase-2 biosynthesis. Both carbon dioxide extracts showed total inhibition on 5-lipoxygenase biosynthesis at a concentration of 51.8 mg/L. In contrast, the conventional extract failed to show any inhibition of 5-lipoxygenase biosynthesis.

  17. Green Synthesis of silver nanoparticles using Coleus forskohlii roots extract and its antimicrobial activity against Bacteria and Fungus

    OpenAIRE

    C. Baskaran; V.Ratha bai

    2013-01-01

    Biosynthesis of nanoparticles is under exploration is due to wide biomedical applications and research interest in nanotechnology. Bioreduction of silver nitrate (AgNO3) used for the synthesis of silver nanoparticles respectively with the plant extract; Coleus forskohlii roots extract (Lamiaceae). The plant extract is mixed withAgNO3, incubated and studied synthesis of nanoparticles using UV–Vis spectroscopy. The nanoparticles were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), FTIR, SEM equipped ...

  18. Anti-HCV Activity from Semi-purified Methanolic Root Extracts of Valeriana wallichii.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ganta, Krishna Kumar; Mandal, Anirban; Debnath, Sukalyani; Hazra, Banasri; Chaubey, Binay

    2017-03-01

    Hepatitis C virus (HCV) is a serious global health problem affecting approximately 130-150 million individuals. Presently available direct-acting anti-HCV drugs have higher barriers to resistance and also improved success rate; however, cost concerns limit their utilization, especially in developing countries like India. Therefore, development of additional agents to combat HCV infection is needed. In the present study, we have evaluated anti-HCV potential of water, chloroform, and methanol extracts from roots of Valeriana wallichii, a traditional Indian medicinal plant. Huh-7.5 cells infected with J6/JFH chimeric HCV strain were treated with water, chloroform, and methanol extracts at different concentrations. Semi-quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction result demonstrated that methanolic extract showed reduction in HCV replication. The methanolic extract was fractionated by thin layer chromatography, and the purified fractions (F1, F2, F3, and F4) were checked for anti-HCV activity. Significant viral inhibition was noted only in F4 fraction. Further, intrinsic fluorescence assay of purified HCV RNA-dependent RNA polymerase NS5B in the presence of F4 resulted in sharp quenching of intrinsic fluorescence with increasing amount of plant extract. Our results indicated that methanolic extract of V. wallichii and its fraction (F4) inhibited HCV by binding with HCV NS5B protein. The findings would be further investigated to identify the active principle/lead molecule towards development of complementary and alternative therapeutics against HCV. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  19. Efficient method of protein extraction from Theobroma cacao L. roots for two-dimensional gel electrophoresis and mass spectrometry analyses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bertolde, F Z; Almeida, A-A F; Silva, F A C; Oliveira, T M; Pirovani, C P

    2014-07-04

    Theobroma cacao is a woody and recalcitrant plant with a very high level of interfering compounds. Standard protocols for protein extraction were proposed for various types of samples, but the presence of interfering compounds in many samples prevented the isolation of proteins suitable for two-dimensional gel electrophoresis (2-DE). An efficient method to extract root proteins for 2-DE was established to overcome these problems. The main features of this protocol are: i) precipitation with trichloroacetic acid/acetone overnight to prepare the acetone dry powder (ADP), ii) several additional steps of sonication in the ADP preparation and extractions with dense sodium dodecyl sulfate and phenol, and iii) adding two stages of phenol extractions. Proteins were extracted from roots using this new protocol (Method B) and a protocol described in the literature for T. cacao leaves and meristems (Method A). Using these methods, we obtained a protein yield of about 0.7 and 2.5 mg per 1.0 g lyophilized root, and a total of 60 and 400 spots could be separated, respectively. Through Method B, it was possible to isolate high-quality protein and a high yield of roots from T. cacao for high-quality 2-DE gels. To demonstrate the quality of the extracted proteins from roots of T. cacao using Method B, several protein spots were cut from the 2-DE gels, analyzed by tandem mass spectrometry, and identified. Method B was further tested on Citrus roots, with a protein yield of about 2.7 mg per 1.0 g lyophilized root and 800 detected spots.

  20. Effect of aqueous extract of Arctium lappa L. (burdock roots on the sexual behavior of male rats

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    JianFeng Cao

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Arctium lappa L. root has traditionally been recommended as an aphrodisiac agent. It is used to treat impotence and sterility in China, and Native Americans included the root in herbal preparations for women in labor. However, its use has not been scientifically validated. The present study therefore investigated the effects of aqueous extract of Arctium lappa L. roots on sexual behavior in normal male rats. Methods Seventy-five albino male rats were randomly divided into five groups of 15 rats each. Rats in group 1 (control were administered 10 mL⁄kg body weight distilled water (vehicle, group 2 received 60 mg/kg body weight sildenafil citrate (Viagra, while those in groups 3, 4, and 5 were given 300, 600, and 1,200 mg/kg body weight, respectively, of aqueous extract of Arctium lappa L. roots in the same volume. Female albino rats were made receptive by hormonal treatment. Sexual behavior parameters in male rats were monitored on days 3, 7 and 15 by pairing with receptive females (1:3. Male serum testosterone concentrations and potency were also determined. Results Oral administration of Arctium lappa L. roots extract at 600 and 1,200 mg/kg body weight significantly increased the frequencies of mount, intromission, and ejaculation frequency (p Conclusions The results of this study demonstrate that aqueous extract of Arctium lappa L. roots enhances sexual behavior in male rats. The aphrodisiac effects of the plant extract may be related to the presence of flavonoids, saponins, lignans and alkaloids, acting via a multitude of central and peripheral mechanisms. These results thus support the traditional use of Arctium lappa L. root extract for treating impotence and sterility.

  1. Antioxidant and gastric cytoprotective prostaglandins properties of Cassia sieberiana roots bark extract as an anti-ulcerogenic agent

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    Nartey Edmund T

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Cassia sieberiana is a savannah tree with a wide phytotherapeutic application including the use of its roots in the management of various stomach disorders including gastric ulcer, stomach pains and indigestion. The aim of the study is to evaluate the antioxidant, gastric cytoprotective prostaglandins, secretory phospholipase A2, phytochemical and acute toxicity properties of Cassia sieberiana roots bark extract in a bid to justify its phytotherapeutic applications in gastric ulcer. Methods Antioxidant and radical scavenging activities of the roots bark extract of Cassia sieberiana were assayed. Serum secretory phospholipase A2 (sPLA2 concentration and activity and the formation of gastric mucosal prostaglandins E2 (PGE2 and I2 (PGI2 were also assessed. Comparisons between means were performed using analysis of variance (ANOVA followed by Students Standard Newman-Keuls post hoc analysis to determine statistical significance. P  Results The extract was found to possess significant ferric reducing antioxidant power and can scavenge hydroxyl radicals. The extract also possesses DPPH scavenging activity, can chelate ferrous ion and a dose-dependent protective effect against lipid peroxidation and free radical generation. Prostaglandin studies showed that the roots bark extract dose dependently increased gastric mucosal PGE2 and PGI2 levels and also decreased serum sPLA2 activity. Phytochemical analyses suggest that the roots extract contains polyhydroxyl/phenolic substances. Acute toxicity test showed no sign of toxicity up to a dose level of 2000 mg/kg body weight p.o. Conclusions C. sieberiana roots extract possesses significant antioxidant and gastric cytoprotective prostaglandin properties as well as serum secretory phospholipase A2 inhibitory activity which could be due to its content of polyhydroxy and/or phenolic substances. This may justify its use as an anti-ulcerogenic agent in traditional medicine in West Africa.

  2. Protoscolecidal Effect of Berberis vulgaris Root Extract and Its Main Compound, Berberine in Cystic Echinococcosis.

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    Hossein Mahmoudvand

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Cystic echinococcosis (CE, a zoonotic parasitic infection caused by the metacestode (larvae stage of dog tapeworm Echinococcus granulosus and recognized as a major economic and public health concern in the world. This study aimed to investigate the in vitro scolicidal effect of methanolic extract of Berberis vulgaris L. roots and its main compound, berberine against protoscoleces of hydatid cysts.For this purpose, protoscoleces were aseptically aspirated from sheep livers having hydatid cysts. Various concentrations of the methanolic extract (0.25-2 mg/ml and berberine (0.062- 0.5 mg/ml were used for 5 to 30 min. Viability of protoscoleces was confirmed by eosin exclusive test.In the present study, all of the various concentrations of the B. vulgaris methanolic extract (0.25, 0.5, 1 and 2 mg/ml and berberine (0.062, 0.125, 0.25 and 0.5 mg/ml revealed significant (P<0.05 scolicidal effects against protoscoleces of E. granulosus in a dose-dependent manner. Both berberine and methanolic extract exhibited 100% inhibition against protoscoleces of E. granulosus at the concentration of 2.0 and 0.5 mg/ml after 10 min incubation, respectively.According to the results, both B. vulgaris methanolic extract and berberine alone demonstrated high scolicidal activities against protoscoleces of hydatid cysts in low concentration and short exposure time on in vitro model. However, in vivo efficacy of B. vulgaris and berberine also requires to be evaluated using an animal model with hydatid infection.

  3. Effect of Arctium Lappa Root Extract on Glucose Levels and Insulin Resistance in Rats with High Sucrose Diet

    OpenAIRE

    A Ahangarpour; M Mohaghegh; E Asadinia; F Ramazani Ali-Akbari

    2013-01-01

    Introduction: Diabetes Mellitus is a growing health problem in all over the world. Arctium Lappa has been used therapeutically in Europe, North America and Asia. Antioxidants and antidiabetic compounds have been found in the root of Arctium Lappa. This study intends to investigate the effects of Arctium Lappa root aqueous extract on glucose, insulin levels and Fasting Insulin Resistance Index in female rats with high sucrose diet. Methods: 40 female Wistar rats weighting 150-250(g) were appli...

  4. Unstable Simple Volatiles and Gas Chromatography-Tandem Mass Spectrometry Analysis of Essential Oil from the Roots Bark of Oplopanax Horridus Extracted by Supercritical Fluid Extraction

    OpenAIRE

    Li Shao; Mei-Hua Bao; Dong-Sheng Ouyang; Chong-Zhi Wang; Chun-Su Yuan; Hong-Hao Zhou; Wei-Hua Huang

    2014-01-01

    Volatile oil from the root bark of Oplopanax horridus is regarded to be responsible for the clinical uses of the title plant as a respiratory stimulant and expectorant. Therefore, a supercritical fluid extraction method was first employed to extract the volatile oil from the roots bark of O. horridus, which was subsequently analyzed by GC/MS. Forty-eight volatile compounds were identified by GC/MS analysis, including (S,E)-nerolidol (52.5%), τ-cadinol (21.6%) and S-falcarinol (3.6%). Accordi...

  5. Root extracts of Polygala tenuifolia for the green synthesis of gold nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jun, Sang Hui; Kim, Hyun-Seok; Koo, Yean Kyoung; Park, Yohan; Kim, Jinwoong; Cho, Seonho; Park, Youmie

    2014-08-01

    Traditional medicinal plants possess diverse active constituents for exerting their biological activities. Recently, the innovative applications of plant extracts have revealed their promise as 'green' reducing agents for the reduction of metal ions during the synthesis of metallic nanoparticles. Herein, we report the use of 70% ethanol extracts from Polygala tenuifolia roots as a 'green' reducing agent for the production of gold nanoparticles by reducing gold(III) chloride trihydrate. Gold nanoparticles were characterized using UV-Visible spectrophotometry, high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HR-TEM), atomic force microscopy (AFM), X-ray diffraction (XRD), and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR). The gold nanoparticles had characteristic surface plasmon resonance bands at 535 nm. HR-TEM and AFM images revealed major spherical-shaped nanoparticles. The average diameter was measured to be 9.77±3.09 nm using HR-TEM images. The crystalline structure of the gold nanoparticles was confirmed through lattice fringes and circular spots within the selected area electron diffraction in the HR-TEM images along with the XRD peaks. The gold nanoparticles exhibited enhanced anticoagulant activity, as assessed by activated partial thromboplastin time. The current method is a straightforward, environmentally friendly, and inexpensive method for the production of gold nanoparticles using extracts from traditional medicinal plants.

  6. Phytochemical Analysis and Antimalarial Activity Aqueous Extract of Lecaniodiscus cupanioides Root.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nafiu, Mikhail Olugbemiro; Abdulsalam, Taoheed Adedeji; Akanji, Musbau Adewumi

    2013-01-01

    Root aqueous extract of Lecaniodiscus cupanioides was evaluated for antimalarial activity and analyzed for its phytochemical constituents. Twenty-four (24) albino mice were infected by intraperitoneal injection of standard inoculum of chloroquine sensitive Plasmodium berghei (NK 65). The animals were randomly divided into 6 groups of 3 mice each. Group 1 served as the control while groups II-IV were orally administered 50, 150, and 250 mg/kg body weights of extract. Groups 5 and 6 received 1.75 and 5 mg/kg of artesunate and chloroquine, respectively. The results of the phytochemical analysis showed the presence of alkaloids (2.37%), saponin (0.336), tannin (0.012 per cent), phenol (0.008 per cent), and anthraquinone (0.002 per cent). There was 100 per cent parasite inhibition in the chloroquine group and 70 per cent in the 50 mg/kg body weight on day 12, respectively. The mean survival time (MST), for the control group was 14 days, artesunate 16 days, and chloroquine 30 days, while the groups that received 50 and 250 mg/kg body weight recorded similar MST of 17 days and the 150 mg/kg body weight group recorded 19 days. The results obtained indicated that the aqueous extract of Lecaniodiscus cupanioides may provide an alternative antimalarial.

  7. Effect of aqueous extract of the Desmodium gangeticum DC root in the severity of myocardial infarction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurian, Gino A; Philip, Sachu; Varghese, Thomas

    2005-03-21

    The aqueous extract of Desmodium gangeticum (L) DC (Fabaceae) (DG) was studied in isoproterenol induced myocardial infarcted (MI) rats for the hypocholesterolemic and antioxidant effect. After inducing MI by isoproterenol (35 mg/kg b wt. i.p.), the aqueous extract of Desmodium gangeticum root at a dose of 3 ml/100 g b wt. was orally administered daily for a period of 30 days in six rats. On induction of MI, the activities of creatinine phosphokinase (CPK), lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), alkaline phosphatase (ALP) and serum glutamate oxaloacetate transaminase (SGOT) increased in myocardial tissue, hepatic tissue and serum. Pretreatment of DG to MI rats prevented the increase of these enzymes. The hypocholesterolemic effect of DG was assessed by the concentration of total cholesterol, low density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol, high density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol and through the activities of 3-hydroxy 3-methyl glutaryl co-enzyme (HMG CoA) reductase and lecithin cholesterol acyl transferase (LCAT) in the myocardial tissue. The significant (P < 0.001) decrease in the concentration of thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) and improved activities of glutathione reductase and catalase in the myocardial tissues of rats treated with DG suggest free radical scavenging activity of the extract.

  8. A simple, economical and reproducible protein extraction protocol for proteomics studies of soybean roots

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    Elisete Pains Rodrigues

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Sample preparation is a critical step in two-dimensional gel electrophoresis (2-DE of plant tissues. Here we describe a phenol/SDS procedure that, although greatly simplified, produced well-resolved and reproducible 2-DE profiles of protein extracts from soybean [Glycine max (L. Merril] roots. Extractions were made in three replicates using both the original and simplified procedure. To evaluate the quality of the extracted proteins, ten spots were randomly selected and identified by mass spectrometry (MS. The 2-DE gels were equally well resolved, with no streaks or smears, and no significant differences were observed in protein yield, reproducibility, resolution or number of spots. Mass spectra of the ten selected spots were compared with database entries and allowed high-quality identification of proteins. The simplified protocol described here presents considerable savings of time and reagents without compromising the quality of 2-DE protein profiles and compatibility with MS analysis, and may facilitate the progress of proteomics studies of legume-rhizobia interactions.

  9. AROMA PROFILE AND ANTIMICROBIAL PROPERTIES OF ALCOHOLIC AND AQUEOUS EXTRACTS FROM ROOT, LEAF AND STALK OF NETTLE (Urtica dioica L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Razzagh Mahmoudi

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Medicinal plant can be considered as a great source of new antimicrobial agents due to their enormous therapeutic potential and limited side effects. Nettle (Urtica dioica L. is a widespread and common medicinal plant widely used in traditional medicine. The present study investigates the antimicrobial potency of alcoholic and aqueous extracts of Urtica dioica on some gram positive and negative bacteria and also a particular type of fungi and analyzes the extracts to find the active ingredients by gas chromatography-mass spectroscopy (GC-MS method. Results from disc diffusion assay indicated that water extract of root, leaf and stalk had the highest antimicrobial activity respectively and caused significant inhibition zones in P. vulgaris, L. monocytogenes and K. pneumoniae cultures. Antimicrobial efficacy of ethanol extracts was higher in root extract which caused high growth inhibition zones in P. vulgaris, K. pneumoniae and S. aureus cultures. MBC and MIC experiments of the ethanol extract illustrated that the most powerful antimicrobial effect was related to the stem organ extract on K. pnuomonae and S. aureus bacteria. Highest level of antibacterial effects in root can be due to its higher concentration of contents compared to other organs. Based on these results it can be suggested that Urtica dioica and its water and ethanol extracts have noticeable antimicrobial effects against gram negative, positive and Candida albicans fungi that may be applicable as a prophylactic or therpeutic antimicrobial agent in both human and animals.

  10. Effect of aqueous extract of Arctium lappa L. (burdock) roots on the sexual behavior of male rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    JianFeng, Cao; PengYing, Zhang; ChengWei, Xu; TaoTao, Huang; YunGui, Bai; KaoShan, Chen

    2012-02-01

    Arctium lappa L. root has traditionally been recommended as an aphrodisiac agent. It is used to treat impotence and sterility in China, and Native Americans included the root in herbal preparations for women in labor. However, its use has not been scientifically validated. The present study therefore investigated the effects of aqueous extract of Arctium lappa L. roots on sexual behavior in normal male rats. Seventy-five albino male rats were randomly divided into five groups of 15 rats each. Rats in group 1 (control) were administered 10 mL/kg body weight distilled water (vehicle), group 2 received 60 mg/kg body weight sildenafil citrate (Viagra), while those in groups 3, 4, and 5 were given 300, 600, and 1,200 mg/kg body weight, respectively, of aqueous extract of Arctium lappa L. roots in the same volume. Female albino rats were made receptive by hormonal treatment. Sexual behavior parameters in male rats were monitored on days 3, 7 and 15 by pairing with receptive females (1:3). Male serum testosterone concentrations and potency were also determined. Oral administration of Arctium lappa L. roots extract at 600 and 1,200 mg/kg body weight significantly increased the frequencies of mount, intromission, and ejaculation frequency (p Arctium lappa L. roots enhances sexual behavior in male rats. The aphrodisiac effects of the plant extract may be related to the presence of flavonoids, saponins, lignans and alkaloids, acting via a multitude of central and peripheral mechanisms. These results thus support the traditional use of Arctium lappa L. root extract for treating impotence and sterility.

  11. TALL FESCUE AND ASSOCIATED MUTUALISTIC TOXIC FUNGAL ENDOPHYTES IN AGROECOSYSTEMS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bacon et al. (1977) proposed and Hoveland et al. (1980, 1986) substantiated that impaired health and performance of livestock grazing tall fescue [Lolium arundinaceum S. J. Darbyshire, formerly Festuca arundinacea Schreb.] were associated with the fungal endophyte Neotyphodium coenophialum Glenn, Ha...

  12. Green fescue rangelands: changes over time in the Wallowa Mountains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charles G. Johnson

    2003-01-01

    This publication documents over 90 years of plant succession on green fescue grasslands in the subalpine ecological zone of the Wallowa Mountains in northeast Oregon. It also ties together the work of four scientists over a 60-year period. Arthur Sampson initiated his study of deteriorated rangeland in 1907. Elbert H. Reid began his studies of overgrazing in 1938. Both...

  13. Benzo[a]pyrene co-metabolism in the presence of plant root extracts and exudates: Implications for phytoremediation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rentz, Jeremy A. [Civil and Environmental Engineering, University of Iowa, Iowa City, IA 52242 (United States); Alvarez, Pedro J.J. [Civil and Environmental Engineering, Rice University, Houston, TX 77251 (United States); Schnoor, Jerald L. [Civil and Environmental Engineering, University of Iowa, Iowa City, IA 52242 (United States)]. E-mail: jerald-schnoor@uiowa.edu

    2005-08-15

    Benzo[a]pyrene, a high molecular weight (HMW) polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) was removed from solution by Sphingomonas yanoikuyae JAR02 while growing on root products as a primary carbon and energy source. Plant root extracts of osage orange (Maclura pomifera), hybrid willow (Salix albaxmatsudana), or kou (Cordia subcordata), or plant root exudates of white mulberry (Morus alba) supported 15-20% benzo[a]pyrene removal over 24 h that was similar to a succinate grown culture and an unfed acetonitrile control. No differences were observed between the different root products tested. Mineralization of {sup 14}C-7-benzo[a]pyrene by S. yanoikuyae JAR02 yielded 0.2 to 0.3% {sup 14}CO{sub 2} when grown with plant root products. Collectively, these observations were consistent with field observations of enhanced phytoremediation of HMW PAH and corroborated the hypothesis that co-metabolism may be a plant/microbe interaction important to rhizoremediation. However, degradation and mineralization was much less for root product-exposed cultures than salicylate-induced cultures, and suggested the rhizosphere may not be an optimal environment for HMW PAH degradation by Sphingomonas yanoikuyae JAR02. - Bacterial benzo[a]pyrene cometabolism, a plant-microbe interaction affecting polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon phytoremediation was demonstrated with Sphingomonas yanoikuyae JAR02 that utilized plant root extracts and exudates as primary substrates.

  14. Metabonomic Analysis of Water Extracts from Different Angelica Roots by 1H-Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy

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    Pui Hei Chan

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Angelica Radix, the roots of the genus Angelica, has been used for more than 2,000 years as a traditional medicine in Eastern Asia. The Chinese Pharmacopoeia records more than 100 herbal formulae containing Angelica roots. There are two common sources of Angelica roots, Angelica sinensis from China and A. gigas from Korea. The two species of Angelica roots differ in their chemical compositions, pharmacological properties and clinical efficacy. 1H-NMR metabolic profiling has recently emerged as a promising quality control method for food and herbal chemistry. We explored the use of 1H-NMR metabolic profiling for the quality control of Angelica Radix. Unlike previous work, we performed the metabolic profiling on hot water extracts, so as to mimic the clinically relevant preparation method. Unsupervised principle component analyses of both the full spectral profile and a selection of targeted molecules revealed a clear differentiation of three types of Angelica roots. In addition, the levels of 13 common metabolites were measured. Statistically significant differences in the levels of glucose, fructose and threonine were found between different sources of Angelica. Ferulic acid, a marker commonly used to evaluate Angelica root, was detected in our samples, but the difference in ferulic acid levels between the samples was not statistically significant. Overall, we successfully applied 1H-NMR metabolic profiling with water extraction to discriminate all three sources of Angelica roots, and obtained quantitative information of many common metabolites.

  15. Study on CO2-supercritical fluid extraction used to extract three kinds of tanshinones from the root of salvia meltiorrhiza bunge with different entrainers

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    Objective: To extract three kinds of tanshinones from the root of Salvia miltiorrhiza Bunge by CO2-supercritical fluid extraction technology with different entrainers at different flow rates, and to investigate the effects of different entrainers. Methods:Three kinds of tanshinones were extracted at the optimal operation condition, and the massconcentration of three kinds of tanshinones in the extracts was determined by HPLC. Results: Among the three entrainers, the extracting effects of ethanol is the best, for the stronger polarity, followed by ethanol and normal octane. Conclusion: To increase the extracting rate of three kinds of tanshinones by CO2-supercritical fluid extraction technics, it is essential to use polar solvent as entrainer.

  16. [Allelopathic effects of extracts from tuberous roots of Aconitum carmichaeli on three pasture grasses].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiao, Yu-jie; Wang, Ya-qi; Yuan, Ling

    2015-11-01

    The tuberous roots of Aconitum carmichaeli are largely used in traditional Chinese medicine and widely grown in Jiangyou, Sichuan, China. During the growth process, this medicinal plant releases a large amount of allelochemicals into soil, which retard the growth and development of near and late crops. Therefore, a pure culture experiment was thus carried out by seed soaking to study the allelopathic effects of extracts from tuberous roots of A. carmichaeli (ETR) on the seed germination and young seedling growth of Lolium perenne, Trifolium repens, and Medicago sativa, the late pasture grasses after cultivation of A. carmichaeli. The results showed that three pasture grasses varied significantly in seed germination and young seedling growth in response to ETR concentrations. Seed germination of M. sativa was stimulated by low ERT concentration (0.01 x g(-1)), while all of pasture grass seeds germinated poorly in solution with 1.00 g x L(-1). Seed soaking with 1.00 g x L(-1) also inhibited significantly the growth of pasture young seedlings, with M. sativa showing the highest seedling height reduction of 42.05% in seeding height, followed by T. repens (40.21%) and L. perenne with about 11%. Cultivation of L. perenne could thus be beneficial to increase whole land productivity in A. carmichaeli-pasture grass cropping systems. In addition, hydrolysis of protein, starch, and inositol phosphates was blocked and free amino acids, soluble sugars and phosphorus were decreased in seeds by seed soaking with ETR, which could be one of the reason for the inhibition of seed germination. There was a significant reduction in root vigor, nitrate reductase, and chlorophyll after the seed treatment with ETR, indicating the suppression of nutrient uptake, nitrate assimilation, and photosynthesis by allelopathic chemicals in ETR, which could lead to the slow growth rate of pasture grass seedlings.

  17. Green synthesis of silver nanoparticles using Delphinium denudatum root extract exhibits antibacterial and mosquito larvicidal activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suresh, Gopal; Gunasekar, Poosali Hariharan; Kokila, Dhanasegaran; Prabhu, Durai; Dinesh, Devadoss; Ravichandran, Nagaiya; Ramesh, Balasubramanian; Koodalingam, Arunagirinathan; Vijaiyan Siva, Ganesan

    2014-06-05

    Green synthesis of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) using aqueous root extract of Delphinium denudatum (Dd) by reduction of Ag(+) ions from silver nitrate solution has been investigated. The synthesized DdAgNPs were characterized by using UV-Vis spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction (XRD), Field emission scanning electron microscope (FESEM) and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR). The prepared DdAgNPs showed maximum absorbance at 416nm and particles were polydispersed in nature, spherical in shape and the size of the particle obtained was⩽85nm. The DdAgNPs exhibited antibacterial activity against Staphylococcus aureus ATCC 6538, Bacillus cereus NCIM 2106, Escherichia coli ATCC 8739 and Pseudomonas aeruginosa ATCC 9027. The DdAgNPs showed potent larvicidal activity against second instar larvae of dengue vector Aedes aegypti with a LC50 value of 9.6ppm.

  18. Green synthesis of silver nanoparticles using Delphinium denudatum root extract exhibits antibacterial and mosquito larvicidal activities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suresh, Gopal; Gunasekar, Poosali Hariharan; Kokila, Dhanasegaran; Prabhu, Durai; Dinesh, Devadoss; Ravichandran, Nagaiya; Ramesh, Balasubramanian; Koodalingam, Arunagirinathan; Vijaiyan Siva, Ganesan

    2014-06-01

    Green synthesis of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) using aqueous root extract of Delphinium denudatum (Dd) by reduction of Ag+ ions from silver nitrate solution has been investigated. The synthesized DdAgNPs were characterized by using UV-Vis spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction (XRD), Field emission scanning electron microscope (FESEM) and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR). The prepared DdAgNPs showed maximum absorbance at 416 nm and particles were polydispersed in nature, spherical in shape and the size of the particle obtained was ⩽85 nm. The DdAgNPs exhibited antibacterial activity against Staphylococcus aureus ATCC 6538, Bacillus cereus NCIM 2106, Escherichia coli ATCC 8739 and Pseudomonas aeruginosa ATCC 9027. The DdAgNPs showed potent larvicidal activity against second instar larvae of dengue vector Aedes aegypti with a LC50 value of 9.6 ppm.

  19. Characterization of starch extracted from the roots of Cissus simsiana Roem. & Schult

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diego Palmiro Ramirez Ascheri

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to investigate the characterization of starch from Cissus simsiana Roem. & Schult. roots. The starch was extracted by steeping, wet grinding and sedimentation processes and its yield was calculated. Isolated starch was then characterized for chemical composition, morphology and granules size distribution, X-ray diffraction, mid-infrared spectra, swelling powder and solubility, pasting and thermal properties and clarity and syneresis behavior. The starch yield, based on starch presence in the root that can be isolated, were between 13.68% with 3.12 10-3 mg/g of carotenoids. C. simsiana granules were predominantly ellipsoids with 50-60 mm length and 20-30 mm wide. They exhibited B-type X-ray diffraction pattern with 41.2% of crystallinity, apparent amylose content of 26.2% and presented similar mid-infrared spectra to other starches. Onset and peak gelatinization temperatures were 64.2 and 68.56°C, respectively, and gelatinization enthalpy was 19.2 J/g. The apparent viscosity profile was comparable to cassava starch, but with higher peak viscosity (6500 cP, lower set back viscosity (600 cP and less clear gel showing syneresis.

  20. Comparative Evaluation of the Aphrodisiac efficacy of Sildenafil and Carpolobia lutea Root Extract in Male Rabbits

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    Ayobami Dare

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Aims: In spite of folkloric use of the root of Carpolobia lutea as sexual stimulant in man, there has been limited scientific proof of its efficacy. This study evaluates efficacy of methanol extract of Carpolobia lutea root (MECLR on sexual activity of male rabbits. Methods: Twenty adult male rabbits were grouped into four of five rabbits each. Groups 1-4 were treated orally for 28 days with 2ml/kg 1% tween 20 (vehicle, 40mg/kg MECLR, 80mg/kg MECLR, and 0.5mg/kg sildenafil citrate respectively. Sexual activities of males from each group was assessed by cohabiting them with sexually receptive female at estrus on days 0,1,3 and 5 using digital camera mounted on mating arena. Serum testosterone and nitric oxide concentration of the corpora cavernosa homogenates were also determined. Results: MECLR caused a dose dependent significant increase in mount frequency, intromission frequency and ejaculatory latency, while it reduced mount latency, intromission latency and post ejaculatory latency (similar to sildenafil citrate when compared with the control. MECLR also caused a significant increase in nitric oxide concentration in corpora cavernosa but no change in serum testosterone concentration. Conclusions: Results suggest that MECLR enhances male sexual activity possibly by augmenting nitric oxide concentration. This study thus provides novel scientific rationale for the use of Carpolobia lutea in the management of penile erectile dysfunction and impaired libido. [J Intercult Ethnopharmacol 2015; 4(4.000: 302-307

  1. Extraction of ginsenosides from fresh ginseng roots (Panax ginseng C.A. Meyer) using commercial enzymes and high hydrostatic pressure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sunwoo, Hoon H; Kim, Chong-Tai; Kim, Do-Yeon; Maeng, Jin-Soo; Cho, Chang-Won; Lee, Soo-Jeong

    2013-07-01

    A combination of high hydrostatic pressure (HHP) and enzymatic hydrolysis (HHP-EH) was applied for the extraction of ginsenosides from fresh ginseng roots (Panax ginseng C.A. Myer). The highest yield of ginsenosides was obtained by using a mixture of three enzymes (Celluclast + Termamyl + Viscozyme) along with HHP (100 MPa, at 50 °C for 12 h) in comparison to control samples (no enzymes, atmosphere pressure, P enzyme activity. Thus HHP-EH significantly improves the extraction of ginsenosides from fresh ginseng roots.

  2. Effects of the extract from roasted chicory (Cichorium intybus L. root containing inulin-type fructans on blood glucose, lipid metabolism, and fecal properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mie Nishimura

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The extract from roasted chicory (Cichorium intybus L.; 菊苣 jú jù root (chicory root extract, which contains inulin-type fructans, has favorable effects including antihyperglycemic and antidyslipidemic effects and the improvement of bowel movement. In this study, we examined the effects of chicory root extract on blood glucose, lipid metabolism, and fecal properties in 47 healthy adult participants in a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study. The participants were divided into a test group that drank chicory root extract and a placebo group that drank nonchicory root extract (ingesting 300 mL daily for 4 weeks. We performed hematological examinations and body composition measurements, and administered a visual analog scale (VAS questionnaire for fecal properties at the baseline (Week 0 and after the intervention (Week 4 for the two groups. Although no significant differences in fasting plasma glucose or insulin were observed, hemoglobin A1c was found to decrease by ingesting chicory root extract. No intergroup differences in the levels of lipid metabolism parameters were observed. However, the level of adiponectin was significantly improved in the chicory root extract group when the baseline and postintervention values were compared. In addition, chicory root extract tends to improve the VAS score for fecal properties. These results suggest that chicory root extract could delay or prevent the early onset of diabetes mellitus and improve bowel movements.

  3. Evaluation of the oxytocic activity of the ethanol extract of the roots of Alchornea cordifolia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zuleikha Nworgu

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Alchornea cordifolia has been used traditionally for the induction of labour as an abortifacient. This study is aimed at verifying the folkloric use of the plant by investigating the effect of ethanolic extract of the root bark on the isolated stilboestrol pretreated uteri of non-pregnant female rats. The extract (1, 10, 50 g/l, oxytocin (4Χ10−5 to 8Χ10−3 g/l, acetylcholine (4Χ10−6 to 8Χ10−4 g/l, atropine (4Χ10−3 g/l, phenoxybenzamine (4Χ10−3 g/l, diphenhydramine(2Χ10−1 g/l, and verapamil (12Χ10−2 g/l were used. Log concentration response curves were plotted and EC 50 and Emax were obtained. One-way analysis of variance (ANOVA with Dunnet corrections using Graph pad Instat version 2.05a was used for statistical analysis. The extract produced dose-dependent contraction of the uterus. Its potency was less than that of oxytocin and acetylcholine (P<0.05, but the Emax showed no significant difference (P>0.05. The Emax values of the extract in the presence of all antagonists were significantly reduced (P<0.01. The EC 50 in the presence of atropine showed no significant increase (P>0.05; however, in the presence of phenoxybenzamine, the increase was significant (P<0.05. The presence of diphenhydramine and verapamil produced an inhibition such that the EC 50 was unattainable. A. cordifolia stimulates the uterus possibly by binding to alpha-adrenergic or histaminergic receptors or both. This indicates the existence of active principles in the plant, which may be responsible for some of the applications in traditional medicines as an abortifacient and in the induction of labour.

  4. The influence of premature extractions of primary molars on the ultimate root length of their permanent successors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brin, I; Koyoumdijsky-Kaye, E

    1981-06-01

    Final root length of lower premolars which succeed prematurely--extracted primary molars is shortened. The proposed explanation focuses on a possible accelerated movement of the permanent tooth bud and undue environmental stress following the premature extraction of its deciduous predecessor. The degree of shortening is different in both sexes and depends on the age at which the premature extraction is performed. Girls are more affected than boys, especially in cases in which the premature extractions are performed before the age of eight yr.

  5. Ex vivo accuracy of Root ZX II, Root ZX Mini and RomiApex A-15 apex locators in extracted vital pulp teeth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Silva, Thaís M; Alves, Flávio R F

    2014-05-01

    The objective of this study was to compare, ex vivo, the accuracy of three electronic apex locators (EALs), Root ZX II, Root ZX Mini and RomiApex A-15, in detecting the apical foramen (AF). Forty extracted single-Rooted human teeth with vital pulp were used in this study. After access preparation, the Root canal length of each tooth was measured by placing a #10 file until the tip was visible at the AF under a stereomicroscope. The teeth were subsequently embedded in an alginate model. In each Root canal, all three EALs were used to determine the working length, which was defined as the zero reading or equivalent. The distance between the file tip and AF was measured to an accuracy of 0.01 mm. Results were analyzed using analysis of variance and the Chi-squared test. Root ZX II, Root ZX Mini and RomiApex A-15 were accurate within 0.5 mm, 62.5, 56.2, 50% of the time. No significant differences were found between the three EALs (p > 0.05). Considering all EALs, the mean distance from the file tip to AF was 4.49 mm. The accuracy of the three EALs evaluated in this study was not statistically significantly different. The 'Apex' or '0.0' marks of the EALs do not indicate the AF itself, but just a position coronal 0.49 mm to the AF. Using a tolerance of ± 0.5 mm from the actual lengths, the ZX II yielded the most acceptable measurements.

  6. Antioxidant effects of ethyl acetate extract of Desmodium gangeticum root on myocardial ischemia reperfusion injury in rat hearts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raman Archana

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background This study aims to evaluate the antioxidant potential of the ethyl acetate extract of Desmodium gangeticum root for cardioprotection from ischemia reperfusion-induced oxidative stress. Methods The in vitro antioxidant potential of the extract was in terms of hydroxyl radical scavenging activity, lipid peroxide scavenging activity, nitric oxide scavenging activity and diphenylpicrylhydrazyl radical scavenging activity. The in vivo antioxidant potential of the extract was assessed in an isolated rat heart model. Results Free radicals were scavenged by the extract in a concentration-dependent manner within the range of the given concentrations in all models. Administration of the ethyl acetate extract of Desmodium gangeticum root (100 mg per kg body weight before global ischemia caused a significant improvement of cardiac function and a decrease in the release of lactate dehydrogenase in coronary effluent, as well as the level of malondialdehyde in myocardial tissues. Conclusion The ethyl acetate extract of Desmodium gangeticum root protects the myocardium against ischemia-reperfusion-induced damage in rats. The effects of the extract may be related to the inhibition of lipid peroxidation.

  7. Unequivocal glycyrrhizin isomer determination and comparative in vitro bioactivities of root extracts in four Glycyrrhiza species

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    Mohamed A. Farag

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Glycyrrhiza glabra, commonly known as licorice, is a popular herbal supplement used for the treatment of chronic inflammatory conditions and as sweetener in the food industry. This species contains a myriad of phytochemicals including the major saponin glycoside glycyrrhizin (G of Glycyrrhetinic acid (GA aglycone. In this study, 2D-ROESY NMR technique was successfully applied for distinguishing 18α and 18β glycyrrhetinic acid (GA. ROESY spectra acquired from G. glabra, Glycyrrhiza uralensis and Glycyrrhiza inflata crude extracts revealed the presence of G in its β-form. Anti-inflammatory activity of four Glycyrrhiza species, G, glabra, G. uralensis, G. inflata, and G. echinata roots was assessed against COX-1 inhibition revealing that phenolics rather than glycyrrhizin are biologically active in this assay. G. inflata exhibits a strong cytotoxic effect against PC3 and HT29 cells lines, whereas other species are inactive. This study presents an effective NMR method for G isomer assignment in licorice extracts that does not require any preliminary chromatography or any other purification step.

