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Sample records for ferrous process metallurgy

  1. Possibilities for saving energy in ferrous metallurgy: Integration of technological processes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mihailov Emil

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available One of the main factors having a significant effect on fuel and energy saving in the production of rolled ferrous metals is matching the operation of the continuous casting machines (CCM with that of the reheating furnaces so called “continuous technologies” in the form of “direct rolling” or “hot charging”. In order to investigate the heat exchange processes, the opportunities for enhancing the energy efficiency and determining the optimal parameters of the flat product production process in ferrous metallurgy, some mathematical models of metal solidification and cooling in a continuous steel casting machine were determined as well as a mathematical model of metal heating in the reheating furnaces. For efficient implementation of such technologies one common algorithm was built on the basis of the individual mathematical models, representing the continuous casting - rolling mill complex control technology, dynamically matching the operation of the individual units to the actual production conditions in on-line mode. The developed algorithm can be used as part of a system for analyzing the thermal condition of the blocks at any single moment for the purpose of optimization of the units’ operation within the whole technological process. As a conclusion, considering the original developed algorithm, a 21-51% energy saving was noticed.

  2. The Rules of Ferrous Metallurgy

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    The ways in which the sciences have been delineated and categorized throughout history provide insights into the formation, stabilization, and establishment of scientific systems of knowledge. The Dresdener school’s approach for explaining and categorizing the genesis of the engineering disciplines is still valid, but needs to be complemented by further-reaching methodological and theoretical reflections. Pierre Bourdieu’s theory of social practice is applied to the question of how individual agents succeed in influencing decisively a discipline’s changing object orientation, institutionalisation and self-reproduction. Through the accumulation of social, cultural and economic capital, they succeed in realising their own organisational ideas and scientific programs. Key concepts for the analysis include the struggle for power and resources, monopolies of interpretation, and the degree of autonomy. A case study from the Aachener Technische Hochschule shows that the consolidation of ferrous metallurgy can be conceived as a symbolical struggle between Fritz Wüst, professor for ferrous metallurgy, and the German Iron and Steel Institute, leading to a construction of a system of differences in which scientists accepted being scientists rather than entrepreneurs, and entrepreneurs accepted becoming entrepreneurs and renounced science.

  3. Lead Speciation in the Dusts Emitted from Non-Ferrous Metallurgy Processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Czaplicka, Marianna; Buzek, Lucja

    2011-06-01

    The paper presents results for the speciation analysis of lead in dusts derived from dedusting of technological gasses from metallurgical processes of non-ferrous metals with different elementary content, made in accordance with two equal sequential extractions. Analytical procedure A provided possibilities for determination of fraction of Pb(2+), metallic lead and fraction containing mainly lead sulfides. The second procedure (procedure B) was sequential extraction in accordance with Tessier. The results obtained in accordance with procedure A indicate that, regardless of the dust origin, the dominant group of Pb compounds is composed of lead salts which are soluble under alkaline conditions or lead compounds that form plumbites in the reaction with NaOH.

  4. [Factors of working environment and process on non-ferrous metallurgy enterprises in Bashkortostan Republic and workers' occupational health].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bakirov, A B; Takaev, R M; Kondrova, N S; Shaĭkhlislamova, E R

    2011-01-01

    The authors studied factors of working environment and process on nonferrous metallurgy enterprises in Bashkortostan Republic and evaluated their influence on the workers' occupational health over 1997-2009, with consideration of occupation, sex, age, length of service, work conditions and characters. The article demonstrates that sanitary and hygienic characteristics of occupations connected with machinery operation are prone to increased integral evaluation of work conditions due to underestimation of actual hardiness and intensity of work.

  5. Microwave Power Absorption in Materials for Ferrous Metallurgy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Zhiwei; Li, Zhizhong; Lin, Xiaolong; Yang, Mengshen; Hwang, Jiann-Yang; Zhang, Yuanbo; Li, Guanghui; Jiang, Tao

    2016-11-01

    The characteristics of microwave power absorption in materials for ferrous metallurgy, including iron oxides (Fe2O3, Fe3O4 and Fe0.925O) and bitumite, were explored by evaluating their dielectric loss (Q E) and/or magnetic loss (Q H) distributions in the 0.05-m-thick slabs of the corresponding materials exposed to 1.2-kW and 2.45-GHz microwave radiation at temperatures below 1100°C. It is revealed that the dielectric loss contributes primarily to the power absorption in Fe2O3, Fe0.925O and the bitumite at all of the examined temperatures. Their Q E values at room temperature and slab surface are 9.1311 × 103 W m-3, 23.7025 × 103 W m-3, and 49.5999 × 103 W m-3, respectively, showing that the materials have the following heating rate initially under microwave irradiation: bitumite > Fe0.925O > Fe2O3. Compared with the other materials, Fe3O4 has much stronger power absorption, primarily originated from its magnetic loss (e.g., Q H = 1.0615 × 106 W m-3, Q H/Q E = 2.4185 at 24°C and slab surface), below its Curie point, above which the magnetic susceptibility approaches to zero, thereby causing a very small Q H value at even the surface (Q H = 1.0416 × 105 W m-3 at 880°C). It is also demonstrated that inhomogeneous power distributions occur in all the slabs and become more pronounced with increasing temperature mainly due to rapid increase in permittivity. Characterizing power absorption in the oxides and the coal is expected to offer a strategic guide for improving use of microwave energy in ferrous metallurgy.

  6. Ferrous Metal Processing Plants

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Homeland Security — This map layer includes ferrous metal processing plants in the United States. The data represent commodities covered by the Minerals Information Team (MIT) of the...

  7. CURRENT STATE AND TENDENCIES OF DEVELOPMENT OF FERROUS METALLURGY IN THE EAEU COUNTRIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. P. Dragun

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The analysis of modern status and tendencies of development of ferrous metallurgy in the countries of the EAEU is described in the article. On the basis of the conducted analysis are revealed the identified systemic problems of metallurgy and the conclusions on possible ways of their solution using the potential of integration are given.

  8. New alloying systems for ferrous powder metallurgy precision parts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danninger H.

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Traditionally, the common alloy elements for sintered steels have been Cu and Ni. With increasing requirements towards mechanical properties, and also as a consequence of soaring prices especially for these two metals, other alloy elements have also become more and more attractive for sintered steels, which make the steels however more tricky to process through PM. Here, the chances and risks of using in particular Cr and Mn alloy steels are discussed, considering the different alloying techniques viable in powder metallurgy, and it is shown that there are specific requirements in particular for sintering process. The critical importance of chemical reactions between the metal and the atmosphere is described, and it is shown that not only O2 and H2O but also H2 and even N2 can critically affect sintering and microstructural homogenization.

  9. Aluminum powder metallurgy processing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Flumerfelt, J.F.

    1999-02-12

    The objective of this dissertation is to explore the hypothesis that there is a strong linkage between gas atomization processing conditions, as-atomized aluminum powder characteristics, and the consolidation methodology required to make components from aluminum powder. The hypothesis was tested with pure aluminum powders produced by commercial air atomization, commercial inert gas atomization, and gas atomization reaction synthesis (GARS). A comparison of the GARS aluminum powders with the commercial aluminum powders showed the former to exhibit superior powder characteristics. The powders were compared in terms of size and shape, bulk chemistry, surface oxide chemistry and structure, and oxide film thickness. Minimum explosive concentration measurements assessed the dependence of explosibility hazard on surface area, oxide film thickness, and gas atomization processing conditions. The GARS aluminum powders were exposed to different relative humidity levels, demonstrating the effect of atmospheric conditions on post-atomization processing conditions. The GARS aluminum powders were exposed to different relative humidity levels, demonstrating the effect of atmospheric conditions on post-atomization oxidation of aluminum powder. An Al-Ti-Y GARS alloy exposed in ambient air at different temperatures revealed the effect of reactive alloy elements on post-atomization powder oxidation. The pure aluminum powders were consolidated by two different routes, a conventional consolidation process for fabricating aerospace components with aluminum powder and a proposed alternative. The consolidation procedures were compared by evaluating the consolidated microstructures and the corresponding mechanical properties. A low temperature solid state sintering experiment demonstrated that tap densified GARS aluminum powders can form sintering necks between contacting powder particles, unlike the total resistance to sintering of commercial air atomization aluminum powder.

  10. [The organization of the comprehensive prevention of urolithiasis among ferrous metallurgy workers].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Egorova, A M

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of study is to evaluate the effectiveness of the set of preventive measures as applied to 321 workers of basic ferrous metallurgy specialties (steel makers, mill men, hot metal shearers). During the clinical examination all the workers were divided on three groups: the workers without any pathology (11.83%, the first group), the workers with metabolic disorders only without urolitiasis (64.81%, the second group) and the workers with urolitiasis diagnosis approved by ultrasonography (23.36%, the third group). The effectiveness of rehabilitation measures was evaluated during half a year (diet therapy, drinking regimen, medicinal plants treatment). After the course of preventive measures was applied the overall health condition of most workers ameliorated and the number of workers with urolitiasis development risk factors reliably decreased up to 6-12%.

  11. Powder-Metallurgy Process And Product

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paris, Henry G.

    1988-01-01

    Rapid-solidification processing yields alloys with improved properties. Study undertaken to extend favorable property combinations of I/M 2XXX alloys through recently developed technique of rapid-solidification processing using powder metallurgy(P/M). Rapid-solidification processing involves impingement of molten metal stream onto rapidly-spinning chill block or through gas medium using gas atomization technique.

  12. Developments in Plasma Processes for Extractive Metallurgy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gauvin, W. H.; Drouet, M. G.; Munz, R. J.

    1987-12-01

    With the recent availability of commercial plasma-generating devices capable of reliable performance at powers as high as 30 MW, the applications of plasma technology in high-temperature extractive metallurgy are rapidly increasing. Some of the more promising process developments are reviewed in this paper, as are newer reactor designs.

  13. Ferrous Metal Processing Plants - Direct Download

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This map layer includes ferrous metal processing plants in the United States. The data represent commodities covered by the Minerals Information Team (MIT) of the...

  14. Tannins in Mineral Processing and Extractive Metallurgy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jordan Rutledge

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available This study provides an up to date review of tannins, specifically quebracho, in mineral processing and metallurgical processes. Quebracho is a highly useful reagent in many flotation applications, acting as both a depressant and a dispersant. Three different types of quebracho are mentioned in this study; quebracho “S” or Tupasol ATO, quebracho “O” or Tupafin ATO, and quebracho “A” or Silvafloc. It should be noted that literature often refers simply to “quebracho” without distinguishing a specific type. Quebracho is most commonly used in industry as a method to separate fluorite from calcite, which is traditionally quite challenging as both minerals share a common ion—calcium. Other applications for quebracho in flotation with calcite minerals as the main gangue source include barite and scheelite. In sulfide systems, quebracho is a key reagent in differential flotation of copper, lead, zinc circuits. The use of quebracho in the precipitation of germanium from zinc ores and for the recovery of ultrafine gold is also detailed in this work. This analysis explores the wide range of uses and methodology of quebracho in the extractive metallurgy field and expands on previous research by Iskra and Kitchener at Imperial College entitled, “Quebracho in Mineral Processing”.

  15. Geochemical features of heavy metals distribution in soils under the influence of the non-ferrous metallurgy enterprises

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    YakovenkoO.V.

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Objects of researches are soil adjournment under the influence of the non-ferrous metallurgy enterprises. The total maintenance and the maintenance of mobile forms of heavy metalsdefined by means of a method of nuclear adsorption and the spectral analysis. Definition of forms of heavy metals spent with use of a method of consecutive extraction. As a result of researches it is established that the basic source of issue of heavy metals in environment is functioning of svintsovo-zinc industrial complex. It is established that heavy metals are in soils in residual, sorbed on hydroxides and organic forms. The share of the mobile form makes 16 %. It is shown that the maintenance of mobile forms of metals in the polluted soils exceeds indicators of pure soils. On geochemical indicators define level of pollution of soils. On factor of total pollution an ecological situation in a zone of influence of industrial complex it is estimated as catastrophic (ZC = 1,7·104.

  16. CO2 Problems and waste recycling. Research at the Institute of ferrous metallurgy

    OpenAIRE

    Gudenau, H. W.; Senk, D.; Babich, A.; Fröhling, C.; Kueon, O. S.; Wang, S; Wieting, X.

    2005-01-01

    In a short introduction tests and calculations about CO2-ice-blocs in the deep sea, use of CO2 for underground-coal-gasification and tertiary processes to increase oil-production by C02-flooding are shown. New activities are presented e.g. CO2-injection into EAF combined with injection of coal, coke or directreduction-fines. After research of injection of coals, fine ores or dust into blast furnaces and other shaft furnaces ...

  17. CO2 Problems and waste recycling. Research at the Institute of ferrous metallurgy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gudenau, H. W.

    2005-04-01

    Full Text Available In a short introduction tests and calculations about CO2-ice-blocs in the deep sea, use of CO2 for underground-coal-gasification and tertiary processes to increase oil-production by C02-flooding are shown. New activities are presented e.g. CO2-injection into EAF combined with injection of coal, coke or directreduction-fines. After research of injection of coals, fine ores or dust into blast furnaces and other shaft furnaces activities are compared with injection of hot reducing gas generated by coal or waste gasification or top gas recycling combined with injection of fine solid fuels. Results of injection of prepared plastics (Duales System Deutschland, shredder-light-fraction from car-recycling and unburned carbon of power-station-ashes are discussed. Beside production of direct-reducediron by H2 fluidized reactor results of the reduction behavior ore/coal or dust/coal pellets or briquettes for the use in rotary hearth or modem shaft furnaces are shown

    En una breve introducción se describen las pruebas y cálculos referentes a bloques de hielo de CO2 en el mar profundo, el uso del CO2 para la gasificación de carbón subterráneo y procesos terciarios para aumentar la producción de aceite por medio del torrente de CO2. Dentro de las nuevas actividades se presentan, por ejemplo, la inyección de CO2 en el homo eléctrico de arco (HEA combinado con la inyección de carbón, coque o de finos de los procesos de reducción directa. Después de la investigación de la inyección de carbones, se comparan, por un lado, la inyección de los minerales finos o polvos en los hornos altos y otras actividades en los hornos de cuba con la inyección del gas reductor caliente generado por la gasificación del carbón o de los residuos o reciclado del gas del tragante combinado con la inyección de finos de combustibles sólidos. En el presente trabajo se discuten

  18. Process and device for the separation of fragments of liberated ferrous scrap from not liberated ferrous scrap fragments by means of a static magnet

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rem, P.C.; Berkhout, S.P.M.; Fraunholcz, O.N.

    2008-01-01

    The invention relates to a process and device for the separation of fragments of liberated ferrous scrap from not liberated ferrous scrap fragments by means of a static magnet, wherein a mixture of said liberated ferrous and not liberated ferrous fragments is fed onto a continuous conveyor belt whic

  19. Process and device for the separation of fragments of liberated ferrous scrap from not liberated ferrous scrap fragments by means of a static magnet

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rem, P.C.; Berkhout, S.P.M.; Fraunholcz, O.N.

    2008-01-01

    The invention relates to a process and device for the separation of fragments of liberated ferrous scrap from not liberated ferrous scrap fragments by means of a static magnet, wherein a mixture of said liberated ferrous and not liberated ferrous fragments is fed onto a continuous conveyor belt

  20. Application of the gel casting process in iron powder metallurgy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    The effects of various gel casting process parameters such as the dispersant and solid loading on the rheology of Fe slurries, molding, and sintering behaviors were studied. The relationship between solid loading and viscidity in the process of iron base powder metallurgy was researched to obtain better microstructure and properties. The results showed that the viscosity of Fe slurries is obviously reduced with the increase of the dispersant. The suitable parameters are as follows: the solid loading is 61% and sintering temperature is 1180℃. Iron parts with relatively high density and better properties were obtained by the gel casting process.

  1. Interactive data-processing system for metallurgy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rathz, T. J.

    1978-01-01

    Equipment indicates that system can rapidly and accurately process metallurgical and materials-processing data for wide range of applications. Advantages include increase in contract between areas on image, ability to analyze images via operator-written programs, and space available for storing images.

  2. Tannins in Mineral Processing and Extractive Metallurgy

    OpenAIRE

    2015-01-01

    This study provides an up to date review of tannins, specifically quebracho, in mineral processing and metallurgical processes. Quebracho is a highly useful reagent in many flotation applications, acting as both a depressant and a dispersant. Three different types of quebracho are mentioned in this study; quebracho “S” or Tupasol ATO, quebracho “O” or Tupafin ATO, and quebracho “A” or Silvafloc. It should be noted that literature often refers simply to “quebracho” without distinguishing a spe...

  3. Welding Metallurgy and Processing Issues for Joining of Power Sources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lienert, Thomas J. [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Reardon, Patrick T. [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2012-08-14

    Weldability issues with the pertinent alloys have been reviewed and preliminary results of our work on Haynes 25 have been presented. Further results on the mechanical properties and metallography on the EB welds are imminent. Hot-ductility experiments will commence within a few weeks. Aging studies on the effects of heat treatment using the Gleeble are also planned. MST-6 has extensive background in the welding metallurgy of the pertinent alloys. We also have considerable experience with the various welding processes to be used.

  4. Method for the preparation of ferrous low carbon porous material

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miller, Curtis Jack

    2014-05-27

    A method for preparing a porous metal article using a powder metallurgy forming process is provided which eliminates the conventional steps associated with removing residual carbon. The method uses a feedstock that includes a ferrous metal powder and a polycarbonate binder. The polycarbonate binder can be removed by thermal decomposition after the metal article is formed without leaving a carbon residue.

  5. Method for the preparation of ferrous low carbon porous material

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Curtis Jack

    2014-05-27

    A method for preparing a porous metal article using a powder metallurgy forming process is provided which eliminates the conventional steps associated with removing residual carbon. The method uses a feedstock that includes a ferrous metal powder and a polycarbonate binder. The polycarbonate binder can be removed by thermal decomposition after the metal article is formed without leaving a carbon residue.

  6. Theoretical Foundation of Carbonation Pellet Process for Ferrous Sludge Recycling

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HU Chang-qing; HAN Tao; ZHANG Yu-zhu; ZHANG Zhi-xia

    2011-01-01

    For the recycling of ferrous sludge from steel industry,the carbonation pellet process should be considered as a "green" process,since no impurities are added as well as CO2 can be sequestrated and consumed.Through the thermodynamic calculation,the carbonation reaction can occur spontaneously and is an exothermic reaction.Based on the kinetic analysis through unreacted core model,the interfacial chemical reaction was the rate controlling step in the initial fast stage of carbonation,and the CO2 diffusion through the CaCO3 product layer was the rate controlling step in the following extremely slow stage.For the carbonation bonded mechanism,the pellet strength was gained by the formation and growing of CaCO3 product layer.Since the interfacial chemical reaction was the critical stage of the entire carbonation process,the emphasizes should be focused on the improvement of sorbent activity and the optimization of process parameters,such as pore structure,pore surface area,and total pressure,CO2 partial pressure,reaction temperature,etc to accelerate the reaction rate and to improve the quality of carbonation pellets.

  7. Introduction to powder metallurgy processes for titanium manufacturing; Introduccion al procesado pulvimetalurgico del titanio

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Esteban, P. G.; Bolzoni, L.; Ruiz-Navas, E. M.; Gordo, E.

    2011-07-01

    The development of new extraction processes to produce titanium in powder form leads Powder Metallurgy to an advantage position among the manufacturing processes for titanium. The cost reduction of base material, coupled with the economy of the powder metallurgy processes, give titanium industry the chance to diversify its products, which could lead to production volumes able to stabilise the price of the metal. This work reviews some of the Powder Metallurgy techniques for the manufacturing of titanium parts, and describes the two typical approaches for titanium manufacturing: Blending Elemental and Prealloyed Powders. Among others, conventional pressing and sintering are described, which are compared with cold and hot isostatic pressing techniques. Real and potential applications are described. (Author) 71 refs.

  8. 《中国科学技术史》"钢铁冶金"分册述评%A Review of Donald B.Wagner's Science and Civilisation in China(Ferrous Metallurgy)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    梅建军

    2011-01-01

    @@ 李约瑟(J.Needham,1900-1995年)博士的系列专著(Scienceand Civilisation in China)自1954年出版第1卷以来,迄今已出版了24个分册.最近出版的两个分册分别是"陶瓷技术"(Ceramic Technology)与"钢铁冶金"(Ferrous Metallurgy),两者均归属于第5卷即化学和化学技术卷,是该卷总计14个分册中的第12和第11分册.

  9. 有色金属复杂资源低温碱性熔炼原理与方法%Principle and method of low temperature alkaline smelting in non-ferrous metallurgy complicated resources

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郭学益; 刘静欣; 田庆华; 李栋

    2013-01-01

      低温碱性熔炼是一种有色冶金高效清洁生产方法,可处理复杂难处理原生资源和二次资源等。根据熔炼体系的不同,将低温碱性熔炼分为直接熔炼、氧化熔炼、还原熔炼三类,并阐述了该方法的相关理论、发展概况和研究进展,具体介绍了其在铝灰、废弃电路板等二次资源回收,铋精矿、锑精矿、铅精矿、再生铅物料、多金属复杂矿冶炼,以及二氧化硅、氧化锌材料制备等方面的应用。研究表明该方法具有金属直收率高、环保、节能等优点,具有广阔的应用前景。%Low temperature alkaline smelting is an effective cleaner product method in non-ferrous metallurgy, especially in the separation and extraction of complex resources and secondary resources. Low temperature alkaline smelting is divided into direct smelting, oxidizing smelting and reducing smelting according to the different system. The basic fundamental, development status and applications of this process are introduced and summarized. The recovery of valuable metals from waste printed circuit board, aluminum dross, the smelting process of bismuth concentrate, antimony concentrate, lead concentrate, regenerated lead, and complicated metal resources, and the preparation of silicon dioxide and zinc oxide are expounded in detail. The study shows that this method has broad application prospects with great advantages, such as high straight yield, environmental protection, energy saving, etc.

  10. High field performance of superconducting magnets using powder metallurgy processed Cu-Nb-Sn and Nb-Al

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zaleski, A.J.; Foner, S.

    1984-06-01

    Small superconducting magnets were fabricated with powder metallurgy processed Nb-Al wire and with powder metallurgy processed multistrand Cu-Nb--Sn wire with 19 tin cores. Tests in a background field of up to 15 T showed that short sample characteristics were achieved for three coils. Upper limits of resistivity were established for both powder metallurgy processed wires. The reacted wires in the magnets gave upper limits of resistivity at 10 T of less than 1.4 x 10/sup -14/ ..cap omega.. cm for the Nb/sub 3/Sn wire, and less than 9 x 10/sup -13/ ..cap omega.. cm for the Nb-Al wire.

  11. Development of new metal matrix composite electrodes for electrical discharge machining through powder metallurgy process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Mathalai Sundaram

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Electrical discharge machining (EDM is one of the widely used nontraditional machining methods to produce die cavities by the erosive effect of electrical discharges. This method is popular due to the fact that a relatively soft electrically conductive tool electrode can machine hard work piece. Copper electrode is normally used for machining process. Electrode wear rate is the major drawback for EDM researchers. This research focus on fabrication of metal matrix composite (MMC electrode by mixing copper powder with titanium carbide (TiC and Tungsten carbide (WC powder through powder metallurgy process, Copper powder is the major amount of mixing proportion with TiC and WC. However, this paper focus on the early stage of the project where powder metallurgy route was used to determine suitable mixing time, compaction pressure and sintering and compacting process in producing EDM electrode. The newly prepared composite electrodes in different composition are tested in EDM for OHNS steel.

  12. Properties of WZ21 (%wt) alloy processed by a powder metallurgy route.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cabeza, Sandra; Garcés, Gerardo; Pérez, Pablo; Adeva, Paloma

    2015-06-01

    Microstructure, mechanical properties and corrosion behaviour of WZ21 (%wt) alloy prepared by a powder metallurgy route from rapidly solidified powders have been studied. Results were compared to those of the same alloy prepared through a conventional route of casting and extrusion. The microstructure of the extruded ingot consisted of α-Mg grains and Mg3Zn3Y2 (W-phase) and LPSO-phase particles located at grain boundaries. Moreover, stacking faults were also observed within α-Mg grains. The alloy processed by the powder metallurgy route exhibited a more homogeneous and finer microstructure, with a grain size of 2 μm. In this case W-phase and Mg24Y5 phase were identified, but not the LPSO-phase. The microstructural refinement induced by the use of rapidly solidified powders strengthened the alloy at room temperature and promoted superplasticity at higher strain rates. Corrosion behaviour in PBS medium evidenced certain physical barrier effect of the almost continuous arrangements of second phases aligned along the extrusion direction in conventionally processed WZ21 alloy, with a stable tendency around 7 mm/year. On the other hand, powder metallurgy processing promoted significant pitting corrosion, inducing accelerated corrosion rate during prolonged immersion times.

  13. Mechanical properties of metals for biomedical applications using powder metallurgy process: A review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dewidar, Montasser Marasy; Yoon, Ho-Chel; Lim, Jae Kyoo

    2006-06-01

    The uses of biomaterials have been revolutionizing the biomedical field in deployment as implants for humans. During the past five decades, many implant materials made of metals have been put into practical use. Powder metallurgy techniques have been used to produce controlled porous structures, such as porous coatings applied for dental and orthopedic surgical implants, which allow bony tissue ingrowth within the implant surface, thereby improving fixation. This paper examines various important metals using powder metallurgy technology to produce elements of a total hip replacement. These alloys are 316L stainless steel alloy, Co-Cr-Mo alloy, and Ti-6Al-4V alloy. Also, this paper examines current information on the mechanical properties. Mechanical properties are discussed as a function of type of materials and process of fabrication. This article addresses the engineering aspects concerning the advantages and disadvantages of each type of material.

  14. Evaluation of the treatment of chromite ore processing residue by ferrous sulfate and asphalt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moon, Deok Hyun; Wazne, Mahmoud; Koutsospyros, Agamemnon; Christodoulatos, Christos; Gevgilili, Halil; Malik, Moinuddin; Kalyon, Dilhan M

    2009-07-15

    The effectiveness of the treatment of chromite ore processing residue (COPR) with ferrous sulfate and encapsulation into asphalt were explored separately and in combination. The asphalt treatment was conducted by mixing COPR or ferrous sulfate pretreated COPR with varying amounts of asphalt. To assess the efficacy of the treatment, the leachability of toxicity characteristic leaching procedure (TCLP) total chromium (Cr) from all treated samples was determined for curing periods up to 16 months. X-ray absorption near edge structure (XANES) analyses were also performed to evaluate the Cr(6+) concentration in the selected samples. The combination treatment of ferrous sulfate and the encapsulation of the treated COPR into asphalt reduced the TCLP total Cr concentration to lower than the regulatory limit of 5mg/L for Cr contaminated soils, after 16 months. However, the Cr concentrations were still higher than the universal treatment standards (UTS) of 0.6 mg/L for hazardous waste. On the other hand, treatment with ferrous sulfate alone or the encapsulation of the COPR in asphalt failed to meet the TCLP total Cr concentration of 5mg/L, after 16 months. XANES analyses results showed that more than 75% Cr(6+) reduction was achieved upon pretreatment with ferrous sulfate.

  15. Hydrometallurgical-UV process to produce ferrous sulfate from the pyrite present in coal tailings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Viganico, E.M.; Silva, R.A. [South Rio Grande Federal Univ., Porto Alegre (Brazil).Graduate Program in Mining, Metallurgical and Materials Technology Center

    2010-07-01

    The oxidation of pyrite can promote acid mine drainage (AMD). This study developed a hydrometallurgical-UV route for the production of ferrous sulfate. The laboratory study was conducted using a pyrite concentrate obtained from a processed coal tailing. Leaching of the tailing was performed in packed bed columns in an oxidizing environment with an aqueous medium. Recirculation of the liquor produced an Fe{sup 3+} iron rich extract. Ultraviolet irradiation was then used to convert the Fe{sup 3+} to Fe{sup 2+}. Heat provided by the UV lamps caused the ferrous sulfate to crystallize. X-ray diffraction (XRD) studies of the crystals demonstrated that it is possible to produce commercial-grade ferrous sulfate heptahydrate crystals from the pyrite present in coal tailings. The crystals are used to treat anemia in humans and animals, and are also used as reagents for waste and waste water treatment. 7 refs., 2 tabs., 2 figs.

  16. Powder metallurgy processing of high strength turbine disk alloys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, D. J.

    1976-01-01

    Using vacuum-atomized AF2-1DA and Mar-M432 powders, full-scale gas turbine engine disks were fabricated by hot isostatically pressing (HIP) billets which were then isothermally forged using the Pratt & Whitney Aircraft GATORIZING forging process. While a sound forging was produced in the AF2-1DA, a container leak had occurred in the Mar-M432 billet during HIP. This resulted in billet cracking during forging. In-process control procedures were developed to identify such leaks. The AF2-1DA forging was heat treated and metallographic and mechanical property evaluation was performed. Mechanical properties exceeded those of Astroloy, one of the highest temperature capability turbine disk alloys presently used.

  17. Powder metallurgy processing and deformation characteristics of bulk multimodal nickel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Farbaniec, L., E-mail: lfarban1@jhu.edu [Université Paris 13, Sorbonne Paris Cité, LSPM, CNRS, 99 Avenue J.B. Clément, 93430 Villetaneuse (France); Dirras, G., E-mail: dirras@univ-paris13.fr [Université Paris 13, Sorbonne Paris Cité, LSPM, CNRS, 99 Avenue J.B. Clément, 93430 Villetaneuse (France); Krawczynska, A.; Mompiou, F. [Université Paul Sabatier, CEMES, CNRS, 29 rue Jeanne Marvig 31055 Toulouse (France); Couque, H. [Nexter Munitions, 7 route de Guerry, 18200 Bourges (France); Naimi, F.; Bernard, F. [Institut Carnot de Bourgogne, UMR 6303 CNRS, Université de Bourgogne, BP 47870, 21078 Dijon (France); Tingaud, D. [Université Paris 13, Sorbonne Paris Cité, LSPM, CNRS, 99 Avenue J.B. Clément, 93430 Villetaneuse (France)

    2014-08-15

    Spark plasma sintering was used to process bulk nickel samples from a blend of three powder types. The resulting multimodal microstructure was made of coarse (average size ∼ 135 μm) spherical microcrystalline entities (the core) surrounded by a fine-grained matrix (average grain size ∼ 1.5 μm) or a thick rim (the shell) distinguishable from the matrix. Tensile tests revealed yield strength of ∼ 470 MPa that was accompanied by limited ductility (∼ 2.8% plastic strain). Microstructure observation after testing showed debonding at interfaces between the matrix and the coarse entities, but in many instances, shallow dimples within the rim were observed indicating local ductile events in the shell. Dislocation emission and annihilation at grain boundaries and twinning at crack tip were the main deformation mechanisms taking place within the fine-grained matrix as revealed by in-situ transmission electron microscopy. Estimation of the stress from loop's curvature and dislocation pile-up indicates that dislocation emission from grain boundaries and grain boundary overcoming largely contributes to the flow stress. - Highlights: • Bulk multi-modal Ni was processed by SPS from a powder blend. • Ultrafine-grained matrix or rim observed around spherical microcrystalline entities • Yield strength (470 MPa) and ductility (2.8% plastic strain) were measured. • Debonding was found at the matrix/microcrystalline entity interfaces. • In-situ TEM showed twinning, dislocation emission and annihilation at grain boundaries.

  18. Thermal processing of diblock copolymer melts mimics metallurgy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Kyungtae; Schulze, Morgan W.; Arora, Akash; Lewis, Ronald M.; Hillmyer, Marc A.; Dorfman, Kevin D.; Bates, Frank S.

    2017-05-01

    Small-angle x-ray scattering experiments conducted with compositionally asymmetric low molar mass poly(isoprene)-b-poly(lactide) diblock copolymers reveal an extraordinary thermal history dependence. The development of distinct periodic crystalline or aperiodic quasicrystalline states depends on how specimens are cooled from the disordered state to temperatures below the order-disorder transition temperature. Whereas direct cooling leads to the formation of documented morphologies, rapidly quenched samples that are then heated from low temperature form the hexagonal C14 and cubic C15 Laves phases commonly found in metal alloys. Self-consistent mean-field theory calculations show that these, and other associated Frank-Kasper phases, have nearly degenerate free energies, suggesting that processing history drives the material into long-lived metastable states defined by self-assembled particles with discrete populations of volumes and polyhedral shapes.

  19. Electron microscopy study of microtexture in Cu-Al-Ni shape memory alloys processed by powder metallurgy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez, P. P.; San Jean, J.; Iza-Mendia, A.; Recarte, V.; Pérez-Landazabal, J. J.; No, M. L.

    2003-10-01

    Cu-AI-Ni shape memory alloys processed by powder metallurgy show very good thermomechanical properties, being the mechanical behavior similar to the one observed in single crystals. In this paper we present the microstructural characterization of a sample elaborated by powder metallurgy in two different stages of the process: after being compacted by Hot Isostatic Pressing (HIP) and after compaction and hot rolling, in order to find the microscopic mechanisms responsible of their mechanical behavior. The characterization has been carried out by means of Scanning Electron Microscopy using Backscattered Electron Imaging (SEM-BSE) and Electron BackScattered Diffraction (EBSD), as well as Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM).

  20. Microstructure and mechanical behavior of 6061Al reinforced with silicon nitride particles, processed by powder metallurgy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Amigo, V.; Ortiz, J.L.; Salvador, M.D.

    2000-01-31

    A critical step in the processing of Metal Matrix Composites (MMCs) reinforced with ceramic particles is the insertion of these particles into the metal matrix alloy. This greatly influences the strength of the composite since it is controlled by the metal-particle interfacial bond strength. Because of the difficulty in wetting ceramic particles with molten metal, the Powder Metallurgy or PM route was developed. Powder Extrusion consolidates the composite to over 98% dense, and can be carried out below the Solidus Temperature of the alloy. The most important aspect of the microstructure is the distribution of the reinforcing particles, and this depends on the processing and fabrication routes involved, as well as the relative size of the matrix and reinforcing particles. Extrusion can homogenize the structure to some extent, but minimizing reinforcement inhomogeneity during initial processing is important to achieve optimum properties.

  1. Plutonium Metallurgy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Freibert, Franz J. [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2012-08-09

    Due to its nuclear properties, Pu will remain a material of global interest well into the future. Processing, Structure, Properties and Performance remains a good framework for discussion of Pu materials science Self-irradiation and aging effects continue to be central in discussions of Pu metallurgy Pu in its elemental form is extremely unstable, but alloying helps to stabilize Pu; but, questions remain as to how and why this stabilization occurs. Which is true Pu-Ga binary phase diagram: US or Russian? Metallurgical issues such as solute coring, phase instability, crystallographic texture, etc. result in challenges to casting, processing, and properties modeling and experiments. For Ga alloyed FCC stabilized Pu, temperature and pressure remain as variables impacting phase stability.

  2. National information service in mining, mineral processing and extractive metallurgy. [MINTEC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Romaniuk, A.S.; MacDonald, R.J.C.

    1979-03-01

    More than a dedade ago, CANMET management recognized the need to make better use of existing technological information in mining and extractive metallurgy, two fields basic to the economic well-being of Canada. There were at that time no indexes or files didicated to disseminating technical information for the many minerals mined and processed in Canada, including coal. CANMET, with the nation's largest research and library resources in the minerals field, was in a unique position to fill this need. Initial efforts were concentrated on building a mining file beginning with identification of world sources of published information, development of a special thesaurus of terms for language control and adoption of a manual indexing/retrieval system. By early 1973, this file held 8,300 references, with source, abstract and keywords given for each reference. In mid-1973, operations were computerized. Software for indexing and retrieval by batch mode was written by CANMET staff to utilize the hardware facilities of EMR's Computer Science Center. The resulting MINTEC file, one of the few files of technological information produced in Canada, is the basis for the national literature search service in mining offered by CANMET. Attention is now focussed on building a sister-file in extractive metallurgy using the system already developed. Published information sources have been identified and a thesaurus of terms is being compiled and tested. The software developed for CANMET's file-building operations has several features, including the selective dissemination of information and production from magnetic tape of photoready copy for publication, as in a bi-monthly abstracts journal.

  3. Method and apparatus for separating a non-ferrous metal-comprising fraction from ferrous scrap

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rem, P.C.; Berkhout, S.P.M.

    2010-01-01

    Method for separating a non-ferrous metal-comprising fraction from ferrous scrap, wherein the ferrous scrap is conveyed to a processing device for separating the non-ferrous metal-comprising fraction from the remainder of the ferrous scrap. The processing device supplies a beam of water, and the fer

  4. Method and apparatus for separating a non-ferrous metal-comprising fraction from ferrous scrap

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rem, P.C.; Berkhout, S.P.M.

    2010-01-01

    Method for separating a non-ferrous metal-comprising fraction from ferrous scrap, wherein the ferrous scrap is conveyed to a processing device for separating the non-ferrous metal-comprising fraction from the remainder of the ferrous scrap. The processing device supplies a beam of water, and the

  5. Characterisation of titanium-titanium boride composites processed by powder metallurgy techniques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Selva Kumar, M., E-mail: sel_mcet@yahoo.co.in [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Dr. Mahalingam College of Engineering and Technology, Pollachi-642003 (India); Chandrasekar, P.; Chandramohan, P. [School of Engineering, Professional Group of Institutions, Coimbatore-641662 (India); Mohanraj, M. [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Info Institute of Engineering, Coimbatore-641107 (India)

    2012-11-15

    In this work, a detailed characterisation of titanium-titanium boride composites processed by three powder metallurgy techniques, namely, hot isostatic pressing, spark plasma sintering and vacuum sintering, was conducted. Two composites with different volume percents of titanium boride reinforcement were used for the investigation. One was titanium with 20% titanium boride, and the other was titanium with 40% titanium boride (by volume). Characterisation was performed using X-ray diffraction, electron probe micro analysis - energy dispersive spectroscopy and wavelength dispersive spectroscopy, image analysis and scanning electron microscopy. The characterisation results confirm the completion of the titanium boride reaction. The results reveal the presence of titanium boride reinforcement in different morphologies such as needle-shaped whiskers, short agglomerated whiskers and fine plates. The paper also discusses how mechanical properties such as microhardness, elastic modulus and Poisson's ratio are influenced by the processing techniques as well as the volume fraction of the titanium boride reinforcement. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Ti-TiB composites were processed by HIP, SPS and vacuum sintering. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The completion of Ti-TiB{sub 2} reaction was confirmed by XRD, SEM and EPMA studies. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Hardness and elastic properties of Ti-TiB composites were discussed. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Processing techniques were compared with respect to their microstructure.

  6. A method to rapidly determine the sintering process parameters of powder metallurgy by real-time resistivity monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Zhen; Liu, Huanchao; Geng, Haoran; Leng, Jinfeng

    2016-10-01

    A new method, which is called the resistivity method, is applied in this paper to explore the optimum sintering parameters of powder metallurgy (PM) since general methods are always labor-intensive and time-consuming. This method can probe the resistivity of the powder metallurgy samples in real-time during the sintering process, to quickly estimate the change of the relative density, which consequently determine the properties of the sintered item. As an example, in this paper, copper/tungsten carbide (Cu/WC) composites and pure aluminum (Al) powder compacts are experimentally considered. As a result, for the Cu/WC composites, the highest value of relative density appeared at the holding time of 50 min where the sample has the lowest resistivity. For the Al compacts, the optimum sintering temperature is 450 °C, and the longer the holding time the better.

  7. Priority on Deep Processing of Non-ferrous Metals in Guizhou in the 12th Five Year Plan

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    <正>It is known that, in the 12th five year plan, Guizhou will be built into a major base for deep processing of resources. Non-ferrous metals, one of the eight pillar industries in Guizhou, will focus on deep processing.

  8. Metallurgy Department

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Risø National Laboratory, Roskilde

    The activities of the Metallurgy Department at Risø during 1981 are described. The work is presented in three chapters: General Materials Research, Technology and Materials Development, Fuel Elements. Furthermore, a survey is given of the department's participation in international collaboration...

  9. Assessment of ferrous chloride and Portland cement for the remediation of chromite ore processing residue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jagupilla, Santhi C; Wazne, Mahmoud; Moon, Deok Hyun

    2015-10-01

    Chromite Ore Processing Residue (COPR) is an industrial waste containing up to 7% chromium (Cr) including up to 5% hexavalent chromium [Cr(VI)]. The remediation of COPR has been challenging due to the slow release of Cr(VI) from a clinker like material and thereby the incomplete detoxification of Cr(VI) by chemical reagents. The use of sulfur based reagents such as ferrous sulfate and calcium polysulfide to detoxify Cr(VI) has exasperated the swell potential of COPR upon treatment. This study investigated the use of ferrous chloride alone and in combination with Portland cement to address the detoxification of Cr(VI) in COPR and the potential swell of COPR. Chromium regulatory tests, X-ray powder diffraction (XRPD) analyses and X-ray absorption near edge structure (XANES) analyses were used to assess the treatment results. The treatment results indicated that Cr(VI) concentrations for the acid pretreated micronized COPR as measured by XANES analyses were below the New Jersey Department of Environmental Protection (NJDEP) standard of 20 mg kg(-1). The Toxicity characteristic leaching procedure (TCLP) Cr concentrations for all acid pretreated samples also were reduced below the TCLP regulatory limit of 5 mg L(-1). Moreover, the TCLP Cr concentration for the acid pretreated COPR with particle size ⩽0.010 mm were less than the universal treatment standard (UTS) of 0.6 mg L(-1). The treatment appears to have destabilized all COPR potential swell causing minerals. The unconfined compressive strength (UCS) for the treated samples increased significantly upon treatment with Portland cement. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. TREATMENT OF HEXAVALENT CHROMIUM IN CHROMITE ORE PROCESSING SOLID WASTE USING A MIXED REDUCTANT SOLUTION OF FERROUS SULFATE AND SODIUM DITHIONITE

    Science.gov (United States)

    We developed a method for disseminating ferrous iron in the subsurface to enhance chemical reduction of hexavalent chromium (Cr(VI)) in a chromite ore processing solid waste derived from the production of ferrochrome alloy. The method utilizes ferrous sulfate (FeSO4) in combinati...

  11. Optimisation of the slag mode in the ladle during the steel processing of secondary metallurgy

    OpenAIRE

    Socha, Ladislav; Bažan, Jiří; Gryc, Karel; Morávka, Jan; Styrnal, Petr; Pilka, Václav; Piegza, Zbygněv

    2013-01-01

    Optimisation of the slag mode in the ladle with the help of briquetted fluxing agents, based on Al2O3 under various technological conditions is the object of this paper. The aim of the industrial experiments was to assess the possibility of achieving the optimum chemical composition of the slag that would improve the kinetic conditions of the refining ladle slag during the treatment in secondary metallurgy units. Industrial experiments were focused on comparing the influences of d...

  12. Powder metallurgy processing of Ni-Co base electrodes for application in water electrolysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Assis, O.B.G. [EMBRAPA Agricultural Instrumentation, Sao Carlos, SP (Brazil); Crnkovic, F.C.; Machado, R.; Avaca, L.A.; Ferrante, M.; Machado, S.A.S.

    1999-07-01

    Electrodes of Co, Ni and Ni{sub 50}Co{sub 50} were produced by powder metallurgy techniques aiming at their application as cathodes for water electrolysis system. Sintering was carried out in vacuum/argon atmosphere at low temperature to keep some residual porosity to enhance surface electroactivity by an increase of the geometric area. The Ni-Co alloying was obtained by mechanical synthesis, making use of the appropriated route. The final electrodes presented porosity around 12% where the electrochemical tests presented increasing in the critical peak when compared with electroplated flat samples. (orig.) 11 refs.

  13. Method and apparatus for separating a non-ferrous metal-comprising fraction from ferrous scrap

    OpenAIRE

    Rem, P.C.; Berkhout, S.P.M.

    2010-01-01

    Method for separating a non-ferrous metal-comprising fraction from ferrous scrap, wherein the ferrous scrap is conveyed to a processing device for separating the non-ferrous metal-comprising fraction from the remainder of the ferrous scrap. The processing device supplies a beam of water, and the ferrous scrap is conveyed and released into the waterbeam so as to cause that the ferrous scrap is allowed to fall and move further, subject to the forces of gravity and the waterbeam.

  14. Effect of neutralized solid waste generated in lime neutralization on the ferrous ion bio-oxidation process during acid mine drainage treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Fenwu; Zhou, Jun; Zhou, Lixiang; Zhang, Shasha; Liu, Lanlan; Wang, Ming

    2015-12-15

    Bio-oxidation of ferrous ions prior to lime neutralization exhibits great potential for acid mine drainage (AMD) treatment, while slow ferrous ion bio-oxidation or total iron precipitation is a bottleneck in this process. In this study, neutralized solid waste (NSW) harvested in an AMD lime neutralization procedure was added as a crystal seed in AMD for iron oxyhydroxysulfate bio-synthesis. The effect of this waste on ferrous ion oxidation efficiency, total iron precipitation efficiency, and iron oxyhydroxysulfate minerals yield during ferrous ion bio-oxidation by Acidithiobacillus ferrooxidans was investigated. Ferrous ion oxidation efficiency was greatly improved by adding NSW. After 72 h incubation, total iron precipitation efficiency in treatment with 24 g/L of NSW was 1.74-1.03 times higher than in treatment with 0-12 g/L of NSW. Compared with the conventional treatment system without added NSW, the iron oxyhydroxysulfate minerals yield was increased by approximately 21.2-80.9% when 3-24 g/L of NSW were added. Aside from NSW, jarosite and schwertmannite were the main precipitates during ferrous ion bio-oxidation with NSW addition. NSW can thus serve as the crystal seed for iron oxyhydroxysulfate mineral bio-synthesis in AMD, and improve ferrous ion oxidation and total iron precipitation efficiency significantly.

  15. Oxidation of atrazine in aqueous media by solar- enhanced Fenton-like process involving persulfate and ferrous ion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khandarkhaeva, Marina; Batoeva, Agniya; Aseev, Denis; Sizykh, Marina; Tsydenova, Oyuna

    2017-03-01

    The oxidation of s-triazines (using atrazine (ATZ) as a model compound) by a solar-enhanced Fenton-like process involving persulfate and ferrous ion was studied. A flow-through tubular photoreactor was employed for the experiments. The solar-enhanced oxidative system involving ferrous ion and persulfate (Solar/S2O8(2-)/Fe(2+)) showed the highest ATZ degradation efficiency when compared with other treatments (unactivated S2O8(2-), Solar - sunlight only, S2O8(2-)/Fe(2+), Solar/S2O8(2-)). Complete degradation of ATZ and 20% reduction in total organic carbon (TOC) content were observed after 30min of the treatment. The in situ generated (•)ОН and SO4(-•) radicals were shown to be involved in ATZ oxidation using the radical scavengers methanol and tert-butyl alcohol. Furthermore, iron compounds were shown to act not only as catalysts but also as photo-sensitizers, as the introduction of ferrous ion into the reaction mixture led to an increased absorbance of the solution and expansion of the absorption spectrum into the longer wavelength spectral region. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Process metallurgy simulation for metal drawing process optimization by using two-scale finite element method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nakamachi, Eiji; Yoshida, Takashi; Yamaguchi, Toshihiko; Morita, Yusuke [Dept. of Biomedical Engineering, Doshisha Univ., Kyotanabe, Kyoto, 610-0394 (Japan); Kuramae, Hiroyuki [Dept. of Technol. Management, Osaka Institute of Technol., Asahiku, Osaka, 535-8585 (Japan); Morimoto, Hideo [Furukawa Electric Co. Ltd., Okano, Nishiku, Yokohama, Kanagawa, 220-0073 (Japan)

    2014-10-06

    We developed two-scale FE analysis procedure based on the crystallographic homogenization method by considering the hierarchical structure of poly-crystal aluminium alloy metal. It can be characterized as the combination of two-scale structure, such as the microscopic polycrystal structure and the macroscopic elastic plastic continuum. Micro polycrystal structure can be modeled as a three dimensional representative volume element (RVE). RVE is featured as by 3×3×3 eight-nodes solid finite elements, which has 216 crystal orientations. This FE analysis code can predict the deformation, strain and stress evolutions in the wire drawing processes in the macro- scales, and further the crystal texture and hardening evolutions in the micro-scale. In this study, we analyzed the texture evolution in the wire drawing processes by our two-scale FE analysis code under conditions of various drawing angles of dice. We evaluates the texture evolution in the surface and center regions of the wire cross section, and to clarify the effects of processing conditions on the texture evolution.

  17. Process metallurgy simulation for metal drawing process optimization by using two-scale finite element method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakamachi, Eiji; Yoshida, Takashi; Kuramae, Hiroyuki; Morimoto, Hideo; Yamaguchi, Toshihiko; Morita, Yusuke

    2014-10-01

    We developed two-scale FE analysis procedure based on the crystallographic homogenization method by considering the hierarchical structure of poly-crystal aluminium alloy metal. It can be characterized as the combination of two-scale structure, such as the microscopic polycrystal structure and the macroscopic elastic plastic continuum. Micro polycrystal structure can be modeled as a three dimensional representative volume element (RVE). RVE is featured as by 3×3×3 eight-nodes solid finite elements, which has 216 crystal orientations. This FE analysis code can predict the deformation, strain and stress evolutions in the wire drawing processes in the macro- scales, and further the crystal texture and hardening evolutions in the micro-scale. In this study, we analyzed the texture evolution in the wire drawing processes by our two-scale FE analysis code under conditions of various drawing angles of dice. We evaluates the texture evolution in the surface and center regions of the wire cross section, and to clarify the effects of processing conditions on the texture evolution.

  18. Microstructure and microanalysis studies of copper-nickel-tin alloys obtained by conventional powder metallurgy processing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Monteiro, Waldemar A.; Carrio, Juan A.G.; Masson, T.J.; Vitor, E.; Abreu, C.D.; Marques, I.M., E-mail: fisica.cch@mackenzie.br [Universidade Presbiteriana Mackenzie (CCH), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil). Centro de Ciencias e Humanidades; Silva, L.C.E. da, E-mail: jgcarrio@mackenzie.br [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2009-07-01

    The aim of this paper was to analyze the microstructural development in samples of Cu-Ni-Sn alloys (weight %) obtained by powder metallurgy (P/M). The powders were mixed for 1/2 hour. After this, they were pressed, in a cold uniaxial pressing (1000 kPa). In the next step the specimens were sintered at temperatures varying from 650 up to 780 deg C under vacuum. Secondly, the samples were homogenized at 500 deg C for several special times. The alloys were characterized by optical microscopy, electrical conductivity and Vickers hardness. X-rays powder diffraction data were collected for the sintered samples in order to a structural and microstructural analysis. The comparative analysis is based on the sintered density, densification parameter, hardness, macrostructures and microstructures of the samples. (author)

  19. Ferrous iron oxidation by sulfur-oxidizing Acidithiobacillus ferrooxidans and analysis of the process at the levels of transcription and protein synthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kucera, Jiri; Bouchal, Pavel; Lochman, Jan; Potesil, David; Janiczek, Oldrich; Zdrahal, Zbynek; Mandl, Martin

    2013-04-01

    In contrast to iron-oxidizing Acidithiobacillus ferrooxidans, A. ferrooxidans from a stationary phase elemental sulfur-oxidizing culture exhibited a lag phase in pyrite oxidation, which is similar to its behaviour during ferrous iron oxidation. The ability of elemental sulfur-oxidizing A. ferrooxidans to immediately oxidize ferrous iron or pyrite without a lag phase was only observed in bacteria obtained from growing cultures with elemental sulfur. However, these cultures that shifted to ferrous iron oxidation showed a low rate of ferrous iron oxidation while no growth was observed. Two-dimensional gel electrophoresis was used for a quantitative proteomic analysis of the adaptation process when bacteria were switched from elemental sulfur to ferrous iron. A comparison of total cell lysates revealed 39 proteins whose increase or decrease in abundance was related to this phenotypic switching. However, only a few proteins were closely related to iron and sulfur metabolism. Reverse-transcription quantitative PCR was used to further characterize the bacterial adaptation process. The expression profiles of selected genes primarily involved in the ferrous iron oxidation indicated that phenotypic switching is a complex process that includes the activation of genes encoding a membrane protein, maturation proteins, electron transport proteins and their regulators.

  20. The extractive metallurgy of gold

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kongolo, K.; Mwema, M. D.

    1998-12-01

    Mössbauer spectroscopy has been successfully used in investigation of the gold compounds present in ores and the gold species which occur during the process metallurgy of this metal. This paper is a survey of the basic recovery methods and techniques used in extractive metallurgy of gold. Process fundamentals on mineral processing, ore leaching, zinc dust cementation, adsorption on activated carbon, electrowinning and refining are examined. The recovery of gold as a by-product of the copper industry is also described. Alternative processing methods are indicated in order to shed light on new interesting research topics where Mössbauer spectroscopy could be applied.

  1. Tribological behavior of liquid metallurgy-processed AA 6061-B4C composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monikandan, V. V.; Joseph, M. A.; Rajendrakumar, P. K.; Sreejith, M.

    2015-01-01

    Aluminum metal matrix composites (AMMCs) possess improved properties compared to their monolithic counterparts and serve as a reliable alternative to replace them for applications that are considered as their niche. In the present investigation, 6061 Al alloy-10 wt% B4C composite is fabricated through liquid metallurgy stir casting technique and analyzed for its tribological characteristics. The uniform distribution of B4C reinforcement particles in the composite is achieved by the above route and is characterized using microstructure analysis and x-ray diffraction spectrum. The dry wear tests have been conducted under ambient conditions using a pin-on-disc tribometer. The worn surface and debris of the composite are also characterized using a scanning electron microscope (SEM) and energy-dispersive x-ray spectroscopy (EDS). It is found that the combination of adhesion, delamination and abrasion constitute the predominant wear mechanism and this is influenced by the B4C particles, applied load, sliding distance and speed. The wear and friction coefficient increase with increase in applied load for all the load conditions studied. While the sliding speed fosters the engendering of a mechanically mixed layer (MML) to reduce the wear and friction coefficient, in contrast, the increase in sliding distance scuttles the MML formation owing to abrasion induced by the hard B4C particles.

  2. Toxicology and occupational hazards of new materials and processes in metal surface treatment, powder metallurgy, technical ceramics, and fiber-reinforced plastics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Midtgård, U; Jelnes, J E

    1991-12-01

    Many new materials and processes are about to find their way from the research laboratory into industry. The present paper describes some of these processes and provides an overview of possible occupational hazards and a list of chemicals used or produced in the processes. The technological areas that are considered are metal surface treatment (ion implantation, physical and chemical vapor deposition, plasma spraying), powder metallurgy, advanced technical ceramics, and fiber-reinforced plastics.

  3. Silicon solar cells: Physical metallurgy principles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mauk, Michael G.

    2003-05-01

    This article reviews the physical metallurgy aspects of silicon solar cells. The production of silicon solar cells relies on principles of thermochemical extractive metallurgy, phase equilibria, solidification, and kinetics. The issues related to these processes and their impact on solar cell performance and cost are discussed.

  4. Synthesizing slow-release fertilizers via mechanochemical processing for potentially recycling the waste ferrous sulfate from titanium dioxide production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xuewei; Lei, Zhiwu; Qu, Jun; Li, Zhao; Zhou, Xiaowen; Zhang, Qiwu

    2017-01-15

    The goal of this study is aimed to develop a novel process to recycle the ferrous sulfate, the by-product of titanium dioxide industry. Zinc sulfate was added in the process of milling ferrous sulfate with calcium carbonate (CaCO3). The sulfates were transformed into carbonates to serve as slow-release fertilizers by co-grinding the starting materials of FeSO4·7H2O, ZnSO4·7H2O, and CaCO3 with small amounts of water in a planetary ball mill. The prepared samples were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis and quantitative measurements of the soluble ratios in water and 2% citric acid solution. It was found that Fe and Zn ions as sulfates were successfully combined with CaCO3 to form the corresponding Fe and Zn carbonates respectively. After milling, the release ratios of Fe and Zn nutrients in distilled water could be controlled at 0.1% and 0.7% respectively. Meanwhile, the release ratios of them in 2% citric acid solution were almost 98% and 100%. Milling speed was the critical parameter to facilitate the transformation reaction. The proposed process, as an easy and economical route, exhibits evident advantages, namely allowing the use of widely available and low-cost CaCO3 as well as industrial wastes of heavy metal sulfates as starting samples to prepare applicable products. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Interfacial reactions and wetting in Al-Mg sintered by powder metallurgy process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faisal, Heny; Darminto, Triwikantoro, Zainuri, M.

    2016-04-01

    Was conducted to analyze the effect of temperature variation on the bonding interface sintered composite Al-Mg and analyze the effect of variations of the density and hardness sinter. Research carried out by the base material powders of Al, Mg powder and solvent n-butanol. The method used in this study is a powder metallurgy, with a composition of 60% volume fraction of Al - 40% Mg. Al-Mg mixing with n-butanol for 1 hour at 500 rpm. Then the emphasis (cold comression) with a size of 1.4 cm in diameter dies and height of 2.8 cm, is pressed with a force of 20 MPa and held for 15 minutes. After the sample into pellets, then sintered at various temperatures 300 °C, 350 °C, 400 °C and 450 °C. Characterization is done by using the testing green density, sintered density, X-ray diffraction (XRD), Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM), vickers microhardness, and press test. XRD data analysis done by using X'Pert High Score Plus (HSP) to determine whether there is a new phase is formed. Test results show that the sintered density increasing sintering temperature, the resulting density is also increasing (shrinkage). However, at a temperature of 450 °C decreased (swelling). With the increased sinter density, interfacial bonding getting Kuta and more compact so that its hardness is also increased. From the test results of SEM / EDX, there Mg into Al in the border area. At temperatures of 300 °C, 350 °C, 400 °C, the phase formed is Al, Mg and MgO. While phase is formed at a temperature of 450 °C is aluminum magnesium (Al3Mg2), Aluminum Magnesium Zinc (AlMg2Zn).

