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Sample records for ferrara northern italy

  1. Active stress along the ne external margin of the Apennines: the Ferrara arc, northern Italy

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    Montone, Paola; Mariucci, M. Teresa

    1999-09-01

    We have analysed borehole breakout data from 12 deep wells in order to constrain the direction of the minimum and maximum horizontal stress in a part of the Po Plain, northern Italy, characterised by a ˜N-S prevailing compressional stress regime, and in order to shed light on the regional state of stress and on the correlation between the active stress field and the orientation of tectonic structures. The results have been compared with seismological data relating to 1988-1995 crustal seismicity (2.5Reggio Emilia ( Ms=5.1) events. Plio-Pleistocene mesostructural data are also described in order to better define the present-day stress field and to understand the active tectonic processes in particular stress provinces. The borehole breakout analysis, in accordance with the seismicity and mesostructural data, shows the presence of a predominant compression area, characterised by approximately N-S maximum horizontal stress, along the outer thrust of the Ferrara arc. Particularly, the breakout analysis indicates a minimum horizontal stress, N81W±22° relative to a total of eleven analysed wells, with 3746 m cumulative total length of breakout zones. Among these, nine wells are located in the same tectonic structure, consisting of an arc of asymmetric folds overthrust towards the NE. The breakout results for these wells are quite similar in terms of minimum horizontal stress direction (˜E-W oriented). The other two wells are located in the outside sector of the arc and one of them shows a different minimum horizontal stress direction, probably distinctive of another tectonic unit. On the basis of these new reliable stress indicators, the active compressive front in this area is located along the termination of the external northern Apenninic arc.

  2. Heavy metals in soils and sedimentary deposits of the Padanian Plain (Ferrara, Northern Italy). Characterisation and biomonitoring

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bianchini, Gianluca; Natali, Claudio [Ferrara Univ. (Italy). Dept. of Earth Sciences; C.N.R, Pisa (Italy). Ist. di Geoscienze e Georisorse; Di Giuseppe, Dario; Beccaluva, Luigi [Ferrara Univ. (Italy). Dept. of Earth Sciences

    2012-08-15

    Purpose: This contribution investigates agricultural soils and sedimentary deposits in the province of Ferrara (Padanian alluvial plain, Northern Italy) in order to: examine their genesis; to define the geochemical background of the area; and to evaluate the existence of anthropogenic contamination. Moreover, environmental risk related to the presence of potentially toxic heavy metals that can be transferred into agricultural products (and consequently bio-accumulated in the food chain) was also assessed. Materials and methods: The analyses (reported in an extensive supplementary dataset) include XRD, XRF and ICP-MS assessment of bulk sediments, tests of metal extraction with aqua regia, as well as analyses of local agricultural products, i.e. biomonitoring which is important in the evaluation of element mobility. Results and discussion: Based on the results, GIS-based geochemical maps were produced and local background levels were defined. This approach demonstrated that high concentrations of Cr and Ni is a natural (geogenic) feature of the local alluvial terrains, which in turn is related to the origin and provenance of the sediments, as confirmed by the lack of top enrichment in all of the investigated sites. Tests of metal extraction and analyses of agricultural products provide guidelines for agricultural activities, suggesting that extensive use of sewage sludge, industrial slurry and manure (that are often rich in metals) should be minimised. Conclusions: The dataset reported in this paper shows that the agricultural terrains of the studied alluvial plain are not characterised by anthropogenic heavy metal pollution. In spite of the elevated natural background of Cr and Ni, most of the local agricultural products do not show significant evidence of bio-magnification. Exceptions are represented by forage grass (alfalfa) and corn (maize) that tend to uptake As and Ni, respectively. This demonstrates that in agricultural areas, a geochemical risk assessment

  3. Incidence of epilepsy in Ferrara, Italy.

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    Cesnik, Edward; Pedelini, Francesco; Faggioli, Raffaella; Monetti, Vincenza Cinzia; Granieri, Enrico; Casetta, Ilaria

    2013-12-01

    Few studies have been carried out in the same area at different times, allowing an assessment of the incidence of epilepsy (E.), including all ages, over time. The available data on temporal trend show a decrease in E. incidence in childhood and an increase in the elderly. We sought to update the incidence of E. in the province of Ferrara, where a previous study estimated an incidence rate of 33.1 per 100,000, 35.8, if standardized to the European population. Newly diagnosed patients aged up to 14 years were drawn from a community-based prospective multi-source registry, and adult onset E. cases were collected through multiple overlapping sources of case collection. Cases were included and classified according to ILAE recommendations. During the study period (2007-2008), 141 newly diagnosed cases (66 men and 75 women) living in the study area were identified. The crude incidence rate was 46.1 per 100,000 person-years (95 % CI 39.0-54.5), 35.5 (95 % CI 28.0-43.0) if adjusted to the European population. The incidence of childhood and adolescence epilepsy was 57.0 per 100,000 person-years (95 % CI 33.8-90.0), lower than that reported in our previous study, and it was 44.8 (95 % CI 37.4-53.6) for adult onset E., which is significantly higher as compared to our previous study. The overall incidence of E. in northern Italy is stable over time. We detected a significant decrease in incidence of childhood and adolescence E. and an increase in adult-onset E. The burden of epilepsy will increase as the population continues to age.

  4. [Mortality study update of workers exposed to vinyl chloride in plants located in Ferrara and Ravenna (Emilia-Romagna Region, Northern Italy)].

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    Scarnato, Corrado; Rambaldi, Rossella; Mancini, Gianpiero; Olanda, Sandra; Spagnolo, Maria Rosa; Previati, Elisabetta; Parmeggiani, Valerio; Minisci, Salvatore; Comba, Pietro; Pirastu, Roberta

    2017-01-01

    to update the mortality study of subjects exposed to vinyl chloride in the phases of synthesis of the monomer and polymerization in the plants of Ferrara and Ravenna (Emilia-Romagna Region, Northern Italy). both for the whole cohort and for the two plants, standardized mortality ratios (SMRs), with 95% confidence intervals (95%CI), were calculated for different death causes, then stratified by duration and latency, periods of the beginning of work and cumulative exposure (ppm-years). the cohort includes 1,540 subjects (469 in Ferrara hired from 1953 to 1999; 1,071 in Ravenna hired from 1959 to 2000), with at least six months of work. by the end of the follow-up (31.12.2013), 348 deaths occurred. Overall observed mortality, contrasted to that expected based on Emilia-Romagna Region mortality rates, appeared to be lower than expected in the whole cohort (348 cases, SMR: 0.85; 95%CI 0.77-0.95) and in Ravenna (173 cases, SMR: 0.71; 95%CI 0.61-0.83). Mortality for all neoplasms was in excess in Ferrara (79 cases, SMR: 1.27; 95%CI 1.02-1.58), but lower than expected in Ravenna (83 cases, SMR: 0.80; 95%CI 0.64-0.99). An excess in mortality was observed in the whole cohort (16 cases, SMR: 1.74; 95%CI 1.07-2.85) and in Ferrara for liver cancer (7 cases, SMR: 2.12; 95%CI 1.02-4.46), and only in Ferrara for respiratory tract cancer (30 cases, SMR: 1.45; 95%CI 1.02-2.07) and larynx cancer (4 cases, SMR: 3.35; 95%CI 1.26-8.92). In the whole cohort, SMR for liver cancer was in excess since a cumulative exposure of 5,000 ppm-year and 12 cases belong to the job title of autoclave workers (12 cases, SMR 4.6; 95%CI 2.6-8.0), duration of work higher than 20 years (8 cases, SMR 2.4; 95%CI 1.2-4.9), and latency higher than 40 years (7 cases, SMR 2.5; 95%CI 1.2-5.2). The excess in mortality for lung cancer is statistically significant for and with cumulative exposure higher than 7,330 ppm-years (6 cases, SMR 3.2 95%CI 1.4-7.0). There are not excesses among subjects hired after 1971. the

  5. Location Capability and Site Characterization Installing a Borehole VBB Seismometer: the OGS Experience in Ferrara (Italy)

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    Pesaresi, D.; Barnaba, C.

    2014-12-01

    The Centro di Ricerche Sismologiche (CRS, Seismological Research Centre) of the Istituto Nazionale di Oceanografia e di Geofisica Sperimentale (OGS, Italian National Institute for Oceanography and Experimental Geophysics) in Udine (Italy) after the strong earthquake of magnitude M=6.4 occurred in 1976 in the Italian Friuli-Venezia Giulia region, started to operate the Northeastern Italy Seismic Network: it currently consists of 19 very sensitive broad band and 17 simpler short period seismic stations, all telemetered to and acquired in real time at the OGS CRS data centre in Udine. The southwestern edge of the OGS seismic network stands on the Po alluvial basin: earthquake localization and characterization in this area is affected by the presence of soft alluvial deposits. Following the ML=5.9 earthquake that struck the Emilia region around Ferrara in Northern Italy on May 20, 2012, a cooperation of Istituto Nazionale di Geofisica e Vulcanologia, OGS, the Comune di Ferrara and the University of Ferrara lead to the reinstallation of a previously existing very broad band (VBB) borehole seismic station in Ferrara and to the deployment of a temporary seismographic network consisting of eight portable seismological stations, to record the local earthquakes that occurred during the seismic sequence. The aim of the OGS intervention was on one hand to extend its real time seismic monitoring capabilities toward South-West, including Ferrara and its surroundings, and on the other hand to evaluate seismic site responses in the area. We will introduce details of the Ferrara VBB borehole station and the OGS temporary seismographic network configuration and installation. We will then illustrate the location capability performances, and finally we will shortly describe seismic site characterization with surface/borehole comparisons in terms of seismic noise, site amplification and resonance frequencies.

  6. Impact of socioeconomic status and district of residence on cutaneous malignant melanoma prognosis: a survival study on incident cases between 1991 and 2011 in the province of Ferrara, northern Italy.

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    Borghi, Alessandro; Corazza, Monica; Virgili, Annarosa; Lambertini, Anna G; Caranci, Nicola; Pacelli, Barbara; Carcoforo, Paolo; Ferretti, Stefano

    2017-12-01

    The aim of this study was to analyse the impact of socioeconomic status (SES) on the prognosis of patients with invasive malignant melanoma (MM) incident from 1991 to 2011 in the province of Ferrara, northern Italy. A total of 750 patients provided by the Area Vasta Emilia Centrale Cancer Registry were included in this retrospective cohort study. Prognosis was analysed in terms of overall survival and specific survival. The study determinants were the patients' SES and district of residence. The confounding effect of sex, age, period and TNM stage at diagnosis was evaluated. In the study population, neither overall survival nor specific survival showed significant differences among different layers of SES and districts of residence. The risk for death from MM was lower for the female sex [hazard risk (HR)=0.68, 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.50-0.94] and for diagnoses made in the most recent period (2005-2011: HR=0.56, 95% CI: 0.36-0.89 with respect to 1991-1997). A worse prognosis was observed in patients older than 70 years at the time of diagnosis (HR=2.33, 95% CI: 1.39-3.91 with respect to the Ferrara. Homogeneity in MM staging, treatment and follow-up strategies due to the relatively small extent of the study area and the presence of a single university hospital of reference, as well as less marked social and economic differences among the study patients in comparison with other previously analysed populations, may account for this finding.

  7. OGS improvements in 2012 in running the Northeastern Italy Seismic Network: the Ferrara VBB borehole seismic station

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    Pesaresi, Damiano; Romanelli, Marco; Barnaba, Carla; Bragato, Pier Luigi; Durì, Giorgio

    2013-04-01

    The Centro di Ricerche Sismologiche (CRS, Seismological Research Center) of the Istituto Nazionale di Oceanografia e di Geofisica Sperimentale (OGS, Italian National Institute for Oceanography and Experimental Geophysics) in Udine (Italy) after the strong earthquake of magnitude M=6.4 occurred in 1976 in the Italian Friuli-Venezia Giulia region, started to operate the Northeastern Italy Seismic Network: it currently consists of 17 very sensitive broad band and 18 simpler short period seismic stations, all telemetered to and acquired in real time at the OGS-CRS data center in Udine. Real time data exchange agreements in place with other Italian, Slovenian, Austrian and Swiss seismological institutes lead to a total number of about 100 seismic stations acquired in real time, which makes the OGS the reference institute for seismic monitoring of Northeastern Italy. The southwestern edge of the OGS seismic network stands on the Po alluvial basin: earthquake localization and characterization in this area is affected by the presence of soft alluvial deposits. OGS ha already experience in running a local seismic network in high noise conditions making use of borehole installations in the case of the micro-seismicity monitoring of a local gas storage site for a private company. Following the ML=5.9 earthquake that struck the Emilia region around Ferrara in Northern Italy on May 20, 2012 at 02:03:53 UTC, a cooperation of Istituto Nazionale di Geofisica e Vulcanologia, OGS, the Comune di Ferrara and the University of Ferrara lead to the reinstallation of a previously existing very broad band (VBB) borehole seismic station in Ferrara. The aim of the OGS intervention was on one hand to extend its real time seismic monitoring capabilities toward South-West, including Ferrara and its surroundings, and on the other hand to evaluate the seismic response at the site. We will describe improvements in running the Northeastern Italy Seismic Network, including details of the Ferrara VBB

  8. Palaeoseismological evidence for the 1570 Ferrara earthquake, Italy

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    Caputo, R.; Poli, M. E.; Minarelli, L.; Rapti, D.; Sboras, S.; Stefani, M.; Zanferrari, A.

    2016-06-01

    In May 2012, two earthquakes (Mw 6.1 and 5.9) affected the Po Plain, Italy. The strongest shock produced extensive secondary effects associated with liquefaction phenomena. Few weeks after the earthquakes, an exploratory trench was excavated across a levee of the palaeo-Reno reach, where a system of aligned ground ruptures was observed. The investigated site well preserves the geomorphic expression of a fluvial body that mainly formed in the fifteenth to sixteenth centuries as historical sources and radiometric data testify. In the trench several features pinpointed the occurrence of past liquefaction events: (i) dikes filled with overpressured injected sand and associated with vertical displacements have no correspondence with the fractures mapped at the surface; (ii) thick dikes are buried by the plowed level or even by fluvial deposits; (iii) although some of the 2012 ground fractures characterized by vertical displacement and opening occurred in correspondence of thick dikes observed in the trench, sand and water ejection did not occur; (iv) some seismites (load casts) were observed in the trench well above the 2012 water level. The results strongly suggest that shaking has locally occurred in the past producing a sufficient ground motion capable of triggering liquefaction phenomena prior to, and likely stronger than, the May 2012 earthquake. Historical seismicity documents three seismic events that might have been able to generate liquefaction in the broader investigated area. Based on the analysis of their macroseismic fields, the 17 November 1570 Ferrara earthquake is the most likely causative event of the observed palaeoliquefactions.

  9. OGS improvements in 2012 in running the North-eastern Italy Seismic Network: the Ferrara VBB borehole seismic station

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    Pesaresi, D.; Romanelli, M.; Barnaba, C.; Bragato, P. L.; Durì, G.

    2014-07-01

    The Centro di Ricerche Sismologiche (CRS, Seismological Research Centre) of the Istituto Nazionale di Oceanografia e di Geofisica Sperimentale (OGS, Italian National Institute for Oceanography and Experimental Geophysics) in Udine (Italy) after the strong earthquake of magnitude M=6.4 occurred in 1976 in the Italian Friuli-Venezia Giulia region, started to operate the North-eastern Italy Seismic Network: it currently consists of 17 very sensitive broad band and 18 simpler short period seismic stations, all telemetered to and acquired in real time at the OGS-CRS data centre in Udine. Real time data exchange agreements in place with other Italian, Slovenian, Austrian and Swiss seismological institutes lead to a total number of about 100 seismic stations acquired in real time, which makes the OGS the reference institute for seismic monitoring of North-eastern Italy. The south-western edge of the OGS seismic network (Fig. 1) stands on the Po alluvial basin: earthquake localization and characterization in this area is affected by the presence of soft alluvial deposits. OGS ha already experience in running a local seismic network in high noise conditions making use of borehole installations in the case of the micro-seismicity monitoring of a local gas storage site for a private company. Following the ML = 5.9 earthquake that struck the Emilia region around Ferrara in Northern Italy on 20 May 2012 at 02:03:53 UTC, a cooperation of Istituto Nazionale di Geofisica e Vulcanologia, OGS, the Comune di Ferrara and the University of Ferrara lead to the reinstallation of a previously existing very broad band (VBB) borehole seismic station in Ferrara. The aim of the OGS intervention was on one hand to extend its real time seismic monitoring capabilities toward South-West, including Ferrara and its surroundings, and on the other hand to evaluate the seismic response at the site. We will describe improvements in running the North-eastern Italy Seismic Network, including details of

  10. Epidemiology of rotavirus-associated hospital admissions in the province of Ferrara, Italy.

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    Marsella, Maria; Raimondi, Licia; Bergamini, Mauro; Sprocati, Monica; Bigi, Ettore; De Sanctis, Vincenzo; Borgna-Pignatti, Caterina; Gabutti, Giovanni

    2009-12-01

    Hospital discharge forms with specific codes for rotavirus gastroenteritis in children 0 to 14 years of age were reviewed in the period 2003-2005 in the province of Ferrara. A total of 4,238 children were admitted to the pediatric departments; 151 patients were diagnosed with rotavirus gastroenteritis. The average annual rate of hospitalization for rotavirus gastroenteritis was 1.54/1,000 children Italy and underline the potential impact of rotavirus vaccination in our province.

  11. The treatment of syphilis in Ferrara (Italy) in the 19th century: the example of the Ferrarese pharmacopoeia.

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    Guidi, Enrica; Angelini, Lauretta; Mares, Donatella; Contini, Carlo; Vicentini, Chiara Beatrice

    2010-03-01

    The authors have taken the Italian city of Ferrara as an example of the remedies against syphilis, commonly used worldwide in the 1800s. After having identified the terminologies used to diagnose syphilis, they evidence the legislative behaviours of the government authorities in 19th century in Italy and, in particular, the social and sanitary measures taken in Ferrara to limit the spread of the syphilis epidemic. Historical sources permitted description of the remedies employed in Ferrara from the beginning to the end of that century, not only to treat conditions linked directly to the malady itself, but also its complications and secondary pathologies. The pharmacopoeia written for the apothecaries of Ferrara by Antonio Campana, a famous Professor of Pharmaceutical Chemistry and Botany, won a great reputation and distribution in the international medical world not only of the first half of the 1800s. His authoritative work was much appreciated in Italy and abroad.

  12. Padus, Sandalus, Gens Fadiena. Underwater Surveys in Palaeo-Watercourses (ferrara District - Italy)

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    Bucci, G.

    2015-04-01

    In the ambit of our program of researches on ancient rivers in Ferrara hinterland (Italy), we have been joining a Scientific - Didactic Project between Soprintendenza per i Beni Archeologici dell'Emilia Romagna, Comune di Portomaggiore Assessorato alla Cultura, CMAS A.CDCI. - Confédération Mondiale des Activités Subaquatiques Federation ITA F07 - Associazione CMAS Diving Center Italia. The Project is focused on underwater archaeological surveys in ex quarry lakes, following the Rivers Padus and Sandalus between Voghiera, Gambulaga and Portomaggiore (Ferrara District). Here we are going to introduce our most recent results, after the last immersions and a 3D bathymetrical survey completed by echo-side scan sonar in Tramonto Lake at Gambulaga, explaining the connection with remote sensing investigations and direct surveys applied to underwater archaeology of the inland water. The main submerged structure individuated is a part of wooden dock on the left side of Padus, in front of the Necropolis of Fadieni (1st-3rd cent. A.D.). Thanks to the study of 183 finds coming from the lake, involving students and young collaborators of the Archaeological National Museum of Ferrara, we are reconstructing the ancient landscape between Proto-Imperial Age and Late Antique.

  13. Source complexity of the May 20, 2012, Mw 5.9, Ferrara (Italy event

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    Davide Piccinini

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available A Mw 3.9 foreshock on May 19, 2012, at 23:13 UTC, was followed at 02:03 on May 20, 2012, by a Mw 5.9 earthquake that hit a densely populated area in the Po Plain, west of the city of Ferrara, Italy (Figure 1. Over the subsequent 13 days, six Mw >5 events occurred; of these, the most energetic was a Mw 5.8 earthquake on May 29, 2012, 12 km WSW of the main shock. The tragic balance of this sequence was 17 casualties, hundreds of injured, and severe damage to the historical and cultural heritage of the area. From a seismological point of view, the 2012 earthquake was not an outstanding event in its regional context. The same area was hit in 1996 by a Mw 5.4 earthquake [Selvaggi et al. 2001], and previously in 1986 and in 1967 (DBMI11 [Locati et al. 2011]. The most destructive historical event was the 1570, Imax 8 event, which struck the town of Ferrara [Guidoboni et al. 2007, Rovida et al. 2011]. The 2012 seismic sequence lasted for several weeks and probably developed on a well-known buried thrust fault [Basili et al. 2008, Toscani et al. 2009, DISS Working Group 2010], at depths between 2 km and 10-12 km. […

  14. Epidemiology and burden of rotavirus-associated hospitalizations in Ferrara, Italy.

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    Gabutti, G; Marsella, M; Lazzara, C; Fiumana, E; Cavallaro, A; Borgna-Pignatti, C

    2007-03-01

    Objective of this study was to provide data on hospitalizations for rotavirus gastroenteritis (RVGE) in Ferrara, Italy. The study was conducted analyzing the hospital discharge forms of all children admitted to the Pediatric Department of the University of Ferrara, Arcispedale Sant'Anna, from January 2001 through December 2005. The database was searched for all gastrointestinal diseases and in particular RVGE. During the period under study 3277 children, of which 2038 <60 months of age, were hospitalized; 247 children < 5 years old were admitted for acute gastroenteritis and 89 (4.4% of all and 36% of gastroenteritis-related hospitalizations) had rapid screening tests positive for rotavirus. A seasonal pattern was observed for RVGE with an increase in winter and early spring. The average length of hospital stay was 5.7 days. The median cost of each hospitalized case of RVGE ranged between 1417 and 1595 Euros. The present research confirms that rotavirus gastroenteritis represents an important cause of hospitalization in children and is responsible for significant costs for the Public Health Care System. An effective vaccination program could significantly reduce the incidence of hospitalization and the associated costs.

  15. Spondylolisthesis in an Etruscan woman from Spina (Ferrara, Italy): an iron age case report.

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    Manzon, Vanessa Samantha; Onisto, Nicoletta; Gualdi-Russo, Emanuela

    2014-06-01

    Spondylolisthesis consists of the slippage of a vertebra in relation to the one beneath. It is caused by separation of the neural arch from the vertebral body (spondylolysis), and predominantly occurs at the isthmus (pars interarticularis). Originally thought to be a congenital anomaly, its strict correlation with certain activities that seem to exert stress on lower spine was later demonstrated. This paper describes a case of progression of spondylolysis to spondylolisthesis found on an adult female skeleton from the Etruscan necropolis of Spina (Ferrara, Italy). The case in question was identified among 209 skeletons exhumed at Spina. As spondylolisthesis is strictly connected with activities that exert stress on lower spine, the evidence suggests that this woman was engaged in stressful physical activity, perhaps related to the specific trade function of the site.

  16. Universal neonatal screening for sickle cell disease and other haemoglobinopathies in Ferrara, Italy.

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    Ballardini, Elisa; Tarocco, Anna; Marsella, Maria; Bernardoni, Roberto; Carandina, Gianni; Melandri, Claudia; Guerra, Giovanni; Patella, Alfredo; Zucchelli, Miranda; Ferlini, Alessandra; Bigoni, Stefania; Ravani, Anna; Garani, Giampaolo; Borgna-Pignatti, Caterina

    2013-04-01

    Sickle cell disease is the commonest haemoglobinopathy in Africa, the Middle East and India. In recent years, its incidence has increased dramatically also in Europe and North America because of the high rate of migration of people from endemic areas. From January 2009 to January 2010 the number of foreign residents in the province of Ferrara (Italy) increased by 12.2%: most of the immigrants were from countries at high risk of sickle cell disease. Since neonatal screening and prophylactic penicillin in early childhood could reduce mortality by 10 years of age to less than 2%, the aim of this study was to establish a neonatal screening programme for haemoglobinopathies in Ferrara. First we assessed how many pregnant women underwent haemoglobin analysis by high performance liquid chromatography before or during pregnancy and how many of them were carriers of haemoglobinopathies. Subsequently, we verified the feasibility of neonatal screening for sickle cell disease and other haemoglobinopathies, analysing cord blood by high performance liquid chromatography. Neonates found to be positive were managed by a multidisciplinary team to implement all the appropriate prophylactic and therapeutic measures. We found that 59% of women who delivered at the University Hospital of Ferrara, from 2007 to 2009, had undergone high performance liquid chromatography. Of the 41% who were not tested, many were from areas in which sickle cell disease is common. Between September 26th 2010 and January 31st 2012, 1992 neonatal tests were performed and 24 carriers of haemoglobinopathies were identified (16 with HbS, 4 with HbC, 2 with HbE, 1 with HbD Punjab and 1 with HbD-Ouled Rabah); 42.6% of the mothers of these 1,992 neonates had not undergone high performance liquid chromatography during pregnancy. Currently prevention of haemoglobinopathies in Italy is provided during the pre-conception period but only to patients with abnormal blood counts. Neonatal screening is useful and cost

  17. Source inversion of the 1570 Ferrara earthquake and definitive diversion of the Po River (Italy)

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    Sirovich, L.; Pettenati, F.

    2015-08-01

    An 11-parameter, kinematic-function (KF) model was used to retrieve the approximate geometrical and kinematic characteristics of the fault source of the 1570 Mw 5.8 Ferrara earthquake in the Po Plain, including the double-couple orientation (strike angle 127 ± 16°, dip 28 ± 7°, and rake 77 ± 16°). These results are compatible with either the outermost thrust fronts of the northern Apennines, which are buried beneath the Po Plain's alluvial deposits, or the blind crustal-scale thrust. The 1570 event developed to the ENE of the two main shocks on 20 May 2012 (M 6.1) and 29 May 2012 (M 5.9). The three earthquakes had similar kinematics and are found 20-30 km from each other en echelon in the buried chain. Geomorphological and historical evidence exist which suggest the following: (i) the long-lasting uplift of the buried Apenninic front shifted the central part of the course of the Po River approximately 20 km northward in historical times and (ii) the 1570 earthquake marked the definitive diversion of the final part of the Po River away from Ferrara and the closure of the Po delta 40 km south of its present position.

  18. Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, rural environment and agricultural work in the Local Health District of Ferrara, Italy, in the years 1964-1998.

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    Govoni, Vittorio; Granieri, Enrico; Fallica, Elisa; Casetta, Ilaria

    2005-11-01

    Previous epidemiological surveys, both analytic and descriptive, in the Local Health District (LHD) of Ferrara, northern Italy, have indicated that rural residence and agricultural work might constitute risk factors for Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis (ALS). The present investigation is a demographic survey in the LHD of Ferrara in the years 1964-1998 which aimed to verify whether the level of urbanization and agricultural activities might influence the risk of ALS. Based on the data obtained in a recent incidence study in the LHD of Ferrara which reported a mean annual crude incidence rate of ALS in the years 1964-1998 of 1.63 per 100,000 population (95 % CI 1.31-2.00), it was possible to compare the number of observed ALS cases and the number of expected ALS cases according to the level of urbanization and usual occupation on the basis of the residential and occupational pattern identified in the population of the LHD of Ferrara in the study period under the assumption of a homogeneous distribution of ALS. The present survey identified four different levels of urbanization in the LHD of Ferrara in the study period and for none of them was a difference between the number of observed and expected ALS cases found. Also in the most rural of the four identified levels of urbanization (small villages with an average population in the study period lower than 1,000 inhabitants and scattered houses in the countryside) no difference was found between observed and expected number of ALS cases (observed ALS cases 16, 95% Poisson CI 9.1-25.9, expected ALS cases 18.3). Based on the occupational pattern identified in the population of the LHD of Ferrara in the study period the number of incident cases of ALS whose usual occupation was in agricultural work exceeded the expected number (observed ALS cases 22, 95% Poisson CI 13.8-32.3, expected ALS cases 6.0). The present findings indicate that rural residence itself does not influence the risk of ALS while agricultural activities

  19. The urgent neurological consultation in the population of the province of Ferrara, Italy.

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    Govoni, Vittorio; Della Coletta, Elena; Fallica, Elisa; Cesnik, Edward

    2018-05-01

    In the province of Ferrara, Italy, the urgent neurological consultation (UNC) cases in the population correspond to the resident outpatients who undergo a UNC in the ER of the university hospital of Ferrara (UHFe). Thanks to this health organization a retrospective survey identified 612 UNC cases (range of age 7-102 years, median 67,5 years) in the study period giving a period prevalence rate of 173 per 100,000 (95% CI 159.3-187.3) which increased with age (χ 2 for trend = 178.4 p  0.70). The prevalence rate decreased with the distance between the patients' residence and the UHFe (χ 2 for trend = 82.9, p < 0.001). The commonest clinical conditions requiring UNCs were acute cerebrovascular disorders (28%), headache (14%), and vertigo (9%). The hospital admission rate was 32.5% which increased with age (χ 2 for trend = 35.8, p < 0.001). The commonest discharge diagnoses of the admitted cases were ischemic stroke (57.3%), epilepsy (7%), TIA (6%), and intraparenchymal hemorrhage (5.5%). Acute cerebrovascular disease accounted for 69% of the discharge diagnoses. The survey showed that the UNCs' demand was higher than previous Italian data confirming that acute cerebrovascular disease is the most frequent acute neurological condition requiring attention in the ER. It also suggested that the UNCs could be poorly appropriate. These findings would require the healthcare administrators attention.

  20. Incidence and prognosis of stroke in young adults: a population-based study in Ferrara, Italy.

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    Groppo, Elisabetta; De Gennaro, Riccardo; Granieri, Gino; Fazio, Patrik; Cesnik, Edward; Granieri, Enrico; Casetta, Ilaria

    2012-02-01

    The reported annual incidence of juvenile stroke ranges from 9 to 47 cases per 100,000 inhabitants. We sought to estimate the incidence of first-ever stroke in young adults through a population-based stroke registry in a well-defined and stable population. We planned to collect all cases of new stroke in people aged 15-44 years in Ferrara, Italy, over the period 2002-2007. During the surveillance period, a first-ever stroke was diagnosed in 39 patients, giving a mean annual crude incidence rate of 12.1 cases per 100,000 person-years (95% CI 8.6-16.5), 9.1 when adjusted to the European population. The overall 30-day case fatality rate was 7.7, 21.4% for hemorrhagic stroke. The incidence rate was in the range of estimates detected in western countries. The case-fatality rate was lower than that reported in less recent studies. The stroke subtype predicted the probability of death and the outcome.

  1. Epidemiological Study of Huntington's Disease in the Province of Ferrara, Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carrassi, Erika; Pugliatti, Maura; Govoni, Vittorio; Sensi, Mariachiara; Casetta, Ilaria; Granieri, Enrico

    2017-01-01

    Huntington's disease (HD) is an autosomal dominant neurodegenerative disorder caused by the abnormal expansion of CAG triplet repeat. We aimed to reappraise HD epidemiology in a northern Italian population, in relation to introduction of genetic testing. Through ICD-9M code 333.4 and medical fare exemption code RF0080, HD cases were identified from administrative health data and medical records from the Units of Neurology and Genetics, Ferrara University Hospital, and from other provincial neurological structures. HD mean annual incidence rate in 1990-2009 was 0.3 per 100,000 (95% CI 0.2-0.5). All incident cases were found to have symptoms of the disease's classic form, and neither juvenile nor the rigid Westphal variant was detected. The mean (SD) age at onset was 50.2 (12.7 years; range 32-82 years), 54.9 (14.6) for men and 45.8 (9.4) for women. On prevalence day, December 31, 2014, HD prevalence was 4.2 per 100,000 (95% CI 2.4-7.0), with a male:female ratio of 1:2. The prevalence and incidence of HD in our population were lower than the prevalence and incidence reported for other European and Italian populations, but higher compared to those of Asia, Africa, and Eastern Europe. Compared to previous studies, HD incidence and prevalence did not change significantly. © 2017 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  2. The treatment of tuberculosis in Ferrara (Italy) in the 19th century.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vicentini, Chiara Beatrice; Mares, Donatella; Guidi, Enrica; Angelini, Lauretta; Contini, Carlo; Manfredini, Stefano

    2010-12-01

    The present work is a review of the remedies in use in Ferrara against tuberculosis in the 1800s. The work started from the discovery of accounts describing methods and remedies. These remedies were also in use world wide. Of particular interest is the work by Antonio Campana, a famous professor of Pharmaceutical Chemistry and Botany in Ferrara, who wrote a pharmacopoeia which had several editions between 1797 and 1841. The Farmacopea Ferrarese was addressed to the apothecaries of Ferrara. Nevertheless, due to its great reputation it had an international distribution. It provided us with an exhaustive view about the medical field in Ferrara in the early 1800s. The remedies adopted in the city in the second half of the century were in line with those present abroad. The work was also supported by the discovery of statistical accounts of the Sant'Anna hospital from 1871. The manuscript written by Alessandro Bennati enabled elucidation of the methods used to treat tuberculosis in the second half of the century. Bennati's work is an historical document completed by the work of the physician Cesare Minerbi.

  3. Epidemiologic features of patients affected by herpes zoster: database analysis of the Ferrara University Dermatology Unit, Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gabutti, G; Serenelli, C; Sarno, O; Marconi, S; Corazza, M; Virgili, A

    2010-05-01

    The recent authorization and commercialization in the USA of a "Zoster vaccine" with high antigenic titer opens interesting perspectives of prevention against herpes zoster (HZ). This disease is characterized by a vesicular rash with dermatomeric extension and by moderate to severe pain. Many patients present with post-herpetic neuralgia. In Italy, complete and recent epidemiological data are not available. We evaluated the epidemiological features of patients presenting with HZ observed at the Ferrara University Dermatology unit from 2000 to 2008. The following data were collected: gender, age, residence, date and place of consultation, localization, and therapy. The place of consultation was often (43%) not specified; in the remaining 57% of cases, patients were sent from general and ophthalmology emergency rooms. The most frequent localizations were: 32% ophthalmic; 16.5% thoracic; 16% facial. Most patients were treated with oral antiviral drugs for seven days. According to localization and severity, topical or oral antibiotics, analgesics, neurotrophic drugs were prescribed. This data, although not representative of all cases in the province of Ferrara, confirmed the epidemiological impact of Zoster, which brings a number of patients to use the hospital and specialized structures for diagnosis and cure. Copyright 2009 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  4. Incidence of childhood and adolescence epilepsy: a community-based prospective study in the province of Ferrara and in Copparo, Italy, 1996-2005.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casetta, I; Pugliatti, M; Faggioli, R; Cesnik, E; Simioni, V; Bencivelli, D; De Carlo, L; Granieri, E

    2012-02-01

    The annual incidence of childhood and adolescence epilepsy ranges from 41 to 97 diagnoses per 100,000 people in western Countries, with a reported decline over time. We aimed at studying the incidence of epilepsy in children and adolescents (1 month to 14 years) and its temporal trend in the province of Ferrara, northern Italy. We implemented a community-based prospective multi-source registry. All children with newly diagnosed epilepsy in the period 1996-2005 were recorded. The incidence rate of newly diagnosed epilepsy in the considered age range was 57 per 100,000 person-years, (95% CI: 49.3-65.9), with a peak in the first year of life (109.4; 95% CI: 69.4-164.1), without differences between the two gender. The estimates were significantly lower than those observed previously (97.3; 95% CI: 81.9-115.7). Incidence rates for epilepsy in the Italian population aged 1 month to 14 years are in line with those of other European and Northern American Countries. The incidence of childhood epilepsy has declined over time in our area. A reduced impact of serious perinatal adverse events could partly explain the decline. © 2011 The Author(s). European Journal of Neurology © 2011 EFNS.

  5. The treatment of scrofula in Ferrara (Italy) in the 19th century.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vicentini, Chiara Beatrice; Altieri, Lorenzo; Guidi, Enrica; Contini, Carlo; Manfredini, Stefano

    2012-06-01

    The therapeutic approaches used against scrofula in the 19th Century in Ferrara are discussed. In the manuscripts and treatises of the time treasured in the town's libraries, hygienic and dietetic rules and treatment of this illness were described. In particular, baths and mineral water spas (sulphurous, ferruginous and other mineral waters, such as a bromo-iodine-salt water) and the sea-bathing establishment were recommended. The remedies reported in Campana's Pharmacopoeia ferrarese and the efficacious treatments employed in St Anna Hospital are discussed. The Committee and its President, Marquis Giovanni Manfredini, decided to cure the scrofulous in bathing establishments.

  6. Electrical resistivity tomography investigation of coseismic liquefaction and fracturing at San Carlo, Ferrara Province, Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nasser Abu Zeid

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Massive surface fracturing and sand ejection took place during the main shock of the May 20, 2012, earthquake (Ml = 5.9 in the Emilia-Romagna region, northern Italy. These phenomena were induced by the liquefaction of water-saturated sand layers, and they damaged several buildings, as well as many roads and sidewalks. They were clustered between the villages of Sant'Agostino and Vigarano Mainarda, located along a paleo-reach of the Reno River [Papathanassiou et al. 2012, this volume]. The subsurface surrounding two major (several decameters long ground ruptures was investigated using electrical resistivity tomographies (ERT, as resistivity is strongly affected by the chemico-physical conditions of loose sediments. Italian regulations require the Municipalities within seismically active areas to develop maps of the potential liquefaction risk. Not all of the territories that are under this kind of risk have been investigated to date. A strong effort to improve this knowledge is therefore needed. Noninvasive geophysical methods can help to fill this gap, as high-resolution techniques are available with good result-to-cost ratios. Among the available methodologies, the most suitable are the methods based on electrical resistivity and permittivity, as they are highly sensitive to the presence of underground water. The ERT method has been carried out successfully across active faults, providing crucial paleoseismological information [Caputo et al. 2003, 2007]. […

  7. GC/MS analysis of pesticides in the Ferrara area (Italy) surface water: a chemometric study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pasti, Luisa; Nava, Elisabetta; Morelli, Marco; Bignami, Silvia; Dondi, Francesco

    2007-01-01

    The development of a network to monitor surface waters is a critical element in the assessment, restoration and protection of water quality. In this study, concentrations of 42 pesticides--determined by GC-MS on samples from 11 points along the Ferrara area rivers--have been analyzed by chemometric tools. The data were collected over a three-year period (2002-2004). Principal component analysis of the detected pesticides was carried out in order to define the best spatial locations for the sampling points. The results obtained have been interpreted in view of agricultural land use. Time series data regarding pesticide contents in surface waters has been analyzed using the Autocorrelation function. This chemometric tool allows for seasonal trends and makes it possible to optimize sampling frequency in order to detect the effective maximum pesticide content.

  8. GC/MS Analysis of Pesticides in the Ferrara Area (Italy) Surface Water: A Chemometric Study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pasti, L.; Dondi, F.; Nava, E.; Morelli, M.; Bignami, S.

    2007-01-01

    The development of a network to monitor surface waters is a critical element in the assessment, restoration and protection of water quality. In this study, concentrations of 42 pesticides - determined by GC-MS on samples from 11 points along the Ferrara area rivers - have been analyzed by chemometric tools. The data were collected over a three-year period (2002-2004). Principal component analysis of the detected pesticides was carried out in order to define the best spatial locations for the sampling points. The results obtained have been interpreted in view of agricultural land use. Time series data regarding pesticide contents in surface waters has been analyzed using the Autocorrelation function. This chemometric tool allows for seasonal trends and makes it possible to optimize sampling frequency in order to detect the effective maximum pesticide content

  9. The first 2 years of colorectal cancer screening in Ferrara, Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matarese, Vincenzo G; Feo, Carlo Vittorio; Lanza, Giovanni; Fusetti, Nadia; Carpanelli, Maria Cristina; Cataldo, Serena; Cifalà, Viviana; Ferretti, Stefano; Gafà, Roberta; Marzola, Marina; Montanari, Enrica; Palmonari, Caterina; Simone, Loredana; Trevisani, Lucio; Stockbrugger, Reinhold; Gullini, Sergio

    2011-05-01

    We report on the first screening round in the District of Ferrara, a region of Emilia-Romagna, carried out between March 2005 and March 2007 to illustrate the effort of colorectal cancer (CRC) screening from administration and information to therapy and follow-up. After invitation of 38 344 persons aged 50-69 years (28.5%), 19 480 (50.8%) accepted the immunological faecal occult blood test, with 1 149 (6%) resulting positive. One thousand and one individuals (88.2%) who tested positive for immunological faecal occult blood test accepted examination by either colonoscopy (99.5%) or barium enema (0.5%). Out of 996 screenees having a colonoscopy, 231 had low-risk adenomas (23.2%) and 239 had high-risk adenomas (24%), and were treated endoscopically (96%) or surgically (4%). Ninety-one cancers were diagnosed in 9.1% of colonoscopies (Dukes stadia: A, 58.2%; B, 19.8%; C, 18.7%; D, 3.3%). Fourteen cancers (all in polyps) were treated endoscopically, and the remaining 77 were treated by surgery. One Dukes B patient and 13 of 17 Dukes C patients received adjuvant chemotherapy. Three Dukes D patients had chemotherapy only. During the 2-year study period, 87 screenees had a follow-up colonoscopy: no neoplasia was found in 35 patients initially diagnosed with cancer; low-risk adenomas were found in 31 of 52 patients with initial high-risk adenomas. In conclusion, the first CRC screening round in Ferrara was easy to organize, had a high acceptance, and detected 91 cancers (78% of which were in Dukes stages A and B, compared with only 40% in sporadic CRC in the same background population). Chemotherapy was necessary in 17 cases. This report may motivate other health authorities to initiate CRC screening campaigns.

  10. Statistical and hydrogeochemical approach to study processes that affect groundwater composition in the Ferrara province (Italy)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di roma, Antonella; Vaccaro, Carmela

    2017-04-01

    The ground water should not be seen only as a reserve for the water supply, but also be protected for its environmental value. Groundwater plays an essential role in the hydrological cycle for which the characterization, pollution prevention, monitoring and restoration are essential in view of the recovery and identification of the water bodies to be submitted to recharge for the adaptation to DM n. 100/2016. Groundwater of Ferrara province presents salinisation problems and pollution of noxious metals that can be mitigated through recharge processes evaluated based on the specific site characteristics. It is essential to know the hydrogeochemical characteristics of different aquifer levels. To do this have been discuss analytical results of groundwater (2014-2015 monitoring phreatic ground water and temporal series from 2003-2015 A1-A2-A3 samples from Emilia Romagna databases). Results showed that in the territory analyzed insist both salinization and refreshening processes. Factor analysis(FA) conducted on samples has divided them into three groups. 1: samples affected by ionic exchange, 2: pH reaction on heavy metal, 3: samples affected by mineralization. The geochemical groundwater facies changed from Ca-HCO3, and NaHCO3 with a small samples group of CaSO4 and through geochemical investigations were observed the reactions that take place in the waters mixing of different composition. The Na excesses are explained by ionic exchange processes. A determinant role is played by ionic exchange between Ca and Na. In this territory is important also the role of CH4 presence which typically rises towards the surface along faults and fractures and influence rise of deep water with different composition. On samples selected from FA Group 1 has been observed an increase of the CEC (Cation exchange capacity). Adsorption-desorption exchanges take place between water and the fine fraction sediment rich in clay minerals. Higher CEC values are found in rich organic substance

  11. Incidence of status epilepticus in southern Europe: a population study in the health district of Ferrara, Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Govoni, Vittorio; Fallica, Elisa; Monetti, Vincenza Cinzia; Guerzoni, Franco; Faggioli, Raffaella; Casetta, Ilaria; Granieri, Enrico

    2008-01-01

    The epidemiologic features of status epilepticus (SE) are still in the course of definition. We carried out an intensive survey of multiple sources of case material in the resident population of the health district of Ferrara, Italy, in 2003. Information was collected on age, gender, duration, seizure type and etiology of SE. The age- adjusted annual incidence rate of SE was 27.2/100,000 (95% CI = 19.4-36.9) and it was higher in men (41.7/100,000, 95% CI = 26.9-61.7) than in women (12.3/100,000, 95% CI = 6.9-20.4). The incidence was higher in the elderly (older than 60 years, 39.2/100,000) than in younger adults in the age group 20-59 years (14.7/100,000). The age-specific incidence showed a bimodal distribution peaking in the youngest (0-4 years) and in the oldest age group (75+ years). Cerebrovascular disease was the most frequent etiologic factor (45%). Epilepsy had previously been diagnosed in 40% of the patients. The case fatality was 5%. The study found a higher incidence of SE than that expected on the basis of the previous European studies suggesting that the risk of SE in southern Europe is higher and more similar to that estimated in population studies in the United States. The case fatality was lower than that reported in previous South-European population studies despite the similar clinical features of the patients. Indirect evidence suggests that several factors related to the SE management could have positively influenced the outcome. Copyright 2007 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  12. Space-time distribution of the ALS incident cases by onset type in the Health District of Ferrara, Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Govoni, V; Della Coletta, E; Cesnik, E; Casetta, I; Tugnoli, V; Granieri, E

    2015-04-01

    An ecological study in the resident population of the Health District (HD) of Ferrara, Italy, has been carried out to establish the distribution in space and time of the amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) incident cases according to the disease onset type and gender in the period 1964-2009. The hypothesis of a uniform distribution was assumed. The incident cases of spinal onset ALS and bulbar onset ALS were evenly distributed in space and time in both men and women. The spinal onset ALS incident cases distribution according to gender was significantly different from the expected in the extra-urban population (20 observed cases in men 95% Poisson confidence interval 12.22-30.89, expected cases in men 12.19; six observed cases in women 95% Poisson confidence interval 2.20-13.06, expected cases in women 13.81), whereas no difference was found in the urban population. The spinal onset ALS incidence was higher in men than in women in the extra-urban population (difference between the rates = 1.53, 95% CI associated with the difference 0.52-2.54), whereas no difference between sexes was found in the urban population. The uneven distribution according to gender of the spinal onset ALS incident cases only in the extra-urban population suggests the involvement of a gender related environmental risk factor associated with the extra-urban environment. Despite some limits of the spatial analysis in the study of rare diseases, the results appear consistent with the literature data. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  13. Temporal trend of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis incidence in southern Europe: a population study in the health district of Ferrara, Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Govoni, Vittorio; Cesnik, Edward; Casetta, Ilaria; Tugnoli, Valeria; Tola, Maria Rosaria; Granieri, Enrico

    2012-08-01

    Data about the temporal trend of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) incidence in southern Europe are scarce. Incidence studies on ALS have been carried out in the health district of Ferrara, Italy, since 1960s. We expanded the previous studies from 1964 to 2009. The study was prospective with a subsequent retrospective intensive survey of multiple sources of case ascertainment. All patients with a definite and probable ALS according to the original El Escorial criteria were selected. There were 130 incident cases in the years 1964-2009 giving an average annual crude incidence of 1.82 per 100,000 population (95% CI 1.53-2.17). An incidence increase during the study period was estimated in women (χ(2) test for trend = 7.19, p < 0.01) and in the elderly (χ(2) test for trend = 7.803, p < 0.01). The age-adjusted incidence was stable over time in both women (1.19 per 100,000, 95% CI 0.90-1.52) and men (1.45 per 100,000, 95% CI 0.12-1.84). The annual number of new ALS cases in the study population followed the Poisson distribution in both sexes as well as in the elderly group of the population. The present findings suggest that ALS incidence is nearly stable over time. The crude incidence increase we estimated over time among women is mainly explained by population ageing. The increasing incidence in the elderly population was likely the consequence of an increasing precision in ALS diagnosis in the elderly since the increasing attention and care over time of neurologic elderly patients that likely concern elderly women more than previous time periods rather than better case ascertainment of diagnosed patients. The present findings do not support the role of specific environmental factors in ALS pathogenesis.

  14. Sergio Ferrara

    CERN Multimedia

    2009-01-01

      Sergio Ferrara has been awarded the Commendatore Ordine al Merito della Repubblica Italiana. The Italian Order of Merit of the Republic is earned on the basis of contributions made to literature, public service and the economy and of humanitarian activities. Ferrara’s Commander ranking – of the third class – is recognition by the Republic for his contributions as a theorist to the physics community.   As an already accomplished theoretical physicist, Ferrara urges young students starting their careers to work with much curiosity and enthusiasm. He encourages them to be trustful of their own self-confidence.

  15. Past, present and future improvements of the efficiency of the local seismic network of the geothermal reservoir of Casaglia, Ferrara (North Italy)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abu Zeid, Nasser; Dall'olio, Lorella; Bignardi, Samuel; Santarato, Giovanni

    2017-04-01

    The microseismic network of Ferrara was established, in the beginning of 1990 and started its monitoring activity few months before the start of reservoir exploitation, for residential and industrial heating purposes, of the Casaglia geothermal site characterised by fluids of 100 °C: February 1990. The purpose was to monitor the natural seismicity so as to be able to discriminate it from possible induced ones due to exploitation activities which consists of a closed loop system composed of three boreholes: one for re-injection "Casaglia001" and two for pumping hot fluids. The microseismic network started, and still today, its monitoring activities with five vertical 2 Hz and one 3D seismometers model Mark products L4A/C distributed at reciprocal distances of about 5 to 7 km around the reservoir covering an area of 100 km^2. Since its beginning the monitoring activities proceeded almost continuously. However, due to technological limitations of the network HW, although sufficient to capture small magnitude earthquakes (near zero), the exponential increase of anthropogenic and electromagnetic noise degraded the monitoring capability of the network especially for small ones. To this end and as of 2007, the network control passed to the University of Ferrara, Department of Physics and Earth Sciences, the network HD for digitalisation and continuous data transmission was replaced with GURALP equipment's.. Since its establishment, few earthquakes occurred in the geothermal area with Ml 5 km. However, following the Emilia sequence of 2012, and as an example we present and discuss the local earthquake (Ml 2.5) occurred in Casaglia (Ferrara, Italy) on September 3, 2015, in the vicinity of the borehole Casaglia1 used for fluid re-injection. In this case, both INGV national network and OGS NE-Italy regional networks provided similar information, with hypocenter at about 5-6 km North of the reservoir edge and about 16 km of depth. However, the same event, relocated by using

  16. University of Ferrara strengthens partnership with CERN

    CERN Multimedia

    2006-01-01

    Professor Patrizio Bianchi, Head of the University of Ferrara, and Robert Aymar, CERN Director-General, signing an agreement to support the Doctoral Student Programme. The Head of the University of Ferrara, in Italy, Professor Patrizio Bianchi, visited CERN on 6 June. After a visit of the LHCb experiment, he met the Director-General, Robert Aymar, and signed an administrative agreement aiming to enhance the participation of doctoral students from the University of Ferrara in the CERN Doctoral Student Programme. Under this agreement, Ferrara students who are selected for the CERN Doctoral Programme will receive significant financial support from their home institution. Following the signature of the agreement, the Head of Ferrara University and the Secretary-General attented a lunch with representatives of the CERN Management, the LHCb experiment and the Italian Ministry for Research. The lunch was followed by a visit of the ATLAS experiment in the afternoon.

  17. Malignant melanoma in Ferrara, Northern Italy: epidemiologic survey focusing on tumor thickness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borghi, A; Corazza, M; Minghetti, S; Masarà, A; Virgili, A

    2015-12-01

    Estimates of malignant melanoma (MM) incidence and prognosis vary widely. The present study was performed to analyze epidemiologic and prognostic aspects of primary MM mainly in relation to tumor thickness. We conducted a retrospective study on a cohort of 435 patients with diagnosis of primary MM between 1997 and 2011. In the period 2009-2011, among the MM diagnosed 50.00% were thin, 32.43% in situ and 17.57% thicker while in 1997-1999 MM>1 mm accounted for 51.61% of diagnoses. Mean age of patients affected with thin MM was significantly lower than that of patients with MM>1 mm, and mean thickness resulted significantly lower in female patients than in males. Mean thickness of MM located on easily self-evaluable body areas was significantly lower than in those not accessible for skin self-examination. The commonest histogenetic type was superficially spreading melanoma. Mitotic rate, ulceration and vertical growth phase all resulted related to MM thickness. Out of 61 patients with thin MM who underwent SLNB, 3 resulted positive (4.92%): neither thickness >0.75 mm, nor ulceration, mitotic rate or Clark level were found to be associated with SLNB positivity. Five-year survival rate was 98.3% for thin MM patients and 76.4% for thick MM patients. Our trend analysis evidences a continuing increase of thinner primary MM throughout the study period, potentially enhancing patient prognosis. Regular skin self-examination could contribute to earlier recognition of MM. Identification of more powerful predictors of thin MM prognosis is necessary.

  18. Risk factors for renal disease and urinary abnormalities in men and women: data from the World Kidney Day in the province of Ferrara, Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fabbian, Fabio; Bedani, Pier Luigi; Rizzioli, Emanuela; Molino, Christian; Pala, Marco; De Giorgi, Alfredo; Menegatti, Alessandra Mallozzi; Bagnaresi, Isabella; Portaluppi, Francesco; Manfredini, Roberto

    2013-01-01

    Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is a worldwide health problem due to its morbidity and mortality, and cost. World Kidney Day (WKD) has been planned to improve disease prevention. The aim of this study was to evaluate CKD risk factors and urinary abnormalities, collected on WKD along several years, in men and women. Between 2006 and 2012, 1980 subjects, of whom 1012 women, from general population living in Ferrara area, a town in the north-east of Italy, were investigated. For each participant age, sex, smoking, hypertensive and diabetic status, body mass index (BMI), waist circumference (WC), and blood pressure (BP) were obtained. Moreover, body shape index (BSI) was calculated. All subjects underwent dipstick urinalysis. Men had higher BMI, WC, and BP than women. Women had higher prevalence of abdominal obesity and higher BSI (0.0951 ± 0.0105 vs. 0.0920 ± 0.0071 m(11/6)kg(-2/3)), while men had higher prevalence of overweight. In women, hematuria and leukocyturia were more prevalent (16.9% vs. 12.8%; OR 95%CI 1.161 (1.042-1.294); p = 0.012; 18.5% vs. 7% OR 95%CI 1.538 (1.403-1.676); p < 0.001, respectively), while glycosuria was less frequent (4.2% vs. 8.8% OR 95%CI 0.642 (0.501-0.822); p < 0.001) than in men. Frequency of proteinuria was similar in the two sexes. Venn diagrams indicate a different overlap of urinary abnormalities in the two sexes. Risk factors for CKD collected during the WKD appear to be different in the two sexes, and urinary abnormalities overlap differently. Data collected during the WKD are related to sex, and women deserve greater attention.

  19. Knowledge of preventive measures against occupational risks and spread of healthcare-associated infections among nursing students. An epidemiological prevalence study from Ferrara, Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergamini, M; Cucchi, A; Stefanati, A; Cavallaro, A; Gabutti, G

    2009-06-01

    Exposure to biological agents is the most common occupational risk for nursing staff. This study verified changes in attitudes and knowledge occurred in the nursing students after the first year of degree. The survey was conducted in academic year 2006/07 among the students of the Professional Nursing Course at University of Ferrara (Italy) using a structured questionnaire. Students were 85 at the beginning and 80 at the end of the courses. The rate of subjects using gloves for intramuscular injections and fingertip puncture was unsatisfactory. A high percentage of students performed recap of needles. The use of gloves in case of washing of surgical instruments was high. The compliance in the use of gloves in handling test tubes remained low. Only 2/3 of the students washes their hands coming in ward. Incorrect attitudes have been observed in changing or wearing gloves. The students considered vaccination against hepatitis-B necessary, vaccination against flu unnecessary. A high percentage of students had not performed any prophylaxis for tuberculosis. Students intend the use of gloves mainly to perform self-protection. The concept of self-protection is contradicted by the large percentage of students that recap used needles. A significant percentage of students have not yet gained the critical thinking necessary to consider the importance of universal precautions as a means not only of self-protection but also of prevention of hospital infections. Students consider the basic standard measures for the control of infectious diseases only like self-protection and not to prevent hospital infections.

  20. Crustal structure of northern Italy from the ellipticity of Rayleigh waves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berbellini, Andrea; Morelli, Andrea; G. Ferreira, Ana M.

    2017-04-01

    Northern Italy is a diverse geological region, including the wide and thick Po Plain sedimentary basin, which is bounded by the Alps and the Apennines. The seismically slow shallow structure of the Po Plain is difficult to retrieve with classical seismic measurements such as surface wave dispersion, yet the detailed structure of the region greatly affects seismic wave propagation and hence seismic ground shaking. Here we invert Rayleigh wave ellipticity measurements in the period range 10-60 s for 95 stations in northern Italy using a fully non linear approach to constrain vertical vS,vP and density profiles of the crust beneath each station. The ellipticity of Rayleigh wave ground motion is primarily sensitive to shear-wave velocity beneath the recording station, which reduces along-path contamination effects. We use the 3D layering structure in MAMBo, a previous model based on a compilation of geological and geophysical information for the Po Plain and surrounding regions of northern Italy, and employ ellipticity data to constrain vS,vP and density within its layers. We show that ellipticity data from ballistic teleseismic wave trains alone constrain the crustal structure well. This leads to MAMBo-E, an updated seismic model of the region's crust that inherits information available from previous seismic prospection and geological studies, while fitting new seismic data well. MAMBo-E brings new insights into lateral heterogeneity in the region's subsurface. Compared to MAMBo, it shows overall faster seismic anomalies in the region's Quaternary, Pliocene and Oligo-Miocene layers and better delineates the seismic structures of the Po Plain at depth. Two low velocity regions are mapped in the Mesozoic layer in the western and eastern parts of the Plain, which seem to correspond to the Monferrato sedimentary basin and to the Ferrara-Romagna thrust system, respectively.

  1. Cryptostroma corticale in the northern Apennines (Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudia Maria OLIVEIRA LONGA

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Cryptostroma corticale was observed on declining trees of Acer pseudoplatanus L. at Montovolo, a mountain site located in the northern Apennines, Italy. Morphological and biomolecular analyses confirmed the presence of the fungus in affected trees, which has not yet been officially described as occurring in Italy. No damage by the pathogen was observed on other species of Acer in the affected area, while drought–related decline symptoms were present on Quercus pubescens and Ostrya carpinifolia near the affected site, confirming the possible role of climate and especially repeated drought periods in the appearance of the problem. st1\\:*{behavior:url(#ieooui } /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Tabella normale"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0cm 5.4pt 0cm 5.4pt; mso-para-margin:0cm; mso-para-margin-bottom:.0001pt; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:10.0pt; font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-ansi-language:#0400; mso-fareast-language:#0400; mso-bidi-language:#0400;}

  2. Sustainable agriculture and nitrogen reduction: an open field experiment using natural zeolitites in silty-clay reclaimed soil at Codigoro (Po River Delta, Ferrara, Italy)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faccini, Barbara; Di Giuseppe, Dario; Mastrocicco, Micòl; Coltorti, Massimo; Colombani, Nicolò; Ferretti, Giacomo

    2014-05-01

    Following the guidelines of Nitrate and Water Framework Directives (91/676/CEE, 200/60/CE) an innovative integrated zeolitite cycle is being tested on a reclaimed clayey-silt soil in the Po Delta area (Ferrara Province, Italy), in the framework of the EU-funded ZeoLIFE project (LIFE+10 ENV/IT/000321). Natural zeolitites are pyroclastic rocks containing more than 50% of zeolites, a kind of hydrous minerals with peculiar physical and chemical properties, like high and selective cation exchange capacity (CEC), molecular adsorption and reversible dehydration. Zeolitites can trap NH4+ from solutions and release it gradually to the plant roots once they have been mixed in agricultural soils, allowing both fertilization and irrigation reduction and improvement of the yield. The fertilization reduction can result in a decrease of the nitrate content in groundwater and surface waters, ultimately leading to a mitigation of nutrient excess in the environment. Similarly, reduction of irrigation water means a minor exploitation of the water resource. The selected material used in the project is a chabazite zeolitite coming from a quarry near Sorano in Central Italy (Bolsena volcanic district). The open-field experimentation foresees two year of cultivation. A surface of about 6 ha has been divided into six parcels: three control parcels are cultivated and irrigated in traditional way; two parcels have been added with coarse-grained (ø = 3- 6 mm) natural zeolitite at different zeolitite/soil ratios (5 kg/m2 and 15 kg/m2) and one has been mixed with fine-grained (ø tests, and the ammonium enriched material is obtained by cation exchange with swine manure in a specifically conceived prototype. The environmental quality of soil and water in each parcel is monitored by periodic soil, groundwater and porewater analyses. Soil EC, temperature and volumetric water content are continuously measured with probes at different depth (5-30-50-100-150 cm). The quality of surface water is

  3. [Syphilis in Ferrara in the nineteenth century].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Angelini, Lauretta; Guidi, Enrica; Contini, Carlo

    2009-06-01

    In this article the authors highlight the behaviour of government authorities in the nineteenth century in Italy and especially in Ferrara to implement those measures deemed necessary to stem the spread of syphilis in epidemic form through the control of prostitution. Albeit discontinuously and until 1865, corrupted and infected women in Ferrara were assisted and treated by charitable institutions (Congregation of Charity, the Congregation of the Ladies of St. Vincent and the Sisters of Charity at the complex St. Mary of Consolation) since the Ferrara public hospital (Arcispedale S. Anna) could not accept or treat infected prostitutes for economic reasons and lack of beds. Subsequently, the hospital only treated prostitutes free of charge if they bore a certificate of poverty. The other infected prostitutes were sent to the sifilicomio in Modena. The authors also study mortality from syphilis in Ferrara from 1813 to 1899 in order to detect any significant differences according to age, sex and professional status and attempt to identify the stage of the disease (primary, secondary and tertiary), according to the terminology used by the doctors of that time.

  4. The Seismotectonics of the Po Plain (Northern Italy): Tectonic Diversity in a Blind Faulting Domain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vannoli, Paola; Burrato, Pierfrancesco; Valensise, Gianluca

    2015-05-01

    We present a systematic and updated overview of a seismotectonic model for the Po Plain (northern Italy). This flat and apparently quiet tectonic domain is, in fact, rather active as it comprises the shortened foreland and foredeep of both the Southern Alps and the Northern Apennines. Assessing its seismic hazard is crucial due to the concentration of population, industrial activities, and critical infrastructures, but it is also complicated because (a) the region is geologically very diverse, and (b) nearly all potential seismogenic faults are buried beneath a thick blanket of Pliocene-Pleistocene sediments, and thus can be investigated only indirectly. Identifying and parameterizing the potential seismogenic faults of the Po Plain requires proper consideration of their depth, geometry, kinematics, earthquake potential and location with respect to the two confronting orogens. To this end, we subdivided them into four main, homogeneous groups. Over the past 15 years we developed new strategies for coping with this diversity, resorting to different data and modeling approaches as required by each individual fault group. The most significant faults occur beneath the thrust fronts of the Ferrara-Romagna and Emilia arcs, which correspond to the most advanced and buried portions of the Northern Apennines and were the locus of the destructive May 2012 earthquake sequence. The largest known Po Plain earthquake, however, occurred on an elusive reactivated fault cutting the Alpine foreland south of Verona. Significant earthquakes are expected to be generated also by a set of transverse structures segmenting the thrust system, and by the deeper ramps of the Apennines thrusts. The new dataset is intended to be included in the next version of the Database of Individual Seismogenic Sources (DISS; http://diss.rm.ingv.it/diss/, version 3.2.0, developed and maintained by INGV) to improve completeness of potential sources for seismic hazard assessment.

  5. Recent and active tectonics of the external zone of the Northern Apennines (Italy)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boccaletti, Mario; Corti, Giacomo; Martelli, Luca

    2011-08-01

    We present a comprehensive study of the recent and active tectonics of the external part of the Northern Apennines (Italy) by using morphotectonic, geological-structural, and stratigraphic analysis, compared with the current seismicity of the region. This analysis suggests that the external part of the Northern Apennines is characterised by presence of three major systems of Quaternary compressive structures corresponding to (1) the Apenninic watershed, (2) the Apennines-Po Plain margin (pede-Apenninic thrust front), and (3) the Emilia, Ferrara, and Adriatic Fold systems buried below the Po Plain. Geological data and interpreted seismic sections indicate a roughly N-S Quaternary deformation direction, with rates <2.5 mm/year. The shortening decreased since the Pliocene, when our data indicate compression in a NNW-SSE direction and rates up to 7 mm/year. The trend and kinematics of the structures affecting the Apennines-Po Plain margin and the Po Plain subsoil fit well the pattern of the current seismicity of the area, as well as recent GPS and geodetic levelling data, pointing to a current activity of these thrust systems controlled by an overall compressive stress field. Close to the Apenninic watershed, earthquake focal mechanisms indicate that shallow extension is associated to deep compression. The extensional events may be related to a secondary extensional stress field developing on the hangingwall of the thrust system affecting the Apenninic watershed; alternatively, this thrust system may have been recently deactivated and overprinted by active normal faulting. Deeper compressive events are related to the activity of both a major basement thrust that connects at surface with the pede-Apenninic thrust front and a major Moho structure.

  6. The 2012 Emilia seismic sequence (Northern Italy): Imaging the thrust fault system by accurate aftershock location

    Science.gov (United States)

    Govoni, Aladino; Marchetti, Alessandro; De Gori, Pasquale; Di Bona, Massimo; Lucente, Francesco Pio; Improta, Luigi; Chiarabba, Claudio; Nardi, Anna; Margheriti, Lucia; Agostinetti, Nicola Piana; Di Giovambattista, Rita; Latorre, Diana; Anselmi, Mario; Ciaccio, Maria Grazia; Moretti, Milena; Castellano, Corrado; Piccinini, Davide

    2014-05-01

    Starting from late May 2012, the Emilia region (Northern Italy) was severely shaken by an intense seismic sequence, originated from a ML 5.9 earthquake on May 20th, at a hypocentral depth of 6.3 km, with thrust-type focal mechanism. In the following days, the seismic rate remained high, counting 50 ML ≥ 2.0 earthquakes a day, on average. Seismicity spreads along a 30 km east-west elongated area, in the Po river alluvial plain, in the nearby of the cities Ferrara and Modena. Nine days after the first shock, another destructive thrust-type earthquake (ML 5.8) hit the area to the west, causing further damage and fatalities. Aftershocks following this second destructive event extended along the same east-westerly trend for further 20 km to the west, thus illuminating an area of about 50 km in length, on the whole. After the first shock struck, on May 20th, a dense network of temporary seismic stations, in addition to the permanent ones, was deployed in the meizoseismal area, leading to a sensible improvement of the earthquake monitoring capability there. A combined dataset, including three-component seismic waveforms recorded by both permanent and temporary stations, has been analyzed in order to obtain an appropriate 1-D velocity model for earthquake location in the study area. Here we describe the main seismological characteristics of this seismic sequence and, relying on refined earthquakes location, we make inferences on the geometry of the thrust system responsible for the two strongest shocks.

  7. Electrical resistivity tomography for studying liquefaction induced by the May 2012 Emilia-Romagna earthquake (Mw = 6.1, northern Italy)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giocoli, A.; Quadrio, B.; Bellanova, J.; Lapenna, V.; Piscitelli, S.

    2014-04-01

    This work shows the result of an electrical resistivity tomography (ERT) survey carried out for imaging and characterizing the shallow subsurface affected by the coseismic effects of the Mw = 6.1 Emilia-Romagna (northern Italy) earthquake that occurred on 20 May 2012. The most characteristic coseismic effects were ground failure, lateral spreading and liquefaction that occurred extensively along the paleo-Reno River in the urban areas of San Carlo and Mirabello (southwestern portion of Ferrara Province). In total, six electrical resistivity tomographies were performed and calibrated with surface geological surveys, exploratory boreholes and aerial photo interpretations. This was one of first applications of the electrical resistivity tomography method in investigating coseismic liquefaction.

  8. Searching for the effects of the May-June 2012 Emilia seismic sequence (northern Italy: medium-depth deformation structures at the periphery of the epicentral area

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    Lisa Borgatti

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available In 2012, a seismic sequence occurred in the lowlands of the Emilia-Romagna Region (northern Italy, between the borders of the Modena, Ferrara and Bologna Provinces. It consisted of seven mainshocks (5.9 > Ml > 5 that were recorded between May 20 and 29, 2012 [INGV 2012a] and 2,200 minor earthquakes [INGV 2012b]. An interferometric analysis [Bignami et al. 2012, Salvi et al. 2012, this volume] highlighted three main deformation areas, each of which was 12 km wide (from S to N and 10 km to 20 km long in an ESE-WNW to E-W direction, thus affecting an area of about 600 km2 (Figure 1. Field and aerial geological surveys recorded numerous surficial effects, such as: (i sediment liquefaction [Crespellani et al. 2012]; (ii localized ground fissures resembling surficial faulting [Fioravante and Giretti 2012] (Figure 2; (iii groundwater levels rising up to 400 cm above the local ground level in phreatic wells during the mainshocks (lower values were observed in confined aquifers; and (iv dormancy of previously known sinkholes [Borgatti et al. 2010, Cremonini 2010a, and references therein]. Some of the observed surface phenomena were previously recorded as coseismic effects during the earthquakes of Ferrara (1570 and Argenta (1624 [Boschi et al. 1995, Galli 2000], together with the early rising of the water level of the Po River in the Stellata section. […

  9. Temporal trends of healthcare associated infections and antimicrobial use in 2011-2013, observed with annual point prevalence surveys in Ferrara University Hospital, Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antonioli, P; Manzalini, M C; Stefanati, A; Bonato, B; Verzola, A; Formaglio, A; Gabutti, G

    2016-09-01

    Healthcare associated infections (HAIs) and misuse of antimicrobials (AMs) represent a growing public health problem. The Point Prevalence Surveys (PPSs) find available information to be used for specific targeted interventions and evaluate their effects. The objective of this study was to estimate the prevalence of HAIs and AM use, to describe types of infections, causative pathogens and to compare data collected through three PPSs in Ferrara University Hospital (FUH), repeated in 3 different years (2011-2013). The population-based sample consists of all patients admitted to every acute care and rehabilitation Department in a single day. ECDC Protocol and Form for PPS of HAI and AM use, Version 4.2, July 2011. Risk factor analysis was performed using logistic regression. 1,239 patients were observed. Overall, HAI prevalence was 9.6%; prevalence was higher in Intensive Care Units; urinary tract infections were the most common HAIs in all 3 surveys; E.coli was the most common pathogen; AM use prevalence was 51.1%; AMs most frequently administered were fluoroquinolones, combinations of penicillins and third-generation cephalosporins. According to the regression model, urinary catheter (OR: 2.5) and invasive respiratory device (OR: 2.3) are significantly associated risk factors for HAIs (p < 0.05). PPSs are a sensitive and effective method of analysis. Yearly repetition is a useful way to maintain focus on the topic of HAIs and AM use, highlighting how changes in practices impact on the outcome of care and providing useful information to implement intervention programs targeted on specific issues.