  8. The efficacy of dandelion root extract in inducing apoptosis in drug-resistant human melanoma cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chatterjee, S J; Ovadje, P; Mousa, M; Hamm, C; Pandey, S

    2011-01-01

    Notoriously chemoresistant melanoma has become the most prevalent form of cancer for the 25-29 North American age demographic. Standard treatment after early detection involves surgical excision (recurrence is possible), and metastatic melanoma is refractory to immuno-, radio-, and most harmful chemotherapies. Various natural compounds have shown efficacy in killing different cancers, albeit not always specifically. In this study, we show that dandelion root extract (DRE) specifically and effectively induces apoptosis in human melanoma cells without inducing toxicity in noncancerous cells. Characteristic apoptotic morphology of nuclear condensation and phosphatidylserine flipping to the outer leaflet of the plasma membrane of A375 human melanoma cells was observed within 48 hours. DRE-induced apoptosis activates caspase-8 in A375 cells early on, demonstrating employment of an extrinsic apoptotic pathway to kill A375 cells. Reactive Oxygen Species (ROS) generated from DRE-treated isolated mitochondria indicates that natural compounds in DRE can also directly target mitochondria. Interestingly, the relatively resistant G361 human melanoma cell line responded to DRE when combined with the metabolism interfering antitype II diabetic drug metformin. Therefore, treatment with this common, yet potent extract of natural compounds has proven novel in specifically inducing apoptosis in chemoresistant melanoma, without toxicity to healthy cells.

  9. The Efficacy of Dandelion Root Extract in Inducing Apoptosis in Drug-Resistant Human Melanoma Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. J. Chatterjee

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Notoriously chemoresistant melanoma has become the most prevalent form of cancer for the 25–29 North American age demographic. Standard treatment after early detection involves surgical excision (recurrence is possible, and metastatic melanoma is refractory to immuno-, radio-, and most harmful chemotherapies. Various natural compounds have shown efficacy in killing different cancers, albeit not always specifically. In this study, we show that dandelion root extract (DRE specifically and effectively induces apoptosis in human melanoma cells without inducing toxicity in noncancerous cells. Characteristic apoptotic morphology of nuclear condensation and phosphatidylserine flipping to the outer leaflet of the plasma membrane of A375 human melanoma cells was observed within 48 hours. DRE-induced apoptosis activates caspase-8 in A375 cells early on, demonstrating employment of an extrinsic apoptotic pathway to kill A375 cells. Reactive Oxygen Species (ROS generated from DRE-treated isolated mitochondria indicates that natural compounds in DRE can also directly target mitochondria. Interestingly, the relatively resistant G361 human melanoma cell line responded to DRE when combined with the metabolism interfering antitype II diabetic drug metformin. Therefore, treatment with this common, yet potent extract of natural compounds has proven novel in specifically inducing apoptosis in chemoresistant melanoma, without toxicity to healthy cells.

  10. Chemical analysis and antihyperglycemic activity of an original extract from burdock root (Arctium lappa).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tousch, Didier; Bidel, Luc P R; Cazals, Guillaume; Ferrare, Karine; Leroy, Jeremy; Faucanié, Marie; Chevassus, Hugues; Tournier, Michel; Lajoix, Anne-Dominique; Azay-Milhau, Jacqueline

    2014-08-06

    In the present study, we obtained a dried burdock root extract (DBRE) rich in caffeoylquinic acids derivatives. We performed the chemical characterization of DBRE and explored its antihyperglycemic potential in both in vitro and in vivo experiments. Chemical analysis of DBRE using LC-MS and GC-MS revealed the presence of a great majority of dicaffeoylquinic acid derivatives (75.4%) of which 1,5-di-O-caffeoyl-4-O-maloylquinic acid represents 44% of the extract. In the in vitro experiments, DBRE is able to increase glucose uptake in cultured L6 myocytes and to decrease glucagon-induced glucose output from rat isolated hepatocytes together with a reduction of hepatic glucose 6-phosphatase activity. DBRE did not increase insulin secretion in the INS-1 pancreatic β-cell line. In vivo, DBRE improves glucose tolerance both after intraperitoneal and oral subchronic administration. In conclusion, our data demonstrate that DBRE constitutes an original set of caffeoylquinic acid derivatives displaying antihyperglycemic properties.

  11. Protein biomarkers of external root resorption: A new protein extraction protocol. Are we going in the right direction?

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study is to determine a protocol of gingival crevicular fluid protein extraction used for the first dimension of 2-DE gels. It also aims at conducting a review on the current candidates for protein markers of this pathology, all of which may be used to prevent the disease. METHODS: Gingival crevicular fluid was collected from two groups of 60 patients each, with and without external root resorption. Samples were extracted by means of various methods of protein extra...

  12. Optimization of extraction process and investigation of antioxidant effect of polysaccharides from the root of Limonium sinense Kuntze

    OpenAIRE

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To optimize the extraction technology for polysaccharides from the root of Limonium sinense (Girard) Kuntze, Plumbaginaceae and evaluate the antioxidant capacity of polysaccharides from L. sinense (LSEP) Materials and Methods : One-singer factor and response surface methodology(RSM) were established to extract the polysaccharides from L. sinense. Then, the 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl free radical, hydroxyl radical(.OH), and 2,2′-Azino-bis-(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) ...

  13. Treatment of menopausal symptoms by an extract from the roots of rhapontic rhubarb: the role of estrogen receptors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zierau Oliver

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract A dry extract from the roots of rhapontic rhubarb (extract Rheum rhaponticum (L.; ERr has been commercially available in Germany for over two decades to treat menopausal symptoms. However, the molecular basis of its clinical effectiveness remains obscure. This article reviews the in vitro and in vivo data of its estrogenic actions, particularly those mediated by estrogen receptor-β (ERβ.

  14. Evaluation of the effects of hydroalcoholic extract of Berberis vulgaris root on the activity of liver enzymes in male hypercholesterolemic rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soheila Taheri

    2012-06-01

    Conclusion: Noticing the antioxidant properties of B. vulgaris root extract  and its effects on reducing the activity of liver enzymes, the extract of this plant can be a good choice for improving the function of liver.

  15. Antioxidant Properties of Berberis aetnensis C. Presl (Berberidaceae) Roots Extract and Protective Effects on Astroglial Cell Cultures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campisi, Agata; Bonfanti, Roberta; Raciti, Giuseppina; Amodeo, Andrea; Mastrojeni, Silvana; Ragusa, Salvatore; Iauk, Liliana

    2014-01-01

    Berberis aetnensis C. Presl (Berberidaceae) is a bushy-spiny shrub common on Mount Etna (Sicily). We demonstrated that the alkaloid extract of roots of B. aetnensis C. Presl contains prevalently berberine and berbamine, possesses antimicrobial properties, and was able to counteract the upregulation evoked by glutamate of tissue transglutaminase in primary rat astroglial cell cultures. Until now, there are no reports regarding antioxidant properties of B. aetnensis C. Presl collected in Sicily. Air-dried, powdered roots of B. aetnensis C. Presl were extracted, identified, and quantified by HPLC. We assessed in cellular free system its effect on superoxide anion, radicals scavenging activity of antioxidants against free radicals like the 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl radical, and the inhibition of xanthine oxidase activity. In primary rat astroglial cell cultures, exposed to glutamate, we evaluated the effect of the extract on glutathione levels and on intracellular production of reactive oxygen species generated by glutamate. The alkaloid extract of B. aetnensis C. Presl inhibited superoxide anion, restored to control values, the decrease of GSH levels, and the production of reactive oxygen species. Potent antioxidant activities of the alkaloid extract of roots of B. aetnensis C. Presl may be one of the mechanisms by which the extract is effective against health disorders associated to oxidative stress. PMID:25177720

  16. Anti-mycobacterial activity of root and leaf extracts of Anthocleista djalonensis (Loganiaceae and Diospyros mespiliformis (Ebenaceae

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    Esimone Charles

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available We screened the aqueous and methanol leaf and root extracts of Anthocleista djalonensis, Diospyros mespiliformis, and their combinations for possible anti-mycobacterial activities using Mycobacterium smegmatis as a surrogate screen. These plants are reputed among folk practices as potent remedy in the management of tuberculosis and leprosy cases. In the sensitivity screening study, only the methanol extracts of A. djalonensis and D. mespiliformis showed anti-mycobacterial activity, while the aqueous extracts exhibited no inhibitory activity on M. smegmatis. The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC of the methanol leaf and root extract of A. djalonensis against M. smegmatis were 125 μg/ml. The MIC of the methanol leaf and root extracts of D. mespiliformis is 167 and 250 μg/ml, respectively. In the interaction studies, four out of nine decimal combinations of the two medicinal plant extracts exhibited synergism with fractional inhibitory concentration indices < 1 and a negative activity index values. The 8:2 ratio of D. mespiliformis and A. djalonensis exhibited the greatest degree of antimycobacterial synergy against M. smegmatis. The result of this study supports the claims of efficacy reported in the folk use of these plants in mycobacterial infection and the plants could therefore be investigated further and harnessed as potent antimycobacterial agents.

  17. Antioxidant Properties of Berberis aetnensis C. Presl (Berberidaceae Roots Extract and Protective Effects on Astroglial Cell Cultures

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    Agata Campisi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Berberis aetnensis C. Presl (Berberidaceae is a bushy-spiny shrub common on Mount Etna (Sicily. We demonstrated that the alkaloid extract of roots of B. aetnensis C. Presl contains prevalently berberine and berbamine, possesses antimicrobial properties, and was able to counteract the upregulation evoked by glutamate of tissue transglutaminase in primary rat astroglial cell cultures. Until now, there are no reports regarding antioxidant properties of B. aetnensis C. Presl collected in Sicily. Air-dried, powdered roots of B. aetnensis C. Presl were extracted, identified, and quantified by HPLC. We assessed in cellular free system its effect on superoxide anion, radicals scavenging activity of antioxidants against free radicals like the 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl radical, and the inhibition of xanthine oxidase activity. In primary rat astroglial cell cultures, exposed to glutamate, we evaluated the effect of the extract on glutathione levels and on intracellular production of reactive oxygen species generated by glutamate. The alkaloid extract of B. aetnensis C. Presl inhibited superoxide anion, restored to control values, the decrease of GSH levels, and the production of reactive oxygen species. Potent antioxidant activities of the alkaloid extract of roots of B. aetnensis C. Presl may be one of the mechanisms by which the extract is effective against health disorders associated to oxidative stress.

  18. Plant and Endophyte Effect on Fiber, N, and P Concentrations in Tall Fescue

    OpenAIRE

    Rogers, James K.; Ben C. Morton; Jagadeesh Mosali

    2011-01-01

    Tall fescue (Lolium arundinaceum) infected with an endophyte (Neotyphodium spp.) generally has agronomic advantages over endophyte-free tall fescue. The objective of this study was to determine if endophyte presence (E+) or absence (E−) in three tall fescue genotypes affects concentrations of acid detergent fiber (ADF), neutral detergent fiber (NDF), nitrogen (N), and phosphorus (P) in field and greenhouse studies. E+ plants had higher concentrations of ADF and NDF (nonsignificant in one ge...

  19. Hepatoprotective effect of Carissa carandas Linn root extract against CCl4 and paracetamol induced hepatic oxidative stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hegde, Karunakar; Joshi, Arun B

    2009-08-01

    Oral pre-treatment with ethanolic extract of the roots of C. carandas (ERCC; 100, 200 and 400 mg/kg, po) showed significant hepatoprotective activity against CCl4 and paracetamol induced hepatotoxicity by decreasing the activities of serum marker enzymes, bilirubin and lipid peroxidation, and significant increase in the levels of uric acid, glutathione, super oxide dismutase, catalase and protein in a dose dependent manner, which was confirmed by the decrease in the total weight of the liver and histopathological examination. Data also showed that ERCC possessed strong antioxidant activity, which may probably lead to the promising hepatoprotective activities of C. carandas root extract. These findings therefore supported the traditional belief on hepatoprotective effect of the roots of C. carandas.

  20. ISOLATION AND IDENTIFICATION OF ANANIXANTHONE FROM ETHYL ACETATE EXTRACT OF ROOT BARK OF SLATRI (Calophyllum soulattri (CLUSIACEAE

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    Nestri Wulandari

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available A xanthone, named ananixanthone (1 has been isolated and identified from the ethyl acetate extract of the root barks of Calophyllum soulattri. Structure of the compound was determined based on spectroscopic data, including UV, IR, NMR 1D, NMR 2D and by comparison with references.

  1. Evaluation of an Aqueous Extract from Horseradish Root (Armoracia rusticana Radix) against Lipopolysaccharide-Induced Cellular Inflammation Reaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herz, Corinna; Tran, Hoai Thi Thu; Márton, Melinda-Rita; Maul, Ronald; Schreiner, Monika

    2017-01-01

    Horseradish (Armoracia rusticana) is a perennial crop and its root is used in condiments. Traditionally, horseradish root is used to treat bacterial infections of the respiratory tract and urinary bladder. The antiphlogistic activity, determined in activated primary human peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC), was evaluated for an aqueous extract and its subfractions, separated by HPLC. Compound analysis was done by UHPLC-QToF/MS and GC-MS. The aqueous extract concentration-dependently inhibited the anti-inflammatory response to lipopolysaccharide (LPS) in terms of TNF-α release at ≥37 μg/mL. Further, the cyclooxygenase as well as lipoxygenase pathway was blocked by the extract as demonstrated by inhibition of COX-2 protein expression and PGE2 synthesis at ≥4 μg/mL and leukotriene LTB4 release. Mechanistic studies revealed that inhibition of ERK1/2 and c-Jun activation preceded COX-2 suppression upon plant extract treatment in the presence of LPS. Chemical analysis identified target compounds with a medium polarity as relevant for the observed bioactivity. Importantly, allyl isothiocyanate, which is quite well known for its anti-inflammatory capacity and as the principal pungent constituent in horseradish roots, was not relevant for the observations. The results suggest that horseradish root exerts an antiphlogistic activity in human immune cells by regulation of the COX and LOX pathway via MAPK signalling. PMID:28182113

  2. An investigation into the kinetics and mechanism of the removal of cyanobacteria by extract of Ephedra equisetina root.

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    Rong Yan

    Full Text Available An aqueous extract of Ephedra equisetina root was found to induce cyanobacterial cell death. The extract displayed no negative effects on the fish populations but instead, improved the habitat conditions for the growth of macrophytes, zooplankton and bacteria because the inhibiting effects of the extracts on cyanobacteria helped clear up the water column. The removal kinetics of cyanobacteria by E. equisetina extract appears to be a first order process with the rate constant being extract-dose-dependent. Compounds including the flavonoids found in E. equisetina root kill the cyanobacteria in vitro at a dose of 5.0 µg extract per 100 mL water or above. The extract constituents act to disrupt the thylakoid membrane, interrupt the electronic transport, decrease the effective quantum yield, and eventually lead to the failure of photosynthesis in Microcystis aeruginosa. This study presents an easily-deployed, natural and promising approach for controlling cyanobacterial blooms as an emergency measure, and also provides insight into the dynamics and mechanism of the extract consisting of multiple compounds synergistically removing algae.

  3. Growth inhibiting activity of lipophilic extracts from Dipsacus sylvestris Huds. roots against Borrelia burgdorferi s. s. in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liebold, T; Straubinger, R K; Rauwald, H W

    2011-08-01

    Fresh first year roots from Dipsacus sylvestris HUDS. were extracted with 70% ethanol, ethyl acetate as well as dichloromethane. Extracts were solubilized in water (lipophilic extracts with addition of polysorbate 80) and tested for their activity against Borrelia burgdorferi sensu stricto in vitro during an eight-day period using amoxicillin as standard. The hydroethanolic extract showed no growth inhibition whereas significant growth inhibiting activity could be shown in the two less polar fractions for the first time. Strongest inhibition was found in the ethyl acetate extract. The effect of polysorbate 80 on bacterial growth was examined and found to be negligible. As the nature of bioactive constituents has not been clarified yet, a micellar electrokinetic capillary chromatography fingerprint analysis for a methanolic extract was applied including loganin, chlorogenic acid, cantleyoside and caffeic acid as marker substances.

  4. Aqueous root extract ofLecaniodiscus cupanioides restores the alterations in testicular parameters of sexually impaired male rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Quadri O Nurudeen; Taofeek O Ajiboye

    2012-01-01

    Objective:This study aimed to investigate the effects of aqueous root extract ofLecaniodiscus cupanioides (L.cupanioides)on the alterations in the testicular parameters of paroxetine-treated rats.Methods:Group A rats which is the control received distilled water orally for 5 d. Groups B, C, D, E and F consisted of paroxetine-induced sexual dysfunction rats. In addition, Groups C, D, E and F rats were orally treated with 25, 50 and 100 mg/kg body weight of the extract and 7.14 mg/kg body weight of PowMax once daily for 5 d respectively.Results:Paroxetine-induced sexual dysfunction resulted into significant (P<0.05) reduction in the levels of testicular protein, sialic acid, glycogen and cholesterols. These decrease were dose dependently reversed by aqueous root extract ofL. cupanioides. The decrease in the specific activities of acid and alkaline phosphatases, lactate dehydrogenase and gamma-glutamyl transferase in the testes of paroxetine-treated rats were significantly (P<0.05) reversed. Testicular testosterone level decreased significantly (P<0.05) in sexually impaired rats. This decrease was significantly prevented by aqueous root extract ofL. cupanioides. All these alterations brought about by the administration of the extract (25 and 50 mg/kg body weight) compared significantly (P<0.05) with the reference drug, while the 100 mg/kg body weight of the extract compared significantly (P<0.05) with the control.Conclusions:The results of this study showed that aqueous root extract ofL. cupanioidesrestored the alterations in the testicular function parameters of sexually impaired rats. Thus supporting the use of the plants in the management of sexual dysfunction in the folkloric medicine of Nigeria.

  5. Antibiofilm activity of Vetiveria zizanioides root extract against methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kannappan, Arunachalam; Gowrishankar, Shanmugaraj; Srinivasan, Ramanathan; Pandian, Shunmugiah Karutha; Ravi, Arumugam Veera

    2017-09-01

    Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) is a leading human pathogen responsible for causing chronic clinical manifestation worldwide. In addition to antibiotic resistance genes viz. mecA and vanA, biofilm formation plays a prominent role in the pathogenicity of S. aureus by enhancing its resistance to existing antibiotics. Considering the role of folk medicinal plants in the betterment of human health from the waves of multidrug resistant bacterial infections, the present study was intended to explore the effect of Vetiveria zizanioides root on the biofilm formation of MRSA and its clinical counterparts. V. zizanioides root extract (VREX) showed a concentration-dependent reduction in biofilm formation without hampering the cellular viability of the tested strains. Micrographs of scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM) portrayed the devastating impact of VREX on biofilm formation. In addition to antibiofilm activity, VREX suppresses the production of biofilm related phenotypes such as exopolysaccharide, slime and α-hemolysin toxin. Furthermore, variation in FT-IR spectra evidenced the difference in cellular factors of untreated and VREX treated samples. Result of mature biofilm disruption assay and down regulation of genes like fnbA, fnbB, clfA suggested that VREX targets these adhesin genes responsible for initial adherence. GC-MS analysis revealed the presence of sesquiterpenes as a major constituent in VREX. Thus, the data of present study strengthen the ethnobotanical value of V. zizanioides and concludes that VREX contain bioactive molecules that have beneficial effect over the biofilm formation of MRSA and its clinical isolates. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. In vitro cytotoxicity of extracts and fractions of Calotropis procera (Ait. roots against human cancer cell lines

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    Bhagat Madhulika

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available This study was designed to determine the antiproliferative activity of three extracts (alcoholic, hydro-aqueous and aqueous and their fractions from the root part of Calotropis procera using human oral (KB and central nervous system (SNB-78 cancer cell lines as a model system. KB and SNB-78 cells were cultured in the presence of extracts and fractions at various concentrations (10, 30 and100 µg/ml for 48 h, and the percentage of cell viability was evaluated by the sulforhodamine-B (SRB assay. Our result indicates that out of the three extracts of C. procera (root, alcoholic extract had shown greater potential for growth inhibition followed by hydro-aqueous extract at three different concentration of 10 µg/ml, 30 µg/ml and 100 µg/ml in a dose-dependent manner, whereas aqueous extract was found to be least active against both oral and CNS human cancer lines. On evaluation of the fractions prepared from alcoholic and hydro-aqueous extracts, it was observed that chloroform fraction from alcoholic extract was antiproliferative for oral (KB cancer cell line and n-butanol fraction from alcoholic extract was antiproliferative for CNS cancer cell line than remaining fractions at three different concentration of 10 µg/ml, 30 µg/ml, 100 µg/ml in a dose-dependent manner. Thus, our result indicates that the root part of C. procera possess in vitro cytotoxicity against oral and CNS human cancer cell lines. Further investigations are required to obtain the clinically important lead molecules for the drug development.

  7. Anti-inflammatory, analgesic and anti-pyretic activities of standardized root extract of Jasminum sambac.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sengar, Nidhi; Joshi, Apurva; Prasad, Satyendra K; Hemalatha, S

    2015-02-03

    The plant Jasminum sambac L. (Oleaceae) is cultivated throughout India. The leaves and roots of the plant are used traditionally in the treatment of inflammation, fever and pain. The leaves of the plant have been reported to posses significant anti-inflammatory and analgesic activities. To scientifically validate anti-inflammatory, analgesic and anti-pyretic activities of roots from Jasminum sambac. Ethanol root extract of Jasminum sambac (EJS) was standardized using HPTLC and was subjected to acute oral toxicity study. Further, analgesic activity of EJS at 100, 200 and 400mg/kg, p.o. was evaluated using writhing test on Swiss albino mice and tail-flick test on Charles Foster albino rats. Anti-inflammatory activity of EJS was assessed by carrageenan-induced rat paw edema, cotton pellet-induced granuloma and Freund׳s adjuvant-induced arthritis models, while antipyretic activity was evaluated using Brewer׳s yeast induced pyrexia. In addition, biochemical parameters such as alkaline phosphatase (ALP), aspartate transaminase (AST), alanine transaminase (ALT), lipid peroxidation (LPO), superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase (CAT) in blood serum and edematous tissue of rats exposed to acute (carrageenan) and granulomatous tissue in sub-chronic (cotton pellet granuloma) inflammation models were also evaluated. Phytochemical analysis of EJS revealed the presence of flavonoids, phenols, saponins, tannins and carbohydrates in major quantities, while the quantity of hesperidin in EJS (using HPTLC) was found to be 4.25%w/w. EJS at 400mg/kg, p.o. reduced writhing count up to 49.21%, whereas in tail-flick test, EJS in a dose dependent manner increased latency in flicking tail. EJS at 400mg/kg, p.o. showed significant anti-inflammatory activity after 2nd, 3rd, 4th and 6thh of treatment in carrageenan-induced edema, while a 33.58% inhibition in cotton pellet induced granuloma formation was observed at same dose level. EJS significantly (p<0.001) inhibited adjuvant

  8. Potential of Moringa oleifera root and Citrus sinensis fruit rind extracts in the treatment of ulcerative colitis in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gholap, Prashant A; Nirmal, Sunil A; Pattan, Shashikant R; Pal, Subodh C; Mandal, Subhash C

    2012-10-01

    The plant Moringa oleifera Lam (Moringaceae), commonly known as the drumstick tree, is an indigenous species in India. This species has been of interest to researchers because traditionally its roots are reported in the treatment of ulcerative colitis (UC). Traditionally it is reported that Citrus sinensis Linn (Rutaceae) fruit rind when combined with M. oleifera will increase the efficacy of the plant in the treatment of UC. The present work was undertaken to determine the effectiveness of M. oleifera root alone and in combination with C. sinensis fruit rind in the treatment of UC. Ethanol and aqueous extracts of M. oleifera roots (100 and 200 mg/kg, body weight) were screened alone and in equal combination with ethanol extract of C. sinensis fruit rind, i.e., 50 mg/kg each of C. sinensis and M. oleifera for their activity on acetic acid-induced UC in mice. Treatment with combination of extracts of M. oleifera root and C. sinensis fruit rind (50 mg/kg, each) showed less ulceration and hyperemia than individual extract (200 mg/kg) in histopathological observation. Acetic acid increased myeloperoxidase (MPO) level in blood and colon tissue to 342 U/mL and 384 U/mg, respectively. Combination of ethanol extract of M. oleifera root with C. sinensis fruit rind extract significantly (p<0.05) decreased MPO in blood and tissue to 278 U/mL and 291 U/mg, respectively. MPO in blood and tissue in control group was 85 ± 1.2 U/mL and 96 ± 1.3 U/mg, respectively. Similarly this combination significantly reduced malondialdehyde (MDA) level in blood and tissue to 7.11 nmol/mL and 8.19 nmol/mg, from 11.20 nmol/mL and 13.20 nmol/mg, respectively. MDA in blood and tissue in control group was 2.76 ± 1.2 nmol/mL and 3.76 ± 1.2 nmol/mg, respectively. Results show that a combination of M. oleifera root extracts with C. sinensis fruit rind extract is effective in the treatment of UC and results are comparable with the standard drug prednisolone.

  9. Antiobesity Effects of the Combined Plant Extracts Varying the Combination Ratio of Phyllostachys pubescens Leaf Extract and Scutellaria baicalensis Root Extract

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    Dong-Seon Kim

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The antiobesity effects of several different combinations of extracts (BS prepared from two plants, Phyllostachys pubescens leaf (bamboo leaf: BL and Scutellaria baicalensis root (SB, were investigated using a high fat diet (HFD induced obese mouse model. In order to find the most effective mixture among the mixtures of the two plant extracts, experimental preparations were made by combining BL and SB by different proportions of 3 : 1 (BS31, 2 : 1 (BS21, 1 : 1 (BS11, 1 : 2 (BS12, and 1 : 3 (BS13. Body weight, weight of adipose tissues, size of adipocytes, levels of glucose, leptin and adiponectin, and lipid profile in serum, and fat accumulation in liver were investigated. We have found that BS21 is the most effective in antiobesity among the five mixtures investigated, indicated by reduction in body weight gain, total mass of adipose tissue, and the size of adipocyte. In addition, BS21 has shown to be beneficial in serum lipid profile, levels of glucose, leptin, and adiponectin in serum, and fat accumulation in liver. By chromatographic separation of BS21, the two maker compounds, isoorientin and baicalin, were identified and quantified for the standardization of BS21.

  10. Antiobesity Effects of the Combined Plant Extracts Varying the Combination Ratio of Phyllostachys pubescens Leaf Extract and Scutellaria baicalensis Root Extract

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Seung-Hyung; Cha, Jimin

    2016-01-01

    The antiobesity effects of several different combinations of extracts (BS) prepared from two plants, Phyllostachys pubescens leaf (bamboo leaf: BL) and Scutellaria baicalensis root (SB), were investigated using a high fat diet (HFD) induced obese mouse model. In order to find the most effective mixture among the mixtures of the two plant extracts, experimental preparations were made by combining BL and SB by different proportions of 3 : 1 (BS31), 2 : 1 (BS21), 1 : 1 (BS11), 1 : 2 (BS12), and 1 : 3 (BS13). Body weight, weight of adipose tissues, size of adipocytes, levels of glucose, leptin and adiponectin, and lipid profile in serum, and fat accumulation in liver were investigated. We have found that BS21 is the most effective in antiobesity among the five mixtures investigated, indicated by reduction in body weight gain, total mass of adipose tissue, and the size of adipocyte. In addition, BS21 has shown to be beneficial in serum lipid profile, levels of glucose, leptin, and adiponectin in serum, and fat accumulation in liver. By chromatographic separation of BS21, the two maker compounds, isoorientin and baicalin, were identified and quantified for the standardization of BS21. PMID:27123038

  11. Effect of root-extracts of Ficus benghalensis (Banyan in pain in animal models

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    Dipesh Raj Panday

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: According to the WHO, 70–80% population in developing countries still relies on nonconventional medicine mainly of herbal origin. Even in developed countries, use of herbal medicine is growing each year. Pain is an unpleasant feeling often caused by intense or damaging stimuli. Traditionally, different plant parts of Ficus benghalensis are claimed to have several analgesic properties. Few scientific evidences support these uses. Interestingly, still others contradict these uses. It was shocking to find very scarce scientific studies trying to solve the mystery. Materials and Methods: It was a quantitative experimental study in Swiss albino mice of either sex. Sample size was calculated using free sample size calculating software G*Power version 3.1.9.2. Hot-plate test and tail-flick test were central antinociceptive paradigms. Writhing test was peripheral model for pain. Test drugs were aqueous root extracts of F. benghalensis at 100 mg/kg and 200 mg/kg mouse weight prepared by Soxhlet method. Suitable negative and positive controls were used. The experimental results were represented as mean ± standard deviation statistical level of significance was set at P < 0.05. For calculation, parametric test - one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA or nonparametric test - Mann–Whitney U-test was appropriately used. Results: Hot-plate reaction time at 100 mg/kg (13.64 ± 1.30 s and 200 mg/kg (10.32 ± 2.23 s were nonsignificant (P = 0.425 and P = 0.498, respectively compared to negative control (11.87 ± 1.92 s. One-way ANOVA revealed nonsignificant (P = 0.178 between-group comparison in mean tail-flick reaction time. Test drug at 200 mg/kg produced statistically significant more writhing (36.00 ± 14.85 in 10 min than negative control, normal saline (11.83 ± 12.43 in 10 min or the positive control, Indomethacin (3.50 ± 5.21 in 10 min, P value being 0.031 and 0.003, respectively. Conclusion: Aqueous root extracts of F. benghalensis at

  12. Plumbagin quantification in roots of Plumbago scandens L. obtained by different extraction techniques

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    Selma R. de Paiva

    2004-09-01

    Full Text Available The Plumbago genus belongs to the Plumbaginaceae family and it is known due to its variety of biological uses, most of them attributed to the presence of naphthoquinones. Plumbagin is a naturally occurring naphthoquinone that can be obtained from roots of Plumbago scandens L. In order to find out the better technique for plumbagin extraction, were applied: static maceration, dynamic maceration, with assistance of ultrasonic waves and in Soxhlet apparatus. Four compounds were qualitatively detected in all extracts: the naphthoquinones plumbagin and epi-isoshinanolone, palmitic acid and sitosterol. Plumbagin was always the major component in all analyzed extracts and it was quantitatively determined by gas chromatograph coupled with mass spectrometer. Soxhlet was the most efficient extraction technique however, prolonged heating time promoted plumbagin degradation.O gênero Plumbago pertence à família Plumbaginaceae e apresenta uma variedade de atividades biológicas, a maioria atribuída à presença de naftoquinonas. Plumbagina é uma naftoquinona natural que pode ser obtida a partir de raízes de Plumbago scandens L. Na tentativa de descobrir a melhor técnica de extração dessa substância foram usadas, maceração estática, maceração dinâmica, extração com auxílio de ultrassom e extração em Soxhlet. Quatro substâncias foram detectadas qualitativamente: as naftoquinonas plumbagina e epi-isoshinanolona, o ácido palmítico e o sitosterol. Plumbagina foi sempre o componente majoritário em todos os extratos analisados e sua determinação quantitativa foi realizada através de cromatografia com fase gasosa acoplada à espectrometria de massas. A extração em Soxhlet foi a técnica mais eficiente para obtenção de plumbagina, entretanto a longa exposição a temperaturas elevadas favoreceu a degradação da plumbagina.

  13. In vitro phytochemical, antibacterial, and antifungal activities of leaf, stem, and root extracts of Adiantum capillus veneris.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishaq, Muhammad Saqib; Hussain, Muhammad Medrar; Afridi, Muhammad Siddique; Ali, Ghadir; Khattak, Mahrukh; Ahmad, Sohail; Shakirullah

    2014-01-01

    Adiantum capillus veneris is a medicinally essential plant used for the treatment of diverse infectious diseases. The study of phytochemical and antimicrobial activities of the plant extracts against multidrug-resistant (MDR) bacteria and medically important fungi is of immense significance. Extracts from the leaves, stems, and roots of Adiantum capillus veneris were extracted with water, methanol, ethanol, ethyl acetate, and hexane and screened for their antimicrobial activity against ten MDR bacterial strains and five fungal strains isolated from clinical and water samples. Ash, moisture, and extractive values were determined according to standard protocols. FTIR (Fourier transform infrared Spectroscopy) studies were performed on different phytochemicals isolated from the extracts of Adiantum capillus Veneris. Phytochemical analysis showed the presence of flavonoids, alkaloids, tannins, saponins, cardiac glycosides, terpenoids, steroids, and reducing sugars. Water, methanol, and ethanol extracts of leaves, stems, and roots showed significant antibacterial and antifungal activities against most of the MDR bacterial and fungal strains. This study concluded that extracts of Adiantum capillus veneris have valuable phytochemicals and significant activities against most of the MDR bacterial strains and medically important fungal strains.

  14. In Vitro Phytochemical, Antibacterial, and Antifungal Activities of Leaf, Stem, and Root Extracts of Adiantum capillus veneris

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    Muhammad Saqib Ishaq

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Adiantum capillus veneris is a medicinally essential plant used for the treatment of diverse infectious diseases. The study of phytochemical and antimicrobial activities of the plant extracts against multidrug-resistant (MDR bacteria and medically important fungi is of immense significance. Extracts from the leaves, stems, and roots of Adiantum capillus veneris were extracted with water, methanol, ethanol, ethyl acetate, and hexane and screened for their antimicrobial activity against ten MDR bacterial strains and five fungal strains isolated from clinical and water samples. Ash, moisture, and extractive values were determined according to standard protocols. FTIR (Fourier transform infrared Spectroscopy studies were performed on different phytochemicals isolated from the extracts of Adiantum capillus Veneris. Phytochemical analysis showed the presence of flavonoids, alkaloids, tannins, saponins, cardiac glycosides, terpenoids, steroids, and reducing sugars. Water, methanol, and ethanol extracts of leaves, stems, and roots showed significant antibacterial and antifungal activities against most of the MDR bacterial and fungal strains. This study concluded that extracts of Adiantum capillus veneris have valuable phytochemicals and significant activities against most of the MDR bacterial strains and medically important fungal strains.

  15. Effect of Arctium Lappa Root Extract on Glucose Levels and Insulin Resistance in Rats with High Sucrose Diet

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    A Ahangarpour

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Diabetes Mellitus is a growing health problem in all over the world. Arctium Lappa has been used therapeutically in Europe, North America and Asia. Antioxidants and antidiabetic compounds have been found in the root of Arctium Lappa. This study intends to investigate the effects of Arctium Lappa root aqueous extract on glucose, insulin levels and Fasting Insulin Resistance Index in female rats with high sucrose diet. Methods: 40 female Wistar rats weighting 150-250(g were applied. After having a diet induced by sucrose 50% in drinking water for 5 weeks, the animals were randomly divided into two groups of control, sucrose induced, and three groups of sucrose induced along with Arctium Lappa root aqueous extract (50,100,200 mg/Kg (8 rats in each group. Treatment by extracts was used during 2 weeks (i.p. and 24 hours after the last treatment, heart blood samples were gathered. After Blood samples were centrifuged, fasting plasma glucose (12 h was determined by kit and fasting insulin concentration was assayed by Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (Elisa methods. Result: Glucose levels, insulin and FIRI in sucrose group significantly increased in comparison with control group. Glucose levels in aqueous extract groups; 50 mg/kg (116.14±16.64mg/dl and 200 mg/kg (90.66±22.58 mg/dl in comparison with sucrose group (140.5±18.73 mg/dl significantly decreased. Insulin level and FIRI in all of aqueous extract groups were significantly decreased (P<0.001 in comparison with sucrose group. Conclusions: Arctium Lappa root aqueous extracts in animal model has revealed significant decrease in blood glucose and insulin levels.

  16. Methanol extract ofDesmodium gangeticumDC root mimetic post-conditioning effect in isolated perfused rat heart by stimulating muscarinic receptors

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Gino A Kurian; Jose Paddikkala

    2012-01-01

    Objective:To evaluate pharmacological mimetic action of herbal extractDesmodium gangeticum (DG) roots on ischemia reperfusion injury.Methods:With the help of Langendroff perfusion technique, ischemic post condition (POC) mimetic action of DG methanol root extract was evaluated and compared by using standard drugs that acts as muscarinic receptor agonist and antagonist, namely acetylcholine (Ach) and atropine (Atr) respectively in an isolated rat heart. Results:The physiological parameters like left ventricular developed pressure, end diastolic pressure and working index of isolated rat heart showed significant recovery in DG root extract administrated rat heart, similar to the recovery by POC. Kymogram results showed muscarinic receptor agonist like action for DG methanol root extract, confirmed in rat heart by muscarnic receptor agonist (acetylcholine) and anatoginst (atropine). Administration of DG root extract prior to reperfusion showed better antioxidant status in myocardial tissue homogenate and mitochondrial, complemented by the levels of cardiac specific marker proteins in myocardial tissue and perfusate. Even though DG methanol root extract mimics its action similar to that of Ach, the myocardial protection mediated by the extract was superior to Ach, due to the presence of antioxidants in the crude extract.Conclusions: DG methanol root extract provides myocardial protection towards IRI by stimulating muscarinic receptors.

