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Sample records for ferrous nitrosylated human

  1. O{sub 2}-mediated oxidation of ferrous nitrosylated human serum heme-albumin is limited by nitrogen monoxide dissociation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ascenzi, Paolo, E-mail: ascenzi@uniroma3.it [Interdepartmental Laboratory of Electron Microscopy, University Roma Tre, Via della Vasca Navale 79, I-00146 Roma (Italy); National Institute for Infectious Diseases I.R.C.C.S. ' Lazzaro Spallanzani' , Via Portuense 292, I-00149 Roma (Italy); Gullotta, Francesca; Gioia, Magda; Coletta, Massimo [Department of Experimental Medicine and Biochemical Sciences, University of Roma ' Tor Vergata' , Via Montpellier 1, I-00133 Roma (Italy); Interuniversity Consortium for the Research on the Chemistry of Metals in Biological Systems, Piazza Umberto I 1, I-87100 Bari (Italy); Fasano, Mauro [Department of Structural and Functional Biology, and Center of Neuroscience, University of Insubria, Via Alberto da Giussano 12a, I-21052 Busto Arsizio, VA (Italy)

    2011-03-04

    Research highlights: {yields} Human serum heme-albumin displays globin-like properties. {yields} O{sub 2}-mediated oxidation of ferrous nitrosylated human serum heme-albumin. {yields} Allosteric modulation of human serum heme-albumin reactivity. {yields} Rifampicin is an allosteric effector of human serum heme-albumin. {yields} Human serum heme-albumin is a ROS and NOS scavenger. -- Abstract: Human serum heme-albumin (HSA-heme-Fe) displays globin-like properties. Here, kinetics of O{sub 2}-mediated oxidation of ferrous nitrosylated HSA-heme-Fe (HSA-heme-Fe(II)-NO) is reported. Values of the first-order rate constants for O{sub 2}-mediated oxidation of HSA-heme-Fe(II)-NO (i.e., for ferric HSA-heme-Fe formation) and for NO dissociation from HSA-heme-Fe(II)-NO (i.e., for NO replacement by CO) are k = 9.8 x 10{sup -5} and 8.3 x 10{sup -4} s{sup -1}, and h = 1.3 x 10{sup -4} and 8.5 x 10{sup -4} s{sup -1}, in the absence and presence of rifampicin, respectively, at pH = 7.0 and T = 20.0 {sup o}C. The coincidence of values of k and h indicates that NO dissociation represents the rate limiting step of O{sub 2}-mediated oxidation of HSA-heme-Fe(II)-NO. Mixing HSA-heme-Fe(II)-NO with O{sub 2} does not lead to the formation of the transient adduct(s), but leads to the final ferric HSA-heme-Fe derivative. These results reflect the fast O{sub 2}-mediated oxidation of ferrous HSA-heme-Fe and highlight the role of drugs in modulating allosterically the heme-Fe-atom reactivity.

  2. Nitrosothiol-Trapping-Based Proteomic Analysis of S-Nitrosylation in Human Lung Carcinoma Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ben-Lulu, Shani; Ziv, Tamar; Weisman-Shomer, Pnina; Benhar, Moran

    2017-01-01

    Nitrosylation of cysteines residues (S-nitrosylation) mediates many of the cellular effects of nitric oxide in normal and diseased cells. Recent research indicates that S-nitrosylation of certain proteins could play a role in tumor progression and responsiveness to therapy. However, the protein targets of S-nitrosylation in cancer cells remain largely unidentified. In this study, we used our recently developed nitrosothiol trapping approach to explore the nitrosoproteome of human A549 lung carcinoma cells treated with S-nitrosocysteine or pro-inflammatory cytokines. Using this approach, we identified about 300 putative nitrosylation targets in S-nitrosocysteine-treated A549 cells and approximately 400 targets in cytokine-stimulated cells. Among the more than 500 proteins identified in the two screens, the majority represent novel targets of S-nitrosylation, as revealed by comparison with publicly available nitrosoproteomic data. By coupling the trapping procedure with differential thiol labeling, we identified nearly 300 potential nitrosylation sites in about 150 proteins. The proteomic results were validated for several proteins by an independent approach. Bioinformatic analysis highlighted important cellular pathways that are targeted by S-nitrosylation, notably, cell cycle and inflammatory signaling. Taken together, our results identify new molecular targets of nitric oxide in lung cancer cells and suggest that S-nitrosylation may regulate signaling pathways that are critically involved in lung cancer progression. PMID:28081246

  3. Protective role of Cys-178 against the inactivation and oligomerization of human insulin-degrading enzyme by oxidation and nitrosylation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ralat, Luis A; Ren, Min; Schilling, Alexander B; Tang, Wei-Jen

    2009-12-01

    Insulin-degrading enzyme (IDE), a 110-kDa metalloendopeptidase, hydrolyzes several physiologically relevant peptides, including insulin and amyloid-beta (Abeta). Human IDE has 13 cysteines and is inhibited by hydrogen peroxide and S-nitrosoglutathione (GSNO), donors of reactive oxygen and nitrogen species, respectively. Here, we report that the oxidative burst of BV-2 microglial cells leads to oxidation or nitrosylation of secreted IDE, leading to the reduced activity. Hydrogen peroxide and GSNO treatment of IDE reduces the V(max) for Abeta degradation, increases IDE oligomerization, and decreases IDE thermostability. Additionally, this inhibitory response of IDE is substrate-dependent, biphasic for Abeta degradation but monophasic for a shorter bradykinin-mimetic substrate. Our mutational analysis of IDE and peptide mass fingerprinting of GSNO-treated IDE using Fourier transform-ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometer reveal a surprising interplay of Cys-178 with Cys-110 and Cys-819 for catalytic activity and with Cys-789 and Cys-966 for oligomerization. Cys-110 is near the zinc-binding catalytic center and is normally buried. The oxidation and nitrosylation of Cys-819 allow Cys-110 to be oxidized or nitrosylated, leading to complete inactivation of IDE. Cys-789 is spatially adjacent to Cys-966, and their nitrosylation and oxidation together trigger the oligomerization and inhibition of IDE. Interestingly, the Cys-178 modification buffers the inhibition caused by Cys-819 modification and prevents the oxidation or nitrosylation of Cys-110. The Cys-178 modification can also prevent the oligomerization-mediated inhibition. Thus, IDE can be intricately regulated by reactive oxygen or nitrogen species. The structure of IDE reveals the molecular basis for the long distance interactions of these cysteines and how they regulate IDE function.

  4. The role of regulatory proteins and S-nitrosylation of endothelial nitric oxide synthase in the human clitoris: implications for female sexual function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliver, Janine L; Kavoussi, Parviz K; Smith, Ryan P; Woodson, Robin I; Corbett, Sean T; Costabile, Raymond A; Palmer, Lisa A; Lysiak, Jeffrey J

    2014-08-01

    During female sexual arousal, clitoral blood flow is controlled by endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) and its product, nitric oxide (NO). The mechanisms regulating eNOS activity and NO bioavailability in the clitoris are largely unknown. To identify proteins involved in regulation of eNOS activity within the clitoris and to evaluate the effects of S-nitrosoglutathione reductase (GSNO-R) and eNOS nitrosylation/denitrosylation on clitoral blood flow. Immunohistochemistry for eNOS, caveolin-1 (Cav1), heat shock protein-90 (Hsp90), phosphodiesterase type 5 (PDE5), GSNO-R, and soluble guanylate cyclase (sGC) was performed on human and murine clitoral tissue. Western blot analysis was performed for eNOS, phosphorylated eNOS (phospho-eNOS, Ser1177), Cav1, Hsp90, sGC, PDE5, phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K), Akt (protein kinase B), and GSNO-R on protein from human clitoral tissue. A biotin switch assay was used to analyze the S-nitrosylation of eNOS, nNOS, and GSNO-R. Clitoral blood flow was measured in wild-type and GSNO-R(-/-) mice at baseline and during cavernous nerve electrical stimulation (CNES). Localization of eNOS regulatory proteins and clitoral blood flow. eNOS and GSNO-R co-localized to the vascular endothelium and sinusoids of human clitoral tissue. Immunohistochemistry also localized Cav1 and Hsp90 to the endothelium and PDE5 and sGC to the trabecular smooth muscle. Expression of S-nitrosylated (SNO)-eNOS and SNO-GSNO-R was detected by biotin switch assays. Wild-type control mice exhibited increased clitoral blood flow with CNES whereas GSNO-R(-/-) animals failed to show an increase in blood flow. Several key eNOS regulatory proteins are present in the clitoral tissue in a cellular specific pattern. S-nitrosylation of eNOS may also represent a key regulatory mechanism governing eNOS activation/deactivation since mice deficient in GSNO-R failed to increase clitoral blood flow. Additional studies are necessary to define the role of S-nitrosylation in the

  5. Chromium content in human skin after in vitro application of ordinary cement and ferrous-sulphate-reduced cement

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fullerton, A; Gammelgaard, Bente; Avnstorp, C

    1993-01-01

    The amount of chromium found in human skin after in vitro application of cement suspensions on full-thickness human skin in diffusion cells was investigated. Cement suspensions made from ordinary Portland cement or Portland cement with the chromate reduced with added ferrous sulphate were used....... The cement suspensions were either applied on the skin surface under occlusion for 48 h or applied repeatedly every 24 h for 96 h. No statistically significant difference in chromium content of skin layers between skin exposed to ordinary Portland cement, skin exposed to cement with added ferrous sulphate...

  6. S-nitrosylation-induced conformational change in blackfin tuna myoglobin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schreiter, Eric R; Rodríguez, María M; Weichsel, Andrzej; Montfort, William R; Bonaventura, Joseph

    2007-07-06

    S-nitrosylation is a post-translational protein modification that can alter the function of a variety of proteins. Despite the growing wealth of information that this modification may have important functional consequences, little is known about the structure of the moiety or its effect on protein tertiary structure. Here we report high-resolution x-ray crystal structures of S-nitrosylated and unmodified blackfin tuna myoglobin, which demonstrate that in vitro S-nitrosylation of this protein at the surface-exposed Cys-10 directly causes a reversible conformational change by "wedging" apart a helix and loop. Furthermore, we have demonstrated in solution and in a single crystal that reduction of the S-nitrosylated myoglobin with dithionite results in NO cleavage from the sulfur of Cys-10 and rebinding to the reduced heme iron, showing the reversibility of both the modification and the conformational changes. Finally, we report the 0.95-A structure of ferrous nitrosyl myoglobin, which provides an accurate structural view of the NO coordination geometry in the context of a globin heme pocket.

  7. Reciprocal allosteric modulation of carbon monoxide and warfarin binding to ferrous human serum heme-albumin.

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    Alessio Bocedi

    Full Text Available Human serum albumin (HSA, the most abundant protein in human plasma, could be considered as a prototypic monomeric allosteric protein, since the ligand-dependent conformational adaptability of HSA spreads beyond the immediate proximity of the binding site(s. As a matter of fact, HSA is a major transport protein in the bloodstream and the regulation of the functional allosteric interrelationships between the different binding sites represents a fundamental information for the knowledge of its transport function. Here, kinetics and thermodynamics of the allosteric modulation: (i of carbon monoxide (CO binding to ferrous human serum heme-albumin (HSA-heme-Fe(II by warfarin (WF, and (ii of WF binding to HSA-heme-Fe(II by CO are reported. All data were obtained at pH 7.0 and 25°C. Kinetics of CO and WF binding to the FA1 and FA7 sites of HSA-heme-Fe(II, respectively, follows a multi-exponential behavior (with the same relative percentage for the two ligands. This can be accounted for by the existence of multiple conformations and/or heme-protein axial coordination forms of HSA-heme-Fe(II. The HSA-heme-Fe(II populations have been characterized by resonance Raman spectroscopy, indicating the coexistence of different species characterized by four-, five- and six-coordination of the heme-Fe atom. As a whole, these results suggest that: (i upon CO binding a conformational change of HSA-heme-Fe(II takes place (likely reflecting the displacement of an endogenous ligand by CO, and (ii CO and/or WF binding brings about a ligand-dependent variation of the HSA-heme-Fe(II population distribution of the various coordinating species. The detailed thermodynamic and kinetic analysis here reported allows a quantitative description of the mutual allosteric effect of CO and WF binding to HSA-heme-Fe(II.

  8. Non-heme iron as ferrous sulfate does not interact with heme iron absorption in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaitán, Diego; Olivares, Manuel; Lönnerdal, Bo; Brito, Alex; Pizarro, Fernando

    2012-12-01

    The absorption of heme iron has been described as distinctly different from that of non-heme iron. Moreover, whether heme and non-heme iron compete for absorption has not been well established. Our objective was to investigate the potential competition between heme and non-heme iron as ferrous sulfate for absorption, when both iron forms are ingested on an empty stomach. Twenty-six healthy nonpregnant women were selected to participate in two iron absorption studies using iron radioactive tracers. We obtained the dose-response curve for absorption of 0.5, 10, 20, and 50 mg heme iron doses, as concentrated red blood cells. Then, we evaluated the absorption of the same doses, but additionally we added non-heme iron, as ferrous sulfate, at constant heme/non-heme iron molar ratio (1:1). Finally, we compare the two curves by a two-way ANOVA. Iron sources were administered on an empty stomach. One factor analysis showed that heme iron absorption was diminished just by increasing total heme iron (P ferrous sulfate did not have any effect on heme iron absorption (P = NS). We reported evidence that heme and non-heme iron as ferrous sulfate does not compete for absorption. The mechanism behind the absorption of these iron sources is not clear.

  9. 21 CFR 582.5308 - Ferrous gluconate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Ferrous gluconate. 582.5308 Section 582.5308 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Supplements 1 § 582.5308 Ferrous gluconate. (a) Product. Ferrous gluconate. (b) Conditions of use. This...

  10. 21 CFR 582.5311 - Ferrous lactate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Ferrous lactate. 582.5311 Section 582.5311 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Supplements 1 § 582.5311 Ferrous lactate. (a) Product. Ferrous lactate. (b) Conditions of use. This substance...

  11. 21 CFR 582.5315 - Ferrous sulfate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Ferrous sulfate. 582.5315 Section 582.5315 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Supplements 1 § 582.5315 Ferrous sulfate. (a) Product. Ferrous sulfate. (b) Conditions of use. This substance...

  12. Inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) drives mTOR pathway activation and proliferation of human melanoma by reversible nitrosylation of TSC2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopez-Rivera, Esther; Jayaraman, Padmini; Parikh, Falguni; Davies, Michael A.; Ekmekcioglu, Suhendan; Izadmehr, Sudeh; Milton, Denái R.; Chipuk, Jerry E.; Grimm, Elizabeth A.; Estrada, Yeriel; Aguirre-Ghiso, Julio; Sikora, Andrew G.

    2014-01-01

    Melanoma is one of the cancers of fastest-rising incidence in the world. iNOS is overexpressed in melanoma and other cancers, and previous data suggest that iNOS and nitric oxide (NO) drive survival and proliferation of human melanoma cells. However, specific mechanisms through which this occurs are poorly defined. One candidate is the PI3K/AKT/mTOR pathway, which plays a major role in proliferation, angiogenesis, and metastasis of melanoma and other cancers. We used the chick embryo chorioallantoic membrane (CAM) assay to test the hypothesis that melanoma growth is regulated by iNOS-dependent mTOR pathway activation. Both pharmacologic inhibition and siRNA-mediated gene silencing of iNOS suppressed melanoma proliferation and in vivo growth on the CAM in human melanoma models. This was associated with strong downregulation of mTOR pathway activation by Western blot analysis of p-mTOR, p-P70S6K, p-S6RP, and p-4EBP1. iNOS expression and NO were associated with reversible nitrosylation of TSC2, and inhibited dimerization of TSC2 with its inhibitory partner TSC1, enhancing GTPase activity of its target Rheb, a critical activator of mTOR signaling. Immunohistochemical analysis of tumor specimens from stage III melanoma patients showed a significant correlation between iNOS expression levels and expression of mTOR pathway members. Exogenously-supplied NO was also sufficient to reverse mTOR pathway inhibition by the B-Raf inhibitor Vemurafenib. In summary, covalent modification of TSC2 by iNOS-derived NO is associated with impaired TSC2/TSC1 dimerization, mTOR pathway activation, and proliferation of human melanoma. This model is consistent with the known association of iNOS overexpression and poor prognosis in melanoma and other cancers. PMID:24398473

  13. Reductive nitrosylation of Methanosarcina acetivorans protoglobin: A comparative study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ascenzi, Paolo, E-mail: ascenzi@uniroma3.it [Laboratorio Interdipartimentale di Microscopia Elettronica, Università Roma Tre, Via della Vasca Navale 79, I-00146 Roma (Italy); Istituto di Biochimica delle Proteine, CNR, Via Pietro Castellino 111, I-80131 Napoli (Italy); Pesce, Alessandra [Dipartimento di Fisica, Università di Genova, I-16146 Genova (Italy); Nardini, Marco; Bolognesi, Martino [Dipartimento di Bioscienze, Università di Milano, Via Celoria 26, I-20133 Milano (Italy); Ciaccio, Chiara; Coletta, Massimo [Dipartimento di Scienze Cliniche e Medicina Traslazionale, Università di Roma Tor Vergata, Via Montpellier 1, I-00133 Roma (Italy); Consorzio Interuniversitario di Ricerca in Chimica dei Metalli nei Sistemi Biologici, Piazza Umberto I 1, I-70121 Bari (Italy); Dewilde, Sylvia [Department of Biomedical Sciences, University of Antwerp, Universiteitsplein 1, B-2610 Antwerp (Belgium)

    2013-01-25

    Highlights: ► Methanosarcina acetivorans is a strictly anaerobic non-motile methane-producing Archaea. ► M. acetivorans protoglobin binds preferentially O{sub 2} rather than CO. ► Reductive nitrosylation of ferric M. acetivorans protoglobin. ► Nitrosylation of ferrious M. acetivorans protoglobin. ► M. acetivorans protoglobin is a scavenger of RNS and ROS. -- Abstract: Methanosarcina acetivorans is a strictly anaerobic non-motile methane-producing Archaea expressing protoglobin (Pgb) which might either facilitate O{sub 2} detoxification or act as a CO sensor/supplier in methanogenesis. Unusually, M. acetivorans Pgb (MaPgb) binds preferentially O{sub 2} rather than CO and displays anticooperativity in ligand binding. Here, kinetics and/or thermodynamics of ferric and ferrous MaPgb (MaPgb(III) and MaPgb(II), respectively) nitrosylation are reported. Data were obtained between pH 7.2 and 9.5, at 22.0 °C. Addition of NO to MaPgb(III) leads to the transient formation of MaPgb(III)–NO in equilibrium with MaPgb(II)–NO{sup +}. In turn, MaPgb(II)–NO{sup +} is converted to MaPgb(II) by OH{sup −}-based catalysis. Then, MaPgb(II) binds NO very rapidly leading to MaPgb(II)–NO. The rate-limiting step for reductive nitrosylation of MaPgb(III) is represented by the OH{sup −}-mediated reduction of MaPgb(II)–NO{sup +} to MaPgb(II). Present results highlight the potential role of MaPgb in scavenging of reactive nitrogen and oxygen species.

  14. Ferrous Sulfate (Iron)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrous sulfate provides the iron needed by the body to produce red blood cells. It is used ... Ferrous sulfate comes as regular, coated, and extended-release (long-acting) tablets; regular and extended-release capsules; ...

  15. Nitrosylation of c heme in cd(1)-nitrite reductase is enhanced during catalysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rinaldo, Serena; Giardina, Giorgio; Cutruzzolà, Francesca

    2014-08-29

    The reduction of nitrite into nitric oxide (NO) in denitrifying bacteria is catalyzed by nitrite reductase. In several species, this enzyme is a heme-containing protein with one c heme and one d1 heme per monomer (cd1NiR), encoded by the nirS gene. For many years, the evidence of a link between NO and this hemeprotein represented a paradox, given that NO was known to tightly bind and, possibly, inhibit hemeproteins, including cd1NiRs. It is now established that, during catalysis, cd1NiRs diverge from "canonical" hemeproteins, since the product NO rapidly dissociates from the ferrous d1 heme, which, in turn, displays a peculiar "low" affinity for NO (KD=0.11 μM at pH 7.0). It has been also previously shown that the c heme reacts with NO at acidic pH but c heme nitrosylation was not extensively investigated, given that in cd1NiR it was considered a side reaction, rather than a genuine process controlling catalysis. The spectroscopic study of the reaction of cd1NiR and its semi-apo derivative (containing the sole c heme) with NO reported here shows that c heme nitrosylation is enhanced during catalysis; this evidence has been discussed in order to assess the potential of c heme nitrosylation as a regulatory process, as observed for cytochrome c nitrosylation in mammalian mitochondria.

  16. 21 CFR 184.1307b - Ferrous carbonate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Ferrous carbonate. 184.1307b Section 184.1307b Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR... Specific Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1307b Ferrous carbonate. (a) Ferrous carbonate (iron (II...

  17. Catalytic ferrous iron in amniotic fluid as a predictive marker of human maternal-fetal disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hattori, Yuka; Mukaide, Takahiro; Jiang, Li; Kotani, Tomomi; Tsuda, Hiroyuki; Mano, Yukio; Sumigama, Seiji; Hirayama, Tasuku; Nagasawa, Hideko; Kikkawa, Fumitaka; Toyokuni, Shinya

    2015-01-01

    Amniotic fluid contains numerous biomolecules derived from fetus and mother, thus providing precious information on pregnancy. Here, we evaluated oxidative stress of human amniotic fluid and measured the concentration of catalytic Fe(II). Amniotic fluid samples were collected with consent from a total of 89 subjects in Nagoya University Hospital, under necessary medical interventions: normal pregnancy at term, normal pregnancy at the 2nd trimester, preterm delivery with maternal disorders but without fetal disorders, congenital diaphragmatic hernia, fetal growth restriction, pregnancy-induced hypertension, gestational diabetes mellitus, Down syndrome and trisomy 18. Catalytic Fe(II) and oxidative stress markers (8-hydroxy-2'-deoxyguanosine, 8-OHdG; dityrosine) were determined with RhoNox-1 and specific antibodies, respectively, using plate assays. Levels of 8-OHdG and dityrosine were higher in the 3rd trimester compared with the 2nd trimester in normal subjects, and the abnormal groups generally showed lower levels than the controls, thus suggesting that they represent fetal metabolic activities. In contrast, catalytic Fe(II) was higher in the 2nd trimester than the 3rd trimester in the normal subjects, and overall the abnormal groups showed higher levels than the controls, suggesting that high catalytic Fe(II) at late gestation reflects fetal pathologic alterations. Notably, products of H2O2 and catalytic Fe(II) remained almost constant in amniotic fluid.

  18. Electronic structure and dynamics of nitrosyl porphyrins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scheidt, W Robert; Barabanschikov, Alexander; Pavlik, Jeffrey W; Silvernail, Nathan J; Sage, J Timothy

    2010-07-19

    Nitric oxide (NO) is a signaling molecule employed to regulate essential physiological processes. Thus, there is great interest in understanding the interaction of NO with heme, which is found at the active site of many proteins that recognize NO, as well as those involved in its creation and elimination. We summarize what we have learned from investigations of the structure, vibrational properties, and conformational dynamics of NO complexes with ferrous porphyrins, as well as computational investigations in support of these experimental studies. Multitemperature crystallographic data reveal variations in the orientational disorder of the nitrosyl ligand. In some cases, equilibria among NO orientations can be analyzed using the van't Hoff relationship and the free energy and enthalpy of the solid-state transitions evaluated experimentally. Density functional theory (DFT) calculations predict that intrinsic barriers to torsional rotation are smaller than thermal energies at physiological temperatures, and the coincidence of observed NO orientations with minima in molecular mechanics potentials indicates that nonbonded interactions with other chemical groups control the conformational freedom of the bound NO. In favorable cases, reduced disorder at low temperatures exposes subtle structural features including off-axis tilting of the Fe-NO bond and anisotropy of the equatorial Fe-N bonds. We also present the results of nuclear resonance vibrational spectroscopy measurements on oriented single crystals of [Fe(TPP)(NO)] and [Fe(TPP)(1-MeIm)(NO)]. These describe the anisotropic vibrational motion of iron in five- and six-coordinate heme-NO complexes and reveal vibrations of all Fe-ligand bonds as well as low-frequency molecular distortions associated with the doming of the heme upon ligand binding. A quantitative comparison with predicted frequencies, amplitudes, and directions facilitates identification of the vibrational modes but also suggests that commonly used DFT

  19. Structure and Bonding in Heme-Nitrosyl Complexes and Implications for Biology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lehnert, Nicolai; Scheidt, W. Robert; Wolf, Matthew W. [Michigan; (Notre)

    2016-09-13

    This review summarizes our current understanding of the geometric and electronic structures of ferrous and ferric heme–nitrosyls, which are of key importance for the biological functions and transformations of NO. In-depth correlations are made between these properties and the reactivities of these species. Here, a focus is put on the discoveries that have been made in the last 10 years, but previous findings are also included as necessary. Besides this, ferrous heme–nitroxyl complexes are also considered, which have become of increasing interest recently due to their roles as intermediates in NO and multiheme nitrite reductases, and because of the potential role of HNO as a signaling molecule in mammals. In recent years, computational methods have received more attention as a means of investigating enzyme reaction mechanisms, and some important findings from these theoretical studies are also highlighted in this chapter.

  20. Protein S-nitrosylation: purview and parameters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hess, Douglas T; Matsumoto, Akio; Kim, Sung-Oog; Marshall, Harvey E; Stamler, Jonathan S

    2005-02-01

    S-nitrosylation, the covalent attachment of a nitrogen monoxide group to the thiol side chain of cysteine, has emerged as an important mechanism for dynamic, post-translational regulation of most or all main classes of protein. S-nitrosylation thereby conveys a large part of the ubiquitous influence of nitric oxide (NO) on cellular signal transduction, and provides a mechanism for redox-based physiological regulation.

  1. Preclinical therapeutic potential of a nitrosylating agent in the treatment of ovarian cancer.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shailendra Giri

    Full Text Available This study examines the role of s-nitrosylation in the growth of ovarian cancer using cell culture based and in vivo approaches. Using the nitrosylating agent, S-nitrosoglutathione (GSNO, a physiological nitric oxide molecule, we show that GSNO treatment inhibited proliferation of chemoresponsive and chemoresistant ovarian cancer cell lines (A2780, C200, SKVO3, ID8, OVCAR3, OVCAR4, OVCAR5, OVCAR7, OVCAR8, OVCAR10, PE01 and PE04 in a dose dependent manner. GSNO treatment abrogated growth factor (HB-EGF induced signal transduction including phosphorylation of Akt, p42/44 and STAT3, which are known to play critical roles in ovarian cancer growth and progression. To examine the therapeutic potential of GSNO in vivo, nude mice bearing intra-peritoneal xenografts of human A2780 ovarian carcinoma cell line (2 × 10(6 were orally administered GSNO at the dose of 1 mg/kg body weight. Daily oral administration of GSNO significantly attenuated tumor mass (p<0.001 in the peritoneal cavity compared to vehicle (phosphate buffered saline treated group at 4 weeks. GSNO also potentiated cisplatin mediated tumor toxicity in an A2780 ovarian carcinoma nude mouse model. GSNO's nitrosylating ability was reflected in the induced nitrosylation of various known proteins including NFκB p65, Akt and EGFR. As a novel finding, we observed that GSNO also induced nitrosylation with inverse relationship at tyrosine 705 phosphorylation of STAT3, an established player in chemoresistance and cell proliferation in ovarian cancer and in cancer in general. Overall, our study underlines the significance of S-nitrosylation of key cancer promoting proteins in modulating ovarian cancer and proposes the therapeutic potential of nitrosylating agents (like GSNO for the treatment of ovarian cancer alone or in combination with chemotherapeutic drugs.

  2. Ferrous Metal Processing Plants

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Homeland Security — This map layer includes ferrous metal processing plants in the United States. The data represent commodities covered by the Minerals Information Team (MIT) of the...

  3. Nitrosylation mechanisms of Mycobacterium tuberculosis and Campylobacter jejuni truncated hemoglobins N, O, and P.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paolo Ascenzi

    Full Text Available Truncated hemoglobins (trHbs are widely distributed in bacteria and plants and have been found in some unicellular eukaryotes. Phylogenetic analysis based on protein sequences shows that trHbs branch into three groups, designated N (or I, O (or II, and P (or III. Most trHbs are involved in the O2/NO chemistry and/or oxidation/reduction function, permitting the survival of the microorganism in the host. Here, a detailed comparative analysis of kinetics and/or thermodynamics of (i ferrous Mycobacterium tuberculosis trHbs N and O (Mt-trHbN and Mt-trHbO, respectively, and Campylobacter jejuni trHb (Cj-trHbP nitrosylation, (ii nitrite-mediated nitrosylation of ferrous Mt-trHbN, Mt-trHbO, and Cj-trHbP, and (iii NO-based reductive nitrosylation of ferric Mt-trHbN, Mt-trHbO, and Cj-trHbP is reported. Ferrous and ferric Mt-trHbN and Cj-trHbP display a very high reactivity towards NO; however, the conversion of nitrite to NO is facilitated primarily by ferrous Mt-trHbN. Values of kinetic and/or thermodynamic parameters reflect specific trHb structural features, such as the ligand diffusion pathways to/from the heme, the heme distal pocket structure and polarity, and the ligand stabilization mechanisms. In particular, the high reactivity of Mt-trHbN and Cj-trHbP reflects the great ligand accessibility to the heme center by two protein matrix tunnels and the E7-path, respectively, and the penta-coordination of the heme-Fe atom. In contrast, the heme-Fe atom of Mt-trHbO the ligand accessibility to the heme center of Mt-trHbO needs large conformational readjustments, thus limiting the heme-based reactivity. These results agree with different roles of Mt-trHbN, Mt-trHbO, and Cj-trHbP in vivo.

  4. S-Nitrosylation of proline-rich tyrosine kinase 2 involves its activation induced by oxygen-glucose deprivation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Xian-Liang; Liu, Dong-Hai; Zhang, Gong-Liang; Hu, Shu-Qun; Chen, Yu-Guo; Xu, Tie

    2015-06-15

    Previous studies have demonstrated that activation of proline-rich tyrosine kinase 2 (PYK2) in cerebral ischemia is involved in the modulation of N-methyl-d-aspartate-type (NMDA) glutamate receptor activity and Ca(2+) dynamics, resulting in ischemic neuron death ultimately. A number of reports indicate that PYK2 is a redox sensitive kinase that must be activated by an estrogen-induced reactive oxygen species (ROS). However, the mechanism of PYK2 activation remains incompletely illustrated. Accumulating attention is focused on nitric oxide (NO, a free radical) which plays a critical role in cellular signal transduction through stimulus-coupled S-nitrosylation of cysteine residues. Here we reported that PYK2 over-expressed in human embryonic kidney (HEK293) cells was S-nitrosylated (forming SNO-PYK2) by reacting with GSNO, an exogenous NO donor, at one critical cysteine residue (Cys534) with a biotin switch assay. Moreover, our results showed that S-nitrosylation and phosphorylation of PYK2 over-expressed in SH-SY5Y cells was significantly increased after oxygen-glucose deprivation (OGD). We further investigated whether the activation (phosphorylation) of PYK2 was associated with S-nitrosylation following SH-SY5Y cells OGD. Our results showed that the cysteine534 residue (site of S-nitrosylation) mutant PYK2 over-expressed in SH-SY5Y cells diminished S-nitrosylation of PYK2 and inhibited its phosphorylation induced by OGD. In addition, overexpression of the mutant PYK2 protein could prevent nuclear accumulation and abrogate neuronal cell death compared to wild type PYK2 in SH-SY5Y cells induced by OGD. These data suggest that the activation of PYK2 following OGD may be modulated by S-nitrosylation, which provides a new avenue for stroke therapy by targeting the post-translational modification machinery.

  5. Reactions of ferrous neuroglobin and cytoglobin with nitrite under anaerobic conditions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Morten Gjerning; Dewilde, Sylvia; Fago, Angela

    2008-01-01

    Recent evidence suggests that the reaction of nitrite with deoxygenated hemoglobin and myoglobin contributes to the generation of nitric oxide and S-nitrosothiols in vivo under conditions of low oxygen availability. We have investigated whether ferrous neuroglobin and cytoglobin, the two hexacoor......Recent evidence suggests that the reaction of nitrite with deoxygenated hemoglobin and myoglobin contributes to the generation of nitric oxide and S-nitrosothiols in vivo under conditions of low oxygen availability. We have investigated whether ferrous neuroglobin and cytoglobin, the two...... hexacoordinate globins from vertebrates expressed in brain and in a variety of tissues, respectively, also react with nitrite under anaerobic conditions. Using absorption spectroscopy, we find that ferrous neuroglobin and nitrite react with a second-order rate constant similar to that of myoglobin, whereas...... the ferrous heme of cytoglobin does not react with nitrite. Deconvolution of absorbance spectra shows that, in the course of the reaction of neuroglobin with nitrite, ferric Fe(III) heme is generated in excess of nitrosyl Fe(II)-NO heme as due to the low affinity of ferrous neuroglobin for nitric oxide...

  6. Oxygen binding to partially nitrosylated hemoglobin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fago, Angela; Crumbliss, Alvin L; Hendrich, Michael P; Pearce, Linda L; Peterson, Jim; Henkens, Robert; Bonaventura, Celia

    2013-09-01

    Reactions of nitric oxide (NO) with hemoglobin (Hb) are important elements in protection against nitrosative damage. NO in the vasculature is depleted by the oxidative reaction with oxy Hb or by binding to deoxy Hb to generate partially nitrosylated Hb (Hb-NO). Many aspects of the formation and persistence of Hb-NO are yet to be clarified. In this study, we used a combination of EPR and visible absorption spectroscopy to investigate the interactions of partially nitrosylated Hb with O2. Partially nitrosylated Hb samples had predominantly hexacoordinate NO-heme geometry and resisted oxidation when exposed to O2 in the absence of anionic allosteric effectors. Faster oxidation occurred in the presence of 2,3-diphosphoglycerate (DPG) or inositol hexaphosphate (IHP), where the NO-heme derivatives had higher levels of pentacoordinate heme geometry. The anion-dependence of the NO-heme geometry also affected O2 binding equilibria. O2-binding curves of partially nitrosylated Hb in the absence of anions were left-shifted at low saturations, indicating destabilization of the low O2 affinity T-state of the Hb by increasing percentages of NO-heme, much as occurs with increasing levels of CO-heme. Samples containing IHP showed small decreases in O2 affinity, indicating shifts toward the low-affinity T-state and formation of inert α-NO/β-met tetramers. Most remarkably, O2-equilibria in the presence of the physiological effector DPG were essentially unchanged by up to 30% NO-heme in the samples. As will be discussed, under physiological conditions the interactions of Hb with NO provide protection against nitrosative damage without impairing O2 transport by Hb's unoccupied heme sites. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: Oxygen Binding and Sensing Proteins. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. 21 CFR 73.165 - Ferrous lactate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Ferrous lactate. 73.165 Section 73.165 Food and... ADDITIVES EXEMPT FROM CERTIFICATION Foods § 73.165 Ferrous lactate. (a) Identity. The color additive ferrous lactate is the ferrous lactate defined in § 184.1311 of this chapter. (b) Specifications. Ferrous lactate...

  8. 21 CFR 184.1308 - Ferrous gluconate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Ferrous gluconate. 184.1308 Section 184.1308 Food... Specific Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1308 Ferrous gluconate. (a) Ferrous gluconate (iron (II... ferrous sulfate or by heating freshly prepared ferrous carbonate with gluconic acid in aqueous solution...

  9. Proteomic identification of S-nitrosylated proteins in Arabidopsis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lindermayr, C.; Saalbach, G.; Durner, J.

    2005-01-01

    to be one of the dominant regulation mechanisms for many animal proteins. For plants, the principle of S-nitrosylation remained to be elucidated. We generated S-nitrosothiols by treating extracts from Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) cell suspension cultures with the NO-donor S......-nitrosoglutathione. Furthermore, Arabidopsis plants were treated with gaseous NO to analyze whether S-nitrosylation can occur in the specific redox environment of a plant cell in vivo. S-Nitrosylated proteins were detected by a biotin switch method, converting S-nitrosylated Cys to biotinylated Cys. Biotin-labeled proteins were......Although nitric oxide (NO) has grown into a key signaling molecule in plants during the last few years, less is known about how NO regulates different events in plants. Analyses of NO-dependent processes in animal systems have demonstrated protein S-nitrosylation of cysteine (Cys) residues...

  10. Nitrosyl hemoglobins: EPR above 80 K

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wajnberg, E.; Bemski, G.; El-Jaick, L.J.; Alves, O.C.

    1995-03-01

    The EPR spectra of nitrosyl hemoglobin and myoglobin in different conditions (native, denatured and lyophilized), as well as of hematin-NO were obtained in the temperature range of 80 K-280 K. There is a substantial and reversible.decrease of the areas of the EPR spectra of all the hemoglobin samples above 150 K. The interpretation of the results implies the existence of two conformational states in thermal equilibrium only one of which is EPR detectable. Thermodynamical parameters are determined for the hexa and penta-coordinated cases. (author). 25 refs, 3 figs.

  11. Detection of S-nitrosylated protein by surface plasmon resonance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruirui Wang

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available S-Nitrosylation has recently emerged as an important posttranslational modification of proteins and is becoming an intensive field of research in plants. Protein S-nitrosation, a reversible post-translation modification of cysteine, affects many cell signaling pathways and plays critical roles in redox-sensitive cell signaling. Changes in protein function effectively transmit biological signals and thus provide a framework for elucidating signaling networks. This paper presented a new, universal immunosensor for detection of S-nitrosylated proteins. Electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS and atomic force microscope (AFM were used to estimate the formation of self-assembled film. This method was based on the specific binding characteristics of biotin–streptavidin, using Biotin-HPDP labeled protein sulfhydryl group as the substrate to detect proteins. The sensor was used to detect bovine serum albumin (BSA, nitrosylated BSA and denitrosylated BSA. The results showed that 90.61% of nitrosylated BSA were reduced, verifying that protein S-nitrosylation is a reversible and effective post-translation modification. This method was successfully applied to detect S-nitrosylated protein in Feicheng peach. The results showed good repeatability and precision. This method provided a molecular basis for further exploring the mechanism of S-nitrosylation of proteins in plants.

  12. Quantitative Proteomic Approaches for Analysis of Protein S-Nitrosylation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qu, Zhe; Greenlief, C Michael; Gu, Zezong

    2016-01-01

    S-Nitrosylation is a redox-based post-translational modification of a protein in response to nitric oxide (NO) signaling, and it participates in a variety of processes in diverse biological systems. The significance of this type of protein modification in health and diseases is increasingly recognized. In the central nervous system, aberrant S-nitrosylation, due to excessive NO production, is known to cause protein misfolding, mitochondrial dysfunction, transcriptional dysregulation, and neuronal death. This leads to an altered physiological state and consequently contributes to pathogenesis of neurodegenerative disorders. To date, much effort has been made to understand the mechanisms underlying protein S-nitrosylation, and several approaches have been developed to unveil S-nitrosylated proteins from different organisms. Interest in determining the dynamic changes of protein S-nitrosylation under different physiological and pathophysiological conditions has underscored the need for the development of quantitative proteomic approaches. Currently, both gel-based and gel-free mass spectrometry-based quantitative methods are widely used, and they each have advantages and disadvantages but may also be used together to produce complementary data. This review evaluates current available quantitative proteomic techniques for the analysis of protein S-nitrosylation and highlights recent advances, with emphasis on applications in neurodegenerative diseases. An important goal is to provide a comprehensive guide of feasible quantitative proteomic methodologies for examining protein S-nitrosylation in research to yield insights into disease mechanisms, diagnostic biomarkers, and drug discovery.

  13. 21 CFR 184.1315 - Ferrous sulfate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Ferrous sulfate. 184.1315 Section 184.1315 Food and... Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1315 Ferrous sulfate. (a) Ferrous sulfate heptahydrate (iron (II) sulfate... as pale, bluish-green crystals or granules. Progressive heating of ferrous sulfate heptahydrate...

  14. 21 CFR 73.160 - Ferrous gluconate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Ferrous gluconate. 73.160 Section 73.160 Food and... ADDITIVES EXEMPT FROM CERTIFICATION Foods § 73.160 Ferrous gluconate. (a) Identity. The color additive ferrous gluconate is the ferrous gluconate defined in the Food Chemicals Codex, 3d Ed. (1981), pp. 122-123...

  15. Method and apparatus for separating a non-ferrous metal-comprising fraction from ferrous scrap

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rem, P.C.; Berkhout, S.P.M.

    2010-01-01

    Method for separating a non-ferrous metal-comprising fraction from ferrous scrap, wherein the ferrous scrap is conveyed to a processing device for separating the non-ferrous metal-comprising fraction from the remainder of the ferrous scrap. The processing device supplies a beam of water, and the fer

  16. Method and apparatus for separating a non-ferrous metal-comprising fraction from ferrous scrap

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rem, P.C.; Berkhout, S.P.M.

    2010-01-01

    Method for separating a non-ferrous metal-comprising fraction from ferrous scrap, wherein the ferrous scrap is conveyed to a processing device for separating the non-ferrous metal-comprising fraction from the remainder of the ferrous scrap. The processing device supplies a beam of water, and the

  17. Ferrous Metal Mines - Direct Download

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This map layer includes ferrous metal mines in the United States. The data represent commodities covered by the Minerals Information Team (MIT) of the U.S....

  18. Quantum Chemical Studies on Detail Mechanism of Nitrosylation of NAMI-A-HSA Adduct.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Das, Dharitri; Mondal, Paritosh

    2015-08-20

    Hydrolysis of NAMI-A in NAMI-A-HSA (HSA = human serum albumin) and nitrosylation of hydrolyzed NAMI-A-HSA adduct have been studied in detail using density functional theory method. It has been observed that the chloride exchange reaction with water in the NAMI-A-HSA adduct follows an interchange dissociative mechanism passing through an unstable heptacoordinated activated complex. The computed free energy of activation (ΔG) and rate constant (k) for the hydrolysis process in aqueous medium are observed to be 24.85 kcal mol(-1) and 3.81 × 10(-6) s(-1), respectively. Nitrosylation of hydrolyzed NAMI-A-HSA adduct with nitric oxide is found to be thermodynamically more favorable with the incorporation of solvent effect and provides a detailed understanding related to the antimetastatic activity of the NAMI-A drug. This investigation shows that nitric oxide coordinates linearly to NAMI-A-HSA adduct leading to the reduction of ruthenium(III) to more active ruthenium(II), with the reduction potential of -2.32 V. Negative relative solvation and relative binding free energies suggest that the hydrolysis and nitrosylation reactions are found to be thermodynamically favorable and faster. Our computed results provide a detailed thermodynamics and kinetics which may be highly beneficial for understanding antimetastatic activity as well as the nitric oxide scavenging ability of NAMI-A.

  19. 21 CFR 184.1311 - Ferrous lactate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Ferrous lactate. 184.1311 Section 184.1311 Food and... Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1311 Ferrous lactate. (a) Ferrous lactate (iron (II) lactate, C6H10FeO6... prepared by reacting calcium lactate or sodium lactate with ferrous sulfate, direct reaction of lactic acid...

  20. A spectroscopic and surface microhardness study of enamel exposed to beverages supplemented with ferrous fumarate and ferrous sulfate. A randomized in vitro trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xavier, Arun M; Rai, Kavita; Hegde, Amitha M; Shetty, Suchetha

    2016-06-01

    To compare the efficacy between supplementing ferrous fumarate and ferrous sulfate to carbonated beverages by recording the in vitro mineral loss and surface microhardness (SMH) changes in human enamel. 120 enamel blocks each (from primary and permanent teeth) were uniformly prepared and the initial SMH was recorded. These enamel specimens were equally divided (n = 60) for their respective beverage treatment in Group 1 (2 mmol/L ferrous sulfate) and Group 2 (2 mmol/L ferrous fumarate). Each group was further divided into three subgroups as Coca-Cola, Sprite and mineral water (n= 10). The specimens were subjected to three repetitive cycles of respective treatment for a 5-minute incubation period, equally interspaced by 5-minute storage in artificial saliva. The calcium and phosphate released after each cycle were analyzed spectrophotometrically and the final SMH recorded. The results were tested using student's t-test, one-way ANOVA and Wilcoxon signed rank test (P ferrous sulfate than ferrous fumarate (P ferrous fumarate than with ferrous sulfate (P < 0.005). Statistical comparisons revealed the maximum surface microhardness and mineral loss with primary enamel and the maximum loss produced in all groups by Coca-Cola (P < 0.005).

  1. Method and apparatus for separating a non-ferrous metal-comprising fraction from ferrous scrap

    OpenAIRE

    Rem, P.C.; Berkhout, S.P.M.

    2010-01-01

    Method for separating a non-ferrous metal-comprising fraction from ferrous scrap, wherein the ferrous scrap is conveyed to a processing device for separating the non-ferrous metal-comprising fraction from the remainder of the ferrous scrap. The processing device supplies a beam of water, and the ferrous scrap is conveyed and released into the waterbeam so as to cause that the ferrous scrap is allowed to fall and move further, subject to the forces of gravity and the waterbeam.

  2. Light-evoked S-nitrosylation in the retina

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tooker, Ryan E; Vigh, Jozsef

    2015-01-01

    Nitric oxide (NO) synthesis in the retina is triggered by light stimulation. NO has been shown to modulate visual signal processing at multiple sites in the vertebrate retina, via activation of the most sensitive target of NO signaling, soluble guanylate cyclase. NO can also alter protein structure and function and exert biological effects directly by binding to free thiol groups of cysteine residues in a chemical reaction called S-nitrosylation. However, in the central nervous system, including the retina, this reaction has not been considered to be significant under physiological conditions. Here we provide immunohistochemical evidence for extensive S-nitrosylation that takes place in the goldfish and mouse retinas under physiologically relevant light intensities, in an intensity-dependent manner, with a strikingly similar pattern in both species. Pre-treatment with NEM, which occludes S-nitrosylation, or with TRIM, an inhibitor of neuronal NO synthase, eliminated the light-evoked increase in S-nitrosylated protein immunofluorescence (SNI) in the retinas of both species. Similarly, light did not increase SNI, above basal levels, in retinas of transgenic mice lacking neuronal NO synthase. Qualitative analysis of the light-adapted mouse retina with mass spectrometry revealed more than 300 proteins that were S-nitrosylated upon illumination, many of which are known to participate directly in retinal signal processing. Our data strongly suggest that in the retina, light-evoked NO production leads to extensive S-nitrosylation and that this process is a significant post-translational modification affecting a wide range of proteins under physiological conditions. PMID:25823749

  3. Light-evoked S-nitrosylation in the retina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tooker, Ryan E; Vigh, Jozsef

    2015-10-01

    Nitric oxide (NO) synthesis in the retina is triggered by light stimulation. NO has been shown to modulate visual signal processing at multiple sites in the vertebrate retina, via activation of the most sensitive target of NO signaling, soluble guanylate cyclase. NO can also alter protein structure and function and exert biological effects directly by binding to free thiol groups of cysteine residues in a chemical reaction called S-nitrosylation. However, in the central nervous system, including the retina, this reaction has not been considered to be significant under physiological conditions. Here we provide immunohistochemical evidence for extensive S-nitrosylation that takes place in the goldfish and mouse retinas under physiologically relevant light intensities, in an intensity-dependent manner, with a strikingly similar pattern in both species. Pretreatment with N-ethylmaleimide (NEM), which occludes S-nitrosylation, or with 1-(2-trifluromethylphenyl)imidazole (TRIM), an inhibitor of neuronal NO synthase, eliminated the light-evoked increase in S-nitrosylated protein immunofluorescence (SNI) in the retinas of both species. Similarly, light did not increase SNI, above basal levels, in retinas of transgenic mice lacking neuronal NO synthase. Qualitative analysis of the light-adapted mouse retina with mass spectrometry revealed more than 300 proteins that were S-nitrosylated upon illumination, many of which are known to participate directly in retinal signal processing. Our data strongly suggest that in the retina light-evoked NO production leads to extensive S-nitrosylation and that this process is a significant posttranslational modification affecting a wide range of proteins under physiological conditions.

  4. Variations of {sup 57}Fe hyperfine parameters in medicaments containing ferrous fumarate and ferrous sulfate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oshtrakh, M. I., E-mail: oshtrakh@mail.utnet.ru; Novikov, E. G. [Ural Federal University (The former Ural State Technical University-UPI), Faculty of Physical Techniques and Devices for Quality Control (Russian Federation); Dubiel, S. M. [AGH University of Science and Technology, Faculty of Physics and Computer Science (Poland); Semionkin, V. A. [Ural Federal University (The former Ural State Technical University-UPI), Faculty of Physical Techniques and Devices for Quality Control (Russian Federation)

    2010-04-15

    Several commercially available medicaments containing ferrous fumarate (FeC{sub 4}H{sub 2}O{sub 4}) and ferrous sulfate (FeSO{sub 4}), as a source of ferrous iron, were studied using a high velocity resolution Moessbauer spectroscopy. A comparison of the {sup 57}Fe hyperfine parameters revealed small variations for the main components in both medicaments indicating some differences in the ferrous fumarates and ferrous sulfates. It was also found that all spectra contained additional minor components probably related to ferrous and ferric impurities or to partially modified main components.

  5. Reversible S-Nitrosylation in an Engineered Azurin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Shiliang; Liu, Jing; Cowley, Ryan E.; Hosseinzadeh, Parisa; Marshall, Nicholas M.; Yu, Yang; Robinson, Howard; Nilges, Mark J.

    2016-01-01

    S-nitrosothiols are known as reagents for NO storage and transportation, and as regulators in many physiological processes. While the S-nitrosylation catalyzed by heme proteins is well known, no direct evidence of S-nitrosylation in copper proteins has been reported. Here we report reversible insertion of NO into a copper-thiolate bond in an engineered copper center in Pseudomonas aeruginosa azurin by rational design of the primary coordination sphere and tuning its reduction potential via deleting a hydrogen bond in the secondary coordination sphere. The results not only provide the first direct evidence of S-nitrosylation of Cu(II)-bound cysteine within metalloproteins, but also shed light on the reaction mechanism and structural features responsible for stabilizing the elusive Cu(I)-S(Cys)NO species. The fast, efficient, and reversible S-nitrosylation reaction is used to demonstrate its ability to prevent NO inhibition of cytochrome bo3 oxidase activity by competing for NO binding with the native enzyme under physiologically relevant conditions. PMID:27325093

  6. Mineral resource of the month: ferrous slag

    Science.gov (United States)

    ,

    2009-01-01

    The article offers information on mineral resource ferrous slag. Ferrous slag is produced through the addition of materials such as limestone and dolomite to blast and steel furnaces to remove impurities from iron ore and to lower the heat requirements for processes in iron and steel making. It is stated that the method of cooling is important for the market uses and value of ferrous slag. Some types of slag can be used in construction, glass manufacturing and thermal insulation.

  7. Semi Automated Ferrous Material Scouring System (SAFMSS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-03-14

    FINAL REPORT Semi-Automated Ferrous Material Scouring System (SAFMSS) ESTCP Project MR-201102 MARCH 2016 Dr. Herman Herman Mr. Chris Fromme...Include area code) 03/14/2016 Final Report July 2011 - March 2016 Semi-Automated Ferrous Material Scouring System (SAFMSS) Chris Fromme Herman Herman... Ferrous Material Scouring System (SAFMSS) March 14, 2016 ii Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited TABLE OF CONTENTS TABLE OF

  8. Photoactive Nitric Oxide Delivery Systems based on Metal Nitrosyl-Biomaterial Composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heilman, Brandon James

    Gaseous NO has been recognized as a potent antibiotic even against highly drug-resistant pathogens such as methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) in both animal and human studies. However, difficulties in the delivery of the toxic (and reactive) gas demands innovative techniques to deliver NO in a controlled manner to malignant sites throughout the body. Metal nitrosyls reported by our group have demonstrated rapid NO release under the complete control of visible and NIR light. Careful incorporation of these photoactive nitrosyls into polymer matrices has afforded a set of nitrosyl-polymer composites in order to localize the NO-donors at a targeted site, ensure reliable NO release kinetics in vivo, and prevent potentially cytotoxic interactions of the metal nitrosyl or its reaction-products with the treatment site. The work presented in this thesis was pursued to derive clinically relevant NO-delivery systems and demonstrate their utility for the treatment of infection. In chapter 2, an NO-releasing polyurethane film (PUX-NO) is described with dispersed xerogel particles containing up to 3 mol% of [Mn(PaPy 3)(NO)](ClO4) entrapped in a silica matrix and swelled with excess moisture. The polyurethane based xerogel-nitrosyl (PUX-NO) films demonstrated rapid NO photorelease upon illumination with low-power visible light which was sufficient to eradicate clinically relevant loads (105 CFU mL-1 ) of several gram-positive and gram-negative pathogenic bacteria, including a strain of methicillin-resistant of S. aureus. The results of this study suggest that PUX-NO films are suitable for use as a NO-releasing occlusive film for the treatment of skin and soft-tissue infections or chronic, non-healing wounds. Since the NO-release rate from the films can be modulated by simple adjustment of the intensity of the light source, the films could be used to first clear the microbial burden from the wound site using high fluxes of NO, and then, provide a moderate

  9. Trifluoperazine-Induced Suicidal Erythrocyte Death and S-Nitrosylation Inhibition, Reversed by the Nitric Oxide Donor Sodium Nitroprusside

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehrdad Ghashghaeinia

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Background and Purpose: The high potency antipsychotic drug trifluoperazine (10-[3-(4-methyl-1-piperazinyl-propyl]-2-(trifluoromethyl-(10H-phenothiazine dihydrochloride; TFP may either counteract or promote suicidal cell death or apoptosis. Similar to apoptosis, erythrocytes may enter eryptosis, characterized by phosphatidylserine exposure at the cell surface and cell shrinkage. Eryptosis can be stimulated by an increase in cytoplasmic Ca2+ concentration ([Ca2+]i and inhibited by nitric oxide (NO. We explored whether TFP treatment of erythrocytes induces phosphatidylserine exposure, cell shrinkage, and calcium influx, whether it impairs S-nitrosylation and whether these effects are inhibited by NO. Methods: Phosphatidylserine exposure at the cell surface was estimated from annexin-V-binding, cell volume from forward scatter, [Ca2+]i from Fluo3-fluorescence, and protein nitrosylation from fluorescence switch of the Bodipy-TMR/Sypro Ruby signal. Results: Exposure of human erythrocytes to TFP significantly enhanced the percentage of annexin-V-binding cells, raised [Ca2+]i, and decreased S-nitrosylation. The effect of TFP on annexin-V-binding was not affected by removal of extracellular Ca2+ alone, but was significantly inhibited by pre-treatment with sodium nitroprusside (SNP, an effect significantly augmented by additional removal of extracellular Ca2+. A 3 hours treatment with 0.1 µM Ca2+ ionophore ionomycin triggered annexin-V-binding and cell shrinkage, effects fully reversed by removal of extracellular Ca2+. Conclusions: TFP induces eryptosis and decreases protein S-nitrosylation, effects blunted by nitroprusside. The effect of nitroprusside is attenuated in the presence of extracellular Ca2+.

  10. Site-Specific Proteomics Approach for Study Protein S-Nitrosylation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Miao; Hou, Jinxuan; Huang, Lin; Huang, Xin; Heibeck, Tyler H.; Zhao, Rui; Pasa-Tolic, Ljiljana; Smith, Richard D.; Li, Yan; Fu, Kai; Zhang, Zhixin; Hinrichs, Steven; Ding, Shi-Jian

    2010-09-01

    Here we present a novel and robust method for the identification of protein S-nitrosylation sites in complex protein mixtures. The approach utilizes the cysteinyl affinity resin to selectively enrich S-nitrosylated peptides reduced by ascorbate followed by nanoscale liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry. Two alkylation agents with different added masses were employed to differentiate the S-nitrosylation sites from the non-Snitrosylation sites. We applied this approach to MDA-MB-231 cells treated with Angeli’s salt, a nitric oxide donor that has been shown to inhibit breast tumor growth and angiogenesis. A total of 162 S-nitrosylation sites were identified and an S-nitrosylation motif was revealed in our study. The 162 sites are significantly more than the number reported by previous methods, demonstrating the efficiency of our approach. Our approach will further facilitate the functional study of protein S-nitrosylation in cellular processes and may reveal new therapeutic targets.

  11. The Rules of Ferrous Metallurgy

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    The ways in which the sciences have been delineated and categorized throughout history provide insights into the formation, stabilization, and establishment of scientific systems of knowledge. The Dresdener school’s approach for explaining and categorizing the genesis of the engineering disciplines is still valid, but needs to be complemented by further-reaching methodological and theoretical reflections. Pierre Bourdieu’s theory of social practice is applied to the question of how individual agents succeed in influencing decisively a discipline’s changing object orientation, institutionalisation and self-reproduction. Through the accumulation of social, cultural and economic capital, they succeed in realising their own organisational ideas and scientific programs. Key concepts for the analysis include the struggle for power and resources, monopolies of interpretation, and the degree of autonomy. A case study from the Aachener Technische Hochschule shows that the consolidation of ferrous metallurgy can be conceived as a symbolical struggle between Fritz Wüst, professor for ferrous metallurgy, and the German Iron and Steel Institute, leading to a construction of a system of differences in which scientists accepted being scientists rather than entrepreneurs, and entrepreneurs accepted becoming entrepreneurs and renounced science.

  12. Regulation by S-Nitrosylation of Protein Post-translational Modification*

    OpenAIRE

    Hess, Douglas T.; Stamler, Jonathan S.

    2011-01-01

    Protein post-translational modification by S-nitrosylation conveys a ubiquitous influence of nitric oxide on signal transduction in eukaryotic cells. The wide functional purview of S-nitrosylation reflects in part the regulation by S-nitrosylation of the principal protein post-translational modifications that play a role in cell signaling, including phosphorylation, acetylation, ubiquitylation and related modifications, palmitoylation, and alternative Cys-based redox modifications. In this mi...

  13. Proteomic analysis of S-nitrosylated proteins in Arabidopsis thaliana undergoing hypersensitive response

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Romero-Puertas, Maria C; Campostrini, Natascia; Mattè, Alessandro

    2008-01-01

    metabolism, signaling and antioxidant defense. The study of the effects of S-nitrosylation on the activity of the identified proteins and its role during the execution of the disease resistance response will help to understand S-nitrosylation function and significance in plants....... is the identification of the proteins that are subjected to this PTM. By using a proteomic approach involving 2-DE and MS we characterized, for the first time, changes in S-nitrosylated proteins in Arabidopsis thaliana undergoing HR. The 16 S-nitrosylated proteins identified are mostly enzymes serving intermediary...

  14. Ferrous sulphate interacts with captopril

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaefer, J P; Tam, Y; Hasinoff, B B; Tawfik, S; Peng, Y; Reimche, L; Campbell, N R C

    1998-01-01

    Aims To determine if iron binds strongly to captopril and reduces captopril absorption. Methods A variety of in vitro experiments was conducted to examine iron binding to captopril and a randomized, double-blind, placebo controlled, cross-over study design was used to assess the in vivo interaction. Captopril (25 mg) was coingested with either ferrous sulphate (300 mg) or placebo by seven healthy adult volunteers. Subjects were phlebotomized and had blood pressure measured at 0, 0.25, 0.5, 1, 2, 4, 6, 8, and 12 h post ingestion. A 1 week washout period was used. Results The coingestion of ferrous sulphate and captopril was associated with a 37% (134 ng ml−1 h, 95% CI 41–228 ng ml−1 h, P=0.03) decrease in area under the curve (AUC) for unconjugated plasma captopril. There were no substantial changes in Cmax (mean difference;–32; 95% CI −124–62 ng ml−1(P=0.57)) or in tmax (mean difference; 0; 95% CI −18–18 min (P=0.65)) for unconjugated captopril when captopril was ingested with iron. There was a statistically insignificant increase in AUC for total plasma captopril of 43% (1312 ng ml−1 h, 95% CI −827–3451 ng ml−1 h P=0.27) when captopril was ingested with iron. The addition of ferric chloride to captopril resulted in the initial rapid formation of a soluble blue complex which rapidly disappeared to be replaced by a white precipitant. The white precipitate was identified as captopril disulphide dimer. There were no significant differences in systolic and diastolic blood pressures between the treatment and placebo groups. Conclusions Co-administration of ferrous sulphate and iron results in decreased unconjugated captopril levels likely due to a chemical interaction between ferric ion and captopril in the gastrointestinal tract. Care is required when coprescribing captopril and iron salts. PMID:9803987

  15. S-nitrosylation/Denitrosylation and Apoptosis of Immune Cells

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Shaojin Duan; Chang Chen

    2007-01-01

    Nitric oxide (NO) as an immunoregulatory molecule, predominantly depending on S-nitrosylation, acts as a versatile player that executes its regulation and signal transduction for exerting its multi-functions and pleiotropy.Apoptosis of immune cells is an intricate process coupled with positive/negative selection depending on integrated diverse endogenous and exogenous signals and functions to sustain homeostasis in the immune system. Here, the dual roles of NO depending on its concentration in apoptosis are reviewed, breeding up a switch mode in the apoptotic process. Following comments of different switches from apoptosis-death, a new finding of checkpoint(early fluorescence point) of GSNO-initiated thymocyte apoptosis and NOS-GSNOR double control are highlighted.Moreover, S-nitrosylation/denitrosylation, being as a redox switch, logically approaches to networks of metabolism itself and further accesses the neuroendicrine-immune-free radical network as a whole. Moreover, the host defense mediated by NO on pathogens, via protein S-nitrosylation are also discussed.

  16. RhoA S-nitrosylation as a regulatory mechanism influencing endothelial barrier function in response to G(+)-bacterial toxins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, F; Wang, Y; Rafikov, R; Haigh, S; Zhi, W B; Kumar, S; Doulias, P T; Rafikova, O; Pillich, H; Chakraborty, T; Lucas, R; Verin, A D; Catravas, J D; She, J X; Black, S M; Fulton, D J R

    2017-03-01

    Disruption of the endothelial barrier in response to Gram positive (G(+)) bacterial toxins is a major complication of acute lung injury (ALI) and can be further aggravated by antibiotics which stimulate toxin release. The integrity of the pulmonary endothelial barrier is mediated by the balance of disruptive forces such as the small GTPase RhoA, and protective forces including endothelium-derived nitric oxide (NO). How NO protects against the barrier dysfunction is incompletely understood and our goal was to determine whether NO and S-nitrosylation can modulate RhoA activity and whether this mechanism is important for G(+) toxin-induced microvascular permeability. We found that the G(+) toxin listeriolysin-O (LLO) increased RhoA activity and that NO and S-NO donors inhibit RhoA activity. RhoA was robustly S-nitrosylated as determined by biotin-switch and mercury column analysis. MS revealed that three primary cysteine residues are S-nitrosylated including cys16, cys20 and cys159. Mutation of these residues to serine diminished S-nitrosylation to endogenous NO and mutant RhoA was less sensitive to inhibition by S-NO. G(+)-toxins stimulated the denitrosylation of RhoA which was not mediated by S-nitrosoglutathione reductase (GSNOR), thioredoxin (TRX) or thiol-dependent enzyme activity but was instead stimulated directly by elevated calcium levels. Calcium-promoted the direct denitrosylation of WT but not mutant RhoA and mutant RhoA adenovirus was more effective than WT in disrupting the barrier integrity of human lung microvascular endothelial cells. In conclusion, we reveal a novel mechanism by which NO and S-nitrosylation reduces RhoA activity which may be of significance in the management of pulmonary endothelial permeability induced by G(+)-toxins.

  17. Ferrous iron transport in Streptococcus mutans

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Evans, S.L.; Arcenaeux, J.E.L.; Byers, B.R.; Martin, M.E.; Aranha, H.

    1986-12-01

    Radioiron uptake from /sup 59/FeCl/sub 3/ by Streptococcus mutans OMZ176 was increased by anaerobiosis, sodium ascorbate, and phenazine methosulfate (PMS), although there was a 10-min lag before PMS stimulation was evident. The reductant ascorbate may have provided ferrous iron. The PMS was reduced by the cells, and the reduced PMS then may have generated ferrous iron for transport; reduced PMS also may have depleted dissolved oxygen. It was concluded that S. mutans transports only ferrous iron, utilizing reductants furnished by glucose metabolism to reduce iron prior to its uptake.

  18. 21 CFR 184.1307c - Ferrous citrate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Ferrous citrate. 184.1307c Section 184.1307c Food... Specific Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1307c Ferrous citrate. (a) Ferrous citrate (iron (II) citrate... the reaction of sodium citrate with ferrous sulfate or by direct action of citric acid on iron filings...

  19. 21 CFR 184.1307d - Ferrous fumarate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Ferrous fumarate. 184.1307d Section 184.1307d Food... Specific Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1307d Ferrous fumarate. (a) Ferrous fumarate (iron (II) fumarate... ferrous sulfate and sodium fumarate. (b) The ingredient meets the specifications of the Food Chemicals...

  20. S-nitrosylation mediates nitric oxide -auxin crosstalk in auxin signaling and polar auxin transport

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nitric oxide (NO) and auxin phytohormone cross talk has been implicated in plant development and growth. Addition and removal of NO moieties to cysteine residues of proteins, is termed S-nitrosylation and de-nitrosylation, respectively and functions as an on/off switch of protein activity. This dyna...

  1. Proteomic analysis of S-nitrosylation induced by 1-methyl-4-phenylpyridinium (MPP+

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Komatsubara Akira T

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Nitric oxide (NO mediates its function through the direct modification of various cellular targets. S-nitrosylation is a post-translational modification of cysteine residues by NO that regulates protein function. Recently, an imbalance of S-nitrosylation has also been linked to neurodegeneration through the impairment of pro-survival proteins by S-nitrosylation. Results In the present study, we used two-dimensional gel electrophoresis in conjunction with the modified biotin switch assay for protein S-nitrosothiols using resin-assisted capture (SNO-RAC to identify proteins that are S-nitrosylated more intensively in neuroblastoma cells treated with a mitochondrial complex I inhibitor, 1-methyl-4-phenylpyridinium (MPP+. We identified 14 proteins for which S-nitrosylation was upregulated and seven proteins for which it was downregulated in MPP+-treated neuroblastoma cells. Immunoblot analysis following SNO-RAC confirmed a large increase in the S-nitrosylation of esterase D (ESD, serine-threonine kinase receptor-associated protein (STRAP and T-complex protein 1 subunit γ (TCP-1 γ in MPP+-treated neuroblastoma cells, whereas S-nitrosylation of thioredoxin domain-containing protein 5 precursor (ERp46 was decreased. Conclusions These results suggest that S-nitrosylation resulting from mitochondrial dysfunction can compromise neuronal survival through altering multiple signal transduction pathways and might be a potential therapeutic target for neurodegenerative diseases.

  2. GPS-SNO: computational prediction of protein S-nitrosylation sites with a modified GPS algorithm.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu Xue

    Full Text Available As one of the most important and ubiquitous post-translational modifications (PTMs of proteins, S-nitrosylation plays important roles in a variety of biological processes, including the regulation of cellular dynamics and plasticity. Identification of S-nitrosylated substrates with their exact sites is crucial for understanding the molecular mechanisms of S-nitrosylation. In contrast with labor-intensive and time-consuming experimental approaches, prediction of S-nitrosylation sites using computational methods could provide convenience and increased speed. In this work, we developed a novel software of GPS-SNO 1.0 for the prediction of S-nitrosylation sites. We greatly improved our previously developed algorithm and released the GPS 3.0 algorithm for GPS-SNO. By comparison, the prediction performance of GPS 3.0 algorithm was better than other methods, with an accuracy of 75.80%, a sensitivity of 53.57% and a specificity of 80.14%. As an application of GPS-SNO 1.0, we predicted putative S-nitrosylation sites for hundreds of potentially S-nitrosylated substrates for which the exact S-nitrosylation sites had not been experimentally determined. In this regard, GPS-SNO 1.0 should prove to be a useful tool for experimentalists. The online service and local packages of GPS-SNO were implemented in JAVA and are freely available at: http://sno.biocuckoo.org/.

  3. Comparison of intravenous ferrous sucrose and oral ferrous sulphate in treatment of postpartum iron deficiency anemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El Khouly, Nabih I

    2017-04-01

    The objective of the study was to evaluate the efficacy, safety and tolerability of intravenous ferrous sucrose, compared to oral ferrous sulphate in women with postpartum iron deficiency anemia (IDA). In a single center, randomized, controlled study, 352 patients with hemoglobin 9 gm/dl or less and serum ferritin of ferrous sucrose (up to three calculated replacement doses) or oral ferrous sulphate (150 mg twice daily for six weeks). Primary measures were to assess the rise in hemoglobin (Hb) and serum ferritin. By day 5, the Hb level in women treated with intravenous ferrous sucrose had rised from 8.48 ± 0.47 to 9.4 ± 0.56 gm/dl. Women treated with intravenous ferrous sucrose had significantly higher Hb levels on day 5, day 14 and day 40 (p ferrous sulphate. Throughout the study, ferritin level rose rapidly in those treated with intravenous iron and remained significantly higher than in those treated with oral iron (p ferrous sucrose increases Hb level more rapidly than ferrous sulphate in women with postpartum IDA. It also replenishes iron stores more rapidly with better tolerability.

  4. Improved ferrous shielding for flat cables

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drechsler, R. J.

    1969-01-01

    To improve shielding of flat multicore cables, a thin, seamless ferrous shield around all cores optimizes low frequency magnetic shielding. Such shielding is covered with an ultrathin seamless coat of highly conductive nonferrous material.

  5. Ferrous Metal Processing Plants - Direct Download

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This map layer includes ferrous metal processing plants in the United States. The data represent commodities covered by the Minerals Information Team (MIT) of the...

  6. Ferrous iron oxidation by anoxygenic phototrophic bacteria

    OpenAIRE

    Widdel, Friedrich; Schnell, Sylvia; Heising, Silke; Ehrenreich, Armin; Assmus, Bernhard; Schink, Bernhard

    1993-01-01

    Natural oxidation of ferrous to ferric iron by bacteria such as Thiobacillus ferrooxidans or Gallionella ferruginea 1, or by chemical oxidation2,3 has previously been thought always to involve molecular oxygen as the electron acceptor. Anoxic photochemical reactions4 6 or a photobiological process involving two photosystems7 9 have also been discussed as mechanisms of ferrous iron oxidation. The knowledge of such processes has implications that bear on our understanding of the origin of Preca...

  7. Ferrous ammonium phosphate (FeNH₄PO₄) as a new food fortificant: iron bioavailability compared to ferrous sulfate and ferric pyrophosphate from an instant milk drink.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walczyk, Thomas; Kastenmayer, Peter; Storcksdieck Genannt Bonsmann, Stefan; Zeder, Christophe; Grathwohl, Dominik; Hurrell, Richard F

    2013-06-01

    The main purpose of this study was to establish bioavailability data in humans for the new (Fe) fortification compound ferrous ammonium phosphate (FAP), which was specially developed for fortification of difficult-to-fortify foods where soluble Fe compounds cannot be used due to their negative impact on product stability. A double-blind, randomized clinical trial with cross-over design was conducted to obtain bioavailability data for FAP in humans. In this trial, Fe absorption from FAP-fortified full-cream milk powder was compared to that from ferric pyrophosphate (FPP) and ferrous sulfate. Fe absorption was determined in 38 young women using the erythrocyte incorporation dual stable isotope technique (⁵⁷Fe, ⁵⁸Fe). Geometric mean Fe absorption from ferrous sulfate, FAP and FPP was 10.4, 7.4 and 3.3 %, respectively. Fe from FAP was significantly better absorbed from milk than Fe from FPP (p ferrous sulfate, which was used as water-soluble reference compound (p = 0.0002). Absorption ratios of FAP and FPP relative to ferrous sulfate as a measure of relative bioavailability were 0.71 and 0.32, respectively. The results of the present studies show that replacing FPP with FAP in full-cream milk could significantly improve iron bioavailability.

  8. NO-Donor Iron Nitrosyl Complex with N-Ethylthiourea Ligand Exhibits Selective Toxicity to Glioma A172 Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nataliya Sanina

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available We studied effects of NO-donor iron nitrosyl complex with N-ethylthiourea ligand (ETM on normal or tumor-derived cell lines. ETM was mildly toxic to most cell lines studied except the human glioma cell line A172 that proved to be highly sensitive to the complex and underwent cell death after ETM exposure. The high susceptibility of A172 cells to ETM was attributed to its NO-donor properties since no toxicity was detected for the N-ethylthiourea ligand.

  9. NO-Donor Iron Nitrosyl Complex with N-Ethylthiourea Ligand Exhibits Selective Toxicity to Glioma A172 Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanina, Nataliya; Shmatko, Natal'ya; Stupina, Tatiyana; Balakina, Anastasiya; Terent'ev, Alexei

    2017-08-29

    We studied effects of NO-donor iron nitrosyl complex with N-ethylthiourea ligand (ETM) on normal or tumor-derived cell lines. ETM was mildly toxic to most cell lines studied except the human glioma cell line A172 that proved to be highly sensitive to the complex and underwent cell death after ETM exposure. The high susceptibility of A172 cells to ETM was attributed to its NO-donor properties since no toxicity was detected for the N-ethylthiourea ligand.

  10. Characterization of the non-heme iron center of human 5-lipoxygenase by electron paramagnetic resonance, fluorescence, and ultraviolet-visible spectroscopy: redox cycling between ferrous and ferric states.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chasteen, N D; Grady, J K; Skorey, K I; Neden, K J; Riendeau, D; Percival, M D

    1993-09-21

    Purified human 5-lipoxygenase, a non-heme iron containing enzyme, has been characterized by electron paramagnetic resonance, (EPR), ultraviolet (UV)-visible and fluorescence spectroscopy. As isolated, the enzyme is largely in the ferrous state and shows a weak X-band EPR signal extending from 0 to 700 G at 15 K, tentatively ascribed to integer spin Fe(II). Titration of the protein with 13-HPOD (13-hydroperoxyoctadecadienoic acid) generates a strong multicomponent EPR signal in the g' approximately 6 region, a yellow color associated with an increased absorption between 310 and 450 nm (epsilon 330nm = 2400 M-1 cm-1), and a 17% decrease in the intrinsic protein fluorescence. The multiple component nature of the g' approximately 6 signal indicates that the metal center in its oxidized state exists in more than one but related forms. The g' approximately 6 EPR signal and the yellow color reach a maximum when approximately 1 mol of 13-HPOD is added/mol of iron; the resultant EPR spectrum accounts quantitatively for all of the iron in the protein with a signal at g' = 4.3 representing less than 3% of the total iron in the majority of samples. Addition of a hydroxyurea reducing agent abolished the g' approximately 6 signal and yellow color of the protein and also reversed the decrease in fluorescence caused by the oxidant 13-HPOD. The results indicate that the g' approximately 6 EPR signal, the yellow color, and the decreased fluorescence are associated with the formation of the Fe(III) form of the enzyme.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  11. Absorption by Isolated Ferric Heme Nitrosyl Cations In Vacuo

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wyer, Jean; Nielsen, Steen Brøndsted

    2012-01-01

    Keywords:biophysics;gas-phase spectroscopy;heme proteins;mass spectrometry;nitric oxide Almost innocent: In photobiophysical studies of ferric heme nitrosyl complexes, the absorption spectra of six-coordinate complexes with NO and Met or Cys are similar to that of the five-coordinate complex ion ......(heme)(NO)+. Since the absorption spectra of related proteins with histidine as the proximal ligand are similar to those of the gaseous complexes, the protein microenvironment has little effect on the lowest-energy transition of the porphyrin macrocycle....