  10. Multiple sclerosis in the province of Ferrara : evidence for an increasing trend.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Granieri, E; Economou, N-T; De Gennaro, R; Tola, M R; Caniatti, L; Govoni, V; Fainardi, E; Casetta, I

    2007-12-01

    Epidemiological studies on the distribution of multiple sclerosis (MS) conducted in the Mediterranean area in the last two decades have disclosed a significant increase in frequency of the disease, indicating caution when a latitude-related model of MS is accepted. Previous descriptive surveys in the province of Ferrara, northern Italy, carried out by our own epidemiological research group, have established that this area is at high risk for MS. To confirm the above assumption and to update MS frequency estimates in this area. We conducted a community-based intensive prevalence and incidence study, by adopting a complete enumeration approach. On December 31, 2004, 423 patients (300 women and 123 men) suffering from definite or probable MS (Poser's criteria) living in the province of Ferrara, yielded a crude prevalence rate of 120.93 (95 % CI, 110.05-134.23) per 100,000, 164.26 for women and 73.59 for men. The average incidence from 1990 to 2003 was 4.35 per 100,000 (95 % CI, 3.77-4.99), 5.91 for women and 2.63 for men. The incidence rate,which was relatively stable during the previous 25 years (1965-1989) with a mean rate of 2.3 per 100,000, increased to a value of 3.39 per 100,000 in the period 1990-1994, 4.09 per 100,000 in the period 1995-1999 and 3.84 per 100,000 in the period 2000-2003. These results confirm that in Ferrara MS occurs more frequently than suggested by the geographic- related distribution model and, based on other recent national surveys, support the view that northern Italy is a high-risk area for the disease. The marked increase in MS prevalence rate, in comparison with previous investigations, is in part due to the increasing survival of patients as a result of improved supportive care and the accumulation of new incidence cases owing to the reduction in diagnostic latency for better quality of neurological diagnostic procedures. The incidence in the province of Ferrara was found to slowly change with an incremental trend,which cannot only be

  11. Euroscepticism in Italy: Evolution of Northern League Political Program

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oleg N. Barabanov

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract: The article examines the key stages of the establishment of Italy’s Northern League as a rightwing hard eurosceptic party. Being initially a continual supporter of European integration and considering the transition to common currency as an opportunity available only to northern regions, which could secede and form an independent state, Northern League after losing the main point of its political agenda when the whole Italy joined the Economic and Monetary Union in 1998, became a eurosceptically-oriented party, which it is up to now. The authors dwell on the focal points of the party’s anti-EU program: Italy’s exit from the eurozone, the formation of Europe of macroregions, the reformation of supranational institutes and decision-making procedures. However, while confronting the Northern League policy with that of National Front in France and UKIP in the United Kingdom, the authors come to the conclusion that Euroscepticism for the former is just a sign of the shift in priorities rather than a strategy as for the latter. This can be explained by the fact that National Front and UKIP are still to fight for the place in the national mainstream, while Northern League has become its integral part long before. Nevertheless, under the new leadership of M.Salvini Northern League managed to become the fourth party on the national level according to the results of European parliament elections in 2014 and established itself as a significant power opponent to EU policy on a number of important issues, such as anti-Russian sanctions. Moreover, frequent visits of party members to Moscow and the party’s outspoken support of Russia on Crimea’s entrance into the Russian Federation provide an opportunity to consider Northern League a potential conductor of Russian interests in the European Union.

  12. The 2012 Emilia earthquake in northern Italy: coseismic geological effects within a compressive tectonic framework

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montone, P.; Alessio, G.; Alfonsi, L.; Brunori, C.; Burrato, P.; Casula, G.; Cinti, F. R.; Civico, R.; Colini, L.; Cucci, L.; De Martini, P. M.; Falcucci, E.; Galadini, F.; Gaudiosi, G.; Gori, S.; Mariucci, M.; Moro, M.; Nappi, R.; Nardi, A.; Nave, R.; Pantosti, D.; Patera, A.; Pesci, A.; Pignone, M.; Pinzi, S.; Pucci, S.; Vannoli, P.; Venuti, A.; Villani, F.

    2012-12-01

    On May 20 2012 a Ml 5.9 seismic event hit the Emilia Po Plain area (northern Italy) triggering an intense earthquake activity along a broad area of the Plain. Nine days later, on May 29 a Ml 5.8 event occurred roughly 10 km to the SW of the first main shock; these events caused 26 victims and several injured and damages. The aftershock area extended for more than 50 km, in WNW-ESE direction, including five major aftershocks with 5.1≤Ml≤5.3 and more than two thousands of minor events. In general, the seismic sequence was confined in the upper 10 km of depth (ISIDe, http://iside.rm.ingv.it/). The focal mechanisms calculated for the main events and also for several M>4.5 aftershocks are almost all consistent with a compression (P-axes) N-S oriented due to thrust fault mechanisms. The two nodal planes, both E-W oriented, show a 40° southward and 60-70° northward dipping plane (QRCMT, Quick Regional Moment Tensors, http://autorcmt.bo.ingv.it/quicks.html), connected with the compressional regime of the area. From a tectonic point of view, the active Apennine thrust fronts, buried under the Po Plain Plio-Quaternary sediments, locally consist of three N-verging arcs. The most external structures, the active Ferrara and Mirandola thrusts and folds are responsible for the Emilia Romagna 2012 earthquake sequence. Just after the 20th May seismic event, the EMERGEO Working Group was active in surveying the epicentral area searching for coseismic geological effects. The survey lasted one month, involving about thirty researchers and technicians of the INGV in field and aerial investigations. Simultaneously, a laboratory-working group gathered, organized and interpreted the observations, processing them in the EMERGEO Information System (siE), on a GIS environment. The most common coseismic effects are: 1) liquefactions related to overpressure of aquifers hosted in buried and confined sand layers, occurring both as single cones or through several aligned vents forming

  13. Epidemiological, clinical and laboratory features of chronic hepatitis B infection in a cohort of immigrant and Italian patients from Ferrara, Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Contini, Carlo; Badia, Lorenzo; Cultrera, Rosario; Grilli, Anastasio; De Togni, Aldo

    2012-01-01

    Italy has recently become a land of immigration. Two hundred and fifty thousand carriers are immigrants and chronic HBV infection is the prevalent form. Considering the elevated number of foreigners resident in our province and the potential risk of transmission to local people, we retrospectively investigated the patterns of chronic hepatitis B (CHB) in 154 patients (76 foreigners, 78 Italians) observed in our Institution, with regard to demographic and clinical/laboratory characteristics. The immigrants were younger (mean age 31 years) compared to Italians (51.5) and mainly came from East Europe. Regarding exposure to HBV, the intra-familial risk factor was most frequently observed in foreigners, compared to Italians (p = 0.03). Foreigners also showed a higher prevalence of HBeAg positive forms, HDV co-infection (7.9%) and abnormal ALT and/or HBV-DNA values, compared to Italians. HBeAg positivity was more associated with increased ALT (OR = 36.6, p = 0.001) than with elevated HBV viremia (OR = 6.5, p = 0.049); age was a protective factor (OR = 0.1; p = 0.014). No significant association was found between increased ALT and foreign nationality. The simultaneous presence of increased ALT and viremia was more frequent among foreigners, (OR = 7.6, p = 0,014) and increased with age (OR = 1.06, p = 0.013). Antiviral therapy was given in 7.8% of foreign citizens. Immigrants constitute a vulnerable population subgroup that would benefit from a more active approach regarding doctor patient relationship for early recognition of HBV and treatment programmes.

  14. Cardinals and the War of Ferrara

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    Stella Fletcher

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The bestowal of a red hat can turn even the most humbly born cleric into an ecclesiastical prince, but whereas few cardinals of the modern era have been born princely, most of those created in the Renaissance period could claim to be of noble lineage and a few, from the second half of the fifteenth century onwards, were the sons of ruling princes. Those who were born to fight were obliged to become those who prayed, but where did their allegiances lie when the states of Italy were at war with a belligerent pope such as Sixtus IV? The War of Ferrara (1482–4 presents an opportunity to survey the responses of cardinals from the ruling dynasties of Mantua, Milan, Montferrat, and Naples, together with their counterparts from the republics of Genoa, Siena, and Venice.

  15. A case of Paget from a Northern Italy medieval necropolis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rossetti, Chiara; Pasquinelli, Lidia; Verzeletti, Andrea; Armocida, Giuseppe; Licata, Marta; Fulcheri, Ezio

    2018-03-01

    An excavation conducted in 2002 by the Lombardy Archaeological Heritage in the St. Giulio Church (Cassano Magnago-Northern Italy) revealed an adult skeleton with an important alteration of the left femur. The femur, longer than the contralateral, exhibited an expansion of the full diaphysis; the surface was coarsened and porous. In cross section, it appeared that almost all the cortical bone had been converted into cancellous bone. Macroscopic and radiological alterations are suggestive of the monostotic form of Paget's disease, a chronic disorder, characterized by focal areas of excessive osteoclastic bone resorption followed by a secondary increase in osteoblastic bone formation. Differential diagnosis is complex for Paget's disease, requiring histological analysis, which revealed a thickened and disorganized trabecular pattern with thick cement lines. Such features, resembling to a mosaic pattern, are typical of Paget's disease. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Human exposure to piroplasms in Central and Northern Italy

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    Simona Gabrielli

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available A serosurvey has been conducted in Northern and Central Italy to investigate the presence in humans of antibodies against zoonotic Babesia and Theileria species. The study focused on a total of 432 volunteers, of which 290 were persistently exposed to tick bites because of their jobs (forester employees, livestock keepers, veterinary practitioners, farmers and hunters and 142 resident in the same area less frequently exposed. An indirect fluorescent antibody test (IFAT for humans was used to detect antibodies to Babesia microti, IFAT tests for veterinary use were modified to detect reactivity to Babesia bovis, Babesia canis and Theileria equi. A laboratory-derived ELISA was employed to detect antibodies to Babesia divergens. Both reactive and 10 negative sera were analysed against plasmodial antigens to evaluate possible aspecificity. A high reactivity to piroplasm antigens was found, showing significant difference between the sera of the two groups of volunteers (24% vs 7.0%; p<0.001. No cross-reactivity was observed, while each professional group showed reactivity that would fit with the professional risk exposure. In particular, a high reactivity to B. microti and B. divergens antigens was observed in foresters and hunters (32% and 12%, respectively. This is the first report on the human seroreactivity to piroplasms in Italy; it also provides additional epidemiological information on these tick-borne zoonoses in Europe. Our findings suggest the possible occurrence of piroplasm infections in Italy and alert physicians to consider these otherwise neglected parasitic diseases when dealing with any febrile illness, especially in subjects exposed to tick bites.

  17. [Mortality study in metal electroplating workers in Bologna (Northern Italy)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerosa, Alberto; Scarnato, Corrado; Giacomozzi, Giuseppe; d'Errico, Angelo

    2013-01-01

    to investigate general and cause-specific mortality of workers exposed to metals and other chemicals in the electroplating industry in Bologna Province. factory records of workers employed in 90 electroplating companies present in 1995 were used to build a cohort of subjects potentially exposed to carcinogenic and other substances in this industry, defined as "revised cohort", which was followed-up for mortality from 1960, or since first employment in an electroplating company if later, to 2008. Mortality risk was also examined separately in a subset of the cohort, composed of workers with at least one year of employment in electroplating, denominated "final cohort". Death rates of residents in Emilia-Romagna Region (Northern Italy) were used as a reference. follow-up completeness was 99%. During the observation period, 533 deaths out of 2,983 subjects were observed in the revised cohort and 317 out of 1,739 in the final cohort. Significantly increased Standardized Mortality Ratios were estimated for overall mortality and for mortality from AIDS in the revised cohort and for bladder and rectal cancer in both cohorts. the present study is, to authors' knowledge, the largest mortality investigation conducted in Italy on electroplating workers, for both size and temporal extension. The presence of excess mortality from causes of death not consistently associated in the literature with exposure to agents in this industry suggests that further research is needed to confirm these associations.

  18. A PLIOSAURID TOOTH FROM THE ARGILLE VARICOLORI FORMATION NEAR CASTELVECCHIO DI PRIGNANO (MODENA PROVINCE, NORTHERN ITALY

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    CESARE A. PAPAZZONI

    2003-11-01

    Full Text Available The first discovery of a Cretaceous pliosaurid tooth in Italy is reported. It comes from the Cenomanian-lower Campanian Argille Varicolori Formation near Castelvecchio di Prignano (Modena Province, northern Italy. Excepting this new specimen, Italy's only reported pliosaurid is a humerus from the Upper Cretaceous of Zavattarello near Pavia. The tooth morphology allows it to be ascribed to Polyptychodon interruptus Owen, 1841, a species only reported thus far from northern-central Europe (England, Germany, and the Czech Republic. This suggests the presence of marine reptile remains in the northern Apennines may have been underestimated. 

  19. Recovering corporate memory. Wine porters’ guilds and religious traditions in pre-industrial northern Italy

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    Miguel Laborda-Pemán

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Review of: Lester K. Little, Indispensable immigrants: The wine porters of northern Italy and their saint, 1200-1800, Manchester, Manchester University Press, 2015, 229 p., ISBN: 978071909522, £ 70.00.

  20. Key factors influencing lung cancer survival in northern Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mangone, Lucia; Minicozzi, Pamela; Vicentini, Massimo; Giacomin, Adriano; Caldarella, Adele; Cirilli, Claudia; Falcini, Fabio; Giorgi Rossi, Paolo; Sant, Milena

    2013-06-01

    Lung cancer is a major cause of cancer death worldwide. The aims of this study were to analyze presentation, treatment and survival for lung cancer in northern Italy, and identify factors influencing survival. A total of 1180 lung cancer cases diagnosed in four north Italian cancer registries (Biella, Modena, Reggio Emilia, Romagna) in 2003-2005 were analyzed. Information on morphology, stage, diagnostic examinations, chemotherapy, radiotherapy, and surgical treatment was collected from clinical records. Three-year relative survival and relative excess risks of death were estimated. Overall, 10% of cases were stage I, 50% stage IV, and 12% stage unknown. Romagna - where sophisticated diagnostic examinations were performed more often - had proportionately more microscopically verified cases and resected cases than Biella. Romagna had also high proportions of cases given chemotherapy and radiotherapy. Three-year survival was 14%, range 10% (Biella) to 19% (Romagna); 69% for stage I, 3% for stage IV. Stage I survival was higher in Romagna (82%) than Reggio Emilia and Biella (60-61%) but for operated stage I cases, survival was similar (88%) in Romagna and Biella. The fully adjusted model showed a higher risk of death in Biella (1.23, 95%CI 1.02-1.48) than Modena (reference). Stage and surgery are key factors influencing survival. Centralizing lung cancer treatment to improve diagnostic work-up may improve outcomes. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. The Alto Tiberina Near Fault Observatory (northern Apennines, Italy

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    Lauro Chiaraluce

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The availability of multidisciplinary and high-resolution data is a fundamental requirement to understand the physics of earthquakes and faulting. We present the Alto Tiberina Near Fault Observatory (TABOO, a research infrastructure devoted to studying preparatory processes, slow and fast deformation along a fault system located in the upper Tiber Valley (northern Apennines, dominated by a 60 km long low-angle normal fault (Alto Tiberina, ATF active since the Quaternary. TABOO consists of 50 permanent seismic stations covering an area of 120 × 120 km2. The surface seismic stations are equipped with 3-components seismometers, one third of them hosting accelerometers. We instrumented three shallow (250 m boreholes with seismometers, creating a 3-dimensional antenna for studying micro-earthquakes sources (detection threshold is ML 0.5 and detecting transient signals. 24 of these sites are equipped with continuous geodetic GPS, forming two transects across the fault system. Geochemical and electromagnetic stations have been also deployed in the study area. In 36 months TABOO recorded 19,422 events with ML ≤ 3.8 corresponding to 23.36e-04 events per day per squared kilometres; one of the highest seismicity rate value observed in Italy. Seismicity distribution images the geometry of the ATF and its antithetic/synthetic structures located in the hanging-wall. TABOO can allow us to understand the seismogenic potential of the ATF and therefore contribute to the seismic hazard assessment of the area. The collected information on the geometry and deformation style of the fault will be used to elaborate ground shaking scenarios adopting diverse slip distributions and rupture directivity models.

  2. GPS observations of coseismic deformation following the May 20 and 29, 2012, Emilia seismic events (northern Italy: data, analysis and preliminary models

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    Enrico Serpelloni

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available In May-July 2012, a seismic sequence struck a broad area of the Po Plain Region in northern Italy. The sequence included two Ml >5.5 mainshocks. The first one (Ml 5.9 occurred near the city of Finale Emilia (ca. 30 km west of Ferrara on May 20 at 02:03:53 (UTC, and the second (Ml 5.8 occurred on May 29 at 7:00:03 (UTC, about 12 km southwest of the May 20 mainshock (Figure 1, near the city of Mirandola. The seismic sequence involved an area that extended in an E-W direction for more than 50 km, and included seven Ml ≥5.0 events and more than 2,300 Ml >1.5 events (http://iside.rm.ingv.it. The focal mechanisms of the main events [Pondrelli et al. 2012, Scognamiglio et al. 2012, this volume] consistently showed compressional kinematics with E-W oriented reverse nodal planes. This sector of the Po Plain is known as a region characterized by slow deformation rates due to the northwards motion of the northern Apennines fold-and-thrust belt, which is buried beneath the sedimentary cover of the Po Plain [Picotti and Pazzaglia 2008, Toscani et al. 2009]. Early global positioning system (GPS measurements [Serpelloni et al. 2006] and the most recent updates [Devoti et al. 2011, Bennett et al. 2012] recognized that less than 2 mm/yr of SW-NE shortening are accommodated across this sector of the Po Plain, in agreement with other present-day stress indicators [Montone et al. 2012] and known active faults [Basili et al. 2008]. In the present study, we describe the GPS data used to study the coseismic deformation related to the May 20 and 29 mainshocks, and provide preliminary models of the two seismic sources, as inverted from consensus GPS coseismic deformation fields. […

  3. Biological Correlates of Northern-Southern Italy Differences in IQ

    Science.gov (United States)

    Templer, Donald I.

    2012-01-01

    The present study was intended to provide perspective, albeit less than unequivocal, on the research of Lynn (2010) who reported higher IQs in the northern than southern Italian regions. He attributes this to northern Italians having a greater genetic similarity to middle Europeans and southern Italians to Mediterranean people. Higher regional IQ…

  4. Justitia Holthuis, 1946 (Crustacea, Decapoda, Palinuridea) from the Middle Eocene of Verona and Vicenza (northern Italy)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Garassino, Alessandro; Angeli, De Antonio

    2003-01-01

    Recently, Beschin et al. (2001) have described two specimens of palinurids, discovered at Chiampo (“Albanello” quarry, Vicenza, northern Italy). Preserved three dimensionally, these were collected from limestones of Lutetian (middle Eocene) age. The peculiar ornament of the dorsal carapace surface,

  5. The impact of education on wage determination between workers in southern and central-northern Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agovino Massimiliano

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to examine the earnings dynamic in Italy, in order to explain earnings differences between southern Italy and centralnorthern Italy. In our analysis we use different techniques: ordinary least squares (OLS, quantile regression models and the algorithm developed by Machado and Mata (2005. In particular, the Machado and Mata (2005 algorithm allows us to examine the relative importance of both differences in workers’ characteristics and in their returns in explaining southern, central and northern Italy earnings differences at a point in time, as well as across time within each macro-area. We focus on the role of differences in educational endowment and returns to education, one of the most important components of human capital in the stylised literature. The level of education determines the substantial disparities in terms of wage returns. However, this holds only for levels of education related to compulsory education.

  6. The May 20 (MW 6.1) and 29 (MW 6.0), 2012, Emilia (Po Plain, northern Italy) earthquakes: New seismotectonic implications from subsurface geology and high-quality hypocenter location

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carannante, Simona; Argnani, Andrea; Massa, Marco; D'Alema, Ezio; Lovati, Sara; Moretti, Milena; Cattaneo, Marco; Augliera, Paolo

    2015-08-01

    This study presents new geological and seismological data that are used to assess the seismic hazard of a sector of the Po Plain (northern Italy), a large alluvial basin hit by two strong earthquakes on May 20 (MW 6.1) and May 29 (MW 6.0), 2012. The proposed interpretation is based on high-quality relocation of 5369 earthquakes ('Emilia sequence') and a dense grid of seismic profiles and exploration wells. The analyzed seismicity was recorded by 44 seismic stations, and initially used to calibrate new one-dimensional and three-dimensional local Vp and Vs velocity models for the area. Considering these new models, the initial sparse hypocenters were then relocated in absolute mode and adjusted using the double-difference relative location algorithm. These data define a seismicity that is elongated in the W-NW to E-SE directions. The aftershocks of the May 20 mainshock appear to be distributed on a rupture surface that dips ~ 45° SSW, and the surface projection indicates an area ~ 10 km wide and 23 km long. The aftershocks of the May 29 mainshock followed a steep rupture surface that is well constrained within the investigated volume, whereby the surface projection of the blind source indicates an area ~ 6 km wide and 33 km long. Multichannel seismic profiles highlight the presence of relevant lateral variations in the structural style of the Ferrara folds that developed during the Pliocene and Pleistocene. There is also evidence of a Mesozoic extensional fault system in the Ferrara arc, with faults that in places have been seismically reactivated. These geological and seismological observations suggest that the 2012 Emilia earthquakes were related to ruptures along blind fault surfaces that are not part of the Pliocene-Pleistocene structural system, but are instead related to a deeper system that is itself closely related to re-activation of a Mesozoic extensional fault system.

  7. Geo-archaeological aspects of the Modena plain (Northern Italy

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    Doriano Castaldini

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper traces the various stages of geomorphological evolution of the plain area around Modena from the VIth millennium B.C.E. (Neolithic to the Present, through a reconstruction of the ancient landscape and human settlements.By means of a GIS platform, geomorphological investigations led to the implementation of a Microrelief Map, a Digital Elevation Model (DEM, a Map of Surface Deposits and a Geomorphological Map.The most striking altimetric features in the study area are the morphological changes of the Rivers Secchia and Panaro: south of Modena they run deep in the alluvial plain whereas north of the town they flow elevated over the plain. The surface lithology consists mainly of silt, with bands of sand and clay; mainly gravel deposits crop out only near southern tracks of the main Apennine watercourses. The geomorphological landscape is mainly characterised by alluvial fans, fluvial ridges paleo-riverbeds fluvial scarps, natural springs and some depressed areas; worth of note are also forms connected with human activity.There have been several attempts to cross–date geological and geomorphological evidence with archaeological data, on both detailed and wide territorial scales. A further advancement can now be attempted by comparing data obtained from systematic research on fluvial forms with data contained in the archives.In the area studied, some 800 archaeological sites were identified and catalogued. Such a high number of archaeological sites can give a great deal more information than is found in any other place in northern Italy.The research took into account the overlapping of archaeological and geomorphological data, with the implementation into a GIS (ArcGis 8.3 of geoarchaeological maps divided in main periods and here represented from the Neolithic to the to Iron Age and from Roman period to the Early Middle Ages. The dating thus obtained for fluvial forms was mainly based on the relationship between these forms and

  8. Dolce Vita in the Rice Paddy - Characterization of weedy rice groups in Northern Italy and investigation of their evolutionary origins

    OpenAIRE

    Grimm, Annabelle

    2014-01-01

    The thesis deals with the topic of the invasive rice form called weedy rice or red rice. Studies focused on the geographical area of Italy. Different populations of weedy rice in Italy were genetically characterized. The evolutionary origins of different weedy rice groups were investigated using molecular, morphological and physiological methods. Invasion of wild rice as well as de-domestication of cultivars could be identified as evolutionary sources of weedy rice in Northern Italy.

  9. Records of Chrysomya albiceps in Northern Italy: an ecological and forensic perspective

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    S Vanin

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Knowledge of the carrion-breeding insects present at a local level is important and necessary for defining the post-mortem interval. Climate changes and globalisation are affecting species ranges and population dynamics. In this note, we report the incidence of Chrysomya albiceps (Diptera: Calliphoridae on dead human bodies and carrion in Northern Italy. These data confirm the spread of this species in the Northern regions. The partial sequencing of a 583-bp region of the cytochrome oxidase subunit 1 gene of an Adriatic population did not reveal any difference compared to the same genomic region in the African and South American populations of this species.

  10. The Emilia 2012 seismic sequence: hints on incipient basement-involved deformation in the foreland of the Northern Apennines (Italy)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Argnani, Andrea; Carannante, Simona; Massa, Marco; D'Alema, Ezio; Lovati, Sara

    2015-04-01

    The deformation front of the Northern Apennines is buried under the sediments of the Po Plain and was formed mainly during the Pliocene. The remarkably arcuate shape of the thrust front contrasts with the linear northwestern trend of the pede-Apennines, where recent deformation is documented by both geological and geodetic evidence. This study presents new geological and seismological data that are used to assess the structural style of the Ferrara Arc, a sector of the Northern Apennine front that was hit by two strong earthquakes on May 20 (MW 6.1) and May 29 (MW 6.0), 2012. The proposed interpretation is based on a dense grid of commercial seismic profiles and exploration wells, and high-quality relocation of ~5,300 earthquakes (the Emilia sequence). The seismicity was used to calibrate new one-dimensional and three-dimensional local Vp and Vs velocity models for the area. On the basis of these new models, the initial sparse hypocenters were then relocated in absolute mode and adjusted using the double-difference relative location algorithm. Seismicity distribution is elongated in the W-NW to E-SE directions, reaching a depth of 10-12 km. The aftershocks of the May 20 mainshock appear to be distributed on a rupture surface that dips ~45° SSW, and the surface projection indicates an area ~10 km wide and 23 km long. The aftershocks of the May 29 second mainshock followed a steep rupture surface that is well constrained within the investigated volume, whereby the surface projection of the blind source indicates an area ~6 km wide and 33 km long. The analysed multichannel seismic profiles highlight the presence of relevant lateral variations in the structural style of the Ferrara folds that developed during the Pliocene and Pleistocene, and also show the occurrence of a Mesozoic extensional fault system in the Ferrara arc, which in places has been seismically reactivated. These geological and seismological observations suggest that the 2012 Emilia earthquakes were

  11. Identifying spatial clustering properties of the 1997-2003 Liguria (Northern Italy) forest-fire sequence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Telesca, Luciano; Amatulli, Giuseppe; Lasaponara, Rosa; Lovallo, Michele; Santulli, Adriano

    2007-01-01

    The spatial clustering of the forest-fire sequence (1997-2003) of Liguria Region (Northern Italy) has been analysed using the correlation dimension D C , calculated by means of the correlation integral method. Studying the variations of this parameter, we recognize the presence of a strong variability of the spatial clusterization, modulated by seasonal cycles. Furthermore, we found that the larger fires (size >400 ha) mark the cyclic behaviour of the correlation dimension

  12. Thunderstorm nowcasting by means of lightning and radar data: algorithms and applications in northern Italy

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    P. Bonelli

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Thunderstorms and their ground effects, such as flash floods, hail, lightning, strong winds, and tornadoes, are responsible for most weather damages in northern Italy, especially in the warm season from May to September. A nowcasting and warning system focused on severe thunderstorm events would be useful to reduce risks for people involved in outside activities and for electric, telecommunication, and sensitive industrial business. C-band radar and Lighting Location Systems provide useful, fast and high resolution data for the detection of convective systems and for following their dynamics. The whole of northern Italy is covered by radar with a resolution of 1 km and by a lightning network with a mean accuracy of 0.5 km on the single point of impact. The authors present an algorithm developed for tracking high intensity storm cells by means of radar and lightning data. Application to northern Italy reveals that tracking thunderstorm cells can be used as an alert system that may help prevent damages from extreme weather, as well as allowing for studying the correlation among lightning, rainfall and tornado occurrence. Assessing the algorithm skill is also discussed, and a forecast verification method is described and applied for the duration of a thunderstorm season.

  13. Clerical "concubines" in northern Italy during the fourteenth century.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cossar, Roisin

    2011-01-01

    This essay reconstructs the lives of a neglected group of women in the Christian church during the later Middle Ages. So-called clerical “concubines” were well-known in their communities, but their lived experience has been largely ignored by modern historians. Yet studying clerical concubines sheds light not only on the women themselves, but also on the social organization of the medieval Christian church. Drawing on information gathered from notarial acts across the northern Italian peninsula, I argue that concubines were not a unitary group. Their experiences varied instead according to their status and the regions they inhabited. For instance, while laywomen who became priests’ concubines moved into their lovers’ homes, nuns retained cells in their religious houses during these relationships. Furthermore, concubines in cities such as Treviso could openly live with their lovers and share their property, while in other places, such as Bergamo, severe legal restrictions on concubines made them a particularly vulnerable group.

  14. 2-D Coda and Direct Wave Attenuation Tomography in Northern Italy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morasca, P; Mayeda, K; Gok, R; Phillips, W S; Malagnini, L

    2007-10-17

    A 1-D coda method was proposed by Mayeda et al. (2003) in order to obtain stable seismic source moment-rate spectra using narrowband coda envelope measurements. That study took advantage of the averaging nature of coda waves to derive stable amplitude measurements taking into account all propagation, site, and Sto-coda transfer function effects. Recently this methodology was applied to micro earthquake data sets from three sub-regions of northern Italy (i.e., western Alps, northern Apennines and eastern Alps). Since the study regions were small, ranging between local-to-near-regional distances, the simple 1-D path assumptions used in the coda method worked very well. The lateral complexity of this region would suggest, however, that a 2-D path correction might provide even better results if the datasets were combined, especially when paths traverse larger distances and complicated regions. The structural heterogeneity of northern Italy makes the region ideal to test the extent to which coda variance can be reduced further by using a 2-D Q tomography technique. The approach we use has been developed by Phillips et al. (2005) and is an extension of previous amplitude ratio techniques to remove source effects from the inversion. The method requires some assumptions such as isotropic source radiation which is generally true for coda waves. Our results are compared against direct Swave inversions for 1/Q and results from both share very similar attenuation features that coincide with known geologic structures. We compare our results with those derived from direct waves as well as some recent results from northern California obtained by Mayeda et al. (2005) which tested the same tomographic methodology applied in this study to invert for 1/Q. We find that 2-D coda path corrections for this region significantly improve upon the 1-D corrections, in contrast to California where only a marginal improvement was observed. We attribute this difference to stronger lateral

  15. RIGED-RA project - Restoration and management of Coastal Dunes in the Northern Adriatic Coast, Ravenna Area - Italy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giambastiani, Beatrice M. S.; Greggio, Nicolas; Sistilli, Flavia; Fabbri, Stefano; Scarelli, Frederico; Candiago, Sebastian; Anfossi, Giulia; Lipparini, Carlo A.; Cantelli, Luigi; Antonellini, Marco; Gabbianelli, Giovanni

    2016-10-01

    Coastal dunes play an important role in protecting the coastline. Unfortunately, in the last decades dunes have been removed or damaged by human activities. In the Emilia- Romagna region significant residual dune systems are found only along Ravenna and Ferrara coasts. In this context, the RIGED-RA project “Restoration and management of coastal dunes along the Ravenna coast” (2013-2016) has been launched with the aims to identify dynamics, erosion and vulnerability of Northern Adriatic coast and associated residual dunes, and to define intervention strategies for dune protection and restoration. The methodology is based on a multidisciplinary approach that integrates the expertise of several researchers and investigates all aspects (biotic and abiotic), which drive the dune-beach system. All datasets were integrated to identify test sites for applying dune restoration. The intervention finished in April 2016; evolution and restoration efficiency will be assessed.

  16. The "Mud-volcanoes route" (Emilia Apennines, northern Italy)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coratza, Paola; Castaldini, Doriano

    2016-04-01

    In the present paper the "Mud-volcanoes route" (MVR), an itinerary unfolds across the districts of Viano, Sassuolo, Fiorano Modenese and Maranello, in which part of the Emilia mud volcanoes fields are located, is presented. The Mud-volanoes route represents an emotional journey that connects places and excellences through the geological phenomenon of mud volcanoes, known with the local name "Salse". The Mud Volcanoes are created by the surfacing of salt water and mud mixed with gaseous and liquid hydrocarbons along faults and fractures of the ground. The name "Salsa"- from Latin salsus - results from the"salt" content of these muddy waters, ancient heritage of the sea that about a million years ago was occupying the current Po Plain. The "Salse" may take the shape of a cone or a level-pool according to the density of the mud. The Salse of Nirano, in the district of Fiorano Modenese, is one of the most important in Italy and among the most complex in Europe. Less extensive but equally charming and spectacular, are the "Salse" located in the districts of Maranello (locality Puianello), Sassuolo (locality Montegibbio) and Viano (locality Casola Querciola and Regnano). These fascinating lunar landscapes have always attracted the interest of researchers and tourist.The presence on the MVR territory of ancient settlements, Roman furnaces and mansions, fortification systems and castles, besides historic and rural buildings, proves the lasting bond between this land and its men. In these places, where the culture of good food has become a resource, we can find wine cellars, dairy farms and Balsamic vinegar factories that enable us to appreciate unique worldwide products. This land gave also birth to some personalities who created unique worldwide famous values, such as the myth of the Ferrrari, the ceramic industry and the mechatronics. The MVR is represented in a leaflet containing, short explanation, photos and a map in which are located areas with mud volcanoes, castles

  17. Characterization of necrophagus entomofauna in a typical agricultural area in Emilia-Romagna region (Northern Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Calzolari

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available This study presents a checklist of Dipterans and Coleopterans accountable for carrion decay in the Po Valley (Italy, a contribution to the Forensic Entomology knowledge in Italy. Insects colonizing two pig carcasses in an agricultural area in Mezzani municipality (Parma, Northern Italy were sampled by pitfall traps and original Malaise-like traps, which allowed the sampling of a very relevant number of flying insects. A checklist of 57 taxa was obtained, of which 26 were considered of forensic importance. For the latter the arrival time of adult specimens on the carcasses was recorded, as an important parameter in minimum post mortem interval estimation. Dipterans (6141 specimens were the most common insects; the fastest specimens to detect and colonize the carcass belonged to the Calliphoridae family, while Fanniidae and Muscidae infested the carrion until completion of the skeletal stage. Coleopterans appeared later (308 adult specimens and 114 larvae were captured. Staphylinidae, Dermestidae, and Histeridae were the most common coleopterans sampled in this study.

  18. Impact of school-based educational programs on sexual behaviors among adolescents in northern Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bogani, Giorgio; Cromi, Antonella; Serati, Maurizio; Monti, Zelia; Apolloni, Chiara; Nardelli, Federica; Di Naro, Edoardo; Ghezzi, Fabio

    2015-01-01

    This article aimed to determine sexual behaviors among female and male adolescents in northern Italy. An anonymous self-administered questionnaire evaluating sexual attitudes was distributed in middle and high schools in northern Italy. Adolescents between 13 and 19 years of age were asked to participate at the survey. The study group included 664 participants. Overall, 164 (25%) adolescents had had at least one sexual intercourse. Among adolescents who have had sexual intercourse, 90 (55%) use condoms, 25 (15%) use hormonal contraception, and 49 (30%) do not use any contraception method. A total of 559 adolescents (84%) participated in school-based sexual education programs. This group had better knowledge on sexually transmitted diseases and contraception methods in comparison with adolescents who have never participated in such educational programs (p sexual behaviors was observed (p = 1.0). School-based sexual education programs improve knowledge of sexual transmitted diseases and contraception methods. However, this knowledge does not correlate to high-risk sexual behaviors reduction.

  19. Survey of Campylobacter spp. in owned and unowned dogs and cats in Northern Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giacomelli, M; Follador, N; Coppola, L M; Martini, M; Piccirillo, A

    2015-06-01

    Campylobacteriosis is among the most common bacterial causes of human gastroenteritis worldwide and pet ownership has been identified as a risk factor for Campylobacter infection in humans. Since canine and feline prevalence data are scarce in Italy, the present study was carried out to assess the prevalence, species distribution and risk factors for Campylobacter infection in dogs and cats under different husbandry conditions. Rectal swabs were collected from 171 dogs (household pets, n = 100; shelter-housed dogs, n = 50; dogs from breeding kennels, n = 21) and 102 cats (household pets, n = 52; shelter-housed cats, n = 21; free-roaming cats n = 29) in Northern Italy. Campylobacter was isolated from 17% (n = 29) of dogs and 14.7% (n = 15) of cats. C. jejuni was the most common isolate in both species (Campylobacter spp.-positive dogs, 55.2%; Campylobacter spp.-positive cats, 53.3%), followed by C. upsaliensis (Campylobacter spp.-positive dogs, 27.6%; Campylobacter spp.-positive cats, 40%). Other Campylobacter species were rarely detected, but included C. hyointestinalis subsp. hyointestinalis, C. lari and C. coli in dogs and C. coli and C. helveticus in cats. Among considered variables (sex, age, origin, diarrhoea, season of sampling), origin was identified as a risk factor for dogs, with shelter-housed dogs at higher risk than household dogs (odds ratio, 2.84; 95% CI 1.17, 6.92; P = 0.021). The results of this study, particularly the high prevalence of C. jejuni in Campylobacter-positive animals, demonstrated that household and stray dogs and cats in Northern Italy might pose a zoonotic risk for humans. Moreover, biosecurity measures should be improved in dog shelters. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Investigating source directivity for the 2012 Ml5.9 Emilia (Northern Italy) earthquake by jointly using High-rate GPS and Strong motion data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avallone, A.; Herrero, A.; Latorre, D.; Rovelli, A.; D'Anastasio, E.

    2012-12-01

    On May, 20th 2012, the Ferrara and Modena provinces (Emilia Romagna, Northern Italy) were struck by a moderate magnitude earthquake (Ml 5.9). The focal mechanism is consistent with a ~E-W-striking thrust fault. The mainshock was recorded by 29 high-rate sampling (1-Hz) continuous GPS (HRGPS) stations belonging to scientific or commercial networks and by 55 strong motion (SM) stations belonging to INGV (Istituto Nazionale di Geofisica e Vulcanologia) and RAN (Rete Accelerometrica Nazionale) networks, respectively. The spatial distribution of both HRGPS and SM stations with respect to the mainshock location allows a satisfactory azimuthal coverage of the area. To investigate directivity effects during the mainshock occurrence, we analyze the spatial variation of the peak ground displacement (PGD) measured either for HRGPS or SM sites, using different methods. For each HRGPS and SM site, we rotated the horizontal time series to the azimuth direction and we estimated the GPS-related and the SM-related peak ground displacement (G-PGD and S-PGD, respectively) retrieved by transverse component. However, in contrast to GPS displacements, the double integration of the SM data can be affected by the presence of drifts and, thus, they have to be corrected by quasi-manual procedures. To more properly compare the G-PGDs to the S-PGDs, we used the response spectrum. A response spectrum is simply the response of a series of oscillators of varying natural frequency, that are forced into motion by the same input. The asymptotic value of the displacement response spectrum is the peak ground displacement. Thus, for each HRGPS and SM site, we computed the value of this asymptotic trend (G-PGDrs and S-PGDrs, respectively). This method allows simple automatic procedures. The consistency of the PGDs derived from HRGPS and SM is also evaluated for sites where the two instruments are collocated. The PGDs obtained by the two different methods and the two different data types suggest a

  1. Persistent Scatterer Interferometry analysis of ground deformation in the Po Plain (Piacenza-Reggio Emilia sector, Northern Italy): seismo-tectonic implications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antonielli, Benedetta; Monserrat, Oriol; Bonini, Marco; Cenni, Nicola; Devanthéry, Núria; Righini, Gaia; Sani, Federico

    2016-08-01

    This work aims to explore the ongoing tectonic activity of structures in the outermost sector of the Northern Apennines, which represents the active leading edge of the thrust belt and is dominated by compressive deformation. We have applied the Persistent Scatterer Interferometry (PSI) technique to obtain new insights into the present-day deformation pattern of the frontal area of the Northern Apennine. PSI has proved to be effective in detecting surface deformation of wide regions involved in low tectonic movements. We used 34 Envisat images in descending geometry over the period of time between 2004 and 2010, performing about 300 interferometric pairs. The analysis of the velocity maps and of the PSI time-series has allowed to observe ground deformation over the sector of the Po Plain between Piacenza and Reggio Emilia. The time-series of permanent GPS stations located in the study area, validated the results of the PSI technique, showing a good correlation with the PS time-series. The PS analysis reveals the occurrence of a well-known subsidence area on the rear of the Ferrara arc, mostly connected to the exploitation of water resources. In some instances, the PS velocity pattern reveals ground uplift (with mean velocities ranging from 1 to 2.8 mm yr-1) above active thrust-related anticlines of the Emilia and Ferrara folds, and part of the Pede-Apennine margin. We hypothesize a correlation between the observed uplift deformation pattern and the growth of the thrust-related anticlines. As the uplift pattern corresponds to known geological features, it can be used to constrain the seismo-tectonic setting, and a working hypothesis may involve that the active Emilia and Ferrara thrust folds would be characterized by interseismic periods possibly dominated by aseismic creep.

  2. Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1987-04-01

    For "Background Notes" on Italy, the U.S. State Department, Bureau of Public Affairs, covers geography, people, history, government, politics, economy, defense and foreign relations. Italy had 57.3 million persons in 1986, with a growth rate of 2.3%. The life expectancy is 73 years; the infant mortality rate is 14.3/1000 live births. 98% of the people are literate. The current constitutional republic has existed since 1948. Mean per capita income is $6,447. The people work mainly in services (60%), industry (30%) and agriculture (10%). Most of the country is mountainous, without significant food, energy or natural resources, so Italy's central position in the Mediterranean has influenced economic development since ancient times. The nation is highly homogeneous, as the government is centralized. Although there are several influential political parties, the diverse structure of the Christian Democrats has given them power since the war. The current prime minister, Bettino Craxi, is a member of the centralist Italian Socialist Party. The Italian Communist Party is the largest such party in the free world, polling 30% of the vote in 1983. Italy is a member of NATO.

  3. A conceptual hydrogeological model of ophiolitic aquifers (serpentinised peridotite): The test example of Mt. Prinzera (Northern Italy)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Segadelli, Stefano; Vescovi, Paolo; Ogata, Kei; Chelli, Alessandro; Zanini, Andrea; Boschetti, Tiziano; Petrella, Emma; Toscani, Lorenzo; Gargini, Alessandro; Celico, Fulvio

    2017-01-01

    © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.The main aim of this study is the experimental analysis of the hydrogeological behaviour of the Mt. Prinzera ultramafic massif in the northern Apennines, Italy. The analysed multidisciplinary database has been acquired through (a) geologic and structural survey; (b)

  4. A new fossil-lagerstätte from the lower eocene of lessini mountains (northern Italy): A multidisciplinary approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Giusberti, L.; Bannikov, A.; Boscolo Galazzo, F.; Fornaciari, E.; Frieling, J.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/338017909; Luciani, V.; Papazzoni, C.A.; Roghi, G.; Schouten, S.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/137124929; Sluijs, A.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/311474748; Bosellini, F.R.; Zorzin, R.

    2014-01-01

    Hemipelagic dark limestones within calciturbiditic deposits at Monte Solane in the western Lessini Mountains of northern Italy yield a fish fauna dominated by stomiiforms. A minor component of the fossil assemblage is represented by a macroalgal non-calcareous flora associated with rarer terrestrial

  5. A NEW LEPIDOSAUROMORPH REPTILE FROM THE MIDDLE TRIASSIC OF THE DOLOMITES (NORTHERN ITALY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SILVIO RENESTO

    2003-11-01

    Full Text Available A new genus and species of diapsid reptile is described. The specimen was collected from the Anisian (Middle Triassic succession of Monte Prà della Vacca (Kühwiesenkopf in the Dolomites of Braies (Bolzano/Bozen, Northern Italy. Despite being incomplete, the specimen shows enough characters to allow its placement within Lepidosauriformes, close to the Middle Jurassic genus Marmoretta. The importance of this find lies in the great rarity of lepidosauriforms of Anisian age, an epoch approximating the appearance of the first members of the true Lepidosauria (rhyncocephalians and squamates. The new genus may thus add knowledge to the diversity of early lepidosaurians. Some characters of the skeleton, mainly of the forelimb, suggest a terrestrial, perhaps arboreal life style. 

  6. Occupation and first episode psychosis in Northern Italy: better outcomes for migrants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarricone, Ilaria; Morgan, Craig; Boydell, Jane; Panigada, Serena; Morigi, Raffaele; Braca, Mauro; Sutti, Enrico; Boldri, Pierluigi; Di Forti, Marta; Murray, Robin M; Berardi, Domenico

    2017-12-01

    Many studies show that migrants have a higher incidence of psychosis compared to natives, but the influence of migration on psychosis outcomes is little investigated. We aimed to evaluate the occupational outcomes of a first episode psychosis (FEP) sample in Bologna (Northern Italy). An incidence cohort of FEP patients presenting at the Bologna West Community Mental Health Centers between 2002 and 2009 was assessed at the baseline and at 12th month follow-up. Return to school or work was used as occupational outcome. Most of the patients (82.8%) were still in contact at 12 months. Migrants showed significantly higher rate of return to work compared to natives (adjusted OR 4.45, 95% CI 1.55-12.76). First generation migrants had better occupational outcomes. Further cross-cultural studies are needed to further explain these findings. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd.

  7. Intermediate-term earthquake prediction and seismic zoning in Northern Italy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Panza, G.F.; Orozova Stanishkova, I.; Costa, G.; Vaccari, F.

    1993-12-01

    The algorithm CN for intermediate earthquake prediction has been applied to an area in Northern Italy, which has been chosen according to a recently proposed seismotectonic model. Earthquakes with magnitude ≥ 5.4 occur in the area with a relevant frequency and their occurrence is predicted by algorithm CN. Therefore a seismic hazard analysis has been performed using a deterministic procedure, based on the computation of complete synthetic seismograms. The results are summarized in a map giving the distribution of peak ground acceleration, but the complete time series are available, which can be used by civil engineers in the design of new seismo-resistant constructions and in the retrofitting of the existing ones. This risk reduction action should be intensified in connection with warnings issued on the basis of the forward predictions made by CN. (author). Refs, 7 figs, 1 tab

  8. Mortality of Talc Miners and Millers From Val Chisone, Northern Italy: An Updated Cohort Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pira, Enrico; Coggiola, Maurizio; Ciocan, Catalina; Romano, Canzio; La Vecchia, Carlo; Pelucchi, Claudio; Boffetta, Paolo

    2017-07-01

    The aim of this study was to update the analysis of mortality of a cohort of talc miners and millers in Northern Italy. We analyzed the mortality during 1946 to 2013 of 1722 male workers in an asbestos-free talc mine (1166 miners and 556 millers) employed during 1946 to 1995. The overall standardized mortality ratio (SMR) was 1.24 [95% confidence interval (95% CI) 1.17 to 1.32]; no deaths were observed from pleural cancer; mortality from lung cancer was not increased. Mortality from pneumoconiosis was increased (SMR 26.62; 95% CI 20.71 to 33.69), in particular among miners, and was associated with duration of employment and time since first employment. We confirmed the lack of association between exposure to asbestos-free talc, lung cancer, and mesothelioma. Increased mortality from pneumoconiosis among miners is attributable to past exposure to silica.

  9. MIDDLE EOCENE TO EARLY MIOCENE FORAMINIFERAL BIOSTRATIGRAPHY IN THE EPILIGURIAN SUCCESSION (NORTHERN APENNINES, ITALY

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    NICOLETTA MANCIN

    2001-11-01

    Full Text Available A quantitative biostratigraphical study was performed on the foraminiferal assemblages from 15 stratigraphic sections of the Epiligurian Succession (Middle Eocene-Early Miocene, Northern Apennines, Italy. This study enabled us to identify the presence of some of the standard bioevents and to note that other bioevents are absent or show a different chronostratigraphic range. Other additional bioevents, identified throughout the area, have therefore been utilised to improve the biostratigraphical resolution of the Epiligurian sediments. These bioevents include the massive extinction of the muricate species at the Bartonian/Priabonian boundary; the increasing abundance of Paragloborotalia opima opima near Subzone P21a/P21b and the Rupelian/Chattian boundaries; and the FO of Globoquadrina dehiscens at the Subzone N4a/N4b boundary. 

  10. Biomethane as transport fuel – A comparison with other biogas utilization pathways in northern Italy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Patrizio, P.; Leduc, S.; Chinese, D.; Dotzauer, E.; Kraxner, F.

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • CHP and biomethane generation were investigated as biogas utilization pathways. • A spatially explicit biogas supply chain optimization model was developed. • Biomethane as vehicle fuel has lower investment and operational costs than CHP. • CHP has most favorable economics thanks to high carbon reduction potential. - Abstract: Italy is a large producer of biogas from anaerobic digestion, which is mainly used for power generation with limited use of cogenerated heat. Other utilization pathways, such as biomethane injection into the natural gas grid or biomethane used as a vehicle fuel, remain unexplored. Given the dense grid of natural gas pipelines and existing Compressed Natural Gas (CNG) refueling stations in northern Italy, significant market opportunities for biogas could also arise in the heating and transport sectors. The main objectives of this paper are to explore the potential role of agricultural biogas in different utilization pathways. Biogas combustion for simultaneous production of heat and power in small Combined Heat and Power (CHP) facilities is also assessed, as is upgrading to biomethane for transport or natural gas grid injection in the specific context of northern Italy. The spatially explicit optimization model BeWhere is used to identify optimal locations where greenfield biogas plants could be installed and to determine the most economic and environmentally beneficial mix of conversion technologies and plant capacities. Carbon price, for instance in the form of tradable emission permits, is assessed as a policy instrument and compared with other options such as price premiums on biomethane or electricity costs. Results show that starting from a carbon price of 15 EUR/tCO_2, the cogeneration option is preferable if plants are located in the proximity of existing district heating infrastructure. CNG plants are only competitive starting at a carbon price of 70 EUR/tCO_2 in areas with high feedstock availability. The

  11. Inverse association between dietary vitamin D and risk of cutaneous melanoma in a northern Italy population

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vinceti, Marco; Malagoli, Carlotta; Fiorentini, Chiara; Longo, Caterina; Crespi, Catherine M.; Albertini, Giuseppe; Ricci, Cinzia; Lanzoni, Anna; Reggiani, Maurizio; Virgili, Annarosa; Osti, Federica; Lombardi, Mara; Santini, Marcello; Fanti, Pier Alessandro; Dika, Emi; Sieri, Sabina; Krogh, Vittorio; Seidenari, Stefania; Pellacani, Giovanni

    2010-01-01

    The possibility of an inverse association between vitamin D and risk of cancer and, in particular, of cutaneous malignant melanoma has been suggested, but results of epidemiologic studies are still conflicting. We examined the relation between dietary vitamin D intake and melanoma risk through a population-based case-control study (380 cases, 719 controls) in a northern region of Italy, a country with average vitamin D intake lower than in northern Europe or the US. We assessed average daily intake of vitamin D from foodstuffs using the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC) semiquantitative food frequency questionnaire. In this population, levels of vitamin D intake were considerably lower than those observed in recent US studies. We found an inverse relation between dietary vitamin D and melanoma risk in the sample as a whole, in both crude and adjusted analyses. In sex and age-specific analyses, this association appeared to be stronger among males and among older subjects. These findings suggest that, at the relatively low levels of intake observed in this sample, an inverse relation between dietary vitamin D and risk of cutaneous malignant melanoma may exist. PMID:21541899

  12. Ethical issues of prison nursing: A qualitative study in Northern Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sasso, Loredana; Delogu, Barbara; Carrozzino, Roberto; Aleo, Giuseppe; Bagnasco, Annamaria

    2018-05-01

    Prisons are contexts where nurses are required to have specific skills to ensure that, in a setting designed for the expiation of crime, prisoners receive the same type of care as anyone else. But this is not always the case, giving rise to ethical issues. 'How do correctional nurses describe their working experience in prisons? What issues emerged?' This is a qualitative descriptive study. Following purposive sampling, we conducted five focus groups. Thematic analysis was used to analyse the data. Participants and research context: Our sample included 31 correctional nurses in seven prisons in Northern Italy. Ethical considerations: The scientific merit of this study was recognized by the Academic Board of the University of Genoa. Approval to conduct the study was obtained from the Liguria Regional Government that funded this study and from the Local Health Authority that was the prison nurses' employer. Formal consent was obtained from all the nurses who volunteered to participate in this study. Five themes emerged from the focus groups: (1) prisoners' healthcare needs, (2) negotiation between custody and care, (3) satisfaction of working in prisons, (4) obstacles to quality care and (5) safety. 'Manipulation' was a transversal theme that emerged from all the focus groups. The problems generated by the clash between prison security and nursing care priorities did not enable nurses to practice autonomously and provide the best possible to care prisoners, giving rise to ethical issues and moral distress. This in turn causes high nursing turnover rates that negatively impact continuum of care. In Italy, correctional nurses urgently require specific education interventions with the participation of all those who work in prisons. Interventions based on the post-modern concept of restorative nursing could offer prison nurses the opportunity to both resolve ethical issues and reduce moral distress.

  13. Quick regional centroid moment tensor solutions for the Emilia 2012 (northern Italy seismic sequence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvia Pondrelli

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available In May 2012, a seismic sequence struck the Emilia region (northern Italy. The mainshock, of Ml 5.9, occurred on May 20, 2012, at 02:03 UTC. This was preceded by a smaller Ml 4.1 foreshock some hours before (23:13 UTC on May 19, 2012 and followed by more than 2,500 earthquakes in the magnitude range from Ml 0.7 to 5.2. In addition, on May 29, 2012, three further strong earthquakes occurred, all with magnitude Ml ≥5.2: a Ml 5.8 earthquake in the morning (07:00 UTC, followed by two events within just 5 min of each other, one at 10:55 UTC (Ml 5.3 and the second at 11:00 UTC (Ml 5.2. For all of the Ml ≥4.0 earthquakes in Italy and for all of the Ml ≥4.5 in the Mediterranean area, an automatic procedure for the computation of a regional centroid moment tensor (RCMT is triggered by an email alert. Within 1 h of the event, a manually revised quick RCMT (QRCMT can be published on the website if the solution is considered stable. In particular, for the Emilia seismic sequence, 13 QRCMTs were determined and for three of them, those with M >5.5, the automatically computed QRCMTs fitted the criteria for publication without manual revision. Using this seismic sequence as a test, we can then identify the magnitude threshold for automatic publication of our QRCMTs.

  14. Geographical and Cultivar Features Differentiate Grape Microbiota in Northern Italy and Spain Vineyards

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    Valerio Mezzasalma

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Recent studies have highlighted the role of the grapevine microbiome in addressing a wide panel of features, ranging from the signature of field origin to wine quality. Although the influence of cultivar and vineyard environmental conditions in shaping the grape microbiome have already been ascertained, several aspects related to this topic, deserve to be further investigated. In this study, we selected three international diffused grapevine cultivars (Cabernet Sauvignon, Syrah, and Sauvignon Blanc at three germplasm collections characterized by different climatic conditions [Northern Italy (NI, Italian Alps (AI, and Northern Spain (NS]. The soil and grape microbiome was characterized by 16s rRNA High Throughput Sequencing (HTS, and the obtained results showed that all grape samples shared some bacterial taxa, regardless of sampling locality (e.g., Bacillus, Methylobacterium, Sphingomonas, and other genera belonging to Alphaproteobacteria, Gammaproteobacteria, and Actinobacteria. However, some Operational Taxonomic Units (OTUs could act as geographical signatures and in some cases as cultivar fingerprint. Concerning the origin of the grape microbiome, our study confirms that vineyard soil represents a primary reservoir for grape associated bacteria with almost 60% of genera shared between the soil and grape. At each locality, grapevine cultivars shared a core of bacterial genera belonging to the vineyard soil, as well as from other local biodiversity elements such as arthropods inhabiting or foraging in the vineyard. Finally, a machine learning analysis showed that it was possible to predict the geographical origin and cultivar of grape starting from its microbiome composition with a high accuracy (9 cases out of 12 tested samples. Overall, these findings open new perspectives for the development of more comprehensive and integrated research activities to test which environmental variables have an effective role in shaping the microbiome

  15. Analgesic techniques in minor painful procedures in neonatal units: a survey in northern Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Codipietro, Luigi; Bailo, Elena; Nangeroni, Marco; Ponzone, Alberto; Grazia, Giuseppe

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this survey was to evaluate the current practice regarding pain assessment and pain management strategies adopted in commonly performed minor painful procedures in Northern Italian Neonatal Intensive Care Units (NICUs). A multicenter survey was conducted between 2008 and 2009 in 35 NICUs. The first part of the survey form covered pain assessment tools, the timing of analgesics, and the availability of written guidelines. A second section evaluated the analgesic strategies adopted in commonly performed painful procedures. The listed analgesic procedures were as follows: oral sweet solutions alone, non-nutritive sucking (NNS) alone, a combination of sweet solutions and NNS, breast-feeding where available, and topical anesthetics. Completed questionnaires were returned from 30 neonatal units (85.7% response rate). Ten of the 30 NICUs reported using pain assessment tools for minor invasive procedures. Neonatal Infant Pain Scale was the most frequently used pain scale (60%). Twenty neonatal units had written guidelines directing pain management practices. The most frequently used procedures were pacifiers alone (69%), followed by sweet-tasting solutions (58%). A 5% glucose solution was the most frequently utilized sweet-tasting solution (76.7%). A minority of NICUs (16.7%) administered 12% sucrose solutions for analgesia and the application of topical anesthetics was found in 27% of NICUs while breast-feeding was performed in 7% of NICUs. This study found a low adherence to national and international guidelines for analgesia in minor procedures: the underuse of neonatal pain scales (33%), sucrose solution administration before heel lance (23.3%), topical anesthetics before venipuncture, or other analgesic techniques. The presence of written pain control guidelines in these regions of Northern Italy increased in recent years (from 25% to 66%). © 2010 World Institute of Pain.

  16. Development and Control of Deep Seated Gravitational Slope Deformation: The Case of Colzate-Vertova Landslide, Bergamo, Northern Italy

    OpenAIRE

    Paola Comella; Vincenzo Francani; Paola Gattinoni

    2017-01-01

    This paper presents the Colzate-Vertova landslide, a Deep Seated Gravitational Slope Deformation (DSGSD) located in the Seriana Valley, Northern Italy. The paper aims at describing the development as well as evaluating the factors that influence the evolution of the landslide. After defining the conceptual model of the landslide, numerical simulations were developed using a finite element numerical model, first with a two-dimensional domain, and later with a three-dimensional one. The results...

  17. Who Are the Subjects with Gambling-Related Problems Requiring Treatment? A Study in Northern Italy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fioritti, Angelo; Marani, Silvia; Gambini, Daniele; Turino, Elsa; Piazza, Antonella

    2018-01-01

    Background: This study analyzes data related to Hospital (HOS), Public Treatment Service Dedicated to Drug Addicts (SERD), or Community Mental Health Center (CMHC) clients with a first diagnosis of Pathological Gambling (PG) in the period 2000/2016 in Northern Italy. The aims were to describe trends and characteristics of pathological gamblers (PGs) and to estimate the prevalence of other diagnoses before or after the diagnosis of PG. Methods: Participants aged over 17 years with an ICD-9 or ICD-10 PG diagnosis were selected. Results: 680 PGs were identified, mean age 47.4 years, 20% female, 13% non-natives, 30% had other mental disorders diagnoses, 9% had alcohol dependence syndrome, and 11% had drug dependence. Most participants with comorbid disorders were diagnosed before PG, with a more elevated prevalence regarding mental disorders. Almost seven years had elapsed on average between the first admission and the diagnosis of PG. Conclusions: The results of this study highlight a growing demand for PG treatment addressed not only to SERD, but also to psychiatric and hospital services, based on the increase in SERD attendance from 2013. Many of them had already been treated for mental health problems before, but their percentage remained costant over time. PMID:29652821

  18. Landfill aeration in the framework of a reclamation project in Northern Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raga, Roberto; Cossu, Raffaello

    2014-03-01

    In situ aeration by means of the Airflow technology was proposed for landfill conditioning before landfill mining in the framework of a reclamation project in Northern Italy. A 1-year aeration project was carried out on part of the landfill with the objective of evaluating the effectiveness of the Airflow technology for landfill aerobization, the evolution of waste biological stability during aeration and the effects on leachate and biogas quality and emissions. The main outcomes of the 1-year aeration project are presented in the paper. The beneficial effect of the aeration on waste biological stability was clear (63% reduction of the respiration index); however, the effectiveness of aeration on the lower part of the landfill is questionable, due to the limited potential for air migration into the leachate saturated layers. During the 1-year in situ aeration project approx. 275 MgC were discharged from the landfill body with the extracted gas, corresponding to 4.6 gC/kgDM. However, due to the presence of anaerobic niches in the aerated landfill, approx. 46% of this amount was extracted as CH4, which is higher than reported in other aeration projects. The O2 conversion quota was lower than reported in other similar projects, mainly due to the higher air flow rates applied. The results obtained enabled valuable recommendations to be made for the subsequent application of the Airflow technology to the whole landfill. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Mercury distribution in the main compartments of the eutrophic Lake Candia (Northern Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gian Maria BEONE

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Total mercury (T-Hg and organic mercury (mainly methylmercury, MeHg concentrations in the most important compartments (water, sediment, macrophytes, zooplankton, mussels and fish of the shallow and eutrophic Lake Candia (Turin, Northern Italy were measured. The decreasing sequence of the T-Hg concentrations is as follows: cat-fish (143 μg kg-1 d.w., zooplankton (77 μg kg-1 d.w., Unio pictorum mancus (37.9 μg kg-1 d.w., macrophytes (28.9 μg kg-1 d.w.. The content of mercury in mussel tissues increased with the size of the animal, but the relationship between Hg concentration and tissue weight was negative, indicating that the rate of mercury accumulation was lower than the tissue growth rate. The amount of mercury accumulated in the mussels living in the lake sediments was estimated to be 0.54 μg m-2. The importance of mercury biomagnification is also discussed.

  20. Efficiency Analysis of Independent and Centralized Heating Systems for Residential Buildings in Northern Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabio Rinaldi

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available The primary energy consumption in residential buildings is determined by the envelope thermal characteristics, air change, outside climatic data, users’ behaviour and the adopted heating system and its control. The new Italian regulations strongly suggest the installation of centralized boilers in renovated buildings with more than four apartments. This work aims to investigate the differences in primary energy consumption and efficiency among several independent and centralized heating systems installed in Northern Italy. The analysis is carried out through the following approach: firstly building heating loads are evaluated using the software TRNSYS® and, then, heating system performances are estimated through a simplified model based on the European Standard EN 15316. Several heating systems have been analyzed, evaluating: independent and centralized configurations, condensing and traditional boilers, radiator and radiant floor emitters and solar plant integration. The heating systems are applied to four buildings dating back to 2010, 2006, 1960s and 1930s. All the combinations of heating systems and buildings are analyzed in detail, evaluating efficiency and primary energy consumption. In most of the cases the choice between centralized and independent heating systems has minor effects on primary energy consumption, less than 3%: the introduction of condensing technology and the integration with solar heating plant can reduce energy consumption by 11% and 29%, respectively.

  1. Facies-related fracturing in turbidites: insights from the Marnoso-Arenacea Fm. (Northern Apennines, Italy)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogata, Kei; Storti, Fabrizio; Balsamo, Fabrizio; Bedogni, Enrico; Tinterri, Roberto; Fetter, Marcos; Gomes, Leonardo; Hatushika, Raphael

    2016-04-01

    Natural fractures deeply influence subsurface fluid flow, exerting a primary control on resources like aquifers, hydrocarbons and geothermal reservoirs, and on environmental issues like CO2 storage and nuclear waste disposal. In layered sedimentary rocks, depositional processes-imprinted rock rheology favours the development of both mechanical anisotropy and heterogeneity on a wide range of scales, and are thus expected to strongly influence location and frequency of fractures. To better constrain the contribution of stratigraphic, sedimentological and petrophysical attributes, we performed a high-resolution, multidisciplinary study on a selected stratigraphic interval of jointed foredeep turbidites in the Miocene Marnoso-arenacea Formation (Northern Apennines, Italy), which are characterised by a great lateral and vertical variability of grain-size and depositional structures. Statistical relationships among field and laboratory data significantly improve when the single facies scale is considered, and, for similar facies recording different evolutionary stages of the parent turbidity currents, we observed a direct correlation between the three-dimensional anisotropies of rock hardness tensors and the normalized fracture frequencies, testifying for the primary sedimentary flow-related control on fracture distributions.

  2. MACROPHYTE RICHNESS AND AQUATIC VEGETATION COMPLEXITY OF THE LAKE IDRO (NORTHERN ITALY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Bolpagni

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available A detailed survey was performed to examine the floristic richness and the structural complexity, spatial patterns and conservation value of aquatic plant communities within the littorals of Lake Idro (northern Italy. During the summers of 2010-2011 we proceeded to characterize aquatic macrophyte meadows applying standardized procedures using transects (44 and plots (49 arrayed perpendicular to the shoreline and randomly positioned within the vegetated belt, respectively. Lake Idro is characterized by rather high floristic richness (20 macrophytes but low levels of vegetation structural complexity (8 vegetation units. Nevertheless, a clear zonation of the littoral vegetation was identified with two main macro-layers: a deeper layer (between 6-10 m of depth dominated by Chara globularis and an upper one (from 6 m of depth to water-air atmosphere mainly colonized by alien elodeids (mainly Elodea nuttallii and Lagarosiphon major. For the first time a complete floristic-vegetation analysis of the Lake Idro was presented. Our data confirm the poor ecological status of the basin, even though the lacustrine vegetation can be considered of conservation concern. Further investigations are needed to improve present evaluations, especially with respect to the impact of eutrophication on macrophytic communities.

  3. Dietary investigation by trace element content in bones of ancient inhabitants of Northern Italy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Busetto, M.; Giordani, L.; Brandone, A.; Cattaneo, C.; Mazzucchi, A.

    2008-01-01

    Bone is an important mineral source for the entire organism especially for Ca, P, Na and trace elements like Sr, Mg, Zn and it is the reservoir for the storage and mobilization of many important ions required for the metabolic activity of the organism. The concentration of these elements are influenced by the individual diet and the content of some trace elements can be utilized as indicators of the diet of ancient populations. Bones from three differents archaeological sites found in Lombardy, Northern Italy, were investigated: (A) Roman necropolis found in Milan active from the 1st century B.C. to the 2nd century A.D; (B) Burial of the Longobard family found in Campione d'Italia (North of Lombardy) active between the 7th and 9th century A.D.; (C) Medieval necropolis of a Longobard community, found in a village near Cremona (SE of Lombardy) active in the 7th century A.D. Structures of bones and their trace element content seem to put in evidence on some differences in the way of life of the three investigated groups. (author)

  4. Characterization of an abandoned pastoral area in the Northern Apennines, Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Argenti G

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper reports the first results of an investigation carried out within the research project "Study and improvement of woods and shrubbery derived from abandoned agricultural areas" (RiSelvItalia Project. Changes occurred in the past 50 years in the pastoral area of S. Paolo in Alpe (Appennino Romagnolo, Northern Apennines, Italy were described on the grounds of photo-interpretation of three sets of aerial photos (1955, 1976, 1997. A high reduction of the surface of sowable lands and pastures (from 80% to 33% was pointed out, together with an increase of shrubbery (from 5% to 18% and woods (from 0 to 42%. The characterization of woods, shrubbery and pastures was performed through structural transects and phyto-sociological investigations. Thus it was possible to reconstruct the dynamic series of vegetation, from grasslands belonging to the association Centaureo bracteatae-Brometum erecti (Festuco-Brometea to woods referable to the association Aceri obtusati-quercetum cerridis (Querco-Fagetea. Investigations on meadows revealed also a good quality of pastures, not only in open grasslands (mean pastoral value - VP - of 30, but even in partially shrubby areas (VP 21. Some guidelines for a multi-purpose exploitation of the site are suggested, taking into account not only economic aspects, but also the conservation of environment and landscape.

  5. Impact of Climate Change on Combined Solar and Run-of-River Power in Northern Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Baptiste François

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Moving towards energy systems with high variable renewable energy shares requires a good understanding of the impacts of climate change on the energy penetration. To do so, most prior impact studies have considered climate projections available from Global Circulation Models (GCMs. Other studies apply sensitivity analyses on the climate variables that drive the system behavior to inform how much the system changes due to climate change. In the present work, we apply the Decision Scaling approach, a framework merging these two approaches, for analyzing a renewables-only scenario for the electric system of Northern Italy where the main renewable sources are solar and hydropower. Decision Scaling explores the system sensibility to a range of future plausible climate states. GCM projections are considered to estimate probabilities of the future climate states. We focus on the likely future energy mix within the region (25% of solar photovoltaic and 75% of hydropower. We also carry out a sensitivity analysis according to the storage capacity. The results show that run-of-the river power generation from this Alpine area is expected to increase although the average inflow decreases under climate change. They also show that the penetration rate is expected to increase for systems with storage capacity less than one month of average load and inversely for higher storage capacity.

  6. Who Are the Subjects with Gambling-Related Problems Requiring Treatment? A Study in Northern Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raimondo Maria Pavarin

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: This study analyzes data related to Hospital (HOS, Public Treatment Service Dedicated to Drug Addicts (SERD, or Community Mental Health Center (CMHC clients with a first diagnosis of Pathological Gambling (PG in the period 2000/2016 in Northern Italy. The aims were to describe trends and characteristics of pathological gamblers (PGs and to estimate the prevalence of other diagnoses before or after the diagnosis of PG. Methods: Participants aged over 17 years with an ICD-9 or ICD-10 PG diagnosis were selected. Results: 680 PGs were identified, mean age 47.4 years, 20% female, 13% non-natives, 30% had other mental disorders diagnoses, 9% had alcohol dependence syndrome, and 11% had drug dependence. Most participants with comorbid disorders were diagnosed before PG, with a more elevated prevalence regarding mental disorders. Almost seven years had elapsed on average between the first admission and the diagnosis of PG. Conclusions: The results of this study highlight a growing demand for PG treatment addressed not only to SERD, but also to psychiatric and hospital services, based on the increase in SERD attendance from 2013. Many of them had already been treated for mental health problems before, but their percentage remained costant over time.

  7. Sedimentary Record of Cladoceran Functionality under Eutrophication and Re-Oligotrophication in Lake Maggiore, Northern Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liisa Nevalainen

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available We examined fossil Cladocera (Crustacea communities and their functional assemblages in a ~60-year sediment record from Lake Maggiore, northern Italy. Our main objective was to document the response of aquatic community functioning to environmental stress during eutrophication (1960–1985 and recovery (post-1985, and to identify environmental controls on cladoceran functionality. Of the functional groups, large filter feeders and oval epibenthos thrived prior to eutrophication (reference conditions pre-1960 and globular epibenthos and small filter feeders increased during eutrophication and as the lake recovered. Multivariate analyses suggested that bottom-up controls (i.e., total phosphorus were important for shaping functional assemblages but taxonomic community changes were likely related to top-down control by predators, particularly the predaceous cladoceran Bythotrephes longimanus. Functional diversity (FD was higher and Daphnia ephippia length (DEL larger during the reference and early eutrophication periods and decreased during eutrophication and recovery. Both FD (high and DEL (large were distinct during reference period, but were similar (FD low, DEL small between the eutrophication and recovery periods. The functional attributes and the assemblages did not recover post-eutrophication, suggesting that the system exhibited a clear shift to low FD and dominance of small filterers. Cladoceran functionality appears to be related to fundamental ecosystem functions, such as productivity, and may thus provide insights for long-term changes in ecological resilience.

  8. Occupation and lung cancer in two industrialized areas of northern Italy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ronco, G.; Ciccone, G.; Mirabelli, D.; Troia, B.; Vineis, P.

    1988-03-15

    A population-based case-control study on lung cancer was conducted in 2 industrialized areas of northern Italy. Cases (126) were all males who died from lung cancer between 1976 and 1980. Controls (384) were a random sample of males dying from other causes during the same period. Jobs held during working life have been analyzed according to a list of occupations already known to be causally associated with lung cancer (list A) and a list of occupations suspected of being so (list B). Attributable risk percentages in the population for occupations included in either list A or B were about 36% and 12% in the 2 areas. Welders or workers in industries in which welding is common showed elevated odds ratios: 2.9 for welders (95% CI 0.9-9.8); 4.9 (1.1-22.9) for structural metal workers; 11.4 (2.6-49.9) for workers in structural metal production. Other job categories associated with lung cancer included: electricians and workers in electrical machine production, woodworkers (in furniture or cabinet making, but not in carpentry or joinery) and cleaning services. Smoking did not seem to exert a substantial confounding effect. Attributable risk percentages for tobacco smoking were about 78% and 76% in the population of the 2 areas.