  17. Antioxidant and DNA Repair Stimulating Effect of Extracts from Transformed and Normal Roots of Rhaponticum carthamoides against Induced Oxidative Stress and DNA Damage in CHO Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skała, Ewa; Sitarek, Przemysław; Różalski, Marek; Krajewska, Urszula; Szemraj, Janusz; Wysokińska, Halina; Śliwiński, Tomasz

    2016-01-01

    Rhaponticum carthamoides has a long tradition of use in Siberian folk medicine. The roots and rhizomes of this species are used in various dietary supplements or nutraceutical preparations to increase energy level or eliminate physical weakness. This is the first report to reveal the protective and DNA repair stimulating abilities of R. carthamoides root extracts in Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells exposed to an oxidative agent. Both transformed root extract (TR extract) and extract of soil-grown plant roots (NR extract) may be responsible for stimulating CHO cells to repair oxidatively induced DNA damage, but CHO cells stimulated with extract from the transformed roots demonstrated significantly stronger properties than cells treated with the soil-grown plant root extract. These differences in biological activity may be attributed to the differences in the content of phenolic compounds in these root extracts. Preincubation of the CHO cells with TR and NR extracts showed an increase in gene expression and protein levels of catalase (CAT) and superoxide dismutase (SOD2). R. carthamoides may possess antioxidant properties that protect CHO cells against oxidative stress. PMID:27034736

  18. Antioxidant and DNA Repair Stimulating Effect of Extracts from Transformed and Normal Roots of Rhaponticum carthamoides against Induced Oxidative Stress and DNA Damage in CHO Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ewa Skała

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Rhaponticum carthamoides has a long tradition of use in Siberian folk medicine. The roots and rhizomes of this species are used in various dietary supplements or nutraceutical preparations to increase energy level or eliminate physical weakness. This is the first report to reveal the protective and DNA repair stimulating abilities of R. carthamoides root extracts in Chinese hamster ovary (CHO cells exposed to an oxidative agent. Both transformed root extract (TR extract and extract of soil-grown plant roots (NR extract may be responsible for stimulating CHO cells to repair oxidatively induced DNA damage, but CHO cells stimulated with extract from the transformed roots demonstrated significantly stronger properties than cells treated with the soil-grown plant root extract. These differences in biological activity may be attributed to the differences in the content of phenolic compounds in these root extracts. Preincubation of the CHO cells with TR and NR extracts showed an increase in gene expression and protein levels of catalase (CAT and superoxide dismutase (SOD2. R. carthamoides may possess antioxidant properties that protect CHO cells against oxidative stress.

  19. Phytotoxicity analysis of extracts from compost and their ability to inhibit soil-borne pathogenic fungi and reduce root-knot nematodes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Dabing; Raza, Waseem; Yu, Guanghui; Zhao, Qingyun; Shen, Qirong; Huang, Qiwei

    2012-03-01

    Compost extracts are novel organic amendments, typically applied to suppress soil-borne diseases. This research evaluated the phytotoxicity of compost extracts and analyzed their ability to inhibit pathogenic fungal growth and reduce root-knot nematodes. The physical, chemical and biological characteristics of extracts from a pig manure and straw compost were analyzed. Three types of extracts were tested: direct extracts of compost (DEC), aerated fermentation extracts of compost (AFEC) and non-aerated fermentation extracts of compost (NAFEC). All compost extracts showed low phytotoxicity against lettuce and cress, but AFEC and NAFEC were more phytotoxic than DEC. All compost extracts significantly inhibited pathogenic fungal growth except for the fungus Rhizoctonia solania AG4. For two seasons, tomato root biomass of three compost extracts was 1.25-5.67 times greater than CK (water control), and AFEC and NAFEC showed the best tomato root growth promotion. The reduction ratio of root egg mass and density of soil nematodes were 34.51-87.77% and 30.92-51.37%, when applied with three compost extracts. The microbial population in compost extracts was considered to be the most significant factor of inhibition pathogenic fungal growth. No markedly correlations among bacterial community diversity, the inhibition of pathogenic fungal growth and the reduction of root-knot nematodes were observed. This information adds to the understanding of the growth-promoting and suppression effects of compost extracts and will help to enhance crop production.

  20. Effects of intercropping vines with tobacco and root extracts of tobacco on grape phylloxera, Daktulosphaira vitifoliae Fitch

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Zhong-yue; SU Jun-ping; LIU Wei-wei; GUO Yu-yuan

    2015-01-01

    The effects of grape-tobacco intercropping patterns on populations of grape phyl oxera, Daktulosphaira vitifoliae Fitch, as wel as on the growth and development of the infested vines were evaluated in the ifeld and the impact of an aqueous tobacco root extract on grape phyl oxera was evaluated using a laboratory bioassay. The aqueous tobacco root extract exhibited biological activity against this pest. The egg mortality, nymph mortality, development period, life span and female fecundity were signiifcantly affected. In the ifeld trial, grape phyl oxera populations were clearly lower as compared to the monoculture pattern. However, the rates of newly developed roots and newly infested grape roots were signiifcantly higher and lower, in intercropping patterns than in the vine monoculture, respectively. The grape phyl oxera population number on the grape roots decreased each year, and the vine trees gradual y renewed upon continuous intercropping with tobacco over three years. These results conifrmed that intercropping grapes with tobacco can effectively control grape phyl oxera in an infested vineyard. The results also indicated that additional crops could be intercropped with grapes and are effective against grape phyl oxera, which should be explored as an integrated approach for control ing the pest.

  1. Protective effect of turnip root ethanolic extract on early diabetic nephropathy in the rats

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    Bahram Amouoghli-Tabrizi

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: Diabetes mellitus is a metabolic disorder and one of its most important consequences is renal insufficiency. A multitude of herbs has been described for the treatment of diabetes mellitus. The aim of present study was to assess the protective effect of turnip root ethanolic extract (TREE on early nephropathy in alloxan-induced diabetic rats.Materials and Method: Eighty male Wistar rats were randomly allocated into 4 equal groups including: healthy rats, normal healthy rats receiving TREE, diabetic rats and diabetic rats receiving TREE. Diabetes was induced by a single injection of alloxan (120 mg/kg; i.p. The extract (200 mg/kg was gavaged to TREE treatment groups daily for 8 weeks. At the end of experiment; serum levels of urea, uric acid and creatinine were assessed. The lipid peroxidation product, thiobarbituric acid-reacting substances (TBARS, and activities of superoxide dismutase, catalase and glutathione peroxidase were measured in the renal tissue. Finally, the biochemical findings were matched with histopathological verification. Statistically, the quantitative data obtained, compared among the groups by one-way analysis of variance followed by Tukey post-test. Statistical significance was considered at p<0.05.Results: In the diabetic rats, TREE significantly decreased the levels of serum biomarkers of renal injury. Furthermore, TREE significantly decreased the lipid peroxidation and elevated the decreased levels of antioxidant enzymes in diabetic rats. Histopathological findings were in agreement with the biochemical findings.Conclusion: TREE has protective effect on early diabetic nephropathy in the rats with experimentally induced diabetes

  2. Phytochemical screening and "in-vitro" anti-oxidant activity of methanolic root extract of Erythrina indica

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Periyar Rangasamy Rathi Sre; Toda Sheila; Kandasamy Murugesan

    2012-01-01

    Objective: Erythrina indica belongs to the family Leguminoseae and it is a medium-sized, spiny, deciduous tree normally growing up to 6-9 m tall. It is also known as “Indian coral tree” or “Tiger’s clow” or “variegated coral tree” or “Kalyana murungai” or “ Mulmurukku” (in Tamil). It is a native of costal forest communities from East Africa, through southeast to Australia. In India, it is distributed in coast forests from Bombay to Malabar . The objective of this study is to explore the phytochemistry and the antioxidant potential of methanolic root extract of Erythrina indica which is considered traditionally as an important medicinal plant. Methods: The preliminary phytochemical analysis was done to find out the presence of various bioactive compounds. In vitro antioxidant analysis of methanolic root extract was performed by 1,1diphenyl, 2 picryl hydrazyl assay, nitric oxide assay, superoxide dismutase assay, ferric reducing antioxidant power assay. Results: The methanolic root extract showed the presence of various phytoconstituents such as flavonoids, tannins, terpenoids, saponins, coumarins and carbohydrates. Besides it also possess strong antioxidant activity. Conclusions: It was concluded that Erythrina indica root possessed a wide range of pharmacologically important phytoconstituents which exhibited strong antioxidant activity.

  3. First Report of Eurycoma longifolia Jack Root Extract Causing Relaxation of Aortic Rings in Rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-01-01

    Although Eurycoma longifolia has been studied for erectile function, the blood pressure- (BP-) lowering effect has yet to be verified. Hence, this study aims at investigating the BP-lowering properties of the plant with a view to develop an antihypertensive agent that could also preserve erectile function. Ethanolic root extract was partitioned by hexane, dichloromethane (DCM), ethyl acetate, butanol, and water. The DCM fraction, found to be potent in relaxing phenylephrine- (PE-) precontracted rat aortic rings, was further purified by column chromatography. Subfraction DCM-II, being the most active in relaxing aortae, was studied for effects on the renin-angiotensin and kallikrein-kinin systems in aortic rings. The effect of DCM-II on angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) activity was also evaluated in vitro. Results showed that DCM-II reduced (p < 0.05) the contractions evoked by angiotensin I and angiotensin II (Ang II). In PE-precontracted rings treated with DCM-II, the Ang II-induced contraction was attenuated (p < 0.05) while bradykinin- (BK-) induced relaxation enhanced (p < 0.001). In vitro, DCM-II inhibited (p < 0.001) the activity of ACE. These data demonstrate that the vasodilatory effect of DCM-II appears to be mediated via inhibition of Ang II type 1 receptor and ACE as well as enhancement of Ang II type 2 receptor activation and BK activity.

  4. Potentiation of antimalarial activity of arteether in combination with Vetiver root extract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhawan, Sangeeta; Gunjan, Sarika; Pal, Anirban; Tripathi, Renu

    2016-05-01

    In malaria, development of resistance towards artemisinin derivatives has urged the need for new drugs or new drug combinations to tackle the drug resistant malaria. We studied the fresh root extract of Vetiver zizanioides (Linn.) Nash (VET) with a CDRI-CIMAP antimalarial α/β arteether (ART) together for their antimalarial potential. Our results showed additive to synergistic antimalarial activity of VET and ART with sum fractional inhibitory concentrations Σ FICs 1.02 ± 0.24 and 1.12 ± 0.32 for chloroquine sensitive (CQS) and chloroquine resistant (CQR) strain of Plasmodium falciparum (William H. Welch), respectively. Further, these combinations were explored against multidrug resistant rodent malaria parasite i.e. P. yoelii nigeriensis. Analysis of in vivo interaction of ART and VET showed that 10 mg/kg x 5 days of ART with 1000 mg/kg of VET x 5 days cured 100% mice infected with MDR parasite, while the same dose of ART could produce only up to 30% cure and VET fraction was not curative at all. Synergism/additiveness, found between VET and ART is reported for the first time. The curative dose of ART in the combination was reduced to its one fourth, and thus limits the side effects, if any. Although antimalarial potential of ART was enhanced by VET, action mechanism of later needs to be elucidated in detail.

  5. Functional Characterisation of Anticancer Activity in the Aqueous Extract of Helicteres angustifolia L. Roots.

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    Kejuan Li

    Full Text Available Helicteres angustifolia L. is a shrub that forms a common ingredient of several cancer treatment recipes in traditional medicine system both in China and Laos. In order to investigate molecular mechanisms of its anticancer activity, we prepared aqueous extract of Helicteres angustifolia L. Roots (AQHAR and performed several in vitro assays using human normal fibroblasts (TIG-3 and osteosarcoma (U2OS. We found that AQHAR caused growth arrest/apoptosis of U2OS cells in a dose-dependent manner. It showed no cytotoxicity to TIG-3 cells at doses up to 50 μg/ml. Biochemical, imaging and cell cycle analyses revealed that it induces ROS signaling and DNA damage response selectively in cancer cells. The latter showed upregulation of p53, p21 and downregulation of Cyclin B1 and phospho-Rb. Furthermore, AQHAR-induced apoptosis was mediated by increase in pro-apoptotic proteins including cleaved PARP, caspases and Bax. Anti-apoptotic protein Bcl-2 showed decrease in AQHAR-treated U2OS cells. In vivo xenograft tumor assays in nude mice revealed dose-dependent suppression of tumor growth and lung metastasis with no toxicity to the animals suggesting that AQHAR could be a potent and safe natural drug for cancer treatment.

  6. Green synthesis of silver nanoparticles using methanolic root extracts of Diospyros paniculata and their antimicrobial activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rao, N Hanumanta; N, Lakshmidevi; Pammi, S V N; Kollu, Pratap; S, Ganapaty; P, Lakshmi

    2016-05-01

    Since the discovery and subsequent widespread use of antibiotics, a variety of bacterial species of human and animal origin have developed numerous mechanisms that render bacteria resistant to some, and in certain cases to nearly all antibiotics, thereby limiting the treatment options and compromising effective therapy. In the present study, the green synthesis of nanoparticles is carried out by the reduction of silver acetate in the presence of crude methanolic root extracts of Diospyros paniculata, a member of family Ebenaceae. The UV-Vis absorption spectrum of the biologically reduced reaction mixture showed the surface plasmon peak at 428 nm, a characteristic peak of silver nanoparticles. X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis confirmed the face-centered cubic crystalline structure of metallic silver. The average diameter of Ag NPs is about 17 nm from Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM) which is in good agreement with the average crystallite size (19 nm) calculated from XRD analysis. Further the study has been extended to the antimicrobial activity against test pathogenic Gram (+), Gram (-) bacterial and fungal strains. The biologically synthesized silver nanoparticles showed promising activity against all the tested pathogenic strains and the activity has been enhanced with the increased dose levels. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Coalescence of functional gold and monodisperse silver nanoparticles mediated by black Panax ginseng Meyer root extract

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Dandan; Markus, Josua; Kim, Yeon-Ju; Wang, Chao; Jiménez Pérez, Zuly Elizabeth; Ahn, Sungeun; Aceituno, Verónica Castro; Mathiyalagan, Ramya; Yang, Deok Chun

    2016-01-01

    A rapid biological synthesis of multifunctional gold nanoparticle (AuNp) and monodisperse silver nanoparticle (AgNp) was achieved by an aqueous extract of black Panax ginseng Meyer root. The physicochemical transformation into black ginseng (BG) greatly enhanced the pharmacological activities of white ginseng and its minor ginsenoside content. The optimal temperature conditions and kinetics of bioreduction were investigated. Formation of BG-AuNps and BG-AgNps was verified by ultraviolet–visible spectrophotometry at 548 and 412 nm, respectively. The biosynthesized BG-AgNps were spherical and monodisperse with narrow distribution, while BG-AuNps were icosahedral-shaped and moderately polydisperse. Synthesized nanoparticles exhibited long-term stability in buffers of pH 7.0–8.0 and biological media (5% bovine serum albumin) at an ambient temperature and at 37°C. BG-AgNps showed effective antibacterial activity against Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus. BG-AuNps and BG-AgNps demonstrated increased scavenging activity against 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl free radicals. In addition, BG-AuNps and BG-AgNps were nontoxic to HaCaT and MCF-7 cells; the latter showed no cytotoxicity at concentrations lower than 10 µg/mL. At higher concentrations, BG-AgNps exhibited apparent apoptotic activity in MCF-7 breast cancer cell line through reactive oxygen species generation and nuclear fragmentation. PMID:28008248

  8. Prostate-specific targeting of the aqueous root extract of Croton membranaceus in experimental animals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Afriyie, D K; Asare, G A; Bugyei, K; Asiedu-Gyekye, I J; Tackie, R; Adjei, S

    2014-09-01

    Croton membranaceus Müll.Arg. (Euphorbiaceae) is used for benign prostate hyperplasia (BPH) treatment. The study aimed at investigating organs that the aqueous root extracts of C. membranaceus (CMARE) target, which is absent in literature. Twenty-four male Sprague-Dawley rats (100-140 g) were randomly divided into 4 groups. Group 1, the control group received distilled water. Groups 2, 3 and 4 received 30, 150 and 300 mg kg(-1) b.wt CMARE respectively (oral gavage). Rats fed 90 days the standard chow diet ad libitum. Upon sacrifice, major organs were histologically examined and serum prostate-specific antigen (PSA) biochemically determined. Only the prostate was abnormal. Histologically, H&E staining revealed thickness and infoldings of the epithelial cells shrinking with increasing dose. The 30 mg kg(-1) group showed low columnar or flattened epithelium cells, whereas the columnar epithelium infoldings of the 150 mg kg(-1) b.wt and 300 mg kg(-1) b.wt groups were virtually nonexistent. The acini of the control, 30 mg kg(-1) b.wt group and the 150 mg kg(-1) b.wt groups showed clear pinkish secretion. However, secretion of the high-dose group appeared light pink in colour and the stroma cells appeared much darker than all the treated and control group. C. membranaceus targets the prostate with significant PSA reduction (P < 0.01).

  9. Antioxidant and antiulcerogenic activities of Opuntia ficus indica f. inermis root extract in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alimi, Hichem; Hfaiedh, Najla; Bouoni, Zouhour; Hfaiedh, Mbarka; Sakly, Mohsen; Zourgui, Lazhar; Rhouma, Khémais Ben

    2010-12-01

    Opuntia ficus indica f. inermis methanolic root extract (ORE) was investigated for phenolic and flavonoids contents, in vitro evaluated for DPPH radical scavenging activity, reducing power and in vivo tested for its gastro-protective ability against 80% ethanol induced ulcer in rats. Phytochemical test of ORE were positive for phenolic and flavonoid contents. DPPH radical scavenging activity and reducing power of ORE showed an EC(50) of 118.65±2.51 μg/ml and 300 μg/ml respectively. In vivo the pre-treatment of rats with ranitidine (50 mg/kg) and 200, 400, and 800 mg/kg doses of ORE significantly (p<0.05) reduced the 80% ethanol induced-ulcer lesion, with a rate of 82.68%, 49.21%, 83.13%, and 92.59% respectively, and prevented the depletion of antioxidant enzymes, superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), glutathione peroxidase (GPx), total glutathione (GSH), and inhibited the increase of myeloperoxidase (MPO) and malondialdehyde (MDA) in rat stomach tissues when compared with ethanol group. Also pre-treatment with ORE marked a dose-dependent attenuation of histopathology changes induced by ethanol. Phenolic and flavonoids wealth, radical scavenging activity, and reducing power, have been implicated for antiulcer property of ORE.

  10. Gastroprotective activity of the chloroform extract of the roots from Arctium lappa L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dos Santos, Ana C; Baggio, Cristiane H; Freitas, Cristina S; Lepieszynski, Juliana; Mayer, Bárbara; Twardowschy, André; Missau, Fabiana C; dos Santos, Elide P; Pizzolatti, Moacir G; Marques, Maria C A

    2008-06-01

    Arctium lappa L. is used in folk medicine as a diuretic, depurative and digestive stimulant and in dermatological conditions. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect and the possible mechanisms involved in the gastroprotective effects of a chloroform extract (CE) of the roots from A. lappa and its fractions. Oral pretreatment with CE (10, 30 and 100 mg kg(-1)) significantly reduced gastric lesions induced by ethanol by 61%, 70% and 76%, respectively. Oral administration of CE (100 mg kg(-1) per day for 7 days) reduced the chronic gastric ulceration induced by acetic acid by 52%. Intraduodenal CE (100, 300 and 600 mg kg(-1)) reduced the total acidity of gastric secretion by 22%, 22% and 33%, respectively, while i.p. administration (10, 30 and 100 mg kg(-1)) inhibited total acidity by 50%, 60% and 67%, respectively. In-vitro, CE inhibited H+, K+ -ATPase activity with an EC50 of 53 microgmL(-1) and fraction A (30 and 100 microgmL(-1)) reduced this by 48% and 89%, respectively. CE had no effect on gastrointestinal motility. CE (250 microgmL(-1)) and fraction B (100 and 250 microgmL(-1)) had free-radical scavenging ability, inhibiting 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical activity by 50%, 20% and 55%, respectively. Collectively, the results show that the CE protects animals from gastric lesions by reducing gastric acid secretion via inhibition of gastric H+, K+ -ATPase.

  11. Performance and Physiology of Steers Grazing Toxic Tall Fescue as Influenced by Concentrate Feeding and Steroidal Implants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fescue toxicosis has a negative impact on animal performance and physiology, but concentrate feeding and ear implantation with steroid hormones could mitigate problems in grazing yearling cattle on toxic tall fescue. Sixty-four steers were grazed on endophyte-infected (E+) ‘KY-31’ tall fescue for 7...

  12. Further investigation of equine fescue oedema induced by Mediterranean tall fescue (Lolium arundinaceum) infected with selected fungal endophytes (Epichloë coenophiala).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finch, S C; Munday, J S; Sutherland, B L; Vlaming, J B; Fletcher, L R

    2017-11-01

    AIMS To determine if equine fescue oedema (EFO) induced by grazing Mediterranean-type tall fescue (Lolium arundinaceum) infected with selected endophytes (Epichloë coenophiala) could be prevented by treatment with the corticosteroid, methylprednisolone, and anti-histamine, cetirizine, and to determine concentrations of lolines, specifically N-acetyl norloline (NANL), in grasses grazed by horses that did and did not develop EFO. METHODS Four horses were grazed on AR542-infected Mediterranean tall fescue pasture (from Day 0) for 7 days prior to being subjected to euthanasia. Two of these horses were treated with 250 mg methylprednisolone and 300 mg cetirizine hydrochloride every 12 hours orally from Days 0-7. Two more horses grazed meadow fescue (Festuca pratensis) infected with the naturally-occurring, common endophyte (Epichloë uncinata) for 21 days before euthanasia. All horses were observed closely for signs of EFO, and blood samples were taken daily for measurement of concentrations of total protein (TP) in serum. Following euthanasia post-mortem examinations were conducted on all horses. Pasture samples of meadow fescue and Mediterranean tall fescue from the current study, and endophyte-infected Mediterranean tall fescue from a previous study that were associated with EFO, were analysed for concentrations of lolines using gas chromatography. RESULTS By Day 7, the treated and untreated horses grazing AR542-infected Mediterranean tall fescue all developed signs of EFO, and concentrations of TP in serum of all horses were Mediterranean tall fescue. In the sample of meadow fescue, concentrations of total lolines and N-acetyl norloline (NANL) were 2,402 and 543 mg/kg, respectively. In the three samples of Mediterranean tall fescue associated with EFO, concentrations of total lolines were 308, 629 and 679 mg/kg, and concentrations of NANL were 308, 614 and 305 mg/kg. CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE In horses grazing Mediterranean tall fescue infected

  13. Pathological changes seen in horses in New Zealand grazing Mediterranean tall fescue (Lolium arundinaceum) infected with selected endophytes (Epichloë coenophiala) causing equine fescue oedema.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munday, J S; Finch, S C; Vlaming, J B; Sutherland, B L; Fletcher, L R

    2017-05-01

    To investigate whether Mediterranean tall fescue (Lolium arundinaceum (Schreb.) Darbysh. (syn Festuca arundinacea)) infected with selected fungal endophytes (Epichloë coenophiala (formerly Neotyphodium coenophialum)) caused equine fescue oedema when grown in New Zealand, and to examine the pathological changes associated with this intoxication. Horses were grazed on Mediterranean tall fescue that was infected with the endophytes AR542 (n=2), or AR584 (n=3), or Mediterranean tall fescue that was endophyte-free (n=2). Blood samples were taken up to 7 days after the start of feeding to detect changes in concentrations of total protein in serum and packed cell volume. Any horse showing clinical evidence of disease was subject to euthanasia and necropsy. Within 6 days, both horses grazing fescue infected with AR542 became depressed and lethargic. One horse grazing fescue infected with endophyte AR584 became depressed within a 5-day feeding period while another horse in this group died shortly after being removed from the AR584 pasture. The third horse in this group did not develop clinical signs within the 5-day feeding period. However, haemoconcentration and hypoproteinaemia was detected in all horses grazing Mediterranean tall fescue that was infected by AR542 or AR584 endophyte. No abnormalities were observed in horses grazing fescue that was endophyte-free. Necropsy examination was performed on two horses grazing fescue infected with AR542 and one horse grazing fescue infected with AR584. All three horses had marked oedema of the gastrointestinal tract. Histologically, the oedema was accompanied by large numbers of eosinophils, but no necrosis. Horses grazing Mediterranean tall fescue that was infected by AR542 or AR584 developed hypoproteinaemia and haemoconcentration, most likely due to leakage of plasma proteins into the gastrointestinal tract. This suggests that these selected endophytes produce a compound that is toxic to horses, although the toxic principle

  14. Evaluating Anti-Inflammatory activity of aqueous root extract of Strophanthus hispidus DC. (Apocynaceae

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    E O Agbaje

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Summary: The present study explored the anti-inflammatory potential of aqueous root extract of Strophanthus hispidus (SPH DC (Apocynaceae in rodents, using standard laboratory models. Doses of 50, 100, 500 and 1000 mg/kg of aqueous SPH were administered orally in carrageenan-induced rat hind paw oedema, xylene-induced ear oedema in mice, and formalin-induced mice hind paw oedema (sub-acute 6 days, using indomethacin (10 mg/kg, dexamethasone 1 mg/kg and acetylsalicylic acid (Aspirin, 100 mg/kg respectively as standard drugs. The study further explored the effect of the herbal drug on some inflammatory mediators-histamine, serotonin and prostaglandin, using only the highest dose of SPH. Results obtained showed that the extract exerted a dose-dependent and significant (p<0.05 anti-inflammatory activity, which compared favourably with the positive control.  Significant inhibitions of mediators were also recorded; however, the least inhibition (42.8 % was produced in the serotonin model. Phytochemical analysis indicated the presence of flavonoids, cardiac glycosides, tannins, and anthraquinones.  It is also noteworthy that zinc, copper, manganese, lead, and chromium were the elemental constituents in the aqueous extract of SPH, some of which have been reported to possess anti-inflammatory property. While 2 g/kg of SPH administered orally did not produce any mortality, the median lethal dose by i.p route was 39.81 mg/kg, and it is thought that the lead contribute to the toxicity recorded. The pH of the herbal drug was 6.7. Our findings substantiate the local use of SPH in the treatment of acute and sub-acute inflammatory conditions, while it also suggests some possible pathways for its anti-inflammatory activity.  Lastly, since the herbal drug is liable to producing toxic effects, it must be used with caution. Industrial relevance: Herbal remedies continue to serve as an important source of conventional therapies for diverse disease conditions

  15. Berberis vulgaris root extract alleviates the adverse effects of heat stress via modulating hepatic nuclear transcription factors in quails.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahin, Kazim; Orhan, Cemal; Tuzcu, Mehmet; Borawska, Maria H; Jabłonski, Jakub; Guler, Osman; Sahin, Nurhan; Hayirli, Armagan

    2013-08-01

    To evaluate the action mode of Berberis vulgaris root extract in the alleviation of oxidative stress, female Japanese quails (n 180, aged 5 weeks) were reared, either at 22°C for 24 h/d (thermoneutral, TN) or 34°C for 8 h/d (heat stress, HS), and fed one of three diets: diets containing 0, 100 or 200 mg of B. vulgaris root extract per kg for 12 weeks. Exposure to HS depressed feed intake by 8·5% and egg production by 12·1%, increased hepatic malondialdehyde (MDA) level by 98·0% and decreased hepatic superoxide dismutase, catalase and glutathione peroxidase activities by 23·5, 35·4 and 55·7%, respectively (PB. vulgaris extract increased, there were linear increases in performance parameters, activities of antioxidant enzymes and hepatic Nrf2 and HO-1 expressions (PB. vulgaris root extract to quails reduces the detrimental effects of oxidative stress and lipid peroxidation resulting from HS via activating the host defence system at the cellular level.

  16. Anthelmintic activity ofSecuridaca longepedunculata (Family:Polygalaceae) root extract in mice, in vitro andin vivo

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Adiele RC; Fakae BB; Isuzu IU

    2013-01-01

    Objective:To elucidate the pharmacological bases of oral administration ofSecuridaca longepedunculata(S. longepedunculata) root extract as an anthelmintic in folkloric medicine. Methods:Albino mice were infected with infective third(L3) larval stage ofHeligmosomoides polygyrus(H. polygyrus) by esophageal intubation.Following establishment of the adult worms in the intestine, the mice were treated with0-2000 mg/kg body weight(bw) of methanolic root extract ofS. longepedunculata and100 mg/kg bw of pyrantel embonate, the reference drugin vivo. Bioactivity and larvicidal effects of the extract were tested by exposing brine shrimps(Artemia salina) to0.00-1.00 mg/mL and theL3 stage ofHeligmosomoidescontortus(H. contortus) and H. polygyrus to0.00-2.50 mg/mL of the extractin vitro.Results:The percentage yield of the extract was7.13% w/w dry matter.The brine shrimps toxicity bioassay resulted in anLC50 of 74.18μg/mL.The extract had a significant, dose-dependent larvicidal effect on theL3 stage ofH. contortus andH. polygyrus with the terminal effect of75% and70% at the highest exposure concentrations, respectively.The extract however, did not affect the number of worm eggs per gram(epg) of fecal materials(P<0.05) and total worm burden(twb) of adultH. polygyrus in infected mice.Treatment with pyrantel embonate significant reduced both the fecal egg count and twb to0 compared to the untreated control(P<0.05).Conclusions:These results indicate that S. longepedunculata root extract contains potent bioactive compounds and has larvicidal effect onL3 stage ofH. contortus andH. polygyrus, substantiating its use as anthelmintic in alternative medicine.

  17. In vitro antimicrobial activity of auxiliary chemical substances and natural extracts on Candida albicans and Enterococcus faecalis in root canals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcia Carneiro Valera

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The aim of this study was to evaluate the antimicrobial activity of auxiliary chemical substances and natural extracts on Candida albicans and Enterococcus faecalis inoculated in root canals. Material and Methods: Seventy-two human tooth roots were contaminated with C. albicans and E. faecalis for 21 days. The groups were divided according to the auxiliary chemical substance into: G1 2.5% sodium hypochlorite (NaOCl, G2 2% chlorhexidine gel (CHX, G3 castor oil, G4 glycolic Aloe vera extract, G5 glycolic ginger extract, and G6 sterile saline (control. The samples of the root canal were collected at different intervals: confirmation collection, at 21 days after contamination; 1st collection, after instrumentation; and 2nd collection, seven days after instrumentation. Microbiological samples were grown in culture medium and incubated at 37°C for 48 hours. Results: The results were submitted to the Kruskal-Wallis and Dunn (5% statistical tests. NaOCl and CHX completely eliminated the microorganisms of the root canals. Castor oil and ginger significantly reduced the number of CFU of the tested bacteria. Reduction of CFU/mL at the 1st and 2nd collections for groups G1, G2, G3 and G4 was greater in comparison to groups G5 and G6. Conclusion: It was concluded that 2.5% sodium hypochlorite and 2% chlorhexidine gel were more effective in eliminating C. albicans and E. faecalis, followed by the castor oil and glycolic ginger extract. The Aloe vera extract showed no antimicrobial activity.

  18. Beneficial effect of extracts of Premna integrifolia root on human leucocytes and erythrocytes against hydrogen peroxide induced oxidative damage

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    Prashant Y Mali

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Oxidative damage as a result of an increase in the free radical load and/or decrease in the efficiency of the antioxidant systems has been implicated in many human diseases. Premna integrifolia (Verbenaceae is an important woody, medicinal plant and has a prominent place in Ayurvedha, Siddha and Unani system of medicines. Traditionally, it has been used for various antioxidant related disorders. Objective: The objective of the present study was to evaluate the beneficial effect of extracts of P. integrifolia root on human leucocytes and erythrocytes against hydrogen peroxide (H 2 O 2 induced oxidative damage. Materials and Methods: Chloroform:methanol (1:1 extract of P. integrifolia (CMEPI and aqueous extract of P. integrifolia roots were used to accessed catalase (CAT, superoxide dismutase (SOD, glutathione peroxidase (GPx, glutathione (GSH and lipid peroxidation (LPO levels in H 2 O 2 induced oxidative damage. Results: Results of the present study revealed that, there was an increase in the CAT, SOD, GPx and reduction of the GSH and LPO levels in H 2 O 2 group compared with the control. P. integrifolia root extract treated groups showed the reduction of CAT, SOD, GPx and increased in the GSH and LPO levels as compared with H 2 O 2 group. CMEPI was found to be more effective than aqueous. Conclusion: The present study suggests that, extracts of P. integrifolia root possess beneficial effect on human leucocytes and erythrocytes against H 2 O 2 induced oxidative damage which has substantiated their use in ethnomedicine as an antioxidant. Observed effect can be attributed due to the flavonoid and phenol contents in the plant. Furthermore, in-vitro and in-vivo studies are needed to explore its effects on antioxidant system of the body for proving its clinical safety, reliability and efficacy.

  19. Unstable simple volatiles and gas chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry analysis of essential oil from the roots bark of Oplopanax horridus extracted by supercritical fluid extraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shao, Li; Bao, Mei-Hua; Ouyang, Dong-Sheng; Wang, Chong-Zhi; Yuan, Chun-Su; Zhou, Hong-Hao; Huang, Wei-Hua

    2014-11-27

    Volatile oil from the root bark of Oplopanax horridus is regarded to be responsible for the clinical uses of the title plant as a respiratory stimulant and expectorant. Therefore, a supercritical fluid extraction method was first employed to extract the volatile oil from the roots bark of O. horridus, which was subsequently analyzed by GC/MS. Forty-eight volatile compounds were identified by GC/MS analysis, including (S,E)-nerolidol (52.5%), τ-cadinol (21.6%) and S-falcarinol (3.6%). Accordingly, the volatile oil (100 g) was subjected to chromatographic separation and purification. As a result, the three compounds, (E)-nerolidol (2 g), τ-cadinol (62 mg) and S-falcarinol (21 mg), were isolated and purified from the volatile oil, the structures of which were unambiguously elucidated by detailed spectroscopic analysis including 1D- and 2D-NMR techniques.

  20. Unstable Simple Volatiles and Gas Chromatography-Tandem Mass Spectrometry Analysis of Essential Oil from the Roots Bark of Oplopanax Horridus Extracted by Supercritical Fluid Extraction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Shao

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Volatile oil from the root bark of Oplopanax horridus is regarded to be responsible for the clinical uses of the title plant as a respiratory stimulant and expectorant. Therefore, a supercritical fluid extraction method was first employed to extract the volatile oil from the roots bark of O. horridus, which was subsequently analyzed by GC/MS. Forty-eight volatile compounds were identified by GC/MS analysis, including (S,E-nerolidol (52.5%, τ-cadinol (21.6% and S-falcarinol (3.6%. Accordingly, the volatile oil (100 g was subjected to chromatographic separation and purification. As a result, the three compounds, (E-nerolidol (2 g, τ-cadinol (62 mg and S-falcarinol (21 mg, were isolated and purified from the volatile oil, the structures of which were unambiguously elucidated by detailed spectroscopic analysis including 1D- and 2D-NMR techniques.

  1. Anti-inflammatory effects of essential oil, aerial parts and hairy roots extracts of Nepeta pogonosperma on rat brain mixed cells

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    S. Valimehr

    2015-08-01

    Results: The results revealed that 0.5 µL/mL of the essential oil reduced NO production significantly. In addition, some hairy root extract concentrations led to reduce it, although the extract of the aerial parts of the plant did not affect NO production. Conclusion: This research has confirmed the anti-inflammatory potential of essential oil and hairy root extract of Nepeta pogonosperma on rat brain mixed cells.

  2. Tall fescue endophyte effects on tolerance to water-deficit stress

    Science.gov (United States)

    To understand more about the enhanced drought tolerance conferred by the endophyte Neotyphodium coenophialum in tall fescue, we analyzed the effect of the endophyte on genetically identical tall fescue clones with (E+) and without the endophyte (E-), by generating E- plants through fungicide trea...

  3. Influence of protein supplementation and implant status on alleviating fescue toxicosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aiken, G E; Piper, E L; Miesner, C R

    2001-04-01

    Heat stress is a major problem in transporting stocker calves with symptoms of fescue toxicosis. Removing calves from tall fescue pastures and offering diets devoid of endophyte-infected tall fescue could reduce the severity of toxicosis and precondition calves for transport to the feedlot. In the present experiment, a pasture phase was used to condition yearling steers to grazing tall fescue and induce symptoms of fescue toxicosis, and a pen phase followed to determine effects of implanting at the start of grazing and protein supplementation (hay only vs hay plus supplement) on short-term changes in rectal temperature and serum prolactin concentration. Neither implant status nor protein supplementation affected (P > 0.10) white blood cell count or rectal temperature. White blood cell counts at the conclusion of the pasture phase averaged 8,778 cells/microL and were within a range indicating no immunological response. Changes in rectal temperature and serum prolactin concentration during the pen phase were not influenced (P > 0.10) by implanting or supplementation. Initial rectal temperatures for the pen phase were high (39.9 degrees C) but declined linearly (P calves from tall fescue pastures and excluding dietary tall fescue for 3 to 4 d may alleviate symptoms of fescue toxicosis.

  4. Host suitability of tall fescue (Festuca arundinacea) cultivars to Meloidogyne ethiopica and M. graminicola.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Considering the importance of the perennial grass tall fescue (Festuca arundinacea) having as forage potential and its resistance to many pests, including some phytoparasitic nematodes, the host reaction of three tall fescue cultivars (cvs. Bulldogs 51, Georgia 5 and Jesup AR542 ) were evaluated for...

  5. TLC densitometric method for screening of lycopsamine in comfrey root (Symphytum officinale L. extracts using retrorsine as a reference compound

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    Janeš Damjan

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Due to severe toxicity of pyrrolizidine alkaloids, their quantification in medicinal products is very important. The idea of this research was to use retrorsine as a surrogate reference compound instead of lycopsamine reference or lycopsamine isolated from comfrey. A method for the analysis of lycopsamine in extracts of comfrey roots was developed and validated, employing thin layer chromatography, derivatisation with Dann-Mattocks reagent followed by densitometric analysis. The new method showed linearity within 0.70 to 7.0 μg of lycopsamine per application of 10 μL of a solution. It has also been proven to be specific and precise (repeatability RSD 2-4 % within the plate. The method was successfully employed for quantification of lycopsamine in comfrey root and comfrey root medicinal products such as ointments.