  12. Efficacy and safety of adjuvant recombinant human erythropoietin and ferrous sulfate as treatment for iron deficiency anemia during the third trimester of pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanchez-Gonzalez, Luis Rodrigo; Castro-Melendez, Simón Enrique; Angeles-Torres, Alejandra Cristina; Castro-Cortina, Nohemi; Escobar-Valencia, Alfredo; Quiroga-Garza, Alejandro

    2016-10-01

    Gestational anemia increases the incidence of maternal and fetal complications. Adjuvant recombinant human erythropoietin (rHuEPO) has been used in patients who refuse blood transfusions, have a low response to treatment with iron sulfate, have limited time before birth, or have other illnesses that complicate the anemia. We demonstrated that the use of adjuvant rHuEPO with iron sulfate reduces the anemia time period and is innocuous to the fetus. An experimental longitudinal prospective study; 100 pregnant women in their third trimester were included. Group 1 (n=50) was set as control for prevalence of anemia and establish hematological maternal and fetal parameters at delivery for our population; 50 women diagnosed with iron deficiency anemia were randomly assigned to treatment groups. Group 2 (n=25) third trimester women with a hemoglobin of <11g/dL were treated with iron sulfate, 600mg administered orally daily for 4 weeks, evaluating the hematologic response for the mother weekly and for both mother and fetus at birth; Group 3 (n=25) women similar to group 2, treated in addition with adjuvant rHuEPO, 4000 units subcutaneously, three times a week, for 4 weeks evaluating the same parameters. Group 2 and 3 showed a corrected anemia before delivery (mean 11.1 vs 11.4g/dL), but Group 3 showed a statistically broader and more rapid increase in hemoglobin (1.22 vs 1.92g/dL, p value 0.013) with an rHuEPO dose of 4000 units, three times a week for 1 month. No clinical or hematologic difference or changes in growth were observed in the fetus. Erythropoietin is safe and effective for both mother and fetus, although an ideal pregnancy dose has not yet been established. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Formation of conductive polymers using nitrosyl ion as an oxidizing agent

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choi, Kyoung-Shin; Jung, Yongju; Singh, Nikhilendra

    2016-06-07

    A method of forming a conductive polymer deposit on a substrate is disclosed. The method may include the steps of preparing a composition comprising monomers of the conductive polymer and a nitrosyl precursor, contacting the substrate with the composition so as to allow formation of nitrosyl ion on the exterior surface of the substrate, and allowing the monomer to polymerize into the conductive polymer, wherein the polymerization is initiated by the nitrosyl ion and the conductive polymer is deposited on the exterior surface of the substrate. The conductive polymer may be polypyrrole.

  14. Down regulation of NO signaling in Trypanosoma cruzi upon parasite-extracellular matrix interaction: changes in protein modification by nitrosylation and nitration.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milton Pereira

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Adhesion of the Trypanosoma cruzi trypomastigotes, the causative agent of Chagas' disease in humans, to components of the extracellular matrix (ECM is an important step in host cell invasion. The signaling events triggered in the parasite upon binding to ECM are less explored and, to our knowledge, there is no data available regarding •NO signaling.Trypomastigotes were incubated with ECM for different periods of time. Nitrated and S-nitrosylated proteins were analyzed by Western blotting using anti-nitrotyrosine and S-nitrosyl cysteine antibodies. At 2 h incubation time, a decrease in NO synthase activity, •NO, citrulline, arginine and cGMP concentrations, as well as the protein modifications levels have been observed in the parasite. The modified proteins were enriched by immunoprecipitation with anti-nitrotyrosine antibodies (nitrated proteins or by the biotin switch method (S-nitrosylated proteins and identified by MS/MS. The presence of both modifications was confirmed in proteins of interest by immunoblotting or immunoprecipitation.For the first time it was shown that T. cruzi proteins are amenable to modifications by S-nitrosylation and nitration. When T. cruzi trypomastigotes are incubated with the extracellular matrix there is a general down regulation of these reactions, including a decrease in both NOS activity and cGMP concentration. Notwithstanding, some specific proteins, such as enolase or histones had, at least, their nitration levels increased. This suggests that post-translational modifications of T. cruzi proteins are not only a reflex of NOS activity, implying other mechanisms that circumvent a relatively low synthesis of •NO. In conclusion, the extracellular matrix, a cell surrounding layer of macromolecules that have to be trespassed by the parasite in order to be internalized into host cells, contributes to the modification of •NO signaling in the parasite, probably an essential move for the ensuing invasion step.

  15. 21 CFR 184.1307a - Ferrous ascorbate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Ferrous ascorbate. 184.1307a Section 184.1307a Food... Specific Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1307a Ferrous ascorbate. (a) Ferrous ascorbate (CAS Reg. No. 24808-52-4) is a reaction product of ferrous hydroxide and ascorbic acid. It is a blue-violet product...

  16. S-nitrosylation regulates mitochondrial quality control via activation of parkin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozawa, Kentaro; Komatsubara, Akira T.; Nishimura, Yuhei; Sawada, Tomoyo; Kawafune, Hiroto; Tsumoto, Hiroki; Tsuji, Yuichi; Zhao, Jing; Kyotani, Yoji; Tanaka, Toshio; Takahashi, Ryosuke; Yoshizumi, Masanori

    2013-01-01

    Parkin, a ubiquitin E3 ligase of the ring between ring fingers family, has been implicated in mitochondrial quality control. A series of recent reports have suggested that the recruitment of parkin is regulated by phosphorylation. However, the molecular mechanism that activates parkin to induce mitochondrial degradation is not well understood. Here, and in contrast to previous reports that S-nitrosylation of parkin is exclusively inhibitory, we identify a previously unrecognized site of S-nitrosylation in parkin (Cys323) that induces mitochondrial degradation. We demonstrate that endogenous S-nitrosylation of parkin is in fact responsible for activation of its E3 ligase activity to induce aggregation and degradation. We further demonstrate that mitochondrial uncoupling agents result in denitrosylation of parkin, and that prevention of denitrosylation restores mitochondrial degradation. Our data indicates that NO both positive effects on mitochondrial quality control, and suggest that targeted S-nitrosylation could provide a novel therapeutic strategy against Parkinson's disease. PMID:23857542

  17. 46 CFR 56.60-3 - Ferrous materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Ferrous materials. 56.60-3 Section 56.60-3 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) MARINE ENGINEERING PIPING SYSTEMS AND APPURTENANCES Materials § 56.60-3 Ferrous materials. (a) Ferrous pipe used for salt water service must be...

  18. S-Nitrosylation: NO-Related Redox Signaling to Protect Against Oxidative Stress

    OpenAIRE

    2006-01-01

    Nitric oxide (NO) plays an important role in the regulation of cardiovascular function. S-nitrosylation, the covalent attachment of an NO moiety to sulfhydryl residues of proteins, resulting in the formation of S-nitrosothiols (SNOs), is a prevalent posttranslational protein modification involved in redox-based cellular signaling. Under physiologic conditions, protein S>-nitrosylation and SNOs provide protection preventing further cellular oxidative and nitrosative stress. However, oxidative ...

  19. S-nitrosylation of endogenous protein tyrosine phosphatases in endothelial insulin signaling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsu, Ming-Fo; Pan, Kuan-Ting; Chang, Fan-Yu; Khoo, Kay-Hooi; Urlaub, Henning; Cheng, Ching-Feng; Chang, Geen-Dong; Haj, Fawaz G; Meng, Tzu-Ching

    2016-10-01

    Nitric oxide (NO) exerts its biological function through S-nitrosylation of cellular proteins. Due to the labile nature of this modification under physiological condition, identification of S-nitrosylated residue in enzymes involved in signaling regulation remains technically challenging. The present study investigated whether intrinsic NO produced in endothelium-derived MS-1 cells response to insulin stimulation might target endogenous protein tyrosine phosphatases (PTPs). For this, we have developed an approach using a synthetic reagent that introduces a phenylacetamidyl moiety on S-nitrosylated Cys, followed by detection with anti-phenylacetamidyl Cys (PAC) antibody. Coupling with sequential blocking of free thiols with multiple iodoacetyl-based Cys-reactive chemicals, we employed this PAC-switch method to show that endogenous SHP-2 and PTP1B were S-nitrosylated in MS-1 cells exposed to insulin. The mass spectrometry detected a phenylacetamidyl moiety specifically present on the active-site Cys463 of SHP-2. Focusing on the regulatory role of PTP1B, we showed S-nitrosylation to be the principal Cys reversible redox modification in endothelial insulin signaling. The PAC-switch method in an imaging format illustrated that a pool of S-nitrosylated PTP1B was colocalized with activated insulin receptor to the cell periphery, and that such event was endothelial NO synthase (eNOS)-dependent. Moreover, ectopic expression of the C215S mutant of PTP1B that mimics the active-site Cys215 S-nitrosylated form restored insulin responsiveness in eNOS-ablated cells, which was otherwise insensitive to insulin stimulation. This work not only introduces a new method that explores the role of physiological NO in regulating signal transduction, but also highlights a positive NO effect on promoting insulin responsiveness through S-nitrosylation of PTP1B's active-site Cys215.

  20. Hypothalamic S-nitrosylation contributes to the counter-regulatory response impairment following recurrent hypoglycemia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xavier Fioramonti

    Full Text Available AIMS: Hypoglycemia is a severe side effect of intensive insulin therapy. Recurrent hypoglycemia (RH impairs the counter-regulatory response (CRR which restores euglycemia. During hypoglycemia, ventromedial hypothalamus (VMH production of nitric oxide (NO and activation of its receptor soluble guanylyl cyclase (sGC are critical for the CRR. Hypoglycemia also increases brain reactive oxygen species (ROS production. NO production in the presence of ROS causes protein S-nitrosylation. S-nitrosylation of sGC impairs its function and induces desensitization to NO. We hypothesized that during hypoglycemia, the interaction between NO and ROS increases VMH sGC S-nitrosylation levels and impairs the CRR to subsequent episodes of hypoglycemia. VMH ROS production and S-nitrosylation were quantified following three consecutive daily episodes of insulin-hypoglycemia (RH model. The CRR was evaluated in rats in response to acute insulin-induced hypoglycemia or via hypoglycemic-hyperinsulinemic clamps. Pretreatment with the anti-oxidant N-acetyl-cysteine (NAC was used to prevent increased VMH S-nitrosylation. RESULTS: Acute insulin-hypoglycemia increased VMH ROS levels by 49±6.3%. RH increased VMH sGC S-nitrosylation. Increasing VMH S-nitrosylation with intracerebroventricular injection of the nitrosylating agent S-nitroso-L-cysteine (CSNO was associated with decreased glucagon secretion during hypoglycemic clamp. Finally, in RH rats pre-treated with NAC (0.5% in drinking water for 9 days hypoglycemia-induced VMH ROS production was prevented and glucagon and epinephrine production was not blunted in response to subsequent insulin-hypoglycemia. CONCLUSION: These data suggest that NAC may be clinically useful in preventing impaired CRR in patients undergoing intensive-insulin therapy.

  1. Thermally activated martensite formation in ferrous alloys

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Villa, Matteo; Somers, Marcel A. J.

    2017-01-01

    Magnetometry was applied to investigate the formation of α/α´martensite in 13ferrous alloys during immersion in boiling nitrogen and during re-heating to room temperature at controlled heating rates in the range 0.0083-0.83 K s-1. Data showsthat in 3 of the alloys, those that form {5 5 7}γ...

  2. Bacterial ferrous iron transport: the Feo system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lau, Cheryl K Y; Krewulak, Karla D; Vogel, Hans J

    2016-03-01

    To maintain iron homeostasis within the cell, bacteria have evolved various types of iron acquisition systems. Ferric iron (Fe(3+)) is the dominant species in an oxygenated environment, while ferrous iron (Fe(2+)) is more abundant under anaerobic conditions or at low pH. For organisms that must combat oxygen limitation for their everyday survival, pathways for the uptake of ferrous iron are essential. Several bacterial ferrous iron transport systems have been described; however, only the Feo system appears to be widely distributed and is exclusively dedicated to the transport of iron. In recent years, many studies have explored the role of the FeoB and FeoA proteins in ferrous iron transport and their contribution toward bacterial virulence. The three-dimensional structures for the Feo proteins have recently been determined and provide insight into the molecular details of the transport system. A highly select group of bacteria also express the FeoC protein from the same operon. This review will provide a comprehensive look at the structural and functional aspects of the Feo system. In addition, bioinformatics analyses of the feo operon and the Feo proteins have been performed to complement our understanding of this ubiquitous bacterial uptake system, providing a new outlook for future studies. © FEMS 2015. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  3. Development of an Electric induction furnace for heat treatment of ferrous and non-ferrous alloys

    OpenAIRE

    Ufuoma Peter Anaidhuno; Chinedum Ogonna Mgbemena

    2015-01-01

    A 3kg capacity Electric induction furnace with a power rating of 2500W for heat treatment of ferrous and non-ferrous alloys was developed. The furnace which is made from mild steel sheet was monolithically lined with fire clay refractories and designed to attain a temperature of 12000C on the automatic control panel. This project was primarily undertaken to build local capacity in foundry practice in Nigeria and to encourage the demonstration of fundamental foundry practice for undergradua...

  4. Salinity promotes opposite patterns of carbonylation and nitrosylation of C4 phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase in sorghum leaves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baena, Guillermo; Feria, Ana B; Echevarría, Cristina; Monreal, José A; García-Mauriño, Sofía

    2017-08-21

    Carbonylation inactivates sorghum C 4 PEPCase while nitrosylation has little impact on its activity but holds back carbonylation. This interplay could be important to preserve photosynthetic C4 PEPCase activity in salinity. Previous work had shown that nitric acid (NO) increased phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase kinase (PEPCase-k) activity, promoting the phosphorylation of phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase (PEPCase) in sorghum leaves (Monreal et al. in Planta 238:859-869, 2013b). The present work investigates the effect of NO on C4 PEPCase in sorghum leaves and its interplay with carbonylation, an oxidative modification frequently observed under salt stress. The PEPCase of sorghum leaves could be carbonylated in vitro and in vivo, and this post-translational modification (PTM) was accompanied by a loss of its activity. Similarly, PEPCase could be S-nitrosylated in vitro and in vivo, and this PTM had little impact on its activity. The S-nitrosylated PEPCase showed increased resistance towards subsequent carbonylation, both in vitro and in vivo. Under salt shock, carbonylation of PEPCase increased in parallel with decreased S-nitrosylation of the enzyme. Subsequent increase of S-nitrosylation was accompanied by decreased carbonylation. Taken together, the results suggest that S-nitrosylation could contribute to maintain C4 PEPCase activity in stressed sorghum plants. Thus, salt-induced NO synthesis would be protecting photosynthetic PEPCase activity from oxidative inactivation while promoting its phosphorylation, which will guarantee its optimal functioning in suboptimal conditions.

  5. Photochemical nitric oxide precursors: synthesis, photochemistry, and ligand substitution kinetics of ruthenium salen nitrosyl and ruthenium salophen nitrosyl complexes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Works, Carmen F; Jocher, Christoph J; Bart, Gwen D; Bu, Xianhui; Ford, Peter C

    2002-07-15

    Described are syntheses, characterizations, and photochemical reactions of the nitrosyl complexes Ru(salen)(ONO)(NO) (I, salen = N,N'-ethylenebis(salicylideneiminato) dianion), Ru(salen)(Cl)(NO) (II), Ru((t)Bu(4)salen)(Cl)(NO) (III,(t)Bu(4)salen = N,N'-ethylenebis(3,5-di-tert-butylsalicylideneiminato) dianion), Ru((t)Bu(4)salen)(ONO)(NO) (IV), Ru((t)Bu(2)salophen)(Cl)(NO) (V, (t)Bu(2)salophen = N,N'-1,2-phenylenediaminebis(3-tert-butylsalicylideneiminato) dianion), and Ru((t)Bu(4)salophen)(Cl)(NO) (VI, (t)Bu(4)salophen = N,N'-1,2-phenylenebis(3,5-di-tert-butylsalicylideneiminato) dianion). Upon photolysis, these Ru(L)(X)(NO) compounds undergo NO dissociation to give the ruthenium(III) solvento products Ru(L)(X)(Sol). Quantum yields for 365 nm irradiation in acetonitrile solution fall in a fairly narrow range (0.055-0.13) but decreased at longer lambda(irr). The quantum yield (lambda(irr) = 365 nm) for NO release from the water soluble complex [Ru(salen)(H(2)O)(NO)]Cl (VII) was 0.005 in water. Kinetics of thermal back-reactions to re-form the nitrosyl complexes demonstrated strong solvent dependence with second-order rate constants k(NO) varying from 5 x 10(-4) M(-1) s(-1) for the re-formation of II in acetonitrile to 5 x 10(8) M(-1) s(-1) for re-formation of III in cyclohexane. Pressure and temperature effects on the back-reaction rates were also examined. These results are relevant to possible applications of photochemistry for nitric oxide delivery to biological targets, to the mechanisms by which NO reacts with metal centers to form metal-nitrosyl bonds, and to the role of photochemistry in activating similar compounds as catalysts for several organic transformations. Also described are the X-ray crystal structures of I and V.

  6. Effect of oral coadministration of artesunate with ferrous sulfate on rat liver mitochondrial membrane permeability transition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fafowora, Mosebolatan V; Atanu, Francis; Sanya, Olayinka; Olorunsogo, Olufunso O; Erukainure, Ochuko L

    2011-07-01

    The recent resurgence of interest in the study of mitochondria has been fuelled in large part by the recognition that genetic and/or metabolic alterations in this organelle are causative or contributing factors in a variety of human diseases including cancer. This study hypothesizes that co-administration of artesunate and ferrous sulfate could induce apoptosis which can be targeted on cancerous cells in such a manner, thus providing a novel, viable and perhaps inexpensive way of dealing with the cancer scourge. Artesunate and Ferrous sulfate were co-administered to rats at various doses for seven days. At the end of the treatment, the rats were fasted overnight and sacrificed by cervical dislocation. Low ionic strength mitochondria were isolated from hepatic cells of the rats and assayed for protein content; changes in the absorbance of the liver mitochondria; and mitochondrial swelling. Co-administration of artesunate and ferrous sulfate resulted in a significant increase (Pferrous iron-treated groups were compared with the artesunate only treated group. Results from this study show that co-administration of artesunate and ferrous sulfate can cause an opening in the mitochondrial membrane transition pore. A combined dose of ferrous sulfate and artesunate may prove to be a more potent therapy for targeting cancerous cells.

  7. Hydrometallurgical-UV process to produce ferrous sulfate from the pyrite present in coal tailings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Viganico, E.M.; Silva, R.A. [South Rio Grande Federal Univ., Porto Alegre (Brazil).Graduate Program in Mining, Metallurgical and Materials Technology Center

    2010-07-01

    The oxidation of pyrite can promote acid mine drainage (AMD). This study developed a hydrometallurgical-UV route for the production of ferrous sulfate. The laboratory study was conducted using a pyrite concentrate obtained from a processed coal tailing. Leaching of the tailing was performed in packed bed columns in an oxidizing environment with an aqueous medium. Recirculation of the liquor produced an Fe{sup 3+} iron rich extract. Ultraviolet irradiation was then used to convert the Fe{sup 3+} to Fe{sup 2+}. Heat provided by the UV lamps caused the ferrous sulfate to crystallize. X-ray diffraction (XRD) studies of the crystals demonstrated that it is possible to produce commercial-grade ferrous sulfate heptahydrate crystals from the pyrite present in coal tailings. The crystals are used to treat anemia in humans and animals, and are also used as reagents for waste and waste water treatment. 7 refs., 2 tabs., 2 figs.

  8. Internal Demagnetizing Factor in Ferrous Metals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jenő Takács

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Modelling the saturation major loop of a ferrous metal produces the intrinsic magnetization parameters; fitting the measured commutation curve, however, can yield different results. The relation of the intrinsic loci of the vertices of the minor loops (ND=0 to the experimental curve (ND≠0 is investigated. The two-way transformation between the two curves is formulated in closed mathematical form with the help of the internal demagnetization factor, ND. The method is applied to four ferrous metals, with widely different intrinsic properties (soft nonoriented Fe-Si steel, normalized low carbon steel, and Finemet in nanocrystalline and amorphous state supporting the predictions of the proposal. The developed relationship is model independent and it is shown that the ND factor depends linearly on coercivity based on experimental evidence.

  9. Analyzing the international exergy flow network of ferrous metal ores.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qi, Hai; An, Haizhong; Hao, Xiaoqing; Zhong, Weiqiong; Zhang, Yanbing

    2014-01-01

    This paper employs an un-weighted and weighted exergy network to study the properties of ferrous metal ores in countries worldwide and their evolution from 2002 to 2012. We find that there are few countries controlling most of the ferrous metal ore exports in terms of exergy and that the entire exergy flow network is becoming more heterogeneous though the addition of new nodes. The increasing of the average clustering coefficient indicates that the formation of an international exergy flow system and regional integration is improving. When we contrast the average out strength of exergy and the average out strength of currency, we find both similarities and differences. Prices are affected largely by human factors; thus, the growth rate of the average out strength of currency has fluctuated acutely in the eleven years from 2002 to 2012. Exergy is defined as the maximum work that can be extracted from a system and can reflect the true cost in the world, and this parameter fluctuates much less. Performing an analysis based on the two aspects of exergy and currency, we find that the network is becoming uneven.

  10. Analyzing the International Exergy Flow Network of Ferrous Metal Ores

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qi, Hai; An, Haizhong; Hao, Xiaoqing; Zhong, Weiqiong; Zhang, Yanbing

    2014-01-01

    This paper employs an un-weighted and weighted exergy network to study the properties of ferrous metal ores in countries worldwide and their evolution from 2002 to 2012. We find that there are few countries controlling most of the ferrous metal ore exports in terms of exergy and that the entire exergy flow network is becoming more heterogeneous though the addition of new nodes. The increasing of the average clustering coefficient indicates that the formation of an international exergy flow system and regional integration is improving. When we contrast the average out strength of exergy and the average out strength of currency, we find both similarities and differences. Prices are affected largely by human factors; thus, the growth rate of the average out strength of currency has fluctuated acutely in the eleven years from 2002 to 2012. Exergy is defined as the maximum work that can be extracted from a system and can reflect the true cost in the world, and this parameter fluctuates much less. Performing an analysis based on the two aspects of exergy and currency, we find that the network is becoming uneven. PMID:25188407

  11. Removal of copper from ferrous scrap

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blander, Milton; Sinha, Shome N.

    1990-01-01

    A process for removing copper from ferrous or other metal scrap in which the scrap is contacted with a polyvalent metal sulfide slag in the presence of an excess of copper-sulfide forming additive to convert the copper to copper sulfide which is extracted into the slag to provide a ratio of copper in the slag to copper in the metal scrap of at least about 10.

  12. Nitrosative Stress in the Nervous System: Guidelines for Designing Experimental Strategies to Study Protein S-Nitrosylation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakamura, Tomohiro; Lipton, Stuart A

    2016-03-01

    Reactive nitrogen species, such as nitric oxide (NO), exert their biological activity in large part through post-translational modification of cysteine residues, forming S-nitrosothiols. This chemical reaction proceeds via a process that we and our colleagues have termed protein S-nitrosylation. Under conditions of normal NO production, S-nitrosylation regulates the activity of many normal proteins. However, in degenerative conditions characterized by nitrosative stress, increased levels of NO lead to aberrant S-nitrosylation that contributes to the pathology of the disease. Thus, S-nitrosylation has been implicated in a wide range of cellular mechanisms, including mitochondrial function, proteostasis, transcriptional regulation, synaptic activity, and cell survival. In recent years, the research area of protein S-nitrosylation has become prominent due to improvements in the detection systems as well as the demonstration that protein S-nitrosylation plays a critical role in the pathogenesis of neurodegenerative and other neurological disorders. To further promote our understanding of how protein S-nitrosylation affects cellular systems, guidelines for the design and conduct of research on S-nitrosylated (or SNO-)proteins would be highly desirable, especially for those newly entering the field. In this review article, we provide a strategic overview of designing experimental approaches to study protein S-nitrosylation. We specifically focus on methods that can provide critical data to demonstrate that an S-nitrosylated protein plays a (patho-)physiologically-relevant role in a biological process. Hence, the implementation of the approaches described herein will contribute to further advancement of the study of S-nitrosylated proteins, not only in neuroscience but also in other research fields.

  13. Nitrosative Stress in the Nervous System: Guidelines for Designing Experimental Strategies to Study Protein S-Nitrosylation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakamura, Tomohiro; Lipton, Stuart A.

    2015-01-01

    Reactive nitrogen species (RNS), such as nitric oxide (NO), exert their biological activity in large part through post-translational modification of cysteine residues, forming S-nitrosothiols. This chemical reaction proceeds via a process that we and our colleagues have termed protein S-nitrosylation. Under conditions of normal NO production, S-nitrosylation regulates the activity of many normal proteins. However, in degenerative conditions characterized by nitrosative stress, increased levels of NO lead to aberrant S-nitrosylation that contributes to the pathology of the disease. Thus, S-nitrosylation has been implicated in a wide range of cellular mechanisms, including mitochondrial function, proteostasis, transcriptional regulation, synaptic activity, and cell survival. In recent years, the research area of protein S-nitrosylation has become prominent due to improvements in the detection systems as well as the demonstration that protein S-nitrosylation plays a critical role in the pathogenesis of neurodegenerative and other neurological disorders. To further promote our understanding of how protein S-nitrosylation affects cellular systems, guidelines for the design and conduct of research on S-nitrosylated (or SNO-)proteins would be highly desirable, especially for those newly entering the field. In this review article, we provide a strategic overview of designing experimental approaches to study protein S-nitrosylation. We specifically focus on methods that can provide critical data to demonstrate that an S-nitrosylated protein plays a (patho-)physiologically-relevant role in a biological process. Hence, the implementation of the approaches described herein will contribute to further advancement of the study of S-nitrosylated proteins, not only in neuroscience but also in other research fields. PMID:26118537

  14. Neuroprotective Effects of Inhibiting Fyn S-Nitrosylation on Cerebral Ischemia/Reperfusion-Induced Damage to CA1 Hippocampal Neurons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hao, Lingyun; Wei, Xuewen; Guo, Peng; Zhang, Guangyi; Qi, Suhua

    2016-07-12

    Nitric oxide (NO) can regulate signaling pathways via S-nitrosylation. Fyn can be post-translationally modified in many biological processes. In the present study, using a rat four-vessel-occlusion ischemic model, we aimed to assess whether Fyn could be S-nitrosylated and to evaluate the effects of Fyn S-nitrosylation on brain damage. In vitro, Fyn could be S-nitrosylated by S-nitrosoglutathione (GSNO, an exogenous NO donor), and in vivo, endogenous NO synthesized by NO synthases (NOS) could enhance Fyn S-nitrosylation. Application of GSNO, 7-nitroindazole (7-NI, an inhibitor of neuronal NOS) and hydrogen maleate (MK-801, the N-methyl-d-aspartate receptor (NMDAR) antagonist) could decrease the S-nitrosylation and phosphorylation of Fyn induced by cerebral ischemia/reperfusion (I/R). Cresyl violet staining validated that these compounds exerted neuroprotective effects against the cerebral I/R-induced damage to hippocampal CA1 neurons. Taken together, in this study, we demonstrated that Fyn can be S-nitrosylated both in vitro and in vivo and that inhibiting S-nitrosylation can exert neuroprotective effects against cerebral I/R injury, potentially via NMDAR-mediated mechanisms. These findings may lead to a new field of inquiry to investigate the underlying pathogenesis of stroke and the development of novel treatment strategies.

  15. Direct observation of photoinduced bent nitrosyl excited-state complexes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sawyer, Karma R.; Steele, Ryan P.; Glascoe, Elizabeth A.; Cahoon, James F.; Schlegel, Jacob P.; Head-Gordon, Martin; Harris, Charles B.

    2008-06-28

    Ground state structures with side-on nitrosyl ({eta}{sup 2}-NO) and isonitrosyl (ON) ligands have been observed in a variety of transition-metal complexes. In contrast, excited state structures with bent-NO ligands have been proposed for years but never directly observed. Here we use picosecond time-resolved infrared spectroscopy and density functional theory (DFT) modeling to study the photochemistry of Co(CO){sub 3}(NO), a model transition-metal-NO compound. Surprisingly, we have observed no evidence for ON and {eta}{sup 2}-NO structural isomers, but have observed two bent-NO complexes. DFT modeling of the ground and excited state potentials indicates that the bent-NO complexes correspond to triplet excited states. Photolysis of Co(CO){sub 3}(NO) with a 400-nm pump pulse leads to population of a manifold of excited states which decay to form an excited state triplet bent-NO complex within 1 ps. This structure relaxes to the ground triplet state in ca. 350 ps to form a second bent-NO structure.

  16. Non-Ferrous Metal Giant Develops Effective Business Model

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Lu Qianwen

    2011-01-01

    @@ TODAY non-ferrous metals (metals other than iron and alloys that do not contain an appreciable amount of iron) are an indispensable part of every aspect of our lives.From daily necessities like telephones and electric cookers, to sophisticated equipment like satellites and radar, non-ferrous metals have a presence.China is relatively rich in tungsten and rare earth, but lacks reserves of bronze, zinc, nickel and lead, so sourcing non-ferrous metals outside the country has provided big challenges and opportunities for China Non-ferrous Metal Corp.(CNMC), a major player in this field.

  17. Effects of low-level laser therapy on mitochondrial respiration and nitrosyl complex content.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buravlev, Evgeny A; Zhidkova, Tatyana V; Vladimirov, Yury A; Osipov, Anatoly N

    2014-11-01

    Among the photochemical reactions responsible for therapeutic effects of low-power laser radiation, the photolysis of nitrosyl iron complexes of iron-containing proteins is of primary importance. The purpose of the present study was to compare the effects of blue laser radiation on the respiration rate and photolysis of nitrosyl complexes of iron-sulfur clusters (NO-FeS) in mitochondria, subjected to NO as well as the possibility of NO transfer from NO-FeS to hemoglobin. It was shown that mitochondrial respiration in State 3 (V3) and State 4 (V4), according to Chance, dramatically decreased in the presence of 3 mM NO, but laser radiation (λ = 442 nm, 30 J/cm(2)) restored the respiration rates virtually to the initial level. At the same time, electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spectra showed that laser irradiation decomposed nitrosyl complexes produced by the addition of NO to mitochondria. EPR signal of nitrosyl complexes of FeS-clusters, formed in the presence of 3 mM NO, was maximal in hypoxic mitochondria, and disappeared in a dose-dependent manner, almost completely at the irradiation dose 120 J/cm(2). EPR measurements showed that the addition of lysed erythrocytes to mitochondria decreased the amount of nitrosyl complexes in iron-sulfur clusters and produced the accumulation of NO-hemoglobin. On the other hand, the addition of lysed erythrocytes to mitochondria, preincubated with nitric oxide, restored mitochondrial respiration rates V3 and V4 to initial levels. We may conclude that there are two possible ways to destroy FeS nitrosyl complexes in mitochondria and recover mitochondrial respiration inhibited by NO: laser irradiation and ample supply of the compounds with high affinity to nitric oxide, including hemoglobin.

  18. METHOD OF REDUCING PLUTONIUM WITH FERROUS IONS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dreher, J.L.; Koshland, D.E.; Thompson, S.G.; Willard, J.E.

    1959-10-01

    A process is presented for separating hexavalent plutonium from fission product values. To a nitric acid solution containing the values, ferrous ions are added and the solution is heated and held at elevated temperature to convert the plutonium to the tetravalent state via the trivalent state and the plutonium is then selectively precipitated on a BiPO/sub 4/ or LaF/sub 3/ carrier. The tetravalent plutonium formed is optionally complexed with fluoride, oxalate, or phosphate anion prior to carrier precipitation.

  19. Hydrogen sulfide inhibits development of atherosclerosis through up-regulating protein S-nitrosylation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Yan; Chen, Yulong; Zhu, Ninghong; Zhao, Sihai; Fan, Jianglin; Liu, Enqi

    2016-10-01

    Hydrogen sulfide (H2S) is an important gaseous signaling molecule that serves many important regulatory roles in physiological and pathophysiological conditions. H2S exerts an anti-atherosclerotic effect through mediating the biological functions of nitric oxide (NO). However, its mechanism of action is unclear. The purpose of this study is to explore the effect mechanism of H2S on the development of atherosclerosis with regard to protein S-nitrosylation. A total of 45 male apoE(-/-) mice were randomly divided into three groups. Atherosclerosis was induced by Western diet (21% fat and 0.15% cholesterol) with/without administration of a H2S donor (NaHS) or an endogenous cystathionine γ-lyase inhibitor (d, l-propargylglycine) for 12 weeks. After 12 weeks, plasma lipid and plasma NO levels were measured. Aortic gross lesion area and histopathological features of aortic lesion were determined. Additionally, the level of S-nitrosylated proteins in vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs) was detected using immunofluorescence in aorta. Rat VSMCs were performed in an in vitro experiment. Inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) protein expression, NO generation, protein S-nitrosylation, and cell proliferation and migration were measured. We found that H2S significantly reduced the aortic atherosclerotic lesion area (P=0.006) and inhibited lipid and macrophage accumulation (P=0.004, P=0.002) and VSMC proliferation (P=0.019) in apoE(-/-) mice. H2S could up-regulate levels of plasma NO and protein S-nitrosylation in aorta VSMCs. However, d, l- propargylglycine had the opposite effect, increasing the lesion area and the content of lipids and macrophages in the lesions of apoE(-/-) mice and down-regulating plasma NO levels and protein S-nitrosylation in aorta VSMCs. In vitro experiments, H2S could significantly reverse the reduction of iNOS expression and NO generation induced by oxidized low-density lipoprotein in VSMCs. Moreover, H2S could increase the protein S-nitrosylation

  20. Process and device for the separation of fragments of liberated ferrous scrap from not liberated ferrous scrap fragments by means of a static magnet

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rem, P.C.; Berkhout, S.P.M.; Fraunholcz, O.N.

    2008-01-01

    The invention relates to a process and device for the separation of fragments of liberated ferrous scrap from not liberated ferrous scrap fragments by means of a static magnet, wherein a mixture of said liberated ferrous and not liberated ferrous fragments is fed onto a continuous conveyor belt whic

  1. Process and device for the separation of fragments of liberated ferrous scrap from not liberated ferrous scrap fragments by means of a static magnet

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rem, P.C.; Berkhout, S.P.M.; Fraunholcz, O.N.

    2008-01-01

    The invention relates to a process and device for the separation of fragments of liberated ferrous scrap from not liberated ferrous scrap fragments by means of a static magnet, wherein a mixture of said liberated ferrous and not liberated ferrous fragments is fed onto a continuous conveyor belt

  2. Guangxi non-ferrous metal industry speeding up its restructuring

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    <正>Non-ferrous metal industry in Guangxi takes an important position in China.However,the waste of resources is severe due to its simple industrial structure,small size of enterprises, sloppy technology,scattered layout,obstructed market and indiscriminate mining.Starting from last year,Guangxi began the project of building a world-influential non-ferrous metal

  3. NON-FERROUS EXPORTS CONCENTRATION AND GLOBAL INVESTMENTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brîndușa COVACI

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available In the context of high-tech and telecommunication, non-ferrous sector has a crucial role in industries development. Cooper, nickel, aluminum, zinc, lead and tin are used, directly or indirectly, in most of the technologies, especially in high-tech production. The paper present a short index of the global investments for the non-ferrous transnational corporations listed on London Metal Exchange. The non-ferrous investment index presented in the paper refers to the most profitable corporation exports on world, European Union (EU28 and Central and Eastern Europe (CEE level. The export concentration, estimated through Herfindahl-Hirschmann index on world, EU28, CEE and Romanian level, show that the non-ferrous industry is in full process of releasing. The cases presented in the article show that the non-ferrous companies invest intensively in equipment and technologies with superior production capacities, which combat pollution given by non-ferrous processes, research and development for the non-ferrous innovative technologies, and creating new markets. Sustainable and intelligent development is the inflexion point of the non-ferrous transnational corporation investments. The research is predominant in exploration of the transnational corporations’ internet pages and reports, and statistical calculus from international trade websites.

  4. Non-Ferrous Metal Giant Develops Effective Business Model

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    CNMC combines social responsibility with corporate vision as it expands in Africa TODAY non-ferrous metals(metals other than iron and alloys that do not contain an appreciable amount of iron) are an indispensable part of every aspect of our lives. From daily necessities like telephones and electric cookers,to sophisticated equipment like satellites and radar,non-ferrous

  5. Effect of protein S-nitrosylation on autolysis and catalytic ability of μ-calpain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Rui; Li, Yupin; Wang, Mengqin; Zhou, Guanghong; Zhang, Wangang

    2016-12-15

    The effect of S-nitrosylation on the autolysis and catalytic ability of μ-calpain in vitro in the presence of 50μM Ca(2 +) was investigated. μ-Calpain was incubated with different concentrations of nitric oxide donor S-nitrosoglutathione (GSNO) and subsequently reacted with purified myofibrils. Results showed that the amount of 80kDa μ-calpain subunit significantly decreased as GSNO increased from 0 to 300μM, but increases of GSNO to 300, 500 and 1000μM did not result in further inhibition. The catalytic ability of nitrosylated μ-calpain to degrade titin, nebulin, troponin-T and desmin was significantly reduced when the GSNO concentration was higher than 300μM. The cysteine residues of μ-calpain at positions 49, 351, 384, and 592 in the catalytic subunit and at 142 in small subunit were S-nitrosylated, which could be responsible for decreased μ-calpain activity. Thus, S-nitrosylation can negatively regulate the activation of μ-calpain resulting in decreased proteolytic ability on myofibrils.

  6. S-Nitrosylation-Mediated Redox Transcriptional Switch Modulates Neurogenesis and Neuronal Cell Death

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shu-ichi Okamoto

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Redox-mediated posttranslational modifications represent a molecular switch that controls major mechanisms of cell function. Nitric oxide (NO can mediate redox reactions via S-nitrosylation, representing transfer of an NO group to a critical protein thiol. NO is known to modulate neurogenesis and neuronal survival in various brain regions in disparate neurodegenerative conditions. However, a unifying molecular mechanism linking these phenomena remains unknown. Here, we report that S-nitrosylation of myocyte enhancer factor 2 (MEF2 transcription factors acts as a redox switch to inhibit both neurogenesis and neuronal survival. Structure-based analysis reveals that MEF2 dimerization creates a pocket, facilitating S-nitrosylation at an evolutionally conserved cysteine residue in the DNA binding domain. S-Nitrosylation disrupts MEF2-DNA binding and transcriptional activity, leading to impaired neurogenesis and survival in vitro and in vivo. Our data define a molecular switch whereby redox-mediated posttranslational modification controls both neurogenesis and neurodegeneration via a single transcriptional signaling cascade.

  7. Method of activating an article of passive ferrous or non-ferrous metal prior to carburising, nitriding and /or nitrocarburising

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2011-01-01

    Source: US2012111456A A method of activating an article of passive ferrous or non-ferrous metal by heating at least one compound containing nitrogen and carbon, wherein the article is treated with gaseous species derived from the compound. The activated article can be subsequently carburised...

  8. Sensory evaluation of dairy supplements enriched with reduced iron, ferrous sulfate or ferrous fumarate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morales, Josefina C; Sánchez-Vargas, Elena; García-Zepeda, Rodrigo; Villalpando, Salvador

    2015-01-01

    To determine the degree of liking of the Oportunidades programme dietary supplements (DS)--purees and beverages--added with different iron salts (IS): reduced iron (RI), ferrous sulphate (FS) or ferrous fumarate (FF) during 24 weeks of storage. The DS were evaluated through a hedonic scale for aroma, flavour and colour attributes; at time zero and every eight weeks, each panel member evaluated three DS with same flavour and presentation but different IS. Seventy women participated as panel members. The chocolate and banana DS exhibited a change in preference by colour and flavour due to storage. DS with FS or RI showed the least preference by flavour and colour in the context of the three IS considered. The chocolate and neutral DS enriched with FS changed their colour and flavour. DS were, in general, well-liked; nonetheless, for purees enriched with FS and for beverages enriched with RI, the less-liked attributes were colour and flavour.

  9. Simultaneous determination of trace niobium, tantalum and tungsten in ferrous and non-ferrous alloys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vassilaros, G L; Byrnes, C J

    1976-03-01

    A method is presented for the determination of niobium, tantalum and tungsten in steel and non-ferrous alloys, based on hydrolysis with sulphurous acid followed by X-ray fluorescence measurements. The limit of determination is about 0.002% and the standard deviation is 0.002 at the 0.05% level. Results below 0.01% by this method are only semiquantitative.

  10. Thermodynamic fundamentals of ferrous cake sulfitization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tyurin, A. G.; Vasekha, M. V.; Biryukov, A. I.

    2016-03-01

    The Pourbaix diagrams of the systems SO 4 2- -SO 3 2- -H2O and iron hydroxide (oxide)-H2O are refined. The E(pH) dependence of the sulfitization of iron(III) hydroxide is refined with allowance for the regions of predominant phase constituents of the systems. The potential E-pH electrochemical equilibrium diagrams of the systems Fe(OH)3-H2SO4-SO 3 2- -H2O, FeOOH-H2SO4-SO 3 2- -H2O, and Fe2O3-H2SO4-SO 3 2- -H2O are plotted. These diagrams can be considered as a thermodynamic basis for the sulfite conversion of the ferrous cake of copper-nickel production.

  11. A Reaction of Aspirin with Ferrous Gluconate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jian

    2015-12-01

    A color reaction of aspirin with ferrous gluconate was studied by UV-Vis spectrophotometry and HPLC-MS. It was found that the UV-Vis spectra of the two drugs were different before and after they were mixed in water at about 0.3 M (diluted by >20 times for analysis), indicating that a complexation reaction took place. The drug-iron complex dissociated when the reacting solution was diluted by 400 times. The by-products of the reaction identified by HPLC-MS were salicylic acid, acetylated gluconic acid, salicylate-gluconic acid conjugate, and an oxidized product of salicylic acid that was complexed with iron with a molecular weight of 212. This reaction may be used as an important consideration to optimize the dosing regime of the two drugs and to help explain some pharmacological reactions between aspirin and biomolecules.

  12. Regulation of cell death receptor S-nitrosylation and apoptotic signaling by Sorafenib in hepatoblastoma cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez-Hernández, A; Navarro-Villarán, E; González, R; Pereira, S; Soriano-De Castro, L B; Sarrias-Giménez, A; Barrera-Pulido, L; Álamo-Martínez, J M; Serrablo-Requejo, A; Blanco-Fernández, G; Nogales-Muñoz, A; Gila-Bohórquez, A; Pacheco, D; Torres-Nieto, M A; Serrano-Díaz-Canedo, J; Suárez-Artacho, G; Bernal-Bellido, C; Marín-Gómez, L M; Barcena, J A; Gómez-Bravo, M A; Padilla, C A; Padillo, F J; Muntané, J

    2015-12-01

    Nitric oxide (NO) plays a relevant role during cell death regulation in tumor cells. The overexpression of nitric oxide synthase type III (NOS-3) induces oxidative and nitrosative stress, p53 and cell death receptor expression and apoptosis in hepatoblastoma cells. S-nitrosylation of cell death receptor modulates apoptosis. Sorafenib is the unique recommended molecular-targeted drug for the treatment of patients with advanced hepatocellular carcinoma. The present study was addressed to elucidate the potential role of NO during Sorafenib-induced cell death in HepG2 cells. We determined the intra- and extracellular NO concentration, cell death receptor expression and their S-nitrosylation modifications, and apoptotic signaling in Sorafenib-treated HepG2 cells. The effect of NO donors on above parameters has also been determined. Sorafenib induced apoptosis in HepG2 cells. However, low concentration of the drug (10nM) increased cell death receptor expression, as well as caspase-8 and -9 activation, but without activation of downstream apoptotic markers. In contrast, Sorafenib (10 µM) reduced upstream apoptotic parameters but increased caspase-3 activation and DNA fragmentation in HepG2 cells. The shift of cell death signaling pathway was associated with a reduction of S-nitrosylation of cell death receptors in Sorafenib-treated cells. The administration of NO donors increased S-nitrosylation of cell death receptors and overall induction of cell death markers in control and Sorafenib-treated cells. In conclusion, Sorafenib induced alteration of cell death receptor S-nitrosylation status which may have a relevant repercussion on cell death signaling in hepatoblastoma cells.

  13. Molecular Basis of Regulating High Voltage-Activated Calcium Channels by S-Nitrosylation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Meng-Hua; Bavencoffe, Alexis; Pan, Hui-Lin

    2015-12-18

    Nitric oxide (NO) is involved in a variety of physiological processes, such as vasoregulation and neurotransmission, and has a complex role in the regulation of pain transduction and synaptic transmission. We have shown previously that NO inhibits high voltage-activated Ca(2+) channels in primary sensory neurons and excitatory synaptic transmission in the spinal dorsal horn. However, the molecular mechanism involved in this inhibitory action remains unclear. In this study, we investigated the role of S-nitrosylation in the NO regulation of high voltage-activated Ca(2+) channels. The NO donor S-nitroso-N-acetyl-DL-penicillamine (SNAP) rapidly reduced N-type currents when Cav2.2 was coexpressed with the Cavβ1 or Cavβ3 subunits in HEK293 cells. In contrast, SNAP only slightly inhibited P/Q-type and L-type currents reconstituted with various Cavβ subunits. SNAP caused a depolarizing shift in voltage-dependent N-type channel activation, but it had no effect on Cav2.2 protein levels on the membrane surface. The inhibitory effect of SNAP on N-type currents was blocked by the sulfhydryl-specific modifying reagent methanethiosulfonate ethylammonium. Furthermore, the consensus motifs of S-nitrosylation were much more abundant in Cav2.2 than in Cav1.2 and Cav2.1. Site-directed mutagenesis studies showed that Cys-805, Cys-930, and Cys-1045 in the II-III intracellular loop, Cys-1835 and Cys-2145 in the C terminus of Cav2.2, and Cys-346 in the Cavβ3 subunit were nitrosylation sites mediating NO sensitivity of N-type channels. Our findings demonstrate that the consensus motifs of S-nitrosylation in cytoplasmically accessible sites are critically involved in post-translational regulation of N-type Ca(2+) channels by NO. S-Nitrosylation mediates the feedback regulation of N-type channels by NO.

  14. Henan Non-ferrous Holding Company Set Up in Henan

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    <正>Henan Non-ferrous Holding Co.(hereinafter referred to as Henan Non-ferrous),an enterprise set up under the joint effort of 3 enterprises with state-owned assets namely Shenhuo Group,Yichuan Power and Yulian Group,has started its operation under tight schedule.The focus of the current operation is acquisition,for which a number of alumina and aluminum processing enterprises are on the list of Henan Non-ferrous.China Nonferrous Metals Monthly reported this news at our last issue,now we try to analysis more details behind the decision.

  15. Inhibition of Epithelial-to-Mesenchymal Transition (EMT) in Cancer by Nitric Oxide: Pivotal Roles of Nitrosylation of NF-κB, YY1 and Snail.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonavida, Benjamin; Baritaki, Stavroula

    2012-01-01

    Treatment of cancer cell lines with high levels of nitric oxide (NO) via NO donors, such as DETANONOate, inhibits cell growth and survival pathways and sensitizes resistant tumor cells to apoptosis by chemoimmunotherapeutic drugs. In addition, we recently have reported that NO also inhibits the epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT) phenotype in metastatic cancer cell lines via dysregulation of the nuclear factor (NF)-κB/Snail/Yin Yang 1 (YY1)/Raf kinase inhibitor protein circuitry. The mechanism underlying NO-mediated dysregulation of this circuit was investigated, namely, NO-mediated inhibition of the activity of the transcription factors NF-κB, Snail, and YY1. We hypothesized that one mechanism of NO-mediated inhibition may invoke the NO-induced S-nitrosylation of these transcription factors. We demonstrate in metastatic and EMT(+) human prostate carcinoma cell lines that treatment with NO results in the S-nitrosylation of NF-κB (p50), Snail, and YY1 and inhibits their activities, resulting in the reversal of the EMT phenotype into a mesenchymal-to-epithelial transition phenotype. These findings suggest that NO donors may be potential therapeutic agents in both the reversal of resistance and the inhibition of EMT and metastasis.

  16. 40 CFR 464.30 - Applicability; description of the ferrous casting subcategory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... ferrous casting subcategory. 464.30 Section 464.30 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION... Ferrous Casting Subcategory § 464.30 Applicability; description of the ferrous casting subcategory. The... introduction of pollutants into publicly owned treatment works resulting from ferrous casting operations as...

  17. Endogenous nitric oxide induces activation of apoptosis signal-regulating kinase 1 via S-nitrosylation in rat hippocampus during cerebral ischemia-reperfusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, D-H; Yuan, F-G; Hu, S-Q; Diao, F; Wu, Y-P; Zong, Y-Y; Song, T; Li, C; Zhang, G-Y

    2013-01-15

    Apoptosis signal-regulating kinase 1 (ASK1) is a general mediator of cell death in response to a variety of stimuli, including reactive oxygen species, tumor necrosis factor α, lipopolysaccharide, endoplasmic reticulum stress, calcium influx and ischemia. Here we reported ASK1 was activated by nitric oxide (NO) through S-nitrosylation during cerebral ischemia-reperfusion. The reagents that abrogate neuronal nitric oxide synthase (nNOS) activity such as nNOS inhibitor 7NI and N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor antagonist MK801 prevented ASK1 activation via decreasing ASK1 S-nitrosylation. In HEK293 cells, over-expressed ASK1 could be S-nitrosylated by both exogenous and endogenous NO and Cys869 was identified as the site of ASK1 S-nitrosylation. S-nitrosylation increased the level of ASK1 phosphorylation at Thr845, which represents ASK1 activation. Our results further confirmed that S-nitrosylation led to the increment of ASK1 dimerization. S-nitrosylation of ASK1 also activated the downstream JNK signaling and JNK-mediated nucleic pathway. The exogenous NO (SNP and GSNO) reversed the effect of endogenous NO by suppressing S-nitrosylation of ASK1 and exerted neuroprotection during ischemia-reperfusion. These results suggest that inhibiting ASK1 S-nitrosylation may be a novel approach for stroke therapy. Copyright © 2012 IBRO. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Adsorption of ferrous ions onto montmorillonites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Qin, Dawei, E-mail: qdw109@163.com [Qilu University of Technology, Jinan, 250353, Shandong (China); Niu, Xia [Qilu University of Technology, Jinan, 250353, Shandong (China); Qiao, Min; Liu, Gang; Li, Hongxin; Meng, Zhenxiao [Shandong SiBang pharmaceutical co., LTD, Jinan, Shandong, 250200 (China)

    2015-04-01

    Highlights: • Adsorption study of ferrous ions on montmorillonites. • Using ascorbic acid as antioxidants in adsorption process. • Fe (II)-MMT had good affinity for phosphate. - Abstract: The adsorption of Fe (II) onto montmorillonites was investigated through initial concentration, contact time, pH and temperature. During the whole adsorption process, the ascorbic acid (Vitamin C) was added as a kind of antioxidant, at the same time, deionized water (after boiling) and nitrogen protection were also used to avoid oxidation. The Fe{sup 2+}/Fe{sub total} ratio of the iron exists in the Fe-montmorillonites was found more than 95%. Two kinetic models, including pseudo-first-order and pseudo-second-order model, were used to analyze the adsorption process of Fe (II) on montmorillonites. The results of our study showed that adsorption process fitted with pseudo-second-order well. Adsorption isotherms showed that Langmuir model was better than Freundlich model. The thermodynamic parameters ΔG{sup 0} and ΔH{sup 0} were 3.696 kJ/mol and 6.689 kJ/mol (we just gave the values at 298 K), respectively. The positive values at different temperatures showed that the adsorption process was non-spontaneous and endothermic. The characteristics of materials were determined by X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR), Surface area and porosity analyzer, Thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), Differential scanning calorimeter (DSC) and Zeta potential distribution.

  19. Ferrous iron partitioning in the lower mantle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muir, Joshua M. R.; Brodholt, John P.

    2016-08-01

    We used density functional theory (DFT) to examine the partitioning of ferrous iron between periclase and bridgmanite under lower mantle conditions. To study the effects of the three major variables - pressure, temperature and concentration - these have been varied from 0 to 150 GPa, from 1000 to 4000 K and from 0 to 100% total iron content. We find that increasing temperature increases KD, increasing iron concentration decreases KD, while pressure can both increase and decrease KD. We find that KD decreases slowly from about 0.32 to 0.06 with depth under lower mantle conditions. We also find that KD increases sharply to 0.15 in the very lowermost mantle due to the strong temperature increases near the CMB. Spin transitions have a large effect on the activity of ferropericlase which causes KD to vary with pressure in a peak-like fashion. Despite the apparently large changes in KD through the mantle, this actually results in relatively small changes in total iron content in the two phases, with XFefp ranging from about 0.20 to 0.35, before decreasing again to about 0.28 at the CMB, and XFebd has a pretty constant value of about 0.04-0.07 throughout the lower mantle. For the very high Fe concentrations suggested for ULVZs, Fe partitions very strongly into ferropericlase.

  20. Temperature dependence of Q-band electron paramagnetic resonance spectra of nitrosyl heme proteins

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Flores, Marco; Wajnberg, Eliane; Bemski, George

    1997-11-01

    The Q-band (35 GHz) electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spectra of nitrosyl hemoglobin (Hb N O) and nitrosyl myoglobin (Mb NO) were studied as a function of temperature between 19 K and 200 K. The spectra of both heme proteins show classes of variations as a function of temperature. The first one has previously been associated with the existence of two paramagnetic species, one with rhombic and the other with axial symmetry. The second one manifests itself in changes in the g-factors and linewidths of each species. These changes are correlated with the conformational substates model and associate the variations of g-values with changes in the angle of the N(his)-Fe-N (NO) bond in the rhombic species and with changes in the distance between Fe and N of the proximal (F8) histidine in the axial species. (author) 24 refs., 6 figs.

  1. Role Of S-Nitrosylation In The Extrinsic Apoptotic Signalling Pathway In Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stéphanie Plenchette

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available One of the key features of tumour cells is the acquisition of resistance to apoptosis. Thus, determining therapeutic strategies that circumvent apoptotic resistance and result in tumor regression is a challenge. One strategy to induce apoptosis is to activate death receptor signalling pathways. Members of the Tumor Necrosis Factor TNF-family death receptors ligand (TRAIL, FasL and TNF-α can originate from immune and non-immune cells. Death receptors, engaged by cognate ligands, can initiate multiple signaling pathways, which can generate diverse outcomes, including non-apoptosis-related signal. Knowledge on the molecular mechanisms (that determine death or survival of tumour cells following exposure to the TNF-family death receptors ligands have demonstrated that post-translational modifications of the signaling pathway components play a critical role in determining cell fate. Cell death can be sensed by nitric oxide (NO in a wide variety of tumour cells. S-nitrosylation, the covalent modification of a protein cysteine thiol by an NO moiety, has emerged as an important post-translational regulation for the TNF-family death receptor signaling pathways. It has been demonstrated that death receptor DR4 (TRAIL-R1 becomes S-nitrosylated and promotes apoptosis following a specific NO donor treatment (Tang et al., 2006. Then, our group has shown that S-nitrosylation of Fas, following glyceryl trinitrate (GTN exposure, promotes redistribution of the receptor to lipid rafts, formation of the death-inducing signal complex (DISC, and induction of cell death. Finally, I will discuss our recent efforts to decipher regulatory mechanism of the TNF-α/TNFR1 signalling cell death pathway by S-nitrosylation following GTN treatment.

  2. S-nitrosylation of surfactant protein-D controls inflammatory function.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chang-Jiang Guo

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available The pulmonary collectins, surfactant proteins A and D (SP-A and SP-D have been implicated in the regulation of the innate immune system within the lung. In particular, SP-D appears to have both pro- and anti-inflammatory signaling functions. At present, the molecular mechanisms involved in switching between these functions remain unclear. SP-D differs in its quaternary structure from SP-A and the other members of the collectin family, such as C1q, in that it forms large multimers held together by the N-terminal domain, rather than aligning the triple helix domains in the traditional "bunch of flowers" arrangement. There are two cysteine residues within the hydrophobic N terminus of SP-D that are critical for multimer assembly and have been proposed to be involved in stabilizing disulfide bonds. Here we show that these cysteines exist within the reduced state in dodecameric SP-D and form a specific target for S-nitrosylation both in vitro and by endogenous, pulmonary derived nitric oxide (NO within a rodent acute lung injury model. S-nitrosylation is becoming increasingly recognized as an important post-translational modification with signaling consequences. The formation of S-nitrosothiol (SNO-SP-D both in vivo and in vitro results in a disruption of SP-D multimers such that trimers become evident. SNO-SP-D but not SP-D, either dodecameric or trimeric, is chemoattractive for macrophages and induces p38 MAPK phosphorylation. The signaling capacity of SNO-SP-D appears to be mediated by binding to calreticulin/CD91. We propose that NO controls the dichotomous nature of this pulmonary collectin and that posttranslational modification by S-nitrosylation causes quaternary structural alterations in SP-D, causing it to switch its inflammatory signaling role. This represents new insight into both the regulation of protein function by S-nitrosylation and NO's role in innate immunity.

  3. Iron and pH-responsive FtrABCD ferrous iron utilization system of Bordetella species

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brickman, Timothy J.; Armstrong, Sandra K.

    2012-01-01

    Summary A putative operon encoding an uncharacterized ferrous iron transport (FtrABCD) system was previously identified in cDNA microarray studies. In growth studies using buffered medium at pH values ranging from pH 6.0 to 7.6, Bordetella pertussis and Bordetella bronchiseptica FtrABCD system mutants showed dramatic reductions in growth yields under iron-restricted conditions at pH 6.0, but had no growth defects at pH 7.6. Supplementation of culture medium with 2 mM ascorbate reductant was inhibitory to alcaligin siderophore-dependent growth at pH 7.6, but had a neglible effect on FtrABCD system-dependent iron assimilation at pH 6.0 consistent with its predicted specificity for ferrous iron. Unlike Bordetella siderophore-dependent and haem iron transport systems, and in agreement with its hypothesized role in transport of inorganic iron from periplasm to cytoplasm, FtrABCD system function did not require the TonB energy transduction complex. Gene fusion analysis revealed that ftrABCD promoter activity was maximal under iron-restricted growth conditions at acidic pH. The pH of human airway surface fluids ranges from pH 5.5 to 7.9, and the FtrABCD system may supply ferrous iron necessary for Bordetella growth in acidic host microenvironments in which siderophores are ineffective for iron retrieval. PMID:22924881

  4. Biological properties of novel ruthenium- and osmium-nitrosyl complexes with azole heterocycles

    KAUST Repository

    Novak, Maria S.

    2016-03-09

    Since the discovery that nitric oxide (NO) is a physiologically relevant molecule, there has been great interest in the use of metal nitrosyl compounds as antitumor pharmaceuticals. Particularly interesting are those complexes which can deliver NO to biological targets. Ruthenium- and osmium-based compounds offer lower toxicity compared to other metals and show different mechanisms of action as well as different spectra of activity compared to platinum-based drugs. Novel ruthenium- and osmium-nitrosyl complexes with azole heterocycles were studied to elucidate their cytotoxicity and possible interactions with DNA. Apoptosis induction, changes of mitochondrial transmembrane potential and possible formation of reactive oxygen species were investigated as indicators of NO-mediated damage by flow cytometry. Results suggest that ruthenium- and osmium-nitrosyl complexes with the general formula (indazolium)[cis/trans-MCl4(NO)(1H-indazole)] have pronounced cytotoxic potency in cancer cell lines. Especially the more potent ruthenium complexes strongly induce apoptosis associated with depolarization of mitochondrial membranes, and elevated reactive oxygen species levels. Furthermore, a slight yet not unequivocal trend to accumulation of intracellular cyclic guanosine monophosphate attributable to NO-mediated effects was observed.

  5. S-nitrosylation-dependent proteasomal degradation restrains Cdk5 activity to regulate hippocampal synaptic strength.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Peng; Fu, Wing-Yu; Fu, Amy K Y; Ip, Nancy Y

    2015-10-27

    Precise regulation of synaptic strength requires coordinated activity and functions of synaptic proteins, which is controlled by a variety of post-translational modification. Here we report that S-nitrosylation of p35, the activator of cyclin-dependent kinase 5 (Cdk5), by nitric oxide (NO) is important for the regulation of excitatory synaptic strength. While blockade of NO signalling results in structural and functional synaptic deficits as indicated by reduced mature dendritic spine density and surface expression of glutamate receptor subunits, phosphorylation of numerous synaptic substrates of Cdk5 and its activity are aberrantly upregulated following reduced NO production. The results show that the NO-induced reduction in Cdk5 activity is mediated by S-nitrosylation of p35, resulting in its ubiquitination and degradation by the E3 ligase PJA2. Silencing p35 protein in hippocampal neurons partially rescues the NO blockade-induced synaptic deficits. These findings collectively demonstrate that p35 S-nitrosylation by NO signalling is critical for regulating hippocampal synaptic strength.

  6. S-nitrosylation and S-palmitoylation reciprocally regulate synaptic targeting of PSD-95.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ho, Gary P H; Selvakumar, Balakrishnan; Mukai, Jun; Hester, Lynda D; Wang, Yuxuan; Gogos, Joseph A; Snyder, Solomon H

    2011-07-14

    PSD-95, a principal scaffolding component of the postsynaptic density, is targeted to synapses by palmitoylation, where it couples NMDA receptor stimulation to production of nitric oxide (NO) by neuronal nitric oxide synthase (nNOS). Here, we show that PSD-95 is physiologically S-nitrosylated. We identify cysteines 3 and 5, which are palmitoylated, as sites of nitrosylation, suggesting a competition between these two modifications. In support of this hypothesis, physiologically produced NO inhibits PSD-95 palmitoylation in granule cells of the cerebellum, decreasing the number of PSD-95 clusters at synaptic sites. Further, decreased palmitoylation, as seen in heterologous cells treated with 2-bromopalmitate or in ZDHHC8 knockout mice deficient in a PSD-95 palmitoyltransferase, results in increased PSD-95 nitrosylation. These data support a model in which NMDA-mediated production of NO regulates targeting of PSD-95 to synapses via mutually competitive cysteine modifications. Thus, differential modification of cysteines may represent a general paradigm in signal transduction. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. S-Nitrosylation and S-Palmitoylation Reciprocally Regulate Synaptic Targeting of PSD-95

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ho, Gary P. H.; Selvakumar, Balakrishnan; Mukai, Jun; Hester, Lynda D.; Wang, Yuxuan; Gogos, Joseph A.; Snyder, Solomon H.

    2011-01-01

    PSD-95, a principal scaffolding component of the post-synaptic density, is targeted to synapses by palmitoylation where it couples NMDA receptor stimulation to production of nitric oxide (NO) by neuronal nitric oxide synthase (nNOS). Here, we show that PSD-95 is physiologically S-nitrosylated. We identify cysteines 3 and 5, which are palmitoylated, as sites of nitrosylation, suggesting a competition between these two modifications. In support of this hypothesis, physiologically produced NO inhibits PSD-95 palmitoylation in granule cells of the cerebellum, decreasing the number of PSD-95 clusters at synaptic sites. Further, decreased palmitoylation, as seen in heterologous cells treated with 2-bromopalmitate or in ZDHHC8 knockout mice deficient in a PSD-95 palmitoyltransferase, results in increased PSD-95 nitrosylation. These data support a model in which NMDA mediated production of NO regulates targeting of PSD-95 to synapses via mutually competitive cysteine modifications. Thus, differential modification of cysteines may represent a general paradigm in signal transduction. PMID:21745643

  8. Sensory evaluation of dairy supplements enriched with reduced iron, ferrous sulfate or ferrous fumarate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Josefina C Morales

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. To determine the degree of liking of the Oportunidades programme dietary supplements (DS –purees and beverages– added with different iron salts (IS: reduced iron (RI, ferrous sulphate (FS or ferrous fumarate (FF during 24 weeks of storage. Materials and methods. The DS were evaluated through a hedonic scale for aroma, flavour and colour attributes; at time zero and every eight weeks, each panel member evaluated three DS with same flavour and presentation but different IS. Seventy women participated as panel members. Results. The chocolate and banana DS exhibited a change in preference by colour and flavour due to storage. DS with FS or RI showed the least preference by flavour and colour in the context of the three IS considered. The chocolate and neutral DS enriched with FS changed their colour and flavour. Conclusion. DS were, in general, well-liked; nonetheless, for purees enriched with FS and for beverages enriched with RI, the less-liked attributes were colour and flavour

  9. Nitrosylation of Nitric-Oxide-Sensing Regulatory Proteins Containing [4Fe-4S] Clusters Gives Rise to Multiple Iron-Nitrosyl Complexes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Serrano, Pauline N.; Wang, Hongxin; Crack, Jason; Prior, Christopher; Hutchings, Matthew; Thompson, Andrew; Kamali, Seed; Yoda, Yoshitaka; Zhao, Jiyong; Hu, Michael; Alp, Ercan E.; Oganesyan, Vasily; Le Brun, Nick

    2016-11-14

    The reaction of protein-bound iron–sulfur (Fe-S) clusters with nitric oxide (NO) plays key roles in NO-mediated toxicity and signaling. Elucidation of the mechanism of the reaction of NO with DNA regulatory proteins that contain Fe-S clusters has been hampered by a lack of information about the nature of the iron-nitrosyl products formed. Herein, we report nuclear resonance vibrational spectroscopy (NRVS) and density functional theory (DFT) calculations that identify NO reaction products in WhiD and NsrR, regulatory proteins that use a [4Fe-4S] cluster to sense NO. This work reveals that nitrosylation yields multiple products structurally related to Roussin's Red Ester (RRE, [Fe2(NO)4(Cys)2]) and Roussin's Black Salt (RBS, [Fe4(NO)7S3]. In the latter case, the absence of 32S/34S shifts in the Fe−S region of the NRVS spectra suggest that a new species, Roussin's Black Ester (RBE), may be formed, in which one or more of the sulfide ligands is replaced by Cys thiolates.

  10. Analyses of Ferrous and Ferric State in DynabiTab Using Mössbauer Spectroscopy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Young Rang Uhm

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Antianemic medicament ferrous gluconate, ferrous fumarate, and a Dynabi tablet with a basic iron bearing ingredient were studied with the use of Mössbauer spectroscopy. Room temperature spectra of ferrous gluconate gave clear evidence that the two phases of iron were present: ferrous (Fe2+ as a major one with a contribution at and above 91 a.u.% and ferric (Fe3+ whose contribution was found to be ~9 a.u.%. In the case of ferrous fumarate, a single phase was measured corresponding to ferrous (Fe2+ state. A Dynabi tablet consists of ferrous fumarate and ferrous fumarate. The ferric phase in ferrous gluconate is able to be reached about ~3.6 a.u.% in a tablet.

  11. Analyses of Ferrous and Ferric State in DynabiTab Using Mössbauer Spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uhm, Young Rang; Lim, Jae Cheong; Choi, Sang Mu

    2017-01-01

    Antianemic medicament ferrous gluconate, ferrous fumarate, and a Dynabi tablet with a basic iron bearing ingredient were studied with the use of Mössbauer spectroscopy. Room temperature spectra of ferrous gluconate gave clear evidence that the two phases of iron were present: ferrous (Fe(2+)) as a major one with a contribution at and above 91 a.u.% and ferric (Fe(3+)) whose contribution was found to be ~9 a.u.%. In the case of ferrous fumarate, a single phase was measured corresponding to ferrous (Fe(2+)) state. A Dynabi tablet consists of ferrous fumarate and ferrous fumarate. The ferric phase in ferrous gluconate is able to be reached about ~3.6 a.u.% in a tablet.

  12. Subcellular Distribution of S-Nitrosylated H-Ras in Differentiated and Undifferentiated PC12 Cells during Hypoxia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbakadze, Tamar; Goloshvili, Galina; Narmania, Nana; Zhuravliova, Elene; Mikeladze, David

    2017-10-01

    Hypoxia or exposure to excessive reactive oxygen or nitrogen species could induce S-nitrosylation of various target proteins, including GTPases of the Ras-superfamily. Under hypoxic conditions, the Ras-protein is translocated to the cytosol and interacts with the Golgi complex, endoplasmic reticulum, mitochondria. The mobility/translocation of Ras depend on the cells oxidative status. However, the importance of relocated Snitrosylated- H-Ras (NO-H-Ras) in proliferation/differentiation processes is not completely understood. We have determined the content of soluble- and membrane-bound-NO-HRas in differentiated (D) and undifferentiated (ND) rat pheochromocytoma (PC12) cells under hypoxic and normoxic conditions. In our experimental study, we analyzed NO-H-Ras levels under hypoxic/normoxic conditions in membrane and soluble fractions of ND and D PC12 cells with/without nitric oxide donor, sodium nitroprusside (SNP) treatment. Cells were analyzed by the S-nitrosylated kit, immunoprecipitation, and Western blot. We assessed the action of NO-H-Ras on oxidative metabolism of isolated mitochondria by determining mitochondrial hydrogen peroxide generation via the scopoletin oxidation method and ATPproduction as estimated by the luminometric method. Hypoxia did not influence nitrosylation of soluble H-Ras in ND PC12 cells. Under hypoxic conditions, the nitrosylation of soluble-H-Ras greatly decreased in D PC12 cells. SNP didn't change the levels of nitrosylation of soluble-H-Ras, in either hypoxic or normoxic conditions. On the other hand, hypoxia, per se, did not affect the nitrosylation of membrane-bound-H-Ras in D and ND PC12 cells. SNP-dependent nitrosylation of membrane-bound-H-Ras greatly increased in D PC12 cells. Both unmodified normal and mutated H-Ras enhanced the mitochondrial synthesis of ATP, whereas the stimulatory effects on ATP synthesis were eliminated after S-nitrosylation of H-Ras. According to the results, it may be proposed that hypoxia can decrease S-nitrosylation

  13. Rapid S-nitrosylation of actin by NO-generating donors and in inflammatory pain model mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lu Jingshan

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background S-Nitrosylation, the reversible post-translational modification of reactive cysteine residues in proteins, has emerged as an important mechanism by which NO acts as a signaling molecule. We recently demonstrated that actin is a major S-nitrosylated protein in the spinal cord and suggested that NO directly attenuates dopamine release from PC12 cells by causing the breakdown of F-actin. However, the occurrence of S-nitrosylation of actin remained unclarified in animal pain model. Kinetic analysis of S-nitrosylation of actin in the present study was made by using NO-generating donors. The biotin-switch assay and purification on streptavidin-agarose were employed for identification of S-nitrosylated actin. Results Dopamine release from PC12 cells was markedly attenuated by NOR1 (t1/2 = 1.8 min and much less by NOR3 (t1/2 = 30 min, but not by S-nitroso-glutathione, an endogenous NO donor. A membrane-permeable cGMP analogue could not substitute for NOR1 as a suppressor nor could inhibitors of soluble guanylate cyclase and cGMP-dependent protein kinase attenuate the suppression. S-Nitrosylated actin was detected by the biotin-switch assay at 5 min after the addition of NOR1. Consistent with the kinetic analysis, actin in the spinal cord was rapidly and maximally S-nitrosylated in an inflammatory pain model at 5 min after the injection of 2% formalin into the hind paws. In vivo patch-clamp recordings of the spinal dorsal horn, NOR3 showed an inhibitory action on inhibitory synaptic transmission in interneurons of the substantia gelatinosa. Conclusions The present study demonstrates that rapid S-nitrosylation of actin occurred in vitro in the presence of exogenous NO-generating donors and in vivo in inflammatory pain model mice. Our data suggest that, in addition to the well-known cGMP-dependent protein kinase pathway, S-nitrosylation is involved in pain transmission via disinhibition of inhibitory neurons.

  14. Analyses of Ferrous and Ferric State in DynabiTab Using Mössbauer Spectroscopy

    OpenAIRE

    Young Rang Uhm; Jae Cheong Lim; Sang Mu Choi

    2017-01-01

    Antianemic medicament ferrous gluconate, ferrous fumarate, and a Dynabi tablet with a basic iron bearing ingredient were studied with the use of Mössbauer spectroscopy. Room temperature spectra of ferrous gluconate gave clear evidence that the two phases of iron were present: ferrous (Fe2+) as a major one with a contribution at and above 91 a.u.% and ferric (Fe3+) whose contribution was found to be ~9 a.u.%. In the case of ferrous fumarate, a single phase was measured corresponding to ferrous...

  15. Alcohol drives S-nitrosylation and redox activation of protein phosphatase 1, causing bovine airway cilia dysfunction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Price, Michael E; Pavlik, Jacqueline A; Liu, Miao; Ding, Shi-Jian; Wyatt, Todd A; Sisson, Joseph H

    2017-03-01

    Individuals with alcohol (ethanol)-use disorders are at increased risk for lung infections, in part, due to defective mucociliary clearance driven by motile cilia in the airways. We recently reported that isolated, demembranated bovine cilia (axonemes) are capable of producing nitric oxide ((∙)NO) when exposed to biologically relevant concentrations of alcohol. This increased presence of (∙)NO can lead to protein S-nitrosylation, a posttranslational modification signaling mechanism involving reversible adduction of nitrosonium cations or (∙)NO to thiolate or thiyl radicals, respectively, of proteins forming S-nitrosothiols (SNOs). We quantified and compared SNO content between isolated, demembranated axonemes extracted from bovine tracheae, with or without in situ alcohol exposure (100 mM × 24 h). We demonstrate that relevant concentrations of alcohol exposure shift the S-nitrosylation status of key cilia regulatory proteins, including 20-fold increases in S-nitrosylation of proteins that include protein phosphatase 1 (PP1). With the use of an ATP-reactivated axoneme motility system, we demonstrate that alcohol-driven S-nitrosylation of PP1 is associated with PP1 activation and dysfunction of axoneme motility. These new data demonstrate that alcohol can shift the S-nitrothiol balance at the level of the cilia organelle and highlight S-nitrosylation as a novel signaling mechanism to regulate PP1 and cilia motility.

  16. Ferrous ion oxidation by Thiobacillus ferrooxidans immobilized on activated carbon

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHOU Ji-kui; QIN Wen-qing; NIU Yin-jian; LI Hua-xia

    2006-01-01

    The immobilization of Thiobacillus ferrooxidans on the activated carbon particles as support matrix was investigated. Cycling batch operation results in the complete oxidation of ferrous iron in 8 d when the modified 9 K medium is set to flow through the mini-bioreactor at a rate of 0.104 L/h at 25 ℃. The oxidation rate of ferrous iron with immobilized T. ferrooxidans is 9.38 g/(L·h). The results show that the immobilization of T. ferrooxidans on activated carbon can improve the rate of oxidation of ferrous iron. The SEM images show that a build-up of cells of T. ferrooxidans and iron precipitates is formed on the surface of activated carbon particles.

  17. Ferrous polycrystalline shape-memory alloy showing huge superelasticity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanaka, Y; Himuro, Y; Kainuma, R; Sutou, Y; Omori, T; Ishida, K

    2010-03-19

    Shape-memory alloys, such as Ni-Ti and Cu-Zn-Al, show a large reversible strain of more than several percent due to superelasticity. In particular, the Ni-Ti-based alloy, which exhibits some ductility and excellent superelastic strain, is the only superelastic material available for practical applications at present. We herein describe a ferrous polycrystalline, high-strength, shape-memory alloy exhibiting a superelastic strain of more than 13%, with a tensile strength above 1 gigapascal, which is almost twice the maximum superelastic strain obtained in the Ni-Ti alloys. Furthermore, this ferrous alloy has a very large damping capacity and exhibits a large reversible change in magnetization during loading and unloading. This ferrous shape-memory alloy has great potential as a high-damping and sensor material.