  9. Occupation and lung cancer in two industrialized areas of northern Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ronco, G; Ciccone, G; Mirabelli, D; Troia, B; Vineis, P

    1988-03-15

    A population-based case-control study on lung cancer was conducted in 2 industrialized areas of northern Italy. Cases (126) were all males who died from lung cancer between 1976 and 1980. Controls (384) were a random sample of males dying from other causes during the same period. Jobs held during working life have been analyzed according to a list of occupations already known to be causally associated with lung cancer (list A) and a list of occupations suspected of being so (list B). Attributable risk percentages in the population for occupations included in either list A or B were about 36% and 12% in the 2 areas. Welders or workers in industries in which welding is common showed elevated odds ratios: 2.9 for welders (95% CI 0.9-9.8); 4.9 (1.1-22.9) for structural metal workers; 11.4 (2.6-49.9) for workers in structural metal production. Other job categories associated with lung cancer included: electricians and workers in electrical machine production, woodworkers (in furniture or cabinet making, but not in carpentry or joinery) and cleaning services. Smoking did not seem to exert a substantial confounding effect. Attributable risk percentages for tobacco smoking were about 78% and 76% in the population of the 2 areas.

  10. Slope Stability Analysis In Seismic Areas Of The Northern Apennines (Italy)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lo Presti, D.; Fontana, T.; Marchetti, D.

    2008-01-01

    Several research works have been published on the slope stability in the northern Tuscany (central Italy) and particularly in the seismic areas of Garfagnana and Lunigiana (Lucca and Massa-Carrara districts), aimed at analysing the slope stability under static and dynamic conditions and mapping the landslide hazard. In addition, in situ and laboratory investigations are available for the study area, thanks to the activities undertaken by the Tuscany Seismic Survey. Based on such a huge information the co-seismic stability of few ideal slope profiles have been analysed by means of Limit equilibrium method LEM - (pseudo-static) and Newmark sliding block analysis (pseudo-dynamic). The analysis--results gave indications about the most appropriate seismic coefficient to be used in pseudo-static analysis after establishing allowable permanent displacement. Such indications are commented in the light of the Italian and European prescriptions for seismic stability analysis with pseudo-static approach. The stability conditions, obtained from the previous analyses, could be used to define microzonation criteria for the study area

  11. Geological evidence of pre-2012 Emilia, Italy, seismic events

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caputo, Riccardo; Minarelli, Luca; Papathanassiou, Giorgos; Poli, Eliana M.; Rapti-Caputo, Dimitra; Sboras, Sotiris; Stefani, Marco; Zanferrari, Adriano

    2013-04-01

    In May 2012, two moderate (ML = 5.9 and 5.8) earthquakes, associated with a noticeable aftershock sequence, affected the eastern sector of the Po Plain, Italy. The causative faults are two segments of the Ferrara Arc thrust system representing the most frontal portion of the buried Northern Apennines fold-and-thrust belt. Few weeks after the earthquake, a palaeoseismological trench was excavated south of the San Carlo village (western Ferrara Province), where a system of aligned ground ruptures were observed. In the trench walls we observed several features documenting the occurrence of past liquefaction events affecting the same site. For example, i) 10 cm-thick dikes filled with injected sand and associated with vertical displacements have no correspondence with the fractures mapped at the surface before the excavation; ii) some thick dikes are arrested below the ploughed level or even by older sedimentary layers; iii) along the internal slope of the palaeo-channel exposed by the trench, load structures and slided blocks are observed; iv) in correspondence with the ground fractures characterised by vertical displacement and opening occurred during the 2012 earthquake and thick dikes, observed at the surface and in the trench's walls, respectively, sand and water ejection did not occur. In conclusion, the results of the palaeoseismological investigation document for the first time that shacking (i.e. seismic) events occurred in the past producing a sufficient ground motion capable of triggering liquefaction phenomena prior to, but likely stronger than, the May 2012 earthquake. A likely candidate is the November 17, 1570 Ferrara earthquake.

  12. Assessment of lifestyle and eating habits among undergraduate students in northern Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lupi, Silvia; Bagordo, Francesco; Stefanati, Armando; Grassi, Tiziana; Piccinni, Lucia; Bergamini, Mauro; De Donno, Antonella

    2015-01-01

    Dietary habits of university students were analyzed in order to investigate any differences between students living at and away from home. Two hundred and fifty-eight undergraduate students attending University of Ferrara completed a self-administered questionnaire on demographic characteristics, food frequency consumption habits and body weight perception. Students living at home practiced more sport and consumed more frequently raw and cooked vegetables, fish, meat and poultry, fresh fruit, eggs, bread/cereals. Conversely, students living away from home consumed more often packaged/ready food, beer and spirits, milk and chips. The majority of students living alone reported a modification of dietary habits since leaving family. Furthermore they perceived to have a weight condition different from normal in a greater extent than students living with family. Students living alone encountered more difficulties in adopting a healthy diet so it would be desirable to adopt nutritional educational interventions on university students, usually neglected by these measures.

  13. Th, U, REE Backgrounds and Phytoavailability in Soils of the Padanian Plain (Northern Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dario Di Giuseppe

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available In this contribution we present ICP-MS analyses carried out on agricultural soils from the eastern-most part of the Padanian plain (Ferrara Province and on the related crop products. The aim is to provide, for the first time, backgrounds for some trace elements such as rare earth elements (REE, thorium (Th, uranium (U and to understand the related phytoavailability. In particular, detailed analyses have been done on Sorghum Vulgare plants, analyzing distinct plant parts in different vegetative periods. Results indicate that a REE concentration in plant tissues is always lower than in the related soils, precluding the occurrence of bioaccumulation and b no preferential elemental uptake and REE fractionation. In this light, the observed soil/plant relationships could be used in the definition of markers of territoriality (provenance fingerprint for agricultural products.

  14. West Nile Virus Surveillance in 2013 via Mosquito Screening in Northern Italy and the Influence of Weather on Virus Circulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calzolari, Mattia; Pautasso, Alessandra; Montarsi, Fabrizio; Albieri, Alessandro; Bellini, Romeo; Bonilauri, Paolo; Defilippo, Francesco; Lelli, Davide; Moreno, Ana; Chiari, Mario; Tamba, Marco; Zanoni, Mariagrazia; Varisco, Giorgio; Bertolini, Silvia; Modesto, Paola; Radaelli, Maria Cristina; Iulini, Barbara; Prearo, Marino; Ravagnan, Silvia; Cazzin, Stefania; Mulatti, Paolo; Monne, Isabella; Bonfanti, Lebana; Marangon, Stefano; Goffredo, Maria; Savini, Giovanni; Martini, Simone; Mosca, Andrea; Farioli, Marco; Gemma Brenzoni, Laura; Palei, Manlio; Russo, Francesca; Natalini, Silvano; Angelini, Paola; Casalone, Cristina; Dottori, Michele; Capelli, Gioia

    2015-01-01

    West Nile virus (WNV) is a recently re-emerged health problem in Europe. In Italy, an increasing number of outbreaks of West Nile disease, with occurrences of human cases, have been reported since 2008. This is particularly true in northern Italy, where entomological surveillance systems have been implemented at a regional level. The aim of this study was to use, for the first time, all the entomological data collected in the five regions undergoing surveillance for WNV in northern Italy to characterize the viral circulation (at a spatial and temporal scale), identify potential mosquito vectors, and specify relationships between virus circulation and meteorological conditions. In 2013, 286 sites covering the entire Pianura Padana area were monitored. A total of 757,461 mosquitoes were sampled. Of these, 562,079 were tested by real-time PCR in 9,268 pools, of which 180 (1.9%) were positive for WNV. The largest part of the detected WNV sequences belonged to lineage II, demonstrating that, unlike those in the past, the 2013 outbreak was mainly sustained by this WNV lineage. This surveillance also detected the Usutu virus, a WNV-related flavivirus, in 241 (2.6%) pools. The WNV surveillance systems precisely identified the area affected by the virus and detected the viral circulation approximately two weeks before the occurrence of onset of human cases. Ninety percent of the sampled mosquitoes were Culex pipiens, and 178/180 WNV-positive pools were composed of only this species, suggesting this mosquito is the main WNV vector in northern Italy. A significantly higher abundance of the vector was recorded in the WNV circulation area, which was characterized by warmer and less rainy conditions and greater evapotranspiration compared to the rest of the Pianura Padana, suggesting that areas exposed to these conditions are more suitable for WNV circulation. This observation highlights warmer and less rainy conditions as factors able to enhance WNV circulation and cause virus

  15. Environmental changes in the central Po Plain (northern Italy) due to fluvial modifications and anthropogenic activities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marchetti, Mauro

    2002-05-01

    The fluvial environment of the central Po Plain, the largest plain in Italy, is discussed in this paper. Bounded by the mountain chains of the Alps and the Apennines, this plain is a link between the Mediterranean environment and the cultural and continental influences of both western and eastern Europe. In the past decades, economic development has been responsible for many changes in the fluvial environment of the area. This paper discusses the changes in fluvial dynamics that started from Late Pleistocene and Early Holocene due to distinct climatic changes. The discussion is based on geomorphological, pedological, and archaeological evidences and radiocarbon dating. In the northern foothills, Late Pleistocene palaeochannels indicate several cases of underfit streams among the northern tributaries of the River Po. On the other hand, on the southern side of the Po Plain, no geomorphological evidence of similar discharge reduction has been found. Here, stratigraphic sections, together with archaeological remains buried under the fluvial deposits, show a reduction in the size of fluvial sediments after the 10th millennium BC. During the Holocene, fluvial sedimentation became finer, and was characterised by minor fluctuations in the rate of deposition, probably related to short and less intense climatic fluctuations. Given the high rate of population growth and the development of human activities since the Neolithic Age, human influence on fluvial dynamics, especially since the Roman Age, prevailed over other factors (i.e., climate, tectonics, vegetation, etc.). During the Holocene, the most important changes in the Po Plain were not modifications in water discharge but in sediment. From the 1st to 3rd Century AD, land grants to war veterans caused almost complete deforestation, generalised soil erosion, and maximum progradation of the River Po delta. At present, land abandonment in the mountainous region has led to reafforestation. Artificial channel control in the

  16. Sperm quality and environment: A retrospective, cohort study in a Northern province of Italy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Santi, Daniele; Vezzani, Silvia; Granata, Antonio RM; Roli, Laura; De Santis, Maria Cristina; Ongaro, Chiara; Donati, Federica; Baraldi, Enrica; Trenti, Tommaso; Setti, Monica; Simoni, Manuela

    2016-01-01

    Background: Several studies proposed a relationship between environmental factors and semen quality, as well as the negative effect of air pollution on spermatogenesis and gonadal function. No specific studies evaluated the environmental influence on semen quality in a specific geographical area. Aim: to evaluate the environmental influence on male sperm parameters in a Northern Italian population referred for semen analysis in the National Health System. The objective of the study is the assessment of the relationship of both air pollution and environmental parameters with quality-related sperm variables, during the coldest months of the year when air is usually most polluted, due to low ventilation and poor rainfall. Study design: A retrospective, observational, cohort study was carried out in the province of Modena, located in the Emilia-Romagna region of Northern Italy. Methods: Semen analyses (n=406), environmental temperature, air humidity and air particulate matter (PM) measurements from the 1st of November 2014 to the 19th of February 2015 were acquired to the first database. Since spermatogenesis lasts over two months, a second, wider database was arranged, evaluating environmental exposure in the 3 months before semen collection (from August 1st 2014). All data included in the database were registered by geo-coding the residential address of the patients and the site of registration of environmental factors. The geo-codification of parameters was performed using Fusion Tables of Google available at (https://www.google.com/fusiontables/data? dsrcid=implicit), considering the exact time of measurement. Results: Average air temperature was inversely related to sperm concentration and to total sperm number (p<0.001). Semen volume was inversely related only to the minimum (p<0.001) and not to maximum recorded temperature (p=0.110). Air humidity was not related to sperm quantity and quality. PM 2.5 was directly related to total sperm number (p<0.001). PM 10 was

  17. Sperm quality and environment: A retrospective, cohort study in a Northern province of Italy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Santi, Daniele, E-mail: santi.daniele@gmail.com [Unit of Endocrinology, Department of Biomedical, Metabolic and Neural Sciences, University of Modena and Reggio Emilia (Italy); Department of Medicine, Endocrinology, Metabolism and Geriatrics (Italy); Vezzani, Silvia [Unit of Endocrinology, Department of Biomedical, Metabolic and Neural Sciences, University of Modena and Reggio Emilia (Italy); Department of Medicine, Endocrinology, Metabolism and Geriatrics (Italy); Granata, Antonio RM [Unit of Endocrinology, Department of Biomedical, Metabolic and Neural Sciences, University of Modena and Reggio Emilia (Italy); Roli, Laura; De Santis, Maria Cristina [Department of Laboratory Medicine and Pathological Anatomy (Italy); Ongaro, Chiara; Donati, Federica [Unit of Endocrinology, Department of Biomedical, Metabolic and Neural Sciences, University of Modena and Reggio Emilia (Italy); Baraldi, Enrica; Trenti, Tommaso [Department of Laboratory Medicine and Pathological Anatomy (Italy); Setti, Monica [Service of Clinical Engineering, Azienda USL of Modena (Italy); Simoni, Manuela [Unit of Endocrinology, Department of Biomedical, Metabolic and Neural Sciences, University of Modena and Reggio Emilia (Italy); Department of Medicine, Endocrinology, Metabolism and Geriatrics (Italy); Center for Genomic Research, University of Modena and Reggio Emilia (Italy)

    2016-10-15

    Background: Several studies proposed a relationship between environmental factors and semen quality, as well as the negative effect of air pollution on spermatogenesis and gonadal function. No specific studies evaluated the environmental influence on semen quality in a specific geographical area. Aim: to evaluate the environmental influence on male sperm parameters in a Northern Italian population referred for semen analysis in the National Health System. The objective of the study is the assessment of the relationship of both air pollution and environmental parameters with quality-related sperm variables, during the coldest months of the year when air is usually most polluted, due to low ventilation and poor rainfall. Study design: A retrospective, observational, cohort study was carried out in the province of Modena, located in the Emilia-Romagna region of Northern Italy. Methods: Semen analyses (n=406), environmental temperature, air humidity and air particulate matter (PM) measurements from the 1st of November 2014 to the 19th of February 2015 were acquired to the first database. Since spermatogenesis lasts over two months, a second, wider database was arranged, evaluating environmental exposure in the 3 months before semen collection (from August 1st 2014). All data included in the database were registered by geo-coding the residential address of the patients and the site of registration of environmental factors. The geo-codification of parameters was performed using Fusion Tables of Google available at (https://www.google.com/fusiontables/data? dsrcid=implicit), considering the exact time of measurement. Results: Average air temperature was inversely related to sperm concentration and to total sperm number (p<0.001). Semen volume was inversely related only to the minimum (p<0.001) and not to maximum recorded temperature (p=0.110). Air humidity was not related to sperm quantity and quality. PM{sub 2.5} was directly related to total sperm number (p<0.001). PM

  18. Anomalous fluid emission of a deep borehole in a seismically active area of Northern Apennines (Italy)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heinicke, J.; Italiano, F.; Koch, U.; Martinelli, G.; Telesca, L.

    2010-01-01

    The Miano borehole, 1047 m deep, is located close to the river Parma in the Northern Apennines, Italy. A measuring station has been installed to observe the discharge of fluids continuously since November 2004. The upwelling fluid of this artesian well is a mixture of thermal water and CH 4 as main components. In non-seismogenic areas, a relatively constant fluid emission would be expected, perhaps overlaid with long term variations from that kind of deep reservoir over time. However, the continuous record of the fluid emission, in particular the water discharge, the gas flow rate and the water temperature, show periods of stable values interrupted by anomalous periods of fluctuations in the recorded parameters. The anomalous variations of these parameters are of low amplitude in comparison to the total values but significant in their long-term trend. Meteorological effects due to rain and barometric pressure were not detected in recorded data probably due to reservoir depth and relatively high reservoir overpressure. Influences due to the ambient temperature after the discharge were evaluated by statistical analysis. Our results suggest that recorded changes in fluid emission parameters can be interpreted as a mixing process of different fluid components at depth by variations in pore pressure as a result of seismogenic stress variation. Local seismicity was analyzed in comparison to the fluid physico-chemical data. The analysis supports the idea that an influence on fluid transport conditions due to geodynamic processes exists. Water temperature data show frequent anomalies probably connected with possible precursory phenomena of local seismic events.

  19. Reducing time delays in the management of ischemic stroke patients in Northern Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vidale, Simone; Arnaboldi, Marco; Bezzi, Giacomo; Bono, Giorgio; Grampa, Giampiero; Guidotti, Mario; Perrone, Patrizia; Salmaggi, Andrea; Zarcone, Davide; Zoli, Alberto; Agostoni, Elio

    2016-07-15

    Thrombolysis represents the best therapy for ischemic stroke but the main limitation of its administration is time. The avoidable delay is a concept reflecting the effectiveness of management pathway. For this reason, we projected a study concerning the detection of main delays with following introduction of corrective factors. In this paper we describe the results after these corrections. Consecutive patients admitted for ischemic stroke during a 3-months period to 35 hospitals of a macro-area of Northern Italy were enrolled. Each time of management was registered, identifying three main intervals: pre-hospital, in-hospital and total times. Previous corrective interventions were: 1.increasing of population awareness to use the Emergency Medical Service (EMS); 2.pre-notification of Emergency Department; 3.use of high urgency codes; 4.use of standardised operational algorithm. Statistical analysis was conducted using time-to-event analysis and Cox proportional hazard regression. 1084 patients were enrolled. EMS was alerted for 56.3% of subjects, mainly in females and severe strokes (ptimes were 113 and 105min, while total time was 240. High urgency codes at transport contributed to reduce pre-hospital and in-hospital time (p<0.05). EMS use and high urgency codes promoted thrombolysis. Treatment within 4.5hours from symptom onset was performed in 14% of patients more than the first phase of study. The implementation of an organizational system based on EMS and concomitant high urgency codes use was effective to reduce avoidable delay and to increase thrombolysis. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Simulation supported scenario analysis for water resources planning: a case study in northern italy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Facchi, A.; Gandolfi, C.; Ortuani, B.; Maggi, D.

    2003-04-01

    The work presents the results of a comprehensive modelling study of surface and groundwater systems, including the interaction between irrigation and groundwater resources, for the Muzza-Bassa Lodigiana irrigation district, placed in the southern part of the densely-settled Lombardia plain (northern Italy). The area, of approximately 700 km2, has been selected as: a) it is representative of agricultural and irrigation practices in a wide portion of the plain of Lombardia; b) it has well defined hydrogeological borders, represented by the Adda, Po, and Lambro rivers (respectively East, South and West) and by the Muzza canal (North). The objective of the study is to assess the impact of land use and irrigation water availability on the distribution of crop water consumption in space and time, as well as on the groundwater resources in this wide portion of the Lombardia plain. To achieve this goal, a number of realistic management scenarios, currently under discussion with the regional water authority, have been taken into account. A standard 'base case' has been defined to allow comparative analysis of the results of different scenarios. To carry out the research, an integrated, distributed, catchment-scale simulation package, already developed and applied to the study area, has been used. The simulation system is based on the integration of two hydrological models - a conceptual vadose zone model and the groundwater model MODFLOW. An interface performs the explicit coupling in space and time between the two models. A GIS manages all the information relevant to the study area, as well as all the input, the spatially distributed parameters and the output of the system. The simulation package has been verified for the years 1999-2000 using land use derived from remote-sensed images, reported water availability for irrigation, observed water stage in rivers as well as groundwater level in the alluvial aquifer system.

  1. A coupled distributed hydrological-stability analysis on a terraced slope of Valtellina (northern Italy)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camera, C.; Apuani, T.; Masetti, M.

    2013-02-01

    The aim of this work was to understand and reproduce the hydrological dynamics of a slope, which was terraced using dry-stone retaining walls and its response to these processes in terms of stability at the slope scale. The slope studied is located in Valtellina (northern Italy), near the village of Tresenda, and in the last 30 yr has experienced several soil slip/debris flow events. In 1983 alone, such events caused the death of 18 people. Direct observation of the events of 1983 enabled the principal triggering cause of these events to be recognized in the formation of an overpressure at the base of a dry-stone wall, which caused its failure. To perform the analyses it is necessary to include the presence of dry-stone walls, considering the importance they have in influencing hydrological and geotechnical processes at the slope scale. This requires a very high resolution DEM (1 m × 1 m because the walls are from 0.60 m to 1.0 m wide) that has been appositely derived. A hydrogeological raster-based model, which takes into account both the unsaturated and saturated flux components, was applied. This was able to identify preferential infiltration zones and was rather precise in the prediction of maximum groundwater levels, providing valid input for the distributed stability analysis. Results of the hydrogeological model were used for the successive stability analysis. Sections of terrace were identified from the downslope base of a retaining wall to the top of the next downslope retaining wall. Within each section a global method of equilibrium was applied to determine its safety factor. The stability model showed a general tendency to overestimate the amount of unstable areas. An investigation of the causes of this unexpected behavior was, therefore, also performed in order to progressively improve the reliability of the model.

  2. Online participation in climate change adaptation: A case study of agricultural adaptation measures in Northern Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bojovic, Dragana; Bonzanigo, Laura; Giupponi, Carlo; Maziotis, Alexandros

    2015-07-01

    The new EU strategy on adaptation to climate change suggests flexible and participatory approaches. Face-to-face contact, although it involves time-consuming procedures with a limited audience, has often been considered the most effective participatory approach. In recent years, however, there has been an increase in the visibility of different citizens' initiatives in the online world, which strengthens the possibility of greater citizen agency. This paper investigates whether the Internet can ensure efficient public participation with meaningful engagement in climate change adaptation. In elucidating issues regarding climate change adaptation, we developed an eParticipation framework to explore adaptation capacity of agriculture to climate change in Northern Italy. Farmers were mobilised using a pre-existing online network. First they took part in an online questionnaire for revealing their perceptions of and reactions to the impacts of ongoing changes in agriculture. We used these results to suggest a portfolio of policy measures and to set evaluation criteria. Farmers then evaluated these policy options, using a multi criteria analysis tool with a simple user-friendly interface. Our results showed that eParticipation is efficient: it supports a rapid data collection, while involving high number of participants. Moreover, we demonstrated that the digital divide is decreasingly an obstacle for using online spaces for public engagement. This research does not present eParticipation as a panacea. Rather, eParticipation was implemented with well-established participatory approaches to both validate the results and, consequently, communicate meaningful messages on local agricultural adaptation practices to regional decision-makers. Feedbacks from the regional decision-makers showed their interest in using eParticipation to improve communication with farmers in the future. We expect that, with further Internet proliferation, eParticipation may allow the inclusion of

  3. Dynamics and conceptual model of the Rossena castle landslide (Northern Apennines, Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Chelli

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available In the Northern Apennines there are many historical villages and castles, which are of great value and represent a cultural heritage of great importance. Their presence within a territory greatly affected by landslide hazards creates, in many circumstances, the need to solve problems of land management and to act for the preservation of historical monuments. This paper describe an interesting landslide, failed during the night of 28 February 2004, that involved the village of Rossena: the failure damaged the village (Fig. 1, the road and the fields down to the stream but, fortunately, the castle just upslope the village was not involved at all. The 10th century massive castle of Rossena stands on the top of a cliff at about 500 m a.s.l., on the border between the provinces of Parma and Reggio Emilia, and it is surrounded by a small ancient village. The castle of Rossena is the best preserved stronghold of the Longobard times, enlarged and reinforced in the tenth century and partially rebuilt by Bonifacio, the father of Matilda of Canossa (the Vice-Queen of Italy and probably the most important woman in the Middle Ages as a defensive structure guarding the Enza Valley. In addition, at Conossa, very close to Rossena, there was the meeting between Pope Gregory VII and the Emperor of Germany Henry IV, during the historical event known as 'fight for the investitures'. For these reasons, the area of Rossena is one of the most relevant from a historical point of view in the entire western part of the Emilia Romagna Region and it also has a high value as a geosite (Coratza et al., 2004.  

  4. A case-control study of diet and gastric cancer in northern Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    La Vecchia, C; Negri, E; Decarli, A; D'Avanzo, B; Franceschi, S

    1987-10-15

    Dietary factors in the aetiology of stomach cancer were investigated using data from a case-control study conducted in Northern Italy on 206 histologically confirmed carcinomas and 474 control subjects in hospital for acute, non-digestive conditions, unrelated to any of the potential risk factors for gastric cancer. Dietary histories concerned the frequency of consumption per week of 29 selected food items (including the major sources of starches, proteins, fats, fibres, vitamins A and C, nitrates and nitrites in the Italian diet) and subjective scores for condiments and salt intake. Pasta and rice (the major sources of starch), polenta (a porridge made of maize) and ham were positively related with gastric cancer risk, whereas green vegetables and fresh fruit as a whole (and specifically citrus fruit) and selected fibre-rich aliments (such as whole-grain bread or pasta) showed protective effects on gastric cancer risk. Allowance for major identified potential distorting factors (chiefly indicators of socio-economic status) reduced the positive association with pasta or rice consumption, but did not appreciably modify any of the other risk estimates. When a single logistic model was fitted including all food items significant in univariate analysis, the 3 items remaining statistically significant were green vegetables (relative risk, RR = 0.27 for upper vs. lower tertile), polenta (RR = 2.32) and ham (RR = 1.60). Indices of beta-carotene and ascorbate intake were negatively and strongly related with gastric cancer risk, but the association with these micronutrients was no longer evident after simultaneous allowance for various food items. An approximately 7-fold difference in risk was found between extreme quintiles of a scale measuring major positive and negative associations.

  5. Dynamics and conceptual model of the Rossena castle landslide (Northern Apennines, Italy)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chelli, A.; Mandrone, G.; Ruffini, A.; Truffelli, G.

    2005-11-01

    In the Northern Apennines there are many historical villages and castles, which are of great value and represent a cultural heritage of great importance. Their presence within a territory greatly affected by landslide hazards creates, in many circumstances, the need to solve problems of land management and to act for the preservation of historical monuments. This paper describe an interesting landslide, failed during the night of 28 February 2004, that involved the village of Rossena: the failure damaged the village (Fig. 1), the road and the fields down to the stream but, fortunately, the castle just upslope the village was not involved at all. The 10th century massive castle of Rossena stands on the top of a cliff at about 500 m a.s.l., on the border between the provinces of Parma and Reggio Emilia, and it is surrounded by a small ancient village. The castle of Rossena is the best preserved stronghold of the Longobard times, enlarged and reinforced in the tenth century and partially rebuilt by Bonifacio, the father of Matilda of Canossa (the Vice-Queen of Italy and probably the most important woman in the Middle Ages) as a defensive structure guarding the Enza Valley. In addition, at Conossa, very close to Rossena, there was the meeting between Pope Gregory VII and the Emperor of Germany Henry IV, during the historical event known as "fight for the investitures". For these reasons, the area of Rossena is one of the most relevant from a historical point of view in the entire western part of the Emilia Romagna Region and it also has a high value as a geosite (Coratza et al., 2004).

  6. Social vulnerability in the flood-prone anthropogenic landscape of Northern Italy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roder, Giulia; Sofia, Giulia; Wu, Zhifeng; Tarolli, Paolo

    2017-04-01

    The practices for reducing the impacts of floods are becoming more and more advanced, centred to the communities and reached out to vulnerable populations. Vulnerable individuals are characterised by different social and economic attributes that can alter their capacity to cope with disaster events. The Social Vulnerability Index (Cutter et al. 2003) provides an empirical basis to compare social variances in different spatial scenarios and environmental threats. This methodology has been readjusted to the flood-prone anthropogenic landscape of Northern Italy adapted to the societal and historical construction of this area. In fact, the fifteen census variables used have been contextualised by examining the economic crisis, the modification of the labour force, the gendered life expectancy, the immigration among much more. At a general consideration, the unstable economic status, the population growth, age, and ethnicity are the major social attributes affecting the residents of the floodplain. The cluster analysis performed by the calculation of univariate LISA ratifies the spatial distribution of the index (Moran's I of 0.39 showing a positive correlation) finding the main high-high clusters in the Western and the outlet of the Po River basin. This basin includes one-third of the Italian population and this anthropogenic footprint has consistently modified the basin natural and geological environment (Carminati and Martinelli 2002) to the point that the hydraulic system will be dramatically altered in the future (Dankers and Feyen 2008). The spatial identification and the inclusion of vulnerable people into the risk management planning process have been widely discussed in the Sendai Framework for Disaster Risk Reduction. For this reason, we analysed the flood risk resulting from the combination of high vulnerable areas with the highest flood hazard scenario. The hazard map, finalised in May 2015, has been provided by ISPRA Institute with a three-class flood

  7. Prevalence of Chlamydia trachomatis and Neisseria gonorrhoeae infection in adolescents in Northern Italy: an observational school-based study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alberto Matteelli

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background We carried out a study to evaluate the prevalence of Chlamydia trachomatis and Neisseria gonorrhoeae genital infections in school-based adolescents in Northern Italy. Methods Systematic screening for C. trachomatis and N. gonorrhoeae genital infection was performed in 13th grade students in the province of Brescia, an industrialized area in Northern Italy. Student filled in a questionnaire on sexual behaviour and provided a urine sample for microbiological testing. Results A total of 2,718 students (mean age: 18.4 years; 59.1 % females provided complete data (62.2 % of those eligible. Overall 2,059 students (75.8 % were sexually active (i.e. had had at least one partner, and the mean age at sexual debut was 16.1 years (SD: 1.4. Only 27.5 % of the sexually active students reported regular condom use during the previous 6 months, with higher frequency in males than in females (33.8 % vs 24.2 %. No case of N. gonorrhoeae infection was detected, while C. trachomatis was found in 36 adolescents, with a prevalence of 1.7 % (95 % CI: 1.2–2.4 among sexually active students, and no statistical difference between females and males (1.9 and 1.4 %, respectively. Inconsistent condom use (odds ratio, OR = 5.5 and having had more than one sexual partner during the previous 6 months (OR = 6.8 were associated with an increased risk of Chlamydia infection at multivariate analysis. Conclusion The prevalence of C. trachomatis infection among sexually active adolescents in Northern Italy was low, despite a high proportion of students who engage in risky sexual behaviour. No cases of N. gonorrhoeae infection were identified.

  8. [Human Papilloma Virus (HPV), cervical cancer incidence and screening uptake: differences among Northern, Central and Southern Italy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giorgi Rossi, Paolo; Chini, Francesco; Borgia, Piero; Guasticchi, Gabriella; Carozzi, Francesca Maria; Confortini, Massimo; Angeloni, Claudio; Buzzoni, Carlotta; Buonaguro, Franco Maria

    2012-01-01

    this article presents a review of evidences about Human Papillomavirus (HPV) and cervical cancer in Italy, highlighting geographical differences. two systematic reviews recently published were updated, one collecting studies on the prevalence of HPV types in Italy in the general population and the other collecting prevalence of HPV types in cervical pathologic samples.The search was updated to 31.10.2010 and performed exclusively in MedLine and references in retrieved papers. the prevalence of HPV types has been related with the incidence of cervical cancer and the spread of Pap tests and screening programs. the prevalence high risk HPV types is 8%in studies with population-based random sample, with no significant difference between Centre-North and South-Islands, however, the prevalence is slightly higher in the South than the Centre-North for women up to 54 years of age, whereas in older women the ratio is reversed. HPV 16 is the most common type, while HPV 18 is less frequent, 5% and 1% respectively. The average of HPV 16 positivity is 64% and 68% in CIN2/3 and invasive cancer respectively, while the average of HPV 18 is 7% and 11% in CIN2/3 and invasive cancer respectively. There are no significant differences by geographical area.The incidence of invasive cervical cancer in Italy has been decreasing in recent years changing from 9.2 to 7.7 per 100,000 inhabitants in 10 years. The incidence is lower in South-Islands. Pap test coverage is over 80% in Centre-North and less than 60%in South-Islands. cervical cancer incidence is lower in Southern Italy, while the Pap test coverage is much higher in Centre-Northern Italy. This paradox, until now, has been interpreted as a consequence of a lower HPV prevalence in Southern than Northern regions. Recent studies on HPV prevalence do not confirm this hypothesis. Our interpretation is that in Southern Italy we are facing an epidemiologic scenario in transition where the low cancer incidence is the consequence of a low HPV

  9. Adolescents in southern regions of Italy adhere to the Mediterranean diet more than those in the northern regions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noale, Marianna; Nardi, Mariateresa; Limongi, Federica; Siviero, Paola; Caregaro, Lorenza; Crepaldi, Gaetano; Maggi, Stefania

    2014-09-01

    There is a large amount of literature regarding the benefits of the Mediterranean diet in the adult population; however, there is growing curiosity about the individuals who naturally adhere to those principles early in life. The "Evaluation of Dietary Habits in Adolescents," carried out by the National Research Council of Italy in 2009, is a survey that aimed to assess the dietary habits and lifestyles of Italian adolescents and their adherence to the Mediterranean diet. We hypothesized that there would be differences across regions, with a higher adherence in Southern Italy compared with Northern Italy based on geography. The survey was conducted in 3 different geographic locations in Italy and included a convenience sample of adolescents who attended either a middle or high school. The participants were asked to fill out a questionnaire concerning demographic data, lifestyle factors, and eating patterns, and scores were assigned according to adherence to the Mediterranean diet, as calculated using Trichopoulou's Mediterranean diet scale. The final sample included 565 adolescents, between 12 and 19 years old, who attended school in the northeastern, northwestern, or southern regions of Italy in 2009. According to the findings, 38.6% of the respondents had scores indicating a low adherence to the Mediterranean diet, whereas only 14% had scores showing a high adherence. Teenagers from the Southern region showed the highest adherence. Those with a high adherence to the Mediterranean diet consumed higher quantities of fiber, iron, vitamin B6, vitamin C, folic acid, vitamin A, vitamin D, and monounsaturated fats. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Medieval Architectures for Religious Tourism and Hospitality along the Pilgrimage Routes of Northern Italy

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    Silvia Beltramo

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Sacred spaces are, and have always been, places of reception: hospitality is in fact a precept of God. Many biblical passages remind us of this, such as the one (Gen 18, 4-5 in which Abraham welcomes three guests, washes their feet and offers them a piece of bread and a place to rest under a tree. Saint Benedict too, in chapter 53 of the Rule, insisted on the need to honour pilgrims and travellers, who should be welcomed with a charitable service ready for devotion and stated that all guests who entered the monastery should be received as if they were Christ, washing their hands and feet. The reception of travellers, the sick, and pilgrims in religious centres in the Middle Ages has been one of the cornerstones of the life of many monastic and convent communities scattered throughout the territory. The growing number of domus hospitals and xenodochii, recorded from the early centuries of the Middle Ages until the 15th century, demonstrates the need for them and their widespread dissemination in Italy and Europe. It seems to be possible to identify some phases of this development linked to the different monastic and convent orders that dedicated themselves to relieving the suffering of travellers and the sick. An initial significant presence along the road axes was followed by a subsequent phase of settlement in the major urban centres. Each community had its rules which also influenced the choice of where the sites were positioned, the buildings in which to receive pilgrims and the architectural typologies, often clearly designed to identify the place immediately. The research findings presented here derive from research aimed at identifying religious hospitality architectures through a study of the documentary sources and an analysis of the buildings still preserved in the territory of Northern Italy. In particular, the analysis of the main cases linked to monastic hospitality, such as the Sacra di San Michele – the centre of worship of

  11. A foetal tile from an archaeological site: anthropological investigation of human remains recovered in a medieval cemetery in Northern Italy.

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    Licata, Marta; Rossetti, Chiara; Tosi, Adelaide; Badino, Paola

    2018-06-01

    The recovery of foetal remains is very sporadic in archaeology, especially due the scarce degree of bone mineralisation. This paper presents the singular archaeological discovery of a foetal tile preserving the bone remains, object of our anthropological examination. The foetal tile was discovered during an archaeological excavation in a medieval site (Northern Italy). The tile was analysed by CT scan and later, human remains were anthropologically examined. The archaeological investigation revealed a special ritual destined to foetuses while forensic anthropological analysis allowed estimating the gestational age near to 21-24 weeks.

  12. Assessment of lifestyle and eating habits among undergraduate students in northern Italy

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    Silvia Lupi

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available AIM AND METHODOLOGY: Dietary habits of university students were analyzed in order to investigate any differences between students living at and away from home. Two hundred and fifty-eight undergraduate students attending University of Ferrara completed a self-administered questionnaire on demographic characteristics, food frequency consumption habits and body weight perception. RESULTS: Students living at home practiced more sport and consumed more frequently raw and cooked vegetables, fish, meat and poultry, fresh fruit, eggs, bread/cereals. Conversely, students living away from home consumed more often packaged/ready food, beer and spirits, milk and chips. The majority of students living alone reported a modification of dietary habits since leaving family. Furthermore they perceived to have a weight condition different from normal in a greater extent than students living with family. DISCUSSION: Students living alone encountered more difficulties in adopting a healthy diet so it would be desirable to adopt nutritional educational interventions on university students, usually neglected by these measures.

  13. Interdisciplinary approach for disaster risk reduction in Valtellina Valley, northern Italy

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    Garcia, Carolina; Blahut, Jan; Luna, Byron Quan; Poretti, Ilaria; Camera, Corrado; de Amicis, Mattia; Sterlacchini, Simone

    2010-05-01

    Inside the framework of the European research network Mountain Risks, an interdisciplinary research group has been working in the Consortium of Mountain Municipalities of Valtellina di Tirano (northern Italy). This area has been continuously affected by several mountain hazards such as landslides, debris flows and floods that directly affect the population, and in some cases caused several deaths and million euros of losses. An aim of the interdisciplinary work in this study area, is to integrate different scientific products of the research group, in the areas of risk assessment, management and governance, in order to generate, among others, risk reduction tools addressed to general public and stakeholders. Two types of phenomena have been particularly investigated: debris flows and floods. The scientific products range from modeling to mapping of hazard and risk, emergency planning based on real time decision support systems, surveying for the evaluation of risk perception and preparedness, among others. Outputs from medium scale hazard and risk modeling could be used for decision makers and spatial planners as well as civil protection authorities to have a general overview of the area and indentify hot spots for further detailed analysis. Subsequently, local scale analysis is necessary to define possible events and risk scenarios for emergency planning. As for the modeling of past events and new scenarios of debris flows, physical outputs were used as inputs into physical vulnerability assessment and quantitative risk analysis within dynamic runout models. On a pilot zone, the physical damage was quantified for each affected structure within the context of physical vulnerability and different empirical vulnerability curves were obtained. Prospective economic direct losses were estimated. For floods hazard assessment, different approaches and models are being tested, in order to produce flood maps for various return periods, and related to registered rainfalls

  14. Density and habitat requirements of sympatric hares and cottontails in northern Italy

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    Anna Vidus Rosin

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract From 2005 to 2009, densities and habitat selection by the European hare (Lepus europaeus and Eastern cottontail (Sylvilagus floridanus were assessed during feeding activity in an intensively cultivated area in northern Italy. Hare average density (74 ind./km2 was comparable to the highest values reported for European farming areas. Preand post-breeding density fluctuated widely across the study years, probably as a consequence of changes in the carrying capacity of the study area. Cottontail population size progressively increased, as expected for a recently introduced species supported by high reproductive performances. Hares used both crops and spontaneous vegetation during their feeding activity. Conversely, cottontails avoided winter cereals and preferred to feed on alfalfa. Our results suggest that simplified agro-ecosystems cannot maintain high density hare populations even at a short time scale. Landscape heterogeneity could enhance the chances of coexistence between the two lagomorphs.
    Riassunto Densità ed esigenze ecologiche della lepre e del silvilago in condizioni di simpatria in Italia settentrionale Tra il 2005 e il 2009, la densità e l’uso del habitat durante l’attività di alimentazione da parte della Lepre europea (Lepus europaeus e del Silvilago (Sylvilagus floridanus sono stati indagati in un’area intensamente coltivata nell’Italia settentrionale. La densità media della lepre nell’area di studio (74 ind./km2 corrisponde ai valori maggiori riportati per le aree agricole europee. Le densità pre- e post riproduttive della lepre hanno mostrato sensibili fluttuazioni durante il periodo di studio, probabilmente dovute ai cambiamenti stagionali della capacità portante dell’area di studio. L’abbondanza del silvilago è aumentata durante gli ultimi tre anni di studio, come prevedibile per una

  15. Nitrogen balance in a hilly semi-agricultural watershed in Northern Italy

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    Linda Pieri

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available The research was carried out for 7 years, 1998-2005, in a semi-agricultural watershed, called Centonara, set within a natural regional park and situated in the hills surrounding Bologna, northern Italy. This area is characterized by one of the most interesting badlands complexes in Europe and represents one of the main points of naturalistic interest. The watershed is partially cultivated (about 30% of the total area with arable crops, mostly cereals and alfalfa. To evaluate the impact of agricultural activity on the eco-sustainability of this area, the nitrogen (N balance was computed. Although it is only an estimation of the potential environmental damage, the nitrogen balance is a useful indicator of the risk posed to the environment from excessive nitrogen and can be useful to understand the possible effects of a certain type of agricultural and environmental management and policy. The balance was calculated by computing the difference between all inputs and all outputs. The nitrogen balance of the watershed was found to be sustainable, with an annual nitrogen balance ranging between –2.3 and +4.4 kg ha–1. Despite the limited presence of arable lands, the agricultural management played the main role in determining the sustainability of the watershed, strongly influencing both the principal N sources and sinks. In fact, major N inputs derived from inorganic fertilization (8.1-15.5 kg ha–1yr–1 and biological fixation (8.3-14.3 kg ha–1yr–1. On the other hand, plant removal constituted the most important output (17.7-25.6 kg ha–1yr–1. N losses in the drainage water were limited (3.0-9.5 kg ha–1yr–1 and the Centonara stream water was found to be unpolluted, with a nitrate concentration always below the EU limit for drinking water. The similar magnitude of total N inputs and outputs indicated that the crop management, especially the crop rotation and the N fertilization, in the Centonara watershed has reached a good level of

  16. HLA-DRB1 alleles associated with polymyalgia rheumatica in northern Italy: correlation with disease severity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salvarani, C.; Boiardi, L.; Mantovani, V.; Ranzi, A.; Cantini, F.; Olivieri, I.; Bragliani, M.; Collina, E.; Macchioni, P.

    1999-01-01

    OBJECTIVE—To examine the association of HLA-DRB1 alleles with polymyalgia rheumatica (PMR) in a Mediterranean country and to explore the role of HLA-DRB1 genes in determining disease severity.
METHODS—A five year prospective follow up study of 92 consecutive PMR patients diagnosed by the secondary referral centre of rheumatology of Reggio Emilia, Italy was conducted. HLA-DRB1 alleles were determined in the 92 patients, in 29 DR4 positive rheumatoid arthritis (RA) patients, and in 148 controls from the same geographical area by polymerase chain reaction amplification and oligonucleotide hybridisation.
RESULTS—No significant differences were observed in the frequencies of HLA-DRB1 types and in the expression of HLA-DRB 70-74 shared motif between PMR and controls. The frequency of the patients with double dose of epitope was low and not significantly different in PMR and in controls. No significant differences in the distribution of HLA-DR4 subtypes were observed between DR4+ PMR, DR+ RA, and DR4+ controls. Results of the univariate analysis indicated that an erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR) at diagnosis > 72 mm 1st h, the presence of HLA-DR1, DR10, rheumatoid epitope, and the type of rheumatoid epitope were significant risk factors associated with relapse/recurrence. Cox proportional hazards modelling identified two variables that independently increased the risk of relapse/recurrence: ESR at diagnosis > 72 mm 1st h (RR=1.5) and type 2 (encoded by a non-DR4 allele) rheumatoid epitope (RR=2.7).
CONCLUSION—These data from a Mediterranean country showed no association of rheumatoid epitope with PMR in northern Italian patients. A high ESR at diagnosis and the presence of rheumatoid epitope encoded by a non-DR4 allele are independent valuable markers of disease severity.

 PMID:10225816

  17. West Nile Virus Surveillance in 2013 via Mosquito Screening in Northern Italy and the Influence of Weather on Virus Circulation.

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    Mattia Calzolari

    Full Text Available West Nile virus (WNV is a recently re-emerged health problem in Europe. In Italy, an increasing number of outbreaks of West Nile disease, with occurrences of human cases, have been reported since 2008. This is particularly true in northern Italy, where entomological surveillance systems have been implemented at a regional level. The aim of this study was to use, for the first time, all the entomological data collected in the five regions undergoing surveillance for WNV in northern Italy to characterize the viral circulation (at a spatial and temporal scale, identify potential mosquito vectors, and specify relationships between virus circulation and meteorological conditions. In 2013, 286 sites covering the entire Pianura Padana area were monitored. A total of 757,461 mosquitoes were sampled. Of these, 562,079 were tested by real-time PCR in 9,268 pools, of which 180 (1.9% were positive for WNV. The largest part of the detected WNV sequences belonged to lineage II, demonstrating that, unlike those in the past, the 2013 outbreak was mainly sustained by this WNV lineage. This surveillance also detected the Usutu virus, a WNV-related flavivirus, in 241 (2.6% pools. The WNV surveillance systems precisely identified the area affected by the virus and detected the viral circulation approximately two weeks before the occurrence of onset of human cases. Ninety percent of the sampled mosquitoes were Culex pipiens, and 178/180 WNV-positive pools were composed of only this species, suggesting this mosquito is the main WNV vector in northern Italy. A significantly higher abundance of the vector was recorded in the WNV circulation area, which was characterized by warmer and less rainy conditions and greater evapotranspiration compared to the rest of the Pianura Padana, suggesting that areas exposed to these conditions are more suitable for WNV circulation. This observation highlights warmer and less rainy conditions as factors able to enhance WNV circulation

  18. Seasonal monitoring and estimation of regional aerosol distribution over Po valley, northern Italy, using a high-resolution MAIAC product

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    Arvani, Barbara; Pierce, R. Bradley; Lyapustin, Alexei I.; Wang, Yujie; Ghermandi, Grazia; Teggi, Sergio

    2016-09-01

    In this work, the new 1 km-resolved Multi-Angle Implementation of Atmospheric Correction (MAIAC) algorithm is employed to characterize seasonal PM10 - AOD correlations over northern Italy. The accuracy of the new dataset is assessed compared to the widely used Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) Collection 5.1 Aerosol Optical Depth (AOD) data, retrieved at 0.55 μm with spatial resolution of 10 km (MYD04_L2). We focused on evaluating the ability of these two products to characterize both temporal and spatial distributions of aerosols within urban and suburban areas. Ground PM10 measurements were obtained from 73 of the Italian Regional Agency for Environmental Protection (ARPA) monitoring stations, spread across northern Italy, during a three-year period from 2010 to 2012. The Po Valley area (northern Italy) was chosen as the study domain because of its severe urban air pollution, resulting from it having the highest population and industrial manufacturing density in the country, being located in a valley where two surrounding mountain chains favor the stagnation of pollutants. We found that the global correlations between the bin-averaged PM10 and AOD are R2 = 0.83 and R2 = 0.44 for MYD04_L2 and for MAIAC, respectively, suggesting a greater sensitivity of the high-resolution product to small-scale deviations. However, the introduction of Relative Humidity (RH) and Planetary Boundary Layer (PBL) depth corrections allowed for a significant improvement to the bin-averaged PM - AOD correlation, which led to a similar performance: R2 = 0.96 for MODIS and R2 = 0.95 for MAIAC. Furthermore, the introduction of the PBL information in the corrected AOD values was found to be crucial in order to capture the clear seasonal cycle shown by measured PM10 values. The study allowed us to define four seasonal linear correlations that estimate PM10 concentrations satisfactorily from the remotely sensed MAIAC AOD retrieval. Overall, the results show that the high

  19. Measles re-emergence in Northern Italy: Pathways of measles virus genotype D8, 2013-2014.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amendola, Antonella; Bianchi, Silvia; Lai, Alessia; Canuti, Marta; Piralla, Antonio; Baggieri, Melissa; Ranghiero, Alberto; Piatti, Alessandra; Tanzi, Elisabetta; Zehender, Gianguglielmo; Magurano, Fabio; Baldanti, Fausto

    2017-03-01

    Molecular surveillance and advanced phylogenetic methods are important tools to track the pathways of Measles virus (MV) genotypes, provide evidence for the interruption of endemic transmission and verify the elimination of the disease. The aims of this study were to describe the genetic profile of MV genotype D8 (D8-MV) strains circulating in Northern Italy (Lombardy Region) during the 2013-2014 period and to analyze the transmission chains and estimate the introduction time points using a phylogenetic approach. Forty-four strains of D8-MV identified from 12 outbreaks and 28 cases reported as sporadic were analyzed. Molecular analysis was performed by sequencing the highly variable 450nt region of the N gene of MV genome (N-450), as recommended by the WHO. Phylogenetic analyses and tree time-scaled reconstruction were performed with BEAST software. We could trace back the transmission pathways that resulted in three chains of transmission, two introductions with limited spread (two familiar outbreaks), and two single introductions (true sporadic cases). The D8-Taunton transmission chain, which was involved in 7 outbreaks and 13 sporadic cases, was endemic during the studied period. Furthermore, two novel local variants emerged independently in March 2014 and caused two transmission chains linked to at least 3 outbreaks. Overall, viral diversity was high and strains belonging to 5 different variants were identified. The results of this study clearly demonstrate that multiple lineages of D8-MV co-circulated in Northern Italy. Measles can be considered a re-emerging disease in Italy and additional efforts are necessary to achieve measles elimination goal. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Multidisciplinary approach to evaluate landslide susceptibility along highway in northern Calabria, Italy

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    Muto, Francesco; Conforti, Massimo; Critelli, Salvatore; Fabbricatore, Davide; Filomena, Luciana; Rago, Valeria; Robustelli, Gaetano; Scarciglia, Fabio; Versace, Pasquale

    2014-05-01

    The interaction of landslides with linear infrastructures is often the cause of disasters. In Italy landslide impact on roads, railways and buildings cause millions of Euro per year in damage and restoration as well. The proposed study is aimed to the landslide susceptibility evaluation using a multidisciplinary approach: geological and geomorphological survey, statistical analysis and GIS technique, along a section of highway "A3 (Salerno-Reggio Calabria)" between Cosenza Sud and Altilia, northern Calabria. This study is included in a wider research project, named: PON01-01503, Landslides Early Warning-Sistemi integrati per il monitoraggio e la mitigazione del rischio idrogeologico lungo le grandi vie di comunicazione - aimed at the hydrogeological risk mitigation and at the early warning along the highways. The work was first based on air-photo interpretations and field investigations, in order to realize the geological map, geomorphological map and landslide inventory map. In the study area the geomorphology is strongly controlled by its bedrock geology and tectonics. The bedrock geology consists of Neogene sedimentary rocks that cover a thick stack of allochthonous nappes. These nappes consist of crystalline rocks mainly gneiss, phyllite and schist. A total of 835 landslides were mapped and the type of movement are represented mainly by slides and complex and subordinately flow. In order to estimate and validate landslide susceptibility the landslides were divided in two group. One group (training set) was used to prepare susceptibility map and the second group (validation set) to validate the map. Then, the selection of predisposing factors was performed, according with the geological and geomorphological settings of the study area: lithology, distance from tectonic elements, land use, slope, aspect, stream power index (SPI) and plan curvature. In order to evaluate landslide susceptibility Conditional Analysis was applied to Unique Conditions Units (UCUs

  1. Chrysotile asbestos quantification in serpentinite quarries: a case study in Valmalenco, central Alps, northern Italy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cavallo, Alessandro

    2013-04-01

    Outcrops of serpentinites are usually strongly fractured and cataclastic, and the rock can only be used as ballast. However, in rare cases, like in Valmalenco (Central Alps, Northern Italy), fractures are regular and well spaced, and the rock mass has good geotechnical quality, ideal conditions for the extraction of dimension stone blocks. The Valmalenco Serpentinite is marketed worldwide as dimension and decorative stone, with remarkable mechanical properties and pleasing colours and textures. However, the same area was once subject to chrysotile asbestos mining, in the form of discrete veins along the main discontinuities of the rock mass. For this reason, airborne asbestos contamination can occur during the extraction and processing cycle of the rocks, therefore it is essential to locate and quantify asbestos in the rock mass, to reduce as much as possible the exposure risk. The first step was a detailed geostructural survey of each quarry, in order to characterize the main discontinuities (orientation, spacing, linear persistence, opening, filling), with special attention to the identification of fibrous minerals. The surveys was followed by extensive sampling of massive rocks, mineralized veins and fillings of fractures, and the cutting sludge derived from diamond wire cutting. Preliminary qualitative XRPD was performed on all samples, while quantitative analysis was carried out on the most representative samples of the main rock mass discontinuities. On the other hand, XRPD is not effective in the identification of asbestos percentages of less than 2% by weight, and the accurate distinction among the various serpentine polymorphs (antigorite, lizardite, chrysotile) is very difficult (if not impossible) when they are simultaneously present, due to their very similar basic structure and the strong structural disorder. The same samples were then analyzed by SEM-EDS (fiber counting after filtration on a polycarbonate filter), for a better distinction between

  2. Evolution of the 1963 Vajont landslide (Northern Italy) from low and high velocity friction experiments

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    Ferri, F.; di Toro, G.; Hirose, T.; Han, R.; Noda, H.; Shimamoto, T.; Pennacchioni, G.

    2009-04-01

    The final slip at about 30 m/s of the Vajont landslide (Northern Italy) on 9th October 1963 was preceded by a long creeping phase which was monitored over about three years. Creep was localized in cm-thick clay-rich (50% Ca-montmorillonite + smectite + illite + vermiculite, 40% calcite and 10% quartz) gouge layers. The velocity results in thermoviscoplastic model of the landslide (Veveakis et al., 2007) suggested that during creep, compaction and frictional heating released water from the clay-rich layer and, by increasing the pore-pressure in the slipping zone, determined the final collapse of the landslide. Here we investigated the frictional evolution of the clay-rich layers and the transition towards the final collapse. Experiments were carried out on the clayey gouge from the slipping zone at atmospheric humidity conditions ("dry") and in the presence of excess water ("saturated"). High velocity friction experiments were performed in a rotary shear apparatus at 1 MPa normal stress (about the normal stress at the sliding surface of the Vajont landslide), velocity v from 0.006 m/s to 1.31 m/s and displacements up to 34 m. The 1 mm-thick clayey gouges were sandwiched between marble cylindrical specimens (24.95 mm in diameter) and confined by Teflon rings to avoid gouge expulsion during the experiments. The fluid release during the experiments was monitored with a humidity sensor. Low velocity friction experiments were performed in a biaxial apparatus at 5 MPa normal stress, v from 1.0 10E-7 m/s to 1.0 10E-4 m/s (within the range at which the slide became critical, 2.0 10E-7 m/s, Veveakis et al., 2007) and displacements up to 0.02 m. In dry experiments, friction is 0.43-0.47 at v Vajont clays), and decreases to 0.03-0.05 at v > 0.006 m/s. At dry conditions, dilatancy was observed for v > 0.7 m/s suggesting fault pressurization by water release due to smectite-to-illite decomposition. Decomposition occurred at temperatures above 300°C, as confirmed by the

  3. How to model the stability of terraced slopes? The case study of Tresenda (northern Italy)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camera, Corrado; Apuani, Tiziana; Masetti, Marco

    2015-04-01

    Terraces are very common morphological features all around the Mediterranean Basin. They have been built to adapt the natural morphology of the territory to the development of anthropogenic activities, particularly agriculture. However, the increasing land abandonment during the last century is leading to soil degradation and stability issues, mainly due to lack of maintenance of these peculiar environments. The objective of this study was to develop a coupled hydrologic-stability model to identify possible triggering areas of superficial landslides during intense rainfall events. The model was tested on a slope uphill of the village of Tresenda, in Northern Italy, which experienced several superficial landslides in the last 35 years. Distributed stability analyses are usually carried out using an infinite slope approach, but in the case of terraces some basic assumptions of this method fail: the parallelism between topographical surface and potential sliding surface and the high ratio between slope length and failure surface depth are the most important examples. In addition, the interest is more on the stability of the terrace system (dry stone retaining wall and backfill soil) and not on soil alone. For these reasons, a stability analysis based on the global method of equilibrium is applied and soft coupled to a well know hydrological model (STARWARS). Sections of terrace, one cell wide, are recognized from the base of a wall to the top of the closest downstream one, and each cell (1 x 1 m2) is considered as a slice. The method of Sarma for circular and non-circular failure is applied. The very fine horizontal resolution (1 m) is crucial to take into consideration the hydrogeological and mechanical properties of dry stone walls (0.6-1.0 m wide). A sensitivity analysis was conducted for saturated water content, initial volumetric water content, the cohesion and friction angle of soil and walls and soil depth. The results of the sensitivity analysis showed that

  4. Age and speleogenesis of epigenic gypsum caves in the northern Apennines (Italy)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Columbu, Andrea; Chiarini, Veronica; De Waele, Jo; Drysdale, Russell; Forti, Paolo; Hellstrom, John; Woodhead, Jon

    2016-04-01

    Triassic and Messinian gypsum beds host the majority of the caves in the eastern flank of the northern Apennines. To date, more than six hundreds voids have been mapped, including the longest known epigenic gypsum cave system in the world (Spipola-Acquafredda, ~11 km of tunnels) (De Waele et al., 2013). Superimposed caves are typically sub-horizontal (Klimchouk, 2000) and connected through vertical shafts, reflecting the palaeo base-level variations. When preserved, river terraces at the surface lie at the same palaeo altitude of the base level and horizontal cave passages. Notwithstanding the well-known geology of the area known (Vai and Martini, 2001), the age of these caves has been greatly underestimated in the past. Considering the rapid dissolution of the gypsum and uplifting of the area, the start of speleogenesis activity was considered to have occurred during the last glacial age. The age of karst voids can be only indirectly estimated by the dating of the infilling sediments. U-Th dating on carbonate speleothems provides high-precision and accurate ages (Hellstrom, 2003; Scholz and Hoffmann, 2008). We thus applied this methodology to 20 speleothems coming from 14 different caves belonging to the Monte Tondo, Spipola Acquafredda, Castelnuovo, Stella-Rio Basino and Brisighella systems. The results show that: i) caves were forming since at least ~300 ka; ii) the peak of speleogenesis was reached during relatively cold climate stages, when rivers formed terraces at the surface and aggradation caused paragenesis in the stable cave levels (Columbu et al., 2015). Besides the significant contribution to the understanding of the Apennines evaporite karst evolution, this study (and its further advancement) may also refine knowledge of the local vs regional uplifting rates and base-level variations since the late Pleistocene (Wegmann and Pazzaglia, 2009). References Columbu, A., De Waele, J., Forti, P., Montagna, P., Picotti, V., Pons-Branchu, E., Hellstrom, J

  5. Soil organic carbon and land use in Veneto and Friuli Venezia Giulia (Northern Italy)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Francaviglia, Rosa; Renzi, Gianluca; Benedetti, Anna

    2014-05-01

    The Italian Ministry of Agricultural Food and Forestry Policies (MiPAAF) has set up a statistical survey aimed to provide the national forecast of yields and areas related to the main Italian agricultural crops (AGRIT). The methodology is based on field surveys and remote-sensed data, covers yearly the whole national territory, and is based on 100,000 observations which are statistically selected from a predefined grid made up of about 1,200,000 georeferenced points. In 2011-2012 we determined the soil organic carbon content (SOC) of 1,160 sampling points situated in Northern Italy in the plains and hills of Veneto (VEN) and Friuli Venezia Giulia (FVG), for which the land use in the period 2008-2010 was known. Samples have been subdivided in three main classes: arable crops, orchards and fodder crops. SOC was higher in FVG samples (2.48%, n=266) than in VEN samples (1.90%, n=894). The average value (2.03%) is clearly affected by the higher number of VEN samples. FVG data have been aggregated in continuous crops (maize, soybean, wheat), 2-yr rotations (maize-wheat, soybean wheat, maize-soybean), 3-yr rotations, vineyards (totally, partially and no-grassed), alfalfa, and permanent fodder crops. No significant differences were detected among the land uses due to the low number of samples in some classes, but some important findings do exist from the agronomic point of view. Fodder crops (5.65%), alfalfa (3.41%) and vineyards (2.72%) showed the higher SOC content. SOC was 2.94% and 1.39 % in the grassed and no-grassed vineyards respectively. In the arable crops the average SOC was 2.18%, ranging from 2.32% (soybean-wheat rotation) to 2.03% (continuous soybean). SOC was 2.19% in the continuous maize, with 2.23% in corn and 1.87% in silage maize. The lower values were in the maize-wheat rotation (1.53%) and the continuous wheat (1.47%). VEN data have been aggregated in continuous crops (maize, soybean and wheat), 2-yr rotations (maize-wheat, soybean-wheat, maize

  6. Regional Landslide Mapping Aided by Automated Classification of SqueeSAR™ Time Series (Northern Apennines, Italy)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iannacone, J.; Berti, M.; Allievi, J.; Del Conte, S.; Corsini, A.

    2013-12-01

    Space borne InSAR has proven to be very valuable for landslides detection. In particular, extremely slow landslides (Cruden and Varnes, 1996) can be now clearly identified, thanks to the millimetric precision reached by recent multi-interferometric algorithms. The typical approach in radar interpretation for landslides mapping is based on average annual velocity of the deformation which is calculated over the entire times series. The Hotspot and Cluster Analysis (Lu et al., 2012) and the PSI-based matrix approach (Cigna et al., 2013) are examples of landslides mapping techniques based on average annual velocities. However, slope movements can be affected by non-linear deformation trends, (i.e. reactivation of dormant landslides, deceleration due to natural or man-made slope stabilization, seasonal activity, etc). Therefore, analyzing deformation time series is crucial in order to fully characterize slope dynamics. While this is relatively simple to be carried out manually when dealing with small dataset, the time series analysis over regional scale dataset requires automated classification procedures. Berti et al. (2013) developed an automatic procedure for the analysis of InSAR time series based on a sequence of statistical tests. The analysis allows to classify the time series into six distinctive target trends (0=uncorrelated; 1=linear; 2=quadratic; 3=bilinear; 4=discontinuous without constant velocity; 5=discontinuous with change in velocity) which are likely to represent different slope processes. The analysis also provides a series of descriptive parameters which can be used to characterize the temporal changes of ground motion. All the classification algorithms were integrated into a Graphical User Interface called PSTime. We investigated an area of about 2000 km2 in the Northern Apennines of Italy by using SqueeSAR™ algorithm (Ferretti et al., 2011). Two Radarsat-1 data stack, comprising of 112 scenes in descending orbit and 124 scenes in ascending orbit

  7. Le pinete demaniali costiere di Ravenna e Ferrara: analisi dei tipi forestali e strutturali per la scelta del trattamento selvicolturale nel processo di pianificazione

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paolo Cantiani

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available The state-owned pine forests on the coast of Ravenna and Ferrara: analysis of forest and structure types for choice of silvicultural system in the planning process. Results of the analysis on typology and structure of state forests dominated by maritime pine (Pinus pinaster Ait. are reported. These formations grow on a narrow coastal belt between Cervia (Ravenna and Volano (Ferrara, in the Emilia-Romagna region (Italy. The aim of the study is to support the proper silvicultural system in order to satisfy multiple use of pine forests using the analysis of forest types and model types of structure. Main ecological and structural features of principal pine forest types and experimental criteria on silvicultural systems are explained.

  8. Asymmetrical cross-current turbidite facies tract in a structurally-confined mini-basin (Priabonian-Rupelian, Ranzano Sandstone, northern Apennines, Italy)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tinterri, R.; Laporta, M.; Ogata, K.

    2017-01-01

    This work discusses the stratigraphy and facies analysis of the Ranzano Sandstone, in the northern Apennines (Italy), a confined low-efficiency turbidite system deposited in a series of small piggy-back basins, which show strong analogies with intraslope minibasins commonly observed in divergent

  9. The specchio unit (northern apennines, Italy): An ancient mass transport complex originated from near-coastal areas in an intra-slope setting

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ogata, Kei; Tinterri, Roberto; Pini, Gian Andrea; Mutti, Emiliano

    2012-01-01

    Within the Eocene-Oligocene syn-orogenic deposits of the Epiligurian succession (Northern Apennines of Italy), a field-based study of the Specchio Unit (lower Rupelian) reveals that this complex is made up of three distinct but amalgamated mass-transport deposits (MTDs), the largest of which reaches

  10. Comment on "The May 20 (MW 6.1) and 29 (MW 6.0), 2012, Emilia (Po Plain, Northern Italy) earthquakes: New seismotectonic implications from subsurface geology and high-quality hypocenter location" by Carannante et al., 2015

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonini, Lorenzo; Toscani, Giovanni; Seno, Silvio

    2016-10-01

    Carannante et al. (2015) proposed an original seismotectonic interpretation of the Ferrara arc in the Po Plain (Italy) based on an accurate hypocenter relocation of the 2012 Emilia earthquake sequence and on structural analyses of sub-surface data. They contend that the causative faults of the 2012 sequence do not belong to the fold-and-thrusts system comprising the Ferrara Arc but in fact are located in the underlying basement. In our view this interpretation does not agree with observations, including: 1) the structural interpretation of the seismic reflection lines, that contrasts with some of the available data, e.g. the stratigraphy inferred from deep wells; 2) the seismotectonic setting, that is based exclusively on the correlation between inferred structural features and the location of late aftershocks; and 3) the inconsistency of the proposed seismogenic sources with the elevation changes caused by the sequence. All these points compromise the Carannante et al.'s interpretation and, as a consequence, previously proposed seismotectonic models are still valid.

  11. The fine structure of the dynamics of seismicity before earthquakes in the area of Reggio Emilia (Northern Italy

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    Y. Tyupki

    1999-06-01

    Full Text Available We present the results of studies of seismicity in the Reggio Emilia area (Northern Italy. The Istituto Nazionale di Geofisica instrumental earthquake catalogue (1975-1996 reported about three moderate-size earthquakes with M ³ 4.5 that occurred in this area (November 1983, May 1987, October 1996. The RTL prognostic parameter proposed by Sobolev and Tyupkin (1996a was used for analysis. This parameter is designed in such a way that a seismic quiescence produces negative anomaly of the RTL parameter in comparison to its perennial background level and an activation of seismicity initiates the growth of its value. The RTL prognostic parameter indicates that all three earthquakes are preceded by activation of the seismicity. The interval between the commencement of the activation identified by RTL parameter and the event itself was about one year for the 1987 and 1996 earthquakes, and about three months for the 1983 earthquake.

  12. LDL (Landscape Digital Library) a Digital Photographic Database of a Case Study Area in the River Po Valley, Northern Italy

    CERN Document Server

    Papotti, D

    2001-01-01

    Landscapes are both a synthesis and an expression of national, regional and local cultural heritages. It is therefore very important to develop techniques aimed at cataloguing and archiving their forms. This paper discusses the LDL (Landscape Digital Library) project, a Web accessible database that can present the landscapes of a territory with documentary evidence in a new format and from a new perspective. The method was tested in a case study area of the river Po valley (Northern Italy). The LDL is based on a collection of photographs taken following a systematic grid of survey points identified through topographic cartography; the camera level is that of the human eye. This methodology leads to an innovative landscape archive that differs from surveys carried out through aerial photographs or campaigns aimed at selecting "relevant" points of interest. Further developments and possible uses of the LDL are also discussed.

  13. Use of a proactive herd management system in a dairy farm of northern italy: technical and economic results

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefania Leonardi

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Reproductive and economic data were recorded before and one year after the installation of Herd Navigator™ in a dairy farm with AMS (Automatic Milking System located in a mountain area of Northern Italy. Number of days open reduced from 166 to 103 days, number of days between the first and second insemination decreased from 45 to 28 days, and days for identifying an abortion were 80 % less, from 31 to 6 days. The preliminary results highlight the usefulness of the proactive herd management system installed for the reproduction management. A basic economic model is proposed to evaluate the potential economic benefits coming from the introduction of this technology. The model considers the benefits deriving from the reduction of reproduction problems and, consequently, of days open. Considering the effects related to the above mentioned aspects in a case study involving 60 dairy cows, a return on investment over 5 years has been calculated.

  14. The seismic microzonation of level 3 of Sant’Agata Fossili (northern Italy based on a multidisciplinary approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giuseppe Di Capua

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available In this paper the results of a detailed seismic microzonation, performed at Sant’Agata Fossili (Piemonte region, northern Italy are presented. We study the local seismic response of this small village using a level 3, that is the most accurate level following the Italian code of seismic microzonation. The activity steps consist in a gradual widening of knowledge of the different aspects of the amplification phenomena. A multidisciplinary approach has been performed to obtain the local seismic response: including a study of local geology, geophysical and geotechnical characterization of the lithologies, and numerical and experimental analyses. We finally compare the obtained elastic response spectra to the prescribed spectra of the Italian Building Code (in Italian: Norme Tecniche per le Costruzioni. Our results show the geologic and geophysical differences of the subsoil, that produce different local seismic response in terms of amplification factors and acceleration response spectra.

  15. Serological and molecular tools to diagnose visceral leishmaniasis: 2-years' experience of a single center in Northern Italy.

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    Stefania Varani

    Full Text Available The diagnosis of visceral leishmaniasis (VL remains challenging, due to the limited sensitivity of microscopy, the poor performance of serological methods in immunocompromised patients and the lack of standardization of molecular tests. The aim of this study was to implement a combined diagnostic workflow by integrating serological and molecular tests with standardized clinical criteria. Between July 2013 and June 2015, the proposed workflow was applied to specimens obtained from 94 in-patients with clinical suspicion of VL in the Emilia-Romagna region, Northern Italy. Serological tests and molecular techniques were employed. Twenty-one adult patients (22% had a confirmed diagnosis of VL by clinical criteria, serology and/or real-time polymerase chain reaction; 4 of these patients were HIV-positive. Molecular tests exhibited higher sensitivity than serological tests for the diagnosis of VL. In our experience, the rK39 immunochromatographic test was insufficiently sensitive for use as a screening test for the diagnosis of VL caused by L. infantum in Italy. However, as molecular tests are yet not standardized, further studies are required to identify an optimal screening test for Mediterranean VL.

  16. Serological and molecular tools to diagnose visceral leishmaniasis: 2-years’ experience of a single center in Northern Italy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ortalli, Margherita; Attard, Luciano; Vanino, Elisa; Gaibani, Paolo; Vocale, Caterina; Rossini, Giada; Cagarelli, Roberto; Pierro, Anna; Billi, Patrizia; Mastroianni, Antonio; Di Cesare, Simona; Codeluppi, Mauro; Franceschini, Erica; Melchionda, Fraia; Gramiccia, Marina; Scalone, Aldo; Gentilomi, Giovanna A.; Landini, Maria P.

    2017-01-01

    The diagnosis of visceral leishmaniasis (VL) remains challenging, due to the limited sensitivity of microscopy, the poor performance of serological methods in immunocompromised patients and the lack of standardization of molecular tests. The aim of this study was to implement a combined diagnostic workflow by integrating serological and molecular tests with standardized clinical criteria. Between July 2013 and June 2015, the proposed workflow was applied to specimens obtained from 94 in-patients with clinical suspicion of VL in the Emilia-Romagna region, Northern Italy. Serological tests and molecular techniques were employed. Twenty-one adult patients (22%) had a confirmed diagnosis of VL by clinical criteria, serology and/or real-time polymerase chain reaction; 4 of these patients were HIV-positive. Molecular tests exhibited higher sensitivity than serological tests for the diagnosis of VL. In our experience, the rK39 immunochromatographic test was insufficiently sensitive for use as a screening test for the diagnosis of VL caused by L. infantum in Italy. However, as molecular tests are yet not standardized, further studies are required to identify an optimal screening test for Mediterranean VL. PMID:28832646

  17. Growth of a sinkhole in a seismic zone of the Northern Apennines (Italy)

    OpenAIRE

    Rosa, Alessandro; Pagli, Carolina; Molli, Giancarlo; Casu, Francesco; Luca, Claudio; Pieroni, Amerino

    2018-01-01

    Sinkhole collapse is a major hazard causing substantial social and economic losses. However, the surface deformations and sinkhole evolution are rarely recorded, as these sites are known mainly after a collapse, making the assessment of sinkholes-related hazard challenging. Furthermore, 40 % of the sinkholes of Italy are in seismically hazardous zones; it remains unclear whether seismicity may trigger sinkhole collapse. Here we use a multidisciplinary dataset of InSAR, surface mapping ...