  6. Histomorphologic evaluation of Ti-13Nb-13Zr alloys processed via powder metallurgy. A study in rabbits

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bottino, M.C. [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, University of Alabama at Birmingham, BEC 254 1530 3rd Avenue South, Birmingham, AL, 35294 (United States); Coelho, P.G. [Department of Biomaterials and Biomimetics, New York University, College of Dentistry, 345 East 24th Street, Room 804S, New York, NY, 10100 (United States)], E-mail: pgcoelho@nyu.edu; Yoshimoto, M. [Materials Science and Technology Center, Institute for Energy and Nuclear Research, Av. Prof. Lineu Prestes, 2242, Sao Paulo, SP, 05508-000 (Brazil); Koenig, B. [Department of Anatomy, Institute of Biomedical Sciences, University of Sao Paulo (ICB-USP) Av. Prof. Lineu Prestes, 2415, Sao Paulo, SP, 05508-900 (Brazil); Henriques, V.A.R. [Materials Division (AMR/IAE), CTA Brazilian Aerospace Technical Center, Sao Jose dos Campos, SP, 12228-904 (Brazil); Bressiani, A.H.A.; Bressiani, J.C. [Materials Science and Technology Center, Institute for Energy and Nuclear Research, Av. Prof. Lineu Prestes, 2242, Sao Paulo, SP, 05508-000 (Brazil)

    2008-03-10

    This study presents the in-vivo evaluation of Ti-13Nb-13Zr alloy implants obtained by the hydride route via powder metallurgy. The cylindrical implants were processed at different sintering and holding times. The implants' were characterized for density, microstructure (SEM), crystalline phases (XRD), and bulk (EDS) and surface composition (XPS). The implants were then sterilized and surgically placed in the central region of the rabbit's tibiae. Two double fluorescent markers were applied at 2 and 3 weeks, and 6 and 7 weeks after implantation. After an 8-week healing period, the implants were retrieved, non-decalcified section processed, and evaluated by electron, UV light (fluorescent labeling), and light microscopy (toluidine blue). BSE-SEM showed close contact between bone and implants. Fluorescent labeling assessment showed high bone activity levels at regions close to the implant surface. Toluidine blue staining revealed regions comprising osteoblasts at regions of newly forming/formed bone close to the implant surface. The results obtained in this study support biocompatible and osseoconductive properties of Ti-13Nb-13Zr processed through the hydride powder route.

  7. Physical metallurgy of nickel aluminides

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    G K Dey

    2003-02-01

    A description of the important physical metallurgy aspects of Ni$_3Al and NiAl encompassing structure, crystallographic defects, slip systems and phase stability has been presented in this article. The microstructures generated in the two alloys by conventional as well as novel processing techniques have been discussed. The effect of alloying additions on the microstructure has been enumerated. Besides description of the aforementioned physical metallurgy aspects, an important purpose of this review is to focus on the reasons of brittleness in the two alloys and means of alleviating this problem primarily by alloying. The effect of alloying on the slip behaviour has also been described.

  8. Mechanical properties of AZ31 alloy processed by a green metallurgy route; Propiedades mecanicas de la aleacion AZ31 procesada por una ruta eco-sostenible

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    D' Enrico, F.; Garces, G.; Hofer, M.; Kim, S. K.; Perez, P.; Cabeza, S.; Adeva, P.

    2013-07-01

    Recently it has been proved that molding of defect-free components of various commercial alloys of magnesium can be carried out successfully when small amounts of CaO are added to the melt, making unnecessary the use of SF{sub 6} coverage. In the case of AZ alloys, this process also remarkably improves their mechanical properties not only by the greater cleaning of alloys but also by the formation of CaAl{sub 2} phase. This work, part of the Green project Metallurgy (http://www.green-metallurgy.eu) funded by the European Union (LIFE+2009), studies the influence of different CaO additions on the microstructure and mechanical properties of AZ31 Eco-Mg alloy. The alloy was processed by a conventional route involving extrusion of as-cast rods as well as by a powder metallurgy route (PM) using chips as starting material. The objective was to analyze the viability of recycling machining chips to manufacture components for the automobile industry and transportation in general, because of its low cost and environmental impact. It has been demonstrated that alloys processed from chips exhibit the highest tensile stress values, close to 320 MPa. (Author)

  9. Effect of the Machining Processes on Low Cycle Fatigue Behavior of a Powder Metallurgy Disk

    Science.gov (United States)

    Telesman, J.; Kantzos, P.; Gabb, T. P.; Ghosn, L. J.

    2010-01-01

    A study has been performed to investigate the effect of various machining processes on fatigue life of configured low cycle fatigue specimens machined out of a NASA developed LSHR P/M nickel based disk alloy. Two types of configured specimen geometries were employed in the study. To evaluate a broach machining processes a double notch geometry was used with both notches machined using broach tooling. EDM machined notched specimens of the same configuration were tested for comparison purposes. Honing finishing process was evaluated by using a center hole specimen geometry. Comparison testing was again done using EDM machined specimens of the same geometry. The effect of these machining processes on the resulting surface roughness, residual stress distribution and microstructural damage were characterized and used in attempt to explain the low cycle fatigue results.

  10. Laser Welding of Nickel-Titanium and Stainless Steel Wires: Processing, Metallurgy and Properties

    OpenAIRE

    2011-01-01

    The biomedical industry has an increasing demand for dissimilar metal joining processes, which are used for complex configuration designs, such as guidewires and other intravascular interventional devices. Their production becomes more and more challenging as they decrease in size to reach components at the micron range. Nickel-titanium alloys are commonly used for their shape memory and biocompatibility properties, but are difficult to combine with o...

  11. Advanced powder metallurgy aluminum alloys and composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lisagor, W. B.; Stein, B. A.

    1982-01-01

    The differences between powder and ingot metallurgy processing of aluminum alloys are outlined. The potential payoff in the use of advanced powder metallurgy (PM) aluminum alloys in future transport aircraft is indicated. The national program to bring this technology to commercial fruition and the NASA Langley Research Center role in this program are briefly outlined. Some initial results of research in 2000-series PM alloys and composites that highlight the property improvements possible are given.

  12. Mineral resource of the month: ferrous slag

    Science.gov (United States)

    ,

    2009-01-01

    The article offers information on mineral resource ferrous slag. Ferrous slag is produced through the addition of materials such as limestone and dolomite to blast and steel furnaces to remove impurities from iron ore and to lower the heat requirements for processes in iron and steel making. It is stated that the method of cooling is important for the market uses and value of ferrous slag. Some types of slag can be used in construction, glass manufacturing and thermal insulation.

  13. Recent trends in extractive metallurgy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bell, Peter M.

    Metallurgists and solution geochemists are joining forces to develop processes for extraction of metals from low-grade ores. The processes, which come under the name hydrometallurgy, include several new applications of solvent extraction techniques. Aqueous solutions are employed, leaching metals from ores, mine waste dumps, and even from deposits still in the ground. It was notable, for example, that Chemical and Engineering News (Feb. 8, 1982) recently featured the subject of hydrometallurgy in a special report. They noted that ‘recovering metals by use of aqueous solutions at relatively low temperatures increasingly is competing with dry, high-temperature pyrometallurgical methods.’ The relatively new techniques have caused a revolution, of sorts, in engineering programs of university metallurgy departments. The challenge of developing selective metal dissolution processes is drawing upon the best national talent in the fields of solution geochemistry and metallurgy.

  14. Thermodynamic study and modelling of iron-based melts for adequate prediction of modern ladle metallurgy processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaitsev, A. I.; Rodionova, I. G.; Shaposhnikov, N. G.; Zemlyanko, O. A.; Karamisheva, N. A.

    2008-02-01

    The representation of iron-based melts as associated liquids have been developed basing on the detail experimental investigation and analysis of available data on their thermodynamic properties and phase equilibria. It has allowed, for the first time, to interpret adequately the reactivity of the earth metals in the iron-based melts and to predict with high precision the reactions of metal refinement and non-metallic inclusions modifying in modern ladle metallurgy.

  15. Recovery of iron and calcium aluminate slag from high-ferrous bauxite by high-temperature reduction and smelting process

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ying-yi Zhang; Wei L; Yuan-hong Qi; Zong-shu Zou

    2016-01-01

    A high-temperature reduction and smelting process was used to recover iron and calcium aluminate slag from high-ferrous bauxite. The effects of w(CaO)/w(SiO2) ratio, anthracite ratio, and reduction temperature and time on the recovery and size of iron nuggets and on the Al2O3 grade of the calcium aluminate slag were investigated through thermodynamic calculations and experiments. The optimized process conditions were the bauxite/anthracite/slaked lime weight ratio of 100:16.17:59.37, reduction temperature of 1450°C and reduction time of 20 min. Under these conditions, high-quality iron nuggets and calcium aluminate slag were obtained. The largest size and the highest recov-ery rate of iron nuggets were 11.42 mm and 92.79wt%, respectively. The calcium aluminate slag mainly comprised Ca2SiO4 and Ca12Al14O33, with small amounts of FeAl2O4, CaAl2O4, and Ca2Al2SiO7.

  16. Low-temperature synthesis of MgB2 via powder metallurgy processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Birol, Yucel

    2016-12-01

    Ball-milled Mg/B2O3 powder blends reveal interpenetrating layers of deformed magnesium and boron oxide grains that are increasingly refined with increasing milling time. Boron oxide is reduced by Mg and MgO thus formed reacts with the remaining B2O3 to produce Mg3(BO3)2 during ball milling for 30 min. Both B2O3 and Mg3(BO3)2 react with Mg to produce MgB2 upon further ball milling. An annealing treatment can be employed when ball milling is performed for less than 1 h as thermal exposure of the ball-milled Mg/B2O3 powder blends also leads to the formation of MgB2. The above reactions take place between 500 and 700 °C when the Mg/B2O3 powder blend is ball milled for 30 min, and between 450 and 550 °C, after ball milling for 1 h. This is a very attractive route owing to processing temperatures where the volatility of Mg is no longer a problem.

  17. Ferrous Sulfate (Iron)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrous sulfate provides the iron needed by the body to produce red blood cells. It is used ... Ferrous sulfate comes as regular, coated, and extended-release (long-acting) tablets; regular and extended-release capsules; ...

  18. Contrast of pyro-metallurgy and hydro-metallurgy processes of one high copper content refractory sulfide gold concentrate%某高铜难处理硫化金精矿火法冶炼与湿法冶炼工艺对比

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    樊蕾; 梁可; 张春生; 张之于; 张岚

    2016-01-01

    为获得某高铜难处理硫化金精矿的最佳处理方案,根据其金精矿性质,进行了火法冶炼与湿法冶炼工艺的对比分析. 其结果表明:对于该高铜硫化金精矿,火法冶炼工艺优于湿法冶炼工艺,其能更好地回收精矿中的 Cu、Au、Ag,实现了矿产资源的综合利用,也可获得较好的经济效益.%Pyro-metallurgy and hydro-metallurgy processes are compared according to the properties of gold con-centrates to obtain the optimal treatment plan of one high copper content refractory sulfide gold concentrate. The study finds that for the gold concentrates,pyro-metallurgy process is better than hydro-metallurgy. It can better recover Cu, Au and Ag from high copper content refractory sulfide gold concentrates fulfilling the purpose of comprehensive recov-ery and obtaining satisfactory economic profits.

  19. Experimental Study and Finite Element Polycrystal Model Simulation of the Cold Rolling Textures in a Powder Metallurgy Processed Pure Aluminum Plate

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Liqing CHEN; Naoyuki Kanetake

    2005-01-01

    Ingot metallurgy (IM) aluminum has long been the subject and attracted the attention of many metallurgists and textural researchers of materials. Due to the introduction of large amounts of ex situ interfaces, however, the textures in powder metallurgy (PM) processed aluminum has been rarely reported. In this article, a pure aluminum plate was prepared via PM route. The starting billet was first produced with uni-axially cold compaction and flat hot-extrusion and then followed by cold rolling processes. The hot-extruded and cold rolling deformation textures of the pure PM aluminum at 50%, 80% and 90% cold rolling reductions were studied by orientation distribution functions (ODFs) analysis. The finite element polycrystal model (FEPM) was finally utilized to simulate the cold rolling textural evolution at various stages of cold rolling. In FEPM simulation, the initial hot-extruded textures were taken into account as inputs. The results showed that typical β-fiber texture formed in pure PM aluminum with the cold rolling reduction increased till 80%, and there was not much change after excessive cold rolling deformation.Homogeneous slip is not the only deformation mode in PM processed pure aluminum plate at over 80% cold rolling reduction. The experimental results were qualitatively in good agreement with the simulated ones.

  20. Densification of powder metallurgy billets by a roll consolidation technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sellman, W. H.; Weinberger, W. R.

    1973-01-01

    Container design is used to convert partially densified powder metallurgy compacts into fully densified slabs in one processing step. Technique improves product yield, lowers costs and yields great flexibility in process scale-up. Technique is applicable to all types of fabricable metallic materials that are produced from powder metallurgy process.

  1. Oxidation and diffusion process in the ferrous iron-bearing glass fibres near glass temperature

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yue, Yuanzheng; Korsgaard, Martin; Kirkegaard, Lise

    2004-01-01

    The Fe2+ oxidation and the network modifier diffusion in the Fe2+-bearing glass fibers are studied using differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), thermogravimetry (TG), and secondary neutral mass spectrometry (SNMS). The results show two couplings: 1) between the Fe2+ oxidation and the network...... modifier diffusion; 2) between the oxidation process and the glass transition. Based on these couplings, a phenomenological equation is proposed, which describes both kinetics and dynamics of the oxidation process of the Fe2+-bearing glass fibers. The equation can be used to predict the degree of oxidation...

  2. New evidence for prehistoric copper metallurgy in the vicinity of Bor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kapuran Aleksandar

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The last three years of archaeological investigations at the site Ru`ana in Banjsko Polje, in the immediate vicinity of Bor, have provided new evidence regarding the role of non-ferrous metallurgy in the economy of the prehistoric communities of north-eastern Serbia. The remains of metallurgical furnaces and a large amount of metallic slags at two neighbouring sites in the mentioned settlement reveal that locations with many installations for the thermal processing of copper ore existed in the Bronze Age. We believe, judging by the finds of material culture, that metallurgical activities in this area also continued into the Iron Age and, possibly, into the 4th century AD. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. 177020: Archaeology of Serbia: Cultural identity, integration factors, technological processes and the role of the central Balkans in the development of European prehistory

  3. Use of ferric- and ferrous-salts in liquid waste treatment processes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Efremenkov, V.M.; Toropov, I.G.; Toropova, V.V.; Satsukevich, V.M.; Davidov, J.P.; Jabrodsky, V.N.; Prokshin, N.E.

    1995-12-31

    Treatment of spent decontamination solutions is the most complicated task in the whole problem of management of liquid radioactive waste, because quite often they have complex compositions, which makes it difficult to find for them effective and non-expensive treatment technology. New methods of treatment of such a waste is proposed based on use of specific sorption ability of ferro- and ferri-species in solution. These species are often present in solution as the by-products, and in combination with other components of decontamination solution they can be used as initial substances for synthesis of valuable sorbents directly in treating solution. Using specific compositions and conditions in solution, it is possible to make liquid waste treatment process more effective and less expensive. Particular examples of this process is presented in this work.

  4. Treatment of textile dye wastewaters using ferrous sulphate in a chemical coagulation/flocculation process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodrigues, Carmen S D; Madeira, Luís M; Boaventura, Rui A R

    2013-01-01

    The coagulation/flocculation treatment using FeSO4 x 7H2O as a coagulant is evaluated in this work for the removal of organic compounds and colour from synthetic effluents simulating the cotton, acrylic and polyester dyeing wastewaters. The coagulant dose, temperature, pH, stirring speed and stirring time that maximized the removal of dissolved organic carbon (DOC) and colour for each effluent are determined for the coagulation process. The effect of the stirring speed, stirring time and the dose of flocculant (Magnafloc 155 or Superfloc C-573) on the flocculation stage is also evaluated for effluents pretreated by coagulation at the optimal conditions previously determined. The obtained results showed that the optimal operating conditions are different for each effluent, and the process (coagulation/flocculation) as a whole was efficient in terms of colour removal (-91% for cotton, -94% for acrylic effluents; polyester effluent is practically colourless). However, the DOC removal observed is not significant (33% for polyester, -45% for cotton and -28% for acrylic effluents). On the other hand, the remaining dissolved iron content is appropriate for further integrating the treatment with an iron-catalysed Fenton process, thus reducing the consumption of chemicals in the overall treatment.

  5. Extractive Metallurgy Program funded

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bell, Peter M.

    In an effort to concentrate research on ore dressing and metal production, the National Science Foundation (NSF) formed a new basic research program as a part of its Chemical and Process Engineering Division. This program will be under the auspices of NSF's Engineering Directorate. Research is to be supported on every step of extractive metallurgy, from mining to processing to production, and even to reprocessing and disposal. Budgeting for the new program is expected to be on the order of $1.2 million for fiscal year 1981.A program of this nature was apparently considered seriously by the Carter administration as a joint Department of Interior-private industry project of considerable size. Then-Secretary of Interior Cecil Andrus evidently did not support the program, but there is wide agreement throughout the mineral industries and the university community that such research is badly needed for the U.S. to compete. A joint program could benefit by cutting across the many difficult regulations that now are blamed for slowing research in minerals processing in this country.

  6. Annual Review on Yunnan Metallurgy in 2011%2011年云南冶金年评

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    谢刚

    2012-01-01

    Based on the papers by metallurgical researchers in Yunnan in 2011, the ferrous metallurgy, nonferrous metallurgy, semimetal and rare metal metallurgy, and noble metal in production, scientific research and technology in Yunnan are summarized.%依据2011年云南冶金科技工作者发表的文献资料,对该年度云南黑色金属冶金、有色金属冶金、半金属及稀有金属冶金和贵金属生产、科研及技术进行了评述.

  7. Production of a low young modulus titanium alloy by powder metallurgy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dalcy Roberto dos Santos

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available Titanium alloys have several advantages over ferrous and non-ferrous metallic materials, such as high strengthto-weight ratio and excellent corrosion resistance. A blended elemental titanium powder metallurgy process has been developed to offer low cost commercial products. The process employs hydride-dehydride (HDH powders as raw material. In this work, results of the Ti-35Nb alloy sintering are presented. This alloy due to its lower modulus of elasticity and high biocompatibility is a promising candidate for aerospace and medical use. Samples were produced by mixing of initial metallic powders followed by uniaxial and cold isostatic pressing with subsequent densification by isochronal sintering between 900 up to 1600 °C, in vacuum. Sintering behavior was studied by means of microscopy and density. Sintered samples were characterized for phase composition, microstructure and microhardness by X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy and Vickers indentation, respectively. Samples sintered at high temperatures display a fine plate-like alpha structure and intergranular beta. A few remaining pores are still found and density above 90% for specimens sintered in temperatures over 1500 °C is reached.

  8. Ferrous iron oxidation by anoxygenic phototrophic bacteria

    OpenAIRE

    Widdel, Friedrich; Schnell, Sylvia; Heising, Silke; Ehrenreich, Armin; Assmus, Bernhard; Schink, Bernhard

    1993-01-01

    Natural oxidation of ferrous to ferric iron by bacteria such as Thiobacillus ferrooxidans or Gallionella ferruginea 1, or by chemical oxidation2,3 has previously been thought always to involve molecular oxygen as the electron acceptor. Anoxic photochemical reactions4 6 or a photobiological process involving two photosystems7 9 have also been discussed as mechanisms of ferrous iron oxidation. The knowledge of such processes has implications that bear on our understanding of the origin of Preca...

  9. Study on Fe-Based Coating Produced by Plasma Surface Metallurgy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Hui-qi; LIU Bang-wu; LI Hui-dong; ZHANG Li-min; LI Min; SUN Yu-zong

    2004-01-01

    In the paper, plasma surface metallurgy was performed using Fe-based powder on steel substrate. The microstructure and microhardness of the coating have been analyzed. On the base of orthogonal comparison tests,influences of many factors on the cracking sensibility of plasma metallurgy coating have also been studied. The results indicate that substrate and its surface condition, processing parameters and components of plasma metallurgy coating have great effects on cracking sensibility of plasma metallurgy coating. Through changing these factors, it is possible to reduce cracks and promote the applications of this technology.Key Words: plasma surface metallurgy, microstructure, microhardness, cracking sensibility

  10. Review of technologies of processing of technogenic products of copper production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. K. Serikbayeva

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Extraction of rare metals from a production wastes is actually as they small quantities accompany non-ferrous metals and generally collect in products of processing of the main raw materials. In article offered technological schemes of processing of such materials were considered.In article the technological schemes of processing of waste of copper production containing rare metals are considered. The offered ways can will be applied in metallurgy to extraction of osmium and rhenium from waste.

  11. Powder Metallurgy Processing of a WxTaTiVCr High-Entropy Alloy and Its Derivative Alloys for Fusion Material Applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waseem, Owais Ahmed; Ryu, Ho Jin

    2017-05-16

    The WxTaTiVCr high-entropy alloy with 32at.% of tungsten (W) and its derivative alloys with 42 to 90at.% of W with in-situ TiC were prepared via the mixing of elemental W, Ta, Ti, V and Cr powders followed by spark plasma sintering for the development of reduced-activation alloys for fusion plasma-facing materials. Characterization of the sintered samples revealed a BCC lattice and a multi-phase structure. The selected-area diffraction patterns confirmed the formation of TiC in the high-entropy alloy and its derivative alloys. It revealed the development of C15 (cubic) Laves phases as well in alloys with 71 to 90at.% W. A mechanical examination of the samples revealed a more than twofold improvement in the hardness and strength due to solid-solution strengthening and dispersion strengthening. This study explored the potential of powder metallurgy processing for the fabrication of a high-entropy alloy and other derived compositions with enhanced hardness and strength.

  12. Advanced treatment of effluents from an industrial park wastewater treatment plant by ferrous ion activated persulfate oxidation process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Songmei; Zhou, Zhen; Jiang, Haitao; Ye, Jianfeng; Ren, Jiamin; Gu, Lingyun; Wang, Luochun

    The advanced oxidation technology, ferrous ion (Fe(II)) activated persulfate (PS) producing sulfate radicals, was used for the advanced treatment of effluent from an integrated wastewater treatment plant in a papermaking industrial park. Separate and interactive effects of PS dosage, Fe(II)/PS ratio and initial pH on chemical oxygen demand (COD) removal were analyzed by the response surface methodology (RSM). The results showed that Fe(II)-PS system was effective in COD removal from the secondary effluent. PS dosage was the most dominant factor with positive influence on COD removal, followed by initial pH value. The optimum conditions with COD removal of 54.4% were obtained at PS/COD of 2.2, initial pH of 6.47 and Fe(II)/PS of 1.89. UV-visible spectrum analysis showed that after RSM optimization, Fe(II)-PS system effectively degraded large organic molecules into small ones, and decreased humification degree of the effluent. Three-dimensional fluorescence analysis demonstrated that aromatic protein and fulvic substances were fully decomposed by the Fe(II)-PS treatment.

  13. Ferrous ion-activated persulphate process for landfill leachate treatment: removal of organic load, phenolic micropollutants and nitrogen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kattel, Eneliis; Dulova, Niina

    2017-05-01

    The innovative [Formula: see text] treatment technology based on sulphate radicals induced oxidation was applied for the treatment of landfill leachate. The performance of chemical oxygen demand (COD) and dissolved organic carbon (DOC) removal in the Fe(2+)-activated persulphate system was moderate; however, the results of dissolved nitrogen (DN) and total phenols removal showed significant efficacy (≤39% and ≥87%, respectively). [Formula: see text] addition to the [Formula: see text] system enhanced the treatment efficacy and resulted in supplementary 15% of COD and 5% of DN removal. Hydroxyl radical-based H2O2/Fe(2+) treatment of the landfill leachate was performed as well; the results indicated higher removal efficacy of COD and DOC compared to the [Formula: see text] system. However, practical application of the H2O2/Fe(2+) system is considerably influenced by temperature rise and excessive foam formation. Generally, the ferrous ion-activated persulphate treatment could be a promising technology for ex situ as well as in situ landfill leachate treatment applications.

  14. Scaling up the chemical treatment of spent oil-in-water emulsions from a non-ferrous metal-processing plant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lazarević Vesna B.

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The treatment of spent oil-in-water emulsion (SOWE from a non-ferrous metal-processing plant by using aluminum sulfate and hydrated lime was studied to determine the purification efficiency, to optimize the operating conditions and to scale up the treatment process. The purification efficiency was estimated by comparing the compositions of the SOWE and the processed wastewater. The treatment efficiency does not depend on the type of mineral oil and filter aid. The optimum doses of aluminum sulfate and hydrated lime must be experimentally determined for each batch of SOWEs, but the results obtained at laboratory level are applicable at pilot level. The processed wastewater and the filter cake from the process can be safely disposed into public sewage systems and at municipal waste landfills, respectively. The purification efficiency was higher than 98% with respect to total suspended solids, chemical oxygen demand and oil and grease, and was comparable to the known treatment processes based on coagulation/flocculation followed by sedimentation.

  15. The metallurgy and functional properties of hafnium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tricot, Roland

    1992-08-01

    Like the two similar elements, titanium and zirconium, hafnium is a young and little known metal whose industrial development began with the nuclear power industry in 1950. After a brief historical survey, the paper describes the specific problems which arise due to the highly specialized chemistry and extractive metallurgy of this metal, dealing with its purification, melting and processing, before going on to review its different applications and discuss future prospects.

  16. Powder metallurgy bearings for advanced rocket engines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fleck, J. N.; Killman, B. J.; Munson, H.E.

    1985-01-01

    Traditional ingot metallurgy was pushed to the limit for many demanding applications including antifriction bearings. New systems require corrosion resistance, better fatigue resistance, and higher toughness. With conventional processing, increasing the alloying level to achieve corrosion resistance results in a decrease in other properties such as toughness. Advanced powder metallurgy affords a viable solution to this problem. During powder manufacture, the individual particle solidifies very rapidly; as a consequence, the primary carbides are very small and uniformly distributed. When properly consolidated, this uniform structure is preserved while generating a fully dense product. Element tests including rolling contact fatigue, hot hardness, wear, fracture toughness, and corrosion resistance are underway on eleven candidate P/M bearing alloys and results are compared with those for wrought 440C steel, the current SSME bearing material. Several materials which offer the promise of a significant improvement in performance were identified.

  17. A facile route to modify ferrous phosphate and its use as an iron-containing resource for LiFePO4 via a polyol process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Shaomin; Liu, Xichuan; Mi, Rui; Liu, Hao; Li, Yinchuan; Lau, Woon-min; Mei, Jun

    2014-06-25

    This study introduces an economical and environmentally friendly way of synthesizing LiFePO4/C to be used as cathode material in lithium ion batteries via two processes: (1) the synthesis of LiFePO4/C cathode material using a low cost divalent precursor ferrous phosphate, Fe3 (PO4)2·8H2O, as iron source in a polyol process and (2) the modification of the morphology of this precursor by varying the reaction time in a coprecipitation process. The study examines the effects of different structures and morphologies of the precursor on the structure and electrochemical performance of the as-synthesized LiFePO4/C. The LiFePO4/C shows an excellent rate capability and cycle performance, with initial discharge capacities of 153, 128, and 106 mA h g(-1) at 1 C, 5 C, and 10 C. The capacity retention is respectively 98.7%, 98.2%, and 98.7%, after 10 cycles at the corresponding rates. The capacity retention remains at 97% even after 300 cycles at the rate of 10 C. The outstanding electrochemical performance can be attributed to the improved rate of Li(+) diffusion and the excellent crystallinity of synthesized LiFePO4/C powders through the modified precursor. Therefore, this is an economical and environmentally friendly way of synthesizing LiFePO4/C to be used as cathode material in lithium ion batteries.

  18. Study on Fe-Based Coating Produced by Plasma Surface Metallurgy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIHui-qi; LIUBang-wu; LIHui-dong; ZHANGLi-min; LIMin; SUNYu-zong

    2004-01-01

    In the paper, plasma surface metallurgy was performed using Fe-based powder on steel substrate. The microstructure and microhardness of the coating have been analyzed. On the base of orthogonal comparison tests, influences of many factors on the cracking sensibility of plasma metallurgy coating have also been studied. The results indicate that substrate and its surface condition, processing parameters and components of plasma metallurgy coating have great effects on cracking sensibility of plasma metallurgy coating. Through changing these factors, it is possible to reduce cracks and promote the applications of this technology.

  19. Effect of processing parameters on the magnetic properties and microstructures of molybdenum permalloy compacts made by powder metallurgy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Zhangming; Xu, Wei; Guo, Ting; Jiang, Yinzhu; Yan, Mi, E-mail: mse_yanmi@zju.edu.cn

    2014-05-01

    Highlights: • Effect of processing parameters on the properties of MP powder cores was studied. • Effective magnetic permeability was enhanced from 45 to 160 after annealing. • A core loss of 780 mw/cm{sup 3} (100 kHz, 100 mT) was obtained. - Abstract: Effects of compaction and annealing process on the magnetic properties and microstructures of molybdenum permalloy (MP) powder cores have been investigated. MP compacts, with density as high as 92% of the theoretical value, were obtained under 1800 MPa compaction pressure. The MP powder cores show an enhanced effective magnetic permeability of 160 after post-annealing at 690 °C, which is attributed to the relief of internal stress rather than the phase transformation evidenced by the XRD analysis. However, higher annealing temperature destroys the insulating layer, resulting in the drop of the electrical resistivity, the effective magnetic permeability as well as the frequency stability. The results show that the samples compacted at 1800 MPa and annealed at 690 °C exhibit excellent magnetic properties, with core loss of 780 mw/cm{sup 3} (100 kHz, 100 mT) and effective magnetic permeability of 160 whose frequency stability is up to 1 MHz.

  20. Modern electrochemical processes and technologies in ionic melts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Omelchuk A.

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available An analysis of the known methods for the electrochemical purification of non-ferrous metals in ionic melts is presented. A comparative estimation of the results of the electrochemical purification of non-ferrous metals by different methods has been performed. The main regularities of the electrochemical behavior of non-ferrous metals in conventional and electrode micro-spacing electrolysis are presented. It has been found that when electrolyzing some metals, e. g. bismuth, gallium, there is either no mass exchange between the electrodes, or it occurs under filtration conditions. It has been shown that the electrode micro-spacing processes provide a high quality of non-ferrous metals purification at low specific consumption of electric power and reagents. The use of bipolar electrodes and β-alumina diaphragms hinders the transfer of metallic impurities from the anode to the cathode. The effects revealed were used to develop new processes for the separation of non-ferrous metal alloys in ionic melts; most of them have been put into practice in non-ferrous metallurgy.

  1. NON-FERROUS EXPORTS CONCENTRATION AND GLOBAL INVESTMENTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brîndușa COVACI

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available In the context of high-tech and telecommunication, non-ferrous sector has a crucial role in industries development. Cooper, nickel, aluminum, zinc, lead and tin are used, directly or indirectly, in most of the technologies, especially in high-tech production. The paper present a short index of the global investments for the non-ferrous transnational corporations listed on London Metal Exchange. The non-ferrous investment index presented in the paper refers to the most profitable corporation exports on world, European Union (EU28 and Central and Eastern Europe (CEE level. The export concentration, estimated through Herfindahl-Hirschmann index on world, EU28, CEE and Romanian level, show that the non-ferrous industry is in full process of releasing. The cases presented in the article show that the non-ferrous companies invest intensively in equipment and technologies with superior production capacities, which combat pollution given by non-ferrous processes, research and development for the non-ferrous innovative technologies, and creating new markets. Sustainable and intelligent development is the inflexion point of the non-ferrous transnational corporation investments. The research is predominant in exploration of the transnational corporations’ internet pages and reports, and statistical calculus from international trade websites.

  2. Influence of several non ferrous metals in the treatment of residual liquors from sulfuric acid picking processes. Influencia de diversos metales no ferreos en el tratamiento de lejias residuales de decapado con acido sulfurico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Negro, C.; Gonzalez, A.; Latorre, R.; Dufour, J.; Formoso, A.; Lopez-Mateos, F. (Departamento de Ingenieria Quimica. Facultad de Ciencias Quimicas, Universidad Complutense, Madrid (Spain))

    1994-01-01

    In the oxiprecipitation of waste liquors from sulfuric picking processes several kinds of ferrous oxides and oxihydroxides are obtained which can be used like raw materials for the chemical industry. Generally, in this process different mixtures of then are obtained and only in the most drastic conditions, pure products can be obtained. The presence of non-ferrous metals catalyzes and modifies the mechanism of the reaction, yielding pure products. The aim of this work is to determine the influence of Cu(II), Al(III), Zn(II) and Mo(VI) on the oxiprecipitation of residual liquors from sulfuric acid picking processes, selecting the most favorable operation conditions at which it is possible to obtain products for industrial applications. (Author) 20 refs.

  3. 21 CFR 73.165 - Ferrous lactate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Ferrous lactate. 73.165 Section 73.165 Food and... ADDITIVES EXEMPT FROM CERTIFICATION Foods § 73.165 Ferrous lactate. (a) Identity. The color additive ferrous lactate is the ferrous lactate defined in § 184.1311 of this chapter. (b) Specifications. Ferrous lactate...

  4. 21 CFR 184.1308 - Ferrous gluconate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Ferrous gluconate. 184.1308 Section 184.1308 Food... Specific Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1308 Ferrous gluconate. (a) Ferrous gluconate (iron (II... ferrous sulfate or by heating freshly prepared ferrous carbonate with gluconic acid in aqueous solution...

  5. Application of protonic conductors in metallurgy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    Two types of disposable EMF hydrogen sensors for measurements of solute contents of liquid metals in situ in metal-refining processes and their general principles are introduced. The way to design new electrochemical sensors and the direction to develop new protonic conductors as new electrochemical sensors are discussed. The feasibility of protonic conductors worked as hydrogen pump in non-ferrous metal refining processes is discussed as well.

  6. Microfabrication with femtosecond laser processing : (A) laser ablation of ferrous alloys, (B) direct-write embedded optical waveguides and integrated optics in bulk glasses.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guo, Junpeng; McDaniel, Karen Lynn; Palmer, Jeremy Andrew; Yang, Pin; Griffith, Michelle Lynn; Vawter, Gregory Allen; Harris, Marc F.; Tallant, David Robert; Luk, Ting Shan; Burns, George Robert

    2004-11-01

    At Sandia National Laboratories, miniaturization dominates future hardware designs, and technologies that address the manufacture of micro-scale to nano-scale features are in demand. Currently, Sandia is developing technologies such as photolithography/etching (e.g. silicon MEMS), LIGA, micro-electro-discharge machining (micro-EDM), and focused ion beam (FIB) machining to fulfill some of the component design requirements. Some processes are more encompassing than others, but each process has its niche, where all performance characteristics cannot be met by one technology. For example, micro-EDM creates highly accurate micro-scale features but the choice of materials is limited to conductive materials. With silicon-based MEMS technology, highly accurate nano-scale integrated devices are fabricated but the mechanical performance may not meet the requirements. Femtosecond laser processing has the potential to fulfill a broad range of design demands, both in terms of feature resolution and material choices, thereby improving fabrication of micro-components. One of the unique features of femtosecond lasers is the ability to ablate nearly all materials with little heat transfer, and therefore melting or damage, to the surrounding material, resulting in highly accurate micro-scale features. Another unique aspect to femtosecond radiation is the ability to create localized structural changes thought nonlinear absorption processes. By scanning the focal point within transparent material, we can create three-dimensional waveguides for biological sensors and optical components. In this report, we utilized the special characteristics of femtosecond laser processing for microfabrication. Special emphasis was placed on the laser-material interactions to gain a science-based understanding of the process and to determine the process parameter space for laser processing of metals and glasses. Two areas were investigated, including laser ablation of ferrous alloys and direct

  7. State of the Art Treatment of Non-Ferrous Castings 3-in-1 Heat Treatment Systems Combine Foundry Processes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Volker R. Knobloch

    2004-01-01

    The interior of a high-pressure die-casting is of an unsatisfactory quality. Engine blocks made with this die casting process show lower specific engine performance. Pressure die-casting can hardly be heat treated for obvious reasons.PSM (Precision Sand Molds) process uses sand and organic binder to generate a mold and even allows the manufacturing of complex diesel engine blocks in aluminum alloys. Combined technologies are available for semi-permanent mold castings with cores and castings made in Precision Sand Molds with organic binders. Castings are placed into the special heat treatment furnace immediately after pouring without the operations in stand alone machinery. This patented Sand Lion(R) 3-in-1 technology processes hot castings and carries out three (3) foundry processes simultaneously in one (1) automated machine: 1) De-coring and sand removal; 2) Thermal sand reclamation; 3) Solution heat treatment of castings. The combination of several main casting processes is reflected in significant reductions of energy consumption, of production costs, and improving the quality of the castings. Audits in foundries using the 3-in-1 process showed an average reduction in production costs of more than 30%.

  8. Pressurized metallurgy for high performance special steels and alloys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Z. H.; Zhu, H. C.; Li, H. B.; Li, Y.; Liu, F. B.

    2016-07-01

    The pressure is one of the basic parameters which greatly influences the metallurgical reaction process and solidification of steels and alloys. In this paper the history and present situation of research and application of pressurized metallurgy, especially pressurized metallurgy for special steels and alloys have been briefly reviewed. In the following part the physical chemistry of pressurized metallurgy is summarized. It is shown that pressurizing may change the conditions of chemical reaction in thermodynamics and kinetics due to the pressure effect on gas volume, solubility of gas and volatile element in metal melt, activity or activity coefficient of components, and change the physical and chemical properties of metal melt, heat transfer coefficient between mould and ingot, thus greatly influencing phase transformation during the solidification process and the solidification structure, such as increasing the solidification nucleation rate, reducing the critical nucleation radius, accelerating the solidification speed and significant macro/micro-structure refinement, and eliminating shrinkage, porosity and segregation and other casting defects. In the third part the research works of pressured metallurgy performed by the Northeastern University including establishment of pressurized induction melting (PIM) and pressurized electroslag remelting (PESR) equipments and development of high nitrogen steels under pressure are described in detail. Finally, it is considered in the paper that application of pressurized metallurgy in manufacture of high performance special steels and alloys is a relatively new research area, and its application prospects will be very broad and bright.

  9. Development of processes for zircaloy chips recycling by electric arc furnace remelting and powder metallurgy; Desenvolvimento de processos de reciclagem de cavacos de zircaloy via refusao em forno eletrico a arco e metalurgia do po

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pereira, Luiz Alberto Tavares

    2014-09-01

    PWR reactors employ, as nuclear fuel, UO{sub 2} pellets with Zircaloy clad. In the fabrication of fuel element parts, machining chips from the alloys are generated. As the Zircaloy chips cannot be discarded as ordinary metallic waste, the recycling of this material is important for the Brazilian Nuclear Policy, which targets the reprocess of Zircaloy residues for economic and environmental aspects. This work presents two methods developed in order to recycle Zircaloy chips. In one of the methods, Zircaloy machining chips were refused using an electric-arc furnace to obtain small laboratory ingots. The second one uses powder metallurgy techniques, where the chips were submitted to hydriding process and the resulting material was milled, isostatically pressed and vacuum sintered. The ingots were heat-treated by vacuum annealing. The microstructures resulting from both processing methods were characterized using optical and scanning electron microscopy. Chemical composition, crystal phases and hardness were also determined. The results showed that the composition of recycled Zircaloy comply with the chemical specifications and presented adequate microstructure for nuclear use. The good results of the powder metallurgy method suggest the possibility of producing small parts, like cladding end-caps, using near net shape sintering. (author)

  10. Novel applications of microwaves in the metallurgical processing of a nickel-ferrous laterite ore and an aluminum industry waste

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samouhos, M.; Taxiarchou, M.; Kouvelos, E.

    2016-04-01

    Microwave radiation is a relatively new source of energy in the pyrometallurgical process. In this study, the application of microwaves in the carbothermic reductive roasting of a nickeliferous hematitic laterite ore and a red mud are investigated. The effective microwave heating (at temperatures above 900°C) of the aforementioned materials is attainable due to the relatively high values of their imaginary permittivity (ε")- In both two cases, the reduction of the included hematite was attempted, and the reduction degree was calculated as a function of: (a) the heating time and (b) the supplied microwave power. The mechanism of Fe+3 to Fe0 conversion was investigated using Mössbaurer spectroscopy revealing the formation of magnetite, fayalite and nano-structured metallic iron. Finally, it should be noted that that the gaseous products of the microwave pyrometallurgical process were analyzed using a mass spectroscopic technique, which is an important novelty.

  11. Henan Non-ferrous Holding Company Set Up in Henan

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    <正>Henan Non-ferrous Holding Co.(hereinafter referred to as Henan Non-ferrous),an enterprise set up under the joint effort of 3 enterprises with state-owned assets namely Shenhuo Group,Yichuan Power and Yulian Group,has started its operation under tight schedule.The focus of the current operation is acquisition,for which a number of alumina and aluminum processing enterprises are on the list of Henan Non-ferrous.China Nonferrous Metals Monthly reported this news at our last issue,now we try to analysis more details behind the decision.

  12. Emission of PCDD/Fs and dioxin-like PCBs from metallurgy industries in S. Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Byeong-Woon; Jin, Guang-Zhu; Moon, Young-Hoon; Kim, Min-Kwan; Kyoung, Jong-Dai; Chang, Yoon-Seok

    2006-01-01

    The metallurgy industry and municipal waste incinerators are considered the main sources of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxin and dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs) in many countries. This study investigated the emission factors and total emissions of PCDD/Fs and dioxin-like polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) emitted from metallurgy industries (including ferrous and nonferrous foundries) in Korea. The toxic equivalency (TEQ) emission factor of PCDD/Fs was the highest for secondary copper production, at 24451 ng I-TEQ/ton. The total estimated emissions of PCDD/Fs from these sources were 35.259 g I-TEQ/yr, comprising 0.088 g I-TEQ/yr from ferrous foundries, 31.713 g I-TEQ/yr from copper production, 1.716 g I-TEQ/yr from lead production, 0.111 g I-TEQ/yr from zinc production, and 1.631 g I-TEQ/yr from aluminum production. The total estimated annual amounts of dioxin-like PCBs emitted from these sources were 13.260 g WHO-TEQ/yr, comprising 0.014 g WHO-TEQ/yr from ferrous foundries, 12.675 g WHO-TEQ/yr from copper production, 0.170 g WHO-TEQ/yr from lead production, 0.017 g WHO-TEQ/yr from zinc production, and 0.384 g WHO-TEQ/yr from aluminum production. The highest emission factor was found for secondary copper smelting, at 9770 ng WHO-TEQ/ton.

  13. 21 CFR 184.1315 - Ferrous sulfate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Ferrous sulfate. 184.1315 Section 184.1315 Food and... Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1315 Ferrous sulfate. (a) Ferrous sulfate heptahydrate (iron (II) sulfate... as pale, bluish-green crystals or granules. Progressive heating of ferrous sulfate heptahydrate...

  14. 21 CFR 73.160 - Ferrous gluconate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Ferrous gluconate. 73.160 Section 73.160 Food and... ADDITIVES EXEMPT FROM CERTIFICATION Foods § 73.160 Ferrous gluconate. (a) Identity. The color additive ferrous gluconate is the ferrous gluconate defined in the Food Chemicals Codex, 3d Ed. (1981), pp. 122-123...

  15. One step HIP canning of powder metallurgy composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juhas, John J. (Inventor)

    1990-01-01

    A single step is relied on in the canning process for hot isostatic pressing (HIP) powder metallurgy composites. The binders are totally removed while the HIP can of compatible refractory metal is sealed at high vacuum and temperature. This eliminates outgassing during hot isostatic pressing.

  16. Evaluation of powder metallurgy superalloy disk materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, D. J.

    1975-01-01

    A program was conducted to develop nickel-base superalloy disk material using prealloyed powder metallurgy techniques. The program included fabrication of test specimens and subscale turbine disks from four different prealloyed powders (NASA-TRW-VIA, AF2-1DA, Mar-M-432 and MERL 80). Based on evaluation of these specimens and disks, two alloys (AF2-1DA and Mar-M-432) were selected for scale-up evaluation. Using fabricating experience gained in the subscale turbine disk effort, test specimens and full scale turbine disks were formed from the selected alloys. These specimens and disks were then subjected to a rigorous test program to evaluate their physical properties and determine their suitability for use in advanced performance turbine engines. A major objective of the program was to develop processes which would yield alloy properties that would be repeatable in producing jet engine disks from the same powder metallurgy alloys. The feasibility of manufacturing full scale gas turbine engine disks by thermomechanical processing of pre-alloyed metal powders was demonstrated. AF2-1DA was shown to possess tensile and creep-rupture properties in excess of those of Astroloy, one of the highest temperature capability disk alloys now in production. It was determined that metallographic evaluation after post-HIP elevated temperature exposure should be used to verify the effectiveness of consolidation of hot isostatically pressed billets.

  17. Removal of copper from ferrous scrap

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blander, Milton; Sinha, Shome N.

    1990-01-01

    A process for removing copper from ferrous or other metal scrap in which the scrap is contacted with a polyvalent metal sulfide slag in the presence of an excess of copper-sulfide forming additive to convert the copper to copper sulfide which is extracted into the slag to provide a ratio of copper in the slag to copper in the metal scrap of at least about 10.

  18. Ferrous Metal Mines - Direct Download

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This map layer includes ferrous metal mines in the United States. The data represent commodities covered by the Minerals Information Team (MIT) of the U.S....

  19. Current State and Main Factors of Development of Ferrous Metallurgy in Ukrain Современное состояние и основные факторы развития чёрной металлургии в Украине

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kulik Inna N.

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available The article described the current state of ferrous metallurgy, the main factors of positive and deterrent effect on industry development, reserves funding update revealed metallurgical enterprises.В статье охарактеризовано современное состояние сектора чёрной металлургии, определены основные факторы позитивного и сдерживающего влияния на развитие отрасли, выявлены резервы финансирования обновления металлургических предприятий.

  20. Processing of W-Cu functionally graded materials (FGM) through the powder metallurgy route: application as plasma facing components for ITER-like thermonuclear fusion reactor; Elaboration de materiaux W-Cu a gradient de proprietes fonctionnelles (FGM) par metallurgie des poudres: application en tant que composants face au plasma de machines de fusion thermonucleaire de type Iter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Raharijaona, J.J.

    2009-11-15

    The aim of this study was to study and optimize the sintering of W-Cu graded composition materials, for first wall of ITER-like thermonuclear reactor application. The graded composition in the material generates graded functional properties (Functionally Graded Materials - FGM). Rough thermomechanical calculations have shown the interest of W-Cu FGM to improve the lifetime of Plasma Facing Components (PFC). To process W-Cu FGM, powder metallurgy route was analyzed and optimized from W-CuO powder mixtures. The influence of oxide reduction on the sintering of powder mixtures was highlighted. An optimal heating treatment under He/H{sub 2} atmosphere was determined. The sintering mechanisms were deduced from the analysis of the effect of the Cu-content. Sintering of W-Cu materials with a graded composition and grain size has revealed two liquid migration steps: i) capillary migration, after the Cu-melting and, ii) expulsion of liquid, at the end of sintering, from the dense part to the porous part, due to the continuation of W-skeleton sintering. These two steps were confirmed by a model based on capillary pressure calculation. In addition, thermal conductivity measurements were conducted on sintered parts and showed values which gradually increase with the Cu-content. Hardness tests on a polished cross-section in the bulk are consistent with the composition profiles obtained and the differential grain size. (author)

  1. REVIEW OF RECENT DEVELOPMENTS: POWER METALLURGY,

    Science.gov (United States)

    REVIEWS), (*POWDER METALLURGY, CASTING, SINTERING, COOLING, CUTTING TOOLS , TUNGSTEN ALLOYS, PIPES, DISPERSION HARDENING, NICKEL ALLOYS, COBALT ALLOYS, THORIUM COMPOUNDS, OXIDES, BERYLLIUM, POWDER ALLOYS.

  2. The mathematical modeling revolution in extractive metallurgy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szekely, Julian

    1988-08-01

    A brief review is presented of the current state of extractive metallurgy, and it is shown that it is still a significant part of the national economy. Then a definition is given of mathematical models, and the general philosophy of modeling is discussed, together with the cost of models, hardware, and software options. Several illustrative examples are given, drawn from aluminum electrolysis, flash smelting, tundish operations, and plasma systems. The paper is concluded with the future modeling tasks facing us; these include the more widespread applications of models to represent both existing and new processing operations. It is stressed that models can play a major role in developing a holistic approach to metals and materials processing, where the primary extraction and refining operations are combined with the final processing steps.

  3. Electrodeposition in extractive metallurgy: An emerging technology?

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Keefe, Thomas J.

    1992-04-01

    The electrowinning and electrorefining of metals from aqueous solutions continues to be one of the essential unit processes employed in nonferrous extractive metallurgy. Current processes effectively address both ohmic and mass transport of the primary metal ion in their design. Some deficiencies exist, however, in the basic understanding of the other two critical elements essential in cathodic deposition: activation kinetics and electrocrystallization. The understanding of the latter two must be elevated to the level of understanding of ohmic and mass transport if truly new and innovative advances are to occur. Because of the increasingly demanding standards for electrometallurgy processes and products, technical progress must be made if a competitive edge is to be maintained in the future.

  4. Powder Metallurgy Facility

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The facility is uniquely equipped as the only laboratory within DA to conduct PM processing of refractory metals and alloys as well as the processing of a wide range...

  5. Study of tribological properties on Al/Al2O3/MoS2 hybrid composite processed by powder metallurgy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Kanthavel

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Aluminium ceramic composites with improved mechanical and chemical properties are essential and needed in aerospace and automotive application. The aluminium matrix composite reinforced with ceramic material of alumina (Al2O3 has good tribological properties. However, aluminium based ceramic composites require improvements in their lubrication properties. In this study an attempt is made in the development of a new material through powder metallurgy technique by the addition of molybdenum disulphide (MoS2, which acts as a solid lubricant. This molybdenum disulphide (MoS2 based solid lubricant has unique advantage that it can be used in vacuum space, but the same is not applicable in case of graphite. The microstructures, material combination, wear and friction properties were analysed by scanning electron microscopy, EDX, and pin-on-disc wear tester. The newly developed aluminium composite has significant improvements in tribological properties with a combination of 5% alumina (Al2O3 and 5% molybdenum disulphide (MoS2. The test reveals that sliding distance of 1000 m and sliding speed of 1.5 m/s with applied load of 5 N result in minimum wear loss of 0.0102 g and coefficient of friction as 0.117.

  6. 高浓度泥浆法(HDS)-铁盐处理工业污酸废水半工业试验%Pilot-plant Test of Acid Waste Water Treatment by High Density Slurry(HDS) Ferrous Salt Process

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    宋文涛

    2011-01-01

    对高浓度泥浆(HDS)-铁盐法处理冶炼企业污酸工业废水进行半工业试验.结果表明,在pH=10条件下,HDS出水的Pb、Zn均可达到国家排放标准,As出水控制在10 mg/L以下,再经后续铁盐除砷工序,As排放也可达到国家排放标准.HDS产生底泥固含可达27%左右,显著高于石灰法的水平(2%以下).%The semi-industrial experiment for acid waste water treatment in nonferrous smelter was conducted via High Density Slurry (HDS)-ferrous salt process. The results indicate that, both Pb and Zn could meet the requirement of the national emission standards through the HDS-ferrous salt process at pHIO as concentration in HDS system effluent could be controlled to less than 10 mg/L. The solid content in HDS sludge is up to 27%, which is significantly higher than that in LDS sludge(<2%).

  7. Obtainment, machining and wear of metal matrix composites processed by powder metallurgy; Obtencao, usinagem e desgaste de materiais compositos de matriz metalica processados via metalurgia do po

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jesus, Edilson Rosa Barbosa de. E-mail: erbjesus@usp.br

    1998-07-01

    The aim of this investigation was the obtainment of metal matrix composites (MMC) by the route of powder metallurgy, and the valuation of these materials with relation to their machining and wear characteristics. Firstly, were obtained pure commercial aluminium matrix composites materials, with 5, 10 and 15% volumetric fraction of silicon carbide particles. Was also obtained a material without reinforcement particles in order to verify by comparison, the influence of addition of reinforcement particles. The obtained materials were characterized physics (hydrostatic density), mechanics (hardness and tensile tests) and microstructurally (optical microscopy and scanning electron microscopy). The results showed a homogeneous distribution of reinforcement particles in the composite, and improvement in the mechanical properties, mainly tensile strength (UTS) in comparison to the unreinforced material. After, tests were made to verify the materials behavior during machining and to check the performance of several tool materials (cemented carbide, ceramics and polycrystalline diamond). In these tests, values of the cutting force were measured by instrumented tool-holders. Phenomena such as tool wear, built-up edge formation and mechanism of chip formation were also observed and evaluated. The results from the cemented carbide tool tests, were utilised for the machinability index determination of each material. These results were applied to the Taylor equation and the equation constants for each material and test conditions were determined. The results showed that the inclusion of silicon carbide particles made extremely difficult the machining of the composites, and only with diamond tool, satisfactory results were obtained. At last, wear tests were performed to verify the influence of the reinforcement particles in the characteristics of wear resistance of the materials. The results obtained were utilized in the wear coefficient determination for each material. The

  8. Warm compaction powder metallurgy of Cu

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    NGAI Tungwai Leo; WANG Shang-lin; LI Yuan-yuan; ZHOU Zho-yao; CHEN Wei-ping

    2005-01-01

    A series of experiments were carried out using different admixed lubricant contents,different compaction pressures and temperatures in order to study the warm compaction of copper powder.Results show that too much admixed lubricant will lead to the squeeze out of the lubricant from the compact during the warm compaction processing of Cu powder.Results also show that blisters can be found in sintered samples that contain lubricant less than 0.15% (mass fraction).Optimal warm compaction parameters for producing high density powder metallurgy copper material are obtained.Compacts with green density of 8.6 g/cm3 and a sintered density of 8.83 g/cm3 can be produced by warm compacting the Cu powder,which contains 0.2% admixed lubricant,and is compacted at 145 ℃ with a pressure of 700 Mpa.

  9. Copper alloys with improved properties: standard ingot metallurgy vs. powder metallurgy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milan T. Jovanović

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Three copper-based alloys: two composites reinforced with Al2O3 particles and processed through powder metallurgy (P/M route, i.e. by internal oxidation (Cu-2.5Al composite and by mechanical alloying (Cu-4.7Al2O3 and Cu-0.4Cr-0.08Zr alloy produced by ingot metallurgy (vacuum melting and casting were the object of this investigation. Light microscope and scanning electron microscope (SEM equipped with electron X-ray spectrometer (EDS were used for microstructural characterization. Microhardness and electrical conductivity were also measured. Compared to composite materials, Cu-0.4Cr-0.08Zr alloy possesses highest electrical conductivity in the range from 20 to 800 ℃, whereas the lowest conductivity shows composite Cu-2.5Al processed by internal oxidation. In spite to somewhat lower electrical conductivity (probably due to inadequate density, Cu-2.5Al composite exhibits thermal stability enabling its application at much higher temperatures than materials processed by mechanical alloying or by vacuum melting and casting.

  10. Metallurgy: A compilation

    Science.gov (United States)

    1972-01-01

    A compilation on the technical uses of various metallurgical processes is presented. Descriptions are given of the mechanical properties of various alloys, ranging from TAZ-813 at 2200 F to investment cast alloy 718 at -320 F. Methods are also described for analyzing some of the constituents of various alloys from optical properties of carbide precipitates in Rene 41 to X-ray spectrographic analysis of the manganese content of high chromium steels.

  11. Effects of lubricant's friction coefficient on warm compaction powder metallurgy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Yuan-yuan; NGAI Tungwai Leo; WANG Shng-lin; ZHU Min; CHEN Wei-ping

    2005-01-01

    The correct use of lubricant is the key of warm compaction powder metallurgy.Different lubricants produce different lubrication effects and their optimal application temperature will be different.Three different lubricants were used to study the effects of friction coefficient on warm compaction process.Friction coefficients of these lubricants were measured at temperatures ranging from ambient temperature to 200 ℃.Iron-base samples were prepared using different processing temperatures and their green compact densities were studied.

  12. 21 CFR 184.1311 - Ferrous lactate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Ferrous lactate. 184.1311 Section 184.1311 Food and... Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1311 Ferrous lactate. (a) Ferrous lactate (iron (II) lactate, C6H10FeO6... prepared by reacting calcium lactate or sodium lactate with ferrous sulfate, direct reaction of lactic acid...

  13. The influence of metallurgy on the formation of welding aerosols.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zimmer, Anthony T

    2002-10-01

    Recent research has indicated that insoluble ultrafine aerosols (ie., particles whose physical diameters are less than 100 nm) may cause adverse health effects due to their small size, and that toxicological response may be more appropriately represented by particle number or particle surface area. Unfortunately, current exposure criteria and the associated air-sampling techniques are primarily mass-based. Welding processes are high-temperature operations that generate substantial number concentrations of ultrafine aerosols. Welding aerosols are formed primarily through the nucleation of metal vapors followed by competing growth mechanisms such as coagulation and condensation. Experimental results and mathematical tools are presented to illustrate how welding metallurgy influences the chemical aspects and dynamic processes that initiate and evolve the resultant aerosol. This research suggests that a fundamental understanding of metallurgy and aerosol physics can be exploited to suppress the formation of undesirable chemical species as well as the amount of aerosol generated during a welding process.

  14. 21 CFR 582.5308 - Ferrous gluconate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Ferrous gluconate. 582.5308 Section 582.5308 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Supplements 1 § 582.5308 Ferrous gluconate. (a) Product. Ferrous gluconate. (b) Conditions of use. This...

  15. 21 CFR 582.5311 - Ferrous lactate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Ferrous lactate. 582.5311 Section 582.5311 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Supplements 1 § 582.5311 Ferrous lactate. (a) Product. Ferrous lactate. (b) Conditions of use. This substance...

  16. 21 CFR 582.5315 - Ferrous sulfate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Ferrous sulfate. 582.5315 Section 582.5315 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Supplements 1 § 582.5315 Ferrous sulfate. (a) Product. Ferrous sulfate. (b) Conditions of use. This substance...

  17. METHOD OF REDUCING PLUTONIUM WITH FERROUS IONS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dreher, J.L.; Koshland, D.E.; Thompson, S.G.; Willard, J.E.

    1959-10-01

    A process is presented for separating hexavalent plutonium from fission product values. To a nitric acid solution containing the values, ferrous ions are added and the solution is heated and held at elevated temperature to convert the plutonium to the tetravalent state via the trivalent state and the plutonium is then selectively precipitated on a BiPO/sub 4/ or LaF/sub 3/ carrier. The tetravalent plutonium formed is optionally complexed with fluoride, oxalate, or phosphate anion prior to carrier precipitation.

  18. Alloy element redistribution during sintering of powder metallurgy steels

    OpenAIRE

    Tahir, Abdul Malik

    2014-01-01

    Homogenization of alloying elements is desired during sintering of powder metallurgy components. The redistribution processes such as penetration of liquid phase into the interparticle/grain boundaries of solid particles and subsequent solid-state  diffusion of alloy element(s) in the base powder, are important for the effective homogenization of alloy element(s) during liquid phase sintering of the mixed powders. The aim of this study is to increase the understanding of alloy element redistr...

  19. Metallurgy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    @@Metallurgical Council of China Council for the Promotion of International Trade(MC-CCPIT)is an organization engaged in promoting foreign trade and economic cooperation for Chinese metallurgical industry.

  20. A major advance in powder metallurgy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Brian E.; Stiglich, Jacob J., Jr.; Kaplan, Richard B.; Tuffias, Robert H.