  18. ABOUT HEAT TREATMENTS APPLIED TO FERROUS ALLOYS AND METALS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alin Stancioiu

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Materials and non-ferrous alloys lends itself through more plastic deformation processes. It is known that after deformation the material structure, as well as properties that are no longer adequate therefore is applied recrystallization annealing for the purpose of restore the initial structure. To increase the hardness of non-ferrous alloys it must after hardening the cooling rate to be slow. This is explained by the fact that of chemical compounds give time to precipitate on the edge of grain to the base of the constituents of alloys.

  19. Development of Glass Ceramics Made From Ferrous Tailings and Slag in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Cheng-jun; SHI Pei-yang; ZHANG Da-yong; JIANG Mao-fa

    2007-01-01

    A great amount of ferrous tailings and slag cause severe damage to the ecological environment, which must be reclaimed and utilized. The composition, type, and characteristics of ferrous tailings and slag in China were introduced. The research status and the application outlook of glass ceramics made from ferrous tailings and slag were discussed. Glass ceramics made from ferrous tailings and slag can be applied to various fields, and it will be environmentally conscious materials in the 21st century.

  20. Use of ferrous fumarate to fortify foods for infants and young children

    OpenAIRE

    Hurrell, Richard

    2017-01-01

    Ferrous fumarate is currently recommended for use in the fortification of foods for infants and young children. This recommendation is based on the compound's good sensory properties and on results from isotope studies in adults that reported similar iron absorption values for ferrous fumarate and ferrous sulphate (relative bioavailability [RBV] of ferrous fumarate, 100). However, later isotope studies conducted on both iron-replete and iron-deficient young children found that iron absorption...

  1. Stable Copper-Nitrosyl Formation By Nitrite Reductase in Either Oxidation State

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tocheva, E.I.; Rosell, F.I.; Mauk, A.G.; Murphy, M.E.P.

    2009-06-04

    Nitrite reductase (NiR) is an enzyme that uses type 1 and type 2 copper sites to reduce nitrite to nitric oxide during bacterial denitrification. A copper-nitrosyl intermediate is a proposed, yet poorly characterized feature of the NiR catalytic cycle. This intermediate is formally described as Cu(I)-NO{sup +} and is proposed to be formed at the type 2 copper site after nitrite binding and electron transfer from the type 1 copper site. In this study, copper-nitrosyl complexes were formed by prolonged exposure of exogenous NO to crystals of wild-type and two variant forms of NiR from Alcaligenes faecalis (AfNiR), and the structures were determined to 1.8 {angstrom} or better resolution. Exposing oxidized wild-type crystals to NO results in the reverse reaction and formation of nitrite that remains bound at the active site. In a type 1 copper site mutant (H145A) that is incapable of electron transfer to the type 2 site, the reverse reaction is not observed. Instead, in both oxidized and reduced H145A crystals, NO is observed bound in a side-on manner to the type 2 copper. In AfNiR, Asp98 forms hydrogen bonds to both substrate and product bound to the type 2 Cu. In the D98N variant, NO is bound side-on but is more disordered when observed for the wild-type enzyme. The solution EPR spectra of the crystallographically characterized NiR-NO complexes indicate the presence of an oxidized type 2 copper site and thus are interpreted as resulting from stable copper-nitrosyls and formally assigned as Cu(II)-NO{sup -}. A reaction scheme in which a second NO molecule is oxidized to nitrite can account for the formation of a CuD-NO{sup -} species after exposure of the oxidized H145A variant to NO gas.

  2. New ruthenium nitrosyl pincer complexes bearing an O2 ligand. Mono-oxygen transfer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fogler, Eran; Efremenko, Irena; Gargir, Moti; Leitus, Gregory; Diskin-Posner, Yael; Ben-David, Yehoshoa; Martin, Jan M L; Milstein, David

    2015-03-02

    We report on Ru((II))(μ(2)-O2) nitrosyl pincer complexes that can return to their original Ru(0) state by reaction with mono-oxygen scavengers. Potential intermediates were calculated by density functional theory (DFT) and a mechanism is proposed, revealing a new type of metal-ligand cooperation consisting of activation of the O2 moiety by both the metal center and the NO ligand. Reaction of the Ru(0) nitrosyl complex 1 with O2 quantitatively yielded the crystallographically characterized Ru((II)) (μ(2)-O2) nitrosyl complex 2. Reaction of 2 with the mono-oxygen scavengers phosphines or CO gave the Ru(0) complex 1 and phosphine oxides, or the carbonyl complex 3 (1 trapped by CO) and CO2, respectively. Reaction of 2 with 1 equiv of phosphine at room temperature or -40 °C resulted in immediate formation of half an equivalent of 1 and 1 equiv of phosphine oxide, while half an equivalent of 2 remained unchanged. Overnight reaction at room temperature of 2 with excess CO (≥3 equiv) resulted in 3 and CO2 gas as the only products. Reaction of 1 with 1 equiv of mono-oxygen source (dioxirane) at -78 °C yielded the Ru((II))(μ(2)-O2) complex 2. Similarly, reaction of the Ru(0) dearomatized complex 4 with O2 led to the crystallographicaly characterized Ru((II))(μ(2)-O2) complex 5. Further reaction of 5 with mono-oxygen scavengers (phosphines or CO) led to the Ru(0) complex 4 and phosphine oxides or complex 6 (4 trapped by CO) and CO2. When instead only 1 equiv of 5 was reacted with 1 equiv of phosphine at room temperature, immediate formation of half an equivalent of 4 and 1 equiv of phosphine oxide took place, while half an equivalent of 5 remained unchanged. When 5 reacted with an excess of CO (≥3 equiv), complex 6 and CO2 gas were the only products obtained. DFT studies indicate a new mode of metal-ligand cooperation involving the nitrosyl ligand in the oxygen transfer process.

  3. Aromatic C-nitrosation by a copper(II)-nitrosyl complex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rout, Kanhu Charan; Mondal, Biplab

    2015-01-28

    Copper(II) complex of 4-amino-3-hydroxy-1-sulphonic acid was synthesized and characterized. Upon addition of nitric oxide, the copper(II) center of the complex in methanol was found to undergo reduction through an unstable copper(II)-nitrosyl intermediate. The formation of the intermediate was confirmed by UV-visible and FT-IR spectroscopy. The reduction of the copper(II) center was accompanied with a simultaneous C-nitrosation of the aromatic ring of the ligand. The C-nitrosation product was isolated and characterized by various spectroscopic analyses.

  4. Orange but not apple juice enhances ferrous fumarate absorption in small children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrous fumarate is a common, inexpensive iron form increasingly used instead of ferrous sulfate as a food iron supplement. However, few data exist as to whether juices enhance iron absorption from ferrous fumarate. We studied 21 children, ages 4.0 to 7.9 years using a randomized crossover design. S...

  5. 40 CFR 180.1230 - Ferrous sulfate; exemption from the requirement of a tolerance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 23 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Ferrous sulfate; exemption from the... Exemptions From Tolerances § 180.1230 Ferrous sulfate; exemption from the requirement of a tolerance. An exemption from the requirement of a tolerance is established for residues of ferrous sulfate. ...

  6. 46 CFR 148.04-13 - Ferrous metal borings, shavings, turnings, or cuttings (excluding stainless steel).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Ferrous metal borings, shavings, turnings, or cuttings... Requirements for Certain Material § 148.04-13 Ferrous metal borings, shavings, turnings, or cuttings (excluding... described as ferrous metal borings, shavings, turnings, or cuttings on board vessels (excluding stainless...

  7. 76 FR 31357 - Agency Information Collection Activities: Comment Request for the Ferrous Metals Surveys

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-31

    ....S. Geological Survey Agency Information Collection Activities: Comment Request for the Ferrous... requirements for the Ferrous Metals Surveys. This collection consists of 17 forms. This notice provides the.... II. Data OMB Control Number: 1028-0068. Form Number: Various (17 forms). Title: Ferrous Metals...

  8. 76 FR 9810 - Agency Information Collection Activities: Comment Request for the Ferrous Metals Surveys (17 Forms)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-22

    ... Geological Survey Agency Information Collection Activities: Comment Request for the Ferrous Metals Surveys... OMB Control Number: 1028-0068. Form Number: Various (17 forms). Title: Ferrous Metals Surveys. Type of... minerals producers of ferrous and related metals. Respondent Obligation: Voluntary. Frequency of Collection...

  9. Method for the preparation of ferrous low carbon porous material

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miller, Curtis Jack

    2014-05-27

    A method for preparing a porous metal article using a powder metallurgy forming process is provided which eliminates the conventional steps associated with removing residual carbon. The method uses a feedstock that includes a ferrous metal powder and a polycarbonate binder. The polycarbonate binder can be removed by thermal decomposition after the metal article is formed without leaving a carbon residue.

  10. Method for the preparation of ferrous low carbon porous material

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Curtis Jack

    2014-05-27

    A method for preparing a porous metal article using a powder metallurgy forming process is provided which eliminates the conventional steps associated with removing residual carbon. The method uses a feedstock that includes a ferrous metal powder and a polycarbonate binder. The polycarbonate binder can be removed by thermal decomposition after the metal article is formed without leaving a carbon residue.

  11. Inhibition on the S-nitrosylation of MKK4 can protect hippocampal CA1 neurons in rat cerebral ischemia/reperfusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Xue Wen; Hao, Ling Yun; Qi, Su Hua

    2016-06-01

    S-nitrosylation, the nitric oxide-derived post-translational modification of proteins, plays critical roles in various physiological and pathological functions. In this present study, a rat model of cerebral ischemia and reperfusion by four-vessel occlusion was generated to assess MKK4 S-nitrosylation. Immunoprecipitation and immunoblotting were performed to evaluate MKK4 S-nitrosylation and phosphorylation. Neuronal loss was observed using histological detection. These results indicated that endogenous NO promoted the S-nitrosylation of MKK4. However, application of the exogenous NO donor S-nitrosoglutathione (GNSO), an inhibitor of the neuronal nitric oxide synthase 7-nitroindazole (7-NI), and the N-methyl-d-aspartate receptor (NMDAR) antagonist MK801 diminished I/R-induced S-nitrosylation and phosphorylation. These compounds also markedly decreased cerebral I/R-induced degeneration and death of neurons in hippocampal CA1 region in rats. Taken together, we demonstrated for the first time, that cerebral ischemia/reperfusion can induce S-nitrosylation of MKK4. We also found that inhibiting S-nitrosylation and activation of MKK4 resulted in marked decreases in neuronal degeneration and apoptosis, potentially via NMDAR-mediated mechanisms. These findings may lead to a new field of inquiry to investigate the underlying pathogenesis of stoke and the development of novel treatment strategies.

  12. Redox Regulation of Protein Function via Cysteine S-Nitrosylation and Its Relevance to Neurodegenerative Diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohd Waseem Akhtar

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Debilitating neurodegenerative diseases, such as Alzheimer's disease (AD and Parkinson's disease (PD, can be attributed to neuronal cell damage in specific brain regions. An important hallmark of these diseases is increased oxidative and nitrosative stress that occurs via overproduction of highly reactive free radicals known as reactive oxygen species (ROS and reactive nitrogen species (RNS. These molecules are normally removed by cellular antioxidant systems. Under physiological conditions, ROS/RNS are present at low levels, mediating several neurotrophic and neuroprotective signaling pathways. In contrast, under pathological conditions, there is a pronounced increase in ROS/RNS generation, impairing normal neurological function. Nitric oxide (NO is one such molecule that functions as a signaling agent under physiological conditions but causes nitrosative stress under pathological conditions due to its enhanced production. As first reported by our group and colleagues, the toxic effects of NO can be in part attributed to thiol S-nitrosylation, a posttranslational modification of cysteine residues on specific proteins. Here, we review several reports appearing over the past decade showing that S-nitrosylation of an increasing number of proteins compromises important cellular functions, including mitochondrial dynamics, endoplasmic reticulum (ER protein folding, and signal transduction, thereby promoting synaptic damage, cell death, and neurodegeneration.

  13. S-nitrosylated pegylated hemoglobin reduces the size of cerebral infarction in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawaguchi, Akira T; Nakai, Kunihiko; Fukumoto, Dai; Yamano, Mariko; Haida, Munetaka; Tsukada, Hideo

    2009-02-01

    Cell-free hemoglobin-based oxygen carriers have well-documented safety and efficacy problems such as nitric oxide (NO) scavenging and extravasation that preclude clinical use. To counteract these effects, we developed S-nitrosylated pegylated hemoglobin (SNO-PEG-Hb, P(50) = 12 mm Hg) and tested it in a brain ischemia and reperfusion model. Neurological function and extent of cerebral infarction was determined 24 h after photochemically induced thrombosis of the middle cerebral artery in the rat. Infarction extent was determined from the integrated area in the cortex and basal ganglia detected by triphenyltetrazolium chloride staining in rats receiving various doses of SNO-PEG-Hb (2, 0.4, and 0.08 mL/kg) and compared with rats receiving pegylated hemoglobin without S-nitrosylation (PEG-Hb) or saline of the same dosage. Results indicated that successive dilution revealed SNO-PEG-Hb but not PEG-Hb to be effective in reducing the size of cortical infarction but not neurological function at a dose of 0.4 mL/kg. In conclusion, SNO-PEG-Hb in a dose of 0.4 mL/kg (Hb 24 mg/kg) showed to be most effective in reducing the size of cortical infarction, however, without functional improvement.

  14. Striking difference in antiproliferative activity of ruthenium- and osmium-nitrosyl complexes with azole heterocycles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Büchel, Gabriel E; Gavriluta, Anatolie; Novak, Maria; Meier, Samuel M; Jakupec, Michael A; Cuzan, Olesea; Turta, Constantin; Tommasino, Jean-Bernard; Jeanneau, Erwann; Novitchi, Ghenadie; Luneau, Dominique; Arion, Vladimir B

    2013-06-03

    Ruthenium nitrosyl complexes of the general formulas (cation)(+)[cis-RuCl4(NO)(Hazole)](-), where (cation)(+) = (H2ind)(+), Hazole = 1H-indazole (Hind) (1c), (cation)(+) = (H2pz)(+), Hazole = 1H-pyrazole (Hpz) (2c), (cation)(+) = (H2bzim)(+), Hazole = 1H-benzimidazole (Hbzim) (3c), (cation)(+) = (H2im)(+), Hazole = 1H-imidazole (Him) (4c) and (cation)(+)[trans-RuCl4(NO)(Hazole)](-), where (cation)(+) = (H2ind)(+), Hazole = 1H-indazole (1t), (cation)(+) = (H2pz)(+), Hazole = 1H-pyrazole (2t), as well as osmium analogues of the general formulas (cation)(+)[cis-OsCl4(NO)(Hazole)](-), where (cation)(+) = (n-Bu4N)(+), Hazole =1H-indazole (5c), 1H-pyrazole (6c), 1H-benzimidazole (7c), 1H-imidazole (8c), (cation)(+) = Na(+); Hazole =1H-indazole (9c), 1H-benzimidazole (10c), (cation)(+) = (H2ind)(+), Hazole = 1H-indazole (11c), (cation)(+) = H2pz(+), Hazole = 1H-pyrazole (12c), (cation)(+) = (H2im)(+), Hazole = 1H-imidazole (13c), and (cation)(+)[trans-OsCl4(NO)(Hazole)](-), where (cation)(+) = n-Bu4N(+), Hazole = 1H-indazole (5t), 1H-pyrazole (6t), (cation)(+) = Na(+), Hazole = 1H-indazole (9t), (cation)(+) = (H2ind)(+), Hazole = 1H-indazole (11t), (cation)(+) = (H2pz)(+), Hazole = 1H-pyrazole (12t), have been synthesized. The compounds have been comprehensively characterized by elemental analysis, ESI mass spectrometry, spectroscopic techniques (IR, UV-vis, 1D and 2D NMR) and X-ray crystallography (1c·CHCl3, 1t·CHCl3, 2t, 3c, 6c, 6t, 8c). The antiproliferative activity of water-soluble compounds (1c, 1t, 3c, 4c and 9c, 9t, 10c, 11c, 11t, 12c, 12t, 13c) in the human cancer cell lines A549 (nonsmall cell lung carcinoma), CH1 (ovarian carcinoma), and SW480 (colon adenocarcinoma) has been assayed. The effects of metal (Ru vs Os), cis/trans isomerism, and azole heterocycle identity on cytotoxic potency and cell line selectivity have been elucidated. Ruthenium complexes (1c, 1t, 3c, and 4c) yielded IC50 values in the low micromolar concentration range. In contrast to most

  15. Alginate inhibits iron absorption from ferrous gluconate in a randomized controlled trial and reduces iron uptake into Caco-2 cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wawer, Anna A; Harvey, Linda J; Dainty, Jack R; Perez-Moral, Natalia; Sharp, Paul; Fairweather-Tait, Susan J

    2014-01-01

    Previous in vitro results indicated that alginate beads might be a useful vehicle for food iron fortification. A human study was undertaken to test the hypothesis that alginate enhances iron absorption. A randomised, single blinded, cross-over trial was carried out in which iron absorption was measured from serum iron appearance after a test meal. Overnight-fasted volunteers (n = 15) were given a test meal of 200 g cola-flavoured jelly plus 21 mg iron as ferrous gluconate, either in alginate beads mixed into the jelly or in a capsule. Iron absorption was lower from the alginate beads than from ferrous gluconate (8.5% and 12.6% respectively, p = 0.003). Sub-group B (n = 9) consumed the test meals together with 600 mg calcium to determine whether alginate modified the inhibitory effect of calcium. Calcium reduced iron absorption from ferrous gluconate by 51%, from 11.5% to 5.6% (p = 0.014), and from alginate beads by 37%, from 8.3% to 5.2% (p = 0.009). In vitro studies using Caco-2 cells were designed to explore the reasons for the difference between the previous in vitro findings and the human study; confirmed the inhibitory effect of alginate. Beads similar to those used in the human study were subjected to simulated gastrointestinal digestion, with and without cola jelly, and the digestate applied to Caco-2 cells. Both alginate and cola jelly significantly reduced iron uptake into the cells, by 34% (p = 0.009) and 35% (p = 0.003) respectively. The combination of cola jelly and calcium produced a very low ferritin response, 16.5% (p ferrous gluconate alone. The results of these studies demonstrate that alginate beads are not a useful delivery system for soluble salts of iron for the purpose of food fortification. ClinicalTrials.gov NCT01528644.

  16. Prediction of S-Nitrosylation Modification Sites Based on Kernel Sparse Representation Classification and mRMR Algorithm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guohua Huang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Protein S-nitrosylation plays a very important role in a wide variety of cellular biological activities. Hitherto, accurate prediction of S-nitrosylation sites is still of great challenge. In this paper, we presented a framework to computationally predict S-nitrosylation sites based on kernel sparse representation classification and minimum Redundancy Maximum Relevance algorithm. As much as 666 features derived from five categories of amino acid properties and one protein structure feature are used for numerical representation of proteins. A total of 529 protein sequences collected from the open-access databases and published literatures are used to train and test our predictor. Computational results show that our predictor achieves Matthews’ correlation coefficients of 0.1634 and 0.2919 for the training set and the testing set, respectively, which are better than those of k-nearest neighbor algorithm, random forest algorithm, and sparse representation classification algorithm. The experimental results also indicate that 134 optimal features can better represent the peptides of protein S-nitrosylation than the original 666 redundant features. Furthermore, we constructed an independent testing set of 113 protein sequences to evaluate the robustness of our predictor. Experimental result showed that our predictor also yielded good performance on the independent testing set with Matthews’ correlation coefficients of 0.2239.

  17. A common intermediate for N2 formation in enzymes and zeolites: side-on Cu-nitrosyl complexes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwak, Ja Hun; Lee, Jong H; Burton, Sarah D; Lipton, Andrew S; Peden, Charles H F; Szanyi, János

    2013-09-16

    Side on! Combined FTIR and NMR studies revealed the presence of a side-on nitrosyl species in the zeolite Cu-SSZ-13. This intermediate is very similar to those found in nitrite reductase enzyme systems. The identification of this intermediate led to the proposal of a reaction mechanism that is fully consistent with the results of both kinetic and spectroscopic studies.

  18. The Role of S-Nitrosylation and S-Glutathionylation of Protein Disulphide Isomerase in Protein Misfolding and Neurodegeneration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Halloran

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Neurodegenerative diseases involve the progressive loss of neurons, and a pathological hallmark is the presence of abnormal inclusions containing misfolded proteins. Although the precise molecular mechanisms triggering neurodegeneration remain unclear, endoplasmic reticulum (ER stress, elevated oxidative and nitrosative stress, and protein misfolding are important features in pathogenesis. Protein disulphide isomerase (PDI is the prototype of a family of molecular chaperones and foldases upregulated during ER stress that are increasingly implicated in neurodegenerative diseases. PDI catalyzes the rearrangement and formation of disulphide bonds, thus facilitating protein folding, and in neurodegeneration may act to ameliorate the burden of protein misfolding. However, an aberrant posttranslational modification of PDI, S-nitrosylation, inhibits its protective function in these conditions. S-nitrosylation is a redox-mediated modification that regulates protein function by covalent addition of nitric oxide- (NO- containing groups to cysteine residues. Here, we discuss the evidence for abnormal S-nitrosylation of PDI (SNO-PDI in neurodegeneration and how this may be linked to another aberrant modification of PDI, S-glutathionylation. Understanding the role of aberrant S-nitrosylation/S-glutathionylation of PDI in the pathogenesis of neurodegenerative diseases may provide insights into novel therapeutic interventions in the future.

  19. S-Nitrosylation and uncompetitive/fast off-rate (UFO) drug therapy in neurodegenerative disorders of protein misfolding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakamura, T; Lipton, S A

    2007-07-01

    Although activation of glutamate receptors is essential for normal brain function, excessive activity leads to a form of neurotoxicity known as excitotoxicity. Key mediators of excitotoxic damage include overactivation of N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptors, resulting in excessive Ca(2+) influx with production of free radicals and other injurious pathways. Overproduction of free radical nitric oxide (NO) contributes to acute and chronic neurodegenerative disorders. NO can react with cysteine thiol groups to form S-nitrosothiols and thus change protein function. S-nitrosylation can result in neuroprotective or neurodestructive consequences depending on the protein involved. Many neurodegenerative diseases manifest conformational changes in proteins that result in misfolding and aggregation. Our recent studies have linked nitrosative stress to protein misfolding and neuronal cell death. Molecular chaperones - such as protein-disulfide isomerase, glucose-regulated protein 78, and heat-shock proteins - can provide neuroprotection by facilitating proper protein folding. Here, we review the effect of S-nitrosylation on protein function under excitotoxic conditions, and present evidence that NO contributes to degenerative conditions by S-nitrosylating-specific chaperones that would otherwise prevent accumulation of misfolded proteins and neuronal cell death. In contrast, we also review therapeutics that can abrogate excitotoxic damage by preventing excessive NMDA receptor activity, in part via S-nitrosylation of this receptor to curtail excessive activity.

  20. Complex catalysis. 19. Synthesis of nitrosyl complexes of tungsten and their usefulness as precatalysts for olefin metathesis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seyferth, K.; Rosenthal, K.; Kuehn, G.; Taube, R. (Technische Hochschule fuer Chemie, Leuna-Merseburg (German Democratic Republic). Sektion Chemie)

    1984-06-01

    Nitrosylating reduction of WCl/sub 6/ with NO leads to WCl/sub 3/(NO)/sub 4/ that on addition of different donor ligands L yields complexes of the types WCl/sub 3/(NO)L/sub 2/ (L = OPPh/sub 3/, HMPT, pyridine) and WX/sub 2/(NO)/sub 2/L/sub 2/ (L = PPh/sub 3/, X = Cl; XL = acac) or mixtures of products (L = Dipy, RCN, Et/sub 4/NCl), respectively. Whereas by carbonylation of WCl/sub 3/(NO)(OPPh/sub 3/)/sub 2/ in the presence of EtAlCl/sub 2/ only chloro carbonyl tungsten complexes formed, the reaction of W(CO)/sub 6/ with NOAlCl/sub 4/ and subsequent addition of PPh/sub 3/ gives, in analogy to molybdenum, the nitrosyl carbonyl complexes W(NO)(CO)/sub 4/(AlCl/sub 4/) and WCl(NO)(CO)/sub 2/(PPh/sub 3/)/sub 2/. All the nitrosyl tungsten complexes in combination with EtAlCl/sub 2/ catalyze the metathesis of pent-2-ene, however, with a significantly lower activity than the corresponding nitrosyl molybdenum systems.

  1. S-nitrosylation of the Mitochondrial Chaperone TRAP1 Sensitizes Hepatocellular Carcinoma Cells to Inhibitors of Succinate Dehydrogenase

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rizza, Salvatore; Montagna, Costanza; Cardaci, Simone;

    2016-01-01

    S-nitrosoglutathione reductase (GSNOR) represents the best-documented denitrosylase implicated in regulating the levels of proteins posttranslationally modified by nitric oxide on cysteine residues by S-nitrosylation. GSNOR controls a diverse array of physiologic functions, including cellular gro...

  2. Protein nitration and nitrosylation by NO-donating aspirin in colon cancer cells: Relevance to its mechanism of action

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Williams, Jennie L.; Ji, Ping; Ouyang, Nengtai [Division of Cancer Prevention, Stony Brook University, HSC, T17-080, Stony Brook, NY 11794-8173 (United States); Kopelovich, Levy [Division of Cancer Prevention NCI, NIH, Bethesda, MD (United States); Rigas, Basil, E-mail: basil.rigas@stonybrook.edu [Division of Cancer Prevention, Stony Brook University, HSC, T17-080, Stony Brook, NY 11794-8173 (United States)

    2011-06-10

    Nitric oxide-donating aspirin (NO-ASA) is a promising agent for cancer prevention. Although studied extensively, its molecular targets and mechanism of action are still unclear. S-nitrosylation of signaling proteins is emerging as an important regulatory mechanism by NO. Here, we examined whether S-nitrosylation of the NF-{kappa}B, p53, and Wnt signaling proteins by NO-ASA might explain, in part, its mechanism of action in colon cancer. NO-ASA releases significant amounts of NO detected intracellularly in HCT116 and HT-29 colon cells. Using a modified biotin switch assay we demonstrated that NO-ASA S-nitrosylates the signaling proteins p53, {beta}-catenin, and NF-{kappa}B, in colon cancer cells in a time- and concentration-dependent manner. NO-ASA suppresses NF-{kappa}B binding to its cognate DNA oligonucleotide, which occurs without changes in the nuclear levels of the NF-{kappa}B subunits p65 and p50 and is reversed by dithiothreitol that reduces -S-NO to -SH. In addition to S-nitrosylation, we documented both in vitro and in vivo widespread nitration of tyrosine residues of cellular proteins in response to NO-ASA. Our results suggest that the increased intracellular NO levels following treatment with NO-ASA modulate cell signaling by chemically modifying key protein members of signaling cascades. We speculate that S-nitrosylation and tyrosine nitration are responsible, at least in part, for the inhibitory growth effect of NO-ASA on cancer cell growth and that this may represent a general mechanism of action of NO-releasing agents.

  3. Ferrous alloys cast under high pressure gas atmosphere

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pirowski Z.

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The main objective of this paper is describing the essence of the process of introducing nitrogen to the melt of ferrous alloys by application of overpressure above the metal bath. The problem was discussed in terms of both theory (the thermodynamic aspects of the process and practice (the technical and technological aspects, safety of the furnace stand operation, and technique of conducting the melt. The novel technique of melting under high pressure of the gas atmosphere (up to 5 MPa has not been used so far in the domestic industry, mainly because of the lack of proper equipment satisfyng the requirements of safe operation. Owing to cooperation undertaken with a partner from Bulgaria, a more detailed investigation of this technology has become possible and melting of selected ferrous alloys was conducted under the gas atmosphere at a pressure of about 3,5 MPa.

  4. Heilongjiang discovered a number of non ferrous metal mineral locations

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    <正>Non-ferrous Metal Geological Exploration Bu- reau of Heilongjiang Province achieved signifi- cant mine searching results in 2007:estimation and forecast of resource reserves covered 60,000 tons of Molybdenum,70,000 tons of copper,9 million tons of iron,2.9 tons of gold, 250 tons of silver,and 80,000 tons of lead and zinc.Newly discovered metal mine locations

  5. Photomixotrophic growth of Rhodobacter capsulatus SB1003 on ferrous iron

    OpenAIRE

    Kopf, Sebastian H.; Newman, Dianne K.

    2011-01-01

    This study investigates the role iron oxidation plays in the purple non-sulfur bacterium Rhodobacter capsulatus SB1003. This organism is unable to grow photoautotrophically on unchelated ferrous iron [Fe(II)] despite its ability to oxidize chelated Fe(II). This apparent paradox was partly resolved by the discovery that SB1003 can grow photoheterotrophically on the photochemical breakdown products of certain ferric iron–ligand complexes, yet whether it could concomitantly benefit from the oxid...

  6. Intermediates in the ferrous oxidase cycle of bleomycin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caspary, W J; Lanzo, D A; Niziak, C

    1981-06-23

    We have previously shown that the bleomycin-induced autooxidation of ferrous iron follows Michaelis--Menten kinetics which are characteristic of enzymatic reactions [Caspary, W. J., Lanzo, D. A., Niziak, C., Friedman, R., & Bachur, N. R. (1979) Mol. Pharmacol. 16, 256]. In this paper, we identify the iron complexes formed during this reaction. The first is a ferrous iron--bleomycin complex which can be considered the catalyst substrate complex. The product of this reaction is a ferric iron--bleomycin complex which is found in a low-spin and a high-spin form. The relative concentrations of these two forms are a function of pH. Glutathione, a biologically relevant reducing agent, binds to the ferric iron--bleomycin complex, reduces it, and may serve as a model for the reduction of the ferric iron--bleomycin complex to the ferrous state during the catalytic cycle. Oxygen uptake induced by bleomycin and ferrous iron is not inhibited by superoxide dismutase (SOD) or catalase. In the absence of bleomycin, catalase strongly inhibits oxygen uptake. This suggests the presence of a relatively stable intermediate in which the superoxide radical is not readily accessible to superoxide dismutase. At pH 9.3, we are able to observe a transient species by electron spin resonance (ESR). When potassium superoxide is added to the ferric iron--bleomycin complex, the same ESR spectrum is produced. We suggest that a transient species composed of a ferric iron, the superoxide ion, and bleomycin is formed. The precise nature of the binding cannot be determined from the data presented.

  7. Ru(0) and Ru(II) nitrosyl pincer complexes: structure, reactivity, and catalytic activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fogler, Eran; Iron, Mark A; Zhang, Jing; Ben-David, Yehoshoa; Diskin-Posner, Yael; Leitus, Gregory; Shimon, Linda J W; Milstein, David

    2013-10-07

    Despite considerable interest in ruthenium carbonyl pincer complexes and their substantial catalytic activity, there has been relatively little study of the isoelectronic ruthenium nitrosyl complexes. Here we describe the synthesis and reactivity of several complexes of this type as well as the catalytic activity of complex 6. Reaction of the PNP ligand (PNP = 2,6-bis((t)Bu2PCH2)pyridine) with RuCl3(NO)(PPh3)2 yielded the Ru(II) complex 3. Chloride displacement by BAr(F-) (BAr(F-) = tetrakis(3,5-bis(trifluoromethyl)phenyl)borate) gave the crystallographicaly characterized, linear NO Ru(II) complex 4, which upon treatment with NaBEt3H yielded the Ru(0) complexes 5. The crystallographically characterized Ru(0) square planar complex 5·BF4 bears a linear NO ligand located trans to the pyridilic nitrogen. Further treatment of 5·BF4 with excess LiOH gave the crystallographicaly characterized Ru(0) square planar, linear NO complex 6. Complex 6 catalyzes the dehydrogenative coupling of alcohols to esters, reaching full conversion under air or under argon. Reaction of the PNN ligand (PNN = 2-((t)Bu2PCH2)-6-(Et2NCH2)pyridine) with RuCl3(NO)(H2O)2 in ethanol gave an equilibrium mixture of isomers 7a and 7b. Further treatment of 7a + 7b with 2 equivalent of sodium isopropoxide gave the crystallographicaly characterized, bent-nitrosyl, square pyramidal Ru(II) complex 8. Complex 8 was also synthesized by reaction of PNN with RuCl3(NO)(H2O)2 and Et3N in ethanol. Reaction of the "long arm" PN(2)N ligand (PN(2)N = 2-((t)Bu2PCH2-)-6-(Et2NCH2CH2)pyridine) with RuCl3(NO)(H2O)2 in ethanol gave complex 9, which upon treatment with 2 equiv of sodium isopropoxide gave complex 10. Complex 10 was also synthesized directly by reaction of PN(2)N with RuCl3(NO)(H2O)2 and a base in ethanol. A noteworthy aspect of these nitrosyl complexes is their preference for the Ru(0) oxidization state over Ru(II). This preference is observed with both aromatized and dearomatized pincer ligands, in

  8. Differential molecular response of monodehydroascorbate reductase and glutathione reductase by nitration and S-nitrosylation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Begara-Morales, Juan C; Sánchez-Calvo, Beatriz; Chaki, Mounira; Mata-Pérez, Capilla; Valderrama, Raquel; Padilla, María N; López-Jaramillo, Javier; Luque, Francisco; Corpas, Francisco J; Barroso, Juan B

    2015-09-01

    The ascorbate-glutathione cycle is a metabolic pathway that detoxifies hydrogen peroxide and involves enzymatic and non-enzymatic antioxidants. Proteomic studies have shown that some enzymes in this cycle such as ascorbate peroxidase (APX), monodehydroascorbate reductase (MDAR), and glutathione reductase (GR) are potential targets for post-translational modifications (PMTs) mediated by nitric oxide-derived molecules. Using purified recombinant pea peroxisomal MDAR and cytosolic and chloroplastic GR enzymes produced in Escherichia coli, the effects of peroxynitrite (ONOO(-)) and S-nitrosoglutathione (GSNO) which are known to mediate protein nitration and S-nitrosylation processes, respectively, were analysed. Although ONOO(-) and GSNO inhibit peroxisomal MDAR activity, chloroplastic and cytosolic GR were not affected by these molecules. Mass spectrometric analysis of the nitrated MDAR revealed that Tyr213, Try292, and Tyr345 were exclusively nitrated to 3-nitrotyrosine by ONOO(-). The location of these residues in the structure of pea peroxisomal MDAR reveals that Tyr345 is found at 3.3 Å of His313 which is involved in the NADP-binding site. Site-directed mutagenesis confirmed Tyr345 as the primary site of nitration responsible for the inhibition of MDAR activity by ONOO(-). These results provide new insights into the molecular regulation of MDAR which is deactivated by nitration and S-nitrosylation. However, GR was not affected by ONOO(-) or GSNO, suggesting the existence of a mechanism to conserve redox status by maintaining the level of reduced GSH. Under a nitro-oxidative stress induced by salinity (150mM NaCl), MDAR expression (mRNA, protein, and enzyme activity levels) was increased, probably to compensate the inhibitory effects of S-nitrosylation and nitration on the enzyme. The present data show the modulation of the antioxidative response of key enzymes in the ascorbate-glutathione cycle by nitric oxide (NO)-PTMs, thus indicating the close involvement of

  9. RBC-NOS-dependent S-nitrosylation of cytoskeletal proteins improves RBC deformability.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marijke Grau

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Red blood cells (RBC possess a nitric oxide synthase (RBC-NOS whose activation depends on the PI3-kinase/Akt kinase pathway. RBC-NOS-produced NO exhibits important biological functions like maintaining RBC deformability. Until now, the cellular target structure for NO, to exert its influence on RBC deformability, remains unknown. In the present study we analyzed the modification of RBC-NOS activity by pharmacological treatments, the resulting influence on RBC deformability and provide first evidence for possible target proteins of RBC-NOS-produced NO in the RBC cytoskeletal scaffold. METHODS/FINDINGS: Blood from fifteen male subjects was incubated with the NOS substrate L-arginine to directly stimulate enzyme activity. Direct inhibition of enzyme activity was induced by L-N5-(1-Iminoethyl-ornithin (L-NIO. Indirect stimulation and inhibition of RBC-NOS were achieved by applying insulin and wortmannin, respectively, substances known to affect PI3-kinase/Akt kinase pathway. The NO donor sodium nitroprusside (SNP and the NO scavenger 2-(4-carboxyphenyl-4,4,5,5-tetramethylimidazoline-1-oxyl-3-oxide (cPTIO were additionally applied as NO positive and negative controls, respectively. Immunohistochemical staining was used to determine phosphorylation and thus activation of RBC-NOS. As a marker for NO synthesis nitrite was measured in plasma and RBCs using chemiluminescence detection. S-nitrosylation of erythrocyte proteins was determined by biotin switch assay and modified proteins were identified using LC-MS. RBC deformability was determined by ektacytometry. The data reveal that activated RBC-NOS leads to increased NO production, S-nitrosylation of RBC proteins and RBC deformability, whereas RBC-NOS inhibition resulted in contrary effects. CONCLUSION/SIGNIFICANCE: This study first-time provides strong evidence that RBC-NOS-produced NO modifies RBC deformability through direct S-nitrosylation of cytoskeleton proteins, most likely α- and

  10. Ferrous bisglycinate 25 mg iron is as effective as ferrous sulfate 50 mg iron in the prophylaxis of iron deficiency and anemia during pregnancy in a randomized trial

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Milman, Nils; Jønsson, Lisbeth; Dyre, Pernille

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To compare the effects of oral ferrous bisglycinate 25 mg iron/day vs. ferrous sulfate 50 mg iron/day in the prevention of iron deficiency (ID) and iron deficiency anemia (IDA) in pregnant women. Design: Randomized, double-blind, intention-to-treat study. Setting: Antenatal care clinic...

  11. DFT mechanistic study of the selective terminal C–H activation of n-pentane with a tungsten allyl nitrosyl complex

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Lee, Richmond; Tan, Davin; Liu, Chaoli; Li, Huaifeng; Guo, Hao; Shyue, Jing-Jong; Huang, Kuo-Wei

    2017-01-01

    Mechanistic insights into the selective C–H terminal activation of n-pentane with tungsten allyl nitrosyl complex reported by Legzdins were gained by employing density functional theory with B3LYP hybrid functional. Using...

  12. Performing organic chemistry with inorganic compounds: electrophilic reactivity of selected nitrosyl complexes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doctorovich, Fabio; Di Salvo, Florencia

    2007-10-01

    The inorganic nitrosyl (NO(+)) complexes [Fe(CN) 5NO](2-), [Ru(bpy)2(NO)Cl](2+), and [IrCl 5(NO)](-) are useful reagents for the nitrosation of a variety of organic compounds, ranging from amines to the relatively inert alkenes. Regarding [IrCl 5(NO)](-), its high electrophilicity and inertness define it as a unique reagent and provide a powerful synthetic route for the isolation and stabilization of coordinated nitroso compounds that are unstable in free form, such as S-nitrosothiols and primary nitrosamines. Related to the high electrophilicity of [IrCl 5(NO)](-), an unusual behavior is described for its PPh 4(+) salt in the solid state, showing an electronic distribution represented by Ir(IV)-NO(*) instead of Ir (III)-NO(+) (as for the K(+) and Na(+) salts).

  13. Hydrogen Sulfide Increases Nitric Oxide Production and Subsequent S-Nitrosylation in Endothelial Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ping-Ho Chen

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Hydrogen sulfide (H2S and nitric oxide (NO, two endogenous gaseous molecules in endothelial cells, got increased attention with respect to their protective roles in the cardiovascular system. However, the details of the signaling pathways between H2S and NO in endothelia cells remain unclear. In this study, a treatment with NaHS profoundly increased the expression and the activity of endothelial nitric oxide synthase. Elevated gaseous NO levels were observed by a novel and specific fluorescent probe, 5-amino-2-(6-hydroxy-3-oxo-3H-xanthen-9-ylbenzoic acid methyl ester (FA-OMe, and quantified by flow cytometry. Further study indicated an increase of upstream regulator for eNOS activation, AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK, and protein kinase B (Akt. By using a biotin switch, the level of NO-mediated protein S-nitrosylation was also enhanced. However, with the addition of the NO donor, NOC-18, the expressions of cystathionine-γ-lyase, cystathionine-β-synthase, and 3-mercaptopyruvate sulfurtransferase were not changed. The level of H2S was also monitored by a new designed fluorescent probe, 4-nitro-7-thiocyanatobenz-2-oxa-1,3-diazole (NBD-SCN with high specificity. Therefore, NO did not reciprocally increase the expression of H2S-generating enzymes and the H2S level. The present study provides an integrated insight of cellular responses to H2S and NO from protein expression to gaseous molecule generation, which indicates the upstream role of H2S in modulating NO production and protein S-nitrosylation.

  14. Ferrous bisglycinate 25 mg iron is as effective as ferrous sulfate 50 mg iron in the prophylaxis of iron deficiency and anemia during pregnancy in a randomized trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milman, Nils; Jønsson, Lisbeth; Dyre, Pernille; Pedersen, Palle Lyngsie; Larsen, Lise Grupe

    2014-03-01

    To compare the effects of oral ferrous bisglycinate 25 mg iron/day vs. ferrous sulfate 50 mg iron/day in the prevention of iron deficiency (ID) and iron deficiency anemia (IDA) in pregnant women. Randomized, double-blind, intention-to-treat study. Antenatal care clinic. 80 healthy ethnic Danish pregnant women. Women were allocated to ferrous bisglycinate 25 mg elemental iron (Aminojern®) (n=40) or ferrous sulfate 50 mg elemental iron (n=40) from 15 to 19 weeks of gestation to delivery. Hematological status (hemoglobin, red blood cell indices) and iron status (plasma iron, plasma transferrin, plasma transferrin saturation, plasma ferritin) were measured at 15-19 weeks (baseline), 27-28 weeks and 36-37 weeks of gestation. Occurrence of ID (ferritin ferrous bisglycinate was not inferior to ferrous sulfate. Ferrous bisglycinate in a low dose of 25 mg iron/day appears to be adequate to prevent IDA in more than 95% of Danish women during pregnancy and postpartum.

  15. [Copper-induced change in the ESR signal of hemoglobin nitrosyl complexes in wound by the action of copper nanoparticles].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Volodina, L A; Baĭder, L M; Rakhmetova, A A; Bogoslovskaia, O A; Ol'khovskaia, I P; Glushchenko, N N

    2013-01-01

    The results concerning changes in the ESR signal of hemoglobin nitrosyl complexes in wound tissues in the course of healing by the action of ointments with copper nanoparticles (patent N2460532, Russia) are presented. It is shown that the wound healing process modified by the influence of copper nanoparticles demonstrates the increase in the ESR signal amplitude for :hemoglobin nitrosyl complexes as compared with controls (the ointment base without nanoparticles). Planimetric measurements of wound area through reparation course indicate an active process of wound healing for injuries treated with copper nanoparticles in the ointment, resulting in lessening half-reparation time up to 5.0 times as compared with controls (treatment with the ointment base). The paper discusses the role of copper nanoparticles, NO and their potential synergistic effect on the skin wound regeneration.

  16. Protective action of nipradilol mediated through S-nitrosylation of Keap1 and HO-1 induction in retinal ganglion cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koriyama, Yoshiki; Kamiya, Marie; Takadera, Tsuneo; Arai, Kunizo; Sugitani, Kayo; Ogai, Kazuhiro; Kato, Satoru

    2012-12-01

    Nipradilol (Nip), which has α1- and β-adrenoceptor antagonist and nitric oxide (NO)-donating properties, has clinically been used as an anti-glaucomatous agent in Japan. NO mediates cellular signaling pathways that regulate physiological functions. The major signaling mechanisms mediated by NO are cGMP-dependent signaling and protein S-nitrosylation-dependent signalings. Nip has been described as having neuroprotective effects through cGMP-dependent pathway in retinal ganglion cells (RGCs). However, the effect seems to be partial. On the other hand, whether Nip can prevent cell death through S-nitrosylation is not yet clarified. In this study, we therefore focused on the neuroprotective mechanism of Nip through S-nitrosylation. Nip showed a dramatic neuroprotective effect against oxidative stress-induced death of RGC-5 cells. However, denitro-nipradilol, which does not have NO-donating properties, was not protective against oxidative stress. Furthermore, an NO scavenger significantly reversed the protective action of Nip against oxidative stress. In addition, we demonstrated that α1- or β-adrenoceptor antagonists (prazosin or timolol) did not show any neuroprotective effect against oxidative stress in RGC-5 cells. We also demonstrated that Nip induced the expression of the NO-dependent antioxidant enzyme, heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1). S-nitrosylation of Kelch-like ECH-associated protein by Nip was shown to contribute to the translocation of NF-E2-related factor 2 to the nucleus, and triggered transcriptional activation of HO-1. Furthermore, RGC death and levels of 4-hydroxy-2-nonenal (4HNE) were increased after optic nerve injury in vivo. Pretreatment with Nip significantly suppressed RGC death and accumulation of 4HNE after injury through an HO-1 activity-dependent mechanism. These data demonstrate a novel neuroprotective action of Nip against oxidative stress-induced RGC death in vitro and in vivo.

  17. Hydrogen effects in non-ferrous alloys: discussion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Mitesh; Stopher, Miles A

    2017-07-28

    This is a transcript of the discussion session on the effects of hydrogen in the non-ferrous alloys of zirconium and titanium, which are anisotropic hydride-forming metals. The four talks focus on the hydrogen embrittlement mechanisms that affect zirconium and titanium components, which are respectively used in the nuclear and aerospace industries. Two specific mechanisms are delayed hydride cracking and stress corrosion cracking.This article is part of the themed issue 'The challenges of hydrogen and metals'. © 2017 The Author(s).

  18. Flavone inhibits nitric oxide synthase (NOS) activity, nitric oxide production and protein S-nitrosylation in breast cancer cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhu, Wenzhen; Yang, Bingwu; Fu, Huiling; Ma, Long; Liu, Tingting; Chai, Rongfei; Zheng, Zhaodi [Shandong Provincial Key Laboratory of Animal Resistant Biology, School of Life Sciences, Shandong Normal University, Jinan 250014 (China); Zhang, Qunye, E-mail: wz.zhangqy@sdu.edu.cn [Key Laboratory of Cardiovascular Remodeling and Function Research Chinese Ministry of Education and Ministry of Public Health, Qilu Hospital, Shandong University, Jinan, Shandong (China); Li, Guorong, E-mail: grli@sdnu.edu.cn [Shandong Provincial Key Laboratory of Animal Resistant Biology, School of Life Sciences, Shandong Normal University, Jinan 250014 (China)

    2015-03-13

    As the core structure of flavonoids, flavone has been proved to possess anticancer effects. Flavone's growth inhibitory functions are related to NO. NO is synthesized by nitric oxide synthase (NOS), and generally increased in a variety of cancer cells. NO regulates multiple cellular responses by S-nitrosylation. In this study, we explored flavone-induced regulations on nitric oxide (NO)-related cellular processes in breast cancer cells. Our results showed that, flavone suppresses breast cancer cell proliferation and induces apoptosis. Flavone restrains NO synthesis by does-dependent inhibiting NOS enzymatic activity. The decrease of NO generation was detected by fluorescence microscopy and flow cytometry. Flavone-induced inhibitory effect on NOS activity is dependent on intact cell structure. For the NO-induced protein modification, flavone treatment significantly down-regulated protein S-nitrosylation, which was detected by “Biotin-switch” method. The present study provides a novel, NO-related mechanism for the anticancer function of flavone. - Highlights: • Flavone inhibits proliferation and induces apoptosis in MCF-7 cells. • Flavone decreases nitric oxide production by inhibiting NOS enzymatic activity in breast cancer cells. • Flavone down-regulates protein S-nitrosylation.

  19. Proteomic analysis of S-nitrosylated and S-glutathionylated proteins in wheat seedlings with different dehydration tolerances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gietler, Marta; Nykiel, Małgorzata; Orzechowski, Sławomir; Fettke, Joerg; Zagdańska, Barbara

    2016-11-01

    A loss of dehydration tolerance in wheat seedlings on the fifth day following imbibition is associated with a disturbance in cellular redox homeostasis, as documented by a shift of the reduced/oxidized glutathione ratio to a more oxidized state and a significant increase in the ratio of protein thiols to the total thiol group content. Therefore, the identification and characterization of redox-sensitive proteins are important steps toward understanding the molecular mechanisms of the loss of dehydration tolerance. In the present study, proteins that were differentially expressed between fully turgid (control), dehydrated tolerant (four-day-old) and dehydrated sensitive (six-day-old) wheat seedlings were analysed. Protein spots having at least a significant (p S-nitrosylated and S-glutathionylated proteins were highly specific in dehydration-tolerant and -sensitive wheat seedlings. The metabolic function of these proteins indicates that dehydration tolerance is mainly related to nucleic acids, protein metabolism, and energy metabolism. It has been proven that leaf-specific thionins BTH6 and DB4, chloroplastic 50S ribosomal protein L16, phospholipase A1-II delta, and chloroplastic thioredoxin M2 are both S-nitrosylated and S-glutathionylated upon water deficiency. Our results revealed the existence of interplay between S-nitrosylation and S-glutathionylation, two redox-regulated protein posttranslational modifications that could enhance plant defence mechanisms and/or facilitate the acclimation of plants to unfavourable environmental conditions.

  20. Nitric oxide enhances desiccation tolerance of recalcitrant Antiaris toxicaria seeds via protein S-nitrosylation and carbonylation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xuegui Bai

    Full Text Available The viability of recalcitrant seeds is lost following stress from either drying or freezing. Reactive oxygen species (ROS resulting from uncontrolled metabolic activity are likely responsible for seed sensitivity to drying. Nitric oxide (NO and the ascorbate-glutathione cycle can be used for the detoxification of ROS, but their roles in the seed response to desiccation remain poorly understood. Here, we report that desiccation induces rapid accumulation of H(2O(2, which blocks recalcitrant Antiaris toxicaria seed germination; however, pretreatment with NO increases the activity of antioxidant ascorbate-glutathione pathway enzymes and metabolites, diminishes H(2O(2 production and assuages the inhibitory effects of desiccation on seed germination. Desiccation increases the protein carbonylation levels and reduces protein S-nitrosylation of these antioxidant enzymes; these effects can be reversed with NO treatment. Antioxidant protein S-nitrosylation levels can be further increased by the application of S-nitrosoglutathione reductase inhibitors, which further enhances NO-induced seed germination rates after desiccation and reduces desiccation-induced H(2O(2 accumulation. These findings suggest that NO reinforces recalcitrant seed desiccation tolerance by regulating antioxidant enzyme activities to stabilize H(2O(2 accumulation at an appropriate concentration. During this process, protein carbonylation and S-nitrosylation patterns are used as a specific molecular switch to control antioxidant enzyme activities.

  1. Nitric oxide enhances desiccation tolerance of recalcitrant Antiaris toxicaria seeds via protein S-nitrosylation and carbonylation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bai, Xuegui; Yang, Liming; Tian, Meihua; Chen, Jinhui; Shi, Jisen; Yang, Yongping; Hu, Xiangyang

    2011-01-01

    The viability of recalcitrant seeds is lost following stress from either drying or freezing. Reactive oxygen species (ROS) resulting from uncontrolled metabolic activity are likely responsible for seed sensitivity to drying. Nitric oxide (NO) and the ascorbate-glutathione cycle can be used for the detoxification of ROS, but their roles in the seed response to desiccation remain poorly understood. Here, we report that desiccation induces rapid accumulation of H(2)O(2), which blocks recalcitrant Antiaris toxicaria seed germination; however, pretreatment with NO increases the activity of antioxidant ascorbate-glutathione pathway enzymes and metabolites, diminishes H(2)O(2) production and assuages the inhibitory effects of desiccation on seed germination. Desiccation increases the protein carbonylation levels and reduces protein S-nitrosylation of these antioxidant enzymes; these effects can be reversed with NO treatment. Antioxidant protein S-nitrosylation levels can be further increased by the application of S-nitrosoglutathione reductase inhibitors, which further enhances NO-induced seed germination rates after desiccation and reduces desiccation-induced H(2)O(2) accumulation. These findings suggest that NO reinforces recalcitrant seed desiccation tolerance by regulating antioxidant enzyme activities to stabilize H(2)O(2) accumulation at an appropriate concentration. During this process, protein carbonylation and S-nitrosylation patterns are used as a specific molecular switch to control antioxidant enzyme activities.

  2. Clean ferrous casting technology research. Final technical report, September 29, 1993--December 31, 1995

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Piwonka, T.S. [ed.

    1996-01-01

    This report details results of a 30-month program to develop methods of making clean ferrous castings, i.e., castings free of inclusions and surface defects. The program was divided into 3 tasks: techniques for producing clean steel castings, electromagnetic removal of inclusions from ferrous melts, and study of causes of metal penetration in sand molds in cast iron.

  3. The effect of ferrous sulphate and sucralfate on the bioavailability of oral gemifloxacin in healthy volunteers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, A; Bygate, E; Faessel, H; Isaac, L; Lewis, A

    2000-08-01

    Sucralfate is a cytoprotectant with antacid properties and ferrous sulphate is commonly prescribed for iron-deficiency anaemia. This open, randomized, single-dose, five-way crossover study investigated the effect of sucralfate and ferrous sulphate on the bioavailability of gemifloxacin, a novel fluoroquinolone antimicrobial. Twenty-seven healthy male volunteers received gemifloxacin, 320 mg p.o., alone, 3 h after sucralfate (2 g) or ferrous sulphate (325 mg), or 2 h before sucralfate or ferrous sulphate. Each subject received all five dosing regimens in random order with at least 6 days between regimens. Plasma samples collected up to 48 h after dosing with gemifloxacin, were assayed for gemifloxacin to determine pharmacokinetic parameters. Administration of gemifloxacin 3 h after sucralfate produced a marked decrease of 53% in the area under the plasma concentration-time curve from time zero extrapolated to infinity (AUC0-infinity), and a decrease of 69% in the maximal plasma concentration (Cmax). Administration of gemifloxacin 3 h after ferrous sulphate resulted in only a modest reduction of 11% in AUC0-infinity and of 20% in Cmax, which was not considered to be clinically significant. In contrast, at the doses used neither sucralfate nor ferrous sulphate altered gemifloxacin bioavailability when it was administered 2 h before either of these agents. Gemifloxacin was well tolerated in all the regimens. The results of this study support the dosing recommendation that gemifloxacin can be safely administered at least 2 h before sucralfate or ferrous sulphate, or at least 3 h after ferrous sulphate.

  4. Huaxi Group Planning to Integrate Guangxi Non-Ferrous Industry Through Fund Raising

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    <正>Huaxi Group is planning to integrate the Guangxi non-ferrous metal industry after the completion of restructuring.Experts from the industry expressed the concern that Huaxi is likely to prepare for holistic listing for its main business upon the completion of restructuring so as to raise fund for the integration of non- ferrous resources in the Guangxi Autonomous

  5. Impact of Ferrous Iron on Microbial Community of the Biofilm in Microbial Fuel Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Qian; Liu, Bingfeng; Li, Wei; Zhao, Xin; Zuo, Wenjing; Xing, Defeng

    2017-01-01

    The performance of microbial electrochemical cells depends upon microbial community structure and metabolic activity of the electrode biofilms. Iron as a signal affects biofilm development and enrichment of exoelectrogenic bacteria. In this study, the effect of ferrous iron on microbial communities of the electrode biofilms in microbial fuel cells (MFCs) was investigated. Voltage production showed that ferrous iron of 100 μM facilitated MFC start-up compared to 150 μM, 200 μM, and without supplement of ferrous iron. However, higher concentration of ferrous iron had an inhibitive influence on current generation after 30 days of operation. Illumina Hiseq sequencing of 16S rRNA gene amplicons indicated that ferrous iron substantially changed microbial community structures of both anode and cathode biofilms. Principal component analysis showed that the response of microbial communities of the anode biofilms to higher concentration of ferrous iron was more sensitive. The majority of predominant populations of the anode biofilms in MFCs belonged to Geobacter, which was different from the populations of the cathode biofilms. An obvious shift of community structures of the cathode biofilms occurred after ferrous iron addition. This study implied that ferrous iron influenced the power output and microbial community of MFCs.

  6. KINETICS OF THE OXIDATION OF FERROUS CHELATES OF EDTA AND HEDTA IN AQUEOUS-SOLUTION

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    WUBS, HJ; BEENACKERS, AACM

    1993-01-01

    The kinetics of the reaction of oxygen with ferrous chelates of EDTA and HEDTA was studied in a stirred cell reactor under industrial conditions. The temperature was varied from 20 to 60-degrees-C and the concentration of the ferrous chelate ranged from 0 to 100 mol/m3. The initial pH was 7.5. Under

  7. A method for the separation of non-ferrous metal containing particles from a particle stream

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van der Weijden, R.D.; Rem, P.C.

    2004-01-01

    The invention relates to a method for the recovery of non-ferrous metal-comprising particles from a particle stream. According to the invention, the particle stream is put onto a conveyor belt in the form of a monolayer such that with the aid of a liquid, at least the non-ferrous metal comprising

  8. RyR1 S-nitrosylation underlies environmental heat stroke and sudden death in Y522S RyR1 knockin mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durham, William J; Aracena-Parks, Paula; Long, Cheng; Rossi, Ann E; Goonasekera, Sanjeewa A; Boncompagni, Simona; Galvan, Daniel L; Gilman, Charles P; Baker, Mariah R; Shirokova, Natalia; Protasi, Feliciano; Dirksen, Robert; Hamilton, Susan L

    2008-04-04

    Mice with a malignant hyperthermia mutation (Y522S) in the ryanodine receptor (RyR1) display muscle contractures, rhabdomyolysis, and death in response to elevated environmental temperatures. We demonstrate that this mutation in RyR1 causes Ca(2+) leak, which drives increased generation of reactive nitrogen species (RNS). Subsequent S-nitrosylation of the mutant RyR1 increases its temperature sensitivity for activation, producing muscle contractures upon exposure to elevated temperatures. The Y522S mutation in humans is associated with central core disease. Many mitochondria in the muscle of heterozygous Y522S mice are swollen and misshapen. The mutant muscle displays decreased force production and increased mitochondrial lipid peroxidation with aging. Chronic treatment with N-acetylcysteine protects against mitochondrial oxidative damage and the decline in force generation. We propose a feed-forward cyclic mechanism that increases the temperature sensitivity of RyR1 activation and underlies heat stroke and sudden death. The cycle eventually produces a myopathy with damaged mitochondria.

  9. Nitric Oxide Synthase 1 Modulates Basal and β-Adrenergic-Stimulated Contractility by Rapid and Reversible Redox-Dependent S-Nitrosylation of the Heart.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vielma, Alejandra Z; León, Luisa; Fernández, Ignacio C; González, Daniel R; Boric, Mauricio P

    2016-01-01

    S-nitrosylation of several Ca2+ regulating proteins in response to β-adrenergic stimulation was recently described in the heart; however the specific nitric oxide synthase (NOS) isoform and signaling pathways responsible for this modification have not been elucidated. NOS-1 activity increases inotropism, therefore, we tested whether β-adrenergic stimulation induces NOS-1-dependent S-nitrosylation of total proteins, the ryanodine receptor (RyR2), SERCA2 and the L-Type Ca2+ channel (LTCC). In the isolated rat heart, isoproterenol (10 nM, 3-min) increased S-nitrosylation of total cardiac proteins (+46±14%) and RyR2 (+146±77%), without affecting S-nitrosylation of SERCA2 and LTCC. Selective NOS-1 blockade with S-methyl-L-thiocitrulline (SMTC) and Nω-propyl-l-arginine decreased basal contractility and relaxation (-25-30%) and basal S-nitrosylation of total proteins (-25-60%), RyR2, SERCA2 and LTCC (-60-75%). NOS-1 inhibition reduced (-25-40%) the inotropic response and protein S-nitrosylation induced by isoproterenol, particularly that of RyR2 (-85±7%). Tempol, a superoxide scavenger, mimicked the effects of NOS-1 inhibition on inotropism and protein S-nitrosylation; whereas selective NOS-3 inhibitor L-N5-(1-Iminoethyl)ornithine had no effect. Inhibition of NOS-1 did not affect phospholamban phosphorylation, but reduced its oligomerization. Attenuation of contractility was abolished by PKA blockade and unaffected by guanylate cyclase inhibition. Additionally, in isolated mouse cardiomyocytes, NOS-1 inhibition or removal reduced the Ca2+-transient amplitude and sarcomere shortening induced by isoproterenol or by direct PKA activation. We conclude that 1) normal cardiac performance requires basal NOS-1 activity and S-nitrosylation of the calcium-cycling machinery; 2) β-adrenergic stimulation induces rapid and reversible NOS-1 dependent, PKA and ROS-dependent, S-nitrosylation of RyR2 and other proteins, accounting for about one third of its inotropic effect.

  10. A Mössbauer and X-ray powder diffraction study of some ferrous hematinics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coe, E M; Bowen, L H; Bereman, R D

    1995-06-01

    Iron deficiency anemia is a relatively common illness that can arise from a number of different causes. Three ferrous salts are usually used in its treatment: ferrous fumarate, gluconate, and sulfate. They are administered orally and are relatively well tolerated. These hematinics have been studied by Mössbauer spectroscopy and X-ray powder diffraction, and can easily be distinguished by both techniques. It was found that the two ferrous sulfates studied (Eckerd and SmithKline Beckman Co.) most closely resemble the monohydrate by comparison of the X-ray powder pattern with those of the JCPDS. Both the ferrous fumarate (Femiron) and gluconate (Spring Valley) had approximately 10% ferric iron present. To the authors' knowledge, this is the first reported Mössbauer spectrum for ferrous fumarate.

  11. Ferrous versus Ferric Oral Iron Formulations for the Treatment of Iron Deficiency: A Clinical Overview

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Palacios Santiago

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Iron deficiency anaemia represents a major public health problem, particularly in infants, young children, pregnant women, and females with heavy menses. Oral iron supplementation is a cheap, safe, and effective means of increasing haemoglobin levels and restoring iron stores to prevent and correct iron deficiency. Many preparations are available, varying widely in dosage, formulation (quick or prolonged release, and chemical state (ferrous or ferric form. The debate over the advantages of ferrous versus ferric formulations is ongoing. In this literature review, the tolerability and efficacy of ferrous versus ferric iron formulations are evaluated. We focused on studies comparing ferrous sulphate preparations with ferric iron polymaltose complex preparations, the two predominant forms of iron used. Current data show that slow-release ferrous sulphate preparations remain the established and standard treatment of iron deficiency, irrespective of the indication, given their good bioavailability, efficacy, and acceptable tolerability demonstrated in several large clinical studies.

  12. Ferrous versus ferric oral iron formulations for the treatment of iron deficiency: a clinical overview.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santiago, Palacios

    2012-01-01

    Iron deficiency anaemia represents a major public health problem, particularly in infants, young children, pregnant women, and females with heavy menses. Oral iron supplementation is a cheap, safe, and effective means of increasing haemoglobin levels and restoring iron stores to prevent and correct iron deficiency. Many preparations are available, varying widely in dosage, formulation (quick or prolonged release), and chemical state (ferrous or ferric form). The debate over the advantages of ferrous versus ferric formulations is ongoing. In this literature review, the tolerability and efficacy of ferrous versus ferric iron formulations are evaluated. We focused on studies comparing ferrous sulphate preparations with ferric iron polymaltose complex preparations, the two predominant forms of iron used. Current data show that slow-release ferrous sulphate preparations remain the established and standard treatment of iron deficiency, irrespective of the indication, given their good bioavailability, efficacy, and acceptable tolerability demonstrated in several large clinical studies.

  13. In Vivo Curative and Protective Potential of Orally Administered 5-Aminolevulinic Acid plus Ferrous Ion against Malaria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suzuki, Shigeo; Hikosaka, Kenji; Balogun, Emmanuel O.; Komatsuya, Keisuke; Niikura, Mamoru; Kobayashi, Fumie; Takahashi, Kiwamu; Tanaka, Tohru; Nakajima, Motowo

    2015-01-01

    5-Aminolevulinic acid (ALA) is a naturally occurring amino acid present in diverse organisms and a precursor of heme biosynthesis. ALA is commercially available as a component of cosmetics, dietary supplements, and pharmaceuticals for cancer diagnosis and therapy. Recent reports demonstrated that the combination of ALA and ferrous ion (Fe2+) inhibits the in vitro growth of the human malaria parasite Plasmodium falciparum. To further explore the potential application of ALA and ferrous ion as a combined antimalarial drug for treatment of human malaria, we conducted an in vivo efficacy evaluation. Female C57BL/6J mice were infected with the lethal strain of rodent malaria parasite Plasmodium yoelii 17XL and orally administered ALA plus sodium ferrous citrate (ALA/SFC) as a once-daily treatment. Parasitemia was monitored in the infected mice, and elimination of the parasites was confirmed using diagnostic PCR. Treatment of P. yoelii 17XL-infected mice with ALA/SFC provided curative efficacy in 60% of the mice treated with ALA/SFC at 600/300 mg/kg of body weight; no mice survived when treated with vehicle alone. Interestingly, the cured mice were protected from homologous rechallenge, even when reinfection was attempted more than 230 days after the initial recovery, indicating long-lasting resistance to reinfection with the same parasite. Moreover, parasite-specific antibodies against reported vaccine candidate antigens were found and persisted in the sera of the cured mice. These findings provide clear evidence that ALA/SFC is effective in an experimental animal model of malaria and may facilitate the development of a new class of antimalarial drug. PMID:26324278

  14. Treatment of mild non-chemotherapy-induced iron deficiency anemia in cancer patients: comparison between oral ferrous bisglycinate chelate and ferrous sulfate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrari, Paola; Nicolini, Andrea; Manca, Maria Laura; Rossi, Giuseppe; Anselmi, Loretta; Conte, Massimo; Carpi, Angelo; Bonino, Ferruccio

    2012-09-01

    In cancer patients mild-moderate non-chemotherapy-induced iron deficiency anemia (IDA) is usually treated with oral iron salts, mostly ferrous sulfate. In this study, we compare efficacy and toxicity of oral ferrous bisglycinate chelate and ferrous sulfate in cancer patients with mild IDA. Twenty-four patients operated on for solid tumors (10 breast, 12 colorectal, 2 gastric), aged 61±10 years (range 45-75), with non-chemotherapy-induced hemoglobin (Hb) values between 10 and 12 g/dL and ferritin lower than 30 ng/mL were randomized to receive oral ferrous bisglycinate chelate, 28 mg per day for 20 days, and then 14 mg per day for 40 days (12 patients) (A group) or oral ferrous sulphate, 105 mg per day for 60 days (12 patients) (B group). Values of hemoglobin and ferritin obtained at diagnosis, 1 and 2 months from the beginning of treatment were compared. Adverse events (AEs) related to the two treatments were recorded. In the 12 patients treated with ferrous bisglycinate chelate, basal hemoglobin and ferritin values (mean±SD) were 11.6±0.8 g/dL and 16.1±8.0 ng/mL. After 2 months of treatment, they were 13.0±1.4 g/dL and 33.8±22.0 ng/mL, respectively (P=0.0003 and P=0.020). In the group treated with ferrous sulphate, hemoglobin and ferritin mean values were 11.3±0.6 g/dL and 19.0±6.4 ng/mL basally, and 12.7±0.70 g/dL and 40.8±28.1 ng/mL (Pferrous bisglycinate chelate and four (33%) with ferrous sulphate, toxicity was grade 1. In conclusion, these data suggest that ferrous bisglycinate chelate has similar efficacy and likely lower GI toxicity than ferrous sulphate given at the conventional dose of 105 mg per day for the same time. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  15. On Potentials of Ferrous Electrodes in Soil Corrosion Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. N. Tripathi

    1966-04-01

    Full Text Available Open circuit potentials of electrodes and short circuit of soil corrosion cells constituted by cast iron, mild steel and wrought iron electrodes in the typical Indian soils have been determined and the voltages and the internal resistances of the cells have been calculated. The electrode potentials do not have a simple correlation with any of the soil properties. In non-acidic soils, the cell voltage at first increases abruptly with moisture equivalent, reaches maximum at about 15 and then decreases gradually. Based on this an interpretation has been offered for the maximum corrosivity of soils, having moisture equivalent, 30, as observed for mild steel and wrought iron. In an acidic soil electrode potentials of all the ferrous metals are indentical and cell voltages, very small. Hence most of the corrosion proceeds through direct chemical reaction. Cast iron is slightly less corrodible than mild steel and wrought iron because of additional protective influence of liberated carbon deposited over the metal.

  16. Direct spectrophotometric determination of iron in non-ferrous alloys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nan, Z; Yuan-Xiang, G; Qing, G Y; Xu-Zhang, Y; Zhi-Ren, L

    1989-08-01

    Disodium 3-(2-pyridyl)-1,2,4-triazine-5,6-di(4'-phenylsulphonate) is used for determination of iron in metal analysis. High selectivity is achieved by using a ligand buffer and substoichiometric masking. Interference from 0.9 mg of Cu(II) can be completely eliminated by combined reduction and masking with ascorbic acid and thiosemicarbazide. Beer's law is obeyed over the range 0.4-1.6 mug/ml iron in the final solution, with a standard deviation of 0.02 mug/ml. The method has been successfully applied to determination of iron (without preseparation) in a number of non-ferrous metals and alloys, with a coefficient of variation of 1.2-5.0%.

  17. Microwave Power Absorption in Materials for Ferrous Metallurgy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Zhiwei; Li, Zhizhong; Lin, Xiaolong; Yang, Mengshen; Hwang, Jiann-Yang; Zhang, Yuanbo; Li, Guanghui; Jiang, Tao

    2016-11-01

    The characteristics of microwave power absorption in materials for ferrous metallurgy, including iron oxides (Fe2O3, Fe3O4 and Fe0.925O) and bitumite, were explored by evaluating their dielectric loss (Q E) and/or magnetic loss (Q H) distributions in the 0.05-m-thick slabs of the corresponding materials exposed to 1.2-kW and 2.45-GHz microwave radiation at temperatures below 1100°C. It is revealed that the dielectric loss contributes primarily to the power absorption in Fe2O3, Fe0.925O and the bitumite at all of the examined temperatures. Their Q E values at room temperature and slab surface are 9.1311 × 103 W m-3, 23.7025 × 103 W m-3, and 49.5999 × 103 W m-3, respectively, showing that the materials have the following heating rate initially under microwave irradiation: bitumite > Fe0.925O > Fe2O3. Compared with the other materials, Fe3O4 has much stronger power absorption, primarily originated from its magnetic loss (e.g., Q H = 1.0615 × 106 W m-3, Q H/Q E = 2.4185 at 24°C and slab surface), below its Curie point, above which the magnetic susceptibility approaches to zero, thereby causing a very small Q H value at even the surface (Q H = 1.0416 × 105 W m-3 at 880°C). It is also demonstrated that inhomogeneous power distributions occur in all the slabs and become more pronounced with increasing temperature mainly due to rapid increase in permittivity. Characterizing power absorption in the oxides and the coal is expected to offer a strategic guide for improving use of microwave energy in ferrous metallurgy.

  18. Treatability of a simulated disperse dye-bath by ferrous iron coagulation, ozonation, and ferrous iron-catalyzed ozonation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arslan, I

    2001-08-17

    Dyeing and finishing of textile yarns and fabrics are extremely important processes in terms of both quality and environmental concerns. Among the commercial textile dyes, particularly disperse dyestuffs are of environmental interest because of their widespread use, their potential for formation of toxic aromatic amines and their low removal rate during aerobic waste treatment as well as advanced chemical oxidation. Thus, in the present paper ferrous iron coagulation, ozonation and ferrous iron-catalyzed ozonation were employed at varying pH (3-13) and Fe(II)-ion doses (0.09-18mM) for the treatment of a simulated disperse dye-bath (average initial apparent color as absorbance at 566nm=815.4m(-1); COD(0)=3784mgl(-1); TOC(0)=670mgl(-1); BOD(5,0)=58mgl(-1)) that more closely resembled an actual dyehouse effluent than an aqueous disperse dye solution. Coagulation with 5000mgl(-1) FeSO4-7H2O (18mM Fe(2+)) at pH 11 removed up to 97% color and 54% COD, whereas oxidation via ozonation alone (applied ozone dose=2300mgl(-1)) was only effective at pH 3, resulting in 77% color and 11% COD removal. Fe(II)-ion-catalyzed ozonation (3.6mM Fe(2+) at pH 3; Fe(2+):O3 molar ratio 1:14) eliminated 95% color and 48% COD and appeared to be the most attractive option among the investigated chemical treatment methods as for its applicability at the natural acidic pH of the disperse dye-bath effluent and at relatively low Fe(2+)-ion doses as compared to ferrous sulfate coagulation. However, no TOC reduction was observable for ozonation and catalytic ozonation at the investigated reaction conditions (14gl(-1) O3 at pH 3). An average six-fold enhancement in the biodegradability parameter of the synthetic dye wastewater expressed in terms of the BOD(5)/COD ratio could be achieved by the investigated chemical treatment methods.