  6. Rapid validated HPTLC method for estimation of piperine and piperlongumine in root of Piper longum extract and its commercial formulation

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    Anagha A. Rajopadhye

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Piperine and piperlongumine, alkaloids having diverse biological activities, commonly occur in roots of Piper longum L., Piperaceae, which have high commercial, economical and medicinal value. In present study, rapid, validated HPTLC method has been established for the determination of piperine and piperlongumine in methanolic root extract and its commercial formulation 'Mahasudarshan churna®' using ICH guidelines. The use of Accelerated Solvent Extraction (ASE as an alternative to conventional techniques has been explored. The methanol extracts of root, its formulation and both standard solutions were applied on silica gel F254 HPTLC plates. The plates were developed in Twin chamber using mobile phase toluene: ethyl acetate (6:4, v/v and scanned at 342 and 325 nm (λmax of piperine and piperlongumine, respectively using Camag TLC scanner 3 with CATS 4 software. A linear relationship was obtained between response (peak area and amount of piperine and piperlongumine in the range of 20-100 and 30-150 ng/spot, respectively; the correlation coefficient was 0.9957 and 0.9941 respectively. Sharp, symmetrical and well resolved peaks of piperine and piperlongumine spots resolved at Rf 0.51 and 0.74, respectively from other components of the sample extracts. The HPTLC method showed good linearity, recovery and high precision of both markers. Extraction of plant using ASE and rapid HPTLC method provides a new and powerful approach to estimate piperine and piperlongumine as phytomarkers in the extract as well as its commercial formulations for routine quality control.

  7. Analysis of correlation between initial alveolar bone density and apical root resorption after 12 months of orthodontic treatment without extraction

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    Paula Cabrini Scheibel

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: The aim of the present study was to investigate the correlation between initial alveolar bone density of upper central incisors (ABD-UI and external apical root resorption (EARR after 12 months of orthodontic movement in cases without extraction. METHODS: A total of 47 orthodontic patients 11 years old or older were submitted to periapical radiography of upper incisors prior to treatment (T1 and after 12 months of treatment (T2. ABD-UI and EARR were measured by means of densitometry. RESULTS: No statistically significant correlation was found between initial ABD-UI and EARR at T2 (r = 0.149; p = 0.157. CONCLUSION: Based on the present findings, alveolar density assessed through periapical radiography is not predictive of root resorption after 12 months of orthodontic treatment in cases without extraction.

  8. Antioxidant and Cytotoxic Activities and Phytochemical Analysis of Euphorbia wallichii Root Extract and its Fractions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ul-Haq, Ihsan; Ullah, Nazif; Bibi, Gulnaz; Kanwal, Simab; Sheeraz Ahmad, Muhammad; Mirza, Bushra

    2012-01-01

    Euphorbia wallichii a perennial herb growing mainly in Himalayas has been widely used in folk medicines for its medicinal properties. In the present study, the crude methanolic root extract (CME) and its fractions; n-Hexane Fraction (NHF), n-Butanol Fraction (NBF), Chloroform Fraction (CHF), Ethyl acetate Fraction (EAF) and Aqueous Fraction (AQF) of this plant specie were investigated for antioxidant and cytotoxic activities and phytochemical analysis. Antioxidant activity was determined by using 2,2-diphenyl-1-picryl-hydrazyl free radical (DPPH) and DNA protection assay performed on pBR322 plasmid DNA. In both these assays, promising results were obtained for CME as well as other fractions. The IC50 values for DPPH assay were in a range of 7.89 to 63.35 μg/ml in which EAF showed the best anti-oxidant potential and almost all the tested samples showed certain level of DNA protection. The cytotoxic activity was assessed by using Sulforhodamine B (SRB) assay on human cell lines; H157 (Lung Carcinoma) and HT144 (Malignant Melanoma). The IC50 values of the tested samples ranged from 0.18 to 1.4 mg/mL against H157 cell line whereas against HT144 cell line the IC50 values ranged from 0.46 to 17.88 mg/mL with NBF fraction showing maximum potential for both. Furthermore, the phytochemical analysis of CME and its fractions showed the presences of flavonoids, saponins, tannins, terpenoides and cardiac glycosides with varying concentrations.

  9. Protective effects of ginger root extract on Alzheimer disease-induced behavioral dysfunction in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Gao-Feng; Zhang, Zhi-Yong; Lu, Li; Xiao, De-Qiang; Zong, Shao-Hui; He, Jian-Ming

    2013-04-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the ability of a traditional Chinese medicinal ginger root extract (GRE) to prevent behavioral dysfunction in the Alzheimer disease (AD) rat model. Rat AD models were established by an operation (OP) in which rats were treated with a one-time intra-cerebroventricuIar injection of amyloid β-protein (Aβ) and continuous gavage of aluminum chloride every day for 4 weeks. GRE was administered intra-gastrically to rats. After 35 days, learning and memory were assessed in all of the rats. Brain sections were processed for immunohistochemistry and Hematoxylin & Eosin (H&E) and Nissl staining. The latency to show significant memory deficits was shorter in the group that received OP with a high dose of GRE (HG)(OP+HG) than in the groups that received OP with a low or moderate dose of GRE (LG, MG)(OP+LG, OP+MG) (p<0.05). The expression of superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase (CAT) in the OP+MG and OP+LG groups was up-regulated compared to the OP+HG groups (p<0.05). The rats in the OP+HG groups had lower levels of nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB), interleukin-1β (IL-1β), and malondialdehyde (MDA) expression than the rats in the OP+MG and OP+LG groups (p<0.05). This experiment demonstrates that the administration of GRE reverses behavioral dysfunction and prevents AD-like symptoms in our rat model.

  10. Anti-inflammatory activity of liposomes of Asparagus racemosus root extracts prepared by various methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plangsombat, Nathsiree; Rungsardthong, Kanin; Kongkaneramit, Lalana; Waranuch, Neti; Sarisuta, Narong

    2016-01-01

    Asparagus racemosus root extracts (AR) have been reported to possess a variety of pharmacological properties. The aim of the present study was to develop liposomes of AR and to assess their physicochemical characteristics and anti-inflammatory activity in the monocytic leukemia cell line THP-1. Liposomes containing various ratios of AR to lipid and a phosphatidylcholine to cholesterol molar ratio of 7:3 were prepared by thin-film hydration (TF), reverse-phase evaporation (REV) and polyol dilution (PD). The results showed that AR liposomes prepared by TF had a multilamellar structure and a large size, whereas those prepared by REV and PD were oligolamellar in structure, and of a smaller size. The particle sizes and zeta potentials of the liposomes ranged from 196.5 to 456.6 nm and from −4.34 to −18.94 mV, respectively. The AR to lipid ratio was shown to have no significant influence on particle size, while the zeta potential generally increased with increasing AR to lipid ratio. The highest entrapment efficiency values were detected in liposomes with an AR to lipid ratio of 1:5, and for liposomes prepared by TF, REV and PD methods, the entrapment efficiencies were 55.71±2.04, 56.21±3.59 and 67.68±1.37%, respectively. AR was found to exert no toxicity on THP-1 cells. The maximum anti-inflammatory activities of AR and AR liposomes, evaluated in terms of the percentage inhibition of tumor necrosis factor-α in THP-1 cells, were ~52% at a concentration of 1 µg/ml. It can be concluded from the present study that AR liposomes have the potential to be used a formulation for topical and/or transdermal drug delivery to provide anti-inflammatory activity. PMID:27698785

  11. Optimization for ultrasound-assisted extraction of polysaccharides with antioxidant activity in vitro from the aerial root of Ficus microcarpa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Changxing; Li, Xia; Jiao, Yunpeng; Jiang, Dingyun; Zhang, Ling; Fan, Benxia; Zhang, Qianghua

    2014-09-22

    In this study, optimization of ultrasound-assisted extraction and antioxidant activity of polysaccharides from the aerial root of Ficus microcarpa (FMPS) were investigated. The optimal conditions for extraction of FMPS were determined as followings: ultrasound power 200 W, ultrasound temperature 70°C, extraction temperature 74°C, liquid-solid ratio 35, extraction time 238 min, ultrasound time 49 min. The experimental yield of FMPS (3.44%) obtained under these conditions was well agreement with the value predicted by the model. In addition, Fourier transform-infrared spectroscopy and antioxidant activity assays revealed that FMPS were acidic polysaccharides and had strong Fe2+ chelating activity and moderate hydrogen peroxide scavenging effect. Further work on the purification, structure characterization and antioxidant activity in vivo of FMPS is in progress.

  12. Cytotoxic activity of aqueous extracts of Anogeissus leiocarpus and Terminalia avicennioides root barks against Ehrlich Ascites Carcinoma cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amadu Kayode Salau

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: Folkloric claims on the use of a mixture of Anogeissus leiocarpus and Terminalia avicennioides root barks in tumor management exist without scientific evidence. This study aimed at investigating the phytochemical constituents and in vitro antiproliferative activity of these plants and their mixture. Materials and Methods: Phytochemical screening was carried out on the aqueous extracts after which various concentrations (0 to 1 000 μg/ml were incubated with Ehrlich ascites carcinoma cell lines for 3 and 24 hours. Results: The extracts contained alkaloids, tannins, flavonoids, phenolics, saponins, phlobatannins, and terpenes. The separate extracts and their 1:1 mixture significantly (P<0.05 decreased the computed percentage viability of the cell lines in a dose- and time-dependent manner. Conclusions: The antiproliferative activity may be due to the presence of the bioactive compounds in the extracts and has a potential in the management of tumor.

  13. Assessment of antibacterial activity of crude leaf and root extracts of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Materials and methods: Ether and methanol extracts were prepared from the plant parts. ... ether extracts in DMSO and methanol extracts in water were tested using agar-well diffusion ..... Abbreviations: DMSO, Dimethyl sulphioxide; MTM,.

  14. Comparative clinical evaluation of Boerhavia diffusa root extract with standard Enalapril treatment in Canine chronic renal failure

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    Nethaji Lokeswar Oburai

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Complementing herbal drugs with conservative modern treatment could improve renal condition in canine chronic renal failure (CRF. Objective: In this study, clinical evaluation of Boerhavia diffusa root extract was carried out in CRF in dogs in comparison with standard enalapril. Materials and Methods: A total of 20 dogs of mixed breeds suffering from CRF from 1 to 2 months were divided into two groups (n = 10 and treated as follows: Group I - Enalapril at 0.5 mg/kg p.o. once daily for 90 days + amoxicillin and cloxacillin at 25 mg/kg i.m. once daily for 1-week; Group II - B. diffusa root extract at 500 mg p.o per dog daily for 90 days. Both groups were maintained on a supportive fluid therapy. The data were analyzed using paired t-test and one-way ANOVA followed by Dunnett's post-hoc test. Results: CRF caused a significant (P < 0.05 increase in systolic and diastolic blood pressure, serum creatinine, urea nitrogen, sodium, potassium, phosphorus, urinary protein, alkaline phosphatase (ALP, and glutamyl transferase (GGT. A significant (P < 0.05 decrease in hemoglobin and total erythrocyte count (TEC was also observed. Nephrosonography revealed indistinct corticomedullary junction, altered renal architecture, hyper-echoic cortex, medulla, and sunken kidneys. Both the treatments significantly (P < 0.05 reduced systolic and diastolic blood pressure by day 30. Serum Creatinine, urea nitrogen, phosphorus, urinary protein, ALP, and GGT showed significant (P < 0.05 reduction by day 60 in both the treatments. However, potassium levels were normalized only by B. diffusa root extract treatment by day 30. Both the treatments failed to show a significant improvement in nephrosonographic picture even after 90 days posttreatment. Conclusions: In conclusion, the efficacy of B. diffusa root extract was comparable to standard enalapril treatment of CRF in dogs.

  15. Stimulation of nitric oxide synthesis by the aqueous extract of Panax ginseng root in RAW 264.7 cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friedl, Roswitha; Moeslinger, Thomas; Kopp, Brigitte; Spieckermann, Paul Gerhard

    2001-01-01

    In this study, we investigated the effect of Panax ginseng root aqueous extracts upon inducible nitric oxide synthesis in RAW 264.7 cells. Panax ginseng root extract has been used in the Asian world for centuries as a traditional herb to enhance physical strength and resistance and is becoming more and more popular in Europe and North America. Incubation of murine macrophages (RAW 264.7 cells) with increasing amounts of aqueous extracts of Panax ginseng (0.05 – 0.8 μg μl−1) showed a dose dependent stimulation of inducible nitric oxide synthesis. Polysaccharides isolated from Panax ginseng showed strong stimulation of inducible nitric oxide synthesis, whereas a triterpene-enriched fraction from an aqueous extract of Panax ginseng did not show any stimulation. Inducible nitric oxide synthase protein expression was enhanced in a dose dependent manner as revealed by immunoblotting when cells were incubated with increasing amounts of Panax ginseng extract. This was associated with an incline in inducible nitric oxide synthase mRNA-levels as determined by semiquantitative polymerase chain reaction and electromobility shift assay studies indicated enhanced nuclear factor-κB DNA binding activity. As nitric oxide plays an important role in immune function, Panax ginseng treatment could modulate several aspects of host defense mechanisms due to stimulation of the inducible nitric oxide synthase. PMID:11739242

  16. In vitro antifungal activity of extracts obtained from Hypericum perforatum adventitious roots cultured in a mist bioreactor against planktonic cells and biofilm of Malassezia furfur.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simonetti, Giovanna; Tocci, Noemi; Valletta, Alessio; Brasili, Elisa; D'Auria, Felicia Diodata; Idoux, Alicia; Pasqua, Gabriella

    2016-01-01

    Xanthone-rich extracts from Hypericum perforatum root cultures grown in a Mist Bioreactor as antifungal agents against Malassezia furfur. Extracts of Hypericum perforatum roots grown in a bioreactor showed activity against planktonic cells and biofilm of Malassezia furfur. Dried biomass, obtained from roots grown under controlled conditions in a ROOTec mist bioreactor, has been extracted with solvents of increasing polarity (i.e. chloroform, ethyl acetate and methanol). The methanolic fraction was the richest in xanthones (2.86 ± 0.43 mg g(-1) DW) as revealed by HPLC. The minimal inhibitory concentration of the methanol extract against M. furfur planktonic cells was 16 μg mL(-1). The inhibition percentage of biofilm formation, at a concentration of 16 μg mL(-1), ranged from 14% to 39%. The results show that H. perforatum root extracts could be used as new antifungal agents in the treatment of Malassezia infections.

  17. The cleanliness differences of root canal walls after irrigated with East Java propolis extract and sodium hypoclorite solutions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tamara Yuanita

    2017-03-01

    (n=10. The specimens were prepared with ProTaper. During instrumentation, the root canals were irrigated with different solutions: Control Group irrigated with aquadest; Group 1 irrigated with 8% East Java propolis extract; Group 2 irrigated with 2.5% NaOCl and Group 3 irrigated with 5% NaOCl. The root canals were cut at apical third and SEM scores were tested by using Mann-Whitney test at the significance level of p=0.05 and Median Control test. Result: The results of Mann-Whitney Test, there were significant differences between control group with Group 1, 2 and 3 (p<0.05. Based on the Median Control test, the value of 8% East Java propolis extracts was 1,000, which was the best value compared to 2.5% NaOCl, 5% NaOCl and aquadest. Conclusion: It can be concluded that 8% East Java propolis extract is the most effective solution for cleaning root canal walls compared with 2.5% NaOCl and 5% NaOCl.

  18. Polyphenol oxidase activity in subcellular fractions of tall fescue contaminated by polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ling, Wanting; Lu, Xiaodan; Gao, Yanzheng; Liu, Juan; Sun, Yandi

    2012-01-01

    Understanding enzyme responses to contamination with persistent organic pollutants (POPs) is a key step in the elucidation of POP metabolic mechanisms in plants. However, there is little information available on enzyme activity in subcellular fractions of POP-contaminated plants. To our knowledge, this is the first study to investigate the activities of polyphenol oxidase (PPO) in cell fractions of plants under contamination stress from polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) using a greenhouse batch technique. Three parameters, E(cell), E(cell-n), and P(cell), denoting the amount of PPO activity, cell fraction content-normalized PPO activity, and proportion of PPO activity in each cell fraction, respectively, were used in this study. Contamination with phenanthrene, as a representative PAH, at a relatively high level (>0.23 mg L⁻¹) in culture solution generally stimulated PPO activity in tall fescue (Festuca arundinacea Schreb.) roots and shoots and their cellular fractions. The amount and distribution proportion of PPO activity in each cell fraction of phenanthrene-contaminated roots and shoots were (in descending order): cell solution > > cell wall > cell organelles. Cell solution was the dominant storage domain of PPO activity and contributed 84.0 and 82.8% of PPO activity in roots and shoots, respectively. The cell wall had the highest density of PPO activity in roots and shoots, based on the highest cell fraction content normalized PPO activity in this cell fraction. Our results provide new information on enzyme responses in plant intracellular fractions to xenobiotic POPs and fundamental information on within-plant POP metabolic mechanisms.

  19. Essential oils and crude extracts from Chrysanthemum trifurcatum leaves, stems and roots: chemical composition and antibacterial activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sassi, Ahlem Ben; Skhiri, Fethia Harzallah; Chraief, Imed; Bourgougnon, Nathalie; Hammami, Mohamed; Aouni, Mahjoub

    2014-01-01

    The essential oils from the leaves, stems and roots of Chrysanthemum trifurcatum (Desf.) Batt. and Trab. var. macrocephalum (viv.) were obtained by hydrodistillation and their chemical compositions were analysed by gas chromatography (GC) and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS), in order to get insight into similarities and differences as to their active composition. A total of fifty compounds were identified, constituting 97.84%, 99.02% and 98.20% of total oil composition of the leaves, stems and roots, respectively. Monoterpene hydrocarbons were shown to be the main group of constituents of the leaves and stems parts in the ratio of 67.88% and 51.29%, respectively. But, the major group in the roots oil was found to be sesquiterpene hydrocarbons (70.30%). The main compounds in leaves oil were limonene (26.83%), γ-terpinene (19.68%), α-pinene (9.7%) and α-terpenyl acetate (7.16%). The stems oil, contains mainly limonene (32.91%), 4-terpenyl acetate (16.33%) and γ-terpinene (5.93%), whereas the main compounds in roots oil were α-calacorene (25.98%), α-cedrene (16.55%), β-bourbobene (14.91%), elemol (7.45%) and 2-hexenal (6.88%). The crude organic extracts of leaves, stems and roots, obtained by maceration with solvents of increasing polarity: petroleum ether, ethyl acetate and methanol, contained tannins, flavonoids and alkaloids. Meanwhile, essential oils and organic extracts were tested for antibacterial activities against eight Gram-positive and Gram-negative strains, using a microdilution method. The oil and methanolic extact from C. trifurcatum leaves showed a great potential of antibacterial effect against Bacillus subtilis and Staphylococcus epidermidis, with an IC50 range of 31.25-62.5 µg/ml.

  20. Optimization of extraction process and investigation of antioxidant effect of polysaccharides from the root of Limonium sinense Kuntze

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xinhui Tang

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To optimize the extraction technology for polysaccharides from the root of Limonium sinense (Girard Kuntze, Plumbaginaceae and evaluate the antioxidant capacity of polysaccharides from L. sinense (LSEP Materials and Methods : One-singer factor and response surface methodology(RSM were established to extract the polysaccharides from L. sinense. Then, the 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl free radical, hydroxyl radical(.OH, and 2,2′-Azino-bis-(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid diammonium salt free radical assays were established to measure the antioxidant capacity of the LSEP in vitro. Results: According to analysis, extraction temperature significantly affected extraction yield. The optimum extraction conditions for LSEP were as follows: extraction temperature, 95°C; ultrasonic time 50 minutes; and dosage liquor ratio, 1: 12. Under these conditions, the experimental yield of crude LSEP was 12.80±0.19% which was well matched with the predicted models. The antioxidant capacity data suggested that LSEP has strong antioxidant activity. Conclusion: One-singer factor and RSM were used to extract of LSEP are simple and feasible and LSEP could be developed as a nutraceutical agent for itsstrong antioxidant activity.

  1. Inhibition of human calcineurin and yeast calcineurin-dependent gene expression by Jasminum humile leaf and root extracts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prescott, Thomas A K; Ariño, Joaquín; Kite, Geoffrey C; Simmonds, Monique S J

    2012-03-27

    The leaves of Jasminum humile are used to treat skin disorders in a way which resembles the use of modern topical anti-inflammatory drugs. Ethanolic extracts of the roots and leaves were shown to inhibit calcineurin which is a regulator of inflammatory gene expression. A novel yeast calcineurin reporter gene assay suitable for a 96 well plate format was developed to test for inhibition of calcineurin-dependent gene expression. Calmodulin/calcineurin phosphatase assays were then used to further elucidate the mode of action of the extracts. Jasminum humile root and leaf extract exhibited calcineurin inhibition activity that was shown to be mediated through a direct interaction with calcineurin enzyme. The activity is sufficient to block calcineurin-dependent gene expression in a yeast model. The activity of the plant supports its traditional use in the treatment of inflammatory skin disorders. The specially adapted yeast reporter assay was found to be a highly effective way of detecting calcineurin inhibitors in plant extracts. Crown Copyright © 2012. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Larvicidal activity of medicinal plant extracts and lignan identified in Phryma leptostachya var. asiatica roots against housefly (Musca domestica L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seo, Seon-Mi; Park, Il-Kwon

    2012-05-01

    Medicinal plant extracts from 27 plant species in 20 families were tested for their larvicidal activity against housefly, Musca domestica (L.). Responses varied with plant material and concentration. Among plant species tested, Phryma leptostachya var. asiatica showed 100% larvicidal activity against M. domestica at 10 mg/g concentration. Larvicidal activities of Atractylodes japonica, Saussurea lappa, Asiasarum sieboldi, and Gleditsia japonica var. koraiensis were 89.3%, 85.3%, 93.3%, and 96.6% at 10 mg/g concentration, respectively. Extracts of Prunus persica, Curcuma longa, and Paeonia moutan produced moderate activity. Larvicidal activity of other plant extracts was less than 50%. Among test plant species, P. leptostachya var. asiatica showed the most potent larvicidal activity. The active constituent of P. leptostachya var. asiatica roots was identified as the leptostachyol acetate by spectroscopic analysis. The LC(50) values of leptostachyol acetate against M. domestica larvae were 0.039 mg/g. Naturally occurring medicinal plant extracts and P. leptostachya var. asiatica root-derived compounds merit further study as potential housefly larval control agents or lead compounds.

  3. Acute and subchronic toxicity study of the water extract from root of Citrus aurantifolia (Christm. et Panz. Swingle in rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kanjana Jaijoy

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available Acute and subchronic toxicities of the water extract from the roots of Citrus aurantifolia were studied in both male and female rats. Oral administration of the extract at a single dose of 5,000 mg/kg body weight (5 male, 5 female did not produce signs of toxicity, behavioral changes, mortality or differences on gross appearance of internal organs. The subchronic toxicity was determined by oral feeding the test substance at the doses of 300, 600 and 1,200 mg/kg body weight for 90 days (10 male, 10 female. The examinations of signs, animal behavior and health monitoring showed no signs of abnormalities in the test groups as compared to the controls. The test and control groups (on the 90th day and the satellite group (on the 118th day were analyzed by measuring their final body and organ weights, taking necropsy, and examining hematological parameters, blood clinical chemistry and histopathology features. The oral administration of 1,200 mg/kg/ day of the extract of C. aurantifolia in male and female rats caused a significant increase in the liver enzymes, which remained within the normal range, but did not produce a significant histopathological change in the internal organs. In conclusion, the extract from the roots of C. aurantifolia administered orally did not cause acute or subchronic toxicities to male and female rats.

  4. Hepatocurative potential of Vitex doniana root bark, stem bark and leaves extracts against CCl4-induced liver damage in rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    James Dorcas Bolanle; Kadejo Olubukola Adetoro; Sallau Abdullahi Balarabe; Owolabi Olumuyiwa Adeyemi

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the hepatocurative effects of aqueous root bark, stem bark and leaves ofVitex doniana in carbon tetrachloride (CCl albino rats.Methods:4) induced liver damage and non induced liver damage were assigned into liver damage and non liver damage groups of 6 rats in a group. The animals in the CCl4 induced liver damage groups, were induced by intraperitoneal injection with a single dose of CCl4 (1 mL/kg body weight) as a 1:1(v/v) solution in olive oil and were fasted for 36 h before the subsequent treatment with aqueous root bark, stem bark and leaves extracts of Vitex doniana and vitamin E as standard drug (100 mg/kg body weight per day) for 21 d, while the animals in the non induced groups were only treated with the daily oral administration of these extracts at the same dose. The administration of CCl4 was done once a week for a period of 3 weeks.Results:There was significant (P<0.05) increase in concentration of all liver marker enzymes, A total of 60 albino rats (36 induced liver damage and 24 non induced liver damage) alanine aminotransferase, aspartate aminotransferase and alkaline aminotransferase (ALT, AST and ALP) and significant (P<0.05) decrease in albumin in the CCl4 induced liver damage control when compared to the normal control. The extracts caused a significant (P<0.05) reduction in the serum activities of liver marker enzymes (ALT, AST and ALP) and a significant (P<0.05) increase in albumin of all the induced treated groups. Only stem bark extract and vitamin E significantly (P<0.05) increased total protein. All the extracts significantly (P<0.05) lowered serum creatinine whereas only root bark extract significantly (P<0.05) lowered serum level of urea in the rats with CCl4 induced liver damage.Conclusion:Hepatocurative study shows that all the plant parts (root bark, stem bark and leaves) possess significant hepatocurative properties among other therapeutic values justifying their use in folklore medicine.

  5. Amaranthus roxburghianus root extract in combination with piperine as a potential treatment of ulcerative colitis in mice

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Sunil A.Nirmal; Jayashri M.Ingale; Shashikant R.Pattan; Sanjay B.Bhawar

    2013-01-01

    OBJECITVE:The present work was undertaken to determine the effects of Amaranthus roxburghianus Nevski.(Amaranthaceae) root alone and in combination with piperine in treating ulcerative colitis (UC) in mice.METHODS:Swiss albino mice were divided into seven groups (n =6).Standard group received prednisolone (5 mg/kg,intraperitoneally).Treatment groups received hydroalcoholic extract of roots of A.roxburghianus (50 and 100 mg/kg,per oral) and a combination of hydroalcoholic extract of roots of A.roxburghianus (50 and 100 mg/kg,per oral) and piperine (5 mg/kg,per oral).Ulcer index,colitis severity,myeloperoxidase (MPO),malondialdehyde and glutathione were estimated from blood and tissue.Column chromatography of the extract was done and purified fractions were analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectroscopy (GC-MS).RESULTS:Treatment with the combination of hydroalcoholic extract of A.roxburghianus and piperine showed minimal ulceration,hemorrhage,necrosis and leucocyte infiltration by histopathological observation.Acetic acid increased MPO levels in blood and colon tissue to 355 U/mL and 385 U/mg,respectively.The combination of hydroalcoholic extract of A.roxburghianus (100 mg/kg) and piperine (5 mg/kg) significantly decreased MPO in blood and tissue to 182 U/mL and 193 U/mg,respectively (P < 0.05).Similarly,this combination significantly reduced malondialdehyde levels and increased glutathione levels in blood and tissue.Various phytoconstituents were detected by GC-MS.CONCLUSION:The combination of hydroalcoholic extract of A.roxburghianus and piperine is effective in the treatment of UC and the effects are comparable with the standard drug prednisolone.4H-pyran-4-one,2,3-dihydro-3,5-dihydroxy-6-methyl,eugenol and benzene,and 1-(1,5-dimethyl-4-hexenyl)-4-methyl are reported having analgesic,anti-inflammatory,and antioxidant properties; they may play a role in the biological activity of A.roxburghianus root.

  6. Composition of Chicory Root, Peel, Seed and Leaf Ethanol Extracts and Biological Properties of Their Non-Inulin Fractions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joanna Milala

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The chemical composition of the ethanol extracts of chicory root, peel, seed and leaf has been determined, in particular their inulin and phenolic fractions. The root and peel extracts were characterized by large mass fractions of inulin (60.1 and 46.8 g per 100 g of fresh mass, respectively, predominantly with degree of polymerization in the range from 3 to 10, while phenolics, determined as caffeoylquinic acids, made up 0.5 and 1.7 g per 100 g of fresh mass, respectively. The leaf and seed extracts had decidedly lower mass fractions of inulin (1.7 and 3.2 g per 100 g of fresh mass, respectively and higher mass fractions of phenolics (9.6 and 4.22 g per 100 g of fresh mass, respectively recognized as caffeoylquinic acids, chicoric acid and quercetin glucuronide. The biological properties of a non-inulin fraction from each extract were determined on Wistar rats fed with diets rich in fructose and saturated fat, as a model of metabolic changes related to westernization of human eating habits. The diets contained the same amount of inulin (6 % with various phenolic fractions. Some changes were noted in the microbial enzymatic activity of the caecum after feeding for 4 weeks with the diet containing the highest mass fraction of phenolics (0.208 %, derived from the mixture of peel and seed extracts (decreased activity of β-galactosidase and β-glucuronidase, as well as with the diet containing leaf extract (decreased β-glucuronidase activity. All the diets showed no essential influence on the caecal concentration and profile of short-chain fatty acids, except acetate, whose concentration decreased significantly in rats fed with the diet enriched with root extract. The addition of peel and leaf extracts to the fructose diets significantly increased the serum antioxidant capacity of lipophilic substances. The study indicates that parts of chicory and its byproducts might be a source of valuable compounds to improve the physiological activity of

  7. Microbial transformation of ginsenosides extracted from Panax ginseng adventitious roots in an airlift bioreactor

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    Xiaolin Song

    2017-03-01

    Conclusion: These findings may not only solve the problem of low productivity of metabolite in ginseng root culture but may also result in the development of a new valuable method of manufacturing ginsenoside CK.

  8. In vitro analysis on bactericidal screening and antioxidant potentiality of leaf and root extracts of Thottea siliquosa(Lam.) Ding Hou.An ethnobotanical plant

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Saiba Abdul Wahab Nusaiba Kumaraswamy Murugan

    2013-01-01

    ...).A medicinal herb used by local tribals for treating various ailments.The present study aims at the phytochemical screening,GC-MS analysis,in vitro antibacterial activity and antioxidant potentiality of root and leaf extracts...

  9. Protective effects of peony root extract and its components on neuron damage in the hippocampus induced by the cobalt focus epilepsy model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsuda, T; Sugaya, A; Ohguchi, H; Kishida, N; Sugaya, E

    1997-08-01

    Protective effects of peony root extract and its components on neuron damage in the CA1 area of the hippocampus induced by the cobalt focus epilepsy model were examined. Neuron damage in the CA1 area of the hippocampus and frequent spike discharges induced by application of metallic cobalt to the cerebral cortex of rats were completely prevented when peony root extract was continuously administered orally at 1 g/kg/day for 30 days prior to cobalt application. Component crude gallotannin fraction showed marked but incomplete protective action. A combination of crude gallotannin fraction and paeoniflorin showed complete protective action in the same way as peony root extract against neuron damage although use of paeoniflorin alone had no effect. These findings together with our previous reports indicate that peony root extract and its component, gallotannin, have excellent protective effects on neuron damage in addition to anticonvulsant action by prior oral administration.

  10. Carbohydrase inhibition and anti-cancerous and free radical scavenging properties along with DNA and protein protection ability of methanolic root extracts of Rumex crispus

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Supriya Shiwani; Naresh Kumar Singh; Myeong Hyeon Wang

    2012-01-01

    The study elucidated carbohydrase inhibition, anti-cancerous, free radical scavenging properties and also investigated the DNA and protein protection abilities of methanolic root extract of Rumex crispus (RERC...

  11. Phytochemical, Antibacterial and Antioxidant Investigations of Sesbania rostrata Dc (Fabaceae Extracts form Leaves, Stems, Granulates, Pods and Roots

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.B. Ouattara

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available The antibacterial, antioxidant activities and the phytochemical analysis of Sesbania rostrata used in traditional medicine in Burkina Faso were investigated. Aqueous, methanolic and hydro-acetone extracts from leaves, stems, granules, pods and roots organs have demonstrated a good polyphenolic, tannin and flavonoids with variable anti-DPPH, Iron III reduction and antibacterial capacities. Particularly methanol extract form leaves possessed 46.33 mgEGA/100 mg and 25.98 mgETA/100 mg in polyphenolic and tannin content respectively. Beside TLC analysis of this extract demonstrated the presence of quercetin, kaempferol, rutin, caffeic and gallic acids. It was presented a good possibility to inhibit bacteria growth, radical DPPH and to reduce Iron III. These biological activities could support the traditional uses of this plant.

  12. EVALUATION OF ANTIOXIDANT PROPERTIES OF METHANOLIC EXTRACTS FROM LEAVES AND ROOTS OF REHMANNIA GLUTINOSA LIBOSCH. IN HUMAN BLOOD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piątczak, Ewelina; Kuźma, Łukasz; Porada, Weronika; Olas, Beata; Wysokińska, Halina

    2015-01-01

    Compounds with antioxidant activity may protect different elements of blood from damaging effects of oxidative stress. The present in vitro study was designed to examine the antioxidant activity of methanolic extracts from leaves and roots of R. glutinosa plants against damages induced by oxidative stress. Oxidative stress was stimulated in human plasma and human blood platelet samples by the strong biological oxidant--hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) or H2O2/Fe (the donor of hydroxyl radicals). In experimental trials, the level of biomarker of lipid peroxidation--TBARS was significantly decreased by the action of methanolic extracts from R. glutinosa leaves. Therefore, it seems that the methanolic extract from leaves of the plants may be a new source of bioactive antioxidant natural compounds. It may be also an active pharmacological agent or a food supplement for healthy subjects and for people with different diseases (cardiovascular diseases and cancer) induced by oxidative stress.

  13. Influence of anatomical barriers on maxillary incisor root resorption after orthodontic treatment with premolar extractions

    OpenAIRE

    2012-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Apical root resorption is a frequent and occasionally critical problem in orthodontic patients undergoing induced tooth movement. One of the factors that might influence prognosis, especially in maxillary incisors, which most frequently present resorptions, are the so-called the anatomical barriers; that is, proximity of the buccal and palatal cortical bones to the maxillary incisor roots. OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this research was to investigate whether patients with excessive...

  14. Salacia campestris root bark extract: peroxidase inhibition, antioxidant and antiradical profile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Carlos Rebuglio Vellosa

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Reactive oxygen species (ROS and free radical species have been implicated in initiating or accompanying many diseases in living organisms; there is thus, a continual need for antioxidants molecules to inactivate ROS/free radicals. Many studies of plants crude extracts have demonstrated free-radical scavenging and antioxidant action. Salacia species have long been used, in several countries, as traditional medicines against certain diseases and for their anti-inflammatory properties. In this study, Salacia campestris Walp (Hippocrateaceae root bark ethanol extract (ScEtOH was assessed for its ability to scavenge free radicals and reactive oxygen species; the results were expressed as percentage inhibition of the active species. ScEtOH was efficient against studied species: DPPH radical (obtained inhibition = 30%, ABTS•+ (IC50 = 1.8±0.8 μg/mL, HOCl (IC50 = 1.7 ± 0.1 μg/mL, O2•- (obtained inhibition = 32%, and NO• (obtained inhibition = 18 %. Peroxidase activity inhibition was evaluated through the guaiacol oxidation reaction catalyzed by hemin, HRP and myeloperoxidase (MPO; data showed that ScEtOH at 10 μg/mL led to 54 and 51% of inhibition, respectively, for the hemin and HRP systems. In the MPO system, ScEtOH promoted a 50% inhibition at 8.9 μg/mL, whereas quercetin, a powerful MPO inhibitor, inhibited this system at 1.35 μg/mL.Espécies reativas do oxigênio (ERO e radicais livres estão relacionados ao início ou à exacerbação de muitas doenças em organismos vivos; existindo portanto uma necessidade contínua por moléculas antioxidantes que inativem as ERO e radicais livres. Muitos estudos com extratos brutos de plantas têm demonstrado propriedades antioxidantes e seqüestradoras de radicais livres. Espécies de Salacia são utilizadas, em muitos países, como remédio tradicional contra certas doenças e por suas propriedades antiinflamatórias. Neste estudo, o extrato bruto etanólico da casca da raiz da Salacia

  15. Ultrasound-assisted extraction of ginseng saponins from ginseng roots and cultured ginseng cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, J; Lin, L; Chau, F T

    2001-10-01

    Ultrasound-assisted extraction was evaluated as a simpler and more effective alternative to conventional extraction methods for the isolation of ginsenosides (saponins) from various types of ginseng. The ginseng samples were extracted with different solvents, under either direct sonication by an ultrasound probe horn or indirect sonication in an ultrasound cleaning bath. The ultrasonic extraction was compared with the conventional method of refluxing boiling solvents in a soxhlet extractor, on the yields of both the total saponin isolated by thin-layer chromatography and the individual ginsenosides by high performance liquid chromatography. It was found that the sonication-assisted extraction of ginseng saponins was about three times faster than the traditional extraction method. The ultrasonic extraction was not only more efficient but also convenient for the recovery and purification of the active ingredients of plant materials. In addition, the sonication-assisted extraction can be carried out at lower temperatures which are favorable for the thermally unstable compounds.

  16. Antifungal activity of in vitro aqueous and alcoholic extracts of Barije root (Ferula gummosa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Salehi

    2015-01-01

    Conclusion: Methanol and ethanol extracts proved to have antifungal activity against Candida albicans yeast in vitro while the fungi of Aspergillus fumigatus and Trichophyton rubrum had no sensitivity to these types of extracts.

  17. Studies on the antioxidant properties of extracts from the roots and shoots of two Scutellaria species in human blood plasma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grzegorczyk-Karolak, Izabela; Wysokińska, Halina; Olas, Beata

    2015-01-01

    We determined the in vitro antioxidant activity of methanolic extracts from the shoots and roots of Scutellaria species (S. altissima and S. alpina) against the action of strong oxidants: hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) and H2O2+Fe(2+) (donor of hydroxyl radicals) on plasma proteins and lipids. Lipid peroxidation in human plasma was measured by the level of thiobarbituric acid reactive species (TBARS). Protein oxidation was measured by quantitation of thiol group. We observed that the extracts (5-50 µg ml(-1)) containing phenolic compounds from both Scutellaria species distinctly reduced oxidation of lipids and proteins in human plasma treated with H2O2. These results also indicated that the extracts have a protective effect against oxidative damage to the human plasma lipids and proteins by induced hydroxyl radical. The main components of the plant materials analysed were flavonoids, present as aglycones (luteolin) or glycosides (cynaroside, baicalin, wogonoside). In all of the extracts, the phenylethanoid verbascoside was also found. The properties of the tested plant extracts were also compared with the action of a well characterised commercial antioxidative polyphenolic extract from the berries of Aronia melanocarpa (Aronox(®)). The comparative studies indicated that the analysed plant extracts were comparable to or even more effective in reducing the oxidation processes than the A. melanocarpa extract. The present study suggests that natural extracts from S. altissima and S. alpina have antioxidant activities and, therefore, may be beneficial in the prevention of diseases related to oxidant stress, such as cancer, cardiovascular, and inflammatory diseases.