    1991-01-01

    Ultramet has developed a process which promises to significantly increase the mechanical properties of powder metallurgy (PM) parts. Current PM technology uses mixed powders of various constituents prior to compaction. The homogeneity and flaw distribution in PM parts depends on the uniformity of mixing and the maintenance of uniformity during compaction. Conventional PM fabrication processes typically result in non-uniform distribution of the matrix, flaw generation due to particle-particle contact when one of the constituents is a brittle material, and grain growth caused by high temperature, long duration compaction processes. Additionally, a significant amount of matrix material is usually necessary to fill voids and create 100 percent dense parts. In Ultramet's process, each individual particle is coated with the matrix material, and compaction is performed by solid state processing. In this program, Ultramet coated 12-micron tungsten particles with approximately 5 wt percent nickel/iron. After compaction, flexure strengths were measured 50 percent higher than those achieved in conventional liquid phase sintered parts (10 wt percent Ni/Fe). Further results and other material combinations are discussed.

  1. [Respiratory diseases in metallurgy production workers].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shliapnikov, D M; Vlasova, E M; Ponomareva, T A

    2012-01-01

    The authors identified features of respiratory diseases in workers of various metallurgy workshops. Cause-effect relationships are defined between occupational risk factors and respiratory diseases, with determining the affection level.

  2. ABOUT HEAT TREATMENTS APPLIED TO FERROUS ALLOYS AND METALS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alin Stancioiu

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Materials and non-ferrous alloys lends itself through more plastic deformation processes. It is known that after deformation the material structure, as well as properties that are no longer adequate therefore is applied recrystallization annealing for the purpose of restore the initial structure. To increase the hardness of non-ferrous alloys it must after hardening the cooling rate to be slow. This is explained by the fact that of chemical compounds give time to precipitate on the edge of grain to the base of the constituents of alloys.

  3. Variations of {sup 57}Fe hyperfine parameters in medicaments containing ferrous fumarate and ferrous sulfate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oshtrakh, M. I., E-mail: oshtrakh@mail.utnet.ru; Novikov, E. G. [Ural Federal University (The former Ural State Technical University-UPI), Faculty of Physical Techniques and Devices for Quality Control (Russian Federation); Dubiel, S. M. [AGH University of Science and Technology, Faculty of Physics and Computer Science (Poland); Semionkin, V. A. [Ural Federal University (The former Ural State Technical University-UPI), Faculty of Physical Techniques and Devices for Quality Control (Russian Federation)

    2010-04-15

    Several commercially available medicaments containing ferrous fumarate (FeC{sub 4}H{sub 2}O{sub 4}) and ferrous sulfate (FeSO{sub 4}), as a source of ferrous iron, were studied using a high velocity resolution Moessbauer spectroscopy. A comparison of the {sup 57}Fe hyperfine parameters revealed small variations for the main components in both medicaments indicating some differences in the ferrous fumarates and ferrous sulfates. It was also found that all spectra contained additional minor components probably related to ferrous and ferric impurities or to partially modified main components.

  4. Dual gas-solid reactions with converse vector in ferrous metallurgy and its character

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Qi; LI Wenzhong; JIANG Maofa; MA Xingya; ZHENG Hongxia

    2004-01-01

    A concept of dual gas-solid reactions with the converse vector that simultaneously take place inside the pellet and between the gas and pellet has been put forward. Two parameters used for describing the character of dual gas-solid reactions are found out and verified by the reduction experiment of the pellet containing carbon in CO2 atmosphere. Of the parameters, critical rate of dual gas-solid reactions with converse vector is used to express minimum rate of gas-solid reaction inside the pellet, which is able to make reaction between gas and pellet halt. This rate can be measured and calculated. Diffusion coefficient of dual gas-solid reaction with converse vector disturbed by the gas expelled from inside the pellet can also be calculated by the critical rate and reaction rate of gas-solid inside the pellet.

  5. IMPACT OF THE INSTITUTIONAL ENVIRONMENT FOR EXPANDED REPRODUCTION OF FERROUS METALLURGY: AN ECONOMETRIC ANALYSIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivan Ryabov

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The article focuses on identifying patterns of development of the metallurgical complex on the basis of cross-country comparisons of the performance of the industry in general and institutional factors of the business environment. The study offers two types of model definitions branch development and identifies opportunities and constraints of the application

  6. Electrothermal Defect Detection in Powder Metallurgy Compacts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benzerrouk, Souheil; Ludwig, Reinhold; Apelian, Diran

    2006-03-01

    Faced with increasing market pressures, metal part manufacturers have turned to new processes and fabrication technologies. One of these processes is powder metallurgy (P/M), which is employed for low-cost, high-volume precision part manufacturing. Despite many advantages, the P/M process has created a number of challenges, including the need for high-speed quality assessment and control, ideally for each compact. Consequently, sophisticated quality assurance is needed to rapidly detect flaws early in the manufacturing cycle and at minimal cost. In this paper we will discuss our progress made in designing and refining an active infrared (IR) detection system for P/M compacts. After discussing the theoretical background in terms of underlying equations and boundary conditions, analytical and numerical solutions are presented that are capable of predicting temperature responses for various defect sizes and orientations of a dynamic IR testing system. Preliminary measurements with controlled and industrial samples have shown that this active IR methodology can successfully be employed to test both green-state and sintered P/M compacts. The developed system can overcome many limitations observed with a standard IR testing methodology such as emissivity, background calibration, and contact resistance.

  7. Annual Review on Yunnan Metallurgy in 2012%2012年云南冶金年评

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    谢刚; 田林

    2013-01-01

    Based on the papers by metallurgical researchers in Yunnan in 2012, the production, scientific research and technology on metallurgy of Yunnan ferrous metal, nonferrous metal, semimetal, rare metal and noble metal are summarized.%依据2012年云南冶金科技工作者发表的文献资料,对该年度云南黑色金属冶金、有色金属冶金、半金属及稀有金属冶金和贵金属生产、科研及技术进行了评述.

  8. Semi Automated Ferrous Material Scouring System (SAFMSS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-03-14

    FINAL REPORT Semi-Automated Ferrous Material Scouring System (SAFMSS) ESTCP Project MR-201102 MARCH 2016 Dr. Herman Herman Mr. Chris Fromme...Include area code) 03/14/2016 Final Report July 2011 - March 2016 Semi-Automated Ferrous Material Scouring System (SAFMSS) Chris Fromme Herman Herman... Ferrous Material Scouring System (SAFMSS) March 14, 2016 ii Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited TABLE OF CONTENTS TABLE OF

  9. Manufacturing of semi-solid ferrous alloys. 3. ; Manufacturing of semi-solid metals by SCR (shear-cooling roll) process. Tetsukei gokin no hangyoko shorizai no seizo. 3. ; Sendan reikyaku roll ho ni yoru hangyoko shori kinzoku no seizo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sugiyama, S.; Kiuchi, M.; Yamamoto, J. (The University of Tokyo, Tokyo (Japan). Institute of Industrial Science)

    1993-07-01

    This paper reports on devising a shear-cooling roll (SCR) process that differs from the rheocasting process, and on trial manufacturing of semi-solid metals using ferrous alloys. Test specimens were made from three kinds of graphite cast iron (FC30, one corresponding to FC20, and FCD40), stainless steel (SUS304), and carbon steel (S45C). The experimental result revealed the following matters: semi-solid metals can be manufactured in a wide range of states such as foil, high and low solid-phase slurries; preheating temperatures of the roll and fixed cooling shoe affect largely the appearance and internal structure of SCR-processed materials; and the internal structure of an SCR-processed material forms a uniform isometric system and progresses recrystallization if it is heated and retained above the solid phase line. These results indicate nearly the same phenomena as those presented by low melting point alloys including solder and aluminum alloys. The processing procedure consists of injection of molten test specimen of a predetermined weight (about 10 kg) into the roll and fixed cooling shoe in the SCR machine preheated to the same temperature as that of the melt, and air-cooling the discharged metal in a container having heat insulated inner face. 2 refs., 10 figs., 1 tab.

  10. Possibilities of Formation of Dioxins and Furans in Metallurgical Processes as well as Methods of their Reduction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Holtzer, M.

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The metallurgical industry, among others, generates various kinds of wastes: gaseous, dusts, wastes and sewage. Special attention of the European Union is directed towards the elimination or significant reduction of the gaseous-dust contamination emissions including the most hazardous compounds, such as dioxins and furans. In the article the sources of dioxins and furans in metallurgical industry are described along with the reduction methods of these pollutants. Particularly the activities recommended as the Best Available Techniques (BAT in order to reduce the PCDD/PCDF emission from sintering processes, non-ferrous metallurgy and foundry engineering have been presented.

  11. Applies in the non-ferrous smelting industry of process analysis integrated system%应用于有色冶炼工业的过程分析成套系统

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周立仁; 梁明燕

    2012-01-01

    Application of process analysis systems in non-ferrous smelting industry is more and more widely, for guiding the safety process control energy saving environmental protection monitoring and improving economic efficiency plays a vital role. Based on the used in the process of smelting furnace exit flue gas analysis of complete system components discussion of the role of theory fully demonstrated the complete system in the smelting process analysis.%过程分析成套系统在有色冶炼工业中的应用越来越广泛,对于指导安全生产、工艺控制、节能降耗、环保监测以及提高企业经济效益方面都起着至关重要的作用.本文通过对应用于熔炼电炉出口烟气过程分析成套系统的组成、原理及作用的论述,论证了过程分析成套系统在熔炼电炉烟气分析中应用的可靠性和必要性.

  12. Recovering valuable elements from flue slime of blast furnace by combining process of mineral and metallurgy%选冶联合技术提取高炉瓦斯泥中有价元素研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张晋霞; 邹玄; 张晓亮; 牛福生

    2015-01-01

    After analyzing the properties ,chemical composition of the flue slime from the blast furnace in Tangshan Iron & Steel Company ,the paper proposed the suggestion of recovering valuable elements from flue slime by combining process of mineral and metallurgy .The laboratory test results showed that the iron concentrate with the iron grade 53 .25% and recovery of 51 .05% by tabling gravity separation as well as the carbon concentrate with fixed carbon content of 74 .21% and recovery of 66 .39% by once rough separation and two times cleaning separation were obtained .The addition of sulfuric acid to the final flotation tailings , the leaching rate of zinc is 97 .85% .When the dosage of sodium sulfide is 200kg/t ,the recovery of zinc concentrate can reach to 86 .36% .%在对高炉瓦斯泥性质、矿物成分分析的基础上,采用选冶联合技术对其有价元素进行了提取研究。试验研究表明,瓦斯泥原料经摇床分选后,获得了铁品位为53.25%,回收率为51.05%的铁精矿;摇床尾矿经浮选柱一次粗选两次精选工艺流程,得到碳品位为74.21%、作业回收率为66.39%的碳精矿;最终尾矿采用硫酸进行浸锌试验,锌的浸出率可达97.85%,向浸出液中加入硫化钠用量为200kg/t时,Zn回收率达到86.36%。

  13. Titanium aluminides production by powder metallurgy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Henriques, V.A.R. [Centro Tecnico Aeroespacial (CTA), Sao Jose dos Campos, SP (Brazil); Silva, C.R.M. [Universidade de Brasilia (UnB), Brasilia, DF (Brazil); Goncalves, F.F.R. [Instituto Tecnologico de Aeronautica (ITA), Sao Jose dos Campos, SP (Brazil)

    2009-07-01

    Full text: The aim of this work is to analyze the gamma-titanium-aluminideo alloys obtained by powder metallurgy. Theses alloys have high temperature resistance (until 850 deg C) for a long time with utilization in aircraft with high speed and can be applied in automotive engines valves or turbocharger rotors. This paper shows the microstructures results of Ti-48Al-2Cr-2Nb obtained by pressureless sintering and hot uniaxial pressing. The powders were mixed for one hour and compacted using cold isostatic pressing (300 MPa). The specimens were processed by sintering in vacuum between 900-1300 deg C and by hot uniaxial pressing (20 MPa) in argon atmosphere between 900-1200 deg C, for 2h. The alloys were characterized by XRD (X-ray diffraction), SEM (Scanning Electron Microscopy), EDS (Energy Dispersive Spectroscopy) and Vickers microhardness measurements. The results evidence that hot uniaxial pressing route has the tendency to obtain gamma-TiAl and alpha 2-Ti3Al intermetallics ( in a lamellar distribution) than the pressureless sintering route, mainly because of the high niobium diffusion in the titanium matrix. (author)

  14. Sinterability and microstructure evolution during sintering of ferrous powder mixtures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kétner Bendo Demétrio

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The present work is focused on ferrous powder metallurgy and presents some results of a development of a suitable masteralloy for use as an additive to iron powder for the production of sintered steels. The masteralloy was produced by melting a powder mixture containing approximately Fe + 20% Ni + 20% Mn + 20% Si + 1% C (wt%, in order to obtain a cast billet that was converted into fine powder by crushing and milling. It was observed presence of SiC in the masteralloy after melting that is undesirable in the alloy. Si element should be introduced by using ferrosilicon. Sintered alloys with distinct contents of alloying elements were prepared by mixing the masteralloy powder to plain iron powder. Samples were produced by die compaction of the powder mixtures and sintering at 1200 °C in a differential dilatometer in order to record their linear dimensional behaviour during heating up and isothermal sintering, aiming at studying the sinterability of the compacts. Microstructure development during sintering was studied by SEM, XRD and microprobe analyses.

  15. Hand Eczema and Its Risk Factors of Workers in Ferrous Metal Smelting and Calendering Processing Industry%黑色金属冶炼和压延加工业工人手部湿疹及其危险因素

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    贾宁; 秦汝莉; 李玉珍; 张雪艳; 李建国; 赵春香; 周久利; 王忠旭

    2012-01-01

    [目的]调查黑色金属冶炼和压延加工业工人手部湿疹的患病情况,探讨其相关危险因素. [方法]采用随机抽样方法,对某省11家黑色金属冶炼和压延加工企业工人手部湿疹的患病情况进行横断面调查,利用x2检验和多因素logistic回归进行手部湿疹的危险因素分析. [结果]该11家黑色金属冶炼和压延加工业工人手部湿疹的患病率为12.8%,其中从事热处理、造型和金属熔炼工序的工人手部湿疹的患病率较高,分别为26.8%、25.4%和25.0%.作业工人自诉生产性粉尘、金属及其盐类(锰及其化合物、铬及其化合物、镍化合物)、金属加工液、强酸(硫酸、硝酸、盐酸)、有机溶剂(苯及其同系物、三氯乙烯、四氯化碳)和高温为可能导致手部湿疹的危险因素.多元logistic 回归分析表明,金属加工液、男性、年龄、全身皮肤干燥、皮肤过敏史和哮喘史被选入模型.其中,金属加工液的OR值( 5.007)最高.[结论]黑色金属冶炼和压延加工业工人手部湿疹的患病率较高,应积极采取切实有效的防护措施,减少和预防该病的发生.%[ Objective ] To estimate the prevalence of hand eczema among workers of ferrous metal smelting and calendering processing industry, and to explore related risk factors. [ Methods ] A cross-sectional study was conducted among workers with hand eczema randomly selected from 11 ferrous metal smelting and calendering processing enterprises in a province of China. The x2 test and multivariate logistic regression analysis were used to analyze risk factors of hand eczema. [ Results ] Of the workers investigated, the prevalence rate of hand eczema was 12.8%, and higher prevalences of hand eczema were found in workers engaged in heat treatment, moulding and smelting procedures, being 26.8%, 25.4% and 25.0%, respectively. Their self-reported risk factors of hand eczema were productive dust, metals and their salts (manganese

  16. Quarterly Progress Report Metallurgy Development Operation: October - December 1963

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wick, O. J. [Hanford Site (HNF), Richland, WA (United States). Metallurgy Development Operation; Last, G. A. [Hanford Site (HNF), Richland, WA (United States). Metallurgy Development Operation. Fuels Design; Minor, J. E. [Hanford Site (HNF), Richland, WA (United States). Metallurgy Development Operation. Metal Fabrication Development; Nelson, T. C. [Hanford Site (HNF), Richland, WA (United States). Metallurgy Development Operation. Plutonium Product Development; Stewart, R. W. [Hanford Site (HNF), Richland, WA (United States). Metallurgy Development Operation. Plutonium Metallurgy Development

    1964-01-20

    The present Quarterly Report covers the Metallurgy Development Operation from October to December 1963 and includes research conducted by the Fuels Design, Metal Fabrication Development, Plutonium Product Development, and Plutonium Metallurgy Development Operations. The titles of the chapters are the following: Metallic Fuels Design, Metallic Fuel Development, Refractory Metals and Fuel Development, and Plutonium Physical Metallurgy.

  17. Workability Behaviour of Powder Metallurgy Aluminium Composites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Narayan

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available An efficient way to find the workability limit for powder metallurgy parts has been suggested. Compacts of Al-4%TiC, Al-4%WC, Al-4%Fe3C, and Al-4%Mo2C were produced to the relative density of 0.82 and 0.86 with three different geometries through primary operations of powder metallurgy routes. Each sintered compact was hot deformed to various strain levels till a visible crack appeared at the free surface. Oyane’s fracture principle was used to develop a theory to study powder metallurgy compacts. A least square technique was used to determine the constants in fracture criteria and these equations were finally used to find workability limit. It is found that the projected technique was well in agreement with the experimental values.

  18. Thermogravimetric control of intermediate compounds in uranium metallurgy; Control termogravimetrico de productos intermedios de la metalurgia del uranio

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gasco Sanchez, L.; Fernandez Cellini, R.

    1959-07-01

    The thermal decomposition of some intermediate compounds in the metallurgy of the uranium as uranium peroxide, ammonium uranate, uranium and ammonium penta-fluoride, uranium tetrafluoride and uranous oxide has been study by means of the Chevenard's thermo balance. Some data on pyrolysis of synthetic mixtures of intermediate compounds which may occasionally appear during the industrial process, are given. Thermogravimetric methods of control are suggested, usable in interesting products in the uranium metallurgy. (Author) 20 refs.

  19. Ferrous sulphate interacts with captopril

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaefer, J P; Tam, Y; Hasinoff, B B; Tawfik, S; Peng, Y; Reimche, L; Campbell, N R C

    1998-01-01

    Aims To determine if iron binds strongly to captopril and reduces captopril absorption. Methods A variety of in vitro experiments was conducted to examine iron binding to captopril and a randomized, double-blind, placebo controlled, cross-over study design was used to assess the in vivo interaction. Captopril (25 mg) was coingested with either ferrous sulphate (300 mg) or placebo by seven healthy adult volunteers. Subjects were phlebotomized and had blood pressure measured at 0, 0.25, 0.5, 1, 2, 4, 6, 8, and 12 h post ingestion. A 1 week washout period was used. Results The coingestion of ferrous sulphate and captopril was associated with a 37% (134 ng ml−1 h, 95% CI 41–228 ng ml−1 h, P=0.03) decrease in area under the curve (AUC) for unconjugated plasma captopril. There were no substantial changes in Cmax (mean difference;–32; 95% CI −124–62 ng ml−1(P=0.57)) or in tmax (mean difference; 0; 95% CI −18–18 min (P=0.65)) for unconjugated captopril when captopril was ingested with iron. There was a statistically insignificant increase in AUC for total plasma captopril of 43% (1312 ng ml−1 h, 95% CI −827–3451 ng ml−1 h P=0.27) when captopril was ingested with iron. The addition of ferric chloride to captopril resulted in the initial rapid formation of a soluble blue complex which rapidly disappeared to be replaced by a white precipitant. The white precipitate was identified as captopril disulphide dimer. There were no significant differences in systolic and diastolic blood pressures between the treatment and placebo groups. Conclusions Co-administration of ferrous sulphate and iron results in decreased unconjugated captopril levels likely due to a chemical interaction between ferric ion and captopril in the gastrointestinal tract. Care is required when coprescribing captopril and iron salts. PMID:9803987

  20. Processing, physical metallurgy and creep of NiAl + Ta and NiAl + Nb alloys. Ph.D. Thesis. Final Contractor Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pathare, Viren M.

    1988-01-01

    Powder processed NiAl + Ta alloys containing 1, 2, and 4.5 at percent tantalum and NiAl + Nb alloys containing 1 and 2 at percent niobium were developed for improved creep properties. In addition, a cast alloy with 5 at percent tantalum was also studied. Hot extrusion parameters for processing alloys with 1 and 2 at percent of tantalum or niobium were designed. The NiAl + 4.5 at percent Ta alloy could be vacuum hot pressed successfully, even though it could not be extruded. All the phases in the multiphase alloys were identified and the phase transformations studied. The Ni2AlTa in NiAl + 4.5 at percent Ta alloy transforms into a liquid phase above 1700 K. Solutionizing and annealing below this temperature gives rise to a uniform distribution of fine second phase precipitates. Compressive creep properties were evaluated at 1300 K using constant load and constant velocity tests. In the higher strain rate region single phase NiAl + 1 at percent Ta and NiAl + 1 at percent Nb alloys exhibit a stress exponent of 5 characteristic of climb controlled dislocation creep. In slower strain rate regime diffusional creep becomes important. The two phase alloys containing 2 to 5 at percent Ta and 2 at percent Nb show considerable improvement over binary NiAl and single phase alloys. Loose dislocation networks and tangles stabilized by the precipitates were found in the as crept microstructure. The cast alloy which has larger grains and a distribution of fine precipitates shows the maximum improvement over binary NiAl.

  1. Research on Mineral Processing-metallurgy Combination Technology for an Oxidized Gold Ore in Gansu%甘肃某氧化型金矿石选冶技术研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    毛益林; 陈晓青; 杨进忠; 王秀芬

    2015-01-01

    甘肃某氧化型金矿石金含量为2.25 g/t,伴生银可综合回收。金主要以独立金矿物形式存在,大部分被载金脉石矿物石英所包裹,少部分以微细粒的形式嵌布在黄铁矿、磁黄铁矿、闪锌矿、黄铜矿和方铅矿等矿物的裂隙中。为高效开发利用该矿石资源,对其进行了选冶联合试验研究。结果表明:在磨矿细度为-0.074 mm占73.00%条件下,经1粗1精2扫浮选、浮选尾矿重选的闭路流程可获得金品位74.2 g/t、回收率91.28%的混合金精矿。混合金精矿经石灰预处理后,经氰化钠浸出,获得了金浸出率为96.52%、金总回收率为88.10%的指标。试验结果对同类型金矿石的选矿回收具有借鉴意义。%The oxidized gold ore in Gansu contains 2. 25 g/t gold and associated silver can be comprehensively recov-ered. Gold mainly exists in form of independent mineral,most gold ore were wrapped in gangue minerals,like quartz,few others was inlayed in the cracks of pyrite,magnetic pyrite,sphalerite,chalcopyrite and galena with the form of fine particles. In order to high efficiently utilize the resource,mineral processing-metallurgy combination experimental research was carried out based on process mineralogy. The results indicate that the mixed concentration with gold grade and recovery of 74. 2 g/t and 91. 28%can be obtained at the grinding fineness of 73. 00% passing 0. 074 mm,via one roughing-one cleaning-two scavenging floatation operation,and gravity separation for floatation tailings. Gold leaching rate of 96. 52% and total recovery of 88. 10% was ob-tained by lime pretreatment with mixed concentrate and then leaching by sodium cyanide. The experimental results can provide technology basis for beneficiation of the ore in same type.

  2. Effect of process control agent on the porous structure and mechanical properties of a biomedical Ti-Sn-Nb alloy produced by powder metallurgy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nouri, A; Hodgson, P D; Wen, C E

    2010-04-01

    The influence of different amounts and types of process control agent (PCA), i.e., stearic acid and ethylene bis-stearamide, on the porous structure and mechanical properties of a biomedical Ti-16Sn-4Nb (wt.%) alloy was investigated. Alloy synthesis was performed on elemental metal powders using high-energy ball milling for 5h. Results indicated that varying the PCA content during ball milling led to a drastic change in morphology and particle-size distribution of the ball-milled powders. Porous titanium alloy samples sintered from the powders ball milled with the addition of various amounts of PCA also revealed different pore morphology and porosity. The Vickers hardness of the sintered titanium alloy samples exhibited a considerable increase with increasing PCA content. Moreover, the addition of larger amounts of PCA in the powder mixture resulted in a significant increase in the elastic modulus and peak stress for the sintered porous titanium alloy samples under compression. It should also be mentioned that the addition of PCA introduced contamination (mainly carbon and oxygen) into the sintered porous product.

  3. The Beginnings of Metallurgy: A New Look: Arguments over diffusion and independent invention ignore the complex metallurgic crafts leading to iron.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wertime, T A

    1973-11-30

    In the 9 years since my first survey of early metallurgy appeared in this journal (65) metallurgy has become a major battleground between those who argue independent invention and those who argue diffusion in the evolution of urban civilization. In this new article I contend that: 1) The upland belt and debouching river valleys of southwestern Asia have a clear priority in the beginnings of copper metallurgy and extractive metallurgy generally, suggesting that the forces of urbanization contributing to the rise of metallurgy there were more massive, widespread, and better integrated than elsewhere. 2) The trend to polymetallism, against the background of pyrotechnology generally and the other important technologies of urbanism, established a necessary sequence to early metallurgy. This sequence was a prerequisite to the coming of the Iron Age, which was uniquely contained at first within the environment of Anatolia and the eastern Mediterranean and spread outward from there. 3) The course of metallurgy and possibly of the other urbanizing technologies can best be understood through a process of diffusion and multiple innovation interrelating metallurgical evolution over much of Eurasia, but with the area defined by the Black Sea, the Caspian Sea, the Red Sea, and the eastern Mediterranean as its center. Only in this fashion can we place metallurgy in its proper role as an important subsystem in the rise of civilization.

  4. Relationship between crystallographic structure of the Ti{sub 2}O{sub 3}/MnS complex inclusion and microstructure in the heat-affected zone (HAZ) in steel processed by oxide metallurgy route and impact toughness

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xiong, Zhihui; Liu, Shilong [School of Materials Science and Engineering, University of Science and Technology Beijing (China); Wang, Xuemin, E-mail: wxm@mater.ustb.edu.cn [School of Materials Science and Engineering, University of Science and Technology Beijing (China); Shang, Chengjia [School of Materials Science and Engineering, University of Science and Technology Beijing (China); Misra, R.D.K. [Laboratory for Excellence in Advanced Steel Research, Center for Structural and Functional Materials Research and Innovation, Department of Metallurgical and Materials Engineering, University of Texas at El Paso, 500 W. University Avenue, El Paso, TX 79968 (United States)

    2015-08-15

    A new method based on electron back scattered diffraction (EBSD) is proposed to determine the structure of titanium oxide/MnS complex inclusion which induced the formation of intragranular acicular ferrite (IAF) in heat-affected zone (HAZ) in steel processed by oxide metallurgy route. It was found that the complex inclusion was Ti{sub 2}O{sub 3}/MnS, the orientation relationship between Ti{sub 2}O{sub 3} and MnS was also examined, and the crystallographic orientation relationship among IAF, Ti{sub 2}O{sub 3}/MnS complex inclusion, austenite, bainite formed at lower temperature is researched systematically. It was observed that MnS precipitated on Ti{sub 2}O{sub 3} at specific habit plane and direction and MnS had a specific orientation relationship ((0001) Ti{sub 2}O{sub 3}//(111) MnS), <10–10> Ti{sub 2}O{sub 3}//<110> MnS) with respect to Ti{sub 2}O{sub 3}. Intragranular acicular ferrite (IAF) nucleated on MnS part of the Ti{sub 2}O{sub 3}/MnS complex inclusion had no specific orientation relationship with MnS. IAF and the surrounding bainite had different Bain groups, so that there was an increase in high angle boundaries, which was beneficial for the toughness of HAZ. - Highlights: • The inclusion of TiO{sub x}/MnS that induced IAF formation is identified to be Ti{sub 2}O{sub 3}/MnS. • The inclusion is identified based on electron back scattered diffraction (EBSD). • MnS and Ti{sub 2}O{sub 3} had specific orientation relationship of Ti{sub 2}O{sub 3}/MnS complex inclusion. • The IAFs formed on the same inclusion tend to be in one Bain group. • IAF and the surrounding bainite tend to be in different Bain groups.

  5. Ferrous iron transport in Streptococcus mutans

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Evans, S.L.; Arcenaeux, J.E.L.; Byers, B.R.; Martin, M.E.; Aranha, H.

    1986-12-01

    Radioiron uptake from /sup 59/FeCl/sub 3/ by Streptococcus mutans OMZ176 was increased by anaerobiosis, sodium ascorbate, and phenazine methosulfate (PMS), although there was a 10-min lag before PMS stimulation was evident. The reductant ascorbate may have provided ferrous iron. The PMS was reduced by the cells, and the reduced PMS then may have generated ferrous iron for transport; reduced PMS also may have depleted dissolved oxygen. It was concluded that S. mutans transports only ferrous iron, utilizing reductants furnished by glucose metabolism to reduce iron prior to its uptake.

  6. Adsorption of ferrous ions onto montmorillonites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Qin, Dawei, E-mail: qdw109@163.com [Qilu University of Technology, Jinan, 250353, Shandong (China); Niu, Xia [Qilu University of Technology, Jinan, 250353, Shandong (China); Qiao, Min; Liu, Gang; Li, Hongxin; Meng, Zhenxiao [Shandong SiBang pharmaceutical co., LTD, Jinan, Shandong, 250200 (China)

    2015-04-01

    Highlights: • Adsorption study of ferrous ions on montmorillonites. • Using ascorbic acid as antioxidants in adsorption process. • Fe (II)-MMT had good affinity for phosphate. - Abstract: The adsorption of Fe (II) onto montmorillonites was investigated through initial concentration, contact time, pH and temperature. During the whole adsorption process, the ascorbic acid (Vitamin C) was added as a kind of antioxidant, at the same time, deionized water (after boiling) and nitrogen protection were also used to avoid oxidation. The Fe{sup 2+}/Fe{sub total} ratio of the iron exists in the Fe-montmorillonites was found more than 95%. Two kinetic models, including pseudo-first-order and pseudo-second-order model, were used to analyze the adsorption process of Fe (II) on montmorillonites. The results of our study showed that adsorption process fitted with pseudo-second-order well. Adsorption isotherms showed that Langmuir model was better than Freundlich model. The thermodynamic parameters ΔG{sup 0} and ΔH{sup 0} were 3.696 kJ/mol and 6.689 kJ/mol (we just gave the values at 298 K), respectively. The positive values at different temperatures showed that the adsorption process was non-spontaneous and endothermic. The characteristics of materials were determined by X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR), Surface area and porosity analyzer, Thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), Differential scanning calorimeter (DSC) and Zeta potential distribution.

  7. Ferrous alloys cast under high pressure gas atmosphere

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pirowski Z.

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The main objective of this paper is describing the essence of the process of introducing nitrogen to the melt of ferrous alloys by application of overpressure above the metal bath. The problem was discussed in terms of both theory (the thermodynamic aspects of the process and practice (the technical and technological aspects, safety of the furnace stand operation, and technique of conducting the melt. The novel technique of melting under high pressure of the gas atmosphere (up to 5 MPa has not been used so far in the domestic industry, mainly because of the lack of proper equipment satisfyng the requirements of safe operation. Owing to cooperation undertaken with a partner from Bulgaria, a more detailed investigation of this technology has become possible and melting of selected ferrous alloys was conducted under the gas atmosphere at a pressure of about 3,5 MPa.

  8. 21 CFR 184.1307c - Ferrous citrate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Ferrous citrate. 184.1307c Section 184.1307c Food... Specific Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1307c Ferrous citrate. (a) Ferrous citrate (iron (II) citrate... the reaction of sodium citrate with ferrous sulfate or by direct action of citric acid on iron filings...

  9. 21 CFR 184.1307d - Ferrous fumarate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Ferrous fumarate. 184.1307d Section 184.1307d Food... Specific Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1307d Ferrous fumarate. (a) Ferrous fumarate (iron (II) fumarate... ferrous sulfate and sodium fumarate. (b) The ingredient meets the specifications of the Food Chemicals...

  10. Static contact angle measurement at different volumes of a drop sitting on non-ferrous metals

    OpenAIRE

    Feoktistov Dmitriy; Orlova Evgeniya; Batischeva Kseniya; Semenov Andrey

    2016-01-01

    The paper presents the experimental study of the effect of the liquid volume on the static contact angle under the condition of the stationary contact line on the rough and polished surfaces of non-ferrous metals. The experiments were carried out using the shadow optical system. Comparison between two methods of drop profile processing was conducted. It was found that in addition to the friction and gravity forces, the structure of the non-ferrous metals significantly influence on the static ...

  11. Comparison of intravenous ferrous sucrose and oral ferrous sulphate in treatment of postpartum iron deficiency anemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El Khouly, Nabih I

    2017-04-01

    The objective of the study was to evaluate the efficacy, safety and tolerability of intravenous ferrous sucrose, compared to oral ferrous sulphate in women with postpartum iron deficiency anemia (IDA). In a single center, randomized, controlled study, 352 patients with hemoglobin 9 gm/dl or less and serum ferritin of ferrous sucrose (up to three calculated replacement doses) or oral ferrous sulphate (150 mg twice daily for six weeks). Primary measures were to assess the rise in hemoglobin (Hb) and serum ferritin. By day 5, the Hb level in women treated with intravenous ferrous sucrose had rised from 8.48 ± 0.47 to 9.4 ± 0.56 gm/dl. Women treated with intravenous ferrous sucrose had significantly higher Hb levels on day 5, day 14 and day 40 (p ferrous sulphate. Throughout the study, ferritin level rose rapidly in those treated with intravenous iron and remained significantly higher than in those treated with oral iron (p ferrous sucrose increases Hb level more rapidly than ferrous sulphate in women with postpartum IDA. It also replenishes iron stores more rapidly with better tolerability.

  12. Improved ferrous shielding for flat cables

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drechsler, R. J.

    1969-01-01

    To improve shielding of flat multicore cables, a thin, seamless ferrous shield around all cores optimizes low frequency magnetic shielding. Such shielding is covered with an ultrathin seamless coat of highly conductive nonferrous material.

  13. Solvent Extraction of Copper: An Extractive Metallurgy Exercise for Undergraduate Teaching Laboratories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smellie, Iain A.; Forgan, Ross S.; Brodie, Claire; Gavine, Jack S.; Harris, Leanne; Houston, Daniel; Hoyland, Andrew D.; McCaughan, Rory P.; Miller, Andrew J.; Wilson, Liam; Woodhall, Fiona M.

    2016-01-01

    A multidisciplinary experiment for advanced undergraduate students has been developed in the context of extractive metallurgy. The experiment serves as a model of an important modern industrial process that combines aspects of organic/inorganic synthesis and analysis. Students are tasked to prepare a salicylaldoxime ligand and samples of the…

  14. Powder metallurgy approaches to high temperature components for gas turbine engines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Probst, H. B.

    1974-01-01

    Research is reported for the tensile strength, ductility, and heat performance characterisitics of powder metallurgy (p/m) superalloys. Oxide dispersion strengthened alloys were also evaluated for their strength during thermal processing. The mechanical attributes evident in both p/m supperalloys and dispersion strengthened alloys are discussed in terms of research into their possible combination.

  15. Computational thermodynamics in electric current metallurgy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bhowmik, Arghya; Qin, R.S.

    2015-01-01

    A priori derivation for the extra free energy caused by the passing electric current in metal is presented. The analytical expression and its discrete format in support of the numerical calculation of thermodynamics in electric current metallurgy have been developed. This enables the calculation...... of electric current distribution, current induced temperature distribution and free energy sequence of various phase transitions in multiphase materials. The work is particularly suitable for the study of magnetic materials that contain various magnetic phases. The latter has not been considered in literature....... The method has been validated against the analytical solution of current distribution and experimental observation of microstructure evolution. It provides a basis for the design, prediction and implementation of the electric current metallurgy. The applicability of the theory is discussed in the derivations....

  16. Interstitial control in titanium alloys produced by powder metallurgy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Henriques, V.A.R.; Petroni, S.L.G.; Cairo, C.A.A. [Instituto de Aeronautica e Espaco (AMR/CTA/IAE), Sao Jose dos Campos, SP (Brazil). Centro Tecnico Aeroespacial. Divisao de Materiais; Paula, M.S.M.; Galvani, E.T., E-mail: vinicius@iae.cta.br, E-mail: slpetroni@iae.cta.br, E-mail: Matheus@gmx.com, E-mail: ccairo@iae.cta.br, E-mail: eduardotgalvani@yahoo.com.br [Instituto Tecnologico de Aeronautica (ITA/CTA), Sao Jose dos Campos, SP (Brazil). Centro Tecnico Aeroespacial

    2009-07-01

    The titanium alloys are used for applications that demand high performance, including surgical implants and aerospace applications. Powder metallurgy is an advantageous alternative for titanium parts production with complex geometries at a relative low cost. Despite that, it is verified that the introduction of interstitial elements (oxygen, nitrogen and carbon) wile processing these alloys, though can increase hardness and mechanical resistance, which is frequently related to the reduction of ductility and fragility increase. The objective of this work is to investigate the influence of the interstitial elements in commercially pure Ti and Ti-{sup 13}Nb-{sup 13}Zr alloy produced by powder metallurgy (P/M). Samples were produced by the mixing of hydride metallic powders followed by uniaxial and cold isostatic pressing with subsequent densification by sintering at 1400 °C, in vacuum. Sintered samples were characterized for phase composition, microstructure and microhardness by X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy and Vickers indentation, respectively. The interstitial content was analysed by Leco equipment. It was shown that the samples were sintered to high densities with a Widmanstatten microstructure. The oxygen and nitrogen contents are above the ELI (Extra Low Interstitial) and the critical issues were identified in the original blended elemental route. (author)

  17. Corporate governance in Romanian metallurgy industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. V. Achim

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we propose to assess the quality of the corporate governance of the metallurgy industry operating in the Romanian capital market. The results are compared with the averages recorded in companies listed on Bucharest Stock Exchange. The study highlights that companies listed on Bucharest Stock Exchange which activate in the metallurgical sector have successfully managed to adapt to the requirements of the globalization of the capital market involving the adoption of the best practices of corporate governance.

  18. The Metallurgy of some indian swords

    OpenAIRE

    Williams, Alan; Edge, David

    2007-01-01

    The metallurgy of Indian swords shows many differences from that of European swords. The distinction between "Damascus Steel" (or wootz) and crucible steel is explained. Ten broken blades from the Armoury of the Nizams of Hyderabad were made available for microscopic examination. Six of these seem to been made from crucible steels, and are of notably high quality. By contrast, a group of six randomly collected from Private Collections in England were also examined. Only one of these was made ...

  19. Metallurgy in the Czech Republic: a spatio-temporal view

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Suchacek

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this paper is to introduce the stochastic input-output model of the impact of metallurgy sector on the Czech economy. Contrary to original input-output model, which is of deterministic nature, we reckon with interval estimates of the development of metallurgy sector. They help us to surpass deterministic impediments when analyzing and forecasting the possible developmental tendencies of metallurgy sector in various economies.

  20. Toward high performance in Powder Metallurgy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Torralba, José M.

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Powder Metallurgy (PM is technology well known for mass production of parts at low cost but usually with worse mechanical properties than same parts obtained by alternative routes. But using this technology, high performance materials can be obtained, depending of the processing route and the type and amount of porosity. In this paper, a brief review of the capabilities of powder technology is made with the objective of attaining the highest level of mechanical and physical properties. For this purpose, different strategies over the processing can be chosen: to act over the density/porosity level and properties of the pores, to act over strengthening mechanisms apart from the density of the material (the alloying system, the microstructure, the grain size,.., to improve the sintering activity by different routes and to use techniques that avoid the grain growth during sintering.La Pulvimetalurgia es una tecnología bien conocida por su faceta de producir piezas de forma masiva a bajo coste, pero habitualmente con una pérdida de propiedades mecánicas si se la compara con tecnologías alternativas para obtener las mismas piezas. Sin embargo, mediante esta tecnología, también se pueden obtener piezas de altas prestaciones, dependiendo de la ruta de procesado y del nivel de porosidad. En este trabajo, se realiza una sucinta revisión de las posibilidades de la tecnología de polvos que permitirían obtener los mayores niveles de prestaciones en cuanto a propiedades mecánicas y físicas. Se pueden elegir distintas estrategias en el procesado: actuar sobre el nivel de densidad/porosidad y las propiedades de los poros, actuar sobre mecanismos de endurecimiento distintos a la densidad (el sistema de aleación, la microestructura, el tamaño de grano,…, mejorar la activación durante la sinterización y utilizar técnicas que inhiban el tamaño de grano durante la sinterización.

  1. Metallurgy, the Father of Materials Science

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    The evolution of the discipline of materials science during the second half of the twentieth century is outlined. The concept emerged in the USA, almost simultaneously in an academic metallurgy department and in an avant-garde industrial research laboratory, and its development subsequently all over the world has been a joint enterprise involving universities, industrial laboratories and government establishments. The initial impetus came unambiguously from the well established discipline of physical metallurgy, but from the 1960s onwards, the input from solid-state physicists grew very rapidly, while materials chemistry is a later addition. Of all the many subdivisions of modern materials science, polymer science has been the slowest to fit under the umbrella of the broad discipline; its concepts are very different from those familiar to metallurgists. Two fields have contributed mightily to the creation of modern materials science: One is nuclear energy and, more specifically, the study of radiation damage, the other is the huge field of electronic and opto-electronic materials in which physics, chemistry and metallurgy are seamlessly combined.

  2. Synthesis of Al-SrB6 composite via powder metallurgy processing%粉末冶金法制备Al-SrB6复合材料

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yucel BIROL

    2015-01-01

    The potential of powder metallurgy processing for the manufacture of Al−SrB6 composites was explored. Al4Sr particles fractured extensively during the ball milling of Al−15Sr/Al−4B powder mixtures. There was no interaction between the Al4Sr and AlB2 compounds across the section of the aluminium grains in the as-milled state. SrB6 formed, when the ball milled powder blends were subsequently annealed at sufficiently high temperatures. Ball milling for 1 h was sufficient for SrB6 to become the major constituent in powder blends annealed at 700 °C while it took 2 h of ball milling for powder blends annealed at 600 °C. Higher annealing temperatures and longer ball milling time encouraged the formation of the SrB6 compound while the latter made a great impact on the microstructural features of the Al−SrB6 composite. The SrB6 compound particles were much smaller and more uniformly distributed across the aluminium matrix grains in powder grains ball milled for 2 h before the annealing treatments at 600 °C and 700 °C.%采用粉末冶金法制备Al−SrB6复合材料。对Al−15Sr/Al−4B混合粉末进行球磨,在球磨过程中Al4Sr颗粒充分破碎。球磨态铝合金晶粒截面表明Al4Sr与AlB2之间不发生反应。混合球磨粉末经高温退火后形成SrB6。若在700°C进行退火,混合粉末需球磨1 h可使SrB6成为主要相,而若在600°C进行退火,混合粉末则需球磨2 h才能使SrB6成为主要相。提高退火温度和延长球磨时间都可以促进SrB6相的形成,但后者对Al−SrB6复合材料的微观组织影响更大。经600°C和700°C退火处理之前,SrB6颗粒更细小,在铝基体中分布也更均匀。

  3. Recent trends in extractive metallurgy

    OpenAIRE

    2009-01-01

    While pyrometallurgical processes are old technology and were the dominant and logical route used to treat sulfide concentrates they are now challenged by new hydrometallurgical processes. In these new processes there have been attempts in the past few years to avoid using autoclaves in the treatment of concentrates of zinc, copper, and nickel. The situation has been recently reversed and pressure hydrometallurgy is being applied in many operations. An outline of these processes is given and ...

  4. Recent trends in extractive metallurgy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Habashi F.

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available While pyrometallurgical processes are old technology and were the dominant and logical route used to treat sulfide concentrates they are now challenged by new hydrometallurgical processes. In these new processes there have been attempts in the past few years to avoid using autoclaves in the treatment of concentrates of zinc, copper, and nickel. The situation has been recently reversed and pressure hydrometallurgy is being applied in many operations. An outline of these processes is given and the future trend is discussed.

  5. N18, powder metallurgy superalloy for disks: Development and applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guedou, J.Y.; Lautridou, J.C.; Honnorat, Y. (SNECMA, Evry (France). Materials and Processes Dept.)

    1993-08-01

    The preliminary industrial development of a powder metallurgy (PM) superalloy, designated N18, for disk applications has been completed. This alloy exhibits good overall mechanical properties after appropriate processing of the material. These properties have been measured on both isothermally forged and extruded billets, as well as on specimens cut from actual parts. The temperature capability of the alloy is about 700 C for long-term applications and approximately 750 C for short-term use because of microstructural instability. Further improvements in creep and crack propagation properties, without significant reduction in tensile strength, are possible through appropriate thermomechanical processing, which results in a large controlled grain size. Spin pit tests on subscale disks have confirmed that the N18 alloy has a higher resistance than PM Astrology and is therefore an excellent alloy for modern turbine disk applications.

  6. Advanced powder metallurgy aluminum alloys via rapid solidification technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ray, R.

    1984-01-01

    Aluminum alloys containing 10 to 11.5 wt. pct. of iron and 1.5 to 3 wt. pct. of chromium using the technique of rapid solidification powder metallurgy were studied. Alloys were prepared as thin ribbons (.002 inch thick) rapidly solidified at uniform rate of 10(6) C/second by the melt spinning process. The melt spun ribbons were pulverized into powders (-60 to 400 mesh) by a rotating hammer mill. The powders were consolidated by hot extrusion at a high reduction ratio of 50:1. The powder extrusion temperature was varied to determine the range of desirable processing conditions necessary to yield useful properties. Powders and consolidated alloys were characterized by SEM and optical metallography. The consolidated alloys were evaluated for (1) thermal stability, (2) tensile properties in the range, room temperature to 450 F, and (3) notch toughness in the range, room temperature to 450 F.

  7. Metafusion: A breakthrough in metallurgy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joseph, Adrian A.

    1994-01-01

    The Metafuse Process is a patented development in the field of thin film coatings utilizing cold fusion which results in a true inter-dispersion of dissimilar materials along a gradual transition gradient through a boundary of several hundred atomic layers. The process is performed at ambient temperatures and pressures requiring relatively little energy and creating little or no heat. The process permits a remarkable range of material combinations and joining of materials which are normally incompatible. Initial applications include titanium carbide into and onto the copper resistance welding electrodes and tungsten carbide onto the cutting edges of tool steel blades. The process is achieved through application of an RF signal of low power and is based on the theory of vacancy fusion.

  8. Metallurgy and Heat Treating. Welding Module 7. Instructor's Guide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Missouri Univ., Columbia. Instructional Materials Lab.

    This guide is intended to assist vocational educators in teaching a three-unit module in metallurgy and heat treating. The module is part of a welding curriculum that has been designed to be totally integrated with Missouri's Vocational Instruction Management System. The basic principles of metallurgy and heat treatment and techniques for…

  9. Low-Cobalt Powder-Metallurgy Superalloy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harf, F. H.

    1986-01-01

    Highly-stressed jet-engine parts made with less cobalt. Udimet 700* (or equivalent) is common nickel-based superalloy used in hot sections of jet engines for many years. This alloy, while normally used in wrought condition, also gas-atomized into prealloyed powder-metallurgy (PM) product. Product can be consolidated by hot isostatically pressing (HIPPM condition) and formed into parts such as turbine disk. Such jet-engine disks "see" both high stresses and temperatures to 1,400 degrees F (760 degrees C).

  10. Biaxially textured articles formed by power metallurgy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goyal, Amit; Williams, Robert K.; Kroeger, Donald M.

    2003-08-26

    A biaxially textured alloy article having a magnetism less than pure Ni includes a rolled and annealed compacted and sintered powder-metallurgy preform article, the preform article having been formed from a powder mixture selected from the group of mixtures consisting of: at least 60 at % Ni powder and at least one of Cr powder, W powder, V powder, Mo powder, Cu powder, Al powder, Ce powder, YSZ powder, Y powder, Mg powder, and RE powder; the article having a fine and homogeneous grain structure; and having a dominant cube oriented {100} orientation texture; and further having a Curie temperature less than that of pure Ni.

  11. Biaxially textured articles formed by powder metallurgy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goyal, Amit; Williams, Robert K.; Kroeger, Donald M.

    2003-07-29

    A biaxially textured alloy article having a magnetism less than pure Ni includes a rolled and annealed compacted and sintered powder-metallurgy preform article, the preform article having been formed from a powder mixture selected from the group of mixtures consisting of: at least 60 at % Ni powder and at least one of Cr powder, W powder, V powder, Mo powder, Cu powder, Al powder, Ce powder, YSZ powder, Y powder, Mg powder, and RE powder; the article having a fine and homogeneous grain structure; and having a dominant cube oriented {100} orientation texture; and further having a Curie temperature less than that of pure Ni.

  12. Borax as a lubricant in powder metallurgy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Héctor Geovanny Ariza-Suarez

    2014-12-01

    were compacted at 700 MPa in a uniaxial press of 15 tons. DSC-TGA analysis of the mixture with borax was realized. The specimens were sintered in a plasma reactor at 1000 for 30 minutes, with a combined atmosphere of hydrogen and argon. Microhardness and density of the sintered samples was haracterized. XRD analysis was realized to detect possible compounds formation by interaction of borax. This paper shows that borax can be used as a lubricant in powder metallurgy.

  13. 21 CFR 184.1307a - Ferrous ascorbate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Ferrous ascorbate. 184.1307a Section 184.1307a Food... Specific Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1307a Ferrous ascorbate. (a) Ferrous ascorbate (CAS Reg. No. 24808-52-4) is a reaction product of ferrous hydroxide and ascorbic acid. It is a blue-violet product...

  14. Late Bronze age metallurgy in the Italian Eastern Alps: copper smelting slags and mine exploitation

    OpenAIRE

    2013-01-01

    At the end of the second millennium B.C., the extractive metallurgy of copper in Trentino (Italy) achieved a peak of technological efficiency and mass production, as evidenced by the large number of metallurgical sites and the huge amount of slags resulting from the smelting activities. Though different scholars proposed several smelting process models, so far an agreed interpretation of the whole process is lacking. Over 70 slags from the Luserna, Transacqua and Segonzano sites (all l...

  15. 21 CFR 184.1307b - Ferrous carbonate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Ferrous carbonate. 184.1307b Section 184.1307b Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR... Specific Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1307b Ferrous carbonate. (a) Ferrous carbonate (iron (II...

  16. 46 CFR 56.60-3 - Ferrous materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Ferrous materials. 56.60-3 Section 56.60-3 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) MARINE ENGINEERING PIPING SYSTEMS AND APPURTENANCES Materials § 56.60-3 Ferrous materials. (a) Ferrous pipe used for salt water service must be...

  17. Thermally activated martensite formation in ferrous alloys

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Villa, Matteo; Somers, Marcel A. J.

    2017-01-01

    Magnetometry was applied to investigate the formation of α/α´martensite in 13ferrous alloys during immersion in boiling nitrogen and during re-heating to room temperature at controlled heating rates in the range 0.0083-0.83 K s-1. Data showsthat in 3 of the alloys, those that form {5 5 7}γ...

  18. Bacterial ferrous iron transport: the Feo system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lau, Cheryl K Y; Krewulak, Karla D; Vogel, Hans J

    2016-03-01

    To maintain iron homeostasis within the cell, bacteria have evolved various types of iron acquisition systems. Ferric iron (Fe(3+)) is the dominant species in an oxygenated environment, while ferrous iron (Fe(2+)) is more abundant under anaerobic conditions or at low pH. For organisms that must combat oxygen limitation for their everyday survival, pathways for the uptake of ferrous iron are essential. Several bacterial ferrous iron transport systems have been described; however, only the Feo system appears to be widely distributed and is exclusively dedicated to the transport of iron. In recent years, many studies have explored the role of the FeoB and FeoA proteins in ferrous iron transport and their contribution toward bacterial virulence. The three-dimensional structures for the Feo proteins have recently been determined and provide insight into the molecular details of the transport system. A highly select group of bacteria also express the FeoC protein from the same operon. This review will provide a comprehensive look at the structural and functional aspects of the Feo system. In addition, bioinformatics analyses of the feo operon and the Feo proteins have been performed to complement our understanding of this ubiquitous bacterial uptake system, providing a new outlook for future studies. © FEMS 2015. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  19. Effect of calcium oxide on the efficiency of ferrous ion oxidation and total iron precipitation during ferrous ion oxidation in simulated acid mine drainage treatment with inoculation of Acidithiobacillus ferrooxidans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Fenwu; Zhou, Jun; Jin, Tongjun; Zhang, Shasha; Liu, Lanlan

    2016-01-01

    Calcium oxide was added into ferrous ion oxidation system in the presence of Acidithiobacillus ferrooxidans at concentrations of 0-4.00 g/L. The pH, ferrous ion oxidation efficiency, total iron precipitation efficiency, and phase of the solid minerals harvested from different treatments were investigated during the ferrous ion oxidation process. In control check (CK) system, pH of the solution decreased from 2.81 to 2.25 when ferrous ions achieved complete oxidation after 72 h of Acidithiobacillus ferrooxidans incubation without the addition of calcium oxide, and total iron precipitation efficiency reached 20.2%. Efficiency of ferrous ion oxidation and total iron precipitation was significantly improved when the amount of calcium oxide added was ≤1.33 g/L, and the minerals harvested from systems were mainly a mixture of jarosite and schwertmannite. For example, the ferrous ion oxidation efficiency reached 100% at 60 h and total iron precipitation efficiency was increased to 32.1% at 72 h when 1.33 g/L of calcium oxide was added. However, ferrous ion oxidation and total iron precipitation for jarosite and schwertmannite formation were inhibited if the amount of calcium oxide added was above 2.67 g/L, and large amounts of calcium sulfate dihydrate were generated in systems.

  20. Metals in Past Societies: A Global Perspective on Indigenous African Metallurgy Shadreck Chirikure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Devanathan, Ram [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2015-10-01

    This slim book (166 pages) shines a spotlight on pre-industrial African metallurgy, its global connections, and anthropological implications. It integrates seemingly disparate disciplines, such as history, geology, ethnography, archeology, and metallurgy, to illustrate the diversity and innovation in metallurgy across Africa and the role of metals in the rise of socio-economic inequalities and political power. The book has 7 chapters and the focus on metals as enablers of human needs and wants is evident in each chapter. The first chapter presents the context of the work and data sources. The second chapter focuses on the origin and development of mining and metallurgy in pre-industrial Africa. Chapter 3 is dedicated to the interaction of nature and culture in the process of mining. Chapter 4 deals with the transformation of the ore into metal by smelting and the sociocultural aspects of this process. Chapter 5 explores the social and cultural roles acquired by metals as a result of fabrication into objects. Chapter 6 examines the social role of metals, trade in metals, cultural contact, proto-globalization, and technology transfer. Finally, Chapter 7 draws lessons for global anthropology from the African experience. The sources of information are adequately cited and the long list of references at the end of each chapter will be a boon to researchers in this field. The author highlights the cultural aspects and social context of the adoption of metallurgy in Africa while drawing parallels between practices in pre-industrial Africa and those in other parts of the world. The book is peppered with delightful vignettes that offer insights into the process of transforming nature into culturally significant objects. For instance, African miners, like their counterparts in Nepal and Latin America, called upon deities, spirits and ancestors to mediate between nature and humans. Women had distinct roles in this process, but there were variations in these roles and in the

  1. Development of an Electric induction furnace for heat treatment of ferrous and non-ferrous alloys

    OpenAIRE

    Ufuoma Peter Anaidhuno; Chinedum Ogonna Mgbemena

    2015-01-01

    A 3kg capacity Electric induction furnace with a power rating of 2500W for heat treatment of ferrous and non-ferrous alloys was developed. The furnace which is made from mild steel sheet was monolithically lined with fire clay refractories and designed to attain a temperature of 12000C on the automatic control panel. This project was primarily undertaken to build local capacity in foundry practice in Nigeria and to encourage the demonstration of fundamental foundry practice for undergradua...

  2. Copper metallurgy at the crossroads

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Habashi F.

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Copper technology changed from the vertical to the horizontal furnace and from the roast reaction to converting towards the end of the last century. However, the horizontal furnace proved to be an inefficient and polluting reactor. As a result many attempts were made to replace it. In the past 50 years new successful melting processes were introduced on an industrial scale that were more energy efficient and less polluting. In addition, smelting and converting were conducted in a single reactor in which the concentrate was fed and the raw copper was produced. The standing problem in many countries, however, is marketing 3 tonnes of sulfuric acid per tonne of copper produced as well as emitting large amounts of excess SO2 in the atmosphere. Pressure hydrometallurgy offers the possibility of liberating the copper industry from SO2 problem. Heap leaching technology has become a gigantic operation. Combined with solvent extraction and electrowinning it contributes today to about 20% of copper production and is expected to grow. Pressure leaching offers the possibility of liberating the copper industry from SO2 problem. The technology is over hundred years old. It is applied for leaching a variety of ores and concentrates. Hydrothermal oxidation of sulfide concentrates has the enormous advantage of producing elemental sulfur, hence solving the SO2 and sulfuric acid problems found in smelters. Precipitation of metals such as nickel and cobalt under hydrothermal conditions has been used for over 50 years. It has the advantage of a compact plant but the disadvantage of producing ammonium sulfate as a co-product. In case of copper, however, precipitation takes place without the need of neutralizing the acid, which is a great advantage and could be an excellent substitute for electrowinning which is energy intensive and occupies extensive space. Recent advances in the engineering aspects of pressure equipment design open the door widely for increased

  3. What is the connection between metallurgy and environmental issues? Could a new discipline emerge from this confrontation?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Birat Jean-Pierre

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available In neoclassical economics, the environment is an externality and environmental issues are treated as an add-on feature. In metallurgy, the environment is handled in a similar way, for similar reasons: environmental issues are both external to the core themes of metallurgy and to the economics of process metallurgy. Environmental issues range from corrosion, to generation of by-products, to air and water emissions, to environmental footprints (carbon footprint, water footprint, etc., a measure of the burdens/liabilities that metals production and use impose on the “planet”, to social footprint, a measure of the assets brought about by the economic activities they generate, and to recycling, re-use and nega-use issues.