  18. The "green stones" of Valtellina and Valchiavenna (central Alps, northern Italy)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cavallo, Alessandro

    2015-04-01

    Valtellina and Val Chiavenna (Sondrio, Central Alps, northern Italy) are traditionally areas of production of building and ornamental stones (e.g. Serizzo Ghiandone, Serizzo Valmasino, San Fedelino Granite), and among these the "green stones" have a leading position. These stones had an extensive use in Lombardy, as well as abroad (e.g Switzerland). The "green stones" are related to the two mafic-ultramafic bodies of Valmalenco and Chiavenna, where the two largest quarrying districts of the Province of Sondrio are located. Until the early decades of the XX century, serpentinites (and other lithologies from Valtellina) were also extracted from the erratic boulders of Brianza (north of Milan), but at present time the law protects the few remaining boulders. The extracted and processed materials are various: serpentinites, ophicalcites, soapstones. Even the "Stone of Tresivio", used in the past in important monuments of Valtellina, could be classified among the "green stones" in a broad sense: it is a green chloritic schist with scarce and thin ferriferous calcitic veins, pertaining to the sedimentary "Servino" Formation. In recent times, the ancient quarries of this stone were rediscovered near the homonymous village, a few kilometers from Sondrio. There are also historic reports about other "green stones", used in ancient times, such as the "Stone of Grosio", a chloritic schist, and the "Bormio Prasinite". Currently the extraction and processing of "green stones" occurs mostly in Valmalenco, with 22 active serpentinite quarries and a gross volume of 70000 m3 extracted per year, with a yield of about 50%. The Malenco serpentinite (interpreted as sub-continental mantle rocks) forms a 1-2 km thick tabular body, outcropping over an area of about 170 km2, almost entirely confined within the boundaries of the valley. The antigoritic serpentinites (with variable amounts of olivine, clinopyroxene, chlorite and magnetite) are moderately up to strongly foliated, sometimes

  19. The 2012 Ferrara seismic sequence: Regional crustal structure, earthquake sources, and seismic hazard

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malagnini, Luca; Herrmann, Robert B.; Munafò, Irene; Buttinelli, Mauro; Anselmi, Mario; Akinci, Aybige; Boschi, E.

    2012-10-01

    Inadequate seismic design codes can be dangerous, particularly when they underestimate the true hazard. In this study we use data from a sequence of moderate-sized earthquakes in northeast Italy to validate and test a regional wave propagation model which, in turn, is used to understand some weaknesses of the current design spectra. Our velocity model, while regionalized and somewhat ad hoc, is consistent with geophysical observations and the local geology. In the 0.02-0.1 Hz band, this model is validated by using it to calculate moment tensor solutions of 20 earthquakes (5.6 ≥ MW ≥ 3.2) in the 2012 Ferrara, Italy, seismic sequence. The seismic spectra observed for the relatively small main shock significantly exceeded the design spectra to be used in the area for critical structures. Observations and synthetics reveal that the ground motions are dominated by long-duration surface waves, which, apparently, the design codes do not adequately anticipate. In light of our results, the present seismic hazard assessment in the entire Pianura Padana, including the city of Milan, needs to be re-evaluated.

  20. 3D Quaternary deformation pattern in the central Po Plain (Northern Italy)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sileo, G.; Mueller, K.; Michetti, A. M.; Livio, F.; Berlusconi, A.; Carcano, C.; Rogledi, S.; Vittori, E.

    2009-04-01

    km wide with a progressive westward narrowing, and still displays an asymmetric transversal profile. Sedimentation rates are considerably higher than uplift rates of the structures, resulting in a paleobathymetry gentler than the ‘A' surface The measurement of the folds axial length becomes consequently more difficult. In order to filter the tectonic signal we conducted a profile curvature analysis perpendicular to the mean axial direction of the structures. We recognized six structures with an average length of 18 - 20 km and an average axial strike of N 110° E. The comparison of these structures with those recognized on the ‘A' surface clearly shows a decreasing number of folds, suggesting some thrusts shut off between "A" and "R" surface time. The similar geometry of folded "R" and "A" surfaces suggest consistent fault geometry and stress orientation during this time. This kinematic pattern is consistent with a spatially - varying shortening rate model (e.g., Salvini & Storti, 2002). The folds appear to grow with constant fault geometry and the displacement varies along strike since the tip of the faults migrates laterally in a direction perpendicular to the regional horizontal stress (Mueller & Talling, 1997, Keller et al., 1999; Champel et al, 2002; Burbank & Anderson, 2001). In summary, the analysis of the two described Quaternary seismic surfaces allowed us to understand the evolution of active folds within the Po Plain and their growth mechanism and evolution both in space and time. These folds are the modern loci of compressive strain that links the Southern Alps with the Northern Apennines. Comparing the two surfaces we can observe a significant shift in the localization of the tectonic deformation, consisting A) in the reactivation of N-verging backthrusts and associated folds in the Southern Alps instead of the main forethrusts, and B) in a similar backward skip of the activity from the outermost Apennines fronts, with the reactivation of the

  1. Mercury Enrichment in Sediments of the Coastal Area of Northern Latium, Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scanu, Sergio; Piazzolla, Daniele; Frattarelli, Francesco Manfredi; Mancini, Emanuele; Tiralongo, Francesco; Brundo, Maria Violetta; Tibullo, Daniele; Pecoraro, Roberta; Copat, Chiara; Ferrante, Margherita; Marcelli, Marco

    2016-05-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the extent of the Hg geochemical anomaly arising in the Amiata and Tolfa complex to the coastal area of northern Latium and to examine the possible influence on this area by the Mignone River, and by the small coastal basins, which are characterized by both previous mining activities and decades of past industrial impact. The results confirm the extension of the anomaly of concentrations of Hg in the coastal area of northern Latium, with the northern sector influenced by the contributions of the Fiora and Mignone Rivers and the southern sector influenced by the contributions of minor basins. The results show high values of the Adverse Effect Index throughout the considered area and highlight the need for further investigation in order to assess the impact of human activities on the present and past values of Hg in marine sediments.

  2. Chernobyl accident. The radioactive contamination in the area of Lake Como and in other Northern Italy sites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Capra, D.; Facchini, U.; Gianelle, V.; Ravasini, G.; Ravera, O.; Pizzala, A.; Bacci, P.

    The radioactive cloud released during the Chernobyl accident reached the Po Plain and Lombardy in the night of April 30, 1986; the cloud remained in the Northern Italian skies for a few days and then disappeared either dispersed by winds or washed by rains. The evidence in the atmosphere of radionuclides as tellurium, iodine, cesium was promply observed by the Istituto di Fisica. The intense rain, in the first week of May, washed the radioactivity and the fallout contaminated the land, soil, grass and vegetables. The present work concerns the overall contamination of the Northern Italy territory and in particular the radioactive fallout in the Alpine region. Samples of soil have been measured at the gamma-spectroscope; a linear correlation is found between the radionuclide concentration in soil samples and the rain intensity, when appropriate deposition models are considered. A number of measurements has been done on Lake Como ecosystem: sediments, plankton, fishes and the overall fallout in the lake area have been investigated.

  3. First report on Copepoda and Ostracoda (Crustacea from northern Apenninic springs (N. Italy: a faunal and biogeographical account

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giampaolo ROSSETTI

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available The microcrustacean fauna of rheocrene and rheo-limnocrene springs in a protected area of the northern Apennines (Italy was investigated for the first time. All springs are located in the catchments of the rivers Parma and Enza at altitudes between 800 and 1609 m a.s.l. Several of these springs are still in pristine condition while others are artificially modified or impacted to some degree. Surveys were carried out from April to June 2007. The sampling methods used for invertebrate fauna were: moss washing, artificial traps, and inserting drift tubes at the discharge point. A total of 14 harpacticoid, five cyclopoid, and 13 ostracod taxa were identified. Ostracods were mainly represented by crenophilic taxa; of particular interest was the collection of a specimen belonging to Pseudolimnocythere, a stygobiont genus with only two living species and a reduced distribution. Faunal affinities between northern Apenninic springs and those in other Italian mountain systems are discussed. The investigated ecosystems support a high microcrustacean diversity that must be adequately preserved due to the increasing direct and indirect impacts on mountain springs and groundwater resources.

  4. Anel intracorneano de Ferrara em ceratocone Ferrara's intracorneal ring in keratoconus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamilton Moreira

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Objetivo: Análise dos resultados dos dez primeiros pacientes com ceratocone submetidos a implante do anel de Ferrara no Hospital de Olhos do Paraná. Métodos: Foi realizado um estudo prospectivo em 10 pacientes com ceratocone. Os critérios de inclusão foram: intolerância a lentes de contato, acuidade visual sem correção inferior ou igual a 20/100, ausência de cicatrizes corneanas significativas e ausência de doenças oculares ou sistêmicas que contra-indicassem a cirurgia. Acuidade visual (LogMAR, refração e topografia pré e pós-operatórias foram as variáveis analisadas. Os pacientes foram seguidos pelo período mínimo de três meses. Resultados: Das complicações cirúrgicas encontradas, destacaram-se dois casos de microperfuração corneana durante a confecção das incisões para os túneis inferiores, um de extrusão e quatro de deslocamento pós-operatório do anel. A acuidade visual corrigida melhorou de 0,750 ± 0,374, para 0,438 ± 0,342 (p=0,026. A média da acuidade visual não corrigida no primeiro dia pós-operatório foi de 0,667 ± 0,447 (n=9, e a acuidade visual final não corrigida foi de 0,562 ± 0,272. De acordo com a refração realizada após o terceiro mês pós-operatório, cinco pacientes evoluíram com acuidade visual com correção melhor do que ou igual a 0,5 unidades LogMAR. Um paciente não apresentou aplanamento significativo do cone segundo a topografia corneana. Conclusão: O presente estudo demonstrou melhora nos valores pós-operatórios de acuidade visual, refração e topografia na maioria dos pacientes avaliados, em relação aos valores pré-operatórios.Purpose: To evaluate the results of the first 10 keratoconus patients submitted to Ferrara's ring surgery. Methods: In a prospective study, 10 keratoconus patients were included with best uncorrected visual acuity equal to or worse than 20/100, contact lens intolerance and absence of significant corneal scar. Patients were healthy otherwise

  5. Seismic anisotropy beneath the Northern Apennines (Italy): Mantle flow or lithosphere fabric?

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Plomerová, Jaroslava; Margheriti, L.; Park, J.; Babuška, Vladislav; Pondrelli, S.; Vecsey, Luděk; Piccinini, D.; Levin, V.; Baccheschi, P.; Salimbeni, S.

    2006-01-01

    Roč. 247, 1/2 (2006), s. 157-170 ISSN 0012-821X R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA3012405 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z30120515 Keywords : seismic anisotropy * continental dynamics * Northern Apennines Subject RIV: DC - Siesmology, Volcanology, Earth Structure Impact factor: 3.887, year: 2006

  6. Evaluating the Competitiveness of the Northern and Southern Macro-Regions of Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucia Aquilino

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available This study uses the Crouch and Ritchie (1999 model of competitiveness to investigate/measure the competitiveness of northern and southern Italian macro-regions. Researching competitive advantages along with identifying strengths/weaknesses represent the objectives of this study. 156 responses were analysed, and findings show that northern regions tend to be more competitive than southern regions. While naturally endowed and created resources represent strengths in both regions, the competitiveness of all the determinant factors included in the tourism development, planning and policy of both tourist destinations are found to be quite inadequate. Moreover, the findings revealed that these mature destinations are experiencing the effects unleashed by a number of trends such as the development of new forms of tourism, the increasing number of tourist arrivals, the growth of the global economy and the sophistication of tourists’ tastes, representing both opportunities and threats that Italian destinations need to consider when planning/developing new strategies.

  7. Ecological profiles of wetland plant species in the northern Apennines (N. Italy

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    Marcello TOMASELLI

    2003-02-01

    Full Text Available Eighteen selected species occurring in the wetlands of the northern Apennines were studied by the ecological profile method. By this method, it is possible to identify the ecological factors mostly influencing species distribution within a particular vegetation. Moreover, it is possible to evaluate both ecological amplitude and ecological preferences of species. Ecological profiles were built for three factors (altitude, pH and electrical conductivity from a data set of 265 phytosociological relevés, used for altitude, and from a set of 92 measures, carried out in selected sites, for idrochemical variables. By numerical classification, based on chord distance and minimum variance, the ecological species groups for each factor were individuated. Subsequently, they were ordered by correspondence analysis for detecting relationships between ecological groups and classes of factors. By applying a goodness-of-fit test to ecological profiles, the species significantly deviating from uniformity were detected. They can be regarded as indicators for the corresponding ecological factor. We found seven indicator species for altitude (Carex nigra, C. rostrata, Juncus filiformis, J. alpino-articulatus, Eriophorum latifolium, E. angustifolium and Warnstorfia exannulata, four indicator species for electrical conductivity (Campylium stellatum, Carex tumidicarpa, Eriophorum latifolium and Juncus alpino-articulatus and one indicator species for pH (Sphagnum capillifolium. The ecological profiles of the wetland species in the northern Apennines were compared with those reported in literature for the same species from the Alps (namely Dolomites. In this way, a certain degree of ecological shift in several wetland species of the northern Apennines was documented. For altitude, it is possible to explain the shift considering the reduced elevational amplitude of northern Apennine wetlands with respect to those of the Alps. For pH, Sphagnum capillifolium occurs in

  8. Probability density functions of photochemicals over a coastal area of Northern Italy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Georgiadis, T.; Fortezza, F.; Alberti, L.; Strocchi, V.; Marani, A.; Dal Bo', G.

    1998-01-01

    The present paper surveys the findings of experimental studies and analyses of statistical probability density functions (PDFs) applied to air pollutant concentrations to provide an interpretation of the ground-level distributions of photochemical oxidants in the coastal area of Ravenna (Italy). The atmospheric-pollution data set was collected from the local environmental monitoring network for the period 1978-1989. Results suggest that the statistical distribution of surface ozone, once normalised over the solar radiation PDF for the whole measurement period, follows a log-normal law as found for other pollutants. Although the Weibull distribution also offers a good fit of the experimental data, the area's meteorological features seem to favour the former distribution once the statistical index estimates have been analysed. Local transport phenomena are discussed to explain the data tail trends

  9. Outbreak of type C botulism in birds and mammals in the Emilia Romagna region, northern Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Defilippo, Francesco; Luppi, Andrea; Maioli, Giulia; Marzi, Dario; Fontana, Maria Cristina; Paoli, Federica; Bonilauri, Paolo; Dottori, Michele; Merialdi, Giuseppe

    2013-10-01

    Over a 7-day period beginning 8 August 2011, a large number of wild birds of several species were found dead or with neurologic clinical signs along the shore of Crostolo stream, in the Emilia Romagna region, Italy. Twenty-eight Mallards (Anas platyrhynchos), two Hooded Crows (Corvus corone cornix), and three coypus (Myocastor coypus) were found moribund on the Crostolo stream bank, collected, and sent to Istituto Zooprofilattico Sperimentale della Lombardia e dell'Emilia Romagna, Reggio Emilia Section. The cause of mortality was determined to be Clostridium botulinum type C toxin. The toxin was identified by a mouse bioassay for botulinum toxins and confirmed in bird sera and blowfly larvae (Lucilia caesar) collected from the stomachs of birds.

  10. Charophytes of the lake Garda (Northern Italy: a preliminary assessment of diversity and distribution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rossano Bolpagni

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Charophytes (stoneworts and bassweeds are a typical macrophytic component of inland water ecosystems. Well-developed submerged meadows of charophytes are expression of clear water and rather low phytoplankton concentrations. Consequently, among aquatic macroscopic primary producers, charophytes are one of the most threatened groups being very sensitive to phosphorous availability, turbidity and water level perturbations. Accordingly, charophytes have been suffering a massive diversity loss worldwide over the last century, mainly because of human-induced pressures. During summer 2011, detailed field surveys were carried out with the main purpose of filling knowledge gaps concerning aquatic flora and vegetation of the lake Garda – the largest lake in Italy and one of the deepest in Europe. Along randomly selected transects, floristic data were collected following standard procedures, as imposed by the Water Framework Directive. Overall, 12 different species of charophytes were recorded, which accounts for 36% of total Italian charophytes and 19% of European species. The most diffuse species were Chara globularis and C. intermedia; whereas, the most interesting taxa were Chara polyacantha and Nitella hyalina, two species with narrow distribution in Italy. Overall in the lake Garda, dense stands of charophytes covered almost homogeneously the littoral sectors at a water depth between 3 and 12 m. The deepest species was C. globularis, which reached a maximum depth of colonisation of about 17.5 m. Charophytes represent a major element among the primary producers in the lake Garda. The high local charophyte diversity and the rather wide most colonised areas (~1000-1200 ha confirm that the lake Garda is an important reserve for many rare and threatened charophytes. For the first time, these results highlight the key role of the lake Garda for charophyte diversity at a national and European level.

  11. Seismogenic zonation and seismic hazard estimates in a Southern Italy area (Northern Apulia characterised by moderate seismicity rates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Del Gaudio

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available The northernmost part of Apulia, in Southern Italy, is an emerged portion of the Adriatic plate, which in past centuries was hit by at least three disastrous earthquakes and at present is occasionally affected by seismic events of moderate energy. In the latest seismic hazard assessment carried out in Italy at national scale, the adopted seismogenic zonation (named ZS9 has defined for this area a single zone including parts of different structural units (chain, foredeep, foreland. However significant seismic behaviour differences were revealed among them by our recent studies and, therefore, we re-evaluated local seismic hazard by adopting a zonation, named ZNA, modifying the ZS9 to separate areas of Northern Apulia belonging to different structural domains. To overcome the problem of the limited datasets of historical events available for small zones having a relatively low rate of earthquake recurrence, an approach was adopted that integrates historical and instrumental event data. The latter were declustered with a procedure specifically devised to process datasets of low to moderate magnitude shocks. Seismicity rates were then calculated following alternative procedural choices, according to a "logic tree" approach, to explore the influence of epistemic uncertainties on the final results and to evaluate, among these, the importance of the uncertainty in seismogenic zonation. The comparison between the results obtained using zonations ZNA and ZS9 confirms the well known "spreading effect" that the use of larger seismogenic zones has on hazard estimates. This effect can locally determine underestimates or overestimates by amounts that make necessary a careful reconsideration of seismic classification and building code application.

  12. Molecular epidemiology of influenza B virus among hospitalized pediatric patients in Northern Italy during the 2015-16 season.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Piralla

    Full Text Available The influenza B viruses belong to two lineages distinguished by their genetic and antigenic characteristics, which are referred to as the Yamagata and Victoria lineages, designated after their original isolates, B/Yamagata/16/88 and B/Victoria/2/87. The primary aim of this study was to evaluate the molecular characteristics of influenza B viruses circulating in a region of Northern Italy, Lombardia, during the influenza season of 2015-2016.Influenza B virus was detected using a respiratory virus panel of assays and an influenza B-specific real-time polymerase chain reaction. The complete influenza B hemagglutinin (HA gene was amplified and sequenced directly from clinical specimens. Phylogenetic analysis was performed using nucleotide sequences.A total of 71 hospitalized pediatric patients were influenza B positive. Phylogenetic analysis showed that the great majority of influenza B strains (66/71, 93.0% belonged to the Victoria-lineage and were antigenically like vaccine strain (B/Brisbane/60/2008 included only in the quadrivalent vaccine. In the detected influenza B strains, a series of amino acid changes were observed in the antigenic regions: I117V, V124A, N129D, V146I, N197D, T199A, and A202T. However, only 2 amino acid changes were observed in the HA regions involved in receptor binding or in antibody recognition.All the influenza B strains identified in this study belonged to the influenza B Victoria lineage not included in the trivalent vaccine commonly used by the general population during the 2015-2016 influenza season in Italy. This indicates that protection against influenza B infection in the vaccinated population was in general very poor during the 2015-2016 influenza season.

  13. Surveillance of poliomyelitis in Northern Italy: Results of acute flaccid paralysis surveillance and environmental surveillance, 2012-2015.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pellegrinelli, Laura; Bubba, Laura; Primache, Valeria; Pariani, Elena; Battistone, Andrea; Delogu, Roberto; Fiore, Stefano; Binda, Sandro

    2017-02-01

    Although in the last years poliovirus (PV) transmission has been reported at the lowest levels ever recorded, the spread of virus from endemic countries endures; the high levels of immigration flows across the Mediterranean Sea jeopardize Italy for PV reintroduction. The World Health Organization (WHO) strategic plan for global poliomyelitis (polio) eradication indicates the nationwide surveillance of Acute Flaccid Paralysis (AFP) as the gold standard for detecting cases of polio. In addition, the Environmental Surveillance (ES), seeking the presence of PV and Non-Polio Enterovirus (NPEV) in sewage, is recognized as a powerful tool to confirm PV circulation in absence of AFP cases, especially in polio-free countries. Here we report the results of AFP surveillance (AFPS) and ES in Lombardy (Northern Italy) from 2012 to 2015. Forty-eight AFP cases were identified during the study period. No AFP case was caused by PV infection. NPEVs were identified in 6.3% (3/48) of AFP cases. The annual AFP incidence rate was 0.87/100'000 children <15 y in 2012, 1.42/100'000 in 2013, 1.02/100'000 in 2014, and 0.47/100'000 in 2015; according to WHO indicators, the sensitivity of AFPS was adequate in 2013 and 2014. Completeness of case investigation raised progressively during the study period to achieve the WHO standards in 2014 (92.3%) and 2015 (100%). Completeness of follow-up increased from 72.7% in 2012 to 100% in 2014. In the framework of the ES conducted in Milan, 268 wastewater samples were collected from 2012 to 2015 and no PVs were isolated. In contrast, NPEVs were detected in 65.3% (175/268) of samples. All NPEVs characterized belonged to enterovirus species B: echovirus type 11, 6 and 3 were the most frequently detected viruses, representing 29.1% (41/141), 20.6% (29/141) and 9.2% (13/141) of genotyped NPEVs, respectively. Keeping strong and encouraging both AFPS and ES is crucial to ensure that PV will not return unnoticed in Italy - as well as in other polio

  14. Environmental quality of a semi-natural area of the Po Valley (northern Italy): aspects of soil and vegetation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manfredi, Paolo; Giupponi, Luca; Cassinari, Chiara; Trevisan, Marco

    2014-05-01

    This work, originating in the preliminary analyses of a Life project and co-financed by the European Union ("Environmental recovery of degraded soils and desertified by a new treatment technology for land reconstruction", Life 10 ENV IT 400 "New Life"; http://www.lifeplusecosistemi.eu), aims to evaluate the environmental quality of a semi-natural area of the Po Valley (northern Italy) by analysing the characteristics of soil and vegetation. The area of study is located in the municipal territory of Piacenza (Emilia-Romagna, Italy) along the eastern shores of the river Trebbia and is made up of the closed landfill of Solid Urban Waste of Borgotrebbia (active from 1972 to 1985) and of the neighbouring areas (in North-South order: riverside area, northern borders of the landfill, landfill disposal, southern borders and cultivated corn fields). For each area pedological and vegetational analyses were carried out and in particular, as regards the soil, various chemical-physical analyses were done among which: pH, organic carbon, total nitrogen, salinity, exchangeable bases and granulometry. The ground vegetation data were collected using phytosociological relevés according to the method of the Zurich-Montpellier Sigmatist School, (Braun-Blanquet, 1964). For the analysis of the environmental quality of each area, the floristic-vegetation indexes system was applied as proposed by Taffetani & Rismondo (2009) (updated by Rismondo et al., 2011) conveniently created for analysing the ecological functionality of the agro-ecosystems. The results obtained by such applications drew attention to a dynamic vegetation mass in the landfill which, despite a value of the floristic biodiversity index (IFB) comparable to that of the borders, shows a much lower value of the maturity index (IM). This is due to the elevated percentage of annual species (index of the therophytic component = 52.78%) belonging to the phytosociological class Stellarietea mediae Tüxen, Lohmeyer & Preising ex

  15. Finite fault kinematic inversion of the 2012, May 20th and 29th Emilia-Romagna, Northern Italy, Earthquakes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cirella, A.; Piatanesi, A.; Molinari, I.

    2015-12-01

    In this study, we investigate the rupture process of the 2012, May 20 and 29, Mw 6.1 and 5.9, respectively, Emilia-Romagna, Northern Italy, earthquakes. The two earthquakes struck a densely populated region, causing 26 fatalities and significantly damaging the economy of the region. We image the rupture history of these events, by separately and jointly inverting strong motions, GPS displacements and High-Rate GPS data. The region of interest is a sedimentary basin (the Po Plain) surrounded by the northern Apennines; and it is characterized by a significant presence of fluid and strong heterogeneities leading to remarkable site effects and liquefaction phenomena; for these reasons we adopt an ad-hoc velocity profiles at each station, by inverting in a low-intermediate frequency band (0 - 0.25 Hz). We use a two-stage non-linear inversion technique that, rather than simply looking at the best model, extracts the most stable features of the earthquake rupture that are consistent with the data and gives an estimate of the variability of each model parameter. During the first stage, an algorithm based on the heat-bath simulated annealing generates an ensemble of models that efficiently sample the good data-fitting regions of parameter space. In the second stage the algorithm performs a statistical analysis of the ensemble providing us the best-fitting model, the average model, and the associated standard deviation, coefficient of variation, moda and median distributions. The goal of our work is to constrain the earthquake rupture history and to assess the associated model uncertainty, to better understand the mechanics of the causative fault as well as the observed ground shaking.

  16. Economics of vector-borne diseases prevention: The case of the Tiger Mosquito control and Chikungunya and Dengue prevention plan in the Emilia-Romagna region (Northern Italy)

    OpenAIRE

    Rivas Morales, Stefano

    2016-01-01

    Aedes albopictus is considered one of the most invasive mosquito species in the world. It has proved capacity for local transmission of Chikungunya and Dengue within Europe. This research evaluated public costs related to the implementation of the plan for Ae. albopictus control and Chikungunya and Dengue prevention set up in Emilia-Romagna region (Northern Italy), where a Chikungunya epidemic outbreak occurred in 2007, with 217 confirmed cases. The management plan started in 2008 by involvin...

  17. Late thrusting extensional collapse at the mountain front of the northern Apennines (Italy)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tavani, Stefano; Storti, Fabrizio; Bausã, Jordi; MuñOz, Josep A.

    2012-08-01

    Thrust-related anticlines exposed at the mountain front of the Cenozoic Appenninic thrust-and-fold belt share the presence of hinterlandward dipping extensional fault zones running parallel to the hosting anticlines. These fault zones downthrow the crests and the backlimbs with displacements lower than, but comparable to, the uplift of the hosting anticline. Contrasting information feeds a debate about the relative timing between thrust-related folding and beginning of extensional faulting, since several extensional episodes, spanning from early Jurassic to Quaternary, are documented in the central and northern Apennines. Mesostructural data were collected in the frontal anticline of the Sibillini thrust sheet, the mountain front in the Umbria-Marche sector of the northern Apennines, with the aim of fully constraining the stress history recorded in the deformed multilayer. Compressional structures developed during thrust propagation and fold growth, mostly locating in the fold limbs. Extensional elements striking about perpendicular to the shortening direction developed during two distinct episodes: before fold growth, when the area deformed by outer-arc extension in the peripheral bulge, and during a late to post thrusting stage. Most of the the extensional deformation occurred during the second stage, when the syn-thrusting erosional exhumation of the structures caused the development of pervasive longitudinal extensional fracturing in the crestal sector of the growing anticline, which anticipated the subsequent widespread Quaternary extensional tectonics.

  18. Anatomy of biocalcarenitic units in the Plio-Pleistocene record of the Northern Apennines (Italy)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cau, Simone; Roveri, Marco; Taviani, Marco

    2017-04-01

    The Castell'Arquato Basin (CAB) in the foothills of the thrust-belt Northern Apennines is a foreland basin infilled by Plio-Quaternary sediments and a reference area for Plio-Pleistocene biostratigraphy. The CAB exposes plurimetric biodetrital carbonate units at discrete temporal intervals. Such shell-rich units are at places lithified, turning into conspicuous biodetritral carbonate rocks (biocalcarenites) that display a cyclical stacking motif highlighted by the regular alternation with finer-grained marine deposits. The cyclical nature of thick biocalcarenites has been hypothesized to be orbitally-controlled by obliquity and/or precession cyclicity. Furthermore, biocalcarenite-mudstone couplets form distinct clusters governed by 100-400 ka eccentricity maxima starting from 3.1 Ma at the inception of the Northern Hemisphere glaciation. They correlate with sapropels cycles formed at times of maximum insolation (precession minima). The CAB calcarenites are poorly known with respect to their environmental genetic context what motivated a detailed paleoecological analysis to unravel at best their formative context. Five distinct biofacies arranged in stacking patterns are identified through two-way cluster analysis based on the macrofossil content. Our quantitative and qualitative results suggest that these polytaxic shell concentrations and their bracketing marine mudstones developed in middle shelf settings being sensitive to climatically-driven changes.

  19. Chromosomal heterozygosity and fertility in house mice (Mus musculus domesticus) from Northern Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hauffe, H C; Searle, J B

    1998-11-01

    Following the discovery of over 40 Robertsonian (Rb) races of Mus musculus domesticus in Europe and North Africa, the house mouse has been studied extensively as an ideal model to determine the chromosomal changes that may cause or accompany speciation. Current models of chromosomal speciation are based on the assumption that heterozygous individuals have a particularly low fertility, although recent studies indicate otherwise. Despite their importance, fertility estimates for the house mouse are incomplete because traditional measurements, such as anaphase I nondisjunction and germ cell death, are rarely estimated in conjunction with litter size. In an attempt to bridge this gap, we have taken advantage of the house mouse hybrid zone in Upper Valtellina (Lombardy, Italy) in which five Rb races interbreed. We present data on the fertility of naturally occurring ("wild-caught") hybrids and of offspring from laboratory crosses of wild-caught mice ("laboratory-reared"), using various measurements. Wild-caught mice heterozygous for one fusion were more infertile than predicted from past studies, possibly due to genic hybridity; laboratory-reared heterozygotes carrying seven or eight trivalents at meiosis I and heterozygotes carrying one pentavalent also had low fertilities. These low fertilities are especially significant given the probable occurrence of a reinforcement event in Upper Valtellina.

  20. Sedimentation rate and lateral migration of tidal channels in the Lagoon of Venice (Northern Italy)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donnici, Sandra; Madricardo, Fantina; Serandrei-Barbero, Rossana

    2017-11-01

    Tidal channels are crucial for the functioning of highly valuable coastal environments, such as estuaries and lagoons. Their properties, however, are currently less understood than those of river systems. To elucidate their past behaviour, an extensive geophysical investigation was performed to reconstruct the evolution of channels and tidal surfaces in the central part of the Lagoon of Venice (Italy) over the past 5000 years. Comparing high-spatial-resolution acoustic data and sedimentary facies analyses of 41 cores, 29 of which were radiocarbon dated, revealed the sedimentation rates in different lagoonal environments and allowed the migration of two large meanders to be reconstructed. The average sedimentation rate of the study succession in the different sedimentary environments was 1.27 mm yr-1. The lateral migration rates were 13-23 m/century. This estimate is consistent with the lateral migration rates determined by comparing aerial photographs of recent channels. Comparing the buried channels with historical and current maps showed that, in general, the number of active channels is now reduced. Their morphology was sometimes simplified by artificial interventions. An understanding of the impact of the artificial interventions over time is useful for the management and conservation of tidal environments, particularly for the Lagoon of Venice, where management authorities are currently debating the possible deepening and rectification of large navigation channels.

  1. Use of bioclimatic indexes to characterize phenological phases of apple varieties in Northern Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valentini, N; Me, G; Ferrero, R; Spanna, F

    2001-11-01

    The research was designed to characterize the phenological behaviour of different apple varieties and to compare different bioclimatic indexes in order to evaluate their adaptability in describing the phenological phases of fruit species. A field study on the requirement for chilling units (winter chilling requirement) and the accumulation of growing degree hours of 15 native apple cultivars was carried out in a fruit-growing area in North West Italy (Cuneo Province, Piedmont). From 1991 to 1993, climatic data were collected at meteorological stations installed in an experimental orchard (Verzuolo, Cuneo). Four methods were compared to determine the winter chilling requirement: Hutchins, Weinberger-Eggert, Utah and North Carolina. The Utah method was applied to determine the time when the chilling units accumulated become effective in meeting the rest requirements. A comparison of the different methods indicated that the Weinberger-Eggert method is the best: as it showed the lowest statistical variability during the 3 years of observations. The growing degree hour requirement (GDH) was estimated by the North Carolina method with two different base temperatures: 4.4 degrees C and 6.1 degrees C. More difficulties were met when the date of rest completion and the beginning of GDH accumulation was determined. The best base temperature for the estimation of GDH is 4.4 degrees C. Phenological and climatic characterizations are two basic tools for giving farmers and agricultural advisors important information about which varieties to choose and which are the best and the most correct cultivation practices to follow.

  2. Prismatic to Asbestiform Offretite from Northern Italy: Occurrence, Morphology and Crystal-Chemistry of a New Potentially Hazardous Zeolite

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michele Mattioli

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available A multi-methodological approach, based upon field investigation, morphological characterization, chemical analysis and structure refinement was applied to different samples of fibrous offretite, a new potentially hazardous zeolite recently discovered in northern Italy. Their morphology ranges from stocky-prismatic to asbestiform. All the investigated fibers may be considered as “inhalable”, and they are well within the range of the “more carcinogenic fibers” regarding diameter. As regards the length, the main mode observed in the asbestiform samples is 20–25 μm, and ~93% of the measured fibers are >5 μm and may be significantly associated with carcinogenesis also in terms of lengths. The chemical-structural features of the investigated fibers are comparable: the extra-framework cations K+, Mg2+ and Ca2+ are present in all samples in similar proportions, and refined cell parameters are similar among the samples. Offretite occurs in 60% of the investigated sites, with an estimated amount up to 75 vol % of the associated minerals. The presence of this mineral could be of concern for risk to human health, especially if one considers the vast number of quarries and mining-related activities that are operating in the zeolite host rocks.

  3. Buffer strip effect on terbuthylazine, desethyl-terbuthylazine and S-metolachlor runoff from maize fields in Northern Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milan, Marco; Vidotto, Francesco; Piano, Serenella; Negre, Michèle; Ferrero, Aldo

    2013-01-01

    The effectiveness of a 6 m wide vegetative buffer strip for reducing runoff of S-metolachlor, terbuthylazine and desethyl-terbuthylazine was studied in 2007-2008 in Northern Italy. Two cultivated fields, with and without the buffer strip, were compared. Residues of the chemicals were investigated in runoff water collected after runoff events and their dissipation in the soil was studied. The highest concentration of the chemicals in water occurred in samples collected from the unbuffered field at the first runoff events. Losses of terbuthylazine and S-metolachlor in runoff waters were particularly high in 2007 (2.6% and 0.9% of the amount applied, respectively). Soil half-life of terbuthylazine and S-metolachlor ranged between 12.1 and 8.9 days and 16 and 7 days, respectively. The presence of desethyl-terbuthylazine was related to parent compound degradation. The buffer strip allowed an important reduction of chemical content in water (> 90%), in particular during the first runoff events.

  4. Petrography and chemistry of tungsten-rich oxycalciobetafite in hydrothermal veins of the Adamello contact aureole, northern Italy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lumpkin, Gregory R.; Gieré, Reto; Williams, C. Terry; McGlinn, Peter J.; Payne, Timothy E.

    2017-09-01

    Tungsten-rich oxycalciobetafite occurs in complex Ti-rich hydrothermal veins emplaced within dolomite marble in the contact aureole of the Adamello batholith, northern Italy, where it occurs as overgrowths on zirconolite. The betafite is weakly zoned and contains 29-34 wt% UO2. In terms of end-members, the betafite contains approximately 50 mol% CaUTi2O7 and is one of the closest known natural compositions to the pyrochlore phase proposed for use in titanate nuclear waste forms. Amorphization and volume expansion of the betafite caused cracks to form in the enclosing silicate mineral grains. Backscattered electron images reveal that betafite was subsequently altered along crystal rims, particularly near the cracks. Electron probe microanalyses reveal little difference in composition between altered and unaltered areas, except for lower totals, suggesting that alteration is primarily due to hydration. Zirconolite contains up to 18 wt% ThO2 and 24 wt% UO2, and exhibits strong compositional zoning, but no internal cracking due to differential (and anisotropic) volume expansion and no visible alteration. The available evidence demonstrates that both oxycalciobetafite and zirconolite retained actinides for approximately 40 million years after the final stage of vein formation. During this time, oxycalciobetafite and zirconolite accumulated a total alpha-decay dose of 3.0-3.6 × 1016 and 0.2-2.0 × 1016 α/mg, respectively.

  5. Present vertical movements in Central and Northern Italy from GPS data: Possible role of natural and anthropogenic causes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cenni, N.; Viti, M.; Baldi, P.; Mantovani, E.; Bacchetti, M.; Vannucchi, A.

    2013-11-01

    Insights into the present vertical kinematic pattern in Central and Northern Italy are gained by the analysis of GPS data acquired by a network of 262 permanent stations, working over various time intervals since 2001. Uplift is observed in the Alps (up to 5 mm/yr) and Apennines (1-2 mm/yr), whereas subsidence is recognized in the southern Venetian Plain (2-4 mm/yr) and the eastern Po Valley, where the highest rates are observed (up to 9 mm/yr between Reggio Emilia and Rimini). On the other hand, the western part of the Po Valley presents very low vertical rates. The boundary between subsiding and not subsiding Po Valley nearly corresponds to the Giudicarie tectonic discontinuity. It is argued that the different kinematic patterns of the eastern and western Padanian sectors may also be related to the underthrusting of the eastern domain beneath the western one. Some considerations are then reported on how the various causes of vertical movements (tectonic and sedimentological processes) may contribute to the observed kinematics.

  6. Knowledge of human papillomavirus infection and its prevention among adolescents and parents in the greater Milan area, Northern Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Consolo Silvia

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In order to be widely accepted by users, the implementation of a new health intervention requires them to be adequately informed about its clinical importance, benefits and risks. The aim of this study was to provide data on the knowledge of Italian adolescents and parents concerning human papillomavirus (HPV infection and its prevention in order to allow the development of adequate training programmes. Methods Between 2 May and 15 June 2008, we made a cross-sectional survey of 863 high school students and 2,331 parents of middle and high school students using two anonymously completed questionnaires covering the knowledge of HPV infection and related diseases, and attitudes to vaccinations. The approached schools were a convenience sample of the schools of the greater Milan area, Northern Italy. Results More mothers than fathers were aware that HPV infection could concern their children (58% vs 53%; p = 0.004 and were favourable towards vaccinating their children against HPV (68% vs 65%; p = 0.03; among the students, more females than males were aware that HPV infection could concern themselves (45% vs 26%; p vs 40%; p Conclusions Both students and parents seem to underestimate the likelihood of HPV infection, and this is associated with a lower propensity for vaccination. This is an important indication for future training programmes concerning HPV prevention designed to increase the acceptance of HPV vaccine in families.

  7. Genetic analysis of human and swine influenza A viruses isolated in Northern Italy during 2010-2015.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiapponi, C; Ebranati, E; Pariani, E; Faccini, S; Luppi, A; Baioni, L; Manfredi, R; Carta, V; Merenda, M; Affanni, P; Colucci, M E; Veronesi, L; Zehender, G; Foni, E

    2018-02-01

    Influenza A virus (IAV) infection in swine plays an important role in the ecology of influenza viruses. The emergence of new IAVs comes through different mechanisms, with the genetic reassortment of genes between influenza viruses, also originating from different species, being common. We performed a genetic analysis on 179 IAV isolates from humans (n. 75) and pigs (n. 104) collected in Northern Italy between 2010 and 2015, to monitor the genetic exchange between human and swine IAVs. No cases of human infection with swine strains were noticed, but direct infections of swine with H1N1pdm09 strains were detected. Moreover, we pointed out a continuous circulation of H1N1pdm09 strains in swine populations evidenced by the introduction of internal genes of this subtype. These events contribute to generating new viral variants-possibly endowed with pandemic potential-and emphasize the importance of continuous surveillance at both animal and human level. © 2017 The Authors. Zoonoses and Public Health published by Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  8. Designing and implementing more effective Integrated Early Warning Systems in mountain areas: a case study from Northern Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carolina García

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available It is essential to consider and to understand the social context in which an Early Warning System (EWS is planned and to integrate all of its components, otherwise it is likely to fail. EWS are complex tools for disaster risk reduction which are only effective if they generate an appropriate response in the exposed population. Any effective EWS relies on the reaction capacity of all stakeholders. This reaction capacity is strongly dependent on how well EWS are integrated within their social context, especially with regards to potential marginalized and vulnerable communities. This dependence was confirmed in the study area in Valtellina di Tirano, northern Italy, which is recurrently affected by multiple mountain hazards. The local population is geographically marginalized due to restricted access to the region and exposure to hazardous events, and socially marginalized due to the lack of participation in decision making. Results of a survey show that the local population has low levels of perceived risk, a general lack of self-responsibility with regard to disaster risk reduction, and a tendency to transfer the responsibility to the authorities. However, respondents acknowledge and show interest in addressing their lack of preparedness and in participating actively in disaster risk reduction efforts. A follow-up survey demonstrates that significant variations in vulnerability within a given community over time, occur together with changes in traditional livelihood activities, economic systems and population demographics.

  9. Ochratoxigenic Black Species of Aspergilli in Grape Fruits of Northern Italy Identified by an Improved PCR-RFLP Procedure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Lodovica Gullino

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available A collection of 356 isolates of Aspergillus spp. collected during 2006 and 2007 from grapevines in northern Italy were identified through Internal Transcribed Spacer based Restriction Fragment Length Polymorphism (ITS-RFLP and tested for ochratoxin A (OTA production. Restriction endonuclease digestion of the ITS products using the endonucleases HhaI, HinfI and RsaI, distinguished five different RFLPs. From each pattern, three samples were sequenced and the nucleotide sequences showed different species corresponding to Aspergillus niger, A. carbonarius, A. tubingensis, A. japonicus and A. aculeatus. By comparing the sequences of the ITS regions, also the uniseriate species A. japonicus and A. aculeatus could be differentiated by HinfI digestion of the ITS products. Among the aspergilli, A. niger was the major species associated with grapes during 2006 (57.4%, while A. carbonarius was the major species during 2007 (46.6%. All the strains of Aspergillus were tested for their ability to produce OTA on Yeast extract sucrose medium (YES, as it was tested as an optimal substrate for the evaluation of OTA production by black aspergilli. Out of 356 isolates, 63 (17.7% isolates produced OTA ranging from 0.05 to 3.0 µg mL−1. Most of the ochratoxigenic isolates were A. carbonarius (46 in both years, but also some strains of A. tubingensis (11 and A. japonicus (6 produced lower amounts of OTA.

  10. Harmful algae records in Venice lagoon and in Po River Delta (northern Adriatic Sea, Italy).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Facca, Chiara; Bilaničovà, Dagmar; Pojana, Giulio; Sfriso, Adriano; Marcomini, Antonio

    2014-01-01

    A detailed review of harmful algal blooms (HAB) in northern Adriatic Sea lagoons (Po River Delta and Venice lagoon) is presented to provide "updated reference conditions" for future research and monitoring activities. In the study areas, the high mollusc production requires the necessity to identify better methods able to prevent risks for human health and socioeconomical interests. So, an integrated approach for the identification and quantification of algal toxins is presented by combining microscopy techniques with Liquid Chromatography coupled with High Resolution Time of Flight Mass Spectrometry (HPLC-HR-TOF-MS). The method efficiency was first tested on some samples from the mentioned coastal areas, where Dinophysis spp. occurred during summer in the sites directly affected by seawaters. Although cell abundance was always <200 cells/L, the presence of Pectenotoxin-2 (PTX2), detected by HPLC-HR-TOF-MS, indicated the potential release of detectable amounts of toxins even at low cell abundance.

  11. "Pericolanti" e "Pericolate" a Ferrara in età Napoleonica.

    OpenAIRE

    Bellini, Paola

    2010-01-01

    This research focuses on the system of charity and aid in Ferrara in the Napoleonic period. Particular attention has been paid to the woman’s position and this has been divided into two principal catagories: ‘The Innocent’ and ‘The Fallen’. These titles, unused for almost two centuries, defined for a considerable time, a woman’s status which centred on her honour and the dangers of losing this honour. In the 18th Century, the value of virginity was very high and was capable, through the dowry...

  12. Multidisciplinary approach to evaluate flood damage for residential buildings: first results in Northern Italy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luino, Fabio

    2015-04-01

    Flooding is the most common natural instability process in Italy. Flood damage are the results of land-use planning policies which, starting chiefly from the late 1950s and early 1960s, did not take into account the geomorphologic-hydraulic characteristics of an area or the its historical data on past flood events. Historically, compared to other areas, riverside property has always been less valuable. Unfortunately, year after year, even areas of high recreational and environmental value were intensely urbanized despite their being exposed to the threat of flooding. As the number of residential dwellings, infrastructure and industrial buildings increased, what was originally a hazard became a risk. For each flood event, the damage depends on the specific land-use of the area and subsequently on the elements at risk in the area involved and its vulnerability, expressed as a percentage of the element that has actually been lost during the event. This is why a comprehensive knowledge of the area it is so important for conducting a detailed survey of an area's structures and infrastructure and to evaluate the degree of vulnerability. This paper presents first results in Italy of the European Project called DAMAGE, the first attempt by the civil protection agencies of several European Union member states to devise a common methodology for the assessment of damage caused by natural or anthropic disasters. The main objective was to create an initial tool for practical and immediate application by civil protection agencies and local governments, to assess damage in a multidimensional perspective that takes into account infrastructure, the economy, the environment and social problems. Within the framework of a broad-based project for the evaluation and collection of reports on damage caused by floods, the CNR-IRPI of Turin and Regione Lombardia have directed attention to the town of Cittiglio (province of Varese), which was struck by severe flash flood in May 2002. One of

  13. Barbel species arrangement in a regional Natura 2000 network (Emilia Romagna, Northern Italy: An altitudinal perspective

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    Federica Piccoli

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Southern Europe hosts a large number of critical catchments for freshwater biodiversity, including endemic fish species. Unfortunately, these areas are severely threatened due to direct and indirect anthropogenic effects. In this context, with the aim to improve the effectiveness of threatened fish protection, the Life project BARBIE (LIFE13 NAT/IT/001129 started in 2014 and focused on three congeneric species of the genus Barbus: two of “priority interest” sensu Habitats Directive [Barbus caninus (Bonaparte, 1839, and B. plebejus (Bonaparte, 1839], and one alien [Barbus barbus (Linnaeus, 1758]. Our main objective was to assess the contribution of a complex of protected areas included in the Natura 2000 network – located in the provinces of Parma, Piacenza and Reggio Emilia (Norther Italy – to support the presence of the three barbel species in analysis. Additionally, we explored the role of a set of environmental variables (i.e., physical, chemical, biological, and land-use descriptors to drive the current conditions of the study sites and the responses of Barbus species. As a general rule, the present study confirmed a clear decline of the local native barbel populations, and confirmed the existence of a zonation pattern of the barbel taxa. Hence, we observed a strong altitude segregation between native vs. alien species, with the exotic B. barbus currently limited to plain and only sporadically present in the Apennine areas as genetic introgression. These evidences mirrored the altitudinal gradients of anthropogenic disturbance. The main causes were the progressive disappearance of well-structured riparian stripes, and the intense land use change, ranging from semi-natural patches (mountain and hill sectors to land clearing for intensive agriculture (lowland sectors. This highlights the need to take into account the spatial dynamics of alien invasive species in programming recovery actions that could have unexpected impacts to the

  14. Salmonella enterica prevalence in finishing pigs at slaughter plants in Northern Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irene Alpigiani

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Finishing pigs carrying Salmonella enterica are believed to be the main source of carcass contamination at the beginning of slaughtering. The aim of this study was to assess the S. enterica carrier status of finishing pigs at herd level by sampling pooled faeces on farm and mesenteric lymph nodes at slaughter in the North East of Italy. Environmental faecal samples belonging to 30 batches of pigs were collected on farm. At slaughter, mesenteric lymph nodes were collected from five randomly selected pigs per batch. S. enterica was isolated from 16 lymph nodes out of 150 (10.6% and from seven out of 30 (23.3% faecal samples. Four batches (13.3% were positive to S. enterica both in lymph nodes and in faeces. The number of batches positive to S. enterica either in lymph nodes or in faeces was 13 out of 30 (43.3%. The most prevalent serovars from lymph nodes were S. Derby (25.0% and S. Typhimurium monophasic variant 1, 4,[5],12:i:- (18.6%, which were also isolated from faecal material (14.3 and 42.8% respectively. Contaminated faecal material or lymph nodes could be a primary source of carcass contamination at slaughter during evisceration. S. enterica contamination is widespread on pig farms and carrier pigs pass undetected the inspection visits at slaughter, entering the food chain. Therefore, in order to control S. enterica in pigs, the need to quantify possible risk factors at slaughter and develop effective management strategies on farm is of paramount importance to ensure food safety.

  15. Incidence of stroke in young adults in the Reggio Emilia area, northern Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guidetti, D; Baratti, M; Zucco, R G; Greco, G; Terenziani, S; Vescovini, E; Sabadini, R; Bondavalli, M; Masini, L; Salvarani, C

    1993-01-01

    A retrospective epidemiological study on the first episode of stroke in young adults aged 15-44 years was carried out in the territory of the Local Health Unit No. 9 in Reggio Emilia (46,491 km2), Italy, from 1987 to 1989. 29 patients were identified: 17 were affected with cerebral infarction and 12 with hemorrhage. All young patients were discharged with diagnostic codes 430-438 according to the International Classification of Disease, i.e. the criteria of the World Health Organisation for stroke definition. All patients had computed tomography or necropsy. The average annual incidence rate per 100,000 population aged 15-44 for all strokes was 13.6 and the 95% confidence interval (CI 95%) was 9.1-19.6. The general population of the same age on January 1, 1987, was 69,845 and 71,920 on December 31, 1989; the incidence rate of stroke was 14.0 for males (CI 95% 7.9-2.3) and 13.2 (CI 95% 7.1-22.2) for females. The average annual incidence rates were 8.0 (CI 95% 4.7-12.2) for cerebral infarction (8.4, CI 95% 3.9-16 for males, 7.6, CI 95% 3.3-14.9 for females), 5.6 (CI 95% 2.9-9.9) for cerebral hemorrhage and 2.8 (CI 95% 1.0-6.1) for both subarachnoid (SAH) and intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH). Based on angiography or necropsy findings, aneurysms or arteriovenous malformations were present in 83% of the patients with SAH and in 66% of the patients with ICH. The 1-month fatality ratio was 0 for cerebral infarction, 50% for SAH and 33% for ICH.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  16. Morphological and Phenological characterization of Mediterranean species in Northern Sardinia, Italy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piga, Alessandra; Duce, Pierpaolo; Cesaraccio, Carla

    2016-04-01

    Monitoring of vegetation, in particular methodologies for phenological and biometrical monitoring, are widely implied for climate change studies and their importance for understanding the consequences of global environmental change on vegetation is highlighted in the most recent IPCC reports. It is very likely that, during the next decades, the Mediterranean Regions will cope to the very negative effects of climatic changes. Consequently, due to the climate change impacts and the effects of anthropogenic pressures upon natural resources, these regions are among the most vulnerable ecosystems to the effects of climate change. Therefore, appears to be of crucial importance to better understand the physiological strategies for cope to climate change adaptation for the Mediterranean maquis shrub species which are key information for developing adaptation strategies guidelines. In this work, the biological and reproductive cycle of some Mediterranean species growing in an experimental area located within a nature reserve in the peninsula of Capo Caccia, north-west Sardinia, Italy, was investigated for a period of two years. In particular, the research was focused on: (1) the study of the development processes and the description of phenological phases, and (2) the analysis of the growth processes performed through biometric and floristic composition measurements. Specific BBCH scales for each species were developed. Shoot growth and floristic composition analysis did not show a clear trend in the response of the different species to climatic manipulations but a downward trend in the number of species. The results obtained in this study add useful information on the phenological cycle and growth of the Mediterranean species, improving the knowledge on the mechanisms of adaptation to adverse environmental conditions of these species

  17. Family lifestyle and childhood obesity in an urban city of Northern Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bracale, Renata; Milani Marin, Laura Emma; Russo, Vincenzo; Zavarrone, Emma; Ferrara, Emanuela; Balzaretti, Claudia; Valerio, Alessandra; Pasanisi, Fabrizio; Nisoli, Enzo; Carruba, Michele O

    2015-09-01

    Over the last decades, the prevalence of overweight and obesity in elementary school children has steadily increased worldwide. This phenomenon is also linked to food habits. The main purpose of our study was to understand the role that environmental factors may play in this context; in particular, we investigated how and to what extent family food habits and children lifestyle are associated with the spread of children obesity. One hundred and nine primary schools, with 6-11-year-old children (n = 14,500), were recruited for this cross-sectional study in Milan (Italy). Children anthropometric data were measured and reported by parents; citizenship, fruit and vegetable consumption data of both parents and children were collected. Time spent watching television and doing physical activity was also investigated in children. The study revealed that children's vegetable (not fruit) consumption was positively associated with physical activity, while negatively associated with time watching TV; in particular, fewer hours spent watching television were a stronger protective factor than more hours spent doing physical activity. Moreover, the parental feeding style was associated with children's attitudes toward consumption of fruit and vegetable. Family characteristics (family size and level of parents' education) and children gender were associated to the risk of being overweight/obese. Our findings support the relevance of environmental factors in childhood food consumption and BMI distribution among children in an urban city. This is the reason why we stress the need to design ad hoc interventions, which should be developed in accordance with the socio-economic peculiarities of a cosmopolitan city suburb.

  18. Gamma-spectrometric measurement of radioactivity in agricultural soils of the Lombardia region, northern Italy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guidotti, Laura; Carini, Franca; Rossi, Riccardo; Gatti, Marina; Cenci, Roberto M.; Beone, Gian Maria

    2015-01-01

    This work is part of a wider monitoring project of the agricultural soils in Lombardia, which aims to build a database of topsoil properties and the potentially toxic elements, organic pollutants and gamma emitting radionuclides that the topsoils contain. A total of 156 agricultural soils were sampled according to the LUCAS (Land Use/Cover Area frame statistical Survey) standard procedure. The aim was to provide a baseline to document the conditions present at the time of sampling. The results of the project concerning soil radioactivity are presented here. The aim was to assess the content of 238 U, 232 Th, 137 Cs and 40 K by measuring soil samples by gamma spectrometry. 238 U, 232 Th and 40 K activities range 24–231, 20–70, and 242–1434 Bq kg −1 respectively. The geographic distribution of 238 U reflects the geophysical framework of the Lombardia region: the soils with high content of uranium are distributed for the most part in the South Alpine belt, where the presence of magmatic rocks is widespread. These soils show an higher activity of 238 U than of 232 Th. The 238 U activities become lower than 232 Th when soils are located in the plain, originating from basic sedimentary rocks. 137 Cs activity ranges 0.4–86.8 kBq m −2 . The lowest activity of 137 Cs is in the plain, whereas the highest is in the North on soils kept as lawn or pasture. The 137 Cs activity of some samples suggests the presence of accumulation processes that lead to 137 Cs enriched soils. This is the first survey of gamma emitting radionuclides in Lombardia that is based on the LUCAS standard sampling. The results from this monitoring campaign are important for the human radiation exposure and provide the zero point, which will be useful for assessing future effects due to external factors such as human activities. - Highlights: • A monitoring campaign of agricultural soils was carried out in Lombardia, Italy. • 156 topsoils were sampled according to the European standard

  19. The Effect of Biogas Production on Farmland Rental Prices: Empirical Evidences from Northern Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eugenio Demartini

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available In the last decade, increased environmental awareness has prompted the adoption of incentives for exploiting renewable energy sources. Among these, biogas production has received a certain attention in developed countries. Nonetheless, the subsidies provided have posed the problem of an activity (the production of bioenergy that engages in direct competition with food and feed production for limited resources, like agricultural land. Even if this competition may be softened by allocating marginal land and/or using dedicated non-agricultural crops, empirical evidence shows that biogas plants have been developed in highly-productive agricultural areas, using increasing amounts of maize silage as feedstock. Thus, studies aimed at measuring the effect of biogas production on agricultural activities are needed in order to avoid this socially undesirable outcome. The paper presents an econometric estimation of the impact of biogas plants on farmland rental values of a Northern Italian rural area. Results show that biogas has a non-linear effect on rental prices, suggesting that incentive schemes specifically accounting for plants’ dimensions and technologies would improve the social sustainability of the bioenergy sector and its coexistence with agricultural activity.

  20. Hydrochemical and Isotopic Composition of The Water Resources In The Po Delta Plain (northern Italy) and Its Environmental Impact

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rapti Caputo, D.; Martinelli, G.

    Groundwater samples from wells were collected to examine the hydrochemical char- acteristics and isotopic composition of the water resources in the Ferrara area (delta Po plain). Electrical conductivity (EC), pH, total dissolved solid (TDS), temperature of the water were directly measured in the field. Subsequently, in the laboratory, the samples were analysed for the determination of major ions such as Ca, Mg, K, Na, SO4, Cl, NO3 and HCO3. Also, oxygen, deuterium and tritium isotopic composition, of the same samples were analysed for the isotopic characterisation of the waters. Three principal water groups can be distinguished on the basis of the distribution of the values of 18O and 2H. The first group (A), include the waters from the wells that exploit the unsatured shallow aquifer, developing in mainly sandy or sandy-silty lenses. These are large diameter wells, whose depth does not exceed the 7 m, while their piezometric level is at depth varying between 2 and 3 m from the soil surface. The isotopic composition of such wells is strongly affected by meteorological events (local recharge). Indeed, the main supply to the aquifer occurs through infiltration, mainly from rainwaters and, secondly, from the waters contained in the drainage channels. The hydrochemical characteristics of the waters coming from those wells present a very high sulphate concentration (up to 508 mg/l). To the second group (B) belong the waters with an 18O and 2H content lower than the previously described group and varying, respectively, between -9.6 Ferrara plain (Po and Po di Volano rivers). In group C, are the waters of the Po River, where low values can be 1 observed both in oxygen and deuterium contents, with values equal to -9.90 s´ 0.03 and -71.3 s´ 0.9, respectively.

  1. Strong motion recordings of the 2008/12/23 earthquake in Northern Italy: another case of very weak motion?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabetta, F.; Zambonelli, E.

    2009-04-01

    On December 23 2008 an earthquake of magnitude ML=5.1 (INGV) Mw=5.4 (INGV-Harvard Global CMT) occurred in northern Italy close to the cities of Parma and Reggio Emilia. The earthquake, with a macroseismic intensity of VI MCS, caused a very slight damage (some tens of unusable buildings and some hundreds of damaged buildings), substantially lower than the damage estimated by the loss simulation scenario currently used by the Italian Civil Protection. Due to the recent upgrading of the Italian strong motion network (RAN), the event has been recorded by a great number of accelerometers (the largest ever obtained in Italy for a single shock): 21 digital and 8 analog instruments with epicentral distances ranging from 16 to 140 km. The comparison of recorded PGA, PGV, Arias intensity, and spectral values with several widely used Ground Motion Prediction Equations (GMPEs) showed much lower ground motion values respect to the empirical predictions (a factor ranging from 4 to 2). A first explanation of the strong differences, in damage and ground motion, between actual data and predictions could be, at a first sight, attributed to the rather high focal depth of 27 km. However, even the adoption of GMPEs accounting for depth of the source and using hypocentral distance (Berge et al 2003, Pousse et al 2005), does not predict large differences in motions, especially at distances larger than 30 km where most of the data are concentrated and where the effect of depth on source-to-site distance is small. At the same time the adoption of the most recent GMPEs (Ambraseys et al 2005, Akkar & bommer 2007) taking into account the different magnitude scaling and the faster attenuation of small magnitudes through magnitude-dependent attenuation, does not show a better agreement with the recorded data. The real reasons of the above mentioned discrepancies need to be further investigated, however a possible explanation could be a low source rupture velocity, likewise the 2002 Molise

  2. Intrinsic And Extrinsic Controls On Unsteady Deformation Rates, Northern Apennine Mountains, Italy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anastasio, D. J.; Gunderson, K. L.; Pazzaglia, F. J.; Kodama, K. P.

    2017-12-01

    The slip rates of faults in the Northern Apennine Mountains were unsteady at 104-105 year timescales during the Neogene and Quaternary. Fault slip rates were recovered from growth strata and uplifted fluvial terraces associated with the Salsomaggiore, Quatto Castella, and Castevetro fault-related folds, sampled along the Stirone, Enza, and Panaro Rivers, respectively. The forelimb stratigraphy of each anticline was dated using rock magnetic-based cyclostratigraphy, which varies with Milankovitch periodicity, multispecies biostratigraphy, magnetostratigraphy, OSL luminescence dating, TCN burial dating, and radiocarbon dating of uplifted and folded fluvial terraces. Fault slip magnitudes were constrained with trishear forward models. We observed decoupled deformation and sediment accumulation rates at each structure. From 3.5Ma deformation of a thick and thin-skinned thrusts was temporally variable and controlled by intrinsic rock processes, whereas, the more regional Pede-Apenninic thrust fault, a thick-skinned thrust underlying the mountain front, was likely activated because of extrinsic forcing from foreland basin sedimentation rate accelerations since 1.4Ma. We found that reconstructed slip rate variability increased as the time resolution increased. The reconstructed slip history of the thin-skinned thrust faults was characterized relatively long, slow fold growth and associated fault slip, punctuated by shorter, more rapid periods limb rotation, and slip on the underlying thrust fault timed asynchronously. Thrust fault slip rates slip rates were ≤ 0.1 to 6 mm/yr at these intermediate timescales. The variability of slip rates on the thrusts is likely related to strain partitioning neighboring faults within the orogenic wedge. The studied structures slowed down at 1Ma when there was a switch to slower synchronous fault slip coincident with orogenic wedge thickening due to the emplacement of the out of sequence Pene-Apenninic thrust fault that was emplaced at 1

  3. Holocene vegetation and fire history of the mountains of northern Sicily (Italy)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tinner, Willy; Vescovi, Elisa; Van Leeuwen, Jacqueline; Colombaroli, Daniele; Henne, Paul; Kaltenrieder, Petra; Morales-Molino, Cesar; Beffa, Giorgia; Gnaegi, Bettina; Van der Knaap, Pim W O; La Mantia, Tommaso; Pasta, Salvatore

    2016-01-01

    Knowledge about vegetation and fire history of the mountains of Northern Sicily is scanty. We analysed five sites to fill this gap and used terrestrial plant macrofossils to establish robust radiocarbon chronologies. Palynological records from Gorgo Tondo, Gorgo Lungo, Marcato Cixé, Urgo Pietra Giordano and Gorgo Pollicino show that under natural or near natural conditions, deciduous forests (Quercus pubescens, Q. cerris, Fraxinus ornus, Ulmus), that included a substantial portion of evergreen broadleaved species (Q. suber, Q. ilex, Hedera helix), prevailed in the upper meso-mediterranean belt. Mesophilous deciduous and evergreen broadleaved trees (Fagus sylvatica, Ilex aquifolium) dominated in the natural or quasi-natural forests of the oro-mediterranean belt. Forests were repeatedly opened for agricultural purposes. Fire activity was closely associated with farming, providing evidence that burning was a primary land use tool since Neolithic times. Land use and fire activity intensified during the Early Neolithic at 5000 bc, at the onset of the Bronze Age at 2500 bc and at the onset of the Iron Age at 800 bc. Our data and previous studies suggest that the large majority of open land communities in Sicily, from the coastal lowlands to the mountain areas below the thorny-cushion Astragalus belt (ca. 1,800 m a.s.l.), would rapidly develop into forests if land use ceased. Mesophilous Fagus-Ilex forests developed under warm mid Holocene conditions and were resilient to the combined impacts of humans and climate. The past ecology suggests a resilience of these summer-drought adapted communities to climate warming of about 2 °C. Hence, they may be particularly suited to provide heat and drought-adaptedFagus sylvatica ecotypes for maintaining drought-sensitive Central European beech forests under global warming conditions.

  4. Flares in Biopsy-Proven Giant Cell Arteritis in Northern Italy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Restuccia, Giovanna; Boiardi, Luigi; Cavazza, Alberto; Catanoso, Mariagrazia; Macchioni, Pierluigi; Muratore, Francesco; Cimino, Luca; Aldigeri, Raffaella; Crescentini, Filippo; Pipitone, Nicolò; Salvarani, Carlo

    2016-01-01

    Abstract This study evaluated the frequency, timing, and characteristics of flares in a large cohort of Italian patients with biopsy-proven giant cell arteritis (GCA) and to identify factors at diagnosis able to predict the occurrence of flares. We evaluated 157 patients with biopsy-proven transmural GCA diagnosed and followed at the Rheumatology Unit of Reggio Emilia Hospital (Italy) for whom sufficient information was available from the time of diagnosis until at least 4 years of follow-up. Fifty-seven patients (36.5%) experienced ≥1 flares. Fifty-one (46.4%) of the 110 total flares (88 relapses and 22 recurrences) were experienced during the first 2 years after diagnosis. The majority of relapses occurred with doses of prednisone ≤ 10 mg/day (82.9%), whereas only 3.4% of relapses occurred for doses ≥ 25 mg/day. Polymyalgia rheumatica (46.5%) and cranial symptoms (41.9%) were the most frequent manifestations at the time of the first relapse. Cumulative prednisone dose during the first year and total cumulative prednisone dose were significantly higher in flaring patients compared with those without flares (7.8 ± 2.4 vs 6.7 ± 2.4 g, P = 0.02; 15.5 ± 8.9 vs 10.0 ± 9.2 g, P = 0.0001, respectively). The total duration of prednisone treatment was longer in flaring patients (58 ± 44 vs 30 ± 30 months, P = 0.0001). Patients with disease flares had at diagnosis more frequently systemic manifestations (P = 0.02) and fever ≥ 38°C (P = 0.02), significantly lower hemoglobin levels (P = 0.05), more frequent presence at temporal artery biopsy (TAB) specimens of giant cells (P = 0.04) and intraluminal acute thrombosis (P = 0.007), and more moderate/severe arterial inflammation (P = 0.009) compared with those without flares. In the multivariate model fever ≥ 38 °C (hazard ratio 2.14; 95% confidence interval, 1.06–4.32, P = 0.03) and the severity of inflammatory infiltrate

  5. DISCOSIPHONELLA MINIMA SENOWBARI-DARYAN & LINK AND SOLENOLMIA? PARVA N. SP. ("SPHINCTOZOA", PORIFERA FROM THE UPPER TRIASSIC (NORIAN OF THE SOUTHERN APPENNINES (NORTHERN CALABRIA/ITALY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    BABA SENOWBARI-DARYAN

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Two hypercalcified sphinctozoan sponges are described from several localities of dolomitic Norian reefs of northern Calabria (southern Italy. Solenolmia? parva n. sp. occurs as an extremely abundant, albeit local, component in peculiar bioconstructions dominated by serpulids and microbialitic crusts. Discosiphonella minima Senowbari-Daryan & Link, previously recognized only in the type locality of Turkey, has been now found also as a minor component in association with other typical "Dachstein" reef biota, such as corals, sponges, microbial crusts and fragments of "microproblematica". Solenolmia? parva assemblage represents the primary framebuilder of small build-ups which developed on the margins of restricted intraplatform basins. The Discosiphonella minima assemblages were found as resedimented blocks along the slope of intraplatform anoxic basins. The distribution of the different reefal assemblages of Northern Calabria can be related to the paleogeographic position of northern Calabria with respect to the evolution of Triassic crustal extension in western Mediterranean. 

  6. Correlation between pore fluid pressures and DInSAR post-seismic deformation of the May 20, 2012 Emilia-Romagna (Italy) earthquake

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moro, M.; Stramondo, S.; Albano, M.; Barba, S.; Solaro, G.; Saroli, M.; Bignami, C.

    2015-12-01

    The present work focuses on the detection and analysis of the postseismic surface deformations following the two earthquakes that hit the Emilia Romagna region (Italy) on May 20 and 29, 2012. The 2012 Emilia earthquake sequence struck the central sector of the Ferrara arc, which represents the external fold-and-thrust system of the Northern Apennines thrust belt buried below the Po plain. The May 20 event occurred on the Ferrara basal thrust at depth, at about 6-7 km, while, during the May 29 event, the rupture jumped on an inner splay of the Ferrara system. The analysis of the postseismic displacements was carried out thanks to a dataset of SAR COSMO­ SkyMed images covering a time span of about one year (May 20, 2012 - May 11, 2013) after the May 20 event. The DInSAR results revealed the presence of two deformation patches: the first one is located in the area that experienced the coseismic uplift. Here the postseismic displacements point out a further ground uplift occurring along the first three months after the 20 May event. The second deformation patch is located in the villages of San Carlo and Mirabello, where ground subsidence lasting about four months was detected. We hypothesized that both the observed phenomena are related to the pore pressure perturbation caused by the coseismic deformation. In particular, the ground uplift is due to the deep crustal deformations caused by the pore fluid diffusion at depth to re-establish the initial hydrostatic stresses. Instead, the ground subsidence is related to the compaction of the shallow sandy layers caused by the liquefaction phenomena, which widely affected the San Carlo and Mirabello area. Preliminary numerical analyses performed with the Finite Element Method and empirical relations confirmed our hypothesis.

  7. Endolithic microbial communities in carbonate precipitates from serpentinite-hosted hyperalkaline springs of the Voltri Massif (Ligurian Alps, Northern Italy).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quéméneur, Marianne; Palvadeau, Alexandra; Postec, Anne; Monnin, Christophe; Chavagnac, Valérie; Ollivier, Bernard; Erauso, Gaël

    2015-09-01

    The Voltri Massif is an ophiolitic complex located in the Ligurian Alps close to the city of Genova (Northern Italy) where several springs discharge high pH (up to 11.7), low salinity waters produced by the active serpentinization of the ultramafic basement. Mixing of these hyperalkaline waters with the river waters along with the uptake of atmospheric carbon dioxide forms brownish carbonate precipitates covering the bedrock at the springs. Diverse archaeal and bacterial communities were detected in these carbonate precipitates using 454 pyrosequencing analyses of 16S ribosomal RNA (rRNA) genes. Archaeal communities were dominated by members of potential methane-producing and/or methane-oxidizing Methanobacteriales and Methanosarcinales (Euryarchaeota) together with ammonia-oxidizing Nitrososphaerales (Thaumarchaeota) similar to those found in other serpentinization-driven submarine and terrestrial ecosystems. Bacterial communities consisted of members of the Proteobacteria, Actinobacteria, Planctomycetes, Bacteroidetes, Chloroflexi, and Verrucomicrobia phyla, altogether accounting for 92.2% of total retrieved bacterial 16S rRNA gene sequences. Amongst Bacteria, potential chemolithotrophy was mainly associated with Alpha- and Betaproteobacteria classes, including nitrogen-fixing, methane-oxidizing or hydrogen-oxidizing representatives of the genera Azospirillum, Methylosinus, and Hydrogenophaga/'Serpentinomonas', respectively. Besides, potential chemoorganotrophy was attributed mainly to representatives of Actinobacteria and Planctomycetales phyla. The reported 16S rRNA gene data strongly suggested that hydrogen, methane, and nitrogen-based chemolithotrophy can sustain growth of the microbial communities inhabiting the carbonate precipitates in the hyperalkaline springs of the Voltri Massif, similarly to what was previously observed in other serpentinite-hosted ecosystems.