  19. Methotrexate administration induces differential and selective protein tyrosine nitration and cysteine nitrosylation in the subcellular organelles of the small intestinal mucosa of rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Natarajan, Kasthuri; Abraham, Premila

    2016-05-05

    Gastrointestinal toxicity is one of the most frequent dose limiting side effects of methotrexate (MTX), a commonly used chemotherapeutic drug. Peroxynitrite (PON) overproduction is reported to contribute to MTX induced gastrointestinal mucositis. However, the consequence of PON overproduction i.e. protein tyrosine nitration and protein cysteine nitrosylation, the subcellular distribution of these modified proteins and their molecular weights have not been investigated yet. Mucositis was induced in Wistar rats by the administration of 3 consecutive i.p. injections of MTX. Tyrosine nitrated proteins and cysteine nitrosylated proteins were determined in the subcellular organelles fractions of mucosa using immunoprecipitation and western blot. The proteins in the subcellular fractions were separated by 1D electrophoresis, and probed with anti -nitrotyrosine antibody and anti-nitrosocysteine antibody. After MTX treatment, a general increase in protein tyrosine nitration as well as a change in the spectrum of proteins that underwent nitration was observed. The relative densities of the 3 nitrotyrosine protein adducts were as follows: Mitochondria > cytosol > microsomes > nucleus. In the mitochondrial fraction increased nitration of 12 kDa, 25 kDa 29Kda, 47 kDa, and 62Kda proteins, in the cytosol increased nitration of 12 kDa, 19 kDa, 45 kDa, and 60 kDa proteins and in the nuclear fraction increased nitration of 17 kDa, 35 kDa, and 58 kDa proteins was observed. On the other hand, MTX treatment resulted to a general decrease in protein cysteine nitrosylation in all the subcellular fractions. These results suggest that MTX induced, PON mediated small intestinal injury is mediated by differential nitration and nitrosylation of proteins in the subcellular organelles with increased protein tyrosine nitration and decreased cysteine nitrosylation. In addition MTX treatment results in selective nitration and nitrosylation of proteins in the intestinal mucosa. This differential

  20. New ruthenium nitrosyl complexes with tris(1-pyrazolyl)methane (tpm) and 2,2'-bipyridine (bpy) coligands. Structure, spectroscopy, and electrophilic and nucleophilic reactivities of bound nitrosyl.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Videla, Mariela; Jacinto, Julian S; Baggio, Ricardo; Garland, María T; Singh, Priti; Kaim, Wolfgang; Slep, Leonardo D; Olabe, José A

    2006-10-16

    The new compound [Ru(bpy)(tpm)NO](ClO4)3 [tpm = tris(1-pyrazolyl)methane; bpy = 2,2'-bipyridine] has been prepared in a stepwise procedure that involves the conversion of [Ru(bpy)(tpm)Cl]+ into the aqua and nitro intermediates, followed by acidification. The diamagnetic complex crystallizes to exhibit distorted octahedral geometry around the metal, with the Ru-N(O) bond length 1.774(12) A and the RuNO angle 179.1(12) degrees , typical for a {RuNO}6 description. The [Ru(bpy)(tpm)NO]3+ ion (I) has been characterized by 1H NMR and IR spectroscopies (nu(NO) = 1959 cm(-1)) and through density functional theory calculations. Intense electronic transitions in the 300-350-nm region are assigned through time-dependent (TD)DFT as intraligand pi --> pi for bpy and tpm. The dpi --> pi(bpy) metal-to-ligand charge-transfer transitions appear at higher energies. Aqueous cyclic voltammetric studies show a reversible wave at 0.31 V (vs Ag/AgCl, 3 M Cl-), which shifts to 0.60 V in MeCN, along with the onset of a wave of an irreversible process at -0.2 V. The waves are assigned to the one- and two-electron reductions centered at the NO ligand, leading to species with {RuNO}(7) and {RuNO}(8) configurations, respectively. Controlled potential reduction of I in MeCN led to the [Ru(bpy)(tpm)NO]2+ ion (II), revealing a significant downward shift of nu(NO) to 1660 cm(-1) as well as changes in the electronic absorption bands. II was also characterized by electron paramagnetic resonance, showing an anisotropic signal at 110 K that arises from an S = 1/2 electronic ground state; the g-matrix components and hyperfine coupling tensor resemble the behavior of related {RuNO}7 complexes. Both I and II were characterized through their main reactivity modes, electrophilic and nucleophilic, respectively. The addition of OH- into I generated the nitro complex, with k(OH) = 3.05 x 10(6) M(-1) s(-1) (25 degrees C). This value is among the highest obtained for related nitrosyl complexes and correlates

  1. Ginsenoside Rg3 regulates S-nitrosylation of the NLRP3 inflammasome via suppression of iNOS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoon, Sung-Jin; Park, Jun-Young [Immunotherapy Research Center, Korea Research Institute of Bioscience and Biotechnology, Yuseong-gu, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Department of Functional Genomics, University of Science and Technology, Yuseong-gu, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Choi, Song [Immunotherapy Research Center, Korea Research Institute of Bioscience and Biotechnology, Yuseong-gu, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Jin-Bong; Jung, Haiyoung; Kim, Tae-Don; Yoon, Suk Ran; Choi, Inpyo [Immunotherapy Research Center, Korea Research Institute of Bioscience and Biotechnology, Yuseong-gu, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Department of Functional Genomics, University of Science and Technology, Yuseong-gu, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Shim, Sungbo, E-mail: sungbo@ulsan.ac.kr [Department of Biomedical Sciences & Neuromarker Resource Bank (NRB), University of Ulsan College of Medicine, Seoul 138-736 (Korea, Republic of); Park, Young-Jun, E-mail: pyj71@kribb.re.kr [Immunotherapy Research Center, Korea Research Institute of Bioscience and Biotechnology, Yuseong-gu, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Department of Functional Genomics, University of Science and Technology, Yuseong-gu, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-08-07

    Ginsenoside Rg3, a specific biological effector, is well-known as a major bioactive ingredient of Panax ginseng. However, its role in the inflammasome activation process remains unclear. In this report, we demonstrate that ginsenosides 20(R)-Rg3 and 20(S)-Rg3 are capable of suppressing both lethal endotoxic shock and the S-nitrosylation of the NLRP3 inflammasome by inhibiting nitric oxide (NO) production through the regulation of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) expression. In response to lipopolysaccharide (LPS), the reducing effect of 20(S)-Rg3 and 20(R)-Rg3 on nitric oxide led to an increase in the survival time of mice after lethal endotoxin-induced shock, and excess levels of NO inhibited IL-1β production via the S-nitrosylation of the NLRP3 inflammasome. In addition, ginsenosides 20(R)-Rg3 and 20(S)-Rg3 had suppressive effects on the LPS- or UV-irradiation-induced reactive oxygen species (ROS) levels in macrophage and HaCaT cells and thereby prevented apoptosis of spleen cells in mice. Altogether, these results demonstrate that ginsenoside 20(R)-Rg3 and 20(S)-Rg3, a naturally occurring compound, might act as a dual therapeutic regulator for the treatment of inflammatory and oxidative stress-related diseases. - Highlights: • Ginsenosides Rg3 inhibits NO production through the regulation of iNOS expression. • Ginsenosides Rg3 inhibits the S-nitrosylation of the NLRP3 inflammasome. • Ginsenosides Rg3 suppress on the LPS- or UV-irradiation-induced ROS levels in cells.

  2. Effects of iron polymaltose complex, ferrous fumarate and ferrous sulfate treatments in anemic pregnant rats, their fetuses and placentas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toblli, Jorge E; Cao, Gabriel; Oliveri, Leda; Angerosa, Margarita

    2013-06-01

    Although oral iron preparations are widely prescribed to prevent and to treat iron deficiency anemia in pregnancy, comparative data on their effects to the mother, fetus and placenta are limited. In this study, the effects of oral iron polymaltose complex (IPC), ferrous fumarate (FF) and ferrous sulfate (FS) were compared in anemic pregnant rats, their fetuses and placentas. Hematological variables and oxidative stress markers in the liver, heart and kidneys of the dams and fetuses as well as the markers for oxidative stress, inflammation and hypoxia in placentas were assessed. Pregnancy outcome was measured by number of fetuses, and by neonate and placental weight. All therapies were comparably effective in correcting anemia. FS and FF, but not IPC, resulted in liver damage in dams and oxidative stress in dams, fetuses and placentas. FS group presented the highest catalase and GPx levels in dams, fetuses and placentas. IPC, but not FF or FS, restored normal TNF-α and IL6 expression levels in placentas whereas FS-treated animals presented the highest cytokine levels, suggesting a local inflammatory reaction. Anemia-induced high levels of HIF-1α were partially lowered by IPC and FF but further elevated by FS. Most of the negative effects associated with IDA were resolved by IPC treatment. Especially FS treatment was found to elicit hepatic damage in the dams, oxidative stress in the dams, fetuses and placenta as well as inflammation and high levels of HIF-1α in the placenta. Pregnancy outcome of FFand FS-treated animals was worse than that of IPC-treated animals.

  3. Bronchial stenosis following ferrous sulfate aspiration: Case report and review of the literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venci, Nicholas M; Watson, Thomas J; Kallay, Michael C

    2014-01-01

    Aspiration of ferrous sulfate tablets is a rare and potentially serious condition that can lead to permanent airway stenosis. Diagnosis may be difficult, as presentation often includes nonspecific symptoms. Disease progression and treatment courses have been detailed in a limited number of publications. Herein, we report a case of severe bronchial stenosis that developed following aspiration of a ferrous sulfate tablet. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first reported attempt of laser fulguration to correct ferrous sulfate-induced bronchial stenosis.

  4. Reaction of a copper(II)-nitrosyl complex with hydrogen peroxide: putative formation of a copper(I)-peroxynitrite intermediate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalita, Apurba; Kumar, Pankaj; Mondal, Biplab

    2012-05-14

    The reaction of a Cu(II)-nitrosyl complex (1) with hydrogen peroxide at -20 °C in acetonitrile results in the formation of the corresponding Cu(I)-peroxynitrite intermediate. The reduction of the Cu(II) center was monitored by UV-visible spectroscopic studies. Formation of the peroxynitrite intermediate has been confirmed by its characteristic phenol ring nitration reaction as well as isolation of corresponding Cu(I)-nitrate (2). On air oxidation, 2 resulted in the corresponding Cu(II)-nitrate (3). Thus, these results demonstrate a possible decomposition pathway for H(2)O(2) and NO through the formation of a peroxynitrite intermediate in biological systems.

  5. Measurement of S-nitrosylated Proteins in Tissues of Rats Fed Diets with Differing Levels of Nitrite

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-01

    apoptosis in HepG2 cells has been established. Protein nitrosylation, S-nitroso-proteins, immune-spin trapping, spin trap 5,5-dimethyl-1-pyrroline N-oxide...that dihydrolipoic acid and lipoic acid (LA) plus lipoamide dehydrogenase and NADH denitrosate S- nitrosocaspase 3 (CASP-SNO). In HepG2 cells, S-nitroso...resulted in endogenous denitrosation and reactivation of CASP- SH. The latter process was 7 inhibited in thioredoxin reductase-deficient HepG2 cells

  6. Study on volatilization mechanism of ruthenium tetroxide from nitrosyl ruthenium nitrate by using mass spectrometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kato, Tetsuya; Usami, Tsuyoshi; Tsukada, Takeshi; Shibata, Yuki; Kodama, Takashi

    2016-10-01

    In a cooling malfunction accident of a high-level liquid waste (HLLW) tank, behavior of ruthenium (Ru) attracts much attention, since Ru could be oxidized to a volatile chemical form in the boiling and drying of HLLW, and part of radioactive Ru can potentially be released to the environment. In this study, nitrosyl Ru nitrate (Ru(NO)(NO3)3) dissolved in nitric acid (HNO3), which is commonly contained in a simulated HLLW, was dried and heated up to 723 K, and the evolved gas was introduced into a mass spectrometer. The well-known volatile species, ruthenium tetroxide (RuO4) was detected in a temperature range between 390 K and 500 K with the peak top around 440 K. Various gases such as HNO3, nitrogen dioxide (NO2), nitrogen monoxide (NO) also evolved due to evaporation of the nitric acid and decomposition of the nitrate ions. The ion current of RuO4 seems to increase with the increasing decomposition of nitrate, while the evaporation of HNO3 decreases. More volatilization of RuO4 was observed from the HNO3 solution containing not only Ru(NO)(NO3)3 but also cerium nitrate (Ce(NO3)3·6H2O) which was added for extra supply of nitrate ion, compared with that from the HNO3 solution containing only Ru(NO)(NO3)3. These experimental results suggest that Ru could be oxidized to form RuO4 by the nitrate ion as well as HNO3.

  7. Absorption of nitric oxide into aqueous solutions of ferrous chelates accompanied by instantaneous reaction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Demmink, J.F; vanGils, I.C.F.; Beenackers, A.A C M

    1997-01-01

    The absorption of nitric oxide (NO) into aqueous solutions of ferrous chelates of nitrilotriacetic acid (NTA), ethylene diaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA), hydroxyethylenediaminetriacetic acid (HEDTA), and diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid (DTPA) was studied in a stirred cell reactor. Experimental cond

  8. Xinjiang Non-ferrous Metals Wuxin Copper 100,000-ton Cathode Copper Project Commences

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    <正>The construction of Xinjiang Nonferrous Met-als’ Wuxin Copper’s 100,000-ton Cathode Copper Project commenced at the Fukang Xin-jiang Industrial Park of Innovative Non-Ferrous Materials recently. Xinjiang Wuxin Copper

  9. East China Non-ferrous Metal Geological & Mining Bureau obtaining mining rights in Indonesia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    <正>In December 2007,Jiangsu East China Non- ferrous Metal Geological & Mining Bureau has reached an agreement for cooperation with In- donesia Mining Company for the joint exploita- tion of mineral resources for 960 km2 areas in

  10. Absorption of nitric oxide into aqueous solutions of ferrous chelates accompanied by instantaneous reaction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Demmink, J.F; vanGils, I.C.F.; Beenackers, A.A C M

    1997-01-01

    The absorption of nitric oxide (NO) into aqueous solutions of ferrous chelates of nitrilotriacetic acid (NTA), ethylene diaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA), hydroxyethylenediaminetriacetic acid (HEDTA), and diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid (DTPA) was studied in a stirred cell reactor. Experimental

  11. sAPP modulates iron efflux from brain microvascular endothelial cells by stabilizing the ferrous iron exporter ferroportin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCarthy, Ryan C; Park, Yun-Hee; Kosman, Daniel J

    2014-07-01

    A sequence within the E2 domain of soluble amyloid precursor protein (sAPP) stimulates iron efflux. This activity has been attributed to a ferroxidase activity suggested for this motif. We demonstrate that the stimulation of efflux supported by this peptide and by sAPPα is due to their stabilization of the ferrous iron exporter, ferroportin (Fpn), in the plasma membrane of human brain microvascular endothelial cells (hBMVEC). The peptide does not bind ferric iron explaining why it does not and thermodynamically cannot promote ferrous iron autoxidation. This peptide specifically pulls Fpn down from the plasma membrane of hBMVEC; based on these results, FTP, for ferroportin-targeting peptide, correctly identifies the function of this peptide. The data suggest that in stabilizing Fpn via the targeting due to the FTP sequence, sAPP will increase the flux of iron into the cerebral interstitium. This inference correlates with the observation of significant iron deposition in the amyloid plaques characteristic of Alzheimer's disease. © 2014 The Authors.

  12. sAPP modulates iron efflux from brain microvascular endothelial cells by stabilizing the ferrous iron exporter ferroportin

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCarthy, Ryan C; Park, Yun-Hee; Kosman, Daniel J

    2014-01-01

    A sequence within the E2 domain of soluble amyloid precursor protein (sAPP) stimulates iron efflux. This activity has been attributed to a ferroxidase activity suggested for this motif. We demonstrate that the stimulation of efflux supported by this peptide and by sAPPα is due to their stabilization of the ferrous iron exporter, ferroportin (Fpn), in the plasma membrane of human brain microvascular endothelial cells (hBMVEC). The peptide does not bind ferric iron explaining why it does not and thermodynamically cannot promote ferrous iron autoxidation. This peptide specifically pulls Fpn down from the plasma membrane of hBMVEC; based on these results, FTP, for ferroportin-targeting peptide, correctly identifies the function of this peptide. The data suggest that in stabilizing Fpn via the targeting due to the FTP sequence, sAPP will increase the flux of iron into the cerebral interstitium. This inference correlates with the observation of significant iron deposition in the amyloid plaques characteristic of Alzheimer’s disease. PMID:24867889

  13. Multiple formation mechanisms of ferrous olivine in CV carbonaceous chondrites during fluid-assisted metamorphism

    OpenAIRE

    Krot, Alexander N.; Petaev,Michail I.; Bland, Phil A.

    2004-01-01

    The CV carbonaceous chondrites experienced alteration that resulted in formation of secondary ferrous olivine (Fa40-100), salite-hedenbergite pyroxenes (Fs10-50Wo45-50), wollastonite, andradite, nepheline, sodalite, phyllosilicates, magnetite, Fe,Ni-sulfides and Ni-rich metal in their Ca,Al-rich inclusions, amoeboid olivine ag-gregates, chondrules, and matrices. It has previously been suggested that fibrous ferrous olivine in dark inclusions in CV chondrites formed by dehydration of phyllosil...

  14. The influence of ferrous ions on the efficiency of aqueous photocatalytic oxidation of 2-ethoxy ethanol

    OpenAIRE

    D. Klauson; Preis, S

    2005-01-01

    The complex influence of ferrous ions on the efficiency of aqueous photocatalytic oxidation (PCO) of 2-ethoxyethanol (2-EE) was examined. A drastic efficiency increase at lower concentrations of ferrous ions was observed to change to a sharp decrease at higher concentrations. An explanation was proposed for the observed phenomena based on the low sensitivity of the pollutant towards radical-oxidation reactions and the competitive adsorption of metallic ions and 2-EE on the TiO2 su...

  15. Static contact angle measurement at different volumes of a drop sitting on non-ferrous metals

    OpenAIRE

    Feoktistov Dmitriy; Orlova Evgeniya; Batischeva Kseniya; Semenov Andrey

    2016-01-01

    The paper presents the experimental study of the effect of the liquid volume on the static contact angle under the condition of the stationary contact line on the rough and polished surfaces of non-ferrous metals. The experiments were carried out using the shadow optical system. Comparison between two methods of drop profile processing was conducted. It was found that in addition to the friction and gravity forces, the structure of the non-ferrous metals significantly influence on the static ...

  16. Changes of ferrous iron and its transporters after intracerebral hemorrhage in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Gaiqing; Shao, Anwen; Hu, Weimin; Xue, Fang; Zhao, Hongping; Jin, Xiaojie; Li, Guanglai; Sun, Zhitang; Wang, Li

    2015-01-01

    Ferrous iron is a major source inducing oxidative stress after intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH). Divalent metal transporter1 (DMT1) is the important and well-known plasma membrane transport protein which was proved to be involved in the transport of free ferrous iron in mammals. Ferroportin 1 (FPN1) is the unique exporter of ferrous iron from mammalian cells. The role of DMT1 and FPN1 in brain after ICH is still not elucidated. Therefore, we measure the expression of DMT1 and FPN1, to explore the correlations between ferrous iron and its specific transporters after ICH. Ninety-six Sprague-Dawley rats received intra-striatal infusions of 0.5 U type IV collagenase to establish ICH model. Ferrous iron content in brain was determined using Turnbull's method. DMT1 and FPN1 expression were examined by immunohistochemical staining and Real-Time quantitative polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). With the use of confocal laser microscopy, we determined the colocalization of DMT1 and FPN1 at 1, 3, 7 and 14 days after ICH. Ferrous iron deposition was shown in the perihematomal zone as early as 1 day after ICH; it reached a peak after 7 days and was not elevated within 14 days following ICH. The expression of the DMT1 upregulated and reached to peak at day 7 after ICH. FPN1 reached a plateau at 3 days post-ICH. Expression levels of DMT1 and FPN1 were in parallel with ferrous iron deposition. There was a positive correlation between FPN1 and DMT1. DMT1 mainly localized in the cytoplasm of glias and neurons. FPN1 were mostly distributed on the membrane of endothelial cells and glias. Confocal microscope showed that DMT1 colocalized with FPN1. DMT1 and FPN1 are positively influenced by ferrous iron status in brain after ICH. DMT1 and FPN1 attenuate iron overload after ICH via increasing transmembrane iron export.

  17. Telomerization of Vinyl Chloride with Chloroform Initiated by Ferrous Chloride-Dimethylacetamide under Ultrasonic Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hua Qian

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Telomerization of vinyl chloride with chloroform was investigated using ferrous chloride-dimethylacetamide system, and 42.1% yield, more than four times the one reported before, was achieved. The addition of ultrasound further improved the reaction and yield was raised to 51.9% with trace byproducts at highly reduced reaction time and temperature. Ferrous chloride-dimethylacetamide under ultrasonic irradiation acts as a very efficient catalyst system for the 1 : 1 telomerization.

  18. Hydroxyl radicals cause fluctuation in intracellular ferrous ion levels upon light exposure during photoreceptor cell death.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imamura, Tomoyo; Hirayama, Tasuku; Tsuruma, Kazuhiro; Shimazawa, Masamitsu; Nagasawa, Hideko; Hara, Hideaki

    2014-12-01

    Iron accumulation is a potential pathogenic event often seen in age-related macular degeneration (AMD) patients. In this study, we focused on the relationship between AMD pathology and concentrations of ferrous ion, which is a highly reactive oxygen generator in biological systems. Murine cone-cells-derived 661 W cells were exposed to white fluorescence light at 2500 lx for 1, 3, 6, or 12 h. Levels of ferrous ions, reactive oxygen species (ROS), and hydroxyl radicals were detected by RhoNox-1, a novel fluorescent probe for the selective detection of ferrous ion, 5-(and-6)-chloromethyl-2',7'-dichlorodihydrofluorescein diacetate, acetyl ester (CM-H2DCFDA), and 3'-p-(aminophenyl) fluorescein, respectively. Reduced glutathione, total iron levels and photoreceptor cell death were also measured. Two genes related to iron metabolism, transferrin receptor 1 (TfR1) and H ferritin (HFt), were quantified by RT-PCR. The effects of ferrous ion on cell death and hydroxyl radical production were determined by treatment with a ferrous ion chelating agent, 2,2'-bipyridyl. We found that the ferrous ion level decreased with light exposure in the short time frame, whereas it was upregulated during a 6-h light exposure. Total iron, ROS, cell death rate, and expression of TfR and HFt genes were significantly increased in a time-dependent manner in 661 W cells exposed to light. Chelation with 2,2'-bipyridyl reduced the level of hydroxyl radicals and protected against light-induced cell death. These results suggest that light exposure decreases ferrous ion levels and enhances iron uptake in photoreceptor cells. Ferrous ion may be involved in light-induced photoreceptor cell death through production of hydroxyl radicals. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. UV-visible spectroscopy of macrocyclic alkyl, nitrosyl and halide complexes of cobalt and rhodium. Experiment and calculation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hull, Emily A; West, Aaron C; Pestovsky, Oleg; Kristian, Kathleen E; Ellern, Arkady; Dunne, James F; Carraher, Jack M; Bakac, Andreja; Windus, Theresa L

    2015-02-28

    Transition metal complexes (NH3)5CoX(2+) (X = CH3, Cl) and L(H2O)MX(2+), where M = Rh or Co, X = CH3, NO, or Cl, and L is a macrocyclic N4 ligand are examined by both experiment and computation to better understand their electronic spectra and associated photochemistry. Specifically, irradiation into weak visible bands of nitrosyl and alkyl complexes (NH3)5CoCH3(2+) and L(H2O)M(III)X(2+) (X = CH3 or NO) leads to photohomolysis that generates the divalent metal complex and ˙CH3 or ˙NO, respectively. On the other hand, when X = halide or NO2, visible light photolysis leads to dissociation of X(-) and/or cis/trans isomerization. Computations show that visible bands for alkyl and nitrosyl complexes involve transitions from M-X bonding orbitals and/or metal d orbitals to M-X antibonding orbitals. In contrast, complexes with X = Cl or NO2 exhibit only d-d bands in the visible, so that homolytic cleavage of the M-X bond requires UV photolysis. UV-Vis spectra are not significantly dependent on the structure of the equatorial ligands, as shown by similar spectral features for (NH3)5CoCH3(2+) and L(1)(H2O)CoCH3(2+).

  20. Mechanism of ferrous iron binding and oxidation by ferritin from a pennate diatom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pfaffen, Stephanie; Abdulqadir, Raz; Le Brun, Nick E; Murphy, Michael E P

    2013-05-24

    A novel ferritin was recently found in Pseudo-nitzschia multiseries (PmFTN), a marine pennate diatom that plays a major role in global primary production and carbon sequestration into the deep ocean. Crystals of recombinant PmFTN were soaked in iron and zinc solutions, and the structures were solved to 1.65-2.2-Å resolution. Three distinct iron binding sites were identified as determined from anomalous dispersion data from aerobically grown ferrous soaked crystals. Sites A and B comprise the conserved ferroxidase active site, and site C forms a pathway leading toward the central cavity where iron storage occurs. In contrast, crystal structures derived from anaerobically grown and ferrous soaked crystals revealed only one ferrous iron in the active site occupying site A. In the presence of dioxygen, zinc is observed bound to all three sites. Iron oxidation experiments using stopped-flow absorbance spectroscopy revealed an extremely rapid phase corresponding to Fe(II) oxidation at the ferroxidase site, which is saturated after adding 48 ferrous iron to apo-PmFTN (two ferrous iron per subunit), and a much slower phase due to iron core formation. These results suggest an ordered stepwise binding of ferrous iron and dioxygen to the ferroxidase site in preparation for catalysis and a partial mobilization of iron from the site following oxidation.

  1. Effect of abomasal ferrous lactate infusion on phosphorus absorption in lactating dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, X; Knowlton, K F; Dietrich, A D; Duncan, S

    2013-07-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of ferrous lactate infusion on postruminal P absorption in lactating dairy cows. Four ruminally cannulated lactating cows were used in a 4×4 Latin square design with 14 d per period. Cows were fed a basal diet containing 0.39% P, providing 100% of the calculated P requirement. On d 8 to 14 of each period, each cow was infused with 0, 200, 500, or 1,250mg of Fe/d in the form of ferrous lactate solution (ferrous lactate in 1L of double-distilled water) into the abomasum. Infusate was formulated to approximate 0, 2, 5, or 12.5mg of Fe/L in drinking water with 100L of water intake/d. Total fecal collection was conducted in the last 4 d of each period to measure nutrient digestion and excretion. Dry matter intake, milk yield, and milk composition were not affected by treatment. Digestibility of DM, NDF, and nitrogen decreased linearly with increasing ferrous lactate infusion. Infusion of ferrous lactate did not affect intake and digestibility of total P, inorganic P, or phytate P. In lactating cows, P absorption was not negatively influenced by abomasally infused ferrous lactate up to 1,250mg of Fe/d. Copyright © 2013 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Removal of phosphorus from wastewaters using ferrous salts - a pilot scale membrane bioreactor study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yuan; Tng, K Han; Wu, Hao; Leslie, Greg; Waite, T David

    2014-06-15

    A pilot scale membrane bioreactor (3.7 m(3)/day capacity), configured for alternate point ferrous sulphate addition, was evaluated in a fourteen month trial to comply with an effluent discharge requirement of less than 0.15 mg-P/L at the 50(th) percentile and less than 0.30 mg-P/L at the 90th percentile. Ferrous sulphate was added at a molar ratio (Fe(II):PO4) of 2.99 in the filtration chamber for 85 days and 2.60 in the primary anoxic zone for 111 days. Addition of ferrous salts to the anoxic zone achieved a final effluent phosphorous concentration (mg-P/L) of ferrous salts in the filtration zone achieved ferrous salts were added to the membrane zone while the reactor behaved close to a completely mixed reactor when dosing to the primary anoxic zone, resulting in improved phosphorus removal. The addition of ferrous salt was also found to delay the onset of severe increase in trans-membrane pressure as a result of the removal of macro-molecules. However, detailed analysis of the form and concentration of iron species in the supernatant and permeate indicated that the presence of fine iron particles resulted in a higher fouling rate when Fe(II) was added to the membrane zone rather than the primary anoxic zone and could cause more severe irreversible fouling in long-term operation. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Treatment of iron deficiency anemia in children: a comparative study of ferrous ascorbate and colloidal iron.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yewale, Vijay N; Dewan, Bhupesh

    2013-05-01

    To compare the efficacy of ferrous ascorbate and colloidal iron in the treatment of iron deficiency anemia in children. Eighty one children, aged 6 mo to 12 y, were screened for iron deficiency anemia (IDA) and those diagnosed with IDA were randomized to receive ferrous ascorbate or colloidal iron for a period of 12 wk, such that each child received elemental iron 3 mg/kg body weight/d. Increase in hemoglobin (Hb) level was the primary outcome measure. Assessment was performed at baseline, wk 4, wk 8 and wk 12. Of 81 children screened, 73 were included in the study. The mean rise in Hb at the end of the 12 wk was significantly higher in ferrous ascorbate group than the colloidal iron group [3.59 ± 1.67 g/dl vs. 2.43 ± 1.73 g/dl; P ferrous ascorbate (64.86 % vs. 31.03 %; P Ferrous ascorbate provides a significantly higher rise in hemoglobin levels in comparison to colloidal iron. The study supports the use of ferrous ascorbate in the pediatric age group, providing evidence for its role as an efficient oral iron supplement in the treatment of iron deficiency anemia.

  4. Effect of ferrous metal presence on lead leaching in municipal waste incineration bottom ashes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oehmig, Wesley N; Roessler, Justin G; Zhang, Jianye; Townsend, Timothy G

    2015-01-01

    The recovery of ferrous and non-ferrous metals from waste to energy (WTE) ash continues to advance as the sale of removed metals improves the economics of waste combustion. Published literature suggests that Fe and Fe oxides play a role in suppressing Pb leaching in the Toxicity Characteristic Leaching Procedure (TCLP); further removal of ferrous metals from WTE ashes may facilitate higher Pb leaching under the TCLP. Eight WTE bottom ash size-fractions, from three facilities, were evaluated to assess the effect of metallic Fe addition and ferrous metal removal on TCLP leaching. Metallic Fe addition was demonstrated to reduce Pb leaching; the removal of ferrous metals by magnet resulted in a decrease in total available Pb (mg/kg) in most ash samples, yet Pb leachability increased in 5 of 6 ash samples. The research points to two chemical mechanisms to explain these results: redox interactions between Pb and Fe and the sorption of soluble Pb onto Fe oxide surfaces, as well as the effect of the leachate pH before and after metals recovery. The findings presented here indicate that generators, processors, and regulators of ash should be aware of the impact ferrous metal removal may have on Pb leaching, as a substantial increase in leaching may have significant implications regarding the management of WTE ashes. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Development of cast ferrous alloys for Stirling engine application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lemkey, F. D.

    1982-01-01

    Low cost cast ferrous base alloys that can be used for cylinder and regenerator housing components of the Stirling engine were investigated. The alloys must meet the requirements of high strength and thermal fatigue resistance to approximately 1500 F, compatibility and low permeability with hydrogen, good elevated temperature oxidation/corrosion resistance, and contain a minimum of strategic elements. The phase constituents of over twenty alloy iterations were examined by X-ray diffraction. These alloy candidates were further screened for their tensile and stress rupture strength and surface stability in air at 1450 and 1600 F, respectively. Two alloys, NASAUT 1G (Fe-10Mn-20Cr-1.5C-1.0Si) and NASAUT 4G (Fe-15Mn-12Cr-3Mo-1.5C-1.0Si-1.0Nb), were chosen for more extensive elevated temperature testing. These alloys were found to exhibit nearly equivalent elevated temperature creep strength and oxidation resistance. Silicon present in these alloys at the 1 w/o level permitted the achievement of oxide scale adherence to 1600 F without loss of strength (or ductility) as was noted for equivalent additions of aluminum.

  6. Photomixotrophic growth of Rhodobacter capsulatus SB1003 on ferrous iron.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kopf, S H; Newman, D K

    2012-05-01

    This study investigates the role iron oxidation plays in the purple non-sulfur bacterium Rhodobacter capsulatus SB1003. This organism is unable to grow photoautotrophically on unchelated ferrous iron [Fe(II)] despite its ability to oxidize chelated Fe(II). This apparent paradox was partly resolved by the discovery that SB1003 can grow photoheterotrophically on the photochemical breakdown products of certain ferric iron-ligand complexes, yet whether it could concomitantly benefit from the oxidation of Fe(II) to fix CO(2) was unknown. Here, we examine carbon fixation by stable isotope labeling of the inorganic carbon pool in cultures growing phototrophically on acetate with and without Fe(II). We show that R. capsulatus SB1003, an organism formally thought incapable of phototrophic growth on Fe(II), can actually harness the reducing power of this substrate and grow photomixotrophically, deriving carbon both from organic sources and from fixation of inorganic carbon. This suggests the possibility of a wider occurrence of photoferrotrophy than previously assumed. © 2011 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  7. Determination of ferrous and ferric iron in aqueous biological solutions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pepper, S.E. [Earth and Environmental Sciences Division, Los Alamos National Laboratory, 1400 University Drive, Carlsbad, NM 88220 (United States); Borkowski, M., E-mail: marian@lanl.gov [Earth and Environmental Sciences Division, Los Alamos National Laboratory, 1400 University Drive, Carlsbad, NM 88220 (United States); Richmann, M.K.; Reed, D.T. [Earth and Environmental Sciences Division, Los Alamos National Laboratory, 1400 University Drive, Carlsbad, NM 88220 (United States)

    2010-03-24

    A solvent extraction method was employed to determine ferrous and ferric iron in aqueous samples. Fe{sup 3+} is selectively extracted into the organic phase (n-heptane) using HDEHP (bis(2-ethylhexyl) hydrogen phosphate) and is then stripped using a strong acid. After separation, both oxidation states and the total iron content were determined directly by ICP-MS analysis. This extraction method was refined to allow determination of both iron oxidation states in the presence of strong complexing ligands, such as citrate, NTA and EDTA. The accuracy of the method was verified by crosschecking using a refinement of the ferrozine assay. Presented results demonstrate the ability of the extraction method to work in a microbiological system in the presence of strong chelating agents following the bioreduction of Fe{sup 3+} by the Shewanella alga BrY. Based on the results we report, a robust approach was defined to separately analyze Fe{sup 3+} and Fe{sup 2+} under a wide range of potential scenarios in subsurface environments where radionuclide/metal contamination may coexist with strongly complexing organic contaminants.

  8. Theoretical Foundation of Carbonation Pellet Process for Ferrous Sludge Recycling

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HU Chang-qing; HAN Tao; ZHANG Yu-zhu; ZHANG Zhi-xia

    2011-01-01

    For the recycling of ferrous sludge from steel industry,the carbonation pellet process should be considered as a "green" process,since no impurities are added as well as CO2 can be sequestrated and consumed.Through the thermodynamic calculation,the carbonation reaction can occur spontaneously and is an exothermic reaction.Based on the kinetic analysis through unreacted core model,the interfacial chemical reaction was the rate controlling step in the initial fast stage of carbonation,and the CO2 diffusion through the CaCO3 product layer was the rate controlling step in the following extremely slow stage.For the carbonation bonded mechanism,the pellet strength was gained by the formation and growing of CaCO3 product layer.Since the interfacial chemical reaction was the critical stage of the entire carbonation process,the emphasizes should be focused on the improvement of sorbent activity and the optimization of process parameters,such as pore structure,pore surface area,and total pressure,CO2 partial pressure,reaction temperature,etc to accelerate the reaction rate and to improve the quality of carbonation pellets.

  9. Alginate nanoparticles protect ferrous from oxidation: Potential iron delivery system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katuwavila, Nuwanthi P; Perera, A D L C; Dahanayake, Damayanthi; Karunaratne, V; Amaratunga, Gehan A J; Karunaratne, D Nedra

    2016-11-20

    A novel, efficient delivery system for iron (Fe(2+)) was developed using the alginate biopolymer. Iron loaded alginate nanoparticles were synthesized by a controlled ionic gelation method and was characterized with respect to particle size, zeta potential, morphology and encapsulation efficiency. Successful loading was confirmed with Fourier Transform Infrared spectroscopy and Thermogravimetric Analysis. Electron energy loss spectroscopy study corroborated the loading of ferrous into the alginate nanoparticles. Iron encapsulation (70%) was optimized at 0.06% Fe (w/v) leading to the formation of iron loaded alginate nanoparticles with a size range of 15-30nm and with a negative zeta potential (-38mV). The in vitro release studies showed a prolonged release profile for 96h. Release of iron was around 65-70% at pH of 6 and 7.4 whereas it was less than 20% at pH 2.The initial burst release upto 8h followed zero order kinetics at all three pH values. All the release profiles beyond 8h best fitted the Korsmeyer-Peppas model of diffusion. Non Fickian diffusion was observed at pH 6 and 7.4 while at pH 2 Fickian diffusion was observed. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Development of cast ferrous alloys for Stirling engine application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lemkey, F. D.

    1982-01-01

    Low cost cast ferrous base alloys that can be used for cylinder and regenerator housing components of the Stirling engine were investigated. The alloys must meet the requirements of high strength and thermal fatigue resistance to approximately 1500 F, compatibility and low permeability with hydrogen, good elevated temperature oxidation/corrosion resistance, and contain a minimum of strategic elements. The phase constituents of over twenty alloy iterations were examined by X-ray diffraction. These alloy candidates were further screened for their tensile and stress rupture strength and surface stability in air at 1450 and 1600 F, respectively. Two alloys, NASAUT 1G (Fe-10Mn-20Cr-1.5C-1.0Si) and NASAUT 4G (Fe-15Mn-12Cr-3Mo-1.5C-1.0Si-1.0Nb), were chosen for more extensive elevated temperature testing. These alloys were found to exhibit nearly equivalent elevated temperature creep strength and oxidation resistance. Silicon present in these alloys at the 1 w/o level permitted the achievement of oxide scale adherence to 1600 F without loss of strength (or ductility) as was noted for equivalent additions of aluminum.

  11. Sinterability and microstructure evolution during sintering of ferrous powder mixtures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kétner Bendo Demétrio

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The present work is focused on ferrous powder metallurgy and presents some results of a development of a suitable masteralloy for use as an additive to iron powder for the production of sintered steels. The masteralloy was produced by melting a powder mixture containing approximately Fe + 20% Ni + 20% Mn + 20% Si + 1% C (wt%, in order to obtain a cast billet that was converted into fine powder by crushing and milling. It was observed presence of SiC in the masteralloy after melting that is undesirable in the alloy. Si element should be introduced by using ferrosilicon. Sintered alloys with distinct contents of alloying elements were prepared by mixing the masteralloy powder to plain iron powder. Samples were produced by die compaction of the powder mixtures and sintering at 1200 °C in a differential dilatometer in order to record their linear dimensional behaviour during heating up and isothermal sintering, aiming at studying the sinterability of the compacts. Microstructure development during sintering was studied by SEM, XRD and microprobe analyses.

  12. Suppression by Ghrelin of Porphyromonas gingivalis-Induced Constitutive Nitric Oxide Synthase S-Nitrosylation and Apoptosis in Salivary Gland Acinar Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bronislaw L. Slomiany

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Oral mucosal inflammatory responses to periodontopathic bacterium, P. gingivalis, and its key virulence factor, LPS, are characterized by a massive rise in epithelial cell apoptosis and the disturbances in NO signaling pathways. Here, we report that the LPS-induced enhancement in rat sublingual salivary gland acinar cell apoptosis and NO generation was associated with the suppression in constitutive nitric oxide synthase (cNOS activity and a marked increase in the activity of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS. We demonstrate that the detrimental effect of the LPS on cNOS was manifested by the enzyme protein S-nitrosylation, that was susceptible to inhibition by iNOS inhibitor, 1400 W. Further, we show that a peptide hormone, ghrelin, countered the LPS-induced changes in apoptosis and cNOS activity. This effect of ghrelin was reflected in the decrease in cNOS S-nitrosylation and the increase in phosphorylation. Our findings imply that P. gingivalis-induced disturbances in the acinar cell NO signaling pathways result from upregulation in iNOS-derived NO that causes cNOS S-nitrosylation that interferes with its activation through phosphorylation. We also show that ghrelin protection against P. gingivalis-induced disturbances involves cNOS activation associated with a decrease in its S-nitrosylation and the increase in phosphorylation.

  13. Suppression by Ghrelin of Porphyromonas gingivalis-Induced Constitutive Nitric Oxide Synthase S-Nitrosylation and Apoptosis in Salivary Gland Acinar Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slomiany, Bronislaw L; Slomiany, Amalia

    2010-01-01

    Oral mucosal inflammatory responses to periodontopathic bacterium, P. gingivalis, and its key virulence factor, LPS, are characterized by a massive rise in epithelial cell apoptosis and the disturbances in NO signaling pathways. Here, we report that the LPS-induced enhancement in rat sublingual salivary gland acinar cell apoptosis and NO generation was associated with the suppression in constitutive nitric oxide synthase (cNOS) activity and a marked increase in the activity of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS). We demonstrate that the detrimental effect of the LPS on cNOS was manifested by the enzyme protein S-nitrosylation, that was susceptible to inhibition by iNOS inhibitor, 1400 W. Further, we show that a peptide hormone, ghrelin, countered the LPS-induced changes in apoptosis and cNOS activity. This effect of ghrelin was reflected in the decrease in cNOS S-nitrosylation and the increase in phosphorylation. Our findings imply that P. gingivalis-induced disturbances in the acinar cell NO signaling pathways result from upregulation in iNOS-derived NO that causes cNOS S-nitrosylation that interferes with its activation through phosphorylation. We also show that ghrelin protection against P. gingivalis-induced disturbances involves cNOS activation associated with a decrease in its S-nitrosylation and the increase in phosphorylation.

  14. Synthesis, characterization, and light-controlled antibiotic application of a composite material derived from polyurethane and silica xerogel with embedded photoactive manganese nitrosyl.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heilman, Brandon J; Halpenny, Genevieve M; Mascharak, Pradip K

    2011-11-01

    The synthesis of a light-sensitive polyurethane-based composite material (PUX-NO) is described. In its polyurethane medium, PUX-NO contains entrapped silica xerogel particles in which a photoactive manganese nitrosyl has been incorporated. Green flexible films of PUX-NO readily release nitric oxide (NO) only when exposed to low power (mW) visible light. Incorporation of the nitrosyl in the xerogel not only retains the nitrosyl (NO donor) within the composite material but also provides the right extent of hydration. Pre-swelled films of PUX-NO have water content close to 30 Wt % and such films can be stored for months under slightly moist condition without loss in NO-delivering capacity. The NO-releasing parameters of the film have been determined. The NO-releasing capacity of PUX-NO films can be conveniently altered by changing the amount of the nitrosyl as well as the thickness of the films. Patches of PUX-NO film have been successfully employed to reduce drastically bacterial loads of both gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria including methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus and Acinetobacter baumannii under the total control of light. Effective control of infections by these bacterial pathogens via delivery of proper doses of NO only to the sites of infection appears feasible with PUX-NO films.

  15. S-nitrosylation of cofilin-1 mediates estradiol-17β-stimulated endothelial cytoskeleton remodeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Hong-hai; Lechuga, Thomas J; Tith, Tevy; Wang, Wen; Wing, Deborah A; Chen, Dong-bao

    2015-03-01

    Rapid nitric oxide (NO) production via endothelial NO synthase (eNOS) activation represents a major signaling pathway for the cardiovascular protective effects of estrogens; however, the pathways after NO biosynthesis that estrogens use to function remain largely unknown. Covalent adduction of a NO moiety to cysteines, termed S-nitrosylation (SNO), has emerged as a key route for NO to directly regulate protein function. Cofilin-1 (CFL1) is a small actin-binding protein essential for actin dynamics and cytoskeleton remodeling. Despite being identified as a major SNO protein in endothelial cells, whether SNO regulates CFL-1 function is unknown. We hypothesized that estradiol-17β (E2β) stimulates SNO of CFL1 via eNOS-derived NO and that E2β-induced SNO-CFL1 mediates cytoskeleton remodeling in endothelial cells. Point mutation studies determined Cys80 as the primary SNO site among the 4 cysteines (Cys39/80/139/147) in CFL1. Substitutions of Cys80 with Ala or Ser were used to prepare the SNO-mimetic/deficient (C80A/S) CFL1 mutants. Recombinant wild-type (wt) and mutant CFL1 proteins were prepared; their actin-severing activity was determined by real-time fluorescence imaging analysis. The activity of C80A CFL1 was enhanced to that of the constitutively active S3/A CFL1, whereas the other mutants had no effects. C80A/S mutations lowered Ser3 phosphorylation. Treatment with E2β increased filamentous (F)-actin and filopodium formation in endothelial cells, which were significantly reduced in cells overexpressing wt-CFL. Overexpression of C80A, but not C80S, CFL1 decreased basal F-actin and further suppressed E2β-induced F-actin and filopodium formation compared with wt-CFL1 overexpression. Thus, SNO(Cys80) of cofilin-1 via eNOS-derived NO provides a novel pathway for mediating estrogen-induced endothelial cell cytoskeleton remodeling.

  16. Synthesis and characterization of ferrous phosphate (vivianite) and its behavior in aqueous media; Sintesis y caracterizacion del fosfato ferroso (vivianita) y su comportamiento en medio acuoso

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Diaz F, J.C

    2003-07-01

    The synthesis and characterization of materials that can be useful in Environmental Chemistry is very important because their characteristics are exposed and its behavior in chemical phenomena as the sorption in aqueous media is understand to use it in the human being benefit. With the object of using, in a future, the octa hydrated ferrous phosphate (vivianite) as a potential candidate for matrix confinement in contention walls for the storage of radioactive waste of long half life, it was synthesized and it characterized physico chemically and their properties of surface of this compound were evaluated. Presently work was carried out the synthesis and structural characterization of the iron phosphate II by infrared spectroscopy with having Fourier transform, high vacuum scanning electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction, thermal gravimetric analysis, the BET multipoint surface area and Moessbauer spectroscopy; as well as, the determination between aqueous media of the isoelectric point and the density of sites of surface of the compound. The octa hydrated ferrous phosphate was obtained pure. The results indicate that the product corresponds to the prospective mineral, the vivianite. The thermal gravimetric analysis demonstrated that the ferrous phosphate is a stable salt after the lost of water. The isoelectric point is since an important parameter because allows to know the behavior of the surface of the material in aqueous systems, in this case the isoelectric point, of the octa hydrated ferrous phosphate, in distilled water is of pH 4.20 and in solution of potassium nitrate 0.5 M is of pH = 3.75. This indicates that the material has an amphoteric surface depending on the pH. On the other hand, the density of active sites of surface obtained by titrations acid-base is of 20 sites by nm{sup 2}. (Author)

  17. Cold-Drawn Bioabsorbable Ferrous and Ferrous Composite Wires: An Evaluation of Mechanical Strength and Fatigue Durability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaffer, Jeremy E.; Nauman, Eric A.; Stanciu, Lia A.

    2012-08-01

    Yield strengths exceeding 1 GPa with elastic strains exceeding 1 pct were measured in novel bioabsorbable wire materials comprising high-purity iron (Fe), manganese (Mn), magnesium (Mn), and zinc (Zn), which may enable the development of self-expandable, bioabsorbable, wire-based endovascular stents. The high strength of these materials is attributed to the fine microstructure and fiber textures achieved through cold drawing techniques. Bioabsorbable vascular stents comprising nutrient metal compositions may provide a means to overcome the limitations of polymer-based bioabsorbable stents such as excessive strut thickness and poor degradation rate control. Thin, 125- μm wires comprising combinations of ferrous alloys surrounding a relatively anodic nonferrous core were manufactured and tested using monotonic and cyclic techniques. The strength and durability properties are tested in air and in body temperature phosphate-buffered saline, and then they were compared with cold-drawn 316L stainless steel wire. The antiferromagnetic Fe35Mn-Mg composite wire exhibited more than 7 pct greater elasticity (1.12 pct vs 1.04 pct engineering strain), similar fatigue strength in air, an ultimate strength of more than 1.4 GPa, and a toughness exceeding 35 mJ/mm3 compared with 30 mJ/mm3 for 316L.

  18. Quantitative site-specific reactivity profiling of S-nitrosylation in mouse skeletal muscle using cysteinyl peptide enrichment coupled with mass spectrometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Su, Dian; Shukla, Anil K.; Chen, Baowei; Kim, Jong-Seo; Nakayasu, Ernesto; Qu, Yi; Aryal, Uma; Weitz, Karl; Clauss, Therese R. W.; Monroe, Matthew E.; Camp II, David G.; Bigelow, Diana J.; Smith, Richard D.; Kulkarni, Rohit N.; Qian, Wei-Jun

    2013-04-01

    S-nitrosylation (SNO) is an important reversible thiol oxidation event that has been increasingly recognized for its role in cell signaling. While many proteins susceptible to S-nitrosylation have been reported, site-specific identification of physiologically relevant SNO modifications remains an analytical challenge due to the low-abundance and labile nature of the modification. Herein we present further improvement and optimization of the recently reported, resin-assisted cysteinyl peptide enrichment protocol for SNO identification and the extension of this application to mouse skeletal muscle to identify specific sites sensitive to S-nitrosylation by quantitative reactivity profiling. The results of our data indicate that the protein- and peptide-level enrichment protocols provide comparable specificity and coverage of SNO-peptide identifications. S-nitrosylation reactivity profiling was performed by quantitatively comparing the site-specific SNO modification levels in samples treated with S-nitrosoglutathione (GSNO), an NO donor, at two different physiologically relevant concentrations (i.e., 10 μM and 100 μM). The reactivity profiling experiments overall identified 489 SNO-modified cysteine sites from 197 proteins with the specificity of 95.2% at the unique-peptide-level based on the percentage of Cys-peptides. Among these sites, 260 sites from 135 proteins were observed with relatively high reactivity to S-nitrosylation; such SNO-sensitive sites are more likely to be physiologically relevant. Many of the SNO-sensitive proteins are preferentially localized in mitochondria, contractile fiber and actin cytoskeleton, suggesting the susceptibility of these subcellular compartments to redox regulation. Moreover, the SNO-sensitive proteins seem to be primarily involved in metabolic pathways, including TCA cycle, glycolysis/gluconeogenesis, glutathione metabolism, and fatty acid metabolism, suggesting the importance of redox regulation in muscle metabolism and

  19. Thermal treatment of dusts from non ferrous metallurgical industries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Menad, Noureddine

    2000-06-01

    Full Text Available Three samples of dusts generated by the non ferrous metallurgical industries are treated between 200 and 800 °C in controlled oxidizing and reducing atmospheres. The objective of this study is to recover the valuable metals from these wastes. The treatments of these solids under oxidizing conditions at 700 °C are well adapted for two samples. The totality of valuable elements are concentrated in the treatments' residues. The use of hydrogen at 600 °C, permits the removal of up to 100 % of valuable metals contained in the treated industrial wastes. The recovery rate of valuable metals (Pb, Zn, Cu as well as the Global Decontamination Factor are reported.

    Se han tratado tres muestras procedentes de la industria metalúrgica no férrea entre 200 y 800 °C, en atmósferas oxidantes o reductoras controladas. El objetivo de este estudio es recuperar cuanto sea posible de los elementos valiosos de estos residuos. Los tratamientos bajo condiciones oxidantes a 700 °C han dado buenos resultados en dos muestras, en donde la totalidad de los elementos valiosos se concentraba en los residuos de tratamiento. El uso del hidrógeno a 600 °C permite la separación de hasta el 100 % de los metales valiosos contenidos en los residuos industriales tratados. Finalmente, se detallan las tasas de recuperación de los metales plomo, zinc y cobre así como el factor de descontaminación global (GDF.

  20. Intermediate-spin ferrous iron in the Earth's lower mantle?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsu, H.; Wentzcovitch, R. M.

    2013-12-01

    Intermediate-spin (IS) ferrous iron (Fe2+) has been a controversy in mineral physics. Its existence can change the detailed spin map of the Earth interior and may significantly affect mantle properties. IS Fe2+ is also a topic of interdisciplinary interest. Its existence in coordination complexes enables potential molecular devices to process more information; its connection with the superconductivity of iron chalcogenides has also been discussed. Here, we use the density functional theory + self-consistent Hubbard U (DFT+Usc) method to investigate IS Fe2+ in lower-mantle minerals. In ferropericlase, we found two different types of IS (t2g5eg1) states. Their distinct orbital occupancies lead to distinct Jahn-Teller (J-T) distortions, nuclear quadrupole splittings (QS), and on-site Coulomb interactions. Consequently, one IS state is much more favorable than the other, making it the most possible IS state in ferropericlase. In light of these new findings, we re-examine the previously reported IS Fe2+ in magnesium silicate (MgSiO3) perovskite [Hsu et al., Earth Planet. Sci. Lett. 294, 19 (2010)] and post-perovskite [Yu et al., Earth Planet. Sci. Lett. 331-332, 1 (2011)]. While these two minerals are much more complicated, the reported IS states are highly similar to the most favorable IS state in ferropericlase, suggesting that they are indeed the most possible IS states in these two minerals. However, these most possible IS Fe2+ are still not energetically favorable. Therefore, IS Fe2+ is highly unlikely in the Earth's lower mantle. *This project is supported by NSC Grant 102-2112-M-008-001-MY3 (H.H.) and NSF Awards EAR-1319361, -1019853, and -0810272 (R.M.W).

  1. Transformation of graphene oxide by ferrous iron: Environmental implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Fanfan; Wang, Fang; Gao, Guandao; Chen, Wei

    2015-09-01

    Abiotic transformation of graphene oxide (GO) in aquatic environments can markedly affect the fate, transport, and effects of GO. The authors observed that ferrous iron (Fe[II])-an environmentally abundant, mild reductant-can significantly affect the physicochemical properties of GO (examined by treating aqueous GO suspensions with Fe(2+) at room temperature, with doses of 0.032 mM Fe(2+)  per mg/L, 0.08 mM Fe(2+)  per mg/L, and 0.32 mM Fe(2+)  per mg/L GO). Microscopy data showed stacking of GO nanosheets on Fe(2+) treatment. Spectroscopy evidence (X-ray diffraction, Fourier transform infrared transmission, Raman and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy) showed significant changes in GO surface O-functionalities, in terms of loss of epoxy and carbonyl groups but increase of carboxyl group. The reduction mechanisms were verified by treating model organic molecules (styrene oxide, p-benzoquinone, and benzoic acid) resembling O-containing fragments of GO macromolecules with Fe(2+). With sedimentation and adsorption experiments (using bisphenol A as a model contaminant), the authors demonstrated that Fe(2+) reduced GOs still maintained relatively high colloidal stability, whereas their adsorption affinities were significantly enhanced. Thus, reduction of GO by mild reductants might be of greater environmental concerns than by stronger reducing agents (e.g., N2H4 and S(2-)), because the latter can result in too significant losses of surface O-functionalities and colloidal stability of GO. This interesting aspect should be given consideration in the risk assessment of GO. © 2015 SETAC.

  2. Evaluation of the treatment of chromite ore processing residue by ferrous sulfate and asphalt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moon, Deok Hyun; Wazne, Mahmoud; Koutsospyros, Agamemnon; Christodoulatos, Christos; Gevgilili, Halil; Malik, Moinuddin; Kalyon, Dilhan M

    2009-07-15

    The effectiveness of the treatment of chromite ore processing residue (COPR) with ferrous sulfate and encapsulation into asphalt were explored separately and in combination. The asphalt treatment was conducted by mixing COPR or ferrous sulfate pretreated COPR with varying amounts of asphalt. To assess the efficacy of the treatment, the leachability of toxicity characteristic leaching procedure (TCLP) total chromium (Cr) from all treated samples was determined for curing periods up to 16 months. X-ray absorption near edge structure (XANES) analyses were also performed to evaluate the Cr(6+) concentration in the selected samples. The combination treatment of ferrous sulfate and the encapsulation of the treated COPR into asphalt reduced the TCLP total Cr concentration to lower than the regulatory limit of 5mg/L for Cr contaminated soils, after 16 months. However, the Cr concentrations were still higher than the universal treatment standards (UTS) of 0.6 mg/L for hazardous waste. On the other hand, treatment with ferrous sulfate alone or the encapsulation of the COPR in asphalt failed to meet the TCLP total Cr concentration of 5mg/L, after 16 months. XANES analyses results showed that more than 75% Cr(6+) reduction was achieved upon pretreatment with ferrous sulfate.

  3. The effect of ferrous-chelating hairtail peptides on iron deficiency and intestinal flora in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Hui-Min; Deng, Shang-Gui; Huang, Sai-Bo; Li, Ying-Jie; Song, Ru

    2016-06-01

    Chelating agents, such as small peptides, can decrease free iron content and increase iron bioavailability. They may have promising therapeutic potential and may prevent the pro-oxidant effects of low molecular weight iron. Hairtail is a species of fish that is rich in easily digestible proteins. We extended this strategy for iron delivery by using an enzymatic hydrolysate of hairtail as the chelating agent and found that the ferrous-chelating hairtail peptides have anti-anaemic activity in Sprague-Dawley rats with anaemia. The anti-anaemic activity of ferrous-chelating hairtail peptides prepared by enzymatic hydrolysis of the hairtail and ferrous chelation was studied in rat models of iron deficiency anaemia. After the end of the 35 d experiment, we noted significant differences in haemoglobin, mean corpuscular volume, haemoglobin distribution width, and ferritin concentrations between those animals supplemented with ferrous-chelating hairtail peptides and FeSO4 and healthy animals. There were no negative side effects on the animals' growth or behaviour. There was no obvious inflammation in the intestinal mucosa lamina propria and no unbalance of intestinal flora. The novel ferrous-chelating hairtail peptides may be a suitable fortificant for improving iron-deficiency status. Our findings demonstrated that this multi-tracer technique has many applications in nutritional research. © 2015 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2015 Society of Chemical Industry.

  4. Reaction of a copper(II)-nitrosyl complex with hydrogen peroxide: phenol ring nitration through a putative peroxynitrite intermediate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalita, Apurba; Deka, Ramesh C; Mondal, Biplab

    2013-10-07

    Copper(II) complex, 1, with the histidine-derived ligand L (L = methyl 2-(2-hydroxybenzylamino)-3-(1H-imidazol-5-yl)propanoate) has been synthesized and characterized. Single-crystal structure determination reveals a diphenolato-bridged dicopper(II) core in 1. Addition of (•)NO to an acetonitrile solution of 1 affords the corresponding mononuclear copper(II)-nitrosyl complex, 2. In the presence of H2O2, 2 results in formation of the corresponding copper(I)-peroxynitrite. Formation of peroxynitrite ((-)OONO) intermediate is evident from its characteristic phenol ring nitration reaction which resembles the tyrosine nitration in biological systems. Further, isolation of nitrate (NO3(-)) as the decomposition product from 2 at room temperature also supports the involvement of (-)OONO intermediate.

  5. SOD1 aggregation in astrocytes following ischemia/reperfusion injury: a role of NO-mediated S-nitrosylation of protein disulfide isomerase (PDI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chen Xueping

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Ubiquitinated-protein aggregates are implicated in cerebral ischemia/reperfusion injury. The very presence of these ubiquitinated-protein aggregates is abnormal and seems to be disease-related. However, it is not clear what leads to aggregate formation and whether the aggregations represent a reaction to aggregate-mediated neurodegeneration. Methods To study the nitrosative stress-induced protein aggregation in cerebral ischemia/reperfusion injury, we used primary astrocyte cultures as a cell model, and systematically examined their iNOS expression and consequent NO generation following oxygen glucose deprivation and reperfusion. The expression of protein disulfide isomerase (PDI and copper-zinc superoxide dismutase (SOD1 were also examined, and the biochemical interaction between PDI and SOD1 was determined by immunoprecipitation. In addition, the levels of S-nitrosylated PDI in cultured astrocytes after oxygen glucose deprivation and reperfusion treatment were measured using the biotin-switch assay. The formation of ubiquitinated-protein aggregates was detected by immunoblot and immunofluorescence staining. Results Our data showed that the up-regulation of iNOS expression after oxygen glucose deprivation and reperfusion treatment led to excessive NO generation. Up-regulation of PDI and SOD1 was also identified in cultured astrocytes following oxygen glucose deprivation and reperfusion, and these two proteins were found to bind to each other. Furthermore, the increased nitrosative stress due to ischemia/reperfusion injury was highly associated with NO-induced S-nitrosylation of PDI, and this S-nitrosylation of PDI was correlated with the formation of ubiquitinated-protein aggregates; the levels of S-nitrosylated PDI increased in parallel with the formation of aggregates. When NO generation was pharmacologically inhibited by iNOS specific inhibitor 1400W, S-nitrosylation of PDI was significantly blocked. In addition, the

  6. Cyanide binding to ferrous and ferric microperoxidase-11.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ascenzi, Paolo; Sbardella, Diego; Santucci, Roberto; Coletta, Massimo

    2016-07-01

    Microperoxidase-11 (MP11) is an undecapeptide derived from horse heart cytochrome c (cytc). MP11 is characterized by a covalently linked solvent-exposed heme group, the heme-Fe atom being axially coordinated by a histidyl residue. Here, the reactions of ferrous and ferric MP11 (MP11-Fe(II) and MP11-Fe(III), respectively) with cyanide have been investigated from the kinetic and thermodynamic viewpoints, at pH 7.0 and 20.0 °C. Values of the second-order rate constant for cyanide binding to MP11-Fe(II) and MP11-Fe(III) are 4.5 M(-1) s(-1) and 8.9 × 10(3) M(-1) s(-1), respectively. Values of the first-order rate constant for cyanide dissociation from ligated MP11-Fe(II) and MP11-Fe(III) are 1.8 × 10(-1) s(-1) and 1.5 × 10(-3) s(-1), respectively. Values of the dissociation equilibrium constant for cyanide binding to MP11-Fe(II) and MP11-Fe(III) are 3.7 × 10(-2) and 1.7 × 10(-7) M, respectively, matching very well with those calculated from kinetic parameters so that no intermediate species seem to be involved in the ligand-binding process. The pH-dependence of cyanide binding to MP11-Fe(III) indicates that CN(-) is the only binding species. Present results have been analyzed in parallel with those of several heme-proteins, suggesting that (1) the ligand accessibility to the metal center and cyanide ionization may modulate the formation of heme-Fe-cyanide complexes, and (2) the general polarity of the heme pocket and/or hydrogen bonding of the heme-bound ligand may affect cyanide exit from the protein matrix. Microperoxidase-11 (MP11) is an undecapeptide derived from horse heart cytochrome c. Penta-coordinated MP11 displays a very high reactivity towards cyanide, whereas the reactivity of hexa-coordinated horse heart cytochrome c is very low.

  7. Direct Current and Pulsed Direct Current Plasma Nitriding of Ferrous Materials a Critical Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Łępicka Magdalena

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays, the improvement of ferrous materials performance is a problem of high interest. One of well-known wear- and corrosion properties improving technique is plasma nitriding, in which elemental nitrogen is introduced to the surface of a metal part for subsequent diffusion into the material. As a result, a compound, “white” layer and a diffusion zone are formed at the detail’s surface. Most of the authors positively describe the effects of surface ion nitiding. On the other hand, there are also reports on adverse effects of direct current and pulsed direct current plasma nitriding on ferrous materials performance. Therefore, an attempt to provide comprehensive summary on direct current and pulsed direct current ion nitriding and its influence on ferrous materials’ mechanical and corrosion properties has been made. According to the results, some of the technique drawbacks are hard to avoid in mass production.

  8. Severe Endobronchial Inflammation Induced by Aspiration of a Ferrous Sulfate Tablet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Sang Youn; Sohn, Sung Birm; Lee, Jung Min; Lee, Ji Ae; Chung, Sangmi; Kim, Junga; Choi, Juwhan; Kim, Sehwa; Yoo, Ah Young; Roh, Jong Ah; Park, Haein; Kim, Won Shik; Sim, Jae Kyeom; Shim, Jae Jeong

    2016-01-01

    Iron supplements such as ferrous sulfate tablets are usually used to treat iron-deficiency anemia in some elderly patients with primary neurologic disorders or decreased gag reflexes due to stroke, senile dementia, or parkinsonism. While the aspiration of ferrous sulfate is rarely reported, it is a potentially life-threatening condition that can lead to airway necrosis and bronchial stenosis. A detailed history and high suspicion of aspiration are required to avoid delays in diagnosis and treatment. The diagnosis can be confirmed by bronchoscopic examination and a tissue biopsy. Early removal of the aspirated tablet prevents acute complications, such as bronchial necrosis, hemoptysis, and lobar consolidation. Tablet removal is also necessary to prevent late bronchial stenosis. We presented the first case in Korea of a ferrous sulfate tablet aspiration that induced severe endobronchial inflammation. PMID:26770233

  9. Vibrational relaxation of NO stretching modes in ferrous NO and ferric NO in model heme

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Jaeheung; Lee, Taegon; Lim, Manho

    2013-08-01

    Femtosecond IR-pump-IR-probe spectroscopy was used to measure the vibrational lifetimes (T1) of NO stretching modes of ferrous NO near 1600 cm-1 and ferric NO near 1900 cm-1 at room temperature. The T1 of NO bound to the heme, ranging from 3.5 to 34 ps, is much shorter in ferrous NO. The vibrational relaxation (VR) of NO was independent of solvent used and excess imidazole concentration, suggesting that intramolecular VR into the internal vibrational modes of the probed molecule may be the dominant pathway for VR of the bound NO. With estimated T1 of the bound NO, we simulated transient spectra of NO bound to ferrous hemoglobin (HbII) after photodeligation of HbIINO and discussed the influence of the hot band on the determination of the dynamics of geminate rebinding of NO to HbII using the change in the magnitude of the fundamental band.

  10. Growth and characterization of pure and Ferrous sulphate doped Bis thiourea zinc chloride

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mrs.M.Jaya Brabha

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Non linear optical material has wide applications in the area of optical devices. That device mainly used to measure electromagnetic radiation. Single crystals of pure Bis thiourea Zinc chloride and Ferrous sulphate doped Bis thiourea Zinc chloride were grown by slow evaporation technique. The grown crystals have been subjected to powder X-ray diffraction to determine the crystalline size and unit cell parameter. The incorporation of ferrous sulphate in BTZC was confirmed by the EDAX and FTIR analysis. UV-Visible spectrum shows that the grown crystals have wide optical transparency in the entire visible region. The thermo gravimetric analysis suggests that incorporation of ferrous sulphate in the BTZC decreases the thermal stability of the grown crystal.

  11. Characteristics of the magnetic control of separable ferrous impurities contained in raw construction materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.V. Sandulyak

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Currency of using the method of magnetic control of ferrous impurities for construction materials was noted. Especially it is important because of magnetic separators which are widely used for elimination of these impurities. There were shown the necessity of upgrading the present approach in order to realize the method of magnetic control. For example, it is necessary to take into account not only the rest of ferrous impurities (that is inevitable after limited numbers of operations but also a factor of involving sand particles. The concrete proposal how to develop the existing system of magnetic control of ferrous impurities in construction materials subjected to magnetic separation, is stated. The experimental-calculation model for such control is also shown. The main parameters of such model were estimated on the example of quartz sand and feldspar. The errors of standard methods of magnetic control were revealed for the first time.

  12. Effect of Selenium on Root Oxidizing Ability and Yield of Rice under Ferrous Stress

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    QI Xin; LIU Yuan-ying; SONG Tian-xing

    2004-01-01

    To study the effects of selenium on root oxidizing ability and yield of rice under ferrous stress, a pot culture experiment was conducted, the activity of glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px) and the concentration of malonaldelyde (MDA) were determined. The root oxidizing ability and yield characters of rice were examined. Results showed that appropriate amount of Se enhanced the activity of glutathione peroxidase and the oxidizing ability of rice roots significantly, reduced the concentration of MDA, increased 1000-grain weight of rice, F= 26.96**, decreased empty and blighted grain rate, increased the rice yield, F= 11.53**, and enhanced the rice resistance under ferrous stress.

  13. Non-ferrous Metals Companies Post Gloomy Operating Results for Q1-Q3

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2013-01-01

    <正>On October 24,China Securities Journal:As the industry is in a downturn,non-ferrous metal enterprises generally find it difficult to make profits.According to statistics from China Securities Journal,as of October 23,a total of 49non-ferrous metal listed companies had released results preview for Q3,with 30 companies posting a decrease in their previews,taking up more than 60%.Twelve companies posted a YOY decline of more than 60%in net profit.

  14. Static contact angle measurement at different volumes of a drop sitting on non-ferrous metals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Feoktistov Dmitriy

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents the experimental study of the effect of the liquid volume on the static contact angle under the condition of the stationary contact line on the rough and polished surfaces of non-ferrous metals. The experiments were carried out using the shadow optical system. Comparison between two methods of drop profile processing was conducted. It was found that in addition to the friction and gravity forces, the structure of the non-ferrous metals significantly influence on the static contact angle during changing the drop volume.

  15. Multifactorial study and kinetics of signal development in ferrous-methylthymol blue-gelatin gel dosimeters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Penev, Kalin I; Mequanint, Kibret

    2017-05-01

    To develop and characterize a ferrous-methylthymol blue-gelatin gel dosimeter with low optical background and appropriate additives for reduced rate of auto-oxidation and diffusion. A mixed-level multifactorial design of experiments was used to test the effects of the concentrations of sulfuric acid, 5-nitro-1,10-phenanthroline (Nn), and glyoxal (Gx) on the background absorbance, dose sensitivity, and auto-oxidation of the tested gel dosimeter. The dosimetric properties of the proposed ferrous-methylthymol blue-gelatin dosimeter, doped with Nn and Gx, were compared with the undoped formulation and with ferrous-xylenol orange-gelatin gel dosimeters. Irradiations were performed in both small-scale cuvette samples and large 400-mL bulk samples. In addition to that, a new kinetic model for the signal development postirradiation was derived based on chemical principles and used for comparison of the different formulations. The new formulation showed a reduced auto-oxidation rate, while maintaining low background absorbance relative to the common ferrous-xylenol orange-gelatin gel dosimeter. Compared with undoped ferrous-xylenol orange or ferrous-methylthymol blue gels, the dose sensitivity of the new formulation is approximately 2 to 3 times lower, but remains clinically adequate. A previously unreported dose rate dependence of the dose sensitivity was observed, and a new kinetic model for the signal development postirradiation was used to investigate this effect. Similar dose rate dependences in gels containing either methylthymol blue or xylenol orange, with or without doping with Nn and Gx, were observed, suggesting that the low ferrous ammonium sulfate concentrations used in studied formulations were responsible for this effect. A multifactorial design of experiments and a new kinetic model for the signal development postirradiation were successfully employed to optimize the composition and characterize the properties of a new ferrous-methylthymol blue-gelatin gel

  16. A rapid, simple questionnaire to assess gastrointestinal symptoms after oral ferrous sulphate supplementation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira, Dora I A; Couto Irving, Susana S; Lomer, Miranda C E; Powell, Jonathan J

    2014-06-04

    Oral iron supplementation is often associated with rapid onset of gastrointestinal side-effects. The aim of this study was to develop and trial a short, simple questionnaire to capture these early side-effects and to determine which symptoms are more discriminating. The study was a double-blind placebo-controlled randomized parallel trial with one week treatment followed by one week wash-out. Subjects were randomized into two treatment groups (n = 10/group) to receive either ferrous sulphate (200 mg capsules containing 65 mg of iron) or placebo, both to be taken at mealtimes twice daily during the treatment period. Subjects completed the questionnaires daily for 14 days. The questionnaire included gastrointestinal symptoms commonly reported to be associated with the oral intake of ferrous iron salts (i.e. nausea, vomiting, heartburn, abdominal pain, diarrhoea, and constipation). Seventy five per cent of participants reporting the presence of one or more symptoms in the first week of the study were in the ferrous sulphate group. In the second week of the study (i.e. wash-out), 67% of the participants reporting one or more symptom(s) were in the ferrous sulphate group. In the first week of the study (treatment) the number of symptoms reported by participants in the ferrous sulphate group (mean ± SEM = 6.7 ± 1.7) was significantly higher than that for participants in the placebo group (1.2 ± 0.5) (p = 0.01). In the second week of the study (wash-out) the number of symptoms reported by participants in the ferrous sulphate group (4.6 ± 2.0) appeared higher than for participants in the placebo group (1.0 ± 0.7) although this did not reach significance (p = 0.12). Events for which the gastrointestinal symptom questionnaire was most discriminatory between ferrous sulphate and placebo groups were: heartburn, abdominal pain and the presence of black stools (all p ≤ 0.03). A tool for the detection of commonly-occurring side

  17. Oxidation of ferrous nitrilotriacetic acid with oxygen : A model for oxygen mass transfer parallel to reaction kinetics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Demmink, JF; Beenackers, AACM

    1997-01-01

    The kinetics of the reaction of ferrous chelate of nitrilotriacetic acid (NTA) and gaseous oxygen were studied in a stirred-cell reactor. The initial concentration of ferrous chelate was 0.100 kmol/m(3). Other reaction conditions include 293

  18. National Development and Reform Commission reported that the profit of non-ferrous metal industry decreases by 7%

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    <正>On July 14th,National Development and Re- form Commission issued the economic report of the earlier 5 months of non-ferrous metal industry,indicating a decrease in the profit of key non-ferrous metal enterprises.Among the

  19. Efficacy and safety of ferrous asparto glycinate in the management of iron deficiency anaemia in pregnant women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamdi, S P; Palkar, P J

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the present investigation was to compare the efficacy and safety of oral ferrous asparto glycinate and ferrous ascorbate in pregnant women with iron deficiency anaemia (IDA). We performed a double blind, prospective, randomised, multicentre, parallel group comparative clinical study at three different centres in India. A total of 73 pregnant women at 12-26 weeks' gestation were divided into two arms. While one group received ferrous ascorbate, another group was treated with ferrous asparto glycinate for a period of 28 days. The mean rise in haemoglobin and ferritin levels on day 14 and 28 was evaluated. At both time points, significantly higher levels of haemoglobin and ferritin were noticed with ferrous asparto glycinate treatment as compared with ferrous ascorbate. Our results showed that ferrous asparto glycinate is an effective iron-amino acid chelate in the management of IDA in pregnant women as compared with ferrous ascorbate. Nevertheless, additional large scale prospective, randomised trials are warranted to confirm the findings of the present efficacy trial, and also to find out the anaemia eradication rate.

  20. Oxidation of ferrous nitrilotriacetic acid with oxygen : A model for oxygen mass transfer parallel to reaction kinetics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Demmink, J.F; Beenackers, A.A C M

    1997-01-01

    The kinetics of the reaction of ferrous chelate of nitrilotriacetic acid (NTA) and gaseous oxygen were studied in a stirred-cell reactor. The initial concentration of ferrous chelate was 0.100 kmol/m(3). Other reaction conditions include 293

  1. Mono- and bis-phosphine-ligated H93G myoglobin: spectral models for ferrous-phosphine and ferrous-CO cytochrome P450.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Shengfang; Sono, Masanori; Dawson, John H

    2013-10-01

    To further investigate the properties of phosphines as structural and functional probes of heme proteins, mono- and bis-phosphine [tris(hydroxymethyl)phosphine, THMP] adducts of H93G myoglobin (Mb) have been prepared by stepwise THMP titrations of exogenous ligand-free ferric and ferrous H93G Mb, respectively. Bubbling with CO or stepwise titration with imidazole (Im) of the bis-THMP-ligated ferrous protein generated a mixed ligand (THMP/CO or THMP/Im, respectively) ferrous complexes. Stable oxyferrous H93G(THMP) Mb was formed at -40°C by bubbling the mono-THMP-Fe(II) protein with O2. A THMP-ligated ferryl H93G Mb moiety has been partially formed upon addition of H2O2 to the ferric mono-THMP adduct. All the species prepared above have been characterized with UV-visible (UV-vis) absorption and magnetic circular dichroism (MCD) spectroscopy in this study. The six-coordinate ferrous bis-phosphine and mono-phosphine/CO complexes of H93G Mb exhibit characteristic spectral features (red-shifted Soret/unique-shaped MCD visible bands and hyperporphyrin spectra, respectively) that only have been seen for the analogous phosphine or CO-complexes of thiolate-ligated heme proteins such as cytochrome P450 (P450) and Caldariomyces fumago chloroperoxidase (CPO). However, such resemblance is not seen in phosphine-ligated ferric H93G Mb even though phosphine-bound ferric P450 and CPO display hyperporphyrin spectra. In fact, bis-THMP-bound ferric H93G Mb exhibits MCD and UV-vis absorption spectra that are similar to those of bis-amine- and bis-thioether-ligated H93G Mb complexes. This study also further demonstrates the utility of the H93G cavity mutant for preparing novel heme iron coordination structures. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Dilution Methods in Flow Injection Analysis. Evaluation of Different Approaches as Exemplified for the Determination of Nitrosyl in Concentrated Sulphuric Acid

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Ulla Vang; Nielsen, Steffen; Hansen, Elo Harald

    1998-01-01

    Instigated by developing a flow injection procedure for assay of nitrosyl in concentrated sulphuric acid, different approaches for reliable and robust on-line dilution in FIA were evaluated. These comprised the application of mixing tees in conjunction with mixing coils (including knotted reactors...... approach the criteria stipulated were that the procedure should allow a dilution factor of approximately 100, yet without excessive zone spreading, so that it, on one hand, effectively could eliminate the pronounced Schlieren effect encountered when mixing concentrated sulphuric acid with an aqueous...... in conjunction with knotted reactors of relatively large internal diameter (1.5 mm). The optimized FI-manifold was used with the Griess method for the spectrophotometric assay of nitrosyl (nitrite) in standards prepared in the matrix of concentrated sulphuric acid (detection limit 0.16 mg/l NO+-N (3s...

  3. Synthesis, spectra and electrochemistry of dinitro-bis-{2-(phenylazo)pyrimidine} ruthenium(II). Nitro-nitroso derivatives and reactivity of the electrophilic nitrosyl centre

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Prithwiraj Byabartta

    2006-09-01

    Silver-assisted aquation of blue cis-trans-cis-RuCl2(Raapm)2 (1a-1e) leads to the synthesis of solvento species, blue-violet cis-trans-cis-[Ru(OH2)2(Raapm)2](ClO4)2 [Raapm = -R-C6H4-N=N-C4H3-NN, (2a-2e), abbreviated as N,N'-chelator, where N(pyrimidine) and N(azo) represent N and N' respectively; R = H (a), -Me (b), -Cl (c), -Me (d), -Cl (e) that react with NO2 in warm EtOH to give violet dinitro complexes of the type, Ru(NO2)2(Raapm)2 (3a-3e). The nitrite complexes are useful synthons of electrophilic nitrosyls, and on triturating the dinitro compounds with conc. HClO4, nitro-nitrosyl derivatives are isolated. The solution structure and stereoretentive transformation in each step have been established from 1H NMR results. The compounds are redox active and display one metal-centred oxidation and successive ligand-based reductions. The (NO) >1900 cm-1 strongly suggests the presence of linear Ru-N-O bonding. The electrophilic behaviour of metal-bound nitrosyl has been proved in one case by reacting with a bicyclic ketone, camphor, containing an active methylene group and an arylhydrazone with an active methine group. Diazotization of primary aromatic amines with strongly electrophilic mononitrosyl complexes in acetonotrile and dichloromethane solutions has been thoroughly studied.