  4. Study of the microstructural and mechanical properties of titanium-niobium-zirconium based alloys processed with hydrogen and powder metallurgy for use in dental implants; Estudo das propriedades mecanicas e microestruturais de ligas a base de titanio-niobiozirconio processados com hidrogenio e metalurgia do po para utilizacao em implantes dentarios

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Duvaizem, Jose Helio

    2009-07-01

    Hydrogen has been used as pulverization agent in alloys based on rare earth and transition metals due to its extremely high diffusion rate even on low temperatures. Such materials are used on hydrogen storage dispositives, generation of electricity or magnetic fields, and are produced by a process which the first step is the transformation of the alloy in fine powder by miling. Besides those, hydrogenium is also being used to obtain alloys based on titanium - niobium - zirconium in the pulverization. Powder metallurgy is utilized on the production of these alloys, making it possible to obtain structures with porous surface as result, requirement for its application as biomaterials. Other advantages of powder metallurgy usage include better surface finish and better microstructural homogeneity. In this work samples were prepared in the Ti-13Nb-13Zr composition. The hydrogenation was performed at 700 degree C, 600 degree C, and 500 degree C for titanium, niobium and zirconium respectively. After hydrogenation, the milling stage was carried out on high energy planetary ball milling with 200rpm during 90 minutes, and also in conventional ball milling for 30 hours. Samples were pressed in uniaxial press, followed by isostatic cold press, and then sintered at 1150 degree C for 7-13 hours. Microstructural properties of the samples were characterized by scanning electron microscope (SEM), energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS) and x-ray diffraction. Mechanical and structural properties determined were density, microhardness and moduli of elasticity. The sample sintered at 1150 degree C for 7h, hydrogenated using 10.000 mbar and produced by milling on high energy planetary ball milling presented the best mechanical properties and microstructural homogeneity. (author)

  5. Eddy Current Separation of Fine Non-Ferrous Particles from Bulk Streams

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Settimo, F.; Bevilacqua, P.; Rem, P.

    2004-01-01

    Recovery of fine non-ferrous metals from waste streams is a notoriously difficult problem in eddy current separation technology. Existing processes either have a low capacity or an incomplete recovery for particle sizes below 5 mm. In a new process, the particles are fed slightly wet to make them st

  6. Eddy Current Separation of Fine Non-Ferrous Particles from Bulk Streams

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Settimo, F.; Bevilacqua, P.; Rem, P.

    2004-01-01

    Recovery of fine non-ferrous metals from waste streams is a notoriously difficult problem in eddy current separation technology. Existing processes either have a low capacity or an incomplete recovery for particle sizes below 5 mm. In a new process, the particles are fed slightly wet to make them

  7. The ferrous ammonium sulfate solid system, as dosemeter for processes at low temperatures and high doses of gamma radiation; El sistema sulfato ferroso amoniacal solido, como dosimetro para procesos a bajas temperaturas y altas dosis de radiacion gamma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Juarez C, J.M.; Ramos B, S.; Negron M, A. [ICN-UNAM, 04510 Mexico D.F. (Mexico)

    2005-07-01

    This paper presents the results obtained from a study of the radiation induced oxidation of crystalline ferrous ammonium sulfate with gamma rays at 295 K, 263 K and 77 K and dose from 0 to 300 kGy. The radiation induced decomposition of ferrous ammonium sulfate has been studied by the dissolution of the irradiated salt in 0,8 N sulfuric acid. The main product is Fe{sup 3+} and molar concentration of ferric ion was determined spectrophotometrically in the UV region at 304 nm. The optical density values showed a linear dependence with dose, indicating that the data obtained might be used to create a calibrating curve. Color in irradiated salt changes from blue to green, yellow and orange according to the absorbed dose. The accuracy and the reproducibility of the system were tested. In addition, some other characteristics make possible the use of this system as a dosimeter, similar to Fricke chemical dosemeter, at low temperatures and high dose. (Author)

  8. Applying informational entropy to the field of metallurgy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Oprean

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This article aims at analysing whether the field of metallurgy in Romania is informationally efficient or not. This field is important for the real Romanian and world-wide economy, that is why the answer to this dilemma is important, and it will determine the investment behaviour of portfolio managers. The Shannon Entropy is our measure for the informational efficiency of the field of metallurgy. The results obtained indicate that the field of metallurgy in Romania is characterized by a weak informational efficiency. Perhaps the most important effect of this result is the impossibility to make predictions in this field. In this context, a technical or chartist analysis is useless.

  9. Characterization and pH stability of insoluble products of the reaction between cyanide and ferrous sulphate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mala, C. K.; Hearne, G. R.; Adams, M. D.; Pollak, H.

    1992-10-01

    X-ray diffraction (XRD), infrared (IR) spectroscopy and57Fe Mössbauer effect spectroscopy were used to characterize and monitor the pH stability of cyanide and ferrous sulphate reaction mixtures. Limited information was obtained from the XRD and IR measurements because of the amorphous nature of the samples. The Mössbauer studies show that considerable changes occur when there is an increase in pH at which the sample is prepared. Prussian-blue type compounds and iron oxide in the form of small particles crystallize out at low and high pH values, while additional complexes are formed at intermediate pH values of 6 to 9.57Fe Mössbauer effect spectroscopy is thus a powerful technique for monitoring the environmental stability of cyanide waste streams that result when modern methods of extractive metallurgy of gold are employed on mineral ores.

  10. Internal Demagnetizing Factor in Ferrous Metals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jenő Takács

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Modelling the saturation major loop of a ferrous metal produces the intrinsic magnetization parameters; fitting the measured commutation curve, however, can yield different results. The relation of the intrinsic loci of the vertices of the minor loops (ND=0 to the experimental curve (ND≠0 is investigated. The two-way transformation between the two curves is formulated in closed mathematical form with the help of the internal demagnetization factor, ND. The method is applied to four ferrous metals, with widely different intrinsic properties (soft nonoriented Fe-Si steel, normalized low carbon steel, and Finemet in nanocrystalline and amorphous state supporting the predictions of the proposal. The developed relationship is model independent and it is shown that the ND factor depends linearly on coercivity based on experimental evidence.

  11. Structural and electrical properties of copper-nickel-aluminum alloys obtained by conventional powder metallurgy method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Monteiro, Waldemar A.; Carrio, Juan A.G.; Silveira, C.R. da; Pertile, H.K.S., E-mail: fisica.cch@mackenzie.br [Universidade Presbiteriana Mackenzie (UPM/CCH), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil). Centro de Ciencias e Humanidades. Dept. de Fisica; Silva, L.C.E. da; Buso, S.J., E-mail: jgcarrio@mackenzie.br [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2009-07-01

    This work looked for to search out systematically, in scale of laboratory, copper-nickel-aluminum alloys (Cu-Ni-Al) with conventional powder metallurgy processing, in view of the maintenance of the electric and mechanical properties with the intention of getting electric connectors of high performance or high mechanical damping. After cold uniaxial pressing (1000 kPa), sintering (780 deg C) and convenient homogenization treatments (500 deg C for different times) under vacuum (powder metallurgy), the obtained Cu-Ni-Al alloys were characterized by optical microscopy, electrical conductivity, Vickers hardness. X rays powder diffraction data were collected for the sintered samples in order to a structural and microstructural analysis. The comparative analysis is based on the sintered density, hardness, macrostructures and microstructures of the samples. (author)

  12. Static contact angle measurement at different volumes of a drop sitting on non-ferrous metals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Feoktistov Dmitriy

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents the experimental study of the effect of the liquid volume on the static contact angle under the condition of the stationary contact line on the rough and polished surfaces of non-ferrous metals. The experiments were carried out using the shadow optical system. Comparison between two methods of drop profile processing was conducted. It was found that in addition to the friction and gravity forces, the structure of the non-ferrous metals significantly influence on the static contact angle during changing the drop volume.

  13. [Features of chronic occupational bronchitis in nonferrous metallurgy workers].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roslaia, N A; Likhacheva, E I; Vagina, E R; Roslyĭ, O F; Zhovtiak, E P; Iarina, A L; Varzina, N V

    2004-01-01

    The authors summarized results of periodic medical examinations and deep clinical studies of metallurgy workers with bronchial and pulmonary disorders. The article covers clinical and functional characteristics of toxic and dust bronchitis, clinical course and manifestations.

  14. [Evaluation of occupational exposure to carcinogenic metals in non-ferrous metallurgy in the upper Silesia region].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braszczyńska, Z; Szaciłło, H; Król, B; Jedrzejczak, A; Smolik, E; Stepniewska, I

    1994-01-01

    The authors present the results of a study of occupational exposure to carcinogenic metals: arsenic, nickel and chromium in four nonferrous plants. Air samples were collected from workplaces of a high potential exposure and measured by GFAAS (graphite flameless atomic absorption spectrometry). On the basis of the results obtained, potential health effects of exposure were assessed by comparing concentrations of arsenic, nickel and chromium with hygienic standard values and assessing cancer risk. It was found that concentrations of arsenic, nickel and chromium, expressed by geometric means, were lower at workplaces than hygienic standard values. A relative cancer risk induced by the occupational exposure to nickel and chromium was comparable with a relative cancer risk of environmental exposure of the population living in the Katowice region while in the case of arsenic, cancer risk was almost 50 times higher.

  15. Non-Ferrous Metal Giant Develops Effective Business Model

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Lu Qianwen

    2011-01-01

    @@ TODAY non-ferrous metals (metals other than iron and alloys that do not contain an appreciable amount of iron) are an indispensable part of every aspect of our lives.From daily necessities like telephones and electric cookers, to sophisticated equipment like satellites and radar, non-ferrous metals have a presence.China is relatively rich in tungsten and rare earth, but lacks reserves of bronze, zinc, nickel and lead, so sourcing non-ferrous metals outside the country has provided big challenges and opportunities for China Non-ferrous Metal Corp.(CNMC), a major player in this field.

  16. Welding metallurgy of nickel alloys in gas turbine components

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lingenfelter, A. C., LLNL

    1997-05-21

    Materials for gas turbine engines are required to meet a wide range of temperature and stress application requirements. These alloys exhibit a combination of creep resistance, creep rupture strength, yield and tensile strength over a wide temperature range, resistance to environmental attack (including oxidation, nitridation, sulphidation and carburization), fatigue and thermal fatigue resistance, metallurgical stability and useful thermal expansion characteristics. These properties are exhibited by a series of solid-solution-strengthened and precipitation-hardened nickel, iron and cobalt alloys. The properties needed to meet the turbine engine requirements have been achieved by specific alloy additions, by heat treatment and by thermal mechanical processing. A thorough understanding of the metallurgy and metallurgical processing of these materials is imperative in order to successfully fusion weld them. This same basic understanding is required for repair of a component with the added dimension of the potential effects of thermal cycling and environmental exposure the component will have endured in service. This article will explore the potential problems in joining and repair welding these materials.

  17. [FEATURES OF THE IMMUNE GENETIC PARAMETERS IN WORKERS IN NON-FERROUS METAL INDUSTRY].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dolgikh, O V; Krivtsov, A V; Lykhina, T S; Bubnova, O A; Lanin, D V; Vdovina, N A; Luzhetskiĭ, K P; Andreeva, E E

    2015-01-01

    There was performed a comparative analysis of immunogenetic indices in non-ferrous metallurgy employees under the exposure to different combinations of harmful occupational factors. The combined effect of chlorine and vanadium fumes, noise, overall vibration appeared to be associated with the gene polymorphism of cytokine regulation--VEGF and TNF (p < 0.05). In workers the combination offactors such as dust containing silicon dioxide, noise, elevated environmental thermal load was associated with cytochrome p450 gene polymorphism, allele variation ofwhich is formed owing to the homozygous genotype. At the same time there was observed an excess production of specific antibodies to vanadium and silicon, significantly differed from that of the indices in the reference group. There are proposed genetic (CYP1A1, VEGF TNFalfa) and immunological (IgG to vanadium and silicon) indices as markers of susceptibility and effect in health risk assessment of different combinations of harmful occupational factors, which will allow to increase the availability of laboratory control during surveillance activities at the objects.

  18. 78 FR 8202 - Meeting of the Joint ACRS Subcommittees on Thermal Hydraulic Phenomena and Materials, Metallurgy...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-05

    ... Hydraulic Phenomena and Materials, Metallurgy and Reactor Fuels; Notice of Meeting The Joint ACRS Subcommittees on Thermal Hydraulic Phenomena and Materials, Metallurgy and Reactor Fuels will hold a meeting...

  19. TRADITIONAL METALLURGY, NANOTECHNOLOGIES AND STRUCTURAL MATERIALS: A SORBY AWARD LECTURE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Louthan, M

    2007-07-17

    Traditional metallurgical processes are among the many ''old fashion'' practices that use nanoparticles to control the behavior of materials. Many of these practices were developed long before microscopy could resolve nanoscale features, yet the practitioners learned to manipulate and control microstructural elements that they could neither see nor identify. Furthermore, these early practitioners used that control to modify microstructures and develop desired material properties. Centuries old colored glass, ancient high strength steels and medieval organ pipes derived many of their desirable features through control of nanoparticles in their microstructures. Henry Sorby was among the first to recognize that the properties of rocks, minerals, metals and organic materials were controlled by microstructure. However, Mr. Sorby was accused of the folly of trying to study mountains with a microscope. Although he could not resolve nanoscale microstructural features, Mr. Sorby's observations revolutionized the study of materials. The importance of nanoscale microstructural elements should be emphasized, however, because the present foundation for structural materials was built by manipulating those features. That foundation currently supports several multibillion dollar industries but is not generally considered when the nanomaterials revolution is discussed. This lecture demonstrates that using nanotechnologies to control the behavior of metallic materials is almost as old as the practice of metallurgy and that many of the emergent nanomaterials technologists are walking along pathways previously paved by traditional metallurgists.

  20. Guangxi non-ferrous metal industry speeding up its restructuring

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    <正>Non-ferrous metal industry in Guangxi takes an important position in China.However,the waste of resources is severe due to its simple industrial structure,small size of enterprises, sloppy technology,scattered layout,obstructed market and indiscriminate mining.Starting from last year,Guangxi began the project of building a world-influential non-ferrous metal

  1. Non-Ferrous Metal Giant Develops Effective Business Model

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    CNMC combines social responsibility with corporate vision as it expands in Africa TODAY non-ferrous metals(metals other than iron and alloys that do not contain an appreciable amount of iron) are an indispensable part of every aspect of our lives. From daily necessities like telephones and electric cookers,to sophisticated equipment like satellites and radar,non-ferrous

  2. Toxicological evaluation of ferrous N-carbamylglycinate chelate: Acute, Sub-acute toxicity and mutagenicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wan, Dan; Zhou, Xihong; Xie, Chunyan; Shu, Xugang; Wu, Xin; Yin, Yulong

    2015-11-01

    Iron is an essential trace element that is vital important in various biological process. A deficiency in iron could induce public health problem e.g. anaemia, while an overload could induce ROS production, lipid peroxidation and DNA bases modifications. In the present study, a new iron fortifier was synthesized, and its acute/sub-acute toxicity was investigated. According to the improved Karber's method, the median lethal dose (LD50) of the ferrous N-carbamylglycinate in SD rat was 3.02 g/kg and the 95% confidence intervals were between 2.78 and 3.31 g/kg. No biologically significant or test substance-related differences were observed in body weights, feed consumption, clinical signs, organ weights, histopathology, ophthalmology, hematology, and clinical chemistry parameters in any of the treatment groups of ferrous N-carbamylglycinate at target concentrations corresponding to 150, 300, and 600 mg/kg/day for 28 days. The no observed adverse effect level (NOAEL) for ferrous N-carbamylglycinate was at least 600 mg/kg b.w. day in rats. In addition, no evidence of mutagenicity was found, either in vitro in bacterial reverse mutation assay or in vivo in mice bone marrow micronucleus assay and sperm shape abnormality assay. On the basis of our findings, we conclude that ferrous N-carbamylglycinate is a low-toxic substance with no genotoxicity. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Kinetics of Adsorption of Ferrous Ion onto Acid Activated Carbon from Zea Mays Dust

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. K. Baskaran

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The batch removal of ferrous ion from aqueous solution using low cost adsorbents such as zea mays dust carbon(ZDC under different experimental conditions were investigated in this study. The process parameters studied include agitation time, initial metal ion concentration, carbon dose, pH and temperature. The adsorption followed first order reaction equation and the rate is mainly controlled by intraparticle diffusion. Freundlich and Langmuir isotherm models were applied to the equilibrium data. The adsorption capacity (Qm obtained from the Langmuir isotherm plot were found to 37.17, 38.31, 39.37 and 40.48 mg/g. The temperature variation study showed that the ferrous ions adsorption is endothermic and spontaneous with increased randomness at the solid solution interface. Significant effect on adsorption was observed on varying the pH of the ferrous ion solutions. The Langmuir and Freundlich adsorption isotherms obtained positive ΔH0 value, pH dependent results and desorption of metal ions in mineral acid suggest that the adsorption of ferrous ion on ZDC involves physisorption mechanism.

  4. The Metallurgy of some indian swords

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Williams, Alan

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available The metallurgy of Indian swords shows many differences from that of European swords. The distinction between "Damascus Steel" (or wootz and crucible steel is explained. Ten broken blades from the Armoury of the Nizams of Hyderabad were made available for microscopic examination. Six of these seem to been made from crucible steels, and are of notably high quality. By contrast, a group of six randomly collected from Private Collections in England were also examined. Only one of these was made of crucible steel, and three of the others were of very mediocre quality. This perhaps represents the quality of blades available to the average Indian soldier.

    La metalurgia de las espadas indias presenta notables diferencias en comparación con la de las europeas. Se explica la distinción entre el ‘acero de Damasco’ (o wootz y el acero de crisol. Se ha realizado un análisis microscópico de un conjunto de diez hojas rotas de espada depositadas en la Armería de los Nizams de Hyderabad. Seis de ellas parecen haber sido realizadas a partir de acero de crisol, y son de elevada calidad. En contraste, se examinó también un grupo de seis espadas de colecciones privadas en Inglaterra. Sólo una de ellas estaba fabricada con acero de crisol, y tres de las otras eran de calidad muy mediocre. Esto representa quizá la calidad de las hojas de espada al alcance del soldado medio indio.

  5. Method of activating an article of passive ferrous or non-ferrous metal prior to carburising, nitriding and /or nitrocarburising

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2011-01-01

    Source: US2012111456A A method of activating an article of passive ferrous or non-ferrous metal by heating at least one compound containing nitrogen and carbon, wherein the article is treated with gaseous species derived from the compound. The activated article can be subsequently carburised...

  6. Metallurgy and properties of plasma spray formed materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mckechnie, T. N.; Liaw, Y. K.; Zimmerman, F. R.; Poorman, R. M.

    1992-01-01

    Understanding the fundamental metallurgy of vacuum plasma spray formed materials is the key to enhancing and developing full material properties. Investigations have shown that the microstructure of plasma sprayed materials must evolve from a powder splat morphology to a recrystallized grain structure to assure high strength and ductility. A fully, or near fully, dense material that exhibits a powder splat morphology will perform as a brittle material compared to a recrystallized grain structure for the same amount of porosity. Metallurgy and material properties of nickel, iron, and copper base alloys will be presented and correlated to microstructure.

  7. Treatability of a simulated disperse dye-bath by ferrous iron coagulation, ozonation, and ferrous iron-catalyzed ozonation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arslan, I

    2001-08-17

    Dyeing and finishing of textile yarns and fabrics are extremely important processes in terms of both quality and environmental concerns. Among the commercial textile dyes, particularly disperse dyestuffs are of environmental interest because of their widespread use, their potential for formation of toxic aromatic amines and their low removal rate during aerobic waste treatment as well as advanced chemical oxidation. Thus, in the present paper ferrous iron coagulation, ozonation and ferrous iron-catalyzed ozonation were employed at varying pH (3-13) and Fe(II)-ion doses (0.09-18mM) for the treatment of a simulated disperse dye-bath (average initial apparent color as absorbance at 566nm=815.4m(-1); COD(0)=3784mgl(-1); TOC(0)=670mgl(-1); BOD(5,0)=58mgl(-1)) that more closely resembled an actual dyehouse effluent than an aqueous disperse dye solution. Coagulation with 5000mgl(-1) FeSO4-7H2O (18mM Fe(2+)) at pH 11 removed up to 97% color and 54% COD, whereas oxidation via ozonation alone (applied ozone dose=2300mgl(-1)) was only effective at pH 3, resulting in 77% color and 11% COD removal. Fe(II)-ion-catalyzed ozonation (3.6mM Fe(2+) at pH 3; Fe(2+):O3 molar ratio 1:14) eliminated 95% color and 48% COD and appeared to be the most attractive option among the investigated chemical treatment methods as for its applicability at the natural acidic pH of the disperse dye-bath effluent and at relatively low Fe(2+)-ion doses as compared to ferrous sulfate coagulation. However, no TOC reduction was observable for ozonation and catalytic ozonation at the investigated reaction conditions (14gl(-1) O3 at pH 3). An average six-fold enhancement in the biodegradability parameter of the synthetic dye wastewater expressed in terms of the BOD(5)/COD ratio could be achieved by the investigated chemical treatment methods.

  8. Sensory evaluation of dairy supplements enriched with reduced iron, ferrous sulfate or ferrous fumarate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morales, Josefina C; Sánchez-Vargas, Elena; García-Zepeda, Rodrigo; Villalpando, Salvador

    2015-01-01

    To determine the degree of liking of the Oportunidades programme dietary supplements (DS)--purees and beverages--added with different iron salts (IS): reduced iron (RI), ferrous sulphate (FS) or ferrous fumarate (FF) during 24 weeks of storage. The DS were evaluated through a hedonic scale for aroma, flavour and colour attributes; at time zero and every eight weeks, each panel member evaluated three DS with same flavour and presentation but different IS. Seventy women participated as panel members. The chocolate and banana DS exhibited a change in preference by colour and flavour due to storage. DS with FS or RI showed the least preference by flavour and colour in the context of the three IS considered. The chocolate and neutral DS enriched with FS changed their colour and flavour. DS were, in general, well-liked; nonetheless, for purees enriched with FS and for beverages enriched with RI, the less-liked attributes were colour and flavour.

  9. Simultaneous determination of trace niobium, tantalum and tungsten in ferrous and non-ferrous alloys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vassilaros, G L; Byrnes, C J

    1976-03-01

    A method is presented for the determination of niobium, tantalum and tungsten in steel and non-ferrous alloys, based on hydrolysis with sulphurous acid followed by X-ray fluorescence measurements. The limit of determination is about 0.002% and the standard deviation is 0.002 at the 0.05% level. Results below 0.01% by this method are only semiquantitative.

  10. Thermodynamic fundamentals of ferrous cake sulfitization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tyurin, A. G.; Vasekha, M. V.; Biryukov, A. I.

    2016-03-01

    The Pourbaix diagrams of the systems SO 4 2- -SO 3 2- -H2O and iron hydroxide (oxide)-H2O are refined. The E(pH) dependence of the sulfitization of iron(III) hydroxide is refined with allowance for the regions of predominant phase constituents of the systems. The potential E-pH electrochemical equilibrium diagrams of the systems Fe(OH)3-H2SO4-SO 3 2- -H2O, FeOOH-H2SO4-SO 3 2- -H2O, and Fe2O3-H2SO4-SO 3 2- -H2O are plotted. These diagrams can be considered as a thermodynamic basis for the sulfite conversion of the ferrous cake of copper-nickel production.

  11. A Reaction of Aspirin with Ferrous Gluconate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jian

    2015-12-01

    A color reaction of aspirin with ferrous gluconate was studied by UV-Vis spectrophotometry and HPLC-MS. It was found that the UV-Vis spectra of the two drugs were different before and after they were mixed in water at about 0.3 M (diluted by >20 times for analysis), indicating that a complexation reaction took place. The drug-iron complex dissociated when the reacting solution was diluted by 400 times. The by-products of the reaction identified by HPLC-MS were salicylic acid, acetylated gluconic acid, salicylate-gluconic acid conjugate, and an oxidized product of salicylic acid that was complexed with iron with a molecular weight of 212. This reaction may be used as an important consideration to optimize the dosing regime of the two drugs and to help explain some pharmacological reactions between aspirin and biomolecules.

  12. LITERATURE REVIEW: REDUCTION OF NP(V) TO NP (IV)-ALTERNATIVES TO FERROUS SULFAMATE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kessinger, G.; Kyser, E.; Almond, P.

    2009-09-28

    The baseline approach to control of Np oxidation in UREX and PUREX separation processes is the reduction of Np(V) and Np(VI) to Np(IV) using ferrous sulfamate. Use of this reagent results in increased sulfur and iron concentrations in the liquid waste streams from the process. Presence of these two elements, especially sulfur, increases the complexity of the development of wasteforms for immobilizing these effluents. Investigations are underway to identify reductants that eliminate sulfur and iron from the Np reduction process. While there are a variety of chemical reductants that will reduce Np to Np(IV) in nitric acid media, the reaction rates for most are so slow that the reductants are not be feasible for use in an operating plant process. In an attempt to identify additional alternatives to ferrous sulfamate, a literature search and review was performed. Based on the results of the literature review, it is concluded that photochemical and catalytic processes should also be investigated to test the utility of these two approaches. The catalytic process could be investigated for use in conjunction with chemical oxidants to speed the reaction rates for reductants that react slowly, but would otherwise be appropriate replacements for ferrous sulfamate. The photochemical approach, which has received little attention during the past few decades, also shows promise, especially the photocatalytic approach that includes a catalyst, such as Pt supported on SiC, which can be used in tandem with an oxidant, for Np reduction.

  13. Accelerated Near-Threshold Fatigue Crack Growth Behavior of an Aluminum Powder Metallurgy Alloy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piascik, Robert S.; Newman, John A.

    2002-01-01

    Fatigue crack growth (FCG) research conducted in the near threshold regime has identified a room temperature creep crack growth damage mechanism for a fine grain powder metallurgy (PM) aluminum alloy (8009). At very low DK, an abrupt acceleration in room temperature FCG rate occurs at high stress ratio (R = Kmin/Kmax). The near threshold accelerated FCG rates are exacerbated by increased levels of Kmax (Kmax less than 0.4 KIC). Detailed fractographic analysis correlates accelerated FCG with the formation of crack-tip process zone micro-void damage. Experimental results show that the near threshold and Kmax influenced accelerated crack growth is time and temperature dependent.

  14. Under bump metallurgy study for Pb-free bumping

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jang, Se-Young; Wolf, Juergen; Paik, Kyung-Wook

    2002-05-01

    The demand for Pb-free and high-density interconnection technology is rapidly growing. The electroplating-bumping method is a good approach to meet finepitch requirements, especially for high-volume production, because to volume change of patterned-solder bumps during reflow is not so large compared with the stencil-printing method. This paper proposes a Sn/3.5 Ag Pb-free electroplating-bumping process for high-density Pb-free interconnects. It was found that a plated Sn/Ag bump becomes Sn/Ag/Cu by reflowing when Cu containing under bump metallurgy (UBM) is used. Another important issue for future flip-chip interconnects is to optimize the UBM system for high-density and Pb-free solder bumps. In this work, four UBM systems, sputtered TiW 0.2 µm/Cu 0.3 µm/electroplated Cu 5 µm, sputtered Cr 0.15 µm/Cr-Cu 0.3 µm/Cu 0.8 µm, sputtered NiV 0.2 µm/Cu 0.8 µm, and sputtered TiW 0.2 µm/NiV 0.8 µm, were investigated for interfacial reaction with electroplated Pb/63Sn and Sn/3.5Ag solder bumps. Both Cu-Sn and Ni-Sn intermetallic compound (IMC) growth were observed to spall-off from the UBM/solder interface when the solder-wettable layer is consumed during a liquid-state “reflow” process. This IMC-spalling mechanism differed depending on the barrier layer material.

  15. Emission profiles of polychlorinated dibenzodioxins, polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs), dioxin-like PCBs and hexachlorobenzene (HCB) from secondary metallurgy industries in Portugal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antunes, Pedro; Viana, Paula; Vinhas, Tereza; Rivera, J; Gaspar, Elvira M S M

    2012-09-01

    This paper reports, for the first time, a study of dioxin emissions from 10 siderurgies and metallurgies, secondary copper, aluminum and lead metallurgies, in Portugal. The study reports the emission factors and total emission amounts of PCDD/Fs, dioxin-like PCBs and hexachlorobenzene (HCB). The congener patterns were characterized and are discussed. The results showed that the total amount of PCDFs is higher than PCDDs in flue gas of each industrial unit. The toxic equivalent emission factors of pollutants emitted are 3098-3338 ngI-TEQt(-1) for PCDD/Fs and 597-659 ng I-TEQt(-1) for dioxin-like PCBs in siderurgies production (total estimated emission amounts released to atmosphere of 3.9-4.5 g I-TEQyr(-1)), 50-152 ng I-TEQt(-1) for PCDD/Fs and 24-121 ng I-TEQt(-1) for dioxin-like PCBs in ferrous foundries production (total estimated emission amounts released to atmosphere of 0.0010-0.0016 g I-TEQyr(-1)) and 5.8-5715 ng I-TEQt(-1) for PCDD/Fs and 0.49-259 ng I-TEQt(-1) for dioxin-like PCBs in non-ferrous foundries production (total estimated emission amounts released to atmosphere of 0.00014-0.12 g I-TEQyr(-1)). The HCB emission from siderurgies production is 0.94-3.2 mg t(-1) (total estimated emission amounts released 0.94-3.8 g yr(-1)), being much smaller, residual, in the emissions of the other types of plants (0.0012-0.026 mg t(-1) production and total estimated emission amounts released to atmosphere of 0.013-1.7 mg yr(-1)).

  16. [Hygienic evaluation of risk factors on powder metallurgy production].

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    Complex hygienic, clinical, sociologic and epidemiologic studies revealed reliable relationship between work conditions and arterial hypertension, locomotory system disorders, monocytosis in powder metallurgy production workers. Findings are more probable cardiovascular and respiratory diseases, digestive tract diseases due to influence of lifestyle factors.

  17. Iron Metallurgy: Technical Terminology Bulletin. Terminotech, Vol. 2, No. 7.

    Science.gov (United States)

    General Electric Co. of Canada, Ltd., Montreal, Quebec.

    This issue of a bulletin of technological terminology is devoted to iron metallurgy. Various aspects of iron production are described in both French and English. An English-French dictionary of terms comprises the bulk of the document. Explanatory illustrations are appended. (JB)

  18. Interaction mechanisms and kinetics of ferrous ion and hexagonal birnessite in aqueous systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Tianyu; Shen, Yougang; Jia, Zhaoheng; Qiu, Guohong; Liu, Fan; Zhang, Yashan; Feng, Xionghan; Cai, Chongfa

    2015-12-01

    In soils and sediments, manganese oxides and oxygen usually participate in the oxidation of ferrous ions. There is limited information concerning the interaction process and mechanisms of ferrous ions and manganese oxides. The influence of air (oxygen) on reaction process and kinetics has been seldom studied. Because redox reactions usually occur in open systems, the participation of air needs to be further investigated. To simulate this process, hexagonal birnessite was prepared and used to oxidize ferrous ions in anoxic and aerobic aqueous systems. The influence of pH, concentration, temperature, and presence of air (oxygen) on the redox rate was studied. The redox reaction of birnessite and ferrous ions was accompanied by the release of Mn(2+) and K(+) ions, a significant decrease in Fe(2+) concentration, and the formation of mixed lepidocrocite and goethite during the initial stage. Lepidocrocite did not completely transform into goethite under anoxic condition with pH about 5.5 within 30 days. Fe(2+) exhibited much higher catalytic activity than Mn(2+) during the transformation from amorphous Fe(III)-hydroxide to lepidocrocite and goethite under anoxic conditions. The release rates of Mn(2+) were compared to estimate the redox rates of birnessite and Fe(2+) under different conditions. Redox rate was found to be controlled by chemical reaction, and increased with increasing Fe(2+) concentration, pH, and temperature. The formation of ferric (hydr)oxides precipitate inhibited the further reduction of birnessite. The presence of air accelerated the oxidation of Fe(2+) to ferric oxides and facilitated the chemical stability of birnessite, which was not completely reduced and dissolved after 18 days. As for the oxidation of aqueous ferrous ions by oxygen in air, low and high pHs facilitated the formation of goethite and lepidocrocite, respectively. The experimental results illustrated the single and combined effects of manganese oxide and air on the transformation

  19. Influence of Ferrous sulphate on growth and alpha-a Amylase production for Aspergillus fumigatus NTCC1222

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shalini Singh

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Stringent government regulations and increasing public awareness is forcing chemical industries to incorporate environment friendly products and processes. Biotechnological applications, in industries, thus, hold great future. Microorganisms and their metabolites/enzymes provide a number of eminent-economic as well as environment friendly solutions for such industries. Amylases are one of the most important industrial enzymes. Commercial production of amylases requires selection of the best of production conditions. This study evaluates the influence of varying concentration of Ferrous sulphate (Fe2+ on microbial growth and amylase production for Aspergillus, Aspergillus fumigatus NTCC1222. Ferrous sulphate enhanced growth (concentration of 100mg/L by 1.83%, compared to the control. In contrast, it decreased amylase activity at all concentrations tested. As the concentration of ferrous sulphate increased, the amylase activity decreased. Amylases are metalloenzymes and the inhibition in amylase activity observed in the presence of ferrous ions may be due to competition between the exogenous cation and the protein associated cation, resulting in reduced metalloenzyme activity. Further studies will aim to evaluate the effect of different ferrous salts and different forms of iron on amylase production by Aspergillus fumigatus NTCC1222.

  20. 40 CFR 464.30 - Applicability; description of the ferrous casting subcategory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... ferrous casting subcategory. 464.30 Section 464.30 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION... Ferrous Casting Subcategory § 464.30 Applicability; description of the ferrous casting subcategory. The... introduction of pollutants into publicly owned treatment works resulting from ferrous casting operations as...

  1. Corrosion inhibition of powder metallurgy Mg by fluoride treatments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereda, M D; Alonso, C; Burgos-Asperilla, L; del Valle, J A; Ruano, O A; Perez, P; Fernández Lorenzo de Mele, M A

    2010-05-01

    Pure Mg has been proposed as a potential degradable biomaterial to avoid both the disadvantages of non-degradable internal fixation implants and the use of alloying elements that may be toxic. However, it shows excessively high corrosion rate and insufficient yield strength. The effects of reinforcing Mg by a powder metallurgy (PM) route and the application of biocompatible corrosion inhibitors (immersion in 0.1 and 1M KF solution treatments, 0.1M FST and 1M FST, respectively) were analyzed in order to improve Mg mechanical and corrosion resistance, respectively. Open circuit potential measurements, polarization techniques (PT), scanning electrochemical microscopy (SECM) and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) were performed to evaluate its corrosion behavior. SECM showed that the local current of attacked areas decreased during the F(-) treatments. The corrosion inhibitory action of 0.1M FST and 1M FST in phosphate buffered solution was assessed by PT and EIS. Under the experimental conditions assayed, 0.1M FST revealed better performance. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, energy dispersive X-ray and X-ray diffraction analyses of Mg(PM) with 0.1M FST showed the presence of KMgF(3) crystals on the surface while a MgF(2) film was detected for 1M FST. After fluoride inhibition treatments, promising results were observed for Mg(PM) as degradable metallic biomaterial due to its higher yield strength and lower initial corrosion rate than untreated Mg, as well as a progressive loss of the protective characteristics of the F(-)-containing film which ensures the gradual degradation process.

  2. Ferrous iron partitioning in the lower mantle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muir, Joshua M. R.; Brodholt, John P.

    2016-08-01

    We used density functional theory (DFT) to examine the partitioning of ferrous iron between periclase and bridgmanite under lower mantle conditions. To study the effects of the three major variables - pressure, temperature and concentration - these have been varied from 0 to 150 GPa, from 1000 to 4000 K and from 0 to 100% total iron content. We find that increasing temperature increases KD, increasing iron concentration decreases KD, while pressure can both increase and decrease KD. We find that KD decreases slowly from about 0.32 to 0.06 with depth under lower mantle conditions. We also find that KD increases sharply to 0.15 in the very lowermost mantle due to the strong temperature increases near the CMB. Spin transitions have a large effect on the activity of ferropericlase which causes KD to vary with pressure in a peak-like fashion. Despite the apparently large changes in KD through the mantle, this actually results in relatively small changes in total iron content in the two phases, with XFefp ranging from about 0.20 to 0.35, before decreasing again to about 0.28 at the CMB, and XFebd has a pretty constant value of about 0.04-0.07 throughout the lower mantle. For the very high Fe concentrations suggested for ULVZs, Fe partitions very strongly into ferropericlase.

  3. The role of organic ligands in ferrous-induced photochemical degradation of 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwan, C Y; Chu, W

    2007-04-01

    Recent studies have shown that hydrogen peroxide is generated in a ferrioxalate-induced photoreductive reaction, but information about the effect of organic ligands on the photochemical behaviour of ferrous species is limited. The degradation of the herbicide 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D) by a ferrous-catalyzed oxidation in the presence of various ligands such as formate, citrate, malelate, oxalate, and ethylenediaminetetra-acetic acid (EDTA) was studied. The experiments were conducted under either dark or irradiated (350n m) conditions. Forty-two percent and 34% of 2,4-D were removed by the Fe(2+)/oxalate/UV and Fe(2+)/citrate/UV processes, respectively, after 30 min of reaction and oxidative intermediates were obtained in both cases. The presence of hydroxylated intermediates suggests that 2,4-D may be attacked by hydroxyl radicals, which are the products of the photo-Fenton-like reaction. As such, hydrogen peroxide was produced by the photolysis of ferrous oxalate or ferrous citrate, referred to hereafter as photogenerated H(2)O(2). As expected, the total removal percentage of 2,4-D jumped to 97% when 1mM of hydrogen peroxide (so-called spiked H(2)O(2)) was externally added to the reaction vessel to initiate the Fe(2+)/oxalate/UV process. Therefore, the treatment of 2,4-D by the Fe(2+)/oxalate/H(2)O(2)/UV system can be operated in two steps: the photolysis of ferrous oxalate first, followed by adding the spiked H(2)O(2) sometime after the commencement of the reaction. A two-phase model has been developed to describe this tandem ferrous-catalyzed photooxidation, which would help to achieve the mineralization of 2,4-D.

  4. Fractionation study in bioleached metallurgy wastes using six-step sequential extraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krasnodebska-Ostrega, Beata; Pałdyna, Joanna; Kowalska, Joanna; Jedynak, Łukasz; Golimowski, Jerzy

    2009-08-15

    The stored metallurgy wastes contain residues from ore processing operations that are characterized by relatively high concentrations of heavy metals. The bioleaching process makes use of bacteria to recover elements from industrial wastes and to decrease potential risk of environmental contamination. Wastes were treated by solutions containing bacteria. In this work, the optimized six-stage sequential extraction procedure was applied for the fractionation of Ni, Cr, Fe, Mn, Cu and Zn in iron-nickel metallurgy wastes deposited in Southern Poland (Szklary). Fractionation and total concentrations of elements in wastes before and after various bioleaching treatments were studied. Analyses of the extracts were performed by ICP-MS and FAAS. To achieve the most effective bioleaching of Zn, Cr, Ni, Cu, Mn, Fe the usage of both autotrophic and heterotrophic bacteria in sequence, combined with flushing of the residue after bioleaching is required. 80-100% of total metal concentrations were mobilized after the proposed treatment. Wastes treated according to this procedure could be deposited without any risk of environmental contamination and additionally the metals could be recovered for industrial purposes.

  5. Microstructural and electrical investigation of Cu-Ni-Cr alloys obtained by powder metallurgy method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carrio, Juan A.G.; Carvalhal, M.A.; Ayabe, L.M.; Monteiro, W.A., E-mail: jgcarrio@mackenzie.br [Universidade Presbiteriana Mackenzie (UPM/CCH), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil). Centro de Ciencias e Humanidades. Dept. de Fisica; Silva, L.C.E. da; Silva Junior, R.V., E-mail: fisica.cch@mackenzie.br [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2009-07-01

    The aim of this work, using the powder metallurgy process, is to synthesize metallic alloys with high mechanical strength and high electric conductivity, after melting optimizing and thermal treatments. The Cu-Ni-Cr (wt%) alloys are characterized in their mechanical and electrical properties as well as the obtained microstructure. Through the process of powder metallurgy, contacts and structural parts can be obtained. The alloys elements are added to copper with the intention to improve their strength, ductility and thermal stability, without causing considerable damages in their form, electrical and thermal conductivity, and corrosion resistance. The metallic powders were mixed for a suitable time and then they were pressed in a cold uniaxial pressing (1000 kPa). Afterwards, the specimens were sintered in temperatures varying from 700 up to 800 deg C under vacuum. At last, the samples were homogenized at 550 deg C under vacuum, for special times. The comparative analysis is based on the sintered density, densification parameter, hardness, macrostructures and microstructures of the samples. The alloys were characterized by optical microscopy, X-rays powder diffraction, electrical conductivity and Vickers hardness. (author)

  6. Research on preparation of battery-grade ferrous oxalate from by-product ferrous sulfate%副产硫酸亚铁制备电池级草酸亚铁的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    彭爱国; 贺周初; 余长艳; 肖伟; 庄新娟; 刘艳

    2012-01-01

    Battery-grade ferrous oxalate was prepared with the by-product ferrous sulfate from titanium white production as raw material.Influences of reaction temperature, reaction time, concentration of ferrous sulfate, and pH etc. in the processes of impurity removal, precipitation, and conversion reaction on the product quality were discussed, and the optimum process conditions were obtained.Resuits showed that battery-grade ferrous oxaiate with particle size less than 3.0 u,m, purity more than 99.5% ,and with low impurity content could be prepared under the conditions as follows:pure ferrous sulfate solution was obtained by using iron powder to purify it at the reaction temperature of 95 ℃ for 6 h;then use ammonia to precipitate ferrous sulfate at the reaction temperature of 40 ℃ and Fe2*mass concentration of 90 g/L;at last,use oxalate to converse the ferrous hydroxide into ferrous oxalate at the reaction pH=2.0 and time of 60 min.Thus.an effective way was provided to utilize the by-product of titanium white.%以钛白副产硫酸亚铁为原料制备出电池级草酸亚铁.研究了除杂、沉淀、转化反应过程中反应温度、反应时间、硫酸亚铁浓度以及反应pH等因素对产品质量的影响,并得到了优惠工艺条件.结果表明:在反应温度为95℃、反应时间为6 h的条件下用铁粉对硫酸亚铁溶液除杂,得到纯净硫酸亚铁溶液;在反应温度为40℃、铁(Ⅱ)质量浓度为90 g/L的条件下用氨水沉淀,再用草酸于反应时间为60 min、pH=2.0条件下将氢氧化亚铁转化成草酸亚铁,制备出了纯度大于99.5%、粒径小于3.0 μm、杂质含量低的电池级草酸亚铁.为解决钛白副产硫酸亚铁的综合利用提供了一条有效的途径.

  7. Separation of non-ferrous metals from ASR by corona electrostatic separation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Yang-soo; Choi, Jin-Young; Jeon, Ho-Seok; Han, Oh-Hyung; Park, Chul-Hyun

    2016-04-01

    Automotive shredder residue (ASR), the residual fraction of approximate 25% obtained after dismantling and shredding from waste car, consists of polymers (plastics and rubber), metals (ferrous and non-ferrous), wood, glass and fluff (textile and fiber). ASR cannot be effectively separated due to its heterogeneous materials and coated or laminated complexes and then largely deposited in land-fill sites as waste. Thus reducing a pollutant release before disposal, techniques that can improve the liberation of coated (or laminated) complexes and the recovery of valuable metals from the shredder residue are needed. ASR may be separated by a series of physical processing operations such as comminution, air, magnetic and electrostatic separations. The work deals with the characterization of the shredder residue coming from an industrial plant in korea and focuses on estimating the optimal conditions of corona electrostatic separation for improving the separation efficiency of valuable non-ferrous metals such as aluminum, copper and etc. From the results of test, the maximum separation achievable for non-ferrous metals using a corona electrostatic separation has been shown to be recovery of 92.5% at a grade of 75.8%. The recommended values of the process variables, particle size, electrode potential, drum speed, splitter position and relative humidity are -6mm, 50 kV, 35rpm, 20° and less 40%, respectively. Acknowledgments This study was supported by the R&D Center for Valuable Recycling (Global-Top R&BD Program) of the Ministry of Environment. (Project No. GT-11-C-01-170-0)

  8. Sensory evaluation of dairy supplements enriched with reduced iron, ferrous sulfate or ferrous fumarate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Josefina C Morales

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. To determine the degree of liking of the Oportunidades programme dietary supplements (DS –purees and beverages– added with different iron salts (IS: reduced iron (RI, ferrous sulphate (FS or ferrous fumarate (FF during 24 weeks of storage. Materials and methods. The DS were evaluated through a hedonic scale for aroma, flavour and colour attributes; at time zero and every eight weeks, each panel member evaluated three DS with same flavour and presentation but different IS. Seventy women participated as panel members. Results. The chocolate and banana DS exhibited a change in preference by colour and flavour due to storage. DS with FS or RI showed the least preference by flavour and colour in the context of the three IS considered. The chocolate and neutral DS enriched with FS changed their colour and flavour. Conclusion. DS were, in general, well-liked; nonetheless, for purees enriched with FS and for beverages enriched with RI, the less-liked attributes were colour and flavour

  9. Testing of electroformed deposited iridium/powder metallurgy rhenium rockets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reed, Brian D.; Dickerson, Robert

    1996-01-01

    High-temperature, oxidation-resistant chamber materials offer the thermal margin for high performance and extended lifetimes for radiation-cooled rockets. Rhenium (Re) coated with iridium (Ir) allow hours of operation at 2200 C on Earth-storable propellants. One process for manufacturing Ir/Re rocket chambers is the fabrication of Re substrates by powder metallurgy (PM) and the application of Ir coatings by using electroformed deposition (ED). ED Ir coatings, however, have been found to be porous and poorly adherent. The integrity of ED Ir coatings could be improved by densification after the electroforming process. This report summarizes the testing of two 22-N, ED Ir/PM Re rocket chambers that were subjected to post-deposition treatments in an effort to densify the Ir coating. One chamber was vacuum annealed, while the other chamber was subjected to hot isostatic pressure (HIP). The chambers were tested on gaseous oxygen/gaseous hydrogen propellants, at mixture ratios that simulated the oxidizing environments of Earth-storable propellants. ne annealed ED Ir/PM Re chamber was tested for a total of 24 firings and 4.58 hr at a mixture ratio of 4.2. After only 9 firings, the annealed ED Ir coating began to blister and spall upstream of the throat. The blistering and spalling were similar to what had been experienced with unannealed, as-deposited ED Ir coatings. The HIP ED Ir/PM Re chamber was tested for a total of 91 firings and 11.45 hr at mixture ratios of 3.2 and 4.2. The HIP ED Ir coating remained adherent to the Re substrate throughout testing; there were no visible signs of coating degradation. Metallography revealed, however, thinning of the HIP Ir coating and occasional pores in the Re layer upstream of the throat. Pinholes in the Ir coating may have provided a path for oxidation of the Re substrate at these locations. The HIP ED Ir coating proved to be more effective than vacuum annealed and as-deposited ED Ir. Further densification is still required to

  10. Machinability of Green Powder Metallurgy Components: Part II. Sintered Properties of Components Machined in Green State

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robert-Perron, Etienne; Blais, Carl; Pelletier, Sylvain; Thomas, Yannig

    2007-06-01

    The green machining process is virtually a must if the powder metallurgy (PM) industries are to solve the lower machining performances associated with PM components. This process is known for lowering the rate of tool wear. Recent improvements in binder/lubricant technologies have led to high-green-strength systems that enable green machining. Combined with the optimized cutting parameters determined in Part I of the study, the green machining of PM components seems to be a viable process for fabricating high performance parts on large scale and complete other shaping processes. This second part of our study presents a comparison between the machining behaviors and the sintered properties of components machined prior to or after sintering. The results show that the radial crush strength measured on rings machined in their green state is equal to that of parts machined after sintering.

  11. 银钒矿选冶联合综合回收银钒的研究%Study on Recovery of Silver and Vanadium from Silver-Vanadium Ore with Mineral and Metallurgy United Process

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李婕

    2012-01-01

    银钒矿先进行反浮选脱钙,银和钒选矿回收率分别为94.46%和88.49%.结果表明,采用“高温高酸浸出钒—浸出渣氰化浸银”工艺的技术指标良好,五氧化二钒和银浸出率分别大于81%和85%.反浮选脱钙—湿法回收银钒是目前处理银钒矿较理想的方法.%Silver-vanadium ore was reverse-floated to remove calcium. The recovery rate of silver and vanadium was 94.46% and 88.49% respectively. The results show that the process, composed of high acid leaching of vanadium with high temperature and silver extraction with cyanidation, has favorable technical indexes, that is, the leaching rate of V2 O5 and silver is above 81% and 85% respectively. The process of calcium removal with reverse flotation and then recovery of silver and vanadium with hydrometallurgy is preferable to treat silver-vanadium ore.

  12. Powder Metallurgy Fabrication of Molybdenum Accelerator Target Disks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lowden, Richard Andrew [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Kiggans Jr., James O. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Nunn, Stephen D. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Parten, Randy J. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2015-07-01

    Powder metallurgy approaches for the fabrication of accelerator target disks are being examined to support the development of Mo-99 production by NorthStar Medical Technologies, LLC. An advantage of powder metallurgy is that very little material is wasted and, at present, dense, quality parts are routinely produced from molybdenum powder. The proposed targets, however, are thin wafers, 29 mm in diameter with a thickness of 0.5 mm, with very stringent dimensional tolerances. Although tooling can be machined to very high tolerance levels, the operations of powder feed, pressing and sintering involve complicated mechanisms, each of which affects green density and shrinkage, and therefore the dimensions and shape of the final product. Combinations of powder morphology, lubricants and pressing technique have been explored to produce target disks with minimal variations in thickness and little or no distortion. In addition, sintering conditions that produce densities for optimum target dissolvability are being determined.

  13. Powder Metallurgy Fabrication of Molybdenum Accelerator Target Disks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lowden, Richard Andrew [ORNL; Kiggans Jr, James O [ORNL; Bryan, Chris [ORNL; Nunn, Stephen D [ORNL; Parten, Randy J [ORNL

    2015-12-01

    Powder metallurgy approaches for the fabrication of accelerator target disks are being examined to support the development of Mo-99 production by NorthStar Medical Technologies, LLC. An advantage of powder metallurgy is that very little material is wasted and at present, dense, quality parts are routinely produced from molybdenum powder. The proposed targets, however, are thin wafers, 29 mm in diameter with a thickness of 0.5 mm, with very stringent dimensional tolerances. Although tooling can be machined to very high tolerance levels, the operations of powder feed, pressing and sintering involve complicated mechanisms, each of which affects green density and shrinkage, and therefore the dimensions and shape of the final product. Combinations of powder morphology, lubricants and pressing technique have been explored to produce target disks with minimal variations in thickness and little or no distortion. In addition, sintering conditions that produce densities for optimum target dissolvability are being determined.

  14. Porous titanium scaffolds fabricated using a rapid prototyping and powder metallurgy technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryan, Garrett E; Pandit, Abhay S; Apatsidis, Dimitrios P

    2008-09-01

    One of the main issues in orthopaedic implant design is the fabrication of scaffolds that closely mimic the biomechanical properties of the surrounding bone. This research reports on a multi-stage rapid prototyping technique that was successfully developed to produce porous titanium scaffolds with fully interconnected pore networks and reproducible porosity and pore size. The scaffolds' porous characteristics were governed by a sacrificial wax template, fabricated using a commercial 3D-printer. Powder metallurgy processes were employed to generate the titanium scaffolds by filling around the wax template with titanium slurry. In the attempt to optimise the powder metallurgy technique, variations in slurry concentration, compaction pressure and sintering temperature were investigated. By altering the wax design template, pore sizes ranging from 200 to 400 microm were achieved. Scaffolds with porosities of 66.8 +/- 3.6% revealed compression strengths of 104.4+/-22.5 MPa in the axial direction and 23.5 +/- 9.6 MPa in the transverse direction demonstrating their anisotropic nature. Scaffold topography was characterised using scanning electron microscopy and microcomputed tomography. Three-dimensional reconstruction enabled the main architectural parameters such as pore size, interconnecting porosity, level of anisotropy and level of structural disorder to be determined. The titanium scaffolds were compared to their intended designs, as governed by their sacrificial wax templates. Although discrepancies in architectural parameters existed between the intended and the actual scaffolds, overall the results indicate that the porous titanium scaffolds have the properties to be potentially employed in orthopaedic applications.

  15. Acoustic harmonic generation measurement applications: Detection of tight cracks in powder metallurgy compacts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnard, D. J.; Foley, J. C.

    2000-05-01

    Standard linear ultrasonic testing techniques have long been employed for locating and characterizing relatively open cracks in a wide variety of materials, from metallic alloys and ceramics to composites. In all these materials, the detection of open cracks easily accomplished because the void between the two crack surfaces provides sufficient acoustic impedance mismatch to reflect the incident energy. Closed or partially closed cracks, however, may often go undetected because contacting interfaces allow transmission of ultrasound. In the green (unsintered) state, powder metallurgy compacts typically contain high residual stresses that have the ability to close cracks formed during the compaction process, a result of oxide films, improper powder lubricant, mold design, etc. After sintering, the reduction of residual stresses may no longer be sufficient to close the crack. Although the crack may be more easily detected, it is obvious most desirable to discover defects prior to sintering. It has been shown that the displacements of an interface may be highly nonlinear if a stress wave of sufficient intensity propagates across it, a result of the stress wave either opening or closing the interface. Current efforts involve the application of nonlinear acoustic techniques, in particular acoustic harmonic generation measurements, for the detection and characterization of tightly closed cracks in powder metallurgy parts. A description of the equipment and the measurement technique will be discussed and initial experimental results on sintered and green compacts will be presented.—This work was performed at the Ames Laboratory, Iowa State University under USDOE Contract No. W-7405-ENG-82.

  16. Analyses of Ferrous and Ferric State in DynabiTab Using Mössbauer Spectroscopy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Young Rang Uhm

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Antianemic medicament ferrous gluconate, ferrous fumarate, and a Dynabi tablet with a basic iron bearing ingredient were studied with the use of Mössbauer spectroscopy. Room temperature spectra of ferrous gluconate gave clear evidence that the two phases of iron were present: ferrous (Fe2+ as a major one with a contribution at and above 91 a.u.% and ferric (Fe3+ whose contribution was found to be ~9 a.u.%. In the case of ferrous fumarate, a single phase was measured corresponding to ferrous (Fe2+ state. A Dynabi tablet consists of ferrous fumarate and ferrous fumarate. The ferric phase in ferrous gluconate is able to be reached about ~3.6 a.u.% in a tablet.

  17. Analyses of Ferrous and Ferric State in DynabiTab Using Mössbauer Spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uhm, Young Rang; Lim, Jae Cheong; Choi, Sang Mu

    2017-01-01

    Antianemic medicament ferrous gluconate, ferrous fumarate, and a Dynabi tablet with a basic iron bearing ingredient were studied with the use of Mössbauer spectroscopy. Room temperature spectra of ferrous gluconate gave clear evidence that the two phases of iron were present: ferrous (Fe(2+)) as a major one with a contribution at and above 91 a.u.% and ferric (Fe(3+)) whose contribution was found to be ~9 a.u.%. In the case of ferrous fumarate, a single phase was measured corresponding to ferrous (Fe(2+)) state. A Dynabi tablet consists of ferrous fumarate and ferrous fumarate. The ferric phase in ferrous gluconate is able to be reached about ~3.6 a.u.% in a tablet.

  18. Properties of duplex stainless steels made by powder metallurgy

    OpenAIRE

    Rosso, M.; M. Actis Grande; Z. Brytan; L.A. Dobrzański

    2007-01-01

    Purpose: of this paper was to examine the mechanical properties of duplex stainless steels.Design/methodology/approach: In presented study duplex stainless steels were obtained through powder metallurgy starting from austenitic, martensitic base powders by controlled addition of alloying elements, such as Cr, Ni, Mo and Cu. In the studies behind the preparation of mixes, Schaeffler’s diagram was taken into consideration. Prepared mixes have been sintered in a vacuu...

  19. Powder-metallurgy superalloy strengthened by a secondary gamma phase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kotval, P. S.

    1971-01-01

    Description of experiments in which prealloyed powders of superalloy compositions were consolidated by extrusion after the strengthening by precipitation of a body-centered tetragonal gamma secondary Ni3 Ta phase. Thin foil electron microscopy showed that the mechanical properties of the resultant powder-metallurgy product were correlated with its microstructure. The product exhibited high strength at 1200 F without loss of ductility, after thermomechanical treatment and aging.

  20. Microstructure and Aging of Powder-Metallurgy Al Alloys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blackburn, L. B.

    1987-01-01

    Report describes experimental study of thermal responses and aging behaviors of three new aluminum alloys. Alloys produced from rapidly solidified powders and contain 3.20 to 5.15 percent copper, 0.24 to 1.73 percent magnesium, 0.08 to 0.92 percent iron, and smaller amounts of manganese, nickel, titanium, silicon, and zinc. Peak hardness achieved at lower aging temperatures than with standard ingot-metallurgy alloys. Alloys of interest for automobile, aircraft, and aerospace applications.

  1. Dissolution Behavior of Alumina-Based Inclusions in CaF2-Al2O3-CaO-MgO-SiO2 Slag Used for the Electroslag Metallurgy Process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yanwu Dong

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Removal of non-metallic inclusions to CaF2-based slag is one of the most important functions of electroslag remelting. In this work, the dissolution behavior for alumina-based inclusions in CaF2-Al2O3-CaO-MgO-SiO2 slag has been investigated. Results indicate that the diffusion or permeability capacity of slag components into alumina particles is F−, Ca2+, Si4+, Mg2+, from strongest to weakest, for CaF2-Al2O3-CaO-MgO-SiO2 slag. Alumina inclusions react with F− in liquid slag at first and then react with CaO to form xCaO-yAl2O3 system. Subsequently, MgO substitutes for CaO to form a MgO-Al2O3 system layer surrounding the other product and reactant, and then enters the liquid slag. CaF2 can improve the dissolution capacity of slag to alumina inclusions. A complex region was formed between alumina-based particles and the slag, with different areas dominated by CaF2, CaO-Al2O3, CaO-SiO2 and MgO-Al2O3. The dissolution process of alumina particles in slag is different from the formation of compound inclusions originated from the Al-O deoxidization reaction.

  2. In-situ P/M Al/(ZrB{sub 2} + Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}) MMCs: Processing, microstructure and mechanical characterization[Powder Metallurgy, Metal Matrix Composites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Feng, C.F.; Froyen, L.

    1999-12-10

    In-situ metal matrix composites (MMCs) offer significant advantages over conventional MMCs from both a technical and an economic standpoint. In this paper, an in-situ MMC, i.e., Al/(10 vol.% Zr2B + 9.2 vol.% Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}), is produced starting from Al + ZrO{sub 2} + B by reactive sintering and subsequently densified by hot-pressing. The formation mechanism of ZrB{sub 2} and Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} in Al matrix is studied by XRD, thermal analysis and microstructural characterization. Reaction kinetics are also investigated based on the results of the reaction mechanism. The properties are evaluated in terms of microstructural characterization, Young's modulus and bending tests. The in-situ processing involves four intermediate steps and the transitional phases are AlB{sub 2}, Zr(O, B){sub 2} and (Zr, Al)(B, O){sub 2}. Regarding the reaction kinetics, conversion fraction vs time relationships have been established for the last three intermediate steps.