  18. Chemical Characterization, Free Radical Scavenging, and Cellular Antioxidant and Anti-Inflammatory Properties of a Stilbenoid-Rich Root Extract of Vitis vinifera.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esatbeyoglu, Tuba; Ewald, Philipp; Yasui, Yoshiaki; Yokokawa, Haruka; Wagner, Anika E; Matsugo, Seiichi; Winterhalter, Peter; Rimbach, Gerald

    2016-01-01

    Dietary stilbenoids are receiving increasing attention due to their potential health benefits. However, most studies concerning the bioactivity of stilbenoids were conducted with pure compounds, for example, resveratrol. The aim of this study was to characterize a complex root extract of Vitis vinifera in terms of its free radical scavenging and cellular antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties. HPLC-ESI-MS/MS analyses of the root extract of Vitis vinifera identified seven stilbenoids including two monomeric (resveratrol and piceatannol), two dimeric (trans-ɛ-viniferin and ampelopsin A), one trimeric (miyabenol C), and two tetrameric (r-2-viniferin = vitisin A and r-viniferin = vitisin B) compounds which may mediate its biological activity. Electron spin resonance and spin trapping experiments indicate that the root extract scavenged 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl, hydroxyl, galvinoxyl, and superoxide free radicals. On a cellular level it was observed that the root extract of Vitis vinifera protects against hydrogen peroxide-induced DNA damage and induces Nrf2 and its target genes heme oxygenase-1 and γ-glutamylcysteine synthetase. Furthermore, the root extract could induce the antiatherogenic hepatic enzyme paraoxonase 1 and downregulate proinflammatory gene expression (interleukin 1β, inducible nitric oxide synthase) in macrophages. Collectively our data suggest that the root extract of Vitis vinifera exhibits free radical scavenging as well as cellular antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties.

  19. Antiurolithiatic Activity of Extract and Oleanolic Acid Isolated from the Roots of Lantana camara on Zinc Disc Implantation Induced Urolithiasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vyas, Narendra; Argal, Ameeta

    2013-01-01

    The present study was done to evaluate the antiurolithiatic activity of ethanolic extract of roots (ELC 200 mg/kg) and oleanolic acid (OA 60 mg/kg, O.A. 80 mg/kg, O.A. 100 mg/kg) isolated from roots of Lantana camara in albino wistar male rats using zinc disc implantation induced urolithiatic model. The group in which only zinc disc was implanted without any treatment showed increase in calcium output (23  ± 2.7 mg/dL). Cystone receiving animals showed significant protection from such change (P urolitiasis. Thus, OA and ELC showed promising antiurolithiatic activity in dose dependant manner.

  20. Evaluation of different protein extraction methods for banana (Musa spp.) root proteome analysis by two-dimensional electrophoresis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaganan, M Mayil; Sarumathi, S; Nandakumar, A; Ravi, I; Mustaffa, M M

    2015-02-01

    Four protocols viz., the trichloroacetic acid-acetone (TCA), phenol-ammonium acetate (PAA), phenol/SDS-ammonium acetate (PSA) and trisbase-acetone (TBA) were evaluated with modifications for protein extraction from banana (Grand Naine) roots, considered as recalcitrant tissues for proteomic analysis. The two-dimensional electrophoresis (2-DE) separated proteins were compared based on protein yield, number of resolved proteins, sum of spot quantity, average spot intensity and proteins resolved in 4-7 pI range. The PAA protocol yielded more proteins (0.89 mg/g of tissues) and protein spots (584) in 2-DE gel than TCA and other protocols. Also, the PAA protocol was superior in terms of sum of total spot quantity and average spot intensity than TCA and other protocols, suggesting phenol as extractant and ammonium acetate as precipitant of proteins were the most suitable for banana rooteomics analysis by 2-DE. In addition, 1:3 ratios of root tissue to extraction buffer and overnight protein precipitation were most efficient to obtain maximum protein yield.

  1. A comparative study on in vitro and in vivo antioxidant activities of aqueous extract of Desmodium gangeticum (Leguminosae root

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kurian Gino

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The present study was designed to investigate the in vitro and in vivo free radical scavenging effect of aqueous extract of Desmodium gangeticum (DG root in different antioxidant models and experimentally induced ischemic reperfusion in an isolated rat heart. The rats were divided into three groups namely control, reperfusion control, and drug treated. For in vivo study, ischemic reperfusion injury (IRI was induced by 30 minutes ischemia followed by reperfusion of Krebs-Henseleit buffer for 15 minutes or 30 minutes or 45 minutes. Oral administration of DG extract (50 and 100 mg/kg once daily for 30 days was performed in rats of drug group and an increase of enzymatic activity of SOD, catalase and GPx along with an inhibition of lipid per-oxidations were observed. However, a significant rise in lipid peroxidation and reduction in myocardial SOD, catalase, and GPx were observed during IRI. The inhibitory concentrations (IC 50 in DPPH, superoxide scavenging activity, hydroxide scavenging activity, nitric oxide scavenging activity and lipid peroxidation were found to be 51.3, 24.6, 52.7, 53.2 and 415 µg/mL respectively. The presence of cactine, an alkaloid used to treat irregular heartbeat, angina pectoris and cardiac neuralgia was reported in DG through GS-MS analysis. The above results suggest that the aqueous extract of DG root exhibit potential free radical scavenging effect that can reduce the oxidative stress exhibited by IRI.

  2. Assessment of in vitro Antacid Activity of Different Root Extracts of Tephrosia purpurea (L) Pers by Modified Artificial Stomach Model

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Sandhya S; Venkata Ramana K; Vinod K R; Chaitanya Rsnakk

    2012-01-01

    Objective: The purpose of the present investigation is to rule out the antacid activity of Tephrosiapurpurea root by in vitro method using a self fabricated and modified artificial stomach model. The reason for selecting in vitro method was to minimize the usage of experimental animals. Method:In this work we have used air bubbles from an aerator to mimic the peristaltic movements of stomach. Sodium bicarbonate and water were used as reference and control respectively. The parameters evaluated were neutralizing effect, duration of neutralization effect and capacity and effect of temperature on pH. We evaluated the potency of the plant by extracting with three solvents in increasing order of polarity. Results: The neutralization effect, duration of neutralization effect and capacity were found to be higher for methanol root extract than sodium bicarbonate, whereas ethyl acetate and chloroform extract produced moderately good response but less when compared to standard drug but higher than water. Conclusion: Hence this plant can be an effective alternative for sodium bicarbonate which is reported to have side effects like edema n the feet, alteration in systemic pH, belching etc.

  3. Effect of Withania somnifera root extract on spontaneous estrogen receptor-negative mammary cancer in MMTV/Neu mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khazal, Kamel F; Hill, Donald L; Grubbs, Clinton J

    2014-11-01

    The cancer-preventive activity of an extract of Withania somnifera (WS) roots was examined in female transgenic (MMTV/Neu) mice that received a diet containing the extract (750 mg/kg of diet) for 10 months. Mice in the treated group (n=35) had an average of 1.66 mammary carcinomas, and mice in the control group (n=33) had 2.48, showing a reduction of 33%. The average weights of the carcinomas were 2.36 g for mice in the treated group and 2.63 g for the controls, a difference of 10%. Labeling indices for Ki67 and proliferating cell nuclear antigen marker in mammary carcinomas of the treated group were 35% and 30% lower, respectively, than those of the corresponding control group. Expression of the chemokine was reduced by 50%. These results indicate that the root extract reduced the number of mammary carcinomas that developed and reduced the rate of cell division in the carcinomas.

  4. Bioactive Profiles, Antioxidant Activities, Nitrite Scavenging Capacities and Protective Effects on H2O2-Injured PC12 Cells of Glycyrrhiza Glabra L. Leaf and Root Extracts

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    Yi Dong

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available This study compared the total flavonoid content of Glycyrrhiza glabra L. leaf and root extracts. Results suggested that the total flavonoid content in the leaf extract was obviously higher than that in the root extract. Pinocembrin, the main compound in the leaf extract after purification by column chromatography, showed good antioxidant activity and nitrite scavenging capacity, but moderate inhibitory effect on mushroom tyrosinase. Liquiritin was the main compound in root extract and possessed strong inhibitory effect on mushroom tyrosinase. Both compounds exhibited significant protection effect on H2O2-injured PC12 cells at a low concentration. These results indicate that Glycyrrhiza glabra L. leaf is potential as an important raw material for functional food.

  5. Bioactive profiles, antioxidant activities, nitrite scavenging capacities and protective effects on H2O2-injured PC12 cells of Glycyrrhiza glabra L. leaf and root extracts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Yi; Zhao, Mouming; Zhao, Tiantian; Feng, Mengying; Chen, Huiping; Zhuang, Mingzhu; Lin, Lianzhu

    2014-06-30

    This study compared the total flavonoid content of Glycyrrhiza glabra L. leaf and root extracts. Results suggested that the total flavonoid content in the leaf extract was obviously higher than that in the root extract. Pinocembrin, the main compound in the leaf extract after purification by column chromatography, showed good antioxidant activity and nitrite scavenging capacity, but moderate inhibitory effect on mushroom tyrosinase. Liquiritin was the main compound in root extract and possessed strong inhibitory effect on mushroom tyrosinase. Both compounds exhibited significant protection effect on H2O2-injured PC12 cells at a low concentration. These results indicate that Glycyrrhiza glabra L. leaf is potential as an important raw material for functional food.

  6. Ginseng (Panax quinquefolius and Licorice (Glycyrrhiza uralensis Root Extract Combinations Increase Hepatocarcinoma Cell (Hep-G2 Viability

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    David G. Popovich

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The combined cytoactive effects of American ginseng (Panax quinquefolius and licorice (Glycyrrhiza uralensis root extracts were investigated in a hepatocarcinoma cell line (Hep-G2. An isobolographic analysis was utilized to express the possibility of synergistic, additive or antagonistic interaction between the two extracts. Both ginseng and licorice roots are widely utilized in traditional Chinese medicine preparations to treat a variety of ailments. However, the effect of the herbs in combination is currently unknown in cultured Hep-G2 cells. Ginseng (GE and licorice (LE extracts were both able to reduce cell viability. The LC50 values, after 72 h, were found to be 0.64 ± 0.02 mg/mL (GE and 0.53 ± 0.02 mg/mL (LE. An isobologram was plotted, which included five theoretical LC50s calculated, based on the fixed fraction method of combination ginseng to licorice extracts to establish a line of additivity. All combinations of GE to LE (1/5, 1/3, 1/2, 2/3, 4/5 produced an effect on Hep-G2 cell viability but they were all found to be antagonistic. The LC50 of fractions 1/3, 1/2, 2/3 were 23%, 21% and 18% above the theoretical LC50. Lactate dehydrogenase release indicated that as the proportion of GE to LE increased beyond 50%, the influence on membrane permeability increased. Cell-cycle analysis showed a slight but significant arrest at the G1 phase of cell cycle for LE. Both GE and LE reduced Hep-G2 viability independently; however, the combinations of both extracts were found to have an antagonistic effect on cell viability and increased cultured Hep-G2 survival.

  7. Effect of ethanolic extract of Carpolobia lutea G. Don (polygalaceae) root on learning and memory in CD1 mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ajiwhen, I O; Bisong, S A

    2013-12-20

    Carpolobia lutea, commonly called cattle stick or poor man's candle, is used by traditional herbalists in eastern Nigeria to treat 'madness'. It has a reported analgesic and anti-nociceptive effect. The effect of its ethanolic root extract on learning and memory was investigated. Thirty mice were divided into three groups of ten each. One group of mice served as the control and was given normal saline (p.o.) while the other two groups were given acute low dose (1500mg/kg, p.o.) and high dose (2500mg/kg, p.o.) (LD50 3338.83mg/kg). The effect of the extract on cognitive memory was investigated using the Novel Object recognition task (NORT) while the effect on visuospatial learning and memory was studied using the Morris Water maze (MWM). The results obtained in the NORT show that the index of habituation was significantly lower following acute treatment with a low dose of C. lutea extract compared to control. However, the index of habituation did not differ following treatment with a high dose of C. lutea compared to control but it was higher compared to the low dose. Following treatment with a low dose of the extract, the index of discrimination was significantly higher compared to control. The index of discrimination in the high dose treatment group did not differ from control, but it was lower compared to the low dose treatment. This indicated that there was improved cognitive memory only in the low dose treatment group. In the MWM there was no significant difference in swim latency during Acquisition and Reversal training. There also was no significant difference in quadrant duration during probe trial. The swim latency during the visible platform test showed that all mice used had good visual acuity. Therefore, the ethanolic extract of C. lutea root enhanced cognitive memory. However it did not affect visuospatial learning and memory.

  8. Use of hairy roots extracts for 2,4-DCP removal and toxicity evaluation by Lactuca sativa test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Angelini, Vanina A; Agostini, Elizabeth; Medina, María I; González, Paola S

    2014-02-01

    2,4-Dichlorophenol (2,4-DCP) is widely distributed in wastewaters discharged from several industries, and it is considered as a priority pollutant due to its high toxicity. In this study, the use of different peroxidase extracts for 2,4-DCP removal from aqueous solutions was investigated. Tobacco hairy roots (HRs), wild-type (WT), and double-transgenic (DT) for tomato basic peroxidases (TPX1 and TPX2) were used to obtain different peroxidase extracts: total peroxidases (TPx), soluble peroxidases (SPx), and peroxidases ionically bound to the cell wall (IBPx). All extracts derived from DT HRs exhibited higher peroxidase activity than those obtained from WT HRs. TPx and IBPx DT extracts showed the highest catalytic efficiency values. The optimal conditions for 2,4-DCP oxidation were pH 6.5, H2O2 0.5 mM, and 200 U mL(-1) of enzyme, for all extracts analyzed. Although both TPx extracts were able to oxidize different 2,4-DCP concentrations, the removal efficiency was higher for TPx DT. Polyethylene glycol addition slightly improved 2,4-DCP removal efficiency, and it showed some protective effect on TPx WT after 2,4-DCP oxidation. In addition, using Lactuca sativa test, a reduction of the toxicity of post removal solutions was observed, for both TPx extracts. The results demonstrate that TPx extracts from both tobacco HRs appear to be promising candidate for future applications in removing 2,4-DCP from wastewaters. This is particularly true considering that these peroxidase sources are associated with low costs and are readily available. However, TPx DT has increased peroxidase activity, catalytic efficiency, and higher removal efficiency than TPx WT, probably due to the expression of TPX1 and TPX2 isoenzymes.

  9. Comparison of biological activity of phenolic fraction from roots of Alhagi maurorum with properties of commercial phenolic extracts and resveratrol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olas, Beata; Hamed, Arafa I; Oleszek, Wieslaw; Stochmal, Anna

    2015-01-01

    Phenolic compounds have different biological properties, including antioxidative activities, but they may also be prooxidants. The effect of phenolic fraction from roots of Alhagi maurorum on oxidative protein/lipid damages (determined by such parameters as levels of protein thiol groups and the concentration of thiobarbituric acid reactive species--TBARS) in human blood platelets and human plasma after treatment with hydrogen peroxide--H2O2 (which is the strong biologic oxidant and inflammatory mediator) was studied in vitro. We also studied the effect of A. maurorum extract on blood platelet activation corresponding to thrombin-induced arachidonic acid pathway. Moreover, the present work was designed to study the effect of A. maurorum extract on selected physiological function of blood platelets--adhesion of blood platelets to collagen in vitro. The action of phenolic fraction from A. maurorum was compared with the selected commercial phenolic extracts: extract from berries of Aronia melanocarpa (Aronox®), extract from bark of Yucca schidigera and monomeric polyphenol-resveratrol (3,4',5-trihydroxystilbene). Exposure of blood platelets or plasma to H2O2 resulted in a decrease of the level of thiol groups in proteins, and an increase of TBARS. In the presence of phenolic fraction from A. maurorum (0.5-50 µg/ml), a reduction of thiol groups oxidation together with the decrease of autoperoxidation of lipids and lipid peroxidation caused by H2O2 or thrombin was observed. The inhibitory, concentration-dependent effects of A. maurorum extract on adhesion of thrombin-activated platelets to collagen were also found. The phenolic fraction from A. maurorum acts as an antioxidant and can be useful as the natural factor protecting against diseases associated with oxidative stress. Tested fraction from A. maurorum has more effective antioxidative activity and antiplatelet properties than aronia extract or other commercial extract, however differences between their actions

  10. Phytochemical Analysis and Antimicrobial Activities of Methanolic Extracts of Leaf, Stem and Root from Different Varieties of Labisa pumila Benth

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    Ehsan Karimi

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available A local herb, Kacip Fatimah, is famous amongst Malay women for its uses in parturition; however, its phytochemical contents have not been fully documented. Therefore, a study was performed to evaluate the phenolics, flavonoids, and total saponin contents, and antibacterial and antifungal properties of the leaf, stem and root of three varieties of Labisia pumila Benth. Total saponins were found to be higher in the leaves of all three varieties, compared to the roots and stems. Leaves of var. pumila exhibited significantly higher total saponin content than var. alata and lanceolata, with values of 56.4, 43.6 and 42.3 mg diosgenin equivalent/g dry weight, respectively. HPLC analyses of phenolics and flavonoids in all three varieties revealed the presence of gallic acid, caffeic acid, rutin, and myricetin in all plant parts. Higher levels of flavonoids (rutin, quercitin, kaempferol were observed in var. pumila compared with alata and lanceolata, whereas higher accumulation of phenolics (gallic acid, pyrogallol was recorded in var. alata, followed by pumila and lanceolata. Antibacterial activities of leaf, stem and root extracts of all varieties determined against both Gram positive (Micrococcus luteus, Bacillus subtilis B145, Bacillus cereus B43, Staphylococcus aureus S1431 and Gram negative (Enterobacter aerogenes, Klebsiella pneumonia K36, Escherichia coli E256, Pseudomonas aeruginosa PI96 pathogens showed that crude methanolic extracts are active against these bacteria at low concentrations, albeit with lower antibacterial activity compared to kanamycin used as the control. Antifungal activity of methanolic extracts of all plant parts against Fusarium sp., Candida sp. and Mucor using the agar diffusion disc exhibited moderate to appreciable antifungal activities compared to streptomycin used as positive control.

  11. Phytochemical analysis and antimicrobial activities of methanolic extracts of leaf, stem and root from different varieties of Labisa pumila Benth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karimi, Ehsan; Jaafar, Hawa Z E; Ahmad, Sahida

    2011-05-27

    A local herb, Kacip Fatimah, is famous amongst Malay women for its uses in parturition; however, its phytochemical contents have not been fully documented. Therefore, a study was performed to evaluate the phenolics, flavonoids, and total saponin contents, and antibacterial and antifungal properties of the leaf, stem and root of three varieties of Labisia pumila Benth. Total saponins were found to be higher in the leaves of all three varieties, compared to the roots and stems. Leaves of var. pumila exhibited significantly higher total saponin content than var. alata and lanceolata, with values of 56.4, 43.6 and 42.3 mg diosgenin equivalent/g dry weight, respectively. HPLC analyses of phenolics and flavonoids in all three varieties revealed the presence of gallic acid, caffeic acid, rutin, and myricetin in all plant parts. Higher levels of flavonoids (rutin, quercitin, kaempferol) were observed in var. pumila compared with alata and lanceolata, whereas higher accumulation of phenolics (gallic acid, pyrogallol) was recorded in var. alata, followed by pumila and lanceolata. Antibacterial activities of leaf, stem and root extracts of all varieties determined against both Gram positive (Micrococcus luteus, Bacillus subtilis B145, Bacillus cereus B43, Staphylococcus aureus S1431) and Gram negative (Enterobacter aerogenes, Klebsiella pneumonia K36, Escherichia coli E256, Pseudomonas aeruginosa PI96) pathogens showed that crude methanolic extracts are active against these bacteria at low concentrations, albeit with lower antibacterial activity compared to kanamycin used as the control. Antifungal activity of methanolic extracts of all plant parts against Fusarium sp., Candida sp. and Mucor using the agar diffusion disc exhibited moderate to appreciable antifungal activities compared to streptomycin used as positive control.

  12. Antimicrobial Effects of a Lipophilic Fraction and Kaurenoic Acid Isolated from the Root Bark Extracts of Annona senegalensis

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    Theophine Chinwuba Okoye

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Root bark preparation of Annona senegalensis Pers. (Annonaceae is used in Nigerian ethnomedicine for treatment of infectious diseases. Extraction of the A. senegalensis powdered root bark with methanol-methylene chloride (1 : 1 mixture yielded the methanol-methylene extract (MME which was fractionated to obtain the ethyl acetate fraction (EF. The EF on further fractionation gave two active subfractions, F1 and F2. The F1 yielded a lipophilic oily liquid while F2 on purification, precipitated white crystalline compound, AS2. F1 was analyzed using GC-MS, while AS2 was characterized by proton NMR and X-ray crystallography. Antibacterial and antifungal studies were performed using agar-well-diffusion method with 0.5 McFarland standard and MICs calculated. GC-MS gave 6 major constituents: kaur-16-en-19-oic acid; 1-dodecanol; 1-naphthalenemethanol; 6,6-dimethyl-bicyclo[3.1.1]hept-2-ene-2-ethanol; 3,3-dimethyl-2-(3-methylbuta-1,3-dienylcyclohexane-1-methanol; 3-hydroxyandrostan-17-carboxylic acid. AS2 was found to be kaur-16-en-19-oic acid. The MICs of EF, F1, and AS2 against B. subtilis were 180, 60, and 30 μg/mL, respectively. AS2 exhibited activity against S. aureus with an MIC of 150 μg/mL, while F1 was active against P. aeruginosa with an MIC of 40 μg/mL. However, the extracts and AS2 exhibited no effects against Candida albicans and Aspergillus niger. Therefore, kaurenoic acid and the lipophilic fraction from A. senegalensis root bark exhibited potent antibacterial activity.

  13. Antimicrobial Effects of a Lipophilic Fraction and Kaurenoic Acid Isolated from the Root Bark Extracts of Annona senegalensis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okoye, Theophine Chinwuba; Akah, Peter Achunike; Okoli, Charles Ogbonnaya; Ezike, Adaobi Chioma; Omeje, Edwin Ogechukwu; Odoh, Uchenna Estella

    2012-01-01

    Root bark preparation of Annona senegalensis Pers. (Annonaceae) is used in Nigerian ethnomedicine for treatment of infectious diseases. Extraction of the A. senegalensis powdered root bark with methanol-methylene chloride (1 : 1) mixture yielded the methanol-methylene extract (MME) which was fractionated to obtain the ethyl acetate fraction (EF). The EF on further fractionation gave two active subfractions, F1 and F2. The F1 yielded a lipophilic oily liquid while F2 on purification, precipitated white crystalline compound, AS2. F1 was analyzed using GC-MS, while AS2 was characterized by proton NMR and X-ray crystallography. Antibacterial and antifungal studies were performed using agar-well-diffusion method with 0.5 McFarland standard and MICs calculated. GC-MS gave 6 major constituents: kaur-16-en-19-oic acid; 1-dodecanol; 1-naphthalenemethanol; 6,6-dimethyl-bicyclo[3.1.1]hept-2-ene-2-ethanol; 3,3-dimethyl-2-(3-methylbuta-1,3-dienyl)cyclohexane-1-methanol; 3-hydroxyandrostan-17-carboxylic acid. AS2 was found to be kaur-16-en-19-oic acid. The MICs of EF, F1, and AS2 against B. subtilis were 180, 60, and 30 μg/mL, respectively. AS2 exhibited activity against S. aureus with an MIC of 150 μg/mL, while F1 was active against P. aeruginosa with an MIC of 40 μg/mL. However, the extracts and AS2 exhibited no effects against Candida albicans and Aspergillus niger. Therefore, kaurenoic acid and the lipophilic fraction from A. senegalensis root bark exhibited potent antibacterial activity.

  14. Efficient induction of extrinsic cell death by dandelion root extract in human chronic myelomonocytic leukemia (CMML cells.

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    Pamela Ovadje

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Chronic Myelomonocytic Leukemia (CMML is a heterogeneous disease that is not only hard to diagnose and classify, but is also highly resistant to treatment. Available forms of therapy for this disease have not shown significant effects and patients rapidly develop resistance early on in therapy. These factors lead to the very poor prognosis observed with CMML patients, with median survival duration between 12 and 24 months after diagnosis. This study is therefore centered around evaluating the selective efficacy of a natural extract from dandelion roots, in inducing programmed cell death in aggressive and resistant CMML cell lines. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: To confirm the induction of programmed cell death in three human CMML cell lines, nuclear condensation and externalization of the phosphatidylserine, two main characteristics of apoptosis, were detected using Hoechst staining and annexin-V binding assay. The induction of another mode of cell death, autophagy, was determined using a monodansylcadaverine (MDC stain, to detect the formation of autophagy vacuoles. The results from this study indicate that Dandelion Root Extract (DRE is able to efficiently and selectively induce apoptosis and autophagy in these cell lines in a dose and time dependent manner, with no significant toxicity on non-cancerous peripheral blood mononuclear cells. More importantly, we observed early activation of initiator caspase-8, which led to mitochondrial destabilization and the induction of autophagy, suggesting that DRE acts through the extrinsic pathway of apoptosis. The inability of DRE to induce apoptosis in dominant-negative FADD cells, confirms the mechanism of action of DRE in in vitro models of CMML. CONCLUSION: The results from this study indicate that natural products, in particular Dandelion Root Extract, have great potential, as non-toxic and effective alternatives to conventional modes of chemotherapy available today.

  15. Growth Strategy of Rhizomatous and Non-Rhizomatous Tall Fescue Populations in Response to Defoliation

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    Racheal H. Bryant

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to determine the morphology of rhizome production, in two contrasting rhizomatous (R and non-rhizomatous (NR tall fescue (Schedonorus arundinaceus (Schreb. Dumort populations, and to assess whether rhizome production is associated with changed biomass allocation or plant growth pattern. Growth of R and NR populations was compared, under hard defoliation (H, 50 mm stubble, lax defoliation (L, 100 mm stubble, or without defoliation (U, uncut. Populations were cloned and grown in a glasshouse and defoliated every three weeks, with destructive harvests performed at 6, 12 and 18 weeks. R plants allocated more biomass to root and less to pseudostem than NR plants. Plant tiller numbers were greatly reduced by defoliation, and R and NR populations differed in leaf formation strategy. R plants had narrower leaves than NR, but their leaves were longer, because of greater leaf elongation duration. R plants were more plastic than NR plants in response to defoliation. Ultimately, biomass allocation to rhizomes did not differ between populations but R plants exhibited a subtle shift in distribution of internode length with a few longer internode segments typically located on secondary and tertiary tillers.

  16. Evaluation of the safety and efficacy of Glycyrrhiza uralensis root extracts produced using artificial hydroponic and artificial hydroponic-field hybrid cultivation systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akiyama, H; Nose, M; Ohtsuki, N; Hisaka, S; Takiguchi, H; Tada, A; Sugimoto, N; Fuchino, H; Inui, T; Kawano, N; Hayashi, S; Hishida, A; Kudo, T; Sugiyama, K; Abe, Y; Mutsuga, M; Kawahara, N; Yoshimatsu, K

    2017-01-01

    Glycyrrhiza uralensis roots used in this study were produced using novel cultivation systems, including artificial hydroponics and artificial hydroponic-field hybrid cultivation. The equivalency between G. uralensis root extracts produced by hydroponics and/or hybrid cultivation and a commercial Glycyrrhiza crude drug were evaluated for both safety and efficacy, and there were no significant differences in terms of mutagenicity on the Ames tests. The levels of cadmium and mercury in both hydroponic roots and crude drugs were less than the limit of quantitation. Arsenic levels were lower in all hydroponic roots than in the crude drug, whereas mean lead levels in the crude drug were not significantly different from those in the hydroponically cultivated G. uralensis roots. Both hydroponic and hybrid-cultivated root extracts showed antiallergic activities against contact hypersensitivity that were similar to those of the crude drug extracts. These study results suggest that hydroponic and hybrid-cultivated roots are equivalent in safety and efficacy to those of commercial crude drugs. Further studies are necessary before the roots are applicable as replacements for the currently available commercial crude drugs produced from wild plant resources.

  17. Analgesic and anti-inflammatory activities of 80% methanol root extract of Jasminum abyssinicum Hochst. ex. Dc. (Oleaceae) in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tadiwos, Yohannes; Nedi, Teshome; Engidawork, Ephrem

    2017-04-18

    Pain and inflammation are associated with the pathophysiology of various clinical conditions. Most analgesic and anti-inflammatory drugs available in the market present a wide range of problems. The current study was aimed at investigating the analgesic and anti-inflammatory activity of 80% methanol extract of J. abyssinicum root. The analgesic activity was determined using tail-flick test and acetic acid induced writhing, whereas anti-inflammatory activity was determined by carrageenan induced paw edema and formalin induced pedal edema, carried out in vivo. The test group received three different doses of the extract (50mg/kg, 100mg/kg and 200mg/kg) orally. The positive control group received diclofenac (10mg/kg), aspirin (100mg/kg or 150mg/kg) or morphine (20mg/kg) orally. The negative control group received vehicle (2% Tween 80, 10ml/kg) orally. Furthermore, preliminary phytochemical screening was carried out. Oral administration of J. abbysinicum 80% methanol extract (at all doses) significantly (p<0.001) inhibit pain sensation in the pain models. Similarly, the extract demonstrated anti-inflammatory effect in the inflammation models in mice. Preliminary phytochemical screening showed the presence of saponins, flavonoids, terpenoids, triterpenens and glycosides. The data obtained from the present study indicates that the extract possessed a significant analgesic and anti-inflammatory activity, upholding the folkloric use of the plant. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Dandelion root extract affects colorectal cancer proliferation and survival through the activation of multiple death signalling pathways.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ovadje, Pamela; Ammar, Saleem; Guerrero, Jose-Antonio; Arnason, John Thor; Pandey, Siyaram

    2016-11-08

    Dandelion extracts have been studied extensively in recent years for its anti-depressant and anti-inflammatory activity. Recent work from our lab, with in-vitro systems, shows the anti-cancer potential of an aqueous dandelion root extract (DRE) in several cancer cell models, with no toxicity to non-cancer cells. In this study, we examined the cancer cell-killing effectiveness of an aqueous DRE in colon cancer cell models. Aqueous DRE induced programmed cell death (PCD) selectively in > 95% of colon cancer cells, irrespective of their p53 status, by 48 hours of treatment. The anti-cancer efficacy of this extract was confirmed in in-vivo studies, as the oral administration of DRE retarded the growth of human colon xenograft models by more than 90%. We found the activation of multiple death pathways in cancer cells by DRE treatment, as revealed by gene expression analyses showing the expression of genes implicated in programmed cell death. Phytochemical analyses of the extract showed complex multi-component composition of the DRE, including some known bioactive phytochemicals such as α-amyrin, β-amyrin, lupeol and taraxasterol. This suggested that this natural extract could engage and effectively target multiple vulnerabilities of cancer cells. Therefore, DRE could be a non-toxic and effective anti-cancer alternative, instrumental for reducing the occurrence of cancer cells drug-resistance.

  19. Sesquiterpene lactones and inulin from chicory roots: extraction, identification, enzymatic release and sensory analysis.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leclercq, E.

    1992-01-01

    Chicory ( Cichorium intybus L.) is one of the many species of the family Compositae. Chicory has been cultivated for the production of leaves or chicons, which have been used as a vegetable since approximately 300 BC, and for its roots, which can be used as a coffee substitute after roasting.

  20. Sesquiterpene lactones and inulin from chicory roots : extraction, identification, enzymatic release and sensory analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leclercq, E.

    1992-01-01

    Chicory ( Cichorium intybus L.) is one of the many species of the family Compositae. Chicory has been cultivated for the production of leaves or chicons, which have been used as a vegetable since approximately 300 BC, and for its roots, which can be used as a

  1. Identification of Onosma visianii Roots Extract and Purified Shikonin Derivatives as Potential Acaricidal Agents against Tetranychus urticae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sut, Stefania; Pavela, Roman; Kolarčik, Vladislav; Cappellacci, Loredana; Petrelli, Riccardo; Maggi, Filippo; Dall'Acqua, Stefano; Benelli, Giovanni

    2017-06-16

    There is an increasing need for the discovery of reliable and eco-friendly pesticides and natural plant-derived products may play a crucial role as source of new active compounds. In this research, a lipophilic extract of Onosma visianii roots extract containing 12% of shikonin derivatives demonstrated significant toxicity and inhibition of oviposition against Tetranychus urticae mites. Extensive chromatographic separation allowed the isolation of 11 naphthoquinone derivatives that were identified by spectral techniques and were tested against Tetranychus urticae. All the isolated compounds presented effects against the considered mite and isobutylshikonin (1) and isovalerylshikonin (2) were the most active, being valuable model compounds for the study of new anti-mite agents.

  2. Assessment of median lethal dose and anti-mutagenic effects of Glycyrrhiza glabra root extract against chemically induced micronucleus formation in Swiss albino mice

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    Varsha Sharma

    2014-04-01

    Conclusion: Based on this study, it may be concluded that Glycyrrhiza glabra root extract possess anti-mutagenic behavior and this hydro-methanolic crude extract may be safe as per the LD50 was observed. [Int J Basic Clin Pharmacol 2014; 3(2.000: 292-297

  3. The Effect of Root, Shoot and Seed Extracts of The Iranian Thymus L. (Family: Lamiaceae Species on HIV-1 Replication and CD4 Expression

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    Maryam Soleimani Farsani

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Objective The genus Thymus L. is a cushion plant that was previously used for the treatment of bronchitis and rheumatism. The present investigation was carried out to study the effects of root, shoot, leaf and seed extracts of five Thymus species and subspecies on peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs toxicity and HIV-1 replication. Materials and Methods In this experimental study, the activity of the Thymus extracts on HIV-1 replication and lymphocytes population were examined respectively using HIV-1 p24 Antigen kit and flow-cytometer. The Thymus species effect was investigated, including Thymus kotschyanus, Thymus vulgaris, Thymus carmanicus, Thymus daenensis subspecies lancifolius and Thymus daenensis subspecies daenensis. Results The effect of root methanol extracts of all species on PBMCs proliferation was significantly higher than the other extracts. The intensity of CD4, CD3 and CD45 were decreased in the presence of all root extracts. Although the average median fluorescence intensity (MFI values of CD19 were increased in the cells treated with these extracts. All methanol extracts showed anti-HIV-1 activity at high concentrations (200 and 500 µg/ml. Anti-HIV-1 activity of Thymus daenensis subspecies daenensis was significantly more than the other species. Conclusion These results demonstrated that root extracts of Thymus species might be a good candidate to investigate anti-HIV infection in vivo.

  4. Evaluation of in-vitro antibacterial activity and anti-inflammatory activity for different extracts of Rauvolfia tetraphylla L. root bark

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    B. Ganga Rao; P. Umamaheswara Rao; E. Sambasiva Rao; T. Mallikarjuna Rao; V. S. Praneeth. D

    2012-01-01

    To assess the in-vitro antibacterial activity and anti-inflammatory activity of orally administered different extracts (Hydro-alcoholic, methanolic, ethyl acetate and hexane) of Rauvolfia tetraphylla (R. tetraphylla) root bark in Carrageenan induced acute inflammation in rats. Methods: In-vitro antibacterial activity was evaluated for extracts against four Gram positive and four Gram negative bacteria by using cylinder plate assay. Hydro-alcoholic extract (70% v/v ethanol) at 200, 400 and 800 mg/kg doses and methanolic, ethyl acetate and hexane extracts at doses 100, 200 and 400 mg/kg were tested for anti-inflammatory activity in Carrageenan induced rat paw oedema model and paw thickness was measured every one hour up to 6 hrs. Results: All extracts of R. tetraphylla root bark showed good zone of inhibition against tested bacterial strains. In Carrageenan induced inflammation model, hydro-alcoholic and methanolic extract of R. tetraphylla root bark at three different doses produced significant (P<0.001) reduction when compared to vehicle treated control group and hexane, ethyl acetate extracts. Conclusions:In the present study extracts of R. tetraphylla root bark shows good in-vitro antibacterial activity and in-vivo anti-inflammatory activity in rats.

  5. Evaluation of in-vitro antibacterial activity and anti-inflammatory activity for different extracts of Rauvolfia tetraphylla L.root bark

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    B.Ganga; Rao; P.Umamaheswara; Rao; E.Sambasiva; Rao; T.Mallikarjuna; Rao; V.S.Praneeth.D

    2012-01-01

    Objective:To assess the in-vitro antihacterial activity and anti-inflammatory activity of orally administered different extracts(Hydro-alcoholic,methanolic,ethyl acetate and hexane)of Rauvolfia tetraphylla(R.tetraphylla)root bark in Carrageetiaii induced acute inflammation in rats.Methods:In-vitro antibacterial activity was evaluated for extracts against four Gram positive and four Gram negative bacteria by using cylinder plate assay.Hydro-alcoholic extract(70%v/v ethanol)at 200,400 and 800 mg/kg doses and methanolic,ethyl acetate and hexane extracts at doses 100,200 and 400 mg/kg were tested for anti-inflammatory activity in Carrageenan induced rat paw oedema model and paw thickness was measured every one hour up to 6 hrs.Results:All extracts of R.tetraphylla root bark showed good zone of inhibition against tested bacterial strains.In Carrageenan induced inflammation model,hydro-alcoholic and methanolic extract of R.tetraphylla root bark at three different doses produced significant(P<0.00l)reduction when compared to vehicle treated control group and hexane,ethyl acetate extracts.Conclusions:In the present study extracts of R.tetraphylla root bark shows good in-vitro antibacterial activity and in-vivo anti-inflammatory activity in rats.

  6. Nematicidal activity of plant extracts against the root-knot nematode, Meloidogyne incognita

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wiratno,; Taniwiryono, D.; Berg, van den J.H.J.; Riksen, J.A.G.; Rietjens, I.; Djiwanti, S.R.; Kammenga, J.E.; Murk, A.J.