  8. On the use of an energy certification database to create indicators for energy planning purposes: Application in northern Italy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dall’O’, Giuliano; Sarto, Luca; Sanna, Nicola; Tonetti, Valeria; Ventura, Martina

    2015-01-01

    Energy certification of buildings, mandatory under the European Directive EPBD provides interesting data on the thermo-physical properties and geometry of existing buildings. Although the energy certificate is intended to provide the characteristics of individual buildings, so stimulating the real estate market toward ever better energy performance, data management of the certificates issued over time, using a national or regional energy cadastre, makes available a data base which is useful for energy planning in the building sector. This paper provides the needed results of a benchmarking study on data from the energy cadastre of the Lombardy Region, northern Italy. By integrating data from the energy cadastre (175.778 energy certificates) with the statistical data obtained from the national census, indicators were obtained on the energy performance of existing buildings. The energy indicators obtained, characterised by building type and construction period, normalised as a function of Degree-Days, become an effective tool for energy planning at local and regional scales. In the specific case, the energy indicators have been used to estimate the potential for energy retrofit of existing buildings in the Lombardy Region. The same indicators can also be used by municipalities for energy planning at the municipal or district level. -- Highlights: •A methodology in order to obtain energy performance indicators from an energy cadastre. •Data contained in the energy certificates can be used to understand the thermo-physical properties of an existing building. •Energy indicators on existing buildings are used as a tool for energy planning. •The analysis of the energy cadastre (official register) can detect errors in the registered energy certificates. •The energy indicators are used in order to quantify the energy retrofit potential in existing building stocks

  9. The Degree of One Health Implementation in the West Nile Virus Integrated Surveillance in Northern Italy, 2016

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giulia Paternoster

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available West Nile virus (WNV is endemic in the Po valley area, Northern Italy, and within the legal framework of the national plan for the surveillance of human vector-borne diseases, WNV surveillance has over time been implemented. The surveillance plans are based on the transdisciplinary and trans-sectorial collaboration between regional institutions involved in public, animal, and environmental health. This integrated surveillance targets mosquitoes, wild birds, humans, and horses and aims at early detecting the viral circulation and reducing the risk of infection in the human populations. The objective of our study was to assess the degree of One Health (OH implementation (OH-ness of the WNV surveillance system in three North Italian regions (Emilia-Romagna, Lombardy, Piedmont in 2016, following the evaluation protocol developed by the Network for Evaluation of One Health (NEOH. In detail, we (i described the OH initiative (drivers, outcomes and its system (boundaries, aim, dimensions, actors, stakeholders and (ii scored different aspects of this initiative (i.e., OH-thinking, -planning, -sharing, -learning, transdisciplinarity and leadership, with values from 0 (=no OH approach to 1 (=perfect OH approach. We obtained a mean score for each aspect evaluated. We reached high scores for OH thinking (0.90 and OH planning (0.89. Lower scores were attributed to OH sharing (0.83, transdisciplinarity and leadership (0.77, and OH learning (0.67, highlighting some critical issues related to communication and learning gaps. The strengths and weaknesses detected by the described quantitative evaluation will be investigated in detail by a qualitative evaluation (process evaluation, aiming to provide a basis for the development of shared recommendations to refine the initiative and conduct it in a more OH-oriented perspective.

  10. Plant Responses to Climate Change: The Case Study of Betulaceae and Poaceae Pollen Seasons (Northern Italy, Vignola, Emilia-Romagna

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Maria Mercuri

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Aerobiological data have especially demonstrated that there is correlation between climate warming and the pollination season of plants. This paper focuses on airborne pollen monitoring of Betulaceae and Poaceae, two of the main plant groups with anemophilous pollen and allergenic proprieties in Northern Italy. The aim is to investigate plant responses to temperature variations by considering long-term pollen series. The 15-year aerobiological analysis is reported from the monitoring station of Vignola (located near Modena, in the Emilia-Romagna region that had operated in the years 1990–2004 with a Hirst spore trap. The Yearly Pollen Index calculated for these two botanical families has shown contrasting trends in pollen production and release. These trends were well identifiable but fairly variable, depending on both meteorological variables and anthropogenic causes. Based on recent reference literature, we considered that some oscillations in pollen concentration could have been a main effect of temperature variability reflecting global warming. The duration of pollen seasons of Betulaceae and Poaceae, depending on the different species included in each family, has not unequivocally been determined. Phenological responses were particularly evident in Alnus and especially in Corylus as a general moving up of the end of pollination. The study shows that these trees can be affected by global warming more than other, more tolerant, plants. The research can be a contribution to the understanding of phenological plant responses to climate change and suggests that alder and hazelnut trees have to be taken into high consideration as sensible markers of plant responses to climate change.

  11. Plant Responses to Climate Change: The Case Study of Betulaceae and Poaceae Pollen Seasons (Northern Italy, Vignola, Emilia-Romagna)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mercuri, Anna Maria; Torri, Paola; Fornaciari, Rita; Florenzano, Assunta

    2016-01-01

    Aerobiological data have especially demonstrated that there is correlation between climate warming and the pollination season of plants. This paper focuses on airborne pollen monitoring of Betulaceae and Poaceae, two of the main plant groups with anemophilous pollen and allergenic proprieties in Northern Italy. The aim is to investigate plant responses to temperature variations by considering long-term pollen series. The 15-year aerobiological analysis is reported from the monitoring station of Vignola (located near Modena, in the Emilia-Romagna region) that had operated in the years 1990–2004 with a Hirst spore trap. The Yearly Pollen Index calculated for these two botanical families has shown contrasting trends in pollen production and release. These trends were well identifiable but fairly variable, depending on both meteorological variables and anthropogenic causes. Based on recent reference literature, we considered that some oscillations in pollen concentration could have been a main effect of temperature variability reflecting global warming. The duration of pollen seasons of Betulaceae and Poaceae, depending on the different species included in each family, has not unequivocally been determined. Phenological responses were particularly evident in Alnus and especially in Corylus as a general moving up of the end of pollination. The study shows that these trees can be affected by global warming more than other, more tolerant, plants. The research can be a contribution to the understanding of phenological plant responses to climate change and suggests that alder and hazelnut trees have to be taken into high consideration as sensible markers of plant responses to climate change. PMID:27929423

  12. Epidemiology of granulomatosis with polyangiitis (Wegener's granulomatosis) in Northern Italy: a 15-year population-based study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Catanoso, Mariagrazia; Macchioni, Pierluigi; Boiardi, Luigi; Manenti, Lucio; Tumiati, Bruno; Cavazza, Alberto; Luberto, Ferdinando; Pipitone, Nicolò; Salvarani, Carlo

    2014-10-01

    To investigate the epidemiology of granulomatosis with polyangiitis (GPA) over a 15-year period in a defined area of northern Italy. All patients with incident GPA diagnosed from January 1, 1995 to December 31, 2009 living in the Reggio Emilia area were identified by looking at computerized hospital discharge diagnoses, by contacting Reggio Emilia Hospital physicians and community-based specialists, and by checking the databases of the pathology and the laboratory departments and the Reggio Emilia district database for rare diseases. Patients were classified according to the European Medicines Agency (EMA) algorithm. Patients were followed up from the time of diagnosis until either their death or December 31, 2011. For each case, we identified 20 control subjects from the same geographic area matched for age and gender. A total of 18 patients (7 men and 11 women) with GPA were identified. The overall age- and sex-adjusted incidence rate (IR) was 2.4 per million (95% CI: 1.2-3.5). The mean annual IR increased from 1.7/million/year during 1995-1999 to 3.4 during 2005-2009. The highest IR occurred in females aged 70-79 years (13.5 per million; 95% CI: 5.0-30.0) and in males aged ≥ 80 years (14.9 per million; 95% CI: 2.5-49.4). The prevalence of GPA on December 31, 2009 was 34.3 per million (95% CI: 20.3-54.2). The point prevalence per million increased from 17.8 (95% CI: 7.7-35.1) in 1999 to 34.3 (95% CI: 20.3-54.2) in 2009. Survival among individuals with GPA was significantly reduced compared to that observed in the matched control population (p < 0.001). In the Italian population, GPA is very uncommon and GPA patients have reduced survival. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Integration of Remote Sensing Techniques for Intensity Zonation within a Landslide Area: A Case Study in the Northern Apennines, Italy

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    Veronica Tofani

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes the application of remote sensing techniques, based on SAR interferometry for the intensity zonation of the landslide affecting the Castagnola village (Northern Apennines of Liguria region, Italy. The study of the instability conditions of the landslide started in 2001 with the installation of conventional monitoring systems, such as inclinometers and crackmeters, ranging in time from April 2001 to April 2002, which allowed to define the deformation rates of the landslide and to locate the actual landslide sliding surface, as well as to record the intensity of the damages and cracks affecting the buildings located within the landslide perimeter. In order to investigate the past long-term evolution of the ground movements a PSI (Persistent Scatterers Interferometry analysis has been performed making use of a set of ERS1/ERS2 images acquired in 1992–2001 period. The outcome of the PSI analysis has allowed to confirm the landslide extension as mapped within the official landslide inventory map as well as to reconstruct the past line-of-sight average velocities of the landslide and the time-series deformations. Following the high velocities detected by the PSI, and the extensive damages surveyed in the buildings of the village, the Ground-Based Interferometric Synthetic Aperture Radar (GBInSAR system has been installed. The GBInSAR monitoring system has been equipped during October 2008 and three distinct campaigns have been carried out from October 2008 until March 2009. The interpretation of the data has allowed deriving a multi-temporal deformation map of the landslide, showing the up-to-date displacement field and the average landslide velocity. A new landslide boundary has been defined and two landslide sectors characterized by different displacement rates have been identified.

  14. The traditional irrigation technique of Lake Garda lemon--houses (Northern Italy)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barontini, Stefano; Vitale, Nicola; Fausti, Federico; Bettoni, Barbara; Bonati, Sara; Peli, Marco; Pietta, Antonella; Tononi, Marco; Ranzi, Roberto

    2016-04-01

    Between 16th and 19th centuries the North-Western side of Lake Garda was seat of an important district which, at the time of its maximum splendour between 18th and 19th centuries, produced and exported lemons and citrus even toward the Northern Europe and the Russia. The limonaie del Garda (Lake-Garda lemon-houses), the local name of the citrus orchards, were settled on terraces built on steep slopes, with landfill taken from the Eastern side of the lake, and closed by greenhouses during late autumn and winter in order to protect the cultivations. The terraces were built nearby streams, they were South-Eastern exposed and protected by walls from the cold winds. Thanks in fact to the Lake Garda microclimate, lemon trees were not cultivated in pots, as in the typical orangeries of mid-latitudes Europe, but directly in the soil. Here the citrus cultivation technique reached a remarkably high degree of standardisation, with local cultivar as the Madernino or lemon from Maderno, and it involved, as in modern industrial districts, all the surrounding land in order to satisfy the needing of required materials to build the terraces, the walls, the greenhouses and the wooden frames to hold the branches laden with fruits. Due to the great water requirement of lemon trees during summer, which is estimated to range from 150 to 300 ℓ every ten days, the water management played a key role in the cultivation technique. The traditional irrigation technique was standardized as well. During our surveys, we observed that most of the lemon-houses still conserve little stone flumes along the walls upslope to the terraces, with spillways every adult tree, i.e. about every 4 m. The flumes were filled with water taken from an upstream reservoir, built nearby a stream. The spillways were activated with a backwater obtained by means of a sand bag placed within the flume, just downstream to the spillway itself. In order to avoid any excavation, spilled water was driven to the base of each

  15. La mortalitá infantile ebraica a Ferrara nell'800

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    C. Adamo

    2003-05-01

    Full Text Available

    Obiettivi: per conoscere la qualità di vita e lo sviluppo di una collettività, tanto per il passato quanto per il presente, si ricorre sempre più spesso agli studi sulla mortalità infantile (I anno di vita. L’obiettivo del lavoro è quello di descrivere la mortalità infantile ottocentesca nella comunità ebraica di Ferrara.

    Metodi: presso l’Archivio Storico del Comune di Ferrara sono conservati i registri di morte dal 1813 al 1902 della popolazione ebraica da cui si sono tratte le seguenti variabili: anno di morte, numero progressivo del registro, cognome e nome del deceduto, sesso, giorno e mese di morte, malattia o causa di morte, età alla morte (mesi, giorni, ore. Il sesso è desunto dal nome del deceduto. Come in precedenti lavori, il nostro gruppo di ricerca, per definire la classificazione delle cause di morte nel primo anno di vita ha utilizzato fino all’anno 1854 un lavoro di Silini G. basato sulle metodologie di studio delle cause di morte nel secolo XIX a Lovere (Bergamo adattandola al diverso contesto storico geografico. Per il periodo successivo si è adottato il criterio classificatorio ISTAT (IX revisione.

    Risultati: dalle prime elaborazioni emerge, per il periodo 1813 1902, il seguente quadro: i morti nel primo anno di vita sono 552, di cui morti nella prima settimana 127 (23%, morti tra la prima settimana ed il primo mese 185 (33,5% ed oltre il primo mese 240 (43,5%. Gli aborti sono risultati complessivamente 194 ed i nati morti 96. Il 51% sono maschi ed il rimanente 49% femmine. Le cause di morte prevalenti sono “materia”, “infiammazione”, “inanizione” ed “epilessia”.

  16. WILDFIRES IN THE LATE PALAEOZOIC AND MESOZOIC OF THE SOUTHERN ALPS THE LATE PERMIAN OF THE BLETTERBACH-BUTTERLOCH AREA (NORTHERN ITALY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DIETER UHL

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available For the first time fossil macroscopic remains of charcoal as direct evidence of palaeo-wildfires from the Late Permian Gröden Formation of the Bletterbach-Butterloch area in Northern Italy is described. The charcoal consists of pycnoxylic wood and originates from gymnosperms, but a more specific affiliation is not possible due to the fragmentary nature of the material. On a global scale our knowledge about Late Permian fire-ecology is still rather scarce and this finding helps to fill one of the numerous geographical gaps in our current knowledge about Late Permian wildfires. 

  17. The use of HVSR measurements for investigating buried tectonic structures: the Mirandola anticline, Northern Italy, as a case study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarabusi, G.; Caputo, R.

    2017-01-01

    The Mirandola anticline represents a buried fault-propagation fold which has been growing during Quaternary due to the seismogenic activity of a blind segment belonging to the broader Ferrara Arc. The last reactivation occurred during the May 2012 Emilia sequence. In correspondence with this structure, the thickness of the marine and continental deposits of the Po Plain foredeep is particularly reduced. In order to better define the shallow geometry of this tectonic structure, and hence its recent activity, we investigated in a depth range which is intermediate between the surficial morphological observations and seismic profiles information. In particular, we carried out numerous passive seismic measurements (single-station microtremor) for obtaining the horizontal-to-vertical spectral ratio. The results of a combined analysis of the peak frequency and its amplitude nicely fit the available geological information, suggesting that this low-cost geophysical technique could be successfully applied in other sectors of wide morphologically flat alluvial plains to investigate blind and completely buried potential seismogenic structures.

  18. Hydrothermal Upflow, Serpentinization and Talc Alteration Associated with a High Angle Normal Fault Cutting an Oceanic Detachment, Northern Apennines, Italy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alt, J.; Crispini, L.; Gaggero, L.; Shanks, W. C., III; Gulbransen, C.; Lavagnino, G.

    2017-12-01

    Normal faults cutting oceanic core complexes are observed at the seafloor and through geophysics, and may act as flow pathways for hydrothermal fluids, but we know little about such faults in the subsurface. We present bulk rock geochemistry and stable isotope data for a fault that acted as a hydrothermal upflow zone in a seafloor ultramafic-hosted hydrothermal system in the northern Apennines, Italy. Peridotites were exposed on the seafloor by detachment faulting, intruded by MORB gabbros, and are overlain by MORB lavas and pelagic sediments. North of the village of Reppia are fault shear zones in serpentinite, oriented at a high angle to the detachment surface and extending 300 m below the paleo-seafloor. The paleo-seafloor strikes roughly east-west, dipping 30˚ to the north. At depth the fault zone occurs as an anticlinal form plunging 40˚ to the west. A second fault strikes approximately north-south, with a near vertical dip. The fault rock outcrops as reddish weathered talc + sulfide in 0.1-2 m wide anastomosing bands, with numerous splays. Talc replaces serpentinite in the fault rocks, and the talc rocks are enriched in Si, metals (Fe, Cu, Pb), Light Rare Earth Elements (LREE), have variable Eu anomalies, and have low Mg, Cr and Ni contents. In some cases gabbro dikes are associated with talc-alteration and may have enhanced fluid flow. Sulfide from a fault rock has d34S=5.7‰. The mineralogy and chemistry of the fault rocks indicate that the fault acted as the upflow pathway for high-T black-smoker type fluids. Traverses away from the fault (up to 1 km) and with depth below the seafloor (up to 500 m) reveal variable influences of hydrothermal fluids, but there are no consistent trends with distance. Background serpentinites 500 m beneath the paleoseafloor have LREE depleted trends. Other serpentinites exhibit correlations of LREE with HFSE as the result of melt percolation, but there is significant scatter, and hydrothermal effects include LREE enrichment

  19. Boron, lithium and methane isotope composition of hyperalkaline waters (Northern Apennines, Italy): Terrestrial serpentinization or mixing with brine?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boschetti, Tiziano; Etiope, Giuseppe; Pennisi, Maddalena; Romain, Millot; Toscani, Lorenzo

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: ► First data on boron and lithium isotope on waters from ophiolites are described. ► High boron and lithium isotope composition may be related to terrestrial serpentinization. ► Methane isotope data show unusual biotic signature. - Abstract: Spring waters issuing from serpentinized ultramafic rocks of the Taro-Ceno Valleys (Northern Apennine, Emilia-Romagna region, Italy) were analyzed for major element, trace element and dissolved gas concentrations and δ 11 B, δ 7 Li, δ 18 O(H 2 O), δ 2 H(H 2 O), δ 13 C(CH 4 ) and δ 2 H(CH 4 ) isotope compositions. Similar to other springs worldwide that issue from serpentinites, the chemical composition of the waters evolves with water–rock interaction from Ca-HCO 3 , through Mg-HCO 3 and ultimately to a hyperalkaline Na-(Ca)-OH composition. Most of the Ca- and Mg-HCO 3 springs have δ 11 B ranging between +16.3‰ and +23.7‰, consistent with the range of low P–T serpentinites. Very high δ 11 B in two springs from Mt. Prinzera (PR10: +39‰; PR01: +43‰) can be related to isotopic fractionation during secondary phase precipitation, as also inferred from δ 7 Li values. In contrast to typical abiogenic isotope signatures of CH 4 from serpentinized rocks, dissolved CH 4 from the Taro-Ceno hyperalkaline springs has an apparent biotic (thermogenic and/or mixed thermogenic-microbial) signature with δ 13 C(CH 4 ) ranging from −57.5‰ to −40.8‰, which is similar to that of hydrocarbons from production wells and natural seeps in adjacent hydrocarbon systems. The data suggest that CH 4 in the hyperalkaline springs investigated in this study may derive from organic matter of the sedimentary (flysch and arenaceous) formations underlying the ophiolite unit. However, small amounts of H 2 were detected in one hyperalkaline spring (PR10), but for two springs with very low CH 4 concentrations (PR01 and UM15) the δ 2 H value could not be measured, so the occurrence of some abiotic CH 4 cannot be excluded

  20. Sea-level rise along the Emilia-Romagna coast (Northern Italy) in 2100: scenarios and impacts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perini, Luisa; Calabrese, Lorenzo; Luciani, Paolo; Olivieri, Marco; Galassi, Gaia; Spada, Giorgio

    2017-12-01

    As a consequence of climate change and land subsidence, coastal zones are directly impacted by sea-level rise. In some particular areas, the effects on the ecosystem and urbanisation are particularly enhanced. We focus on the Emilia-Romagna (E-R) coastal plain in Northern Italy, bounded by the Po river mouth to the north and by the Apennines to the south. The plain is ˜ 130 km long and is characterised by wide areas below mean sea level, in part made up of reclaimed wetlands. In this context, several morphodynamic factors make the shore and back shore unstable. During next decades, the combined effects of land subsidence and of the sea-level rise as a result of climate change are expected to enhance the shoreline instability, leading to further retreat. The consequent loss of beaches would impact the economy of the region, which is tightly connected with tourism infrastructures. Furthermore, the loss of wetlands and dunes would threaten the ecosystem, which is crucial for the preservation of life and the environment. These specific conditions show the importance of a precise definition of the possible local impacts of the ongoing and future climate variations. The aim of this work is the characterisation of vulnerability in different sectors of the coastal plain and the recognition of the areas in which human intervention is urgently required. The Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) Fifth Assessment Report (AR5) sea-level scenarios are merged with new high-resolution terrain models, current data for local subsidence and predictions of the flooding model in_CoastFlood in order to develop different scenarios for the impact of sea-level rise projected to year 2100. First, the potential land loss due to the combined effect of subsidence and sea-level rise is extrapolated. Second, the increase in floodable areas as a result of storm surges is quantitatively determined. The results are expected to support the regional mitigation and adaptation strategies

  1. Natural background levels and threshold values of chemical species in three large-scale groundwater bodies in Northern Italy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Molinari, Antonio; Guadagnini, Laura; Marcaccio, Marco; Guadagnini, Alberto

    2012-01-01

    We analyze natural background levels (NBLs) and threshold values (TVs) of spatially distributed chemical species (NH 4 , B and As) which may be a potential pressure and concern in three large scale alluvial and fluvio-deltaic aquifers at different depths of the Apennines and Po river plains in Emilia–Romagna, Northern Italy. Our results are based on statistical methodologies designed to separate the natural and anthropogenic contributions in monitored concentrations by modeling the empirical distribution of the detected concentration with a mixture of probability density functions. Available chemical observations are taken over a 20 years period and are associated with different depths and cover planar investigation scales of the order of hundreds of kilometers. High concentration values detected for NH 4 and B appear to be related to high natural background levels. Due to interaction with the host rock in different geochemical environments we observed that concentration vary in time and space (including in depth) consistently with the hydrogeochemical features and the occurrence of natural attenuation mechanisms in the analyzed reservoirs. Conversely, estimated As NBLs are not consistent with the conceptual model of the hydrogeochemical behavior of the systems analyzed and experimental evidences of As content in aquifer cores. This is due to the inability of these techniques to incorporate the complex dynamics of the processes associated with the specific hydrogeochemical setting. Statistical analyses performed upon aggregating the concentration data according to different time observation windows allow identifying temporal dynamics of NBLs and TVs of target compounds within the observation time frame. Our results highlight the benefit of a dynamic monitoring process and analysis of well demarcated groundwater bodies to update the associated NBLs as a function of the temporal dependence of natural processes occurring in the subsurface. Monitoring protocols could

  2. Climate control on sulphate and nitrate concentrations in alpine streams of Northern Italy along a nitrogen saturation gradient

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Rogora

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available The role of meteorology, hydrology and atmospheric deposition on the temporal pattern of SO4 and NO3 concentrations was investigated for three streams draining alpine catchments in Northern Italy.

    The study sites lie on a gradient of atmospheric fluxes of SO4 and NO3 (from about 50 to 80 meq m−2 y−1, and from 40 to 90 meq m−2 y−1, respectively. As a consequence of the increasing N input, the three catchments are also representative of aggrading levels of N saturation. Different methods of statistical analysis were applied to monthly data for the period 1997–2005 to identify which variables (temperature, precipitation, hydrology, SO4 and NO3 deposition were the main predictors of water chemistry and its change in time. Hydrological changes and snow cover proved to be the main confounding factors in the response to atmospheric deposition in the River Masino catchment. Its particular characteristics (small catchment area, rapid flushing during runoff and thin soil cover meant that this site responded without a significant delay to SO4 deposition decrease. It also showed a clear seasonal pattern of NO3 concentration, in response to hydrology and biological uptake in the growing season.

    The selected driving variables failed to model the water chemistry at the other study sites. Nevertheless, temperature, especially extreme values, turned out to be important in both SO4 and NO3 export from the catchments. This result might be largely explained by the effect of warm periods on temperature-dependent processes such as mineralization, nitrification and S desorption.

    Our findings suggest that surface waters in the alpine area will be extremely sensitive to a climate warming scenario: higher temperatures and increasing frequency of drought could exacerbate the effects

  3. Natural background levels and threshold values of chemical species in three large-scale groundwater bodies in Northern Italy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Molinari, Antonio, E-mail: ant.molinari2002@libero.it [Politecnico di Milano, Dipartimento di Ingegneria Idraulica, Ambientale, Infrastrutture Viarie e Rilevamento, Piazza L. Da Vinci, 32-20133 Milano (Italy); Guadagnini, Laura [Politecnico di Milano, Dipartimento di Ingegneria Idraulica, Ambientale, Infrastrutture Viarie e Rilevamento, Piazza L. Da Vinci, 32-20133 Milano (Italy); Marcaccio, Marco [ARPA Emilia-Romagna, Direzione Tecnica, Largo Caduti del Lavoro, 6-40122 Bologna (Italy); Guadagnini, Alberto [Politecnico di Milano, Dipartimento di Ingegneria Idraulica, Ambientale, Infrastrutture Viarie e Rilevamento, Piazza L. Da Vinci, 32-20133 Milano (Italy)

    2012-05-15

    We analyze natural background levels (NBLs) and threshold values (TVs) of spatially distributed chemical species (NH{sub 4}, B and As) which may be a potential pressure and concern in three large scale alluvial and fluvio-deltaic aquifers at different depths of the Apennines and Po river plains in Emilia-Romagna, Northern Italy. Our results are based on statistical methodologies designed to separate the natural and anthropogenic contributions in monitored concentrations by modeling the empirical distribution of the detected concentration with a mixture of probability density functions. Available chemical observations are taken over a 20 years period and are associated with different depths and cover planar investigation scales of the order of hundreds of kilometers. High concentration values detected for NH{sub 4} and B appear to be related to high natural background levels. Due to interaction with the host rock in different geochemical environments we observed that concentration vary in time and space (including in depth) consistently with the hydrogeochemical features and the occurrence of natural attenuation mechanisms in the analyzed reservoirs. Conversely, estimated As NBLs are not consistent with the conceptual model of the hydrogeochemical behavior of the systems analyzed and experimental evidences of As content in aquifer cores. This is due to the inability of these techniques to incorporate the complex dynamics of the processes associated with the specific hydrogeochemical setting. Statistical analyses performed upon aggregating the concentration data according to different time observation windows allow identifying temporal dynamics of NBLs and TVs of target compounds within the observation time frame. Our results highlight the benefit of a dynamic monitoring process and analysis of well demarcated groundwater bodies to update the associated NBLs as a function of the temporal dependence of natural processes occurring in the subsurface. Monitoring

  4. Occupational exposure to PCDDs, PCDFs, and PCBs of metallurgical workers in some industrial plants of the Brescia area, northern Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abballe, Annalisa; Barbieri, Pietro Gino; di Domenico, Alessandro; Garattini, Siria; Iacovella, Nicola; Ingelido, Anna Maria; Marra, Valentina; Miniero, Roberto; Valentini, Silvia; De Felip, Elena

    2013-01-01

    The study was carried out in order to respond to public concern on the occupational exposure of metallurgical workers to highly toxic PCDDs, PCDFs, and PCBs in the area of the city of Brescia, northern Italy. The study investigated the effects on the haematic burden of occupational exposures to the aforesaid contaminants in different work environments, attempting to establish causal relationships and providing indications for occupational health preventive measures. Chemical concentrations were measured in blood serum of "professionally exposed" (PE) and "not professionally exposed" (NPE) subjects. NPE subjects included industrial administrative employees, Brescia inhabitants, and remote rural people. The central tendency indexes of contaminant cumulative concentrations were higher in PE than in NPE samples (for the mean values: PCDDs+PCDFs, 22.9 vs. 19.5 pgWHO-TEQ(1997)/g lb; DL-PCBs, 26.0 vs. 23.6 pgWHO-TEQ(1997)/g lb; PCDDs+PCDFs+DL-PCBs (TEQ(TOT)), 48.9 vs. 43.1 pgWHO-TEQ(1997)/g lb; Σ(6)[NDL-PCBs], 427 vs. 401 ng g(-1)lb); however, no statistical differences were detected at P=0.05. A significant difference for PCDDs+PCDFs and TEQ(TOT) was observed as the NPE data were progressively reduced to those of the remote rural people. The existence of a differential occupational exposure due to different environments was detected by applying the factor analysis to congener-specific data (analytical profiles). Findings indicate that metallurgical workers may be exposed to PCDD, PCDF, and PCB more than the general population, in particular due to non-negligible contributions to exposure from workplace ambient air. Findings also suggest that an improvement of preventive measures may be required to avoid chemical overexposure in certain metallurgical workplaces. To identify exposure groups, the DL- and NDL-PCB analytical profiles seemed to be more sensitive to environmental exposure sources/pathways than those of PCDDs and PCDFs. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All

  5. Hospital readmissions of patients with heart failure: the impact of hospital and primary care organizational factors in Northern Italy.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vera Maria Avaldi

    Full Text Available Primary health care is essential for an appropriate management of heart failure (HF, a disease which is a major clinical and public health issue and a leading cause of hospitalization. The aim of this study was to evaluate the impact of different organizational factors on readmissions of patients with HF.The study population included elderly resident in the Local Health Authority of Bologna (Northern Italy and discharged with a diagnosis of HF from January to December 2010. Unplanned hospital readmissions were measured in four timeframes: 30 (short-term, 90 (medium-term, 180 (mid-long-term, and 365 days (long-term. Using multivariable multilevel Poisson regression analyses, we investigated the association between readmissions and organizational factors (discharge from a cardiology department, general practitioners' monodisciplinary organizational arrangement, and implementation of a specific HF care pathway.The 1873 study patients had a median age of 83 years (interquartile range 77-87 and 55.5% were females; 52.0% were readmitted to the hospital for any reason after a year, while 20.1% were readmitted for HF. The presence of a HF care pathway was the only factor significantly associated with a lower risk of readmission for HF in the short-, medium-, mid-long- and long-term period (short-term: IRR [incidence rate ratio]=0.57, 95%CI [confidence interval]=0.35-0.92; medium-term: IRR=0.70, 95%CI=0.51-0.96; mid-long-term: IRR=0.79, 95%CI=0.64-0.98; long-term: IRR=0.82, 95%CI=0.67-0.99, and with a lower risk of all-cause readmission in the short-term period (IRR=0.73, 95%CI=0.57-0.94.Our study shows that the HF care specific pathway implemented at the primary care level was associated with lower readmission rate for HF in each timeframe, and also with lower readmission rate for all causes in the short-term period. Our results suggest that the engagement of primary care professionals starting from the early post-discharge period may be relevant in the

  6. Comparison of the results of different scale hydrogeological models on a terraced slope of Valtellina (Northern Italy)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camera, C.; Apuani, T.; Masetti, M.; Mele, M.

    2012-04-01

    The aim of this work was to understand and reproduce the hydrological dynamics of a slope that is terraced by dry-stone retaining walls. At first, the processes of interest were analyzed with a classical 2D unsaturated-saturated finite elements analysis, reproducing the geometry of a single terrace. In a second moment, a raster analysis at the slope scale was performed. The studied slope is located in Valtellina (Northern Italy), near the village of Tresenda, and in the last 30 years it experienced several soil slip/debris flow events that in 1983 caused 18 victims. Direct observation of the events of 1983 permitted to recognize the principal triggering cause of these events in the formation of an overpressure at the base of a dry-stone wall, that caused its failure. Using field tests and monitoring activity as input and calibration data respectively, the 2D model is able to explain the mechanisms of rainfall infiltration that can lead to the formation and evolution of a perched groundwater table at the contact between the bedrock and the walls backfill soil. Once calibrated and validated the model has been used to investigate the influence of different parameters on the studied processes, such as walls height, bedrock slope angle, and changes of both isotropic and anisotropic saturated hydraulic conductivity of soil and wall. From this sensitivity analysis, one of the most interesting results is the ability of the model to well differentiate the behaviour of a well maintained wall with an higher hydraulic conductivity than soil, from a poorly maintained wall that has lost part of its drainage capacity. In fact, only in this latter circumstance significant pore-water pressures can form at the base of the retaining structure. Moving the problem to the slope scale, although the used raster-model takes into account both the unsaturated and saturated components of flux as the 2D model, it is less precise in the description of the processes involved in the formation of

  7. Thallium-rich rust scales in drinkable water distribution systems: A case study from northern Tuscany, Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biagioni, Cristian; D'Orazio, Massimo; Lepore, Giovanni O; d'Acapito, Francesco; Vezzoni, Simone

    2017-06-01

    Following the detection of a severe thallium contamination of the drinkable water from the public distribution system of Valdicastello Carducci-Pietrasanta (northern Tuscany, Italy), and the identification of the source of contamination in the Molini di Sant'Anna spring (average Tl content≈15μgL -1 ), the replacement of the contaminated water with a virtually Tl-free one (Tlwater. This suggested that the pipeline interior had become a secondary source of Tl contamination, promoting its mineralogical and geochemical study. Rust scales samples taken from several pipeline segments, as well as leaching products obtained from these samples, were investigated through scanning electron microscopy, X-ray fluorescence chemical analyses, inductively coupled plasma - mass spectrometry, X-ray diffraction, and X-ray absorption spectroscopy. Thallium-rich rust scales (up to 5.3wt% Tl) have been found only in pipeline samples taken downstream the water treatment plant, whereas the sample taken upstream contains much less Tl (~90μgg -1 ). The Tl-rich nature of such scales is related to the occurrence of nano- and micro-spherules of Tl 2 O 3 and less abundant nanocrystalline μm-sized encrustations of TlCl. Leaching experiments on Tl-rich rust scales indicate that a fraction of the available Tl is easily dissolved in tap water; X-ray absorption spectroscopy suggests that monovalent thallium occurs in water equilibrated with the rust scales, probably related to the dissolution of TlCl encrustations. Therefore, Tl dissolved as Tl + only in the water from the Molini di Sant'Anna spring was partially removed through oxidative precipitation of Tl 2 O 3 and precipitation of TlCl. This highlights the critical role played by the addition of chlorine-based oxidants in water treatment plants that could favour the deposition of Tl-rich coatings within the pipelines, giving rise to unexpected secondary sources of contamination. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Personal and occupational risk factors for carpal tunnel syndrome in meat processing industry workers in Northern Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riccò, Matteo; Signorelli, Carlo

    2017-03-24

    Carpal tunnel syndrome (CTS) is a musculoskeletal condition that often impairs the fitness to work. Our aim is to retrospectively evaluate the association between physical exposures in meat processing industry in Northern Italy and the CTS, taking into account non-occupational factors. A cross-sectional study was performed to include 434 workers (236 males, 198 females, 37.0±10.6 years old, working age: 12.6±10.8 years) from meat processing industries. Signs and symptoms were collected at the compulsory occupational medical surveillance. Occupational risk factors were assessed through a questionnaire and direct assessment by investigators. Adjusted odds ratios (ORadj) for factors of interest were estimated through binary logistic regression. Diagnosis of the CTS was reported for 61 out of 434 subjects (14.1%) for an incidence of 11.3/1000 person- years. In general, signs and symptoms for the CTS were associated with the following demographic factors: smoking history (OR = 1.909, 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.107-3.293), previous traumas of the upper limb (OR = 3.533, 95% CI: 1.743-7.165), hypothyroidism status (OR = 7.897, 95% CI: 2.917-21.38) and, in the case of female participants only, previous pregnancies (OR = 2.807, 95% CI: 1.200-6.566) as well as a personal history of oral contraceptive therapy and/or steroidal replacement therapy (OR = 11.57, 95% CI: 4.689-28.56). The carpal tunnel syndrome cases were associated with the following occupational factors (> 4 h/day): forceful hand exertion (ORadj = 3.548, 95% CI: 1.379-9.131), repeated trauma of the hand (ORadj = 3.602, 95% CI: 1.248- 10.395), repeated movements of the wrist (ORadj = 2.561, 95% CI: 1.100-5.960). Increasing levels of hand activity and force were associated with the increased CTS prevalence among participants. Recommendations have to be provided in order to reduce occupational exposure to these risk factors and improve medical surveillance. Med Pr 2017;68(2):199-209. This work is available

  9. Personal and occupational risk factors for carpal tunnel syndrome in meat processing industry workers in Northern Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matteo Riccò

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: Carpal tunnel syndrome (CTS is a musculoskeletal condition that often impairs the fitness to work. Our aim is to retrospectively evaluate the association between physical exposures in meat processing industry in Northern Italy and the CTS, taking into account non-occupational factors. Material and Methods: A cross-sectional study was performed to include 434 workers (236 males, 198 females, 37.0±10.6 years old, working age: 12.6±10.8 years from meat processing industries. Signs and symptoms were collected at the compulsory occupational medical surveillance. Occupational risk factors were assessed through a questionnaire and direct assessment by investigators. Adjusted odds ratios (ORadj for factors of interest were estimated through binary logistic regression. Results: Diagnosis of the CTS was reported for 61 out of 434 subjects (14.1% for an incidence of 11.3/1000 person- years. In general, signs and symptoms for the CTS were associated with the following demographic factors: smoking history (OR = 1.909, 95% confidence interval (CI: 1.107–3.293, previous traumas of the upper limb (OR = 3.533, 95% CI: 1.743–7.165, hypothyroidism status (OR = 7.897, 95% CI: 2.917–21.38 and, in the case of female participants only, previous pregnancies (OR = 2.807, 95% CI: 1.200–6.566 as well as a personal history of oral contraceptive therapy and/or steroidal replacement therapy (OR = 11.57, 95% CI: 4.689–28.56. The carpal tunnel syndrome cases were associated with the following occupational factors (> 4 h/day: forceful hand exertion (ORadj = 3.548, 95% CI: 1.379–9.131, repeated trauma of the hand (ORadj = 3.602, 95% CI: 1.248– 10.395, repeated movements of the wrist (ORadj = 2.561, 95% CI: 1.100–5.960. Conclusions: Increasing levels of hand activity and force were associated with the increased CTS prevalence among participants. Recommendations have to be provided in order to reduce occupational exposure to these risk factors and

  10. Humeral fractures due to low-energy trauma: an epidemiological survey in patients referred to a large emergency department in Northern Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pedrazzoni, M; Abbate, B; Verzicco, I; Pedrazzini, A; Benatti, M; Cervellin, G

    2015-01-01

    This survey describes the epidemiology of approximately 1800 low-energy humeral fractures seen in a large emergency department in Northern Italy over 7 years (2007-2013), highlighting the differences from previous Italian studies. The purpose of this study was to determine the incidence of humeral fractures due to low-energy trauma in patients 40 years of age or older referred to a large Emergency Department (Parma, Northern Italy) in a 7-year period (2007-2013). All humeral fractures referred to the emergency department of the Academic Hospital of Parma (the main hospital in the province with a catchment area of approximately 345,000) were retrieved from the hospital database using both ICD-9CM codes and text strings. The diagnosis of humeral fracture due to low-energy trauma was confirmed by medical records and X-ray reports, after exclusion of injuries due to a clear-cut high-energy trauma or cancer. The query identified 1843 humeral fractures (1809 first fractures), with a clear predominance in women (78 %). Fractures of the proximal humerus represented the large majority of humeral fractures (more than 85 %), with an incidence progressively increasing with age (more than 60-fold in women and 20-fold in men). Simultaneous fractures (hip in particular) were frequent especially after 85 years of age (1 out of 8 cases). When compared to other Italian studies, the incidence of humeral fractures was significantly lower than that derived from discharge data corrected for hospitalization rate (standardized rate ratio 0.74; p energy humeral fractures in Italy. Our results partly differ from previous Italian studies based on indirect estimations.

  11. Spread of CTX-M-type ESßLs in isolates of E. coli from long-term care and rehabilitation facilities in Northern Italy

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    Elisabetta Nucleo

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available During the period March 2003 – May 2004 at the Laboratory of Clinical Microbiology “Redaelli” LTCRF in Milan, Italy, a total of 529 E. coli, obtained from inpatients of 3 different Long Term Care Rehabilitation Facilities (LTCRFs in Northern Italy, were processed and 77 ESßLs producers (14.5% were identified by Vitek System. The results were confirmed by double-disk synergy test with tazobactam (TZP. 61/77 isolates were characterized by higher levels of resistance to cefotaxime (CTX than to ceftazidime (CAZ. (ß-lactamase production was investigated by analytical isoelectric focusing (IEF coupled with a bioassay and showed multiple (ß-lactamase bands including one enzyme with pI 8.4 that, in a bioassay, was more active on CTX,ATM than on CAZ. The presence of (ß-lactamase genes was investigated by colony blot hybridization and by PCR amplification of blaTEM, blaSHV and blaCTX-M alleles. 43/61 isolates produced both TEM-1 and CTX-M-type enzymes, 14/61 expressed only CTX-M-type while in 4 cases were found blaCTX-M, blaTEM and blaSHV genes.The remainders (16/77, characterized by high levels of resistance to both CTX and CAZ, produced TEM-1 and SHV-5 enzymes (1/16 and TEM type ESßLs (15/16. Conjugation experiments, performed in liquid medium, confermed that the ESßLs determinants were transferable. Pulsed-field gel electrophoresis profiles of genomic DNA, digested with NotI, were analysed and revealed clonal heterogeneity. Our work confirms the emergence of CTX-M-type enzymes and their spread in Northern Italy also in longterm care and rehabilitation facilities that may be an important reservoir of ES?L producing E. coli.

  12. New insights into fault activation and stress transfer between en echelon thrusts: The 2012 Emilia, Northern Italy, earthquake sequence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheloni, D.; Giuliani, R.; D'Agostino, N.; Mattone, M.; Bonano, M.; Fornaro, G.; Lanari, R.; Reale, D.; Atzori, S.

    2016-06-01

    Here we present the results of the inversion of a new geodetic data set covering the 2012 Emilia seismic sequence and the following 1 year of postseismic deformation. Modeling of the geodetic data together with the use of a catalog of 3-D relocated aftershocks allows us to constrain the rupture geometries and the coseismic and postseismic slip distributions for the two main events (Mw 6.1 and 6.0) of the sequence and to explore how these thrust events have interacted with each other. Dislocation modeling reveals that the first event ruptured a slip patch located in the center of the Middle Ferrara thrust with up to 1 m of reverse slip. The modeling of the second event, located about 15 km to the southwest, indicates a main patch with up to 60 cm of slip initiated in the deeper and flatter portion of the Mirandola thrust and progressively propagated postseismically toward the top section of the rupture plane, where most of the aftershocks and afterslip occurred. Our results also indicate that between the two main events, a third thrust segment was activated releasing a pulse of aseismic slip equivalent to a Mw 5.8 event. Coulomb stress changes suggest that the aseismic event was likely triggered by the preceding main shock and that the aseismic slip event probably brought the second fault closer to failure. Our findings show significant correlations between static stress changes and seismicity and suggest that stress interaction between earthquakes plays a significant role among continental en echelon thrusts.

  13. Self-reported history of Pap-smear in HIV-positive women in Northern Italy: a cross-sectional study

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    Ghinelli Florio

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The incidence of invasive cervical cancer in HIV-positive women is higher than in the general population. There is evidence that HIV-positive women do not participate sufficiently in cervical cancer screening in Italy, where cervical cancer is more than 10-fold higher in women with AIDS than in the general population. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the history of Pap-smear in HIV-positive women in Italy in recent years. We also examined the sociodemographic, clinical, and organizational factors associated with adherence to cervical cancer screening. Methods A cross-sectional study was conducted between July 2006 and June 2007 in Emilia-Romagna region (Northern Italy. All HIV-positive women who received a follow-up visit in one of the 10 regional infectivology units were invited to participate. History of Pap-smear, including abnormal smears and subsequent treatment, was investigated through a self-administered anonymous questionnaire. The association between lack of Pap-smear in the year preceding the interview and selected characteristics was assessed by means of odds ratios (OR and 95% confidence intervals adjusted for study centre and age. Results A total of 1,002 HIV-positive women were interviewed. Nine percent reported no history of Pap-smear, and 39% had no Pap-smear in the year prior to the date of questionnaire (last year. The lack of Pap-smear in the last year was significantly associated with age Three hundred five (34% women reported a previous abnormal Pap-smear, and of the 178 (58% referred for treatment, 97% complied. Conclusions In recent years the self-reported history of Pap-smear in HIV-positive women, in some public clinics in Italy, is higher than previously reported, but further efforts are required to make sure cervical cancer screening is accessible to all HIV-positive women.

  14. Recent demographic trends in the northern borderland between Italy and Slovenia: Stabilization or further redistribution of population?

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    Josipovič Damir

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The contribution presents findings from the research on a constitution of new ethnic identities in Alps-Adriatic region. The key question dealt here with was to which extent the recent demographical processes impact the peripheral, mountainous, and ethnically specific cross-border region between Slovenia and Italy. In lay and professional discourse there is still omnipresent mentality of extinguishing Slovene minority in Italy. Applying various demographical methods the article resolves the demographical processes and quantifies the extent of the local Slovene speakers. The author argues that the recent demographical processes of heavy depopulation tend to stabilize towards stagnation. Depopulation is stronger in the Slovenian part of the region, though the traditional Slovene-speaking areas in Italy aren’t as threatened as the adjacent Friulian areas. New migration trends along with the generally low fertility contribute to changes in traditional dualistic structure and bring refreshment to remote parts of the border region as well.

  15. Coastal Risk Assessment Framework tool for the identification of hotspots along the Emilia-Romagna coastline (northern Italy)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armaroli, Clara; Duo, Enrico; Ciavola, Paolo

    2017-04-01

    The Emilia-Romagna coastline is located in northern Italy, facing the Adriatic sea. The area is especially exposed to the flooding hazard because of its low lying nature, high urbanisation and the large exploitation of beach resources for tourism. The identification of hotspots where marine flooding can cause significant damages is, therefore, a key issue. The methodology implemented to identify hotspots is based on the Coastal Risk Assessment Framework tool that was developed in the RISC-KIT project (www.risckit.eu). The tool combines the hazard component with different exposure indicators and is applied along predefined coastal sectors of almost 1 Km alongshore length. The coastline was divided into 106 sectors in which each component was analysed. The hazard part was evaluated through the computation of maximum water levels, obtained as the sum of wave set-up, storm surge and tide, calculated along representative beach profiles, one per sector, and for two return periods (10 and 100 years). The data for the computation of the maximum water level were extracted from the literature. The landward extension of flood-prone areas in each sector was the extension of the flood maps produced by the regional authorities for the EU Flood Directive and for the same return periods. The exposure indicators were evaluated taking into account the location and type of different assets in each sector and in flood-prone areas. Specifically, the assets that were taken into account are: the transport network, the utilities (water, gas and electricity) networks, the land use typologies, the social vulnerability status of the population and the business sector. Each component was then ranked from 1 to 5, considering a scale based on their computed value (hazard), importance and location (exposure indicators). A final coastal index (CI) was computed as the root mean square of the geometrical mean of the exposure indicators multiplied by the hazard indicator. Land use typologies were

  16. Asbestos exposure during quarrying and processing of serpentinites: a case study in Valmalenco, Central Alps, Northern Italy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cavallo, A.; Rimoldi, B.

    2012-04-01

    Serpentinites are metamorphic rocks derived from ultramafics such as peridotites (lherzolites and/or harzburgites), with a typical mineralogical assemblage of antigorite, olivine, diopside and minor magnetite, chlorite and chrysotile. If the rock mass has good geotechnical properties, these stones are quarried because of their wide variety of green shades and outstanding technical properties. Excellent stones are produced in the Malenco Valley, Central Alps (northern Italy, Sondrio): here the geological set-up is dominated by the ultramafic Malenco massif (lower crust-mantle complex), exposed at the Penninic to Austroalpine boundary zone. Different processing operations give origin to valuable products like stoves, funeral monuments, design home appliances; important building element as roof slabs, tiles for floor and wall coverings constitute the main commercial line of production. In this area, good quality long fibre chrysotile asbestos was mined since the XIX century, till the seventies. The asbestos fissures (mostly slip-fiber) are well known in Valmalenco, associated to an important ENE-WSW striking fracture and hydrothermal vein system. Some actual serpentinite quarries "cross" at times tunnels of the old asbestos mines, because the fracture and vein system "guides" the extraction. At present time, this area represents an excellent example of naturally occurring asbestos (NOA). For these reasons, workers' exposure to asbestos during quarrying and processing cannot be ruled out, and must be assessed according to national laws. From 2004 to nowadays, the INAIL Regional Management of Lombardia, with the collaboration of University of Milan-Bicocca, carried out extensive monitoring campaigns both in quarries and in processing laboratories. More than 300 massive samples (rocks and veins) and 250 airborne dust samples were collected during the surveys. One of the main problems in the study of massive serpentinites is the accurate identification of the different

  17. Archaeometric study of bricks from the ancient defence walls around the town of Pavia in northern Italy

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    Veniale, F.

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available A study was conducted on bricks sampled from the defense walls around the historic town of Pavia (northern Italy erected during Roman (uncertain and “Spanish”(sixteenth-seventeenth centuries times. An analysis of colour, macro- and micro-chemical composition,mineralogical clusters and structural-textural features showed that similar raw materials were used in the manufacture of these bricks, although certain variations were identified: particle size is finer in Roman bricks, while the “Spanish” version contains ground carbonate and “chamotte” additives. The “Spanish” bricks,fired at lower temperatures, are more porous. The wide range of firing temperatures used to make “Spanish” bricks was very likely related to the intended use. The sporadic presence of maghemite is discussed in the context of the atmosphere prevailing in the kilns. The “Spanish” bricks are lighter in colour as a result of their carbonate content and lower firing temperature. These characteristics, which affect the weather resistance of the different types of brick, should be taken into account in restoration work.Se investigan ladrillos recogidos en las murallas defensivas de la histórica ciudad de Pavía (norte de Italia, que fueron construidas en tiempos romanos (no establecidosy “españoles” (siglos XVI y XVII.En base al color, composición química tanto total como puntual, asociaciones mineralógicas y características texturales,se concluye que se utilizó una materia prima similar en ambas épocas, con algunas particularidades: granulometría más fina en los romanos, adición de carbonato molido y chamota en los “españoles”. Por su parte, la porosidad es mayor en los ladrillos “españoles”. El amplio rango de temperaturas de cocción observado para estos últimos debe estar relacionado con los distintos usos para los cuales fueron destinados. La presencia esporádica de

  18. Detection, enumeration and characterization of Yersinia enterocolitica 4/O:3 in pig tonsils at slaughter in Northern Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonardi, Silvia; Alpigiani, Irene; Pongolini, Stefano; Morganti, Marina; Tagliabue, Silvia; Bacci, Cristina; Brindani, Franco

    2014-05-02

    Tonsils from 150 pigs slaughtered at 270 days or older were tested for Yersinia enterocolitica with different cultural methods. Samples were collected in three different abattoirs of Northern Italy between April and November 2012 and were analysed by direct plating on cefsulodin-irgasan-novobiocin (CIN) agar and by enrichment procedures following the ISO 10273:2003 reference method. Twenty-three (15.3%) samples were positive: 22 tonsils (14.7%) were positive for human pathogenic Y. enterocolitica bio-serotype 4/O:3 and one tonsil (0.7%) for Y. enterocolitica bio-serotype 1A/7,8-8,8,19. Seventeen samples out of 23 (73.9%) were positive by direct plating method. Among the enrichment procedures, the best recovery rate (8 positives out of 23; 34.8%) was obtained by the two-day enrichment in peptone-sorbitol-bile (PSB) broth followed by plating on CIN agar plates. The two-day enrichment in PSB followed by potassium hydroxide (KOH) treatment before plating onto CIN agar gave 7 positives out of 23 (30.4%), decreasing to 3 positives (13.0%) without KOH treatment. The worst results were obtained by prolonged (five days) enrichment in PSB, with or without KOH treatment, followed by plating on CIN agar: 4.3% (1 out of 23) and 0.0% recovery rates, respectively. The mean concentration was 1.9 × 10(4)CFU/g, with a minimum of 1.0 × 10(2)CFU/g and a maximum of 5.8 × 10(4)CFU/g, thus demonstrating that tonsils may play an important role in contamination of pluck sets, carcasses, and slaughterhouse environment. Prevalence of virulence genes among the Y. enterocolitica 4/O:3 isolates was as follows: 12/22 (54.5%) for yadA, 21/22 (95.5%) for ail, 21/22 (95.5%) for inv and 22/22 (100%) for ystA. All Y. enterocolitica 4/O:3 isolates were sensitive to amoxicillin/clavulanic acid, ciprofloxacin and ceftazidime and resistant to ampicillin and cephalotin. High proportions of 4/O:3 isolates (95%) were sensitive to cefotaxime, gentamicin, kanamicin and nalidixic acid. High levels of

  19. No signature of Y chromosomal resemblance between possible descendants of the Cimbri in Denmark and Northern Italy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Børglum, Anders; Vernesi, Cristiano; Jensen, Peter K A

    2007-01-01

    the Elb estuary (northern Germany) or specifically towards the north (Himmerland in northern Jutland). In the alpine parts of Veneto, northeast of the historical battlefield, local traditions dating back to late medieval time, identify a local population as Cimbri living in Terra dei Cimbri...

  20. Evaluation of intrinsic groundwater vulnerability to pollution: COP method for pilot area of Carrara hydrogeological system (Northern Tuscany, Italy)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baldi, B.; Guastaldi, E.; Rossetto, R.

    2009-04-01

    During the characterization of the Apuan Alps groundwater body ( "Corpo Idrico Sotterraneo Significativo", briefly CISS) (Regione Toscana, 2007) the intrinsic vulnerability has been evaluated for Carrara hydrogeological system (Northern Tuscany, Italy) by means of COP method, developed within COST 620 European Action (Zwalhlen, 2003). This system is both characterized by large data availability and it is considered an highly risky zone since groundwater protection problems (turbidity of the tapped spring waters and hydrocarbons contamination) and anthropic activity (marble quarries). The study area, 20 Km2large, has high relief energy, with elevations ranging from 5 to 1700 m amsl in almost 5 km. Runoff is scarce except during heavy rainfall; due to the presence of carbonate rocks infiltration is high: groundwater discharge at 155-255 m amsl. The area is located in the north-western part of Apuan Alps Metamorphic Complex, characterized by carbonate and non-carbonate rocks belonging to the non-metamorphic Tuscan Units (Carnic-Oligocene), Mesozoic Succession, Middle-Triassic Succession, and metamorphic Paleozoic rocks. The main geological structure of the area is the Carrara Syncline, constituted prevalently by dolostones, marbles and cherty limestones. These carbonate formations define several moderately to highly productive hydrogeological units, characterized by fissured and karst flow. Hydrogeological system may be subdivided in two different subsets, because of both geo-structural set up and area conformation. However, these are hydrogeologically connected since anisotropy and fractures of karst groundwater. The southern boundary of Carrara hydrogeological system shows important dammed springs, defined by low productive units of Massa Unit (Cambriano?-Carnic). COP methodology for evaluating intrinsic vulnerability of karst groundwater is based on three main factors for the definition of vulnerability itself: COPIndex = C (flow Concentration) *O (Overlying layers

  1. The Mousterian lithic assemblage of the Ciota Ciara cave (Piedmont, Northern Italy: Exploitation and conditioning of raw materials

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    Sara Daffara

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The Ciota Ciara cave is situated in Monte Fenera’s karst (Borgosesia – Vercelli, at 670 metres above sea level. It is the most important evidence of a Middle Palaeolithic settlement in Piedmont: the cave was used by Homo neanderthalensis during the OIS 5, in a mild-humid period, as proven by faunal remains. The environment was characterized by deciduous woodland and glades. The intersection between different habitats, the presence of lithic raw materials, the karst morphology and water sources were certainly the main factors that encouraged human settlement during the Upper Pleistocene period, between 80.000 and 70.000 BP.In 2009 systematic excavations began in the cave by the University of Ferrara, in partnership with the Soprintendenza per i Beni Archeologici del Piemonte e del Museo di Antichità Egizie. Research focused on the cave’s atrium where three stratigraphic units were investigated: 13, 103 and 14.The exploited raw materials’ characterization were made by the stereo-microscope observations and through the SEM (Scanning Electron Microscope. Several lithologies are represented in different proportion: quartz is the predominant exploited raw material, followed by spongolite, sandstone, mylonite and opal. The archaeological record consists of various typologies of quartz: macro-crystalline pegmatite quartz, micro-crystalline pegmatite quartz and hyaline quartz. All these types of raw materials have been found in the proximity of the archaeological site, within 5 km range.The lithic assemblage is made of flakes, retouched tools, cores and debris. The raw materials exploitation was achieved through the direct percussion technique with various methods: S.S.D.A., discoid and Levallois. The reduction sequences on quartz are complete, although no refitting was found. The reduction sequence is not complete for most part of the other raw materials. The débitage products are small-medium size (1-4 cm and have different morphologies

  2. USE OF THE “ROTHC” MODEL TO SIMULATE SOIL ORGANIC CARBON DYNAMICS ON A SILTY-LOAM INCEPTISOL IN NORTHERN ITALY UNDER DIFFERENT FERTILIZATION PRACTICES

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    Rosa Francaviglia

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available We evaluated the efficiency of the RothC model to simulate Soil Organic Carbon (SOC dynamics after 12 years of organic and mineral fertilization practices in a study area located in northern Italy, on a silty-loam Inceptisol with a rotation including tomato, maize and alfalfa. The model performance was assessed by RMSE and EF coefficients. RothC simulated well observed SOC decreases in 71 samples (RMSE=7.42; EF=0.79, while performed with less accuracy when considering all samples (96 samples; RMSE=12.37; EF=0.58, due to the fact that the model failed in case of measured SOC increases (25 samples; RMSE=20.77; EF=-0.038. The model was used to forecast the SOC dynamics over a 50 year period under the same pedoclimatic conditions. Only clay contents >15% allowed to predict increasing levels of SOC respect to the starting values.

  3. BIRD-LIKE HEAD ON A CHAMELEON BODY: NEW SPECIMENS OF THE ENIGMATIC DIAPSID REPTILE MEGALANCOSAURUS FROM THE LATE TRIASSIC OF NORTHERN ITALY

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    SILVIO RENESTO

    2000-07-01

    Full Text Available Two new Megalancosaurus specimens collected from the Norian (Late Triassic Calcare di Zorzino (Zorzino Limestone Formation (Bergamo, Lombardy, Northern Italy, and from the coeval Dolomia di Forni (Forni Dolostone Formation (Udine, Friuli, North-eastern Italy improve our knowledge of skeletal anatomy and mode of life of this genus. Morphology of observable skull elements and cervical vertebrae in one of the new specimens shows some resemblance to the possible Triassic bird Protoavis, while the postcranial skeleton of Megalancosaurus is completely non-avian. This may suggest that either Megalancosaurus and Protoavis developed a similar neck structure as a response to the same functional requirement, or that part of the disarticulated material ascribed to Protoavis may indeed belong to a Megalancosaurus-like reptile. Megalancosaurus shows a very high adaptation to arboreal life and a peculiar feeding strategy. Recent suggestions that Megalancosaurus may have been a glider and a possible model for bird ancestry are discussed. Some skeletal features of Megalancosaurus may indeed be interpreted as gliding adaptation, but evidence is weak, and if this reptile was a glider, however, its gliding bauplan should have been completely different from the one usually accepted for bird ancestors, showing instead more morphological similarities with gliding squirrels, phalangeriids and putative ancestors of bats and pterosaurs (according to a non cursorial model for these latter. 

  4. The Shifting Border of Food Perceptions and Cultural Identity in Maghrebi Muslim Migrants. History and the Contemporary Experience of Cultural Mediators in Northern Italy

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    Roberta Rosa Giovine

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available In recent decades, Italy has become a point of entry to the EU and, for many migrants from the Southern shores of the Mediterranean, a final destination (IOM Report, 2011. As massive inflows have often caused emergencies, the pressing needs of these populations in the areas of housing, healthcare, education, etc. have been examined and addressed (data: Regional Authority and Milan Diocese Observatories. Realizing that the cultural implications in the area of food, had not been systematically studied thus far, the author developed a three-year project, focusing on northwest African Muslim migrants and the change in their perception of food, particularly in light of the strong religious implications that food has historically had to Arab populations. After reviewing the key traits of Arab-Berber food history, their translation into contemporary life in the countries of origin and destination was investigated, through interviews with, primarily, cultural mediators, as well as anthropologists, food experts, food chain professionals, and the migrants themselves. The overall research delves into the migrants’ views of food back in Northern Africa and Maghrebi3 and other food in Italy, with an emphasis on ideas of purity and identity (in culinary practices, ingredients, celebrations, table manners, the restaurant system and distribution.

  5. The Shifting Border of Food Perceptions and Cultural Identity in Maghrebi Muslim Migrants. History and the Contemporary Experience of Cultural Mediators in Northern Italy

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    Roberta Giovine

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available In recent decades, Italy has become a point of entry to the EU and, for many migrants from the Southern shores of the Mediterranean, a final destination (IOM Report 2011. As massive inflows have often caused emergencies, the pressing needs of these populations in the areas of housing, healthcare, education, etc. have been examined and addressed (data: Regional Authority and Milan Diocese Observatories. Realizing that the cultural implications in the area of food, had not been systematically studied thus far, the author developed a three-year project, focusing on northwest African Muslim migrants and the change in their perception of food, particularly in light of the strong religious implications that food has historically had to Arab populations. After reviewing the key traits of Arab-Berber food history, their translation into contemporary life in the countries of origin and destination was investigated, through interviews with, primarily, cultural mediators, as well as anthropologists, food experts, food chain professionals, and the migrants themselves. The overall research delves into the migrants’ views of food back in Northern Africa and Maghrebi and other food in Italy, with an emphasis on ideas of purity and identity (in culinary practices, ingredients, celebrations, table manners, the restaurant system and distribution.

  6. Investigating burnout situations, nurses' stress perception and effect of a post-graduate education program in health care organizations of northern Italy: a multicenter study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arrigoni, Cristina; Caruso, Rosario; Campanella, Francesca; Berzolari, Francesca Gigli; Miazza, Daniela; Pelissero, Gabriele

    2015-01-01

    Burnout (BO) is increasingly considered a public health problem: it is not only harmful to the individual, but also for the organization. Therefore, in recent years, research has given particular attention to the study of the phenomenon and its antecedents among the nursing profession. In the last ten years, the literature shows the prevalence of BO in different clinical settings, but there are few recent data describing the phenomenon and its relationship with educational preventive programs. The aims of this study are: a) to describe the prevalence of nurses' risk of BO in the northern Italy area b) to describe nurses' coping and their perception of the BO antecedents. c) to describe the effects of education on the nurses' coping and their recognition of BO antecedents. The study is structured into two main parts. The first was cross-sectional, the second was prospective. Burnout Potential Inventory (BPI) questionnaire was used in the cross-sectional part to survey risk of BO in three big hospitals in Northern Italy. The Health Profession Stress and Coping Scale (HPSCS) was used in the prospective part to survey the nurses' stress perception and their coping mechanisms in a post-graduate educational program. Nurses' BO risk is within the normal range, although the BPI highlighted three borderline subscales: poor team work, work overload and poor feedback. Post-graduate education had a positive effect on the stress perception, but it is not sufficient to improve coping mechanisms. The study revealed the more stressful work situations and the effect of post-graduate education to prevent the effects of stress. This topic needs further investigation in the light of the result of this study.

  7. Isotopic estimation of the evapo-transpiration flux in a plain agricultural region (Po plain, Northern Italy)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Elmi, Giovanni; Sacchi, Elisa; Zuppi, Gian Maria; Cerasuolo, Marcello; Allais, Enrico

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: ► Isotopic data from 19-months monitoring of water vapour and monthly precipitation. ► The mean annual weighted δ 18 O in rainwater samples is −6.90 ± 2.2. ► Results interpreted in relationship to climatic factors and to air masses circulation. ► Besides local vapour, moisture is carried by continental and maritime circulations. ► A computational method based on isotopes (EMMA) allows quantifying the local vapour fraction. - Abstract: Samples of water vapour and monthly precipitation were collected in Pavia, located 50 km south of Milan (Western Po plain, Northern Italy), over a period of 19 months, from March 2006 to September 2007. Results are interpreted in relation to the local climatic factors (temperature and precipitation rates), and to air mass circulation patterns, derived from sea level pressure maps, geopotential maps and satellite images. Since most water vapour samples represent a mixture of continental air masses and local evapo-transpiration fluxes, a computational method based on the stable isotope content (EMMA) has been used to evaluate the percentage of the different components and to quantify the local vapour fraction. The regression line equation for rainwater samples is: δ 2 H vs.VSMOW =8.8(±0.5)·δ 18 O vs.SMOW +14.5(±3.5)‰(R 2 =0.96;n=17) The slope of the line is extremely high and probably related to the dataset used, which includes two summer seasons and one winter season. In addition, the latter was somewhat anomalous, with recorded average temperatures higher than the average calculated for the years 1970–2002. The mean annual weighted δ 18 O in rainwater samples is equal to −6.90 ± 2.2‰. The regression line equation for water vapour samples is: δ 2 H vs.VSMOW =6.8(±0.3)·δ 18 O vs.SMOW -7.4(±4.9)‰(R 2 =0.92;n=37). The two regression lines meet at δ 18 O = −10.82 ± 13.97‰. This value appears more depleted than the mean annual weighted precipitation value, but is close to the isotope

  8. Resultados del tratamiento con anillos de Ferrara en pacientes con diagnóstico de queratocono Results of the treatment of patients diagnosed with keratoconus using Ferrara rings

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    Judith Cuevas Ruiz

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: El propósito de este trabajo fue evaluar los resultados del tratamiento con anillos de Ferrara en pacientes con queratocono. MÉTODOS: Se realizó un estudio prospectivo descriptivo en 17 ojos de 12 pacientes de uno y otro sexos con diagnóstico de queratocono, operados con anillos intraestromales de Ferrara, y se evaluó la refracción dinámica y queratometría topográfica preoperatoria y a los 6 meses del posoperatorio de los pacientes, así como las complicaciones detectadas mediante biomicroscopia. Los datos fueron procesados con el uso del paquete profesional estadístico SPSS (Statistical Package for Social Sciences versión 11.5. RESULTADOS: La agudeza visual sin y con corrección mejoró en 70,6 y 82,4 % respectivamente. El componente esférico y el astigmatismo evolucionaron favorablemente en 76,5 % de los pacientes. Las queratometrías en el meridiano fuerte mejoraron en 94,1 y el débil en 70,6 %. Las complicaciones no fueron significativas. Las opacidades perianulares fueron las más frecuentes en 29,4 % de los casos. CONCLUSIONES: El implante de anillos intraestromales de Ferrara constituye una alternativa quirúrgica y terapéutica eficaz para los pacientes portadores de queratocono.OBJECTIVES: This paper was aimed at evaluating the results of the treatment of patients with keratoconus using Ferrara rings. METHODS: A prospective and descriptive study of 17 eyes from 12 patients of both sexes, diagnosed with keratoconus and operated on with intrastromal Ferrara rigs was conducted. Dynamic refraction and topographic keratometry were assessed preoperatively and 6 months after the surgery as well as detected complications were analyzed using biomicroscopy. Data processing used SPSS package (Statistical Package for Social Sciences version 11.5. RESULTS: Visual acuity without and with correction improved in 70.6% and 82.4% of cases respectively. Spheral component and astigmatism positively evolved in 76,5% of patients

  9. Publishing procedures and cost of books at Ferrara in late sixteenth century

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    Valentina Sonzini

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Thanks to some unpublished archival documents – now published in the appendix – it is possible to analyze the issues of Consiliorum by Giovanni Battista Laderchi and of De principibus Atestinis by Giovanni Battista Pigna, both published in Ferrara by Vittorio Baldini. The aim of the writing is to define the cost of the book in Ferrara at the end of the sixteenth century, and to highlight some publishing procedures both in the package of the books, and in the relationship between author and printer.

  10. Tomographic models and seismotectonics of the Reggio Emilia region, Italy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciaccio, M. G.; Chiarabba, C.

    2002-02-01

    The aim of this study is to define the Vp and Vp/Vs structure of the fault zone ruptured by the M L 5.1 earthquake of October 15, 1996 which occurred near Reggio Emilia (central-northern Italy). A 1-month-long seismic sequence followed the mainshock and occurred in a small region along the outer border of the northern Apenninic belt, at depth ranging between 10 and 17 km. P- and S-wave arrival times from 304 aftershocks recorded by two local dense seismic arrays installed in the epicentral region have been inverted to obtain one- and three-dimensional velocity models by using state of the art local earthquake tomographic techniques. Velocity models and aftershock relocation help us to infer the seismotectonic of the region. Earthquakes originated along a NW-dipping backthrust of a NE-trending main thrust, composing the western part of the broad Ferrara Arc. A main high Vp and high Vp/Vs region delineates a pop-up structure in the center of the area. The high Vp/Vs within the pop-up structure supports the presence of a zone with increased pore pressure. The hypocentral depth of both mainshock and aftershocks is greater than those usually found for the main seismogenic regions of the Apenninic belt. P-wave velocity values in the seismogenic area, obtained by tomography, are compatible with rocks of the Mesozoic cover and suggest that seismicity occurred within the Mesozoic units stack at present by compressional tectonics.

  11. Investigation and monitoring in support of the structural mitigation of large slow moving landslides: an example from Ca' Lita (Northern Apennines, Reggio Emilia, Italy)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corsini, A.; Borgatti, L.; Caputo, G.; de Simone, N.; Sartini, G.; Truffelli, G.

    2006-01-01

    The Ca' Lita landslide is a large and deep-seated mass movement located in the Secchia River Valley, in the sector of the Northern Apennines falling into Reggio Emilia Province, about 70 km west of Bologna (Northern Italy). It consists of a composite landslide system that affects Cretaceous to Eocene flysch rock masses and chaotic complexes. Many of the components making up the landslide system have resumed activity between 2002 and 2004, and are now threatening some hamlets and an important road serving the upper watershed area of River Secchia, where many villages and key industrial facilities are located. This paper presents the analysis and the quantification of displacement rates and depths of the mass movements, based on geological and geomorphological surveys, differential DEM analysis, interpretation of underground stratigraphic and monitoring data collected during the investigation campaign that has been undertaken in order to design cost-effective mitigation structures, and that has been conducted with the joint collaboration between public offices and research institutes.