  3. Analyses of Ferrous and Ferric State in DynabiTab Using Mössbauer Spectroscopy

    OpenAIRE

    Young Rang Uhm; Jae Cheong Lim; Sang Mu Choi

    2017-01-01

    Antianemic medicament ferrous gluconate, ferrous fumarate, and a Dynabi tablet with a basic iron bearing ingredient were studied with the use of Mössbauer spectroscopy. Room temperature spectra of ferrous gluconate gave clear evidence that the two phases of iron were present: ferrous (Fe2+) as a major one with a contribution at and above 91 a.u.% and ferric (Fe3+) whose contribution was found to be ~9 a.u.%. In the case of ferrous fumarate, a single phase was measured corresponding to ferrous...

  4. ONR (Office of Naval Research) Far East Scientific Bulletin. Volume 8, Number 4, October-December 1983,

    Science.gov (United States)

    1983-12-01

    and extractive metallurgy in ferrous systems. - Shanghai Iron and Steel Research Institute The Shanghai Iron and Steel Research Institute (SISRI) is...in 1952 with the support of the Ministry of Metallurgical Industries. The research programs are divided into the areas of ore dressing, extractive ... metallurgy , physical metallurgy and processing of nonferrous materials, semiconductor materials, physical and chemical analysis, information services

  5. Research on control method of Tantalum wet metallurgy based on ANFIS%基于 ANFIS的钽湿法冶炼控制方法研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    宋威; 吴可; 林满山

    2015-01-01

    To solve the problem of experience-based decision made in Tantalum wet metallurgy, a control method of Tantalum wet metallurgy based on Adaptive Network-based Fuzzy Inference System ( ANFIS) is proposed. By analyzing the control target of Tantalum wet metallurgy,the control model is constructed. Then,the structure and technique realization of ANFIS is described. And the control process is presented in detail. Experimental results show that the proposed method can ensure the temperature of reaction tank rises steadily, which lays foundation for safety production of Tantalum wet metallurgy.%针对钽湿法冶炼生产决策主要依靠经验的问题,提出基于自适应神经模糊推理系统( ANFIS)的钽湿法冶炼控制方法。在分析钽湿法冶炼控制目标的基础上,构建控制模型,描述ANFIS结构与技术实现,并给出详细控制流程。实验结果表明,该方法实现了反应槽温度的平稳上升,能够确保钽湿法冶炼的安全生产。

  6. Ferrous ion oxidation by Thiobacillus ferrooxidans immobilized on activated carbon

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHOU Ji-kui; QIN Wen-qing; NIU Yin-jian; LI Hua-xia

    2006-01-01

    The immobilization of Thiobacillus ferrooxidans on the activated carbon particles as support matrix was investigated. Cycling batch operation results in the complete oxidation of ferrous iron in 8 d when the modified 9 K medium is set to flow through the mini-bioreactor at a rate of 0.104 L/h at 25 ℃. The oxidation rate of ferrous iron with immobilized T. ferrooxidans is 9.38 g/(L·h). The results show that the immobilization of T. ferrooxidans on activated carbon can improve the rate of oxidation of ferrous iron. The SEM images show that a build-up of cells of T. ferrooxidans and iron precipitates is formed on the surface of activated carbon particles.

  7. Ferrous polycrystalline shape-memory alloy showing huge superelasticity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanaka, Y; Himuro, Y; Kainuma, R; Sutou, Y; Omori, T; Ishida, K

    2010-03-19

    Shape-memory alloys, such as Ni-Ti and Cu-Zn-Al, show a large reversible strain of more than several percent due to superelasticity. In particular, the Ni-Ti-based alloy, which exhibits some ductility and excellent superelastic strain, is the only superelastic material available for practical applications at present. We herein describe a ferrous polycrystalline, high-strength, shape-memory alloy exhibiting a superelastic strain of more than 13%, with a tensile strength above 1 gigapascal, which is almost twice the maximum superelastic strain obtained in the Ni-Ti alloys. Furthermore, this ferrous alloy has a very large damping capacity and exhibits a large reversible change in magnetization during loading and unloading. This ferrous shape-memory alloy has great potential as a high-damping and sensor material.

  8. Thermo-ecological cost (TEC evaluation of metallurgical processes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W. Stanek

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Metallurgy represents a complex production system of fuel and mineral non-renewable resources transformation. The effectiveness of resource management in metallurgical chains depends on the applied ore grade and on the irreversibility of components of the system. TEC can be applied to measure the influence of metallurgy on the depletion of natural resources. The paper discusses the possibility of application of TEC in metallurgy and presents illustrative example concerning blast-furnace process.

  9. Separating and recycling metals from mixed metallic particles of crushed electronic wastes by vacuum metallurgy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhan, Lu; Xu, Zhenming

    2009-09-15

    During the treatment of electronic wastes, a crushing process is usually used to strip metals from various base plates. Several methods have been applied to separate metals from nonmetals. However, mixed metallic particles obtained from these processes are still a mixture of various metals, including some toxic heavy metals such as lead and cadmium. With emphasis on recovering copper and other precious metals, there have hitherto been no satisfactory methods to recover these toxic metals. In this paper, the criterion of separating metals from mixed metallic particles by vacuum metallurgy is built. The results show that the metals with high vapor pressure have been almost recovered completely, leading to a considerable reduction of environmental pollution. In addition, the purity of copper in mixed particles has been improved from about 80 wt % to over 98 wt %.

  10. Martensitic transformation of Ti50Ni30Cu20 alloy prepared by powder metallurgy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Valeanu, M., E-mail: valeanu@infim.ro [National Institute of Materials Physics, 077125 Bucharest (Romania); Lucaci, M. [National Institute for Electrical Engineering ICPE-CA, 030138 Bucharest (Romania); Crisan, A.D.; Sofronie, M. [National Institute of Materials Physics, 077125 Bucharest (Romania); Leonat, L. [National Institute for Electrical Engineering ICPE-CA, 030138 Bucharest (Romania); Kuncser, V. [National Institute of Materials Physics, 077125 Bucharest (Romania)

    2011-03-31

    Research highlights: > Martensitic transformation sequence in Ti50Ni30Cu20 prepared high - energy milling. > Two transformations (B2-B19, B2-B19') are evidenced after 10 hours of milling. > B2-B19 transformation is not more observed after 20 hours of milling. > A longer milling process promotes the formation of the secondary Ti{sub 2}(NiCu) phase. - Abstract: Phase transformation behavior of Ti50Ni30Cu20 shape memory alloys prepared by powder metallurgy is analyzed with respect to the duration of mechanical alloying. The processed blends were studied by differential scanning calorimetry and room temperature X-ray diffraction. The martensitic transformations evidenced by thermal scans are discussed in correlation with the relative phase content obtained from the refinement of the X-ray diffraction patterns.

  11. Machinability of Green Powder Metallurgy Components: Part I. Characterization of the Influence of Tool Wear

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robert-Perron, Etienne; Blais, Carl; Pelletier, Sylvain; Thomas, Yannig

    2007-06-01

    The green machining process is an interesting approach for solving the mediocre machining behavior of high-performance powder metallurgy (PM) steels. This process appears as a promising method for extending tool life and reducing machining costs. Recent improvements in binder/lubricant technologies have led to high green strength systems that enable green machining. So far, tool wear has been considered negligible when characterizing the machinability of green PM specimens. This inaccurate assumption may lead to the selection of suboptimum cutting conditions. The first part of this study involves the optimization of the machining parameters to minimize the effects of tool wear on the machinability in turning of green PM components. The second part of our work compares the sintered mechanical properties of components machined in green state with other machined after sintering.

  12. Processing of Elemental Titanium by Powder Metallurgy Techniques

    OpenAIRE

    Bolzoni, Leandro; Ruiz Navas, Elisa María; Gordo Odériz, Elena

    2013-01-01

    [Poster] 6th International Light Metals Technology Conference (LMT2013), 24-26 July, Windsord (UK) Titanium is characterised by an outstanding combination of properties like high strength, low density, good corrosion resistance and biocompatibility. Nonetheless, widespread employment of titanium at the industrial level, especially in the automotive industry, has not been achieved yet because of its high extraction and production costs. Consequently, titanium finds applications mainly in hi...

  13. Studying phase structure of burned ferrous manganese ores by method of nuclear gamma-resonance spectroscopy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Shayakhmetov

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available In the given article there are presented the results of studying the phase structure of burned ferrous manganese ores of Zhomart and Zapadny Kamys deposits of by the method of Mossbauer spectroscopy. There is established a variety of iron location forms in the studied materials and their quantitative content that allows to define the degree of completing regenerative processes at magnetizing roasting, and also the processes of formation of solid solutions (Fe1-XMX3O4 and stabilization of Fe1-XO from eutectoid disintegration at cooling.

  14. Metallurgy of continuous filamentary A15 superconductors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Suenaga, M

    1980-01-01

    The early history of the bronze process is recapitulated and modifications to the process which have since followed are described. The metallurgical principles, which are involved in the process, are described including the kinetics of the compound growth, the effects of additives on the growth, etc. The superconducting properties of these compounds are also discussed. The influence of metallurgical variables on the superconducting properties is discussed in detail. In discussing the superconducting current densities in these compounds, limits in applicability of existing magnetic-flux-pinning models are also treated as well as methods for determining critical magnetic fields.

  15. Assessment of Low Cycle Fatigue Behavior of Powder Metallurgy Alloy U720

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gabb, Tomothy P.; Bonacuse, Peter J.; Ghosn, Louis J.; Sweeney, Joseph W.; Chatterjee, Amit; Green, Kenneth A.

    2000-01-01

    The fatigue lives of modem powder metallurgy disk alloys are influenced by variabilities in alloy microstructure and mechanical properties. These properties can vary as functions of variables the different steps of materials/component processing: powder atomization, consolidation, extrusion, forging, heat treating, and machining. It is important to understand the relationship between the statistical variations in life and these variables, as well as the change in life distribution due to changes in fatigue loading conditions. The objective of this study was to investigate these relationships in a nickel-base disk superalloy, U720, produced using powder metallurgy processing. Multiple strain-controlled fatigue tests were performed at 538 C (1000 F) at limited sets of test conditions. Analyses were performed to: (1) assess variations of microstructure, mechanical properties, and LCF failure initiation sites as functions of disk processing and loading conditions; and (2) compare mean and minimum fatigue life predictions using different approaches for modeling the data from assorted test conditions. Significant variations in life were observed as functions of the disk processing variables evaluated. However, the lives of all specimens could still be combined and modeled together. The failure initiation sites for tests performed at a strain ratio R(sub epsilon) = epsilon(sub min)/epsilon(sub max) of 0 were different from those in tests at a strain ratio of -1. An approach could still be applied to account for the differences in mean and maximum stresses and strains. This allowed the data in tests of various conditions to be combined for more robust statistical estimates of mean and minimum lives.

  16. Development of Glass Ceramics Made From Ferrous Tailings and Slag in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Cheng-jun; SHI Pei-yang; ZHANG Da-yong; JIANG Mao-fa

    2007-01-01

    A great amount of ferrous tailings and slag cause severe damage to the ecological environment, which must be reclaimed and utilized. The composition, type, and characteristics of ferrous tailings and slag in China were introduced. The research status and the application outlook of glass ceramics made from ferrous tailings and slag were discussed. Glass ceramics made from ferrous tailings and slag can be applied to various fields, and it will be environmentally conscious materials in the 21st century.

  17. Use of ferrous fumarate to fortify foods for infants and young children

    OpenAIRE

    Hurrell, Richard

    2017-01-01

    Ferrous fumarate is currently recommended for use in the fortification of foods for infants and young children. This recommendation is based on the compound's good sensory properties and on results from isotope studies in adults that reported similar iron absorption values for ferrous fumarate and ferrous sulphate (relative bioavailability [RBV] of ferrous fumarate, 100). However, later isotope studies conducted on both iron-replete and iron-deficient young children found that iron absorption...

  18. Laboratory Powder Metallurgy Makes Tough Aluminum Sheet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Royster, D. M.; Thomas, J. R.; Singleton, O. R.

    1993-01-01

    Aluminum alloy sheet exhibits high tensile and Kahn tear strengths. Rapid solidification of aluminum alloys in powder form and subsequent consolidation and fabrication processes used to tailor parts made of these alloys to satisfy such specific aerospace design requirements as high strength and toughness.

  19. Analysis of effectiveness of the state industrial policy in ferrous metallurgy of Ukraine for the period 1996 – 2010 Анализ результативности государственной промышленной политики в черной металлургии Украины за 1996 – 2010 гг.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Denisov Konstantin V.

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The article contains analysis of results of realisation of legislative and regulatory acts, which determined development of the state industrial policy in ferrous metallurgy of Ukraine from 1996 till 2010. Analysis was conducted with the use of national statistics and international organisations: World Steel Association and International Steel Statistical Bureau. Analysis showed discrepancy of obtained results with the goals, which were set by the state within the framework of the branch industrial policy. This concerns development of the industrial and technological base, trade structure of production and export and also internal consumption of steel. Despite a number of benefits provided by the state, the technological level of the branch was low. Primary steel and semi-finished products dominate in the trade structure of production. Internal consumption of steel is limited and is lower than export indicators. The situation in other countries is quite opposite, due to which the article underlines a necessity to use their experience of branch industrial policy.В статье проведен анализ результатов реализации нормативно-правовых актов, которые определяли развитие государственной промышленной политики в черной металлургии Украины с 1996 по 2010 гг. Анализ проводился с использованием данных национальной статистики, а также международных организаций World Steel Association и Іnternational Steel Statistical Bureau. Анализ показал несоответствие полученных результатов тем целям, которые определялись государством в рамках отраслевой промышленной политики. Это касается

  20. Orange but not apple juice enhances ferrous fumarate absorption in small children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrous fumarate is a common, inexpensive iron form increasingly used instead of ferrous sulfate as a food iron supplement. However, few data exist as to whether juices enhance iron absorption from ferrous fumarate. We studied 21 children, ages 4.0 to 7.9 years using a randomized crossover design. S...

  1. 40 CFR 180.1230 - Ferrous sulfate; exemption from the requirement of a tolerance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 23 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Ferrous sulfate; exemption from the... Exemptions From Tolerances § 180.1230 Ferrous sulfate; exemption from the requirement of a tolerance. An exemption from the requirement of a tolerance is established for residues of ferrous sulfate. ...

  2. 46 CFR 148.04-13 - Ferrous metal borings, shavings, turnings, or cuttings (excluding stainless steel).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Ferrous metal borings, shavings, turnings, or cuttings... Requirements for Certain Material § 148.04-13 Ferrous metal borings, shavings, turnings, or cuttings (excluding... described as ferrous metal borings, shavings, turnings, or cuttings on board vessels (excluding stainless...

  3. 76 FR 31357 - Agency Information Collection Activities: Comment Request for the Ferrous Metals Surveys

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-31

    ....S. Geological Survey Agency Information Collection Activities: Comment Request for the Ferrous... requirements for the Ferrous Metals Surveys. This collection consists of 17 forms. This notice provides the.... II. Data OMB Control Number: 1028-0068. Form Number: Various (17 forms). Title: Ferrous Metals...

  4. 76 FR 9810 - Agency Information Collection Activities: Comment Request for the Ferrous Metals Surveys (17 Forms)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-22

    ... Geological Survey Agency Information Collection Activities: Comment Request for the Ferrous Metals Surveys... OMB Control Number: 1028-0068. Form Number: Various (17 forms). Title: Ferrous Metals Surveys. Type of... minerals producers of ferrous and related metals. Respondent Obligation: Voluntary. Frequency of Collection...

  5. Kosovo mining, metallurgy, and politics: eight centuries of perspective;

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vukovic, M.; Weinstein, A. [University of Idaho, Moscow, ID (United States). Environmental Science Programme

    2002-05-01

    This article presents a short history of the Kosovo mining-metallurgy industry within the course of the last 800 years. Kosovo, as a relatively small piece of land in the Balkans, contains that region's highest concentration of mineral wealth (silver, lead, zinc, tin, coal). This paper explains the social and political impacts of metal production in medieval Serbia, the Ottoman Empire, and Yugoslavia. The recent clashes between Serbs and Albanians are viewed in the light of the 'geopolitics of minerals.'

  6. Effect of Die Wall Lubrication on Warm Compaction Powder Metallurgy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    Die wall lubrication was applied on warm compaction powder metallurgy in hope to reduce the concentration level of the admixed lubricant since lubricant is harmful to the mechanical property of the sintered materials. Iron-based samples were prepared by die wall lubricated warm compaction at 135 ℃ and 175 ℃, using polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) emulsion as die wall lubricant. A compacting pressure of 700 MPa and 550 MPa were used. The admixed lubricant concentration ranging from 0 to 0.6 wt.% was used in th...

  7. Properties of porous magnesium prepared by powder metallurgy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Čapek, Jaroslav; Vojtěch, Dalibor

    2013-01-01

    Porous magnesium-based materials are biodegradable and promising for use in orthopaedic applications, but their applications are hampered by their difficult fabrication. This work reports the preparation of porous magnesium materials by a powder metallurgy technique using ammonium bicarbonate as spacer particles. The porosity of the materials depended on the amount of ammonium bicarbonate and was found to have strong negative effects on flexural strength and corrosion behaviour. However, the flexural strength of materials with porosities of up to 28 vol.% was higher than the flexural strength of non-metallic biomaterials and comparable with that of natural bone.

  8. Development of electroslag metallurgy and casting in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2004-01-01

    The electroslag metallurgy has been developed since 1958. At present, all special steel plants have constructed electroslag metallurgical workshops. There are 86 Electroslag Remelting (ESR) furnaces in these steel plants with annual capacity of 100 000 tons. The products by ESR include 243 designations of steel and superalloy. The Chinese metallurgists have made significant achievements in the type and structure of electroslag remelting furnaces, eletroslag remelting technology, shaped castings by Electroslag Remelting Casting (ESRC), the manufacture of large-size ingots by ESR and the study of ESR mechanism. These achievements have already been recognized by foreign metallurgists.

  9. Iron's Role in Aluminum: A Powder Metallurgy and Sustainability Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saller, Brandon Dale

    cryomilling. With respect to the powder, a differential scanning calorimetry and activation energy analysis elucidated the formation and phase transformation temperatures of the relevant intermetallic phases, and the microstructural factors that influenced them. With an understanding of the fundamental science behind the intermetallic formation in the Al-Fe system, the composition of helium atomized Al-2at.% Fe was chosen combined with high-pressure torsion processing to yield a bulk alloy that demonstrated an ultimate tensile strength of 488 MPa. This strength was achieved via a combination of two mechanisms: grain refinement (Hall-Petch) and dislocation-Al6Fe interactions (Orowan strengthening), with notable thermal stability present up until 450°C. Finally, the potential for Al-Fe as a sustainable alloy was studied and a link established between current environmental literature and metallurgy literature on the potential for incorporation of Fe into Al to create a structural alloy.

  10. Accelerated Threshold Fatigue Crack Growth Effect-Powder Metallurgy Aluminum Alloy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piascik, R. S.; Newman, J. A.

    2002-01-01

    Fatigue crack growth (FCG) research conducted in the near threshold regime has identified a room temperature creep crack growth damage mechanism for a fine grain powder metallurgy (PM) aluminum alloy (8009). At very low (Delta) K, an abrupt acceleration in room temperature FCG rate occurs at high stress ratio (R = K(sub min)/K(sub max)). The near threshold accelerated FCG rates are exacerbated by increased levels of K(sub max) (K(sub max) = 0.4 K(sub IC)). Detailed fractographic analysis correlates accelerated FCG with the formation of crack-tip process zone micro-void damage. Experimental results show that the near threshold and K(sub max) influenced accelerated crack growth is time and temperature dependent.

  11. Study on Microstructures and Properties of Porous TiC Ceramics Fabricated by Powder Metallurgy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Yana; Bao, Chonggao; Han, Longhao; Chen, Jie

    2017-01-01

    Powder metallurgy process was used to fabricate porous titanium carbide (TiC) ceramics, in which TiC powders were taken as the raw materials, nickel was used as the metallic binder and urea was the space-holder. Microstructure, composition and phase of porous TiC ceramics were characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and x-ray diffraction (XRD). Flexure strength of the porous TiC ceramics was tested by a three-point bending method. The results show that macropores and micropores coexist in the prepared porous TiC ceramics. Moreover, the pore number, size and distribution in porous TiC ceramics can be controlled on demand. Particularly, the factors such as the number or size of space-holder, compacting pressure and Ni content have significant effect on the porosity and flexure strength.

  12. Powder metallurgy in aerospace research: A survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blakeslee, H. W.

    1971-01-01

    The various techniques by which powders can be produced, as pure metals or as alloys, are discussed; the methods by which these powders can be formed into the final parts are explained as well as further processing that may be necessary to meet specific requirements. The NASA developments are detailed, and references are provided for those who wish to obtain further information characteristic of any methodology.

  13. Intermediate-spin ferrous iron in the Earth's lower mantle?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsu, H.; Wentzcovitch, R. M.

    2013-12-01

    Intermediate-spin (IS) ferrous iron (Fe2+) has been a controversy in mineral physics. Its existence can change the detailed spin map of the Earth interior and may significantly affect mantle properties. IS Fe2+ is also a topic of interdisciplinary interest. Its existence in coordination complexes enables potential molecular devices to process more information; its connection with the superconductivity of iron chalcogenides has also been discussed. Here, we use the density functional theory + self-consistent Hubbard U (DFT+Usc) method to investigate IS Fe2+ in lower-mantle minerals. In ferropericlase, we found two different types of IS (t2g5eg1) states. Their distinct orbital occupancies lead to distinct Jahn-Teller (J-T) distortions, nuclear quadrupole splittings (QS), and on-site Coulomb interactions. Consequently, one IS state is much more favorable than the other, making it the most possible IS state in ferropericlase. In light of these new findings, we re-examine the previously reported IS Fe2+ in magnesium silicate (MgSiO3) perovskite [Hsu et al., Earth Planet. Sci. Lett. 294, 19 (2010)] and post-perovskite [Yu et al., Earth Planet. Sci. Lett. 331-332, 1 (2011)]. While these two minerals are much more complicated, the reported IS states are highly similar to the most favorable IS state in ferropericlase, suggesting that they are indeed the most possible IS states in these two minerals. However, these most possible IS Fe2+ are still not energetically favorable. Therefore, IS Fe2+ is highly unlikely in the Earth's lower mantle. *This project is supported by NSC Grant 102-2112-M-008-001-MY3 (H.H.) and NSF Awards EAR-1319361, -1019853, and -0810272 (R.M.W).

  14. Theory and process of production of heavy nonferrous metals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paretskii, V. M.

    2014-12-01

    The main principles of solving the problems of increasing the efficiency of processing of ore raw materials in nonferrous metallurgy due to close integration of beneficiation and metallurgy processes are described. Some combined technological schemes, which provide combined use of raw materials, solve the ecological problems of manufacture, and are designed in GINTsVETMET, are presented.

  15. Environmental aspects of innovation and new technology implementation in metallurgy industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. Kłosok-Bazan

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available European metallurgy industry has to invest in innovations and new technologies in order to remain competitive on the world market. Because very often this action leads to limitation of the negative impact upon the environment,that is why lots of innovations implemented by iron and steel industry bear the features of environmental innovations and eco-innovations in metallurgy industry. The analysis of the environmental innovations and eco-innovations implementation in metallurgy industry, in terms of legal regulations in the environmental protection and the strategy area of sustainable development of enterprises, is the subject matter of this article.

  16. [Laser-induced breakdown spectrometer--a new tool for quick analysis of on-the-spot sample in metallurgy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, Ning-Juan; Chen, Ji-Wen; Yang, Zhi-Jun; Wang, Hai-Zhou

    2007-07-01

    In metallurgical steel making a quick analysis of on-the-spot sample is required to know the process of steel making. A new-type spectrometer, laser-induced breakdown spectrometer developed by ourselves, was presented in the present paper. A Nd : YAG laser with pulse width of nanometer was used as an ionization and excitation source. Emission from the plasma ap-peared when the laser beam was focused on the surface of sample. After it was spectrally resolved by a Paschen-Runge polychromator, detected by photomultiplier detectors, integrated by gate intensifier, and converted by analog-to-digital converter, the final result was transmitted to a computer in order to complete data processing. Compared to the common spectrometer on-the-spot in metallurgy, this instrument allows fast analyis without sample preparation (one minute or less), with high precision and sensitivity, so it is very suitable for the analysis of on-the spot sample in metallurgy. In recent years with the fast development of optical fiber, on-line analysis of liquid steel and dynamical control of metallurgical processing will come true by using this instrument.

  17. Development of a Power Metallurgy Superalloy for Use at 1800-2000 F (980-1090 C)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kortovich, C. S.

    1973-01-01

    A program was conducted to develop a powder metallurgy nickel-base superalloy for 1800-2000 F (980-1090 C) temperature applications. The feasibility of a unique concept for alloying carbon into a superalloy powder matrix and achieving both grain growth and a discrete particle grain boundary carbide precipitation was demonstrated. The process consisted of blending metastable carbides with a carbon free base alloy and consolidating this blend by hot extrusion. This was followed by heat treatment to grow a desired ASTM No. 2-3 grain size and to solution the metastable carbides to allow precipitation of discrete particle grain boundary carbides during subsequent aging heat treatments. The best alloy developed during this program was hydrogen-atomized, thermal-mechanically processed, modified MAR-M246 base alloy plus VC (0.28 w/o C). Although below those for cast MAR-M246, the mechanical properties exhibited by this alloy represent the best combination offered by conventional powder metallurgy processing to date.

  18. Ferrous Ion and Medium Composition Effects on Acidogenic Phase in Biobutanol Production from Molasses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Restiawaty, E.; Grinanda, D.

    2017-07-01

    Clostridium acetobutylicum B530 has ability to convert sugar into biobutanol through two phases, i.e. acidogenic and solventogenic. This fermentation process is often hampered by high raw material cost and low product yield. In order to suppress the production cost, the molasses, a byproduct of sugar cane process production, was used as carbon source in this research. Molasses has nitrogen content in a small amount, thus could be negating the beef extract component, which is expected not to affect the growth of C. acetobutylicum B530 and also can reduce the production cost. In addition, a certain amount of Fe2+ (ferrous ion), a precursor in the formation of the enzyme ferredoxin, was added to the fermentation medium to contribute in the synthesis of acetyl-CoA, so that the formation of acidogenic products such as butyric acid and acetic acid is affected. This study aimed to investigate the effect of ferrous ion and the medium composition in acidogenic phase. The addition of 20 ppm FeSO4.7H2O in the fermentation medium without beef extract can increase the concentration of butyric acid by 20% at a temperature of 35°C, while acetic acid concentration decreased by 6%. According to those results, it is expected that the product selectivity of butanol will increase in solventogenic phase. In addition, the removal of beef extract in the fermentation medium does not affect the kinetics of growth of C. acetobutylicum B530.

  19. Heilongjiang discovered a number of non ferrous metal mineral locations

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    <正>Non-ferrous Metal Geological Exploration Bu- reau of Heilongjiang Province achieved signifi- cant mine searching results in 2007:estimation and forecast of resource reserves covered 60,000 tons of Molybdenum,70,000 tons of copper,9 million tons of iron,2.9 tons of gold, 250 tons of silver,and 80,000 tons of lead and zinc.Newly discovered metal mine locations

  20. Photomixotrophic growth of Rhodobacter capsulatus SB1003 on ferrous iron

    OpenAIRE

    Kopf, Sebastian H.; Newman, Dianne K.

    2011-01-01

    This study investigates the role iron oxidation plays in the purple non-sulfur bacterium Rhodobacter capsulatus SB1003. This organism is unable to grow photoautotrophically on unchelated ferrous iron [Fe(II)] despite its ability to oxidize chelated Fe(II). This apparent paradox was partly resolved by the discovery that SB1003 can grow photoheterotrophically on the photochemical breakdown products of certain ferric iron–ligand complexes, yet whether it could concomitantly benefit from the oxid...

  1. Intermediates in the ferrous oxidase cycle of bleomycin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caspary, W J; Lanzo, D A; Niziak, C

    1981-06-23

    We have previously shown that the bleomycin-induced autooxidation of ferrous iron follows Michaelis--Menten kinetics which are characteristic of enzymatic reactions [Caspary, W. J., Lanzo, D. A., Niziak, C., Friedman, R., & Bachur, N. R. (1979) Mol. Pharmacol. 16, 256]. In this paper, we identify the iron complexes formed during this reaction. The first is a ferrous iron--bleomycin complex which can be considered the catalyst substrate complex. The product of this reaction is a ferric iron--bleomycin complex which is found in a low-spin and a high-spin form. The relative concentrations of these two forms are a function of pH. Glutathione, a biologically relevant reducing agent, binds to the ferric iron--bleomycin complex, reduces it, and may serve as a model for the reduction of the ferric iron--bleomycin complex to the ferrous state during the catalytic cycle. Oxygen uptake induced by bleomycin and ferrous iron is not inhibited by superoxide dismutase (SOD) or catalase. In the absence of bleomycin, catalase strongly inhibits oxygen uptake. This suggests the presence of a relatively stable intermediate in which the superoxide radical is not readily accessible to superoxide dismutase. At pH 9.3, we are able to observe a transient species by electron spin resonance (ESR). When potassium superoxide is added to the ferric iron--bleomycin complex, the same ESR spectrum is produced. We suggest that a transient species composed of a ferric iron, the superoxide ion, and bleomycin is formed. The precise nature of the binding cannot be determined from the data presented.

  2. Fish Proteins as Targets of Ferrous-Catalyzed Oxidation: Identification of Protein Carbonyls by Fluorescent Labeling on Two-Dimensional Gels and MALDI-TOF/TOF Mass Spectrometry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pazos, Manuel; da Rocha, Angela Pereira; Roepstorff, Peter

    2011-01-01

    Protein oxidation in fish meat is considered to affect negatively the muscle texture. An important source of free radicals taking part in this process is Fenton's reaction dependent on ferrous ions present in the tissue. The aim of this study was to investigate the susceptibility of cod muscle...... dehydrogenase, creatine kinase, and enolase were the sarcoplasmic proteins most vulnerable to ferrous-catalyzed oxidation. Moreover, NDK, phosphoglycerate mutase, and GAPDH were identified in several spots differing by their pI, and those forms showed different susceptibilities to metal-catalyzed oxidation...

  3. Ferrous bisglycinate 25 mg iron is as effective as ferrous sulfate 50 mg iron in the prophylaxis of iron deficiency and anemia during pregnancy in a randomized trial

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Milman, Nils; Jønsson, Lisbeth; Dyre, Pernille

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To compare the effects of oral ferrous bisglycinate 25 mg iron/day vs. ferrous sulfate 50 mg iron/day in the prevention of iron deficiency (ID) and iron deficiency anemia (IDA) in pregnant women. Design: Randomized, double-blind, intention-to-treat study. Setting: Antenatal care clinic...

  4. A spectroscopic and surface microhardness study of enamel exposed to beverages supplemented with ferrous fumarate and ferrous sulfate. A randomized in vitro trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xavier, Arun M; Rai, Kavita; Hegde, Amitha M; Shetty, Suchetha

    2016-06-01

    To compare the efficacy between supplementing ferrous fumarate and ferrous sulfate to carbonated beverages by recording the in vitro mineral loss and surface microhardness (SMH) changes in human enamel. 120 enamel blocks each (from primary and permanent teeth) were uniformly prepared and the initial SMH was recorded. These enamel specimens were equally divided (n = 60) for their respective beverage treatment in Group 1 (2 mmol/L ferrous sulfate) and Group 2 (2 mmol/L ferrous fumarate). Each group was further divided into three subgroups as Coca-Cola, Sprite and mineral water (n= 10). The specimens were subjected to three repetitive cycles of respective treatment for a 5-minute incubation period, equally interspaced by 5-minute storage in artificial saliva. The calcium and phosphate released after each cycle were analyzed spectrophotometrically and the final SMH recorded. The results were tested using student's t-test, one-way ANOVA and Wilcoxon signed rank test (P ferrous sulfate than ferrous fumarate (P ferrous fumarate than with ferrous sulfate (P < 0.005). Statistical comparisons revealed the maximum surface microhardness and mineral loss with primary enamel and the maximum loss produced in all groups by Coca-Cola (P < 0.005).

  5. Powder metallurgy: Solid and liquid phase sintering of copper

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheldon, Rex; Weiser, Martin W.

    1993-01-01

    Basic powder metallurgy (P/M) principles and techniques are presented in this laboratory experiment. A copper based system is used since it is relatively easy to work with and is commercially important. In addition to standard solid state sintering, small quantities of low melting metals such as tin, zinc, lead, and aluminum can be added to demonstrate liquid phase sintering and alloy formation. The Taguchi Method of experimental design was used to study the effect of particle size, pressing force, sintering temperature, and sintering time. These parameters can be easily changed to incorporate liquid phase sintering effects and some guidelines for such substitutions are presented. The experiment is typically carried out over a period of three weeks.

  6. An application of powder metallurgy for the LHC

    CERN Document Server

    Sgobba, Stefano

    2004-01-01

    The cold mass of the 1232 superconducting dipole magnets of LHC, operating at 1.9 K, is enclosed by a shrinking cylinder and two end covers at its extremities. The covers are structural components that must retain high strength and toughness at cryogenic temperature. They are manufactured by Metso Oy /FI in AISI 316 LN steel by Powder Metallurgy (PM) and Hot Isostatic Pressing. PM represents an attractive near net shaping technique for these components of complex geometry for which dimension tolerances, dimensional stability, weldability are key issues for magnet fabrication, and mechanical properties, ductility and leak tightness have to be guaranteed during operation. The material of the covers and its welds have been fully characterized and mechanically tested down to 4.2 K at CERN. The fine grained structure, the absence of residual stresses, the full isotropy of mechanical properties associated to the low level of Prior Particle Boundaries oxides result in superior mechanical properties and high ductilit...

  7. Effect of process variables on the flexural behavior of alloys Ti - 3% at. X (X = Nb, Ta) obtained by powder metallurgy; Efecto de las variables de proceso sobre el comportamiento a flexion de aleaciones Ti - 3% at. X (X = Nb, Ta) obtenidas por pulvimetalurgia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Franconetti, P.; Candel, J. J.; Vicente, A.; Amigo, V.

    2013-07-01

    Niobium and tantalum are added to titanium alloys to form new beta alloys with higher biocompatibility for biomedical applications. Both elements have a high melting point, that is the reason for their limited solid state diffusion. In this work samples of titanium with 3% at. niobium and tantalum have been manufactured by powder metallurgy. The effect of the compacting pressure, temperature and the sintering time on the strength, elasticity and ductility in bending has been studied. The results show that both elements behave similarly: flexural strength increases between 20-25%, elasticity between 0-10% and ductility over 150%. Therefore, the addition of these elements is beneficial to mechanical properties. Statistical analysis shows that the effect of temperature and pressure are important, while the effect of time is insignificant and even harmful in these alloys. (Author)

  8. Effect the addition of 10% (volume fraction) chromium on the mechanical properties of NiAlCr processed by powder metallurgy; Efecto de la adicion de un 10% en volumen de cromo en el comportamiento a traccion de aleaciones pulvimetalurgicas NiAlCr

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garcia-Barriocanal, J.; Garces, G.; Perez, P.; Adeva, P.

    2005-07-01

    The mechanical properties of Ni{sub 3}Al-Cr reinforced with 10% in volume fraction of chromium particles produced by powder metallurgy have been studied. For this purpose, milled powders with composition of Ni-20.9Al-8Cr-0.49B (% st.) with and without the addition of 10% in volume fraction of chromium particles have been produced. Both alloys were consolidated by hot isostatic pressing (HIP). After HIP, heat treatment was applied to homogenize the microstructure. The chromium reinforcement has an important effect in the yield strength and ultimate strength increase. The reinforced alloy presents a yield strength of 1300 MPa at room temperature with respect to 800 MPa for the un-reinforced material. After heat treatment, the yield strength of both alloys does not change significantly. However, a decrease in ductility and ultimate tensile strength have been observed. (Author) 4 refs.

  9. Powder metallurgy and mechanical alloying effects on the formation of thermally induced martensite in an FeMnSiCrNi SMA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pricop Bogdan

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available By ingot metallurgy (IM, melting, alloying and casting, powder metallurgy (PM, using as-blended elemental powders and mechanical alloying (MA of 50 % of particle volume, three types of FeMnSiCrNi shape memory alloy (SMA specimens were fabricated, respectively. After specimen thickness reduction by hot rolling, solution treatments were applied, at 973 and 1273 K, to thermally induce martensite. The resulting specimens were analysed by X-ray diffraction (XRD and scanning electron microscopy (SEM, in order to reveal the presence of ε (hexagonal close-packed, hcp and α’ (body centred cubic, bcc thermally induced martensites. The reversion of thermally induced martensites, to γ (face centred cubic, fcc austenite, during heating, was confirmed by dynamic mechanical analysis (DMA, which emphasized marked increases of storage modulus and obvious internal friction maxima on DMA thermograms. The results proved that the increase of porosity degree, after PM processing, increased internal friction, while MA enhanced crystallinity degree.

  10. Cyanide binding to ferrous and ferric microperoxidase-11.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ascenzi, Paolo; Sbardella, Diego; Santucci, Roberto; Coletta, Massimo

    2016-07-01

    Microperoxidase-11 (MP11) is an undecapeptide derived from horse heart cytochrome c (cytc). MP11 is characterized by a covalently linked solvent-exposed heme group, the heme-Fe atom being axially coordinated by a histidyl residue. Here, the reactions of ferrous and ferric MP11 (MP11-Fe(II) and MP11-Fe(III), respectively) with cyanide have been investigated from the kinetic and thermodynamic viewpoints, at pH 7.0 and 20.0 °C. Values of the second-order rate constant for cyanide binding to MP11-Fe(II) and MP11-Fe(III) are 4.5 M(-1) s(-1) and 8.9 × 10(3) M(-1) s(-1), respectively. Values of the first-order rate constant for cyanide dissociation from ligated MP11-Fe(II) and MP11-Fe(III) are 1.8 × 10(-1) s(-1) and 1.5 × 10(-3) s(-1), respectively. Values of the dissociation equilibrium constant for cyanide binding to MP11-Fe(II) and MP11-Fe(III) are 3.7 × 10(-2) and 1.7 × 10(-7) M, respectively, matching very well with those calculated from kinetic parameters so that no intermediate species seem to be involved in the ligand-binding process. The pH-dependence of cyanide binding to MP11-Fe(III) indicates that CN(-) is the only binding species. Present results have been analyzed in parallel with those of several heme-proteins, suggesting that (1) the ligand accessibility to the metal center and cyanide ionization may modulate the formation of heme-Fe-cyanide complexes, and (2) the general polarity of the heme pocket and/or hydrogen bonding of the heme-bound ligand may affect cyanide exit from the protein matrix. Microperoxidase-11 (MP11) is an undecapeptide derived from horse heart cytochrome c. Penta-coordinated MP11 displays a very high reactivity towards cyanide, whereas the reactivity of hexa-coordinated horse heart cytochrome c is very low.

  11. Comprehensive waste characterization and organic pollution co-occurrence in a Hg and As mining and metallurgy brownfield.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallego, J R; Esquinas, N; Rodríguez-Valdés, E; Menéndez-Aguado, J M; Sierra, C

    2015-12-30

    The abandonment of Hg-As mining and metallurgy sites, together with long-term weathering, can dramatically degrade the environment. In this work it is exemplified the complex legacy of contamination that afflicts Hg-As brownfields through the detailed study of a paradigmatic site. Firstly, an in-depth study of the former industrial process was performed to identify sources of different types of waste. Subsequently, the composition and reactivity of As- and Hg-rich wastes (calcines, As-rich soot, stupp, and flue dust) was analyzed by means of multielemental analysis, mineralogical characterization (X-ray diffraction, electronic, and optical microscopy, microbrobe), chemical speciation, and sequential extractions. As-rich soot in the form of arsenolite, a relatively mobile by-product of the pyrometallurgical process, and stupp, a residue originated in the former condensing system, were determined to be the main risk at the site. In addition, the screening of organic pollution was also aimed, as shown by the outcome of benzo(a) pyrene and other PAHs, and by the identification of unexpected Hg organo-compounds (phenylmercury propionate). The approach followed unravels evidence from waste from the mining and metallurgy industry that may be present in other similar sites, and identifies unexpected contaminants overlooked by conventional analyses.

  12. Recycling of ferrous sulfate by the synthesis of a new super oxidant material 'Referox'

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Evrard, O. [Universite Henri Poincare, Vandoeuvre (France); Dupre, B.; Jeannot, C.; Kanari, N.; Gaballah, I.; Ninane, L.; Verstraete, W.; Denomme, S.; Belsue, M.

    2001-07-01

    This European Union-sponsored project was initiated to develop a process to recycle industrial ferrous sulfate by the synthesis of a superoxidant containing hexavalent (FeVI) iron. Hexavalent iron, also called ferrates, can be used in decontamination of industrial effluents, decolorisation and purification of effluents from the textile and tanning industries, oxidation of cyanide to cyanates, soil remediation, water treatment and in a variety of other processes. Dry synthesis of potassium ferrate, using calcium hypochlorite as the oxidizing agent, was successful. By using chlorine instead of calcium hypochlorite and by partially substituting sodium hydroxide for potassium hydroxide the cost of the synthesis was significantly reduced. Recycling of ferrous sulfate at room temperature by the synthesis of potassium ferrate (FeVI) using gaseous chlorine instead of solid calcium hypochlorite was also successful. The yield of the synthesis was about 65 per cent for the used industrial ferrous sulfate samples. Large scale experimentation of the potassium ferrate synthesis was also carried out, obtaining potassium ferrate that remained stable for several months. The ferrates were used in the treatment of drinking water, wastewater, soil remediation, and effluent decontamination. Encouraging results were obtained. An additional benefit found was that use of the ferrates as bactericide for water treatment instead of chlorine gas eliminates the generation of halo-organic compounds which are suspected to be carcinogenic. 2 figs.

  13. Ferrous and ferric ions-based high-throughput screening strategy for nitrile hydratase and amidase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Zhi-Jian; Zheng, Ren-Chao; Lei, Li-Hua; Zheng, Yu-Guo; Shen, Yin-Chu

    2011-06-01

    Rapid and direct screening of nitrile-converting enzymes is of great importance in the development of industrial biocatalytic process for pharmaceuticals and fine chemicals. In this paper, a combination of ferrous and ferric ions was used to establish a novel colorimetric screening method for nitrile hydratase and amidase with α-amino nitriles and α-amino amides as substrates, respectively. Ferrous and ferric ions reacted sequentially with the cyanide dissociated spontaneously from α-amino nitrile solution, forming a characteristic deep blue precipitate. They were also sensitive to weak basicity due to the presence of amino amide, resulting in a yellow precipitate. When amino amide was further hydrolyzed to amino acid, it gave a light yellow solution. Mechanisms of color changes were further proposed. Using this method, two isolates with nitrile hydratase activity towards 2-amino-2,3-dimethyl butyronitrile, one strain capable of hydrating 2-amino-4-(hydroxymethyl phosphiny) butyronitrile and another microbe exhibiting amidase activity against 2-amino-4-methylsulfanyl butyrlamide were obtained from soil samples and culture collections of our laboratory. Versatility of this method enabled it the first direct and inexpensive high-throughput screening system for both nitrile hydratase and amidase. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Assessment of the effects of orally administered ferrous sulfate on Oncopeltus fasciatus (Heteroptera: Lygaeidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrero, Amparo; Torreblanca, Amparo; Garcerá, María Dolores

    2017-03-01

    Iron is an essential nutrient needed for multiple biological processes, but it is also an effective pro-oxidant in its reduced form. Environmental sources of iron toxic species include reduced soils from rice plantations, polluted natural areas from metal industry waste, or iron oxides used in soil bioremediation. Few studies have been conducted to assess the toxicity of iron species in insects. The present work aims to assess the oxidative stress effects of ferrous sulfate administered in drinking water after acute exposure (96 h) to adults of the insect model Oncopeltus fasciatus (Dallas). Mortality was higher in exposed groups and significantly associated with iron treatment (OR [95% CI]; 11.8 [6.1-22.7]). Higher levels of body iron content were found in insects exposed to ferrous sulfate, with an increase of 5-6 times with respect to controls. Catalase activity and lipid peroxidation (TBARS content), but not glutathione S-transferase activity, were significantly higher in exposed insects and significantly correlated with body iron content (Pearson coefficient of 0.68 and 0.74, respectively) and between them (0.78). The present work demonstrates that, despite the disruption in water and food intake caused by iron administration, this metal is accumulated by insect causing lipid peroxidation and eliciting an antioxidant response mediated by catalase.

  15. Ferrous friction stir weld physical simulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norton, Seth Jason

    2006-04-01

    Traditional fusion welding processes have several drawbacks associated with the melting and solidification of metal. Weld defects associated with the solidification of molten metal may act as initiation sites for cracks. Segregation of alloying elements during solidification may cause local changes in resistance to corrosion. The high amount of heat required to produce the molten metal in the weld can produce distortion from the intended position on cooling. The heat from the electric arc commonly used to melt metal in fusion welds may also produce metal fumes which are a potential health hazard. Friction stir welding is one application which has the potential to make full thickness welds in a single pass, while eliminating fume, reducing distortion, and eliminating solidification defects. Currently the friction stir welding process is used in the aerospace industry on aluminum alloys. Interest in the process by industries which rely on iron and its alloys for structural material is increasing. While friction stir welding has been shown to be feasible with iron alloys, the understanding of friction stir welding process effects on these materials is in its infancy. This project was aimed to better that understanding by developing a procedure for physical simulation of friction stir welding. Friction stir weld material tracer experiments utilizing stainless steel markers were conducted with plates of ingot iron and HSLA-65. Markers of 0.0625" diameter 308 stainless steel worked well for tracing the end position of material moved by the friction stir welding tool. The markers did not produce measurable increases in the loading of the tool in the direction of travel. Markers composed of 0.25" diameter 304 stainless steel did not perform as well as the smaller markers and produced increased loads on the friction stir welding tool. The smaller markers showed that material is moved in a curved path around the tool and deposited behind the tool. Material near the surface

  16. The Preparation of Active Ferrous Sulfide and the Study on It’s Self-ignition Characteristics%活性硫化亚铁制备及其自燃性能研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    高建村; 周尚勇; 朱佳华; 杨金龙; 孙武豪; 赵钰; 温雯

    2016-01-01

    A major problem encountered in investigating the spontaneous combustion phenomenon of ferrous sulfide in processing high-sulfur crude oil is difficult to get active ferrous sulfide.In the paper,higher purity ferrous sulfide were prepared with three different synthesis methods,their self-ignition activity were studied and compared with the commercial ferrous sulfide. The experimental results shown that the ferrous sulfide synthesized in laboratory can self - ignite when exposed to air at room temperature, but the commercial sample did not combust spontaneously.And the research on spontaneous combustion characteristics of ferrous sulfide by means of thermogravimetric and differential thermal analysis showed that the ferrous sulfide prepared by the reaction of sodium sulfide reacted with ammonium ferrous sulfate solution has the highest self-ignition activity.%高含硫原油加工过程硫化亚铁自燃现象遇到的一个主要问题是很难得到活性硫化亚铁,通过3种不同方法制备高纯度硫化亚铁,并对比测定了市售硫化亚铁与3种实验室制备硫化亚铁的自燃活性。实验结果表明:在空气中,常温下实验室制备的硫化亚铁均可自燃,市售的硫化亚铁不具备自燃活性。利用热重/差热分析法对硫化亚铁的自燃特性进行了研究,结果表明,硫化钠溶液与硫酸亚铁铵溶液反应制备的硫化亚铁自燃活性最高。

  17. Temperature response of sulfide/ferrous oxidation and microbial community in anoxic sediments treated with calcium nitrate addition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Zihao; Long, Xinxian; Li, Luyao; Yu, Guangwei; Chong, Yunxiao; Xing, Wen; Zhu, Ziao

    2017-04-15

    Nitrate-driven sulfide oxidation has been proved a cost-effective way to control sediments odor which has long been a universal problem for urban rivers in south China areas. In this work, sediments treatment experiments under a dynamic variation of temperature from 5 °C to 35 °C with 3% of calcium nitrate added were conducted to reveal the influence of temperature variation on this process. The results showed that microbial community was remarkably restructured by temperature variation. Pseudomonas (15.56-29.31%), Sulfurimonas (26.81%) and Thiobacillus (37.99%) were dominant genus at temperature of ≤15 °C, 25 °C and 35 °C, respectively. It seemed that species enrichment occurring at different temperature gradient resulted in the distinct variation of microbial community structure and diversity. Moreover, nitrate-driven sulfide and ferrous oxidation were proportionally promoted only when temperature increased above 15 °C. The dominant bacteria at high temperature stage were those genus that closely related to autotrophic nitrate-driven sulfide and ferrous oxidizing bacteria (e.g.Thiobacillus, Sulfurimonas and Thermomonas), revealing that promotion of sulfide/ferrous oxidation could be attributed to the change of dominant bacteria determined by temperature variation. Thus, a higher treatment efficiency by calcium nitrate addition for odor control would be achieved in summer than any other seasons in south China areas. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Estimation and characterization of PCDD/Fs, dl-PCBs, PCNs, HxCBz and PeCBz emissions from magnesium metallurgy facilities in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nie, Zhiqiang; Zheng, Minghui; Liu, Wenbin; Zhang, Bing; Liu, Guorui; Su, Guijin; Lv, Pu; Xiao, Ke

    2011-12-01

    Magnesium production is considered to be one potential source of unintentional persistent organic pollutants (unintentional POPs). However, studies on the emissions of unintentional POPs from magnesium metallurgy are still lacking. Emissions of unintentional POPs, such as polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins/dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs), dioxin-like polychlorinated biphenyls (dl-PCBs), polychlorinated naphthalenes (PCNs), hexachlorobenzene (HxCBz) and pentachlorobenzene (PeCBz) are covered under the Stockholm Convention. In this study, these emissions were investigated through a magnesium smelting process. Stack gas and fly ash samples from a typical magnesium plant in China were collected and analyzed to estimate the emissions of unintentional POPs from magnesium metallurgy. Emissions factors of 412 ng TEQ t(-1) for PCDD/Fs, 18.6 ng TEQ t(-1) for dl-PCBs, 3329 μg t(-1) for PCNs, 820 μg t(-1) for HxCBz, and 1326 μg t(-1) for PeCBz were obtained in 2009. Annual emissions from magnesium metallurgy in China were estimated to be 0.46 g WHO-TEQ for PCDD/Fs and dl-PCBs, 1651 g for PCNs, 403 g for HxCBz and 653 g for PeCBz, respectively.

  19. Ferrous bisglycinate 25 mg iron is as effective as ferrous sulfate 50 mg iron in the prophylaxis of iron deficiency and anemia during pregnancy in a randomized trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milman, Nils; Jønsson, Lisbeth; Dyre, Pernille; Pedersen, Palle Lyngsie; Larsen, Lise Grupe

    2014-03-01

    To compare the effects of oral ferrous bisglycinate 25 mg iron/day vs. ferrous sulfate 50 mg iron/day in the prevention of iron deficiency (ID) and iron deficiency anemia (IDA) in pregnant women. Randomized, double-blind, intention-to-treat study. Antenatal care clinic. 80 healthy ethnic Danish pregnant women. Women were allocated to ferrous bisglycinate 25 mg elemental iron (Aminojern®) (n=40) or ferrous sulfate 50 mg elemental iron (n=40) from 15 to 19 weeks of gestation to delivery. Hematological status (hemoglobin, red blood cell indices) and iron status (plasma iron, plasma transferrin, plasma transferrin saturation, plasma ferritin) were measured at 15-19 weeks (baseline), 27-28 weeks and 36-37 weeks of gestation. Occurrence of ID (ferritin ferrous bisglycinate was not inferior to ferrous sulfate. Ferrous bisglycinate in a low dose of 25 mg iron/day appears to be adequate to prevent IDA in more than 95% of Danish women during pregnancy and postpartum.

  20. Kondoma Tatars and the Bloomery Process (source: the Great Northern Expedition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evgeny V. Vodyasov

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The article presents for the first time the unique source for studying indigenous ironmaking in West Siberia. This is a copy of the illustration made by Johann Wilhelm Lursenius on 19 September 1734 during the Second Kamchatka Expedition (the copy is kept in the Russian State Archive of Ancient Acts. On that day, the artist together with German scientist Johann Georg Gmelin observed the iron melting process in a Tatar yurt in Gornaya Shoria, and they both documented these observations in detail, each in his own way. The synchronous description and sketching of a traditional trade technology is a most singular or even the unique phenomenon in Siberian ethnography of the early 18th century. The article features excerpts from Gmelin’s 1751 work devoted to iron ore smelting by Kondoma Tatars and provides an analysis of the illustration by Lursenius. Ferrous metallurgy of Kondoma Tatars in the 18th century involved using «small» iron-smelting furnaces (0.3 m high at the most placed at the hearths of yurts. Besides, Tatars decorated the upper part of the furnace with carving. As seen from the analysis of archaeological and ethnographic sources, the tradition of building such furnaces and smelting iron ore in dwellings existed in the Upper Parts of Ob River from the early 5th century AD to the ethnographic modernity. Ethnographic sources and archaeological experiments reveal that one small furnace could yield about 1 kg iron. According to historical sources, a few kilograms would make a year of trouble-free housekeeping for a Tatar family. This explains why «home production» of iron was so widespread, when a dwelling would be turned into a metallurgy shop to provide the family with all necessary tools and utensils.

  1. Uranium silicide pellet fabrication by powder metallurgy for accident tolerant fuel evaluation and irradiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harp, Jason M.; Lessing, Paul A.; Hoggan, Rita E.

    2015-11-01

    In collaboration with industry, Idaho National Laboratory is investigating uranium silicide for use in future light water reactor fuels as a more accident resistant alternative to uranium oxide base fuels. Specifically this project was focused on producing uranium silicide (U3Si2) pellets by conventional powder metallurgy with a density greater than 94% of the theoretical density. This work has produced a process to consistently produce pellets with the desired density through careful optimization of the process. Milling of the U3Si2 has been optimized and high phase purity U3Si2 has been successfully produced. Results are presented from sintering studies and microstructural examinations that illustrate the need for a finely ground reproducible particle size distribution in the source powder. The optimized process was used to produce pellets for the Accident Tolerant Fuel-1 irradiation experiment. The average density of these pellets was 11.54 ± 0.06 g/cm3. Additional characterization of the pellets by scanning electron microscopy and X-ray diffraction has also been performed. Pellets produced in this work have been encapsulated for irradiation, and irradiation in the Advanced Test Reactor is expected soon.

  2. Hydrogen effects in non-ferrous alloys: discussion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Mitesh; Stopher, Miles A

    2017-07-28

    This is a transcript of the discussion session on the effects of hydrogen in the non-ferrous alloys of zirconium and titanium, which are anisotropic hydride-forming metals. The four talks focus on the hydrogen embrittlement mechanisms that affect zirconium and titanium components, which are respectively used in the nuclear and aerospace industries. Two specific mechanisms are delayed hydride cracking and stress corrosion cracking.This article is part of the themed issue 'The challenges of hydrogen and metals'. © 2017 The Author(s).

  3. Study on the formation of cubic texture in Ni-7 at.% W alloy substrates by powder metallurgy routes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhao, Yue; Suo, HongLi; Zhu, YongHua

    2009-01-01

    substrate processing. The fabrication processes of cubic texture in the Ni–7 at.% W tapes by two powder metallurgy routes are described in detail. Through the optimized process, full width at half maximum values of 6.7° and 5.0° were obtained, as estimated by X-ray (1 1 1) phi scan and (2 0 0) rocking curve...... in the textured Ni–7 at.% W tape, respectively. By electron backscattering diffraction (EBSD) analysis, the percentage of the cubic textured component in the Ni–7 at.% W tape surface was found to reach 97.0% within a tolerance angle smaller than 10°. Moreover, the formation mechanism of the cubic texture...

  4. Bioaugmentation of nitrate-dependent anaerobic ferrous oxidation by heterotrophic denitrifying sludge addition: A promising way for promotion of chemoautotrophic denitrification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ru; Zheng, Ping; Zhang, Meng; Zhao, He-Ping; Ji, Jun-Yuan; Zhou, Xiao-Xin; Li, Wei

    2015-12-01

    Nitrate-dependent anaerobic ferrous oxidation (NAFO) is a new and valuable bio-process for the treatment of wastewaters with low C/N ratio, and the NAFO process is in state of the art. The heterotrophic denitrifying sludge (HDS), possessing NAFO activity, was used as bioaugmentation to enhance NAFO efficiency. At a dosage of 6% (V/V), the removal of nitrate and ferrous was 2.4 times and 2.3 times of as primary, and the volumetric removal rate (VRR) of nitrate and ferrous was 2.4 times and 2.2 times of as primary. Tracing experiments of HDS indicated that the bioaugmentation on NAFO reactor was resulted from the NAFO activity by HDS itself. The predominant bacteria in HDS were identified as Thauera (52.5%) and Hyphomicrobium (20.0%) which were typical denitrifying bacteria and had potential ability to oxidize ferrous. In conclusion, HDS could serve as bioaugmentation or a new seeding sludge for operating high-efficiency NAFO reactors. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Cost-effective blended elemental powder metallurgy of titanium alloys for transportation application

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ivasishin, O.M.; Demidik, A.N.; Savvakin, D.G. [AN Ukrainskoj SSR, Kiev (Ukraine). Inst. Fiziki Metallov; Anokhin, V.M. [State Research and Design Titanium Inst., Zaporozhie (Ukraine)

    2000-07-01

    Transportation industry is one of the perspective areas of application for lightweight advanced materials, including titanium alloys. However, despite the excellent mechanical properties and corrosion resistance of titanium alloys, automobile and other transportation industries cannot afford titanium unless its cost is significantly reduced. Near-net-shape processings, amongst which are powder metallurgy (PM) techniques, look the most appealing ways of cost reduction. Economic potentiality of titanium PM processes depends on the availability of low-cost powder and particular consolidation technology used. In this paper the blended elemental technology by a simple press-and-sinter method has been investigated using various titanium powders, in order to find if this technology can be applied to production of parts from titanium alloys for transportation industry. Main part of work was done on Ti-6Al-4V (wt.%) composition although some other compositions were tried. Chemical and dimensional characteristics of initial powders, cold-compaction pressure, temperature and time of sintering were main variables of the study. It was shown that at proper choice of elemental constituents and consolidation parameters high density of the final product (98% of theoretical) could be obtained. For this case, microstructural investigations showed a phase and structural homogeneity of the synthesized material. This can give rise to the mechanical properties to be comparable with those of cast and wrought material. (orig.)