  4. Ghrelin Protects against the Detrimental Consequences of Porphyromonas gingivalis-Induced Akt Inactivation through S-Nitrosylation on Salivary Mucin Synthesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bronislaw L. Slomiany

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Disturbances in nitric oxide synthase isozyme system and the impairment in salivary mucin synthesis are well-recognized features associated with oral mucosal inflammatory responses to periodontopathic bacterium, P. gingivalis. In this study, using rat sublingual gland acinar cells, we report that P. gingivalis LPS-induced impairment in mucin synthesis and associated suppression in Akt kinase activity were accompanied by a decrease in constitutive nitric oxide synthase (cNOS activity and an induction in inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS expression. The LPS effect on Akt inactivation was manifested in the kinase S-nitrosylation and a decrease in its phosphorylation at Ser473. Further, we demonstrate that a peptide hormone, ghrelin, countered the LPS-induced impairment in mucin synthesis. This effect of ghrelin was reflected in the suppression of iNOS and the increase in Akt activation, associated with the loss in S-nitrosylation and the increase in phosphorylation, as well as cNOS activation through phosphorylation. Our findings suggest that induction in iNOS expression by P. gingivalis-LPS leads to Akt kinase inactivation through S-nitrosylation that detrimentally impacts cNOS activation through phosphorylation as well as mucin synthesis. We also show that the countering effect of ghrelin on P. gingivalis-induced impairment in mucin synthesis is associated with Akt activation through phosphorylation.

  5. Identification of in vivo nitrosylated phytochelatins in Arabidopsis thaliana cells by liquid chromatography-direct electrospray-linear ion trap-mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elviri, L; Speroni, F; Careri, M; Mangia, A; di Toppi, L Sanità; Zottini, M

    2010-06-18

    Reversed-phase liquid chromatography (RPLC) and electrospray (ESI)-linear ion trap (LIT) mass spectrometry was applied to the direct characterization of in vivo S-nitrosylated (SNO) phytochelatins (PCs) expressed in cadmium-stressed Arabidopsis thaliana cells. Cys-nitrosylation is under discussion as in vivo redox-based post-translational modification of proteins and peptides in plants in which the -NO group is involved as signal molecule in different biological functions. The gas-phase ion chemistry of in vivo and in vitro generated SNO-PC(s) was compared with the aim of evaluating NO binding stability and improving MS knowledge about peptide nitrosation. Using RPLC separation and ESI-LIT-MS, mono-nitrosylated PCs were identified in in vivo cadmium treated A. thaliana cells without derivatization. The in vivo binding of the NO group to PC(2), PC(3) and PC(4) resulted to occur selectively on only one cystein residue. The fragmentation pathway energies of the in vitro GSNO-generated NO-PCs with respect to the in vivo NO-PCs were investigated, suggesting the presence of a different internal stability for these molecules. By carrying out MS(2) experiments on these quasi-symmetric peptides, the different stability degree of the NO group was demonstrated to be correlated with the PC chain length. In addition, the data obtained highlight a putative role of the adjacent Glu/Cys motif in the gas-phase stability of the NO-containing molecule.

  6. Nitric oxide suppresses the inhibitory effect of abscisic acid on seed germination by S-nitrosylation of SnRK2 proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Pengcheng; Zhu, Jian-Kang; Lang, Zhaobo

    2015-01-01

    Nitric oxide (NO) plays important roles in plant development, and biotic and abiotic stress responses. In a recent study, we showed that endogenous NO negatively regulates abscisic acid (ABA) signaling in guard cells by inhibiting sucrose nonfermenting 1 (SNF1)-related protein kinase 2.6 (SnRK2.6)/open stomata 1(OST1) through S-nitrosylation. Application of NO breaks seed dormancy and alleviates the inhibitory effect of ABA on seed germination and early seedling growth, but it is unclear how NO functions at the stages of seed germination and early seedling development. Here, we show that like SnRK2.6, SnRK2.2 can be inactivated by S-nitrosoglutathione (GSNO) treatment through S-nitrosylation. SnRK2.2 and the closely related SnRK2.3 are known to play redundant roles in ABA inhibition of seed germination in Arabidopsis. We found that treatment with the NO donor SNP phenocopies the snrk2.2snrk2.3 double mutant in conferring ABA insensitivity at the stages of seed germination and early seedling growth. Our results suggest that NO negatively regulates ABA signaling in germination and early seedling growth through S-nitrosylation of SnRK2.2 and SnRK2.3.

  7. S-sulfhydration/desulfhydration and S-nitrosylation/denitrosylation: a common paradigm for gasotransmitter signaling by H2S and NO.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Changyuan; Kavalier, Adam; Lukyanov, Eugene; Gross, Steven S

    2013-08-01

    Sulfhydryl groups on protein Cys residues undergo an array of oxidative reactions and modifications, giving rise to a virtual redox zip code with physiological and pathophysiological relevance for modulation of protein structure and functions. While over two decades of studies have established NO-dependent S-nitrosylation as ubiquitous and fundamental for the regulation of diverse protein activities, proteomic methods for studying H2S-dependent S-sulfhydration have only recently been described and now suggest that this is also an abundant modification with potential for global physiological importance. Notably, protein S-sulfhydration and S-nitrosylation bear striking similarities in terms of their chemical and biological determinants, as well as reversal of these modifications via group-transfer to glutathione, followed by the removal from glutathione by enzymes that have apparently evolved to selectively catalyze denitrosylation and desulfhydration. Here we review determinants of protein and low-molecular-weight thiol S-sulfhydration/desulfhydration, similarities with S-nitrosylation/denitrosylation, and methods that are being employed to investigate and quantify these gasotransmitter-mediated cell signaling systems.

  8. Effect of purification pretreatment on the recovery of magnetite from waste ferrous sulfate

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wang Yu; Ying-lin Peng; Ya-jie Zheng

    2016-01-01

    The present study was conducted to elucidate the influence of impurities in waste ferrous sulfate on its recovery of magnetite. Ferrous sulfate solution was purified by the addition of NaOH solution to precipitate impurities, and magnetite was recovered from fer-rous sulfate solution without and with purification pretreatment. Calcium hydroxide was added to the solution of ferrous sulfate as a pre-cipitator. A mixed product of magnetite and gypsum was subsequently obtained by air oxidation and heating. Wet-milling was performed prior to magnetic separation to recover magnetite from the mixed products. The results show that with the purification pretreatment, the grade of iron in magnetite concentrate increased from 62.05%to 65.58%and the recovery rate of iron decreased from 85.35%to 80.35%. The pu-rification pretreatment reduced the conglutination between magnetite and gypsum, which favors their subsequent magnetic separation. In summary, a higher-grade magnetite with a better crystallinity and a larger particle size of 2.35 μm was obtained with the purification pretreatment.

  9. Improvements in separation of non-ferrous scrap metals using an electromagnetic sensor

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mesina, M.B.; De Jong, T.P.R.; Dalmijn, W.L.

    2003-01-01

    This article describes a new method for identification and separation of non-ferrous scrap metals using an electromagnetic sensor that is based on the eddy current principle. The electromagnetic sensor (EMS) is a prototype system that has been developed by Delft University of Technology in co-operat

  10. Stabilization of Pb and As in soils by applying combined treatment with phosphates and ferrous iron.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xenidis, Anthimos; Stouraiti, Christina; Papassiopi, Nymphodora

    2010-05-15

    The chemical immobilization of Pb and As in contaminated soil from Lavrion, Greece, using monocalcium phosphate and ferrous sulfate as stabilizing agents was investigated. Monocalcium phosphate was added to contaminated soil at PO(4) to Pb molar ratios equal to 0, 0.5, 1, 1.5 and 2.5, whereas ferrous sulfate was added at Fe to As molar ratios equal to 0, 2.5, 5, 10 and 20. Phosphates addition to contaminated soil decreased Pb leachability, but resulted in significant mobilization of As. Simultaneous immobilization of Pb and As was obtained only when soil was treated with mixtures of phosphates and ferrous sulfate. Arsenic uptake by plants was also seen to increase when soil was treated only with phosphates, but co-addition of ferrous sulfate was efficient in maintaining As phytoaccumulation at low levels. The addition of at least 1.5M/M phosphates and 10M/M iron sulfate to soil reduced the dissolved levels of Pb and As in the water extracts to values in compliance with the EU drinking water standards. However, both additives contributed in the acidification of soil, decreasing pH from 7.8 to values as low as 5.6 and induced the mobilization of pH sensitive elements, such as Zn and Cd.

  11. Microbial Fuel Cell Operation with Continuous Biological Ferrous Iron Oxidation of the Catholyte

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heijne, ter A.; Hamelers, H.V.M.; Buisman, C.J.N.

    2007-01-01

    The oxygen reduction rate at the cathode is a limiting factor in microbial fuel cell (MFC) performance. In our previous study, we showed the performance of an MFC with ferric iron (Fe3+) reduction at the cathode. Instead of oxygen, ferric iron was reduced to ferrous iron (Fe2+) at the cathode with a

  12. Wear resistance of alloy вт-22 with non-ferrous alloys at reverse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    А.М. Хімко

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available  The article presents the results of tests of non hardened titanium alloy ВТ-22 with aviation non-ferrous alloys in reverse sliding friction. The main objective of the work is the selection of the optimum combination of materials depending on changes in loading conditions. Study of alloy ВТ-22 wear resistance was carried out in pairs with БрОФ-10-1, БрБ2, БрАЖ-9-4, ВТ-22, МЛ5, Д16Т, 7Х21ГАН5Ш and 95Х18Ш. The dependencies of the materials wear at pressures 10, 20 and 30 Mpa we determined. The linear nature of titanium alloy wear curves indicates that the change in the wear mechanism occurs gradually. The histograms of non-ferrous materials wear and the total wear of the friction pair are presented. It is established that the bronze БрАЖ-9-4 is the most preferable material for contact with non hardened titanium alloy ВТ-22, the least wear among the tested materials. The established coefficients of the titanium alloy ВТ-22 friction in pair with aviation structural non-ferrous alloys are presented. The results of research will be relevant for the engineering industry, where non hardened titanium alloy ВТ-22 in pair with non-ferrous alloys is applied.

  13. Effect of purification pretreatment on the recovery of magnetite from waste ferrous sulfate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Wang; Peng, Ying-lin; Zheng, Ya-jie

    2016-08-01

    The present study was conducted to elucidate the influence of impurities in waste ferrous sulfate on its recovery of magnetite. Ferrous sulfate solution was purified by the addition of NaOH solution to precipitate impurities, and magnetite was recovered from ferrous sulfate solution without and with purification pretreatment. Calcium hydroxide was added to the solution of ferrous sulfate as a precipitator. A mixed product of magnetite and gypsum was subsequently obtained by air oxidation and heating. Wet-milling was performed prior to magnetic separation to recover magnetite from the mixed products. The results show that with the purification pretreatment, the grade of iron in magnetite concentrate increased from 62.05% to 65.58% and the recovery rate of iron decreased from 85.35% to 80.35%. The purification pretreatment reduced the conglutination between magnetite and gypsum, which favors their subsequent magnetic separation. In summary, a higher-grade magnetite with a better crystallinity and a larger particle size of 2.35 μm was obtained with the purification pretreatment.

  14. Trypanosoma brucei brucei: effects of ferrous iron and heme on ecto-nucleoside triphosphate diphosphohydrolase activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leite, Milane S; Thomaz, Rachel; Oliveira, José Henrique M; Oliveira, Pedro L; Meyer-Fernandes, José Roberto

    2009-02-01

    Trypanosoma brucei brucei is the causative agent of animal African trypanosomiasis, also called nagana. Procyclic vector form resides in the midgut of the tsetse fly, which feeds exclusively on blood. Hemoglobin digestion occurs in the midgut resulting in an intense release of free heme. In the present study we show that the magnesium-dependent ecto-nucleoside triphosphate diphosphohydrolase (E-NTPDase) activity of procyclic T. brucei brucei is inhibited by ferrous iron and heme. The inhibition of E-NTPDase activity by ferrous iron, but not by heme, was prevented by pre-incubation of cells with catalase. However, antioxidants that permeate cells, such as PEG-catalase and N-acetyl-cysteine prevented the inhibition of E-NTPDase by heme. Ferrous iron was able to induce an increase in lipid peroxidation, while heme did not. Therefore, both ferrous iron and heme can inhibit E-NTPDase activity of T. brucei brucei by means of formation of reactive oxygen species, but apparently acting through distinct mechanisms.

  15. The structural basis of cephalosporin formation in a mononuclear ferrous enzyme

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Valegård, Karin; Terwisscha van Scheltinga, Anke C.; Dubus, Alain; Ranghino, Graziella; Öster, Linda M.; Hajdu, Janos; Andersson, Inger

    2004-01-01

    Deacetoxycephalosporin-C synthase (DAOCS) is a mononuclear ferrous enzyme that transforms penicillins into cephalosporins by inserting a carbon atom into the penicillin nucleus. In the first half-reaction, dioxygen and 2-oxoglutarate produce a reactive iron-oxygen species, succinate and CO2. The oxi

  16. Anxin Hebei Starts Building the Largest Non Ferrous Metal Market in North China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    <正>On October 28,the Hebei Province Anxin County Non-ferrous Metal Logistics Center Project,a project with a total investment of 220 million yuan and integrating logistics,ware-house,dismantling,and recycling businesses,formally broke ground.,which is the223.68

  17. ANALYSIS OF FERRIC AND FERROUS IONS IN SOIL EXTRACTS BY ION CHROMATOGRAPHY

    Science.gov (United States)

    A method using ion chromatography (IC) for the analysis of ferrous (Fe 2+) and ferric (Fe 3+) ions in soil extracts has been developed. This method uses an ion exchange column with detection at 520 nm after post-column derivatization. Selectivity is achieved by using an anionic...

  18. Shenhuo Group,Yichuan Power and Yulian Group Jointly Establishing Henan Non-ferrous Holding Co.

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    <正>Recently,Shenghuo Group,Yulian Group and Yichuan Power have made the decision to es- tablish Henan Non-ferrous Holding Group with a joint investment of 500 million yuan.It is originally scheduled to complete industrial and commercial registration by the end of June with registration in Zhendong New Area of Zhen- zhou.

  19. Daily home fortification with iron as ferrous fumarate versus NaFeEDTA

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Teshome, Emily M.; Andang'o, Pauline E.A.; Osoti, Victor; Terwel, Sofie R.; Otieno, Walter; Demir, Ayse Y.; Prentice, Andrew M.; Verhoef, Hans

    2017-01-01

    Background: We aimed to show the non-inferiority of home fortification with a daily dose of 3 mg iron in the form of iron as ferric sodium ethylenediaminetetraacetate (NaFeEDTA) compared with 12.5 mg iron as encapsulated ferrous fumarate in Kenyan children aged 12-36 months. In addition, we

  20. Eddy Current Separation of Fine Non-Ferrous Particles from Bulk Streams

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Settimo, F.; Bevilacqua, P.; Rem, P.

    2004-01-01

    Recovery of fine non-ferrous metals from waste streams is a notoriously difficult problem in eddy current separation technology. Existing processes either have a low capacity or an incomplete recovery for particle sizes below 5 mm. In a new process, the particles are fed slightly wet to make them st

  1. Ceric and ferrous dosimeters show precision for 50-5000 rad range

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frigerio, N. A.; Henry, V. D.

    1968-01-01

    Ammonium thiocyanate, added to the usual ferrous sulfate dosimeter solution, yielded a very stable, precise and temperature-independent system eight times as sensitive as the classical Fricke system in the 50 to 5000 rad range. The ceric dosimeters, promising for use in mixed radiation fields, respond nearly independently of LET.

  2. ELECTRODE MEASUREMENT OF REDOX POTENTIAL IN ANAEROBIC FERRIC/FERROUS CHLORIDE SYSTEMS

    Science.gov (United States)

    The behaviour of two inert redox electrodes (Pt and wax-impregnated graphite) was investigated in anaerobic ferrous and ferric chloride solutions in order to establish if these electrodes respond to the Fe3+/Fe2+ couple in a Nernstian manner. A new method fo...

  3. The structural basis of cephalosporin formation in a mononuclear ferrous enzyme

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Valegård, Karin; Terwisscha van Scheltinga, Anke C.; Dubus, Alain; Ranghino, Graziella; Öster, Linda M.; Hajdu, Janos; Andersson, Inger

    2004-01-01

    Deacetoxycephalosporin-C synthase (DAOCS) is a mononuclear ferrous enzyme that transforms penicillins into cephalosporins by inserting a carbon atom into the penicillin nucleus. In the first half-reaction, dioxygen and 2-oxoglutarate produce a reactive iron-oxygen species, succinate and CO2. The

  4. CURRENT STATE AND TENDENCIES OF DEVELOPMENT OF FERROUS METALLURGY IN THE EAEU COUNTRIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. P. Dragun

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The analysis of modern status and tendencies of development of ferrous metallurgy in the countries of the EAEU is described in the article. On the basis of the conducted analysis are revealed the identified systemic problems of metallurgy and the conclusions on possible ways of their solution using the potential of integration are given.

  5. Toxicological evaluation of ferrous N-carbamylglycinate chelate: Acute, Sub-acute toxicity and mutagenicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wan, Dan; Zhou, Xihong; Xie, Chunyan; Shu, Xugang; Wu, Xin; Yin, Yulong

    2015-11-01

    Iron is an essential trace element that is vital important in various biological process. A deficiency in iron could induce public health problem e.g. anaemia, while an overload could induce ROS production, lipid peroxidation and DNA bases modifications. In the present study, a new iron fortifier was synthesized, and its acute/sub-acute toxicity was investigated. According to the improved Karber's method, the median lethal dose (LD50) of the ferrous N-carbamylglycinate in SD rat was 3.02 g/kg and the 95% confidence intervals were between 2.78 and 3.31 g/kg. No biologically significant or test substance-related differences were observed in body weights, feed consumption, clinical signs, organ weights, histopathology, ophthalmology, hematology, and clinical chemistry parameters in any of the treatment groups of ferrous N-carbamylglycinate at target concentrations corresponding to 150, 300, and 600 mg/kg/day for 28 days. The no observed adverse effect level (NOAEL) for ferrous N-carbamylglycinate was at least 600 mg/kg b.w. day in rats. In addition, no evidence of mutagenicity was found, either in vitro in bacterial reverse mutation assay or in vivo in mice bone marrow micronucleus assay and sperm shape abnormality assay. On the basis of our findings, we conclude that ferrous N-carbamylglycinate is a low-toxic substance with no genotoxicity. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Compatibility of Anti-Wear Additives with Non-Ferrous Engine Bearing Alloys

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Qu, Jun [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Zhou, Yan [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2017-01-01

    Investigate the compatibility of engine lubricant antiwear (AW) additives, specifically conventional zinc dialkyldithiophosphate (ZDDP) and newly developed ionic liquids (ILs), with selected non-ferrous engine bearing alloys, specifically aluminum and bronze alloys that are commonly used in connecting rod end journal bearings and bushings, to gain fundamental understanding to guide future development of engine lubricants

  7. Improvements in separation of non-ferrous scrap metals using an electromagnetic sensor

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mesina, M.B.; De Jong, T.P.R.; Dalmijn, W.L.

    2003-01-01

    This article describes a new method for identification and separation of non-ferrous scrap metals using an electromagnetic sensor that is based on the eddy current principle. The electromagnetic sensor (EMS) is a prototype system that has been developed by Delft University of Technology in

  8. ANALYSIS OF FERRIC AND FERROUS IONS IN SOIL EXTRACTS BY ION CHROMATOGRAPHY

    Science.gov (United States)

    A method using ion chromatography (IC) for the analysis of ferrous (Fe 2+) and ferric (Fe 3+) ions in soil extracts has been developed. This method uses an ion exchange column with detection at 520 nm after post-column derivatization. Selectivity is achieved by using an anionic...

  9. Eddy Current Separation of Fine Non-Ferrous Particles from Bulk Streams

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Settimo, F.; Bevilacqua, P.; Rem, P.

    2004-01-01

    Recovery of fine non-ferrous metals from waste streams is a notoriously difficult problem in eddy current separation technology. Existing processes either have a low capacity or an incomplete recovery for particle sizes below 5 mm. In a new process, the particles are fed slightly wet to make them

  10. Rapid die manufacturing - high pressure casting of low volume non ferrous metals components

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Pereira, MFV

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available Pressure Casting of Low Volume Non Ferrous Metals Components Date: 2 November 2006 Slide 2 © CSIR 2006 www.csir.co.za Introduction to RPT • Rapid Prototyping Techniques (RPT) generally used for non functional prototypes • RPT...

  11. Kinetics of Adsorption of Ferrous Ion onto Acid Activated Carbon from Zea Mays Dust

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. K. Baskaran

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The batch removal of ferrous ion from aqueous solution using low cost adsorbents such as zea mays dust carbon(ZDC under different experimental conditions were investigated in this study. The process parameters studied include agitation time, initial metal ion concentration, carbon dose, pH and temperature. The adsorption followed first order reaction equation and the rate is mainly controlled by intraparticle diffusion. Freundlich and Langmuir isotherm models were applied to the equilibrium data. The adsorption capacity (Qm obtained from the Langmuir isotherm plot were found to 37.17, 38.31, 39.37 and 40.48 mg/g. The temperature variation study showed that the ferrous ions adsorption is endothermic and spontaneous with increased randomness at the solid solution interface. Significant effect on adsorption was observed on varying the pH of the ferrous ion solutions. The Langmuir and Freundlich adsorption isotherms obtained positive ΔH0 value, pH dependent results and desorption of metal ions in mineral acid suggest that the adsorption of ferrous ion on ZDC involves physisorption mechanism.

  12. Effect of calcium oxide on the efficiency of ferrous ion oxidation and total iron precipitation during ferrous ion oxidation in simulated acid mine drainage treatment with inoculation of Acidithiobacillus ferrooxidans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Fenwu; Zhou, Jun; Jin, Tongjun; Zhang, Shasha; Liu, Lanlan

    2016-01-01

    Calcium oxide was added into ferrous ion oxidation system in the presence of Acidithiobacillus ferrooxidans at concentrations of 0-4.00 g/L. The pH, ferrous ion oxidation efficiency, total iron precipitation efficiency, and phase of the solid minerals harvested from different treatments were investigated during the ferrous ion oxidation process. In control check (CK) system, pH of the solution decreased from 2.81 to 2.25 when ferrous ions achieved complete oxidation after 72 h of Acidithiobacillus ferrooxidans incubation without the addition of calcium oxide, and total iron precipitation efficiency reached 20.2%. Efficiency of ferrous ion oxidation and total iron precipitation was significantly improved when the amount of calcium oxide added was ≤1.33 g/L, and the minerals harvested from systems were mainly a mixture of jarosite and schwertmannite. For example, the ferrous ion oxidation efficiency reached 100% at 60 h and total iron precipitation efficiency was increased to 32.1% at 72 h when 1.33 g/L of calcium oxide was added. However, ferrous ion oxidation and total iron precipitation for jarosite and schwertmannite formation were inhibited if the amount of calcium oxide added was above 2.67 g/L, and large amounts of calcium sulfate dihydrate were generated in systems.

  13. Synthesis and Characterization of Tc(I) Carbonyl Nitrosyl Species Relevant to the Hanford Tank Waste: FY 2016 Status Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hall, Gabriel B. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Chatterjee, Sayandev [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Levitskaia, Tatiana G. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Martin, Thibaut J. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Wall, Nathalie [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Walter, Eric D. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2015-11-24

    Among long-lived radioactive constituents in the Hanford tank waste, Tc presents a unique challenge in that it exists predominantly in the liquid phase, generally in the anionic form of pertechnetate, TcO4-, which is highly volatile at low-activity waste (LAW) vitrification melter temperatures and mobile in the Hanford site’s subsurface environment. The complex behavior of Tc under storage, treatment, and immobilization conditions significantly affects its management options, which to-date remain uncertain. In strongly alkaline environments, Tc exists as pertechnetate, TcO4- (oxidation state +7), and in the reduced forms (oxidation state < +7) collectively known as non-pertechnetate species. Pertechnetate is a well-characterized, anionic Tc species that can be removed from LAW by anion exchange or solvent extraction methods. There is no definitive information on the origin of the non-pertechnetate Tc species, nor is there a comprehensive description of their composition and behavior. It has been recently proposed that the non-pertechnetate species can comprise Tc(I) metal center and carbonyl or mixed carbonyl nitrosyl ligands stabilizing low-valent Tc. Recent work by our group has significantly expanded this previous work, generating a series of Tc(I) carbonyl compounds and demonstrating that they can be generated from reduction of TcO4- in the simulated Hanford tank waste in presence of CO at elevated temperature (Levitskaia et al. 2014). These results are consistent with the previous proposal that [Tc(CO)3]+ species can be present in the Hanford tank waste and suggest that the low Tc(I) oxidation state is stabilized by the π-accepting ability of the CO ligands. The continuation work has been initiated to develop model Tc carbonyl nitrosyl compounds and investigate their potential presence in the Hanford tank wastes. This report summarizes our to-date results.

  14. Nitric oxide activates ATP-sensitive potassium channels in mammalian sensory neurons: action by direct S-nitrosylation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kwok Wai-Meng

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background ATP-sensitive potassium (KATP channels in neurons regulate excitability, neurotransmitter release and mediate protection from cell-death. Furthermore, activation of KATP channels is suppressed in DRG neurons after painful-like nerve injury. NO-dependent mechanisms modulate both KATP channels and participate in the pathophysiology and pharmacology of neuropathic pain. Therefore, we investigated NO modulation of KATP channels in control and axotomized DRG neurons. Results Cell-attached and cell-free recordings of KATP currents in large DRG neurons from control rats (sham surgery, SS revealed activation of KATP channels by NO exogenously released by the NO donor SNAP, through decreased sensitivity to [ATP]i. This NO-induced KATP channel activation was not altered in ganglia from animals that demonstrated sustained hyperalgesia-type response to nociceptive stimulation following spinal nerve ligation. However, baseline opening of KATP channels and their activation induced by metabolic inhibition was suppressed by axotomy. Failure to block the NO-mediated amplification of KATP currents with specific inhibitors of sGC and PKG indicated that the classical sGC/cGMP/PKG signaling pathway was not involved in the activation by SNAP. NO-induced activation of KATP channels remained intact in cell-free patches, was reversed by DTT, a thiol-reducing agent, and prevented by NEM, a thiol-alkylating agent. Other findings indicated that the mechanisms by which NO activates KATP channels involve direct S-nitrosylation of cysteine residues in the SUR1 subunit. Specifically, current through recombinant wild-type SUR1/Kir6.2 channels expressed in COS7 cells was activated by NO, but channels formed only from truncated isoform Kir6.2 subunits without SUR1 subunits were insensitive to NO. Further, mutagenesis of SUR1 indicated that NO-induced KATP channel activation involves interaction of NO with residues in the NBD1 of the SUR1 subunit. Conclusion NO

  15. Preparation and Bioavailability Analysis of Ferrous Bis Alanine Chelate as a New Micronutrient for Treatment of Iron Deficiency Anemia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zargaran, Marzieh; Saadat, Ebrahim; Dinarvand, Rassoul; Sharifzadeh, Mohammad; Dorkoosh, Farid

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: One of the most nutritional disorders around the world is iron deficiency. A novel iron compound was synthesized by chelating ferrous ions with alanine for prevention and treatment of iron deficiency anemia. Methods: The newly synthesized compound was characterized both qualitatively and quantitatively by Fourier Transform Infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy. The bioavailability of newly synthesized iron micronutrient was evaluated in four groups of Wistar rats. The group I was a negative control group and the other three groups received three different iron formulations. After 14 days, the blood samples were taken and analyzed accordingly. Results: Calculations showed that more than 91.8% of iron was incorporated in the chelate formulation. In vivo studies showed that serum iron, total iron binding capacity and hemoglobin concentrations were significantly increased in group IV, which received ferrous bis alanine chelate compared with the negative control group (p<0.05) and also group II, which received ferrous sulfate.7H2O (p<0.05). It indicates that the new formulation considerably improves the blood iron status compared with the conventional iron compounds. There were no significant differences (p<0.05) in the serum iron between group IV and group III, which received ferrous bis glycine. Conclusion: The results showed better bioavailability of ferrous bis alanine as a new micronutrient for treatment of iron deficiency anemia in comparison with ferrous sulfate. Ferrous bis alanine could be considered as a suitable supplement for prevention and treatment of iron deficiency anemia. PMID:27766225

  16. The Effects of Nanoparticles Containing Iron on Blood and Inflammatory Markers in Comparison to Ferrous Sulfate in Anemic Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shafie, Elaheh Honarkar; Keshavarz, Seyed Ali; Kefayati, Mohammad Esmaiel; Taheri, Fatemeh; Sarbakhsh, Parvin; Vafa, Mohammad Reza

    2016-01-01

    Ferrous sulfate is the most used supplement for treating anemia, but it can result in unfavorable side effects. Nowadays, nanotechnology is used as a way to increase bioavailability and decrease the side effects of drugs and nutrients. This study investigates the effects of nanoparticles containing iron on blood and inflammatory markers in comparison to ferrous sulfate in anemic rats. To induce the model of hemolytic anemia, 50 mg/kg bw phenylhydrazine was injected intraperitoneally in rats on the 1(st) day and 25 mg/kg bw for the four following days. Then, rats were randomly divided into five groups. No material was added to the nipple of the Group 1 (control). Group 2 received 0.4 mg/day nanoparticles of iron; Group 3 received 0.4 mg/day ferrous sulfate, and Groups 4 and 5 received double dose of iron nanoparticle and ferrous sulfate, respectively for ten days. Hemoglobin and red blood cell (RBC) in Group 2 were significantly higher than Group 3 (P ferrous sulfate with similar doses (P ferrous sulfate, but this did not occur for the double dose. Furthermore, both doses of nanoparticles caused lower inflammation than ferrous sulfate.

  17. Effects of an Al3+- and Mg2+-containing antacid, ferrous sulfate, and calcium carbonate on the absorption of nemonoxacin (TG-873870) in healthy Chinese volunteers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yi-fan; Dai, Xiao-jian; Wang, Ting; Chen, Xiao-yan; Liang, Li; Qiao, Hua; Tsai, Cheng-yuan; Chang, Li-wen; Huang, Ping-ting; Hsu, Chiung-yuan; Chang, Yu-ting; Tsai, Chen-en; Zhong, Da-fang

    2014-01-01

    Aim: To evaluate the effects of an Al3+- and Mg2+-containing antacid, ferrous sulfate, and calcium carbonate on the absorption of nemonoxacin in healthy humans. Methods: Two single-dose, open-label, randomized, crossover studies were conducted in 24 healthy male Chinese volunteers (12 per study). In Study 1, the subjects orally received nemonoxacin (500 mg) alone, or an antacid (containing 318 mg of Al3+ and 496 mg of Mg2+) plus nemonoxacin administered 2 h before, concomitantly or 4 h after the antacid. In Study 2, the subjects orally received nemonoxacin (500 mg) alone, or nemonoxacin concomitantly with ferrous sulfate (containing 60 mg of Fe2+) or calcium carbonate (containing 600 mg of Ca2+). Results: Concomitant administration of nemonoxacin with the antacid significantly decreased the area under the concentration-time curve from time 0 to infinity (AUC0–∞) for nemonoxacin by 80.5%, the maximum concentration (Cmax) by 77.8%, and urine recovery (Ae) by 76.3%. Administration of nemonoxacin 4 h after the antacid decreased the AUC0–∞ for nemonoxacin by 58.0%, Cmax by 52.7%, and Ae by 57.7%. Administration of nemonoxacin 2 h before the antacid did not affect the absorption of nemonoxacin. Administration of nemonoxacin concomitantly with ferrous sulfate markedly decreased AUC0–∞ by 63.7%, Cmax by 57.0%, and Ae by 59.7%, while concomitant administration of nemonoxacin with calcium carbonate mildly decreased AUC0–∞ by 17.8%, Cmax by 14.3%, and Ae by 18.4%. Conclusion: Metal ions, Al3+, Mg2+, and Fe2+ markedly decreased the absorption of nemonoxacin in healthy Chinese males, whereas Ca2+ had much weaker effects. To avoid the effects of Al3+ and Mg2+-containing drugs, nemonoxacin should be administered ≥2 h before them. PMID:25327812

  18. Effects of an Al(3+)- and Mg(2+)-containing antacid, ferrous sulfate, and calcium carbonate on the absorption of nemonoxacin (TG-873870) in healthy Chinese volunteers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yi-fan; Dai, Xiao-jian; Wang, Ting; Chen, Xiao-yan; Liang, Li; Qiao, Hua; Tsai, Cheng-yuan; Chang, Li-wen; Huang, Ping-ting; Hsu, Chiung-yuan; Chang, Yu-ting; Tsai, Chen-en; Zhong, Da-fang

    2014-12-01

    To evaluate the effects of an Al(3+)- and Mg(2+)-containing antacid, ferrous sulfate, and calcium carbonate on the absorption of nemonoxacin in healthy humans. Two single-dose, open-label, randomized, crossover studies were conducted in 24 healthy male Chinese volunteers (12 per study). In Study 1, the subjects orally received nemonoxacin (500 mg) alone, or an antacid (containing 318 mg of Al(3+) and 496 mg of Mg(2+)) plus nemonoxacin administered 2 h before, concomitantly or 4 h after the antacid. In Study 2, the subjects orally received nemonoxacin (500 mg) alone, or nemonoxacin concomitantly with ferrous sulfate (containing 60 mg of Fe(2+)) or calcium carbonate (containing 600 mg of Ca(2+)). Concomitant administration of nemonoxacin with the antacid significantly decreased the area under the concentration-time curve from time 0 to infinity (AUC0-∞) for nemonoxacin by 80.5%, the maximum concentration (Cmax) by 77.8%, and urine recovery (Ae) by 76.3%. Administration of nemonoxacin 4 h after the antacid decreased the AUC0-∞ for nemonoxacin by 58.0%, Cmax by 52.7%, and Ae by 57.7%. Administration of nemonoxacin 2 h before the antacid did not affect the absorption of nemonoxacin. Administration of nemonoxacin concomitantly with ferrous sulfate markedly decreased AUC0-∞ by 63.7%, Cmax by 57.0%, and Ae by 59.7%, while concomitant administration of nemonoxacin with calcium carbonate mildly decreased AUC0-∞ by 17.8%, Cmax by 14.3%, and Ae by 18.4%. Metal ions, Al(3+), Mg(2+), and Fe(2+) markedly decreased the absorption of nemonoxacin in healthy Chinese males, whereas Ca(2+) had much weaker effects. To avoid the effects of Al(3+) and Mg(2+)-containing drugs, nemonoxacin should be administered ≥2 h before them.

  19. Detection of S-nitrosothiol and nitrosylated proteins in Arachis hypogaea functional nodule: response of the nitrogen fixing symbiont.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maiti, Debasis; Sarkar, Tuhin Subhra; Ghosh, Sanjay

    2012-01-01

    To detect the presence of NO, ROS and RNS in nodules of crack entry legumes, we used Arachis hypogaea functional nodule. The response of two cognate partner rhizobia was compared towards NO and GSNO using S. meliloti and Bradyrhizobium sp NC921001. ROS, NO, nitrosothiol and bacteroids were detected by fluorescence microscopy. Redox enzymes and thiol pools were detected biochemically. Nitrosothiols were found to be present but ROS and NO were absent in A. hypogaea nodule. A number of S-nitrosylated proteins were also detected. The total thiol pool and most of the redox enzymes were low in nodule cytosolic extract but these were found to be high in the partner microorganisms indicating partner rhizobia could protect the nodule environment against the nitrosothiols. Both S. meliloti and Bradyrhizobium sp NC921001 were found to contain GSNO reductase. Interestingly, there was a marked difference in growth pattern between S. meliloti and Bradyrhizobium sp in presence of sodium nitroprusside (SNP) and S-nitrosoglutathione (GSNO). Bradyrhizobium sp was found to be much more tolerant to NO donor compounds than the S. meliloti. In contrast, S. meliloti showed resistance to GSNO but was sensitive to SNP. Together our data indicate that nodule environment of crack entry legumes is different than the nodules of infection mode entry in terms of NO, ROS and RNS. Based on our biochemical characterization, we propose that exchange of redox molecules and reactive chemical species is possible between the bacteroid and nodule compartment.

  20. Detection of S-nitrosothiol and nitrosylated proteins in Arachis hypogaea functional nodule: response of the nitrogen fixing symbiont.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Debasis Maiti

    Full Text Available To detect the presence of NO, ROS and RNS in nodules of crack entry legumes, we used Arachis hypogaea functional nodule. The response of two cognate partner rhizobia was compared towards NO and GSNO using S. meliloti and Bradyrhizobium sp NC921001. ROS, NO, nitrosothiol and bacteroids were detected by fluorescence microscopy. Redox enzymes and thiol pools were detected biochemically. Nitrosothiols were found to be present but ROS and NO were absent in A. hypogaea nodule. A number of S-nitrosylated proteins were also detected. The total thiol pool and most of the redox enzymes were low in nodule cytosolic extract but these were found to be high in the partner microorganisms indicating partner rhizobia could protect the nodule environment against the nitrosothiols. Both S. meliloti and Bradyrhizobium sp NC921001 were found to contain GSNO reductase. Interestingly, there was a marked difference in growth pattern between S. meliloti and Bradyrhizobium sp in presence of sodium nitroprusside (SNP and S-nitrosoglutathione (GSNO. Bradyrhizobium sp was found to be much more tolerant to NO donor compounds than the S. meliloti. In contrast, S. meliloti showed resistance to GSNO but was sensitive to SNP. Together our data indicate that nodule environment of crack entry legumes is different than the nodules of infection mode entry in terms of NO, ROS and RNS. Based on our biochemical characterization, we propose that exchange of redox molecules and reactive chemical species is possible between the bacteroid and nodule compartment.

  1. Interaction mechanisms and kinetics of ferrous ion and hexagonal birnessite in aqueous systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Tianyu; Shen, Yougang; Jia, Zhaoheng; Qiu, Guohong; Liu, Fan; Zhang, Yashan; Feng, Xionghan; Cai, Chongfa

    2015-12-01

    In soils and sediments, manganese oxides and oxygen usually participate in the oxidation of ferrous ions. There is limited information concerning the interaction process and mechanisms of ferrous ions and manganese oxides. The influence of air (oxygen) on reaction process and kinetics has been seldom studied. Because redox reactions usually occur in open systems, the participation of air needs to be further investigated. To simulate this process, hexagonal birnessite was prepared and used to oxidize ferrous ions in anoxic and aerobic aqueous systems. The influence of pH, concentration, temperature, and presence of air (oxygen) on the redox rate was studied. The redox reaction of birnessite and ferrous ions was accompanied by the release of Mn(2+) and K(+) ions, a significant decrease in Fe(2+) concentration, and the formation of mixed lepidocrocite and goethite during the initial stage. Lepidocrocite did not completely transform into goethite under anoxic condition with pH about 5.5 within 30 days. Fe(2+) exhibited much higher catalytic activity than Mn(2+) during the transformation from amorphous Fe(III)-hydroxide to lepidocrocite and goethite under anoxic conditions. The release rates of Mn(2+) were compared to estimate the redox rates of birnessite and Fe(2+) under different conditions. Redox rate was found to be controlled by chemical reaction, and increased with increasing Fe(2+) concentration, pH, and temperature. The formation of ferric (hydr)oxides precipitate inhibited the further reduction of birnessite. The presence of air accelerated the oxidation of Fe(2+) to ferric oxides and facilitated the chemical stability of birnessite, which was not completely reduced and dissolved after 18 days. As for the oxidation of aqueous ferrous ions by oxygen in air, low and high pHs facilitated the formation of goethite and lepidocrocite, respectively. The experimental results illustrated the single and combined effects of manganese oxide and air on the transformation

  2. Conflitos ambientais: uma análise da assimetria de poder entre os atores sociais envolvidos no caso do Mineroduto da Ferrous / Environmental conflict: an analysis of power asymmetry between social actors involved in the case of Ferrous Pipeline

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dayane Rouse Neves Sousa

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This work intends to present the environmental conflict initiated due to the installation of pipeline Ferrous Ressources S / A, in the micro region of Viçosa-MG, building an analysis of the positioning of the main social actors involved, as well as their respective relations of power. Thepipeline of Ferrous will connect the complex Beam Mine in Congonhas-MG, the port of Ferrous Ressources in Presidente Kennedy-ES in order to export iron ore. To do so, were used as methodological procedures: bibliographical research; document analysis; semi-structured interviews with different actors; and follow-up meetings of the Popular Campaign Against the Water and Pipeline Ferrous, public hearings and demonstrations taken place in the Viçosa. Furthermore, there was monitoring of the pipeline discussion in local newspapers and on blogs. Thus, this study demonstrated that the Ferrous company, which owns high economic and symbolic power, assumes the role of dominating the conflict. On the other hand, those affected and social movements against the construction of the project, are sometimes in the role of dominated, leaving them to articulate strategies of resistance to delay / stop the construction of the pipeline. The state, in turn, assumes different roles in this context, demonstrating thereby weakness in mediation and conflict management established by pipeline Ferrous mainly in the micro region of Viçosa-MG.

  3. Development of ferrous laminated composites with unique microstructures by control of carbon diffusion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kum, D. W.; Oyama, T.; Ruano, O. A.; Sherby, O. D.

    1986-09-01

    A novel method is described for preparing ferrous laminated composites, containing ultrahigh carbon steel as one of the components, which results in hard and soft layers bounded by sharp and discrete interfaces. The method is based on increasing the activity of carbon in iron by silicon addition; in this manner, the carbon is made to segregate into specific layers by heat treatment at low temperatures (˜770 °C). The results are ferrous laminated composites with discrete and sharp interfaces that consist of hard layers containing spherical carbide particles embedded in a matrix of ultrafine martensite or ferrite adjoining soft layers of a coarse grained iron alloy. In addition, the high activity of carbon is shown to result in total depletion of carbon in a silicon containing UHC steel ribbon bonded to mild steel.

  4. Oxidative Alteration of Ferrous Smectites: A Formation Pathway for Martian Nontronite?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chemtob, S. M.; Catalano, J. G.; Nickerson, R. D.; Morris, R. V.; Agresti, D. G.; Rivera-Banuchi, V.; Liu, W.; Yee, N.

    2017-01-01

    Ferric (Fe3+-bearing) smectites, including nontronite, constitute the majority of hydrous mineral exposures observed on Mars. These smectite exposures are commonly interpreted as weathering products of Martian basaltic crust. However, ferrous (Fe2+-dominated) smectites, not ferric, are the thermo-dynamically predicted products of weathering in anoxic conditions, as predicted for early Mars. Earth was anoxic until the Proterozoic Great Oxidation Event; Mars likely experienced an analogous oxidative evolution to its present oxidized state, but the timing of this evolution is unresolved. We hypothesize that Fe3+-smectites observed by orbital spectroscopy are not the initial products of Noachian-era chemical weathering, but are instead the oxidative products of primary Fe2+-smectites. To test this hypothesis experimentally, we synthesized ferrous smectites and exposed them to Mars-relevant oxidants.

  5. A modified ferrous oxidation-xylenol orange assay for lipoxygenase activity in rice grains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Timabud, Tarinee; Sanitchon, Jirawat; Pongdontri, Paweena

    2013-12-01

    Ferrous oxidation-xylenol orange assay reagent was reformulated by using spectral analysis of ferric-xylenol orange complex to detect low concentrations of lipoxygenase rice grain products. Reducing the levels of ferrous sulphate and xylenol orange in the FOX reagent enabled the detection of low concentrations of hydroperoxy fatty acid derived from lipoxygenase activity in the range of 0.1-1.5 μM. Protein, substrate and time courses of the modified FOX assay were studied to determine lipoxygenase activity in rice grain. The assay was also applicable as a high throughput technique for comparisons of lipoxygenase activity from various rice varieties. This has important implications for rapid screening for low-lipoxygenase containing rice cultivars in rice breeding program and grain quality during storage. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Effects of ferrous iron on the performance and microbial community in aerobic granular sludge in relation to nutrient removal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yilmaz, Gulsum; Cetin, Ender; Bozkurt, Umit; Aleksanyan Magden, Karin

    2017-05-01

    Lab-scale experiments were conducted to investigate the effects of ferrous iron on nutrient removal performance and variations in the microbial community inside aerobic granular sludge for 408 days. Two reactors were simultaneously operated, one without added ferrous iron (SBR1), and one with 10 mg Fe(2+)  L(-1) of added ferrous iron (SBR2). A total of 1 mg Fe(2+)  L(-1) of added ferrous iron was applied to SBR1 starting from the 191st day to observe the resulting variations in the nutrient removal performance and the microbial community. The results show that ammonia-oxidizing bacteria (AOB) could not oxidize ammonia due to a lack of iron compounds, but they could survive in the aerobic granular sludge. Limited ferrous iron addition encouraged nitrification. Enhanced biological phosphorus removal (EBPR) from both reactors could not be maintained regardless of the amount of ferrous iron that was applied. EBPR was established in both reactors when the concentration of mixed liquor suspended solid (MLSS) and the percentage of Accumulibacteria increased. A total of 10 mg Fe(2+)  L(-1) of added ferrous iron had a relatively adverse effect on the growth of AOB species compared to 1 mg Fe(2+)  L(-1) of added ferrous iron, but it encouraged the growth of Nitrospira sp. and Accumulibacteria, which requires further study. It could be said that the compact and stable structure of aerobic granular sludge preserved AOB and NOB from Fe-deficient conditions, and wash-out during the disintegration period. © 2017 American Institute of Chemical Engineers Biotechnol. Prog., 33:716-725, 2017. © 2017 American Institute of Chemical Engineers.

  7. Gastrointestinal Complications of Ferrous Sulfate in Pregnant Women: A Randomized Double-Blind Placebo-Controlled Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jafarbegloo, Esmat; Ahmari Tehran, Hoda; Dadkhah Tehrani, Tahmineh

    2015-08-01

    Some pregnant women discontinue iron supplements consumption due to Gastrointestinal (GI) complications, whereas pregnancy induces the same complications physiologically. The aim of the present study was to assess GI complications of ferrous sulfate in pregnant women. This randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical trial was performed on 176 pregnant women referred to prenatal care clinic of Maryam Hospital from April 2011 to February 2012. Pregnant women with Hb ≥ 13.2 gr/dL at 13(th) - 18(th) weeks of gestation were selected based on the inclusion criteria and were randomly assigned to the ferrous sulfate and placebo groups. The ferrous sulfate group (n = 90) received a 50-mg ferrous sulfate tablet daily from the 20(th) week to the end of pregnancy and the placebo group (n = 89) received one placebo tablet in the same way. All participants were visited twice at 24(th) - 28(th) and 32(nd) - 36(th) weeks to assess the GI complications as well as Hb level to determine the Hb changes in two groups. Chi-square test, t-test and Kolmogorov-Smirnov test were used to analyze the data. P value of ferrous sulfate and placebo groups at 24(th) - 28(th) and 32(nd) - 36(th) weeks. Hemoglobin drop lower than 10.5 gr/dL at 24(th) - 28(th) weeks or lower than 11 g/dL at 32(nd) - 36(th) weeks was not observed in any cases. It can be concluded that GI complications in pregnant women using ferrous sulfate are mostly caused by physiologic changes of pregnancy rather than ferrous sulfate; therefore, it is not reasonable to stop using ferrous sulfate due to GI complications.

  8. Determination of ferrous iron in rock and mineral samples by three volumetric methods

    OpenAIRE

    Saikkonen, R.J.; Rautiainen, I.A.

    1993-01-01

    Ferrous iron was determined by three volumetric methods in 13 in-house reference rock samples and in 31 international geological reference samples. The methods used were Amonette & Scott' s oxidimetric method, Wilson's oxidimetric method and Pratt's method. The results for FeO by these volumetric methods in 13 in-house rock samples were compared to the results obtained in other analytical laboratories in Finland. The results for FeO in the international samples were compared with published da...

  9. Estimation of Depth, Orientation, Length and Diameter of Long, Horizontal Ferrous Rods Using a Fluxgate Magnetometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    1993-04-01

    applications where a horizontal ferrous rod, rope, pipe or cable lies underneath a smooth planar surface at a constant depth. In such cases one often...Brown sensor as the preferred magnetometer and by constructing preliminary magnetometer sensors and circuits. Richard Pinnell , formerly with TDG...smooth planar surface at a constant depth. In such cases one often would like to determine the position and orientation in the plane, the depth of

  10. Separation of non-ferrous metals from ASR by corona electrostatic separation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Yang-soo; Choi, Jin-Young; Jeon, Ho-Seok; Han, Oh-Hyung; Park, Chul-Hyun

    2016-04-01

    Automotive shredder residue (ASR), the residual fraction of approximate 25% obtained after dismantling and shredding from waste car, consists of polymers (plastics and rubber), metals (ferrous and non-ferrous), wood, glass and fluff (textile and fiber). ASR cannot be effectively separated due to its heterogeneous materials and coated or laminated complexes and then largely deposited in land-fill sites as waste. Thus reducing a pollutant release before disposal, techniques that can improve the liberation of coated (or laminated) complexes and the recovery of valuable metals from the shredder residue are needed. ASR may be separated by a series of physical processing operations such as comminution, air, magnetic and electrostatic separations. The work deals with the characterization of the shredder residue coming from an industrial plant in korea and focuses on estimating the optimal conditions of corona electrostatic separation for improving the separation efficiency of valuable non-ferrous metals such as aluminum, copper and etc. From the results of test, the maximum separation achievable for non-ferrous metals using a corona electrostatic separation has been shown to be recovery of 92.5% at a grade of 75.8%. The recommended values of the process variables, particle size, electrode potential, drum speed, splitter position and relative humidity are -6mm, 50 kV, 35rpm, 20° and less 40%, respectively. Acknowledgments This study was supported by the R&D Center for Valuable Recycling (Global-Top R&BD Program) of the Ministry of Environment. (Project No. GT-11-C-01-170-0)

  11. Kinetics of Sawdust Hydrolysis with Dilute Hydrochloric Acid and Ferrous Chloride

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    袁传敏; 颜涌捷; 任铮伟; 李庭琛; 曹建勤

    2004-01-01

    With dilute hydrochloric acid as catalyst and promoted by ferrous chloride, hydrolysis of waste sawdust to produce monosaccharides was conducted by using an one-step method in a batch-wise operation reactor. Based on the model of first order consecutive irreversible reactions, the kinetics equation incorporating the term of catalyst concentration was obtained that is suitable for describing the hydrolysis of sawdust. Activation energies were calculated for hydrolysis of sawdust and decomposition of monosaccharides.

  12. Degradation of toluene, ethylbenzene, and xylene using heat and chelated-ferrous iron activated persulfate oxidation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mondal, P.; Sleep, B.

    2014-12-01

    Toluene, ethylbenze, and xylene (TEX) are common contaminants in the subsurface. Activated persulfate has shown promise for degrading a wide variety of organic compounds. However, studies of persulfate application for in situ degradation of TEX and effects on the subsequent bioremediation are limited. In this work, degradation studies of TEX in aqueous media and soil are being conducted using heat activated and chelated-ferrous iron activated persulfate oxidation in batch and flow-through column experiments. In the batch experiments, sodium persulfate is being used at different concentrations to provide an initial persulfate to TEX molar ratios between 10:1 and 100:1. Sodium persulfate solutions are being activated at 20, 37, 60, and 80 oC temperatures for the heat activated oxidation. For the chelated-ferrous iron activated oxidation, ferrous iron and citric acid, both are being used at concentration of 5 mM. In the experiments with soil slurry, a soil to water ratio of 1 to 5 is being used. Flow through water saturated column experiments are being conducted with glass columns (45 cm in length and 4 cm in diameter) uniformly packed with soils, and equilibrated with water containing TEX at the target concentrations. Both the heat activation and chelated-ferrous iron activation of persulfate are being employed in the column experiments. Future experiments are planned to determine the suitability of persulfate oxidation of TEX on the subsequent biodegradation using batch microcosms containing TEX degrading microbial cultures. In these experiments, the microbial biomass will be monitored using total phospholipids, and the microbial community will be determined using quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) on the extracted DNA. This study is expected to provide suitable operating conditions for in situ chemical oxidation of TEX with activated persulfate followed by bioremediation.

  13. Dyeing Studies with Eucalyptus, Quercetin, Rutin, and Tannin: A Research on Effect of Ferrous Sulfate Mordant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rattanaphol Mongkholrattanasit

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Natural dyes from Eucalyptus leaf extract, quercetin, rutin, and tannin were applied to silk fabric by pad-batch and pad-dry techniques under different conditions. Ferrous sulfate was used as a mordant. The dyeing properties were evaluated by measuring K/S and CIELAB values. In addition, the different fastness properties were evaluated. The effect of dyes at different concentration levels with respect to their colour strength was also studied.

  14. Dioxygen Binding to Protonated Heme in the Gas Phase, an Intermediate Between Ferric and Ferrous Heme.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shafizadeh, Niloufar; Soorkia, Satchin; Grégoire, Gilles; Broquier, Michel; Crestoni, Maria-Elisa; Soep, Benoît

    2017-09-27

    With a view to characterizing the influence of the electronic structure of the Fe atom on the nature of its bond with dioxygen (O2 ) in heme compounds, a study of the UV/Vis action spectra and binding energies of heme-O2 molecules has been undertaken in the gas phase. The binding reaction of protonated ferrous heme [Fe(II) -hemeH](+) with O2 has been studied in the gas phase by determining the equilibrium of complexed [Fe(II) -hemeH(O2 )](+) with uncomplexed protonated heme in an ion trap at controlled temperatures. The binding energy of O2 to the Fe atom of protonated ferrous heme was obtained from a van't Hoff plot. Surprisingly, this energy (1540±170 cm(-1) , 18.4±2 kJ mol(-1) ) is intermediate between those of ferric heme and ferrous heme. This result is interpreted in terms of a delocalization of the positive charge over the porphyrin cycle, such that the Fe atom bears a fractional positive charge. The resulting electron distribution on the Fe atom differs notably from that of a purely low-spin ferrous heme [Fe(II) -heme(O2 )] complex, as deduced from its absorption spectrum. It also differs from that of ferric heme [Fe(III) -heme(O2 )](+) , as evidenced by the absorption spectra. Protonated heme creates a specific bond that cannot accommodate strong σ donation. © 2017 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  15. Stress corrosion cracking of several high strength ferrous and nickel alloys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, E. E.

    1971-01-01

    The stress corrosion cracking resistance of several high strength ferrous and nickel base alloys has been determined in a sodium chloride solution. Results indicate that under these test conditions Multiphase MP35N, Unitemp L605, Inconel 718, Carpenter 20Cb and 20Cb-3 are highly resistant to stress corrosion cracking. AISI 410 and 431 stainless steels, 18 Ni maraging steel (250 grade) and AISI 4130 steel are susceptible to stress corrosion cracking under some conditions.

  16. Efficient near ultraviolet light induced formation of hydrogen by ferrous hydroxide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borowska, Z K; Mauzerall, D C

    1987-01-01

    The formation of hydrogen on irradiating ferrous ion in aqueous solution or suspension was studied over a wide range of pH. In addition to the known reaction in acid solution which decreases in yield with increasing pH and required far UV light, there is an efficient reaction occurring between pH 6 and 9 which utilizes near UV light. The latter reaction is an approximately linear function of both the concentration of ferrous ion and the light intensity. The quantum yield of hydrogen from the suspension of Fe(OH)2 at pH 7.2 is very high: > or = 0.3. The quantum yield decreases by a factor of five at 1 mole percent of ferric ions. To explain these observations it is proposed that an intermediate formed on excitation of the Fe(OH)2 polymer is further reduced by a neighboring Fe(+2) to form H2. These results support the work of Braterman et al. (1983) which claimed that the near UV driven photooxidation of ferrous ions could be responsible for formation of the Banded Iron Formations on the early earth. The efficient photoreaction observed in the present work could also serve as a source of active reducing equivalents to reduce CO2 and thus provide a solution to a dilemma in the arguments on the role of reduced carbon in the origin of life.

  17. LITERATURE REVIEW: REDUCTION OF NP(V) TO NP (IV)-ALTERNATIVES TO FERROUS SULFAMATE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kessinger, G.; Kyser, E.; Almond, P.

    2009-09-28

    The baseline approach to control of Np oxidation in UREX and PUREX separation processes is the reduction of Np(V) and Np(VI) to Np(IV) using ferrous sulfamate. Use of this reagent results in increased sulfur and iron concentrations in the liquid waste streams from the process. Presence of these two elements, especially sulfur, increases the complexity of the development of wasteforms for immobilizing these effluents. Investigations are underway to identify reductants that eliminate sulfur and iron from the Np reduction process. While there are a variety of chemical reductants that will reduce Np to Np(IV) in nitric acid media, the reaction rates for most are so slow that the reductants are not be feasible for use in an operating plant process. In an attempt to identify additional alternatives to ferrous sulfamate, a literature search and review was performed. Based on the results of the literature review, it is concluded that photochemical and catalytic processes should also be investigated to test the utility of these two approaches. The catalytic process could be investigated for use in conjunction with chemical oxidants to speed the reaction rates for reductants that react slowly, but would otherwise be appropriate replacements for ferrous sulfamate. The photochemical approach, which has received little attention during the past few decades, also shows promise, especially the photocatalytic approach that includes a catalyst, such as Pt supported on SiC, which can be used in tandem with an oxidant, for Np reduction.

  18. Ferrous iron-dependent drug delivery enables controlled and selective release of therapeutic agents in vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deu, Edgar; Chen, Ingrid T; Lauterwasser, Erica M W; Valderramos, Juan; Li, Hao; Edgington, Laura E; Renslo, Adam R; Bogyo, Matthew

    2013-11-05

    The precise targeting of cytotoxic agents to specific cell types or cellular compartments is of significant interest in medicine, with particular relevance for infectious diseases and cancer. Here, we describe a method to exploit aberrant levels of mobile ferrous iron (Fe(II)) for selective drug delivery in vivo. This approach makes use of a 1,2,4-trioxolane moiety, which serves as an Fe(II)-sensitive "trigger," making drug release contingent on Fe(II)-promoted trioxolane fragmentation. We demonstrate in vivo validation of this approach with the Plasmodium berghei model of murine malaria. Malaria parasites produce high concentrations of mobile ferrous iron as a consequence of their catabolism of host hemoglobin in the infected erythrocyte. Using activity-based probes, we successfully demonstrate the Fe(II)-dependent and parasite-selective delivery of a potent dipeptidyl aminopeptidase inhibitor. We find that delivery of the compound in its Fe(II)-targeted form leads to more sustained target inhibition with greatly reduced off-target inhibition of mammalian cathepsins. This selective drug delivery translates into improved efficacy and tolerability. These findings demonstrate the utility of a purely chemical means to achieve selective drug targeting in vivo. This approach may find useful application in parasitic infections and more broadly in any disease state characterized by aberrant production of reactive ferrous iron.

  19. Effect of time and storing conditions on iron forms in ferrous gluconate and Ascofer

    CERN Document Server

    Gozdyra, R; Cieslak, J

    2010-01-01

    Antianemic medicament Ascofer and ferrous gluconate, its basic iron bearing ingredient, were studied with the use of Mossbauer spectroscopy. Room temperature spectra gave a clear evidence that two phases of iron were present viz. ferrous (Fe2+) as a major one with a contribution of 85+-5%, and ferric (Fe3+) whose contribution was found to be 15+-5%. However, the actual values of the contributions of the two kind of the iron ions in Ascofer depend on sample's age: the abundance of Fe2+ ions increases with time by 10% after 51 months, while that of Fe3+ decreases by the same amount. This means that an internal reduction of Fe3+ ions takes place. Ferrous ions were shown to occupy at least two different sites. In Ascofer, the relative abundance of the two sites does not depend on the age of sample, while in the gluconate the population of site 1 increases and that of site 2 decreases with the age of the sample.

  20. S-Nitrosylation in Organs of Mice Exposed to Low or High Doses of γ-Rays: The Modulating Effect of Iodine Contrast Agent at a Low Radiation Dose

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fadia Nicolas

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The covalent addition of nitric oxide (NO• onto cysteine thiols, or S-nitrosylation, modulates the activity of key signaling proteins. The dysregulation of normal S-nitrosylation contributes to degenerative conditions and to cancer. To gain insight into the biochemical changes induced by low-dose ionizing radiation, we determined global S-nitrosylation by the “biotin switch” assay coupled with mass spectrometry analyses in organs of C57BL/6J mice exposed to acute 0.1 Gy of 137Cs γ-rays. The dose of radiation was delivered to the whole body in the presence or absence of iopamidol, an iodinated contrast agent used during radiological examinations. To investigate whether similar or distinct nitrosylation patterns are induced following high-dose irradiation, mice were exposed in parallel to acute 4 Gy of 137Cs g rays. Analysis of modulated S-nitrosothiols (SNO-proteins in freshly-harvested organs of animals sacrificed 13 days after irradiation revealed radiation dose- and contrast agent-dependent changes. The major results were as follows: (i iopamidol alone had significant effects on S-nitrosylation in brain, lung and liver; (ii relative to the control, exposure to 0.1 Gy without iopamidol resulted in statistically-significant SNO changes in proteins that differ in molecular weight in liver, lung, brain and blood plasma; (iii iopamidol enhanced the decrease in S-nitrosylation induced by 0.1 Gy in brain; (iv whereas a decrease in S-nitrosylation occurred at 0.1 Gy for proteins of ~50 kDa in brain and for proteins of ~37 kDa in liver, an increase was detected at 4 Gy in both organs; (v mass spectrometry analyses of nitrosylated proteins in brain revealed differential modulation of SNO proteins (e.g., sodium/potassium-transporting ATPase subunit beta-1; beta tubulins; ADP-ribosylation factor 5 by low- and high-dose irradiation; and (vi ingenuity pathway analysis identified major signaling networks to be modulated, in particular the neuronal

  1. S-Nitrosylation in Organs of Mice Exposed to Low or High Doses of γ-Rays: The Modulating Effect of Iodine Contrast Agent at a Low Radiation Dose.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicolas, Fadia; Wu, Changgong; Bukhari, Salwa; de Toledo, Sonia M; Li, Hong; Shibata, Masayuki; Azzam, Edouard I

    2015-04-28

    The covalent addition of nitric oxide (NO(•)) onto cysteine thiols, or S-nitrosylation, modulates the activity of key signaling proteins. The dysregulation of normal S-nitrosylation contributes to degenerative conditions and to cancer. To gain insight into the biochemical changes induced by low-dose ionizing radiation, we determined global S-nitrosylation by the "biotin switch" assay coupled with mass spectrometry analyses in organs of C57BL/6J mice exposed to acute 0.1 Gy of (137)Cs γ-rays. The dose of radiation was delivered to the whole body in the presence or absence of iopamidol, an iodinated contrast agent used during radiological examinations. To investigate whether similar or distinct nitrosylation patterns are induced following high-dose irradiation, mice were exposed in parallel to acute 4 Gy of (137)Cs γ rays. Analysis of modulated S-nitrosothiols (SNO-proteins) in freshly-harvested organs of animals sacrificed 13 days after irradiation revealed radiation dose- and contrast agent-dependent changes. The major results were as follows: (i) iopamidol alone had significant effects on S-nitrosylation in brain, lung and liver; (ii) relative to the control, exposure to 0.1 Gy without iopamidol resulted in statistically-significant SNO changes in proteins that differ in molecular weight in liver, lung, brain and blood plasma; (iii) iopamidol enhanced the decrease in S-nitrosylation induced by 0.1 Gy in brain; (iv) whereas a decrease in S-nitrosylation occurred at 0.1 Gy for proteins of ~50 kDa in brain and for proteins of ~37 kDa in liver, an increase was detected at 4 Gy in both organs; (v) mass spectrometry analyses of nitrosylated proteins in brain revealed differential modulation of SNO proteins (e.g., sodium/potassium-transporting ATPase subunit beta-1; beta tubulins; ADP-ribosylation factor 5) by low- and high-dose irradiation; and (vi) ingenuity pathway analysis identified major signaling networks to be modulated, in particular the neuronal nitric

  2. Lactoferrin versus ferrous sulphate for the treatment of iron deficiency anemia during pregnancy: a randomized clinical trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rezk, Mohamed; Dawood, Ragab; Abo-Elnasr, Mohamed; Al Halaby, Alaa; Marawan, Hala

    2016-01-01

    This study was conducted to evaluate the efficacy and safety of lactoferrin in comparison to ferrous sulphate for the treatment of iron deficiency anemia (IDA) during pregnancy. This prospective, randomized, parallel-group, single-center study was conducted in the Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology at Menoufia University Hospital, Egypt and included a total of 200 pregnant women in the second trimester with IDA who were enrolled and randomly assigned either to receive 150 mg of dried ferrous sulphate capsules or lactoferrin 250 mg capsules once daily for eight consecutive weeks. The primary efficacy parameter was the amount of increase in hemoglobin concentration by 4 and 8 weeks, the adverse effects related to iron therapy and the patient compliance to the treatment. Total increase in Hb after 2 months with lactoferrin was higher (2.26 ± 0.51 g/dL) compared to ferrous sulfate (1.11 ± 0.22 g/dL) (p ferrous sulphate than the lactoferrin group (p ferrous sulphate group (p ferrous sulfate over a two-month period in pregnant women with IDA, with fewer gastrointestinal adverse events and better treatment acceptability.

  3. Resonance Raman Spectra of Five-Coordinate Heme-Nitrosyl Cytochromes c': Effect of the Proximal Heme-NO Environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Servid, Amy E; McKay, Alison L; Davis, Cherry A; Garton, Elizabeth M; Manole, Andreea; Dobbin, Paul S; Hough, Michael A; Andrew, Colin R

    2015-06-02

    Five-coordinate heme nitrosyl complexes (5cNO) underpin biological heme-NO signal transduction. Bacterial cytochromes c' are some of the few structurally characterized 5cNO proteins, exhibiting a distal to proximal 5cNO transition of relevance to NO sensing. Establishing how 5cNO coordination (distal vs proximal) depends on the heme environment is important for understanding this process. Recent 5cNO crystal structures of Alcaligenes xylosoxidans cytochrome c' (AXCP) and Shewanella frigidimarina cytochrome c' (SFCP) show a basic residue (Arg124 and Lys126, respectively) near the proximal NO binding sites. Using resonance Raman (RR) spectroscopy, we show that structurally characterized 5cNO complexes of AXCP variants and SFCP exhibit a range of ν(NO) (1651-1671 cm(-1)) and ν(FeNO) (519-536 cm(-1)) vibrational frequencies, depending on the nature of the proximal heme pocket and the sample temperature. While the AXCP Arg124 residue appears to have little impact on 5cNO vibrations, the ν(NO) and ν(FeNO) frequencies of the R124K variant are consistent with (electrostatically) enhanced Fe(II) → (NO)π* backbonding. Notably, RR frequencies for SFCP and R124A AXCP are significantly displaced from the backbonding trendline, which in light of recent crystallographic data and density functional theory modeling may reflect changes in the Fe-N-O angle and/or extent of σ-donation from the NO(π*) to the Fe(II) (dz(2)) orbital. For R124A AXCP, correlation of vibrational and crystallographic data is complicated by distal and proximal 5cNO populations. Overall, this study highlights the complex structure-vibrational relationships of 5cNO proteins that allow RR spectra to distinguish 5cNO coordination in certain electrostatic and steric environments.

  4. Toxicology and pharmacology of some euthenium compounds: vascular smooth muscle relaxation by nitrosyl derivatives of ruthenium and iridium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kruszyna, H.; Kruszyna, R.; Hurst, J.; Smith, R.P.

    1980-07-01

    A series of compounds were synthesized from ruthenium trichloride, and their ip LD50s were determined in mice: pentamminenitrosylruthenium(II) chloride, 8.9; chloronitrobis(2,2'-dipyridyl)ruthenium(II), 55; dichlorobis(2,2'-dipyridyl)ruthenium(II) 63; ruthenium trichloride, 108; and potassium pentachloronitrosylruthenate(II), 127 mg/kg. The two bis-bipyridyl complexes produced death in convulsions within minutes, whereas the remaining compounds resulted in long, debilitating courses with death occuring in 4 to 7 d. When given in massive overdoses, however, the compounds with inorganic ligands also produced rapid convulsive death in mice, and when given iv to anesthetized cats, they produced respiratory arrest. The major toxic effects of all the complexes appeared to be due to the metal and not to its associated ligands. Only complexes having a nitrosyl ligand specifically relaxed vascular smooth muscle. Potassium pentabromoiridate(III) also relaxed rabbit aortic strips that had been contracted by adrenergic argonists, but potassium pentachloroiridate(III) did not. None of the complexes was as active as nitroprusside in relaxing aortic strips or in decreasing arterial blood pressure in cats. No compound tested was as potent as cisplatin in antitumor activity. The pentamminenitrosylruthenium(II) complex also relaxed guinea pig ileum and frog rectus abdominum when these isolated muscles had been contracted by acetylcholine. It appears that these organoruthenium compounds may produce death in central respiratory arrest, as do the inorganic complexes when given iv or ip in massive overdoses. In minimllylethal doses, the complexes with inorganic ligands may affect a variety of contractile tissues, perhaps by a general mechanism involving Ca. These complexes are apt to be generally cytotoxic as well.

  5. Effect of sodium nitrite on ischaemia and reperfusion-induced arrhythmias in anaesthetized dogs: is protein S-nitrosylation involved?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mária Kovács

    Full Text Available To provide evidence for the protective role of inorganic nitrite against acute ischaemia and reperfusion-induced ventricular arrhythmias in a large animal model.Dogs, anaesthetized with chloralose and urethane, were administered intravenously with sodium nitrite (0.2 µmol kg(-1 min(-1 in two protocols. In protocol 1 nitrite was infused 10 min prior to and during a 25 min occlusion of the left anterior descending (LAD coronary artery (NaNO2-PO; n = 14, whereas in protocol 2 the infusion was started 10 min prior to reperfusion of the occluded vessel (NaNO2-PR; n = 12. Control dogs (n = 15 were infused with saline and subjected to the same period of ischaemia and reperfusion. Severities of ischaemia and ventricular arrhythmias, as well as changes in plasma nitrate/nitrite (NOx levels in the coronary sinus blood, were assessed throughout the experiment. Myocardial superoxide and nitrotyrosine (NT levels were determined during reperfusion. Changes in protein S-nitrosylation (SNO and S-glutathionylation were also examined.Compared with controls, sodium nitrite administered either pre-occlusion or pre-reperfusion markedly suppressed the number and severity of ventricular arrhythmias during occlusion and increased survival (0% vs. 50 and 92% upon reperfusion. There were also significant decreases in superoxide and NT levels in the nitrite treated dogs. Compared with controls, increased SNO was found only in NaNO2-PR dogs, whereas S-glutathionylation occurred primarily in NaNO2-PO dogs.Intravenous infusion of nitrite profoundly reduced the severity of ventricular arrhythmias resulting from acute ischaemia and reperfusion in anaesthetized dogs. This effect, among several others, may result from an NO-mediated reduction in oxidative stress, perhaps through protein SNO and/or S-glutathionylation.

  6. Dissecting the integrative antioxidant and redox systems in plant mitochondria. Effect of stress and S-nitrosylation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan José Lázaro

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Mitochondrial respiration provides the energy needed to drive metabolic and transport processes in cells. Mitochondria are a significant site of reactive oxygen species (ROS production in plant cells, and redox-system components obey fine regulation mechanisms that are essential in protecting the mitochondrial integrity. In addition to ROS, there are compelling indications that nitric oxide (NO. can be generated in this organelle by both reductive and oxidative pathways. ROS and reactive nitrogen species (RNS play a key role in signaling but they can also be deleterious via oxidation of macromolecules. The high production of ROS obligates mitochondria to be provided with a set of ROS scavenging mechanisms. The first line of mitochondrial antioxidants is composed of superoxide dismutase and the enzymes of the ascorbate-glutathione cycle, which are not only able to scavenge ROS but also to repair cell damage and possibly serve as redox sensors. The dithiol-disulfide exchanges form independent signaling nodes and act as antioxidant defense mechanisms as well as sensor proteins modulating redox signaling during development and stress adaptation. The presence of thioredoxin (Trx, peroxiredoxin (Prx and sulfiredoxin (Srx in the mitochondria has been recently reported. Cumulative results obtained from studies in salt stress models have demonstrated that these redox proteins play a significant role in the establishment of salt tolerance. The Trx/Prx/Srx system may be subjected to a fine regulated mechanism involving post-translational modifications, among which S-glutathionylation and S-nitrosylation seem to exhibit a critical role that is just beginning to be understood. This review summarizes our current knowledge in antioxidative systems in plant mitochondria, their interrelationships, mechanisms of compensation and some unresolved questions, with special focus on their response to abiotic stress.

  7. [Accumulation of Mercury in Soil-maize System of Non-ferrous Metals Smelting Area and Its Related Risk Assessment].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ji, Xiao-feng; Zheng, Na; Wang, Yang; Liu, Qiang; Zhang, Jing-jing

    2015-10-01

    Soil heavy metal pollution, especially the mercury pollution, has been widespread concern in non-ferrous metallurgical area. This study focused on the content, distribution and pollution status of Hg in maize soil of Huludao city. Meanwhile, Hg contents in the various organs of maize were analyzed. Hg concentration in soil ranged from 0.25 to 3.49 mg x kg(-1) with the average content of 1.78 mg x kg(-1), which was 48 times as high as the background value of Liaoning soil. Around 2-3m range of zinc plant, the pattern of spatial distribution showed that the content of Hg was gradually increased with the increase of the distance to Huludao zinc plant. The result of geoaccumulation index reflected that Hg pollution is up to moderate pollution level on the whole. 54. 6% of the total sample were belonged to the serious pollution level. The potential ecological risk index of Hakanson was applied to assess the ecological risk of Hg. The target hazard quotient method (THQ) was used to assess the health risk for human, the results revealed that there was no significant health risk by consumption corn. Mercury is very difficult to transport in soil-maize system, and there is no obvious health risks to adults. But the risk coefficient of children, which is up to 0.056. is much higher than adults.

  8. Ferrous gluconate and ferrous sulfate added to a complementary food distributed by the Mexican nutrition program Oportunidades have a comparable efficacy to reduce iron deficiency in toddlers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shamah-Levy, Teresa; Villalpando, Salvador; Rivera-Dommarco, Juan A; Mundo-Rosas, Verónica; Cuevas-Nasu, Lucia; Jiménez-Aguilar, Alejandra

    2008-11-01

    To assess the efficacy of ferrous sulfate (FS) and ferrous gluconate (FG) as fortificants for a complementary baby food (Nutrisano) to improve the iron status and to reduce the prevalence of anemia in toddlers. Toddlers 12 to 30 months old were randomly assigned to receive either of 3 versions of Nutrisano fortified with FS or FG or not fortified (CG) for 6 months. In final blood samples, the concentrations of hemoglobin, serum ferritin, and soluble transferrin receptors (sTfR) were determined. The effects of treatment on final hemoglobin, ferritin, and sTfR were assessed by multivariate analysis. No significant changes in hemoglobin were observed within or among treatment groups. The prevalence of high sTfR decreased 7.1 percentage points in FG, increased 13.1 percentage points in FS, and increased 0.7 percentage points in CG (P>0.05). In an interaction between treatment and total intake of Nutrisano on the concentration of ferritin, sTfR, and total iron body stores, adjusted means of serum ferritin in the medium tertiles of intake of Nutrisano for FS (P=0.05) and in the higher and medium tertiles for FG were higher (P=0.001), and adjusted means of sTfR were significantly lower (P<0.001), than the respective lower tertile of intake. Fortification of Nutrisano with FG has an acceptable level of beneficial effect on markers of iron status. The satisfactory efficacy and other sensory data has led to the political decision to substitute hydrogen-reduced iron, used formerly as a fortificant, with FG. Studies to assess the effectiveness of the reformulated Nutrisano are in order.