  12. Changes in patterns of uveitis at a tertiary referral center in Northern Italy: analysis of 990 consecutive cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luca, Cimino; Raffaella, Aldigeri; Sylvia, Marchi; Valentina, Mastrofilippo; Fabiana, Viscogliosi; Marco, Coassin; Annamaria, Soldani; Luisa, Savoldi; Alessandro, De Fanti; Lucia, Belloni; Alessandro, Zerbini; Maria, Parmeggiani; Matthew, Chersich; Alessandra, Soriano; Carlo, Salvarani; Luigi, Fontana

    2018-02-01

    The role of uveitis, an uncommon ocular disease, is often neglected in research and treatment of autoimmune conditions. The study described the spectrum of uveitis at a referral center in North Italy, and compared that to a previously published series of patients. We reviewed all patients with uveitis diagnosed from 2013 to 2015 at the Immunology Eye Unit, Arcispedale S. M. Nuova-IRCCS, Reggio Emilia, Italy. We examined patient characteristics, disease spectrum, and etiologies. In total, 990 cases of uveitis were identified, who were mostly female (59%) with a median age at presentation of 44 years (interquartile range = 29-57). Anterior uveitis was most frequent (53.5%), followed by panuveitis (22.8%), posterior (16.2%), and intermediate uveitis (5.5%). Anterior herpetic uveitis (15.6%), Fuchs uveitis (9.7%), and HLA-B27 positive anterior uveitis (7.7%) were the most common specific diagnoses. Compared with the previous series, we observed an increased incidence of uveitis, and a different pattern of diagnoses. Rates of herpetic, HLA-B27 positive uveitis, and presumed ocular tuberculosis were higher, but Fuchs uveitis was less frequent. The pattern of uveitis appears to be changing, very likely due to population-level increases in infectious diseases, to the availability of new diagnostic tests and to the interdisciplinary approach used in patient diagnosis.

  13. A hitherto unknown edition of the Spanish Psalter by Abraham Usque (Ferrara 1554

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    Leoni, Aron di Leone

    2001-06-01

    Full Text Available The Biblioteca Nazionale Vittorio Emanuele in Roma owns a Psalter in Spanish published in 1554 by Abraham Usque. It is the matter of a hitherto unknown second edition of the Psalterium printed in Ferrara in 1553. From the «Prologo» we learn that Abraham Usque was not only a simple printer but also the editor and one of the translators of this book. He also stated to have worked at the translation of the Biblia en lengua Española (Ferrara 1553 together with eminent scholars.

    En la Biblioteca Nazionale Vittorio Emanuele de Roma se conserva un Salterio en español publicado en 1554 por Abraham Usque. Se trata de una segunda edición hasta ahora desconocida de su Psalterium impreso en Ferrara en 1553. Por su «Prologo» sabemos que Abraham Usque no actuó sólo como un mero impresor sino que también participó en la edición y fue uno de los traductores del libro. En dicho «Prologo» afirma asimismo que, junto con otros eminentes eruditos, había trabajado en la traducción de la Biblia en lengua Española (Ferrara 1553.

  14. Rabies and canine distemper virus epidemics in the red fox population of northern Italy (2006-2010.

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    Pierre Nouvellet

    Full Text Available Since 2006 the red fox (Vulpes vulpes population in north-eastern Italy has experienced an epidemic of canine distemper virus (CDV. Additionally, in 2008, after a thirteen-year absence from Italy, fox rabies was re-introduced in the Udine province at the national border with Slovenia. Disease intervention strategies are being developed and implemented to control rabies in this area and minimise risk to human health. Here we present empirical data and the epidemiological picture relating to these epidemics in the period 2006-2010. Of important significance for epidemiological studies of wild animals, basic mathematical models are developed to exploit information collected from the surveillance program on dead and/or living animals in order to assess the incidence of infection. These models are also used to estimate the rate of transmission of both diseases and the rate of vaccination, while correcting for a bias in early collection of CDV samples. We found that the rate of rabies transmission was roughly twice that of CDV, with an estimated effective contact between infected and susceptible fox leading to a new infection occurring once every 3 days for rabies, and once a week for CDV. We also inferred that during the early stage of the CDV epidemic, a bias in the monitoring protocol resulted in a positive sample being almost 10 times more likely to be collected than a negative sample. We estimated the rate of intake of oral vaccine at 0.006 per day, allowing us to estimate that roughly 68% of the foxes would be immunised. This was confirmed by field observations. Finally we discuss the implications for the eco-epidemiological dynamics of both epidemics in relation to control measures.

  15. Small is beautiful: diversity of freshwater ostracods (Crustacea, Ostracoda in marginal habitats of the province of Parma (Northern Italy

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    Stefano TAVERNELLI

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available A study on the distribution of ostracods in small freshwater habitats of the province of Parma was conducted from May 2004 to December 2005. Vernal pools, ponds, shallow lakes, fountains, springs, ditches, canals, and streams were among the most common types of aquatic systems included in this survey. Altogether, 90 sites located between 24 and 1557 m a.s.l. were visited, and 125 samples were collected. 41 samples did not contain ostracods, and 7 samples were not considered because only immature specimens or empty valves were found. Consequently, 77 samples from 58 sites were analysed. Whenever possible, ostracod identification was done at the species level based on the morphology of both valves and limbs. Thirty-eight taxa from 20 genera belonging to the families Candonidae, Ilyocyprididae, Cyprididae, and Notodromadidae were recorded. This roughly accounts for one-third of the estimated number of non-marine ostracod species in Italy. Scanning electron microscopy images of valves are provided. The maximum number of species per site was six. The most frequent species were Heterocypris incongruens, Eucypris virens, Pseudocandona pratensis, Cypria ophthalmica, and Tonnacypris lutaria. Of particular relevance is the occurrence of species with a limited known distribution in Italy, viz. Ilyocypris monstrifica, Potamocypris villosa, Candona cf. lindneri, Fabaeformiscandona breuili and Physocypria kraepelini. A putative new species of the genus Candona, here left in open nomenclature, is also reported. Our results highlight the importance of so-called "marginal" aquatic habitats as potential biodiversity hotspots, in spite of the general lack of interest shown by freshwater ecologists and taxonomists in undertaking scientific investigations in these environments.

  16. Rabies and canine distemper virus epidemics in the red fox population of northern Italy (2006-2010).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nouvellet, Pierre; Donnelly, Christl A; De Nardi, Marco; Rhodes, Chris J; De Benedictis, Paola; Citterio, Carlo; Obber, Federica; Lorenzetto, Monica; Pozza, Manuela Dalla; Cauchemez, Simon; Cattoli, Giovanni

    2013-01-01

    Since 2006 the red fox (Vulpes vulpes) population in north-eastern Italy has experienced an epidemic of canine distemper virus (CDV). Additionally, in 2008, after a thirteen-year absence from Italy, fox rabies was re-introduced in the Udine province at the national border with Slovenia. Disease intervention strategies are being developed and implemented to control rabies in this area and minimise risk to human health. Here we present empirical data and the epidemiological picture relating to these epidemics in the period 2006-2010. Of important significance for epidemiological studies of wild animals, basic mathematical models are developed to exploit information collected from the surveillance program on dead and/or living animals in order to assess the incidence of infection. These models are also used to estimate the rate of transmission of both diseases and the rate of vaccination, while correcting for a bias in early collection of CDV samples. We found that the rate of rabies transmission was roughly twice that of CDV, with an estimated effective contact between infected and susceptible fox leading to a new infection occurring once every 3 days for rabies, and once a week for CDV. We also inferred that during the early stage of the CDV epidemic, a bias in the monitoring protocol resulted in a positive sample being almost 10 times more likely to be collected than a negative sample. We estimated the rate of intake of oral vaccine at 0.006 per day, allowing us to estimate that roughly 68% of the foxes would be immunised. This was confirmed by field observations. Finally we discuss the implications for the eco-epidemiological dynamics of both epidemics in relation to control measures.

  17. Rabies and Canine Distemper Virus Epidemics in the Red Fox Population of Northern Italy (2006–2010)

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Benedictis, Paola; Citterio, Carlo; Obber, Federica; Lorenzetto, Monica; Pozza, Manuela Dalla; Cauchemez, Simon; Cattoli, Giovanni

    2013-01-01

    Since 2006 the red fox (Vulpes vulpes) population in north-eastern Italy has experienced an epidemic of canine distemper virus (CDV). Additionally, in 2008, after a thirteen-year absence from Italy, fox rabies was re-introduced in the Udine province at the national border with Slovenia. Disease intervention strategies are being developed and implemented to control rabies in this area and minimise risk to human health. Here we present empirical data and the epidemiological picture relating to these epidemics in the period 2006–2010. Of important significance for epidemiological studies of wild animals, basic mathematical models are developed to exploit information collected from the surveillance program on dead and/or living animals in order to assess the incidence of infection. These models are also used to estimate the rate of transmission of both diseases and the rate of vaccination, while correcting for a bias in early collection of CDV samples. We found that the rate of rabies transmission was roughly twice that of CDV, with an estimated effective contact between infected and susceptible fox leading to a new infection occurring once every 3 days for rabies, and once a week for CDV. We also inferred that during the early stage of the CDV epidemic, a bias in the monitoring protocol resulted in a positive sample being almost 10 times more likely to be collected than a negative sample. We estimated the rate of intake of oral vaccine at 0.006 per day, allowing us to estimate that roughly 68% of the foxes would be immunised. This was confirmed by field observations. Finally we discuss the implications for the eco-epidemiological dynamics of both epidemics in relation to control measures. PMID:23630599

  18. Angiostrongylus vasorum in red foxes (Vulpes vulpes and badgers (Meles meles from Central and Northern Italy

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    Marta Magi

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract During 2004-2005 and 2007-2008, 189 foxes (Vulpes vulpes and 6 badgers (Meles meles were collected in different areas of Central Northern Italy (Piedmont, Liguria and Tuscany and examined for Angiostrongylus vasorum infection. The prevalence of the infection was significantly different in the areas considered, with the highest values in the district of Imperia (80%, Liguria and in Montezemolo (70%, southern Piedmont; the prevalence in Tuscany was 7%. One badger collected in the area of Imperia turned out to be infected, representing the first report of the parasite in this species in Italy. Further studies are needed to evaluate the role played by fox populations as reservoirs of infection and the probability of its spreading to domestic dogs.
    Riassunto Angiostrongylus vasorum nella volpe (Vulpes vulpes e nel tasso (Meles meles in Italia centro-settentrionale. Nel 2004-2005 e 2007-2008, 189 volpi (Vulpes vulpes e 6 tassi (Meles meles provenienti da differenti aree dell'Italia settentrionale e centrale (Piemonte, Liguria Toscana, sono stati esaminati per la ricerca di Angiostrongylus vasorum. La prevalenza del nematode è risultata significativamente diversa nelle varie zone, con valori elevati nelle zone di Imperia (80% e di Montezemolo (70%, provincia di Cuneo; la prevalenza in Toscana è risultata del 7%. Un tasso proveniente dall'area di Imperia è risultato positivo per A. vasorum; questa è la prima segnalazione del parassita in tale specie in Italia. Ulteriori studi sono necessari per valutare il potenziale della volpe come serbatoio e la possibilità di diffusione della parassitosi ai cani domestici.

    doi:10.4404/hystrix-20.2-4442

  19. Epidemiology and clinical course of Behçet's disease in the Reggio Emilia area of Northern Italy: a seventeen-year population-based study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salvarani, Carlo; Pipitone, Nicolò; Catanoso, Maria Grazia; Cimino, Luca; Tumiati, Bruno; Macchioni, Pierluigi; Bajocchi, Gianluigi; Olivieri, Ignazio; Boiardi, Luigi

    2007-02-15

    To investigate the epidemiology and clinical course of Behçet's disease (BD) over a 17-year period in a defined area of northern Italy. All patients with incident BD diagnosed over a 17-year period (from January 1, 1988 to December 31, 2004) living in the Reggio Emilia area were identified through the following sources: physicians at Reggio Emilia Hospital, medical practitioners, and community-based specialists. We identified all patients registered in a centralized index and in the Reggio Emilia district database for rare diseases. Patients were followed up from the time of diagnosis until either their death or April 1, 2005. Eighteen patients (9 men and 9 women) had complete BD. Mean +/- SD age at diagnosis was 33 +/- 7 years. The incidence rate of BD was 0.24 per 100,000. The prevalence of BD on January 1, 2005 was 3.8 per 100,000. No patients died during the followup period. Although all patients developed oral ulceration during the disease course, 22.2% had no oral lesions at disease onset. Eye disease occurred in 55.6%. Ocular disease was more common in men and appeared at disease onset or within the first few years of disease onset (median 3 years). Only 1 patient had loss of useful vision in at least 1 eye at the end of followup. In all affected patients, visual acuity improved once treatment was started. This population-based study is the first to report the prevalence and incidence of BD in Italy. In Italian patients, BD is nonfatal and the prognosis of eye disease is good.

  20. A REVISION OF THE PLIOCENE NATICIDS OF NORTHERN AND CENTRAL ITALY. II. THE SUBFAMILY NATICINAE: ADDITIONS TO COCHLIS, TANEA AND TECTONATICA

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    LUCA PEDRIALI

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available The present paper is the second in a series devoted to the revision of the Pliocene naticids of Northern and Central Italy. It concludes the section covering the calcareous operculum-bearing Naticinae and expands to 18 the total number of species and subspecies of this subfamily recovered so far from the Pliocene deposits of Italy. Of the six taxa considered in this study, two (epigloafuniculata and fredianii fully match the characters of the genus Cochlis Röding, 1798, one (koeneni is assigned to the genus Tanea Marwick, 1931, the rest (astensis, prietoi and tectula belong to the genus Tectonatica Sacco, 1890. All the six taxa considered in this paper are described and commented in the systematic account. One, Cochlis fredianii, is proposed as new. In the chapter treating the generic assignment of the studied taxa, the range of Tanea, hitherto used to allocate several Indo-Pacific species, is extended to the Mediterranean Basin as well, and the relations between Tectonatica and Cryptonatica Dall, 1892 are discussed. This study further demonstrates that the morphological characters of the teleoconch are of low significance in species recognition. In fact, should the characters be ranked, the operculum comes first and is the primary element, sufficient to distinguish each species. The protoconch and the color pattern are the second and third relevant attributes that can be used diagnostically for several taxa, but not always. The other shell features appear to be useful tools in separating species only occasionally. Some species lack distinctive shell characters and do require operculate specimens in order to be confidently 

  1. Distribution of native and exotic branchiobdellidans (Annelida: Clitellata on their respective crayfish hosts in northern Italy, with the first record of native Branchiobdella species on an exotic North American crayfish.

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    Joy N. RAYBURN

    1999-02-01

    Full Text Available Branchiobdellidans were found on crayfish at the 18 sites examined in northern Italy. At 15 of the sites the native crayfish, Austropotamobius pallipes, was collected and all supported specimens of Branchiobdella italica. A few specimens of B. parasita were found at only two of these sites and no specimens of B. hexodonta were observed during the survey. The North American Louisiana red swamp crayfish, Procambarus (Scapulicambarus clarkii has been found in three additional sites around Carmagnola, south of Torino. The exotic Cambarincola mesochoreus was recovered from red crayfish at two sites. However, no specimens of C. mesochoreus were found at the third site, but specimens B. italica and B. parasita were identified. This is the first record of native Branchiobdella spp. on an exotic and wild crayfish in northern Italy.

  2. Long-term trends in first arrival and first egg laying dates of some migrant and resident bird species in northern Italy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rubolini, Diego; Ambrosini, Roberto; Caffi, Mario; Brichetti, Pierandrea; Armiraglio, Stefano; Saino, Nicola

    2007-08-01

    Climate change is affecting the phenology of seasonal events in Europe and the Northern Hemisphere, as shown by several studies of birds’ timing of migration and reproduction. Here, we analyse the long-term (1982-2006) trends of first arrival dates of four long-distance migratory birds [swift ( Apus apus), nightingale ( Luscinia megarhynchos), barn swallow ( Hirundo rustica), and house martin ( Delichon urbicum)] and first egg laying dates of two migrant (swift, barn swallow) and two resident species [starling ( Sturnus vulgaris), Italian sparrow ( Passer italiae)] at a study site in northern Italy. We also addressed the effects of local weather (temperature and precipitation) and a climate index (the North Atlantic Oscillation, NAO) on the interannual variability of phenological events. We found that the swift and the barn swallow significantly advanced both arrival and laying dates, whereas all other species did not show any significant temporal trend in either arrival or laying date. The earlier arrival of swifts was explained by increasing local temperatures in April, whereas this was not the case for arrival dates of swallows and first egg laying dates of both species. In addition, arrival dates of house martins were earlier following high NAO winters, while nightingale arrival was earlier when local spring rainfall was greater. Finally, Italian sparrow onset of reproduction was anticipated by greater spring rainfall, but delayed by high spring NAO anomalies, and swift’s onset of reproduction was anticipated by abundant rainfall prior to reproduction. There were no significant temporal trends in the interval between onset of laying and arrival in either the swift or the barn swallow. Our findings therefore indicate that birds may show idiosyncratic responses to climate variability at different spatial scales, though some species may be adjusting their calendar to rapidly changing climatic conditions.

  3. Distribution of native and exotic branchiobdellidans (Annelida: Clitellata) on their respective crayfish hosts in northern Italy, with the first record of native Branchiobdella species on an exotic North American crayfish.

    OpenAIRE

    Joy N. RAYBURN; Giovanni B. DELMASTRO; Stuart R. GELDER

    1999-01-01

    Branchiobdellidans were found on crayfish at the 18 sites examined in northern Italy. At 15 of the sites the native crayfish, Austropotamobius pallipes, was collected and all supported specimens of Branchiobdella italica. A few specimens of B. parasita were found at only two of these sites and no specimens of B. hexodonta were observed during the survey. The North American Louisiana red swamp crayfish, Procambarus (Scapulicambarus) clarkii has been found in three additional sites around Carma...

  4. Degradation and leaching of the herbicides metolachlor and diuron: a case study in an area of Northern Italy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barra Caracciolo, A.; Giuliano, G.; Grenni, P.; Guzzella, L.; Pozzoni, F.; Bottoni, P.; Fava, L.; Crobe, A.; Orru, M.; Funari, E.

    2005-01-01

    In this work the degradation of the herbicides metolachlor, diuron, monuron and of the metabolites 2-ethyl-6-methylaniline (EMA), and 3,4-dichloroaniline (DCA) was assessed in laboratory experiments on microbiologically active and sterilized soils. Their leaching potentials were calculated, using Gustafson's equation, by determining their mobility (as K oc ) and persistence (expressed as DT 50 ). Lysimeter experiments were also conducted to assess the actual leaching of the studied herbicides in a cereal crop tillage area vulnerable to groundwater contamination. The data obtained from the field were compared to the laboratory results. Moreover, some compounds of particular concern were searched for in the groundwater located near the experimental area in order to evaluate actual contamination and to test the reliability of the leaching potential. The GUS index, computed on data from microbiologically active soil, shows monuron as a leacher compound, EMA and DCA as non-leachers, metolachlor and diuron as transient ones. The presence of metolachlor in the groundwater monitored, even at concentrations up to 0.1 μg/l, confirms the possibility that transient compounds can be leached if microbial activity has not completely occurred in active surface soil. - Pesticide mobility to vulnerable groundwaters in Italy is assessed and ranked

  5. A NEW EARLY SEMIONOTIDAE (SEMIONOTIFORMES, ACTINOPTERYGII FROM THE UPPER LADINIAN OF MONTE SAN GIORGIO AREA SOUTHERN SWITZERLAND AND NORTHERN ITALY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ANDREA TINTORI

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available The early history of the Semionotiformes is still scarcely known as, apart from the Permian Acentrophorus, most of the Early and Middle Triassic taxa traditionally ascribed to this order are often poorly known and/or they actually belong to other groups. Sangiorgioichthys aldae gen. n. sp. n. is described from the Upper Ladinian Kalkschieferzone (Upper Meride Limestone of the Monte San Giorgio area on specimens coming from both Italy and Switzerland. The new genus is ascribed to the family Semionotidae as it shows several of the characters usually considered as diagnostic of the family itself, even if no real synapomorphies have been so far proposed for it. As a Semionotidae, Sangiorgioichthys gen. n. has an almost complete circumorbital series, large ascending process of the premaxilla, rostral and nasals almost tube-like, short maxilla, several suborbital bones posterior and ventral to the infraorbitals, long antero-dorsal process of the suboperculum, sensory canal system very rich in pores, mid dorsal ridge scales with an incipient spine. Peculiar characters of the new genus are dermal skull bones completely covered by ganoine, a very large ventral infraorbital almost attaining the anterior edge of the preoperculum, two ‘ventral’ suborbitals, very elongate anterior supraorbital bone,  dentition made of a number of tiny pencil-like teeth, anterior and posterior lateral line scales differentiated. 

  6. “When a breach arises”: Good burocratic action and informal scrap metal collection in Northern Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elisabeth Tauber

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper analyses affirmative bureaucratic intervention into the informal commercial practices of scrap metal collection among the Sinti in a North-Italian province. To contextualize these events it is vital to examine institutional logics, and how they resonate with public officials’ sense of self as well as political loyalties. In everyday bureaucracy Gypsies are considered to be perplexing subjects, provoking contrasting images of poverty and excess. These cultural representations are the opposite of the idea of a decent social-work client. Hence, bureaucratic intervention on behalf of the Sinti put the former in a deontological and moral limbo, one which stimulates them to navigate the political and organisational structures of their organisations in a creative way. This paper aims to bring a positive example of where the social and institutional discrimination against Roma and Sinti in Italy and Europe can be broken. Even if it is not possible to reverse this discrimination, it at least introduces affirmative bureaucratic action as an enlightening direction for anthropological study.

  7. Traces of medieval migrations in a socially stratified population from Northern Italy. Evidence from uniparental markers and deep-rooted pedigrees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boattini, A; Sarno, S; Pedrini, P; Medoro, C; Carta, M; Tucci, S; Ferri, G; Alù, M; Luiselli, D; Pettener, D

    2015-02-01

    Social and cultural factors had a critical role in determining the genetic structure of Europe. Therefore, socially stratified populations may help to focus on specific episodes of European demographic history. In this study, we use uniparental markers to analyse the genetic structure of Partecipanza in San Giovanni in Persiceto (Northern Italy), a peculiar institution whose origins date back to the Middle Ages and whose members form the patrilineal descent of a group of founder families. From a maternal point of view (mtDNA), Partecipanza is genetically homogeneous with the rest of the population. However, we observed a significant differentiation for Y-chromosomes. In addition, by comparing 17 Y-STR profiles with deep-rooted paternal pedigrees, we estimated a Y-STR mutation rate equal to 3.90 * 10(-3) mutations per STR per generation and an average generation duration time of 33.38 years. When we used these values for tentative dating, we estimated 1300-600 years ago for the origins of the Partecipanza. These results, together with a peculiar Y-chromosomal composition and historical evidence, suggest that Germanic populations (Lombards in particular) settled in the area during the Migration Period (400-800 AD, approximately) and may have had an important role in the foundation of this community.

  8. Influenza and Other Respiratory Viruses Involved in Severe Acute Respiratory Disease in Northern Italy during the Pandemic and Postpandemic Period (2009–2011

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena Pariani

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Since 2009 pandemic, international health authorities recommended monitoring severe and complicated cases of respiratory disease, that is, severe acute respiratory infection (SARI and acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS. We evaluated the proportion of SARI/ARDS cases and deaths due to influenza A(H1N1pdm09 infection and the impact of other respiratory viruses during pandemic and postpandemic period (2009–2011 in northern Italy; additionally we searched for unknown viruses in those cases for which diagnosis remained negative. 206 respiratory samples were collected from SARI/ARDS cases and analyzed by real-time RT-PCR/PCR to investigate influenza viruses and other common respiratory pathogens; also, a virus discovery technique (VIDISCA-454 was applied on those samples tested negative to all pathogens. Influenza A(H1N1pdm09 virus was detected in 58.3% of specimens, with a case fatality rate of 11.3%. The impact of other respiratory viruses was 19.4%, and the most commonly detected viruses were human rhinovirus/enterovirus and influenza A(H3N2. VIDISCA-454 enabled the identification of one previously undiagnosed measles infection. Nearly 22% of SARI/ARDS cases did not obtain a definite diagnosis. In clinical practice, great efforts should be dedicated to improving the diagnosis of severe respiratory disease; the introduction of innovative molecular technologies, as VIDISCA-454, will certainly help in reducing such “diagnostic gap.”

  9. Work-Related Eye Injuries: A Relevant Health Problem. Main Epidemiological Data from a Highly-Industrialized Area of Northern Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gobba, Fabriziomaria; Dall'Olio, Enrico; Modenese, Alberto; De Maria, Michele; Campi, Luca; Cavallini, Gian Maria

    2017-06-06

    The province of Modena is one of the most industrialized areas of Northern Italy. The medical records of the Ophthalmological Emergency Department (OED) of Modena University Hospital were studied: there were 13,470 OED accesses in 2014 and in 754 cases that an occupational eye injury occurred. The frequency of work-related eye injuries (3‰) was lower compared to other published studies, but the absolute number is still relevant, showing the need for more adequate prevention, especially in metal work, construction work, and agriculture, where the worst prognoses were observed. Intervention programs must be implemented as early as possible in the working life, considering that the frequency in younger workers is about double that of the oldest age class (3.5‰ vs. 1.8‰), and special attention should also be given to foreigners, who have a 50% higher injury risk. Furthermore, the planning of specific interventions for eye-injured workers may be useful, considering that a previous injury does not appear to encourage the adoption of preventive interventions, and a subgroup of eye-injured workers have a potential risk for new injuries. Finally, the data presented here indicates how OED records, integrated with specific occupational information, can be applied for studies on work-related eye injuries.

  10. Work-Related Eye Injuries: A Relevant Health Problem. Main Epidemiological Data from a Highly-Industrialized Area of Northern Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabriziomaria Gobba

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The province of Modena is one of the most industrialized areas of Northern Italy. The medical records of the Ophthalmological Emergency Department (OED of Modena University Hospital were studied: there were 13,470 OED accesses in 2014 and in 754 cases that an occupational eye injury occurred. The frequency of work-related eye injuries (3‰ was lower compared to other published studies, but the absolute number is still relevant, showing the need for more adequate prevention, especially in metal work, construction work, and agriculture, where the worst prognoses were observed. Intervention programs must be implemented as early as possible in the working life, considering that the frequency in younger workers is about double that of the oldest age class (3.5‰ vs. 1.8‰, and special attention should also be given to foreigners, who have a 50% higher injury risk. Furthermore, the planning of specific interventions for eye-injured workers may be useful, considering that a previous injury does not appear to encourage the adoption of preventive interventions, and a subgroup of eye-injured workers have a potential risk for new injuries. Finally, the data presented here indicates how OED records, integrated with specific occupational information, can be applied for studies on work-related eye injuries.

  11. Using an integrated approach to the assessment of the psychosocial work environment: the case of a major hospital in northern Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lanfranchi, Fiorella; Alaimo, Sara; Conway, P M

    2014-01-01

    In 2010, Italian regulatory guidelines have been issued consisting of a stepwise procedure for the assessment and management of work-related stress. However, research that empirically examines whether this procedure proves effective in accurately identifying critical psychosocial factors and informing risk management is scarce. To examine the differential sensitivity of two approaches to risk assessment, the first based on objective instruments only, the second consisting of an integrated approach combining different methods and theoretical perspectives. We examined a sample of 306 healthcare employees in a large-size hospital in northern Italy, using a series of tools, both quantitative (an observational checklist and the HSE-IT and MOHQ questionnaires) and qualitative (Focus Groups). Through instrument-specific reference values, we then compared risk profiles between different homogeneous groups within the institution. The psychosocial work environment resulted to be far more positive when adopting the first compared to the second approach to risk assessment. The latter approach was also more sensitive in detecting between-groups differences in risk profiles. Furthermore, the Focus Groups returned a more context-specific picture of the psychosocial work environment. Finally, going beyond the emphasis on negative working conditions inherent in the other quantitative instruments, the MOHQ allowed for also identifying health-promoting factors in need for improvement. Although more research is needed to confirm our findings, the present study suggests that using an integrated approach to assess the psychosocial work environment may be the most effective way to accurately identify risk factors and support the management process.

  12. A life cycle assessment of non-renewable energy use and greenhouse gas emissions associated with blueberry and raspberry production in northern Italy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Girgenti, Vincenzo; Peano, Cristiana; Bounous, Michele; Baudino, Claudio

    2013-01-01

    This study examined the emissions produced during the pre-farm, farm and post-farm phases of the production cycle of raspberries and giant American whortleberries (blueberries) cultivated in one of the best-adapted areas in northern Italy. The pre-farm phase included the greenhouse gas emissions from the production of plants in the nursery and the transportation of the plants to the production farms. The farm phase involved the emissions of greenhouse gases from chemical products, the water used for irrigation, the generation of waste, and the consumption of electricity and other energy. The post-farm phase comprised the transportation of the products to the distribution centre (DC) and their storage in the DC. The use phase is not included in the system, nor is transportation from the supermarket to the home of the final consumer, but the disposal of the packaging is nevertheless taken into account. Indeed, the use of traditional plastic materials during both the field phase (nursery and cultivation) and the post-harvesting phase (packaging) produced the greatest estimated impact. - Highlights: • LCA is a system for evaluating the environmental sustainability of products and processes. • The disposal of the packaging material is taken into account. • The LCA methodology has been applied to quantify the emissions of berry fruits. • Species index: blueberry and raspberry

  13. Application of a bioeconomic model for supporting the management process of the small pelagic fishery in the Veneto Region, northern Adriatic Sea, Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvia Silvestri

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available We explore the sustainability of the small pelagics fishery in the northern Adriatic sea, northeastern Italy, by means of a bioeconomic simulation model. This model reproduces the biological and economic conditions in which the fisheries occur. Starting from an initial condition (2004, the simulation model incorporates the biological and economic processes of the resources and the fishing fleet and computes the most probable future trajectory of the system under different management conditions. We analysed the projection of selected indicators (biomass, recruitment, catches, profits under four different management scenarios based on effort control, and we assessed the performance of these management measures against the current situation. The four scenarios were: i increase in fuel price, ii reduction in fuel price, iii limiting the number of days at sea, and iv extending the fishing period. Each management event was introduced in the third year of the simulation. For each scenario a stochastic simulation was carried out. Our results show that the impact of each management measure tested was not homogeneous across the fleet. In particular, comparatively smaller vessels generally display narrower profit margins and tend to be more sensitive to negative shocks, reinforcing the idea that management measures should be calibrated by stratifying the fleet before implementation.

  14. Risk of hematological malignancies associated with magnetic fields exposure from power lines: a case-control study in two municipalities of northern Italy

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    Background Some epidemiologic studies have suggested an association between electromagnetic field exposure induced by high voltage power lines and childhood leukemia, but null results have also been yielded and the possibility of bias due to unmeasured confounders has been suggested. Methods We studied this relation in the Modena and Reggio Emilia municipalities of northern Italy, identifying the corridors along high voltage power lines with calculated magnetic field intensity in the 0.1-<0.2, 0.2-<0.4, and ≥ 0.4 microTesla ranges. We identified 64 cases of newly-diagnosed hematological malignancies in children aged <14 within these municipalities from 1986 to 2007, and we sampled four matched controls for each case, collecting information on historical residence and parental socioeconomic status of these subjects. Results Relative risk of leukemia associated with antecedent residence in the area with exposure ≥ 0.1 microTesla was 3.2 (6.7 adjusting for socioeconomic status), but this estimate was statistically very unstable, its 95% confidence interval being 0.4-23.4, and no indication of a dose-response relation emerged. Relative risk for acute lymphoblastic leukemia was 5.3 (95% confidence interval 0.7-43.5), while there was no increased risk for the other hematological malignancies. Conclusions Though the number of exposed children in this study was too low to allow firm conclusions, results were more suggestive of an excess risk of leukemia among exposed children than of a null relation. PMID:20353586

  15. Intestinal parasites of owned dogs and cats from metropolitan and micropolitan areas: prevalence, zoonotic risks, and pet owner awareness in northern Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zanzani, Sergio Aurelio; Gazzonis, Alessia Libera; Scarpa, Paola; Berrilli, Federica; Manfredi, Maria Teresa

    2014-01-01

    Intestinal parasites of dogs and cats are cosmopolitan pathogens with zoonotic potential for humans. Our investigation considered their diffusion in dogs and cats from northern Italy areas, specifically the metropolitan area of Milan and two micropolitan areas of neighboring provinces. It included the study of the level of awareness in pet owners of the zoonotic potential from these parasites. A total of 409 fresh fecal samples were collected from household dogs and cats for copromicroscopic analysis and detection of Giardia duodenalis coproantigens. The assemblages of Giardia were also identified. A questionnaire about intestinal parasites biology and zoonotic potential was submitted to 185 pet owners. The overall prevalence of intestinal parasites resulted higher in cats (47.37%-60.42%) and dogs (57.41%-43.02%) from micropolitan areas than that from the metropolis of Milan (dogs: P = 28.16%; cats: P = 32.58 %). The zoonotic parasites infecting pets under investigation were T. canis and T. cati, T. vulpis, Ancylostomatidae, and G. duodenalis assemblage A. Only 49.19% of pet owners showed to be aware of the risks for human health from canine and feline intestinal parasites. Parasitological results in pets and awareness determination in their owners clearly highlight how the role of veterinarians is important in indicating correct and widespread behaviors to reduce risks of infection for pets and humans in urban areas.

  16. A survey on the occurrence of ochratoxin A in feeds and sera collected in conventional and organic poultry farms in Northern Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Cavallarin

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available A survey has been conducted on conventional and organic poultry farms located in northern Italy in order to investigate the occurrence of ochratoxin A (OTA in feeds and sera in 2006. Ten poultry farms were monitored by taking 20 samples of feed and 94 samples of blood. OTA was assessed through immunoaffinity column purification and HPLC analysis. For in-house validation, recovery experiments, carried out on the spiked samples in the range of 1.0-10.0 μg OTA kg-1 and 0.3-3.0 ng OTA ml-1 for the feed and serum samples, respectively, led to overall recovery averages of 80.6% (RDS=7.3%, n=9 and 83.3% (RDS=3.1%, n=9, respectively. All the feed samples were contaminated by OTA with values ranging from 0.04 to 6.50 μg kg-1. Fiftythree percent of the sera samples were positive, with values ranging from 0.003- 0.165 ng ml-1. None of the feed samples was above the limits set by the European Union on OTA contamination in poultry feeds. No statistically significant differences in OTA contamination of feed or sera were observed either between the organic vs conventional group or between the laying hens vs broiler group.

  17. Polychlorinated biphenyls, glycaemia and diabetes in a population living in a highly polychlorinated biphenyls-polluted area in northern Italy: a cross-sectional and cohort study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudia Zani

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Background. Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs have been found to be associated with diabetes in some, but not all, studies performed so far. The aim of this study was to assess the association between PCB serum levels and glycaemia and diabetes in people living in Brescia, a highly industrialised PCB-polluted town in Northern Italy. Design and Methods. 527 subjects were enrolled in a cross-sectional population-based study: they were interviewed face-to-face in 2003 and also provided a blood sample under fasting conditions. The concentration of 24 PCB congeners was determined using gas-chromatography (GC/MS. Subsequently, all subjects were included in a follow-up (cohort study. According to the Local Health Authority health-care database, subjects were considered to be diabetic if they had diabetes at interview time (prevalent cases or during a 7-year follow-up (incident cases. Results. A total of 53 subjects (10.0% were diabetics: 28 had dia- betes at enrolment and other 25 developed the disease subsequently. Diabetes frequency increased according to the serum concentrations of total PCBs and single PCB congeners, but no association was found when estimates were adjusted for education, body mass index, age and gender by logistic regression analysis. Accordingly, glycaemia increased with PCB serum levels, but no association was observed when multiple regression analysis, including confounding factors, was performed. Conclusions. This study does not support the hypothesis that PCB environmental exposure is strictly associated with diabetes or glycaemia.

  18. Precarity: causes, effects and consequences of insecure working and living conditions in a multicultural, rural area of northern Italy (South Tyrol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christine Tschöll

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The research project deals with the current issue of precarity, its mechanisms, risks, effects, coping strategies as well as coping competences and addresses the impact of work-based insecurities, rising social inequalities within and across nations, with a specific regional focus on South Tyrol - a multicultural, rural area in northern Italy, bordering with Austria. Finally, it is important to identify possible innovative solutions for the labour market, Human Resources strategies and social policies. The concept of work will be related to all securitized fundamental rights, their socialization context, the global change of values and the social change in the welfare state. The recent transformation from discourses on inequality and poverty towards social exclusion and inclusion indicates a conceptual shift in the societal management of social inequalities. The global financial crisis has highlighted the connectedness between corporate and household risk behaviour and management, and their socially inequitable effects. The interdisciplinary view enables a focus on multiple insecurities and how they interact to produce precarious work relations, in reference to working conditions and the experience of social exclusion, the links between de-regulation, liberalization and the individualization of employment risks, but also the development of interest representation and social organizations for supporting labour market outsiders. The paper describes the current process of defining the research design, preliminary reflections for the case study and shows first outcomes of the project.

  19. A life cycle assessment of non-renewable energy use and greenhouse gas emissions associated with blueberry and raspberry production in northern Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Girgenti, Vincenzo; Peano, Cristiana; Bounous, Michele; Baudino, Claudio

    2013-08-01

    This study examined the emissions produced during the pre-farm, farm and post-farm phases of the production cycle of raspberries and giant American whortleberries (blueberries) cultivated in one of the best-adapted areas in northern Italy. The pre-farm phase included the greenhouse gas emissions from the production of plants in the nursery and the transportation of the plants to the production farms. The farm phase involved the emissions of greenhouse gases from chemical products, the water used for irrigation, the generation of waste, and the consumption of electricity and other energy. The post-farm phase comprised the transportation of the products to the distribution centre (DC) and their storage in the DC. The use phase is not included in the system, nor is transportation from the supermarket to the home of the final consumer, but the disposal of the packaging is nevertheless taken into account. Indeed, the use of traditional plastic materials during both the field phase (nursery and cultivation) and the post-harvesting phase (packaging) produced the greatest estimated impact. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Intestinal Parasites of Owned Dogs and Cats from Metropolitan and Micropolitan Areas: Prevalence, Zoonotic Risks, and Pet Owner Awareness in Northern Italy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zanzani, Sergio Aurelio; Gazzonis, Alessia Libera; Berrilli, Federica

    2014-01-01

    Intestinal parasites of dogs and cats are cosmopolitan pathogens with zoonotic potential for humans. Our investigation considered their diffusion in dogs and cats from northern Italy areas, specifically the metropolitan area of Milan and two micropolitan areas of neighboring provinces. It included the study of the level of awareness in pet owners of the zoonotic potential from these parasites. A total of 409 fresh fecal samples were collected from household dogs and cats for copromicroscopic analysis and detection of Giardia duodenalis coproantigens. The assemblages of Giardia were also identified. A questionnaire about intestinal parasites biology and zoonotic potential was submitted to 185 pet owners. The overall prevalence of intestinal parasites resulted higher in cats (47.37%−60.42%) and dogs (57.41%−43.02%) from micropolitan areas than that from the metropolis of Milan (dogs: P = 28.16%; cats: P = 32.58 %). The zoonotic parasites infecting pets under investigation were T. canis and T. cati, T. vulpis, Ancylostomatidae, and G. duodenalis assemblage A. Only 49.19% of pet owners showed to be aware of the risks for human health from canine and feline intestinal parasites. Parasitological results in pets and awareness determination in their owners clearly highlight how the role of veterinarians is important in indicating correct and widespread behaviors to reduce risks of infection for pets and humans in urban areas. PMID:24883320

  1. Market, Policies and Local Governance as Drivers of Environmental Public Benefits: The Case of the Localised Processed Tomato in Northern Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesco Mantino

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available This article explores the role of a specific Localised Agri-food System (LAFS in the provision of Environmental and social benefits (ESBs in densely cultivated, industrialised, and populated areas by analysing the core of the processing tomato supply chain of northern Italy (Parma and Piacenza. The research examines how the interplay of market drivers, public policies, and collective actions favoured farming, technological, and organisational innovations geared to support long-term economic growth and tackle, at the same time, environmental challenges. The tomato supply chain is characterised by a favourable convergence of attitudes, policies, and market conditions that over time allowed for fruitful interactions between private stakeholders and between the supply chain and public players. Decades of key stakeholders’ interconnections within the tomato supply chain led to a success story of economic growth and attention to a new balance between agro-industry and environment, for the benefit of producers/processors, consumers, and natural resources. Profitability strategies inevitably imply intensification of farming in order to maximise profit levels per hectare, however, the tomato supply chain found a collective motivation that could grant profitability and concurrently reward producers and processors for attention paid to safeguarding the environment—giving evidence that intensification does not necessarily conflict with requirements in support of sustainability.

  2. The Influence of Vegetation and Landscape Structural Connectivity on Butterflies (Lepidoptera: Papilionoidea and Hesperiidae), Carabids (Coleoptera: Carabidae), Syrphids (Diptera: Syrphidae), and Sawflies (Hymenoptera: Symphyta) in Northern Italy Farmland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burgio, Giovanni; Sommaggio, Daniele; Marini, Mario; Puppi, Giovanna; Chiarucci, Alessandro; Landi, Sara; Fabbri, Roberto; Pesarini, Fausto; Genghini, Marco; Ferrari, Roberto; Muzzi, Enrico; van Lenteren, Joop C; Masetti, Antonio

    2015-10-01

    Landscape structure as well as local vegetation influence biodiversity in agroecosystems. A study was performed to evaluate the effect of floristic diversity, vegetation patterns, and landscape structural connectivity on butterflies (Lepidoptera: Papilionoidea and Hesperiidae), carabids (Coleoptera: Carabidae), syrphids (Diptera: Syrphidae), and sawflies (Hymenoptera: Symphyta). Vegetation analysis and insect samplings were carried out in nine sites within an intensively farmed landscape in northern Italy. Plant species richness and the percentage of tree, shrub, and herb cover were determined by means of the phytosociological method of Braun-Blanquet. Landscape structural connectivity was measured as the total length of hedgerow network (LHN) in a radius of 500 m around the center of each sampling transect. Butterflies species richness and abundance were positively associated both to herb cover and to plant species richness, but responded negatively to tree and shrub cover. Shrub cover was strictly correlated to both species richness and activity density of carabids. The species richness of syrphids was positively influenced by herb cover and plant richness, whereas their abundance was dependent on ligneous vegetation and LHN. Rarefaction analysis revealed that sawfly sampling was not robust and no relationship could be drawn with either vegetation parameters or structural connectivity. The specific responses of each insect group to the environmental factors should be considered in order to refine and optimize landscape management interventions targeting specific conservation endpoints. © The Authors 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  3. Historical analysis of rainfall-triggered rockfalls: the case study of the disaster of the ancient hydrothermal Sclafani Spa (Madonie Mts, northern-central Sicily, Italy) in 1851

    Science.gov (United States)

    Contino, Antonio; Bova, Patrizia; Esposito, Giuseppe; Giuffré, Ignazio; Monteleone, Salvatore

    2017-12-01

    In 1851, the region of Sicily experienced many rainstorm-induced landslides. On 13 March 1851, a rainstorm brought about a severe rockfall disaster near the small town of Sclafani (Madonie Mountains, northern-central Sicily, Italy). Rocks detached from the carbonate crest of Mt Sclafani (813 m above sea level) and fell downslope, causing the collapse of the ancient hydrothermal spa (about 430 m above sea level) and burying it. Fortunately, there were no injuries or victims. Given its geological, geomorphological and tectonic features, the calcareous-dolomitic and carbonate-siliciclastic relief of Mt Sclafani is extremely prone to landsliding. This study combines the findings of detailed geological and geomorphological field surveys and of a critical review of documentary data. A thorough analysis of documentary sources and historical maps made it possible to identify the location (previously unknown) of the ancient spa. The rockfall dynamics was reconstructed by comparing field reconnaissance data and documentary sources. The 1851 event reconstruction is an example of the application of an integrated methodological approach, which can yield a propaedeutic, yet meaningful picture of a natural disaster, paving the way for further research (e.g. slope failure susceptibility, future land-use planning, protection of thermal springs and mitigation of the impact of similar disasters in this area). Indeed, the intensification of extreme weather events, caused by global warming induced by climate change, has increased the risk of recurrence of a catastrophic event, like that of the ancient Sclafani spa, which is always a potential threat.

  4. A life cycle assessment of non-renewable energy use and greenhouse gas emissions associated with blueberry and raspberry production in northern Italy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Girgenti, Vincenzo, E-mail: vincenzo.girgenti@unito.it [Dipartimento di Scienze Agrarie, Forestali e Alimentari, Università degli Studi di Torino, Via Leonardo da Vinci 44, 10095 Grugliasco, TO (Italy); Peano, Cristiana; Bounous, Michele [Dipartimento di Scienze Agrarie, Forestali e Alimentari, Università degli Studi di Torino, Via Leonardo da Vinci 44, 10095 Grugliasco, TO (Italy); Baudino, Claudio [AgrifruttaSoc. Coop. Agr., Via Beinette 6, 12016 Peveragno, CN (Italy)

    2013-08-01

    This study examined the emissions produced during the pre-farm, farm and post-farm phases of the production cycle of raspberries and giant American whortleberries (blueberries) cultivated in one of the best-adapted areas in northern Italy. The pre-farm phase included the greenhouse gas emissions from the production of plants in the nursery and the transportation of the plants to the production farms. The farm phase involved the emissions of greenhouse gases from chemical products, the water used for irrigation, the generation of waste, and the consumption of electricity and other energy. The post-farm phase comprised the transportation of the products to the distribution centre (DC) and their storage in the DC. The use phase is not included in the system, nor is transportation from the supermarket to the home of the final consumer, but the disposal of the packaging is nevertheless taken into account. Indeed, the use of traditional plastic materials during both the field phase (nursery and cultivation) and the post-harvesting phase (packaging) produced the greatest estimated impact. - Highlights: • LCA is a system for evaluating the environmental sustainability of products and processes. • The disposal of the packaging material is taken into account. • The LCA methodology has been applied to quantify the emissions of berry fruits. • Species index: blueberry and raspberry.

  5. Risk of hematological malignancies associated with magnetic fields exposure from power lines: a case-control study in two municipalities of northern Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malagoli, Carlotta; Fabbi, Sara; Teggi, Sergio; Calzari, Mariagiulia; Poli, Maurizio; Ballotti, Elena; Notari, Barbara; Bruni, Maurizio; Palazzi, Giovanni; Paolucci, Paolo; Vinceti, Marco

    2010-03-30

    Some epidemiologic studies have suggested an association between electromagnetic field exposure induced by high voltage power lines and childhood leukemia, but null results have also been yielded and the possibility of bias due to unmeasured confounders has been suggested. We studied this relation in the Modena and Reggio Emilia municipalities of northern Italy, identifying the corridors along high voltage power lines with calculated magnetic field intensity in the 0.1- or = 0.4 microTesla ranges. We identified 64 cases of newly-diagnosed hematological malignancies in children aged information on historical residence and parental socioeconomic status of these subjects. Relative risk of leukemia associated with antecedent residence in the area with exposure > or = 0.1 microTesla was 3.2 (6.7 adjusting for socioeconomic status), but this estimate was statistically very unstable, its 95% confidence interval being 0.4-23.4, and no indication of a dose-response relation emerged. Relative risk for acute lymphoblastic leukemia was 5.3 (95% confidence interval 0.7-43.5), while there was no increased risk for the other hematological malignancies. Though the number of exposed children in this study was too low to allow firm conclusions, results were more suggestive of an excess risk of leukemia among exposed children than of a null relation.

  6. Risk of hematological malignancies associated with magnetic fields exposure from power lines: a case-control study in two municipalities of northern Italy

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    Palazzi Giovanni

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Some epidemiologic studies have suggested an association between electromagnetic field exposure induced by high voltage power lines and childhood leukemia, but null results have also been yielded and the possibility of bias due to unmeasured confounders has been suggested. Methods We studied this relation in the Modena and Reggio Emilia municipalities of northern Italy, identifying the corridors along high voltage power lines with calculated magnetic field intensity in the 0.1- Results Relative risk of leukemia associated with antecedent residence in the area with exposure ≥ 0.1 microTesla was 3.2 (6.7 adjusting for socioeconomic status, but this estimate was statistically very unstable, its 95% confidence interval being 0.4-23.4, and no indication of a dose-response relation emerged. Relative risk for acute lymphoblastic leukemia was 5.3 (95% confidence interval 0.7-43.5, while there was no increased risk for the other hematological malignancies. Conclusions Though the number of exposed children in this study was too low to allow firm conclusions, results were more suggestive of an excess risk of leukemia among exposed children than of a null relation.

  7. Remote Sensing and Geodetic Measurements for Volcanic Slope Monitoring: Surface Variations Measured at Northern Flank of La Fossa Cone (Vulcano Island, Italy

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    Alessandro Bonforte

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Results of recent monitoring activities on potentially unstable areas of the NW volcano flank of La Fossa cone (Vulcano Island, Italy are shown here. They are obtained by integration of data by aerial photogrammetry, terrestrial laser scanning (TLS and GPS taken in the 1996–2011 time span. A comparison between multi-temporal models built from remote sensing data (photogrammetry and TLS highlights areas characterized by ~7–10 cm/y positive differences (i.e., elevation increase in the upper crown of the slope. The GPS measurements confirm these results. Areas characterized by negative differences, related to both mass collapses or small surface lowering, also exist. The higher differences, positive and negative, are always observed in zones affected by higher fumarolic activity. In the 2010–2012 time span, ground motions in the northern part of the crater rim, immediately above the upper part of observed area, are also observed. The results show different trends for both vertical and horizontal displacements of points distributed along the rim, with a magnitude of some centimeters, thus revealing a complex kinematics. A slope stability analysis shows that the safety factors estimated from these data do not indicate evidence of possible imminent failures. Nevertheless, new time series are needed to detect possible changes with the time of the stability conditions, and the monitoring has to go on.

  8. Prevalence of Staphylococcus aureus and of methicillin-resistant S. aureus clonal complexes in bulk tank milk from dairy cattle herds in Lombardy Region (Northern Italy).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cortimiglia, C; Luini, M; Bianchini, V; Marzagalli, L; Vezzoli, F; Avisani, D; Bertoletti, M; Ianzano, A; Franco, A; Battisti, A

    2016-10-01

    Staphylococcus aureus is the most important causative agent of subclinical mastitis in cattle resulting in reduced milk production and quality. Methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA) strains has a clear zoonotic relevance, especially in the case of occupational exposure. The aim of the study was to evaluate the prevalence of S. aureus and MRSA in bulk tank milk (BTM) from dairy cattle herds in the Lombardy Region (Northern Italy) and to identify the main MRSA circulating genotypes. MRSA strains were characterized by susceptibility testing, multi-locus sequence typing (MLST), spa typing and SCCmec typing. A total 844 BTM samples were analysed and S. aureus and MRSA were detected in 47·2% and 3·8% of dairy herds, respectively. MLST showed that the majority (28/32) of isolates belonged to the typical livestock-associated lineages: ST398, ST97 and ST1. Interestingly, in this study we report for the first time the new ST3211, a single locus variant of ST(CC)22, with the newly described 462 aroE allele. Our study indicates high diffusion of S. aureus mastitis and low, but not negligible, prevalence of MRSA in the considered area, suggesting the need for planning specific control programmes for bovine mastitis caused by S. aureus, especially when MRSA is implicated.

  9. Association between PM10 concentrations and school absences in proximity of a cement plant in northern Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marcon, Alessandro; Pesce, Giancarlo; Girardi, Paolo; Marchetti, Pierpaolo; Blengio, Gianstefano; de Zolt Sappadina, Simona; Falcone, Salvatore; Frapporti, Guglielmo; Predicatori, Francesca; de Marco, Roberto

    2014-03-01

    Dusts are one of the main air pollutants emitted during cement manufacturing. A substantial part of these are breathable particles that are less than 10 μm in diameter (PM10), which represent a potential threat for the health of the exposed population. This study aimed at evaluating the short-term effects of PM10 concentrations on the health of children, aged 6-14 years, who attended the schools in Fumane (Italy), in proximity (1.2 km) to a large cement plant. School absenteeism was used as a proxy indicator of child morbidity. Time series of daily school absences and PM10 concentrations were collected for 3 school-years from 2007 to 2010 (541 school-days, 462 children on average). The associations between PM10 concentrations and school absence rates in the same day (lag0) and in the following 4 days (lag1 to lag4) were evaluated using generalised additive models, smoothed for medium/long term trends and adjusted for day of the week, influenza outbreaks, daily temperature and rain precipitations. The average concentration of PM10 in the period was 34 (range: 4-183) μg/m(3). An average 10 μg/m(3) increase of PM10 concentration in the previous days (lag0-4) was associated with a statistically significant 2.5% (95%CI: 1.1-4.0%) increase in the rate of school absences. The highest increase in the absence rates (2.4%; 95%CI: 1.2-3.5%) was found 2 days after exposure (lag2). These findings provide epidemiological evidence of the acute health effects of PM10 in areas with annual concentrations that are lower than the legal European Union limit of 40 μg/m(3), and support the need to establish more restrictive legislative standards. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  10. Human exposure to thallium through tap water: A study from Valdicastello Carducci and Pietrasanta (northern Tuscany, Italy).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campanella, Beatrice; Onor, Massimo; D'Ulivo, Alessandro; Giannecchini, Roberto; D'Orazio, Massimo; Petrini, Riccardo; Bramanti, Emilia

    2016-04-01

    A geological study evidenced the presence of thallium (Tl) at concentrations of concern in groundwaters near Valdicastello Carducci (Tuscany, Italy). The source of contamination has been identified in the Tl-bearing pyrite ores occurring in the abandoned mining sites of the area. The strongly acidic internal waters flowing in the mining tunnels can reach exceptional Tl concentrations, up to 9000μg/L. In September 2014 Tl contamination was also found in the tap water distributed in the same area (from 2 to 10μg/L). On October 3, 2014 the local authorities imposed a Do Not Drink order to the population. Here we report the results of the exposure study carried out from October 2014 to October 2015, and aimed at quantifying Tl levels in 150 urine and 318 hair samples from the population of Valdicastello Carducci and Pietrasanta. Thallium was quantified by inductively coupled plasma - mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). Urine and hair were chosen as model matrices indicative of different time periods of exposure (short-term and long-term, respectively). Thallium values found in biological samples were correlated with Tl concentrations found in tap water in the living area of each citizen, and with his/her habits. Thallium concentration range found in hair and urine was 1-498ng/g (values in unexposed subjects 0.1-6ng/g) and 0.046-5.44μg/L (reference value for the European population 0.006μg/L), respectively. Results show that Tl levels in biological samples were significantly associated with residency in zones containing elevated water Tl levels. The kinetics of decay of Tl concentration in urine samples was also investigated. At the best of our knowledge, this is the first study on human contamination by Tl through water involving such a high number of samples. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Detrital fission-track-compositional signature of an orogenic chain-hinterland basin system: The case of the late Neogene Quaternary Valdelsa basin (Northern Apennines, Italy)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balestrieri, M. L.; Benvenuti, M.; Tangocci, F.

    2013-05-01

    Detrital thermochronological data collected in syn-tectonic basin deposits are a promising tool for deciphering time and processes of the evolution of orogenic belts. Our study deals with the Valdelsa basin, one of the wider basins of central Tuscany, Italy. The Valdelsa basin is located at the rear of the Northern Apennines, a collisional orogen whose late Neogene Quaternary development is alternatively attributed to extensional and compressional regimes. These contrasting interpretations mostly rely on different reconstructions of the tectono-sedimentary evolution of several basins formed at the rear of the chain since the late Tortonian. Here, we explore the detrital thermochronological-compositional signature of tectonic and surface processes during the Valdelsa basin development. For this aim, detrital apatite fission-track analysis of 21 sand samples from the latest Messinian Gelasian fluvial to shallow marine basin deposits, has been accompanied by a clast composition analysis of 7 representative outcrops of the conglomerate facies. The grain-age distributions of the sediment samples are generally characterized by two distinct components, one younger peak (P1) varying between 5.5 ± 2.8 and 9.5 ± 1.0 Ma and one older peak (P2) varying from 15.0 ± 8.0 to 41.0 ± 10 Ma. By comparison with some bedrock ages obtained from the E-NE basin shoulder, we attributed the P2 peak to the Ligurian Units and the P1 peak to the Macigno Formation (Tuscan Units). These units are arranged one upon the other in the complex nappe pile forming the Northern Apennines orogen. While the gravel composition indicates a predominant feeding from the Ligurian units all along the sedimentary succession with a subordinate occurrence of Macigno pebbles slightly increasing upsection, the P1 peak is present even in the oldest collected sandy sediments. The early P1 occurrence reveals that the Macigno was exposed in the E-NE basin shoulder since at least the latest Messinian-early Zanclean

  12. Co-Adapting Water Demand and Supply to Changing Climate in Agricultural Water Systems, A Case Study in Northern Italy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giuliani, M.; Li, Y.; Mainardi, M.; Arias Munoz, C.; Castelletti, A.; Gandolfi, C.

    2013-12-01

    Exponentially growing water demands and increasing uncertainties in the hydrologic cycle due to changes in climate and land use will challenge water resources planning and management in the next decade. Improving agricultural productivity is particularly critical, being this sector the one characterized by the highest water demand. Moreover, to meet projected growth in human population and per-capita food demand, agricultural production will have to significantly increase in the next decades, even though water availability is expected to decrease due to climate change impacts. Agricultural systems are called to adapt their strategies (e.g., changing crop patterns and the corresponding water demand, or maximizing the efficiency in the water supply modifying irrigation scheduling and adopting high efficiency irrigation techniques) in order to re-optimize the use of limited water resources. Although many studies have assessed climate change impacts on agricultural practices and water management, most of them assume few scenarios of water demand or water supply separately, while an analysis of their reciprocal feedbacks is still missing. Moreover, current practices are generally established according to historical agreements and normative constraints and, in the absence of dramatic failures, the shift toward more efficient water management is not easily achievable. In this work, we propose to activate an information loop between farmers and water managers to improve the effectiveness of agricultural water management practices by matching the needs of the farmers with the design of water supply strategies. The proposed approach is tested on a real-world case study, namely the Lake Como serving the Muzza-Bassa Lodigiana irrigation district (Italy). A distributed-parameter, dynamic model of the system allows to simulate crop growth and the final yield over a range of hydro-climatic conditions, irrigation strategies and water-related stresses. The spatial component of the

  13. An integrated approach for analysing earthquake-induced surface effects: A case study from the Northern Apennines, Italy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castaldini, D.; Genevois, R.; Panizza, M.; Puccinelli, A.; Berti, M.; Simoni, A.

    This paper illustrates research addressing the subject of the earthquake-induced surface effects by means of a multidisciplinary approach: tectonics, neotectonics, seismology, geology, hydrogeology, geomorphology, soil/rock mechanics have been considered. The research is aimed to verify in areas affected by earthquake-triggered landslides a methodology for the identification of potentially unstable areas. The research was organized according to regional and local scale studies. In order to better emphasise the complexity of the relationships between all the parameters affecting the stability conditions of rock slopes in static and dynamic conditions a new integrated approach, Rock Engineering Systems (RES), was applied in the Northern Apennines. In the paper, the different phases of the research are described in detail and an example of the application of RES method in a sample area is reported. A significant aspect of the study can be seen in its attempt to overcome the exclusively qualitative aspects of research into the relationship between earthquakes and induced surface effects, and to advance the idea of beginning a process by which this interaction can be quantified.

  14. Long-period amplification in deep alluvial basins and consequences for site-specific probabilistic seismic-hazard: the case of Castelleone in the Po Plain (Northern Italy)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barani, S.; Mascandola, C.; Massa, M.; Spallarossa, D.

    2017-12-01

    The recent Emilia seismic sequence (Northern Italy) occurred at the end of the first half of 2012 with main shock of Mw6.1 highlighted the importance of studying site effects in the Po Plain, the larger and deeper sedimentary basin in Italy. As has long been known, long-period amplification related to deep sedimentary basins can significantly affect the characteristics of the ground-motion induced by strong earthquakes. It follows that the effects of deep sedimentary deposits on ground shaking require special attention during the definition of the design seismic action. The work presented here analyzes the impact of deep-soil discontinuities on ground-motion amplification, with particular focus on long-period probabilistic seismic-hazard assessment. The study focuses on the site of Castelleone, where a seismic station of the Italian National Seismic Network has been recording since 2009. Our study includes both experimental and numerical site response analyses. Specifically, extensive active and passive geophysical measurements were carried out in order to define a detailed shear-wave velocity (VS) model to be used in the numerical analyses. These latter are needed to assess the site-specific ground-motion hazard. Besides classical seismic refraction profiles and multichannel analysis of surface waves, we analyzed ambient vibration measurements in both single and array configurations. The VS profile was determined via joint inversion of the experimental phase-velocity dispersion curve with the ellipticity curve derived from horizontal-to-vertical spectral ratios. The profile shows two main discontinuities at depths of around 160 and 1350 m, respectively. The probabilistic site-specific hazard was assessed in terms of both spectral acceleration and displacement. A partially non-ergodic approach was adopted. We have found that the spectral acceleration hazard is barely sensitive to long-period (up to 10 s) amplification related to the deeper discontinuity whereas the

  15. Crustal structure of Tolfa domes complex (northern Latium - Italy) inferred from receiver functions analysis: an interplay between tectonics and magmatism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buttinelli, M.; Bianchi, I.; Anselmi, M.; Chiarabba, C.; de Rita, D.; Quattrocchi, F.

    2010-12-01

    The Tolfa-Cerite volcanic district developed along the Tyrrhenian passive margin of central Italy, as part of magmatic processes started during the middle Pliocene. In this area the uncertainties on the deep crustal structures and the definition of the intrusive bodies geometry are focal issues that still need to be addressed. After the onset of the spreading of the Tyrrhenian sea during the Late Miocene, the emplacement of the intrusive bodies of the Tolfa complex (TDC), in a general back-arc geodynamical regime, generally occurred in a low stretching rate, in correspondence of the junctions between major lithospheric discontinuities. Normal faults, located at the edge of Mio-Pliocene basins, were used as preferential pathways for the rising of magmatic masses from the mantle to the surface. We used teleseismic recordings at the TOLF and MAON broad band station of the INGV seismic network (located between the Argentario promontory and Tolfa-Ceriti dome complexes -TDC-) to image the principal seismic velocity discontinuities by receiver function analysis (RF's). Together with RF’s velocity models of the area computed using the teleseismic events recorded by a temporary network of eight stations deployed around the TDC, we achieve a general crustal model of this area. The geometry of the seismic network has been defined to focus on the crustal structure beneath the TDC, trying to define the main velocity changes attributable to the intrusive bodies, the calcareous basal complex, the deep metamorphic basement, the lower crust and the Moho. The analysis of these data show the Moho at a depth of 23 km in the TDC area and 20 km in the Argentario area. Crustal models also show an unexpected velocity decrease between 12 and 18 km, consistent with a slight dropdown of the Vp/Vs ratio, imputable to a regional mid-crustal shear zone inherited from the previous alpine orogenesis, re-activated in extensional tectonic by the early opening phases of the Tyrrhenian sea. Above

  16. A Comparison of Inpatient Adult Psychiatric Services in Italy and Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guaiana, Giuseppe; O'Reilly, Richard; Grassi, Luigi

    2018-05-03

    We examine the possibility the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) bed count for Italy may be an underestimation of the actual beds available. We compared bedded services for mental disorders in two regions in Italy and Canada respectively. We found out that if we consider acute psychiatric beds only, the district of Ferrara has 30 beds (8.5 per 100,000) and the Middlesex and Elgin Counties have 89 beds (16.3 beds for 100,000). However, if we include the rehabilitation beds (that are located within a hospital setting in Ontario and in a residential community setting in Ferrara), we find that the district of Ferrara has 95 beds (27.0 per 100,000) and the Middlesex and Elgin Counties have 176 beds (32.3 per 100,000). As a result, the 10/100,000 beds rate for Italy reported by the OECD is an underestimate compared to figures reported for most other countries, as the beds included are hospital beds only.

  17. SEDIMENTATION AND BASIN-FILL HISTORY OF THE PLIOCENE SUCCESSION EXPOSED IN THE NORTHERN SIENA-RADICOFANI BASIN (TUSCANY, ITALY: A SEQUENCE-STRATIGRAPHIC APPROACH

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    IVAN MARTINI

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Basin-margin paralic deposits are sensitive indicators of relative sea-level changes and typically show complex stratigraphic architectures that only a facies-based sequence-stratigraphic approach, supported by detailed biostratigraphic data, can help unravel, thus providing constraints for the tectono-stratigraphic reconstructions of ancient basins. This paper presents a detailed facies analysis of Pliocene strata exposed in a marginal key-area of the northern Siena-Radicofani Basin (Tuscany, Italy, which is used as a ground for a new sequence-stratigraphic scheme of the studied area. The study reveals a more complex sedimentary history than that inferred from the recent geological maps produced as part of the Regional Cartographic Project (CARG, which are based on lithostratigraphic principles. Specifically, four sequences (S1 to S4, in upward stratigraphic order have been recognised, each bounded by erosional unconformities and deposited within the Zanclean-early Gelasian time span. Each sequence typically comprises fluvial to open marine facies, with deposits of different sequences that show striking lithological similarities.The architecture and internal variability shown by the studied depositional sequences are typical of low-accommodation basin-margin settings, that shows: i a poorly-developed to missing record of the falling-stage systems tract; ii a lowstand system tract predominantly made of fluvio-deltaic deposits; iii a highstand system tract with substantial thickness variation between different sequences due to erosional processes associated with the overlying unconformity; iv a highly variable transgressive system tract, ranging from elementary to parasequential organization.

  18. Mycotoxin occurrence in maize produced in Northern Italy over the years 2009–2011: focus on the role of crop related factors

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    Marco CAMARDO LEGGIERI

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The occurrence of mycotoxins associated with Fusarium spp. and Aspergillus flavus in Northern Italy, and the role of cropping systems, were investigated on 140 field samples collected over the years 2009–2011. Samples were analysed for fumonisins B1 and B2 (FBs, aflatoxins B1, B2, G1 and G2 (AFs, deoxynivalenol (DON and zearalenone (ZEN using validated analytical methods. Information on: maize hybrid, preceding crop, tillage applied, mineral nutrition, pest and disease control, severity of European Corn Borer (ECB attack, sowing and harvesting dates, kernel moisture at harvesting and longitude of the sampled province, were also collected. During this period there were distinct differences in FBs and AFs concentrations between years and geographic origins, and very low contamination with DON and ZEN was always found. The incidence of AFs exceeded 75% across all samples, and was almost 100% for FBs. The meteorological trends were quite different in the 3 years surveyed. 2009 was the coldest in June and the warmest in August, 2010 the most humid, and in 2011 cold weather occurred during flowering and dry conditions during ripening. The run of a logistic equation with the backward stepwise approach selected three parameters, (seeding week, ECB severity and longitude of sampling province to predict AFB1 contamination and four parameters (year, sowing week, ECB severity and longitude of sampling province to predict FB contamination. The internal validation gave good results, with 76% correct predictions. The probability of harvesting maize with more than 5 µg kg-1 of AFB1 varied between 86 and 5%, and the probability of harvesting maize with more than 4,000 µg kg-1 of FBs varied between 81 and 2%, respectively, for conducive and non-conducive environments. Therefore, considerable variability was found even if a limited area and only 3 years were considered.

  19. Boosting Blue Growth in a Mild Sea: Analysis of the Synergies Produced by a Multi-Purpose Offshore Installation in the Northern Adriatic, Italy

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    Barbara Zanuttigh

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available In the near future, the oceans will be subjected to a massive development of marine infrastructures, including offshore wind, tidal and wave energy farms and constructions for marine aquaculture. The development of these facilities will unavoidably exert environmental pressures on marine ecosystems. It is therefore crucial that the economic costs, the use of marine space and the environmental impacts of these activities remain within acceptable limits. Moreover, the installation of arrays of wave energy devices is still far from being economically feasible due to many combined aspects, such as immature technologies for energy conversion, local energy storage and moorings. Therefore, multi-purpose solutions combining renewable energy from the sea (wind, wave, tide, aquaculture and transportation facilities can be considered as a challenging, yet advantageous, way to boost blue growth. This would be due to the sharing of the costs of installation and using the produced energy locally to feed the different functionalities and optimizing marine spatial planning. This paper focuses on the synergies that may be produced by a multi-purpose offshore installation in a relatively calm sea, i.e., the Northern Adriatic Sea, Italy, and specifically offshore Venice. It analyzes the combination of aquaculture, energy production from wind and waves, and energy storage or transfer. Alternative solutions are evaluated based on specific criteria, including the maturity of the technology, the environmental impact, the induced risks and the costs. Based on expert judgment, the alternatives are ranked and a preliminary layout of the selected multi-purpose installation for the case study is proposed, to further allow the exploitation of the synergies among different functionalities.

  20. Nutritional status, dietary habits, nutritional knowledge and self-care assessment in a group of older adults attending community centres in Pavia, Northern Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turconi, G; Rossi, M; Roggi, C; Maccarini, L

    2013-02-01

    The population of industrialised countries is ageing as a consequence of an increase in life expectancy. As a result of the increasing ageing process, the assessment of nutritional status and dietary habits, as well as the assessment of self-care, is needed to plan selected actions aimed at improving the quality of life in the third and fourth life spans. A cross-sectional study was carried out on a randomly selected sample of 200 healthy older adults (≥65 years old), attending community centres for older people in Pavia, Northern Italy. Ninety-two percent of the recruited subjects participated in the survey. Anthropometric measurements and the Mini Nutritional Assessment were performed. Dietary habits, nutritional knowledge and self-care were investigated using a questionnaire administered by two dietitians. The majority of subjects were low socio-economic status and overweight [mean (SD) body mass index = 28.4 (4.3) kg/m(2) ], 12% were malnourished according to their Mini Nutritional Assessment score and the majority of the arm muscle circumference measurements were below the 10th percentile, predicting accelerated loss of lean mass, even in the healthy independently living older adults. Only 30% of the sample had adequate dietary habits, whereas the ability to self-care was good for the whole sample. The unhealthy and unbalanced diet, frequently too rich in sugar and fats and low in protein intake, might explain being overweight and the loss of lean mass in the study subjects. © 2012 The Authors Journal of Human Nutrition and Dietetics © 2012 The British Dietetic Association Ltd.

  1. Epidemiological and clinical features of rotavirus among children younger than 5 years of age hospitalized with acute gastroenteritis in Northern Italy

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    Montrasio Giovanni

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Rotavirus is the major cause of acute gastroenteritis and severe dehydrating diarrhea in young children. Methods To estimate the proportion of hospital admissions for rotavirus acute gastroenteritis and identify the circulating G and P genotypes among children under five years of age, we conducted a prospective observational study from January to December 2008, recruiting children consecutively admitted to six hospitals in Milan and nearby towns in northern Italy. Typing was done on stool samples by reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction amplification. Results Of the 521 stool samples from children with acute gastroenteritis, 34.9% (95%CI, 30.8 to 39.2% were rotavirus-positive. Two thirds (67.6% were under two years of age, and 13.2% were under six months. The predominant G type was G1 (40.7%, followed by G9 (22.5%, G2 (13.2%, G3 (5.5%, G4 (3.8% and G10 (1.6%. Twenty-one (11.7% mixed-G infections were identified: G1+G10 (8.8%; G1+G9 (1.6%; and G2+G10 (1.2%. Only P[8] (67.6% and P[4] (12.6% types were P genotyped. The predominant single G/P combination was G1P[8] (39.7%, followed by G9P[8] (25.3%, G2P[4] (14.3%, and G3P[8] (4.1%. All G-mixed types combined with P[8]. Conclusions These findings show an high prevalence of rotavirus infections among children admitted to hospital for acute gastroenteritis caused by different rotavirus strains circulating in the area studied.