    2009-01-01

    Nematicidal activity of extracts from plants was assayed against Meloidogyne incognita. In laboratory assays extracts from tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum L), clove (Syzygium aromaticum L), betelvine (Piper betle L), and sweet flag (Acorus calamus L) were most effective in killing the nematode, with an E

  7. Evaluation of anthelmintic activity and in silico PASS assisted prediction of Cordia dichotoma (Forst. root extract

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prasad G Jamkhande

    2014-01-01

    Conclusion: The findings of the present work suggest that the extract of C. dichotoma significantly interferes with motility pattern of P. posthuma. The paralysis and mortality of P. posthuma might be due to the combined effects different phytoconstituents. The extract of C. dichotoma promises natural sources to control worm infection.

  8. Antifungal effect of some plant extracts against factors wheat root rot

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atmaca, Sevim; Şimşek, Şeyda; Denek, Yunus Emre

    2017-04-01

    Methanol leaf extracts of Humulus lupulus L. and Achillea millefolium L. were evaluated for antifungal activity against economically important phytopathogenic fungi including Fusarium culmorum (W. G. Smith) Sacc. The final concentrations of the methanol extracts obtained from the plants were added to the Potato Dextrose Agar (PDA) at 1%, 2%, 4% and 8% doses. Mycelial disks of pathogens (6 mm in diameter) removed from the margins of a 7 days old culture were transferred to PDA media containing the plant extracts at tested concentrations. Four replicates were used per treatment. For each plant extract and concentration, inhibition of radial growth compared with the untreated control was calculated after 7 days of incubation at 24±1°C, in the dark. Extracts H. lupulus and A. millefolium inhibited the mycelial growth of F. culmorum of mycelial growth of 8% dose of the pathogens by 92.77% and 69.83%, respectively. It has been observed that the antifungal effect of the extracts increases with dose increase. As a result, at least micelle growth and the highest percent inhibition rate were obtained at 8% dose of the extract H. lupulus. H. lupulus extract can be used as a biological preparation.

  9. Gangrenous ergotism in cattle grazing fescue (Festuca elatior L. in South Africa : clinical communication

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C.J. Botha

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available The 1st outbreak of fescue toxicosis in South Africa was recently confirmed in a Brahman herd at Perdekop, near Standerton, in Mpumalanga province, SouthAfrica.Within 3 weeks of being placed on a fescue pasture in mid-winter, 50 of 385 cattle developed lameness and / or necrosis of the tail. The farmer had established Festuca elatior L. (tall fescue, Iewag variety on c. 140 ha for winter grazing. Fescue may be infected by an endophyte, Neotyphodium coenophialum, which produces ergot alkaloids, in particular ergovaline. Ergovaline concentrations in basal leaf sheaths and grass stems collected during the outbreak ranged from 1720-8170 ppb on a dry-matter basis.

  10. Protective roles of nitric oxide on antioxidant systems in tall fescue ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ONOS

    2010-01-18

    Jan 18, 2010 ... Key words: Antioxidant, high-light stress, nitric oxide, tall fescue. INTRODUCTION ... effective molecular reaction or indirect effect of changing potential ... regime of 14/10 h and a photosynthetic photo flux density (PPFD).

  11. Fungal endophyte infection increases carbon sequestration potential of southeastern USA tall fescue stands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tall fescue (Schedonorus arundinaceous (Schreb.)) is often infected with a common toxic fungal endophyte (Neotyphodium coenophialum) capable of producing alkaloids that affect grazing animal health, insect herbivory, plant production, and litter decomposition. The strength of these endophyte-associa...

  12. EFFECTS OF ADMINISTRATION OF ETHANOLIC ROOT EXTRACT OF JATROPHA GOSSYPIFOLIA AND PREDNISOLONE ON THE KIDNEYS OF WISTAR RATS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Medubi L.J

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The effect of oral administration of ethanolic root extract of Jatropha gossypifolia and prednisolone on the kidney histology and renal function of albino rats was studied to assess the safety and toxicity of the plant as an herbal remedy.The rats were divided into four groups I, II, III and IV. Group I served as control and was given feed and water only. Group II, III, and IV were subdivided into Group IIa, IIb, IIIa, IIIb, IVa and IVb. Groups IIa, IIIa, and IVa received 10 mg, 20 mg and 30 mg/kg b.w of the extract while Group IIb, IIIb and IVb received 10 mg ,20 mg and 30 mg/kg b.w of the extract respectively plus 10 mg/kg b.w of prednisolone per day. The animals were sacrificed on day 7, 10 and 14 and their kidneys harvested and processed for histological studies. Their blood was also collected for serum urea measurement.Photomicrographs of the histological sections of Groups II, III and IV rats revealed changes compared to the control group and serum urea levels were significantly higher in these groups. Histological changes observed are consistent with glomerulonephritis and include increased urinary (Bowman's space, shrinkage and distortion of the glomerular tuft as well as scarring of the glomeruli. Changes appear to be both dosage and time dependent and the administration of prednisolone as an adjunct did not exert any ameliorative effect.We conclude that ethanolic root extract of Jatropha gossypifolia is toxic to the kidney and causes increased urea retention in the blood.

  13. Burdock root extracts limit quorum-sensing-controlled phenotypes and biofilm architecture in major urinary tract pathogens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajasekharan, Satish Kumar; Ramesh, Samiraj; Bakkiyaraj, Dhamodharan; Elangomathavan, Ramaraj; Kamalanathan, Chakkaravarthi

    2015-02-01

    Bacterial biofilms are serious concern in patients infected with urinary tract infections, complicated urinary tract infections and other device-associated infections. Microbes within the biofilms are effectively shielded from antibiotics and host immune cells, hence can be treated only with agents which has the potential to disassemble the biofilms. The study is focused on the root extracts of Arctium lappa Linn. as a source for complementary medicine against three major biofilm forming clinical isolates of Escherichia coli, Proteus mirabilis, and Serratia marcescens. Methanol extracts of burdock roots (BR) showed no bactericidal activity (p > 0.05) against the uropathogens, whereas restrained the biofilms (p < 0.05) on polystyrene and glass surfaces at a biofilm inhibitory concentration of 100 µg/mL. The 3D confocal laser scanning microscopy was used to analyze the biofilm architecture which showed significant reduction in the surface area. Z-stack analysis has also revealed substantial reduction in the biofilm thickness (E. coli-50.79%, P. mirabilis-69.49%, and S. marcescens-75.84%). Further, BR extracts also inhibited quorum-sensing (QS)-controlled cellular phenotypes such as violacein, prodigiosin, swarming motility, and cell surface hydrophobicity. LC-MS/MS analysis of BR extracts identified the presence of two major quercetin derivatives (miquelianin and peltatoside) along with few other constituent components. Exploring such phytocompounds will provide potential agents to treat infections caused by biofilm forming uropathogens. The antibiofilm and anti-QS agents will ultimately serve as armor, facilitating the host immune system to fight infections.

  14. Chlorophytum borivilianum (Safed Musli) root extract prevents impairment in characteristics and elevation of oxidative stress in sperm of streptozotocin-induced adult male diabetic Wistar rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giribabu, Nelli; Kumar, Kilari Eswar; Rekha, Somesula Swapna; Muniandy, Sekaran; Salleh, Naguib

    2014-08-08

    We hypothesized that C. borivilianum root, known to improve male reproductive performance, prevents impairment in characteristics, morphology and elevation of oxidative stress in sperm of diabetics. We therefore investigated the effect of aqueous root extract of C. borivilianum on these parameters in diabetic rat model. C. borivilianum root aqueous extract (250 and 500 mg/kg/day) or glibenclamide (600 μg/kg/day) were administered to streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetic male rats for 28 consecutive days. At the end of treatment, animals were sacrificed and sperm were collected. Sperm count and percentages of forward motility, viability, hypoosmotic swelling (HOS) tail-coiled and abnormal sperm were evaluated. Sperm lipid peroxidation product (LPO), hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) and nitric oxide (NO) levels, total antioxidant capacity (TAC), activity levels of endogenous antioxidant enzymes (superoxide dismutase-SOD, catalase-CAT and glutathione peroxidase-GPx), epididymal sperm density, serum fasting blood glucose (FBG) and HbA1c levels were measured. The expression of sperm caspase-3 was assessed. Meanwhile, in-vitro free radical scavenging activity of C. borivilianum root extract was determined and the root extract was analyzed for the presence of bioactive compounds by FTIR spectroscopy. C. borivilianum root aqueous extract prevents the decrease in sperm count, percentages of forward motility, viability, HOS and the increase in abnormal sperm percentage and caspase-3 level in diabetic rats. Sperm LPO, H2O2 and NO levels, FBG and HbA1c were lower while TAC, SOD, CAT, GPx and epididymal sperm density were higher in diabetic rats receiving C. borivilianum root extract treatment. C. borivilianum root exhibited strong in-vitro free radical scavenging activity which may be due to the phenolic compound. C. borivilianum root extract prevents impairment in sperm characteristics and morphology via preventing elevation of oxidative stress, apoptosis and free radicals levels of

  15. Local Anesthetic Activity from Extracts, Fractions and Pure Compounds from the Roots of Ottonia anisum Spreng. (Piperaceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    López, Kelvin S E; Marques, André M; Moreira, Davyson DE L; Velozo, Leosvaldo S; Sudo, Roberto T; Zapata-Sudo, Gisele; Guimarães, Elsie F; Kaplan, Maria Auxiliadora C

    2016-01-01

    Piperaceae species can be found worldwide in tropical and subtropical areas and many of them have been used for centuries in traditional folk medicine and in culinary. In Brazil, species of Piperaceae are commonly used in some communities as local anesthetic and analgesic. Countrified communities have known some species of the genus Ottonia as "anestesia" and it is a common habit of chewing leaves and roots of Ottonia species to relief toothache. The purpose of this study is to report our findings on new molecules entities obtained from the roots of Ottonia anisum Spreng, in which local anesthetic activity (sensory blockage) is demonstrated for the first time in vivo guinea pig model. Phytochemical investigation led to the isolation of three amides (pipercallosidine, piperine and valeramide) and in an enriched mixture of seven amides (valeramide, 4,5-dihydropiperlonguminine, N-isobutil-6-piperonil-2-hexenamide, piperovatine, dihydropipercallosidine, pipercallosidine and pipercallpsine). Our findings demonstrated the anesthetic potential for the methanolic extract from roots, its n-hexane partition and amides from O. anisum and it is in agreement with ethnobotanical survey.

  16. Local Anesthetic Activity from Extracts, Fractions and Pure Compounds from the Roots of Ottonia anisum Spreng. (Piperaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    KELVIN S.E. LÓPEZ

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Piperaceae species can be found worldwide in tropical and subtropical areas and many of them have been used for centuries in traditional folk medicine and in culinary. In Brazil, species of Piperaceae are commonly used in some communities as local anesthetic and analgesic. Countrified communities have known some species of the genus Ottonia as "anestesia" and it is a common habit of chewing leaves and roots of Ottonia species to relief toothache. The purpose of this study is to report our findings on new molecules entities obtained from the roots of Ottonia anisum Spreng, in which local anesthetic activity (sensory blockage is demonstrated for the first time in vivo guinea pig model. Phytochemical investigation led to the isolation of three amides (pipercallosidine, piperine and valeramide and in an enriched mixture of seven amides (valeramide, 4,5-dihydropiperlonguminine, N-isobutil-6-piperonil-2-hexenamide, piperovatine, dihydropipercallosidine, pipercallosidine and pipercallpsine. Our findings demonstrated the anesthetic potential for the methanolic extract from roots, its n-hexane partition and amides from O. anisum and it is in agreement with ethnobotanical survey.

  17. Chronological comparison of root dentin moisture in extracted human teeth stored in formalin, sodium azide, and distilled water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Komabayashi, Takashi; Ahn, Chul; Zhang, Song; Zhu, Qiang

    2009-01-01

    This study quantified in vitro the root dentin moisture when 10% formalin (Group A), 3% sodium azide (Group B), and distilled water (Group C) were used as teeth storage media. The root dentin moisture of 66 extracted human mandibular single-rooted teeth was measured at baseline (day 0) and at 1, 3, 7, and 14 days using a digital grain moisture meter. The baseline dentin moisture value was used as a covariate in the generalized estimating equation (GEE) analysis. The mean dentin moisture values (%) ± standard deviation on days 0, 1, 3, 7, and 14 were 10.6±0.64, 14.3±0.71, 14.6±0.84, 14.4±0.64, and 14.7±0.75 (Group A); 11.4±0.94, 14.6±0.95, 14.6±0.76, 14.6±0.93, and 14.8±0.81 (Group B); and 10.2±0.95, 12.8±0.90, 13.3±0.95, 13.0±0.91, and 13.2±0.89 (Group C), respectively. The dentin moisture increased in all three groups; however, there was no overall significant difference in moisture between the formalin and sodium azide groups. PMID:19540443

  18. INVESTMENT ANALYSIS OF REPLACING ENDOPHYTE-INFECTED WITH ENDOPHYTE-FREE TALL FESCUE PASTURES

    OpenAIRE

    Marchant, Mary A.; Murrell, Courtney Paige; Zhuang, Jun

    2004-01-01

    Cattle consuming tall fescue pastures infected with the endophyte Neotyphodium coenophialum often suffer physiological disorders that reduce animal performance. One solution is to replace endophyte-infected tall fescue pastures with an endophyte-free mixture. A benefit-cost analysis was conducted to determine the profitability of pasture restoration. The profitability of this action depends on the percentage of endophyte in existing pastures, the discount rate, and the stand life of the endop...

  19. Development and assessment of an efficient numerical solution of the richard's equation including root extraction by plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varado, N.; Braud, I.; Ross, P. J.

    2003-04-01

    A new numerical method for solving the 1D Richard's equation has been proposed by P. Ross (Agronomy J., 2003, in press). The Kirchhoff transform or degree of saturation is used instead of the classical matrix potential. The solution can be used both for saturated or non saturated soils. Hydraulic properties are described using the Brooks and Corey model. The soil is discretized into layers. Their thickness can be larger than in classical matrix potential methods, due to the use of a time and space varying weighing procedure for the calculation of fluxes between layers. This allows the use of a non iterative procedure, ensuring a very fast numerical solution. Extensive tests showed that the new method was very accurate for bare soils. The next step was the addition of a root extraction module in order to account for plant transpiration. Two root water uptake modules with compensation mechanisms in case of water stress were chosen from the literature. They express the transpiration source term in the Richards equation as a linear function of a potential transpiration and take into account water stress and its effects on plant transpiration. These modules were proposed first by Lai and Katul (Adv. Water Resour., 2000) and Li et al. (J. Hydrol., 2001). The new version of the model has been tested in a systematic way with several soils characteristics, climate forcings, and evapotranspiration calculation. Like the tests without vegetation, the SiSPAT (Simple Soil Plant Atmosphere Transfer) model was considered as a reference after implementation of the same roots modules. The numerical solution was also tested using a soybean data set. The variations and the cumulative values like drainage, water content, real transpiration and real evapotranspiration were in a good agreement with the SiSPAT modelling, with a relative error of less than 3%. The error on soil evaporation remained important (about 20%) on low cumulative values (less than 20mm), i.e. when LAI was close to

  20. Root resection under the surgical field employed for extraction of impacted tooth and management of external resorption

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A R Vivekananda Pai

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This case report illustrates determination of prognosis and immediate resection carried out, before completing the endodontic therapy, during the surgery employed for managing a nonperiodontal problem. This case showed external pressure resorption in the distobuccal root of maxillary second molar caused by the impingement of impacted third molar. Extraction of third molar was decided when healing was not seen, despite initiating endodontic therapy in second molar. Following elevation of flap and extraction of third molar, the poor prognosis due to severe bone loss around the resorbed root was evident. But due to strategic value of second molar, it was found beneficial to employ resection. Therefore, immediate resection was carried out in the same surgical field before the completion of endodontic therapy. This prevented the need for another surgical entry with its associated trauma to carry out resection separately later. Resection followed by the completion of endodontic therapy and full crown assisted in salvaging the remaining functional portion of the tooth and prevented the occurrence of distal extension with its potential drawbacks.

  1. Antidiabetic activity of aqueous root extract ofMerremia tridentata (L.) Hall. f. in streptozotocin-induced-diabetic rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Karuppusamy Arunachalam; Thangaraj Parimelazhagan

    2012-01-01

    Objective:To investigate the antidiabetic effect of aqueous extract ofMerremia tridentata (M. tridentata) root(MTRAE) in normal, glucose-loaded hyperglycemic and streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetic rats.Methods: Oral administration ofMTRAE at the doses of50, 100 and150 mg/kg was studied in normal, glucose-loaded andSTZ-diabetic rats. The three doses caused significant reduction in blood glucose levels in all the models.Results: The effect was more pronounced in100and150mg/kg than50 mg/kg.MTRAE also showed significant increase in serum insulin, body weight and glycogen content in liver and skeletal muscle ofSTZ-induced diabetic rats while there was significant reduction in the levels of serum triglyceride and total cholesterol.MTRAE also showed significant antilipidperoxidative effect in the pancreas ofSTZ-induced diabetic rats. The antidiabetic effect ofM. tridentata was compared with glibenclamide, a well known hypoglycemic drug.Conclusions:The results indicate that aqueous extract ofM. tridentata root possesses significant antidiabetic activity.

  2. Hypoglycemic and Hypotensive Activity of a Root Extract of Smilax aristolochiifolia, Standardized on N-trans-Feruloyl-Tyramine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carol Arely Botello Amaro

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The metabolic syndrome (MS is a condition consisting of various metabolic abnormalities that are risk factors for developing kidney failure, cardiovascular, vascular and cerebrovascular diseases, among others. The prevalence of this syndrome shows a marked increase. The aim of this study was to investigate the pharmacological effect of Smilax aristolochiifolia root on some components of MS and obtain some of the active principle using chromatographic techniques. The compound isolated was N-trans-feruloyl tyramine NTF (1, and its structure was determined by spectroscopic and spectrometric analyses. The whole extract and the standardized fractions were able to control the weight gain around 30%; the fraction rich in NTF was able to decrease the hypertriglyceridemia by 60%. The insulin resistance decreased by approximately 40%; the same happened with blood pressure, since the values of systolic and diastolic pressure fell on average 31% and 37% respectively, to levels comparable to normal value. The treatment also had an immunomodulatory effect on the low-grade inflammation associated with obesity, since it significantly decreased the relative production of pro-inflammatory cytokines regarding anti-inflammatory cytokines, both kidney and adipose tissue. Therefore it can be concluded that the extract and fractions of Smilax aristolochiifolia root with NTF are useful to counteract some symptoms of MS in animal models.

  3. Cytotoxic and apoptogenic effects of Bryonia aspera root extract against Hela and HN-5 cancer cell lines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pourgonabadi, Solmaz; Amiri, Mohammad Sadegh; Mousavi, Seyed Hadi

    2017-01-01

    Objective: Bryonia aspera (Stev. ex Ledeb) is a plant that grows in northeast of Iran. In the present study, cytotoxic and apoptogenic properties of B. aspera root extract was determined against HN-5(head and neck squamous cell carcinoma) and Hela (cervix adenocarcinoma) cell lines. Materials and Methods: HN-5 and Hela cell lines were cultured in DMEM medium and incubated with different concentrations of B. aspera root extract. Cell viability was quantitated by MTT assay and the optical absorbance was measured at 570 nm (620 nm as the reference) by an ELISA reader, in each experiment. Apoptotic cells were assessed using PI staining of DNA fragmentation by flow cytometry (sub-G1 peak). The B. aspera inhibited 50% growth (IC50) of Hela and HN-5 cell lines at 100±28 μg/ml and 12.5±4 μg/ml, respectively after 48 hr of incubation. Results: Cell viability assay showed that inhibitory effects of B. aspera were time and dose-dependent in both cell lines, which were consistent with morphological changes, observed under light microscope. Apoptosis was investigated by flow cytometry in which percentage of apoptotic cells increased in a dose and time-dependent manner. Conclusion: Based on our data, B. aspera has cytotoxic effects in which apoptosis played an important role. Further evaluations are needed to assess the possible anti-tumor properties of this plant. PMID:28265548

  4. Investigation of protective effects of Erythrina velutina extract against MMS induced damages in the root meristem cells of Allium cepa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deborah S. B. S. Silva

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Erythrina velutina Willd., Fabaceae, is a medicinal plant that can be found in the tropics and subtropics, including in the semi-arid northeastern Brazil. It is commonly used in folk medicine to treat anxiety, agitation and insomnia. E. velutina has been known to present analgesic, anti-inflammatory and antibacterial activities, however, it is unknown if this plant present a protective effect on DNA. We assessed the antigenotoxic effect of E. velutina against the genotoxic effects induced by MMS in the root meristem cells of Allium cepa. Three concentrations of the aqueous extract (100, 200 and 400 mg/L of this medicinal plant were used in three different types of treatment (pre-, post- and simultaneous. The effects of the extracts on the root meristem cells of A. cepa were analyzed at both macroscopic and microscopic levels. Protective effects were observed at higher concentrations in pre-treatment and in simultaneous treatment. The results suggest that E. velutina may present antigenotoxic properties and demonstrate its chemopreventive potential.

  5. HPLC Fingerprint and LC-TOF-MS Analysis on Extract from Roots of Gentiana macrophylla

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SU Qi; SHANG Ping-ping; ZHANG Yong-min; JIA Na; HE Jiao; ZHAO Wen-na; SUN Wen-ji

    2012-01-01

    Objective Establishing a fingerprint method to identify the characteristic chemicals in the roots of Gentiana macrophylla and evaluate their quality.Methods RP-HPLC was developed for fingerprint analysis and determination of four ingredients in G macrophylla roots from different sources.LC-ESI-TOF-MS was employed to identify the chromatographic peaks of the fingerprint.Results Five common peaks were identified by comparing their retention time with reference secoiridoid glucosides.Eight major peaks in chromatographic fingerprint were analyzed by on-line LC-ESI-TOF-MS.Four secoiridoid glucosides were identified based on their MS data.Conclusion The method is specific and could be served for the quality identification and comprehensive evaluation of G macrophylla.

  6. Some adverse effects of soil amendment with organic Materials-The case of soils polluted by copper industry phytostabilized with red fescue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cuske, Mateusz; Karczewska, Anna; Gałka, Bernard; Dradrach, Agnieszka

    2016-08-02

    The study was aimed to examine the effects of soil amendment with organic waste materials on the growth of red fescue and the uptake of Cu and Zn by this grass, in view of its potential usage for phytostabilization of Cu-polluted soils. Five soils, containing 301-5180 mg/kg Cu, were collected from the surroundings of copper smelter Legnica, and amended with lignite (LG) and limed sewage sludge (SS). Plant growth and the concentrations of Cu and Zn in the shoots and roots of grass were measured in a pot experiment and related to the results of Pytotoxkit and Microtox® tests performed on soil solution. The effects of soil amendment with LG and SS differed greatly, and depended on soil properties. In some cases, the application of alkaline SS resulted in dramatic increase of Cu phytotoxicity and its enhanced uptake by plants, while application of LG to slightly acidic soil caused increased accumulation of Zn in plants, particularly in their roots. The study confirmed good suitability of red fescue for phytostabilization of Cu-contaminated soils except for those extremely polluted. Organic amendments to be used for metal immobilization should be thoroughly examined prior to application.

  7. Acute and sub-acute oral toxicity assessment of the hydroalcoholic extract of Withania somnifera roots in Wistar rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prabu, P C; Panchapakesan, S; Raj, C David

    2013-08-01

    Withania somnifera is a widely used medicinal plant for several disorders. Toxicity studies on Withania somnifera are not available. Acute and sub-acute oral toxicities of Withania somnifera root extract in Wistar rats were evaluated in the present study. In the acute toxicity study, WSR extract was administered to five rats at 2000 mg/kg, once orally and were observed for 14 days. No toxic signs/mortality were observed. In the sub-acute study, WSR extract was administered once daily for 28 days to rats at 500, 1000 and 2000 mg/kg, orally. No toxic signs/mortality were observed. There were no significant changes (P < 0.05) in the body weights, organ weights and haemato-biochemical parameters in any of the dose levels. No treatment related gross/histopathological lesions were observed. The present investigation demonstrated that the no observed adverse effect level was 2000 mg/kg body weight per day of hydroalcoholic extract of W. somnifera in rats and hence may be considered as non-toxic.

  8. meta-Tyrosine induces modification of reactive nitrogen species level, protein nitration and nitrosoglutathione reductase in tomato roots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krasuska, Urszula; Andrzejczak, Olga; Staszek, Paweł; Borucki, Wojciech; Gniazdowska, Agnieszka

    2017-08-01

    A non-protein amino acid (NPAA) - meta-Tyrosine (m-Tyr), is a harmful compound produced by fescue roots. Young (3-4 days old) tomato (Solanum lycopersicum L.) seedlings were supplemented for 24-72 h with m-Tyr (50 or 250 μM) inhibiting root growth by 50 or 100%, without lethal effect. Fluorescence of DAF-FM and APF derivatives was determined to show reactive nitrogen species (RNS) localization and level in roots of tomato plants. m-Tyr-induced restriction of root elongation growth was related to formation of nitrated proteins described as content of 3-nitrotyrosine. Supplementation with m-Tyr enhanced superoxide radicals generation in extracts of tomato roots and stimulated protein nitration. It correlated well to increase of fluorescence of DAF-FM derivatives, and transiently stimulated fluorescence of APF derivatives corresponding respectively to NO and ONOO(-) formation. Alterations in RNS formation induced by m-Tyr were linked to metabolism of nitrosoglutathione (GSNO). Activity of nitrosoglutatione reductase (GSNOR), catalyzing degradation of GSNO was enhanced by long term plant supplementation with m-Tyr, similarly as protein abundance, while transcripts level were only slightly altered by tested NPAA. We conclude, that although in animal cells m-Tyr is considered as a marker of oxidative stress, its secondary mode of action in tomato plants involves perturbation in RNS formation, alteration in GSNO metabolism and modification of protein nitration level. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Fragipan Horizon Fragmentation in Slaking Experiments with Amendment Materials and Ryegrass Root Tissue Extracts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. D. Karathanasis

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Slaking experiments were conducted of fragipan clods immersed in solutions of poultry manure, aerobically digested biosolid waste (ADB, fluidized bed combustion byproduct (FBC, D-H2O, CaCO3, NaF, Na-hexa-metaphosphate, and ryegrass root biomass. The fragipan clods were sampled from the Btx horizon of an Oxyaquic Fragiudalf in Kentucky. Wet sieving aggregate analysis showed significantly better fragmentation in the NaF, Na-hexa-metaphosphate, and ryegrass root solutions with a mean weight diameter range of 15.5–18.8 mm compared to the 44.2–47.9 mm of the poultry manure, ADB, and FBC treatments. Dissolved Si, Al, Fe, and Mn levels released in solution were ambiguous. The poor efficiency of the poultry manure, ADB, and FBC treatments was attributed to their high ionic strength, while the high efficiency of the NaF, Na-hexa-metaphosphate, and rye grass root solutions to their high sodium soluble ratio (SSR. A slaking mechanism is proposed suggesting that aqueous solutions with high SSR penetrate faster into the fragipan capillaries and generate the critical swelling pressure and shearing stress required to rupture the fragipan into several fragments. Additional fragmentation occurs in a followup stage during which potential Si, Al, Fe, and Mn binding agents may be released into solution. Field experiments testing these findings are in progress.

  10. Effect of plumbagin free alcohol extract ofPlumbago zeylanica Linn. root on reproductive system of female Wistar rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Gupta Sandeep; Ahirwar Dheeraj; Sharma Neeraj Kumar; Jhade Deenanath; Ahirwar Bharti

    2011-01-01

    Objective:To assess the effect of plumbagin-free alcohol extract (PFAE) ofPlumbago zeylanica Linn. (Plumbaginaceae) (P. zeylanica) root, on female reproductive system and fertility of adult female wistar rats.Methods: After the oral acute toxicity study, thePFAE was administered at two dose levels to perform the estrous cycle study, anti-implantation and abortifacient activity and hormonal analysis. However, the estrogenic/antiestrogenic activity was evaluated at only one most effective dose.Results:LD50cut-off was5 000 mg/kg body weight. The extract exhibited significant anti-implantation and abortifacient activity at the tested dose levels (300 and500 mg/kg,p.o.) (P<0.01). The extract dose-dependently decreased the levels of serum progesterone, follicle stimulating hormone and luteinizing hormone, while a dose-dependent increase was observed in the concentration of serum prolactin. The extract did not show any significant changes in structure and function of uterus when given alone, but when given along with ethinyl estradiol, it exhibited significant antiestrogenic activity in immature overiectomized female rats(P<0.001). Biochemical parameters in the serum/blood and haematological parameters did not show appreciable changes throughout and after the course of investigation. However, all the altered parameters returned to normalcy within30 days following withdrawal of treatment. Conclusions: All findings suggest that the antifertility activity of extract could possibly be through the changes in the implantation site, altered hormonal levels, prolonged estrous cycle and anti-estrogenic activity. Hence, the extract possesses reversible antifertility activity without adverse toxicity in female rats.

  11. Anti-emetic activity of Grewia lasiodiscus root extract and fractions

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2008-09-03

    Sep 3, 2008 ... in folkloric medicine for the management of fever, pains and emesis. ... Qualitative phytochemical analysis was carried out on extract and the most bioactive .... through excitation of visceral afferent nerve fibres of the. GIT.

  12. In vitro Hypolipidemic and Antioxidant Effects of Leaf and Root Extracts of Taraxacum Officinale

    OpenAIRE

    Belén García-Carrasco; Raquel Fernandez-Dacosta; Alberto Dávalos; Ordovás, José M.; Arantxa Rodriguez-Casado

    2015-01-01

    Adipose tissue dysfunction constitutes a primary defect in obesity and might link this disease to severe chronic health problems. We aimed to evaluate the antioxidant activity of three extracts from Taraxacum officinale (dandelion) as well as their effects on mature 3T3-L1 adipocytes concerning intracellular lipid accumulation and cytotoxicity, this would give indications regarding therapeutic interest of dandelion as potential anti-obesity candidate. Antioxidant activities of extracts from ...

  13. Forages and pastures symposium: managing the tall fescue-fungal endophyte symbiosis for optimum forage-animal production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aiken, G E; Strickland, J R

    2013-05-01

    Alkaloids produced by the fungal endophyte (Neotyphodium coenophialum) that infects tall fescue [Lolium arundinaceum (Schreb.) Darbysh.] are a paradox to cattle production. Although certain alkaloids impart tall fescue with tolerances to environmental stresses, such as moisture, heat, and herbivory, ergot alkaloids produced by the endophyte can induce fescue toxicosis, a malady that adversely affects animal production and physiology. Hardiness and persistence of tall fescue under limited management can be attributed to the endophyte, but the trade-off is reduced cattle production from consumption of ergot alkaloids produced by the endophyte. Improved understanding and knowledge of this endophyte-grass complex has facilitated development of technologies and management systems that can either mitigate or completely alleviate fescue toxicosis. This review discusses the research results that have led to development of 5 management approaches to either reduce the severity of fescue toxicosis or alleviate it altogether. Three approaches manipulate the endophyte-tall fescue complex to reduce or alleviate ergot alkaloids: 1) use of heavy grazing intensities, 2) replacing the toxic endophyte with nonergot alkaloid-producing endophytes, and 3) chemical suppression of seed head emergence. The remaining 2 management options do not affect ergot alkaloid concentrations in fescue tissues but are used 1) to avoid grazing of tall fescue with increased ergot alkaloid concentrations in the late spring and summer by moving cattle to warm-season grass pasture and 2) to dilute dietary alkaloids by interseeding clovers or feeding supplements.

  14. Effects of aqueous extract from Asparagus officinalis L. roots on hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis hormone levels and the number of ovarian follicles in adult rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hojatollah Karimi Jashni

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: Asparagus is a plant with high nutritional, pharmaceutical, and industrial values. Objective: The present study aimed to evaluate the effect of aqueous extract of asparagus roots on the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis hormones and oogenesis in female rats. Materials and Methods: In this experimental study, 40 adult female Wistar rats were divided into five groups, which consist 8 rats. Groups included control, sham and three experimental groups receiving different doses (100, 200, 400 mg/kg/bw of aqueous extract of asparagus roots. All dosages were administered orally for 28 days. Blood samples were taken from rats to evaluate serum levels of Gonadotropin releasing hormone (GnRH, follicular stimulating hormone (FSH, Luteinal hormone (LH, estrogen, and progesterone hormones. The ovaries were removed, weighted, sectioned, and studied by light microscope. Results: Dose-dependent aqueous extract of asparagus roots significantly increased serum levels of GnRH, FSH, LH, estrogen, and progestin hormones compared to control and sham groups. Increase in number of ovarian follicles and corpus luteum in groups treated with asparagus root extract was also observed (p<0.05. Conclusion: Asparagus roots extract stimulates secretion of hypothalamic- pituitary- gonadal axis hormones. This also positively affects oogenesis in female rats.

  15. THE ANTI-INFLAMMATORY EFFECTS OF AQUEOUS EXTRACT OF GINGER ROOT IN DIABETIC MICE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ZAHRA FATEHI-HASSANABAD

    2005-04-01

    Full Text Available On the basis of reports that ginger (Zingiber officinale, Z. officinale extract has antiinfalammatory activity, the present study was undertaken to investigate whether the aqueous extract of Z. officinale has any significant beneficial effect on chronic inflammation in diabetic mice. Control mice received normal saline (0.1 ml, i.p., and in the test group, diabetes was induced by injection of streptozotocin (STZ, 180mg/kg, i.p. which was confirmed by the measurement of blood glucose, 7 days after STZ injection. One week after saline or STZ injection, chronic inflammation was induced by implantation of cotton pellets (30 mg on each side of the groin region subcutaneously. Then at the day of 3, the aqueous extract of Z.officinale was added to drinking water (100, 200 and 400 mg/100 ml for 4 days. In another sets of experiments, L-NAME, a nitric oxide synthase inhibitor, (0.1 mg/kg, i.p. and indomethacin, an inhibitor of the prostaglandin biosynthesis, (2 mg/kg, i.p. were injected at the day of 5 of implantation. On the 8th day, the mice were killed and the pellets were removed, freed from extraneous tissue and dried at 60 °C for 24h. The increase in the weight of cotton pellets was higher in diabetic mice (control: 160 ± 13.6 mg,diabetic: 271 ± 11.8 mg, P<0.001. Pretreatment with the aqueous extract of Z. officinale caused a significant but not dose-dependent reduction in cotton pellet weight in diabetic animals (diabetic + Z.officinale's extract: 181.4 ± 21 mg, P<0.05 vs diabetic. The anti-inflammatory effect of extract was almost the same as L-NAME, but less than indomethacin. Results suggest that the anti-inflammatory effects of aqueous extract of Z. officinale are comparable to L-NAME.

  16. Nematicidal activity of mint aqueous extracts against the root-knot nematode Meloidogyne incognita.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caboni, Pierluigi; Saba, Marco; Tocco, Graziella; Casu, Laura; Murgia, Antonio; Maxia, Andrea; Menkissoglu-Spiroudi, Urania; Ntalli, Nikoletta

    2013-10-16

    The nematicidal activity and chemical characterization of aqueous extracts and essential oils of three mint species, namely, Mentha × piperita , Mentha spicata , and Mentha pulegium , were investigated. The phytochemical analysis of the essential oils was performed by means of GC-MS, whereas the aqueous extracts were analyzed by LC-MS. The most abundant terpenes were isomenthone, menthone, menthol, pulegone, and carvone, and the water extracts yielded mainly chlorogenic acid, salvianolic acid B, luteolin-7-O-rutinoside, and rosmarinic acid. The water extracts exhibited significant nematicidal activity against Meloidogyne incognita , and the EC50/72h values were calculated at 1005, 745, and 300 mg/L for M. × piperita, M. pulegium, and M. spicata, respectively. Only the essential oil from M. spicata showed a nematicidal activity with an EC50/72h of 358 mg/L. Interestingly, menthofuran and carvone showed EC50/48h values of 127 and 730 mg/L, respectively. On the other hand, salicylic acid, isolated in the aqueous extracts, exhibited EC50 values at 24 and 48 h of 298 ± 92 and 288 ± 79 mg/L, respectively.

  17. Effect of simulated acid rain on the mutualism between tall fescue (Festuca arundinacea) and an endophytic fungus (Acremonium coenophialum)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cheplick, G.P. (Univ. of Wisconsin, Whitewater (United States))

    1993-03-01

    Biotic interactions between plants and microorganisms have the potential to be affected by acidic precipitation. I examined the effect of simulated sulfuric acid rain on the mutualism between a perennial forage grass (Festuca arundinacea) and a fungal endophyte (Acremonium coenophialum). Acid water was supplied as mists sprayed onto leaf surfaces or as water added to the soil for two groups in a greenhouse: one group had high levels of endophyte infection, while the other was predominantly noninfected. Control plants received distilled water (pH 6), while others received sulfuric acid water at pH 4.5 or pH 3. Plants were harvested after 4, 6, 8, and 23 wk. Leaf endophyte infection intensity as measured by hyphal counts was not affected by acid water treatment. Root mass and root: shoot ratios generally decreased with increasing acidity of both foliar sprays and soil water, but shoot mass was mostly not affected. There was a significant pH x infection interaction for plants exposed to acidic foliar sprays for 4 wk; root and shoot mass decreased with acidity, but only for infected plants. It was found that acid rain may be deleterious to tall fescue growth at specific stages of development, but biomass production in response to acid rain is not likely to be influenced by fungal endophytes within mature plants. 55 refs., 2 figs., 3 tabs.

  18. Antioxidative activity and stability of the extracts of liquorice root (Glycyrrhiza glabra

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simona PATRICHE

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The active principles from the aqueous liquorice plant extracts were investigated and quantified by evaluation of bioactive compounds (saponins through phytochemical reactions. The presence of saponins was evaluated by measuring the foam index, which was around 500. A major component was Glycyrrhizic acid, responsible for the antioxidant activity, found in concentration of 5.82 % at plant maturity. A time-dependent decrease in concentration of the bioactive compounds from aqueous liquorice extracts was observed. The antimicrobial activity of the extracts was tested by the agar diffusion method, showing a moderate inhibitory activity against Bacillus sp. and strong inhibitory activity against coliforms. A liquorice syrup was obtained and subsequently could be used as nutraceutical additive in bread with good results, showing characteristic, optical and antimicrobial properties and good stability in time. Adding liquorice syrup in food products could be an alternative to improve nutraceutical potential.