  6. Innovative technologies for powder metallurgy-based disk superalloys: Progress and proposal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chong-Lin, Jia; Chang-Chun, Ge; Qing-Zhi, Yan

    2016-02-01

    Powder metallurgy (PM) superalloys are an important class of high temperature structural materials, key to the rotating components of aero engines. In the purview of the present challenges associated with PM superalloys, two novel approaches namely, powder preparation and the innovative spray-forming technique (for making turbine disk) are proposed and studied. Subsequently, advanced technologies like electrode-induction-melting gas atomization (EIGA), and spark-plasma discharge spheroidization (SPDS) are introduced, for ceramic-free superalloy powders. Presently, new processing routes are sought after for preparing finer and cleaner raw powders for disk superalloys. The progress of research in spray-formed PM superalloys is first summarized in detail. The spray-formed superalloy disks specifically exhibit excellent mechanical properties. This paper reviews the recent progress in innovative technologies for PM superalloys, with an emphasis on new ideas and approaches, central to the innovation driving techniques like powder processing and spray forming. Project supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant Nos. 50974016 and 50071014).

  7. State-of-the-art of recycling e-wastes by vacuum metallurgy separation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhan, Lu; Xu, Zhenming

    2014-12-16

    In recent era, more and more electric and electronic equipment wastes (e-wastes) are generated that contain both toxic and valuable materials in them. Most studies focus on the extraction of valuable metals like Au, Ag from e-wastes. However, the recycling of metals such as Pb, Cd, Zn, and organics has not attracted enough attentions. Vacuum metallurgy separation (VMS) processes can reduce pollution significantly using vacuum technique. It can effectively recycle heavy metals and organics from e-wastes in an environmentally friendly way, which is beneficial for both preventing the heavy metal contaminations and the sustainable development of resources. VMS can be classified into several methods, such as vacuum evaporation, vacuum carbon reduction and vacuum pyrolysis. This paper respectively reviews the state-of-art of these methods applied to recycling heavy metals and organics from several kinds of e-wastes. The method principle, equipment used, separating process, optimized operating parameters and recycling mechanism of each case are illustrated in details. The perspectives on the further development of e-wastes recycling by VMS are also presented.

  8. Dwell Notch Low Cycle Fatigue Behavior of a Powder Metallurgy Nickel Disk Alloy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Telesman, J.; Gabb, T. P.; Yamada, Y.; Ghosn, L. J.; Jayaraman, N.

    2012-01-01

    A study was conducted to determine the processes which govern dwell notch low cycle fatigue (NLCF) behavior of a powder metallurgy (P/M) ME3 disk superalloy. The emphasis was placed on the environmentally driven mechanisms which may embrittle the highly stressed notch surface regions and reduce NLCF life. In conjunction with the environmentally driven notch surface degradation processes, the visco-plastic driven mechanisms which can significantly change the notch root stresses were also considered. Dwell notch low cycle fatigue testing was performed in air and vacuum on a ME3 P/M disk alloy specimens heat treated using either a fast or a slow cooling rate from the solutioning treatment. It was shown that dwells at the minimum stress typically produced a greater life debit than the dwells applied at the maximum stress, especially for the slow cooled heat treatment. Two different environmentally driven failure mechanisms were identified as the root cause of early crack initiation in the min dwell tests. Both of these failure mechanisms produced mostly a transgranular crack initiation failure mode and yet still resulted in low NLCF fatigue lives. The lack of stress relaxation during the min dwell tests produced higher notch root stresses which caused early crack initiation and premature failure when combined with the environmentally driven surface degradation mechanisms. The importance of environmental degradation mechanisms was further highlighted by vacuum dwell NLCF tests which resulted in considerably longer NLCF lives, especially for the min dwell tests.

  9. Cooling γ precipitation behavior and strengthening in powder metallurgy superalloy FGH4096

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    TIAN Gaofeng; JIA Chengchang; WEN Yin; LIU Guoquan; HU Benfu

    2008-01-01

    Two cooling schemes (continuous cooling and interrupted cooling tests) were applied to investigate the cooling γ precipitation behavior in powder metallurgy superalloy FGH4096.The effect of cooling rate on cooling γ precipitation and the development of γ precipitates during cooling process were involved in this study.The ultimate tensile strength (UTS) of the specimens in various cooling circumstances was tested.The experiential equations were obtained between the average sizes of secondary and tertiary γ precipitates,the strength,and cooling rate.The results show that they are inversely correlated with the cooling rate as well as the grain boundary changes from serrated to straight,the shape of secondary γ precipitates changes from irregular cuboidal to spherical,while the formed tertiary γ precipitates are always spherical.The interrupted cooling tests show that the average size of secondary γ precipitates increases as a linear function of interrupt temperature for a fixed cooling rate of 24℃/min.The strength first decreases and then increases against interrupt temperature,which is fundamentally caused by the multistage nucleation of γ precipitates during cooling process.

  10. Anodization Mechanism on SiC Nanoparticle Reinforced Al Matrix Composites Produced by Power Metallurgy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sonia C. Ferreira

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Specimens of aluminum-based composites reinforced by silicon carbide nanoparticles (Al/SiCnp produced by powder metallurgy (PM were anodized under voltage control in tartaric-sulfuric acid (TSA. In this work, the influence of the amount of SiCnp on the film growth during anodizing was investigated. The current density versus time response and the morphology of the porous alumina film formed at the composite surface are compared to those concerning a commercial aluminum alloy (AA1050 anodized under the same conditions. The processing method of the aluminum alloys influences the efficiency of the anodizing process, leading to a lower thicknesses for the unreinforced Al-PM alloy regarding the AA1050. The current density versus time response is strongly dependent on the amount of SiCnp. The current peaks and the steady-state current density recorded at each voltage step increases with the SiCnp volume fraction due to the oxidation of the SiCnp. The formation mechanism of the anodic film on Al/SiCnp composites is different from that occurring in AA1050, partly due the heterogeneous distribution of the reinforcement particles in the metallic matrix, but also to the entrapment of SiCnp in the anodic film.

  11. Indexation Rules for Metallurgy in PASCAL. Original Title: Regles d'Indexation de la Metallurgie'--Technical Note Issued by Informascience--January 1980. Translated by Marie Wallin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Royal Inst. of Tech., Stockholm (Sweden). Library.

    The indexing rules presented are designed for use with a new French-German database on metallurgy being developed under an agreement by CNRS (Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique, Paris) and BAM (Bundesanstalt fur Materialprufung, Berlin). The new database, which will feature multilingual titles and index terms (French-German-English-) and…

  12. Estimation of CO2-Equivalent Emission under the Copper Fire Refining Process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chesnokov, Yu N.; Lisienko, V. G.; Holod, S. I.; Anufriev, V. P.; Lapteva, A. V.

    2017-06-01

    Non-ferrous metallurgy is one of the most energy-consuming and carbon-emissive sectors of industry. This is due to the fact that the volume of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions is stipulated by energy consumption. Uralelectromed is a city-forming enterprise of the Verkhnyaya Pyshma. The situation is similar other cities of the old industrial regions of the Russian Federation (Krasnouralsk, Verkhnaya Salda, Karabash, etc.) Verkhnyaya Pyshma has many characteristics of “a clever city”. It can be compared to Hamburg where blister copper is being produced at the center of the city at a copper smelting plant Aurubis. Following the example of such ecologically clean country as Germany and in order to assess how modern energy-efficient low-carbon technologies can provide a favorable habitat, and an acceptable level of carbon footprint, the authors estimated the level of greenhouse gas, i.e., carbon dioxide emission produced by the Uralelectromed. The emission of greenhouse gas -carbon dioxide in the process of fire refining of blister copper has been calculated. The anode melting process consists of several stages where the most important ones are melting of charge, oxidation, and copper melt reduction. Calculations are based on taking into account the mass of burnt carbon of natural gas and the thermal dissociation of fuel oil. It implies that a complete combustion of carbon takes place. The specific value of carbon dioxide emission of the copper refining process is averaged 181 kg CO2 per 1 ton of anode copper.

  13. [Possible health effects associated with Pre-Columbian metallurgy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Idrovo, Alvaro Javier

    2005-09-01

    In the Old World, several researchers have indicated that adverse health effects were associated with exposure to arsenic, and that this influenced a change in the use of copper-arsenic alloys to others less toxic. This hypothesis was evaluated for three Pre-Columbian metallurgy traditions: Central Andes, Intermediate Area, and West Mexico. The metal artifacts from the Central Andes showed arsenic concentrations similar to those in the Old World (0.5%-1.0%). In the Intermediate Area the values were smallest; however, in West Mexico the arsenic content was very high (7%-25%). In Central Andes arsenical bronze was used initially, but copper-tin alloys when introduced were preferred and distributed throughout the Inca Empire. Osteological and artistic evidences of foot amputations among Moche individuals from Central Andes support the presence of "black foot disease" (a condition associated with arsenic poisoning) among Pre-Columbian populations. In conclusion, the adverse effects of arsenic have been observed in the New World, and that these effects promoted a change toward the use of less toxic alloys.

  14. Macromolecular metallurgy of binary mesocrystals via designed multiblock terpolymers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Nan; Liu, Meijiao; Deng, Hanlin; Li, Weihua; Qiu, Feng; Shi, An-Chang

    2014-02-26

    Self-assembling block copolymers provide access to the fabrication of various ordered phases. In particular, the ordered spherical phases can be used to engineer soft mesocrystals with domain size at the 5-100 nm scales. Simple block copolymers, such as diblock copolymers, form a limited number of mesocrystals. However multiblock copolymers are capable to form more complex mesocrystals. We demonstrate that designed B1AB2CB3 multiblock terpolymers, in which the A- and C-blocks form spherical domains and the packing of these spheres can be controlled by changing the lengths of the middle and terminal B-blocks, self-assemble into various binary mesocrystals with space group symmetries of a large number of binary ionic crystals, including NaCl, CsCl, ZnS, α-BN, AlB2, CaF2, TiO2, ReO3, Li3Bi, Nb3Sn(A15), and α-Al2O3. This approach can be generalized to other terpolymers as well as to tetrapolymers to obtain ternary mesocrystals. Our study provides a new concept of macromolecular metallurgy for producing crystal phases in a mesoscale and thus makes multiblock copolymers a robust platform for the engineering of functional materials.

  15. Device for preparing combinatorial libraries in powder metallurgy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Shoufeng; Evans, Julian R G

    2004-01-01

    This paper describes a powder-metering, -mixing, and -dispensing mechanism that can be used as a method for producing large numbers of samples for metallurgical evaluation or electrical or mechanical testing from multicomponent metal and cermet powder systems. It is designed to make use of the same commercial powders that are used in powder metallurgy and, therefore, to produce samples that are faithful to the microstructure of finished products. The particle assemblies produced by the device could be consolidated by die pressing, isostatic pressing, laser sintering, or direct melting. The powder metering valve provides both on/off and flow rate control of dry powders in open capillaries using acoustic vibration. The valve is simple and involves no relative movement, avoiding seizure with fine powders. An orchestra of such valves can be arranged on a building platform to prepare multicomponent combinatorial libraries. As with many combinatorial devices, identification and evaluation of sources of mixing error as a function of sample size is mandatory. Such an analysis is presented.

  16. Analyzing the international exergy flow network of ferrous metal ores.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qi, Hai; An, Haizhong; Hao, Xiaoqing; Zhong, Weiqiong; Zhang, Yanbing

    2014-01-01

    This paper employs an un-weighted and weighted exergy network to study the properties of ferrous metal ores in countries worldwide and their evolution from 2002 to 2012. We find that there are few countries controlling most of the ferrous metal ore exports in terms of exergy and that the entire exergy flow network is becoming more heterogeneous though the addition of new nodes. The increasing of the average clustering coefficient indicates that the formation of an international exergy flow system and regional integration is improving. When we contrast the average out strength of exergy and the average out strength of currency, we find both similarities and differences. Prices are affected largely by human factors; thus, the growth rate of the average out strength of currency has fluctuated acutely in the eleven years from 2002 to 2012. Exergy is defined as the maximum work that can be extracted from a system and can reflect the true cost in the world, and this parameter fluctuates much less. Performing an analysis based on the two aspects of exergy and currency, we find that the network is becoming uneven.

  17. Analyzing the International Exergy Flow Network of Ferrous Metal Ores

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qi, Hai; An, Haizhong; Hao, Xiaoqing; Zhong, Weiqiong; Zhang, Yanbing

    2014-01-01

    This paper employs an un-weighted and weighted exergy network to study the properties of ferrous metal ores in countries worldwide and their evolution from 2002 to 2012. We find that there are few countries controlling most of the ferrous metal ore exports in terms of exergy and that the entire exergy flow network is becoming more heterogeneous though the addition of new nodes. The increasing of the average clustering coefficient indicates that the formation of an international exergy flow system and regional integration is improving. When we contrast the average out strength of exergy and the average out strength of currency, we find both similarities and differences. Prices are affected largely by human factors; thus, the growth rate of the average out strength of currency has fluctuated acutely in the eleven years from 2002 to 2012. Exergy is defined as the maximum work that can be extracted from a system and can reflect the true cost in the world, and this parameter fluctuates much less. Performing an analysis based on the two aspects of exergy and currency, we find that the network is becoming uneven. PMID:25188407

  18. Causal Factors of Weld Porosity in Gas Tungsten Arc Welding of Powder-Metallurgy-Produced Titanium Alloys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muth, T. R.; Yamamoto, Y.; Frederick, D. A.; Contescu, C. I.; Chen, W.; Lim, Y. C.; Peter, W. H.; Feng, Z.

    2013-05-01

    An investigation was undertaken using gas tungsten arc (GTA) welding on consolidated powder metallurgy (PM) titanium (Ti) plate to identify the causal factors behind observed porosity in fusion welding. Tramp element compounds of sodium and magnesium, residual from the metallothermic reduction of titanium chloride used to produce the titanium, were remnant in the starting powder and were identified as gas-forming species. PM-titanium made from revert scrap, where sodium and magnesium were absent, showed fusion weld porosity, although to a lesser degree. We show that porosity was attributable to hydrogen from adsorbed water on the surface of the powders prior to consolidation. The removal and minimization of both adsorbed water on the surface of titanium powder and the residues from the reduction process prior to consolidation of titanium powders are critical for achieving equivalent fusion welding success similar to that seen in wrought titanium produced via the Kroll process.

  19. Iron oxide and hydroxide precipitation from ferrous solutions and its relevance to Martian surface mineralogy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Posey-Dowty, J.; Moskowitz, B.; Crerar, D.; Hargraves, R.; Tanenbaum, L.

    1986-01-01

    Experiments were performed to examine if the ubiquitousness of a weak magnetic component in all Martian surface fines tested with the Viking Landers can be attributed to ferric iron precipitation in aqueous solution under oxidizing conditions at neutral pH. Ferrous solutions were mixed in deionized water and various minerals were added to separate liquid samples. The iron-bearing additives included hematite, goethite, magnetite, maghemite, lepidocrocite and potassium bromide blank at varying concentrations. IR spectroscopic scans were made to identify any precipitates resulting from bubbling oxygen throughout the solutions; the magnetic properties of the precipitates were also examined. The data indicated that the lepidocrocite may have been preferentially precipitated, then aged to maghemite. The process would account for the presumed thin residue of maghemite on the present Martian surface, long after abundant liquid water on the Martian surface vanished.

  20. Clean ferrous casting technology research. Final technical report, September 29, 1993--December 31, 1995

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Piwonka, T.S. [ed.

    1996-01-01

    This report details results of a 30-month program to develop methods of making clean ferrous castings, i.e., castings free of inclusions and surface defects. The program was divided into 3 tasks: techniques for producing clean steel castings, electromagnetic removal of inclusions from ferrous melts, and study of causes of metal penetration in sand molds in cast iron.

  1. The effect of ferrous sulphate and sucralfate on the bioavailability of oral gemifloxacin in healthy volunteers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, A; Bygate, E; Faessel, H; Isaac, L; Lewis, A

    2000-08-01

    Sucralfate is a cytoprotectant with antacid properties and ferrous sulphate is commonly prescribed for iron-deficiency anaemia. This open, randomized, single-dose, five-way crossover study investigated the effect of sucralfate and ferrous sulphate on the bioavailability of gemifloxacin, a novel fluoroquinolone antimicrobial. Twenty-seven healthy male volunteers received gemifloxacin, 320 mg p.o., alone, 3 h after sucralfate (2 g) or ferrous sulphate (325 mg), or 2 h before sucralfate or ferrous sulphate. Each subject received all five dosing regimens in random order with at least 6 days between regimens. Plasma samples collected up to 48 h after dosing with gemifloxacin, were assayed for gemifloxacin to determine pharmacokinetic parameters. Administration of gemifloxacin 3 h after sucralfate produced a marked decrease of 53% in the area under the plasma concentration-time curve from time zero extrapolated to infinity (AUC0-infinity), and a decrease of 69% in the maximal plasma concentration (Cmax). Administration of gemifloxacin 3 h after ferrous sulphate resulted in only a modest reduction of 11% in AUC0-infinity and of 20% in Cmax, which was not considered to be clinically significant. In contrast, at the doses used neither sucralfate nor ferrous sulphate altered gemifloxacin bioavailability when it was administered 2 h before either of these agents. Gemifloxacin was well tolerated in all the regimens. The results of this study support the dosing recommendation that gemifloxacin can be safely administered at least 2 h before sucralfate or ferrous sulphate, or at least 3 h after ferrous sulphate.

  2. Huaxi Group Planning to Integrate Guangxi Non-Ferrous Industry Through Fund Raising

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    <正>Huaxi Group is planning to integrate the Guangxi non-ferrous metal industry after the completion of restructuring.Experts from the industry expressed the concern that Huaxi is likely to prepare for holistic listing for its main business upon the completion of restructuring so as to raise fund for the integration of non- ferrous resources in the Guangxi Autonomous

  3. Impact of Ferrous Iron on Microbial Community of the Biofilm in Microbial Fuel Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Qian; Liu, Bingfeng; Li, Wei; Zhao, Xin; Zuo, Wenjing; Xing, Defeng

    2017-01-01

    The performance of microbial electrochemical cells depends upon microbial community structure and metabolic activity of the electrode biofilms. Iron as a signal affects biofilm development and enrichment of exoelectrogenic bacteria. In this study, the effect of ferrous iron on microbial communities of the electrode biofilms in microbial fuel cells (MFCs) was investigated. Voltage production showed that ferrous iron of 100 μM facilitated MFC start-up compared to 150 μM, 200 μM, and without supplement of ferrous iron. However, higher concentration of ferrous iron had an inhibitive influence on current generation after 30 days of operation. Illumina Hiseq sequencing of 16S rRNA gene amplicons indicated that ferrous iron substantially changed microbial community structures of both anode and cathode biofilms. Principal component analysis showed that the response of microbial communities of the anode biofilms to higher concentration of ferrous iron was more sensitive. The majority of predominant populations of the anode biofilms in MFCs belonged to Geobacter, which was different from the populations of the cathode biofilms. An obvious shift of community structures of the cathode biofilms occurred after ferrous iron addition. This study implied that ferrous iron influenced the power output and microbial community of MFCs.

  4. KINETICS OF THE OXIDATION OF FERROUS CHELATES OF EDTA AND HEDTA IN AQUEOUS-SOLUTION

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    WUBS, HJ; BEENACKERS, AACM

    1993-01-01

    The kinetics of the reaction of oxygen with ferrous chelates of EDTA and HEDTA was studied in a stirred cell reactor under industrial conditions. The temperature was varied from 20 to 60-degrees-C and the concentration of the ferrous chelate ranged from 0 to 100 mol/m3. The initial pH was 7.5. Under

  5. A method for the separation of non-ferrous metal containing particles from a particle stream

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van der Weijden, R.D.; Rem, P.C.

    2004-01-01

    The invention relates to a method for the recovery of non-ferrous metal-comprising particles from a particle stream. According to the invention, the particle stream is put onto a conveyor belt in the form of a monolayer such that with the aid of a liquid, at least the non-ferrous metal comprising

  6. [Atmospheric emission of PCDD/Fs from secondary aluminum metallurgy industry in the southwest area, China].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Yi; Zhang, Xiao-Ling; Guo, Zhi-Shun; Jian, Chuan; Zhu, Ming-Ji; Deng, Li; Sun, Jing; Zhang, Qin

    2014-01-01

    Five secondary aluminum metallurgy enterprises in the southwest area of China were measured for emissions of PCDD/Fs. The results indicated that the emission levels of PCDD/Fs (as TEQ) were 0.015-0.16 ng x m(-3), and the average was 0.093 ng x m(-3) from secondary aluminum metallurgy enterprises. Emission factors of PCDD/Fs (as TEQ) from the five secondary aluminum metallurgy enterprises varied between 0.041 and 4.68 microg x t(-1) aluminum, and the average was 2.01 microg x t(-1) aluminum; among them, PCDD/Fs emission factors from the crucible smelting furnace was the highest. Congener distribution of PCDD/F in stack gas from the five secondary aluminum metallurgies was very different from each other. Moreover, the R(PCDF/PCDD) was the lowest in the enterprise which was installed only with bag filters; the R(PCDF/PCDD) were 3.8-12.6 (the average, 7.7) in the others which were installed with water scrubbers. The results above indicated that the mechanism of PCDD/Fs formation was related to the types of exhaust gas treatment device. The results of this study can provide technical support for the formulation of PCDD/Fs emission standards and the best available techniques in the secondary aluminum metallurgy industry.

  7. Niobium-titanium superconductors produced by powder metallurgy having artificial flux pinning centers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jablonski, Paul D.; Larbalestier, David C.

    1993-01-01

    Superconductors formed by powder metallurgy have a matrix of niobium-titanium alloy with discrete pinning centers distributed therein which are formed of a compatible metal. The artificial pinning centers in the Nb-Ti matrix are reduced in size by processing steps to sizes on the order of the coherence length, typically in the range of 1 to 10 nm. To produce the superconductor, powders of body centered cubic Nb-Ti alloy and the second phase flux pinning material, such as Nb, are mixed in the desired percentages. The mixture is then isostatically pressed, sintered at a selected temperature and selected time to produce a cohesive structure having desired characteristics without undue chemical reaction, the sintered billet is reduced in size by deformation, such as by swaging, the swaged sample receives heat treatment and recrystallization and additional swaging, if necessary, and is then sheathed in a normal conducting sheath, and the sheathed material is drawn into a wire. The resulting superconducting wire has second phase flux pinning centers distributed therein which provide enhanced J.sub.ct due to the flux pinning effects.

  8. Factors Influencing Dwell Fatigue Cracking in Notches of Powder Metallurgy Superalloys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gabb, T. P.; Telesman, J.; Ghosn, L.; Garg, A.; Gayda, J.

    2011-01-01

    The influences of heat treatment and cyclic dwells on the notch fatigue resistance of powder metallurgy disk superalloys were investigated for low solvus high refractory (LSHR) and ME3 disk alloys. Disks were processed to produce material conditions with varied microstructures and associated mechanical properties. Notched specimens were first subjected to baseline dwell fatigue cycles having a dwell at maximum load, as well as tensile, stress relaxation, creep rupture, and dwell fatigue crack growth tests at 704 C. Several material heat treatments displayed a bimodal distribution of fatigue life with the lives varying by two orders-of-magnitude, while others had more consistent fatigue lives. This response was compared to other mechanical properties, in search of correlations. The wide scatter in baseline dwell fatigue life was observed only for material conditions resistant to stress relaxation. For selected materials and conditions, additional tests were then performed with the dwells shifted in part or in total to minimum tensile load. The tests performed with dwells at minimum load exhibited lower fatigue lives than max dwell tests, and also exhibited early crack initiation and a substantial increase in the number of initiation sites. These results could be explained in part by modeling evolution of peak stresses in the notch with continued dwell fatigue cycling. Fatigue-environment interactions were determined to limit life for the fatigue cycles with dwells.

  9. Compressibility of 304 Stainless Steel Powder Metallurgy Materials Reinforced with 304 Short Stainless Steel Fibers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bibo Yao

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Powder metallurgy (P/M technique is usually used for manufacturing porous metal materials. However, some P/M materials are limitedly used in engineering for their performance deficiency. A novel 304 stainless steel P/M material was produced by a solid-state sintering of 304 stainless steel powders and 304 short stainless steel fibers, which were alternately laid in layers according to mass ratio. In this paper, the compressive properties of the P/M materials were characterized by a series of uniaxial compression tests. The effects of fiber content, compaction pressure and high temperature nitriding on compressive properties were investigated. The results indicated that, without nitriding, the samples changed from cuboid to cydariform without damage in the process of compression. The compressive stress was enhanced with increasing fiber content ranging from 0 to 8 wt.%. For compaction pressure from 55 to 75 MPa, greater compaction pressure improved compressive stress. Moreover, high temperature nitriding was able to significantly improve the yield stress, but collapse failure eventually occurred.

  10. Application of powder metallurgy technique to produce improved bearing elements for cryogenic aerospace engine turbopumps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moxson, V. S.; Moracz, D. J.; Bhat, B. N.; Dolan, F. J.; Thom, R.

    1987-01-01

    Traditionally, vacuum melted 440C stainless steel is used for high performance bearings for aerospace cryogenic systems where corrosion due to condensation is a major concern. For the Space Shuttle Main Engine (SSME), however, 440C performance in the high-pressure turbopumps has been marginal. A basic assumption of this study was that powder metallurgy, rather than cast/wrought, processing would provide the finest, most homogeneous bearing alloy structure. Preliminary testing of P/M alloys (hardness, corrosion resistance, wear resistance, fatigue resistance, and fracture toughness) was used to 'de-select' alloys which did perform as well as baseline 440C. Five out of eleven candidate materials (14-4/6V, X-405, MRC-2001, T-440V, and D-5) based on preliminary screening were selected for the actual rolling-sliding five-ball testing. The results of this test were compared with high-performance vacuum-melted M50 bearing steel. The results of the testing indicated outstanding performance of two P/M alloys, X-405 and MRC-2001, which eventually will be further evaluated by full-scale bearing testing.

  11. A Mössbauer and X-ray powder diffraction study of some ferrous hematinics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coe, E M; Bowen, L H; Bereman, R D

    1995-06-01

    Iron deficiency anemia is a relatively common illness that can arise from a number of different causes. Three ferrous salts are usually used in its treatment: ferrous fumarate, gluconate, and sulfate. They are administered orally and are relatively well tolerated. These hematinics have been studied by Mössbauer spectroscopy and X-ray powder diffraction, and can easily be distinguished by both techniques. It was found that the two ferrous sulfates studied (Eckerd and SmithKline Beckman Co.) most closely resemble the monohydrate by comparison of the X-ray powder pattern with those of the JCPDS. Both the ferrous fumarate (Femiron) and gluconate (Spring Valley) had approximately 10% ferric iron present. To the authors' knowledge, this is the first reported Mössbauer spectrum for ferrous fumarate.

  12. Ferrous versus Ferric Oral Iron Formulations for the Treatment of Iron Deficiency: A Clinical Overview

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Palacios Santiago

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Iron deficiency anaemia represents a major public health problem, particularly in infants, young children, pregnant women, and females with heavy menses. Oral iron supplementation is a cheap, safe, and effective means of increasing haemoglobin levels and restoring iron stores to prevent and correct iron deficiency. Many preparations are available, varying widely in dosage, formulation (quick or prolonged release, and chemical state (ferrous or ferric form. The debate over the advantages of ferrous versus ferric formulations is ongoing. In this literature review, the tolerability and efficacy of ferrous versus ferric iron formulations are evaluated. We focused on studies comparing ferrous sulphate preparations with ferric iron polymaltose complex preparations, the two predominant forms of iron used. Current data show that slow-release ferrous sulphate preparations remain the established and standard treatment of iron deficiency, irrespective of the indication, given their good bioavailability, efficacy, and acceptable tolerability demonstrated in several large clinical studies.

  13. Ferrous versus ferric oral iron formulations for the treatment of iron deficiency: a clinical overview.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santiago, Palacios

    2012-01-01

    Iron deficiency anaemia represents a major public health problem, particularly in infants, young children, pregnant women, and females with heavy menses. Oral iron supplementation is a cheap, safe, and effective means of increasing haemoglobin levels and restoring iron stores to prevent and correct iron deficiency. Many preparations are available, varying widely in dosage, formulation (quick or prolonged release), and chemical state (ferrous or ferric form). The debate over the advantages of ferrous versus ferric formulations is ongoing. In this literature review, the tolerability and efficacy of ferrous versus ferric iron formulations are evaluated. We focused on studies comparing ferrous sulphate preparations with ferric iron polymaltose complex preparations, the two predominant forms of iron used. Current data show that slow-release ferrous sulphate preparations remain the established and standard treatment of iron deficiency, irrespective of the indication, given their good bioavailability, efficacy, and acceptable tolerability demonstrated in several large clinical studies.

  14. STUDY OF THE IMPACT OF PHOSPHOGYPSUM ADDITIVE AND FERROUS SULPHATE SOLUTION ON THE MECHANISM OF THE MAGNESIA-BISHOFIT COMPOSITION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DEREVIANKO V. N.

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement. Phosphogypsum is a very pure raw material [16] with a negative, from a technical point of view, elongated shape of calcium dihydrate crystals (due to the formation conditions, which remains the same after both dehydration in dry air and grinding, this makes technical difficulties relating to further processing of the product into a binder, consequently, water resistance and plasticity of magnesium solutions can be improved by adding primary and secondary phosphates without strength reduction. Famous experts on phosphogypsum Yu. P. Meshcheryakov and N. A. Kolev [8] found, that when adding phosphogypsum instead of natural gypsum during grinding of Portland cement, which is intended to control the setting time of the mixture, there occurred reduction in the initial setting time from 1 h 55 min up to 1 h 36 min (when adding 4 % agent, and the final setting time was decreased from 6 h 15 min up to 6 min. After grinding of phosphogypsum, there appeared a fresh surface, on which the electron emission phenomenon occurs, however, not the entire surface emits, but only the active centres, where field strength reaches 108 V/cm. The positively charged active centres have low CaSO4 2H2O concentration on their surface. Purpose. Specifying the optimal amount of phosphogypsum and ferrous sulphate solution added, studying their impact on the curing mechanism of the magnesia-bishofit composition. Conclusion. To increase the sulphate compound, required for the crystallinity [10] reduction and magnesia stone sealing [4], the ferrous sulphate solution have been added to the composition formulation, ferrous sulphate anions immediately polarize free calcium ions with the formation of CaSO4∙2H2O. P. P. Budkov's experiments [8] prove that the larger the magnesia cement-to-sulphate stone ratio, the lower the setting time of the composition, and the higher the tensile strength of the stone. Moreover, V. V. Shchelyaghin [15] recommended adding ferrous

  15. Treatment of mild non-chemotherapy-induced iron deficiency anemia in cancer patients: comparison between oral ferrous bisglycinate chelate and ferrous sulfate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrari, Paola; Nicolini, Andrea; Manca, Maria Laura; Rossi, Giuseppe; Anselmi, Loretta; Conte, Massimo; Carpi, Angelo; Bonino, Ferruccio

    2012-09-01

    In cancer patients mild-moderate non-chemotherapy-induced iron deficiency anemia (IDA) is usually treated with oral iron salts, mostly ferrous sulfate. In this study, we compare efficacy and toxicity of oral ferrous bisglycinate chelate and ferrous sulfate in cancer patients with mild IDA. Twenty-four patients operated on for solid tumors (10 breast, 12 colorectal, 2 gastric), aged 61±10 years (range 45-75), with non-chemotherapy-induced hemoglobin (Hb) values between 10 and 12 g/dL and ferritin lower than 30 ng/mL were randomized to receive oral ferrous bisglycinate chelate, 28 mg per day for 20 days, and then 14 mg per day for 40 days (12 patients) (A group) or oral ferrous sulphate, 105 mg per day for 60 days (12 patients) (B group). Values of hemoglobin and ferritin obtained at diagnosis, 1 and 2 months from the beginning of treatment were compared. Adverse events (AEs) related to the two treatments were recorded. In the 12 patients treated with ferrous bisglycinate chelate, basal hemoglobin and ferritin values (mean±SD) were 11.6±0.8 g/dL and 16.1±8.0 ng/mL. After 2 months of treatment, they were 13.0±1.4 g/dL and 33.8±22.0 ng/mL, respectively (P=0.0003 and P=0.020). In the group treated with ferrous sulphate, hemoglobin and ferritin mean values were 11.3±0.6 g/dL and 19.0±6.4 ng/mL basally, and 12.7±0.70 g/dL and 40.8±28.1 ng/mL (Pferrous bisglycinate chelate and four (33%) with ferrous sulphate, toxicity was grade 1. In conclusion, these data suggest that ferrous bisglycinate chelate has similar efficacy and likely lower GI toxicity than ferrous sulphate given at the conventional dose of 105 mg per day for the same time. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  16. Active removal of ibuprofen by Money plant enhanced by ferrous ions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chehrenegar, Behdad; Hu, Jiangyong; Ong, Say Leong

    2016-02-01

    In this study, the removal of ibuprofen (IBP), a pharmaceutical compound, from aqueous media by Money plant (Epipremnum aureum) was investigated. The effect of ferrous iron (Fe(2+)) on enhancing the IBP removal rate was also analyzed. The first-order removal rate constants showed higher values for lower IBP initial concentrations in the range of 0.20-0.28 d(-1) for an initial concentration of 125 μg L(-1) to 0.03-0.13 d(-1) for an initial concentration of 1000 μg L(-1). Introducing ferrous iron to the aqueous media enhanced the first-order removal rate constant up to 6.5 times in a 3 d time period. Along with the removal of IBP from the media, the endogenous concentration of H2O2 also decreased presumably by the production of hydroxyl radical (·OH). Reduction in the endogenous H2O2 concentration was recorded to be 38% and 98% in the absence and presence of Fe(2+) respectively in the first day and the H2O2 level remained considerably low until day 7 which then gradually increased slightly. Simultaneous reduction of IBP and endogenous H2O2 concentration could be due to the reaction of IBP with ·OH and presumably ·OH production itself accelerated via Fenton reaction. In addition, presence of sodium bicarbonate (NaHCO3) as ·OH scavenger in the system showed reduction of first-order removal rate constant from 1.30 d(-1) to 0.07 d(-1) which could be a possible evidence of biological advanced oxidation process which is believed to play an important role in phytoremediation.

  17. On Potentials of Ferrous Electrodes in Soil Corrosion Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. N. Tripathi

    1966-04-01

    Full Text Available Open circuit potentials of electrodes and short circuit of soil corrosion cells constituted by cast iron, mild steel and wrought iron electrodes in the typical Indian soils have been determined and the voltages and the internal resistances of the cells have been calculated. The electrode potentials do not have a simple correlation with any of the soil properties. In non-acidic soils, the cell voltage at first increases abruptly with moisture equivalent, reaches maximum at about 15 and then decreases gradually. Based on this an interpretation has been offered for the maximum corrosivity of soils, having moisture equivalent, 30, as observed for mild steel and wrought iron. In an acidic soil electrode potentials of all the ferrous metals are indentical and cell voltages, very small. Hence most of the corrosion proceeds through direct chemical reaction. Cast iron is slightly less corrodible than mild steel and wrought iron because of additional protective influence of liberated carbon deposited over the metal.

  18. Direct spectrophotometric determination of iron in non-ferrous alloys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nan, Z; Yuan-Xiang, G; Qing, G Y; Xu-Zhang, Y; Zhi-Ren, L

    1989-08-01

    Disodium 3-(2-pyridyl)-1,2,4-triazine-5,6-di(4'-phenylsulphonate) is used for determination of iron in metal analysis. High selectivity is achieved by using a ligand buffer and substoichiometric masking. Interference from 0.9 mg of Cu(II) can be completely eliminated by combined reduction and masking with ascorbic acid and thiosemicarbazide. Beer's law is obeyed over the range 0.4-1.6 mug/ml iron in the final solution, with a standard deviation of 0.02 mug/ml. The method has been successfully applied to determination of iron (without preseparation) in a number of non-ferrous metals and alloys, with a coefficient of variation of 1.2-5.0%.

  19. Study on microstructure of Fe-Cr-C-Ni-B-Si coating formed by plasma jet surface metallurgy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    The technical connotation of surface metallurgical technology by DC-Plasma-Jet is a kind of rapid, non-equilibrium metallurgical process which is similar to powder metallurgy. Accordingly the specialized equipment is developed all by ourselves, which is not subjected to limitation of solubility, melting point, density of constituents, therefore pre-alloy powders are not needed. The plasma surface metallurgical coating using Fe-Cr-C-Ni-B-Si mixed alloy powders has good wettability with substrate material. The metallurgical coating has apparent characteristics of rapid and layered crystallization from planar crystal-cell to dendritic transition zone at the interface, from dendritic crystal to equiaxed crystal in the midst, from equiaxed crystal to spike crystal on the surface. Its metastable microstructure is complex phase of supersaturated-γ(Fe,Ni) dendritic crystal solutioning great amount of alloy element and interdendritic eutectic structure (Cr, Fe)7(C,B)3 and γ(Fe,Ni).

  20. The physical metallurgy of mechanically-alloyed, dispersion-strengthened Al-Li-Mg and Al-Li-Cu alloys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilman, P. S.

    1984-01-01

    Powder processing of Al-Li-Mg and Al-Li-Cu alloys by mechanical alloying (MA) is described, with a discussion of physical and mechanical properties of early experimental alloys of these compositions. The experimental samples were mechanically alloyed in a Szegvari attritor, extruded at 343 and 427 C, and some were solution-treated at 520 and 566 C and naturally, as well as artificially, aged at 170, 190, and 210 C for times of up to 1000 hours. All alloys exhibited maximum hardness after being aged at 170 C; lower hardness corresponds to the solution treatment at 566 C than to that at 520 C. A comparison with ingot metallurgy alloys of the same composition shows the MA material to be stronger and more ductile. It is also noted that properly aged MA alloys can develop a better combination of yield strength and notched toughness at lower alloying levels.

  1. Chemical speciation of heavy metals and leaching toxicity analysis of sludge in copper metallurgy plant%铜污泥中重金属形态分布及浸出毒性分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    廖天鹏; 祝星; 祁先进; 王华; 史谊峰; 刘春侠

    2014-01-01

    结合目前有色冶金工业上普遍采用的石灰铁盐法工艺特点,首次采用改进的BCR连续提取法与毒性浸出实验相结合的方法对铜污泥(中和渣与铁砷渣污泥)的重金属形态分布与浸出毒性进行了系统的研究。结果表明:采用改进的BCR方法对铜冶炼污泥重金属元素形态进行提取,形态提取具有较高的回收率;As、Zn、Pb与Cd为中和渣与铁砷渣污泥中主要的重金属元素(质量含量As>Zn>Pb>Cd),其中中和渣含As高达58566 mg/kg (折合5.85%),铁砷渣含As为12582 mg/kg(折合1.26%);两种重金属形态分布差异主要体现在As的形态分布上,铁砷渣污泥中重金属稳定性较好,特别是砷的稳定性较中和渣高;中和渣污泥中,As 主要以弱酸态形式存在(占68.01%),Zn、Pb与Cd主要以残渣态存在;铁砷渣污泥中,As、Zn、Pb与Cd主要以残渣态存在,其中残渣态As占59.21%;浸出毒性结果显示两种污泥中砷的浸出毒性都远远超过国标GB 5085.3-2007规定值,因此铜冶炼厂污泥属于含高砷危险废弃物,而以弱酸态As为主的中和渣污泥浸出毒性较高,而主要以残渣态As存在的铁砷渣污泥浸出毒性较低。%According to the lime-iron salt method commonly used in recent non-ferrous metallurgy industry,the modified sequential extraction procedure proposed by BCR (Community Bureau of Reference of the European Commission,now the Standards,Measuring and Testing Programme) was used and leaching toxicity test was performed to investigate sludge (neutralization sludge and iron-arsenic sludge) in a copper metallurgy plant for the first time. It was found that recovery of heavy metals in the BCR process was high. As,Zn,Pb and Cd were the main heavy metals in those two sludges,following the weight content order of As > Zn > Pb > Cd. The weight contents of neutralization sludge and iron-arsenic sludge were high up to 58 566 mg/kg (5

  2. Advances in the extractive metallurgy of selected rare and precious metals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffmann, James E.

    1991-04-01

    The broad field of extractive metallurgy, often perceived as an unimportant point of light in the universe of technology, has undergone significant, fundamental changes in the past 30 years. Improved extraction technologies now permit greater metal recovery, reduce the time that metal values are chemically locked up and diminish the economic impact of environmental regulations. Much of this accomplishment is due to the application of solvent extraction. As evidenced by improvements in the extraction of rare and precious metals, research in extractive metallurgy technology not only exists, but has achieved palpable results.

  3. Modernization of the Ural Metallurgy during the Great Patriotic War (1941–1945

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vladimir V. Zaparii

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The article characterizes the Ural industry modernization in war footing, shows the significance of evacuation of enterprises from the Western areas of the country to the region, reveals their role in the formation of a new metallurgical center of modern metallurgy in terms of human resources and manufacture. Innovations in metallurgy, the role of human factor in solving industrial restructuring problem are examined. Forms and methods of science use for the industrial modernization are considered. Solving of human resources problem is shown. The author touches upon the problem of metallurgical sector management in wartime. The role of people’s heroism in this difficult period of Russian history is discussed.

  4. [Analysis of changes in characteristics of arterial hypertension occupational risk in workers of nonferrous metallurgy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vlasova, E M; Shliapnikov, D M; Lebedeva, T M

    2015-01-01

    The article covers changes in occupational cardiovascular risk for workers of nonferrous,metallurgy. Findings are that exposure to noise up to 94 dB with length of service increases possible atherosclerosis and metabolic syndrome. With 5 years of service, risk of the predicted conditions increases by 40.5%. When occupational exposure lasts over 5 years, risk of arterial hypertension increases. A group of workers without exposure to occupational factors appeared to have no connection between length of service and metabolic syndrome and arterial hypertension. Risk evolution modelling proved that risk of functional disorders in nonferrous metallurgy workers becomes unacceptable after 5 years of service (cardiovascular disorders are critical).

  5. Comprehensive waste characterization and organic pollution co-occurrence in a Hg and As mining and metallurgy brownfield

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gallego, J.R., E-mail: jgallego@uniovi.es [Environmental Technology, Biotechnology and Geochemistry Group, C/Gonzalo Gutiérrez Quirós s/n, 33600 Mieres, Asturias (Spain); Esquinas, N.; Rodríguez-Valdés, E.; Menéndez-Aguado, J.M. [Environmental Technology, Biotechnology and Geochemistry Group, C/Gonzalo Gutiérrez Quirós s/n, 33600 Mieres, Asturias (Spain); Sierra, C. [Environmental Technology, Biotechnology and Geochemistry Group, C/Gonzalo Gutiérrez Quirós s/n, 33600 Mieres, Asturias (Spain); Escuela Superior Politécnica del Litoral, Guayaquil (Ecuador)

    2015-12-30

    Highlights: • Complex legacy of contamination afflicts As–Hg brownfields. • As- and Hg-rich waste analyzed in a paradigmatic study site. • Co-ocurrence of a complex speciation of As and Hg, and organic pollution (PAHs). • Arsenolite was determined to be the main source of risk at the site. • Unexpected Hg organo-compounds found. - Abstract: The abandonment of Hg–As mining and metallurgy sites, together with long-term weathering, can dramatically degrade the environment. In this work it is exemplified the complex legacy of contamination that afflicts Hg–As brownfields through the detailed study of a paradigmatic site. Firstly, an in-depth study of the former industrial process was performed to identify sources of different types of waste. Subsequently, the composition and reactivity of As- and Hg-rich wastes (calcines, As-rich soot, stupp, and flue dust) was analyzed by means of multielemental analysis, mineralogical characterization (X-ray diffraction, electronic, and optical microscopy, microbrobe), chemical speciation, and sequential extractions. As-rich soot in the form of arsenolite, a relatively mobile by-product of the pyrometallurgical process, and stupp, a residue originated in the former condensing system, were determined to be the main risk at the site. In addition, the screening of organic pollution was also aimed, as shown by the outcome of benzo(a) pyrene and other PAHs, and by the identification of unexpected Hg organo-compounds (phenylmercury propionate). The approach followed unravels evidence from waste from the mining and metallurgy industry that may be present in other similar sites, and identifies unexpected contaminants overlooked by conventional analyses.

  6. Effects of iron polymaltose complex, ferrous fumarate and ferrous sulfate treatments in anemic pregnant rats, their fetuses and placentas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toblli, Jorge E; Cao, Gabriel; Oliveri, Leda; Angerosa, Margarita

    2013-06-01

    Although oral iron preparations are widely prescribed to prevent and to treat iron deficiency anemia in pregnancy, comparative data on their effects to the mother, fetus and placenta are limited. In this study, the effects of oral iron polymaltose complex (IPC), ferrous fumarate (FF) and ferrous sulfate (FS) were compared in anemic pregnant rats, their fetuses and placentas. Hematological variables and oxidative stress markers in the liver, heart and kidneys of the dams and fetuses as well as the markers for oxidative stress, inflammation and hypoxia in placentas were assessed. Pregnancy outcome was measured by number of fetuses, and by neonate and placental weight. All therapies were comparably effective in correcting anemia. FS and FF, but not IPC, resulted in liver damage in dams and oxidative stress in dams, fetuses and placentas. FS group presented the highest catalase and GPx levels in dams, fetuses and placentas. IPC, but not FF or FS, restored normal TNF-α and IL6 expression levels in placentas whereas FS-treated animals presented the highest cytokine levels, suggesting a local inflammatory reaction. Anemia-induced high levels of HIF-1α were partially lowered by IPC and FF but further elevated by FS. Most of the negative effects associated with IDA were resolved by IPC treatment. Especially FS treatment was found to elicit hepatic damage in the dams, oxidative stress in the dams, fetuses and placenta as well as inflammation and high levels of HIF-1α in the placenta. Pregnancy outcome of FFand FS-treated animals was worse than that of IPC-treated animals.

  7. Bronchial stenosis following ferrous sulfate aspiration: Case report and review of the literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venci, Nicholas M; Watson, Thomas J; Kallay, Michael C

    2014-01-01

    Aspiration of ferrous sulfate tablets is a rare and potentially serious condition that can lead to permanent airway stenosis. Diagnosis may be difficult, as presentation often includes nonspecific symptoms. Disease progression and treatment courses have been detailed in a limited number of publications. Herein, we report a case of severe bronchial stenosis that developed following aspiration of a ferrous sulfate tablet. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first reported attempt of laser fulguration to correct ferrous sulfate-induced bronchial stenosis.

  8. Ferrous ammonium phosphate (FeNH₄PO₄) as a new food fortificant: iron bioavailability compared to ferrous sulfate and ferric pyrophosphate from an instant milk drink.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walczyk, Thomas; Kastenmayer, Peter; Storcksdieck Genannt Bonsmann, Stefan; Zeder, Christophe; Grathwohl, Dominik; Hurrell, Richard F

    2013-06-01

    The main purpose of this study was to establish bioavailability data in humans for the new (Fe) fortification compound ferrous ammonium phosphate (FAP), which was specially developed for fortification of difficult-to-fortify foods where soluble Fe compounds cannot be used due to their negative impact on product stability. A double-blind, randomized clinical trial with cross-over design was conducted to obtain bioavailability data for FAP in humans. In this trial, Fe absorption from FAP-fortified full-cream milk powder was compared to that from ferric pyrophosphate (FPP) and ferrous sulfate. Fe absorption was determined in 38 young women using the erythrocyte incorporation dual stable isotope technique (⁵⁷Fe, ⁵⁸Fe). Geometric mean Fe absorption from ferrous sulfate, FAP and FPP was 10.4, 7.4 and 3.3 %, respectively. Fe from FAP was significantly better absorbed from milk than Fe from FPP (p ferrous sulfate, which was used as water-soluble reference compound (p = 0.0002). Absorption ratios of FAP and FPP relative to ferrous sulfate as a measure of relative bioavailability were 0.71 and 0.32, respectively. The results of the present studies show that replacing FPP with FAP in full-cream milk could significantly improve iron bioavailability.

  9. Elevated temperature crack growth in advanced powder metallurgy aluminum alloys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porr, William C., Jr.; Gangloff, Richard P.

    1990-01-01

    Rapidly solidified Al-Fe-V-Si powder metallurgy alloy FVS0812 is among the most promising of the elevated temperature aluminum alloys developed in recent years. The ultra fine grain size and high volume fraction of thermally stable dispersoids enable the alloy to maintain tensile properties at elevated temperatures. In contrast, this alloy displays complex and potentially deleterious damage tolerant and time dependent fracture behavior that varies with temperature. J-Integral fracture mechanics were used to determine fracture toughness (K sub IC) and crack growth resistance (tearing modulus, T) of extruded FVS0812 as a function of temperature. The alloy exhibits high fracture properties at room temperature when tested in the LT orientation, due to extensive delamination of prior ribbon particle boundaries perpendicular to the crack front. Delamination results in a loss of through thickness constraint along the crack front, raising the critical stress intensity necessary for precrack initiation. The fracture toughness and tensile ductility of this alloy decrease with increasing temperature, with minima observed at 200 C. This behavior results from minima in the intrinsic toughness of the material, due to dynamic strain aging, and in the extent of prior particle boundary delaminations. At 200 C FVS0812 fails at K levels that are insufficient to cause through thickness delamination. As temperature increases beyond the minimum, strain aging is reduced and delamination returns. For the TL orientation, K (sub IC) decreased and T increased slightly with increasing temperature from 25 to 316 C. Fracture in the TL orientation is governed by prior particle boundary toughness; increased strain localization at these boundaries may result in lower toughness with increasing temperature. Preliminary results demonstrate a complex effect of loading rate on K (sub IC) and T at 175 C, and indicate that the combined effects of time dependent deformation, environment, and strain aging

  10. Investigation of the Environmental Durability of a Powder Metallurgy Material

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ward, LaNita D.

    2004-01-01

    PM304 is a NASA-developed composite powder metallurgy material that is being developed for high temperature applications such as bushings in high temperature industrial furnace conveyor systems. My goal this summer was to analyze and evaluate the effects that heat exposure had on the PM304 material at 500 C and 650 C. The material is composed of Ni-Cr, Ag, Cr2O3, and eutectic BaF2-CaF2. PM304 is designed to eliminate the need for oil based lubricants in high temperature applications, while reducing friction and wear. However, further investigation was needed to thoroughly examine the properties of PM304. The effects of heat exposure on PM304 bushings were investigated. This investigation was necessary due to the high temperatures that the material would be exposed to in a typical application. Each bushing was cut into eight sections. The specimens were heated to 500 C or 650 C for time intervals from 1 hr to 5,000 hrs. Control specimens were kept at room temperature. Weight and thickness measurements were taken before and after the bushing sections were exposed to heat. Then the heat treated specimens were mounted and polished side by side with the control specimens. This enabled optical examination of the material's microstructure using a metallograph. The specimens were also examined with a scanning electron microscope (SEM). The microstructures were compared to observe the effects of the heat exposure. Chemical analysis was done to investigate the interactions between Ni-Cr and BaF2-CaF2 and between Cr2O3 and BaF2-CaF2 at high temperature. To observe this, the two compounds that were being analyzed were mixed in a crucible in varied weight percentages and heated to 1100 C in a furnace for approximately two hours. Then the product was allowed to cool and was then analyzed by X-ray diffraction. Interpretation of the results is in progress.

  11. Degradation of methyl orange by ozone in the presence of ferrous and persulfate ions in a rotating packed bed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ge, Deming; Zeng, Zequan; Arowo, Moses; Zou, Haikui; Chen, Jianfeng; Shao, Lei

    2016-03-01

    This work investigated the degradation of methyl orange by ozone in the presence of ferrous and persulfate ions (O3/Fe(2+)/S2O8(2-)) in a rotating packed bed. The effects of various operating parameters such as initial pH, rotational speed, gas-liquid ratio, ozone inlet concentration and reaction temperature on the degradation rate of methyl orange were studied with an aim to optimize the operation conditions. Results reveal that the degradation rate increased with an increase in rotational speed, gas-liquid ratio and ozone inlet concentration, and reached a maximum at 25 °C and initial pH 4. Contrast experiments involving ozone and ferrous ions (O3/Fe(2+)) were also carried out, and the results show approximately 10% higher degradation rate and COD removal in the O3/Fe(2+)/S2O8(2-) process than in the O3/Fe(2+) process. Additionally, the intermediates of the degradation process were analyzed to ascertain the degradation products.

  12. Efficacy and tolerability of a prolonged release ferrous sulphate formulation in iron deficiency anaemia: a non-inferiority controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaim, Mohammed; Piselli, Leonardo; Fioravanti, Pino; Kanony-Truc, Claire

    2012-03-01

    Iron deficiency anaemia (IDA) is the last stage of iron deficiency, consecutive to an imbalance between iron supply through food intake and iron loss through physiological or pathological processes. As well as by haemoglobin levels, IDA is diagnosed by measuring biomarkers of iron stores. Women are most affected by IDA since their teenage years, as menstruation constitutes a chronic iron loss. Oral supplementation with ferrous sulphate is an effective therapy, but gastrointestinal side effects may impair treatment compliance. The present multicentric randomised controlled trial was designed to assess the non-inferiority of a ferrous sulphate prolonged release formulation called V0355 with the referential ferrous sulphate Ferrograd® in a population of Italian women aged 18-50 years diagnosed for IDA. Three hundred and ninety-nine patients were randomised to receive V0355 (80 mg Fe/day) or Ferrograd® (105 mg Fe/day). After 12 weeks of treatment, the difference in the mean haemoglobin level between the two groups was 0.081 g/dL ([-2.986;1.361], p = 0.54), which confirmed the hypothesis of non-inferiority. All the other biochemical parameters (serum iron, serum ferritin, transferrin, and soluble transferrin receptor) and haematological parameters (erythrocytes count, reticulocytes count, haematocrit, and mean corpuscular volume), as well as patient's anaemia-related symptoms, were not different between treatment groups throughout the study. Furthermore, the incidence of gastrointestinal adverse events of moderate and severe intensity was significantly lower (p = 0.007) in the V0355 group (5.6%) than in the Ferrograd® group (13.9%). V0355 was as efficient as Ferrograd® in the treatment of anaemia and exhibited a better gastrointestinal tolerance profile.

  13. The Application of Thermal Plasma to Extraction Metallurgy and Related Fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akashi, K.

    1980-01-01

    Various applications of thermal plasma to extraction metallurgy and related fields are surveyed, chiefly on the basis of documents published during the past two or three years. Applications to melting and smelting, to thermal decomposition, to reduction, to manufacturing of inorganic compounds, and to other fields are considered.

  14. Ice-core evidence of earliest extensive copper metallurgy in the Andes 2700 years ago

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eichler, A.; Gramlich, G.; Kellerhals, T.; Tobler, L.; Rehren, Th.; Schwikowski, M.

    2017-01-01

    The importance of metallurgy for social and economic development is indisputable. Although copper (Cu) was essential for the wealth of pre- and post-colonial societies in the Andes, the onset of extensive Cu metallurgy in South America is still debated. Comprehensive archaeological findings point to first sophisticated Cu metallurgy during the Moche culture ~200–800 AD, whereas peat-bog records from southern South America suggest earliest pollution potentially from Cu smelting as far back as ~2000 BC. Here we present a 6500-years Cu emission history for the Andean Altiplano, based on ice-core records from Illimani glacier in Bolivia, providing the first complete history of large-scale Cu smelting activities in South America. We find earliest anthropogenic Cu pollution during the Early Horizon period ~700–50 BC, and attribute the onset of intensified Cu smelting in South America to the activities of the central Andean Chiripa and Chavin cultures ~2700 years ago. This study provides for the first time substantial evidence for extensive Cu metallurgy already during these early cultures. PMID:28139760

  15. [Concomitant influence of occupational and social risk factors on health of workers engaged into powder metallurgy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shur, P Z; Zaĭtseva, N V; Kostarev, V G; Lebedeva-Nesevria, N A; Shliapnikov, D M

    2012-01-01

    Results of health risk evaluation in workers engaged into powder metallurgy, using complex of hygienic, medical, epidemiologic and sociologic studies, enable to define priority occupational and social risk factors, to assess degree of their influence on the workers' health and to identify occupationally induced diseases.

  16. A Guide for Planning Facilities for Occupational Preparation Programs in Metallurgy Technology. Interim Report. Research 28.

    Science.gov (United States)

    German, Carl, Jr.

    The major purpose of this guide is to elicit the information necessary for writing educational specifications for facilities to house technical education programs in metallurgy. It is organized in these parts: (1) Part I discusses the major purpose, underlying assumptions, recent instructional trends, and guiding principles utilized in the…

  17. Power metallurgy approaches to high temperature components for gas turbine engines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Probst, H. B.

    1974-01-01

    Work conducted by NASA and NASA contractors on prealloyed superalloy powders and materials strengthened by oxide dispersion is reviewed. Fabrication, tensile strength, superplasticity, grain growth control, stress rupture life, and grain-size and dispersion-level effects are covered. Distinct strength advantages of powder metallurgy superalloys over conventional wrought alloys are noted.

  18. Ice-core evidence of earliest extensive copper metallurgy in the Andes 2700 years ago

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eichler, A.; Gramlich, G.; Kellerhals, T.; Tobler, L.; Rehren, Th.; Schwikowski, M.

    2017-01-01

    The importance of metallurgy for social and economic development is indisputable. Although copper (Cu) was essential for the wealth of pre- and post-colonial societies in the Andes, the onset of extensive Cu metallurgy in South America is still debated. Comprehensive archaeological findings point to first sophisticated Cu metallurgy during the Moche culture ~200-800 AD, whereas peat-bog records from southern South America suggest earliest pollution potentially from Cu smelting as far back as ~2000 BC. Here we present a 6500-years Cu emission history for the Andean Altiplano, based on ice-core records from Illimani glacier in Bolivia, providing the first complete history of large-scale Cu smelting activities in South America. We find earliest anthropogenic Cu pollution during the Early Horizon period ~700-50 BC, and attribute the onset of intensified Cu smelting in South America to the activities of the central Andean Chiripa and Chavin cultures ~2700 years ago. This study provides for the first time substantial evidence for extensive Cu metallurgy already during these early cultures.

  19. [Evaluation of the exposure to copper and other non-ferrous metals in copper foundries].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linscheid, D

    1985-01-01

    Working environment has been evaluated in two copper metallurgy plants by analysis of Cu and other metals (Pb, Cd, Zn) concentrations. At the Charge Preparation Department the greatest concentrations of Cu and Pb were found. Copper concentrations at Metallurgy Department (shaft furnace, converter and anodic furnace) oscillate between 0.1-0.5 mg/m3, and Pb 0.06-0.71 mg/m3. In order to accurately evaluate copper exposure at working places where copper fume may arise (Metallurgy Department) it is necessary to determine Cu concentrations in respirable dust. At other working places Cu, Pb and Zn concentrations were low. Cadmium appears in vestigial amounts. The quantitative analysis indicates that airborne copper at the Charge Preparation Department and at the shaft furnace appears as CuS, at converter as Cu2O, and at other working places as metal Cu.