  9. Proteomic identification of S-nitrosylated proteins in the parasite Entamoeba histolytica by resin-assisted capture: insights into the regulation of the Gal/GalNAc lectin by nitric oxide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hertz, Rivka; Ben Lulu, Shani; Shahi, Preeti; Trebicz-Geffen, Meirav; Benhar, Moran; Ankri, Serge

    2014-01-01

    Entamoeba histolytica is a gastrointestinal protozoan parasite that causes amebiasis, a disease which has a worldwide distribution with substantial morbidity and mortality. Nitrosative stress, which is generated by innate immune cells, is one of the various environmental challenges that E. histolytica encounters during its life cycle. Although the effects of nitric oxide (NO) on the regulation of gene expression in this parasite have been previously investigated, our knowledge on S-nitrosylated proteins in E.histolytica is lacking. In order to fill this knowledge gap, we performed a large-scale detection of S-nitrosylated (SNO) proteins in E.histolytica trophozoites that were treated with the NO donor, S-nitrosocysteine by resin-assisted capture (RAC). We found that proteins involved in glycolysis, gluconeogenesis, translation, protein transport, and adherence to target cells such as the heavy subunit of Gal/GalNac lectin are among the S-nitrosylated proteins that were enriched by SNO-RAC. We also found that the S-nitrosylated cysteine residues in the carbohydrate recognition domain (CRD) of Gal/GalNAc lectin impairs its function and contributes to the inhibition of E.histolytica adherence to host cells. Collectively, these results advance our understanding of the mechanism of reduced E.histolytica adherence to mammalian cells by NO and emphasize the importance of NO as a regulator of key physiological functions in E.histolytica.

  10. Proteomic identification of S-nitrosylated proteins in the parasite Entamoeba histolytica by resin-assisted capture: insights into the regulation of the Gal/GalNAc lectin by nitric oxide.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rivka Hertz

    Full Text Available Entamoeba histolytica is a gastrointestinal protozoan parasite that causes amebiasis, a disease which has a worldwide distribution with substantial morbidity and mortality. Nitrosative stress, which is generated by innate immune cells, is one of the various environmental challenges that E. histolytica encounters during its life cycle. Although the effects of nitric oxide (NO on the regulation of gene expression in this parasite have been previously investigated, our knowledge on S-nitrosylated proteins in E.histolytica is lacking. In order to fill this knowledge gap, we performed a large-scale detection of S-nitrosylated (SNO proteins in E.histolytica trophozoites that were treated with the NO donor, S-nitrosocysteine by resin-assisted capture (RAC. We found that proteins involved in glycolysis, gluconeogenesis, translation, protein transport, and adherence to target cells such as the heavy subunit of Gal/GalNac lectin are among the S-nitrosylated proteins that were enriched by SNO-RAC. We also found that the S-nitrosylated cysteine residues in the carbohydrate recognition domain (CRD of Gal/GalNAc lectin impairs its function and contributes to the inhibition of E.histolytica adherence to host cells. Collectively, these results advance our understanding of the mechanism of reduced E.histolytica adherence to mammalian cells by NO and emphasize the importance of NO as a regulator of key physiological functions in E.histolytica.

  11. Proteomic Identification of S-Nitrosylated Proteins in the Parasite Entamoeba histolytica by Resin-Assisted Capture: Insights into the Regulation of the Gal/GalNAc Lectin by Nitric Oxide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hertz, Rivka; Ben Lulu, Shani; Shahi, Preeti; Trebicz-Geffen, Meirav; Benhar, Moran; Ankri, Serge

    2014-01-01

    Entamoeba histolytica is a gastrointestinal protozoan parasite that causes amebiasis, a disease which has a worldwide distribution with substantial morbidity and mortality. Nitrosative stress, which is generated by innate immune cells, is one of the various environmental challenges that E. histolytica encounters during its life cycle. Although the effects of nitric oxide (NO) on the regulation of gene expression in this parasite have been previously investigated, our knowledge on S-nitrosylated proteins in E.histolytica is lacking. In order to fill this knowledge gap, we performed a large-scale detection of S-nitrosylated (SNO) proteins in E.histolytica trophozoites that were treated with the NO donor, S-nitrosocysteine by resin-assisted capture (RAC). We found that proteins involved in glycolysis, gluconeogenesis, translation, protein transport, and adherence to target cells such as the heavy subunit of Gal/GalNac lectin are among the S-nitrosylated proteins that were enriched by SNO-RAC. We also found that the S-nitrosylated cysteine residues in the carbohydrate recognition domain (CRD) of Gal/GalNAc lectin impairs its function and contributes to the inhibition of E.histolytica adherence to host cells. Collectively, these results advance our understanding of the mechanism of reduced E.histolytica adherence to mammalian cells by NO and emphasize the importance of NO as a regulator of key physiological functions in E.histolytica. PMID:24626316

  12. Study of Anti-Fatigue Effect in Rats of Ferrous Chelates Including Hairtail Protein Hydrolysates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saibo Huang

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The ability of ferrous chelates including hairtail protein hydrolysates to prevent and reduce fatigue was studied in rats. After hydrolysis of hairtail surimi with papain, the hairtail protein hydrolysates (HPH were separated into three groups by range of relative molecular weight using ultrafiltration membrane separation. Hairtail proteins were then chelated with ferrous ions, and the antioxidant activity, the amino acid composition and chelation rate of the three kinds of ferrous chelates including hairtail protein hydrolysates (Fe-HPH were determined. Among the three groups, the Fe-HPH chelate showing the best conditions was selected for the anti-fatigue animal experiment. For it, experimental rats were randomly divided into seven groups. Group A was designated as the negative control group given distilled water. Group B, the positive control group, was given glutathione. Groups C, D and E were designated as the Fe-HPH chelate treatment groups and given low, medium, and high doses, respectively. Group F was designated as HPH hydrolysate treatment group, and Group G was designated as FeCl2 treatment group. The different diets were orally administered to rats for 20 days. After that time, rats were subjected to forced swimming training after 1 h of gavage. Rats given Fe-FPH chelate had higher haemoglobin regeneration efficiency (HRE, longer exhaustive swimming time and higher SOD activity. Additionally, Fe-FPH chelate was found to significantly decrease the malondialdehyde content, visibly enhance the GSH-Px activity in liver and reduce blood lactic acid of rats. Fe-HPH chelate revealed an anti-fatigue effect, similar to or better than the positive control substance and superior to HPH or Fe when provided alone.

  13. Elucidating the role of ferrous ion cocatalyst in enhancing dilute acid pretreatment of lignocellulosic biomass

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Hui

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Recently developed iron cocatalyst enhancement of dilute acid pretreatment of biomass is a promising approach for enhancing sugar release from recalcitrant lignocellulosic biomass. However, very little is known about the underlying mechanisms of this enhancement. In the current study, our aim was to identify several essential factors that contribute to ferrous ion-enhanced efficiency during dilute acid pretreatment of biomass and to initiate the investigation of the mechanisms that result in this enhancement. Results During dilute acid and ferrous ion cocatalyst pretreatments, we observed concomitant increases in solubilized sugars in the hydrolysate and reducing sugars in the (insoluble biomass residues. We also observed enhancements in sugar release during subsequent enzymatic saccharification of iron cocatalyst-pretreated biomass. Fourier transform Raman spectroscopy showed that major peaks representing the C-O-C and C-H bonds in cellulose are significantly attenuated by iron cocatalyst pretreatment. Imaging using Prussian blue staining indicated that Fe2+ ions associate with both cellulose/xylan and lignin in untreated as well as dilute acid/Fe2+ ion-pretreated corn stover samples. Analyses by scanning electron microscopy and transmission electron microscopy revealed structural details of biomass after dilute acid/Fe2+ ion pretreatment, in which delamination and fibrillation of the cell wall were observed. Conclusions By using this multimodal approach, we have revealed that (1 acid-ferrous ion-assisted pretreatment increases solubilization and enzymatic digestion of both cellulose and xylan to monomers and (2 this pretreatment likely targets multiple chemistries in plant cell wall polymer networks, including those represented by the C-O-C and C-H bonds in cellulose.

  14. Study of Anti-Fatigue Effect in Rats of Ferrous Chelates Including Hairtail Protein Hydrolysates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Saibo; Lin, Huimin; Deng, Shang-gui

    2015-01-01

    The ability of ferrous chelates including hairtail protein hydrolysates to prevent and reduce fatigue was studied in rats. After hydrolysis of hairtail surimi with papain, the hairtail protein hydrolysates (HPH) were separated into three groups by range of relative molecular weight using ultrafiltration membrane separation. Hairtail proteins were then chelated with ferrous ions, and the antioxidant activity, the amino acid composition and chelation rate of the three kinds of ferrous chelates including hairtail protein hydrolysates (Fe-HPH) were determined. Among the three groups, the Fe-HPH chelate showing the best conditions was selected for the anti-fatigue animal experiment. For it, experimental rats were randomly divided into seven groups. Group A was designated as the negative control group given distilled water. Group B, the positive control group, was given glutathione. Groups C, D and E were designated as the Fe-HPH chelate treatment groups and given low, medium, and high doses, respectively. Group F was designated as HPH hydrolysate treatment group, and Group G was designated as FeCl2 treatment group. The different diets were orally administered to rats for 20 days. After that time, rats were subjected to forced swimming training after 1 h of gavage. Rats given Fe-FPH chelate had higher haemoglobin regeneration efficiency (HRE), longer exhaustive swimming time and higher SOD activity. Additionally, Fe-FPH chelate was found to significantly decrease the malondialdehyde content, visibly enhance the GSH-Px activity in liver and reduce blood lactic acid of rats. Fe-HPH chelate revealed an anti-fatigue effect, similar to or better than the positive control substance and superior to HPH or Fe when provided alone. PMID:26633476

  15. Study of Anti-Fatigue Effect in Rats of Ferrous Chelates Including Hairtail Protein Hydrolysates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Saibo; Lin, Huimin; Deng, Shang-Gui

    2015-12-01

    The ability of ferrous chelates including hairtail protein hydrolysates to prevent and reduce fatigue was studied in rats. After hydrolysis of hairtail surimi with papain, the hairtail protein hydrolysates (HPH) were separated into three groups by range of relative molecular weight using ultrafiltration membrane separation. Hairtail proteins were then chelated with ferrous ions, and the antioxidant activity, the amino acid composition and chelation rate of the three kinds of ferrous chelates including hairtail protein hydrolysates (Fe-HPH) were determined. Among the three groups, the Fe-HPH chelate showing the best conditions was selected for the anti-fatigue animal experiment. For it, experimental rats were randomly divided into seven groups. Group A was designated as the negative control group given distilled water. Group B, the positive control group, was given glutathione. Groups C, D and E were designated as the Fe-HPH chelate treatment groups and given low, medium, and high doses, respectively. Group F was designated as HPH hydrolysate treatment group, and Group G was designated as FeCl₂ treatment group. The different diets were orally administered to rats for 20 days. After that time, rats were subjected to forced swimming training after 1 h of gavage. Rats given Fe-FPH chelate had higher haemoglobin regeneration efficiency (HRE), longer exhaustive swimming time and higher SOD activity. Additionally, Fe-FPH chelate was found to significantly decrease the malondialdehyde content, visibly enhance the GSH-Px activity in liver and reduce blood lactic acid of rats. Fe-HPH chelate revealed an anti-fatigue effect, similar to or better than the positive control substance and superior to HPH or Fe when provided alone.

  16. Oral ferrous sulfate does not increase preoperative hemoglobin in patients scheduled for hip or knee arthroplasty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lachance, Kim; Savoie, Michel; Bernard, Maryse; Rochon, Stéphanie; Fafard, Josée; Robitaille, Robert; Vendittoli, Pascal-André; Lévesque, Sylvie; de Denus, Simon

    2011-06-01

    Low hemoglobin (Hb) concentrations before lower limb joint replacement are associated with the need for blood transfusions and increased mortality. To optimize preoperative Hb, blood conservation protocols often recommend oral iron supplements, even in nonanemic patients. To investigate the impact of ferrous sulfate on the change in Hb prior to hip or knee arthroplasty and evaluate the effect of oral iron on hematocrit, mean corpuscular volume (MCV), ferritin, and transferrin saturation, as well as its tolerability and treatment adherence. We conducted a prospective, observational cohort study of adults with Hb concentrations between 10 and 15 g/dL who received iron supplementation prior to hip or knee arthroplasty. Systemic inflammatory diseases, vitamin B(12) or folate deficiency, and current use of iron supplements, intravenous iron, or erythropoietin were exclusion criteria. All participants were prescribed ferrous sulfate 300 mg 3 times daily for a minimum of 3 weeks. Complete blood cell counts and iron studies were performed before therapy and surgery. Eighty-seven patients with a mean (SD) Hb of 13.47 (0.84) g/dL were included in the study. Preoperative Hb decreased after treatment with iron (-0.14 [0.53] g/dL, p = 0.015). Hematocrit also declined (-0.6% [1.8%], p = 0.002), whereas ferritin increased (25.8 [38.6] ng/mL, p ferrous sulfate supplementation is not an effective method to increase preoperative Hb in patients scheduled for hip or knee arthroplasty, and its use is associated with adverse effects.

  17. Suboptimal response to ferrous sulfate in iron-deficient patients taking omeprazole.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ajmera, Akash V; Shastri, Ghanshyam S; Gajera, Mithil J; Judge, Thomas A

    2012-05-01

    Iron deficiency anemia is commonly encountered in outpatient practice. Gastric acid is one of the important factors for optimum absorption of iron. Proton pump inhibitors are very commonly prescribed medications. One of the debated effects of proton pump inhibitors is on oral iron absorption. Their effect on absorption of oral iron supplementation in iron-deficient patients has not been studied. At the Cooper Hematology Outpatient office, we reviewed charts of iron-deficient anemic patients who were on omeprazole for the last 4 years. Fifty patients having no apparent ongoing blood loss, having other causes of anemia especially that of chronic diseases ruled out, and on omeprazole while starting ferrous sulfate therapy for iron deficiency were selected for chart review. The iron-study results at the start of oral ferrous sulfate therapy and at 3 months follow-up were compared to evaluate the response of ferrous sulfate. The mean hemoglobin change was 0.8 ± 1.2 g/L. The mean change in ferrtin values was 10.2 ± 7.8 μg/L. Only 16% of the patients had a normal response to hemoglobin levels (rise of >2 g/dL), and only 40% had a normal response to ferritin levels (rise of >20 μg/dL). The average age of patients having a suboptimal response to both hemoglobin and ferritin was significantly higher compared with that of the patients with an optimal response. Omeprazole and possibly all proton pump inhibitors decrease the absorption of oral iron supplementation. Iron-deficient patients taking proton pump inhibitors may have to be treated with high dose iron therapy for a longer duration or with intravenous iron therapy.

  18. Influence of Ferrous sulphate on growth and alpha-a Amylase production for Aspergillus fumigatus NTCC1222

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shalini Singh

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Stringent government regulations and increasing public awareness is forcing chemical industries to incorporate environment friendly products and processes. Biotechnological applications, in industries, thus, hold great future. Microorganisms and their metabolites/enzymes provide a number of eminent-economic as well as environment friendly solutions for such industries. Amylases are one of the most important industrial enzymes. Commercial production of amylases requires selection of the best of production conditions. This study evaluates the influence of varying concentration of Ferrous sulphate (Fe2+ on microbial growth and amylase production for Aspergillus, Aspergillus fumigatus NTCC1222. Ferrous sulphate enhanced growth (concentration of 100mg/L by 1.83%, compared to the control. In contrast, it decreased amylase activity at all concentrations tested. As the concentration of ferrous sulphate increased, the amylase activity decreased. Amylases are metalloenzymes and the inhibition in amylase activity observed in the presence of ferrous ions may be due to competition between the exogenous cation and the protein associated cation, resulting in reduced metalloenzyme activity. Further studies will aim to evaluate the effect of different ferrous salts and different forms of iron on amylase production by Aspergillus fumigatus NTCC1222.

  19. Kinetic and equilibrium constants of phytic acid and ferric and ferrous phytate derived from nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heighton, Lynne; Schmidt, Walter F; Siefert, Ronald L

    2008-10-22

    Inositol phosphates are metabolically derived organic phosphates (P) that increasingly appear to be an important sink and source of P in the environment. Salts of myo-inositol hexakisdihydrogen phosphate (IHP) or more commonly phytate are the most common inositol phosphates in the environment. IHP resists acidic dephosphorylation and enzymatic dephosphorylation as ferric or ferrous IHP. Mobility of IHP iron complexes is potentially pH and redox responsive, making the time scale and environmental fate and transport of the P associated with the IHP of interest to the mass balance of phosphorus. Ferric and ferrous complexes of IHP were investigated by proton nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy ( (1)H NMR) and enzymatic dephosphorylation. Ferrous IHP was found to form quickly and persist for a longer period then ferric IHP. Dissociation constants derived from (1)H NMR experiments of chemically exchanging systems at equilibrium were 1.11 and 1.19 and formation constants were 0.90 and 0.84 for ferric and ferrous IHP, respectively. The recovery of P from enzymatic dephosphorylation of ferric and ferrous IHP was consistent with the magnitude of the kinetic and equilibrium rate constants.

  20. Preparation and Bioavailability Analysis of Ferrous Bis Alanine Chelate as a New Micronutrient for Treatment of Iron Deficiency Anemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zargaran, Marzieh; Saadat, Ebrahim; Dinarvand, Rassoul; Sharifzadeh, Mohammad; Dorkoosh, Farid

    2016-09-01

    Purpose: One of the most nutritional disorders around the world is iron deficiency. A novel iron compound was synthesized by chelating ferrous ions with alanine for prevention and treatment of iron deficiency anemia. Methods: The newly synthesized compound was characterized both qualitatively and quantitatively by Fourier Transform Infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy. The bioavailability of newly synthesized iron micronutrient was evaluated in four groups of Wistar rats. The group I was a negative control group and the other three groups received three different iron formulations. After 14 days, the blood samples were taken and analyzed accordingly. Results: Calculations showed that more than 91.8% of iron was incorporated in the chelate formulation. In vivo studies showed that serum iron, total iron binding capacity and hemoglobin concentrations were significantly increased in group IV, which received ferrous bis alanine chelate compared with the negative control group (pferrous sulfate.7H2O (pferrous bis glycine. Conclusion: The results showed better bioavailability of ferrous bis alanine as a new micronutrient for treatment of iron deficiency anemia in comparison with ferrous sulfate. Ferrous bis alanine could be considered as a suitable supplement for prevention and treatment of iron deficiency anemia.

  1. Hydrothermal synthesis of nanosize phases based on non-ferrous and noble metals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tupikova, E. N., E-mail: nil-6ssau@mail.ru; Platonov, I. A., E-mail: pia@ssau.ru; Lykova, T. N. [Samara state aerospace university (SSAU) Moskovskoye shosse 34, Samara, 443086 (Russian Federation)

    2016-04-13

    Research is devoted to reactions of binary complexes containing noble (platinum, palladium) and non-ferrous (cobalt, chrome) metals. Reactions proceed under hydrothermal conditions by the autoclave technique. Initials complexes and products of autoclave thermolysis were characterized by the FT-IR spectroscopy, the transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and the energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX). Comparative catalytic experiments in the test reaction were conducted. The obtained results can form the basis of new methods of nanosize multicomponent phases synthesis under hydrothermal conditions.

  2. Clean ferrous casting technology research. Final technical report, September 29, 1993--December 31, 1995

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bates, C.E.; Griffin, J.; Giese, S.R.; Lane, A.M. [and others

    1996-01-31

    This is the final report covering work performed on research into methods of attaining clean ferrous castings. In this program methods were developed to minimize the formation of inclusions in steel castings by using a variety of techniques which decreased the tendency for inclusions to form during melting, casting and solidification. In a second project, a reaction chamber was built to remove inclusions from molten steel using electromagnetic force. Finally, a thorough investigation of the causes of sand penetration defects in iron castings was completed, and a program developed which predicts the probability of penetration formation and indicates methods for avoiding it.

  3. Studying phase structure of burned ferrous manganese ores by method of nuclear gamma-resonance spectroscopy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Shayakhmetov

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available In the given article there are presented the results of studying the phase structure of burned ferrous manganese ores of Zhomart and Zapadny Kamys deposits of by the method of Mossbauer spectroscopy. There is established a variety of iron location forms in the studied materials and their quantitative content that allows to define the degree of completing regenerative processes at magnetizing roasting, and also the processes of formation of solid solutions (Fe1-XMX3O4 and stabilization of Fe1-XO from eutectoid disintegration at cooling.

  4. Research on preparation of battery-grade ferrous oxalate from by-product ferrous sulfate%副产硫酸亚铁制备电池级草酸亚铁的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    彭爱国; 贺周初; 余长艳; 肖伟; 庄新娟; 刘艳

    2012-01-01

    Battery-grade ferrous oxalate was prepared with the by-product ferrous sulfate from titanium white production as raw material.Influences of reaction temperature, reaction time, concentration of ferrous sulfate, and pH etc. in the processes of impurity removal, precipitation, and conversion reaction on the product quality were discussed, and the optimum process conditions were obtained.Resuits showed that battery-grade ferrous oxaiate with particle size less than 3.0 u,m, purity more than 99.5% ,and with low impurity content could be prepared under the conditions as follows:pure ferrous sulfate solution was obtained by using iron powder to purify it at the reaction temperature of 95 ℃ for 6 h;then use ammonia to precipitate ferrous sulfate at the reaction temperature of 40 ℃ and Fe2*mass concentration of 90 g/L;at last,use oxalate to converse the ferrous hydroxide into ferrous oxalate at the reaction pH=2.0 and time of 60 min.Thus.an effective way was provided to utilize the by-product of titanium white.%以钛白副产硫酸亚铁为原料制备出电池级草酸亚铁.研究了除杂、沉淀、转化反应过程中反应温度、反应时间、硫酸亚铁浓度以及反应pH等因素对产品质量的影响,并得到了优惠工艺条件.结果表明:在反应温度为95℃、反应时间为6 h的条件下用铁粉对硫酸亚铁溶液除杂,得到纯净硫酸亚铁溶液;在反应温度为40℃、铁(Ⅱ)质量浓度为90 g/L的条件下用氨水沉淀,再用草酸于反应时间为60 min、pH=2.0条件下将氢氧化亚铁转化成草酸亚铁,制备出了纯度大于99.5%、粒径小于3.0 μm、杂质含量低的电池级草酸亚铁.为解决钛白副产硫酸亚铁的综合利用提供了一条有效的途径.

  5. Ferrous Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Straub, William A.

    1989-01-01

    Elements covered in this review include: aluminum, antimony, arsenic, bismuth, boron, calcium, carbon, chromium, cobalt, copper, hydrogen, iron, lead, magnesium, manganese, molybdenum, nickel, niobium, nitrogen, oxygen, phosphorus, platinum, rare earths, silicons, sulfur, tin, titanium, tungsten, vanadium, zinc, and zirconium. Analytical methods…

  6. The role of organic ligands in ferrous-induced photochemical degradation of 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwan, C Y; Chu, W

    2007-04-01

    Recent studies have shown that hydrogen peroxide is generated in a ferrioxalate-induced photoreductive reaction, but information about the effect of organic ligands on the photochemical behaviour of ferrous species is limited. The degradation of the herbicide 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D) by a ferrous-catalyzed oxidation in the presence of various ligands such as formate, citrate, malelate, oxalate, and ethylenediaminetetra-acetic acid (EDTA) was studied. The experiments were conducted under either dark or irradiated (350n m) conditions. Forty-two percent and 34% of 2,4-D were removed by the Fe(2+)/oxalate/UV and Fe(2+)/citrate/UV processes, respectively, after 30 min of reaction and oxidative intermediates were obtained in both cases. The presence of hydroxylated intermediates suggests that 2,4-D may be attacked by hydroxyl radicals, which are the products of the photo-Fenton-like reaction. As such, hydrogen peroxide was produced by the photolysis of ferrous oxalate or ferrous citrate, referred to hereafter as photogenerated H(2)O(2). As expected, the total removal percentage of 2,4-D jumped to 97% when 1mM of hydrogen peroxide (so-called spiked H(2)O(2)) was externally added to the reaction vessel to initiate the Fe(2+)/oxalate/UV process. Therefore, the treatment of 2,4-D by the Fe(2+)/oxalate/H(2)O(2)/UV system can be operated in two steps: the photolysis of ferrous oxalate first, followed by adding the spiked H(2)O(2) sometime after the commencement of the reaction. A two-phase model has been developed to describe this tandem ferrous-catalyzed photooxidation, which would help to achieve the mineralization of 2,4-D.

  7. The photochemical origins of life and photoreaction of ferrous ion in the archaean oceans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mauzerall, David C.

    1990-05-01

    A general argument is made for the photochemical origins of life. A constant flux of free energy is required to maintain the organized state of matter called life. Solar photons are the unique source of the large amounts of energy probably require to initiate this organization and certainly required for the evolution of life to occur. The completion of this argument will require the experimental determination of suitable photochemical reactions. Our work shows that biogenetic porphyrins readily photooxidize substrates and emit hydrogen in the presence of a catalyst. These results are consistent with the Granick hypothesis, which relates a biosynthetic pathway to its evolutionary origin. We have shown that photoexcitation of ferrous ion at neutral pH with near ultraviolet light produces hydrogen with high quantum yield. This same simple system may reduce carbon dioxide to formaldehyde and further products. These reactions offer a solution to the dilemma confronting the Oparin-Urey-Miller model of the chemical origin of life. If carbon dioxide is the main form of carbon on the primitive earth, the ferrous photoreaction may provide the reduced carbon necessary for the formation of amino acids and other biogenic molecules. These results suggest that this progenitor of modern photosynthesis may have contributed to the chemical origins of life.

  8. Prospects for Ukrainian ferrous metals in the post-soviet period

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levine, R.M.; Bond, A.R.

    1998-01-01

    Two specialists on the mineral industries of the countries of the former USSR survey current problems confronting producers of ferrous metals in Ukraine and future prospects for domestic production and exports. A series of observations documenting the importance of ferrous metals production to Ukraine's economy is followed by sections describing investment plans and needs in the sector, and the role played by Ukraine within the iron and steel industry of the Soviet Union. The focus then turns to assessment of the current regional and global competitive position of Ukrainian producers for each of the major commodities of the sector-iron ore, manganese ore, ferroalloys, steel, and the products of the machine manufacturing and metal working industries. In conclusion, the paper discusses a potential regional industrial integration strategy analogous to that employed in the United States' Great Lakes/Midwest region, which possesses similar types of iron ore deposits and similar transport cost advantages and metallurgical and manufacturing industries. Journal of Economic Literature, Classification Numbers: F14, L61, L72. 1 table, 26 references.

  9. Study on fluorescence properties of carbogenic nanoparticles and their application for the determination of ferrous succinate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sun Wen [Department of Analytical Chemistry, China Pharmaceutical University, Nanjing 210009 (China); Du Yingxiang, E-mail: du_yingxiang@126.co [Department of Analytical Chemistry, China Pharmaceutical University, Nanjing 210009 (China) and Key Laboratory of Drug Quality Control and Pharmacovigilance, Ministry of Education, China Pharmaceutical University, Nanjing 210009 (China) and Key Laboratory of Modern Chinese Medicines, Ministry of Education, China Pharmaceutical University, Nanjing 210009 (China); Wang Yunqing [Yantai Institute of Coastal Zone Research, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Yantai 264003 (China)

    2010-08-15

    A new type of fluorescent nanomaterial named carbogenic nanoparticles (NPs) has drawn considerable attention recently. In this study, we adopted a direct and simple synthetic method to produce the carbogenic NPs and investigated the fluorescence properties of the as-prepared carbogenic NPs in detail. It was found that the fluorescence of carbogenic NPs was stable with the variance of environmental conditions such as pH, temperature and UV irradiation. More interestingly, we found carbogenic NPs exhibited high selectivity and sensitivity towards ferric ions. Under optimum conditions, a good linear relationship could be obtained between the fluorescence intensity and concentration of ferric ions in the range of 5.0x10{sup -5}-5.0x10{sup -4} mol L{sup -1}, and the limit of detection is 11.2 {mu}mol L{sup -1}. Based on the fluorescence quenching of carbogenic NPs, a rapid and specific quantitative method was proposed for the determination of ferrous succinate. The content of ferrous succinate in commercial tablets determined by the present method was agreed with the spectrophotometric method results and the reproducibility and the recovery of the proposed method were satisfactory.

  10. Ferrous and ferric ions-based high-throughput screening strategy for nitrile hydratase and amidase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Zhi-Jian; Zheng, Ren-Chao; Lei, Li-Hua; Zheng, Yu-Guo; Shen, Yin-Chu

    2011-06-01

    Rapid and direct screening of nitrile-converting enzymes is of great importance in the development of industrial biocatalytic process for pharmaceuticals and fine chemicals. In this paper, a combination of ferrous and ferric ions was used to establish a novel colorimetric screening method for nitrile hydratase and amidase with α-amino nitriles and α-amino amides as substrates, respectively. Ferrous and ferric ions reacted sequentially with the cyanide dissociated spontaneously from α-amino nitrile solution, forming a characteristic deep blue precipitate. They were also sensitive to weak basicity due to the presence of amino amide, resulting in a yellow precipitate. When amino amide was further hydrolyzed to amino acid, it gave a light yellow solution. Mechanisms of color changes were further proposed. Using this method, two isolates with nitrile hydratase activity towards 2-amino-2,3-dimethyl butyronitrile, one strain capable of hydrating 2-amino-4-(hydroxymethyl phosphiny) butyronitrile and another microbe exhibiting amidase activity against 2-amino-4-methylsulfanyl butyrlamide were obtained from soil samples and culture collections of our laboratory. Versatility of this method enabled it the first direct and inexpensive high-throughput screening system for both nitrile hydratase and amidase. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Possibilities for saving energy in ferrous metallurgy: Integration of technological processes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mihailov Emil

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available One of the main factors having a significant effect on fuel and energy saving in the production of rolled ferrous metals is matching the operation of the continuous casting machines (CCM with that of the reheating furnaces so called “continuous technologies” in the form of “direct rolling” or “hot charging”. In order to investigate the heat exchange processes, the opportunities for enhancing the energy efficiency and determining the optimal parameters of the flat product production process in ferrous metallurgy, some mathematical models of metal solidification and cooling in a continuous steel casting machine were determined as well as a mathematical model of metal heating in the reheating furnaces. For efficient implementation of such technologies one common algorithm was built on the basis of the individual mathematical models, representing the continuous casting - rolling mill complex control technology, dynamically matching the operation of the individual units to the actual production conditions in on-line mode. The developed algorithm can be used as part of a system for analyzing the thermal condition of the blocks at any single moment for the purpose of optimization of the units’ operation within the whole technological process. As a conclusion, considering the original developed algorithm, a 21-51% energy saving was noticed.

  12. Ferrous Ion and Medium Composition Effects on Acidogenic Phase in Biobutanol Production from Molasses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Restiawaty, E.; Grinanda, D.

    2017-07-01

    Clostridium acetobutylicum B530 has ability to convert sugar into biobutanol through two phases, i.e. acidogenic and solventogenic. This fermentation process is often hampered by high raw material cost and low product yield. In order to suppress the production cost, the molasses, a byproduct of sugar cane process production, was used as carbon source in this research. Molasses has nitrogen content in a small amount, thus could be negating the beef extract component, which is expected not to affect the growth of C. acetobutylicum B530 and also can reduce the production cost. In addition, a certain amount of Fe2+ (ferrous ion), a precursor in the formation of the enzyme ferredoxin, was added to the fermentation medium to contribute in the synthesis of acetyl-CoA, so that the formation of acidogenic products such as butyric acid and acetic acid is affected. This study aimed to investigate the effect of ferrous ion and the medium composition in acidogenic phase. The addition of 20 ppm FeSO4.7H2O in the fermentation medium without beef extract can increase the concentration of butyric acid by 20% at a temperature of 35°C, while acetic acid concentration decreased by 6%. According to those results, it is expected that the product selectivity of butanol will increase in solventogenic phase. In addition, the removal of beef extract in the fermentation medium does not affect the kinetics of growth of C. acetobutylicum B530.

  13. The photochemical origins of life and photoreaction of ferrous ion in the archaean oceans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mauzerall, David C.

    1990-01-01

    A general argument is made for the photochemical origins of life. A constant flux of free energy is required to maintain the organized state of matter called life. Solar photons are the unique source of the large amounts of energy probably required to initiate this organization and certainly required for the evolution of life to occur. The completion of this argument will require the experimental determination of suitable photochemical reactions. It is shown that biogenetic porphyrins readily photooxidize substrates and emit hydrogen in the presence of a catalyst. These results are consistent with the Granick hypothesis, which relates a biosynthetic pathway to its evolutionary origin. It has been shown that photoexcitation of ferrous ion at neutral pH with near ultraviolet light produces hydrogen with high quantum yield. This same simple system may reduce carbon dioxide to formaldehyde and further products. These reactions offer a solution to the dilemma confronting the Oparin-Urey-Miller model of the chemical origin of life. If carbon dioxide is the main form of carbon on the primitive earth, the ferrous photoreaction may provide the reduced carbon necessary for the formation of amino acids and other biogenic molecules. These results suggest that this progenitor of modern photosynthesis may have contributed to the chemical origins of life.

  14. Characterization of ferric and ferrous iron transport systems in Vibrio cholerae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wyckoff, Elizabeth E; Mey, Alexandra R; Leimbach, Andreas; Fisher, Carolyn F; Payne, Shelley M

    2006-09-01

    Vibrio cholerae has multiple iron acquisition systems, including TonB-dependent transport of heme and of the catechol siderophore vibriobactin. Strains defective in both of these systems grow well in laboratory media and in the infant mouse intestine, indicating the presence of additional iron acquisition systems. Previously uncharacterized potential iron transport systems, including a homologue of the ferrous transporter Feo and a periplasmic binding protein-dependent ATP binding cassette (ABC) transport system, termed Fbp, were identified in the V. cholerae genome sequence. Clones encoding either the Feo or the Fbp system exhibited characteristics of iron transporters: both repressed the expression of lacZ cloned under the control of a Fur-regulated promoter in Escherichia coli and also conferred growth on a Shigella flexneri mutant that has a severe defect in iron transport. Two other ABC transporters were also evaluated but were negative by these assays. Transport of radioactive iron by the Feo system into the S. flexneri iron transport mutant was stimulated by the reducing agent ascorbate, consistent with Feo functioning as a ferrous transporter. Conversely, ascorbate inhibited transport by the Fbp system, suggesting that it transports ferric iron. The growth of V. cholerae strains carrying mutations in one or more of the potential iron transport genes indicated that both Feo and Fbp contribute to iron acquisition. However, a mutant defective in the vibriobactin, Fbp, and Feo systems was not attenuated in a suckling mouse model, suggesting that at least one other iron transport system can be used in vivo.

  15. Molecular characterization of whey protein hydrolysate fractions with ferrous chelating and enhanced iron solubility capabilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Loughlin, Ian B; Kelly, Phil M; Murray, Brian A; FitzGerald, Richard J; Brodkorb, Andre

    2015-03-18

    The ferrous (Fe2+) chelating capabilities of WPI hydrolysate fractions produced via cascade membrane filtration were investigated, specifically 1 kDa permeate (P) and 30 kDa retentate (R) fractions. The 1 kDa-P possessed a Fe2+ chelating capability at 1 g L(-1) equivalent to 84.4 μM EDTA (for 30 kDa-R the value was 8.7 μM EDTA). Fourier transformed infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy was utilized to investigate the structural characteristics of hydrolysates and molecular interactions with Fe2+. Solid-phase extraction was employed to enrich for chelating activity; the most potent chelating fraction was enriched in histidine and lysine. The solubility of ferrous sulfate solutions (10 mM) over a range of pH values was significantly (P<0.05) improved in dispersions of hydrolysate fraction solutions (10 g protein L(-1)). Total iron solubility was improved by 72% in the presence of the 1 kDa-P fraction following simulated gastrointestinal digestion (SGID) compared to control FeSO4·7H2O solutions.

  16. Degradation of trichloroethylene in aqueous solution by calcium peroxide activated with ferrous ion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xiang; Gu, Xiaogang; Lu, Shuguang; Miao, Zhouwei; Xu, Minhui; Fu, Xiaori; Qiu, Zhaofu; Sui, Qian

    2015-03-02

    The application of calcium peroxide (CaO2) activated with ferrous ion to stimulate the degradation of trichloroethylene (TCE) was investigated. The experimental results showed that TCE could be completely degraded in 5 min at a CaO2/Fe(II)/TCE molar ratio of 4/8/1. Probe compound tests demonstrated the presence of reactive oxygen species HO· and O2(-·) in CaO2/Fe(II) system, while scavenging tests indicated that HO· was the dominant active species responsible for TCE removal, and O2(-·) could promote TCE degradation in CaO2/Fe(II) system. In addition, the influences of initial solution pH and solution matrix were evaluated. It suggested that the elevation of initial solution pH suppressed TCE degradation. Cl(-) had significant scavenging effect on TCE removal, whereas HCO3(-) of high concentration showed favorable function. The influences of NO3(-) and SO4(2-) could be negligible, while natural organic matter (NOM) had a negative effect on TCE removal at a relatively high concentration. The results demonstrated that the technique of CaO2 activated with ferrous ion is a highly promising technique in in situ chemical oxidation (ISCO) remediation in TCE contaminated sites. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  17. Assessment of the effects of orally administered ferrous sulfate on Oncopeltus fasciatus (Heteroptera: Lygaeidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrero, Amparo; Torreblanca, Amparo; Garcerá, María Dolores

    2017-03-01

    Iron is an essential nutrient needed for multiple biological processes, but it is also an effective pro-oxidant in its reduced form. Environmental sources of iron toxic species include reduced soils from rice plantations, polluted natural areas from metal industry waste, or iron oxides used in soil bioremediation. Few studies have been conducted to assess the toxicity of iron species in insects. The present work aims to assess the oxidative stress effects of ferrous sulfate administered in drinking water after acute exposure (96 h) to adults of the insect model Oncopeltus fasciatus (Dallas). Mortality was higher in exposed groups and significantly associated with iron treatment (OR [95% CI]; 11.8 [6.1-22.7]). Higher levels of body iron content were found in insects exposed to ferrous sulfate, with an increase of 5-6 times with respect to controls. Catalase activity and lipid peroxidation (TBARS content), but not glutathione S-transferase activity, were significantly higher in exposed insects and significantly correlated with body iron content (Pearson coefficient of 0.68 and 0.74, respectively) and between them (0.78). The present work demonstrates that, despite the disruption in water and food intake caused by iron administration, this metal is accumulated by insect causing lipid peroxidation and eliciting an antioxidant response mediated by catalase.

  18. Ferrous methanesulfonate as an efficient and recyclable catalyst for chemoselective synthesis of 1,1-diacetate from aldehydes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Min Wang; Gui Fu Tian; Zhi Guo Song; Heng Jiang

    2009-01-01

    Ferrous methanesulfonate catalysing the conversion of aromatic,heteroaromatic,unsaturated,and aliphatic aldehydes to 1,1-diacetates at room temperature under solvent-free condition has been developed.The catalytic activity of seventeen metal methanesulfonates was compared under the same condition,ferrous methanesufonate proved to be the best.It can be easily recovered and reused for several times without distinct deterioration in catalytic activity.During the competitive protection between a ketone and an aldehyde group with Ac2O,1,1-diacetate formed exclusively with the aldehyde group.

  19. Coupling of disulfide bond and distal histidine dissociation in human ferrous cytoglobin regulates ligand binding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beckerson, Penny; Reeder, Brandon J; Wilson, Michael T

    2015-02-13

    Earlier kinetics studies on cytoglobin did not assign functional properties to specific structural forms. Here, we used defined monomeric and dimeric forms and cysteine mutants to show that an intramolecular disulfide bond (C38-C83) alters the dissociation rate constant of the intrinsic histidine (H81) (∼1000 fold), thus controlling binding of extrinsic ligands. Through time-resolved spectra we have unequivocally assigned CO binding to hexa- and penta-coordinate forms and have made direct measurement of histidine rebinding following photolysis. We present a model that describes how the cysteine redox state of the monomer controls histidine dissociation rate constants and hence extrinsic ligand binding.

  20. TREATMENT OF HEXAVALENT CHROMIUM IN CHROMITE ORE PROCESSING SOLID WASTE USING A MIXED REDUCTANT SOLUTION OF FERROUS SULFATE AND SODIUM DITHIONITE

    Science.gov (United States)

    We developed a method for disseminating ferrous iron in the subsurface to enhance chemical reduction of hexavalent chromium (Cr(VI)) in a chromite ore processing solid waste derived from the production of ferrochrome alloy. The method utilizes ferrous sulfate (FeSO4) in combinati...

  1. DFT Mechanistic Study of the Selective Terminal C-H Activation of n-Pentane with a Tungsten Allyl Nitrosyl Complex

    KAUST Repository

    Lee, Richmond

    2017-01-17

    Mechanistic insights into the selective C-H terminal activation of n-pentane with tungsten allyl nitrosyl complex reported by Legzdins were gained by employing density functional theory with B3LYP hybrid functional. Using Bader’s atom in molecules (AIM) analysis on the elementary steps of the hydrogen transfer process, TS1 and TS2, it was observed that the calculated H-transfer models were closely similar to Hall’s metal-assisted σ-bond metathesis through bond critical point (BCP) comparisons. One distinguishable feature was the fact that the formal oxidation state of the W changed in the concerted H-transfer process. To better differentiate, we term these processes as ‘Formal Reductive Hydrogen Transfer’ (FRHT) for TS1 and ‘Formal Oxidative Hydrogen Transfer’ (FOHT) for TS2.

  2. DFT mechanistic study of the selective terminal C–H activation of n-pentane with a tungsten allyl nitrosyl complex

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richmond Lee

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Mechanistic insights into the selective C–H terminal activation of n-pentane with tungsten allyl nitrosyl complex reported by Legzdins were gained by employing density functional theory with B3LYP hybrid functional. Using Bader’s atom in molecules (AIM analysis on the elementary steps of the hydrogen transfer process, TS1 and TS2, it was observed that the calculated H-transfer models were closely similar to Hall’s metal-assisted σ-bond metathesis through bond critical point (BCP comparisons. One distinguishable feature was the fact that the formal oxidation state of the W changed in the concerted H-transfer process. To better differentiate, we term these processes as ‘Formal Reductive Hydrogen Transfer’ (FRHT for TS1 and ‘Formal Oxidative Hydrogen Transfer’ (FOHT for TS2.

  3. Constitutive nitric oxide synthase-mediated caspase-3 S-nitrosylation in ghrelin protection against Porphyromonas gingivalis-induced salivary gland acinar cell apoptosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slomiany, B L; Slomiany, A

    2010-06-01

    Recent advances in identifying the salivary constituents capable of influencing the oral mucosal inflammatory responses have brought to focus the importance of a peptide hormone, ghrelin. Here, we report on the involvement of ghrelin in controlling the apoptotic processes induced in sublingual salivary gland acinar cells by the lipopolysaccharide (LPS) of a periodontopathic bacterium, Porphyromonas gingivalis. We show that the countering effect of ghrelin on the LPS-induced acinar cell apoptosis was associated with the increase in constitutive nitric oxide synthase (cNOS) activity, and the reduction in caspase-3 and inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS). The loss in countering effect of ghrelin on the LPS-induced changes in apoptosis and caspase-3 activity was attained with Src kinase inhibitor, PP2, as well as Akt inhibitor, SH-5, and cNOS inhibitor, L-NAME, but not the iNOS inhibitor, 1400W. The effect of ghrelin on the LPS-induced changes in cNOS activity, moreover, was reflected in the increased cNOS phosphorylation that was sensitive to PP2 as well as SH-5. Furthermore, the ghrelin-induced up-regulation in cNOS activity was associated with the increase in caspase-3 S-nitrosylation that was susceptible to the blockage by SH-5 and L-NAME. The findings point to the involvement of ghrelin in Src/Akt kinase-mediated cNOS activation and the apoptogenic signal inhibition through the NO-induced caspase-3 S-nitrosylation.

  4. Sorption of ferrous iron by EPS from the acidophilic bacterium Acidiphilium Sp.: A mechanism proposal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tapia, Jaime M.

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work was to assess the uptake of Fe(II by extracellular polymeric substances (EPS from the acidophilic bacterium Acidiphillium 3.2Sup(5. These EPS were extracted using EDTA. EPS of A. 3.2Sup(5 loaded in sorption tests with Fe(II, were characterized using the following experimental techniques: scanning electron microscopy (SEM with energy dispersive X-ray microanalysis (EDX, X-ray diffraction (XRD and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR. The experimental results indicate that EPS adsorb ferrous iron according to Freundlich model with a metal sorption uptake of K = 1.14 mg1-1/n L1/n g-1 and a sorption intensity of 1/n = 1.26. In addition, ferrous iron sorption by EPS took place by preferential interaction with the carboxyl group which promotes the formation of ferrous iron oxalates (FeC2O4. Since the interaction reaction was reversible (Log K = 0.77 ± 0.33, that means that the cation sorption can be reversed at convenience.El objetivo de este trabajo fue estudiar la absorción de Fe(II por Sustancias Poliméricas Extracelulares (SPE provenientes de la bacteria acidófila Acidiphilium 3.2Sup(5. Las SPE fueron extraídas usando EDTA. SPE de A. 3.2Sup(5 cargadas con Fe(II fueron caracterizadas usando las siguientes técnicas experimentales: microscopia electrónica de barrido (MEB con microanálisis de energía dispersiva de rayos X (EDX, difracción de rayos X (DRX, y espectroscopía infrarojo (IR con transformada de Fourier (EIRTF. Los resultados muestran que las SPE absorben Fe(II según el modelo de Freundlich con un coeficiente de sorción K = 1,14 mg1-1/n g-1 e intensidad 1/n = 1,26. La captación de Fe(II por las SPE ocurre a través de la formación de oxalatos de hierro (FeC2O4, a través de una reacción reversible (Log K = 0,77 ± 0,33, lo cual implica que el hierro captado podría recuperarse si fuera de interés.

  5. Evaluation of effects of Maṇḍurabhasma on structural and functional integrity of small intestine in comparison with ferrous sulfate using an experimental model of iron deficiency anemia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suchita Rajanikant Gawde

    2015-01-01

    Conclusion: Rats receiving a high dose of MB have shown improvement in hematinic and lactase levels comparable to those receiving ferrous sulfate. However, it causes lesser oxidative damage as compared to ferrous sulfate. This is an encouraging finding because it indicates the potential of MB to cause lesser gastrointestinal side effects compared to ferrous sulfate.

  6. Priority on Deep Processing of Non-ferrous Metals in Guizhou in the 12th Five Year Plan

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    <正>It is known that, in the 12th five year plan, Guizhou will be built into a major base for deep processing of resources. Non-ferrous metals, one of the eight pillar industries in Guizhou, will focus on deep processing.

  7. A new method for preparation of magnetite from iron oxyhydroxide or iron oxide and ferrous salt in aqueous solution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kahani, S.A. [Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Science, University of Kashan, Kashan 87317-51167 (Iran, Islamic Republic of)], E-mail: Kahani@kashanu.ac.ir; Jafari, M. [Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Science, University of Kashan, Kashan 87317-51167 (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2009-07-15

    In this study, a new method is proposed for the preparation of Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4} from iron oxyhydroxides (goethite, akaganeite, lepidocrocite, feroxyhyte and ferrihydrite) or iron oxide (hematite) and ferrous salt in aqueous solution. The product is magnetite with various particle sizes. Products are characterized by X-ray powder diffraction, IR spectra and vibrating sample magnetometery.

  8. Arsenic Encapsulation Using Portland Cement With Ferrous Sulfate/Lime And Terra-BondTM Technologies - Microcharacterization And Leaching Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    This work reports the results of an investigation on the treatment and encapsulation of arsenic-containing materials by Portland cement with ferrous sulfate and lime (PFL) and Terra-BondTM, a commercially available patented technology. The arsenic materials treated we...

  9. The role of the sulfonium linkage in the stabilization of the ferrous form of myeloperoxidase: a comparison with lactoperoxidase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brogioni, Silvia; Stampler, Johanna; Furtmüller, Paul G; Feis, Alessandro; Obinger, Christian; Smulevich, Giulietta

    2008-05-01

    In all mammalian peroxidases, the heme is covalently attached to the protein via two ester linkages between conserved aspartate (Asp94) and glutamate residues (Glu242) and modified methyl groups on pyrrole rings A and C. Only myeloperoxidase has an additional sulfonium ion linkage between the sulfur atom of the conserved methionine 243 and the beta-carbon of the vinyl group on pyrrole ring A. Upon reduction from Fe(III) to Fe(II), lactoperoxidase (LPO) but not myeloperoxidase (MPO) is shown to adopt three distinct active site conformations which depend on pH and time. Comparative spectroscopic analysis (UV-Vis absorption and resonance Raman) of the ferrous forms of LPO, wild-type MPO and the variants Asp94Val, Glu242Gln, Met243Thr and Met243Val clearly demonstrate that a single, stable ferrous form of MPO is present only in those proteins which retain an intact sulfonium linkage. By contrast, both ferrous Met243Thr and Met243Val can assume two conformations. They resemble ferrous LPO, being five-coordinated high-spin species that are distinguished by the strength of the proximal Fe-histidine bond. This bond weakens with time or decreasing pH, as indicated by the Fe-histidine stretching bands.

  10. The Bacillus subtilis EfeUOB transporter is essential for high-affinity acquisition of ferrous and ferric iron.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miethke, Marcus; Monteferrante, Carmine G; Marahiel, Mohamed A; van Dijl, Jan Maarten

    2013-10-01

    Efficient uptake of iron is of critical importance for growth and viability of microbial cells. Nevertheless, several mechanisms for iron uptake are not yet clearly defined. Here we report that the widely conserved transporter EfeUOB employs an unprecedented dual-mode mechanism for acquisition of ferrous (Fe[II]) and ferric (Fe[III]) iron in the bacterium Bacillus subtilis. We show that the binding protein EfeO and the permease EfeU form a minimal complex for ferric iron uptake. The third component EfeB is a hemoprotein that oxidizes ferrous iron to ferric iron for uptake by EfeUO. Accordingly, EfeB promotes growth under microaerobic conditions where ferrous iron is more abundant. Notably, EfeB also fulfills a vital role in cell envelope stress protection by eliminating reactive oxygen species that accumulate in the presence of ferrous iron. In conclusion, the EfeUOB system contributes to the high-affinity uptake of iron that is available in two different oxidation states. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Intravenous iron sucrose v/s oral ferrous fumarate for treatment of anemia in pregnancy. A randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhavi, Shruti B; Jaju, Purushottam B

    2017-05-08

    The objective of this study was to compare the efficacy, safety and tolerability of intravenous iron sucrose with that of oral ferrous fumarate in iron deficiency anemia during 14 to 34 weeks of pregnancy. A randomized controlled trial was performed involving 112 patients attending the antenatal clinic at Shri B.M.Patil Medical college Hospital, Bijapur from October 2011 to August 2012,with hemoglobin levels between 70-110 g/L and serum ferritin of ferrous fumarate per day. The primary outcome measures for the trial, haemoglobin and serum ferritin levels were measured after 4 weeks. Statistical significance was assessed using Student's t-test. The change in haemoglobin in women receiving intravenous iron was higher than with oral ferrous fumarate 22 ± 11.5 g/L vs 12 ± 9 g/L (p ferrous fumarate in increasing maternal iron stores. The trial registration number is CTRI/2016/12/007552 registered in Clinical Trial Registry India on 8/12/2016. It is a retrospectively registered trial.

  12. Arsenic Encapsulation Using Portland Cement With Ferrous Sulfate/Lime And Terra-BondTM Technologies - Microcharacterization And Leaching Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    This work reports the results of an investigation on the treatment and encapsulation of arsenic-containing materials by Portland cement with ferrous sulfate and lime (PFL) and Terra-BondTM, a commercially available patented technology. The arsenic materials treated we...

  13. Use of a Ferrous Sulfate - Sodium Dithionite Blend to Treat a Dissolved Phase Cr(VI) Plume

    Science.gov (United States)

    A field study was conducted to evaluate the use of a combination of sodium dithionite and ferrous sulfate in creating an in situ redox zone for treatment of a dissolved phase Cr(VI) plume at a former industrial site. The reductant blend was injected into the path of a dissolved ...

  14. Ferrous sulfate supplementation causes significant gastrointestinal side-effects in adults: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tolkien, Zoe; Stecher, Lynne; Mander, Adrian P; Pereira, Dora I A; Powell, Jonathan J

    2015-01-01

    The tolerability of oral iron supplementation for the treatment of iron deficiency anemia is disputed. Our aim was to quantify the odds of GI side-effects in adults related to current gold standard oral iron therapy, namely ferrous sulfate. Systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials (RCTs) evaluating GI side-effects that included ferrous sulfate and a comparator that was either placebo or intravenous (i.v.) iron. Random effects meta-analysis modelling was undertaken and study heterogeneity was summarised using I2 statistics. Forty three trials comprising 6831 adult participants were included. Twenty trials (n = 3168) had a placebo arm and twenty three trials (n = 3663) had an active comparator arm of i.v. iron. Ferrous sulfate supplementation significantly increased risk of GI side-effects versus placebo with an odds ratio (OR) of 2.32 [95% CI 1.74-3.08, pferrous sulfate although there was marked heterogeneity in the data (OR = 3.33, 95% CI 1.19-9.28, p = 0.02, I2 = 66.1%). Meta-regression did not provide significant evidence of an association between the study OR and the iron dose. Our meta-analysis confirms that ferrous sulfate is associated with a significant increase in gastrointestinal-specific side-effects but does not find a relationship with dose.

  15. Iron oxide and hydroxide precipitation from ferrous solutions and its relevance to Martian surface mineralogy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Posey-Dowty, J.; Moskowitz, B.; Crerar, D.; Hargraves, R.; Tanenbaum, L.

    1986-01-01

    Experiments were performed to examine if the ubiquitousness of a weak magnetic component in all Martian surface fines tested with the Viking Landers can be attributed to ferric iron precipitation in aqueous solution under oxidizing conditions at neutral pH. Ferrous solutions were mixed in deionized water and various minerals were added to separate liquid samples. The iron-bearing additives included hematite, goethite, magnetite, maghemite, lepidocrocite and potassium bromide blank at varying concentrations. IR spectroscopic scans were made to identify any precipitates resulting from bubbling oxygen throughout the solutions; the magnetic properties of the precipitates were also examined. The data indicated that the lepidocrocite may have been preferentially precipitated, then aged to maghemite. The process would account for the presumed thin residue of maghemite on the present Martian surface, long after abundant liquid water on the Martian surface vanished.

  16. UV-induced mutagenesis of oxidation activity of ferrous ion of Thiobacillus ferrooxidans

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    An excellent strain named T. f6 was isolated and screened, the dose and other condition for the UV-induced mutagenesis were studied and the richened positive mutant m+ T. f6 was applied in the column leaching of copper-contain ing sulfides. The results show that T. f6 is characterized by rapid oxidation of ferrous ion and cupric sulfide, high tolerance of toxic ion and short generation time. The best mutagenic effectiveness can be obtained under the dose of low kill rate of UV and low temperature treatment, under which the best richened m+ T. f6 can be shortened 1.4h. It was shown by the column leaching of copper that the leaching rate can be enhanced by at least 11% compared with the original one by the mutants.

  17. Lead Speciation in the Dusts Emitted from Non-Ferrous Metallurgy Processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Czaplicka, Marianna; Buzek, Lucja

    2011-06-01

    The paper presents results for the speciation analysis of lead in dusts derived from dedusting of technological gasses from metallurgical processes of non-ferrous metals with different elementary content, made in accordance with two equal sequential extractions. Analytical procedure A provided possibilities for determination of fraction of Pb(2+), metallic lead and fraction containing mainly lead sulfides. The second procedure (procedure B) was sequential extraction in accordance with Tessier. The results obtained in accordance with procedure A indicate that, regardless of the dust origin, the dominant group of Pb compounds is composed of lead salts which are soluble under alkaline conditions or lead compounds that form plumbites in the reaction with NaOH.

  18. Electrochemical synthesis and characterization of cubic magnetite nanoparticle in aqueous ferrous perchlorate medium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Gopi

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Electrochemical synthesis of cubic magnetite nanoparticle (MNP in ferrous perchlorate aqueous medium and its spectral investigations have been carried out. The structural property of MNP is evidenced by X-ray diffraction pattern shows the characteristic peaks. Further the vibrational frequencies of MNP are evaluated using FT-IR and Raman spectroscopic techniques. UV–visible spectroscopic studies show the possibility of surface plasmon resonance effect. The cubic structure of MNP has been confirmed by transmission electron microscope (TEM technique and it is also evidenced by scanning electron microscope (SEM. The as-synthesized MNP shows superparamagnetic property which is confirmed by the vibrating sample magnetometer, hence it could be useful for synthesis of very ultra superparamagnetic iron oxide solution (VUSPIO for cancer treatment.

  19. Magnetic hyperthermia heating of cobalt ferrite nanoparticles prepared by low temperature ferrous sulfate based method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tejabhiram Yadavalli

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available A facile low temperature co-precipitation method for the synthesis of crystalline cobalt ferrite nanostructures using ferrous sulfate salt as the precursor has been discussed. The prepared samples were compared with nanoparticles prepared by conventional co-precipitation and hydrothermal methods using ferric nitrate as the precursor. X-ray diffraction studies confirmed the formation of cubic spinel cobalt ferrites when dried at 110 °C as opposed to conventional methods which required higher temperatures/pressure for the formation of the same. Field emission scanning electron microscope studies of these powders revealed the formation of nearly spherical nanostructures in the size range of 20-30 nm which were comparable to those prepared by conventional methods. Magnetic measurements confirmed the ferromagnetic nature of the cobalt ferrites with low magnetic remanance. Further magnetic hyperthermia studies of nanostructures prepared by low temperature method showed a rise in temperature to 50 °C in 600 s.

  20. Hepatoprotective potential of Azima tetracantha and Tribulus terrestris on ferrous sulfate-induced toxicity in rat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manikandaselvi Sambasivam

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available The present study is to evaluate the antihepatotoxic effect of hydroalcoholic extract of leaf powder of Azima tetracantha and the fruit powder of Tribulus terrestris. Ferrous sulfate was used to induce hepatotoxicity and Silymarin was used as a standard drug. The level of biochemical parameters such as protein, albumin, globulin, HDL, vitamin E, superoxide dismutase and catalase were observed to be decreased and the level of glucose, LDL, VLDL, bilirubin, cholesterol, triglycerides, alkaline phosphatase and TBARS were increased in hepatotoxicity-induced rats. Retrieval of liver parameters to normal level was obtained after the oral administration of herbal drugs. Histopathological studies revealed diminished hepatocellular injury in the herbal drugs treated rats. As a conclusion hydro alcoholic extract of leaf powder of A. tetracantha and fruit powder of T. terrestris were possesses significant hepatoprotective activity.

  1. Simulation study of the ferrous ferric electron transfer at a metal--aqueous electrolyte interface

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, B.B.; Halley, J.W. (School of Physics and Astronomy, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, Minnesota 55455 (United States))

    1994-12-15

    We report a new simulation study of the rate of ferrous--ferric electron transfer at a metal electrolyte interface. In contrast with earlier work, new features in our study include a detailed account of the effects of the field associated with the charging of the electrode, inclusion of entropic effects in the calculated free energy barriers, and a study of the dependence of the relevant free energy surfaces on the distance of the ion from the electrode. The qualitative picture of the reaction mechanism which emerges is significantly more detailed than that in earlier work. The dominant factors in determining the rate and mechanisms of electron transfer are the distance dependence of the work function of the metal, the redox species concentration profile, and the electronic matrix element. Calculated free energy barriers are consistent with experimentally measured ones. We also estimate the equilibrium potential for this reaction from the model, and find it to be consistent with the experimental equilibrium potential.

  2. Improving Corrosion Resistance of Ferrous Alloy to Molten Zn by Modifying the Laves Phase Characteristics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, X.; Yin, F. C.; Lou, J.; Ouyang, X. M.; Li, Z.

    2017-08-01

    The Laves phase morphology in the Fe25Mo14Cr10Ni1Si (wt.%) alloy was modified by Si addition to improve the corrosion resistance of the ferrous alloy to molten zinc. The Si-containing alloy showed a woven, needle-like Laves phase with higher Mo content than that of the Fe25Mo14Cr10Ni alloy. Corrosion resistance to molten Zn for the Si-containing alloy was more than 20 times higher than that of the silicon-free alloy mainly as a result of the characteristics of the modified Laves phase. This phase was oriented perpendicular to the Zn-diffusion direction, which effectively prevented corrosion by the molten Zn, leading to a denser FeZn13 layer rather than the FeZn10 layer produced in the Fe25Mo14Cr10Ni alloy.

  3. [The organization of the comprehensive prevention of urolithiasis among ferrous metallurgy workers].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Egorova, A M

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of study is to evaluate the effectiveness of the set of preventive measures as applied to 321 workers of basic ferrous metallurgy specialties (steel makers, mill men, hot metal shearers). During the clinical examination all the workers were divided on three groups: the workers without any pathology (11.83%, the first group), the workers with metabolic disorders only without urolitiasis (64.81%, the second group) and the workers with urolitiasis diagnosis approved by ultrasonography (23.36%, the third group). The effectiveness of rehabilitation measures was evaluated during half a year (diet therapy, drinking regimen, medicinal plants treatment). After the course of preventive measures was applied the overall health condition of most workers ameliorated and the number of workers with urolitiasis development risk factors reliably decreased up to 6-12%.

  4. Small Angle Neutron Scattering Study of Nano Sized Precipitates in Ferrous Alloys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Young-Soo; Park, Duck-Gun; Kobayashi, Satoru

    2015-11-01

    Nano-sized precipitates in a Fe-1 wt% Cu alloy were studied by SANS (Small Angle Neutron Scattering). The SANS experiments were performed with the 40 m SANS instrument at HANARO. Due to the ferromagnetic nature of the ferrous alloys, a horizontal magnetic field of 1 Tesla was applied during the SANS experiment. The nano-sized Cu precipitates were quantitatively analyzed by SANS in the Fe-1 wt% Cu alloy. The size of the precipitates increased from 2 nm to 4 nm with increasing aging time from 20 min. to 1800 min. at 753 K. The measured A-ratio obtained from SANS data increased from 2.2 to 6.6 with increasing aging time. It is surmised that Cu clusters containing a large amount of Fe are initiated at the early stage of aging and the Fe content in the Cu precipitate decreases with increasing aging time and eventually an almost pure BCC Cu precipitate is formed.

  5. Rapid and selective chelatometric titration of zinc in non-ferrous alloys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nan, Z; Zhi-Ren, L; Yuan-Xiang, G

    1983-11-01

    A rapid titrimetric method for the determination of Zn (5%) in zinc, aluminium and copper alloys is proposed. It is based on the chelation of Zn(II) with HEDTA as titrant in an ethanolic aqueous medium. The end-point is detected with hydrazidazol, a new indicator developed in China. Up to at least 6% Mn in the alloy does not interfere. Direct determination of Zn(II) is rendered possible by using a combination of masking agents. A separation is needed only if nickel is also present. A decided advantage of this method is its high selectivity. The standard deviation was found to be 0.07 mg and the coefficient of variation to vary from 0.2 to 0.5%. The method has been successfully used to determine Zn in different kinds of non-ferrous alloys, especially those containing Mn.

  6. Aspects of the magnetism of ferrous chloride; Aspects du magnetisme du chlorure ferreux

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carrara, P. [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1968-03-01

    This work is a critical review of the existing work on ferrous chloride and presents, as well, a number of new experimental results. First, a careful analysis of the level structure of ferrous ions in the crystalline field shows that the crystalline anisotropy is of the same order of magnitude as the exchange interactions, a feature which gives rise to some particular effects, such as an upward curvature of the magnetization curve at 0 K in a perpendicular magnetic field. Further, the very low temperature (T > 0.4 K) thermal variation of both the specific heat and magnetic susceptibility evidences a magnetic component in elementary excitations. This result suggests the presence of a large magneto-elastic coupling. Finally, an experimental study of the H-T phase diagram near T{sub N} and of the critical behaviour of the specific heat and parallel susceptibility was performed. (author) [French] Ce travail constitue une analyse critique des resultats obtenus a ce jour sur le chlorure ferreux et comporte en outre quelques resultats experimentaux nouveaux. Tout d'abord, une etude precise de la structure de niveaux de l'ion ferreux dans le champ cristallin montre que l'anisotropie cristalline est comparable aux interactions d'echange, ce qui produit quelques effets originaux tels que, par exemple, l'inflexion de la courbe d'aimantation a 0 K en champ perpendiculaire. D'autre part, la variation thermique a basse temperature (T > 0.4 K) de la chaleur specifique et de la susceptibilite magnetique montre la presence d'une composante magnetique dans les excitations de basse energie. Ce resultat suggere la presence d'un couplage magneto-elastique. Enfin, nous avons realise une etude experimentale de la ligne de transition de phase (diagramme H,T) au voisinage de T{sub N}, et du comportement critique de la chaleur specifique et de la susceptibilite parallele. (auteur)

  7. Overview of the long distance iron ore slurry pipeline from Anglo Ferrous Brazil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silva, Adarlan M.; Passos, Aline C.; Santos, Daniel; Orban, Eduardo M.; Lisboa, Helder D.; Goncalves, Nilton; Guimaraes, Robson C. [Anglo Ferrous Brazil, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2009-07-01

    The objective of this paper is to present an overview of the long distance iron ore slurry pipeline from Anglo Ferrous Brazil. Anglo Ferrous Brazil is a company of Anglo American plc that is one of the world's largest mining and natural resource company. Minas-Rio is a world class iron ore project which has been developed in Brazil aiming to produce 26.6 million tons per year of concentrate. The mine, concentrator and pump station 1 will be located in Conceicao do Mato Dentro, Minas Gerais state, and the terminal station will be located at Acu Port in Sao Joao da Barra, Rio de Janeiro state. The long distance iron ore slurry pipeline will be one of major differentials of Minas-Rio Project and its useful life was initially estimated in 20 years. The slurry pipeline has a total length of 525 kilometers and will be constructed from predominately 26 inches external diameter API 5L X70 pipes. From kilometer 314 to kilometer 480, 24 inches pipe will be installed to prevent slack flow downstream pump station 2. The pump station 1 is designed to provide the hydraulic head necessary to transport the concentrate iron ore slurry with 8 positive displacement pumps to pump station 2. The pump station 2, located 240 kilometers downstream pump station 1, is designed to operate with 10 positive displacement pumps. The valve station will be located at kilometer 347 and will be used to break the static head between pump station 2 and the terminal station during a slurry pipeline shutdown. (author)

  8. IRON DEFICIENCY ANEMIA IN PREGNANCY INTRAVENOUS IRON SUCROSE AN ALTERNATIVE TO ORAL FERROUS SULPHATE THERAPY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shireen

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available : BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: Iron deficiency anemia in pregnancy is a commonest medical problem throughout the developing world with the burden of disease impacting in both mother and newborn. 46 Anaemia affects nearly half of all the pregnant women in the world, these figures are 52%1 in the developing and 23%26 in the developed world. The high prevalence of iron deficiency anaemia among women during pregnancy in developing countries is of concern and a cause of considerable morbidity and mortality. 27 The aim of the study is to know whether intravenous iron sucrose can be an better alternative in terms of safety, efficacy and compliance over oral ferrous sulphate in the treatment of anaemia in pregnancy. METHOD: This prospective study is conducted in Obstetrics & Gynaecology Department of Cheluvamba hospital, Mysore Medical College and Research Institute, Mysore. All these women are randomly assigned (100 women each to receive either calculated dose of intravenous iron sucrose (Group B or oral ferrous suphate 200mg BD per day (Group A. Hemoglobin, hematocrit and mean corpuscular estimation is done before treatment and after 4wks of correction in both groups to note the improvement in values and monitored for adverse reactions. OBSERVATIONS AND RESULTS: The percentage rise in hemoglobin is statistically significant when baseline hemoglobin levels are compared with that at fourth week of treatment. Statistically significant rise in hemoglobin, hematocrit and mean corpuscular levels are found at fourth week in IV group when compared to oral group. None of the patients had any serious side effects. There were no treatment failures and none of them required blood transfusions. CONCLUSION: This study concluded that intravenous iron sucrose is safe, highly efficacious with better compliance for the treatment of iron deficiency anemia in pregnancy. Iron sucrose therapy is more effective in achieving the optimum results, an increase in hemoglobin

  9. Active removal of ibuprofen by Money plant enhanced by ferrous ions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chehrenegar, Behdad; Hu, Jiangyong; Ong, Say Leong

    2016-02-01

    In this study, the removal of ibuprofen (IBP), a pharmaceutical compound, from aqueous media by Money plant (Epipremnum aureum) was investigated. The effect of ferrous iron (Fe(2+)) on enhancing the IBP removal rate was also analyzed. The first-order removal rate constants showed higher values for lower IBP initial concentrations in the range of 0.20-0.28 d(-1) for an initial concentration of 125 μg L(-1) to 0.03-0.13 d(-1) for an initial concentration of 1000 μg L(-1). Introducing ferrous iron to the aqueous media enhanced the first-order removal rate constant up to 6.5 times in a 3 d time period. Along with the removal of IBP from the media, the endogenous concentration of H2O2 also decreased presumably by the production of hydroxyl radical (·OH). Reduction in the endogenous H2O2 concentration was recorded to be 38% and 98% in the absence and presence of Fe(2+) respectively in the first day and the H2O2 level remained considerably low until day 7 which then gradually increased slightly. Simultaneous reduction of IBP and endogenous H2O2 concentration could be due to the reaction of IBP with ·OH and presumably ·OH production itself accelerated via Fenton reaction. In addition, presence of sodium bicarbonate (NaHCO3) as ·OH scavenger in the system showed reduction of first-order removal rate constant from 1.30 d(-1) to 0.07 d(-1) which could be a possible evidence of biological advanced oxidation process which is believed to play an important role in phytoremediation.

  10. Inhibition of bacterial oxidation of ferrous iron by lead nitrate in sulfate-rich systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Hongmei; Gong, Linfeng; Cravotta, Charles A.; Yang, Xiaofen; Tuovinen, Olli H.; Dong, Hailiang; Fu, Xiang

    2013-01-01

    Inhibition of bacterial oxidation of ferrous iron (Fe(II)) by Pb(NO3)2 was investigated with a mixed culture of Acidithiobacillus ferrooxidans. The culture was incubated at 30 °C in ferrous-sulfate medium amended with 0–24.2 mM Pb(II) added as Pb(NO3)2. Anglesite (PbSO4) precipitated immediately upon Pb addition and was the only solid phase detected in the abiotic controls. Both anglesite and jarosite (KFe3(SO4)2(OH)6) were detected in inoculated cultures. Precipitation of anglesite maintained dissolved Pb concentrations at 16.9–17.6 μM regardless of the concentrations of Pb(NO3)2 added. Fe(II) oxidation was suppressed by 24.2 mM Pb(NO3)2 addition even when anglesite was removed before inoculation. Experiments with 0–48 mM KNO3 demonstrated that bacterial Fe(II) oxidation decreased as nitrate concentration increased. Therefore, inhibition of Fe(II) oxidation at 24.2 mM Pb(NO3)2 addition resulted from nitrate toxicity instead of Pb addition. Geochemical modeling that considered the initial precipitation of anglesite to equilibrium followed by progressive oxidation of Fe(II) and the precipitation of jarosite and an amorphous iron hydroxide phase, without allowing plumbojarosite to precipitate were consistent with the experimental time-series data on Fe(II) oxidation under biotic conditions. Anglesite precipitation in mine tailings and other sulfate-rich systems maintains dissolved Pb concentrations below the toxicity threshold of A. ferrooxidans.

  11. Assessment of ferrous chloride and Portland cement for the remediation of chromite ore processing residue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jagupilla, Santhi C; Wazne, Mahmoud; Moon, Deok Hyun

    2015-10-01

    Chromite Ore Processing Residue (COPR) is an industrial waste containing up to 7% chromium (Cr) including up to 5% hexavalent chromium [Cr(VI)]. The remediation of COPR has been challenging due to the slow release of Cr(VI) from a clinker like material and thereby the incomplete detoxification of Cr(VI) by chemical reagents. The use of sulfur based reagents such as ferrous sulfate and calcium polysulfide to detoxify Cr(VI) has exasperated the swell potential of COPR upon treatment. This study investigated the use of ferrous chloride alone and in combination with Portland cement to address the detoxification of Cr(VI) in COPR and the potential swell of COPR. Chromium regulatory tests, X-ray powder diffraction (XRPD) analyses and X-ray absorption near edge structure (XANES) analyses were used to assess the treatment results. The treatment results indicated that Cr(VI) concentrations for the acid pretreated micronized COPR as measured by XANES analyses were below the New Jersey Department of Environmental Protection (NJDEP) standard of 20 mg kg(-1). The Toxicity characteristic leaching procedure (TCLP) Cr concentrations for all acid pretreated samples also were reduced below the TCLP regulatory limit of 5 mg L(-1). Moreover, the TCLP Cr concentration for the acid pretreated COPR with particle size ⩽0.010 mm were less than the universal treatment standard (UTS) of 0.6 mg L(-1). The treatment appears to have destabilized all COPR potential swell causing minerals. The unconfined compressive strength (UCS) for the treated samples increased significantly upon treatment with Portland cement. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Ferrous sulfate supplementation causes significant gastrointestinal side-effects in adults: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zoe Tolkien

    Full Text Available The tolerability of oral iron supplementation for the treatment of iron deficiency anemia is disputed.Our aim was to quantify the odds of GI side-effects in adults related to current gold standard oral iron therapy, namely ferrous sulfate.Systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials (RCTs evaluating GI side-effects that included ferrous sulfate and a comparator that was either placebo or intravenous (i.v. iron. Random effects meta-analysis modelling was undertaken and study heterogeneity was summarised using I2 statistics.Forty three trials comprising 6831 adult participants were included. Twenty trials (n = 3168 had a placebo arm and twenty three trials (n = 3663 had an active comparator arm of i.v. iron. Ferrous sulfate supplementation significantly increased risk of GI side-effects versus placebo with an odds ratio (OR of 2.32 [95% CI 1.74-3.08, p<0.0001, I2 = 53.6%] and versus i.v. iron with an OR of 3.05 [95% CI 2.07-4.48, p<0.0001, I2 = 41.6%]. Subgroup analysis in IBD patients showed a similar effect versus i.v. iron (OR = 3.14, 95% CI 1.34-7.36, p = 0.008, I2 = 0%. Likewise, subgroup analysis of pooled data from 7 RCTs in pregnant women (n = 1028 showed a statistically significant increased risk of GI side-effects for ferrous sulfate although there was marked heterogeneity in the data (OR = 3.33, 95% CI 1.19-9.28, p = 0.02, I2 = 66.1%. Meta-regression did not provide significant evidence of an association between the study OR and the iron dose.Our meta-analysis confirms that ferrous sulfate is associated with a significant increase in gastrointestinal-specific side-effects but does not find a relationship with dose.