  19. Automated DNA extraction of single dog hairs without roots for mitochondrial DNA analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bekaert, Bram; Larmuseau, Maarten H D; Vanhove, Maarten P M; Opdekamp, Anouschka; Decorte, Ronny

    2012-03-01

    Dogs are intensely integrated in human social life and their shed hairs can play a major role in forensic investigations. The overall aim of this study was to validate a semi-automated extraction method for mitochondrial DNA analysis of telogenic dog hairs. Extracted DNA was amplified with a 95% success rate from 43 samples using two new experimental designs in which the mitochondrial control region was amplified as a single large (± 1260 bp) amplicon or as two individual amplicons (HV1 and HV2; ± 650 and 350 bp) with tailed-primers. The results prove that the extraction of dog hair mitochondrial DNA can easily be automated to provide sufficient DNA yield for the amplification of a forensically useful long mitochondrial DNA fragment or alternatively two short fragments with minimal loss of sequence in case of degraded samples.

  20. Hepatoprotective potential of ethanolic extract ofZiziphus oenoplia (L.) Mill roots against antitubercular drugs induced hepatotoxicity in experimental models

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ch V Rao; AKS Rawat; Anil P Singh; Arpita Singh; Neeraj Verma

    2012-01-01

    ABSTRACT Objective:To evaluate the hepatoprotective potential of ethanolic (50%) extract ofZiziphus oenoplia (L.) Mill (Z. oenoplia) root against isoniazid(INH) and rifampicin(RIF) induced liver damage in animal models.Methods: Five groups of six rats each were selected for the study. Ethanolic extract at a dose of 150 and300 mg/kg as well as silymarin (100 mg/kg) were administered orally once daily for21d in INH + RIF treated groups. The serum levels of glutamic oxaloacetic transaminase(SGOT), glutamate pyruvate transaminase (SGPT), alkaline phosphatase (SALP), and bilirubin were estimated along with activities of superoxide dismutase, catalase, glutathione S-transferase, glutathione peroxidase, and hepatic melondialdehyde formation. Histopathological analysis was carried out to assess injury to the liver.Result: The considerably elevated serum enzymatic activities of glutamic oxaloacetic transaminase, glutamate pyruvate transaminase, alkaline phosphatase and bilirubin due toINH + RIF treatment were restored towards normal in a dose dependent manner after the treatment with ethanolic extract of Z. oenopliaroots. Meanwhile, the decreased activities of superoxide dismutase, catalase, glutathione S-transferase and glutathione peroxidase were also restored towards normal dose dependently. In addition, ethanolic extract also significantly prevented the elevation of hepatic melondialdehyde formation in the liver ofINH + RIF intoxicated rats in a dose dependent manner. The biochemical observations were supplemented with histopathological examination of rat liver sections.Conclusions: The results of this study strongly indicate that ethanolic extract of Z. oenoplia has a potent hepatoprotective action againstINH + RIF induced hepatic damage in rats.

  1. Quantitative and Qualitative Effects of Phosphorus on Extracts and Exudates of Sudangrass Roots in Relation to Vesicular-Arbuscular Mycorrhiza Formation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwab, Suzanne M.; Menge, John A.; Leonard, Robert T.

    1983-01-01

    A comparison was made of water-soluble root exudates and extracts of Sorghum vulgare Pers. grown under two levels of P nutrition. An increase in P nutrition significantly decreased the concentration of carbohydrates, carboxylic acids, and amino acids in exudates, and decreased the concentration of carboxylic acids in extracts. Higher P did not affect the relative proportions of specific carboxylic acids and had little effect on proportions of specific amino acids in both extracts and exudates. Phosphorus amendment resulted in an increase in the relative proportion of arabinose and a decrease in the proportion of fructose in exudates, but did not have a large effect on the proportion of individual sugars in extracts. The proportions of specific carbohydrates, carboxylic acids, and amino acids varied between exudates and extracts. Therefore, the quantity and composition of root extracts may not be a reliable predictor of the availability of substrate for symbiotic vesicular-arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi. Comparisons of the rate of leakage of compounds from roots with the growth rate of vesicular-arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi suggest that the fungus must either be capable of using a variety of organic substrates for growth, or be capable of inducing a much higher rate of movement of specific organic compounds across root cell membranes than occurs through passive exudation as measured in this study. PMID:16663297

  2. Surgical extraction of human dorsal root ganglia from organ donors and preparation of primary sensory neuron cultures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valtcheva, Manouela V; Copits, Bryan A; Davidson, Steve; Sheahan, Tayler D; Pullen, Melanie Y; McCall, Jordan G; Dikranian, Krikor; Gereau, Robert W

    2016-10-01

    Primary cultures of rodent sensory neurons are widely used to investigate the cellular and molecular mechanisms involved in pain, itch, nerve injury and regeneration. However, translation of these preclinical findings may be greatly improved by direct validation in human tissues. We have developed an approach to extract and culture human sensory neurons in collaboration with a local organ procurement organization (OPO). Here we describe the surgical procedure for extraction of human dorsal root ganglia (hDRG) and the necessary modifications to existing culture techniques to prepare viable adult human sensory neurons for functional studies. Dissociated sensory neurons can be maintained in culture for >10 d, and they are amenable to electrophysiological recording, calcium imaging and viral gene transfer. The entire process of extraction and culturing can be completed in <7 h, and it can be performed by trained graduate students. This approach can be applied at any institution with access to organ donors consenting to tissue donation for research, and is an invaluable resource for improving translational research.

  3. Comparative fingerprint and extraction yield of Diospyrus ferrea (willd.) Bakh. root with phenol compounds (gallic acid), as determined by uv-vis and ft-ir spectroscopy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    RVijayalakshmi; RRavindhran

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To analyze the comparative finger print and extraction yield of D.ferrea root with phenol compound (Gallic acid), as determined by UV-Vis spectroscopy and FTIR spectroscopy.Method:The UV Vis spectroscopy and FTIR spectroscopy are adequate techniques to fingerprint comparatively and to evaluate the extraction yield of D.ferrea root extract. The higher extraction yield was recorded in ethanol comparatively superior and richer in phenol (gallic acid). Gallic acid has therapeutic application for inflammatory allergic diseases due to its ability to inhibit histamine. Finger print region was recorded between 500-3500 cm-1 for each extract and functional groups were identified and compared with the standard. Result: The extraction factor was superior in ethanol (270 nm) rich in polar molecules. The FTIR signal at 900, 1500, 1714, 3000, 3100cm-1 considered as a good indicator of phenol (gallic acid).The functional groups of each extract were identified.Conclusion: The UV and FTIR method was validated as a good tool to investigate the finger print and to predict the composition of different root extract of D.ferrea.

  4. The cleanliness differences of root canal irrigated with 0.002% saponin of mangosteen peel extract and 2.5% NaOCl

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anis Sakinah

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Root canal treatment consists of preparation, sterilization, and obturation. During root canal preparation, debris is smeared over the dentinal surface forming a smear layer. Smear layer will reduce the attachment of root canal filling materials. Organic material in smear layer can be substrated for microorganism. Preparation of root canal should be followed by irrigation. NaOCl is common irrigation solution in endodontics. It has been very effective for their disinfecting and tissue-dissolving properties, but it is incapable of removing the smear layer. On the other hand, saponin of mangosteen peel extract has an ability as a surfactant to lower the surface tension, and it can dissolve debris containing of anorganic and organic materials. Purpose: This study aims to know the differences between 2.5% NaOCl and 0.002% saponin of mangosteen peel extract in removing the debris in the root canal after the preparation procedure. Method: Three groups of teeth (7 teeth in each were instrumented with K-file and irrigated as follow: group 1 (control with aquadest; group 2 with 2.5% NaOCl; and group 3 with 0.002% saponin of mangosteen peel extract. Furthermore, those teeth were split horizontally and longitudinally 4mm above the apical. The apical third of root canal walls was observed by a scanning electron microscope (SEM. Result: There were significant differences between each group (p<0.05. Median value of the group 3 was score 1 considered as the smallest value. It indicates that Group 3 with 0.002% saponin of mangosteen peel extract was the cleanest group. Conclusion:It can be concluded that 0.002% saponin of mangosteen peel extract can clean the smear layer of the root canal better than 2.5% NaOCl.

  5. Role of Mitochondrial Enzymes and Sarcoplasmic ATPase in Cardioprotection Mediated by Aqueous Extract of Desmodium gangeticum (L) DC Root on Ischemic Reperfusion Injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurian, G A; Paddikkala, J

    2010-11-01

    The present study investigate the protective effect of aqueous root extract of Desmodium gangeticum in preserving mitochondrial and sarcoplasmic ATPase during ischemia reperfusion injury. The isolated rat hearts in both drug and control group were subjected to warm ischemia (37°), followed by reperfusion with the Langendorff perfusion system. The aqueous root extract of Desmodium gangeticum (L) at a dose of 50 mg/kg body weight was found to be effective in the rat heart for the management of ischemic reperfusion injury. Physiological parameters were significantly (PDesmodium gangeticum treated rat heart. These results suggest that Desmodium gangeticum aqueous root extract can preserve the mitochondrial and sarcoplasmic ATPase in the myocardium, resulting in the improvement of cardiac function after ischemia reperfusion injury.

  6. Optimization and Scale-up of Inulin Extraction from Taraxacum kok-saghyz roots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hahn, Thomas; Klemm, Andrea; Ziesse, Patrick; Harms, Karsten; Wach, Wolfgang; Rupp, Steffen; Hirth, Thomas; Zibek, Susanne

    2016-05-01

    The optimization and scale-up of inulin extraction from Taraxacum kok-saghyz Rodin was successfully performed. Evaluating solubility investigations, the extraction temperature was fixed at 85 degrees C. The inulin stability regarding degradation or hydrolysis could be confirmed by extraction in the presence of model inulin. Confirming stability at the given conditions the isolation procedure was transferred from a 1 L- to a 1 m3-reactor. The Reynolds number was selected as the relevant dimensionless number that has to remain constant in both scales. The stirrer speed in the large scale was adjusted to 3.25 rpm regarding a 300 rpm stirrer speed in the 1 L-scale and relevant physical and process engineering parameters. Assumptions were confirmed by approximately homologous extraction kinetics in both scales. Since T. kok-saghyz is in the focus of research due to its rubber content side-product isolation from residual biomass it is of great economic interest. Inulin is one of these additional side-products that can be isolated in high quantity (- 35% of dry mass) and with a high average degree of polymerization (15.5) in large scale with a purity of 77%.

  7. The Effect of Three Fescue Types and Lakota Prairie Grass on Copper Status, Dry Matter Intake, and Alkaloid Appearance of Beef Steers

    OpenAIRE

    2006-01-01

    Tall fescue [Schedonorus arundinaceus (Schreb.) Dumort.] is an important forage crop in the United States and covers over 14 million ha. The presence of Neotyphodium coenophialum, an endophytic fungus in tall fescue, is associated with several disorders in grazing livestock, but also increased persistence of tall fescue. These disorders, commonly called fescue toxicosis, are responsible for large economic losses in the beef cattle industry each year. This research examined the effect of t...

  8. Ergot alkaloids from endophyte-infected tall fescue decrease reticuloruminal epithelial blood flow and volatile fatty acid absorption from the washed reticulorumen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foote, A P; Kristensen, N B; Klotz, J L; Kim, D H; Koontz, A F; McLeod, K R; Bush, L P; Schrick, F N; Harmon, D L

    2013-11-01

    An experiment was conducted to determine if ergot alkaloids affect blood flow to the absorptive surface of the rumen. Steers (n=8) were pair-fed alfalfa cubes and received ground endophyte-infected (Neotyphodium coenophialum) tall fescue (Lolium arundinaceum; E+) seed (0.015 mg ergovaline·kg BW(-1)·d(-1)) or endophyte-free tall fescue (E-) seed via the rumen cannula 2x daily for 7 d at thermoneutral (TN; 22°C) and heat stress (HS; 32°C) conditions. On d 8, the rumen was emptied and rinsed. A buffer containing VFA was incubated in the following sequence: control (CON), 15 μg ergovaline·kg BW(-1) (1×EXT) from a tall fescue seed extract, and 45 μg ergovaline·kg BW(-1) (3×EXT). For each buffer treatment there were two 30-min incubations: a 30-min incubation of a treatment buffer with no sampling followed by an incubation of an identical sampling buffer with the addition of Cr-EDTA and deuterium oxide (D2O). Epithelial blood flow was calculated as ruminal clearance of D2O corrected for influx of physiological water and liquid outflow. Feed intake decreased with dosing E+ seed at HS but not at thermoneutral conditions (TN; P0.05). Inclusion of the extract in the buffer caused at least a 50% reduction in epithelial blood flow at TN (P=0.004), but there was no difference between 1×EXT and 3×EXT. There was a seed × buffer treatment interaction at HS (P=0.005), indicating that the reduction of blood flow induced by incubating the extract was larger for steers receiving E- seed than E+ seed. Volatile fatty acid flux was reduced during the 1×EXT and 3×EXT treatments (P0.80), indicating that observed differences are due to the presence of ergot alkaloids in the rumen. A decrease in VFA absorption could contribute to the signs of fescue toxicosis including depressed growth and performance.

  9. Anti-inflammatory potential of different extracts isolated from the roots of Ficus lacor buch. Hum and Murraya koenigii L. spreng

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sindhu Rakesh K.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The present study was undertaken to evaluate the anti-inflammatory potential of Murraya koenigii root extracts petroleum ether, ethyl acetate and chloroform (MKPE, MKEA and MKCF, respectively and Ficus lacor aerial root extracts petroleum ether, ethyl acetate, chloroform and ethanol (FLPE , FLET, FLCF and FLET, respectively at doses of 50 and 100 mg/kg body weight (b.w. using animal models of acute inflammation (carrageenan-, histamine- and serotonin-induced inflammation. The results of the Murraya koenigii roots chloroform extract caused 66.4% inhibition and the ethanol extract of Ficus lacor aerial roots caused 68.3% inhibition at the dose of 50 mg/kg b.w. At a higher dose of 100 mg/kg b.w., MKPE and MKCF showed 55.10% and 70.10% inhibition, respectively. FLPE and FLET showed 74.50% and 75.40% inhibition, respectively, in the carrageenan-induced inflammation model. In histamine-induced inflammation, the MKCF showed 60% inhibition, and 67.01% and 68.02% inhibition with the petroleum ether and ethanol extracts, respectively, in Ficus lacor aerial roots at the dose of 50 mg/kg b.w. At a higher dose (100 mg/kg b.w., MKCF showed 64% inhibition. FLPE and FLET showed 70.13%and 74.01% inhibition, respectively; 62.15% and 66.10% inhibition was observed with the petroleum ether and ethanol extracts of Ficus lacor aerial roots at 50 mg/kg b.w. At higher dose (100 mg/kg b.w., FLPE and FLET showed 69.10% and 68.72% inhibition in serotonin-induced inflammation.

  10. Antidiabetic and Hypolipidemic Activities of Curculigo latifolia Fruit:Root Extract in High Fat Fed Diet and Low Dose STZ Induced Diabetic Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nur Akmal Ishak

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Curculigo latifolia fruit is used as alternative sweetener while root is used as alternative treatment for diuretic and urinary problems. The antidiabetic and hypolipidemic activities of C. latifolia fruit:root aqueous extract in high fat diet (HFD and 40 mg streptozotocin (STZ induced diabetic rats through expression of genes involved in glucose and lipid metabolisms were investigated. Diabetic rats were treated with C. latifolia fruit:root extract for 4 weeks. Plasma glucose, insulin, adiponectin, lipid profiles, alanine aminotransferase (ALT, gamma glutamyltransferase (GGT, urea, and creatinine levels were measured before and after treatments. Regulations of selected genes involved in glucose and lipid metabolisms were determined. Results showed the significant (P<0.05 increase in body weight, high density lipoprotein (HDL, insulin, and adiponectin levels and decreased glucose, total cholesterol (TC, triglycerides (TG, low density lipoprotein (LDL, urea, creatinine, ALT, and GGT levels in diabetic rats after 4 weeks treatment. Furthermore, C. latifolia fruit:root extract significantly increased the expression of IRS-1, IGF-1, GLUT4, PPARα, PPARγ, AdipoR1, AdipoR2, leptin, LPL, and lipase genes in adipose and muscle tissues in diabetic rats. These results suggest that C. latifolia fruit:root extract exerts antidiabetic and hypolipidemic effects through altering regulation genes in glucose and lipid metabolisms in diabetic rats.

  11. Protective Effects of Total Extracts of Averrhoa carambola L. (Oxalidaceae Roots on Streptozotocin-Induced Diabetic Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaohui Xu

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: In Chinese culture, the roots of Averrhoa carambola L. have long been used for medical purposes due to their potent pharmaceutical activities, such as improving digestive function and treating diabetes. Methods: Recently, we prepared extracts of Averrhoa carambola L. root (EACR, which were isolated from Averrhoa carambola L. roots using ethanol or water. This study was designed to investigate the potential effects of EACR on streptozotocin (STZ diabetic mice and to explore the underlying mechanism of these effects. Male mice were injected with STZ through the tail vein (120 mg/kg body weight and were identified as a diabetic mouse model when the level of blood glucose was ≥11.1 mmol/L. Subsequently, the mice were administered EACR (150, 300, 600, 1200 mg/kg body weight/d and metformin (320 mg/kg body weight/d via intragastric gavage for three weeks. Results: The results indicated that EACR significantly decreased the serum levels of blood glucose, total cholesterol (TC, triglycerides (TGs and free fatty acids (FFAs, whereas the content of serum insulin was elevated. In addition, the expressions of apoptosis-related regulators (including caspase-3, caspase-8 and caspase-9 and the apoptosis-induced protein Bax were markedly down-regulated by EACR, whereas the expression of the anti-apoptotic Bcl-2 protein was notably increased. Furthermore, EACR could protect the diabetic mice against the STZ-induced apoptosis of pancreatic β cells. Conclusion: Taken together, these findings indicate that EACR plays an effective hyperglycemic role that is associated with ameliorating metabolic functions and with inhibiting apoptosis in pancreas tissue.

  12. Histological Evidence of Nephroprotective Effect of Ashwagandha (Withania somnifera Root Extract against Gentamicin Induced Nephrotoxicity in Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sadia Choudhury Shimmi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Kidney damage can occur due to exposure to nephrotoxic drugs, chemicals, toxins and infectious agents, ultimately leading to renal failure, management of which is a great challenge. So, efforts have been focused on traditional and herbal medicines for the treatment of renal failure. Ashwagandha (Withania somnifera may have free radical scavenging activity and can be used for the prevention and treatment of kidney damage. Objective: To observe the histological evidence of nephroprotective effect of Ashwagandha root against gentamicin induced nephrotoxicity in rats. Materials and Methods: This study was done in the department of Physiology, Sir Salimullah Medical College, Dhaka. A total number of 31 male Wistar albino rats were acclimatized for 14 days. Then, these were divided into two groups, control group consisted of 18 rats (Group A and Ashwagandha pretreated and gentamicin-treated group consisted of 13 rats (Group B. Control group was again subdivided into baseline control and gentamicin-treated control groups (A1 and A2 ─ each group contained 9 rats. All the animals received basal diet for 22 consecutive days. In addition to this, animals of Group A2 received gentamicin subcutaneously (100 mg/kg body weight/day from 15th to 22nd day and animals of Group B received Ashwagandha root extract (500 mg/kg body weight/day orally for 22 consecutive days and gentamicin subcutaneously (100 mg/kg body weight/day from 15th to 22nd day. All the animals were sacrificed on 23rd day. Then kidney samples were collected and histology was done by using standard laboratory procedure. Results: Histological examination of kidney revealed abnormal histological findings in 100% of gentamicin-treated rats. But 92.31% of rats in Ashwagandha pretreated and gentamicin-treated group showed almost normal structure and 7.69% showed mild histological changes. Conclusion: Ashwagandha root may have some nephroprotective effect against gentamicin induced

  13. Biosynthesis, characterization and cytotoxic effect of plant mediated silver nanoparticles using Morinda citrifolia root extract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suman, T Y; Radhika Rajasree, S R; Kanchana, A; Elizabeth, S Beena

    2013-06-01

    Silver has been used since time to control bodily infection, prevent food spoilage and heal wounds by preventing infection. The present study aims at an environmental friendly method of synthesizing silver nanoparticles, from the root of Morinda citrifolia; without involving chemical agents associated with environmental toxicity. The obtained nanoparticles were characterized by UV-vis absorption spectroscopy with an intense surface plasmon resonance band at 413 nm clearly reveals the formation of silver nanoparticles. Fourier transmission infra red spectroscopy (FTIR) showed nanopartilces were capped with plant compounds. Field emission-scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM) and Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) showed that the spherical nature of the silver nanoparticles with a size of 30-55 nm. The X-ray diffraction spectrum XRD pattern clearly indicates that the silver nanoparticles formed in the present synthesis were crystalline in nature. In addition these biologically synthesized nanoparticles were also proved to exhibit excellent cytotoxic effect on HeLa cell.

  14. Genotypic and chemotypic diversity of Neotyphodium endophytes in tall fescue from Greece.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takach, Johanna E; Mittal, Shipra; Swoboda, Ginger A; Bright, Sherrita K; Trammell, Michael A; Hopkins, Andrew A; Young, Carolyn A

    2012-08-01

    Epichloid endophytes provide protection from a variety of biotic and abiotic stresses for cool-season grasses, including tall fescue. A collection of 85 tall fescue lines from 15 locations in Greece, including both Continental and Mediterranean germplasm, was screened for the presence of native endophytes. A total of 37 endophyte-infected lines from 10 locations were identified, and the endophytes were classified into five distinct groups (G1 to G5) based on physical characteristics such as colony morphology, growth rate, and conidial morphology. These classifications were supported by phylogenetic analyses of housekeeping genes tefA and tubB, and the endophytes were further categorized as Neotyphodium coenophialum isolates (G1, G4, and G5) or Neotyphodium sp. FaTG-2 (Festuca arundinacea taxonomic group 2 isolates (G2 and G3). Analyses of the tall fescue matK chloroplast genes indicated a population-wide, host-specific association between N. coenophialum and Continental tall fescue and between FaTG-2 and Mediterranean tall fescue that was also reflected by differences in colonization of host tillers by the native endophytes. Genotypic analyses of alkaloid gene loci combined with chemotypic (chemical phenotype) profiles provided insight into the genetic basis of chemotype diversity. Variation in alkaloid gene content, specifically the presence and absence of genes, and copy number of gene clusters explained the alkaloid diversity observed in the endophyte-infected tall fescue, with one exception. The results from this study provide insight into endophyte germplasm diversity present in living tall fescue populations.

  15. Allocating forage to fall-calving cow-calf pairs strip-grazing stockpiled tall fescue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curtis, L E; Kallenbach, R L; Roberts, C A

    2008-03-01

    In a 2-yr study, we evaluated the effect of different forage allocations on the performance of lactating beef cows and their calves grazing stockpiled tall fescue. Allocations of stockpiled tall fescue at 2.25, 3.00, 3.75, and 4.50% of cow-calf pair BW/d were set as experimental treatments. Conventional hay-feeding was also evaluated as a comparison to grazing stockpiled tall fescue. The experiment had a randomized complete block design with 3 replications and was divided into 3 phases each year. From early December to late February (phase 1) of each year, cows and calves grazed stockpiled tall fescue or were fed hay in the treatments described above. Immediately after phase 1, cows and calves were commingled and managed as a single group until weaning in April (phase 2) so that residual effects could be documented. Residual effects on cows were measured after the calves were weaned in April until mid-July (phase 3). During phase 1 of both years, apparent DMI of cow-calf pairs allocated stockpiled tall fescue at 4.50% of BW/d was 31% greater (P calf BW/d, pasture utilization fell (P 0.40). Calf ADG in phase 1 increased linearly (P calf gain per hectare decreased linearly (P calf pairs allocated stockpiled tall fescue at 4.50% BW/d was nearly 40% less (P calf pairs stockpiled tall fescue at 2.25% of BW/d likely optimizes its use; because cow body condition is easily regained in the subsequent spring and summer months, less forage is used during winter, and calf gain per hectare is maximized.

  16. Constituents of the roots of Boerhaavia diffusa L. III. Identification of Ca2+ channel antagonistic compound from the methanol extract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lami, N; Kadota, S; Kikuchi, T; Momose, Y

    1991-06-01

    Two known lignans, liriodendrin and syringaresinol mono-beta-D-glucoside, have been isolated from the methanol extract of the roots of Boerhaavia diffusa L. (Nyctaginaceae), and the former compound was found to exhibit a significant calcium (Ca2+) channel antagonistic effect in frog heart single cells using the whole-cell voltage clamp method. Reexamination of the carbon-13 nuclear magnetic resonance (13C-NMR) spectra of these compounds was also carried out by the use of two-dimensional NMR techniques including a 1H-detected heteronuclear multiple bond connectivity (HMBC) experiment, and it was found that the previous signal assignments for C-1' and C-4' have to be revised.

  17. Choice of Treatment Plan Based on Root Canal Therapy versus Extraction and Implant Placement: A Mini Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parirokh, Masoud; Zarifian, Ahmadreza; Ghoddusi, Jamileh

    2015-01-01

    Case selection and treatment plan are important aspects of endodontic treatment. Dentists should organize the treatment plan based on their knowledge, abilities, skills and more importantly the patients' preference and dentition. Indubitably, the treatment plan for each patient is exclusive and "tailor-made" and cannot be used for all patients. Dentists' selfestimation of their abilities opens up treatment options; however, in difficult or complicated cases it is advisable to refer to a specialist. Currently, one of the most challenging aspects in dentistry is the choice between extraction and placement of implant (EPI) instead of a complicated root canal treatment (RCT). Overemphasis on one treatment plan while neglecting other options, not only mislead the dentist but also impose unnecessary charges to the patients. This mini-review compares RCT to EPI from various aspects to help practitioners in routine decision making.

  18. Inhibitory effects of devil's claw (secondary root of Harpagophytum procumbens) extract and harpagoside on cytokine production in mouse macrophages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inaba, Kazunori; Murata, Kazuya; Naruto, Shunsuke; Matsuda, Hideaki

    2010-04-01

    Successive oral administration (50 mg/kg) of a 50% ethanolic extract (HP-ext) of devil's claw, the secondary root of Harpagophytum procumbens, showed a significant anti-inflammatory effect in the rat adjuvant-induced chronic arthritis model. HP-ext dose-dependently suppressed the lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced production of inflammatory cytokines [interleukin-1beta (IL-1beta), interleukin-6 (IL-6), and tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha)] in mouse macrophage cells (RAW 264.7). Harpagoside, a major iridoid glycoside present in devil's claw, was found to be one of the active agents in HP-ext and inhibited the production of IL-1beta, IL-6, and TNF-alpha by RAW 264.7.

  19. Green synthesis of silver nanoparticles using Rheum palmatum root extract and their antibacterial activity against Staphylococcus aureus and Pseudomonas aeruginosa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arokiyaraj, Selvaraj; Vincent, Savariar; Saravanan, Muthupandian; Lee, Yoonseok; Oh, Young Kyoon; Kim, Kyoung Hoon

    2017-03-01

    In the present study, silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) were synthesized by using aqueous root extracts of Rheum palmatum and characterized by various spectroscopic methods. The nanoparticles were found to be in hexagonal and spherical shapes. The average particle size was found to be 121 ± 2 nm with zeta potential values of -21.6 mv by dynamic light scattering (DLS) method. Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) analysis of R. palmatum revealed 35 compounds. The synthesized AgNPs showed significant activity against Staphylococcus aureus and Pseudomonas aeruginosa with IC90 values of 15 μg/ml and IC50 values of 7.5 μg/ml, respectively. The protein leakage level was high and morphological changes occurred in bacteria treated with AgNPs.

  20. Phytochemical, antioxidant and protective effect of Rhus tripartitum root bark extract against ethanol-induced ulcer in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alimi, Hichem; Mbarki, Sakhria; Barka, Zeineb B; Feriani, Anwer; Bouoni, Zouhour; Hfaeidh, Najla; Sakly, Mohsen; Tebourbi, Olfa; Rhouma, Khémais B

    2013-03-01

    Rhus tripartitum (sumac) is an Anacardiaceae tree with a wide phytotherapeutic application including the use of its roots in the management of gastric ulcer. In the present study the Rhus tripartitum root barks extract (RTE) was phytochemical studied, in vitro tested for their potential antioxidant activity using 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) and reducing power assay and in vivo evaluated for its ability to prevent ethanol-induced gastric ulcer in rats. The RTE was rich in phenolics, flavonoids, tannins and polysaccharide contents and exhibited a low but not weak in vitro antioxidant activity when compared with (+)-catechin. Pre-treatment with RTE at oral doses 50, 200 and 400 mg/kg body weight was found to provide a dose-dependent protection against ethanol-induced ulcer by averting the deep ulcer lesions of the gastric epithelium, by reducing gastric juice and acid output, by enhancing gastric mucus production by preserving normal antioxidant enzymes activities, and inhibiting the lipid peroxidation. The antiulcerogenic activity of RTE might be due to a possible synergistic antioxidant and antisecretory effects.

  1. Effect of petroleum ether extract of Sesbania sesban (Merr.) roots in streptozotocin (STZ) induced diabetes in mice

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Manjusha; Neha Aggarwal; Nitesh; Pankaj Gupta

    2012-01-01

    Objective: The present study was carried out to investigate the hypoglycemic effects of the petroleum ether extract of Sesbania sesban (SS)(Merr.) roots, which are widely used in inflammation, fever, ulcers, leucoderma and diabetes in various parts of India. Methods: SS was administered orally at different doses (250, 500 and 1000mg/kg) to normal and streptozotocin (STZ) induced type- 2 diabetic mice. The fasting blood glucose (FBG), biochemical parameters in serum, change in body weight, internal organs weight, food intake, water intake and glycogen level in livers were performed for the evaluation of hypoglycemic effects.Results: All the doses of SS caused a marked decrease of FBG in STZ induced type -2 diabetic mice. SS decreased the cholesterol, triglyceride (TG), urea, creatinine level and increased the insulin, HDL cholesterol, and total protein level. Decrease in body weight and glycogen level induced by STZ was restored. Increase in water and food intake induced by STZ was decreased. Conclusions: The results suggest that SS may have hypoglycemic potential for the type 2- diabetes and support the traditional use of the roots of plant as a hypoglycemic agent.

  2. Pentalinon andrieuxii root extract is effective in the topical treatment of cutaneous leishmaniasis caused by Leishmania mexicana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lezama-Dávila, Claudio M.; Pan, Li; Isaac-Márquez, Angelica P.; Terrazas, Cesar; Oghumu, Steve; Isaac-Márquez, Ricardo; Pech-Dzib, MY; Barbi, Joseph; Calomeni, Edward; Parinandi, Narasimham; Kinghorn, A. Douglas; Satoskar, Abhay R.

    2014-01-01

    Cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL) manifests as localized skin lesions, which lead to significant tissue destruction and disfigurement. In the Yucatan Peninsula, Mayan traditional healers use Pentalinon andrieuxii Muell.-Arg. (Apocynaceae) roots for the topical treatment of CL. Here, we studied the effect of P. andrieuxii root hexane extract (PARE) on the parasites and host cells in vitro and examined its efficacy in the topical treatment of CL caused by L. mexicana. PARE exhibited potent antiparasitic activity in vitro against promastigotes as well as amastigotes residing in macrophages. Electron microscopy of PARE-treated parasites revealed direct membrane damage. PARE also activated NF-κB and enhanced IFN-γR and MHC class II expression and TNF-α production in macrophages. In addition, PARE induced production of the Th1 promoting cytokine IL-12 in dendritic cells as well as enhanced expression of the co-stimulatory molecules CD40, CD80 and CD86. In vivo studies showed that L. mexicana-infected mice treated by topical application of PARE resulted in the significant reduction in lesion size and parasite burden compared to controls. These findings indicate that PARE could be used as an alternative therapy for the topical treatment of CL. PMID:24347110

  3. In Vivo Antiplasmodial, Anti-Inflammatory, and Analgesic Properties, and Safety Profile of Root Extracts of Haematostaphis barteri Hook F. (Anacardiaceae)

    OpenAIRE

    Johnson Nyarko Boampong

    2015-01-01

    Malaria is an endemic disease globally and the conundrum of drug resistance has led to the search for newer antimalarial agents. The root extract of H. barteri was evaluated for antimalarial, analgesic, and anti-inflammatory properties. The prophylactic effect of H. barteri on P. berghei was determined by pretreating mice with aqueous root extract of H. barteri (30–300 mg/kg), saline, and 1.2 mg/kg sulfadoxine/pyrimethamine for three days followed by 1 × 106 P. berghei inoculation. Parasite d...

  4. In Vivo Antiplasmodial, Anti-Inflammatory, and Analgesic Properties, and Safety Profile of Root Extracts of Haematostaphis barteri Hook F. (Anacardiaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johnson Nyarko Boampong

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Malaria is an endemic disease globally and the conundrum of drug resistance has led to the search for newer antimalarial agents. The root extract of H. barteri was evaluated for antimalarial, analgesic, and anti-inflammatory properties. The prophylactic effect of H. barteri on P. berghei was determined by pretreating mice with aqueous root extract of H. barteri (30–300 mg/kg, saline, and 1.2 mg/kg sulfadoxine/pyrimethamine for three days followed by 1 × 106 P. berghei inoculation. Parasite density was measured after 72 h. The curative antimalarial property of the extract was assessed by treating mice with extract, saline, and 1.14 : 6.9 mg/kg Artemether : Lumefantrine four days after 1 × 106 P. berghei inoculation. Selected organs were harvested for toxicity assessment. The anti-inflammatory and analgesic effect of the extract was determined in the carrageenan and thermal tail withdrawal tests, respectively. The extract significantly reduced the parasite density in the prophylactic but not the curative study. The anti-inflammatory and analgesic activities of the extract were significant (P<0.05 only at the highest doses employed. Regeneration of hepatocytes was also evident in the extract treated groups. The extract has prophylactic but not curative activity on P. berghei-induced malaria. The anti-inflammatory and analgesic property of the extract occurred at the highest doses used.

  5. Clinical Evaluation of the Spermatogenic Activity of the Root Extract of Ashwagandha (Withania somnifera in Oligospermic Males: A Pilot Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vijay R. Ambiye

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Ashwagandha (Withania somnifera has been described in traditional Indian Ayurvedic medicine as an aphrodisiac that can be used to treat male sexual dysfunction and infertility. This pilot study was conducted to evaluate the spermatogenic activity of Ashwagandha root extract in oligospermic patients. Forty-six male patients with oligospermia (sperm count < 20 million/mL semen were enrolled and randomized either to treatment (n=21 with a full-spectrum root extract of Ashwagandha (675 mg/d in three doses for 90 days or to placebo (n=25 in the same protocol. Semen parameters and serum hormone levels were estimated at the end of 90-day treatment. There was a 167% increase in sperm count (9.59 ± 4.37 × 106/mL to 25.61 ± 8.6 × 106/mL; P<0.0001, 53% increase in semen volume (1.74 ± 0.58 mL to 2.76 ± 0.60 mL; P<0.0001, and 57% increase in sperm motility (18.62 ± 6.11% to 29.19 ± 6.31%; P<0.0001 on day 90 from baseline. The improvement in these parameters was minimal in the placebo-treated group. Furthermore, a significantly greater improvement and regulation were observed in serum hormone levels with the Ashwagandha treatment as compared to the placebo. The present study adds to the evidence on the therapeutic value of Ashwagandha (Withania somnifera, as attributed in Ayurveda for the treatment of oligospermia leading to infertility.

  6. A semi-automatic method for extracting thin line structures in images as rooted tree network

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brazzini, Jacopo [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Dillard, Scott [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Soille, Pierre [EC - JRC

    2010-01-01

    This paper addresses the problem of semi-automatic extraction of line networks in digital images - e.g., road or hydrographic networks in satellite images, blood vessels in medical images, robust. For that purpose, we improve a generic method derived from morphological and hydrological concepts and consisting in minimum cost path estimation and flow simulation. While this approach fully exploits the local contrast and shape of the network, as well as its arborescent nature, we further incorporate local directional information about the structures in the image. Namely, an appropriate anisotropic metric is designed by using both the characteristic features of the target network and the eigen-decomposition of the gradient structure tensor of the image. Following, the geodesic propagation from a given seed with this metric is combined with hydrological operators for overland flow simulation to extract the line network. The algorithm is demonstrated for the extraction of blood vessels in a retina image and of a river network in a satellite image.

  7. Identification and validation of reference genes for quantification of target gene expression with quantitative real-time PCR for tall fescue under four abiotic stresses.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhimin Yang

    Full Text Available Tall fescue (Festuca arundinacea Schreb. is widely utilized as a major forage and turfgrass species in the temperate regions of the world and is a valuable plant material for studying molecular mechanisms of grass stress tolerance due to its superior drought and heat tolerance among cool-season species. Selection of suitable reference genes for quantification of target gene expression is important for the discovery of molecular mechanisms underlying improved growth traits and stress tolerance. The stability of nine potential reference genes (ACT, TUB, EF1a, GAPDH, SAND, CACS, F-box, PEPKR1 and TIP41 was evaluated using four programs, GeNorm, NormFinder, BestKeeper, and RefFinder. The combinations of SAND and TUB or TIP41 and TUB were most stably expressed in salt-treated roots or leaves. The combinations of GAPDH with TIP41 or TUB were stable in roots and leaves under drought stress. TIP41 and PEPKR1 exhibited stable expression in cold-treated roots, and the combination of F-box, TIP41 and TUB was also stable in cold-treated leaves. CACS and TUB were the two most stable reference genes in heat-stressed roots. TIP41 combined with TUB and ACT was stably expressed in heat-stressed leaves. Finally, quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR assays of the target gene FaWRKY1 using the identified most stable reference genes confirmed the reliability of selected reference genes. The selection of suitable reference genes in tall fescue will allow for more accurate identification of stress-tolerance genes and molecular mechanisms conferring stress tolerance in this stress-tolerant species.