  2. Zooplankton predators and prey: body size and stable isotope to investigate the pelagic food web in a deep lake (Lake Iseo, Northern Italy

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    Barbara Leoni

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Seasonal changes in trophic position and food sources of deep subalpine lake (Lake Iseo, Northern Italy zooplankton taxa were investigated during the year 2011. Furthermore, it's combined carbon and nitrogen Stable Isotope Analysis (SIA with size-specific analyses of both, the major predatory cladoceran (Leptodora kindtii, Focke and two potential preys (Daphnia longispina complex and Eubosmina longicornis. SIA studies have been extremely useful to track the energy flow through complex trophic network, however, if it is applied to analyze relation between two/few species may lead to misleading interpretations. In fact, integrating size-specificity allowed for understanding why L. kindtii nitrogen isotopic fingerprint fully overlapped with Daphnia, in spring. By investigating changes in L. kindtii's feeding basket, we found that in spring, L. kindtii mainly relied upon E. longicornis as prey, Daphnia being of too large body size for being captured by L. kindtii. Among preys encountered directly in front by a free-swimming Leptodora, only those able to fit into basket opening can be captured. As basket diameter increases with animal body length, size selection of prey depends on L. kindtii body length. As in other deep, subalpine lakes, E. longicornis was less 15N-enriched than Daphnia, most likely because of exploiting nitrogen fixing, cyanobacteria colonies, commonly detected in Lake Iseo with the onset of thermal stratification. Cyclopoid adults were at the top of zooplankton food chain and they could potentially be feeding on Daphnia. They, however, likely fed in a different habitat (>20 m deep water, as suggested by a rather than negligible carbon fractionation. The results overall suggest that size-specificity is crucial for addressing space and time changes in trophic links between organisms composing the two hierarchical levels within open water zooplankton community. 

  3. Multidisciplinary research for the safe fruition of an active geosite: the Salse di Nirano mud volcanoes (Northern Apennines, Italy)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coratza, Paola; Albarello, Dario; Cipriani, Anna; Cantucci, Barbara; Castaldini, Doriano; Conventi, Marzia; Dadomo, Andrea; De Nardo, Maria Teresa; Macini, Paolo; Martinelli, Giovanni; Mesini, Ezio; Papazzoni, Cesare Andrea; Quartieri, Simona; Ricci, Tullio; Santagata, Tommaso; Sciarra, Alessandra; Vezzalini, Giovanna

    2017-04-01

    Mud volcanoes are emissions of cold mud due to the ascent to the surface of salty and muddy waters mixed with gaseous (methane) and, in minor part, fluid hydrocarbons (petroleum veils) along faults and fractures. In the Northern Apennines mud volcanoes are closely linked to the active tectonic compression associated with thrusts of regional importance. They are mostly cone-shaped and show variable geometry and size, ranging from one to few metres, and are located in 19 sites in the northwestern part of the Apennines. Particularly noteworthy is the Nirano mud volcano field, located in the Fiorano Modenese district, which, with a surface area of approximately 75,000 m2, is one of the best developed and largest mud volcano field of the entire Italian territory and among the largest in Europe; it is thus protected as natural reserve (Salse di Nirano) since 1982. The Nirano mud volcanoes are found at the bottom of an elliptical depression, interpreted as a collapse-like structure (caldera) that may have developed in response to the deflation of a shallow mud chamber triggered by several ejections and evacuation of fluid sediments. There are several individual or multiple cones within the field of the mud volcanoes of Nirano, with a rather discontinuous activity; apparatuses become dormant or even extinct whereas new vents can appear in other spots. In the research here presented about 50 vents have been mapped and few of them appeared in May 2016. The mud volcanoes of the region have been known since a long time and have always aroused great interest due to their outstanding scenic value, and, in the past the mud volcano emissions have been used in many ways. Beside their cultural value, the mud volcanoes of the study area represent a tourist attractiveness as testified by the increasing number of visitors (e.g. about 70,000 visitors in 2015 in the Salse di Nirano Natural Reserve). Numerous initiatives, targeted at various potential users, have been developed in the

  4. A project of reuse of reclaimed wastewater in the Po Valley, Italy: Polishing sequence and cost benefit analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verlicchi, P.; Al Aukidy, M.; Galletti, A.; Zambello, E.; Zanni, G.; Masotti, L.

    2012-04-01

    SummaryThe paper presents a study carried out in the environmentally sensitive area of the Po Valley in northern Italy, with the aim of evaluating, from technical and economic perspectives, a project to reuse part of the final effluent from the Ferrara wastewater treatment plant for irrigation and to develop the site for recreational purposes. Although this area features plentiful supplies of surface water, the Ministry of the Environment has declared it to be at risk of environmental crises due to eutrophication and the drought recurring over the last decade. Thus the availability of fresh water, particularly for agricultural purposes, is threatened, and prompt water saving and protection measures are required. Hence, the possibility of reusing reclaimed wastewater from this plant was investigated, with the aim of exploiting the space around the WWTP, situated within a large urban park, to install natural polishing treatment systems and create green spaces for recreational use. Based on experimental investigation on a pilot plant (featuring both natural and conventional treatments), the study outlines the rationale behind the treatment train selected for the project, details the initial and ongoing costs involved, evaluates the benefits deriving from the project, and assesses public acceptance of the project by the contingent valuation method. A cost-benefit analysis completes the study, and various economic indicators (net present value, benefit-cost ratio, pay-back period, and internal rate of return) revealed that the proposed project was financially feasible.

  5. Gneisses (Serizzi and Beole) of the Verbano-Cusio-Ossola district (Piedmont, Northern Italy): possible candidates for the designation of "Global Heritage Stone province"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antonella Dino, Giovanna; Borghi, Alessandro; Cavallo, Alessandro; Primavori, Piero

    2016-04-01

    The Verbano-Cusio-Ossola quarrying district (Piedmont, northern Italy) produces many different ornamental stones (granites, gneisses, marbles): two really important categories are represented by Serizzo and Beola gneisses. Several varieties of Serizzo and Beola crop out in the upper and middle Ossola Valley: Serizzo derives from the Antigorio, Monte Leone and Monte Rosa Penninic Units, whereas Beola from the Monte Leone, Orselina-Moncucco-Isorno and Monte Rosa Penninic Units, as well from the Fobello-Rimella schists (Austroalpine). The Serizzo, represented by a group of foliated granitoid orthogneisses (Serizzo Antigorio, Serizzo Formazza, Serizzo Sempione and Serizzo Monte Rosa varieties), is probably the most important and extensively exploited ornamental stones from the VCO province (about 70% of the VCO stone production). The quarries are mostly concentrated in the Antigorio and Formazza valleys, where the Antigorio nappe has a sub-horizontal attitude and reaches its greatest thickness (up to 1000 m). This stone was largely used to produce columns since the end of XV century (e.g. the old Ospedale Maggiore in Milano, now University of Milano) and later on it was replaced with granites. It was also used in the building structure of the Duomo di Milano, for the plinth and the piers. Nowadays, thanks to its good wear resistance and low cost, it is mainly used in polished slabs for paving: a recent application is the Frankfurt airport floor. Beola is the name of a group of heterogeneous orthogneisses with mylonitic foliation and strong mineralogical lineation (Beola Grigia, Bianca, Ghiandonata, Striata varieties), easy to split into thin slabs with hammer and chisel, occurring in the middle Ossola Valley, between Vogogna and Montecrestese. The quarries of Beola are probably the oldest of the Ossola Valley, although the precise period in which the stone started to be exported is unknown. The Beola trade probably started at the end of the XIII century, with the

  6. Comparing growth rate in a mixed plantation (walnut, poplar and nurse trees with different planting designs: results from an experimental plantation in northern Italy

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    Francesco Pelleri

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available 800x600 Results of a mixed plantation with poplar, walnut and nurse trees established in winter 2003 in Northern Italy, are reported. Main tree species (poplar and walnut were planted according to a rectangular design (10 x 11m, with different spacings and alternate lines. The experimental trial was carried out to verify the following working hypotheses: (i possibility to combine main trees with different growth levels (common walnut, hybrid walnut, and different poplar clones and test two different poplar and walnut spacings (5.0 and 7.4 m in the same plantation; (ii opportunity to reduce cultivation’s workload, in comparison with poplar monoculture, using mixtures with different poplar clones and N-fixing nurse trees; (iii verifying the growth pattern of two new poplar clones in comparison with the traditional clones cultivated for different purposes in Italy.The use of different valuable crop trees’ mixtures intercropped with nurse trees and shrubs (including N-fixing trees allows to decrease the cultivation’s workload. In fact, a heavy reduction of cultural practices - fertilizers, weed control, irrigation and pesticides applications (-61% are the main concurrent, supplementary benefits. The best growth performances (DBH and tree height, associated with the higher competition towards walnuts, were recorded with the new clones Lena and Neva in comparison with the I214 and Villafranca. The closer spacing (5 m between poplar and walnut trees was found to be unsuited to get merchantable poplars sized 30 cm without developing a heavy competition towards walnut trees. The wider spacing (7.4 m resulted vice versa suitable to get poplar trees sized as requested by veneer factories and to maintain an acceptable competitive level with walnut. Within this plantation design, a shorter rotation (8 yrs is needed for Lena and Neva clones in comparison with I214 and Villafranca (10 yrs. Walnut intercropped with poplar showed cone-shaped crowns, light

  7. Two look-alike dasycladalean algae: Clypeina isabellae masse, Bucur, Virgone & Delmasso, 1999 from the Berriasian of Sardinia (Italy and Clypeina loferensis sp. N. from the upper Jurassic of the Northern Calcareous Alps (Austria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schlagintweit Felix

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available New material from the Berriasian of eastern Sardinia, Italy, and from the NW of Sardinia published by PECORINI in 1972 as 'Clypeina sp. A', allows a better characterization and an emended diagnosis of Clypeina isabellae MASSE et al., 1999 from the Berriasian of SW France. Another morphologically somehow similar Clypeina species from the Upper Jurassic of the Northern Calcareous Alps of Austria is described as Clypeina loferensis n. sp. Remarks on the genera Clypeina MICHELIN and Hamulusella ELLIOTT, a Clypeina-type dasycladalean alga with proximal bulged laterals, and Clypeina jurassica-sulcata are also provided.

  8. Canopy-scale flux measurements and bottom-up emission estimates of volatile organic compounds from a mixed oak and hornbeam forest in northern Italy

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    W. J. F. Acton

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper reports the fluxes and mixing ratios of biogenically emitted volatile organic compounds (BVOCs 4 m above a mixed oak and hornbeam forest in northern Italy. Fluxes of methanol, acetaldehyde, isoprene, methyl vinyl ketone + methacrolein, methyl ethyl ketone and monoterpenes were obtained using both a proton-transfer-reaction mass spectrometer (PTR-MS and a proton-transfer-reaction time-of-flight mass spectrometer (PTR-ToF-MS together with the methods of virtual disjunct eddy covariance (using PTR-MS and eddy covariance (using PTR-ToF-MS. Isoprene was the dominant emitted compound with a mean daytime flux of 1.9 mg m−2 h−1. Mixing ratios, recorded 4 m above the canopy, were dominated by methanol with a mean value of 6.2 ppbv over the 28-day measurement period. Comparison of isoprene fluxes calculated using the PTR-MS and PTR-ToF-MS showed very good agreement while comparison of the monoterpene fluxes suggested a slight over estimation of the flux by the PTR-MS. A basal isoprene emission rate for the forest of 1.7 mg m−2 h−1 was calculated using the Model of Emissions of Gases and Aerosols from Nature (MEGAN isoprene emission algorithms (Guenther et al., 2006. A detailed tree-species distribution map for the site enabled the leaf-level emission of isoprene and monoterpenes recorded using gas-chromatography mass spectrometry (GC–MS to be scaled up to produce a bottom-up canopy-scale flux. This was compared with the top-down canopy-scale flux obtained by measurements. For monoterpenes, the two estimates were closely correlated and this correlation improved when the plant-species composition in the individual flux footprint was taken into account. However, the bottom-up approach significantly underestimated the isoprene flux, compared with the top-down measurements, suggesting that the leaf-level measurements were not representative of actual emission rates.

  9. Canopy-scale flux measurements and bottom-up emission estimates of volatile organic compounds from a mixed oak and hornbeam forest in northern Italy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acton, W. Joe F.; Schallhart, Simon; Langford, Ben; Valach, Amy; Rantala, Pekka; Fares, Silvano; Carriero, Giulia; Tillmann, Ralf; Tomlinson, Sam J.; Dragosits, Ulrike; Gianelle, Damiano; Hewitt, C. Nicholas; Nemitz, Eiko

    2016-06-01

    This paper reports the fluxes and mixing ratios of biogenically emitted volatile organic compounds (BVOCs) 4 m above a mixed oak and hornbeam forest in northern Italy. Fluxes of methanol, acetaldehyde, isoprene, methyl vinyl ketone + methacrolein, methyl ethyl ketone and monoterpenes were obtained using both a proton-transfer-reaction mass spectrometer (PTR-MS) and a proton-transfer-reaction time-of-flight mass spectrometer (PTR-ToF-MS) together with the methods of virtual disjunct eddy covariance (using PTR-MS) and eddy covariance (using PTR-ToF-MS). Isoprene was the dominant emitted compound with a mean daytime flux of 1.9 mg m-2 h-1. Mixing ratios, recorded 4 m above the canopy, were dominated by methanol with a mean value of 6.2 ppbv over the 28-day measurement period. Comparison of isoprene fluxes calculated using the PTR-MS and PTR-ToF-MS showed very good agreement while comparison of the monoterpene fluxes suggested a slight over estimation of the flux by the PTR-MS. A basal isoprene emission rate for the forest of 1.7 mg m-2 h-1 was calculated using the Model of Emissions of Gases and Aerosols from Nature (MEGAN) isoprene emission algorithms (Guenther et al., 2006). A detailed tree-species distribution map for the site enabled the leaf-level emission of isoprene and monoterpenes recorded using gas-chromatography mass spectrometry (GC-MS) to be scaled up to produce a bottom-up canopy-scale flux. This was compared with the top-down canopy-scale flux obtained by measurements. For monoterpenes, the two estimates were closely correlated and this correlation improved when the plant-species composition in the individual flux footprint was taken into account. However, the bottom-up approach significantly underestimated the isoprene flux, compared with the top-down measurements, suggesting that the leaf-level measurements were not representative of actual emission rates.

  10. Variability of Black Carbon and Ultrafine Particle Concentration on Urban Bike Routes in a Mid-Sized City in the Po Valley (Northern Italy

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    Giovanni Lonati

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Cyclists might experience increased air pollution exposure, due to the proximity to traffic, and higher intake, due to their active travel mode and higher ventilation. Several local factors, like meteorology, road and traffic features, and bike lanes features, affect cyclists’ exposure to traffic-related pollutants. This paper investigates the concentration levels and the effect of the features of the bike lanes on cyclists’ exposure to airborne ultrafine particulate matter (UFP and black carbon (BC in the mid-sized city of Piacenza, located in the middle of the Po Valley, Northern Italy. Monitoring campaigns were performed by means of portable instruments along different urban bike routes with bike lanes, characterized by different distances from the traffic source (on-road cycle lane, separated cycle lane, green cycle path, during morning (9:00 am–10:00 am and evening (17:30 pm–18:30 pm workday rush hours in both cold and warm seasons. The proximity to traffic significantly affected cyclists’ exposure to UFP and BC: exposure concentrations measured for the separated lane and for the green path were 1–2 times and 2–4 times lower than for the on-road lane. Concurrent measurements showed that exposure concentrations to PM10, PM2.5, and PM1 were not influenced by traffic proximity, without any significant variation between on-road cycle lane, separated lane, or green cycle path. Thus, for the location of this study PM mass-based metrics were not able to capture local scale concentration gradients in the urban area as a consequence of the rather high urban and regional background that hides the contribution of local scale sources, such as road traffic. The impact of route choice on cyclists’ exposure to UFPs and BC during commuting trips back and forth from a residential area to the train station has been also estimated through a probabilistic approach through an iterative Monte Carlo technique, based on the measured data. Compared

  11. Linking top-down and bottom-up approaches for assessing the vulnerability of a 100 % renewable energy system in Northern-Italy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borga, Marco; Francois, Baptiste; Hingray, Benoit; Zoccatelli, Davide; Creutin, Jean-Dominique; brown, Casey

    2016-04-01

    in Northern Italy. The main VRE available in the region are solar and hydropower (with an important fraction of run-of-the river hydropower). The indicator of success is the well-known 'energy penetration', defined as the percentage of energy demand met by the VRE power generation. The synthetic weather variables used for building the CRFs are obtained by perturbing the observed weather time series with the change factors method. A large ensemble of future climate scenarios from CMIP5 experiments are further used for assessing these factors for different emission scenarios, climate models and future prediction lead times. Their positioning on the CRFs allows discussing the risk pertaining to VRE penetration in the future. A focus is especially made on the different CRFs obtained from daily to seasonal time scales.

  12. In situ bioavailability of DDT and Hg in sediments of the Toce River (Lake Maggiore basin, Northern Italy): accumulation in benthic invertebrates and passive samplers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pisanello, Francesca; Marziali, Laura; Rosignoli, Federica; Poma, Giulia; Roscioli, Claudio; Pozzoni, Fiorenzo; Guzzella, Licia

    2016-06-01

    DDT and mercury (Hg) contamination in the Toce River (Northern Italy) was caused by a factory producing technical DDT and using a mercury-cell chlor-alkali plant. In this study, DDT and Hg contamination and bioavailability were assessed by using different approaches: (1) direct evaluation of sediment contamination, (2) assessment of bioaccumulation in native benthic invertebrates belonging to different taxonomic/functional groups, and (3) evaluation of the in situ bioavailability of DDT and Hg using passive samplers. Sampling sites were selected upstream and downstream the industrial plant along the river axis. Benthic invertebrates (Gammaridae, Heptageniidae, and Diptera) and sediments were collected in three seasons and analyzed for DDT and Hg content and the results were used to calculate the biota sediment accumulation factor (BSAF). Polyethylene passive samplers (PEs) for DDT and diffusive gradients in thin films (DGTs) for Hg were deployed in sediments to estimate the concentration of the toxicants in pore water. Analysis for (DDx) were performed using GC-MS. Accuracy was within ±30 % of the certified values and precision was >20 % relative standard deviation (RSD). Total mercury concentrations were determined using an automated Hg mercury analyzer. Precision was >5 % and accuracy was within ±10 % of certified values. The results of all the approaches (analysis of sediment, biota, and passive samplers) showed an increasing contamination from upstream to downstream sites. BSAF values revealed the bioavailability of both contaminants in the study sites, with values up to 49 for DDx and up to 3.1 for Hg. No correlation was found between values in sediments and the organisms. Concentrations calculated using passive samplers were correlated with values in benthic invertebrates, while no correlation was found with concentrations in sediments. Thus, direct analysis of toxicant in sediments does not provide a measurement of bioavailability. On the contrary

  13. Characteristics and major sources of carbonaceous aerosols in PM2.5 in Emilia Romagna Region (Northern Italy) from four-year observations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pietrogrande, Maria Chiara, E-mail: mpc@unife.it [Department of Chemical and Pharmaceutical Sciences, University of Ferrara, Via Fossato di Mortara 17/19, I-44100 Ferrara (Italy); Bacco, Dimitri [Department of Chemical and Pharmaceutical Sciences, University of Ferrara, Via Fossato di Mortara 17/19, I-44100 Ferrara (Italy); Regional Agency for Prevention and Environment—ARPA, Emilia-Romagna (Italy); Ferrari, Silvia; Ricciardelli, Isabella; Scotto, Fabiana; Trentini, Arianna [Regional Agency for Prevention and Environment—ARPA, Emilia-Romagna (Italy); Visentin, Marco [Department of Chemical and Pharmaceutical Sciences, University of Ferrara, Via Fossato di Mortara 17/19, I-44100 Ferrara (Italy)

    2016-05-15

    The concentrations of organic and elemental carbon in PM{sub 2.5} aerosol samples were measured in two sites of Emilia Romagna (Po Valley, Northern Italy) in eight campaigns during different seasons from 2011 to 2014. Strong seasonality was observed with the highest OC concentrations during the cold periods (≈ 5.5 μg m{sup −3}) and the lowest in the warm months (≈ 2.7 μg m{sup −3}) as well as with higher EC levels in fall/winter (≈ 1.4 μg m{sup −3}) in comparison with spring/summer (≈ 0.6 μg m{sup −3}). Concerning spatial variability, there were no statistically significant difference (p < 0.05) between OC concentrations at the two sampling sites in each campaign, while the EC values were nearly twofold higher levels at the urban site than those at the rural one. Specific molecular markers were investigated to attempt the basic apportionment of OC by discriminating between the main emission sources of primary OC, such as fossil fuels burning – including traffic vehicle emission – residential wood burning, and bio-aerosol released from plants and microorganisms, and the atmospheric photo-oxidation processes generating OC{sub sec}. The investigated markers were low-molecular-weight carboxylic acids – to describe the contribution of secondary organic aerosol – anhydrosugars – to quantify primary emissions from biomass burning – bio-sugars – to qualitatively estimate biogenic sources – and Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons – to differentiate among different combustion emissions. Using the levoglucosan tracer method, contribution of wood smoke to atmospheric OC concentration was computed. Wood burning accounts for 33% of OC in fall/winter and for 3% in spring/summer. A clear seasonal trend is also observed for the impact of secondary processes with higher contribution in the warm seasons (≈ 63%) in comparison with that in colder months (≈ 33%), that is consistent with enhanced solar radiation in spring/summer. - Highlights:

  14. An assessment of urban heat island effect adopting urban parameterizations in COSMO-CLM simulations over big cities in Northern Italy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montesarchio, Myriam; Rianna, Guido; Mercogliano, Paola; Castellari, Sergio; Schiano, Pasquale

    2015-04-01

    In Europe, about 80% of people live in urban areas, which most of them can be particularly vulnerable to climate impacts (e.g. high air temperatures along with heat waves, flooding due to intense precipitation events, water scarcity and droughts). In fact, the density of people and assets within relatively small geographic areas, such as an urban settlements, mean more risk exposure than in rural areas. Therefore, reliable numerical climate models are needed for elaborating climate risk assessment at urban scale. These models must take into account the effects of the complex three-dimensional structure of urban settlements, combined with the mixture of surface types with contrasting radiative, thermal and moisture characteristics. In this respect, previous studies (e.g. Trusilova et al., 2013) have already assessed the importance to consider urban properties in very high resolution regional climate modeling to better reproduce the features of urban climate, especially in terms of urban heat island effect. In this work, two different configurations of the regional climate model COSMO-CLM at the horizontal resolution of 0.02° (about 2.2km), one including urban parameterization scheme and another without including them, have been applied in order to perform two different climate simulations covering the entire northern Italy. In particular, the present study is focused on large urban settlements such as Milan and Turin. Due to high computational cost required to run very high resolution simulations, the results of the two simulations have been compared over a period of ten years, from 1980 to 1989. Preliminary results indicate that the modification of climate conditions, due to the presence of urban areas, is present mainly in the areas covered by big cities and surrounding them, or rather the presence of urban areas induces modification mainly in their local climate. Other evidences are that the simulation including urban parameterization scheme shows, in general

  15. Monitoring the Rapid-Moving Reactivation of Earth Flows by Means of GB-InSAR: The April 2013 Capriglio Landslide (Northern Appennines, Italy

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    Federica Bardi

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the main results of the GB-InSAR (ground based interferometric synthetic aperture radar monitoring of the Capriglio landslide (Northern Apennines, Emilia Romagna Region, Italy, activated on 6 April 2013. The landslide, triggered by prolonged rainfall, is constituted by two main adjacent enlarging bodies with a roto-translational kinematics. They activated in sequence and subsequently joined into a large earth flow, channelizing downstream of the Bardea Creek, for a total length of about 3600 m. The displacement rate of this combined mass was quite high, so that the landslide toe evolved with velocities of several tens of meters per day (with peaks of 70–80 m/day in the first month, and of several meters per day (with peaks of 13–14 m/day from early May to mid-July 2013. In the crown area, the landslide completely destroyed a 450 m sector of provincial roadway S.P. 101, and its retrogression tendency exposed the villages of Capriglio and Pianestolla, located in the upper watershed area of the Bardea Creek, to great danger. Furthermore, the advancing toe seriously threatened the Antria bridge, representing the “Massese” provincial roadway S.P. 665R transect over the Bardea Creek, the only strategic roadway left able to connect the above-mentioned villages. With the final aim of supporting local authorities in the hazard assessment and risk management during the emergency phase, on 4 May 2013 aerial optical surveys were conducted to accurately map the landslide extension and evolution. Moreover, a GB-InSAR monitoring campaign was started in order to assess displacements of the whole landslide area. The versatility and flexibility of the GB-InSAR sensors allowed acquiring data with two different configurations, designed and set up to continuously retrieve information on the landslide movement rates (both in its upper slow-moving sectors and in its fast-moving toe. The first acquisition mode revealed that the Capriglio and

  16. Survival time and effect of selected predictor variables on survival in owned pet cats seropositive for feline immunodeficiency and leukemia virus attending a referral clinic in northern Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spada, Eva; Perego, Roberta; Sgamma, Elena Assunta; Proverbio, Daniela

    2018-02-01

    Feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV) and feline leukemia virus (FeLV) are among the most important feline infectious diseases worldwide. This retrospective study investigated survival times and effects of selected predictor factors on survival time in a population of owned pet cats in Northern Italy testing positive for the presence of FIV antibodies and FeLV antigen. One hundred and three retrovirus-seropositive cats, 53 FIV-seropositive cats, 40 FeLV-seropositive cats, and 10 FIV+FeLV-seropositive cats were included in the study. A population of 103 retrovirus-seronegative age and sex-matched cats was selected. Survival time was calculated and compared between retrovirus-seronegative, FIV, FeLV and FIV+FeLV-seropositive cats using Kaplan-Meier survival analysis. Cox proportional-hazards regression analysis was used to study the effect of selected predictor factors (male gender, peripheral blood cytopenia as reduced red blood cells - RBC- count, leukopenia, neutropenia and lymphopenia, hypercreatininemia and reduced albumin to globulin ratio) on survival time in retrovirus-seropositive populations. Median survival times for seronegative cats, FIV, FeLV and FIV+FeLV-seropositive cats were 3960, 2040, 714 and 77days, respectively. Compared to retrovirus-seronegative cats median survival time was significantly lower (P<0.000) in FeLV and FIV+FeLV-seropositive cats. Median survival time in FeLV and FIV+FeLV-seropositive cats was also significant lower (P<0.000) when compared to FIV-seropositive cats. Hazard ratio of death in FeLV and FIV+FeLV-seropositive cats being respectively 3.4 and 7.4 times higher, in comparison to seronegative cats and 2.3 and 4.8 times higher in FeLV and FIV+FeLV-seropositive cats as compared to FIV-seropositive cats. A Cox proportional-hazards regression analysis showed that FIV and FeLV-seropositive cats with reduced RBC counts at time of diagnosis of seropositivity had significantly shorter survival times when compared to FIV and Fe

  17. Abundance of questing ticks and molecular evidence for pathogens in ticks in three parks of Emilia-Romagna region of Northern Italy

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    Sara Aureli

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction and objective. Infectious and parasitic diseases transmitted by ticks, such as Lyme diseases, granulocytic anaplasmosis and piroplasmosis, have been frequently reported in Europe, with increasing attention to them as an emerging zoonotic problem. The presented study was performed to assess the distribution and the density of questing ticks in three regional parks of Emilia-Romagna region of Northern Italy, and to seek molecular evidence of potential human pathogens in tick populations. Materials and Methods. In the period April-October 2010, 8,139 questing ticks were collected: 6,734 larvae, 1,344 nymphs and only a few adults – 28 females and 33 males. The abundance of[i] Ixodes ricinus[/i] questing ticks was compared among different sampling sites and related to microclimate parameters. 1,544 out of 8,139 ticks were examined for the presence of pathogens: PCR was used to detect piroplasms DNA and Real time Taqman PCR for [i]Anaplasma phagocytophilum[/i] and [i]Borrelia burgdorferi[/i] s.l. Results. The predominant species was [i]I. ricinus[/i] (overall abundance 1,075.9/100 m[sup]2[/sup] ; more rarely, [i]Dermacentor marginatus[/i] (n = 37 – 0.45%, [i]Scaphixodes frontalis[/i] (n = 13 – 0.16%, [i]Hyalomma[/i] spp. (n = 6 – 0.07% and [i]Ixodes acuminatus[/i] (n = 3 – 0.04% were also found. 28 out of 324 (8.6% samples of ticks were PCR-positive for piroplasm DNA. 11 amplicons of 18S rRNA gene were identical to each other and had 100% identity with[i] Babesia[/i] EU1 ([i]Babesia venatorum[/i] using BLAST analysis. Real time Taqman PCR gave positive results for [i]A. phagocytophilum[/i] in 23 out of 292 samples (7.9%, and for [i]B. burgdorferi[/i] s.l. in 78 out of 292 samples (26.7%. [i]I. ricinu[/i]s was the only species found positive for pathogens by molecular analysis; 16 tick samples were co-infected with at least 2 pathogens. Discussion. The peak of nymph presence was in May, and the higher prevalence of pathogens

  18. Syndepositional tectonics recorded by soft-sediment deformation and liquefaction structures (continental Lower Permian sediments, Southern Alps, Northern Italy): Stratigraphic significance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berra, F.; Felletti, F.

    2011-04-01

    The Lower Permian succession of the Central Southern Alps (Lombardy, Northern Italy) was deposited in fault-controlled continental basins, probably related to transtensional tectonics. We focussed our study on the stratigraphic record of the Lower Permian Orobic Basin, which consists of a 1000 m thick succession of prevailing continental clastics with intercalations of ignimbritic flows and tuffs (Pizzo del Diavolo Formation, PDV) resting on the underlying prevailing pyroclastic flows of the Cabianca Volcanite. The PDV consists of a lower part (composed of conglomerates passing laterally to sandstones and distally to silt and shales), a middle part (pelitic, with carbonates) and an upper part (alternating sandstone, silt and volcanic flows). Syndepositional tectonics during the deposition of the PDV is recorded by facies distribution, thickness changes and by the presence of deformation and liquefaction structures interpreted as seismites. Deformation is recorded by both ductile structures (ball-and-pillow, plastic intrusion, disturbed lamination, convolute stratification and slumps) and brittle structures (sand dykes and autoclastic breccias). Both the sedimentological features and the geodynamic setting of the depositional basin confidently support the interpretation of the described deformation features as related to seismic shocks. The most significant seismically-induced deformation is represented by a slumped horizon (about 4 m thick on average) which can be followed laterally for more than 5 km. The slumped bed consists of playa-lake deposits (alternating pelites and microbial carbonates, associated with mud cracks and vertebrate tracks). The lateral continuity and the evidence of deposition on a very low-angle surface along with the deformation/liquefaction of the sediments suggest that the slump was triggered by a high-magnitude earthquake. The stratigraphic distribution of the seismites allows us to identify time intervals of intense seismic activity

  19. Agronomical evaluation and chemical characterization of Linum usitatissimum L. as oilseed crop for bio-based products in two environments of Central and Northern Italy

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    Silvia Tavarini

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available In the recent years, new perspectives for linseed (Linum usitatissimum L. are open as renewable raw material for bio-based products (Bb, due to its oil composition, and the interesting amounts of coproducts (lignocellulosic biomass. Therefore, the possibility to introduce linseed crop in two environments of central and northern Italy, traditionally devoted to cereal cultivation, has been evaluated. Twoyears field trials were carried out in the coastal plain of Pisa (Tuscany region and in the Po valley (Bologna, Emilia Romagna region, comparing two linseed varieties (Sideral and Buenos Aires. Agronomical evaluation (yield and yield components, seed and oil characterization (oil, protein content, and fatty acid composition, together with carbon (C and nitrogen (N content of the residual lignocellulosic biomass were investigated. The two varieties, grown as autumn crop, showed a different percentage of plant survival at the end of winter, with Sideral most resistant to cold. The achieved results showed significant influence of cultivar, location and growing season on yield and yield components, as well as on chemical biomass composition. In particular, Sideral appeared to be the most suitable variety for tested environments, since higher seed yield (3.05 t ha–1 as mean value over years and locations and above-ground biomass (6.98 t ha–1 as mean value over years and locations were recorded in comparison with those detected for Buenos Aires (1.93 and 4.48 t ha–1 of seed production and lignocellulosic biomass, respectively. Interestingly, in the northern area, during the 1st year, Buenos Aires was the most productive, despite its low plant survival at the end of winter, which determined a strong reduction in plant density and size. In such conditions, the plants produced a larger number of capsules and, consequently, high seed yield (3.18 t ha–1. Relevant differences were also observed between the two years, due to the variability of climatic

  20. A new species of Atlantoscia Ferrara & Taiti, 1981 (Oniscidea: Philosciidae from Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil

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    Ivanklin Soares Campos-Filho

    Full Text Available To date the genus Atlantoscia Ferrara and Taiti, 1981 includes two species, A. floridana (van Name, 1940 and A. rubromarginata Araujo and Leistikow, 1999. The species Atlantoscia petronioi sp.n. is described on the basis of material collected in a coastal dune forest area of the southern Rio Grande do Sul state, Brazil. This new species is characterized by antenna with accentuate setose sulcus from the peduncle to the distal article of the flagellum, outer endite of maxillula with slender seta among the outer group teeth and accessory tooth, one trifid tooth in the inner group, and male pleopod 1 endopod with distal part pointed and subapically not swollen.

  1. The peculiar case of Marosticano xenoliths: a cratonic mantle fragment affected by carbonatite metasomatism in the Veneto Volcanic Province (Northern Italy)

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    Brombin, Valentina; Bonadiman, Costanza; Coltorti, Massimo; Florencia Fahnestock, M.; Bryce, Julia G.; Marzoli, Andrea

    2017-04-01

    The Tertiary Magmatic Province of Veneto, known as Veneto Volcanic Province (VVP), in the Northern Italy, represents one of the most important volcanic provinces of the Adria Plate. It is composed by five volcanic districts: Val d'Adige, Marosticano, Mts. Lessini, Berici Hills and Euganean Hills. Most of the volcanic products are relatively undifferentiated lavas, from nephelinites to tholeiites in composition. Commonly VVP nephelinites and basanites carry mantle xenoliths. This study presents a petrological characterization of the new xenolith occurrence of Marosticano and comparison with previously studied VVP xenolith populations (i.e. from the Lessinean and Val d'Adige areas), which represent off-craton lithospheric mantle fragment affected by Na-alkaline silicate metasomatism (Siena & Coltorti 1989; Beccaluva et al., 2001; Gasperini et al., 2006). Marosticano (MA) peridotites are anhydrous spinel-bearing lherzolites and harzburgites, which are geochemically well distinguishible from the other VVP mantle xenoliths. Primary minerals record the "most restitic" composition of the VVP sampled mantle, even calling the geochemical features of a sub-cratonic mantle. Olivines in both lherzolites and harzburgites show high Ni contents compared with the Fo values (Ni→ lherzolite: 2600-3620 ppm; harzburgite: 2600-3540 ppm; Fo → lh: 91-92; hz: 90-93) that follow the trend of olivine from a cratonic area (Kelemen, 1998). Orthopyroxenes have mg# values with 1:1 ratio with coexisting olivines and Al2O3 contents always 0.5 wt%) contents are also the chemical characteristics of the clinopyroxenes. On the whole both MA pyroxenes show major element contents that recall the characteristics of those from cratonic (sp-bearing) peridotites (e.g. from Greenland, South Africa and Tanzania; Downes et al., 2004). In addition, the relationship between the high Fo content of olivine and the high chromium contents (cr#=(Cr/(Cr+Al)X100); lh: 30-53; hz: 38-67) in coexisting spinel, out of

  2. The Ferrara hard X-ray facility for testing/calibrating hard X-ray focusing telescopes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loffredo, Gianluca; Frontera, Filippo; Pellicciotta, Damiano; Pisa, Alessandro; Carassiti, Vito; Chiozzi, Stefano; Evangelisti, Federico; Landi, Luca; Melchiorri, Michele; Squerzanti, Stefano

    2005-12-01

    We will report on the current configuration of the X-ray facility of the University of Ferrara recently used to perform reflectivity tests of mosaic crystals and to calibrate the experiment JEM X aboard Integral. The facility is now located in the technological campus of the University of Ferrara in a new building (named LARIX laboratory= LARge Italian X-ray facility) that includes a tunnel 100 m long with, on the sides, two large experimental rooms. The facility is being improved for determining the optical axis of mosaic crystals in Laue configuration, for calibrating Laue lenses and hard X-ray mirror prototypes.

  3. Exploration of experiences in therapeutic groups for patients with severe mental illness: development of the Ferrara group experiences scale (FE- GES).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caruso, Rosangela; Grassi, Luigi; Biancosino, Bruno; Marmai, Luciana; Bonatti, Luciano; Moscara, Maria; Rigatelli, Marco; Carr, Catherine; Priebe, Stefan

    2013-10-01

    Group therapies are routinely provided for patients with severe mental illness. The factors important to the group experience of patients are still poorly understood and are rarely measured. To support further research and practice, we aimed to develop a questionnaire that captures how patients experience groups within a community mental health context. An initial pool of 39 items was conceptually generated to assess different aspects of group experiences. Items were completed by 166 patients with severe mental illness attending group therapies in community mental health services in Italy. Patients with different psychiatric diagnoses who attended at least 5 group sessions were included. An exploratory factor analysis was used to identify different dimensions of group experiences and to reduce the number of items for each dimension. The resulting questionnaire has five subscales: 1) sharing of emotions and experiences, 2) cognitive improvement, 3) group learning, 4) difficulties in open expression and 5) relationships. Each subscale has 4 items. The scale and sub-scales have good internal consistency. The Ferrara Group Experiences Scale is conceptually derived and assesses dimensions of group experience that are theoretically and practically relevant. It is brief, easy to use and has good psychometric properties. After further validation, the scale may be used for research into patient experiences across different group therapy modalities and for evaluation in routine care.

  4. An environmental, economical and socio-political analysis of a variety of urban air-pollution reduction policies for primary PM10 and NOx: The case study of the Province of Milan (Northern Italy)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chiesa, M.; Perrone, M.G.; Cusumano, N.; Ferrero, L.; Sangiorgi, G.; Bolzacchini, E.; Lorenzoni, A.; Ballarin Denti, A.

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • PM10 and NO x emission reduction by different policies have been estimated. • Various actions have been considered, in the transport and residential sectors. • Environmental, economic and socio-political data were jointly evaluated. • Results are reported for the case study of the Province of Milan (Northern Italy). • Bike use fostering best matches cost–benefit results and socio-political acceptance. - Abstract: In the frame of urban air-pollution reduction policies, economic costs and environmental benefits of a variety of actions have been quantitatively assessed for the Province of Milan (Northern Italy), focusing on PM10 and NO x emission sources. Short-to-mid-term interventions that have been taken into consideration include reduction of inner temperature in residential buildings, banning of residential biomass heating systems, banning of diesel fuelled domestic boilers, night-time streets washing, speed limit reduction on highways, circulation restrictions of oldest EURO vehicles, conversion of diesel buses to natural gas, car sharing/biking promotion, DPF adoption in diesel vehicles, extension of road lanes for urban buses, energy efficiency refurbishment in residential buildings. Re*sults emerged from the cost–benefit analysis integrated with socio-political indicators obtained through direct surveys, will contribute, with an holistic and multidisciplinary approach, to drive the local administrators to implement the most suitable actions in one of the most polluted areas in west-Europe

  5. An integrated approach to asses origin and mobilization of As, Fe and Mn in groundwater: the case study of Cremona (northern Italy)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rotiroti, Marco; Bonomi, Tullia; Fumagalli, Letizia

    2013-04-01

    The present work concerns the analysis of the hydrogeology and the hydrogeochemistry of the As, Fe, Mn rich groundwater of the alluvial multi-layer aquifer in the lower Po Plain of Cremona (northern Italy). In this analysis, an integrated approach is applied in order to understand the origins (natural or anthropic) and chemical mechanisms of high groundwater As, Fe and Mn concentrations found in the study area. The study area covers a 50 km2 wide area around the urban territory of Cremona. It is located near the confluence between Adda and Po rivers. The multi-aquifer system which interests the first 200-250 m of depth is investigated. The integrated approach involves the (a) collection of historical data related to water quality, water levels and well logs; (b) storage of collected data in specific databases and geographical information systems; (c) design and execution of two field surveys of water levels and water quality, realized in July 2010 and July 2012, concerning also groundwater sampling for isotope and microbiological analysis; (d) construction of a 3D model of aquifer hydrogeological properties (deposits texture, hydraulic conductivity and effective porosity), built by means of ordinary kriging interpolation of numerical values derived from the coding of well logs; (e) analysis of the hydrodynamic properties of the system on the basis of the field measurements; (f) analysis of water quality data (both field and historical data) considering the hydrogeological and hydrodynamic properties of the aquifer system; (g) analysis of isotope and microbiological measurements; (h) implementation of a 1D reactive transport model in order to better understand the hydrogeochemical mechanisms in the system; (i) elaboration of a general hydrogeochemical conceptual model concerning possible origins and chemical mechanisms for the high groundwater As, Fe, Mn and NH4 concentrations, considering also possible anthropogenic influences; (j) development of management tools

  6. Control of the coypu (Myocastor coypus by cage-trapping in the cultivated plain of northern Italy

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    Claudio Prigioni

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Between November 2002 and March 2003, thirty-five trapping sessions, carried out along 1.5-9 m wide irrigation canals scattered in six provinces of Lombardy region (northern Italy, allowed us to test for the effectiveness of coypu (Myocastor coypus control operations in the central part of the intensively cultivated plain of the River Po. A total of 1534 coypus were captured, with a trapping success of 0.087 removed coypus/trap-days. Trapping sessions of about 33 consecutive days guaranteed the best cost/benefit ratio. Only few trapping sessions determined a significant decrease of local population size. In most of the trapping sites, removal of coypus probably enhanced immigration of animals from neighbouring areas. Among captured coypus, the sex-ratio was not significantly biased. The young/adults ratio (mean value = 0.33 significantly decreased in February and March 2003 with respect to previous months. The 11.6% of overall trapped females were pregnant. Adult coypus resulted sexually dimorphic for head-body length, tail length and weight, being higher for males, while young coypus did not show any significant variation between sexes. Some implications for the coypu management are also discussed. Riassunto Controllo numerico della Nutria (Myocastor coypus mediante trappolaggio in aree coltivate della pianura Padana. Nel periodo novembre 2002-marzo 2003 sono state effettuate 35 sessioni di trappolaggio lungo canali di irrigazione (1,5-9 m di larghezza distribuiti in 6 province lombarde, al fine di valutare l’efficacia dell’intervento di controllo della popolazione di Nutria (Myocastor coypus. In totale sono stati catturati 1534 animali con un successo di trappolaggio di 0,087 nutrie/giorni trappola. Le sessioni di trappolaggio della durata di 33 giorni consecutivi erano quelle che garantivano il miglior rapporto costi/benefici. Un significativo

  7. Slow transients recorded by the cGPS network FreDNet at the northern Adria microplate boundary (NE-Italy)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rossi, Giuliana; Fabris, Paolo; Zuliani, David

    2013-04-01

    The northern tip of the Adria micro-plate (NE-Italy) is continuously monitored by the Friuli Regional Deformation Network (FReDNet) of OGS (Istituto Nazionale di Oceanografia e Geofisica Sperimentale), consisting of 15 GNSS permanent sites, the first eight of which were installed between 2002 and 2004. Additional information on the strain field in the region comes from the 10 GNSS permanent sites of the Marussi network of the Friuli-Venezia Giulia regional council, some of which record continuously since 1999. Having at disposal time-series of a certain length (around ten-years), it is possible to evaluate with reliability not only the plate motion direction and velocity, represented by the linear trend of the horizontal components of the records, but also the possible plate acceleration, due to the superposition of other terms of the strain field time-space variations, with different frequency. With the aim of investigating such terms, we first processed the GPS data of the longest time series from both networks, starting from 2002, using GAMIT/GLOBK, eliminated the outliers, and filled the eventual short gaps in the data through linear interpolation. A low-band pass filter allowed obtaining the time-series cleaned from the components with frequencies higher than 1.5 years, so to eliminate the annual and quasi-annual terms, and the highest frequencies. The so-obtained time-series for the two horizontal components result dominated by a linear trend, as expected, to which clear oscillations of some years of duration are superimposed. From the analysis of the linear trend, the resulting velocity field suggest crustal shortening, with values ranging between 0.6 and 2.8 mm/year, decreasing from South to North and, more slightly, from East to West. This is in agreement with preceding observations and with the geodynamic character of the region, located in the area of convergence between Adria microplate and Eurasia. As regards as the deviations from the linear trend

  8. An automatic procedure for high-resolution earthquake locations: a case study from the TABOO near fault observatory (Northern Apennines, Italy)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valoroso, Luisa; Chiaraluce, Lauro; Di Stefano, Raffaele; Latorre, Diana; Piccinini, Davide

    2014-05-01

    The characterization of the geometry, kinematics and rheology of fault zones by seismological data depends on our capability of accurately locate the largest number of low-magnitude seismic events. To this aim, we have been working for the past three years to develop an advanced modular earthquake location procedure able to automatically retrieve high-resolution earthquakes catalogues directly from continuous waveforms data. We use seismograms recorded at about 60 seismic stations located both at surface and at depth. The network covers an area of about 80x60 km with a mean inter-station distance of 6 km. These stations are part of a Near fault Observatory (TABOO; http://taboo.rm.ingv.it/), consisting of multi-sensor stations (seismic, geodetic, geochemical and electromagnetic). This permanent scientific infrastructure managed by the INGV is devoted to studying the earthquakes preparatory phase and the fast/slow (i.e., seismic/aseismic) deformation process active along the Alto Tiberina fault (ATF) located in the northern Apennines (Italy). The ATF is potentially one of the rare worldwide examples of active low-angle (picking procedure that provides consistently weighted P- and S-wave arrival times, P-wave first motion polarities and the maximum waveform amplitude for local magnitude calculation; iii) both linearized iterative and non-linear global-search earthquake location algorithms to compute accurate absolute locations of single-events in a 3D geological model (see Latorre et al. same session); iv) cross-correlation and double-difference location methods to compute high-resolution relative event locations. This procedure is now running off-line with a delay of 1 week to the real-time. We are now implementing this procedure to obtain high-resolution double-difference earthquake locations in real-time (DDRT). We show locations of ~30k low-magnitude earthquakes recorded during the past 4 years (2010-2013) of network operation, reaching a completeness magnitude of

  9. Biologic impact on the coastal belt of the province of Venice (Italy, Northern Adriatic Sea): preliminary analysis for the characterization of the bathing water profile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ostoich, Marco; Aimo, Emilia; Fassina, Daniel; Barbaro, Jvan; Vazzoler, Marina; Soccorso, Corrado; Rossi, Chiara

    2011-02-01

    This paper presents a preliminary study of the water profile with reference to microbiological parameters, required by Directive 2006/07/EC (European Community 2006) concerning the management of bathing water quality, in the coastal belt of the Province of Venice (Italy, Northern Adriatic Sea). A historical database has been implemented with monitoring data for the period 2000-2006 (data on rivers, bathing and marine coastal waters and on the characterization of Wastewater Treatment Plant (WWTP) discharges) from the institutional activity of Veneto Regional Environmental Prevention and Protection Agency (ARPAV). An integrated areal analysis for the microbiological investigation of homogeneous stretches along the coast of the Province of Venice was performed for a preliminary characterization of the bathing water profile considering water quality status and existing pressure sources. ARPAV is the institutional body responsible for environmental monitoring and control activities. Data were produced from monitoring and controls made available by the Regional Environmental Informative System and extracted and elaborated for the period of interest (2000-2006). Sampling and analysis of microbiological parameters were executed following the official Italian methods in accordance with international procedures (APHA et al. 1998). For the purpose of this study, the coast was divided into eight stretches, which were considered to be homogeneous according to their physical and geographical characteristics. An ANOVA statistical assessment has been performed on stretches I, V and VIII. From the integrated areal analysis of microbiological parameters in the homogeneous stretches along the coast of all the investigated matrices, high mean levels of faecal contamination were found in some cases. The most critical situation amongst the stretches evaluated is to be found in stretch VIII-Ca' Roman, Sottomarina and Isola Verde shores (Southern part of the Province). These results can

  10. Cross-correlation analysis of 2012-2014 seismic events in Central-Northern Italy: insights from the geochemical monitoring network of Tuscany

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pierotti, Lisa; Facca, Gianluca; Gherardi, Fabrizio

    2015-04-01

    Since late 2002, a geochemical monitoring network is operating in Tuscany, Central Italy, to collect data and possibly identify geochemical anomalies that characteristically occur before regionally significant (i.e. with magnitude > 3) seismic events. The network currently consists of 6 stations located in areas already investigated in detail for their geological setting, hydrogeological and geochemical background and boundary conditions. All these stations are equipped for remote, continuous monitoring of selected physicochemical parameters (temperature, pH, redox potential, electrical conductivity), and dissolved concentrations of CO2 and CH4. Additional information are obtained through in situ discrete monitoring. Field surveys are periodically performed to guarantee maintenance and performance control of the sensors of the automatic stations, and to collect water samples for the determination of the chemical and stable isotope composition of all the springs investigated for seismic precursors. Geochemical continuous signals are numerically processed to remove outliers, monitoring errors and aseismic effects from seasonal and climatic fluctuations. The elaboration of smoothed, long-term time series (more than 200000 data available today for each station) allows for a relatively accurate definition of geochemical background values. Geochemical values out of the two-sigma relative standard deviation domain are inspected as possible indicators of physicochemical changes related to regional seismic activity. Starting on November 2011, four stations of the Tuscany network located in two separate mountainous areas of Northern Apennines separating Tuscany from Emilia-Romagna region (Equi Terme and Gallicano), and Tuscany from Emilia-Romagna and Umbria regions (Vicchio and Caprese Michelangelo), started to register anomalous values in pH and CO2 partial pressure (PCO2). Cross-correlation analysis indicates an apparent relationship between the most important seismic

  11. Migration of chlorinated hydrocarbons in multilayer unconsolidated porous media: a case study from the Po Plain, Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Filippini

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Chlorinated solvents are the most ubiquitous organic contaminants found in groundwater since the last six decades. Due to their high degree of carcinogenicity/toxicity and the relatively high mobility and persistence, they represent a serious threat against the human health and the environment. These contaminants generally reach groundwater as Dense Non-Aqueous Phase Liquid (DNAPL that can migrate through aquifers easier than aqueous contaminants. The complex phase partitioning to which chlorinated solvent DNAPLs can undergo (i.e. to the dissolved, vapor or sorbed phase, as well as their transformations (e.g. degradation, depend on the physico-chemical properties of the contaminants and on the features of the hydrogeological system in which they migrate. The hydrogeologic setting below the city of Ferrara (Po plain, northern Italy, which is affected by scattered contamination by chlorinated solvents, has been investigated. In particular, a limited-inspace high-resolution investigation was performed in one selected contaminated test-site, known as “Caretti site”. Here, high-resolution vertical profiling of different kind of data (i.e. stratigraphic data, hydraulic heads, hydrochemical composition of water, stable isotopes of water and contaminants were collected by means of multilevel monitoring systems and other innovative sampling and analytical techniques. The main goals of the research were to assess the intrinsic vulnerability of the aquifers and to identify the dynamics of migration and transformation of the chloroethene contaminants in relationship to the features of the hosting porous medium. The confined aquifers turned out to be more vulnerable to DNAPLs than aqueous contaminants due to the occurrence of microfractures in the overlying clayey aquitards. The presence of organic-rich deposits in the local stratigraphy enhanced the biodegradation of chloroethenes causing accumulation of Vinyl Chloride. The results are useful at the

  12. Reviewing the upper Pleistocene human footprints from the 'Sala dei Misteri' in the Grotta della Bàsura (Toirano, northern Italy) cave: An integrated morphometric and morpho-classificatory approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paolo Citton; Romano, Marco; Salvador, Isabella; Avanzini, Marco

    2017-08-01

    About thirty human footprints made approximately 12,000 years B.P. inside the 'Sala dei Misteri' Cave of Básura near Toirano, Liguria, northern Italy, were studied by standard ichnological analysis. Eleven of the best-preserved tracks were examined further using morpho-classificatory and morphometric approaches, in order to estimate the minimum number of trackmakers; biometric measurements were also used to tentatively determine their physical characteristics (e.g., height and age). Results indicate at least three different producers, two youths and the third of tender age. Analysis of the data demonstrate the power of 3D, of landmark-based morphometrics, and the utility of methods of forensic anthropology in the determination of human footprints. The study of the number of trackmakers using the principal component analysis (PCA) on 'multi-trampling' surfaces could represent a model in the ichnological study of cave sites.

  13. Convolute laminations and load structures in turbidites as indicators of flow reflections and decelerations against bounding slopes. Examples from the Marnoso-arenacea Formation (northern Italy) and Annot Sandstones (south eastern France)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tinterri, R.; Muzzi Magalhaes, P.; Tagliaferri, A.; Cunha, R. S.

    2016-10-01

    This work discusses the significance of particular types of soft-sediment deformations very common within turbidite deposits, namely convolute laminations and load structures. Detailed facies analyses of the foredeep turbidites in the Marnoso-arenacea Formation (northern Italy) and Annot Sandstones (south eastern France) show that these deformational structures tend to increase near morphological obstacles, concomitantly with contained-reflected beds. The lateral and vertical distribution of convolute laminae and load structures, as well as their geometry, has a well-defined depositional logic related to flow decelerations and reflections against bounding slopes. This evidence suggests an interaction between fine-grained sediment and the presence of morphologic relief, and impulsive and cyclic-wave loadings, which are produced by flow impacts or reflected bores and internal waves related to impinging bipartite turbidity currents.

  14. Characterization of the lowland coastal aquifer of Comacchio (Ferrara, Italy): Hydrology, hydrochemistry and evolution of the system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giambastiani, B. M. S.; Colombani, N.; Mastrocicco, M.; Fidelibus, M. D.

    2013-09-01

    This study delineates the actual hydrogeochemistry and the geological evolution of an unconfined coastal aquifer located in a lowland setting in order to understand the drivers of the groundwater salinization. Physical aquifer parameterization highlights a vertical hydraulic gradient due to the presence of a heavy drainage system, which controls the hydrodynamics of this coastal area, forcing groundwater to flow from the bottom toward the top of the aquifer. As a consequence, relict seawater in stable density stratification, preserved within low permeability sediments in the deepest portion of the aquifer, has been drawn upward. The hydrogeochemical investigations allow identifying the role of seepage and water-sediment interactions in the aquifer salinization process and in the modification of groundwater chemistry. Mixing between freshwater and saltwater occurs; however, it is neither the only nor the dominant process driving groundwater hydrochemistry. In the aquifer several concurring and competing water-sediment interactions - as NaCl solution, ion-exchange, calcite and dolomite dissolution/precipitation, oxidation of organic matter, and sulfate bacterial reduction - are triggered by or overlap freshwater-saltwater mixing The hyper-salinity found in the deepest portion of the aquifer cannot be associated with present seawater intrusion, but suggests the presence of salt water of marine origin, which was trapped in the inter-basin during the Holocene transgression. The results of this study contribute to a better understanding of groundwater dynamics and salinization processes in this lowland coastal aquifer.

  15. [Oncological quality indicators and Colorectal Cancer Program: data from 2009-2010 of University Hospital in Ferrara, Italy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giuliani, Jacopo; Marzola, Marina; Indelli, Monica; Frassoldati, Antonio

    2012-02-01

    The aim of this study is to analyse the oncological quality indicators on our Colorectal Cancer Program, that are reflective of the scope of care, feasible to implement and supported by evidence. We compared two different populations during the same period: patients referring to our Clinical Oncology Unit coming from Regional Colorectal Cancer Screening Program and the other population that was not in any Colorectal Cancer Program. On the basis of our experience, we concluded for high-quality care for both population. Any critical point should be carefully analysed in order to implement quality of care.

  16. Control of bracken (Pteridium aquilinum) and feeding preferences in pastures grazed by wild ungulates in an area of the Northern Apennines (Italy)

    OpenAIRE

    Argenti, Giovanni; Cervasio, Francesco; Ponzetta, Maria

    2012-01-01

    The diminution of pastoral activities in marginal areas, and consequently of livestock grazing, implies a strong encroachment of invasive vegetation. The conservation of the open areas is however particularly important for wildlife management. With this aim, this paper describes the results obtained in a protected area on the Apennine mountains (Italy), encroached by Pteridium aquilinum (L.) Kuhn. Two restoration practices were carried out by the Administration of the Regional Park of the Lag...

  17. Density and habitat use by the European wild rabbit (Oryctolagus cuniculus in an agricultural area of northern Italy

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    Sara Serrano Pérez

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Habitat selection by the European wild rabbit (Oryctolagus cuniculus in agro-ecosystems is still poorly understood. From December 2005 to March 2008, we assessed pre- and post-breeding wild rabbit densities and habitat use at different range levels in an agro-ecosystem area of northern Italy. Rabbit presence/absence, based on faecal pellets, was assessed in July and August 2007 for 150 1-m radius plots. The range of the species was defined by Kernel Analyese (99% and 50% of the total positive plots and Jacobs'index of selection was calculated for each habitat type. Moreover, we calculated the w index of selection and Manly's α indexof preference to compare habitat use to availability within the range. Ten macro-habitat variables and 11 micro-habitat ones were measured and tested for difference between plots with and without rabbits. Discriminant Function Analysis was applied to test for variables that differed between the two types of plots. Wild rabbit density averaged 113.4 individuals per km2 (SD=19.88. Rabbits selected woods and field edges, which provide food in the proximity of refuges, avoiding open areas. The dense tree cover of woods would reduce rabbit detectability by raptors while the undergrowth provides shelter against terrestrial predator, reducing the risk of predation. On the basis of our results, management actions for rabbit conservation should aim to improve the ecotones between woods and arable lands and to preserve scrub and woodland. Riassunto Densità e uso dell'habitat da parte de lconiglio selvatico (Oryctolagus cuniculus in un'area agricola dell'Italia settentrionale L'individuazione delle caratteristiche dell'habitat che determinano la qualità ambientale per il coniglio selvatico è importante per la conoscenza dell'ecologia della specie e per la gestioen delle popolazioni. L'abbondanza e la distribuzione

  18. Factors affecting the distribution of fox dens in northern Italy / Fattori influenzanti la distribuzione delle tane di volpe (Vulpes vulpes in Italia settentrionale

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alberto Meriggi

    1991-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract From 1st. October to 31st. December 1988 the fox dens were censused in an area of 2,589 km² in Northern Italy. The mean density was 0.67 dens/km². Significant differences resulted between the density found in the four altitudinal ranges: plain 0.28 dens/km² (S.D.=0.30; low hill 0.71/km² (S.D.=0.37; middle hill 1.20/km² (S.D.=0.35; mountain 0.41/km² (S.D.=0.42. The highest densities were recorded in protected areas (0.98 dens/km², while the lowest values were found in hunting areas (0.41/km² in social hunting ground and 0.33/km² in estates. The density was positively correlated with the mean altitude (r=0.443, PRiassunto Dal 1 ottobre al 31 dicembre 1988 sono state censite le tane di Volpe (Vulpes vulpes in provincia di Piacenza (2.589 km², 48 comuni. La densità media provinciale è stata di 0,67 tane/km². Differenze significative sono risultate tra le densità delle 4 fasce altimetriche della provincia: pianura 0,28/km² (D.S.=0

  19. Werner Sombart and his reception in Italy

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    Simona Pisanelli

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available This article intends to focus on the difficulty encountered by Werner Sombart’s works in gaining a hearing in various Italian intellectual circuits. As is well known, Sombart belonged to the German Historical School of economics, sharing with other scholars of that school the same problems in getting his work known in Italy. Our aim is to explain the reason for this hostile reception. First of all, we will analyze the factors which generally hindered the spread of the German Historical School in Italy, recognizing in economists like Francesco Ferrara, Idealists like Benedetto Croce and Marxists like Antonio Labriola some of its strongest opponents. We will dwell on the cases of Gustav Schmoller and Max Weber, in order to give two representative examples of the slow and complicated Italian reception of methodological approaches and analytical perspectives which characterized the scientific experience of the German Historical School. Secondly, we will try to show why Sombart was even less appreciated than other German social scientists, giving the reasons that attracted severe criticism from economists, economic historians and sociologists towards his interdisciplinary approach in the analysis of modern capitalism. Finally, we will show the reasons of the contemporary rediscovery of Sombart and of his works.

  20. Control of bracken (Pteridium aquilinum and feeding preferences in pastures grazed by wild ungulates in an area of the Northern Apennines (Italy

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    Giovanni Argenti

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available The diminution of pastoral activities in marginal areas, and consequently of livestock grazing, implies a strong encroachment of invasive vegetation. The conservation of the open areas is however particularly important for wildlife management. With this aim, this paper describes the results obtained in a protected area on the Apennine mountains (Italy, encroached by Pteridium aquilinum (L. Kuhn. Two restoration practices were carried out by the Administration of the Regional Park of the Laghi di Suviana e Brasimone (Bologna, Italy, in order to reverse the infestation of bracken and restore pastures within the park. The pasture, only grazed by wild animals, was improved through different treatments (ploughing followed by cuttings vs harrowing, each followed by seeding of a forage mixture. Our results showed better performance of the ploughing both as pastoral value of recovered pasture and as botanical composition. Some differences in the effects of the two restoration techniques were also found on the biodiversity index and on floristic richness. Data about grazing selection of the single botanical species have also been collected. The tesults also showed different behaviour in feeding preferences for wild ungulates in comparison to domestic stocks, giving a better evaluation of the real forage availability for wild herbivores.

  1. Tratamento aditivo do ceratocone por 'crosslinking' do colágeno após implante de anel de Ferrara Addictive treatment of keratoconus with collagen crosslinking after Ferrara ring implant

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    Edna Almodin

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Este trabalho tem como objetivo relatar experiência com utilização do crosslinking após implante de anel intracorneano de Ferrara (Ferrara Ophtalmic visando a melhora refrativa e estabilização corneana. MÉTODOS: Seis pacientes com idade entre 26 e 38 anos foram submetidos ao tratamento com crosslinking após implante de anel de Ferrara. Cinco pacientes receberam 2 segmentos de anel e um paciente recebeu um segmento. Depois de 4 a 55 meses os pacientes foram submetidos a aplicação do "crosslinking" com ultra-violeta de acordo com o protocolo estabelecido por Seiler & cols. RESULTADOS: Quatro olhos apresentaram alteração progressiva da refração e 2 apresentaram refração sem alteração progressiva. A topografia mostrou queda acentuada da curvatura e o estudo da lâmpada de fenda mostrou anel em boa profundidade durante um ano de pós-operatório em 100% dos olhos. A microscopia especular não mostrou alteração significativa e a acuidade visual se mostrou semelhante ao pré-operatório. CONCLUSÃO: O crosslinking poderá ajudar a manter ceratocones estáveis, não-somente nos casos de progressão, mas também nos cones evolutivos com implante de anel.PURPOSE: To describe our experience with crosslinking after Ferrara ring implant for better vision and corneal stabilization. METHODS: six patients with age of 26 - 38 years old had treatment with crosslinking after Ferrara ring implant. Five patients had 2 ring segments implanted and one patient had one segment implanted. After 4 to 55 months the patients were submitted to crosslinking with UVA light according to Seiler et al protocol. RESULTS: Four eyes had progressive alteration of refraction and 2 patients had no alteration of refraction. The topography showed flattener curvature and at the slip lamp 100% of the eyes had good depth after one year post operatively. The specular microscopy didn't show any significant alteration and the visual acuity was similar before the

  2. Estudo das modificações oculares induzidas pelo implante estromal do anel de Ferrara em portadores de ceratocone Study of the ocular changes after stromal Ferrara ring implantation in patients with keratoconus

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    Paulo Ferrara de Almeida Cunha

    2003-08-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Comparar a acuidade visual com e sem correção, ceratometria média e equivalente esférico antes e após o implante do anel intraestromal de Ferrara em pacientes portadores de ceratocone intolerantes a lentes de contato. MÉTODOS: Foram analisados os primeiros 400 olhos com ceratocone tratados com o implante do anel de Ferrara, levando-se em consideração as alterações obtidas na curvatura corneana, acuidade visual e refração, bem como a estabilidade dos resultados no primeiro ano. RESULTADOS: Nos 400 olhos estudados, observamos redução média na curvatura corneana de 4,18 D, o equivalente esférico diminuiu 4,65 D quando comparamos os valores obtidos no pré-operatório e os do último exame realizado. A AV média não corrigida foi a que sofreu maior alteração, passando de PURPOSE: To compare the changes in corneal curvature, visual acuity and spherical equivalent before and after the implantation of the intrastromal corneal Ferrara ring in contact lens intolerant keratoconus patients. METHODS: The first 400 eyes treated with the Ferrara ring were evaluated according to the alterations obtained in the corneal curvature, visual acuity and refraction after surgery, as well as the stability of the results in the first year. RESULTS: In the 400-studied eyes, there was a mean reduction of 4.18 D in keratometry and 4.65 D in spherical equivalent. The mean uncorrected visual acuity showed the greatest improvement varying from less than 20/400 before to 20/100 after surgery. The mean BSCVA was 20/50 after the surgery. The more advanced keratoconus (III/IV groups showed the greatest reduction in keratometry. The correction remained stable along the period of the study in all groups. CONCLUSION: The Ferrara ring showed to produce reduction of myopia, regularization of the cornea and consequent corrections of the irregular astigmatism, disappearance of the keratoconic pattern and a significant improvement of the corrected and

  3. Multidimensional evaluation of performance: experimental application of the balanced scorecard in Ferrara university hospital

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    Gregorio Pasquale

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background and Aims One of the best-known performance planning and evaluation techniques utilising both monetary and non-monetary data is the Balanced Scorecard (BSC. This is a means of rationalising the global activity of a business in the attempt to create value, and to translate the company vision into a set of tactical objectives and measurable strategies. The aim of this study was to implement and evaluate the use of BSC in two departments of the St. Anna University Hospital, Ferrara: the Analysis Laboratory and Digestive Endoscopy operating units (OU. Materials and methods With the collaboration of the health workers involved, a precise methodological programme was pursued: Definition of the strategic map from 4 perspectives, according to Kaplan and Norton, Definition of the Key Performance Areas (KPA, or macro-objectives, Identification of the cause-effect relationships between KPAs, Identification of the sub-objectives of each KPA, Definition of the Key Performance Indicators (KPI, Definition of the weight/importance of each objective in the global evaluation. Results The information gathered permitted the definition of macro- and sub-objectives for each perspective, as well as determining the relevant indicators, standards, weights, frequency of detection and means of acquisition. Strategic maps showing the cause/effect relationships in each OU were created, as were 'evaluation panels', which describe the global performance of each department. For each perspective, the fundamental data were summarised in one table. Evaluation of each perspective yielded a positive result for the majority of the objectives, and the global result (including all 4 perspectives was found to be satisfactory. Discussion-Conclusion The Balanced Scorecard was implemented in the abovementioned OUs of St. Anna University Hospital, Ferrara, after the health workers themselves realised the need for change. In our research the employees were pleased to be

  4. Las formas verbales en las biblias de Alba y Ferrara: ¿fidelidad al texto hebreo?

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    del Barco del Barco, Francisco Javier

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available This article focuses on the study of narrative and prophetic texts in the Ferrara and Alba Bibles and on their comparison to the Hebrew original. The aim of such a study is to find the keys to their systems of translation within the medieval Jewish tradition of Biblical translations. One of the most remarkable aspects is the translation of the verbal forms from Biblical Hebrew to Spanish. What is interesting about this aspect is how the translators understand the verbal system of Biblical Hebrew and how they converted it into 15th and 16th century Castillan, as well as the existing differences in the translation of both bibles; this fact will be illustrated with abundant examples. The linguistic aspect is offered here in its sociological and cultural context, as factors that affect translation methods.

    Este artículo se centra en el estudio de textos narrativos y proféticos de las biblias de Alba y Ferrara y en su comparación con el original hebreo. El fin de tal estudio es hallar las claves de sus sistemas de traducción dentro de la tradición judía medieval de traducciones bíblicas. Uno de los aspectos más destacables es la traducción de las formas verbales del hebreo bíblico al español. El interés en este punto está en ver cómo los traductores entienden el sistema verbal del hebreo bíblico y lo vierten al castellano de los ss. XV y XVI, así como en las diferencias de traducción existentes entre ambas biblias, que será ilustrado con numerosos ejemplos. El aspecto lingüístico se presenta aquí en su contexto sociológico y cultural, como factores que influyen en los métodos de traducción.

  5. Multidimensional evaluation of performance: experimental application of the balanced scorecard in Ferrara university hospital.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verzola, Adriano; Bentivegna, Roberto; Carandina, Gianni; Trevisani, Lucio; Gregorio, Pasquale; Mandini, Alberto

    2009-09-08

    One of the best-known performance planning and evaluation techniques utilising both monetary and non-monetary data is the Balanced Scorecard (BSC). This is a means of rationalising the global activity of a business in the attempt to create value, and to translate the company vision into a set of tactical objectives and measurable strategies. The aim of this study was to implement and evaluate the use of BSC in two departments of the St. Anna University Hospital, Ferrara: the Analysis Laboratory and Digestive Endoscopy operating units (OU). With the collaboration of the health workers involved, a precise methodological programme was pursued: Definition of the strategic map from 4 perspectives, according to Kaplan and Norton, Definition of the Key Performance Areas (KPA), or macro-objectives, Identification of the cause-effect relationships between KPAs, Identification of the sub-objectives of each KPA, Definition of the Key Performance Indicators (KPI), Definition of the weight/importance of each objective in the global evaluation. The information gathered permitted the definition of macro- and sub-objectives for each perspective, as well as determining the relevant indicators, standards, weights, frequency of detection and means of acquisition. Strategic maps showing the cause/effect relationships in each OU were created, as were 'evaluation panels', which describe the global performance of each department. For each perspective, the fundamental data were summarised in one table. Evaluation of each perspective yielded a positive result for the majority of the objectives, and the global result (including all 4 perspectives) was found to be satisfactory. The Balanced Scorecard was implemented in the abovementioned OUs of St. Anna University Hospital, Ferrara, after the health workers themselves realised the need for change.In our research the employees were pleased to be evaluated, not only for the financial outcomes, but also for the satisfaction of improving

  6. Ecomorphological and taphonomic gradients in clypeasteroid-dominated echinoid assemblages along a mixed siliciclastic-carbonate shelf from the early Miocene of northern Sardinia, Italy

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    Andrea Mancosu

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Clypeasteroid echinoids are widespread and abundant within Miocene sedimentary sequences of the Mediterranean area within both siliciclastic and carbonate deposits. Herein, three clypeasteroid-dominated echinoid assemblages from the mixed siliciclastic-carbonate succession of the Mores Formation (lower Miocene cropping out within the Porto Torres Basin (northern Sardinia are described. These assemblages were compared to previously described clypeasteroid-bearing deposits from the Miocene of northern Sardinia with the purpose of investigating their palaeoecology and taphonomy along a shelf gradient. These goals are accomplished by various methods including (i logging sedimentary facies, (ii analysing the functional morphology of sea urchin skeletons, (iii comparing the relative abundance of taxa and taphonomic features, and (iv studying associated fauna, flora, and trace fossils. The clypeasteroid-bearing deposits differ greatly with respect to echinoid diversity, accompanying fauna and flora, sedimentological signatures, and taphonomic features. They also show variations in depositional environments and the mechanism of formation of the deposits. Three different shelf settings are distinguished: littoral, inner sublittoral, and outer sublittoral environments. Furthermore, an ecomorphological gradient along the shelf is recognized with respect to echinoid taxa and their morphologies. This gradient ranges from shallow water to a moderately deep shelf and is interpreted with respect to both abiotic and biotic factors as well as the taphonomy of the echinoid tests.