  13. Effect of neutralized solid waste generated in lime neutralization on the ferrous ion bio-oxidation process during acid mine drainage treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Fenwu; Zhou, Jun; Zhou, Lixiang; Zhang, Shasha; Liu, Lanlan; Wang, Ming

    2015-12-15

    Bio-oxidation of ferrous ions prior to lime neutralization exhibits great potential for acid mine drainage (AMD) treatment, while slow ferrous ion bio-oxidation or total iron precipitation is a bottleneck in this process. In this study, neutralized solid waste (NSW) harvested in an AMD lime neutralization procedure was added as a crystal seed in AMD for iron oxyhydroxysulfate bio-synthesis. The effect of this waste on ferrous ion oxidation efficiency, total iron precipitation efficiency, and iron oxyhydroxysulfate minerals yield during ferrous ion bio-oxidation by Acidithiobacillus ferrooxidans was investigated. Ferrous ion oxidation efficiency was greatly improved by adding NSW. After 72 h incubation, total iron precipitation efficiency in treatment with 24 g/L of NSW was 1.74-1.03 times higher than in treatment with 0-12 g/L of NSW. Compared with the conventional treatment system without added NSW, the iron oxyhydroxysulfate minerals yield was increased by approximately 21.2-80.9% when 3-24 g/L of NSW were added. Aside from NSW, jarosite and schwertmannite were the main precipitates during ferrous ion bio-oxidation with NSW addition. NSW can thus serve as the crystal seed for iron oxyhydroxysulfate mineral bio-synthesis in AMD, and improve ferrous ion oxidation and total iron precipitation efficiency significantly.

  14. Ulceration of the oral mucosa following direct contact with ferrous sulfate in elderly patients: a case report and a review of the French National Pharmacovigilance Database.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liabeuf, Sophie; Gras, Valérie; Moragny, Julien; Laroche, Marie-Laure; Andrejak, Michel

    2014-01-01

    To report a series of cases of ulceration of the oral mucosa linked to direct contact with ferrous sulfate in elderly patients. The first case report concerns the occurrence of widespread oral ulceration in an 87-year-old woman with Alzheimer's disease. The ulceration extended from the side of the tongue to the floor of the mouth. No clear explanation was found and various local treatments were ineffective. Once it was realized that the ferrous sulfate tablets (given as an iron supplement) were crushed prior to administration (due to the patient's deglutition disorder), withdrawal of this treatment led to rapid resolution of the ulceration. Nine other cases of oral ulcerations associated with ferrous sulfate were identified in the French National Pharmacovigilance Database. All but one of the patients were over 80 years of age and the youngest patient (a 54-year-old) had dysphagia associated with facial paralysis. Only two other reports of oral ulceration due to ferrous sulfate have been published to date. Mucosal toxicity of ferrous sulfate (which is probably related to oxidative stress) has previously been reported for the hypopharynx, the esophageal lumen, and (after inhalation of a tablet) the tracheobronchial tree. The mucosal toxicity of ferrous sulfate must be taken into account when deglutition disorders are present (as in elderly patients) and appropriate pharmaceutical formulations (such as syrups) should be administered to at-risk patients. The use of iron salts other than ferrous sulfate could be considered.

  15. sEcad and EGF Levels Increased in Urine of Non-ferrous Metal Workers and Medium of Uroepithelial Cell Line Treated by Arsenic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jieyu; Jin, Peiyu; Liu, Shengnan; Wang, Fei; Wang, Xiaoyan; Yang, Li; Xi, Shuhua

    2017-08-17

    Inorganic arsenic (iAs) is a carcinogen and could increase the risks of bladder, lung, and skin cancer. Mining and smelting of non-ferrous metals are common occupational arsenic exposures. In this study, 125 individuals working in non-ferrous metal smelting plants were separated into two groups according to urinary total arsenic (TAs) levels: group 1, TAs ferrous metal plants and are closely associated with urinary iAs concentration. The results suggested that sEcad and EGF may potentially be preclinical prognostic factors of bladder injury and early detection in arsenic exposure individuals.

  16. iNOS as a Driver of Inflammation and Apoptosis in Mouse Skeletal Muscle after Burn Injury: Possible Involvement of Sirt1 S-Nitrosylation-Mediated Acetylation of p65 NF-κB and p53

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yasukawa, Takashi; Ishimaru, Kazuhiro; Yasuhara, Shingo; Yu, Yong-Ming; Martyn, J. A. Jeevendra; Tompkins, Ronald. G.; Shimokado, Kentaro; Kaneki, Masao

    2017-01-01

    Inflammation and apoptosis develop in skeletal muscle after major trauma, including burn injury, and play a pivotal role in insulin resistance and muscle wasting. We and others have shown that inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS), a major mediator of inflammation, plays an important role in stress (e.g., burn)-induced insulin resistance. However, it remains to be determined how iNOS induces insulin resistance. Moreover, the interrelation between inflammatory response and apoptosis is poorly understood, although they often develop simultaneously. Nuclear factor (NF)-κB and p53 are key regulators of inflammation and apoptosis, respectively. Sirt1 inhibits p65 NF-κB and p53 by deacetylating these transcription factors. Recently, we have shown that iNOS induces S-nitrosylation of Sirt1, which inactivates Sirt1 and thereby increases acetylation and activity of p65 NF-κB and p53 in various cell types, including skeletal muscle cells. Here, we show that iNOS enhances burn-induced inflammatory response and apoptotic change in mouse skeletal muscle along with S-nitrosylation of Sirt1. Burn injury induced robust expression of iNOS in skeletal muscle and gene disruption of iNOS significantly inhibited burn-induced increases in inflammatory gene expression and apoptotic change. In parallel, burn increased Sirt1 S-nitrosylation and acetylation and DNA-binding capacity of p65 NF-κB and p53, all of which were reversed or ameliorated by iNOS deficiency. These results indicate that iNOS functions not only as a downstream effector but also as an upstream enhancer of burn-induced inflammatory response, at least in part, by Sirt1 S-nitrosylation-dependent activation (acetylation) of p65 NF-κB. Our data suggest that Sirt1 S-nitrosylation may play a role in iNOS-mediated enhanced inflammatory response and apoptotic change, which, in turn, contribute to muscle wasting and supposedly to insulin resistance after burn injury. PMID:28099528

  17. Relaxation of rabbit corpus cavernosum smooth muscle and aortic vascular endothelium induced by new nitric oxide donor substances of the nitrosyl-ruthenium complex

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joao B. G. Cerqueira

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Endothelial dysfunction characterized by endogenous nitric oxide (NO deficiency made 56% of patients affected with erectile dysfunction decline treatment with PDE-5 inhibitors. New forms of treatment are currently being developed for this group of patients. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The study compared the effect of sodium nitroprusside (SNP and two substances of the nitrosyl-ruthenium complex, cis-[Ru(bpy2(SO3(NO]PF-6-9 ("FONO1” and trans-[Ru(NH34(caffeine(NO]C13 ("LLNO1” on relaxation of rabbit corpus cavernosum smooth muscle and aortic vascular endothelium. The samples were immersed in isolated baths and precontracted with 0.1 µM phenylephrine (PE and the corresponding relaxation concentration/response curves were plotted. In order to investigate the relaxation mechanisms involved, 100 µM ODQ (a soluble guanylate cyclase-specific inhibitor, 3 µM or 10 µM oxyhemoglobin (an extracellular NO scavenger or 1 mM L-cysteine (a nitrosyl anion-specific scavenger was added to the samples. RESULTS: All the NO donors tested produced a significant level of relaxation in the vascular endothelium. In corpus cavernosum samples, FONO1 produced no significant effect, but LLNO1 and SNP induced dose-dependent relaxation with comparable potency (pEC50 = 6.14 ± 0.08 and 6.4 ± 0.14, respectively and maximum effect (Emax = 82% vs. 100%, respectively. All NO donors were found to activate soluble guanylate cyclase, since the addition of the corresponding inhibitor (100 µM ODQ completely neutralized the relaxation effect observed. The addition of oxyhemoglobin reduced the relaxation effect, but did not inhibit it completely. In aortic vascular endothelium 3 µM oxyhemoglobin decreased the relaxation effect by 26% on the average, while 10 µM oxyhemoglobin reduced it by over 52%. The addition of 100 µM L-cysteine produced no significant inhibiting effect. CONCLUSIONS: These results suggest that LLNO1 and FONO1 are potent vasodilators. LLNO1 was

  18. Ferrous-activated persulfate oxidation of arsenic(III) and diuron in aquatic system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhou, Lei [State Key Laboratory of Pollution Control and Resource Reuse, School of the Environment, Nanjing University, Nanjing 210023 (China); Zheng, Wei [Jiangsu Product Quality Supervision and Inspection Research Institute, Nanjing 210007 (China); Ji, Yuefei [State Key Laboratory of Pollution Control and Resource Reuse, School of the Environment, Nanjing University, Nanjing 210023 (China); Université Lyon 1, UMR CNRS 5256, Institut de recherches sur la catalyse et l’environnement de Lyon (IRCELYON), 2 Avenue Albert Einstein, F-69626 Villeurbanne (France); Zhang, Jinfeng; Zeng, Chao; Zhang, Ya; Wang, Qi [State Key Laboratory of Pollution Control and Resource Reuse, School of the Environment, Nanjing University, Nanjing 210023 (China); Yang, Xi, E-mail: yangxi@nju.edu.cn [State Key Laboratory of Pollution Control and Resource Reuse, School of the Environment, Nanjing University, Nanjing 210023 (China)

    2013-12-15

    Highlights: • Effective oxidation of As(III)/diuron is achieved by Fe(II)-activated persulfate. • Hydroxyl and sulfate radical play important roles in As(III) and diuron oxidation. • CA and Na{sub 2}S{sub 2}O{sub 3} are efficient and environmental friendly chelating agents. • DFT calculation is found to be useful for degradation products prediction. -- Abstract: In situ chemical oxidation (ISCO) can be an effective technology for the remediation of soil and groundwater polluted by organic and inorganic contaminants. This study investigated the oxidation of arsenic(III) (As(III)) and diuron using ferrous activated persulfate-based ISCO. The results indicated that Fe(II)/persulfate oxidation could be an effective method to oxidize As(III) and diuron. Effects of pH, S{sub 2}O{sub 8}{sup 2−} and Fe(II) amounts on the destruction of As(III) and diuron were examined in batch experiments. Acidic conditions favored the removal of As(III) and diuron. Four chelating agents, citric acid (CA), Na{sub 2}S{sub 2}O{sub 3}, diethylene triamine pentaacetic acid (DTPA) and ethylene diamine tetraacetic acid disodium (EDTA-Na{sub 2}) were used in attempt to maintain the quantity of ferrous ion in solution. In our experiments, CA and Na{sub 2}S{sub 2}O{sub 3} were found to be more effective than DTPA and EDTA-Na{sub 2}. Our results also revealed a widely practical prospect of inorganic chelating agent Na{sub 2}S{sub 2}O{sub 3}. Hydroxyl and sulfate radical were determined to play key roles in the oxidation process by using ethanol and tertiary butanol as molecular probes. Oxidation of As(III) yielded As(V) via the electron-transfer reaction. In the oxidation process of diuron, a stepwise nucleophilic substitution of chlorine by hydroxyl and a stepwise oxidation process of the methyl on the dimethylurea group by hydroxyl and sulfate radical were proposed.

  19. Brief Analysis of Preventive Measures about Ferrous Sulfide Self-ignition%硫化亚铁自燃防范措施浅析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    路荣博

    2012-01-01

    Ferrous sulfide self-ignition accidents often occur,causing direct and serious menace to the safety production of the refinery.The paper analyzed the principle of ferrous sulfide self-ignition was described.Analysising the case of ferrous sulfide self-ignition,preventive measures was come up from Ferrous sulfide generation and cleanup as well as other aspects.%硫化亚铁自燃事故经常发生,对炼油厂的安全生产造成直接严重威胁。文章阐述了硫化亚铁自燃的机理,分析了硫化亚铁自燃的案例并从硫化亚铁生成和清除以及其它方面提出了防范硫化亚铁自燃事故的对策措施。

  20. The physiological concentration of ferrous iron (II) alters the inhibitory effect of hydrogen peroxide on CD45, LAR and PTP1B phosphatases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuban-Jankowska, Alicja; Gorska, Magdalena; Jaremko, Lukasz; Jaremko, Mariusz; Tuszynski, Jack A; Wozniak, Michal

    2015-12-01

    Hydrogen peroxide is an important regulator of protein tyrosine phosphatase activity via reversible oxidation. However, the role of iron in this reaction has not been yet elucidated. Here we compare the influence of hydrogen peroxide and the ferrous iron (reagent for Fenton reaction) on the enzymatic activity of recombinant CD45, LAR, PTP1B phosphatases and cellular CD45 in Jurkat cells. The obtained results show that ferrous iron (II) is potent inhibitor of CD45, LAR and PTP1B, but the inhibitory effect is concentration dependent. We found that the higher concentrations of ferrous iron (II) increase the inactivation of CD45, LAR and PTP1B phosphatase caused by hydrogen peroxide, but the addition of the physiological concentration (500 nM) of ferrous iron (II) has even a slightly preventive effect on the phosphatase activity against hydrogen peroxide.

  1. Characterization of Residual Stresses in Ferrous Components by Magnetic Anisotropy Measurements Using a Hall Effect Sensor Array Probe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lo, C. C. H.

    2011-06-01

    A new surface sensor probe comprising an angular array of Hall effect sensors has been developed for characterization of residual stresses in ferrous materials by means of stress-induced magnetic anisotropy measurements. The sensor probe applies a radially spreading ac magnetic field to a test sample, and detects stray fields in different directions simultaneously to determine the principal stress axes. In situ measurements were conducted on a annealed steel plate under four-point bending stresses to evaluate the probe performance. The ratio of stray field signals measured along and perpendicular to the stress axis varies linearly with the surface stress, indicating the possibility of characterizing residual stresses in ferrous components using the sensor array probe.

  2. Effect of chelating agent on oxidation rate of aniline in ferrous ion activated persulfate system at neutral pH

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张永清; 谢晓芳; 黄少斌; 梁海云

    2014-01-01

    In the interest of accelerating aniline degradation, Fe2+and chelated Fe2+activated persulfate oxidations were investigated in neutral pH condition. Three kinds of chelating agents were selected including citric acid, oxalic acid and ethylenediamine tetraaceatate (EDTA) to maintain available Fe2+. The results indicate that the concentration of chelating agent and ferrous ion didn’t follow a linear relationship with the degradation rate of aniline. A 1/1 ratio of chelating agent/Fe2+results in a higher degradation rate compared to the results by other ratios. The oxidation enhancement factor using oxalic acid was found to be relatively low. In contrast, citric acid is more suitable chelating agent in the ferrous iron activated persulfate system and aniline exhibits a highest degradation with a persulfate/Fe2+/citric acid/aniline molar ratio of 50/25/25/1 compared to other molar ratios.

  3. Kinetics absorption characteristics of ferrous glycinate in SD rats and its impact on the relevant transport protein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhuo, Zhao; Fang, Shenglin; Yue, Min; Zhang, Yiwei; Feng, Jie

    2014-05-01

    Ferrous glycinate (Fe-Gly) maintains high bioavailability in animals, but its exact absorption mechanism is still unknown. Here, we studied on the absorption kinetics of ferrous glycinate and its impact on the relevant transport protein in Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats. A total of 72 SD rats (male, BW 100 ± 6.25 g) were randomly allotted to three treatments. These treatments were perfused with 1 mL of normal saline, ferrous sulfate (FeSO4), and ferrous glycinate (71.35 mg/L as iron) separately. Four rats were selected from each treatment for collection of blood from the tails at certain times (15, 30, 45, 60, 75, 90, 120, 240, and 360 min) after gavage. Moreover, other six rats selected from each treatment were slaughtered for sampling after gavage at 2, 4, and 6 h to evaluate the expression of intestinal transport protein. Pharmacokinetic parameters of iron were determined by one-compartmental analysis. Compared with FeSO4, the peak plasma concentration of iron (C max) is higher in the rats given gavage with Fe-Gly (P < 0.05). Four hours after gavage with Fe-Gly, the expression of divalent metal transporter 1 (DMT1) in the duodenum is significantly decreased (P < 0.05), but the expression of ferroportin 1 (Fpn1) is significantly increased (P < 0.05). This study indicates that Fe-Gly as iron sources can be absorbed more and utilized faster than FeSO4, and they had different effects on the expression of intestinal transport protein.

  4. Separation of non-ferrous frations of shredded end-of-life vehicles for valorising its alloys

    OpenAIRE

    Margarido, F.; Santos, R. Novais; Durão, F.; Guimarães, C.; Nogueira, C. A.; Oliveira, Paula C.; Pedrosa, Fátima; Gonçalves, Ana Maria

    2014-01-01

    Worldwide the end-of-life vehicles (ELV) generate millions of tons of waste, requiring an adequate and efficient management. The non-ferrous fraction contains essentially aluminium, magnesium and copper alloys, being valorised by metallurgical processors to obtain new metals and alloys. However most of the recovered metals are downcycled, as is the case of aluminium where the recycled products are essentially used to produce less purity casting alloys. New or improved separation technologies ...

  5. ATPA induced GluR5-containing kainite receptor S-nitrosylation via activation of GluR5-Gq-PLC-IP(3)R pathway and signalling module GluR5·PSD-95·nNOS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Hai-Jian; Li, Chong; Zhang, Guang-Yi

    2012-12-01

    GluR5-containing kainite receptor (GluR5-KAR) plays an important role in the pathophysiology of nervous system diseases, while S-nitrosylation exerts a variety of effects on biological systems. However, the mechanism of GluR5-KAR S-nitrosylation is still unclear up to now. Here our researches found that GluR5-KAR selective agonist ATPA stimulation activated the nonclassical GluR5-KAR-Gq-PLC-IP(3)R pathway and the signalling module GluR5·PSD-95·nNOS (the former is more important), led to Ca(2+) release from intracellular calcium stores endoplasmic reticulum (ER) to cytoplasm and extracellular calcium indrawal, respectively, which further resulted in nNOS activation and GluR5-KAR S-nitrosylation, and then inhibited GluR5-mediated whole-cell current attenuation and induced apoptosis in primary cultured hippocampal neurons. Clarification of the primary mechanisms of GluR5-KAR S-nitrosylation induced by ATPA and identification of critical cysteine for GluR5-2a S-nitrosylation (Cys231 and Cys804) open up a brand-new field for revealing downstream signalling pathway of GluR5-KAR and its molecular characteristics, exploring the pathogenesis of neurological diseases and searching for promising therapies.

  6. Ferrous Ion Chelating, Superoxide Anion Radical Scavenging and Tyrosinase Inhibitory Properties of Pure and Commercial Essential Oils of Anetrhum Graveolens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sh Darvish Alipour Astaneh

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Despite slight toxicities of essential oils, they are not under strict control in many countries. Anethum graveolens is widely consumed and its essential oils are at public reach. This study was designed to study essential oils of Anethum graveolens. Methods: The biological properties of pure and commercial essential oils of Anethum graveolens were investigated. In fact, Ferrous ion chelating activity, superoxide anion radical scavenging property, tyrosinase inhibition and total flavonoids of the oils were determined. Results: Chelating activity of 7.8 µg of EDTA was equivalent to 2 µg of the pure oil. The oils had superoxide anion radical scavenging activities which may be related to their total phenol and flavonoid contents. IC50 of ferrous ion chelating, antityrosiase and superoxide anion radical scavenging activities of pure and commercial oils were 1.3, 1.4, 1 and (171.6, 589, 132 µg respectively. Antityrosiase activity of 6.4 µg pure oil was equal to 1000 µg of the commercial oil. Conclusion: Anethum possesses antioxidative and free radical scavenging properties. This oil chelates ferrous ions and superoxide radicals. It is effective in formation of reactive toxic products. Anethum has good potentials regarding its applications in food and drug industries.

  7. Recycling of ferrous sulfate by the synthesis of a new super oxidant material 'Referox'

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Evrard, O. [Universite Henri Poincare, Vandoeuvre (France); Dupre, B.; Jeannot, C.; Kanari, N.; Gaballah, I.; Ninane, L.; Verstraete, W.; Denomme, S.; Belsue, M.

    2001-07-01

    This European Union-sponsored project was initiated to develop a process to recycle industrial ferrous sulfate by the synthesis of a superoxidant containing hexavalent (FeVI) iron. Hexavalent iron, also called ferrates, can be used in decontamination of industrial effluents, decolorisation and purification of effluents from the textile and tanning industries, oxidation of cyanide to cyanates, soil remediation, water treatment and in a variety of other processes. Dry synthesis of potassium ferrate, using calcium hypochlorite as the oxidizing agent, was successful. By using chlorine instead of calcium hypochlorite and by partially substituting sodium hydroxide for potassium hydroxide the cost of the synthesis was significantly reduced. Recycling of ferrous sulfate at room temperature by the synthesis of potassium ferrate (FeVI) using gaseous chlorine instead of solid calcium hypochlorite was also successful. The yield of the synthesis was about 65 per cent for the used industrial ferrous sulfate samples. Large scale experimentation of the potassium ferrate synthesis was also carried out, obtaining potassium ferrate that remained stable for several months. The ferrates were used in the treatment of drinking water, wastewater, soil remediation, and effluent decontamination. Encouraging results were obtained. An additional benefit found was that use of the ferrates as bactericide for water treatment instead of chlorine gas eliminates the generation of halo-organic compounds which are suspected to be carcinogenic. 2 figs.

  8. Effect of ferrous/ferric ions molar ratio on reaction mechanism for hydrothermal synthesis of magnetite nanoparticles

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    N Mizutani; T Iwasaki; S Watano; T Yanagida; H Tanaka; T Kawai

    2008-10-01

    Magnetite nanoparticles were prepared by hydrothermal synthesis under various initial ferrous/ferric molar ratios without adding any oxidizing and reducing agents in order to clarify effects of the molar ratio on the reaction mechanism for the formation of magnetite nanoparticles. The magnetite nanoparticles prepared were characterized by a scanning electron microscope, powder X-ray diffractometer, and superconducting quantum interference device (SQUID). At the molar ratio corresponding to the stoichiometric ratio in the synthesis reaction of magnetite from ferrous hydroxide and goethite, the nucleation of magnetite crystals progressed rapidly in an initial stage of the hydrothermal synthesis, resulting in formation of the magnetite nanoparticles having a smaller size and a lower crystallinity. On the other hand, at higher molar ratios, the particle size and crystallinity increased with increasing molar ratio because using surplus ferrous hydroxide the crystallites of magnetite nanoparticles grew up slowly under hydrothermal conditions according to the Schikorr reaction. The magnetite nanoparticles prepared under various molar ratios had good magnetic properties regardless of the molar ratio.

  9. Spectroscopic characterization of the catalytically competent ferrous site of the resting, activated, and substrate-bound forms of phenylalanine hydroxylase

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Loeb, K.E.; Westre, T.E.; Hedman, B.; Hodgson, K.O.; Solomon, E.I. [Stanford Univ., CA (United States); Kappock, T.J.; Mitic, N.; Glasfeld, E.; Caradonna, J.P. [Yale Univ., New Haven, CT (United States)

    1997-02-26

    The geometric structure of the catalytically relevant ferrous active site of phenylalanine hydroxylase (PAH) has been investigated using magnetic circular dichroism (MCD) and X-ray absorption (XAS) spectroscopies. From the excited state ligand field transitions in the MCD spectrum, the temperature and field dependence of these transitions, and the XAS pre-edge shapes and intensities, the resting ferrous site of the `tense` from PAH is six-coordinate distorted octahedral. The low ligand field strength observed in the MCD spectrum results from significant oxygen ligation and longer Fe-O/N bond distances relative to model complexes as determined from an EXAFS analysis. Substrate-induced allosteric activation ({approx}34 kcal/mol) does not alter the structure of the iron site in the `relaxed` form of PAH compared to the substrate-bound `tense` state. Thus, while activation is necessary for the enzyme to achieve complete catalytic competence, it does not appear to affect the geometry of the catalytically relevent six-coordinate ferrous active site and only directly influences the surrounding protein conformation. In contrast, substrate addition results in a geometric and electronic structural change at the iron center which may help orient the substrate for completely coupled hydroxylation. 106 refs., 10 figs., 6 tabs.

  10. Bioavailability of stabilised ferrous gluconate with glycine in fresh cheese matrix: a novel iron compound for food fortification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pizarro, Fernando; Boccio, José; Salgueiro, María; Olivares, Manuel; Carmuega, Esteban; Weill, Ricardo; Marque, Sebastien; Frereux, Marine; Noirt, Florence

    2013-03-01

    Iron fortification of foods continues to be one of the preferred ways of improving the iron status of the population. Dairy product is a common product in the diet; therefore, it is a plausible vehicle for iron fortification. This study aims to investigate the bioavailability of ferrous gluconate stabilised with glycine (FGSG) in a fresh cheese fortified with zinc. The iron bioavailability of fresh cheese fortified with either FGSG and with or without zinc and FGSG in aqueous solution and a water solution of ferrous ascorbate (reference dose) was studied using double radio iron ((55)Fe and (59)Fe) erythrocyte incorporation in 15 male subjects. All subjects presented with normal values for iron status parameters. The geometric mean of iron bioavailability for the water solution of FGSG was 38.2 %, adjusted to 40 % from reference doses (N.S.). Iron bioavailability in fresh cheese fortified with Ca and Zn was 15.4 % and was 23.1 % without Zn, adjusted to 40 % from reference doses (N.S.). The results of the present study show that the novel iron compound ferrous gluconate stabilised with glycine in a fresh cheese matrix is a good source of iron and can be used in iron fortification programmes.

  11. Stability of niosomes with encapsulated vitamin D3 and ferrous sulfate generated using a novel supercritical carbon dioxide method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagner, Michael E; Spoth, Katherine A; Kourkoutis, Lena F; Rizvi, Syed S H

    2016-12-01

    Niosomes were prepared using a novel supercritical carbon dioxide based method to simultaneously encapsulate ferrous sulfate and vitamin D3 as hydrophilic and hydrophobic cargo, respectively. Vesicle particle size was determined to be bimodal with peak diameters of 1.44 ± 0.16 μm and 7.21 ± 0.64 μm, with the smaller peak comprising 98.8% of the total niosomal volume. Encapsulation efficiency of ferrous sulfate was 25.1 ± 0.2% and encapsulation efficiency of vitamin D3 was 95.9 ± 1.47%. Physical stability of the produced niosomes was assessed throughout a storage period of 21 days. Niosomes showed good physical stability at 20 °C, but storage at 4 °C showed an initial burst release, indicating possible rupture of the niosomal membrane. The Korsmeyer-Peppas equation was used to model the release of ferrous sulfate over time at both storage temperatures.

  12. Temperature response of sulfide/ferrous oxidation and microbial community in anoxic sediments treated with calcium nitrate addition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Zihao; Long, Xinxian; Li, Luyao; Yu, Guangwei; Chong, Yunxiao; Xing, Wen; Zhu, Ziao

    2017-04-15

    Nitrate-driven sulfide oxidation has been proved a cost-effective way to control sediments odor which has long been a universal problem for urban rivers in south China areas. In this work, sediments treatment experiments under a dynamic variation of temperature from 5 °C to 35 °C with 3% of calcium nitrate added were conducted to reveal the influence of temperature variation on this process. The results showed that microbial community was remarkably restructured by temperature variation. Pseudomonas (15.56-29.31%), Sulfurimonas (26.81%) and Thiobacillus (37.99%) were dominant genus at temperature of ≤15 °C, 25 °C and 35 °C, respectively. It seemed that species enrichment occurring at different temperature gradient resulted in the distinct variation of microbial community structure and diversity. Moreover, nitrate-driven sulfide and ferrous oxidation were proportionally promoted only when temperature increased above 15 °C. The dominant bacteria at high temperature stage were those genus that closely related to autotrophic nitrate-driven sulfide and ferrous oxidizing bacteria (e.g.Thiobacillus, Sulfurimonas and Thermomonas), revealing that promotion of sulfide/ferrous oxidation could be attributed to the change of dominant bacteria determined by temperature variation. Thus, a higher treatment efficiency by calcium nitrate addition for odor control would be achieved in summer than any other seasons in south China areas. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Oxidation of atrazine in aqueous media by solar- enhanced Fenton-like process involving persulfate and ferrous ion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khandarkhaeva, Marina; Batoeva, Agniya; Aseev, Denis; Sizykh, Marina; Tsydenova, Oyuna

    2017-03-01

    The oxidation of s-triazines (using atrazine (ATZ) as a model compound) by a solar-enhanced Fenton-like process involving persulfate and ferrous ion was studied. A flow-through tubular photoreactor was employed for the experiments. The solar-enhanced oxidative system involving ferrous ion and persulfate (Solar/S2O8(2-)/Fe(2+)) showed the highest ATZ degradation efficiency when compared with other treatments (unactivated S2O8(2-), Solar - sunlight only, S2O8(2-)/Fe(2+), Solar/S2O8(2-)). Complete degradation of ATZ and 20% reduction in total organic carbon (TOC) content were observed after 30min of the treatment. The in situ generated (•)ОН and SO4(-•) radicals were shown to be involved in ATZ oxidation using the radical scavengers methanol and tert-butyl alcohol. Furthermore, iron compounds were shown to act not only as catalysts but also as photo-sensitizers, as the introduction of ferrous ion into the reaction mixture led to an increased absorbance of the solution and expansion of the absorption spectrum into the longer wavelength spectral region. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Efficacy and safety of oral iron(III) polymaltose complex versus ferrous sulfate in pregnant women with iron-deficiency anemia: a multicenter, randomized, controlled study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ortiz, Ricardo; Toblli, Jorge Eduardo; Romero, Juan Diego; Monterrosa, Beatriz; Frer, Cristina; Macagno, Eugenia; Breymann, Christian

    2011-11-01

    To evaluate the efficacy and safety of iron(III) polymaltose complex (Maltofer(®)) versus ferrous sulfate in iron-deficient pregnant women using recommended doses. An exploratory, open-label, randomized, controlled, multicenter study was undertaken in 80 pregnant women with iron-deficiency anemia (hemoglobin ≤ 10.5 g/dL, serum ferritin ≤ 15 ng/mL and mean corpuscular volume ferrous sulfate (each 100 mg iron twice daily) for 90 days. The primary endpoint, change in hemoglobin from baseline to days 60 and 90, did not differ significantly between treatment groups. The mean (SD) change to day 90 was 2.16 (0.67) g/dL in the iron(III) polymaltose complex group and 1.93 (0.97) g/dL in the ferrous sulfate group (n.s). Mean serum ferritin at day 90 was 179 (38) ng/mL and 157 (34) ng/mL with iron(III) polymaltose complex and ferrous sulfate, respectively (p = 0.014). Adverse events were significantly less frequent in the iron(III) polymaltose group, occurring in 12/41 (29.3%) patients, than in the ferrous sulfate group (22/39 [56.4%]) (p = 0.015). Oral iron(III) polymaltose complex offers at least equivalent efficacy and a superior safety profile compared to ferrous sulfate for the treatment of iron-deficiency anemia during pregnancy.

  15. The effect of folic acid supplementation with ferrous sulfate on the linear and ponderal growth of children aged 6-24 months: a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medeiros, D A; Hadler, M C C M; Sugai, A; Torres, V M

    2015-02-01

    Studies evaluating the effect of folic acid supplementation, either alone or in combination with iron, on the linear and ponderal growth of children are practically nonexistent. The aim of this study was to assess the effect of folic acid supplementation with ferrous sulfate on both linear growth and weight gain in anemic and nonanemic children attending Municipal Daycare Centers in Goiania, State of Goias, Brazil. A double-blind, randomized, controlled trial was conducted on 188 children aged 6-24 months. The effects of ferrous sulfate and folic acid supplementation were evaluated using the analysis of variance procedure, based on a double factorial model with two factors of fixed effects (folic acid supplementation and ferrous sulfate supplementation), adjusted for initial weight. The level of significance was 0.05. The children who received folic acid supplementation showed greater weight gain than the monthly average weight gain of those not given the supplement (P=0.026). This effect was independent of the dose of ferrous sulfate (P for interaction=0.693). Folic acid supplementation increased the gain of weight-for-age Z-score when compared with the placebo group (P=0.018), independent of the dose of ferrous sulfate. Folic acid had no effect on linear growth. The use of folic acid supplementation increased the monthly average weight gain and the gain in weight-for-age Z-score compared with the placebo group. This effect was independent of the dose of ferrous sulfate.

  16. Efficacy, Tolerability, and Acceptability of Iron Hydroxide Polymaltose Complex versus Ferrous Sulfate: A Randomized Trial in Pediatric Patients with Iron Deficiency Anemia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yasa, Beril; Agaoglu, Leyla; Unuvar, Emin

    2011-01-01

    Iron polymaltose complex (IPC) offers similar efficacy with superior tolerability to ferrous sulfate in adults, but randomized trials in children are rare. In a prospective, open-label, 4-month study, 103 children aged >6 months with iron deficiency anemia (IDA) were randomized to IPC once daily or ferrous sulfate twice daily, (both 5 mg iron/kg/day). Mean increases in Hb to months 1 and 4 with IPC were 1.2 ± 0.9 g/dL and 2.3 ± 1.3 g/dL, respectively, (both P = 0.001 versus baseline) and 1.8 ± 1.7 g/dL and 3.0 ± 2.3 g/dL with ferrous sulfate (both P = 0.001 versus baseline) (n.s. between groups). Gastrointestinal adverse events occurred in 26.9% and 50.9% of IPC and ferrous sulfate patients, respectively (P = 0.012). Mean acceptability score at month 4 was superior with IPC versus ferrous sulfate (1.63 ± 0.56 versus 2.14 ± 0.75, P = 0.001). Efficacy was comparable with IPC and ferrous sulfate over a four-month period in children with IDA, but IPC was associated with fewer gastrointestinal adverse events and better treatment acceptability. PMID:22121379

  17. Efficacy, Tolerability, and Acceptability of Iron Hydroxide Polymaltose Complex versus Ferrous Sulfate: A Randomized Trial in Pediatric Patients with Iron Deficiency Anemia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beril Yasa

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Iron polymaltose complex (IPC offers similar efficacy with superior tolerability to ferrous sulfate in adults, but randomized trials in children are rare. In a prospective, open-label, 4-month study, 103 children aged >6 months with iron deficiency anemia (IDA were randomized to IPC once daily or ferrous sulfate twice daily, (both 5 mg iron/kg/day. Mean increases in Hb to months 1 and 4 with IPC were 1.2±0.9 g/dL and 2.3±1.3 g/dL, respectively, (both P=0.001 versus baseline and 1.8±1.7 g/dL and 3.0±2.3 g/dL with ferrous sulfate (both P=0.001 versus baseline (n.s. between groups. Gastrointestinal adverse events occurred in 26.9% and 50.9% of IPC and ferrous sulfate patients, respectively (P=0.012. Mean acceptability score at month 4 was superior with IPC versus ferrous sulfate (1.63±0.56 versus 2.14±0.75, P=0.001. Efficacy was comparable with IPC and ferrous sulfate over a four-month period in children with IDA, but IPC was associated with fewer gastrointestinal adverse events and better treatment acceptability.

  18. Ferrous iron oxidation by sulfur-oxidizing Acidithiobacillus ferrooxidans and analysis of the process at the levels of transcription and protein synthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kucera, Jiri; Bouchal, Pavel; Lochman, Jan; Potesil, David; Janiczek, Oldrich; Zdrahal, Zbynek; Mandl, Martin

    2013-04-01

    In contrast to iron-oxidizing Acidithiobacillus ferrooxidans, A. ferrooxidans from a stationary phase elemental sulfur-oxidizing culture exhibited a lag phase in pyrite oxidation, which is similar to its behaviour during ferrous iron oxidation. The ability of elemental sulfur-oxidizing A. ferrooxidans to immediately oxidize ferrous iron or pyrite without a lag phase was only observed in bacteria obtained from growing cultures with elemental sulfur. However, these cultures that shifted to ferrous iron oxidation showed a low rate of ferrous iron oxidation while no growth was observed. Two-dimensional gel electrophoresis was used for a quantitative proteomic analysis of the adaptation process when bacteria were switched from elemental sulfur to ferrous iron. A comparison of total cell lysates revealed 39 proteins whose increase or decrease in abundance was related to this phenotypic switching. However, only a few proteins were closely related to iron and sulfur metabolism. Reverse-transcription quantitative PCR was used to further characterize the bacterial adaptation process. The expression profiles of selected genes primarily involved in the ferrous iron oxidation indicated that phenotypic switching is a complex process that includes the activation of genes encoding a membrane protein, maturation proteins, electron transport proteins and their regulators.

  19. Experimental Investigation and Numerical Simulation on Interfacial Carbon Diffusion of Diamond Tool and Ferrous Metals

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZOU Lai; ZHOU Ming

    2016-01-01

    We numerically simulated and experimentally studied the interfacial carbon diffusion between diamond tool and workpiece materials. A diffusion model with respect to carbon atoms of diamond tool penetrating into chips and machined surface was established. The numerical simulation results of the diffusion process reveal that the distribution laws of carbon atoms concentration have a close relationship with the diffusion distance, the diffusion time, and the original carbon concentration of the work material. In addition, diamond face cutting tests of die steels with different carbon content are conducted at different depth of cuts and feed rates to verify the previous simulation results. The micro-morphology of the chips is detected by scanning electron microscopy. Energy dispersive X-ray analysis was proposed to investigate the change in carbon content of the chips surface. The experimental results of this work are of beneift to a better understanding on the diffusion wear mechanism in single crystal diamond cutting of ferrous metals. Moreover, the experimental results show that the diffusion wear of diamond could be reduced markedly by applying ultrasonic vibration to the cutting tool compared with conventional turning.

  20. On the characterisation of the corrosion layout of ferrous archaeological analogues in binders

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chitty, Walter-John [Laboratoire Pierre Sue, CEA-CNRS, CEA Saclay, 91191 Gif-sur-Yvette cedex (France); Dillmann, Philippe [LRC CEA DSM 01-27: CNRS IRAMAT UMR5060, IPSE, and Laboratoire Pierre Sue, CEA Saclay, 91191 Gif-sur-Yvette Cedex (France); L' Hostis, Valerie [Laboratoire d' Etude du Comportement des Betons et Argiles, CEA, CE Saclay, 91191 Gif-sur-Yvette cedex (France); Beranger, Gerard [Universite de technologie de Compiegne, BP 60319, 60203 Compiegne (France)

    2004-07-01

    This paper deals with an analytical study on ferrous reinforcements embedded in hydraulic binders found in ancient buildings from the Middle Age period to the beginning of the 20. c. AD. The study of these kind of archaeological analogues is necessary to improve the knowledge on the long-term corrosion of low carbon steels that could be used in concrete to build the substructure of nuclear wastes reversible storage facilities. The corrosion system can be described as a multi-layer pattern made of the metal, a dense corrosion product layer, a transformed medium and a binder. All the morphological and physicochemical properties as composition, structure and porosities of these different parts were studied with different analytical methods as optical and electron microscopy, EDS coupled to SEM, EPMA, mercury porosimetry, micro Raman spectroscopy and micro Diffraction under Synchrotron Radiation. Moreover, average corrosion rates were evaluated by two different methods. These rates are relatively low compared to the same parameters measured on low alloyed steels immersed in aqueous environments and are comparable with results obtained for passivated systems. (authors)

  1. [FEATURES OF THE IMMUNE GENETIC PARAMETERS IN WORKERS IN NON-FERROUS METAL INDUSTRY].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dolgikh, O V; Krivtsov, A V; Lykhina, T S; Bubnova, O A; Lanin, D V; Vdovina, N A; Luzhetskiĭ, K P; Andreeva, E E

    2015-01-01

    There was performed a comparative analysis of immunogenetic indices in non-ferrous metallurgy employees under the exposure to different combinations of harmful occupational factors. The combined effect of chlorine and vanadium fumes, noise, overall vibration appeared to be associated with the gene polymorphism of cytokine regulation--VEGF and TNF (p < 0.05). In workers the combination offactors such as dust containing silicon dioxide, noise, elevated environmental thermal load was associated with cytochrome p450 gene polymorphism, allele variation ofwhich is formed owing to the homozygous genotype. At the same time there was observed an excess production of specific antibodies to vanadium and silicon, significantly differed from that of the indices in the reference group. There are proposed genetic (CYP1A1, VEGF TNFalfa) and immunological (IgG to vanadium and silicon) indices as markers of susceptibility and effect in health risk assessment of different combinations of harmful occupational factors, which will allow to increase the availability of laboratory control during surveillance activities at the objects.

  2. Unilateral Erythema Nodosum following Norethindrone Acetate, Ethinyl Estradiol, and Ferrous Fumarate Combination Therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michelle S. Min

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Erythema nodosum is a septal panniculitis that typically presents as symmetric, tender nodules on the anterior aspects of bilateral lower extremities. Nearly half of cases are due to secondary causes, with oral contraceptive pills being the leading pharmaceutical cause. However, to our knowledge, there has yet to be a published association with norethindrone acetate, ethinyl estradiol, and ferrous fumarate. We report our experience with a 30-year-old woman who developed unilateral tender nodules within a month of starting 1 mg norethindrone acetate and 20 mcg ethinyl estradiol daily. Of note, she had previously taken oral contraceptives with the same estrogen agent but different progesterone, without problems. We conclude that systemically triggered erythema nodosum can present with lesions localized to one extremity. When a patient presents with tender, firm nodules, clinicians should consider the possibility of erythema nodosum and its triggers, such as oral contraceptives. Additionally, should a patient on hormonal therapy develop erythema nodosum, changing the progesterone agent may allow the patient to continue similar therapy without developing symptoms.

  3. Phosphate removal by refined aspen wood fiber treated with carboxymethyl cellulose and ferrous chloride.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eberhardt, Thomas L; Min, Soo-Hong; Han, James S

    2006-12-01

    Biomass-based filtration media are of interest as an economical means to remove pollutants and nutrients found in stormwater runoff. Refined aspen wood fiber samples treated with iron salt solutions demonstrated limited capacities to remove (ortho)phosphate from test solutions. To provide additional sites for iron complex formation, and thereby impart a greater capacity for phosphate removal, a fiber pretreatment with an aqueous solution of a non-toxic anionic polymer, carboxymethyl cellulose (CMC), was evaluated. Problems with excessive viscosities during the screening of commercially available CMC products led to the selection of an ultra low viscosity CMC product that was still usable at a 4% concentration in water. Soxhlet extractions of chipped aspen wood and refined aspen wood fiber samples showed a higher extractives content for the refined material. Analysis of these extracts by FTIR spectroscopy suggested that the higher extractives content for the refined material resulted from the fragmentation of cell wall polymers (e.g., lignin, hemicelluloses) normally insoluble in their native states. Spectroscopic analysis of CMC and ferrous chloride treated fibers showed that the complex formed was sufficiently stable to resist removal during subsequent water washes. Equilibrium sorption data, which fit better with a Freundlich isotherm model than a Langmuir isotherm model, showed that phosphate removal could be enhanced by the CMC pretreatment. Results suggest that the process outlined may provide a facile means to improve the phosphate removal capacity of biomass-based stormwater filtration media.

  4. Natural analogues for expansion due to the anaerobic corrosion of ferrous materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smart, N.R.; Adams, R. [Serco Assurance, Culham Science Centre (United Kingdom)

    2006-10-15

    In Sweden, spent nuclear fuel will be encapsulated in sealed cylindrical canisters, consisting of a cast iron insert and a copper outer container. The canisters will be placed in a deep geologic repository and surrounded by bentonite. If a breach of the outer copper container were to occur the cast iron insert would undergo anaerobic corrosion, forming a magnetite film whose volume would be greater than that of the base metal. In principle there is a possibility that accumulation of iron corrosion product could cause expansion of the copper canister. Anaerobic corrosion rates are very slow, so in the work described in this report reference was made to analogous materials that had been corroding for long periods in natural anoxic aqueous environments. The report considers the types of naturally occurring environments that may give rise to anoxic environments similar to deep geological groundwater and where ferrous materials may be found. Literature information regarding the corrosion of iron archaeological artefacts is summarised and a number of specific archaeological artefacts containing iron and copper corroding in constrained geometries in anoxic natural waters are discussed in detail. No evidence was obtained from natural analogues which would suggest that severe damage is likely to occur to the SKB waste canister design as a result of expansive corrosion of cast iron under repository conditions.

  5. Heat Balance Determination for a Gas-Fired Furnace for Melting Non-Ferrous Metals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O.A. Ighodalo

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available A heat balance is usually carried out to determine the energy inflow and outflow for a thermal system and thus determine the overall system performance. The heat balance for a gas-fired furnace for melting non-ferrous metals has been determined. 50 kg of Aluminium charge was melted in the furnace and the in-furnace, walls, roof and exhaust gas temperatures were measured. Experimental measurements taken from the furnace operation were fed as input to a MATLAB program which was developed based on heat balance equations. The output from the program show that about 10% of the heat energy is lost through the walls and roof while 64% is lost through the exhaust gas. The thermal efficiency and melting efficiency determined for the furnace are 36.39 and 54.6%, respectively. The low energy loss through the walls and roof is due to use of appropriate wall thickness. The highest energy loss is through the exhaust, hence, the incorporation of a recuperator to make use of exhaust gas waste heat to preheat the combustion air or the metal charge or both, will further enhance furnace efficiency.

  6. INTERPRETATION OF AT-LINE SPECTRA FROM AFS-2 BATCH #3 FERROUS SULFAMATE TREATMENT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kyser, E.; O' Rourke, P.

    2013-12-10

    Spectra from the “at-line” spectrometer were obtained during the ferrous sulfamate (FS) valence adjustment step of AFS-2 Batch #3 on 9/18/2013. These spectra were analyzed by mathematical principal component regression (PCR) techniques to evaluate the effectiveness of this treatment. Despite the complications from Pu(IV), we conclude that all Pu(VI) was consumed during the FS treatment, and that by the end of the treatment, about 85% was as Pu(IV) and about 15% was as Pu(III). Due to the concerns about the “odd” shape of the Pu(IV) peak and the possibility of this behavior being observed in the future, a follow-up sample was sent to SRNL to investigate this further. Analysis of this sample confirmed the previous results and concluded that it “odd” shape was due to an intermediate acid concentration. Since the spectral evidence shows complete reduction of Pu(VI) we conclude that it is appropriate to proceed with processing of this the batch of feed solution for HB-Line including the complexation of the fluoride with aluminum nitrate.

  7. Modified ferrous ammonium sulfate benzoic acid xyelenol orange (MFBX) and thermoluminescent dosimeters--a comparative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brindha, S; Rose, J V R; Sathyan, S; Singh I, Rabi Raja; Ravindran, B Paul

    2002-06-07

    Radiation dosimetry deals with the determination of absorbed dose to the medium exposed to ionizing radiation. Chemical dosimetry depends on oxidation or reduction of chemicals by ionizing radiation. A ferrous ammonium sulfate benzoic acid xyelenol orange (FBX) dosimeter based on this principle is being used as a clinical dosimeter at present. Certain modifications were carried out in the preparation and storage of the FBX dosimeter to increase its shelf life. The resulting dosimeter was called a modified FBX (MFBX) dosimeter and has been used in our department for the past few years. An extensive study of the dose, dose rate and energy response of the dosimeter was carried out and compared with a thermoluminescent (LiF7) dosimeter. The results obtained were found to be comparable to the thermoluminescent (LiF7) dosimeter. Hence it was concluded that the MFBX dosimeter could be used for phantom dosimetry, data collection and in vivo measurements. Easier preparation and availability of the reagents are added advantages of using MFBX as a clinical dosimeter in small radiotherapy departments.

  8. INTERPRETATION OF AT-LINE SPECTRA FROM AFS-2 BATCH #3 FERROUS SULFAMATE TREATMENT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kyser, E.; O' Rourke, P.

    2013-12-10

    Spectra from the “at-line” spectrometer were obtained during the ferrous sulfamate (FS) valence adjustment step of AFS-2 Batch #3 on 9/18/2013. These spectra were analyzed by mathematical principal component regression (PCR) techniques to evaluate the effectiveness of this treatment. Despite the complications from Pu(IV), we conclude that all Pu(VI) was consumed during the FS treatment, and that by the end of the treatment, about 85% was as Pu(IV) and about 15% was as Pu(III). Due to the concerns about the “odd” shape of the Pu(IV) peak and the possibility of this behavior being observed in the future, a follow-up sample was sent to SRNL to investigate this further. Analysis of this sample confirmed the previous results and concluded that it “odd” shape was due to an intermediate acid concentration. Since the spectral evidence shows complete reduction of Pu(VI) we conclude that it is appropriate to proceed with processing of this the batch of feed solution for HB-Line including the complexation of the fluoride with aluminum nitrate.

  9. eNOS S-nitrosylates β-actin on Cys374 and regulates PKC-θ at the immune synapse by impairing actin binding to profilin-1

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Ortiz, Almudena; Martín-Cofreces, Noa B.; Ibiza, Sales; Ortega, Ángel; Izquierdo-Álvarez, Alicia; Trullo, Antonio; Victor, Víctor M.; Calvo, Enrique; Sot, Begoña; Martínez-Ruiz, Antonio; Vázquez, Jesús; Sánchez-Madrid, Francisco

    2017-01-01

    The actin cytoskeleton coordinates the organization of signaling microclusters at the immune synapse (IS); however, the mechanisms involved remain poorly understood. We show here that nitric oxide (NO) generated by endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) controls the coalescence of protein kinase C-θ (PKC-θ) at the central supramolecular activation cluster (c-SMAC) of the IS. eNOS translocated with the Golgi to the IS and partially colocalized with F-actin around the c-SMAC. This resulted in reduced actin polymerization and centripetal retrograde flow of β-actin and PKC-θ from the lamellipodium-like distal (d)-SMAC, promoting PKC-θ activation. Furthermore, eNOS-derived NO S-nitrosylated β-actin on Cys374 and impaired actin binding to profilin-1 (PFN1), as confirmed with the transnitrosylating agent S-nitroso-L-cysteine (Cys-NO). The importance of NO and the formation of PFN1-actin complexes on the regulation of PKC-θ was corroborated by overexpression of PFN1- and actin-binding defective mutants of β-actin (C374S) and PFN1 (H119E), respectively, which reduced the coalescence of PKC-θ at the c-SMAC. These findings unveil a novel NO-dependent mechanism by which the actin cytoskeleton controls the organization and activation of signaling microclusters at the IS. PMID:28394935

  10. PSNO: Predicting Cysteine S-Nitrosylation Sites by Incorporating Various Sequence-Derived Features into the General Form of Chou’s PseAAC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jian Zhang

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available S-nitrosylation (SNO is one of the most universal reversible post-translational modifications involved in many biological processes. Malfunction or dysregulation of SNO leads to a series of severe diseases, such as developmental abnormalities and various diseases. Therefore, the identification of SNO sites (SNOs provides insights into disease progression and drug development. In this paper, a new bioinformatics tool, named PSNO, is proposed to identify SNOs from protein sequences. Firstly, we explore various promising sequence-derived discriminative features, including the evolutionary profile, the predicted secondary structure and the physicochemical properties. Secondly, rather than simply combining the features, which may bring about information redundancy and unwanted noise, we use the relative entropy selection and incremental feature selection approach to select the optimal feature subsets. Thirdly, we train our model by the technique of the k-nearest neighbor algorithm. Using both informative features and an elaborate feature selection scheme, our method, PSNO, achieves good prediction performance with a mean Mathews correlation coefficient (MCC value of about 0.5119 on the training dataset using 10-fold cross-validation. These results indicate that PSNO can be used as a competitive predictor among the state-of-the-art SNOs prediction tools. A web-server, named PSNO, which implements the proposed method, is freely available at http://59.73.198.144:8088/PSNO/.

  11. STUDY OF THE IMPACT OF PHOSPHOGYPSUM ADDITIVE AND FERROUS SULPHATE SOLUTION ON THE MECHANISM OF THE MAGNESIA-BISHOFIT COMPOSITION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DEREVIANKO V. N.

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement. Phosphogypsum is a very pure raw material [16] with a negative, from a technical point of view, elongated shape of calcium dihydrate crystals (due to the formation conditions, which remains the same after both dehydration in dry air and grinding, this makes technical difficulties relating to further processing of the product into a binder, consequently, water resistance and plasticity of magnesium solutions can be improved by adding primary and secondary phosphates without strength reduction. Famous experts on phosphogypsum Yu. P. Meshcheryakov and N. A. Kolev [8] found, that when adding phosphogypsum instead of natural gypsum during grinding of Portland cement, which is intended to control the setting time of the mixture, there occurred reduction in the initial setting time from 1 h 55 min up to 1 h 36 min (when adding 4 % agent, and the final setting time was decreased from 6 h 15 min up to 6 min. After grinding of phosphogypsum, there appeared a fresh surface, on which the electron emission phenomenon occurs, however, not the entire surface emits, but only the active centres, where field strength reaches 108 V/cm. The positively charged active centres have low CaSO4 2H2O concentration on their surface. Purpose. Specifying the optimal amount of phosphogypsum and ferrous sulphate solution added, studying their impact on the curing mechanism of the magnesia-bishofit composition. Conclusion. To increase the sulphate compound, required for the crystallinity [10] reduction and magnesia stone sealing [4], the ferrous sulphate solution have been added to the composition formulation, ferrous sulphate anions immediately polarize free calcium ions with the formation of CaSO4∙2H2O. P. P. Budkov's experiments [8] prove that the larger the magnesia cement-to-sulphate stone ratio, the lower the setting time of the composition, and the higher the tensile strength of the stone. Moreover, V. V. Shchelyaghin [15] recommended adding ferrous

  12. Cultivable diversity of thermophilic arsenite/ferrous-oxidizing microorganisms in hot springs of Taiwan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, G.; Lin, Y.; Chang, Y.; Wang, P.; Lin, L.

    2009-12-01

    Elevated levels of arsenic in groundwater and surface water bodies have posed a stringent threat to the deterioration of the water quality for drinking and agriculture purposes around the world. In particular, arsenic liberated from volcanic and sedimentary rocks at high temperatures would be immobilized through adsorption on iron oxide and/or crystallization of iron-bearing minerals downstream at low temperatures. Understanding how microbially-catalytic reactions are involved in the changes of the redox state of arsenic and iron along a flow path would provide important constraints on the arsenic mobility in natural occurrences. The aims of this study were to isolate and characterize thermophilic arsenite- and iron-oxidizing microbes that would facilitate to establish the linkages between microbial distribution and in situ Fe/As cycling processes. Four source waters (LH05, LH08, SYK and MT) from acid-sulfate springs (pH 2-3, 60-97oC) located in the Tatun volcanic area of northern Taiwan were collected and inoculated into media targeting on autotrophic ferrous iron (FC3), arsenite (AC3 ,ACC3, AC7, ACC7), arsenite-resistant hydrogen (AH23), arsenite-resistant hydrogen-sulfur (AH2S3), and arsenite-resistant sulfur oxidations(AS3), and heterotrophic arsenite oxidation(AH3, AH7) at pH 3, and 7 at temperatures of 50, 70 and 80oC. Samples from the Kuantzuling mud springs (KTL) in southwestern Taiwan known with elevated arsenic levels (0.4 ppm) were also collected, inoculated into the heterotrophic medium and incubated at 50, 60, 70 and 80oC. Isolates obtained from KTL were subject to test on the AH7 and ACC7. Two positive enrichments for iron oxidation at 50oC and 70oC were confirmed by the steadily decrease of ferrous iron and increase of precipitates over 4 transfers for samples from the SYK spring. Diverse morphological types of microbes were enriched in all types of arsenite-bearing media at 50oC except for AH23. At 70oC, positive enrichments were found in media

  13. Ferrous sulphate mono and heptahydrate reduction of hexavalent chromium in cement: effectiveness and storability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valverde, J. L.

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available In Community legislation, substances containing hexavalent chromium are classified as carcinogenic, mutagenic and sensitizing. In cement, hexavalent chromium intensifies sensitization and may set off severe allergic reactions in workers in routine contact with the product, whether in the factory or on construction sites. The allergic or contact dermatitis causes is a very painful disease that may lead to permanent worker disability. According to Directive 2003/53/EC of the European Parliament and the Council, Governments of all member countries will be required to prohibit the marketing and use, as of 17 January 2005, of any cement or cement preparation containing more than 2 ppm of chromium (VI. Hexavalent chromium can be reduced with ferrous sulphate to trivalent chromium, which is water-insoluble and therefore innocuous to the skin. The present paper reports the effects of adding ferrous sulphate mono- or heptahydrate to a commercial cement and the storage time of the mix on the concentration of hexavalent chromium. The salts studied were found to effectively reduce hexavalent chromium in cement for at least three months.

    Las sustancias que contienen cromo hexavalente están clasificadas en la legislación comunitaria como sustancias carcinogénicas, mutagénicas y sensibilizantes. El cromo hexavalente del cemento potencia la sensibilización y provoca graves reacciones alérgicas que sufren bastante a menudo los trabajadores que lo manipulan habitualmente, ya sea en fábrica o en el sector de la construcción. La dermatitis alérgica o de contacto que produce es muy dolorosa y puede dejar a los trabajadores en estado de discapacidad. La Directiva 2003/53/CE del Parlamento Europeo y del Consejo, exige a los Gobiernos de los países miembros, que a partir del 17 de enero de 2005, prohiban el uso y la comercialización de todos aquellos cementos y preparados que contengan cemento, cuyo contenido en cromo (VI soluble, una vez hidratados

  14. Effect of ferric and ferrous iron addition on phosphorus removal and fouling in submerged membrane bioreactors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Zhenghua; Wang, Yuan; Leslie, Greg L; Waite, T David

    2015-02-01

    The effect of continuously dosing membrane bioreactors (MBRs) with ferric chloride (Fe(III)) and ferrous sulphate (Fe(II)) on phosphorus (P) removal and membrane fouling is investigated here. Influent phosphorus concentrations of 10 mg/L were consistently reduced to effluent concentrations of less than 0.02 mg/L and 0.03-0.04 mg/L when an Fe(III)/P molar ratio of 4.0 and Fe/P molar ratio (for both Fe(II) and Fe(III)) of 2.0 were used, respectively. In comparison, effluent concentrations did not decrease below 1.35 mg/L in a control reactor to which iron was not added. The concentrations of supernatant organic compounds, particularly polysaccharides, were reduced significantly by iron addition. The sub-critical fouling time (tcrit) after which fouling becomes much more severe was substantially shorter with Fe(III) dosing (672 h) than with Fe(II) dosing (1200-1260 h) at Fe/P molar ratios of 2.0 while the control reactor (no iron dosing) exhibited a tcrit of 960 h. Not surprisingly, membrane fouling was substantially more severe at Fe/P ratios of 4. Fe(II) doses yielding Fe/P molar ratios of 2 or less with dosing to the aerobic chamber were found to be optimal in terms of P removal and fouling mitigation performance. In long term operation, however, the use of iron for maintaining appropriately low effluent P concentrations results in more severe irreversible fouling necessitating the application of an effective membrane cleaning regime.

  15. Analysis of Chemical Composition of Non-Ferrous Metal Items from the Ananyino Burial Ground

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    Saprykina Irina А.

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The article presents results of an analysis conducted by the authors in order to study chemical composition of items from non-ferrous metals found on the Ananyino burial ground. A number of research methods, including OES, XRF and TXRF was applied to study a selection of 387 samples of arrow- and spearheads, celts, tail-pieces, warhammers, poleaxes, knives and daggers, as well as items of attire and jewelry, some sporadic details of harness and bridle. The fi ndings are quite comparable. The results were classifi ed by the geochemical principle of 1,0% alloyage threshold. It was found out that the sample primarily consists of copper items, including “pure” copper and copper with a wide range of trace elements (particularly, Ni, As, Sb. The core (48% consists of copper items with traces of antimony and arsenic, or “pure” copper (7%, tin or triple bronze (40%; it also includes some other types of alloys based on copper or silver (5%. As the analysis has shown, complex ores seem to be the most probable source of copper. Traditionally, the Urals, the Sayan and the Altay Mountains, Kazakhstan and the Northern Caucasus were regarded as the most probable minefi elds to supply ores to the barren regions of Eastern Europe. While ore sources for products made of metallurgical “pure” copper are localized within the Ural mining and metallurgical region, metal sources for items cast from different groups of alloys (rather than imports of ready-made products require further research.

  16. A novel approach to oral iron delivery using ferrous sulphate loaded solid lipid nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zariwala, M Gulrez; Elsaid, Naba; Jackson, Timothy L; Corral López, Francisco; Farnaud, Sebastien; Somavarapu, Satyanarayana; Renshaw, Derek

    2013-11-18

    Iron (Fe) loaded solid lipid nanoparticles (SLN's) were formulated using stearic acid and iron absorption was evaluated in vitro using the cell line Caco-2 with intracellular ferritin formation as a marker of iron absorption. Iron loading was optimised at 1% Fe (w/w) lipid since an inverse relation was observed between initial iron concentration and SLN iron incorporation efficiency. Chitosan (Chi) was included to prepare chitosan coated SLN's. Particle size analysis revealed a sub-micron size range (300.3±31.75 nm to 495.1±80.42 nm), with chitosan containing particles having the largest dimensions. As expected, chitosan (0.1%, 0.2% and 0.4% w/v) conferred a net positive charge on the particle surface in a concentration dependent manner. For iron absorption experiments equal doses of Fe (20 μM) from selected formulations (SLN-FeA and SLN-Fe-ChiB) were added to Caco-2 cells and intracellular ferritin protein concentrations determined. Caco-2 iron absorption from SLN-FeA (583.98±40.83 ng/mg cell protein) and chitosan containing SLN-Fe-ChiB (642.77±29.37 ng/mg cell protein) were 13.42% and 24.9% greater than that from ferrous sulphate (FeSO4) reference (514.66±20.43 ng/mg cell protein) (p≤0.05). We demonstrate for the first time preparation, characterisation and superior iron absorption in vitro from SLN's, suggesting the potential of these formulations as a novel system for oral iron delivery. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Ferrous Iron Is a Significant Component of Bioavailable Iron in Cystic Fibrosis Airways

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunter, Ryan C.; Asfour, Fadi; Dingemans, Jozef; Osuna, Brenda L.; Samad, Tahoura; Malfroot, Anne; Cornelis, Pierre; Newman, Dianne K.

    2013-01-01

    ABSTRACT Chronic, biofilm-like infections by the opportunistic pathogen Pseudomonas aeruginosa are a major cause of mortality in cystic fibrosis (CF) patients. While much is known about P. aeruginosa from laboratory studies, far less is understood about what it experiences in vivo. Iron is an important environmental parameter thought to play a central role in the development and maintenance of P. aeruginosa infections, for both anabolic and signaling purposes. Previous studies have focused on ferric iron [Fe(III)] as a target for antimicrobial therapies; however, here we show that ferrous iron [Fe(II)] is abundant in the CF lung (~39 µM on average for severely sick patients) and significantly correlates with disease severity (ρ = −0.56, P = 0.004), whereas ferric iron does not (ρ = −0.28, P = 0.179). Expression of the P. aeruginosa genes bqsRS, whose transcription is upregulated in response to Fe(II), was high in the majority of patients tested, suggesting that increased Fe(II) is bioavailable to the infectious bacterial population. Because limiting Fe(III) acquisition inhibits biofilm formation by P. aeruginosa in various oxic in vitro systems, we also tested whether interfering with Fe(II) acquisition would improve biofilm control under anoxic conditions; concurrent sequestration of both iron oxidation states resulted in a 58% reduction in biofilm accumulation and 28% increase in biofilm dissolution, a significant improvement over Fe(III) chelation treatment alone. This study demonstrates that the chemistry of infected host environments coevolves with the microbial community as infections progress, which should be considered in the design of effective treatment strategies at different stages of disease. PMID:23963183

  18. Enhanced Aerobic Glycolysis by S-Nitrosoglutathione via HIF-1α Associated GLUT1/Aldolase A Axis in Human Endothelial Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Jieping; Huang, Xin; Zhu, Danyan; Lou, Yijia

    2017-08-01

    S-nitrosoglutathione (GSNO)-induced apoptosis is associated with reactive oxygen species and loss of mitochondrial Omi/HtrA2 in human endothelial cells (ECs). But its upstream regulation is still not elucidated. Here, we demonstrate that hypoxia induced factor-1α (HIF-1α)-linked aerobic glycolysis is associated with mitochondrial abnormality by treatment of human EC-derived EA.hy926 cells with GSNO (500 µM) for 6 h. GSNO exposure increased the levels of Aldolase A and glucose transporter-1 (GLUT1) mRNAs and proteins. And selectively enhanced aldolase A activity to form glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate, dihydroxyacetone phosphate, which subsequently increased intracellular levels of methylglyoxal and reactive oxygen species in parallel. Using the biotin switch assay, we found that GSNO increased the S-nitrosylating levels of total protein and HIF-1α. Knockdown of HIF-1α with siRNA attenuated its target aldolase A and GLUT1 expression but not VEGF. In contrast, nitrosylation scanvenger dithiothreitol could decrease all the protein levels. It suggested that aerobic glycolytic flux was more dependent on HIF-1α level, and that HIF-1α S-nitrosylation was crucial for its target expression under the normoxic condition. Moreover, GSNO-induced PI3 K (phosphoinositide 3-kinase)/Akt phosphorylation might contribute to HIF-1α stabilization and nucleus translocation, thereby aiding aldolase A and GLUT1 mRNAs upregulation. Taken together, higher concentration GSNO promotes glycolytic flux enhancement and methylglyoxal formation via HIF-1α S-nitrosylation. These findings reveal the mechanism of enhanced glycolysis-associated mitochondrial dysfunction in ECs by GSNO exposure under normoxic and non-hyperglycemic condition. And offer the early potential targets for vascular pathophysiological evaluation. J. Cell. Biochem. 118: 2443-2453, 2017. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  19. Additive cardioprotection by pharmacological postconditioning with hydrogen sulfide and nitric oxide donors in mouse heart: S-sulfhydration vs. S-nitrosylation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Junhui; Aponte, Angel M; Menazza, Sara; Gucek, Marjan; Steenbergen, Charles; Murphy, Elizabeth

    2016-05-01

    Hydrogen sulfide (H2S), as a gaseous signalling molecule, has been found to play important roles in postconditioning (PostC)-induced cardioprotection. Similar to nitric oxide (NO)-mediated protein S-nitrosylation (SNO), recent studies suggest that H2S could regulate protein function through another redox-based post-translational modification on protein cysteine residue(s), i.e. S-sulfhydration (SSH). In this study, we examined whether there are changes in protein SSH associated with cardioprotection induced by treatment with H2S on reperfusion. In addition, we also examined whether there is cross talk between H2S and NO. Compared with control, treatment on reperfusion with NaHS (H2S donor, 100 µmol/L) significantly reduced post-ischaemic contractile dysfunction and infarct size. A comparable cardioprotective effect could be also achieved by reperfusion treatment with SNAP (NO donor, 10 µmol/L). Interestingly, simultaneous reperfusion with both donors had an additive protective effect. In addition, C-PTIO (NO scavenger, 20 µmol/L) eliminated the protection induced by NaHS and also the additive protection by SNAP + NaHS together. Using a modified biotin switch method, we observed a small increase in SSH following NaHS treatment on reperfusion. We also found that NaHS treatment on reperfusion increases SNO to a level comparable to that with SNAP treatment. In addition, there was an additive increase in SNO but not SSH when SNAP and NaHS were added together at reperfusion. Thus, part of the benefit of NaHS is an increase in SNO, and the magnitude of the protective effect is related to the magnitude of the increase in SNO.

  20. Analytical gradients of complete active space self-consistent field energies using Cholesky decomposition: Geometry optimization and spin-state energetics of a ruthenium nitrosyl complex

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Delcey, Mickaël G. [Department of Chemistry – Ångström, The Theoretical Chemistry Programme, Uppsala University, Box 518, 751 20 Uppsala (Sweden); Freitag, Leon; González, Leticia, E-mail: leticia.gonzalez@univie.ac.at [Institut für Theoretische Chemie, Universität Wien, Währinger Straße 17, 1090 Vienna (Austria); Pedersen, Thomas Bondo [Centre for Theoretical and Computational Chemistry, Department of Chemistry, University of Oslo, P.O. Box 1033 Blindern, 0315 Oslo (Norway); Aquilante, Francesco [Department of Chemistry – Ångström, The Theoretical Chemistry Programme, Uppsala University, Box 518, 751 20 Uppsala (Sweden); Dipartimento di Chimica “G. Ciamician,” Università di Bologna, V. F. Selmi 2, 40126 Bologna (Italy); Lindh, Roland, E-mail: roland.lindh@kemi.uu.se [Department of Chemistry – Ångström, The Theoretical Chemistry Programme, Uppsala University, Box 518, 751 20 Uppsala (Sweden); Uppsala Center for Computational Chemistry - UC3, Uppsala University, Box 518, 751 20 Uppsala (Sweden)

    2014-05-07

    We present a formulation of analytical energy gradients at the complete active space self-consistent field (CASSCF) level of theory employing density fitting (DF) techniques to enable efficient geometry optimizations of large systems. As an example, the ground and lowest triplet state geometries of a ruthenium nitrosyl complex are computed at the DF-CASSCF level of theory and compared with structures obtained from density functional theory (DFT) using the B3LYP, BP86, and M06L functionals. The average deviation of all bond lengths compared to the crystal structure is 0.042 Å at the DF-CASSCF level of theory, which is slightly larger but still comparable with the deviations obtained by the tested DFT functionals, e.g., 0.032 Å with M06L. Specifically, the root-mean-square deviation between the DF-CASSCF and best DFT coordinates, delivered by BP86, is only 0.08 Å for S{sub 0} and 0.11 Å for T{sub 1}, indicating that the geometries are very similar. While keeping the mean energy gradient errors below 0.25%, the DF technique results in a 13-fold speedup compared to the conventional CASSCF geometry optimization algorithm. Additionally, we assess the singlet-triplet energy vertical and adiabatic differences with multiconfigurational second-order perturbation theory (CASPT2) using the DF-CASSCF and DFT optimized geometries. It is found that the vertical CASPT2 energies are relatively similar regardless of the geometry employed whereas the adiabatic singlet-triplet gaps are more sensitive to the chosen triplet geometry.

  1. Regional Logistics of Procurement of the Ferrous Scrap by the Iron-and-Steel Companies of the Russian Federation

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    Tatiana Aleksandrovna Ivanova

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The article discusses the relevant problem of iron-and-steel companies saving on purchasing the scrap metal. The analysis of the current state of the ferrous scrap market in the Russian Federation, trends of its development, led the authors to an opportunity to reduce the cost for purchasing scrap trough the optimal distribution of the regions between Russian iron-and-steel companies where they purchase ferrous scrap. The optimization of the regional structure of the scrap procurement taking into account the regional volumes of its generation and consumption results from using the linear programming methods applying three variants of the problem statement: minimizing the total cost of the scrap delivery to the factory, minimizing the total cost of the scrap at the “export parity” price with delivery, minimizing the total cost of the scrap at the actual prices with delivery. The authors have developed software for performing the calculations. The source are the database of the JSC Russian Railways, which provides information about the transportation of the ferrous scrap between stations of the Russian Federation by railroad; railway rates guide between railway stations of the Russian Federation; statistical data on the prices for scrap metal of the type 3A in “export windows”; actual purchasing prices for the scrap of the 3A type for the range of separate companies of the Russian Federation for several years. As a result, the authors have obtained the optimal regional structure of scrap purchasing for customers in the Russian Federation. We have formulated the recommendations for individual companies regarding the optimal routes of the procurement with scrap. The study has confirmed the possibility to decrease expanses for purchasing the scrap metal for all iron-and-steel factories of the Russian Federation through the optimization of the regional structure of procurement. It is also has allowed to estimate the possibility to cut expenses

  2. Dry Cereals Fortified with Electrolytic Iron or Ferrous Fumarate Are Equally Effective in Breast-fed Infants123

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ziegler, Ekhard E.; Fomon, Samuel J.; Nelson, Steven E.; Jeter, Janice M.; Theuer, Richard C.

    2011-01-01

    Precooked, instant (dry) infant cereals in the US are fortified with electrolytic iron, a source of low reactivity and suspected low bioavailability. Iron from ferrous fumarate is presumed to be more available. In this study, we compared a dry infant rice cereal (Cereal L) fortified with electrolytic iron (54.5 mg iron/100 g cereal) to a similar cereal (Cereal M) fortified with ferrous fumarate (52.2 mg Fe/100 g) for efficacy in maintaining iron status and preventing iron deficiency (ID) in breast-fed infants. Ascorbic acid was included in both cereals. In this prospective, randomized double-blind trial, exclusively breast-fed infants were enrolled at 1 mo and iron status was determined periodically. At 4 mo, 3 infants had ID anemia and were excluded. Ninety-five infants were randomized at 4 mo, and 69 (36 Cereal L, 33 Cereal M) completed the intervention at 9 mo. From 4 to 9 mo, they consumed daily one of the study cereals. With each cereal, 2 infants had mild ID, a prevalence of 4.2%, but no infant developed ID anemia. There were no differences in iron status between study groups. Iron intake from the study cereals was (mean ± SD) 1.21 ± 0.31 mg⋅kg−1⋅d−1 from Cereal L and 1.07 ± 0.40 mg⋅kg−1⋅d−1 from Cereal M. Eleven infants had low birth iron endowment (plasma ferritin ferrous fumarate were equally efficacious as fortificants of this infant cereal. PMID:21178077

  3. Efficacy and tolerability of a prolonged release ferrous sulphate formulation in iron deficiency anaemia: a non-inferiority controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaim, Mohammed; Piselli, Leonardo; Fioravanti, Pino; Kanony-Truc, Claire

    2012-03-01

    Iron deficiency anaemia (IDA) is the last stage of iron deficiency, consecutive to an imbalance between iron supply through food intake and iron loss through physiological or pathological processes. As well as by haemoglobin levels, IDA is diagnosed by measuring biomarkers of iron stores. Women are most affected by IDA since their teenage years, as menstruation constitutes a chronic iron loss. Oral supplementation with ferrous sulphate is an effective therapy, but gastrointestinal side effects may impair treatment compliance. The present multicentric randomised controlled trial was designed to assess the non-inferiority of a ferrous sulphate prolonged release formulation called V0355 with the referential ferrous sulphate Ferrograd® in a population of Italian women aged 18-50 years diagnosed for IDA. Three hundred and ninety-nine patients were randomised to receive V0355 (80 mg Fe/day) or Ferrograd® (105 mg Fe/day). After 12 weeks of treatment, the difference in the mean haemoglobin level between the two groups was 0.081 g/dL ([-2.986;1.361], p = 0.54), which confirmed the hypothesis of non-inferiority. All the other biochemical parameters (serum iron, serum ferritin, transferrin, and soluble transferrin receptor) and haematological parameters (erythrocytes count, reticulocytes count, haematocrit, and mean corpuscular volume), as well as patient's anaemia-related symptoms, were not different between treatment groups throughout the study. Furthermore, the incidence of gastrointestinal adverse events of moderate and severe intensity was significantly lower (p = 0.007) in the V0355 group (5.6%) than in the Ferrograd® group (13.9%). V0355 was as efficient as Ferrograd® in the treatment of anaemia and exhibited a better gastrointestinal tolerance profile.