  20. Absorption of nitric oxide into aqueous solutions of ferrous chelates accompanied by instantaneous reaction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Demmink, J.F; vanGils, I.C.F.; Beenackers, A.A C M

    1997-01-01

    The absorption of nitric oxide (NO) into aqueous solutions of ferrous chelates of nitrilotriacetic acid (NTA), ethylene diaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA), hydroxyethylenediaminetriacetic acid (HEDTA), and diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid (DTPA) was studied in a stirred cell reactor. Experimental cond

  1. Xinjiang Non-ferrous Metals Wuxin Copper 100,000-ton Cathode Copper Project Commences

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    <正>The construction of Xinjiang Nonferrous Met-als’ Wuxin Copper’s 100,000-ton Cathode Copper Project commenced at the Fukang Xin-jiang Industrial Park of Innovative Non-Ferrous Materials recently. Xinjiang Wuxin Copper

  2. East China Non-ferrous Metal Geological & Mining Bureau obtaining mining rights in Indonesia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    <正>In December 2007,Jiangsu East China Non- ferrous Metal Geological & Mining Bureau has reached an agreement for cooperation with In- donesia Mining Company for the joint exploita- tion of mineral resources for 960 km2 areas in

  3. Absorption of nitric oxide into aqueous solutions of ferrous chelates accompanied by instantaneous reaction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Demmink, J.F; vanGils, I.C.F.; Beenackers, A.A C M

    1997-01-01

    The absorption of nitric oxide (NO) into aqueous solutions of ferrous chelates of nitrilotriacetic acid (NTA), ethylene diaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA), hydroxyethylenediaminetriacetic acid (HEDTA), and diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid (DTPA) was studied in a stirred cell reactor. Experimental

  4. KINETICS OF DENSIFICATION PROCESSES OF POWDER MATERIALS UNDER ELECTROPULSE SINTERING

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Grigoryev, E. G.

    2009-01-01

    The process of electropulse sintering of ferrous and high-speed steel powder materials by powerful pulse current and external pressure was investigated. Formation of high density and high strength structure of ferrous and highspeed steel powder materials was analyzed and optimal process parameters w

  5. The Effect of Forging Variables on the Supersolvus Heat-Treatment Response of Powder-Metallurgy Nickel-Base Superalloys

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-12-01

    AFRL-RX-WP-JA-2015-0160 THE EFFECT OF FORGING VARIABLES ON THE SUPERSOLVUS HEAT-TREATMENT RESPONSE OF POWDER-METALLURGY NICKEL -BASE SUPERALLOYS...POWDER-METALLURGY NICKEL - BASE SUPERALLOYS (POSTPRINT) 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER In-house 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 62102F 6. AUTHOR...of Powder-Metallurgy Nickel -Base Superalloys S.L. SEMIATIN, J.M. SHANK, A.R. SHIVELEY, W.M. SAURBER, E.F. GAUSSA, and A.L. PILCHAK The effect of

  6. Ascorbic acid enhanced activation of oxygen by ferrous iron: A case of aerobic degradation of rhodamine B.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hou, Xiaojing; Shen, Wenjuan; Huang, Xiaopeng; Ai, Zhihui; Zhang, Lizhi

    2016-05-05

    Molecular oxygen activation by ferrous ions (Fe(II)) in aqueous solution could generate reactive oxygen species (ROS) with high oxidation potential via reaction between Fe(II) and oxygen molecules (Fe(II)/air), however, ROS yielded in the Fe(II)/air process is insufficient for removal of organic pollutants due to the irreversible ferric ions (Fe(III)) accumulation. In this study, we demonstrate that ascorbic acid (AA) could enhance ROS generation via oxygen activation by ferrous irons (AA/Fe(II)/air) and thus improve the degradation of rhodamine (RhB) significantly. It was found that the first-order aerobic degradation rate of RhB in the AA/Fe(II)/air process in the presence of ascorbic acid is more than 4 times that of the Fe(II)/Air system without adding ascorbic acid. The presence of ascorbic acid could relieve the accumulation of Fe(III) by reductive accelerating the Fe(III)/Fe(II) cycles, as well as lower the redox potential of Fe(III)/Fe(II) through chelating effect, leading to enhanced ROS generation for promoting RhB degradation. This study not only sheds light on the effect of ascorbic acid on aerobic Fe(II) oxidation, but also provides a green method for effective remediation of organic pollutants.

  7. Multiple formation mechanisms of ferrous olivine in CV carbonaceous chondrites during fluid-assisted metamorphism

    OpenAIRE

    Krot, Alexander N.; Petaev,Michail I.; Bland, Phil A.

    2004-01-01

    The CV carbonaceous chondrites experienced alteration that resulted in formation of secondary ferrous olivine (Fa40-100), salite-hedenbergite pyroxenes (Fs10-50Wo45-50), wollastonite, andradite, nepheline, sodalite, phyllosilicates, magnetite, Fe,Ni-sulfides and Ni-rich metal in their Ca,Al-rich inclusions, amoeboid olivine ag-gregates, chondrules, and matrices. It has previously been suggested that fibrous ferrous olivine in dark inclusions in CV chondrites formed by dehydration of phyllosil...

  8. The influence of ferrous ions on the efficiency of aqueous photocatalytic oxidation of 2-ethoxy ethanol

    OpenAIRE

    D. Klauson; Preis, S

    2005-01-01

    The complex influence of ferrous ions on the efficiency of aqueous photocatalytic oxidation (PCO) of 2-ethoxyethanol (2-EE) was examined. A drastic efficiency increase at lower concentrations of ferrous ions was observed to change to a sharp decrease at higher concentrations. An explanation was proposed for the observed phenomena based on the low sensitivity of the pollutant towards radical-oxidation reactions and the competitive adsorption of metallic ions and 2-EE on the TiO2 su...

  9. Changes of ferrous iron and its transporters after intracerebral hemorrhage in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Gaiqing; Shao, Anwen; Hu, Weimin; Xue, Fang; Zhao, Hongping; Jin, Xiaojie; Li, Guanglai; Sun, Zhitang; Wang, Li

    2015-01-01

    Ferrous iron is a major source inducing oxidative stress after intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH). Divalent metal transporter1 (DMT1) is the important and well-known plasma membrane transport protein which was proved to be involved in the transport of free ferrous iron in mammals. Ferroportin 1 (FPN1) is the unique exporter of ferrous iron from mammalian cells. The role of DMT1 and FPN1 in brain after ICH is still not elucidated. Therefore, we measure the expression of DMT1 and FPN1, to explore the correlations between ferrous iron and its specific transporters after ICH. Ninety-six Sprague-Dawley rats received intra-striatal infusions of 0.5 U type IV collagenase to establish ICH model. Ferrous iron content in brain was determined using Turnbull's method. DMT1 and FPN1 expression were examined by immunohistochemical staining and Real-Time quantitative polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). With the use of confocal laser microscopy, we determined the colocalization of DMT1 and FPN1 at 1, 3, 7 and 14 days after ICH. Ferrous iron deposition was shown in the perihematomal zone as early as 1 day after ICH; it reached a peak after 7 days and was not elevated within 14 days following ICH. The expression of the DMT1 upregulated and reached to peak at day 7 after ICH. FPN1 reached a plateau at 3 days post-ICH. Expression levels of DMT1 and FPN1 were in parallel with ferrous iron deposition. There was a positive correlation between FPN1 and DMT1. DMT1 mainly localized in the cytoplasm of glias and neurons. FPN1 were mostly distributed on the membrane of endothelial cells and glias. Confocal microscope showed that DMT1 colocalized with FPN1. DMT1 and FPN1 are positively influenced by ferrous iron status in brain after ICH. DMT1 and FPN1 attenuate iron overload after ICH via increasing transmembrane iron export.

  10. Telomerization of Vinyl Chloride with Chloroform Initiated by Ferrous Chloride-Dimethylacetamide under Ultrasonic Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hua Qian

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Telomerization of vinyl chloride with chloroform was investigated using ferrous chloride-dimethylacetamide system, and 42.1% yield, more than four times the one reported before, was achieved. The addition of ultrasound further improved the reaction and yield was raised to 51.9% with trace byproducts at highly reduced reaction time and temperature. Ferrous chloride-dimethylacetamide under ultrasonic irradiation acts as a very efficient catalyst system for the 1 : 1 telomerization.

  11. Hydroxyl radicals cause fluctuation in intracellular ferrous ion levels upon light exposure during photoreceptor cell death.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imamura, Tomoyo; Hirayama, Tasuku; Tsuruma, Kazuhiro; Shimazawa, Masamitsu; Nagasawa, Hideko; Hara, Hideaki

    2014-12-01

    Iron accumulation is a potential pathogenic event often seen in age-related macular degeneration (AMD) patients. In this study, we focused on the relationship between AMD pathology and concentrations of ferrous ion, which is a highly reactive oxygen generator in biological systems. Murine cone-cells-derived 661 W cells were exposed to white fluorescence light at 2500 lx for 1, 3, 6, or 12 h. Levels of ferrous ions, reactive oxygen species (ROS), and hydroxyl radicals were detected by RhoNox-1, a novel fluorescent probe for the selective detection of ferrous ion, 5-(and-6)-chloromethyl-2',7'-dichlorodihydrofluorescein diacetate, acetyl ester (CM-H2DCFDA), and 3'-p-(aminophenyl) fluorescein, respectively. Reduced glutathione, total iron levels and photoreceptor cell death were also measured. Two genes related to iron metabolism, transferrin receptor 1 (TfR1) and H ferritin (HFt), were quantified by RT-PCR. The effects of ferrous ion on cell death and hydroxyl radical production were determined by treatment with a ferrous ion chelating agent, 2,2'-bipyridyl. We found that the ferrous ion level decreased with light exposure in the short time frame, whereas it was upregulated during a 6-h light exposure. Total iron, ROS, cell death rate, and expression of TfR and HFt genes were significantly increased in a time-dependent manner in 661 W cells exposed to light. Chelation with 2,2'-bipyridyl reduced the level of hydroxyl radicals and protected against light-induced cell death. These results suggest that light exposure decreases ferrous ion levels and enhances iron uptake in photoreceptor cells. Ferrous ion may be involved in light-induced photoreceptor cell death through production of hydroxyl radicals. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Effects of porosity on corrosion resistance of Mg alloy foam produced by powder metallurgy technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aghion, E., E-mail: egyon@bgu.ac.il; Perez, Y.

    2014-10-15

    Magnesium alloy foams have the potential to serve as structural material for regular light-weight applications as well as for biodegradable scaffold implants. However, their main disadvantage relates to the high reactivity of magnesium and consequently their natural tendency to corrode in regular service conditions and in physiological environments. The present study aims at evaluating the effect of porosity on the corrosion resistance of MRI 201S magnesium alloy foams in 0.9% NaCl solution and in phosphate buffer saline solution as a simulated physiological electrolyte. The magnesium foams were produced by powder metallurgy technology using space-holding particles to control the porosity content. Machined chips were used as raw material for the production of Mg alloy powder by milling process. The microstructure of the foams was examined using optical and scanning electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction, and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy analysis. The corrosion behavior was evaluated by immersion test and potentiodynamic polarization analysis. The results obtained clearly demonstrate that the porosity has a significant effect on the corrosion resistance of the tested foams. Foams with 14–19% porosity have a corrosion rate of 4–10 mcd and 7–15 mcd in NaCl and phosphate buffer saline solution, respectively, compared to only 0.10 mcd for the same alloy in as cast conditions. This increased corrosion degradation of the Mg foams by more than one order of magnitude compared to the cast alloy may limit their potential application in regular and physiological environments. - Highlights: • Porosity has a detrimental effect on corrosion resistance of MRI 201S Mg foams. • 14–19% porosity increases the corrosion rate by more than one order of magnitude. • Accelerated corrosion limits the use of foams in regular/physiological environments.

  13. Synthesis of Carbon Nanotube-Reinforced Al2024 Matrix Nanocomposite Using Flake Powder Metallurgy Method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rikhtegar, F.; Shabestari, S. G.; Saghafian, H.

    2016-12-01

    In current work, the flake powder metallurgy method was applied to achieve the uniform dispersion of carbon nanotubes (CNTs) within the Al2024 powder. For this purpose, the flake morphology of Al2024 powder with suitable diameter-to-thickness ratio ( D/ t = 85) was obtained after ball milling for 4 hours at 250 rpm and ball-to-powder ratio = 10. Then, the surface of matrix was modified by a hydrophilic polymer [polyvinyl alcohol (PVA)] to obtain the sufficient -OH group on its surface. Additionally, the refluxing of CNTs in nitric acid was performed at 393 K (120 °C) for 6 hours to functionalize the reinforcement by -COOH agent. After preparation of initial materials, the Al2024-1.5 wt pct CNTs suspension was stirred in a slurry at pH 3 until the color was changed in steady state from ink-like to transparent at pH 5. The hydrogen bonding was formed between the -OH groups of PVA coated Al2024 and -COOH groups of functionalized MWCNTs during the mixing step. Also, the temporary polarity could be considered between H+ and {{{C}}_{12}}{{{H}}_{25}}{{SO}}_4^ - ions on the surface of constituents, which led to improvement in the CNT distribution due to the changing of suspension pH. Consequently, the homogenous dispersion of CNTs in Al2024 flaky powders resulted in a chemical reaction of constituents without any destructive effects of mechanical forces. The morphological changes of Al2024 powders were studied by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and surface treatments were evaluated by Fourier transform infrared and Raman spectroscopies. The dispersion of nanocomposite powder was investigated through field emission SEM. Also, X-ray diffraction analysis was used to investigate the initial Al2024 powder and formed phases after the ball milling process.

  14. Ferrous-activated persulfate oxidation of arsenic(III) and diuron in aquatic system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhou, Lei [State Key Laboratory of Pollution Control and Resource Reuse, School of the Environment, Nanjing University, Nanjing 210023 (China); Zheng, Wei [Jiangsu Product Quality Supervision and Inspection Research Institute, Nanjing 210007 (China); Ji, Yuefei [State Key Laboratory of Pollution Control and Resource Reuse, School of the Environment, Nanjing University, Nanjing 210023 (China); Université Lyon 1, UMR CNRS 5256, Institut de recherches sur la catalyse et l’environnement de Lyon (IRCELYON), 2 Avenue Albert Einstein, F-69626 Villeurbanne (France); Zhang, Jinfeng; Zeng, Chao; Zhang, Ya; Wang, Qi [State Key Laboratory of Pollution Control and Resource Reuse, School of the Environment, Nanjing University, Nanjing 210023 (China); Yang, Xi, E-mail: yangxi@nju.edu.cn [State Key Laboratory of Pollution Control and Resource Reuse, School of the Environment, Nanjing University, Nanjing 210023 (China)

    2013-12-15

    Highlights: • Effective oxidation of As(III)/diuron is achieved by Fe(II)-activated persulfate. • Hydroxyl and sulfate radical play important roles in As(III) and diuron oxidation. • CA and Na{sub 2}S{sub 2}O{sub 3} are efficient and environmental friendly chelating agents. • DFT calculation is found to be useful for degradation products prediction. -- Abstract: In situ chemical oxidation (ISCO) can be an effective technology for the remediation of soil and groundwater polluted by organic and inorganic contaminants. This study investigated the oxidation of arsenic(III) (As(III)) and diuron using ferrous activated persulfate-based ISCO. The results indicated that Fe(II)/persulfate oxidation could be an effective method to oxidize As(III) and diuron. Effects of pH, S{sub 2}O{sub 8}{sup 2−} and Fe(II) amounts on the destruction of As(III) and diuron were examined in batch experiments. Acidic conditions favored the removal of As(III) and diuron. Four chelating agents, citric acid (CA), Na{sub 2}S{sub 2}O{sub 3}, diethylene triamine pentaacetic acid (DTPA) and ethylene diamine tetraacetic acid disodium (EDTA-Na{sub 2}) were used in attempt to maintain the quantity of ferrous ion in solution. In our experiments, CA and Na{sub 2}S{sub 2}O{sub 3} were found to be more effective than DTPA and EDTA-Na{sub 2}. Our results also revealed a widely practical prospect of inorganic chelating agent Na{sub 2}S{sub 2}O{sub 3}. Hydroxyl and sulfate radical were determined to play key roles in the oxidation process by using ethanol and tertiary butanol as molecular probes. Oxidation of As(III) yielded As(V) via the electron-transfer reaction. In the oxidation process of diuron, a stepwise nucleophilic substitution of chlorine by hydroxyl and a stepwise oxidation process of the methyl on the dimethylurea group by hydroxyl and sulfate radical were proposed.

  15. Mechanism of ferrous iron binding and oxidation by ferritin from a pennate diatom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pfaffen, Stephanie; Abdulqadir, Raz; Le Brun, Nick E; Murphy, Michael E P

    2013-05-24

    A novel ferritin was recently found in Pseudo-nitzschia multiseries (PmFTN), a marine pennate diatom that plays a major role in global primary production and carbon sequestration into the deep ocean. Crystals of recombinant PmFTN were soaked in iron and zinc solutions, and the structures were solved to 1.65-2.2-Å resolution. Three distinct iron binding sites were identified as determined from anomalous dispersion data from aerobically grown ferrous soaked crystals. Sites A and B comprise the conserved ferroxidase active site, and site C forms a pathway leading toward the central cavity where iron storage occurs. In contrast, crystal structures derived from anaerobically grown and ferrous soaked crystals revealed only one ferrous iron in the active site occupying site A. In the presence of dioxygen, zinc is observed bound to all three sites. Iron oxidation experiments using stopped-flow absorbance spectroscopy revealed an extremely rapid phase corresponding to Fe(II) oxidation at the ferroxidase site, which is saturated after adding 48 ferrous iron to apo-PmFTN (two ferrous iron per subunit), and a much slower phase due to iron core formation. These results suggest an ordered stepwise binding of ferrous iron and dioxygen to the ferroxidase site in preparation for catalysis and a partial mobilization of iron from the site following oxidation.

  16. Effect of abomasal ferrous lactate infusion on phosphorus absorption in lactating dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, X; Knowlton, K F; Dietrich, A D; Duncan, S

    2013-07-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of ferrous lactate infusion on postruminal P absorption in lactating dairy cows. Four ruminally cannulated lactating cows were used in a 4×4 Latin square design with 14 d per period. Cows were fed a basal diet containing 0.39% P, providing 100% of the calculated P requirement. On d 8 to 14 of each period, each cow was infused with 0, 200, 500, or 1,250mg of Fe/d in the form of ferrous lactate solution (ferrous lactate in 1L of double-distilled water) into the abomasum. Infusate was formulated to approximate 0, 2, 5, or 12.5mg of Fe/L in drinking water with 100L of water intake/d. Total fecal collection was conducted in the last 4 d of each period to measure nutrient digestion and excretion. Dry matter intake, milk yield, and milk composition were not affected by treatment. Digestibility of DM, NDF, and nitrogen decreased linearly with increasing ferrous lactate infusion. Infusion of ferrous lactate did not affect intake and digestibility of total P, inorganic P, or phytate P. In lactating cows, P absorption was not negatively influenced by abomasally infused ferrous lactate up to 1,250mg of Fe/d. Copyright © 2013 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Removal of phosphorus from wastewaters using ferrous salts - a pilot scale membrane bioreactor study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yuan; Tng, K Han; Wu, Hao; Leslie, Greg; Waite, T David

    2014-06-15

    A pilot scale membrane bioreactor (3.7 m(3)/day capacity), configured for alternate point ferrous sulphate addition, was evaluated in a fourteen month trial to comply with an effluent discharge requirement of less than 0.15 mg-P/L at the 50(th) percentile and less than 0.30 mg-P/L at the 90th percentile. Ferrous sulphate was added at a molar ratio (Fe(II):PO4) of 2.99 in the filtration chamber for 85 days and 2.60 in the primary anoxic zone for 111 days. Addition of ferrous salts to the anoxic zone achieved a final effluent phosphorous concentration (mg-P/L) of ferrous salts in the filtration zone achieved ferrous salts were added to the membrane zone while the reactor behaved close to a completely mixed reactor when dosing to the primary anoxic zone, resulting in improved phosphorus removal. The addition of ferrous salt was also found to delay the onset of severe increase in trans-membrane pressure as a result of the removal of macro-molecules. However, detailed analysis of the form and concentration of iron species in the supernatant and permeate indicated that the presence of fine iron particles resulted in a higher fouling rate when Fe(II) was added to the membrane zone rather than the primary anoxic zone and could cause more severe irreversible fouling in long-term operation. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Treatment of iron deficiency anemia in children: a comparative study of ferrous ascorbate and colloidal iron.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yewale, Vijay N; Dewan, Bhupesh

    2013-05-01

    To compare the efficacy of ferrous ascorbate and colloidal iron in the treatment of iron deficiency anemia in children. Eighty one children, aged 6 mo to 12 y, were screened for iron deficiency anemia (IDA) and those diagnosed with IDA were randomized to receive ferrous ascorbate or colloidal iron for a period of 12 wk, such that each child received elemental iron 3 mg/kg body weight/d. Increase in hemoglobin (Hb) level was the primary outcome measure. Assessment was performed at baseline, wk 4, wk 8 and wk 12. Of 81 children screened, 73 were included in the study. The mean rise in Hb at the end of the 12 wk was significantly higher in ferrous ascorbate group than the colloidal iron group [3.59 ± 1.67 g/dl vs. 2.43 ± 1.73 g/dl; P ferrous ascorbate (64.86 % vs. 31.03 %; P Ferrous ascorbate provides a significantly higher rise in hemoglobin levels in comparison to colloidal iron. The study supports the use of ferrous ascorbate in the pediatric age group, providing evidence for its role as an efficient oral iron supplement in the treatment of iron deficiency anemia.

  19. Effect of ferrous metal presence on lead leaching in municipal waste incineration bottom ashes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oehmig, Wesley N; Roessler, Justin G; Zhang, Jianye; Townsend, Timothy G

    2015-01-01

    The recovery of ferrous and non-ferrous metals from waste to energy (WTE) ash continues to advance as the sale of removed metals improves the economics of waste combustion. Published literature suggests that Fe and Fe oxides play a role in suppressing Pb leaching in the Toxicity Characteristic Leaching Procedure (TCLP); further removal of ferrous metals from WTE ashes may facilitate higher Pb leaching under the TCLP. Eight WTE bottom ash size-fractions, from three facilities, were evaluated to assess the effect of metallic Fe addition and ferrous metal removal on TCLP leaching. Metallic Fe addition was demonstrated to reduce Pb leaching; the removal of ferrous metals by magnet resulted in a decrease in total available Pb (mg/kg) in most ash samples, yet Pb leachability increased in 5 of 6 ash samples. The research points to two chemical mechanisms to explain these results: redox interactions between Pb and Fe and the sorption of soluble Pb onto Fe oxide surfaces, as well as the effect of the leachate pH before and after metals recovery. The findings presented here indicate that generators, processors, and regulators of ash should be aware of the impact ferrous metal removal may have on Pb leaching, as a substantial increase in leaching may have significant implications regarding the management of WTE ashes. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Development of cast ferrous alloys for Stirling engine application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lemkey, F. D.

    1982-01-01

    Low cost cast ferrous base alloys that can be used for cylinder and regenerator housing components of the Stirling engine were investigated. The alloys must meet the requirements of high strength and thermal fatigue resistance to approximately 1500 F, compatibility and low permeability with hydrogen, good elevated temperature oxidation/corrosion resistance, and contain a minimum of strategic elements. The phase constituents of over twenty alloy iterations were examined by X-ray diffraction. These alloy candidates were further screened for their tensile and stress rupture strength and surface stability in air at 1450 and 1600 F, respectively. Two alloys, NASAUT 1G (Fe-10Mn-20Cr-1.5C-1.0Si) and NASAUT 4G (Fe-15Mn-12Cr-3Mo-1.5C-1.0Si-1.0Nb), were chosen for more extensive elevated temperature testing. These alloys were found to exhibit nearly equivalent elevated temperature creep strength and oxidation resistance. Silicon present in these alloys at the 1 w/o level permitted the achievement of oxide scale adherence to 1600 F without loss of strength (or ductility) as was noted for equivalent additions of aluminum.

  1. Photomixotrophic growth of Rhodobacter capsulatus SB1003 on ferrous iron.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kopf, S H; Newman, D K

    2012-05-01

    This study investigates the role iron oxidation plays in the purple non-sulfur bacterium Rhodobacter capsulatus SB1003. This organism is unable to grow photoautotrophically on unchelated ferrous iron [Fe(II)] despite its ability to oxidize chelated Fe(II). This apparent paradox was partly resolved by the discovery that SB1003 can grow photoheterotrophically on the photochemical breakdown products of certain ferric iron-ligand complexes, yet whether it could concomitantly benefit from the oxidation of Fe(II) to fix CO(2) was unknown. Here, we examine carbon fixation by stable isotope labeling of the inorganic carbon pool in cultures growing phototrophically on acetate with and without Fe(II). We show that R. capsulatus SB1003, an organism formally thought incapable of phototrophic growth on Fe(II), can actually harness the reducing power of this substrate and grow photomixotrophically, deriving carbon both from organic sources and from fixation of inorganic carbon. This suggests the possibility of a wider occurrence of photoferrotrophy than previously assumed. © 2011 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  2. Determination of ferrous and ferric iron in aqueous biological solutions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pepper, S.E. [Earth and Environmental Sciences Division, Los Alamos National Laboratory, 1400 University Drive, Carlsbad, NM 88220 (United States); Borkowski, M., E-mail: marian@lanl.gov [Earth and Environmental Sciences Division, Los Alamos National Laboratory, 1400 University Drive, Carlsbad, NM 88220 (United States); Richmann, M.K.; Reed, D.T. [Earth and Environmental Sciences Division, Los Alamos National Laboratory, 1400 University Drive, Carlsbad, NM 88220 (United States)

    2010-03-24

    A solvent extraction method was employed to determine ferrous and ferric iron in aqueous samples. Fe{sup 3+} is selectively extracted into the organic phase (n-heptane) using HDEHP (bis(2-ethylhexyl) hydrogen phosphate) and is then stripped using a strong acid. After separation, both oxidation states and the total iron content were determined directly by ICP-MS analysis. This extraction method was refined to allow determination of both iron oxidation states in the presence of strong complexing ligands, such as citrate, NTA and EDTA. The accuracy of the method was verified by crosschecking using a refinement of the ferrozine assay. Presented results demonstrate the ability of the extraction method to work in a microbiological system in the presence of strong chelating agents following the bioreduction of Fe{sup 3+} by the Shewanella alga BrY. Based on the results we report, a robust approach was defined to separately analyze Fe{sup 3+} and Fe{sup 2+} under a wide range of potential scenarios in subsurface environments where radionuclide/metal contamination may coexist with strongly complexing organic contaminants.

  3. Alginate nanoparticles protect ferrous from oxidation: Potential iron delivery system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katuwavila, Nuwanthi P; Perera, A D L C; Dahanayake, Damayanthi; Karunaratne, V; Amaratunga, Gehan A J; Karunaratne, D Nedra

    2016-11-20

    A novel, efficient delivery system for iron (Fe(2+)) was developed using the alginate biopolymer. Iron loaded alginate nanoparticles were synthesized by a controlled ionic gelation method and was characterized with respect to particle size, zeta potential, morphology and encapsulation efficiency. Successful loading was confirmed with Fourier Transform Infrared spectroscopy and Thermogravimetric Analysis. Electron energy loss spectroscopy study corroborated the loading of ferrous into the alginate nanoparticles. Iron encapsulation (70%) was optimized at 0.06% Fe (w/v) leading to the formation of iron loaded alginate nanoparticles with a size range of 15-30nm and with a negative zeta potential (-38mV). The in vitro release studies showed a prolonged release profile for 96h. Release of iron was around 65-70% at pH of 6 and 7.4 whereas it was less than 20% at pH 2.The initial burst release upto 8h followed zero order kinetics at all three pH values. All the release profiles beyond 8h best fitted the Korsmeyer-Peppas model of diffusion. Non Fickian diffusion was observed at pH 6 and 7.4 while at pH 2 Fickian diffusion was observed. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Development of cast ferrous alloys for Stirling engine application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lemkey, F. D.

    1982-01-01

    Low cost cast ferrous base alloys that can be used for cylinder and regenerator housing components of the Stirling engine were investigated. The alloys must meet the requirements of high strength and thermal fatigue resistance to approximately 1500 F, compatibility and low permeability with hydrogen, good elevated temperature oxidation/corrosion resistance, and contain a minimum of strategic elements. The phase constituents of over twenty alloy iterations were examined by X-ray diffraction. These alloy candidates were further screened for their tensile and stress rupture strength and surface stability in air at 1450 and 1600 F, respectively. Two alloys, NASAUT 1G (Fe-10Mn-20Cr-1.5C-1.0Si) and NASAUT 4G (Fe-15Mn-12Cr-3Mo-1.5C-1.0Si-1.0Nb), were chosen for more extensive elevated temperature testing. These alloys were found to exhibit nearly equivalent elevated temperature creep strength and oxidation resistance. Silicon present in these alloys at the 1 w/o level permitted the achievement of oxide scale adherence to 1600 F without loss of strength (or ductility) as was noted for equivalent additions of aluminum.

  5. Production of ferrous sulfate from residue from the iron mining; Producao de sulfato ferroso a partir de residuo proveniente da mineracao de ferro

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cardoso, K.A; Riella, H.G.; Abreu, E.F. [Universidade Federal de Santa Catarina (UFSC), Florianopolis, SC (Brazil). Dept. de Engrenharia Quimica; Carvalho, E.F. Urano de; Durazzo, M. [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil). Centro de Combustivel Nuclear

    2012-11-15

    This paper was developed from a residue obtained by processing iron ore exploited by the mining company Samarco S/A. The residue was characterized and the analyses showed that it contains about 70% of the mineral hematite (Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3}) and also that some economically important products could be produced. One is the ferrous sulfate that can be used in pharmaceuticals and also that can be used in the treatment of iron deficiency anemia. The iron, in addition to is importance for the industrial production of steel and parts in general, also has great biological importance in all living beings. In order to produce ferrous sulfate from the byproduct in question, it was developed a obtaining route using metallic iron as hematite reductor and sulfuric acid to form the salt. (author)

  6. Cold-Drawn Bioabsorbable Ferrous and Ferrous Composite Wires: An Evaluation of Mechanical Strength and Fatigue Durability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaffer, Jeremy E.; Nauman, Eric A.; Stanciu, Lia A.

    2012-08-01

    Yield strengths exceeding 1 GPa with elastic strains exceeding 1 pct were measured in novel bioabsorbable wire materials comprising high-purity iron (Fe), manganese (Mn), magnesium (Mn), and zinc (Zn), which may enable the development of self-expandable, bioabsorbable, wire-based endovascular stents. The high strength of these materials is attributed to the fine microstructure and fiber textures achieved through cold drawing techniques. Bioabsorbable vascular stents comprising nutrient metal compositions may provide a means to overcome the limitations of polymer-based bioabsorbable stents such as excessive strut thickness and poor degradation rate control. Thin, 125- μm wires comprising combinations of ferrous alloys surrounding a relatively anodic nonferrous core were manufactured and tested using monotonic and cyclic techniques. The strength and durability properties are tested in air and in body temperature phosphate-buffered saline, and then they were compared with cold-drawn 316L stainless steel wire. The antiferromagnetic Fe35Mn-Mg composite wire exhibited more than 7 pct greater elasticity (1.12 pct vs 1.04 pct engineering strain), similar fatigue strength in air, an ultimate strength of more than 1.4 GPa, and a toughness exceeding 35 mJ/mm3 compared with 30 mJ/mm3 for 316L.

  7. Use of ferrous industrial wastes as binding materials for construction; Empleo de residuos industriales siderurgicos como materiales aglomerantes en construccion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mymrin, V.A. [Centro Nacional de Investigaciones Metalurgicas. CENIM. Madrid (Spain)

    1998-12-01

    Several ferrous and non ferrous metallurgical wastes, slag, powdered wastes, alkaline liquors, etc., can be used as binding materials to produce new building materials. These materials can be used in place of concretes made of cement, crushed stones, sand and gravel mixtures in several applications, road, industrial and airport foundations, etc. They are leaching resistant, so heavy metals do not migrate to the environment. These new materials, with a new structure, are obtained by mixing in right proportion of two or three industrial wastes or with mixtures of two of them and natural soils without any addition of traditional binders like and without heating. The main advantages are the solution of the problem of disposal of industrial wastes and the lower cost of the new materials, 5 to 6 times cheaper than traditional. Several examples of roads existing in Russia, even in Siberia and other northern regions, demonstrate the benefit of this process because after 20 years they still offer a good performance. (Author) 8 refs.

  8. The Effect of Slag on the Effectiveness of Phosphorus Removal from Ferrous Alloys Containing Carbon, Chromium and Nickel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kawecka-Cebula E.

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to determine the impact of slag composition on phosphorus removal from ferrous solutions containing carbon, chromium and nickel. Additions of cryolite, Na3AlF6, were applied for better fluxing and higher phosphate capacity of the slag. An X-ray analysis of final slags formed during dephosphorization of ferrous solutions containing chromium and nickel with CaO-CaF2 or CaO-CaF2-Na3AlF6 mixtures of different chemical compositions was carried out. The equilibrium composition of the liquid and the solid phase while cooling the slags from 1673K to 298K was computed using FactSage 6.2 software. The performed equilibrium computations indicated that the slags were not entirely liquid at those temperatures. The addition of cryolite causes a substantial increase of the liquid phase of the slag. It also has a favourable effect on the dephosphorization grade of hot metal. The obtained results were statistically processed and presented in the form of regression equations.

  9. Naval Research Laboratory Fact Book 2012

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-11-01

    simulation Physical metallurgy Ferrous , nonferrous, and intermetallic alloys Hot/cold isostatic pressing Micro / nanostructure characterization Three...programs encompass the intrinsic behavior of metals, insulators, composites, and ceramics, including efforts in ferrous alloys , intermetallic compounds...Magnetism Biological materials Materials processing Advanced alloy systems Solid free-form fabrication Environmental effects Energetic materials

  10. Thermal treatment of dusts from non ferrous metallurgical industries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Menad, Noureddine

    2000-06-01

    Full Text Available Three samples of dusts generated by the non ferrous metallurgical industries are treated between 200 and 800 °C in controlled oxidizing and reducing atmospheres. The objective of this study is to recover the valuable metals from these wastes. The treatments of these solids under oxidizing conditions at 700 °C are well adapted for two samples. The totality of valuable elements are concentrated in the treatments' residues. The use of hydrogen at 600 °C, permits the removal of up to 100 % of valuable metals contained in the treated industrial wastes. The recovery rate of valuable metals (Pb, Zn, Cu as well as the Global Decontamination Factor are reported.

    Se han tratado tres muestras procedentes de la industria metalúrgica no férrea entre 200 y 800 °C, en atmósferas oxidantes o reductoras controladas. El objetivo de este estudio es recuperar cuanto sea posible de los elementos valiosos de estos residuos. Los tratamientos bajo condiciones oxidantes a 700 °C han dado buenos resultados en dos muestras, en donde la totalidad de los elementos valiosos se concentraba en los residuos de tratamiento. El uso del hidrógeno a 600 °C permite la separación de hasta el 100 % de los metales valiosos contenidos en los residuos industriales tratados. Finalmente, se detallan las tasas de recuperación de los metales plomo, zinc y cobre así como el factor de descontaminación global (GDF.

  11. Transformation of graphene oxide by ferrous iron: Environmental implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Fanfan; Wang, Fang; Gao, Guandao; Chen, Wei

    2015-09-01

    Abiotic transformation of graphene oxide (GO) in aquatic environments can markedly affect the fate, transport, and effects of GO. The authors observed that ferrous iron (Fe[II])-an environmentally abundant, mild reductant-can significantly affect the physicochemical properties of GO (examined by treating aqueous GO suspensions with Fe(2+) at room temperature, with doses of 0.032 mM Fe(2+)  per mg/L, 0.08 mM Fe(2+)  per mg/L, and 0.32 mM Fe(2+)  per mg/L GO). Microscopy data showed stacking of GO nanosheets on Fe(2+) treatment. Spectroscopy evidence (X-ray diffraction, Fourier transform infrared transmission, Raman and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy) showed significant changes in GO surface O-functionalities, in terms of loss of epoxy and carbonyl groups but increase of carboxyl group. The reduction mechanisms were verified by treating model organic molecules (styrene oxide, p-benzoquinone, and benzoic acid) resembling O-containing fragments of GO macromolecules with Fe(2+). With sedimentation and adsorption experiments (using bisphenol A as a model contaminant), the authors demonstrated that Fe(2+) reduced GOs still maintained relatively high colloidal stability, whereas their adsorption affinities were significantly enhanced. Thus, reduction of GO by mild reductants might be of greater environmental concerns than by stronger reducing agents (e.g., N2H4 and S(2-)), because the latter can result in too significant losses of surface O-functionalities and colloidal stability of GO. This interesting aspect should be given consideration in the risk assessment of GO. © 2015 SETAC.

  12. Powder metallurgy inspired low-temperature fabrication of high-performance stereocomplexed polylactide products with good optical transparency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bai, Dongyu; Liu, Huili; Bai, Hongwei; Zhang, Qin; Fu, Qiang

    2016-02-03

    Stereocomplexation between enantiomeric poly(l-lactide) (PLLA) and poly(d-lactide) (PDLA) provides an avenue to greatly enhance performance of eco-friendly polylactide (PLA). Unfortunately, although the manufacturing of semicrystalline polymers generally involves melt processing, it is still hugely challenging to create high-performance stereocomplexed polylactide (sc-PLA) products from melt-processed high-molecular-weight PLLA/PDLA blends due to the weak crystallization memory effect of stereocomplex (sc) crystallites after complete melting as well as the substantial degradation of PLA chains at elevated melt-processing temperatures of ca. 240-260 °C. Inspired by the concept of powder metallurgy, here we report a new facile route to address these obstacles by sintering of sc-PLA powder at temperatures as low as 180-210 °C, which is distinctly different from traditional sintering of polymer powders performed at temperatures far exceeding their melting temperatures. The enantiomeric PLA chain segments from adjacent powder particles can interdiffuse across particle interfaces and co-crystallize into new sc crystallites capable of tightly welding the interfaces during the low-temperature sintering process, and thus highly transparent sc-PLA products with outstanding heat resistance, mechanical strength, and hydrolytic stability have been successfully fabricated for the first time.

  13. Powder metallurgy inspired low-temperature fabrication of high-performance stereocomplexed polylactide products with good optical transparency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bai, Dongyu; Liu, Huili; Bai, Hongwei; Zhang, Qin; Fu, Qiang

    2016-01-01

    Stereocomplexation between enantiomeric poly(l-lactide) (PLLA) and poly(d-lactide) (PDLA) provides an avenue to greatly enhance performance of eco-friendly polylactide (PLA). Unfortunately, although the manufacturing of semicrystalline polymers generally involves melt processing, it is still hugely challenging to create high-performance stereocomplexed polylactide (sc-PLA) products from melt-processed high-molecular-weight PLLA/PDLA blends due to the weak crystallization memory effect of stereocomplex (sc) crystallites after complete melting as well as the substantial degradation of PLA chains at elevated melt-processing temperatures of ca. 240–260 °C. Inspired by the concept of powder metallurgy, here we report a new facile route to address these obstacles by sintering of sc-PLA powder at temperatures as low as 180–210 °C, which is distinctly different from traditional sintering of polymer powders performed at temperatures far exceeding their melting temperatures. The enantiomeric PLA chain segments from adjacent powder particles can interdiffuse across particle interfaces and co-crystallize into new sc crystallites capable of tightly welding the interfaces during the low-temperature sintering process, and thus highly transparent sc-PLA products with outstanding heat resistance, mechanical strength, and hydrolytic stability have been successfully fabricated for the first time. PMID:26837848

  14. Powder metallurgy inspired low-temperature fabrication of high-performance stereocomplexed polylactide products with good optical transparency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bai, Dongyu; Liu, Huili; Bai, Hongwei; Zhang, Qin; Fu, Qiang

    2016-02-01

    Stereocomplexation between enantiomeric poly(L-lactide) (PLLA) and poly(D-lactide) (PDLA) provides an avenue to greatly enhance performance of eco-friendly polylactide (PLA). Unfortunately, although the manufacturing of semicrystalline polymers generally involves melt processing, it is still hugely challenging to create high-performance stereocomplexed polylactide (sc-PLA) products from melt-processed high-molecular-weight PLLA/PDLA blends due to the weak crystallization memory effect of stereocomplex (sc) crystallites after complete melting as well as the substantial degradation of PLA chains at elevated melt-processing temperatures of ca. 240-260 °C. Inspired by the concept of powder metallurgy, here we report a new facile route to address these obstacles by sintering of sc-PLA powder at temperatures as low as 180-210 °C, which is distinctly different from traditional sintering of polymer powders performed at temperatures far exceeding their melting temperatures. The enantiomeric PLA chain segments from adjacent powder particles can interdiffuse across particle interfaces and co-crystallize into new sc crystallites capable of tightly welding the interfaces during the low-temperature sintering process, and thus highly transparent sc-PLA products with outstanding heat resistance, mechanical strength, and hydrolytic stability have been successfully fabricated for the first time.

  15. CHARACTERISTICS OF FATIGUE SURFACE MICROCRACK GROWTH IN VICINAL INCLUSION FOR POWDER METALLURGY ALLOYS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WangXishu; LiYongqiang

    2003-01-01

    Inclusion flaw is one of the worst flaws of powder metallurgy. The inclusion flaw plays an important role in the failure of high temperature turbine materials in aircraft components and automotive parts, especially fatigue failure. In this paper, an experimental investigation of fatigue microcrack propagation in the vicinal inclusion were carried out by the servo-hydraulic fatigue test system with scanning electron microscope (SEM). It has been found from the SEM images that the fatigue surface microcrack occurs in the matrix and inclusion. According to the SEM images, the characteristics of fatigue crack initiation and growth in vicinal inclusion for powder metallurgy alloys are analyzed in detail. The effect of the geometrical shape and material type of surface inclusions on the cracking is also discussed with the finite element method (FEM).

  16. Preparation of Three-Dimensional Graphene Foams Using Powder Metallurgy Templates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sha, Junwei; Gao, Caitian; Lee, Seoung-Ki; Li, Yilun; Zhao, Naiqin; Tour, James M

    2016-01-26

    A simple and scalable method which combines traditional powder metallurgy and chemical vapor deposition is developed for the synthesis of mesoporous free-standing 3D graphene foams. The powder metallurgy templates for 3D graphene foams (PMT-GFs) consist of particle-like carbon shells which are connected by multilayered graphene that shows high specific surface area (1080 m(2) g(-1)), good crystallization, good electrical conductivity (13.8 S cm(-1)), and a mechanically robust structure. The PMT-GFs did not break under direct flushing with DI water, and they were able to recover after being compressed. These properties indicate promising applications of PMT-GFs for fields requiring 3D carbon frameworks such as in energy-based electrodes and mechanical dampening.

  17. Estimation and characterization of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons from magnesium metallurgy facilities in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nie, Zhiqiang; Yang, Yufei; Tang, Zhenwu; Liu, Feng; Wang, Qi; Huang, Qifei

    2014-11-01

    Field monitoring was conducted to develop a polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) emission inventory for the magnesium (Mg) metallurgy industry in China. PAH emissions in stack gas and fly/bottom ash samples from different smelting units of a typical Mg smelter were measured and compared. Large variations of concentrations, congener patterns, and emission factors of PAHs during the oxidation and reduction stages in the Mg smelter were observed. The measured average emission factor (166,487 μg/t Mg) was significantly higher than those of other industrial sources. Annual emission from Mg metallurgy in 2012 in China was estimated at 116 kg (514 g BaPeq) for PAHs. The results of this study suggest that PAH emission from Mg industries should be considered by local government agencies. These data may be helpful for understanding PAH levels produced by the Mg industry and in developing a PAH inventory.

  18. [Risk and features of occupational diseases in nonferrous metallurgy workers of Kolsky Transpolar area].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siurin, S A; Chashchin, V P; Frolova, N M

    2015-01-01

    The study covered data on 977 cases of occupational diseases in 615 workers of nonferrous metallurgy in Kolsky Transpolar area. Findings are high risk of occupational diseases in workers engaged into electrolysis production of aluminium, all nickel reprocessing and pyrometallic copper reprocessing (GR 7.02-10.0). Electrolysis operators and anode operators of aluminium production are more prone to occupational diseases, with bone and muscular disorders (46.8%) prevalent in the morbidity structure. Respiratory diseases are more prevalent (68.2-100%) in the occupational morbidity structure of copper-nickelindustry workers. Conclusion is made on mandatory improvement of the work conditions and more effective individual protective means against occupational hazards in workers of nonferrous metallurgy in Kolsky Transpolar area.

  19. Experimental Investigation and Numerical Simulation on Interfacial Carbon Diffusion of Diamond Tool and Ferrous Metals

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZOU Lai; ZHOU Ming

    2016-01-01

    We numerically simulated and experimentally studied the interfacial carbon diffusion between diamond tool and workpiece materials. A diffusion model with respect to carbon atoms of diamond tool penetrating into chips and machined surface was established. The numerical simulation results of the diffusion process reveal that the distribution laws of carbon atoms concentration have a close relationship with the diffusion distance, the diffusion time, and the original carbon concentration of the work material. In addition, diamond face cutting tests of die steels with different carbon content are conducted at different depth of cuts and feed rates to verify the previous simulation results. The micro-morphology of the chips is detected by scanning electron microscopy. Energy dispersive X-ray analysis was proposed to investigate the change in carbon content of the chips surface. The experimental results of this work are of beneift to a better understanding on the diffusion wear mechanism in single crystal diamond cutting of ferrous metals. Moreover, the experimental results show that the diffusion wear of diamond could be reduced markedly by applying ultrasonic vibration to the cutting tool compared with conventional turning.

  20. Phosphate removal by refined aspen wood fiber treated with carboxymethyl cellulose and ferrous chloride.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eberhardt, Thomas L; Min, Soo-Hong; Han, James S

    2006-12-01

    Biomass-based filtration media are of interest as an economical means to remove pollutants and nutrients found in stormwater runoff. Refined aspen wood fiber samples treated with iron salt solutions demonstrated limited capacities to remove (ortho)phosphate from test solutions. To provide additional sites for iron complex formation, and thereby impart a greater capacity for phosphate removal, a fiber pretreatment with an aqueous solution of a non-toxic anionic polymer, carboxymethyl cellulose (CMC), was evaluated. Problems with excessive viscosities during the screening of commercially available CMC products led to the selection of an ultra low viscosity CMC product that was still usable at a 4% concentration in water. Soxhlet extractions of chipped aspen wood and refined aspen wood fiber samples showed a higher extractives content for the refined material. Analysis of these extracts by FTIR spectroscopy suggested that the higher extractives content for the refined material resulted from the fragmentation of cell wall polymers (e.g., lignin, hemicelluloses) normally insoluble in their native states. Spectroscopic analysis of CMC and ferrous chloride treated fibers showed that the complex formed was sufficiently stable to resist removal during subsequent water washes. Equilibrium sorption data, which fit better with a Freundlich isotherm model than a Langmuir isotherm model, showed that phosphate removal could be enhanced by the CMC pretreatment. Results suggest that the process outlined may provide a facile means to improve the phosphate removal capacity of biomass-based stormwater filtration media.

  1. INTERPRETATION OF AT-LINE SPECTRA FROM AFS-2 BATCH #3 FERROUS SULFAMATE TREATMENT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kyser, E.; O' Rourke, P.

    2013-12-10

    Spectra from the “at-line” spectrometer were obtained during the ferrous sulfamate (FS) valence adjustment step of AFS-2 Batch #3 on 9/18/2013. These spectra were analyzed by mathematical principal component regression (PCR) techniques to evaluate the effectiveness of this treatment. Despite the complications from Pu(IV), we conclude that all Pu(VI) was consumed during the FS treatment, and that by the end of the treatment, about 85% was as Pu(IV) and about 15% was as Pu(III). Due to the concerns about the “odd” shape of the Pu(IV) peak and the possibility of this behavior being observed in the future, a follow-up sample was sent to SRNL to investigate this further. Analysis of this sample confirmed the previous results and concluded that it “odd” shape was due to an intermediate acid concentration. Since the spectral evidence shows complete reduction of Pu(VI) we conclude that it is appropriate to proceed with processing of this the batch of feed solution for HB-Line including the complexation of the fluoride with aluminum nitrate.

  2. INTERPRETATION OF AT-LINE SPECTRA FROM AFS-2 BATCH #3 FERROUS SULFAMATE TREATMENT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kyser, E.; O' Rourke, P.

    2013-12-10

    Spectra from the “at-line” spectrometer were obtained during the ferrous sulfamate (FS) valence adjustment step of AFS-2 Batch #3 on 9/18/2013. These spectra were analyzed by mathematical principal component regression (PCR) techniques to evaluate the effectiveness of this treatment. Despite the complications from Pu(IV), we conclude that all Pu(VI) was consumed during the FS treatment, and that by the end of the treatment, about 85% was as Pu(IV) and about 15% was as Pu(III). Due to the concerns about the “odd” shape of the Pu(IV) peak and the possibility of this behavior being observed in the future, a follow-up sample was sent to SRNL to investigate this further. Analysis of this sample confirmed the previous results and concluded that it “odd” shape was due to an intermediate acid concentration. Since the spectral evidence shows complete reduction of Pu(VI) we conclude that it is appropriate to proceed with processing of this the batch of feed solution for HB-Line including the complexation of the fluoride with aluminum nitrate.

  3. Apparent Electrical Conductivity of Porous Titanium Prepared by the Powder Metallurgy Method

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Cheng-Feng; ZHU Zhen-Gang

    2005-01-01

    @@ Porous titanium is produced by the powder metallurgy method. Dependence of the electrical conductivity on the porosity and pore size is investigated and the experimental results are compared with a number of models. It is found that the minimum solid area model could be successfully applied to describe the relationship between the electrical conductivity and the porosity of porous titanium. This kind of conductivity increases with increasing pore sizes.

  4. Metallurgy Department. Progress Report for the Period 1 January to 31 December 1984

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Risø National Laboratory, Roskilde

    The activities of the Metallurgy Department at Risø during 1984 are described. The work is presented in three chapters: General Materials Research, Technology and Materials Development, and Fuel Elements. A survey is given of the Department's participation in international collaboration and of its...... activities within education and training. A list (with abstracts) of publications and lectures by the staff during 1984 is included....

  5. Efficiency and wear properties of spur gears made of powder metallurgy materials

    OpenAIRE

    Xinmin, Li

    2016-01-01

    Powder metallurgy (PM) is usually used in manufacturing parts with complex geometries, such as gears and structural parts. The main attractions of PM are the high rate of material utilization, environmental friendliness of production, economic advantages (especially for complex geometries), and possibility of obtaining lighter components. To find a wide range of applications and compete with regular steel gears, PM gear transmissions should have good transmission efficiency and wear propertie...

  6. Microstructurally sensitive crack nucleation around inclusions in powder metallurgy nickel based superalloys

    OpenAIRE

    Jiang, J; Yang, J; Zhang, T.; J Zou; Wang,Y.,; Dunne, F.P.E.; Britton, T. B.

    2016-01-01

    ? 2016 Acta Materialia Inc.Nickel-based superalloys are used in high strength, high-value applications, such as gas turbine discs in aero engines. In these applications the integrity of the disc is critical and therefore understanding crack initiation mechanisms is of high importance. With an increasing trend towards powder metallurgy routes for discs, sometimes unwanted non-metallic inclusions are introduced during manufacture. These inclusions vary in size from ?10??m to 200??m which is com...

  7. Tribological Analysis of Mg2Si Particulates Reinforced Powder Metallurgy Magnesium Alloy Composites under Oil Lubrication Condition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katsuyoshi Kondoh

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available For the evaluation of wear behavior of Mg composites under oil lubrication conditions, powder metallurgy Mg97Y2Zn1 alloy reinforced with additive Mg2Si particles were fabricated by the repeated plastic working (RPW and hot extrusion. The RPW process was effective in refining both Mg2Si reinforcements and α-Mg grains causing the matrix hardening. When increasing the repetition number of RPW process from 200 to 600 cycles, the particle size of Mg2Si additives changed from 8 μm to 1~2 μm, and α-Mg grain size was 1 μm or less. With regard to the defensive and offensive properties of Mg alloys reinforced with Mg2Si dispersoids, the composite had superior adhesive wear resistance compared with the conventional Mg alloys because of its extremely high microhardness of 95~180 Hv by RPW process. The uniform distribution of refined Mg2Si particles was useful for improving both defensive and offensive properties against AZ31B counter disk specimens. The Mg2Si prominent dispersoids in the matrix were also effective in forming the oil grooves around them, and caused the low and stable friction coefficient. On the other hand, in the case of the composite containing coarse Mg2Si particles, severely deep scratches were given on the counter face of the AZ31B disk, and resulted in an unstable and high friction coefficient.

  8. The effect of ferrous-chelating hairtail peptides on iron deficiency and intestinal flora in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Hui-Min; Deng, Shang-Gui; Huang, Sai-Bo; Li, Ying-Jie; Song, Ru

    2016-06-01

    Chelating agents, such as small peptides, can decrease free iron content and increase iron bioavailability. They may have promising therapeutic potential and may prevent the pro-oxidant effects of low molecular weight iron. Hairtail is a species of fish that is rich in easily digestible proteins. We extended this strategy for iron delivery by using an enzymatic hydrolysate of hairtail as the chelating agent and found that the ferrous-chelating hairtail peptides have anti-anaemic activity in Sprague-Dawley rats with anaemia. The anti-anaemic activity of ferrous-chelating hairtail peptides prepared by enzymatic hydrolysis of the hairtail and ferrous chelation was studied in rat models of iron deficiency anaemia. After the end of the 35 d experiment, we noted significant differences in haemoglobin, mean corpuscular volume, haemoglobin distribution width, and ferritin concentrations between those animals supplemented with ferrous-chelating hairtail peptides and FeSO4 and healthy animals. There were no negative side effects on the animals' growth or behaviour. There was no obvious inflammation in the intestinal mucosa lamina propria and no unbalance of intestinal flora. The novel ferrous-chelating hairtail peptides may be a suitable fortificant for improving iron-deficiency status. Our findings demonstrated that this multi-tracer technique has many applications in nutritional research. © 2015 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2015 Society of Chemical Industry.

  9. Reactions of ferrous neuroglobin and cytoglobin with nitrite under anaerobic conditions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Morten Gjerning; Dewilde, Sylvia; Fago, Angela

    2008-01-01

    Recent evidence suggests that the reaction of nitrite with deoxygenated hemoglobin and myoglobin contributes to the generation of nitric oxide and S-nitrosothiols in vivo under conditions of low oxygen availability. We have investigated whether ferrous neuroglobin and cytoglobin, the two hexacoor......Recent evidence suggests that the reaction of nitrite with deoxygenated hemoglobin and myoglobin contributes to the generation of nitric oxide and S-nitrosothiols in vivo under conditions of low oxygen availability. We have investigated whether ferrous neuroglobin and cytoglobin, the two...... hexacoordinate globins from vertebrates expressed in brain and in a variety of tissues, respectively, also react with nitrite under anaerobic conditions. Using absorption spectroscopy, we find that ferrous neuroglobin and nitrite react with a second-order rate constant similar to that of myoglobin, whereas...... the ferrous heme of cytoglobin does not react with nitrite. Deconvolution of absorbance spectra shows that, in the course of the reaction of neuroglobin with nitrite, ferric Fe(III) heme is generated in excess of nitrosyl Fe(II)-NO heme as due to the low affinity of ferrous neuroglobin for nitric oxide...

  10. Effect of oral coadministration of artesunate with ferrous sulfate on rat liver mitochondrial membrane permeability transition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fafowora, Mosebolatan V; Atanu, Francis; Sanya, Olayinka; Olorunsogo, Olufunso O; Erukainure, Ochuko L

    2011-07-01

    The recent resurgence of interest in the study of mitochondria has been fuelled in large part by the recognition that genetic and/or metabolic alterations in this organelle are causative or contributing factors in a variety of human diseases including cancer. This study hypothesizes that co-administration of artesunate and ferrous sulfate could induce apoptosis which can be targeted on cancerous cells in such a manner, thus providing a novel, viable and perhaps inexpensive way of dealing with the cancer scourge. Artesunate and Ferrous sulfate were co-administered to rats at various doses for seven days. At the end of the treatment, the rats were fasted overnight and sacrificed by cervical dislocation. Low ionic strength mitochondria were isolated from hepatic cells of the rats and assayed for protein content; changes in the absorbance of the liver mitochondria; and mitochondrial swelling. Co-administration of artesunate and ferrous sulfate resulted in a significant increase (Pferrous iron-treated groups were compared with the artesunate only treated group. Results from this study show that co-administration of artesunate and ferrous sulfate can cause an opening in the mitochondrial membrane transition pore. A combined dose of ferrous sulfate and artesunate may prove to be a more potent therapy for targeting cancerous cells.

  11. A millennium of metallurgy recorded by lake sediments from Morococha, Peruvian Andes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooke, Colin A; Abbott, Mark B; Wolfe, Alexander P; Kittleson, John L

    2007-05-15

    To date, information concerning pre-Colonial metallurgy in South America has largely been limited to the archaeological record of artifacts. Here, we reconstruct a millennium of smelting activity in the Peruvian Andes using the lake-sediment stratigraphy of atmospherically derived metals (Pb, Zn, Cu, Ag, Sb, Bi, and Ti) and lead isotopic ratios (206Pb/ 207Pb) associated with smelting from the Morococha mining region in the central Peruvian Andes. The earliest evidence for metallurgy occurs ca. 1000 A.D., coinciding with the fall of the Wari Empire and decentralization of local populations. Smelting during this interval appears to have been aimed at copper and copper alloys, because of large increases in Zn and Cu relative to Pb. A subsequent switch to silver metallurgy under Inca control (ca. 1450 to conquest, 1533 A.D.) is indicated by increases in Pb, Sb, and Bi, a conclusion supported by further increases of these metals during Colonial mining, which targeted silver extraction. Rapid development of the central Andes during the 20th century raised metal burdens by an order of magnitude above previous levels. Our results represent the first evidence for pre-Colonial smelting in the central Peruvian Andes, and corroborate the sensitivity of lake sediments to pre-Colonial metallurgical activity suggested by earlier findings from Bolivia.