  8. Protective activities of the aqueous root extract of Harungana madagascariensis in acute and repeated acetaminophen hepatotoxic rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adeneye AA

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available In this study, the protective effects of 100 – 500 mg/kg/day of the aqueous root extract of Harungana madagascariensisLam. ex Poir were evaluated on the average body weight, relative liver-body weight, serum alanine (ALT and aspartateaminotransferases (AST, alkaline phosphatase (ALP, total (TB and conjugated bilirubin (CB, triglycerides (TG, total cholesterol(TC, cholesterol fractions (HDL-c, LDL-c, VLDL-c, fasting blood glucose (FBG, total protein (TP and albumin (ALB in the acuteand repeated dose acetaminophen hepatotoxic rats. Results showed that acute intraperitoneal injection of 800 mg/kg of acetaminopheninduced significant (p0.05 alterations in the serum levels oflipids, TB and CB. However, pretreatments with 100 - 500 mg/kg of Harungana madagascariensis significantly (p0.05 alterations in the serum lipids.Repeated acetaminophen hepatotoxicity caused similar effects in the measured parameters except that it was associated withsignificant (p<0.001 reduction in the FBG while inducing significant (p<0.05, p<0.001 increases in the serum TB and CB. Oralpretreatments with the extract significantly (p<0.001 enhanced acetaminophen induced hypoglycemia while significantly (p<0.05,p<0.01 attenuating significant elevations in the serum levels of TB and CB, in dose related fashion. The associated histopathologicfeatures of moderate-to-severe hepatic necrosis were also attenuated by the extract. Thus, the overall results of this study confirm thefolkloric use of the extract in the treatment of drug-induced hepatotoxicity.

  9. Investigation of Antibacterial and Antioxidant Activities of Alcoholic Extracts of Flower and Root of Dendrostellera Lesserti on Some Human Pathogenic Bacteria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Alamhulu

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction & Objective: With increasing the information about the dangerous side effects of synthetic antibiotics , the demand for natural alternative of these drugs has increased. The purpose of this study is to investigate the antibacterial and antioxidant properties of root and flower extracts of the medicinal plant of Dendrostellera lesserti against some human pathogenic bacteria. Materials & Methods: In this experimental study, Dendrostellera lesserti was collected from Hamadan province in 2013. After identification, the extracts were prepared by maceration method. Antibacterial activities were determined by the agar well diffusion method, MIC (serial dilution method and MBC. Antioxidant properties by DPPH method and amount of phenolic and flavonoid were measured by Folin-ciocalteu and aluminum chloride methods , respectively. The data were analyzed using sas software version 9.2 (P<0.05. Results: The largest growth inhibition zone with diameter of 21.33±.66 mm was seen in Salmonella typhi culture against root methanolic extract. MIC and MBC of root extract was lower in comparison with flower. Methanolic extract of flower in at concentration of 0.8 mg/ml had the highest scavenging percentage of free radical. The higher amount of phenol and flavonoid was related to methanol extract of root, 111.8±2.69 mgGAE/g and 2.25±0.35 mgQ/g, respectively Conclusion: According to the obtained results, the root and flower methanolic extracts of Dendrostellera lesserti contain compounds with antibacterial and antioxidant properties. (Sci J Hamadan Univ Med Sci 2015; 21(4:277-285

  10. Allelopathic Effects of Aqueous Extract of Leaf Stem and Root of Sorghum bicolor on Seed Germination and Seedling Growth of Vigna radiata L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amir MOOSAVI

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Seed germination under field conditions is highly influenced by the presence of other plants. Allelopathy is an important mechanism of plant competition, by producing phytotoxins to the plant environment in order to decline other plants growth. Soil sickness problem in farm lands is also known as an allelopathic effect or even autotoxicity. The toxicity of released allelochemicals by a plant in the environment is attributed to its function of concentration, age and metabolic stage. In this study we investigate the effect (5, 20, 35 and 50 g l-1 of leaf, stem and root water extract of sorghum on seed germination and seedling growth of mung bean. The results of the experiment showed that allelopathic effect of different concentrations was not significant for germination percentage, but germination rate and mean germination time decreased significantly by increasing the concentration of allelopathic extracts; also, there was a clear allelopathic effect of sorghum extract on seedling growth of mung bean. 50 g l-1 sorghum stem extract exhibited the highest inhibitory effect on root and shoot growth of mung bean. Among all parts of sorghum, stem extracts showed the highest allelopatic effect on seedling growth. Root extract showed higher inhibitory effect than leaf extracts.

  11. Allelopathic Effects of Aqueous Extract of Leaf Stem and Root of Sorghum bicolor on Seed Germination and Seedling Growth of Vigna radiata L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amir MOOSAVI

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Seed germination under field conditions is highly influenced by the presence of other plants. Allelopathy is an important mechanism of plant competition, by producing phytotoxins to the plant environment in order to decline other plants� growth. Soil sickness problem in farm lands is also known as an allelopathic effect or even autotoxicity. The toxicity of released allelochemicals by a plant in the environment is attributed to its function of concentration, age and metabolic stage. In this study we investigate the effect (5, 20, 35 and 50 g l-1 of leaf, stem and root water extract of sorghum on seed germination and seedling growth of mung bean. The results of the experiment showed that allelopathic effect of different concentrations was not significant for germination percentage, but germination rate and mean germination time decreased significantly by increasing the concentration of allelopathic extracts; also, there was a clear allelopathic effect of sorghum extract on seedling growth of mung bean. 50 g l-1 sorghum stem extract exhibited the highest inhibitory effect on root and shoot growth of mung bean. Among all parts of sorghum, stem extracts showed the highest allelopatic effect on seedling growth. Root extract showed higher inhibitory effect than leaf extracts.

  12. Hexane extract of Raphanus sativus L. roots inhibits cell proliferation and induces apoptosis in human cancer cells by modulating genes related to apoptotic pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beevi, Syed Sultan; Mangamoori, Lakshmi Narasu; Subathra, Murugan; Edula, Jyotheeswara Reddy

    2010-09-01

    Raphanus sativus, a common cruciferous vegetable has been attributed to possess a number of pharmacological and therapeutic properties. It has been used in indigenous system of medicine for the treatment of various human ailments in India. This present study evaluated the chemopreventive efficacy of different parts of R. sativus such as root, stem and leaves, extracted with solvents of varying polarity and investigated the molecular mechanism leading to growth arrest and apoptotic cell death in human cancer cell lines. Of the different parts, significant growth inhibitory effect was observed with hexane extract of R. sativus root. Analysis of hexane extract by GC-MS revealed the presence of several isothiocyanates (ITCs) such as 4-(methylthio)-3-butenyl isothiocyanate (MTBITC), 4-(methylthio)-3-butyl isothiocyanate (erucin), 4-methylpentyl isothiocyanate, 4-pentenyl isothiocyanate and sulforaphene. R. sativus root extract induced cell death both in p53 proficient and p53 deficient cell lines through induction of apoptotic signaling pathway regardless of the p53 status of cells. The molecular mechanisms underlying R. sativus-induced apoptosis may involve interactions among Bcl(2) family genes, as evidenced by up-regulation of pro-apoptotic genes and down-regulation of anti-apoptotic genes along with activation of Caspase-3. Our findings present the first evidence that hexane extract of R. sativus root exerts potential chemopreventive efficacy and induces apoptosis in cancer cell lines through modulation of genes involved in apoptotic signaling pathway.

  13. Extract of Salvadora persica roots attenuates lead acetate-induced testicular oxidative stress in rats

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    Gamal A. Soliman

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Context: Lead exerts pathological changes on male mammals. Deleterious effects on testicular tissues may be mediated by oxidative damage and subsequent lipid peroxidation. Medicinal plants can protect against such oxidative stress. Aims: To determine the protective activity of Salvadora persica, against lead acetate (LA testicular oxidative stress in rats. Methods: Adult male Wistar rats were allocated into six groups: control group received the vehicle, S. persica group received extract (500 mg/kg, LA group was exposed to 0.1% LA in drinking water and three other groups were co-treated with LA plus S. persica (125, 250 and 500 mg/kg. Treatments were applied for 60 days. Five days prior to the end of the experiment, male rats in all groups were mated with untreated females. Results: S. persica (500 mg/kg increased testosterone level and relative weights of testes, cauda epididymis and seminal vesicles in normal rats but did not affect testicular antioxidant parameters and sperm characteristics. Superoxide dismutase, glutathione peroxidase, catalase activities and the level of reduced glutathione were significantly reduced and malondialdehyde was elevated in the testicular homogenate of LA-exposed rats. LA exposure significantly reduced serum levels of testosterone, follicle-stimulating hormone and luteinizing hormone, as well as, sperm characteristics and relative weight of the testes, cauda epididymis, seminal vesicles and ventral prostate. Administration of S. persica extract (250 and 500 mg/kg significantly reduced oxidative stress and protected against LA-exposure effects. Conclusions: S. persica extract exhibited marked protective activity against LA-induced testicular oxidative stress in rats.

  14. An in vivo and in vitro analysis of free radical scavenging potential possessed by Desmodium gangeticum chloroform root extract: interpretation by gsms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srivats, Shyam; Ramakrishnan, Gomathi; Paddikkala, Jose; Kurian, Gino Andrew

    2012-01-01

    In the present study, the effect of DG chloroform root extract was assessed on isolated rat heart and in-vitro antioxidant models. Ischemia reperfusion injury was experimentally induced by using Langendroff apparatus. The free radical scavenging potential was studied in vitro by using different antioxidant models such as DPPH, super oxide scavenging activity, hydroxide scavenging activity and nitric oxide scavenging activity. Both experimental approaches not only substantiate its antioxidant potential but also the cardio-protection imparted by the extract. The cardio-stimulatory effects were investigated for the extract by treating it as a pre-conditioning agent against myocardial ischemia reperfusion injury. The improved antioxidant status of the myocardium indirectly predicts reduced oxidative stress mediated by ischemic reperfusion with evident reduction of infarct size determined by cardiac marker protein. These findings indicate that DG chloroform root extract may possess therapeutic potential against ischemia reperfusion injury.

  15. Effects of root and stem extracts of Asparagus cochinchinensis on biochemical indicators related to aging in the brain and liver of mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiong, Dasheng; Yu, Long-Xi; Yan, Xiao; Guo, Chunqiu; Xiong, Ying

    2011-01-01

    Asparagus cochinchinensis is a traditional Chinese medicine used for treating lung and spleen-related diseases. In this study, we compared the medicinal effects of A. cochinchinensis root and stem extracts on the activity of superoxide dismutase (SOD), the content of malonaldehyde (MDA) and total protein content in the brain, liver and plasma of mice. Polysaccharides and aqueous extracts of the roots significantly increased the spleen index and the SOD activity but reduced the MDA content and slowed down the aging process. In contrast, feeding with the stem extracts significantly reduced the SOD activity and increased the MDA accumulation in the brain and liver of mice, suggesting that the stem extracts may not be appropriate for treating aging-related diseases.

  16. Performance and Physiology of Yearling Steers Grazing Toxic Tall Fescue as Influenced by Feeding Soybean Hulls and Steroidal Implants

    Science.gov (United States)

    An endophyte (Neotyphodium coenophialum) that infests tall fescue (Lolium arundinaceum) produces ergot alkaloids that adversely affect performance and physiology of cattle to inflict a malady collectively termed ‘fescue toxicosis’. A two-yr grazing experiment was conducted with yearling steers graz...

  17. Alterations in serotonin receptor-induced contractility of bovine lateral saphenous vein in cattle grazing endophyte-infected tall fescue

    Science.gov (United States)

    As part of a large 2-year study documenting the physiologic impact of grazing endophyte-infected tall fescue on growing cattle, 2 experiments were conducted to characterize and evaluate the effects of grazing 2 levels of toxic endophyte-infected tall fescue pastures on vascular contractility and ser...

  18. The Root Extract of Gentiana macrophylla Pall. Alleviates Cardiac Apoptosis in Lupus Prone Mice.

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    Chih-Yang Huang

    Full Text Available The roots of the perennial herb Gentiana macrophylla Pall. (GM are known as Qinjiao, which has been used for centuries to treat systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE. However, little is known about the effects of GM on cholesterol-aggravated cardiac abnormalities in SLE, and the mechanisms thereof. This study investigates whether GM exhibits anti-apoptotic effects, focusing on the left ventricle (LV of NZB/W F1 mice fed with high-cholesterol diet. The morphology and apoptotic status of ventricular tissues were determined by microscopy and Terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase dUTP nick end labeling (TUNEL assay. Levels of apoptotic biomarkers were determined by immunoblotting. The results thus obtained revealed that GM significantly reduced the cholesterol-aggravated apoptosis of LV in NZB/W F1 mice by suppressing both intrinsic and extrinsic apoptotic pathways. Additionally, GM significantly increased the cardiac insulin-like growth factors (IGF-1 survival signaling and anti-apoptotic proteins in LV tissues. Accordingly, GM is considered to be beneficial in alleviating cholesterol-aggravated cardiac damage in SLE, and therefore constitute an alternative treatment for SLE patients with cardiac abnormalities.

  19. Effect of Salvia chorassanica Root Aqueous, Ethanolic and Hydro Alcoholic Extracts on Staphylococcus aureus, Enterococcus faecalis, Salmonella typhimurium and Escherichia coli

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    Azam Mehraban

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Background Nowadays, through the previous researches, it has become clear that Salvia has important health benefits. Salvia chorassanica is one of the valuable native Iranian species which only grows in Khorasan province, Iran. Objectives The aim of this study is to evaluate the antimicrobial effect of Salvia chorassanica root aqueous, ethanolic and hydro alcoholic extracts on Staphylococcus aureus, Enterococcus faecalis, Salmonella typhimurium and Escherichia coli. Methods In this experimental study, maceration method was used to prepare extracts. Study setup was conducted in March 2014.The duration of study setup took for two months. The micro dilution method by ELISA was used to determine the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC and minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC of aqueous, ethanolic and hydro alcoholic extracts of root of Salvia chorassanica against Staphylococcus aureus, Enterococcus faecalis, Salmonella typhimurium and Escherichia coli. The antibacterial effect also was evaluated using agar diffusion method. The inhibition zones of growth against the extracts were measured in comparison to standards antibiotics. Chloramphenicol as positive control on Enterococcus faecalis, Tetracycline on Staphylococcus aureus, Gentamicin on Escherichia coli and Neomycin on Salmonella typhimurium. The data were analyzed using one way analysis of variance (ANOVA with SPSS version 16. Results The highest inhibition zone in diffusion method was related to ethanolic extract of Salvia chorassanica root against Gram-positive bacteria, Staphylococcus aureus and Enterococcus faecalis. The calculated MIC in aqueous and ethanolic extracts of root for Staphylococcus aureus was 240 and 120 mg/mL, for Enterococcus faecalis was 120 and 60 mg/mL respectively, and for Escherichia coli and Salmonella typhimurium was equal to 240 mg/mL. The amount in hydro alcoholic extracts for Gram-positive bacteria was 60 mg/mL and for Gram-negative bacteria was 120 mg/mL. The

  20. Acute exposure to ergot alkaloids from endophyte-infected tall fescue does not alter absorptive or barrier function of the isolated bovine ruminal epithelium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foote, A P; Penner, G B; Walpole, M E; Klotz, J L; Brown, K R; Bush, L P; Harmon, D L

    2014-07-01

    Ergot alkaloids in endophyte-infected (Neotyphodium coenophialum) tall fescue (Lolium arundinaceum) have been shown to cause a reduction in blood flow to the rumen epithelium as well as a decrease in volatile fatty acids (VFA) absorption from the washed rumen of steers. Previous data also indicates that incubating an extract of endophyte-infected tall fescue seed causes an increase in the amount of VFA absorbed per unit of blood flow, which could result from an alteration in the absorptive or barrier function of the rumen epithelium. An experiment was conducted to determine the acute effects of an endophyte-infected tall fescue seed extract (EXT) on total, passive or facilitated acetate and butyrate flux across the isolated bovine rumen as well as the barrier function measured by inulin flux and tissue conductance (G t ). Flux of ergovaline across the rumen epithelium was also evaluated. Rumen tissue from the caudal dorsal sac of Holstein steers (n=6), fed a common diet, was collected and isolated shortly after slaughter and mounted between two halves of Ussing chambers. In vitro treatments included vehicle control (80% methanol, 0.5% of total volume), Low EXT (50 ng ergovaline/ml) and High EXT (250 ng ergovaline/ml). Results indicate that there is no effect of acute exposure to ergot alkaloids on total, passive or facilitated flux of acetate or butyrate across the isolate bovine rumen epithelium (P>0.51). Inulin flux (P=0.16) and G t (P>0.17) were not affected by EXT treatment, indicating no alteration in barrier function due to acute ergot alkaloid exposure. Ergovaline was detected in the serosal buffer of the High EXT treatment indicating that the flux rate is ~0.25 to 0.44 ng/cm2 per hour. Data indicate that specific pathways for VFA absorption and barrier function of the rumen epithelium are not affected by acute exposure to ergot alkaloids from tall fescue at the concentrations tested. Ergovaline has the potential to be absorbed from the rumen of cattle that

  1. Cytotoxic effect of root extract of Tiliacora racemosa and oil of Semecarpus anacardium nut in human tumour cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chakraborty, Sutapa; Roy, Madhumita; Taraphdar, Amit K; Bhattacharya, R K

    2004-08-01

    Tiliacora racemosa and Semecarpus anacardium, the two plants frequently used in Ayurvedic medicine for the treatment of cancerous diseases, have been selected to examine their action in four human tumour cell lines: acute myeloblastic leukaemia (HL-60), chronic myelogenic leukaemia (K-562), breast adenocarcinoma (MCF-7) and cervical epithelial carcinoma (HeLa). In cells grown in appropriate media the ethanol extract of T. racemosa root, the total alkaloids isolated from this organ and S. anacardium nut oil prepared according to the Ayurvedic principle were found to have cytotoxic activity. The alkaloid fraction from T. racemosa had maximum cytotoxicity and was effective against all four cell lines. S. anacardium oil was cytotoxic only in leukaemic cells. These herbal preparations were not cytotoxic towards normal human lymphocytes, suggesting their action is specific for tumour cells. On microscopic examination the cells treated with these agents exhibited characteristic morphological features of apoptosis, such as cell shrinkage, and the formation of apoptotic bodies. Fluorescent staining with propidium iodide revealed distinct chromatin condensation and nuclear fragmentation. The apoptotic index paralleled the cytotoxic parameters, and fragmented DNA extracted free of genomic DNA from treated cells displayed a typical ladder pattern on gel electrophoresis. Apoptosis induced by alkaloids and phenolics, the active principles present in T. racemosa and S. anacardium, respectively, was found to be mediated by the activation of caspases. Copyright (c) 2004 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  2. Allelopathic Effects of Shoot and Root Extracts From Three Alien and Native Chenopodiaceae Species on Lettuce Seed Germination

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    Yamina Bouchikh-Boucif

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available One basic method of improving rangelands in the country is the use of native as well as exotic species of adaptable plants. Some species of Atriplex, like Atriplex canescens and Atriplex nummularia has been introduced in many thousands hectares of rangelands since more than 20 years, it feeds some debates on the algerian scientific community, so that’s why it is important to know the impact and necessary to consider its effects on native species. In the current study the effect of chemical competition of Atriplex canescens and Atriplex nummularia comparing to native Atriplex halimus by observing the effect of aqueous extracts of leaves, stems and roots of the three chenopod species assayed at 0.06, 0.63, 1.55, 3.12 and 6.25 g /l on the germination of lettuce seed test. Seed germination was significantly inhibited by shoot alien species extracts especially A.nummularia at concentrations ranging from 1.55 to 6.26 g/l with decrease rate of 20% in the lettuce seed tests indicating the presence of allelopathic substances, in 0,06 the germination increased to more than 10% comparing to the water irrigated seeds. An opposed effect than the expected had been found because Atriplex canescens had a less allelopathic effect than our native plant Atriplex halimus.

  3. Seed production of two meadow fescue cultivars differing in growth habit

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    P. MÄKELÄ

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Meadow fescue (Festuca pratensis Huds. is grown widely in the Nordic countries in forage grass mixtures. Locally adapted cultivars are preferred for establishment of mixed swards. Meadow fescue seed yield is determined by seed weight, the number of panicle bearing tillers, size of panicles and the number of fertile florets. We aimed to determine the differences in components of seed yield in two different meadow fescue cultivars differing in forage quality; Kalevi, released in 1979, and Fure, released in 1999. Biomass accumulation was monitored, numbers of fertile and sterile florets, and seeds were counted, and the forage quality was analysed. Seed quality was also analysed. Fure was leafier and accumulated more vegetative biomass than Kalevi. Kalevi had significantly more panicles than Fure, although Fure compensated for the lower number of panicles with increased panicle size. There were no differences in number of sterile and aborted florets between cultivars. Based on the results it seems that these two meadow fescue cultivars have a completely different strategy in seed production even though the final seed yield was not markedly different. It is apparent that meadow fescues have good ability to compensate among the components of seed yield. Long-term field experiments should be conducted to investigate the interactions between plant stand ecology, seed production and cultivation technology.;

  4. The Effect of Root, Shoot and Seed Extracts of The Iranian Thymus L. (Family: Lamiaceae) Species on HIV-1 Replication and CD4 Expression

    OpenAIRE

    Maryam Soleimani Farsani; Mandana Behbahani; Hamid Zarkesh Isfahani

    2016-01-01

    Objective The genus Thymus L. is a cushion plant that was previously used for the treatment of bronchitis and rheumatism. The present investigation was carried out to study the effects of root, shoot, leaf and seed extracts of five Thymus species and subspecies on peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) toxicity and HIV-1 replication. Materials and Methods In this experimental study, the activity of the Thymus extracts on HIV-1 replication and lymphocytes population were examin...

  5. Heat Shock Protein Augmentation of Root Hot Water Extract on Adipogenic Differentiation in Murine 3T3-L1 Preadipocytes

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    Wenchie Marie L. Lumbera

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available There is a high association of heat shock on the alteration of energy and lipid metabolism. The alterations associated with thermal stress are composed of gene expression changes and adaptation through biochemical responses. Previous study showed that Angelica gigas Nakai (AGN root extract promoted adipogenic differentiation in murine 3T3-L1 preadipocytes under the normal temperature condition. However, its effect in heat shocked 3T3-L1 cells has not been established. In this study, we investigated the effect of AGN root hot water extract in the adipogenic differentiation of murine 3T3-L1 preadipocytes following heat shock and its possible mechanism of action. Thermal stress procedure was executed within the same stage of preadipocyte confluence (G0 through incubation at 42°C for one hour and then allowed to recover at normal incubation temperature of 37°C for another hour before AGN treatment for both cell viability assay and Oil Red O. Cell viability assay showed that AGN was able to dose dependently (0 to 400 μg/mL increase cell proliferation under normal incubation temperature and also was able to prevent cytotoxicity due to heat shock accompanied by cell proliferation. Confluent preadipocytes were subjected into heat shock procedure, recovery and then AGN treatment prior to stimulation with the differentiation solution. Heat shocked preadipocytes exhibited reduced differentiation as supported by decreased amount of lipid accumulation in Oil Red O staining and triglyceride measurement. However, those heat shocked preadipocytes that then were given AGN extract showed a dose dependent increase in lipid accumulation as shown by both evaluation procedures. In line with these results, real-time polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR and Western blot analysis showed that AGN increased adipogenic differentiation by upregulating heat shock protection related genes and proteins together with the adipogenic markers. These findings imply the potential of

  6. Phytochemistry of cimicifugic acids and associated bases in Cimicifuga racemosa root extracts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gödecke, Tanja; Nikolic, Dejan; Lankin, David C; Chen, Shao-Nong; Powell, Sharla L; Dietz, Birgit; Bolton, Judy L; van Breemen, Richard B; Farnsworth, Norman R; Pauli, Guido F

    2009-01-01

    Earlier studies reported serotonergic activity for cimicifugic acids (CA) isolated from Cimicifuga racemosa. The discovery of strongly basic alkaloids, cimipronidines, from the active extract partition and evaluation of previously employed work-up procedures has led to the hypothesis of strong acid/base association in the extract. Re-isolation of the CAs was desired to permit further detailed studies. Based on the acid/base association hypothesis, a new separation scheme of the active partition was required, which separates acids from associated bases. A new 5-HT(7) bioassay guided work-up procedure was developed that concentrates activity into one partition. The latter was subjected to a new two-step centrifugal partitioning chromatography (CPC) method, which applies pH zone refinement gradient (pHZR CPC) to dissociate the acid/base complexes. The resulting CA fraction was subjected to a second CPC step. Fractions and compounds were monitored by (1)H NMR using a structure-based spin-pattern analysis facilitating dereplication of the known acids. Bioassay results were obtained for the pHZR CPC fractions and for purified CAs. A new CA was characterised. While none of the pure CAs was active, the serotonergic activity was concentrated in a single pHZR CPC fraction, which was subsequently shown to contain low levels of the potent 5-HT(7) ligand, N(omega)-methylserotonin. This study shows that CAs are not responsible for serotonergic activity in black cohosh. New phytochemical methodology (pHZR CPC) and a sensitive dereplication method (LC-MS) led to the identification of N(omega)-methylserotonin as serotonergic active principle. Copyright (c) 2009 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  7. The anticancer potential of steroidal saponin, dioscin, isolated from wild yam (Dioscorea villosa) root extract in invasive human breast cancer cell line MDA-MB-231 in vitro

    Science.gov (United States)

    Previously, we observed that wild yam (Dioscorea villosa) root extract (WYRE) was able to activate GATA3 in human breast cancer cells targeting epigenome. This study aimed to 'nd out if dioscin (DS), a bioactive compound of WYRE, can modulate GATA3 functions and cellular invasion in human breast can...

  8. In vitro analysis on bactericidal screening and antioxidant potentiality of leaf and root extracts of Thottea siliquosa (Lam. Ding Hou. An ethnobotanical plant

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    Saiba Abdul Wahab Nusaiba

    2013-11-01

    Conclusion: The present study provides evidence that ethyl acetate and methanol extract of leaf and root of T. siliquosa are potential source of natural antioxidants and bactericidal nature. It is essential that research should continue to isolate and purify the bio active components of this natural plant and use in drug discovery and development.

  9. A study to evaluate antioxidant and hepatoprotective activity of aqueous extract of roots of Valeriana wallichii in CCl4 induced hepatotoxicity in rats

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    Shariq Naeem Syed

    2014-04-01

    Conclusion: The aqueous extract of roots of V. Wallichii in a dose of 500 mg/kg offers partial protection against hepatotoxicity produced by CCl4 in albino rats. [Int J Basic Clin Pharmacol 2014; 3(2.000: 354-358

  10. Teratogenic Effects of Crude Ethanolic Root Bark and Leaf Extracts of Rauwolfia vomitoria (Apocynaceae on the Femur of Albino Wistar Rat Fetuses

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    Mokutima A. Eluwa

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Rauwolfia vomitoria is a plant used as a sedative and in the treatment of psychotic tendency. This study was on the teratogenic effects of its root bark and leaf extracts on Wistar rat’s fetal femurs. Materials and Methods. Twenty-five female rats weighing between 180 and 200 g were divided into 5 groups, of 5 rats each. Group A was the control, while Groups B, C, D, and E were the experimental. The female rats were mated with mature male rats to allow for pregnancy. Groups B and C animals received orally 150 mg/kg each of the root bark and leaf extracts of Rauwolfia vomitoria, respectively, while Groups D and E animals received 250 mg/kg bodyweight each of the root bark and leaf extracts of Rauwolfia vomitoria, respectively, from day 7 to day 11 of gestation. On day 20 of gestation, the rats were sacrificed, the fetuses were examined, and their femurs were dissected out and preserved, decalcified, and routinely processed using the Haematoxylin and Eosin staining method. Results. Histological observations of the fetal femur bones showed numerous osteoblast and osteoclast, hypertrophy, and hyperplasia of bone cells compared with the control. Conclusion. Ethanolic root bark and leaf extracts of Rauwolfia vomitoria may lead to advanced skeletal development.

  11. Antidiabetic, hypolipidemic and hepatoprotective effects of Arctium lappa root's hydro-alcoholic extract on nicotinamide-streptozotocin induced type 2 model of diabetes in male mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahangarpour, Akram; Heidari, Hamid; Oroojan, Ali Akbar; Mirzavandi, Farhang; Nasr Esfehani, Khalil; Dehghan Mohammadi, Zeinab

    2017-01-01

    Arctium lappa (burdock), (A. lappa) root has hypoglycemic and antioxidative effects, and has been used for treatment of diabetes in tradition medicine. This study was conducted to evaluate the antidiabetic and hypolipidemic properties of A. lappa root extract on nicotinamide-streptozotocin (NA-STZ)-induced type2 diabetes in mice. In this investigation, 70 adult male NMRI mice (30-35g) randomly divided into 7 groups (n=10) as follow: 1-control, 2-type 2 diabetic mice, 3-diabetic mice that received glibenclamide (0.25 mg/kg) as an anti-diabetic drug, 4, 5, 6 and 7- diabetic and normal animals that were pre-treated with 200 and 300 mg/kg A. lappa root extract, respectively, for 28 days. Diabetes has been induced by intraperitoneal injection of NA and STZ. Finally, the blood sample was taken and insulin, glucose, SGOT, SGPT, alkaline phosphatase, leptin and lipid levels was evaluated. Induction of diabetes decreased the level of insulin, leptin and high density lipoprotein (HDL) and increased the level of other lipids, glucose, and hepatic enzymes significantly (plappa root extract, at specific doses, has an anti-diabetic effect through its hypolipidemic and insulinotropic properties. Hence, this plant extract may be beneficial in the treatment of diabetes.

  12. Warming reduces tall fescue abundance but stimulates toxic alkaloid concentrations in transition zone pastures of the U.S.

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    Rebecca Lynne Mcculley

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Tall fescue pastures cover extensive acreage in the eastern half of the United States and contribute to important ecosystem services, including the provisioning of forage for grazing livestock. Yet little is known concerning how these pastures will respond to climate change. Tall fescue’s ability to persist and provide forage under a warmer and wetter environment, as is predicted for much of this region as a result of climate change, will likely depend on a symbiotic relationship the plant can form with the fungal endophyte, Epichloë coenophiala. While this symbiosis can confer environmental stress tolerance to the plant, the endophyte also produces alkaloids toxic to insects (e.g., lolines and mammals (ergots; which can cause ‘fescue toxicosis’ in grazing animals. The negative animal health and economic consequences of fescue toxicosis make understanding the response of the tall fescue symbiosis to climate change critical for the region. We experimentally increased temperature (+3oC and growing season precipitation (+30% of the long-term mean from 2009 – 2013 in a mixed species pasture, that included a tall fescue population that was 40% endophyte-infected. Warming reduced the relative abundance of tall fescue within the plant community, and additional precipitation did not ameliorate this effect. Warming did not alter the incidence of endophyte infection within the tall fescue population; however, warming significantly increased concentrations of ergot alkaloids (by 30-40% in fall-harvested endophyte-infected individuals. Warming alone did not affect loline alkaloid concentrations, but when combined with additional precipitation, levels increased in fall-harvested material. Although future warming may reduce the dominance of tall fescue in eastern U.S. pastures and have limited effect on the incidence of endophyte infection, persisting endophyte-infected tall fescue will have higher concentrations of toxic alkaloids which may

  13. Warming reduces tall fescue abundance but stimulates toxic alkaloid concentrations in transition zone pastures of the U.S.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mcculley, Rebecca; Bush, Lowell; Carlisle, Anna; Ji, Huihua; Nelson, Jim

    2014-10-01

    Tall fescue pastures cover extensive acreage in the eastern half of the United States and contribute to important ecosystem services, including the provisioning of forage for grazing livestock. Yet little is known concerning how these pastures will respond to climate change. Tall fescue’s ability to persist and provide forage under a warmer and wetter environment, as is predicted for much of this region as a result of climate change, will likely depend on a symbiotic relationship the plant can form with the fungal endophyte, Epichloë coenophiala. While this symbiosis can confer environmental stress tolerance to the plant, the endophyte also produces alkaloids toxic to insects (e.g., lolines) and mammals (ergots; which can cause ‘fescue toxicosis’ in grazing animals). The negative animal health and economic consequences of fescue toxicosis make understanding the response of the tall fescue symbiosis to climate change critical for the region. We experimentally increased temperature (+3oC) and growing season precipitation (+30% of the long-term mean) from 2009 - 2013 in a mixed species pasture, that included a tall fescue population that was 40% endophyte-infected. Warming reduced the relative abundance of tall fescue within the plant community, and additional precipitation did not ameliorate this effect. Warming did not alter the incidence of endophyte infection within the tall fescue population; however, warming significantly increased concentrations of ergot alkaloids (by 30-40%) in fall-harvested endophyte-infected individuals. Warming alone did not affect loline alkaloid concentrations, but when combined with additional precipitation, levels increased in fall-harvested material. Although future warming may reduce the dominance of tall fescue in eastern U.S. pastures and have limited effect on the incidence of endophyte infection, persisting endophyte-infected tall fescue will have higher concentrations of toxic alkaloids which may exacerbate fescue

  14. In Vivo Antiplasmodial, Anti-Inflammatory, and Analgesic Properties, and Safety Profile of Root Extracts of Haematostaphis barteri Hook F. (Anacardiaceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boampong, Johnson Nyarko

    2015-01-01

    Malaria is an endemic disease globally and the conundrum of drug resistance has led to the search for newer antimalarial agents. The root extract of H. barteri was evaluated for antimalarial, analgesic, and anti-inflammatory properties. The prophylactic effect of H. barteri on P. berghei was determined by pretreating mice with aqueous root extract of H. barteri (30-300 mg/kg), saline, and 1.2 mg/kg sulfadoxine/pyrimethamine for three days followed by 1 × 10(6) P. berghei inoculation. Parasite density was measured after 72 h. The curative antimalarial property of the extract was assessed by treating mice with extract, saline, and 1.14 : 6.9 mg/kg Artemether : Lumefantrine four days after 1 × 10(6) P. berghei inoculation. Selected organs were harvested for toxicity assessment. The anti-inflammatory and analgesic effect of the extract was determined in the carrageenan and thermal tail withdrawal tests, respectively. The extract significantly reduced the parasite density in the prophylactic but not the curative study. The anti-inflammatory and analgesic activities of the extract were significant (P analgesic property of the extract occurred at the highest doses used.

  15. Study on Extraction Process of Chlorogenic Acid from Ramie Root%苎麻根中绿原酸的提取工艺研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    胡佑帆; 曾彪; 朱敏; 陈玉保; 彭国平

    2015-01-01

    对苎麻根中绿原酸的提取工艺进行了研究。以绿原酸提取率为考察指标,通过单因素实验和正交实验对提取条件进行了优化。确定了苎麻根中绿原酸的最佳提取条件为:乙醇体积分数50%、料液比1∶13(g∶mL)、提取温度90℃、提取溶液 pH 值5、提取时间100 min,在此条件下,绿原酸的提取率为0.2759%。%The extraction process of chlorogenic acid from ramie root was studied.Using extraction rate of chlorogenic acid as evaluation index,the extraction conditions were optimized by single factor experiment and orthogonal experiment.Results showed that,the optimum extraction conditions of chlorogenic acid from ramie root were as follows:ethanol volume fraction was 50%,solid-liquid ratio was 1∶13(g∶mL),extraction temper-ature was 90 ℃,pH value of extraction solution was 5,extraction time was 100 min.Under above conditions, extraction rate of chlorogenic acid was 0.2759%.

  16. Highly Potent Extracts from Pea (Pisum sativum) and Maize (Zea mays) Roots Can Be Used to Induce Quiescence in Entomopathogenic Nematodes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaffuel, Geoffrey; Hiltpold, Ivan; Turlings, Ted C J

    2015-09-01

    Root exudates can play an important role in plant-nematode interactions. Recent studies have shown that the root cap exudates obtained from several plant species trigger a state of dormancy or quiescence in various genera of nematodes. This phenomenon is not only of fundamental ecological interest, but also has application potential if the plant-produced compound(s) could be used to control harmful nematodes or help to prolong the shelf-life of beneficial entomopathogenic nematodes (EPNs). The identification of the compound(s) involved in quiescence induction has proven to be a major challenge and requires large amounts of active material. Here, we present a high-throughput method to obtain bioactive root extracts from flash-frozen root caps of green pea and maize. The root cap extract obtained via this method was considerably more potent in inducing quiescence than exudate obtained by a previously used method, and consistently induced quiescence in the EPN Heterorhabditis megidis, even after a 30-fold dilution. Extracts obtained from the rest of the root were equally effective in inducing quiescence. Infective juveniles (IJs) of H. megidis exposed to these extracts readily recovered from their quiescent state as soon as they were placed in moist soil, and they were at least as infectious as the IJs that had been stored in water. Excessive exposure of IJs to air interfered with the triggering of quiescence. The implications of these results and the next steps towards identification of the quiescence-inducing compound(s) are discussed from the perspective of applying EPN against soil-dwelling insect pests.

  17. Screening and bioconversion of glycyrrhizin of Glycyrrhiza glabra root extract to 18β-glycyrrhetinic acid by different microbial strains

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    Makhmur Ahmad

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The objective of the present study is to perform screening of different microorganisms (7 bacteria and 14 fungi for conversion of glycyrrhizin (GL to 18β-glycyrrhetinic acid (GA. Penicillium chrysogenum produced the highest concentration of β-glucuronidase enzyme (61 U/mL and produced GA of 52 μg/mL while E. coli produced the highest β-glucuronidase of 376 U/mL with GA concentration of 2.1 μg/mL. Materials and Methods: Submerged and solid state biotransformation of GL was carried out. To 9.0 mL of bacterial supernatant, 1.0 mL 0.2% w/v of aqueous Glycyrrhiza glabra root extract was added and incubated at 37°C for 24 h. β-glucuronidase activity was measured and high-performance liquid chromatography analysis was carried out. Results and Discussion: Induced-Escherichia coli produces 2.1 μg/mL of GA with an enzyme activity of 376 U/mL which shows that the enzyme has a potential biotransformation capability. Rhizopus oryzae and P. chrysogenum have the potential ability to biotransform GL to GA with 2.6 μg/mL and 61 μg/mL of GA with enzyme activity of 569 U/mL and 61 U/mL, respectively. Conclusions: G. glabra roots containing GL can be hydrolyzed by microbial β-glucuronidase enzyme under sub-merged fermentation (SmF. β-glucuronidase, an enzyme of E. coli, was found to be the best microbial source of enzyme which biocatalyzed the reaction than fungal strain under SmF.

  18. Echinacea purpurea root extract enhances the adipocyte differentiation of 3T3-L1 cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Dong-Mi; Choi, Kyeong-Mi; Lee, Youn-Sun; Kim, Wonkyun; Shin, Kyong-Oh; Oh, Seikwan; Jung, Jae-Chul; Lee, Mi Kyeong; Lee, Yong-Moon; Hong, Jin Tae; Yun, Yeo-Pyo; Yoo, Hwan-Soo

    20