  4. The maturation state of the auditory nerve and brainstem in rats exposed to lead acetate and supplemented with ferrous sulfate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zucki, Fernanda; Morata, Thais C; Duarte, Josilene L; Ferreira, Maria Cecília F; Salgado, Manoel H; Alvarenga, Kátia F

    2017-01-23

    The literature has reported the association between lead and auditory effects, based on clinical and experimental studies. However, there is no consensus regarding the effects of lead in the auditory system, or its correlation with the concentration of the metal in the blood. To investigate the maturation state of the auditory system, specifically the auditory nerve and brainstem, in rats exposed to lead acetate and supplemented with ferrous sulfate. 30 weanling male rats (Rattus norvegicus, Wistar) were distributed into six groups of five animals each and exposed to one of two concentrations of lead acetate (100 or 400mg/L) and supplemented with ferrous sulfate (20mg/kg). The maturation state of the auditory nerve and brainstem was analyzed using Brainstem Auditory Evoked Potential before and after lead exposure. The concentration of lead in blood and brainstem was analyzed using Inductively Coupled Plasma-Mass Spectrometry. We verified that the concentration of Pb in blood and in brainstem presented a high correlation (r=0.951; pferrous sulfate supplementation reduced significantly the concentration of lead in blood and brainstem for the group exposed to the lowest concentration of lead (100mg/L), but not for the group exposed to the higher concentration (400mg/L). This study indicate that the lead acetate can have deleterious effects on the maturation of the auditory nerve and brainstem (cochlear nucleus region), as detected by the Brainstem Auditory Evoked Potentials, and the ferrous sulphate can partially amend this effect. Copyright © 2017 Associação Brasileira de Otorrinolaringologia e Cirurgia Cérvico-Facial. All rights reserved.

  5. Stability of salt double-fortified with ferrous fumarate and potassium iodate or iodide under storage and distribution conditions in Kenya.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oshinowo, Toks; Diosady, Levente; Yusufali, Rizwan; Laleye, Louis

    2004-09-01

    The stability of table salt double-fortified with iron as ferrous fumarate, and with iodine as potassium iodide or potassium iodate, has been investigated under actual field conditions of storage and distribution in the coastal and highland regions of Kenya. Seven 200-g sample packets of double-fortified salt in sealed polyethylene bags and a similar packet containing a datalogger for monitoring temperature and humidity were packaged with 21 sample bags of salt from another study into a bundle, which then entered the distribution network from a salt manufacturer's facility to the consumer. Iodine retention values of up to 90% or more were obtained during the three-month study. Double-fortified salt was prepared using ferrous fumarate microencapsulated with a combination of binders and coloring agents and coated with soy stearine, in combination with either iodated salt or salt iodized with potassium iodide microencapsulated with dextrin and coated with soy stearine. Most of the ferrous iron was retained, with less than 17% being oxidized to the ferric state. The polyethylene film overwrap of salt packs in the bundles provided significant protection from ambient humidity. Salt double-fortified with iodine and microencapsulated iron ferrous fumarate premix was generally quite stable, because both iodine and ferrous iron were protected during distribution and retail in typical tropical conditions in Kenya's highlands and humid lowlands.

  6. Ferrous Iron Binding Key to Mms6 Magnetite Biomineralisation: A Mechanistic Study to Understand Magnetite Formation Using pH Titration and NMR Spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rawlings, Andrea E; Bramble, Jonathan P; Hounslow, Andrea M; Williamson, Michael P; Monnington, Amy E; Cooke, David J; Staniland, Sarah S

    2016-06-01

    Formation of magnetite nanocrystals by magnetotactic bacteria is controlled by specific proteins which regulate the particles' nucleation and growth. One such protein is Mms6. This small, amphiphilic protein can self-assemble and bind ferric ions to aid in magnetite formation. To understand the role of Mms6 during in vitro iron oxide precipitation we have performed in situ pH titrations. We find Mms6 has little effect during ferric salt precipitation, but exerts greatest influence during the incorporation of ferrous ions and conversion of this salt to mixed-valence iron minerals, suggesting Mms6 has a hitherto unrecorded ferrous iron interacting property which promotes the formation of magnetite in ferrous-rich solutions. We show ferrous binding to the DEEVE motif within the C-terminal region of Mms6 by NMR spectroscopy, and model these binding events using molecular simulations. We conclude that Mms6 functions as a magnetite nucleating protein under conditions where ferrous ions predominate. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  7. An intelligent system for calculating the scale of rational, enlarged production of an underground non-ferrous metal mine

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHENG Ming-gui; CAI Si-jing

    2008-01-01

    The enlarged production scale of underground non-ferrous metal mines is affected by many uncertain factors difficult to describe mathematically with any level of accuracy. The problem can be solved by a synthesis of artificial intelligence. Based on the analysis of the major factors affecting the scale of enlarged production, we first interpreted in detail the design principles and structure of the intelligent system. Secondly, we introduced an ANN subsystem. In order to ensure technological and scale efficiencies of the training samples for ANN, we filtrated the samples with a DEA method. Finally, we trained the intelligent system, which was proved to be very efficient.

  8. Arsenite sequestration by nanosized ferrous minerals after bioreduction of arsenic-sorbed lepidocrocite by Shewanella putrefaciens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ona-Nguema, G.; Morin, G.; Wang, Y.; Juillot, F.; Abdelmoula, M.; Ruby, C.; Guyot, F.; Calas, G.; Brown, G.

    2008-12-01

    X-ray absorption spectroscopy was used in combination with high resolution transmission electron microscopy, X-ray powder diffraction, and Mössbauer spectroscopy to obtain detailed information on arsenic and iron speciation in the products of anaerobic reduction of pure and As(V)- or As(III)-adsorbed lepidocrocite (γ-FeOOH) by Shewanella putrefaciens ATCC 12099. We found that this strain is capable of using both Fe(III) in lepidocrocite and As(V) in solution or adsorbed on lepidocrocite surfaces as electron acceptors. Bioreduction of lepidocrocite in the absence of arsenic resulted in the formation of hydroxycarbonate green rust 1 [FeII4FeIII2(OH)12CO3: GR1(CO3)], which completely converted into ferrous- carbonate hydroxide (FeII2(OH)2CO3: FCH). Bioreduction of As(III)-adsorbed lepidocrocite also led to the formation of GR1(CO3) prior to formation of FCH, but the presence of As(III) slows down this transformation, leading to the co-occurrence of both phases. At the end of this experiment, As(III) was found to be adsorbed on the surfaces of GR1(CO3) and FCH. Bioreduction of As(V)-bearing lepidocrocite led directly to the formation of FCH in association with nanometer-sized particles of a minor As-rich Fe(OH)2 phase, with no evidence for green rust formation. At the end of this experiment, As(V) was fully converted to As(III) and dominantly sorbed at the surface of the Fe(OH)2 nanoparticles as oligomers binding to the edges of Fe(OH)6 octahedra in the octahedral layers of Fe(OH)2. These multinuclear As(III) surface complexes are characterized by As-As pairs at a distance of 3.32 ± 0.02 Å and by As-Fe pairs at a distance of 3.50 ± 0.02 Å and represent a new form of As(III) surface complexes. Chemical analyses show that the majority of As(III) produced in the experiments with As present is associated with iron-bearing hydroxycarbonate or hydroxide solids, reinforcing the idea that, at least under some circumstances, bacterial reduction can promote As

  9. Fine and ultrafine emission dynamics from a ferrous foundry cupola furnace.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meléndez, Antton; García, Estibaliz; Carnicer, Pedro; Pena, Egoitz; Larrión, Miren; Legarreta, Juan Andres; Gutiérrez-Cañas, Cristina

    2010-05-01

    Aerosol size distributions from ferrous foundry cupola furnaces vary depending on semicontinuous process dynamics, time along the tap-to-tap cycle, dilution ratio, and the physical and chemical nature of the charge and fuel. All of these factors result in a highly time-dependent emission of particulate matter (PM) 2.5 pm or less in aerodynamic diameter (PM2.5)--even on a mass concentration basis. Control measures are frequently taken on the basis of low-reliability parameters such as emission factors and loosely established mass ratios of PM2.5 to PM 10 microm or less in aerodynamic diameter (PM1.0). The new environmental requirements could entail unexpected and undesired drawbacks and uncertainties in the meaning and effectiveness of process improvement measures. The development of process-integrated and flue-gas cleaning measures for reduction of particle emissions requires a better knowledge of generation mechanisms during melting. Available aerosol analyzers expand the range of control issues to be tackled and contribute to greatly reduce the uncertainty of engineering decisions on trace pollutant control. This approach combines real-time size distribution monitoring and cascade impactors as preseparators for chemical or morphological analysis. The results allow for establishing a design rationale and performance requirement for control devices. A number size distribution below 10 microm in aerodynamic equivalent diameter was chosen as the main indicator of charge influence and filter performance. Size distribution is trimodal, with a coarse mode more than 12 microm that contributes up to 30% of the total mass. A temporal series for these data leads to identification of the most relevant size ranges for a specific furnace (e.g., the most penetrating size range). In this cupola, this size range is between 0.32 and 0.77 microm of aerodynamic equivalent diameter and defines the pollution control strategy for metals concentrating within this size range. Scrap

  10. Increases of ferrous iron oxidation activity and arsenic stressed cell growth by overexpression of Cyc2 in Acidithiobacillus ferrooxidans ATCC19859.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Wei; Lin, Jianqun; Pang, Xin; Mi, Shuang; Cui, Shuang; Lin, Jianqiang

    2013-01-01

    Acidithiobacillus ferrooxidans plays an important role in bioleaching in reproducing the mineral oxidant of ferric iron (Fe(3+) ) by oxidization of ferrous iron (Fe(2+) ). The high-molecular-weight c-type cytochrome Cyc2 that is located in the external membrane is postulated as the first electron carrier in the Fe(2+) oxidation respiratory pathway of A. ferrooxidans. To increase ferrous iron oxidation activity, a recombinant plasmid pTCYC2 containing cyc2 gene under the control of Ptac promoter was constructed and transferred into A. ferrooxidans ATCC19859. The transcriptional level of cyc2 gene was increased by 2.63-fold and Cyc2 protein expression was observed in the recombinant strain compared with the control. The ferrous iron oxidation activity and the arsenic stressed cell growth of the recombinant strain were also elevated.

  11. Hydrogen peroxide-independent generation of superoxide by plant peroxidase: hypotheses and supportive data employing ferrous ion as a model stimulus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kimura, Makoto; Umemoto, Yosuke; Kawano, Tomonori

    2014-01-01

    When plants are threaten by microbial attacks or treated with elicitors, alkalization of extracellular space is often induced and thus pH-dependent extracellular peroxidase-mediated oxidative burst reportedly takes place, especially at the site of microbial challenge. However, direct stimulus involved in activation of peroxidase-catalyzed oxidative burst has not been identified to date. Here, we would like to propose a likely role for free ferrous ion in reduction of ferric native peroxidase into ferrous enzyme intermediate which readily produces superoxide anion via mechanism involving Compound III, especially under alkaline condition, thus, possibly contributing to the plant defense mechanism. Through spectroscopic and chemiluminescence (CL) analyses of reactions catalyzed by horseradish peroxidase (HRP), the present study proposed that plant peroxidase-catalyzed production of superoxide anion can be stimulated in the absence of conventional peroxidase substrates but in the presence of free ferrous ion. PMID:25071789

  12. Ruthenium and osmium carbonyl nitrosyl complexes: Matrix infrared spectra and density functional calculations for M(CO){sub 2}(NO){sub 2} and M(CO)(NO) (M = Ru, Os)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Song, Zhenjun [Department of Chemistry, Tongji University, Shanghai 200092 (China); Wang, Xuefeng, E-mail: xfwang@tongji.edu.cn [Department of Chemistry, Tongji University, Shanghai 200092 (China); Key Laboratory of Yangtze River Water Environment, Ministry of Education, Tongji University (China)

    2012-10-15

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Laser-ablated ruthenium or osmium atom reactions with CO and NO mixtures in solid argon. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Metal carbonyl nitrosyls including M(CO)(NO) and 18-electron configuration M(CO){sub 2}(NO){sub 2} molecules (M = Ru, Os). Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The observed absorption bands of reaction products are identified by isotopic substitution and DFT calculations. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The bonding and reaction mechanism are discussed in detail. -- Abstract: Laser-ablated ruthenium or osmium atom reactions with CO and NO mixtures in solid argon produce unsaturated metal carbonyl nitrosyls including M(CO)(NO) and 18-electron configuration M(CO){sub 2}(NO){sub 2} molecules (M = Ru, Os). The observed absorption bands of reaction products are identified by isotopic substitution, isotopic ratios and isotopic distributions ({sup 13}CO, {sup 15}NO, and mixtures). DFT (B3LYP and BP86) vibrational fundamental calculations reproduce observed frequencies and isotopic shifts very well. The bonding and reaction mechanism are discussed.

  13. Preparation and Performance of Polysilicate-ferrous Composite Flocculant%聚硅酸亚铁复合絮凝剂的制备及性能研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    彭倩; 王娟; 丁玉强

    2015-01-01

    以硅酸钠和硫酸亚铁为原料,制备了一种无机高分子型聚硅酸亚铁复合絮凝剂,考察了其絮凝条件:适用于处理碱性污水。并将制备的聚硅酸亚铁复合絮凝剂应用于含铬污水处理中,与聚硅酸铁及硫酸亚铁絮凝剂进行絮凝效果对比,结果表明聚硅酸亚铁絮凝剂对含铬污水处理效果较好,当絮凝剂投加量为15 mg/L时,除浊率达98%,Cr(Ⅵ)去除率达95%,总 Cr 去除率达88%。%A type of inorganic polymer flocculant,polysilicate-ferrous composite flocculant was prepared from ferrous sulfate and sodium silicate. Its flocculation conditions were investigated. It’s pointed out that the polysilicate-ferrous composite flocculant is appropriate for alkaline wastewater treatment. The prepared polysilicate-ferrous composite flocculant was used in chromium wastewater treatment and compared with polysilicate-ferric flocculant and ferrous sulfate flocculant. The results show that the polysilicate-ferrous composite flocculant has better effect for chromium wastewater treatment. When its dosage is 15 mg/L, the removal rate of turbidity is 98%, the removal rate of Cr ( ) isⅥ95%, the removal rate of total Cr is 88%.

  14. Use of ferrous industrial wastes as binding materials for construction; Empleo de residuos industriales siderurgicos como materiales aglomerantes en construccion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mymrin, V.A. [Centro Nacional de Investigaciones Metalurgicas. CENIM. Madrid (Spain)

    1998-12-01

    Several ferrous and non ferrous metallurgical wastes, slag, powdered wastes, alkaline liquors, etc., can be used as binding materials to produce new building materials. These materials can be used in place of concretes made of cement, crushed stones, sand and gravel mixtures in several applications, road, industrial and airport foundations, etc. They are leaching resistant, so heavy metals do not migrate to the environment. These new materials, with a new structure, are obtained by mixing in right proportion of two or three industrial wastes or with mixtures of two of them and natural soils without any addition of traditional binders like and without heating. The main advantages are the solution of the problem of disposal of industrial wastes and the lower cost of the new materials, 5 to 6 times cheaper than traditional. Several examples of roads existing in Russia, even in Siberia and other northern regions, demonstrate the benefit of this process because after 20 years they still offer a good performance. (Author) 8 refs.

  15. Ascorbic acid enhanced activation of oxygen by ferrous iron: A case of aerobic degradation of rhodamine B.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hou, Xiaojing; Shen, Wenjuan; Huang, Xiaopeng; Ai, Zhihui; Zhang, Lizhi

    2016-05-05

    Molecular oxygen activation by ferrous ions (Fe(II)) in aqueous solution could generate reactive oxygen species (ROS) with high oxidation potential via reaction between Fe(II) and oxygen molecules (Fe(II)/air), however, ROS yielded in the Fe(II)/air process is insufficient for removal of organic pollutants due to the irreversible ferric ions (Fe(III)) accumulation. In this study, we demonstrate that ascorbic acid (AA) could enhance ROS generation via oxygen activation by ferrous irons (AA/Fe(II)/air) and thus improve the degradation of rhodamine (RhB) significantly. It was found that the first-order aerobic degradation rate of RhB in the AA/Fe(II)/air process in the presence of ascorbic acid is more than 4 times that of the Fe(II)/Air system without adding ascorbic acid. The presence of ascorbic acid could relieve the accumulation of Fe(III) by reductive accelerating the Fe(III)/Fe(II) cycles, as well as lower the redox potential of Fe(III)/Fe(II) through chelating effect, leading to enhanced ROS generation for promoting RhB degradation. This study not only sheds light on the effect of ascorbic acid on aerobic Fe(II) oxidation, but also provides a green method for effective remediation of organic pollutants.

  16. Isotopic characterisation of lead in contaminated soils from the vicinity of a non-ferrous metal smelter near Plovdiv, Bulgaria

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bacon, Jeffrey R. [Macaulay Institute, Craigiebuckler, Aberdeen AB15 8QH (United Kingdom)]. E-mail: j.bacon@macaulay.ac.uk; Dinev, Nikolai S. [N Poushkarov Institute of Soil Science and Agroecology, Sofia (Bulgaria)

    2005-03-01

    Soil samples from the vicinity of a non-ferrous metal smelter near Plovdiv, Bulgaria contained very high concentrations of cadmium, lead and zinc (up to 140, 4900 and 5900 mg kg{sup -1}, respectively). A roadside soil in a relatively uncontaminated area also contained high concentrations of the same metals (24, 1550 and 1870 mg kg{sup -1}, respectively) indicating that the transport of ores could be a source of contamination. Even though the lead isotope ratios in all the samples fell within a very narrow range (for example, 1.186-1.195 for {sup 206}Pb/{sup 207}Pb), the samples could be differentiated into three distinct groups: ores ({sup 206}Pb/{sup 207}Pb and {sup 208}Pb/{sup 207}Pb ratios of 1.1874-1.1884 and 2.4755-2.4807, respectively), current deposition (1.1864 and 2.4704-2.4711, respectively) and local background (1.1927-1.1951 and 2.4772-2.4809, respectively). Although most of the current deposition has its origin in the ores used at the smelter, up to 12% could be from other sources such as petrol lead. - Although soils in the vicinity of a non-ferrous metal smelter near Plovdiv, Bulgaria, have become highly contaminated with the ores used, lead isotope analysis has revealed that up to 12% of current deposition could be from other sources such as petrol lead.

  17. Degradation of methyl orange by ozone in the presence of ferrous and persulfate ions in a rotating packed bed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ge, Deming; Zeng, Zequan; Arowo, Moses; Zou, Haikui; Chen, Jianfeng; Shao, Lei

    2016-03-01

    This work investigated the degradation of methyl orange by ozone in the presence of ferrous and persulfate ions (O3/Fe(2+)/S2O8(2-)) in a rotating packed bed. The effects of various operating parameters such as initial pH, rotational speed, gas-liquid ratio, ozone inlet concentration and reaction temperature on the degradation rate of methyl orange were studied with an aim to optimize the operation conditions. Results reveal that the degradation rate increased with an increase in rotational speed, gas-liquid ratio and ozone inlet concentration, and reached a maximum at 25 °C and initial pH 4. Contrast experiments involving ozone and ferrous ions (O3/Fe(2+)) were also carried out, and the results show approximately 10% higher degradation rate and COD removal in the O3/Fe(2+)/S2O8(2-) process than in the O3/Fe(2+) process. Additionally, the intermediates of the degradation process were analyzed to ascertain the degradation products.

  18. Synthesizing slow-release fertilizers via mechanochemical processing for potentially recycling the waste ferrous sulfate from titanium dioxide production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xuewei; Lei, Zhiwu; Qu, Jun; Li, Zhao; Zhou, Xiaowen; Zhang, Qiwu

    2017-01-15

    The goal of this study is aimed to develop a novel process to recycle the ferrous sulfate, the by-product of titanium dioxide industry. Zinc sulfate was added in the process of milling ferrous sulfate with calcium carbonate (CaCO3). The sulfates were transformed into carbonates to serve as slow-release fertilizers by co-grinding the starting materials of FeSO4·7H2O, ZnSO4·7H2O, and CaCO3 with small amounts of water in a planetary ball mill. The prepared samples were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis and quantitative measurements of the soluble ratios in water and 2% citric acid solution. It was found that Fe and Zn ions as sulfates were successfully combined with CaCO3 to form the corresponding Fe and Zn carbonates respectively. After milling, the release ratios of Fe and Zn nutrients in distilled water could be controlled at 0.1% and 0.7% respectively. Meanwhile, the release ratios of them in 2% citric acid solution were almost 98% and 100%. Milling speed was the critical parameter to facilitate the transformation reaction. The proposed process, as an easy and economical route, exhibits evident advantages, namely allowing the use of widely available and low-cost CaCO3 as well as industrial wastes of heavy metal sulfates as starting samples to prepare applicable products. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Rapid determination of lipid peroxidation using a novel pyridoxamine-participating ferrous oxidation-sulfosalicylic acid spectrophotometric method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jingnan; Cai, Danqian; Zhang, Yu

    2016-11-15

    A novel method is developed to rapidly analyze lipid peroxidation in edible oils and fatty foods at room temperature, which is called the pyridoxamine-participating ferrous oxidation-sulfosalicylic acid (PFOS) method. The PFOS method evaluates the lipid peroxide value colorimetrically via detecting the pyridoxamine-mediated pigment produced by 5-sulfosalicylic acid and Fe(3+) at 500nm, while the latter is converted from Fe(2+) in the presence of lipid peroxides. The optimized formulation was ethanol (70%, v/v), Fe(2+) (4mmol/L), 5-sulfosalicylic acid (40mmol/L) and pyridoxamine (18mmol/L). The limit of quantitation is 0.087mmol Fe(3+)/L with acceptable reproducibility. In addition, current method has a significant linear correlation with both conventional thiobarbituric acid (R(2)=0.9999) and ferric thiocyanate assays (R(2)=0.9675). This method offers a rapid technique for evaluating lipid peroxidation without heating and sophisticated instrumental procedures. Besides, current method provides a new option to evaluate the lipid peroxidation state and improve the reproducibility of ferrous-oxidation. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. The Effect of Slag on the Effectiveness of Phosphorus Removal from Ferrous Alloys Containing Carbon, Chromium and Nickel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kawecka-Cebula E.

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to determine the impact of slag composition on phosphorus removal from ferrous solutions containing carbon, chromium and nickel. Additions of cryolite, Na3AlF6, were applied for better fluxing and higher phosphate capacity of the slag. An X-ray analysis of final slags formed during dephosphorization of ferrous solutions containing chromium and nickel with CaO-CaF2 or CaO-CaF2-Na3AlF6 mixtures of different chemical compositions was carried out. The equilibrium composition of the liquid and the solid phase while cooling the slags from 1673K to 298K was computed using FactSage 6.2 software. The performed equilibrium computations indicated that the slags were not entirely liquid at those temperatures. The addition of cryolite causes a substantial increase of the liquid phase of the slag. It also has a favourable effect on the dephosphorization grade of hot metal. The obtained results were statistically processed and presented in the form of regression equations.

  1. Ulceration of the oral mucosa following direct contact with ferrous sulfate in elderly patients: a case report and a review of the French National Pharmacovigilance Database

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liabeuf S

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Sophie Liabeuf,1–3 Valérie Gras,1 Julien Moragny,1 Marie-Laure Laroche,4 Michel Andrejak1,3On behalf of the French National Network of Pharmacovigilance Centers1Regional Pharmacovigilance Center, Division of Clinical Pharmacology, Amiens University Medical Center and Jules Verne University of Picardy, Amiens, France; 2Clinical Research Centre, Clinical Pharmacology Division, Amiens University Medical Center and the Jules Verne University of Picardy, Amiens, France; 3INSERM U1088, Amiens, France; 4Regional Pharmacovigilance Center, Department of Pharmacology, Toxicology and Pharmacovigilance, Limoges University Medical Center, Limoges, FranceObjective: To report a series of cases of ulceration of the oral mucosa linked to direct contact with ferrous sulfate in elderly patients.Case summary: The first case report concerns the occurrence of widespread oral ulceration in an 87-year-old woman with Alzheimer’s disease. The ulceration extended from the side of the tongue to the floor of the mouth. No clear explanation was found and various local treatments were ineffective. Once it was realized that the ferrous sulfate tablets (given as an iron supplement were crushed prior to administration (due to the patient’s deglutition disorder, withdrawal of this treatment led to rapid resolution of the ulceration. Nine other cases of oral ulcerations associated with ferrous sulfate were identified in the French National Pharmacovigilance Database. All but one of the patients were over 80 years of age and the youngest patient (a 54-year-old had dysphagia associated with facial paralysis.Discussion: Only two other reports of oral ulceration due to ferrous sulfate have been published to date. Mucosal toxicity of ferrous sulfate (which is probably related to oxidative stress has previously been reported for the hypopharynx, the esophageal lumen, and (after inhalation of a tablet the tracheobronchial tree.Conclusion: The mucosal toxicity of ferrous

  2. Photoreduction of carbon dioxide by aqueous ferrous ion: An alternative to the strongly reducing atmosphere for the chemical origin of life

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borowska, Zofia; Mauzerall, David

    1988-01-01

    We have shown that ferrous ion at neutral pH photoreduces water to hydrogen with a high quantum yield on excitation with near-ultraviolet light. This simple system also efficiently reduces carbon dioxide (bicarbonate ions) to formaldehyde. Overall, these reactions offer a solution to a dilemma confronting the standard or Oparin-Urey model of the origin of life. If carbon dioxide was the main form of carbon on the primitive earth, the ferrous photoreaction would have provided the reduced carbon necessary to form amino acids and other biogenetic molecules. We believe this system may have been the progenitor to the biological photosynthetic systems. PMID:16593977

  3. Fish Proteins as Targets of Ferrous-Catalyzed Oxidation: Identification of Protein Carbonyls by Fluorescent Labeling on Two-Dimensional Gels and MALDI-TOF/TOF Mass Spectrometry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pazos, Manuel; da Rocha, Angela Pereira; Roepstorff, Peter

    2011-01-01

    Protein oxidation in fish meat is considered to affect negatively the muscle texture. An important source of free radicals taking part in this process is Fenton's reaction dependent on ferrous ions present in the tissue. The aim of this study was to investigate the susceptibility of cod muscle...... dehydrogenase, creatine kinase, and enolase were the sarcoplasmic proteins most vulnerable to ferrous-catalyzed oxidation. Moreover, NDK, phosphoglycerate mutase, and GAPDH were identified in several spots differing by their pI, and those forms showed different susceptibilities to metal-catalyzed oxidation...

  4. Effect of Low-Dose Ferrous Sulfate vs Iron Polysaccharide Complex on Hemoglobin Concentration in Young Children With Nutritional Iron-Deficiency Anemia: A Randomized Clinical Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Powers, Jacquelyn M; Buchanan, George R; Adix, Leah; Zhang, Song; Gao, Ang; McCavit, Timothy L

    2017-06-13

    Iron-deficiency anemia (IDA) affects millions of persons worldwide, and is associated with impaired neurodevelopment in infants and children. Ferrous sulfate is the most commonly prescribed oral iron despite iron polysaccharide complex possibly being better tolerated. To compare the effect of ferrous sulfate with iron polysaccharide complex on hemoglobin concentration in infants and children with nutritional IDA. Double-blind, superiority randomized clinical trial of infants and children aged 9 to 48 months with nutritional IDA (assessed by history and laboratory criteria) that was conducted in an outpatient hematology clinic at a US tertiary care hospital from September 2013 through November 2015; 12-week follow-up ended in January 2016. Three mg/kg of elemental iron once daily as either ferrous sulfate drops or iron polysaccharide complex drops for 12 weeks. Primary outcome was change in hemoglobin over 12 weeks. Secondary outcomes included complete resolution of IDA (defined as hemoglobin concentration >11 g/dL, mean corpuscular volume >70 fL, reticulocyte hemoglobin equivalent >25 pg, serum ferritin level >15 ng/mL, and total iron-binding capacity serum ferritin level and total iron-binding capacity, adverse effects. Of 80 randomized infants and children (median age, 22 months; 55% male; 61% Hispanic white; 40 per group), 59 completed the trial (28 [70%] in ferrous sulfate group; 31 [78%] in iron polysaccharide complex group). From baseline to 12 weeks, mean hemoglobin increased from 7.9 to 11.9 g/dL (ferrous sulfate group) vs 7.7 to 11.1 g/dL (iron complex group), a greater difference of 1.0 g/dL (95% CI, 0.4 to 1.6 g/dL; P serum ferritin level increased from 3.0 to 15.6 ng/mL (ferrous sulfate) vs 2.0 to 7.5 ng/mL (iron complex) over 12 weeks, a greater difference of 10.2 ng/mL (95% CI, 6.2 to 14.1 ng/mL; P iron-binding capacity decreased from 501 to 389 μg/dL (ferrous sulfate) vs 506 to 417 μg/dL (iron complex) (a greater difference of -50 μg/dL [95

  5. Quantitative Proteomics Analysis of VEGF-Responsive Endothelial Protein S-Nitrosylation Using Stable Isotope Labeling by Amino Acids in Cell Culture (SILAC) and LC-MS/MS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Hong-Hai; Lechuga, Thomas J; Chen, Yuezhou; Yang, Yingying; Huang, Lan; Chen, Dong-Bao

    2016-05-01

    Adduction of a nitric oxide moiety (NO•) to cysteine(s), termed S-nitrosylation (SNO), is a novel mechanism for NO to regulate protein function directly. However, the endothelial SNO-protein network that is affected by endogenous and exogenous NO is obscure. This study was designed to develop a quantitative proteomics approach using stable isotope labeling by amino acids in cell culture for comparing vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGFA)- and NO donor-responsive endothelial nitroso-proteomes. Primary placental endothelial cells were labeled with "light" (L-(12)C6 (14)N4-Arg and L-(12)C6 (14)N2-Lys) or "heavy" (L-(13)C6 (15)N4-Arg and L-(13)C6 (15)N2-Lys) amino acids. The light cells were treated with an NO donor nitrosoglutathione (GSNO, 1 mM) or VEGFA (10 ng/ml) for 30 min, while the heavy cells received vehicle as control. Equal amounts of cellular proteins from the light (GSNO or VEGFA treated) and heavy cells were mixed for labeling SNO-proteins by the biotin switch technique and then trypsin digested. Biotinylated SNO-peptides were purified for identifying SNO-proteins by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). Ratios of light to heavy SNO-peptides were calculated for determining the changes of the VEGFA- and GSNO-responsive endothelial nitroso-proteomes. A total of 387 light/heavy pairs of SNO-peptides were identified, corresponding to 213 SNO-proteins that include 125 common and 27 VEGFA- and 61 GSNO-responsive SNO-proteins. The specific SNO-cysteine(s) in each SNO-protein were simultaneously identified. Pathway analysis revealed that SNO-proteins are involved in various endothelial functions, including proliferation, motility, metabolism, and protein synthesis. We collectively conclude that endogenous NO on VEGFA stimulation and exogenous NO from GSNO affect common and different SNO-protein networks, implicating SNO as a critical mechanism for VEGFA stimulation of angiogenesis.

  6. [Medication use during the first trimester of pregnancy: drug safety and adoption of folic acid and ferrous sulphate].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lunardi-Maia, Tânia; Schuelter-Trevisol, Fabiana; Galato, Dayani

    2014-12-01

    To identify the profile of use of medication during the first trimester of pregnancy with emphasis on safety assessment and on the adoption of folic acid and ferrous sulfate by pregnant women attended at a Basic Health Unit in Brazil. This was a cross-sectional study nested in a cohort of pregnant women. Medications were classified according to the Anatomical Therapeutic Chemical (ATC), and their safety was evaluated according to the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) and the Brazilian Health Surveillance Agency (ANVISA). The adoption of ferrous sulfate and folic acid was investigated according to the protocol set forth by the Brazilian Ministry of Health. The survey included 212 pregnant women, 46.7% of whom were taking medications at the time of pregnancy diagnosis, and 97.6% used medication during the first trimester after diagnosis. The highest percentage of self-medication occurred before the beginning of prenatal care (64.9%). According to the FDA criteria, there was a high level of exposure to D and X risk drugs before the beginning of prenatal care (23.0%), which was also observed for drugs not recommended by ANVISA (36.5%). Of the surveyed sample, 32.5% did not follow the protocol of the Brazilian Ministry of Health. In all, 67.9% of pregnant women had inadequate drug exposure. There was a difference between the proportions of drugs used according to the ATC, and the main anatomical groups identified were the drugs that act on blood and blood-forming organs, and anti-infective medications for systemic use. When pregnancy was diagnosed, the use of a large number of medications that act on the genitourinary system and sex hormones (16.2%) was identified, such as oral contraceptives, a fact probably related to the percentage of unplanned pregnancies (67.0%), on the same occasion 4 pregnant women used folic acid and 3 used ferrous sulphate. The present results show that a large number of medications are used during pregnancy. Even if there was little exposure

  7. Award-Winning Castings and Enterprises in "High Quality Casting Appraisement" at the 6th International Non-Ferrous & Special Casting Exhibition (China)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    @@ The International Non-ferrous & Special Casting Exhibition is a professional foundry fair organized by China Foundry Association since 1998, which has taken advantage of the solid foundation in foundry industry in Shanghai metropolitan zone as well as its suburban ring.

  8. The production and shelf life of high-iron, pre-cooked rice porridge with ferrous sulphate and other high-iron materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chowladda Teangpook

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available The production and shelf life of high-iron, dried, pre-cooked rice porridge with ferrous sulphate and other high-iron materials was studied. Broken brown rice was soaked in water and ferrous sulphate was added at 0.05, 0.1 and 0.15% of the dried brown rice. The mixture was steamed for 20 min and dried in a double drum dryer. Green shallot, young ginger and cooked chicken fillet were dried in an electric cabinet dryer. Chicken blood and edible fern were dried in a double drum dryer and vacuum freezer respectively. The optimum ferrous sulphate added to the rice was 0.05% and the developed formulation of dried porridge consisted of ferrous sulphate rice (67.80%, chicken fillet (20%, chicken blood (3%, green shallot (0.7%, young ginger (1%, edible fern (0.5%, pepper powder (0.5%, sucrose (3%, salt (3% and monosodium glutamate (0.5%.The dried porridge had a high iron content of 10.18 mg/50 g and the shelf life was three months at room temperature when stored in either aluminum foil laminated bag or metalite bag.

  9. Fortification Iron as Ferrous Sulfate Plus Ascorbic Acid Is More Rapidly Absorbed Than as Sodium Iron EDTA but Neither Increases Serum Nontransferrin-Bound Iron in Women

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Troesch, B.; Egli, I.; Zeder, C.; Hurrell, R.F.; Zimmermann, M.B.

    2011-01-01

    The absorption profile of iron fortificants may be a determinant of their ability to generate nontransferrin-bound iron (NTBI) and, thus, their potential safety. Ferrous iron may be absorbed more rapidly than chelated ferric iron, but differences at the fortification level cannot be distinguished wi

  10. Age-related accumulation of non-heme ferric and ferrous iron in mouse ovarian stroma visualized by sensitive non-heme iron histochemistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asano, Yoshiya

    2012-03-01

    Sensitive non-heme iron histochemistry--namely, the perfusion-Perls method and perfusion-Turnbull method--was applied to study the distribution and age-related accumulation of non-heme ferric iron and ferrous iron in mouse ovary. Light and electron microscopic studies revealed that non-heme ferric iron is distributed predominantly in stromal tissue, especially in macrophages. By contrast, the distribution of non-heme ferrous iron was restricted to a few ovoid macrophages. Aged ovaries exhibited remarkable non-heme iron accumulation in all stromal cells. In particular, non-heme ferrous iron level was increased in stromal tissue, suggestive of increased levels of redox-active iron, which can promote oxidative stress. Moreover, intense localization of both non-heme ferric and ferrous iron was observed in aggregated large stromal cells that were then characterized as ceroid-laden enlarged macrophages with frothy cytoplasm. Intraperitoneal iron overload in adult mice resulted in non-heme iron deposition in the entire stroma and generation of enlarged macrophages, suggesting that excessive iron accumulation induced macrophage morphological changes. The data indicated that non-heme iron accumulation in ovarian stromal tissue may be related to aging of the ovary due to increasing oxidative stress.

  11. [Effectiveness of iron amino acid chelate versus ferrous sulfate as part of a food complement in preschool children with iron deficiency, Medellín, 2011].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rojas, Maylen Liseth; Sánchez, Juliana; Villada, Óscar; Montoya, Liliana; Díaz, Alejandro; Vargas, Cristian; Chica, Javier; Herrera, Ana Milena

    2013-01-01

    Iron depleted deposits are the first link in the chain of events leading to iron deficiency which is the most prevalent nutritional shortage and main cause of anemia worldwide. This situation can be prevented through food fortification. To compare the efficacy of amino acid chelate iron with ferrous sulfate as fortifier of a dietary complement in preschoolers with iron deficiency. This study was a blinded clinical trial with randomized groups. We analyzed 56 preschoolers with iron deficiency (ferritin ferrous sulfate form. After two months, hemoglobin, hematocrit and serum ferritin concentrations were measured. In the ferrous sulfate group, ferritin concentration increased from 18.8 ng/ml to 24.1 ng/ml, while the variation was of 18.4 ng/ml to 29.7 ng/ml in the amino acid chelate group, with statistically differences in both cases. Serum ferritin was different between groups, being higher in iron amino acid chelate group (p=0.022). Hemoglobin and hematocrit levels did not change after the intervention. Adverse reactions in the ferrous sulfate group were 35.7%, compared with 42.9% in the iron amino acid chelate group; 5 children had respiratory tract infection, without statistical differences. Both compounds increased serum ferritin concentration, with a higher increase in those who were given milk with iron amino acid chelate. There were no differences in the adverse reactions and infections incidences between the groups.

  12. Bioaugmentation of nitrate-dependent anaerobic ferrous oxidation by heterotrophic denitrifying sludge addition: A promising way for promotion of chemoautotrophic denitrification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ru; Zheng, Ping; Zhang, Meng; Zhao, He-Ping; Ji, Jun-Yuan; Zhou, Xiao-Xin; Li, Wei

    2015-12-01

    Nitrate-dependent anaerobic ferrous oxidation (NAFO) is a new and valuable bio-process for the treatment of wastewaters with low C/N ratio, and the NAFO process is in state of the art. The heterotrophic denitrifying sludge (HDS), possessing NAFO activity, was used as bioaugmentation to enhance NAFO efficiency. At a dosage of 6% (V/V), the removal of nitrate and ferrous was 2.4 times and 2.3 times of as primary, and the volumetric removal rate (VRR) of nitrate and ferrous was 2.4 times and 2.2 times of as primary. Tracing experiments of HDS indicated that the bioaugmentation on NAFO reactor was resulted from the NAFO activity by HDS itself. The predominant bacteria in HDS were identified as Thauera (52.5%) and Hyphomicrobium (20.0%) which were typical denitrifying bacteria and had potential ability to oxidize ferrous. In conclusion, HDS could serve as bioaugmentation or a new seeding sludge for operating high-efficiency NAFO reactors. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Ferrous Silicate Spherules with Euhedral Fe,Ni-Metal Grains in CH Carbonaceous Chondrites: Evidence for Condensation Under Highly Oxidizing Conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krot, A. N.; Meibom, A.; Petaev, M. I.; Keil, K.; Zolensky, M. E.; Saito, A.; Mukai, M.; Ohsumi, K.

    2000-01-01

    A population of ferrous silicate spherules composed of cryptocrystalline ol-px-normative material, +/-SiO2-rich glass and rounded-to-euhedral Fe,Ni-metal grains preserved a condensation signature of the precursors formed under oxidizing conditions.

  14. Study on Auto-ignition Temperature of Ferrous Sulfide%硫化亚铁自燃温度影响研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐伟; 张淑娟; 王振刚

    2015-01-01

    Self-ignition of ferrous sulfide is one of the most important hazards for fire and explosion in the petrochemical industry .In order to avoid such accidents ,the auto-ignition temperature of sulfide ferrous in different particle sizes and the mixture of sulfur and ferrous sulfide are measured by spontaneous combustion temperature tester .The results show that the ignition temperature firstly decreases and then increases with the increase of specific surface area of ferrous sulfide and after-wards with the continuing increase of particle size ,the auto-ignition temperature remains stable .The mixture of sulfur and ferrous sulfide affects cooperatively each other and the auto-ignition temperature of the mixture is lower 116 .3 ℃ than that of ferrous sulfide .This effect greatly increases the runaway risk of the spontaneous combustion of ferrous sulfide ,and brings a great deal of inconvenience to take security measures .%硫化亚铁自燃是引起石油化工行业火灾爆炸事故的重要原因之一.为了规避此类事故的发生 ,利用自燃温度测试仪测定了不同粒径硫化亚铁以及硫磺与硫化亚铁混合物的自燃温度.结果表明 :随着硫化亚铁粒径比表面积的增大 ,其自燃温度先减小后增大 ,之后随着粒径的继续增大 ,自燃温度基本保持平稳状态 ;硫磺与硫化亚铁混合物自燃温度彼此具有协同作用 ,其自燃温度比硫化亚铁自燃温度降低了116 .3 ℃ ,使硫化亚铁自燃失控危险性大大增加 ,为采取安防措施带来了极大的不便.

  15. Phase diagram of FeNiCoAlTaB ferrous shape memory alloy on aging time

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhijian Zhou

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Ferrous shape memory alloy, Fe41Ni28Co17Al11.5Ta2.5B0.05, has shown large superelastic strain and strength in previous study. In the fabrication of this alloy, aging process is crucial for the formation of shape memory effect/superelasticity. However, its phase evolution on aging time is not clearly known. In this study, we systematically studied the phase diagram of this alloy on aging time. It is found that the unaged alloy shows a strain glass transition. With the aging time proceeding, the martensitic transformation gradually emerges. The phase diagram can be explained by the formation of coherent precipitates induced by aging. The heterogeneous strain between coherent precipitates and matrix is the driving force responsible for the emerging martensitic transformation. The generic explanation is supposed to be useful in martensitic transformation engineering for developing novel shape memory alloys from non-transforming materials.

  16. Enhancement of the photocatalytic activity of Ferrous Oxide by doping onto the nano-clinoptilolite particles towards photodegradation of tetracycline.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nezamzadeh-Ejhieh, Alireza; Shirzadi, Arezoo

    2014-07-01

    Photodegradation of tetracycline (TC) aqueous solution by FeO doped onto nano-clinoptilolite particles was investigated using a high pressure Hg lamp as radiation source. Nano-particles of clinoptilolite were prepared using ball-milling of micro crystals of zeolite. The pretreated nano-particles ion exchanged in a ferrous solution and the Fe(II)-exchanged form was calcined at 450°C. All samples were characterized by FT-IR, DRS, SEM and XRD. The degradation extent was determined via UV-Vis absorption spectroscopy and COD. Based on the study of the effect of key operating parameters, the optimal conditions were determined to reach the higher efficiency of the process. The best photocatalytic activity was obtained in presence of the catalyst containing 5.4% FeO.

  17. Enhancement of gaseous iodine emission by aqueous ferrous ions during the heterogeneous reaction of gaseous ozone with aqueous iodide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakamoto, Yosuke; Enami, Shinichi; Tonokura, Kenichi

    2013-04-11

    Gaseous I2 formation from the heterogeneous reaction of gaseous ozone with aqueous iodide in the presence of aqueous ferrous ion (Fe(2+)) was investigated by electron impact ionization mass spectrometry. Emission of gaseous I2 increased as a function of the aqueous FeCl2 concentration, and the maximum I2 formation with Fe(2+) was about 10 times more than without Fe(2+). This enhancement can be explained by the OH(-) scavenging by Fe(3+) formed from Fe(2+) ozonation to produce colloidal Fe(OH)3. This mechanism was confirmed by measurements of aqueous phase products using a UV-vis spectrometer and an electrospray ionization mass spectrometer. We infer that such a pH-buffering effect may play the key role in general halogen activations.

  18. Characterization and pH stability of insoluble products of the reaction between cyanide and ferrous sulphate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mala, C. K.; Hearne, G. R.; Adams, M. D.; Pollak, H.

    1992-10-01

    X-ray diffraction (XRD), infrared (IR) spectroscopy and57Fe Mössbauer effect spectroscopy were used to characterize and monitor the pH stability of cyanide and ferrous sulphate reaction mixtures. Limited information was obtained from the XRD and IR measurements because of the amorphous nature of the samples. The Mössbauer studies show that considerable changes occur when there is an increase in pH at which the sample is prepared. Prussian-blue type compounds and iron oxide in the form of small particles crystallize out at low and high pH values, while additional complexes are formed at intermediate pH values of 6 to 9.57Fe Mössbauer effect spectroscopy is thus a powerful technique for monitoring the environmental stability of cyanide waste streams that result when modern methods of extractive metallurgy of gold are employed on mineral ores.

  19. An antioxidant-like action for non-peroxidisable phospholipids using ferrous iron as a peroxidation initiator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cortie, Colin H; Else, Paul L

    2015-06-01

    The degradation of phospholipids containing polyunsaturated fatty acids, termed peroxidation, poses a constant challenge to membranes lipid composition and function. Phospholipids with saturated (e.g. PC 16:0/16:0) and monounsaturated fatty acids (e.g. PC 16:0/18:1) are some of the most common phospholipids found in membranes and are generally not peroxidisable. The present experiments show that these non-peroxidisable phospholipids, when present in liposomes with peroxidisable phospholipids (i.e. those containing polyunsaturated fatty acids) such as PC 16:0/18:2 and Soy PC, produce an inhibitory effect on rates of peroxidation induced by ferrous-iron. This inhibitory effect acts to extend the duration of the lag phase by several-fold. If present in natural systems, this action could enhance the capacity of conventional antioxidant mechanisms in membranes. The results of this preliminary work suggest that non-peroxidisable phospholipids may exert an antioxidant-like action in membranes.

  20. Synthesis of copper–ferrous (CuFe) nanowires via electrochemical method and its investigations as a fluid sensor

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Saleem Khan; Sandeep Arya; Parveen Lehana; Suresh Kumar

    2014-06-01

    The special behaviour of nanowires with respect to electrical conductivity makes them suitable for sensing application. In this paper, we present a copper–ferrous (CuFe) nanowires based sensor for detection of chemicals. CuFe nanowires were synthesized by template-assisted electrochemical method. By optimizing the deposition parameters, continuous nanowires on a copper substrate were synthesized. The morphological and structural studies of the synthesized CuFe nanowires were carried out using scanning electron microscope (SEM) and X-ray diffraction (XRD). Substrates containing CuFe nanowires were moulded to form a capacitor. Different chemicals were used as dielectric in the capacitor which showed that the capacitance was a nonlinear function of the dielectric constant of fluid unlike the linear relation shown by conventional capacitors. This unique property of the nanowires based capacitors may be utilized for developing fluid sensors with improved sensitivity.

  1. Model-based evaluation of ferrous iron oxidation by acidophilic bacteria in chemostat and biofilm airlift reactors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ebrahimi, Sirous; Faraghi, Neda; Hosseini, Maryam

    2015-10-01

    This article presents a model-based evaluation of ferrous iron oxidation in chemostat and biofilm airlift reactors inoculated with a mixed culture of Acidithiobacillus ferrooxidans and Leptospirillum ferrooxidans bacteria. The competition between the two types of bacteria in the chemostat and in the biofilm airlift reactors together with the distribution of both bacteria along the biofilm thickness at different time sections has been studied. The bacterial distribution profiles along the biofilm in the airlift reactor at different time scales show that in the beginning A. ferrooxidans bacteria are dominant, but when the reactor operates for a long time the desirable L. ferrooxidans species outcompete A. ferrooxidans as a result of the low Fe(2+) and high Fe(3+) concentrations. The results obtained from the simulation were compared with the experimental data of continuously operated internal loop airlift biofilm reactor. The model results are in good agreement with the experimental results.

  2. Technological and ecological studies of moulding sands with new inorganic binders for casting of non-ferrous metal alloys

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. Izdebska-Szanda

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The article presents the results of studies which form a part of broader research programme executed under the project POIG.01.01.02-00-015/09 "Advanced materials and technologies".In a concise manner, the results of studies on the effect of chemical modification of inorganic binders on the technological properties ofmoulding sands containing these binders were presented.Special attention was paid to the effect of modification of inorganic binders on their thermal destruction behaviour in the range of pouringtemperatures of the non-ferrous metals and their alloys.Also the results of comparative studies of the thermal emission of toxic gases and odours from moulding sands with new inorganic andorganic binders were discussed.

  3. Oxygen produced by cyanobacteria in simulated Archaean conditions partly oxidizes ferrous iron but mostly escapes-conclusions about early evolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rantamäki, Susanne; Meriluoto, Jussi; Spoof, Lisa; Puputti, Eeva-Maija; Tyystjärvi, Taina; Tyystjärvi, Esa

    2016-12-01

    The Earth has had a permanently oxic atmosphere only since the great oxygenation event (GOE) 2.3-2.4 billion years ago but recent geochemical research has revealed short periods of oxygen in the atmosphere up to a billion years earlier before the permanent oxygenation. If these "whiffs" of oxygen truly occurred, then oxygen-evolving (proto)cyanobacteria must have existed throughout the Archaean aeon. Trapping of oxygen by ferrous iron and other reduced substances present in Archaean oceans has often been suggested to explain why the oxygen content of the atmosphere remained negligible before the GOE although cyanobacteria produced oxygen. We tested this hypothesis by growing cyanobacteria in anaerobic high-CO2 atmosphere in a medium with a high concentration of ferrous iron. Microcystins are known to chelate iron, which prompted us also to test the effects of microcystins and nodularins on iron tolerance. The results show that all tested cyanobacteria, especially nitrogen-fixing species grown in the absence of nitrate, and irrespective of the ability to produce cyanotoxins, were iron sensitive in aerobic conditions but tolerated high concentrations of iron in anaerobicity. This result suggests that current cyanobacteria would have tolerated the high-iron content of Archaean oceans. However, only 1 % of the oxygen produced by the cyanobacterial culture was trapped by iron, suggesting that large-scale cyanobacterial photosynthesis would have oxygenated the atmosphere even if cyanobacteria grew in a reducing ocean. Recent genomic analysis suggesting that ability to colonize seawater is a secondary trait in cyanobacteria may offer a partial explanation for the sustained inefficiency of cyanobacterial photosynthesis during the Archaean aeon, as fresh water has always covered a very small fraction of the Earth's surface. If oxygenic photosynthesis originated in fresh water, then the GOE marks the adaptation of cyanobacteria to seawater, and the late-Proterozoic increase

  4. Pharmacokinetics of Ferrous Sulphate (Tardyferon®) after Single Oral Dose Administration in Women with Iron Deficiency Anaemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leary, A; Barthe, L; Clavel, T; Sanchez, C; Oulmi-Castel, M; Paillard, B; Edmond, J M; Brunner, V

    2016-01-01

    Iron-containing preparations available on the market vary in dosage, salt, and chemical state of iron contained in the preparation, as well as in the iron delivery process (immediate or prolonged-release). The present study aimed at characterizing the serum pharmacokinetics of iron in non pregnant women with iron deficiency anaemia (IDA) following a single oral administration of a prolonged-release ferrous sulphate tablet. This multicenter, single dose, open-label study was conducted in 30 women aged between 18 and 45 years with IDA. A single 160 mg oral dose of ferrous sulphate was given as 2 tablets of 80 mg of Tardyferon(®) under fasting conditions. Blood samples were collected before dosing and until 24 h post-dosing. Serum iron concentrations were determined using a routine colorimetric analytical method. Pharmacokinetic parameters were determined from the serum concentration profiles using a non compartmental approach. Serum profiles showed elevated levels of iron up to 12 h after drug intake. The median time to maximum serum concentrations (Tmax) occurred 4 h post-dosing. Between 2 and 8 h post-dosing, mean serum iron concentrations fluctuated by only 20%. Additionally, C8h and C12h represented on average 78.6% and 47.5% of the Cmax, respectively. This study demonstrates that a single oral dose of 160 mg Tardyferon(®) administered under fasting condition to 30 women with IDA leads to an optimal long-lasting release of iron in the gastrointestinal tract in the targeted population. This allows the attainment and maintenance of elevated serum iron levels for up to 12 h after administration. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  5. Reactivity of Deoxy- and Oxyferrous Dehaloperoxidase B from Amphitrite ornata: Identification of Compound II and its Ferrous-Hydroperoxide Precursor†

    Science.gov (United States)

    D’Antonio, Jennifer; Ghiladi, Reza A.

    2011-01-01

    Dehaloperoxidase (DHP) from the terebellid polychaete Amphitrite ornata is a bifunctional enzyme that possesses both hemoglobin and peroxidase activities. The bifunctional nature of DHP as a globin-peroxidase appears to be at odds with the traditional starting oxidation state for each individual activity. Namely, reversible oxygen-binding is only mediated via a ferrous heme in globins, and peroxidase activity is initiated from ferric centers and to the exclusion of the oxyferrous oxidation state from the peroxidase cycle. Thus, to address what appears to be a paradox, herein we report the details of our investigations into the DHP catalytic cycle when initiated from the deoxy- and oxyferrous states using biochemical assays, stopped-flow UV-visible and rapid-freeze-quench electron paramagnetic resonance spectroscopies, and anaerobic methods. We demonstrate the formation of Compound II directly from deoxyferrous DHP B upon its reaction with hydrogen peroxide, and show that this occurs both in the presence and absence of trihalophenol. Prior to Compound II formation, we have identified a new species which we have preliminarily attributed to a ferrous-hydroperoxide precursor that undergoes heterolysis to generate the aforementioned ferryl intermediate. Taken together, the results demonstrate that the oxyferrous state in DHP is a peroxidase competent starting species, and an updated catalytic cycle for DHP is proposed in which the ferric oxidation state is not an obligatory starting point for the peroxidase catalytic cycle of dehaloperoxidase. The data presented herein provide a link between the peroxidase and oxygen transport activities which furthers our understanding of how this bifunctional enzyme is able to unite its two inherent functions in one system. PMID:21619067

  6. Carotenoids, but not vitamin A, improve iron uptake and ferritin synthesis by Caco-2 cells from ferrous fumarate and NaFe-EDTA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Casal, María N; Leets, Irene

    2014-04-01

    Due to the high prevalence of iron and vitamin A deficiencies and to the controversy about the role of vitamin A and carotenoids in iron absorption, the objectives of this study were to evaluate the following: (1) the effect of a molar excess of vitamin A as well as the role of tannic acid on iron uptake by Caco-2 cells; (2) iron uptake and ferritin synthesis in presence of carotenoids without pro-vitamin A activity: lycopene, lutein, and zeaxantin; and (3) iron uptake and ferritin synthesis from ferrous fumarate and NaFe-EDTA. Cells were incubated 1 h at 37 °C in PBS pH 5.5, containing (59) Fe and different iron compounds. Vitamin A, ferrous fumarate, β-carotene, lycopene, lutein, zeaxantin, and tannic acid were added to evaluate uptake. Ferritin synthesis was measured 24 h after uptake experiments. Vitamin A had no effect on iron uptake by Caco-2 cells, and was significantly lower from NaFe-EDTA than from ferrous fumarate (15.2 ± 2.5 compared with 52.5 ± 8.3 pmol Fe/mg cell protein, respectively). Carotenoids increase uptake up to 50% from fumarate and up to 300% from NaFe-EDTA, since absorption from this compound is low when administered alone. We conclude the following: (1) There was no effect of vitamin A on iron uptake and ferritin synthesis by Caco-2cells. (2) Carotenoids significantly increased iron uptake from ferrous fumarate and NaFe-EDTA, and were capable of partially overcoming the inhibition produced by tannic acid. (3) Iron uptake by Caco-2 cell from NaFe-EDTA was significantly lower compared to other iron compounds, although carotenoids increased and tannic acid inhibited iron uptake comparably to ferrous fumarate. © 2014 Institute of Food Technologists®

  7. Safety and efficacy of lactoferrin versus ferrous sulphate in curing iron deficiency and iron deficiency anaemia in hereditary thrombophilia pregnant women: an interventional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paesano, Rosalba; Pacifici, Enrica; Benedetti, Samanta; Berlutti, Francesca; Frioni, Alessandra; Polimeni, Antonella; Valenti, Piera

    2014-10-01

    Objective Evaluate the safety and efficacy of bovine lactoferrin (bLf) versus the ferrous sulphate standard intervention in curing iron deficiency (ID) and ID anaemia (IDA) in pregnant women affected by hereditary thrombophilia (HT). Design Interventional study. Setting Secondary-level hospital for complicated pregnancies in Rome, Italy. Population 295 HT pregnant women (≥18 years) suffering from ID/IDA. Methods Women were enrolled in Arm A or B in accordance with their personal choice. In Arm A, 156 women received oral administration of 100 mg of bLf twice a day; in Arm B, 139 women received 520 mg of ferrous sulphate once a day. Therapies lasted until delivery. Main outcome measures Red blood cells, haemoglobin, total serum iron, serum ferritin (haematological parameters) were assayed before and every 30 days during therapy until delivery. Serum IL-6, key factor in inflammatory and iron homeostasis disorders, was detected at enrolment and after therapy at delivery. Possible maternal, foetal, and neonatal adverse effects were assessed. Results Haematological parameters were significantly higher in Arm A than in Arm B pregnant women (P ≤ 0.0001). Serum IL-6 significantly decreased in bLf-treated women and increased in ferrous sulphate-treated women. BLf did not exert any adverse effect. Adverse effects in 16.5 % of ferrous sulphate-treated women were recorded. Arm A women experienced no miscarriage compared to five miscarriages in Arm B women. Conclusions Differently from ferrous sulphate, bLf is safe and effective in curing ID/IDA associated with a consistent decrease of serum IL-6. The absence of miscarriage among bLf-treated women provided an unexpected benefit. ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier NCT01221844.

  8. Isocyanides Inhibit Human Heme Oxygenases at the Verdoheme Stage†

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, John P.; Kandel, Sylvie; Ortiz de Montellano, Paul R.

    2010-01-01

    Heme oxygenases (HO) catalyze the oxidative cleavage of heme to generate biliverdin, CO, and free iron. In humans, heme oxygenase-1 (hHO-1) is overexpressed in tumor tissues, where it helps to protect cancer cells from anticancer agents, while HOs in fungal pathogens, such as Candida albicans, function as the primary means of iron acquisition. Thus, HO can be considered a potential therapeutic target for certain diseases. In this study, we have examined the equilibrium binding of three isocyanides; isopropyl, n-butyl, and benzyl, to the two major human HO isoforms (hHO-1 and hHO-2), Candida albicans HO (CaHmx1), and human cytochrome P450 CYP3A4 using electronic absorption spectroscopy. Isocyanides coordinate to both ferric and ferrous HO-bound heme, with tighter binding by the more hydrophobic isocyanides, and 200-300-fold tighter binding to the ferrous form. Benzyl isocyanide was the strongest ligand to ferrous heme in all the enzymes. Because the dissociation constants (KD) of the ligands for ferrous heme-hHO-1 were below the limit of accuracy for equilibrium titrations, stopped-flow kinetic experiments were used to measure the binding parameters of the isocyanides to ferrous hHO-1. Steady-state activity assays showed that benzyl isocyanide was the most potent uncompetitive inhibitor with respect to heme with a KI = 0.15 μM for hHO-1. Importantly, single turnover assays revealed that the reaction was completely stopped by coordination of the isocyanide to the verdoheme intermediate rather than to the ferric heme complex. Much tighter binding of the inhibitor to the verdoheme intermediate differentiates it from inhibition of, for example, CYP3A4 and offers a possible route to more selective inhibitor design. PMID:19694439

  9. Isocyanides inhibit human heme oxygenases at the verdoheme stage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, John P; Kandel, Sylvie; Ortiz de Montellano, Paul R

    2009-09-22

    Heme oxygenases (HO) catalyze the oxidative cleavage of heme to generate biliverdin, CO, and free iron. In humans, heme oxygenase-1 (hHO-1) is overexpressed in tumor tissues, where it helps to protect cancer cells from anticancer agents, while HOs in fungal pathogens, such as Candida albicans, function as the primary means of iron acquisition. Thus, HO can be considered a potential therapeutic target for certain diseases. In this study, we have examined the equilibrium binding of three isocyanides, isopropyl, n-butyl, and benzyl, to the two major human HO isoforms (hHO-1 and hHO-2), Candida albicans HO (CaHmx1), and human cytochrome P450 CYP3A4 using electronic absorption spectroscopy. Isocyanides coordinate to both ferric and ferrous HO-bound heme, with tighter binding by the more hydrophobic isocyanides and 200-300-fold tighter binding to the ferrous form. Benzyl isocyanide was the strongest ligand to ferrous heme in all the enzymes. Because the dissociation constants (KD) of the ligands for ferrous heme-hHO-1 were below the limit of accuracy for equilibrium titrations, stopped-flow kinetic experiments were used to measure the binding parameters of the isocyanides to ferrous hHO-1. Steady-state activity assays showed that benzyl isocyanide was the most potent uncompetitive inhibitor with respect to heme with a KI = 0.15 microM for hHO-1. Importantly, single turnover assays revealed that the reaction was completely stopped by coordination of the isocyanide to the verdoheme intermediate rather than to the ferric heme complex. Much tighter binding of the inhibitor to the verdoheme intermediate differentiates it from inhibition of, for example, CYP3A4 and offers a possible route to more selective inhibitor design.

  10. Production of ferrous sulfate from residue from the iron mining; Producao de sulfato ferroso a partir de residuo proveniente da mineracao de ferro

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cardoso, K.A; Riella, H.G.; Abreu, E.F. [Universidade Federal de Santa Catarina (UFSC), Florianopolis, SC (Brazil). Dept. de Engrenharia Quimica; Carvalho, E.F. Urano de; Durazzo, M. [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil). Centro de Combustivel Nuclear

    2012-11-15

    This paper was developed from a residue obtained by processing iron ore exploited by the mining company Samarco S/A. The residue was characterized and the analyses showed that it contains about 70% of the mineral hematite (Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3}) and also that some economically important products could be produced. One is the ferrous sulfate that can be used in pharmaceuticals and also that can be used in the treatment of iron deficiency anemia. The iron, in addition to is importance for the industrial production of steel and parts in general, also has great biological importance in all living beings. In order to produce ferrous sulfate from the byproduct in question, it was developed a obtaining route using metallic iron as hematite reductor and sulfuric acid to form the salt. (author)

  11. The Preparation of Active Ferrous Sulfide and the Study on It’s Self-ignition Characteristics%活性硫化亚铁制备及其自燃性能研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    高建村; 周尚勇; 朱佳华; 杨金龙; 孙武豪; 赵钰; 温雯

    2016-01-01

    A major problem encountered in investigating the spontaneous combustion phenomenon of ferrous sulfide in processing high-sulfur crude oil is difficult to get active ferrous sulfide.In the paper,higher purity ferrous sulfide were prepared with three different synthesis methods,their self-ignition activity were studied and compared with the commercial ferrous sulfide. The experimental results shown that the ferrous sulfide synthesized in laboratory can self - ignite when exposed to air at room temperature, but the commercial sample did not combust spontaneously.And the research on spontaneous combustion characteristics of ferrous sulfide by means of thermogravimetric and differential thermal analysis showed that the ferrous sulfide prepared by the reaction of sodium sulfide reacted with ammonium ferrous sulfate solution has the highest self-ignition activity.%高含硫原油加工过程硫化亚铁自燃现象遇到的一个主要问题是很难得到活性硫化亚铁,通过3种不同方法制备高纯度硫化亚铁,并对比测定了市售硫化亚铁与3种实验室制备硫化亚铁的自燃活性。实验结果表明:在空气中,常温下实验室制备的硫化亚铁均可自燃,市售的硫化亚铁不具备自燃活性。利用热重/差热分析法对硫化亚铁的自燃特性进行了研究,结果表明,硫化钠溶液与硫酸亚铁铵溶液反应制备的硫化亚铁自燃活性最高。

  12. Ferrous sulfate, but not iron polymaltose complex, aggravates local and systemic inflammation and oxidative stress in dextran sodium sulfate-induced colitis in rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Toblli JE

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Jorge E Toblli, Gabriel Cao, Margarita Angerosa Laboratory of Experimental Medicine, Hospital Alemán, School of Medicine, University of Buenos Aires, Buenos Aires, Argentina Background and aims: Iron deficiency is common in inflammatory bowel disease, yet oral iron therapy may worsen the disease symptoms and increase systemic and local oxidative stress. The aim of this study was to compare the effects of oral ferrous sulfate and iron polymaltose complex on inflammatory and oxidative stress markers in colitic rats.Methods: Animals were divided into four groups with ten animals each. Rats of three groups received dextran sodium sulfate to induce colitis and animals of two of these groups received 5 mg iron/kg of body weight a day, as ferrous sulfate or iron polymaltose complex, for 7 days. Gross colon anatomy, histology of colon and liver, stainings of L-ferritin, Prussian blue, hepcidin, tumor necrosis factor-α, and interleukin-6, as well serum levels of liver enzymes, inflammatory markers, and iron markers, were assessed.Results: Body weight, gross anatomy, crypt injury and inflammation scores, inflammatory parameters in liver and colon, as well as serum and liver hepcidin levels were not significantly different between colitic animals without iron treatment and colitic animals treated with iron polymaltose complex. In contrast, ferrous sulfate treatment caused significant worsening of these parameters. As opposed to ferrous sulfate, iron polymaltose complex caused less or no additional oxidative stress in the colon and liver compared to colitic animals without iron treatment.Conclusion: Iron polymaltose complex had negligible effects on colonic tissue erosion, local or systemic oxidative stress, and local or systemic inflammation, even at high therapeutic doses, and may thus represent a valuable oral treatment of iron deficiency in inflammatory bowel disease. Keywords: preclinical, oral iron treatment, tolerability, colonic tissue erosion

  13. Ferrous sulfate, but not iron polymaltose complex, aggravates local and systemic inflammation and oxidative stress in dextran sodium sulfate-induced colitis in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toblli, Jorge E; Cao, Gabriel; Angerosa, Margarita

    2015-01-01

    Iron deficiency is common in inflammatory bowel disease, yet oral iron therapy may worsen the disease symptoms and increase systemic and local oxidative stress. The aim of this study was to compare the effects of oral ferrous sulfate and iron polymaltose complex on inflammatory and oxidative stress markers in colitic rats. Animals were divided into four groups with ten animals each. Rats of three groups received dextran sodium sulfate to induce colitis and animals of two of these groups received 5 mg iron/kg of body weight a day, as ferrous sulfate or iron polymaltose complex, for 7 days. Gross colon anatomy, histology of colon and liver, stainings of L-ferritin, Prussian blue, hepcidin, tumor necrosis factor-α, and interleukin-6, as well serum levels of liver enzymes, inflammatory markers, and iron markers, were assessed. Body weight, gross anatomy, crypt injury and inflammation scores, inflammatory parameters in liver and colon, as well as serum and liver hepcidin levels were not significantly different between colitic animals without iron treatment and colitic animals treated with iron polymaltose complex. In contrast, ferrous sulfate treatment caused significant worsening of these parameters. As opposed to ferrous sulfate, iron polymaltose complex caused less or no additional oxidative stress in the colon and liver compared to colitic animals without iron treatment. Iron polymaltose complex had negligible effects on colonic tissue erosion, local or systemic oxidative stress, and local or systemic inflammation, even at high therapeutic doses, and may thus represent a valuable oral treatment of iron deficiency in inflammatory bowel disease.

  14. Multiconfigurational and DFT analyses of the electromeric formulation and UV-vis absorption spectra of the superoxide adduct of ferrous superoxide reductase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Attia, Amr A A; Cioloboc, Daniela; Lupan, Alexandru; Silaghi-Dumitrescu, Radu

    2016-12-01

    The putative initial adduct of ferrous superoxide reductase (SOR) with superoxide has been alternatively formulated as ferric-peroxo or ferrous-superoxo. The ~600-nm UV-vis absorption band proposed to be assigned to this adduct (either as sole intermediate in the SOR catalytic cycle, or as one of the two intermediates) has recently been interpreted as due to a ligand-to-metal charge transfer, involving thiolate and superoxide in a ferrous complex, contrary to an alternative assignment as a predominantly cysteine thiolate-to-ferric charge transfer in a ferric-peroxo electromer. In an attempt to clarify the electromeric formulation of this adduct, we report a computational study using a multiconfigurational complete active space self-consistent field (MC-CASSCF) wave function approach as well as modelling the UV-vis absorption spectra with time-dependent density functional theory (TD-DFT). The MC-CASSCF calculations disclose a weak interaction between iron and the dioxygenic ligand and a dominant configuration with an essentially ferrous-superoxo character. The computed UV-vis absorption spectra reveal a marked dependence on the choice of density functional - both in terms of location of bands and in terms of orbital contributors. For the main band in the visible region, besides the recently reported thiolate-to-superoxide charge transfer, a more salient, and less functional-dependent, feature is a thiolate-to-ferric iron charge transfer, consistent with a ferric-peroxo electromer. By contrast, the computed UV-vis spectra of a ferric-hydroperoxo SOR model match distinctly better (and with no qualitative dependence on the DFT methodology) the 600-nm band as due to a mainly thiolate-to-ferric character - supporting the assignment of the SOR "600-nm intermediate" as a S=5/2 ferric-hydroperoxo species. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Geochemical features of heavy metals distribution in soils under the influence of the non-ferrous metallurgy enterprises

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    YakovenkoO.V.

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Objects of researches are soil adjournment under the influence of the non-ferrous metallurgy enterprises. The total maintenance and the maintenance of mobile forms of heavy metalsdefined by means of a method of nuclear adsorption and the spectral analysis. Definition of forms of heavy metals spent with use of a method of consecutive extraction. As a result of researches it is established that the basic source of issue of heavy metals in environment is functioning of svintsovo-zinc industrial complex. It is established that heavy metals are in soils in residual, sorbed on hydroxides and organic forms. The share of the mobile form makes 16 %. It is shown that the maintenance of mobile forms of metals in the polluted soils exceeds indicators of pure soils. On geochemical indicators define level of pollution of soils. On factor of total pollution an ecological situation in a zone of influence of industrial complex it is estimated as catastrophic (ZC = 1,7·104.

  16. Recovery of Iron from Pyrite Cinder Containing Non-ferrous Metals Using High-Temperature Chloridizing-Reduction-Magnetic Separation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Dong; Guo, Hongwei; Xu, Jifang; Lv, Yanan; Xu, Zemin; Huo, Haijiang

    2017-01-01

    This study presents a new technique that uses high-temperature chloridizing -reduction-magnetic separation to recover iron from pyrite cinder containing non-ferrous metals. The effects of the reduction temperature, reduction time, and chlorinating agent dosage were investigated. The optimized process parameters were proposed as the following: CaCl2 dosage of 2 pct, chloridizing at 1398 K (1125 °C) for 10 minutes, reducing at 1323 K (1050 °C) for 80 minutes, grinding to a particle size of 78.8 pct less than 45 μm, and magnetic field intensity of 73 mT. Under the optimized conditions, the Cu, Pb, and Zn removal rates were 45.2, 99.2, and 89.1 pct, respectively. The iron content of the magnetic concentrate was 90.6 pct, and the iron recovery rate was 94.8 pct. Furthermore, the reduction behavior and separation mechanism were determined based on microstructure and phase change analyses using X-ray powder diffraction, scanning electron microscope, and optical microscopy.

  17. Advanced treatment of effluents from an industrial park wastewater treatment plant by ferrous ion activated persulfate oxidation process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Songmei; Zhou, Zhen; Jiang, Haitao; Ye, Jianfeng; Ren, Jiamin; Gu, Lingyun; Wang, Luochun

    The advanced oxidation technology, ferrous ion (Fe(II)) activated persulfate (PS) producing sulfate radicals, was used for the advanced treatment of effluent from an integrated wastewater treatment plant in a papermaking industrial park. Separate and interactive effects of PS dosage, Fe(II)/PS ratio and initial pH on chemical oxygen demand (COD) removal were analyzed by the response surface methodology (RSM). The results showed that Fe(II)-PS system was effective in COD removal from the secondary effluent. PS dosage was the most dominant factor with positive influence on COD removal, followed by initial pH value. The optimum conditions with COD removal of 54.4% were obtained at PS/COD of 2.2, initial pH of 6.47 and Fe(II)/PS of 1.89. UV-visible spectrum analysis showed that after RSM optimization, Fe(II)-PS system effectively degraded large organic molecules into small ones, and decreased humification degree of the effluent. Three-dimensional fluorescence analysis demonstrated that aromatic protein and fulvic substances were fully decomposed by the Fe(II)-PS treatment.

  18. Enhanced Colloidal Stability of CeO2 Nanoparticles by Ferrous Ions: Adsorption, Redox Reaction, and Surface Precipitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xuyang; Ray, Jessica R; Neil, Chelsea W; Li, Qingyun; Jun, Young-Shin

    2015-05-05

    Due to the toxicity of cerium oxide (CeO2) nanoparticles (NPs), a better understanding of the redox reaction-induced surface property changes of CeO2 NPs and their transport in natural and engineered aqueous systems is needed. This study investigates the impact of redox reactions with ferrous ions (Fe2+) on the colloidal stability of CeO2 NPs. We demonstrated that under anaerobic conditions, suspended CeO2 NPs in a 3 mM FeCl2 solution at pH 4.8 were much more stable against sedimentation than those in the absence of Fe2+. Redox reactions between CeO2 NPs and Fe2+ lead to the formation of 6-line ferrihydrite on the CeO2 surfaces, which enhanced the colloidal stability by increasing the zeta potential and hydrophilicity of CeO2 NPs. These redox reactions can affect the toxicity of CeO2 NPs by increasing cerium dissolution, and by creating new Fe(III) (hydr)oxide reactive surface layers. Thus, these findings have significant implications for elucidating the phase transformation and transport of redox reactive NPs in the environment.

  19. Recovery of iron and calcium aluminate slag from high-ferrous bauxite by high-temperature reduction and smelting process

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ying-yi Zhang; Wei L; Yuan-hong Qi; Zong-shu Zou

    2016-01-01

    A high-temperature reduction and smelting process was used to recover iron and calcium aluminate slag from high-ferrous bauxite. The effects of w(CaO)/w(SiO2) ratio, anthracite ratio, and reduction temperature and time on the recovery and size of iron nuggets and on the Al2O3 grade of the calcium aluminate slag were investigated through thermodynamic calculations and experiments. The optimized process conditions were the bauxite/anthracite/slaked lime weight ratio of 100:16.17:59.37, reduction temperature of 1450°C and reduction time of 20 min. Under these conditions, high-quality iron nuggets and calcium aluminate slag were obtained. The largest size and the highest recov-ery rate of iron nuggets were 11.42 mm and 92.79wt%, respectively. The calcium aluminate slag mainly comprised Ca2SiO4 and Ca12Al14O33, with small amounts of FeAl2O4, CaAl2O4, and Ca2Al2SiO7.

  20. Preparation of Polyacrylonitrile/Ferrous Chloride Composite Nanofibers by Electrospinning for Efficient Reduction of Cr(VI).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Shilin; Liu, Fang; Zhang, Qian; Chen, Bor-Yann; Lin, Chin-Jung; Chang, Chang-Tang

    2015-08-01

    In this study, A novel adsorbent material of polyacrylonitrile (PAN)/ferrous chloride (FeCl2) composite nanofibers is prepared by electrospinning, a simple and effective method. The obtained composite nanofibers have a non-uniform morphology and structure and a large specific surface area of 13.8 m2 g-1. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) revealed that Fe2+ was successful introduced into the composite nanofibers. Furthermore, the PAN/FeC12 composite nanofibers exhibited excellent performance in Cr removal, especially when reacted with reduction from a Cr(VI) standard containing solution, which has much faster removal efficiency than the previous report of Lin et al. (2011). The results of the adsorption isotherm show that the data fitted well to the Langmuir isotherm model. The maximum adsorption of chromium ions composite nanofibers is 108 mgCr/gFeCl2. An attempted model prediction of the transient dynamics of adsorption-desorption elucidated the feasible kinetic analysis of Cr6+ from the PAN/FeCl2 composite nanofibers. This kinetic modeling can be used both for adsorption of heavy metals wastewater and for organic-adsorption and biosorption of diverse wastewaters. The PAN/FeCl2 composite nanofibers producted in this study exhibit high efficiency in Cr(VI) removal from wastewater, and may be used as a reference for future investigation.