  12. Recovery of Value Metals From Waste Residue From Nickel Metallurgy%从炼镍废渣中综合回收有价金属

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    肖景波; 夏娇彬; 陈居玲

    2014-01-01

    The sulfuric acid was used to decompose the waste residue from nickel metallurgy ,sodium hydroxide was used to treat the sulfuric acid decompose residue for prepating sodium silicate and highly dispersed silica w hite .T he high-purity iron oxide and nickel concentrate can be obtained using the sulfuric acid solution .In addition ,after the further purify ,magnesium hydroxide products can be obtained by ammonia precipitation process .The best process conditions and technological process were determined .%研究了以硫酸分解镍渣,用氢氧化钠处理酸解渣制取高分散性白炭黑,以及用酸解液制备高纯氧化铁和镍精矿。将溶液进一步净化处理制取氢氧化镁。试验确定了最佳工艺条件及工艺流程。

  13. Direct Current and Pulsed Direct Current Plasma Nitriding of Ferrous Materials a Critical Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Łępicka Magdalena

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays, the improvement of ferrous materials performance is a problem of high interest. One of well-known wear- and corrosion properties improving technique is plasma nitriding, in which elemental nitrogen is introduced to the surface of a metal part for subsequent diffusion into the material. As a result, a compound, “white” layer and a diffusion zone are formed at the detail’s surface. Most of the authors positively describe the effects of surface ion nitiding. On the other hand, there are also reports on adverse effects of direct current and pulsed direct current plasma nitriding on ferrous materials performance. Therefore, an attempt to provide comprehensive summary on direct current and pulsed direct current ion nitriding and its influence on ferrous materials’ mechanical and corrosion properties has been made. According to the results, some of the technique drawbacks are hard to avoid in mass production.

  14. Severe Endobronchial Inflammation Induced by Aspiration of a Ferrous Sulfate Tablet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Sang Youn; Sohn, Sung Birm; Lee, Jung Min; Lee, Ji Ae; Chung, Sangmi; Kim, Junga; Choi, Juwhan; Kim, Sehwa; Yoo, Ah Young; Roh, Jong Ah; Park, Haein; Kim, Won Shik; Sim, Jae Kyeom; Shim, Jae Jeong

    2016-01-01

    Iron supplements such as ferrous sulfate tablets are usually used to treat iron-deficiency anemia in some elderly patients with primary neurologic disorders or decreased gag reflexes due to stroke, senile dementia, or parkinsonism. While the aspiration of ferrous sulfate is rarely reported, it is a potentially life-threatening condition that can lead to airway necrosis and bronchial stenosis. A detailed history and high suspicion of aspiration are required to avoid delays in diagnosis and treatment. The diagnosis can be confirmed by bronchoscopic examination and a tissue biopsy. Early removal of the aspirated tablet prevents acute complications, such as bronchial necrosis, hemoptysis, and lobar consolidation. Tablet removal is also necessary to prevent late bronchial stenosis. We presented the first case in Korea of a ferrous sulfate tablet aspiration that induced severe endobronchial inflammation. PMID:26770233

  15. Vibrational relaxation of NO stretching modes in ferrous NO and ferric NO in model heme

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Jaeheung; Lee, Taegon; Lim, Manho

    2013-08-01

    Femtosecond IR-pump-IR-probe spectroscopy was used to measure the vibrational lifetimes (T1) of NO stretching modes of ferrous NO near 1600 cm-1 and ferric NO near 1900 cm-1 at room temperature. The T1 of NO bound to the heme, ranging from 3.5 to 34 ps, is much shorter in ferrous NO. The vibrational relaxation (VR) of NO was independent of solvent used and excess imidazole concentration, suggesting that intramolecular VR into the internal vibrational modes of the probed molecule may be the dominant pathway for VR of the bound NO. With estimated T1 of the bound NO, we simulated transient spectra of NO bound to ferrous hemoglobin (HbII) after photodeligation of HbIINO and discussed the influence of the hot band on the determination of the dynamics of geminate rebinding of NO to HbII using the change in the magnitude of the fundamental band.

  16. Growth and characterization of pure and Ferrous sulphate doped Bis thiourea zinc chloride

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mrs.M.Jaya Brabha

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Non linear optical material has wide applications in the area of optical devices. That device mainly used to measure electromagnetic radiation. Single crystals of pure Bis thiourea Zinc chloride and Ferrous sulphate doped Bis thiourea Zinc chloride were grown by slow evaporation technique. The grown crystals have been subjected to powder X-ray diffraction to determine the crystalline size and unit cell parameter. The incorporation of ferrous sulphate in BTZC was confirmed by the EDAX and FTIR analysis. UV-Visible spectrum shows that the grown crystals have wide optical transparency in the entire visible region. The thermo gravimetric analysis suggests that incorporation of ferrous sulphate in the BTZC decreases the thermal stability of the grown crystal.

  17. Characteristics of the magnetic control of separable ferrous impurities contained in raw construction materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.V. Sandulyak

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Currency of using the method of magnetic control of ferrous impurities for construction materials was noted. Especially it is important because of magnetic separators which are widely used for elimination of these impurities. There were shown the necessity of upgrading the present approach in order to realize the method of magnetic control. For example, it is necessary to take into account not only the rest of ferrous impurities (that is inevitable after limited numbers of operations but also a factor of involving sand particles. The concrete proposal how to develop the existing system of magnetic control of ferrous impurities in construction materials subjected to magnetic separation, is stated. The experimental-calculation model for such control is also shown. The main parameters of such model were estimated on the example of quartz sand and feldspar. The errors of standard methods of magnetic control were revealed for the first time.

  18. CNTs/TiC Reinforced Titanium Matrix Nanocomposites via Powder Metallurgy and Its Microstructural and Mechanical Properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katsuyoshi Kondoh

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available By using pure titanium powder coated with unbundled multiwall carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs via wet process, powder metallurgy (P/M titanium matrix composite (TMC reinforced with the CNTs was prepared by spark plasma sintering (SPS and subsequently hot extrusion process. The microstructure and mechanical properties of P/M pure titanium and reinforced with CNTs were evaluated. The distribution of CNTs and in situ formed titanium carbide (TiC compounds during sintering was investigated by optical and scanning electron microscopy (SEM equipped with EDS analyzer. The mechanical properties of TMC were significantly improved by the additive of CNTs. For example, when employing the pure titanium composite powder coated with CNTs of 0.35 mass%, the increase of tensile strength and yield stress of the extruded TMC was 157 MPa and 169 MPa, respectively, compared to those of extruded titanium materials with no CNT additive. Fractured surfaces of tensile specimens were analyzed by SEM, and the uniform distribution of CNTs and TiC particles, being effective for the dispersion strengthening, at the surface of the TMC were obviously observed.

  19. Formation of Al3Ti/Mg composite by powder metallurgy of Mg–Al–Ti system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zi R Yang et al

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available An in situ titanium trialuminide (Al3Ti-particle-reinforced magnesium matrix composite has been successfully fabricated by the powder metallurgy of a Mg–Al–Ti system. The reaction processes and formation mechanism for synthesizing the composite were studied by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC, x-ray diffractometry (XRD, scanning electron microscopy (SEM and energy-dispersive x-ray spectroscopy (EDS. Al3Ti particles are found to be synthesized in situ in the Mg alloy matrix. During the reaction sintering of the Mg–Al–Ti system, Al3Ti particles are formed through the reaction of liquid Al with as-dissolved Ti around the Ti particles. The formed intermetallic particles accumulate at the original sites of the Ti particles. As sintering time increases, the accumulated intermetallic particles disperse and reach a relatively homogeneous distribution in the matrix. It is found that the reaction process of the Mg–Al–Ti system is almost the same as that of the Al–Ti system. Mg also acts as a catalytic agent and a diluent in the reactions and shifts the reactions of Al and Ti to lower temperatures. An additional amount of Al is required for eliminating residual Ti and solid-solution strengthening of the Mg matrix.

  20. Powder Metallurgy of Uranium Alloy Fuels for TRU-Burning Reactors Final Technical Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McDeavitt, Sean M

    2011-04-29

    Overview Fast reactors were evaluated to enable the transmutation of transuranic isotopes generated by nuclear energy systems. The motivation for this was that TRU isotopes have high radiotoxicity and relatively long half-lives, making them unattractive for disposal in a long-term geologic repository. Fast reactors provide an efficient means to utilize the energy content of the TRUs while destroying them. An enabling technology that requires research and development is the fabrication metallic fuel containing TRU isotopes using powder metallurgy methods. This project focused upon developing a powder metallurgical fabrication method to produce U-Zr-transuranic (TRU) alloys at relatively low processing temperatures (500ºC to 600ºC) using either hot extrusion or alpha-phase sintering for charecterization. Researchers quantified the fundamental aspects of both processing methods using surrogate metals to simulate the TRU elements. The process produced novel solutions to some of the issues relating to metallic fuels, such as fuel-cladding chemical interactions, fuel swelling, volatility losses during casting, and casting mold material losses. Workscope There were two primary tasks associated with this project: 1. Hot working fabrication using mechanical alloying and extrusion • Design, fabricate, and assemble extrusion equipment • Extrusion database on DU metal • Extrusion database on U-10Zr alloys • Extrusion database on U-20xx-10Zr alloys • Evaluation and testing of tube sheath metals 2. Low-temperature sintering of U alloys • Design, fabricate, and assemble equipment • Sintering database on DU metal • Sintering database on U-10Zr alloys • Liquid assisted phase sintering on U-20xx-10Zr alloys Appendices Outline Appendix A contains a Fuel Cycle Research & Development (FCR&D) poster and contact presentation where TAMU made primary contributions. Appendix B contains MSNE theses and final defense presentations by David Garnetti and Grant Helmreich

  1. Powder Metallurgy of Uranium Alloy Fuels for TRU-Burning Reactors Final Technical Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McDeavitt, Sean M

    2011-04-29

    Overview Fast reactors were evaluated to enable the transmutation of transuranic isotopes generated by nuclear energy systems. The motivation for this was that TRU isotopes have high radiotoxicity and relatively long half-lives, making them unattractive for disposal in a long-term geologic repository. Fast reactors provide an efficient means to utilize the energy content of the TRUs while destroying them. An enabling technology that requires research and development is the fabrication metallic fuel containing TRU isotopes using powder metallurgy methods. This project focused upon developing a powder metallurgical fabrication method to produce U-Zr-transuranic (TRU) alloys at relatively low processing temperatures (500ºC to 600ºC) using either hot extrusion or alpha-phase sintering for charecterization. Researchers quantified the fundamental aspects of both processing methods using surrogate metals to simulate the TRU elements. The process produced novel solutions to some of the issues relating to metallic fuels, such as fuel-cladding chemical interactions, fuel swelling, volatility losses during casting, and casting mold material losses. Workscope There were two primary tasks associated with this project: 1. Hot working fabrication using mechanical alloying and extrusion • Design, fabricate, and assemble extrusion equipment • Extrusion database on DU metal • Extrusion database on U-10Zr alloys • Extrusion database on U-20xx-10Zr alloys • Evaluation and testing of tube sheath metals 2. Low-temperature sintering of U alloys • Design, fabricate, and assemble equipment • Sintering database on DU metal • Sintering database on U-10Zr alloys • Liquid assisted phase sintering on U-20xx-10Zr alloys Appendices Outline Appendix A contains a Fuel Cycle Research & Development (FCR&D) poster and contact presentation where TAMU made primary contributions. Appendix B contains MSNE theses and final defense presentations by David Garnetti and Grant Helmreich

  2. Effect of Selenium on Root Oxidizing Ability and Yield of Rice under Ferrous Stress

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    QI Xin; LIU Yuan-ying; SONG Tian-xing

    2004-01-01

    To study the effects of selenium on root oxidizing ability and yield of rice under ferrous stress, a pot culture experiment was conducted, the activity of glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px) and the concentration of malonaldelyde (MDA) were determined. The root oxidizing ability and yield characters of rice were examined. Results showed that appropriate amount of Se enhanced the activity of glutathione peroxidase and the oxidizing ability of rice roots significantly, reduced the concentration of MDA, increased 1000-grain weight of rice, F= 26.96**, decreased empty and blighted grain rate, increased the rice yield, F= 11.53**, and enhanced the rice resistance under ferrous stress.

  3. Non-ferrous Metals Companies Post Gloomy Operating Results for Q1-Q3

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2013-01-01

    <正>On October 24,China Securities Journal:As the industry is in a downturn,non-ferrous metal enterprises generally find it difficult to make profits.According to statistics from China Securities Journal,as of October 23,a total of 49non-ferrous metal listed companies had released results preview for Q3,with 30 companies posting a decrease in their previews,taking up more than 60%.Twelve companies posted a YOY decline of more than 60%in net profit.

  4. Multifactorial study and kinetics of signal development in ferrous-methylthymol blue-gelatin gel dosimeters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Penev, Kalin I; Mequanint, Kibret

    2017-05-01

    To develop and characterize a ferrous-methylthymol blue-gelatin gel dosimeter with low optical background and appropriate additives for reduced rate of auto-oxidation and diffusion. A mixed-level multifactorial design of experiments was used to test the effects of the concentrations of sulfuric acid, 5-nitro-1,10-phenanthroline (Nn), and glyoxal (Gx) on the background absorbance, dose sensitivity, and auto-oxidation of the tested gel dosimeter. The dosimetric properties of the proposed ferrous-methylthymol blue-gelatin dosimeter, doped with Nn and Gx, were compared with the undoped formulation and with ferrous-xylenol orange-gelatin gel dosimeters. Irradiations were performed in both small-scale cuvette samples and large 400-mL bulk samples. In addition to that, a new kinetic model for the signal development postirradiation was derived based on chemical principles and used for comparison of the different formulations. The new formulation showed a reduced auto-oxidation rate, while maintaining low background absorbance relative to the common ferrous-xylenol orange-gelatin gel dosimeter. Compared with undoped ferrous-xylenol orange or ferrous-methylthymol blue gels, the dose sensitivity of the new formulation is approximately 2 to 3 times lower, but remains clinically adequate. A previously unreported dose rate dependence of the dose sensitivity was observed, and a new kinetic model for the signal development postirradiation was used to investigate this effect. Similar dose rate dependences in gels containing either methylthymol blue or xylenol orange, with or without doping with Nn and Gx, were observed, suggesting that the low ferrous ammonium sulfate concentrations used in studied formulations were responsible for this effect. A multifactorial design of experiments and a new kinetic model for the signal development postirradiation were successfully employed to optimize the composition and characterize the properties of a new ferrous-methylthymol blue-gelatin gel

  5. A rapid, simple questionnaire to assess gastrointestinal symptoms after oral ferrous sulphate supplementation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira, Dora I A; Couto Irving, Susana S; Lomer, Miranda C E; Powell, Jonathan J

    2014-06-04

    Oral iron supplementation is often associated with rapid onset of gastrointestinal side-effects. The aim of this study was to develop and trial a short, simple questionnaire to capture these early side-effects and to determine which symptoms are more discriminating. The study was a double-blind placebo-controlled randomized parallel trial with one week treatment followed by one week wash-out. Subjects were randomized into two treatment groups (n = 10/group) to receive either ferrous sulphate (200 mg capsules containing 65 mg of iron) or placebo, both to be taken at mealtimes twice daily during the treatment period. Subjects completed the questionnaires daily for 14 days. The questionnaire included gastrointestinal symptoms commonly reported to be associated with the oral intake of ferrous iron salts (i.e. nausea, vomiting, heartburn, abdominal pain, diarrhoea, and constipation). Seventy five per cent of participants reporting the presence of one or more symptoms in the first week of the study were in the ferrous sulphate group. In the second week of the study (i.e. wash-out), 67% of the participants reporting one or more symptom(s) were in the ferrous sulphate group. In the first week of the study (treatment) the number of symptoms reported by participants in the ferrous sulphate group (mean ± SEM = 6.7 ± 1.7) was significantly higher than that for participants in the placebo group (1.2 ± 0.5) (p = 0.01). In the second week of the study (wash-out) the number of symptoms reported by participants in the ferrous sulphate group (4.6 ± 2.0) appeared higher than for participants in the placebo group (1.0 ± 0.7) although this did not reach significance (p = 0.12). Events for which the gastrointestinal symptom questionnaire was most discriminatory between ferrous sulphate and placebo groups were: heartburn, abdominal pain and the presence of black stools (all p ≤ 0.03). A tool for the detection of commonly-occurring side

  6. Phase diagram of FeNiCoAlTaB ferrous shape memory alloy on aging time

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhijian Zhou

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Ferrous shape memory alloy, Fe41Ni28Co17Al11.5Ta2.5B0.05, has shown large superelastic strain and strength in previous study. In the fabrication of this alloy, aging process is crucial for the formation of shape memory effect/superelasticity. However, its phase evolution on aging time is not clearly known. In this study, we systematically studied the phase diagram of this alloy on aging time. It is found that the unaged alloy shows a strain glass transition. With the aging time proceeding, the martensitic transformation gradually emerges. The phase diagram can be explained by the formation of coherent precipitates induced by aging. The heterogeneous strain between coherent precipitates and matrix is the driving force responsible for the emerging martensitic transformation. The generic explanation is supposed to be useful in martensitic transformation engineering for developing novel shape memory alloys from non-transforming materials.

  7. Enhancement of the photocatalytic activity of Ferrous Oxide by doping onto the nano-clinoptilolite particles towards photodegradation of tetracycline.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nezamzadeh-Ejhieh, Alireza; Shirzadi, Arezoo

    2014-07-01

    Photodegradation of tetracycline (TC) aqueous solution by FeO doped onto nano-clinoptilolite particles was investigated using a high pressure Hg lamp as radiation source. Nano-particles of clinoptilolite were prepared using ball-milling of micro crystals of zeolite. The pretreated nano-particles ion exchanged in a ferrous solution and the Fe(II)-exchanged form was calcined at 450°C. All samples were characterized by FT-IR, DRS, SEM and XRD. The degradation extent was determined via UV-Vis absorption spectroscopy and COD. Based on the study of the effect of key operating parameters, the optimal conditions were determined to reach the higher efficiency of the process. The best photocatalytic activity was obtained in presence of the catalyst containing 5.4% FeO.

  8. Oxidation of ferrous nitrilotriacetic acid with oxygen : A model for oxygen mass transfer parallel to reaction kinetics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Demmink, JF; Beenackers, AACM

    1997-01-01

    The kinetics of the reaction of ferrous chelate of nitrilotriacetic acid (NTA) and gaseous oxygen were studied in a stirred-cell reactor. The initial concentration of ferrous chelate was 0.100 kmol/m(3). Other reaction conditions include 293

  9. National Development and Reform Commission reported that the profit of non-ferrous metal industry decreases by 7%

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    <正>On July 14th,National Development and Re- form Commission issued the economic report of the earlier 5 months of non-ferrous metal industry,indicating a decrease in the profit of key non-ferrous metal enterprises.Among the

  10. Efficacy and safety of ferrous asparto glycinate in the management of iron deficiency anaemia in pregnant women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamdi, S P; Palkar, P J

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the present investigation was to compare the efficacy and safety of oral ferrous asparto glycinate and ferrous ascorbate in pregnant women with iron deficiency anaemia (IDA). We performed a double blind, prospective, randomised, multicentre, parallel group comparative clinical study at three different centres in India. A total of 73 pregnant women at 12-26 weeks' gestation were divided into two arms. While one group received ferrous ascorbate, another group was treated with ferrous asparto glycinate for a period of 28 days. The mean rise in haemoglobin and ferritin levels on day 14 and 28 was evaluated. At both time points, significantly higher levels of haemoglobin and ferritin were noticed with ferrous asparto glycinate treatment as compared with ferrous ascorbate. Our results showed that ferrous asparto glycinate is an effective iron-amino acid chelate in the management of IDA in pregnant women as compared with ferrous ascorbate. Nevertheless, additional large scale prospective, randomised trials are warranted to confirm the findings of the present efficacy trial, and also to find out the anaemia eradication rate.

  11. Oxidation of ferrous nitrilotriacetic acid with oxygen : A model for oxygen mass transfer parallel to reaction kinetics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Demmink, J.F; Beenackers, A.A C M

    1997-01-01

    The kinetics of the reaction of ferrous chelate of nitrilotriacetic acid (NTA) and gaseous oxygen were studied in a stirred-cell reactor. The initial concentration of ferrous chelate was 0.100 kmol/m(3). Other reaction conditions include 293

  12. Mono- and bis-phosphine-ligated H93G myoglobin: spectral models for ferrous-phosphine and ferrous-CO cytochrome P450.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Shengfang; Sono, Masanori; Dawson, John H

    2013-10-01

    To further investigate the properties of phosphines as structural and functional probes of heme proteins, mono- and bis-phosphine [tris(hydroxymethyl)phosphine, THMP] adducts of H93G myoglobin (Mb) have been prepared by stepwise THMP titrations of exogenous ligand-free ferric and ferrous H93G Mb, respectively. Bubbling with CO or stepwise titration with imidazole (Im) of the bis-THMP-ligated ferrous protein generated a mixed ligand (THMP/CO or THMP/Im, respectively) ferrous complexes. Stable oxyferrous H93G(THMP) Mb was formed at -40°C by bubbling the mono-THMP-Fe(II) protein with O2. A THMP-ligated ferryl H93G Mb moiety has been partially formed upon addition of H2O2 to the ferric mono-THMP adduct. All the species prepared above have been characterized with UV-visible (UV-vis) absorption and magnetic circular dichroism (MCD) spectroscopy in this study. The six-coordinate ferrous bis-phosphine and mono-phosphine/CO complexes of H93G Mb exhibit characteristic spectral features (red-shifted Soret/unique-shaped MCD visible bands and hyperporphyrin spectra, respectively) that only have been seen for the analogous phosphine or CO-complexes of thiolate-ligated heme proteins such as cytochrome P450 (P450) and Caldariomyces fumago chloroperoxidase (CPO). However, such resemblance is not seen in phosphine-ligated ferric H93G Mb even though phosphine-bound ferric P450 and CPO display hyperporphyrin spectra. In fact, bis-THMP-bound ferric H93G Mb exhibits MCD and UV-vis absorption spectra that are similar to those of bis-amine- and bis-thioether-ligated H93G Mb complexes. This study also further demonstrates the utility of the H93G cavity mutant for preparing novel heme iron coordination structures. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Fuel resources and their influence on emission from the plants of the Ministry of Metallurgy and Mechanical Engineering. [Czechoslovakia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moucha, B.

    1986-02-01

    Environmental pollution in Czechoslovakia and pollution from metallurgy are discussed. Environmental pollution from metallurgical plants in Czechoslovakia is influenced by types of fuels used by this branch of the national economy. From 1980 to 1990 proportion of solid fuels in the energy balance of metallurgy will increase from 67.5% to 82.5%, proportion of liquid fuels will decrease from 14.2% to 5.3%, proportion of gaseous fuels will increase from 9.3% to 12.2%. Increasing role of coal or coke in metallurgy causes an increase in environmental pollution, especially emission of sulfur dioxide, while increasing consumption of gaseous fuels reduces environmental pollution. Decrease in crude oil consumption reduces hazards of water pollution by oils. Sources of air pollution by dusts and gases in metallurgy are analyzed: agglomeration, coking plants, blast furnaces, steel works, power plants. Dust, sulfur dioxide, carbon monoxide and nitrogen oxides emitted by each type of plant are analyzed. Effects of air pollution control on air pollution from metallurgy in Czechoslovakia are discussed. Statistical data on air pollution are shown in 4 tables.

  14. The wear properties of in-situ 7075 Al-Ti composites produced by powder metallurgy route

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ay, H.; Özyurek, D.; Yıldırım, M.; Bostan, B.

    2016-04-01

    In this study, the wear properties of in-situ 7075 Al-Ti composites produced by powder metallurgy route were investigated. Different amount of Ti (2, 4, 6 %) added to gas atomized 7075 Al alloy powders and they were mixed in turbula with 47rpm for 45 minutes. Then the mixed powders were pre-shaped by press under 600 MPa pressure. The samples were cooled in the furnace after sintered at 580 °C for 4 hours in the atmosphere controlled furnace. Standard metallographic process such as grinding, polishing and etching were applied to sintered samples. The hardness values were measured. Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM), X-Ray Diffraction (XRD) examines were carried out. The wear tests were performed in a pin-on disc type wear apparatus with 1 ms-1 sliding speed at six different sliding distance (500-3000 m) under 30 N loads. As a result of studies, hardness values were increased with increasing Ti content, in addition the weight losses were decreased with increasing Ti amount.

  15. δ-TRIP steel:Physical and mechanical metallurgy%δ-TRIP钢的物理与力学冶金

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    易红亮; 陈蓬; 王国栋; 马鸣图

    2014-01-01

    δ-相变诱发塑性(TRIP)钢具有高的强韧性,可达到第三代汽车钢性能要求,且可电阻点焊,是一种新型的具有较高产业化前景的先进汽车钢。主要阐述了δ-TRIP钢的发展、组织与性能、相变与组织演化机理、强韧性机理、电阻点焊工艺与物理冶金机理。%δ-transformation induced plasticity(TRIP) steel has performed high strength combined with excellent ductility , which satisfy the requirements for the third generation advance steels for automotive application. In addition ,it could to be spot welded. It ’s high potential to be industrialized for both manufacture and automotive application. The develop-ment ofδ-TRIP,microstructure and mechanical properties,transformation and microstructure evolution,strength and toughness mechanism will be reviewed. The process and physical metal-lurgy for resistance spot welding will be discussed as well.

  16. Oxidation behavior and mechanism of powder metallurgy Rene95 nickel based superalloy between 800 and 1000 deg. C

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zheng Lei, E-mail: zhenglei_ustb@sina.com [School of Materials Science and Engineering, University of Science and Technology Beijing, Beijing 10083 (China); Zhang Maicang; Dong Jianxin [School of Materials Science and Engineering, University of Science and Technology Beijing, Beijing 10083 (China)

    2010-10-01

    The oxidation behaviors of powder metallurgy (PM) Rene95 Ni-based superalloy in the temperature range of 800-1000 deg. C are investigated in air by virtue of isothermal oxidation testing, X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy and energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy. The results show that the oxidation kinetics follows a square power law as the time extends at each temperature. The oxidation layers are detected to be composed of Cr{sub 2}O{sub 3}, TiO{sub 2} and a small amount of NiCr{sub 2}O{sub 4}. The cross-sectional morphologies indicate that the oxidation layer consists of three parts: Cr-rich oxide layer, Cr and Ti duplex oxide layer, and oxidation affected zone. Theoretical analyses of oxidation kinetics and thicknesses of oxidation layers confirm that the activation energy of oxidation of PM Rene95 superalloy is 165.32 kJ mol{sup -1} and the oxidation process is controlled by diffusions of oxygen, Cr, and Ti. Accordingly, a diffusion-controlled mechanism is suggested to understand the oxidation behaviors of PM Rene95 superalloy at elevated temperatures.

  17. The Los Alamos National Laboratory Chemistry and Metallurgy Research Facility upgrades project - A model for waste minimization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burns, M.L.; Durrer, R.E.; Kennicott, M.A.

    1996-07-01

    The Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) Chemistry and Metallurgy Research (CMR) Facility, constructed in 1952, is currently undergoing a major, multi-year construction project. Many of the operations required under this project (i.e., design, demolition, decontamination, construction, and waste management) mimic the processes required of a large scale decontamination and decommissioning (D&D) job and are identical to the requirements of any of several upgrades projects anticipated for LANL and other Department of Energy (DOE) sites. For these reasons the CMR Upgrades Project is seen as an ideal model facility - to test the application, and measure the success of - waste minimization techniques which could be brought to bear on any of the similar projects. The purpose of this paper will be to discuss the past, present, and anticipated waste minimization applications at the facility and will focus on the development and execution of the project`s {open_quotes}Waste Minimization/Pollution Prevention Strategic Plan.{close_quotes}

  18. USSR Report, Materials Science and Metallurgy, No. 90

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-11-02

    I68O-289 and PN-1 polyester resin "based on cobalt naphthenate and cumene hydroperoxide. At slight angles of reinforcement it was found that wrapping...when rock is heated by a laser beam include chemical reactions , phase transitions and destructive processes. Absorption of light and fracture of...anode solution processes, such as hydrolysis. The possibility of chemical reaction of the oxidizer and the metal surface must also be con- sidered

  19. Effect of purification pretreatment on the recovery of magnetite from waste ferrous sulfate

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wang Yu; Ying-lin Peng; Ya-jie Zheng

    2016-01-01

    The present study was conducted to elucidate the influence of impurities in waste ferrous sulfate on its recovery of magnetite. Ferrous sulfate solution was purified by the addition of NaOH solution to precipitate impurities, and magnetite was recovered from fer-rous sulfate solution without and with purification pretreatment. Calcium hydroxide was added to the solution of ferrous sulfate as a pre-cipitator. A mixed product of magnetite and gypsum was subsequently obtained by air oxidation and heating. Wet-milling was performed prior to magnetic separation to recover magnetite from the mixed products. The results show that with the purification pretreatment, the grade of iron in magnetite concentrate increased from 62.05%to 65.58%and the recovery rate of iron decreased from 85.35%to 80.35%. The pu-rification pretreatment reduced the conglutination between magnetite and gypsum, which favors their subsequent magnetic separation. In summary, a higher-grade magnetite with a better crystallinity and a larger particle size of 2.35 μm was obtained with the purification pretreatment.

  20. Improvements in separation of non-ferrous scrap metals using an electromagnetic sensor

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mesina, M.B.; De Jong, T.P.R.; Dalmijn, W.L.

    2003-01-01

    This article describes a new method for identification and separation of non-ferrous scrap metals using an electromagnetic sensor that is based on the eddy current principle. The electromagnetic sensor (EMS) is a prototype system that has been developed by Delft University of Technology in co-operat

  1. Stabilization of Pb and As in soils by applying combined treatment with phosphates and ferrous iron.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xenidis, Anthimos; Stouraiti, Christina; Papassiopi, Nymphodora

    2010-05-15

    The chemical immobilization of Pb and As in contaminated soil from Lavrion, Greece, using monocalcium phosphate and ferrous sulfate as stabilizing agents was investigated. Monocalcium phosphate was added to contaminated soil at PO(4) to Pb molar ratios equal to 0, 0.5, 1, 1.5 and 2.5, whereas ferrous sulfate was added at Fe to As molar ratios equal to 0, 2.5, 5, 10 and 20. Phosphates addition to contaminated soil decreased Pb leachability, but resulted in significant mobilization of As. Simultaneous immobilization of Pb and As was obtained only when soil was treated with mixtures of phosphates and ferrous sulfate. Arsenic uptake by plants was also seen to increase when soil was treated only with phosphates, but co-addition of ferrous sulfate was efficient in maintaining As phytoaccumulation at low levels. The addition of at least 1.5M/M phosphates and 10M/M iron sulfate to soil reduced the dissolved levels of Pb and As in the water extracts to values in compliance with the EU drinking water standards. However, both additives contributed in the acidification of soil, decreasing pH from 7.8 to values as low as 5.6 and induced the mobilization of pH sensitive elements, such as Zn and Cd.

  2. Microbial Fuel Cell Operation with Continuous Biological Ferrous Iron Oxidation of the Catholyte

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heijne, ter A.; Hamelers, H.V.M.; Buisman, C.J.N.

    2007-01-01

    The oxygen reduction rate at the cathode is a limiting factor in microbial fuel cell (MFC) performance. In our previous study, we showed the performance of an MFC with ferric iron (Fe3+) reduction at the cathode. Instead of oxygen, ferric iron was reduced to ferrous iron (Fe2+) at the cathode with a

  3. Wear resistance of alloy вт-22 with non-ferrous alloys at reverse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    А.М. Хімко

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available  The article presents the results of tests of non hardened titanium alloy ВТ-22 with aviation non-ferrous alloys in reverse sliding friction. The main objective of the work is the selection of the optimum combination of materials depending on changes in loading conditions. Study of alloy ВТ-22 wear resistance was carried out in pairs with БрОФ-10-1, БрБ2, БрАЖ-9-4, ВТ-22, МЛ5, Д16Т, 7Х21ГАН5Ш and 95Х18Ш. The dependencies of the materials wear at pressures 10, 20 and 30 Mpa we determined. The linear nature of titanium alloy wear curves indicates that the change in the wear mechanism occurs gradually. The histograms of non-ferrous materials wear and the total wear of the friction pair are presented. It is established that the bronze БрАЖ-9-4 is the most preferable material for contact with non hardened titanium alloy ВТ-22, the least wear among the tested materials. The established coefficients of the titanium alloy ВТ-22 friction in pair with aviation structural non-ferrous alloys are presented. The results of research will be relevant for the engineering industry, where non hardened titanium alloy ВТ-22 in pair with non-ferrous alloys is applied.

  4. Effect of purification pretreatment on the recovery of magnetite from waste ferrous sulfate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Wang; Peng, Ying-lin; Zheng, Ya-jie

    2016-08-01

    The present study was conducted to elucidate the influence of impurities in waste ferrous sulfate on its recovery of magnetite. Ferrous sulfate solution was purified by the addition of NaOH solution to precipitate impurities, and magnetite was recovered from ferrous sulfate solution without and with purification pretreatment. Calcium hydroxide was added to the solution of ferrous sulfate as a precipitator. A mixed product of magnetite and gypsum was subsequently obtained by air oxidation and heating. Wet-milling was performed prior to magnetic separation to recover magnetite from the mixed products. The results show that with the purification pretreatment, the grade of iron in magnetite concentrate increased from 62.05% to 65.58% and the recovery rate of iron decreased from 85.35% to 80.35%. The purification pretreatment reduced the conglutination between magnetite and gypsum, which favors their subsequent magnetic separation. In summary, a higher-grade magnetite with a better crystallinity and a larger particle size of 2.35 μm was obtained with the purification pretreatment.

  5. Trypanosoma brucei brucei: effects of ferrous iron and heme on ecto-nucleoside triphosphate diphosphohydrolase activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leite, Milane S; Thomaz, Rachel; Oliveira, José Henrique M; Oliveira, Pedro L; Meyer-Fernandes, José Roberto

    2009-02-01

    Trypanosoma brucei brucei is the causative agent of animal African trypanosomiasis, also called nagana. Procyclic vector form resides in the midgut of the tsetse fly, which feeds exclusively on blood. Hemoglobin digestion occurs in the midgut resulting in an intense release of free heme. In the present study we show that the magnesium-dependent ecto-nucleoside triphosphate diphosphohydrolase (E-NTPDase) activity of procyclic T. brucei brucei is inhibited by ferrous iron and heme. The inhibition of E-NTPDase activity by ferrous iron, but not by heme, was prevented by pre-incubation of cells with catalase. However, antioxidants that permeate cells, such as PEG-catalase and N-acetyl-cysteine prevented the inhibition of E-NTPDase by heme. Ferrous iron was able to induce an increase in lipid peroxidation, while heme did not. Therefore, both ferrous iron and heme can inhibit E-NTPDase activity of T. brucei brucei by means of formation of reactive oxygen species, but apparently acting through distinct mechanisms.

  6. The structural basis of cephalosporin formation in a mononuclear ferrous enzyme

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Valegård, Karin; Terwisscha van Scheltinga, Anke C.; Dubus, Alain; Ranghino, Graziella; Öster, Linda M.; Hajdu, Janos; Andersson, Inger

    2004-01-01

    Deacetoxycephalosporin-C synthase (DAOCS) is a mononuclear ferrous enzyme that transforms penicillins into cephalosporins by inserting a carbon atom into the penicillin nucleus. In the first half-reaction, dioxygen and 2-oxoglutarate produce a reactive iron-oxygen species, succinate and CO2. The oxi

  7. Anxin Hebei Starts Building the Largest Non Ferrous Metal Market in North China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    <正>On October 28,the Hebei Province Anxin County Non-ferrous Metal Logistics Center Project,a project with a total investment of 220 million yuan and integrating logistics,ware-house,dismantling,and recycling businesses,formally broke ground.,which is the223.68

  8. ANALYSIS OF FERRIC AND FERROUS IONS IN SOIL EXTRACTS BY ION CHROMATOGRAPHY

    Science.gov (United States)

    A method using ion chromatography (IC) for the analysis of ferrous (Fe 2+) and ferric (Fe 3+) ions in soil extracts has been developed. This method uses an ion exchange column with detection at 520 nm after post-column derivatization. Selectivity is achieved by using an anionic...

  9. Shenhuo Group,Yichuan Power and Yulian Group Jointly Establishing Henan Non-ferrous Holding Co.

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    <正>Recently,Shenghuo Group,Yulian Group and Yichuan Power have made the decision to es- tablish Henan Non-ferrous Holding Group with a joint investment of 500 million yuan.It is originally scheduled to complete industrial and commercial registration by the end of June with registration in Zhendong New Area of Zhen- zhou.

  10. Daily home fortification with iron as ferrous fumarate versus NaFeEDTA

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Teshome, Emily M.; Andang'o, Pauline E.A.; Osoti, Victor; Terwel, Sofie R.; Otieno, Walter; Demir, Ayse Y.; Prentice, Andrew M.; Verhoef, Hans

    2017-01-01

    Background: We aimed to show the non-inferiority of home fortification with a daily dose of 3 mg iron in the form of iron as ferric sodium ethylenediaminetetraacetate (NaFeEDTA) compared with 12.5 mg iron as encapsulated ferrous fumarate in Kenyan children aged 12-36 months. In addition, we

  11. Ceric and ferrous dosimeters show precision for 50-5000 rad range

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frigerio, N. A.; Henry, V. D.

    1968-01-01

    Ammonium thiocyanate, added to the usual ferrous sulfate dosimeter solution, yielded a very stable, precise and temperature-independent system eight times as sensitive as the classical Fricke system in the 50 to 5000 rad range. The ceric dosimeters, promising for use in mixed radiation fields, respond nearly independently of LET.

  12. ELECTRODE MEASUREMENT OF REDOX POTENTIAL IN ANAEROBIC FERRIC/FERROUS CHLORIDE SYSTEMS

    Science.gov (United States)

    The behaviour of two inert redox electrodes (Pt and wax-impregnated graphite) was investigated in anaerobic ferrous and ferric chloride solutions in order to establish if these electrodes respond to the Fe3+/Fe2+ couple in a Nernstian manner. A new method fo...

  13. The structural basis of cephalosporin formation in a mononuclear ferrous enzyme

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Valegård, Karin; Terwisscha van Scheltinga, Anke C.; Dubus, Alain; Ranghino, Graziella; Öster, Linda M.; Hajdu, Janos; Andersson, Inger

    2004-01-01

    Deacetoxycephalosporin-C synthase (DAOCS) is a mononuclear ferrous enzyme that transforms penicillins into cephalosporins by inserting a carbon atom into the penicillin nucleus. In the first half-reaction, dioxygen and 2-oxoglutarate produce a reactive iron-oxygen species, succinate and CO2. The

  14. Non-heme iron as ferrous sulfate does not interact with heme iron absorption in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaitán, Diego; Olivares, Manuel; Lönnerdal, Bo; Brito, Alex; Pizarro, Fernando

    2012-12-01

    The absorption of heme iron has been described as distinctly different from that of non-heme iron. Moreover, whether heme and non-heme iron compete for absorption has not been well established. Our objective was to investigate the potential competition between heme and non-heme iron as ferrous sulfate for absorption, when both iron forms are ingested on an empty stomach. Twenty-six healthy nonpregnant women were selected to participate in two iron absorption studies using iron radioactive tracers. We obtained the dose-response curve for absorption of 0.5, 10, 20, and 50 mg heme iron doses, as concentrated red blood cells. Then, we evaluated the absorption of the same doses, but additionally we added non-heme iron, as ferrous sulfate, at constant heme/non-heme iron molar ratio (1:1). Finally, we compare the two curves by a two-way ANOVA. Iron sources were administered on an empty stomach. One factor analysis showed that heme iron absorption was diminished just by increasing total heme iron (P ferrous sulfate did not have any effect on heme iron absorption (P = NS). We reported evidence that heme and non-heme iron as ferrous sulfate does not compete for absorption. The mechanism behind the absorption of these iron sources is not clear.

  15. Compatibility of Anti-Wear Additives with Non-Ferrous Engine Bearing Alloys

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Qu, Jun [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Zhou, Yan [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2017-01-01

    Investigate the compatibility of engine lubricant antiwear (AW) additives, specifically conventional zinc dialkyldithiophosphate (ZDDP) and newly developed ionic liquids (ILs), with selected non-ferrous engine bearing alloys, specifically aluminum and bronze alloys that are commonly used in connecting rod end journal bearings and bushings, to gain fundamental understanding to guide future development of engine lubricants

  16. Improvements in separation of non-ferrous scrap metals using an electromagnetic sensor

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mesina, M.B.; De Jong, T.P.R.; Dalmijn, W.L.

    2003-01-01

    This article describes a new method for identification and separation of non-ferrous scrap metals using an electromagnetic sensor that is based on the eddy current principle. The electromagnetic sensor (EMS) is a prototype system that has been developed by Delft University of Technology in

  17. ANALYSIS OF FERRIC AND FERROUS IONS IN SOIL EXTRACTS BY ION CHROMATOGRAPHY

    Science.gov (United States)

    A method using ion chromatography (IC) for the analysis of ferrous (Fe 2+) and ferric (Fe 3+) ions in soil extracts has been developed. This method uses an ion exchange column with detection at 520 nm after post-column derivatization. Selectivity is achieved by using an anionic...

  18. Rapid die manufacturing - high pressure casting of low volume non ferrous metals components

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Pereira, MFV

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available Pressure Casting of Low Volume Non Ferrous Metals Components Date: 2 November 2006 Slide 2 © CSIR 2006 www.csir.co.za Introduction to RPT • Rapid Prototyping Techniques (RPT) generally used for non functional prototypes • RPT...

  19. Mechanical alloying nanotechnology, materials science and powder metallurgy

    CERN Document Server

    El-Eskandarany, M Sherif

    2015-01-01

    This book is a detailed introduction to mechanical alloying, offering guidelines on the necessary equipment and facilities needed to carry out the process and giving a fundamental background to the reactions taking place. El-Eskandarany, a leading authority on mechanical alloying, discusses the mechanism of powder consolidations using different powder compaction processes. A new chapter will also be included on thermal, mechanically-induced and electrical discharge-assisted mechanical milling. Fully updated to cover recent developments in the field, this second edition also introduces new a

  20. Pharmacokinetics of Ferrous Sulphate (Tardyferon®) after Single Oral Dose Administration in Women with Iron Deficiency Anaemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leary, A; Barthe, L; Clavel, T; Sanchez, C; Oulmi-Castel, M; Paillard, B; Edmond, J M; Brunner, V

    2016-01-01

    Iron-containing preparations available on the market vary in dosage, salt, and chemical state of iron contained in the preparation, as well as in the iron delivery process (immediate or prolonged-release). The present study aimed at characterizing the serum pharmacokinetics of iron in non pregnant women with iron deficiency anaemia (IDA) following a single oral administration of a prolonged-release ferrous sulphate tablet. This multicenter, single dose, open-label study was conducted in 30 women aged between 18 and 45 years with IDA. A single 160 mg oral dose of ferrous sulphate was given as 2 tablets of 80 mg of Tardyferon(®) under fasting conditions. Blood samples were collected before dosing and until 24 h post-dosing. Serum iron concentrations were determined using a routine colorimetric analytical method. Pharmacokinetic parameters were determined from the serum concentration profiles using a non compartmental approach. Serum profiles showed elevated levels of iron up to 12 h after drug intake. The median time to maximum serum concentrations (Tmax) occurred 4 h post-dosing. Between 2 and 8 h post-dosing, mean serum iron concentrations fluctuated by only 20%. Additionally, C8h and C12h represented on average 78.6% and 47.5% of the Cmax, respectively. This study demonstrates that a single oral dose of 160 mg Tardyferon(®) administered under fasting condition to 30 women with IDA leads to an optimal long-lasting release of iron in the gastrointestinal tract in the targeted population. This allows the attainment and maintenance of elevated serum iron levels for up to 12 h after administration. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  1. Nuclear Technology Series. Course 15: Metallurgy and Metals Properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Technical Education Research Center, Waco, TX.

    This technical specialty course is one of thirty-five courses designed for use by two-year postsecondary institutions in five nuclear technician curriculum areas: (1) radiation protection technician, (2) nuclear instrumentation and control technician, (3) nuclear materials processing technician, (4) nuclear quality-assurance/quality-control…

  2. Making Self-Lubricating Parts By Powder Metallurgy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sliney, Harold E.; Dellacorte, Christopher

    1990-01-01

    Compositions and parameters of powder-metallurgical fabrication processes determined for new class of low-friction, low-wear, self-lubricating materials. Used in oxidizing or reducing atmospheres in bearings and seals, at temperatures from below 25 degrees C to as high as 900 degrees C. Thick parts made with minimal waste.

  3. Microstructures and mechanical properties of hot isostatically pressed powder metallurgy Alloy APK-1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prakash, T. L.; Chari, Y. N.; Rao, E. S. Bhagiradha; Thamburaj, R.

    1983-03-01

    The influence of Hot Isostatic Pressing (HIP) and heat treatment parameters on the microstructure and mechanical properties of powder metallurgy alloy APK-1 (a low carbon modification of Astroloy) has been investigated. Poor mechanical properties result if carbide networks are present along the prior particle boundaries (PPBs). These networks which form during powder consolidation can be avoided by manipulating HIP parameters. Heat treatments which produce a large volume fraction of fine γ’ make this alloy susceptible to environment-assisted tensile embrittlement around 760 °C.

  4. Low cycle fatigue improvement of powder metallurgy titanium alloy through thermomechanical treatment

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Bin; LIU Yong; HE Xiao-yu; TANG Hui-ping; CHEN Li-fang

    2008-01-01

    A low-cost β type Ti-1.5Fe-6.8Mo-4.8Al-1.2Nd (mass fraction, %)(T12LCC) alloy was produced by blended elemental powder metallurgy(P/M) method and subsequent thermomechanical treatment. Low cycle fatigue(LCF) behavior of P/M T12LCC alloy before and after thermomechanical treatment was studied. The results show that the LCF resistance of P/M titanium alloy is significantly enhanced through the thermomechanical treatment. The mechanisms for the improvement of LCF behavior are attributed to the elimination of residual pores, the microstructure refining and homogenization.

  5. An Overview of Internal Fixation Implant Metallurgy and Galvanic Corrosion Effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koh, Justin; Berger, Aaron; Benhaim, Prosper

    2015-08-01

    Orthopedic and hand surgery implants for internal fixation of fractures have evolved substantially over the past 50 years. Newer metal compositions have been used, and new standards have been applied to older alloys, resulting in modern implants with unique physical properties and better clinical performances. Conventional wisdom has long dictated that implanting different metals should be avoided, but few guidelines exist regarding the safety of using in proximity implant systems of dissimilar metals. To better characterize the landscape of internal fixation implant metallurgy, we have compiled the recommendations and conclusions of the currently available and pertinent literature.

  6. A TECHNIQUE FOR IMPROVING THE TOUGHNESS OF Al-Li POWDER METALLURGY ALLOYS

    OpenAIRE

    1987-01-01

    A technique has been developed for increasing the toughness of Al-Li products made by powder metallurgy. The technique which involves the addition of unalloyed aluminum powder to Al-Li powder before compaction was evaluated with Al-Li-Cu-Mg-Zr alloys (Al 8090), and Al-Li-Zn-Cu-Mg-Zr and Al-Li-Mg-Si-Cr alloys . The addition of 15% aluminum to Al 8090 aged at 422K for 40 h produced an increase in impact toughness of 215% at the expense of a drop in yield strength of 11%. The Al-Li-Mg-Si-Cr allo...

  7. Functional dependency between the logistics security system and the MySAP ERP in metallurgy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Ranitović

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available MySAP ERP - Enterprise Resource Planning (system - solution which provides a whole set of functions for the business analytics, finance, human resources management, logistics and corporate services has developed from SAP R/3. It is one of the main products of the SAP AG German multinational company and as such, it is a very important element of the international industrial and technological security system. By defining the functional dependency between the security systems (logistics security systems and the IT (My SAP ERP systems in metallurgy, a concept for designing MY SAP ERP system in metallurgic industry is defined, based on the security aspects.

  8. Physical metallurgy: Scientific school of the Academician V.M. Schastlivtsev

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tabatchikova, T. I.

    2016-04-01

    This paper is to honor Academician Vadim Mikhailovich Schastlivtsev, a prominent scientist in the field of metal physics and materials science. The article comprises an analysis of the topical issues of the physical metallurgy of the early 21st century and of the contribution of V.M. Schastlivtsev and of his school to the science of phase and structural transformations in steels. In 2015, Vadim Mikhailovich celebrates his 80th birthday, and this paper is timed to this honorable date. The list of his main publications is given in it.

  9. 粉末冶金凸轮轴信号盘的研发%The Reseach of Powder Metallurgy Camshaft Signal-plate

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    闫大方

    2013-01-01

    根据产品的结构及使用工况情况,合理运用粉末冶金成形和烧结原理,实现了上二下三凸轮轴信号盘的自动成形、自动整形;正确选用材质以及工艺,使产品尺寸、性能满足了工况使用要求。%According to the structure and working product condition, it rationally use of powder metallurgy forming and sintering theory. It realize over two three camshaft signal wheel automatic shaping and automatic forming. Due to the correct selection of materials and process,the size of products, meet the conditions of used requirements.

  10. Structural and mechanical behaviour of 5% Al2O3-reinforced Fe metal matrix composites (MMCs) produced by powder metallurgy (P/M) route

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Pallav Gupta; Devendra Kumar; Om Parkash; A K Jha

    2013-10-01

    The aim of this paper is to investigate the effect of sintering temperature and time on the properties of Fe–Al2O3 composite (5 wt% Al2O3; 95 wt% Fe) prepared by powder metallurgy process. X-ray diffraction, microstructure, density, hardness and compressive strength of prepared samples have been investigated. XRD studies show the presence of Fe and Al2O3 along with iron aluminate phase. Iron aluminate is formed as a result of reactive sintering between iron and alumina particles. Microstructural examination of the specimen showed a dense structure with nanosize dispersion of the reinforcement of ceramic phase. Density as well as hardness of specimens depend on the formation of iron aluminate phase, which in turn depends on sintering temperature and time.

  11. Physical and mechanical metallurgy of NiAl

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noebe, Ronald D.; Bowman, Randy R.; Nathal, Michael V.

    1994-01-01

    Considerable research has been performed on NiAl over the last decade, with an exponential increase in effort occurring over the last few years. This is due to interest in this material for electronic, catalytic, coating and especially high-temperature structural applications. This report uses this wealth of new information to develop a complete description of the properties and processing of NiAl and NiAl-based materials. Emphasis is placed on the controlling fracture and deformation mechanisms of single and polycrystalline NiAl and its alloys over the entire range of temperatures for which data are available. Creep, fatigue, and environmental resistance of this material are discussed. In addition, issues surrounding alloy design, development of NiAl-based composites, and materials processing are addressed.

  12. [Measurement of chemical agents in metallurgy field: electric steel plant].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cottica, D; Grignani, E; Ghitti, R; Festa, D; Apostoli, P

    2012-01-01

    The steel industry maintains its important position in the context of the Italian production involving thousands of workers. The iron and steel processes are divided into primary steel industry, production of intermediate minerals, and secondary steel, scrap from the production of semi-finished industrial and consumer sector (metal inserted into components and metal used for dissipative uses, primarily coatings) and industrial waste. The paper presents the results of environmental monitoring carried out in some electric steel plant for the measurement of airborne chemicals that characterize the occupational exposure of workers employed in particular area like electric oven, to treatment outside the furnace, continuous casting area. For the sampling of the pollutants were used both personal and in fixed positions samplers. The pollutants measured are those typical of steel processes inhalable dust, metals, respirable dust, crystalline silica, but also Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAH), polychlorinated dioxins (PCDDs) and polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFs).

  13. Solvent extraction:The coordination chemistry behind extractive metallurgy

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    The modes of action of the commercial solvent extractants used in extractive hydrometallurgy are classified according to whether the recovery process involves the transport of metal cations, Mn+, metalate anions, MXxn-, or metal salts, MXx into a water-immiscible solvent. Well-established principles of coordination chemistry provide an explanation for the remarkable strengths and selectivities shown by most of these extractants. Reagents which achieve high selectivity when transporting metal ...

  14. Production and Physical Metallurgy of Pure Metals. Part 2

    Science.gov (United States)

    1960-07-05

    iodides, Cr13 and CRI, are unstable at room temperature and their properties were not studied. We have studied the formation and the behavior of chromium...complete or humidity penetrates the flask -- chromium crystallization on the filament becomes different. In this case, dendrites, single stalactite ...number decreases. Chromium crystals, during the process of their formation , take on different but regular formu. If additional crystallization centers

  15. Cultivable diversity of thermophilic arsenite/ferrous-oxidizing microorganisms in hot springs of Taiwan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, G.; Lin, Y.; Chang, Y.; Wang, P.; Lin, L.

    2009-12-01

    Elevated levels of arsenic in groundwater and surface water bodies have posed a stringent threat to the deterioration of the water quality for drinking and agriculture purposes around the world. In particular, arsenic liberated from volcanic and sedimentary rocks at high temperatures would be immobilized through adsorption on iron oxide and/or crystallization of iron-bearing minerals downstream at low temperatures. Understanding how microbially-catalytic reactions are involved in the changes of the redox state of arsenic and iron along a flow path would provide important constraints on the arsenic mobility in natural occurrences. The aims of this study were to isolate and characterize thermophilic arsenite- and iron-oxidizing microbes that would facilitate to establish the linkages between microbial distribution and in situ Fe/As cycling processes. Four source waters (LH05, LH08, SYK and MT) from acid-sulfate springs (pH 2-3, 60-97oC) located in the Tatun volcanic area of northern Taiwan were collected and inoculated into media targeting on autotrophic ferrous iron (FC3), arsenite (AC3 ,ACC3, AC7, ACC7), arsenite-resistant hydrogen (AH23), arsenite-resistant hydrogen-sulfur (AH2S3), and arsenite-resistant sulfur oxidations(AS3), and heterotrophic arsenite oxidation(AH3, AH7) at pH 3, and 7 at temperatures of 50, 70 and 80oC. Samples from the Kuantzuling mud springs (KTL) in southwestern Taiwan known with elevated arsenic levels (0.4 ppm) were also collected, inoculated into the heterotrophic medium and incubated at 50, 60, 70 and 80oC. Isolates obtained from KTL were subject to test on the AH7 and ACC7. Two positive enrichments for iron oxidation at 50oC and 70oC were confirmed by the steadily decrease of ferrous iron and increase of precipitates over 4 transfers for samples from the SYK spring. Diverse morphological types of microbes were enriched in all types of arsenite-bearing media at 50oC except for AH23. At 70oC, positive enrichments were found in media

  16. Preparation and Bioavailability Analysis of Ferrous Bis Alanine Chelate as a New Micronutrient for Treatment of Iron Deficiency Anemia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zargaran, Marzieh; Saadat, Ebrahim; Dinarvand, Rassoul; Sharifzadeh, Mohammad; Dorkoosh, Farid

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: One of the most nutritional disorders around the world is iron deficiency. A novel iron compound was synthesized by chelating ferrous ions with alanine for prevention and treatment of iron deficiency anemia. Methods: The newly synthesized compound was characterized both qualitatively and quantitatively by Fourier Transform Infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy. The bioavailability of newly synthesized iron micronutrient was evaluated in four groups of Wistar rats. The group I was a negative control group and the other three groups received three different iron formulations. After 14 days, the blood samples were taken and analyzed accordingly. Results: Calculations showed that more than 91.8% of iron was incorporated in the chelate formulation. In vivo studies showed that serum iron, total iron binding capacity and hemoglobin concentrations were significantly increased in group IV, which received ferrous bis alanine chelate compared with the negative control group (p<0.05) and also group II, which received ferrous sulfate.7H2O (p<0.05). It indicates that the new formulation considerably improves the blood iron status compared with the conventional iron compounds. There were no significant differences (p<0.05) in the serum iron between group IV and group III, which received ferrous bis glycine. Conclusion: The results showed better bioavailability of ferrous bis alanine as a new micronutrient for treatment of iron deficiency anemia in comparison with ferrous sulfate. Ferrous bis alanine could be considered as a suitable supplement for prevention and treatment of iron deficiency anemia. PMID:27766225

  17. The Effects of Nanoparticles Containing Iron on Blood and Inflammatory Markers in Comparison to Ferrous Sulfate in Anemic Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shafie, Elaheh Honarkar; Keshavarz, Seyed Ali; Kefayati, Mohammad Esmaiel; Taheri, Fatemeh; Sarbakhsh, Parvin; Vafa, Mohammad Reza

    2016-01-01

    Ferrous sulfate is the most used supplement for treating anemia, but it can result in unfavorable side effects. Nowadays, nanotechnology is used as a way to increase bioavailability and decrease the side effects of drugs and nutrients. This study investigates the effects of nanoparticles containing iron on blood and inflammatory markers in comparison to ferrous sulfate in anemic rats. To induce the model of hemolytic anemia, 50 mg/kg bw phenylhydrazine was injected intraperitoneally in rats on the 1(st) day and 25 mg/kg bw for the four following days. Then, rats were randomly divided into five groups. No material was added to the nipple of the Group 1 (control). Group 2 received 0.4 mg/day nanoparticles of iron; Group 3 received 0.4 mg/day ferrous sulfate, and Groups 4 and 5 received double dose of iron nanoparticle and ferrous sulfate, respectively for ten days. Hemoglobin and red blood cell (RBC) in Group 2 were significantly higher than Group 3 (P ferrous sulfate with similar doses (P ferrous sulfate, but this did not occur for the double dose. Furthermore, both doses of nanoparticles caused lower inflammation than ferrous sulfate.

  18. Physical metallurgy of BATMAN II Ti-bearing martensitic steels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pilloni, L.; Attura, F.; Calza-Bini, A.; Santis, G. de; Filacchioni, G. [ENEA, Casaccia (Italy). Dipt. Innovazione; Carosi, A.; Amato, S. [Centro Sviluppo Materiali, Rome (Italy)

    1998-10-01

    Seven laboratory experimental casts of 7-9% Cr Ti-bearing martensitic steels were obtained via VIM process. Plates of 25 mm thickness were produced by hot rolling. On each cast CCT diagrams and critical temperatures were determined. Several austenitizing treatments were performed to study the grain size evolution. The effect of microstructure on impact properties were finally investigated. This paper discusses the role of chemical composition on microstructural and physical properties and shows the beneficial effect either of low-temperature austenitizing or double-austenitizing steps on impact properties. (orig.) 14 refs.

  19. JPRS Report, Science & Technology, Japan, Powder Metallurgy Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-11-02

    satisfactory. lmm Figure 2. Photo of a tape wire cross-section The Jc was measured in liquid helium and liquid nitrogen by making four terminals on the...case, BaCOß precipitates and deposits when C02 exists in the atmosphere. At above 90°C, Ba2Cu(OH)6 was also formed. Since the droplet undergoes...YBa2_xKxCu307_5 was prepared by the following process. Barium carbonate (BaCOß), potassium carbonate (K2CO3), yttrium oxide (Y203) and cupric oxide (CuO

  20. [Use of ionizing radiation sources in metallurgy: risk assessment].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giugni, U

    2012-01-01

    Use of ionizing radiation sources in the metallurgical industry: risk assessment. Radioactive sources and fixed or mobile X-ray equipment are used for both process and quality control. The use of ionizing radiation sources requires careful risk assessment. The text lists the characteristics of the sources and the legal requirements, and contains a description of the documentation required and the methods used for risk assessment. It describes how to estimate the doses to operators and the relevant classification criteria used for the purpose of radiation protection. Training programs must be organized in close collaboration between the radiation protection expert and the occupational physician.