  7. Low enthalpy Na-chloride waters from the Lunigiana and Garfagnana grabens, Northern Apennines, Italy: Tracing fluid connections and basement interactions via chemical and isotopic compositions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boschetti, Tiziano; Toscani, Lorenzo; Barbieri, Maurizio; Mucchino, Claudio; Marino, Tiziana

    2017-12-01

    The Na-Cl waters from NW Tuscany (central Italy) record similar water isotopic and major chemical compositions, which demonstrate their meteoric origin and interactions with Upper Triassic evaporites and the metamorphic units of the Paleozoic basement. Slight differences are found in the deep temperature-pressure conditions of the Lunigiana graben (39-42 °C/143-145 bar) and the Garfagnana graben (73-78 °C/250-256 bar). In particular, the thermal fluids outpouring from Garfagnana are probably related to a common deep reservoir or interconnected fluids. Their differences are mainly evidenced by strontium isotopic ratio data (87Sr/86Sr), which combined with previously published sulfur isotope ratios (34S/32S) demonstrate the involvement of vein barites in water-rock interactions. Most likely, these minerals formed during Upper Oligocene-Miocene tectogenesis due to the mixing of fluids from the Verrucano Group and Upper Triassic units. The results of this hydrogeochemical study of the deep Na-Cl fluids could better clarify the distribution of the Verrucano Group within this area and the related discrepancies in the stratigraphic interpretations of the Palaeozoic-Mesozoic transition. Furthermore, the possible presence of an interconnected reservoir could be used to help interpret data produced by the local geochemical monitoring of seismic activity.

  8. Habitat use and population structure of the invasive red swamp crayfish Procambarus clarkii (Girard, 1852 in a protected area in northern Italy

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    Donato Roberta

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The red swamp crayfish Procambarus clarkii is one of the most invasive alien species in Europe and included in the list of invasive species of Union concern. We describe for the first time some life-history traits of a red swamp crayfish population in the Nature Reserve of the Lago di Candia (Italy. We investigated (1 preferences of this species for specific environmental features on the banks of the lake, and (2 differences in size, sex ratio, and condition index between individuals caught in lake and marsh. Moreover, we compared sampling effort and the features of individuals caught in the lake, for two sampling seasons in 2014 and 2015. Findings indicated that the population was well established, and the marsh seemed to have better conditions for growth of individuals than the lake. Accordingly, continuity of riparian vegetation, opportunity to dig burrows, and trophic resource availability seems to facilitate the proliferation of the crayfish in the lake. Our study demonstrated that massive removal efforts over the whole active period of the species and more than one year of trapping are necessary to increase the controlling activities' success. This study could have important implications for further population management projects directed at biodiversity conservation in the area.

  9. Trophic preference and preliminary indication of phylloplane fungal influence on the diet of the non-native Gammarus roeselii Gervais 1835 (Amphipoda, Gammaridae in the sub-lacustrine Ticino river basin (Lombardy, Northern Italy

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    Daniele Paganelli

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Gammarids are one of the most successful invaders in freshwater ecosystems due to both their diet plasticity and high reproductive capacity. One such amphipod, Gammarus roeselii, has recently colonised the southern part of the sub-lacustrine Ticino River basin (Northern Italy, where its ecological niche overlaps with the native species Echinogammarus stammeri. In the present paper the food preferences of G. roeselii have been investigated, testing the palatability of different food sources: three macrophytes and three different leaf debris. Moreover, an explorative mycological analysis on the three different leaf debris used in the experiment has been performed. Results of the short-term experiment suggest that aquatic plants are less palatable than allocthonous detritus, probably because they can contain secondary metabolites (i.e. tannins and they have lower nutrient tissues with very high water content. On the contrary, G. roeselii showed a clear preference for the oak leaves, resulted colonized by a more abundant fungal biomass and, therefore, more palatable too.

  10. Tectonics vs. Climate efficiency in triggering detrital input in sedimentary basins: the Po Plain-Venetian-Adriatic Foreland Basin (Northern Italy)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amadori, Chiara; Di Giulio, Andrea; Toscani, Giovanni; Lombardi, Stefano; Milanesi, Riccardo; Panara, Yuri; Fantoni, Roberto

    2017-04-01

    The relative efficiency of tectonics respect to climate in triggering erosion of mountain belts is a classical but still open debate in geosciences. The fact that data both from tectonically active and inactive mountain regions in different latitudes, record a worldwide increase of sediment input to sedimentary basins during the last million years concomitantly with the cooling of global climate and its evolution toward the modern high amplitude oscillating conditions pushed some authors to conclude that Pliocene-Pleistocene climate has been more efficient than tectonics in triggering mountain erosion. Po Plain-Venetian-Adriatic Foreland System, made by the relatively independent Po Plain-Northern Adriatic Basin and Venetian-Friulian Basin, provides an ideal case of study to test this hypothesis and possibly quantify the difference between the efficiency of the two. In fact it is a relatively closed basin (i.e. without significant sediment escape) with a fairly continuous sedimentation (i.e. with a quite continuous sedimentary record) completely surrounded by collisional belts (Alps, Northern Apennines and Dinarides) that experienced only very weak tectonic activity since Calabrian time, i.e. when climate cooling and cyclicity increased the most. We present a quantitative reconstruction of the sediment flow delivered from the surrounding mountain belts to the different part of the basin during Pliocene-Pleistocene time. This flow was obtained through the 3D reconstruction of the Venetian-Friulian and Po Plain Northern Adriatic Basins architecture, performed by means of the seismic-based interpretation and time-to-depth conversion of six chronologically constrained surfaces (seismic and well log data from courtesy of ENI); moreover, a 3D decompaction of the sediment volume bounded by each couple of surfaces has been included in the workflow, in order to avoid compaction-related bias. The obtained results show in both Basins a rapid four-folds increase of the

  11. The Orden de oraciones de mes arreo (Ferrara 1555 and a Bakasah composed by Abraham Usque

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    Herzfeld, Siegfried

    2002-06-01

    Full Text Available The British Library owns the only known copy of a prayer-book composed in 1555 by Abraham Usque: the Libro de Oraciones de mes arreo. Usque was well aware of the difficulties, encountered by many former Marranos still unfamiliar with Jewish liturgy, to follow the sometime long and complicated synagogue service. Abraham tried to provide a simplified version of the Siddur and abridged some part of it. In the Prologue he claimed to have presented the prayers in a plain and straight way (arreo: without the necessity of having to leaf through the book to find the continuation of the service. Abraham inserted in his Siddur a new prayer by which he asked the Lord to put an end to the sufferings of Israel, to raise up a scion of David and to restore His people to its ancient glory and dignity. The Author wanted to provide a reassuring answer to the anxieties and hopes of his generation. Likewise the Jews who left Spain in 1492, also the Portuguese Marranos who reached Ferrara towards the middle of the XVIcentury, continued to cherish the deeply rooted cultural values of their erstwhile homeland and considered their departure from Iberian Peninsula as a most catastrophic event. Abraham Usque asked the Lord to be content with the punishments already inflicted to His people and to grant His pardon to the sons of Israel who had completely abandoned every idolatrie practice.La British Library conserva la única copia conocida de un libro de oraciones compuesto en 1555 por Abraham Usque: el Libro de Oraciones de mes arreo. Usque era consciente de las dificultades que tenían muchos de los antiguos marranos, aún no familiarizados con la liturgia judía, en seguir el a veces largo y complicado servicio de la sinagoga. Abraham trató de proporcionar una versión simplificada del sidur, y lo abrevió en parte. En el Prólogo afirmó que había presentado las oraciones de un modo llano y directo (arreo, sin que hubiera necesidad de hojear el libro en busca de la

  12. PAH (Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbon) bioaccumulation and PAHs/shell weight index in Ruditapes philippinarum (Adams & Reeve, 1850) from the Vallona lagoon (northern Adriatic Sea, NE Italy).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cacciatore, Federica; Bernarello, Valentina; Boscolo Brusà, Rossella; Sesta, Giulio; Franceschini, Gianluca; Maggi, Chiara; Gabellini, Massimo; Lamberti, Clauda Virno

    2018-02-01

    The Vallona lagoon is a transitional area located in the Po River delta (NE, ITALY) traditionally exploited for Manila clam (Ruditapes philippinarum) farming. During 2007-2008, a pipeline was buried in the middle of the lagoon to connect an off-shore structure to facilities on land. PAH levels were monitored in Manila clams and sediments before, during and after the pipeline construction to assess the impact of the activities through the pattern of distribution of the PAH compounds. PAH bioaccumulation in clams displayed seasonal fluctuations with higher levels in autumnal and wintry surveys than in spring-summer. Principal component analysis applied to PAHs in clams highlighted a petrogenic input during ante operam period and a pyrolytic origin during the burying activities. On the contrary, sediment PAH concentrations resulted quite similar both among sites and periods. Biota-Sediment-Accumulation-Factor values also confirmed that sediments were not the major source of PAH pollution for clams in this study. The welfare of clams was examined through two physiological indices (condition index and survival in air) to check the effects of the activities on a commercial resource. Both physiological indices exhibited seasonal variations connected to natural endogenous and exogenous factors; however survival in air was the most sensitive index in highlighting the effects of the pipeline burying activities. Finally, to ensure that PAH bioavailability assessment was not affected by seasonal variation of soft tissues of molluscs, PAHs/shell weight index was applied. Higher levels of this index were observed before and during the burying activities, whilst, after that, values significantly lowered. Moreover, the normalization enabled us to highlight the PAH uptake from clams in some particular periods and to compare different populations in a long-term biomonitoring program with data obtained from different periods of the year. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights

  13. Numerical insight into the seismic behavior of eight masonry towers in Northern Italy: FE pushover vs non-linear dynamic analyses

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    Milani, Gabriele, E-mail: milani@stru.polimi.it, E-mail: gabriele.milani@polimi.it; Valente, Marco [Department of Architecture, Built Environment and Construction Engineering (ABC), Politecnico di Milano, Piazza Leonardo da Vinci 32, 20133 Milan (Italy)

    2015-12-31

    This study presents some FE results regarding the behavior under horizontal loads of eight existing masonry towers located in the North-East of Italy. The towers, albeit unique for geometric and architectural features, show some affinities which justify a comparative analysis, as for instance the location and the similar masonry material. Their structural behavior under horizontal loads is therefore influenced by geometrical issues, such as slenderness, walls thickness, perforations, irregularities, presence of internal vaults, etc., all features which may be responsible for a peculiar output. The geometry of the towers is deduced from both existing available documentation and in-situ surveys. On the basis of such geometrical data, a detailed 3D realistic mesh is conceived, with a point by point characterization of each single geometric element. The FE models are analysed under seismic loads acting along geometric axes of the plan section, both under non-linear static (pushover) and non-linear dynamic excitation assumptions. A damage-plasticity material model exhibiting softening in both tension and compression, already available in the commercial code Abaqus, is used for masonry. Pushover analyses are performed with both G1 and G2 horizontal loads distribution, according to Italian code requirements, along X+/− and Y+/− directions. Non-linear dynamic analyses are performed along both X and Y directions with a real accelerogram scaled to different peak ground accelerations. Some few results are presented in this paper. It is found that the results obtained with pushover analyses reasonably well fit expensive non-linear dynamic simulations, with a slightly less conservative trend.

  14. Numerical insight into the seismic behavior of eight masonry towers in Northern Italy: FE pushover vs non-linear dynamic analyses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Milani, Gabriele; Valente, Marco

    2015-01-01

    This study presents some FE results regarding the behavior under horizontal loads of eight existing masonry towers located in the North-East of Italy. The towers, albeit unique for geometric and architectural features, show some affinities which justify a comparative analysis, as for instance the location and the similar masonry material. Their structural behavior under horizontal loads is therefore influenced by geometrical issues, such as slenderness, walls thickness, perforations, irregularities, presence of internal vaults, etc., all features which may be responsible for a peculiar output. The geometry of the towers is deduced from both existing available documentation and in-situ surveys. On the basis of such geometrical data, a detailed 3D realistic mesh is conceived, with a point by point characterization of each single geometric element. The FE models are analysed under seismic loads acting along geometric axes of the plan section, both under non-linear static (pushover) and non-linear dynamic excitation assumptions. A damage-plasticity material model exhibiting softening in both tension and compression, already available in the commercial code Abaqus, is used for masonry. Pushover analyses are performed with both G1 and G2 horizontal loads distribution, according to Italian code requirements, along X+/− and Y+/− directions. Non-linear dynamic analyses are performed along both X and Y directions with a real accelerogram scaled to different peak ground accelerations. Some few results are presented in this paper. It is found that the results obtained with pushover analyses reasonably well fit expensive non-linear dynamic simulations, with a slightly less conservative trend

  15. Validation of the diagnosis of mesothelioma and BAP1 protein expression in a cohort of asbestos textile workers from Northern Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boffetta, P; Righi, L; Ciocan, C; Pelucchi, C; La Vecchia, C; Romano, C; Papotti, M; Pira, E

    2018-02-01

    Diagnosis of mesothelioma based on death certificate is subject to misclassification, which may bias the results of epidemiology studies. A high proportion of mesothelioma harbor mutations in the BRCA1-associated protein 1 (BAP1) gene. We searched medical and pathology records and specimens for 127 workers from a textile-asbestos factory in Italy who died during 1963-2013 with a diagnosis of pleural or peritoneal neoplasm or mesothelioma on death certificate, to confirm the diagnosis with immunohistochemistry markers. We calculated the odds ratio of confirmation by selected characteristics and asbestos exposure variables. When sufficient pathology material was available, we analyzed BAP1 protein expression. The diagnosis of mesothelioma was histologically confirmed for 35 cases (27.6%); 5 cases were classified as non-mesothelioma (3.9%), for 33 cases a mention of mesothelioma was found on record but no sufficient material was available for revision (26.0%); no records were available for 54 cases (death-certificate-only 42.5%). Diagnostic confirmation was not associated with sex, location of the neoplasm, age, or duration of employment; however, there was a significant association with time since first employment (P for linear trend 0.04). An association between duration of employment and time since first employment was observed for confirmed cases but not for death-certificate-only cases. BAP1 protein was lost in 18/35 cases (51.4%), without an association with sex, location, age, indices of asbestos exposure, or survival. We were able to confirm by immunohistochemistry a small proportion of mesothelioma diagnoses on certificates of deceased asbestos workers, and confirmation correlated with latency of asbestos exposure but not other characteristics. BAP1 protein loss is a frequent event in mesothelioma of asbestos-exposed workers, but does not correlate with exposure. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the European Society for

  16. Obesity nutritional aspects and life style from a survey on a sample of primary school pupils in the Pavia province (Northern Italy

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    Marisa Arpesella

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available

    Background: The increased risk of chronic diseases requires effective strategies to promote health, facilitating the adoption of proper life styles from childhood. In order to do that, the local health authority in Pavia has undertaken a pilot study with the aim of estimating the level of overweight and obese children in primary schools and of identifying the life styles that entail health risks.

    Methods: A cross-sectional study based on a sample of 460 children in their last year of primary school in the Province of Pavia was performed. Pupils were classified by Body Mass Index, and a face-to-face questionnaire about children’s use of time was administered. A multiple logistic regression analysis has been applied in order to identify risks or preventive health factors linked to physical activity and eating habits.

    Results: 12.6% of the children were obese and 26.3% overweight, with the percentage of obesity nearly double in those who do not practice organized sports activities at least once a week, in those who don’t have breakfast in the morning and in those who don’t spend their free time in movement games. From a multiple logistic regression it results that the risk of being obese is twice and three times higher for the children living respectively in medium and small towns than for the ones living in large towns.

    Conclusions: In the Province of Pavia the prevalence of overweight and obese 10-year-old children exceed the data reported in recent studies all over Italy. The life styles that entail obesity risks are significantly linked both to eating habits and to physical activity: living in middle- and small sized towns and not having breakfast before going to school emerge as risk factors, while practicing movement games in the free time after school appears to be a protecting factor.

  17. Detailed rock failure susceptibility mapping in steep rocky coasts by means of non-contact geostructural surveys: the case study of the Tigullio Gulf (Eastern Liguria, Northern Italy

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    P. De Vita

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available In this study, an engineering geological analysis for the assessment of the rock failure susceptibility of a high, steep, rocky coast was developed by means of non-contact geostructural surveys. The methodology was applied to a 6-km coastal cliff located in the Gulf of Tigullio (Northern Tyrrhenian Sea between Rapallo and Chiavari.

    The method is based on the geostructural characterisation of outcropping rock masses through meso- and macroscale stereoscopic analyses of digital photos that were taken continuously from a known distance from the coastline. The results of the method were verified through direct surveys of accessible sample areas. The rock failure susceptibility of the coastal sector was assessed by analysing the fundamental rock slope mechanisms of instability and the results were implemented into a Geographic Information System (GIS.

    The proposed method is useful for rock failure susceptibility assessments in high, steep, rocky coastal areas, where accessibility is limited due to cliffs or steep slopes. Moreover, the method can be applied to private properties or any other area where a complete and systematic analysis of rock mass structural features cannot be achieved.

    Compared to direct surveys and to other non-contact methods based on digital terrestrial photogrammetry, the proposed procedure provided good quality data of the structural features of the rock mass at a low cost. Therefore, the method could be applied to similar coastal areas with a high risk of rock failure occurrence.

  18. MALACOLOGICAL RESPONSE TO PLEISTOCENE SEA-LEVEL CHANGE IN THE NORTHERN PO PLAIN, N. ITALY: DETAILED PALAEOENVIRONMENTAL RECONSTRUCTIONS FROM TWO LOMBARDIAN CORES

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    DANIELE GIANOLLA

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available The interdisciplinary study of two deep cores drilled in Pleistocene basin fill at Northern margin of Po Plain, has been integrated with qualitative and quantitative malacological analysis. The potential of quantitative malacological analysis, to refine results obtained from interdisciplinary studies, is here highlighted. The evolution of malacological assemblages has been recorded and correlated to the general regressive trend recognized all over the Po Basin. Lower Pleistocene marine deposits, found at core base (Jaramillo Subchron and older, were gradually replaced by transitional and continental deposits since latest early Pleistocene. Area was eventually covered by continental conglomerate deposits (“Ceppo” facies during middle-late Pleistocene. Within this general trend, regional significance of a major unconformity (“r” surface, related to onset of Pleistocene glacial cycle, is confirmed. However, as evidenced by malacology, the roughly synchronous onset of coarse clastic progradation did not result in a synchronous shift from marine to transitional and continental settings all over the study area, as an effect of inherited topography and other local factors. During marine sedimentation, fossil record allowed us to recognize a transgressive event, reliably correlated to Marine Isotope Stage 35. 

  19. Coseismic and Early Post-Seismic Slip Distributions of the 2012 Emilia (Northern Italy) Seismic Sequence: New Insights in the Faults Activation and Resulting Stress Changes on Adjacent Faults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheloni, D.; Giuliani, R.; D'Agostino, N.; Mattone, M.; Bonano, M.; Fornaro, G.; Lanari, R.; Reale, D.

    2015-12-01

    The 2012 Emilia sequence (main shocks Mw 6.1 May 20 and Mw 5.9 May 29) ruptured two thrust segments of a ~E-W trending fault system of the buried Ferrara Arc, along a portion of the compressional system of the Apennines that had remained silent during past centuries. Here we use the rupture geometry constrained by the aftershocks and new geodetic data (levelling, InSAR and GPS measurements) to estimate an improved coseismic slip distribution of the two main events. In addition, we use post-seismic displacements, described and analyzed here for the first time, to infer a brand new post-seismic slip distribution of the May 29 event in terms of afterslip on the same coseismic plane. In particular, in this study we use a catalog of precisely relocated aftershocks to explore the different proposed geometries of the proposed thrust segments that have been published so far and estimate the coseismic and post-seismic slip distributions of the ruptured planes responsible for the two main seismic events from a joint inversion of the geodetic data.Joint inversion results revealed that the two earthquakes ruptured two distinct planar thrust faults, characterized by single main coseismic patches located around the centre of the rupture planes, in agreement with the seismological and geological information pointing out the Ferrara and the Mirandola thrust faults, as the causative structures of the May 20 and May 29 main shocks respectively.The preferred post-seismic slip distribution related to the 29 May event, yielded to a main patch of afterslip (equivalent to a Mw 5.6 event) located westward and up-dip of the main coseismic patch, suggesting that afterslip was triggered at the edges of the coseismic asperity. We then use these co- and post-seismic slip distribution models to calculate the stress changes on adjacent fault.

  20. Comparison of radioactivity data measured in PM10 aerosol samples at two elevated stations in northern Italy during the Fukushima event.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tositti, Laura; Brattich, Erika; Cinelli, Giorgia; Previti, Alberto; Mostacci, Domiziano

    2012-12-01

    The follow-up of Fukushima radioactive plume resulting from the 11th March 2011 devastating tsunami is discussed for two Italian stations in the northern Apennines: Mt. Cimone (Modena) and Montecuccolino (Bologna). Radioactivity data collected at both stations are described, including comparison between local natural background of airborne particulate and artificial radioactivity referable to the arrival of the radioactive plume and its persistence and evolution. Analysis of back-trajectories was used to confirm the arrival of artificial radionuclides following atmospheric transport and processing. The Fukushima plume was first detected on 3rd April 2011 when high volume sampling revealed the presence of the artificial radionuclides (131)I, (137)Cs and (134)Cs. The highest activity concentrations of these nuclides were detected on 5th April 2011 at the Montecuccolino site. Fukushima radioactivity data at the two stations were usually comparable, suggesting a good vertical mixing of the plume; discrepancies were occasional and attributed to different occurrence of wet removal, typically characterized by a scattered spatial pattern. To understand the relevance to the local population of the extra dose due to the Fukushima plume, atmospheric activities of the related artificial nuclides were compared to those of the main natural radionuclides in ambient particulate, and found to be lower by over one order of magnitude. Radiation doses referable to Fukushima, maximized for a whole year occurrence at the highest activity level observed at our stations in the weeks affected by the Japanese plume, were estimated at 1.1 μSv/year. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Effects of lateral variations of crustal rheology on the occurrence of post-orogenic normal faults: The Alto Tiberina Fault (Northern Apennines, Central Italy)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pauselli, Cristina; Ranalli, Giorgio

    2017-11-01

    The Northern Apennines (NA) are characterized by formerly compressive structures partly overprinted by subsequent extensional structures. The area of extensional tectonics migrated eastward since the Miocene. The youngest and easternmost major expression of extension is the Alto Tiberina Fault (ATF). We estimate 2D rheological profiles across the NA, and conclude that lateral rheological crustal variations have played an important role in the formation of the ATF and similar previously active faults to the west. Lithospheric delamination and mantle degassing resulted in an easterly-migrating extension-compression boundary, coinciding at present with the ATF, where (i) the thickness of the upper crust brittle layer reaches a maximum; (ii) the critical stress difference required to initiate faulting at the base of the brittle layer is at a minimum; and (iii) the total strengths of both the brittle layer and the whole lithosphere are at a minimum. Although the location of the fault is correlated with lithospheric rheological properties, the rheology by itself does not account for the low dip ( 20°) of the ATF. Two hypotheses are considered: (a) the low dip of the ATF is related to a rotation of the stress tensor at the time of initiation of the fault, caused by a basal shear stress ( 100 MPa) possibly related to corner flow associated with delamination; or (b) the low dip is associated to low values of the friction coefficient (≤ 0.5) coupled with high pore pressures related to mantle degassing. Our results establishing the correlation between crustal rheology and the location of the ATF are relatively robust, as we have examined various possible compositions and rheological parameters. They also provide possible general indications on the mechanisms of localized extension in post-orogenic extensional setting. The hypotheses to account for the low dip of the ATF, on the other hand, are intended simply to suggest possible solutions worthy of further study.

  2. Imposex levels and butyltin compounds (BTs) in Hexaplex trunculus (Linnaeus, 1758) from the northern Adriatic Sea (Italy): Ecological risk assessment before and after the ban.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cacciatore, Federica; Boscolo Brusà, Rossella; Noventa, Seta; Antonini, Camilla; Moschino, Vanessa; Formalewicz, Malgorzata; Gion, Claudia; Berto, Daniela; Gabellini, Massimo; Marin, Maria Gabriella

    2018-01-01

    The aim of this study was to compare imposex and butyltin compounds (BTs) data, collected before and after the organotin ban in 2008, in order to assess temporal and spatial variation of the phenomenon, the decline of BT contamination, and the effects on Hexaplex trunculus population in the coastal area of the northern Adriatic Sea, close to the Venice Lagoon. Both in marine and in lagoon sites, the results obtained in 2013-2015 showed a significant decline in the incidence of imposex in respect to those from the 2002 survey. In 2002, lagoon samples exhibited Relative Penis Size Index (RPSI) higher than marine samples, whereas no differences were detected in the recent survey, when all RPSI values were below 0.6%. Vas Deference Sequence Index (VDSI) mean values were over 4 before the ban introduction and below this value after that, indicating more critical conditions for gastropod population in 2002 rather than in 2013-15. Percentage of sterile females was up to 69% in 2002, whilst in the more recent survey no sterile female was found. Range of BT concentrations in gastropods decreased from 252 to 579 to 16-31ng∑BT/g d.w. BT body burdens varied according to a gender dependant pattern, with higher concentrations observed in females than in males. A first attempt to propose a classification based on BT impact on H. trunculus, according to the Water Framework Directive, revealed that most sites were in Bad ecological status before the ban and attained a Poor/Moderate status after that. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Budget impact analysis of sofosbuvir-based regimens for the treatment of HIV/HCV-coinfected patients in northern Italy: a multicenter regional simulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cenderello G

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Giovanni Cenderello,1 Stefania Artioli,2 Claudio Viscoli,3 Ambra Pasa,4 Mauro Giacomini,5 Barbara Giannini,5 Chiara Dentone,6 Laura Ambra Nicolini,3 Giovanni Cassola,1 Antonio Di Biagio31Infectious Diseases Unit EO, Ospedali Galliera, Genoa, 2Infectious Diseases Unit, ASL-5 Spezzina, La Spezia, 3Infectious Diseases Unit, AOU San Martino, IST, Genoa University, Genoa, 4IT Unit, Ospedali Galliera, Genoa, 5Department of Informatics, Bioengineering, Robotics and System Engineering (DIBRIS, University of Genoa, Genova, 6Infectious Diseases Unit, ASL-1 Imperiese, Sanremo, Imperia, ItalyObjectives: Chronic hepatitis C virus (HCV is a leading cause of hospitalization and death in populations coinfected with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV. Sofosbuvir (SOF is a pan-genotypic drug that should be combined with other agents as an oral treatment for HCV. We performed a 5-year horizon budget impact analysis of SOF-based regimens for the management of HIV/HCV-coinfected patients.Methods: A multicenter, prospective evaluation was conducted, involving four Italian Infectious Diseases Departments (Galliera, San Martino, Sanremo, and La Spezia. All 1,005 genotype-coinfected patients (30% cirrhotics under observation were considered (patients in all disease-stages were considered: chronic hepatitis C, cirrhosis, transplant, hepatocellular carcinoma. Disease stage costs per patient were collected; the expected disease progression in the absence of treatment and sustained virological response (SVR success rate for SOF-based regimens were calculated based on the literature and expert opinion. Drug prices were based on what the National Health Service paid for them. The comparison of "no treatment" disease progression costs versus the economic impact of SOF-based regimens was investigated.Results: Over the following 5 years, the disease progression scenario resulted in direct costs of approximately €54 million. Assuming an SVR success rate of 90%, average SOF

  4. L'Osservatorio delle disuguaglianze dell'Azienda USL di Ferrara

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    A. De Togni

    2003-05-01

    Full Text Available

    È ormai riconosciuto che bassa condizione socio-economica e limitato sviluppo culturale possono agire negativamente sul benessere individuale e sul livello di salute collettiva e determinano criticità nell’accesso alle cure, fenomeni che appaiono prevedibili, prevenibili e correggibili per migliorare la qualità e l’efficienza del sistema sanitario. Nell’area ferrarese sono presenti situazioni di svantaggio relativo non riconosciute e di difficile individuazione, il cui miglioramento si tradurrebbe in un beneficio sia per la condizione individuale che per la collettività.

    Obiettivi: la direzione sanitaria ed il Dipartimento di Sanità Pubblica dell’Azienda USL e l’Università degli Studi di Ferrara hanno dato vita al progetto “Osservatorio sulle disuguaglianze” allo scopo di sperimentare nuove modalità informative, più agili e tempestive delle rilevazioni censuarie, per individuare aree geografiche e/o fasce di popolazione verso le quali promuovere azioni di contrasto alle disuguaglianze in salute.

    Metodi: l’osservatorio prevede inizialmente tre sottoprogetti: 1. accesso agli screening femminili per definire i determinanti socio-ambientali e culturali delle donne non rispondenti; 2. salute neonati che, sulla base del nuovo certificato di assistenza al parto (CEDAP, mira a valutare situazioni di disuguaglianza in una fascia di età molto fragile; 3. coinvolgimento di medici di medicina generale (MMG, aderenti volontariamente all’indagine, nella raccolta sistematica di informazioni utili a monitorare il fenomeno delle disuguaglianze nella popolazione ferrarese. Risultati: l’attività dell’osservatorio è iniziata nell’aprile 2003 con l’elaborazione di un questionario da presentare alle donne non aderenti allo screening dei tumori del collo uterino e con la valutazione delle modalità di somministrazione del questionario (postale o telefonico avvalendosi della

  5. Active stress from earthquake focal mechanisms along the Padan-Adriatic side of the Northern Apennines (Italy), with considerations on stress magnitudes and pore-fluid pressures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boncio, Paolo; Bracone, Vito

    2009-10-01

    The active tectonic regime along the outer Northern Apennines (Padan-Adriatic area) is a matter of debate. We analyse the active tectonic regime by systematically inverting earthquake focal mechanisms in terms of their driving stress field, comparing two different stress inversion methods. Earthquakes within the area often deviate from Andersonian conditions, being characterized by reverse or transpressional slip on high-angle faults even if the regime is almost purely thrust faulting (e.g. Reggio Emilia 1996 and Faenza 2000 earthquakes). We analyse the stress conditions at faulting for the Reggio Emilia and Faenza earthquakes in order to infer the stress magnitudes and the possible role of fluid pressures. The stress analysis defines a consistent pattern of sub-horizontal active deviatoric compression arranged nearly perpendicular to the eastern front of the Padan-Adriatic fold-and-thrust system, independent of the stress inversion method used. The results are consistent with active compression operating within the Padan-Adriatic belt. The stress field is thrust faulting (sub-vertical σ3), except for the Cesena-Forlì and Ancona areas, where a strike-slip regime (sub-vertical or steeply-plunging σ2) operates. The strike-slip regimes are interpreted as being caused by the superposition of local tensional stresses due to oroclinal bending (i.e. rotations of the belt about vertical axes) on the regional compressional stress field. Kinematic complexities characterize the 1996 Reggio Emilia seismic sequence. The distribution of these complexities is not random, suggesting that they are due to local variations of the regional stress field within the unfaulted rocks surrounding the coseismic rupture. The stress conditions at faulting for the Reggio Emilia 1996 and Faenza 2000 earthquakes, coupled with the observation that seismicity in the Padan-Adriatic area often occurs in swarms, suggest that high pore-fluid pressures (Pf ≥ 70% of the lithostatic load) operate

  6. Sedimentology and composition of sands injected during the seismic crisis of May 2012 (Emilia, Italy): clues for source layer identification and liquefaction regime

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fontana, D.; Lugli, S.; Marchetti Dori, S.; Caputo, R.; Stefani, M.

    2015-07-01

    In May 2012 widespread sand blows formed along buried channels in the eastern sector of the Po Plain (Northern Italy) as a consequence of a series of seismic events with main shocks of Mw 6.1 and 5.9. At San Carlo (Ferrara) a trench dug a few week after the earthquakes exposed sand dikes cutting through an old Reno River channel-levee system that was diverted in the 18th century and was deposited starting from the 14th century (unit A). This sequence overlies a Holocene muddy floodplain deposits and contains scattered sandy channel deposits (unit B) and a Pleistocene channel sand unit (unit C). Sands with inverse and normal grading, concave layering and vertical lamination coexisting along the dikes suggest multiple rhythmic opening and closing of the fractures that were injected and filled by a slurry of sand during the compression pulses, and emptied during the extension phase. The pulse mechanism may have lasted for several minutes and formed well stratified sand volcanoes structures that formed at the top of the fractures. Sands from dikes and from the various units show well defined compositional fields from lithoarenitic to quartz-feldspar-rich compositions. Sands from the old Reno levee and channel fill (unit A) have abundant lithic fragments derived from the erosion of Apennine sedimentary carbonate and terrigenous successions. Composition of the sand filling the dikes show clear affinities with sand layers of the old Reno River channel (Unit A) and clearly differ from any sand from deeper Holocene and Pleistocene layers (Unit B and C), which are richer in quartz and feldspar and poorer in sedimentary lithic fragments. Sorting related to sediment flux variations did not apparently affect the sand composition across the sedimentary structures. Textural and compositional data indicate that the liquefaction processes originated from a relatively shallow source consisting of channel sands located within Unit A at 6.8.to 7.5 m depth.

  7. Unraveling Landscape Complexity: Land Use/Land Cover Changes and Landscape Pattern Dynamics (1954-2008) in Contrasting Peri-Urban and Agro-Forest Regions of Northern Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smiraglia, D; Ceccarelli, T; Bajocco, S; Perini, L; Salvati, L

    2015-10-01

    This study implements an exploratory data analysis of landscape metrics and a change detection analysis of land use and population density to assess landscape dynamics (1954-2008) in two physiographic zones (plain and hilly-mountain area) of Emilia Romagna, northern Italy. The two areas are characterized by different landscape types: a mixed urban-rural landscape dominated by arable land and peri-urban settlements in the plain and a traditional agro-forest landscape in the hilly-mountain area with deciduous and conifer forests, scrublands, meadows, and crop mosaic. Urbanization and, to a lesser extent, agricultural intensification were identified as the processes underlying landscape change in the plain. Land abandonment determining natural forestation and re-forestation driven by man was identified as the process of change most representative of the hilly-mountain area. Trends in landscape metrics indicate a shift toward more fragmented and convoluted patterns in both areas. Number of patches, the interspersion and juxtaposition index, and the large patch index are the metrics discriminating the two areas in terms of landscape patterns in 1954. In 2008, mean patch size, edge density, interspersion and juxtaposition index, and mean Euclidean nearest neighbor distance were the metrics with the most different spatial patterns in the two areas. The exploratory data analysis of landscape metrics contributed to link changes over time in both landscape composition and configuration providing a comprehensive picture of landscape transformations in a wealthy European region. Evidence from this study are hoped to inform sustainable land management designed for homogeneous landscape units in similar socioeconomic contexts.

  8. The role of dunes in contrasting saltwater intrusion in coastal areas; a case study in the southern Po Plain Adriatic coast (Ravenna, Northern Italy)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marconi, V.; Antonellini, M.; Balugani, E.; Minchio, A.; Gabbianelli, G.

    2009-04-01

    area below the coastal dunes and that the surface water is all brackish to salty. Where compared with the elevation map, in fact, the electrical conductivity data (a proxy for salinity) seem to be strongly controlled by topography (even small variations). In the study area, the topographic reliefs consist of several rows of dunes, the topographic lows are artificial ditches and ponds or dune slacks. The farmland is about at the same level of the sea. In the northern part of the study area, the fresh groundwater lens in the backshore zone is missing, as dunes were eroded (down to 1.5 m above m.s.l.) and a series of saltwater ponds (about 1 m below m.s.l.) are present right behind the active dunes. The central part of the study area is characterised by the presence of a 3 m high active dune and of a large pond in the innermost side of the backshore. In this case, there is a narrow fresh groundwater lens in the active dunes area, whereas inland the aquifer is completely salty up to the agricultural fields. The southern area has the best preserved and tallest dunes (more than 4 m) and do not contain any pond. Here, the fresh groundwater lens is wider than everywhere else and the aquifer becomes salty only where the drainage ditches are causing upconing of deeper salty groundwater. Our study has recognized the importance of coastal dunes in counteracting saltwater intrusion in the phreatic aquifer. Therefore, it is important to consider measures and interventions in order to preserve the integrity of the dunes not only for the purposes of avoiding shoreline erosion and coastal ecosystem destruction but also for freshwater resources protection. On the other hand, in low lying coastal areas, drainage and the construction of ponds may enhance seawater upconing.

  9. Installation of a very broad band borehole seismic station in Ferrara (Emilia)

    OpenAIRE

    Pesaresi, Damiano; Dall'Olio, Lorella; Rovelli, Antonio; Romanelli, Marco; Barnaba, Carla; Abu Zeid, Nasser

    2012-01-01

    The Istituto Nazionale di Geofisica e Vulcanologia (INGV) is the Italian agency devoted to monitor in real time the seismicity on the Italian territory. The seismicity in Italy is of course variable in time and space, being also very much dependant on local noise conditions. Specifically, monitoring seismicity in an alluvial basin like the Po one is a challenge, due to consistent site effects induced by soft alluvial deposits and bad coupling with the deep bedrock (Steidl et al., 1996). This...

  10. Tectono-metamorphic evolution and magmatic processes in the thermo-metamorphic aureole of the Monte Capanne pluton (Elba Island, Northern Tyrrhenian Sea, Italy).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morelli, M.; Pandeli, E.; Principi, G.

    2003-04-01

    -crystallized and the original structure is oblitered. D_3M_4: is linked to the intrusion of the Monte Capanne pluton (6.9 Ma). Because of the flattening of the country rocks a penetrative foliation, sub-parallel to the surface of the plutonic body, developed during its intrusion and the uplift. Fluidal structures and discharge folding also developed. This structures affected both the country rocks and the laccoliths intruded in. At the meso-scale are also evident fractures, filled by calcite, cutting the garnet/wollastonite aggregate and later flattened and-or partially transposed. Late felsic products associated with the Monte Capanne pluton partly are deformed by the flattening and partly cut the flattening structures. The contact between the pluton and the country rocks itself is locally deformed by flattening structures. At the microscope the growth of HT/LP minerals, mimetic on the previous associations, or syn-kinematic or static, is evident. M_5: finally, during the last intrusive event (Orano porphyries, 6.8 Ma) a static thermo-metamorphic blastesis locally occurs post-dating the structures previously described. Only gentle folding, veins and fractures formation, and faulting processes followed the tectono-metamorphic and thermo-metamorphic deformation events. Conclusions The Punta Nera Unit represents another important element to understand the relationships between Alps and Apennines. In fact, the evidences of a pre-granitoid polyphased tectono-metamorphic framework in this metamorphic oceanic unit allow to correlate it to the Schistes Lustrés of the Alpine Corsica (e.g. Inzecca Massif, Duran Delga, 1984) and of the Northern Tyrrhenian area (e.g. the outcrops of oceanic metamorphic units in the Gorgona Island, Giglio Island and eastern Elba Island: Bortolotti et al., 2001; Pandeli et alii, 2001; Rossetti et al., 2001; Orti et al., 2002). References Barberi et al. (1969). F.126. Isola d'Elba. Note Ill. Carta Geol. It., 1:100.000. Ser. Geol. d'It. Bortolotti V. et al

  11. Occurrence of Extended Spectrum β-Lactamases, KPC-Type, and MCR-1.2-Producing Enterobacteriaceae from Wells, River Water, and Wastewater Treatment Plants in Oltrepò Pavese Area, Northern Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariasofia Caltagirone

    2017-11-01

    Oltrepò Pavese (Northern Italy. Both ESBLs E. coli and ESBLs/carbapenemase-producing K. pneumoniae strains showed clonal heterogeneity by Pulsed-Field Gel Electrophoresis and Multi-Locus-Sequence-Typing. During one-year study and taking in account the whole Gram-negative bacterial population, an average percentage of cefotaxime resistance of 69, 32, and 10.3% has been obtained for the wastewater treatment plants, streams, and wells, respectively. These results, of concern for public health, highlight the need to improve hygienic measures to reduce the load of discharged bacteria with emerging resistance mechanisms.

  12. Basin-scale hydrogeological, geophysical, geochemical and isotopic characterization: an essential tool for building a Decision Support System for the sustainable management of alluvial aquifer systems within the provinces of Milan and Monza-Brianza (Northern Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maurizio Gorla

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available CAP Group is a public company, supplying the municipalities within the provinces of Milan and Monza/Brianza (Northern Italy with the integrated water service: 197 municipalities and more than 2 million users served, 887 wells, 154 wall-mounted tanks and hubs, a water supply network of over 7500 km, from which approximately 250 million cubic metres of water per year are withdrawn. The drinking water supply comes exclusively from groundwater resources, circulating in several overlapping aquifer systems. Basin-scale water resource management, as required by the European Water Framework Directive (2000/60/EC, is an extremely complex task. In view of this backdrop, CAP is currently developing a project called Infrastructural Aqueduct Plan that relies on a Decision Support System approach. The paper describes the preliminary steps concerning the design of a prototype Decision Support System aiming at the management of groundwater resources on a basin scale (Ticino and Adda rivers area. CAP Group Decision Support System is intended to be a package allowing for water resource assessment, identification of boundary conditions, climatic driving forces and demographic pressures, simulation and investigation of future forecasts and comparison of alternative policy measures. The project has been designed in steps including Geodatabase building, geographic information system (GIS analysis (including multilayer analysis and numerical modelling. The data collected in the geodatabase were analyzed to design GIS quantitative and qualitative thematic maps in order to perform the multilayer analysis of current and future state and impacts, for providing the decision maker with a comprehensive picture of the water system. The multilayer analysis relies on specific indicators based on some quantitative and qualitative data: hydrogeological, chemical, isotopic, soil use and hazards, climatic and demographic. Each parameter belonging to these macro areas were

  13. Occurrence of Extended Spectrum β-Lactamases, KPC-Type, and MCR-1.2-Producing Enterobacteriaceae from Wells, River Water, and Wastewater Treatment Plants in Oltrepò Pavese Area, Northern Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caltagirone, Mariasofia; Nucleo, Elisabetta; Spalla, Melissa; Zara, Francesca; Novazzi, Federica; Marchetti, Vittoria M; Piazza, Aurora; Bitar, Ibrahim; De Cicco, Marica; Paolucci, Stefania; Pilla, Giorgio; Migliavacca, Roberta; Pagani, Laura

    2017-01-01

    ò Pavese (Northern Italy). Both ESBLs E. coli and ESBLs/carbapenemase-producing K. pneumoniae strains showed clonal heterogeneity by Pulsed-Field Gel Electrophoresis and Multi-Locus-Sequence-Typing. During one-year study and taking in account the whole Gram-negative bacterial population, an average percentage of cefotaxime resistance of 69, 32, and 10.3% has been obtained for the wastewater treatment plants, streams, and wells, respectively. These results, of concern for public health, highlight the need to improve hygienic measures to reduce the load of discharged bacteria with emerging resistance mechanisms.

  14. Bronze decoration for chariots in Northern Italy

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    Margherita Bolla

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Si propone un censimento delle attestazioni di decorazione in bronzo per carri in Italia settentrionale, limitando la ricerca agli elementi figurati. L’indagine, per quanto presumibilmente non esaustiva, ha condotto a un considerevole aumento delle testimonianze note (ora una cinquantina, consentendo alcune osservazioni su botteghe di produzione, proprietari, iconografia, cronologia.

  15. Geological evidence of pre-2012 seismic events, Emilia-Romagna, Italy

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    Riccardo Caputo

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available In May 2012, two moderate (-to-strong earthquakes that were associated with a noticeable aftershock sequence affected the eastern sector of the Po Plain, Italy, in correspondence with a buried portion of the Apennines thrust belt. The Provinces of Ferrara, Modena and Bologna (Emilia Romagna Region, Mantua (Lombardy Region, and Rovigo (Veneto Region were affected to different extents. The first shock (Ml 5.9 according to the Istituto Nazionale di Geofisica e Vulcanologia (INGV; National Institute of Geophysics and Volcanology, and Mw 6.1 according to the US Geological Service occurred on May 20, 2012, at 2:03 a.m. (GMT; this was the strongest of the sequence, and it was followed by several aftershocks (up to Ml 5.1. This first event produced secondary ground deformation effects, which were mainly associated with liquefaction phenomena that were spread across the broader epicentral region, and particularly in the western sector of the Ferrara Province [Papathanassiou et al. 2012, this volume]. A few weeks after the earthquake, a paleoseismological trench was excavated south of San Carlo village, where earthquake-induced effects were widely documented. This report presents the preliminary results of the paleoseismological investigation and documents the occurrence in the same area of paleo-events older than the May 2012 earthquakes. […

  16. Robotic surgery in Italy national survey (2011).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santoro, Eugenio; Pansadoro, Vito

    2013-03-01

    Robotic surgery in Italy has become a clinical reality that is gaining increasing acceptance. As of 2011 after the United States, Italy together with Germany is the country with the largest number of active Robotic centers, 46, and da Vinci Robots installed, with at least 116 operators already trained. The number of interventions performed in Italy in 2011 exceeded 6,000 and in 2010 were 4,784, with prevalence for urology, general surgery and gynecology, however these interventions have also begun to be applied in other fields such as cervicofacial, cardiothoracic and pediatric surgery. In Italy Robotic centers are mostly located in Northern Italy, while in the South there are only a few centers, and four regions are lacking altogether. Of the 46 centers which were started in 1999, the vast majority is still operational and almost half handle over 200 cases a year. The quality of the work is also especially high with large diffusion of radical prostatectomy in urology and liver resection and colic in general surgery. The method is very well accepted among operators, over 80 %, and among patients, over 95 %. From the analysis of world literature and a survey carried out in Italy, Robotic surgery, which at the moment could be better defined as telesurgery, represents a significant advantage for operators and a consistent gain for the patient. However, it still has important limits such as high cost and non-structured training of operators.

  17. Finance and Development: The Case of Southern Italy

    OpenAIRE

    Faini, Riccardo; Giannini, Curzio; Ingrosso, Fulvio

    1992-01-01

    We look at the role of the financial sector in the context of the relatively backward regions of Southern Italy (the so-called Mezzogiorno). Commercial banks in the South typically have higher operating costs and charge higher interest rates than Northern banks. Econometric analysis on a large set of individual loan contracts suggests that borrowers in the South are considerably riskier than those elsewhere in Italy. It also indicates, however, that risk accounts for only half of the 200 basi...

  18. Utilização do Anel de Ferrara na estabilização e correção da ectasia corneana pós PRK Use of Ferrara's ring in the stabilization and correction of corneal ectasia after PRK

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frederico Bicalho Dias da Silva

    2000-06-01

    Full Text Available Objetivo: Avaliar a ação do anel corneano intra-estromal de Ferrara no tratamento da ectasia corneana pós Excimer Laser. Métodos: O anel de Ferrara, que já vem sendo aplicado no tratamento do ceratocone, alta miopia e astigmatismo irregular, foi utilizado para estabilizar e corrigir a ectasia corneana de dois pacientes submetidos à PRK. Resultados: Após o procedimento cirúrgico, foi observado um aplainamento da córnea central de aproximadamente 6 dioptrias no 1º caso e de 10 dioptrias no 2º, com melhora na acuidade visual. Os resultados vêm se mantendo estáveis até o momento. O tempo de seguimento pós-operatório foi de 3 e 8 meses, respectivamente. Conclusões: Anel de Ferrara obteve sucesso no difícil tratamento desta complicação cirúrgica, permitindo que se retarde ou até mesmo se evite a evolução destes casos para um transplante de córnea com todos os seus riscos, lenta recuperação e dependência da agilidade das filas de doações.Purpose: To evaluate the action of Ferrara's Ring in the treatment of corneal ectasia after Excimer Laser. Methods: Ferrara's Ring, that is already being applied in the treatment of keratoconus, high myopia and irregular astigmatism, has been used to stabilize and to correct the corneal ectasia of 2 patients submitted to PRK. Results: After the surgical procedure, a flattening of the central cornea was observed, with approximately 6 D (first case and 10 D in the second, with visual acuity improvement. The results have remained stable until this moment. The postoperative follow-up was of 3 and 8 months, respectively. Conclusions: Ferrara's ring has obtained success in the difficult treatment of this surgical complication, allowing delay of or even avoiding the evolution of these cases to a corneal transplantation with all its risks, slow recovery and dependence on the agility of the donation lines.

  19. Seismotectonic models and CN algorithm: The case of Italy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Costa, G.; Orozova Stanishkova, I.; Panza, G.F.; Rotwain, I.M.

    1995-07-01

    The CN algorithm is here utilized both for the intermediate term earthquake prediction and to validate the seismotectonic model of the Italian territory. Using the results of the analysis, made through the CN algorithm and taking into account the seismotectonic model, three areas, one for Northern Italy, one for Central Italy and one for Southern Italy, are defined. Two transition areas, between the three main areas are delineated. The earthquakes which occurred in these two areas contribute to the precursor phenomena identified by the CN algorithm in each main area. (author). 26 refs, 6 figs, 2 tabs

  20. Effects of FRP application on the seismic response of a masonry church in Emilia-Romagna (Italy)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milani, Gabriele; Shehu, Rafael; Valente, Marco

    2016-12-01

    The paper presents some preliminary results of advanced Finite Element (FE) analyses on the upgrading of old masonry constructions by means of Fiber Reinforced Polymers (FRPs). The case study is a masonry Romanesque church, located in Ferrara, Emilia Romagna (Italy). The church exhibits widespread damage caused by the recent earthquake sequence occurred in 2012 about 60 km far from Ferrara with two major seismic events of magnitude 5.8 and 5.9. The main damage involved mainly the columns of the central nave and the apse. A partial detachment of the façade was observed too. First, gravity load analyses and non-linear static and dynamic analyses are performed on the church in the unretrofitted configuration. Numerical results put in evidence the insufficient strength of the apse and the columns of the naves, and the detachment of the façade. A strengthening intervention conducted by means of FRP strips is numerically analysed, assuming the behavior of the strips, especially for what concerns delamination, in agreement with Italian Guidelines. Numerical results show a quite reasonable strength improvement of the weak structural elements due to FRP application, with levels of strength higher than the minimum ones required by Italian Code.

  1. Pharmacological Studies of NOP Receptor Agonists as Novel Analgesics

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-01

    National Institute of Neuroscience, University of Ferrara , 44100 Ferrara , Italy cDepartment of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Biotechnology Center, University of... Ferrara , 44100 Ferrara , Italy dDepartment of Psychology, Institute of Neuroscience, National Cheng-Chi University, Taipei 11605, Taiwana r t i c l e...as described by Arduin et al. [1] at the University of Ferrara , Ferrara , Italy ), morphine sulfate (Mallinckrodt, Hazelwood, MO), (±)J-113397 (1-[3R,4R

  2. Crustal stress regime in Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Cesaro

    1997-06-01

    Full Text Available In order to obtain a reliable map of the present-day stress field in Italy, needed to better understand the active tectonic processes and to contribute to the assessment of seismic hazard, in 1992 we started to collect and analyze new data from borehole breakouts in deep oil and geothermal wells and focal mechanisms of earthquakes (2.5 < M <5 occurred in Italy between 1988 and 1995. From about 200 deep wells and 300 focal mechanisms analyzed to date, we infer that: the internal (SW sector of the Northern Apenninic arc is extending with minimum compressional stress (Shmin oriented ? ENE, while the external front is thrusting over the Adriatic foreland (Shmin ? NW-SE. The entire Southern Apennine is extending in NE direction (from the Tyrrhenian margin to the Apulian foreland and compression (in the foredeep is no longer active at the outer (NE thrust front. Between these two arcs, an abrupt change in the tectonic regime is detected with directions of horizontal stress changing by as much as 90º in the external front, around latitude 430N. Along the Ionian side of the Calabrian arc the stress directions inferred from breakouts and focal mechanisms are scattered with a hint of rotation from N-S Shmin close to the Southern Apennines, to ~ E-W directions in the Messina Strait. In Sicily, a NW-SE direction of SHmax is evident in the Hyblean foreland, parallel to the direction of plate motion between Africa and Europe. A more complex pattern of stress directions is observed in the thrust belt zone, with rotations from the regional trend (NW í directed SHmax to NE oriented SHmax. A predominant NW direction of SHmax is also detected in mainland Sicily from earthquake focal mechanisms, but no well data are available in this region. In the northern part of Sicily (Aeolian Islands a ~N-S direction of SHmax is observed.

  3. „This is just a fucking movie. Also fahrt ab damit!“ Eine Rezensionsreise durch Abel Ferraras Film ‚Pasolini‘, anlässlich des 40. Todestages von Pier Paolo Pasolini

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angela Oster

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Das Leben Pasolinis ist bereits zu wiederholten Malen der Gegenstand von Texten und Filmen gewesen. Aufgrund des skandalträchtigen Todes des Linksintellektuellen – er wurde unter nie genau geklärten Umständen 1975 ermordet – ranken sich viele Mythen um den letzten Tag Pasolinis. Genau diesen 'ultimo giorno' verfilmt Abel Ferrara (1914 und setzt dabei eigene Akzente. Mit literar- und dokumentargenauer Perspektive bietet Ferrara gleichwohl innovative Interpretationen in Hinblick auf einen der wichtigsten Künstler Italiens.

  4. A socioeconomic profile of vulnerable land to desertification in Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salvati, Luca

    2014-01-01

    Climate changes, soil vulnerability, loss in biodiversity, and growing human pressure are threatening Mediterranean-type ecosystems which are increasingly considered as a desertification hotspot. In this region, land vulnerability to desertification strongly depends on the interplay between natural and anthropogenic factors. The present study proposes a multivariate exploratory analysis of the relationship between the spatial distribution of land vulnerability to desertification and the socioeconomic contexts found in three geographical divisions of Italy (north, center and south) based on statistical indicators. A total of 111 indicators describing different themes (demography, human settlements, labor market and human capital, rural development, income and wealth) were used to discriminate vulnerable from non-vulnerable areas. The resulting socioeconomic profile of vulnerable areas in northern and southern Italy diverged significantly, the importance of demographic and economic indicators being higher in southern Italy than in northern Italy. On the contrary, human settlement indicators were found more important to discriminate vulnerable and non-vulnerable areas in northern Italy, suggesting a role for peri-urbanization in shaping the future vulnerable areas. An in-depth knowledge of the socioeconomic characteristics of vulnerable land may contribute to scenarios' modeling and the development of more effective policies to combat desertification. © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Assessment of the intrinsic vulnerability of agricultural land to water and nitrogen losses: case studies in Italy and Greece

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aschonitis, V. G.; Mastrocicco, M.; Colombani, N.; Salemi, E.; Castaldelli, G.

    2014-09-01

    LOS indices (abbr. of Losses) can be used for the assessment of the intrinsic vulnerability of agricultural land to water and nitrogen losses through percolation and runoff. The indices were applied on the lowland region of Ferrara Province (FP) in Italy and the upland region of Sarigkiol Basin (SB) in Greece. The most vulnerable zones in FP were the coastal areas consisting of high permeability sandy dunes and the areas close to riverbanks and palaeochannels, and in SB were the areas characterized by high slopes and high permeability soils at high altitude and areas belonging to the upper part of the alluvial plain close to the boundaries between agricultural land and mountainous regions. The application of LOS indices highlighted the specific features of both lowland and upland regions that contribute to water and nitrogen losses and showed their ability for use as tools in designing environmental management plans.

  6. Insights on the seismotectonics of the western part of northern Calabria (southern Italy) by integrated geological and geophysical data: Coexistence of shallow extensional and deep strike-slip kinematics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferranti, L.; Milano, G.; Pierro, M.

    2017-11-01

    We assess the seismotectonics of the western part of the border area between the Southern Apennines and Calabrian Arc, centered on the Mercure extensional basin, by integrating recent seismicity with a reconstruction of the structural frame from surface to deep crust. The analysis of low-magnitude (ML ≤ 3.5) events occurred in the area during 2013-2017, when evaluated in the context of the structural model, has revealed an unexpected complexity of seismotectonics processes. Hypocentral distribution and kinematics allow separating these events into three groups. Focal mechanisms of the shallower (kinematics. These results are consistent with the last kinematic event recorded on outcropping faults, and with the typical depth and kinematics of normal faulting earthquakes in the axial part of southern Italy. By contrast, intermediate ( 9-17 km) and deep ( 17-23 km) events have fault plane solutions characterized by strike- to reverse-oblique slip, but they differ from each other in the orientation of the principal axes. The intermediate events have P axes with a NE-SW trend, which is at odds with the NW-SE trend recorded by strike-slip earthquakes affecting the Apulia foreland plate in the eastern part of southern Italy. The intermediate events are interpreted to reflect reactivation of faults in the Apulia unit involved in thrust uplift, and appears aligned along an WNW-ESE trending deep crustal, possibly lithospheric boundary. Instead, deep events beneath the basin, which have P-axis with a NW-SE trend, hint to the activity of a deep overthrust of the Tyrrhenian back-arc basin crust over the continental crust of the Apulia margin, or alternatively, to a tear fault in the underthrust Apulia plate. Results of this work suggest that extensional faulting, as believed so far, does not solely characterizes the seismotectonics of the axial part of the Southern Apennines.

  7. INCLUSIVE EDUCATION IN ITALY

    OpenAIRE

    Voitkāne, Vita

    2017-01-01

    European member States implement Inclusive Education policies thus contributing to a sustainable, inclusive society, although each country is at a different stage in this process. Italy, one of the first countries to launch integrative learning, has set an example since the 1970s, although the quality of inclusive education is unpredictable due to many issues. Authors Cantoni and Panetta (2006) emphasize that, although the culture of integration in Italy exists, much needs to be done to impro...

  8. Italy in Postcolonial Discourse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Concilio, Carmen

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available In this essay, I would like to explore the representations of Italy through the eyes of three outstanding postcolonial writers: Jhumpa Lahiri, Michael Ondaatje and Nuruddin Farah. Even though Italy is an oasis of art and culture, Jhumpa Lahiri looks at it with a profound sense of both admiration and sadness in Hema and Kaushik (2008. Her scrutiny of the ancient, pre-imperial ruins of the Etruscan period leads her characters to question life, death and marital life. Similarly, Ondaatje opposes an Italian Renaissance villa to the debris left behind by war in his well-known The English Patient (1992. His Punjabi character Kirpal Singh mentions Gabicce Mare, a place that soon after World War II will become a memorial and cemetery for the Indian troops who fought and died for the liberation of Italy. This discourse is picked up by Helena Janaczeck, a Polish-Italian writer who combines a narrative on Polish migration in Italy with an elegiac narrative about the cemetery and memorial in Cassino, where a Maori goes to visit the tombs of his ancestor, who also participated with the Commonwealth troops in World War II. Nuruddin Farah too, who provides a reportage on Somali immigrants to Italy, seems to consider the country as a springboard either to other North European destinations or to a possible destiny back home. All three writers present Italy according to varied and unusual perspectives.

  9. Management of immigration and pregnancy screening in northeastern Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giorgio Tamaro

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Giorgio Tamaro, Sergio ParcoDepartment of Laboratory Medicine, Children's Hospital, Burlo Garofolo, Trieste, ItalyAbstract: This study assesses the impact of immigration in Friuli Venezia Giulia, a region of northeastern Italy, on the epidemiological features of hemoglobin patterns and on prothrombotic and trisomy risk in pregnancy for patients of non-Italian origin. This study follows a series of studies on the incidence of thalassemia and other hemoglobinopathies with reduced globin chain synthesis, that were performed during the postwar (1939–45 period in Friuli Venezia Giulia following immigration into the region from Istria and Sardinia (regions of northern and central Italy. Current data show that today’s constantly growing immigration into the region differs from previous decades, in terms of origin and quantity of migrants, who mainly come from third world countries. This has a significant impact on health care issues, and more specifically on prospective health screening for foreigners. The authors conclude that scholastic education and hospital services, either public or private, and voluntary associations, may contribute to solving the problem, but only in terms of training and organization, for non-European Union citizens arriving in northern Italy and neighboring areas, especially those from Africa, Asia, Latin America, and eastern Europe.Keywords: immigration, hemoglobinopathy, pregnancy, trisomy, thalassemia trait, Italy

  10. The role of national regulations in RPAS-based mapping projects in the monitoring of natural hazards that could involve infrastructures: the example of the Val Venosta Railway (Northern Italy - Bolzano).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gandolfo, Luca; Busnardo, Enrico; Castellarin, Nicola; Canella, Claudio; Canella, Federico; Stabile, Marco; Curci, Francesco; Petrillo, Giovanni

    2016-04-01

    Italy has adopted National Regulations for the use of RPAS in its country's airspace in December 2013, issued by the Italian Civil Aviation Authority (ENAC). Despite the issued regulations, over the past months an increasing number of unauthorized and unsafe operations have been performed and the attention to safety is growing quickly in the public opinion. For this reason "Critical Operations" is permitted only to those RPAS Operators which have received special authorization by ENAC after a very demanding Aeronautical procedure. According to the Regulations, the flight close to-over urban areas, industrial plants, highways and railways, implies that only authorized RPAS Operators may perform such activities. An example of a "Critical" operation were the RPAS flights performed along the Venosta railway line to evaluate the current situation of two areas affected by geological instability and laid the basis for a future high accurate monitoring. The Venosta Valley is located in the western part of South Tyrol (Norhtern Italy). The valley possesses some unique features compared to the entire Alps, the particularly dry climate and the presence of huge alluvional fans, which give rise to different levels of altitude in the valley. From geological point of view, the Venosta Valley is characterized by the presence of the Austroalpine domain. In particular, there are two different geological units in this area: (i) the crystalline schists of the basement, which includes paragneiss, gneiss, granitoid pegmatites, garnet micaschists, quartzites and phyllites. (ii) The Mesozoic coverage divided into various complexes with successions of phyllites, volcanics and magmatiti. The railway line that runs through the Venosta Valley (Merano - Malles) unfolds along a path of 59,8 kilometers and covers an altitude difference of about 700 meters. In particular, three tunnels characterized the first section, including the M. Giuseppe tunnel, which required extensive consolidations both

  11. Gypsum karst in Italy: a review

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Waele, Jo; Chiarini, Veronica; Columbu, Andrea; D'Angeli, Ilenia M.; Madonia, Giuliana; Parise, Mario; Piccini, Leonardo; Vattano, Marco; Vigna, Bartolomeo; Zini, Luca; Forti, Paolo

    2016-04-01

    Although outcropping only rarely in Italy, gypsum karst has been described in detail since the early XXth century (Marinelli, 1917). Gypsum caves are now known from almost all Italian regions (Madonia & Forti, 2003), but are mainly localised along the northern border of the Apennine chain (Emilia Romagna and Marche regions), Calabria, and Sicily, where the major outcrops occur. Recently, important caves have also been discovered in the underground gypsum quarries in Piedmont (Vigna et al., 2010). During the late 80s and 90s several multidisciplinary studies have been carried out in many gypsum areas. All this work converged into a comprehensive overview in 2003 (Madonia & Forti, 2003). Further detailed studies focused on the gypsum areas of Emilia Romagna (Chiesi et al., 2010; Forti & Lucci, 2010; Demaria et al., 2012; De Waele & Pasini, 2013; Ercolani et al., 2013; Columbu et al., 2015; Lucci & Piastra, 2015; Tedeschi et al., 2015) and of Sicily (Madonia & Vattano, 2011). Sinkholes related to Permo-Triassic gypsum have been studied in Friuli Venezia Giulia (Zini et al., 2015). This presentation will review the state of the art regarding different aspects of evaporite karst in Italy focusing on the main new results. References Chiesi M., et al. (2010) - Origin and evolution of a salty gypsum/anhydrite karst spring: the case of Poiano (Northern Apennines, Italy). Hydrogeology Journal, 18, pp. 1111-1124. Columbu A. et al. (2015) - Gypsum caves as indicators of climate-driven river incision and aggradation in a rapidly uplifting region. Geology, 43(6), 539-542. Demaria D. et al. (Eds.) (2012), Le Grotte Bolognesi, GSB-USB, 431 p. De Waele J., Pasini G. (2013) - Intra-messinian gypsum palaeokarst in the northern Apennines and its palaeogeographic implications. Terra Nova 25, pp. 199-205. Ercolani M., et al. (Eds.) (2013), I Gessi e la Cave i Monte Tondo. Studio multidisciplinare di un'area carsica nella Vena del Gesso Romagnola. Memorie Ist. It. Spel. II(26), 559 p

  12. Electrical resistivity tomography for studying liquefaction induced by the May 2012 Emilia-Romagna earthquake (Mw = 6.1, North Italy)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giocoli, A.; Quadrio, B.; Bellanova, J.; Lapenna, V.; Piscitelli, S.

    2013-10-01

    This work shows the result of an Electrical Resistivity Tomography survey carried out for imaging and characterizing the shallow subsurface affected by the coseismic effects of the Mw = 6.1 Emilia-Romagna (North Italy) earthquake occurred on 20 May 2012. The most characteristic coseismic effects were ground failure, lateral spreading and liquefaction that occurred extensively along the paleo-Reno river in the urban areas of San Carlo, a hamlet of Sant'Agostino municipality, and of Mirabello (south-western portion of the Ferrara Province). Totally, six Electrical Resistivity Tomography were performed and calibrated with surface geological surveys, exploratory borehole and aerial photo interpretations. This was one of the first applications of the Electrical Resistivity Tomography method in investigating coseismic liquefaction.

  13. Collection for Italy

    CERN Multimedia

    Fabiola Gianotti, Director-General, and Ghislain Roy, President of the Staff Association

    2016-01-01

    Following the earthquake of 24 August in central Italy, many of you have expressed your solidarity. The collection to support the victims raised a total of 10 000 CHF, which was transferred in its entirety to Italy’s civil protection through the Italian delegation to the CERN Council. The CERN Directorate and the CERN Staff Association sincerely thank you for your generosity.

  14. Wine tourism in Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cinelli Colombini D

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Donatella Cinelli Colombini Orcia Doc Wine Consortium, Rocca d’Orcia , Italy Abstract: This text includes the history of wine tourism in Italy since 1993, when the first edition of the event “Cantine Aperte” (Open Cellars, Wine Day, took place. The movement grew from the initial 25 wineries to the 21,000 that participate today in opening their doors to the public, while visitors grew in numbers from a couple of hundred, 20 years ago, to the current 4 to 6 million. Wine tourists can be divided into four main groups: wine tourists by chance, classic wine tourists, talent scouts, and lovers of luxury. Each group is examined according to its consumption, its conduct, and its expectations. Wine tourism in Italy boasts around 170 territorial networks: “Strade del Vino” (wine routes regulated by law. After an initial pioneer phase during which preexisting wineries adapted to the growing number of tourists, modern-day wineries were created with bespoke areas for the welcoming of visitors. Wineries in Italy can be classified into the following main types: “functional wineries” that concentrate on productive efficiency; “cathedrals” – renovated historic buildings or modern “starchitecture” designs in which esthetics play an important role; wineries with a “strong identity” linked to the owner or wine producer with the special imprint of his or her personal wine making passion. Other features of Italian wine territories such as food and wellness centers not to speak of the ever present cultural heritage also play a part in attracting wine tourists. Lastly, an evaluation is made of business and communication aspects with a specific reference to the use of the web. Keywords: wine tourism, Italian wineries, winery tours, wine roads of Italy

  15. Seasonal changes of trophic niche overlap in the stone marten (Martes foina and the red fox (Vulpes vulpes in a mountainous area of the Northern Apennines (N-Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Brangi

    1995-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Between 1989 and 1991, 284 scats of stone marten (Martes foina and 642 scats of red fox (Vulpes vulpes were collected in a 280 km² mountainous area in the northern Apennines. The scats were analyzed to identify differences between the two species' diets. The prey were grouped in 6 food categories: Fruits, Other Vegetables, Small Mammals, Other Vertebrates, Invertebrates and Garbage. Annual trophic niche was wider in the Red fox (0.62 than in the stone marten (0.53. We also found a large overlap between the two species with some small differences: Other Vertebrates, Small Mammals and Other Vegetables were more used by the Red fox, while Fruits were more used by the stone marten. Riassunto Variazioni stagionali della sovrapposizione di nicchia trofica della faina (Martes foina e della volpe (Vulpes vulpes in un'area montana degli Appennini settentrionali - Tra il 1989 e il 1991 sono state raccolte 284 feci di faina (Martes foina e 642 feci di volpe (Vulpes vulpes in un'area montuosa di 280 km² situata nell'Appennino settentrionale. Le feci sono state analizzate per evidenziare le eventuali differenze nella dieta delle due specie. Le singole prede sono state raggruppate in 6 categorie alimentari: Frutta, Altri Vegetali, Micromammiferi, Altri Vertebrati, Invertebrati, Rifiuti. L'ampiezza annuale della dieta è risultata maggiore nella Volpe (0,62 che non nella Faina (0,53. È stata trovata inoltre una larga sovrapposizione tra le due specie con alcune differenze nell'uso degli Altri Vertebrati, dei Micromammiferi e degli Altri Vegetali che è maggiore nella Volpe e della Frutta, maggiore nella Faina.

  16. Northern employment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zavitz, J.

    1997-01-01

    Hiring practices and policies and employment opportunities that were available in the Beaufort Sea and MacKenzie Delta project for local residents and for people from southern Canada were dealt with in this chapter. Depending on the source, Northern hiring was a mere token, or a genuine and successful effort on the part of the companies to involve the native population and to share with them the benefits of the project. The fact remains that opening up job opportunities for Northerners was not easily attained, and would never have been realized without the involvement of government and community organizations. Government also played a major role in developing policies and training regimes. By the end of exploration operations, the hiring of Northern residents in the oil and gas industry had become a requirement of drilling applications. Training programs were also created to ensure that Northern residents received the means necessary to take advantage of Northern employment opportunities

  17. PREFACE: 12th Conference on ''Theoretical Nuclear Physics in Italy''

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bombaci, I.; Covello, A.; Marcucci, L. E.; Rosati, S.

    2009-07-01

    These Proceedings contain the invited and contributed papers presented at the 12th Conference on Theoretical Nuclear Physics in Italy held in Cortona, Italy, from 8-10 October 2008. As usual, the meeting was held at il Palazzone, a 16th century castle owned by the Scuola Normale Superiore di Pisa. The aim of this biennal conference is to bring together Italian theorists working in various fields of Nuclear Physics to discuss their latest results and confront their points of view in a lively and informal way. This offers the opportunity to promote collaborations between different groups. There were about 50 participants at the conference, coming from 14 Italian Universities (Cagliari, Catania, Ferrara, Firenze, Genova, Lecce, Milano, Napoli, Padova, Pavia, Pisa, Roma, Trento, Trieste). The program of the conference, prepared by the Organizing Committee (Ignazio Bombaci, Aldo Covello, Laura Elisa Marcucci and Sergio Rosati) focused on six main topics: Few-Nucleon Systems, Nuclear Matter and Nuclear Dynamics, Nuclear Astrophysics, Structure of Hadrons and Hadronic Matter, Nuclear Structure, Nuclear Physics with Electroweak Probes. Winfried Leidemann, Maria Colonna, Marcello Lissia, Elena Santopinto, Silvia Lenzi and Omar Benhar took the burden of giving general talks on these topics and reviewing the research activities of the various Italian groups. In addition, 19 contributed papers were presented, most of them by young participants. In the last session of the Conference there were two invited talks related to experimental activities of great current interest. Gianfranco Prete from the Laboratori Nazionali di Legnaro spoke about the Italian radioactive ion beam facility SPES and the status of the European project EURISOL, while Nicola Colonna from the INFN, Bari, gave an overview of the perspectives of development of fourth-generation nuclear reactors. We would like to thank the authors of the general reports for their hard work in reviewing the main achievements in

  18. EARLY MIOCENE INSULAR VERTEBRATES FROM LAERRU (SARDINIA, ITALY): PRELIMINARY NOTE

    OpenAIRE

    DANIEL ZOBOLI; GIAN LUIGI PILLOLA

    2017-01-01

    A new vertebrate assemblage was discovered in an Early  Miocene lacustrine deposit near the village of Laerru (northern Sardinia, Italy). The assemblage is composed by mammals, reptiles and a bird. The mammals are represented by three ruminants (cf. Sardomeryx oschiriensis, Pecora indet. small size and Pecora indet. very small size) and one dormouse (Peridyromys aff. murinus) while reptiles are represented by turtles (Trionychidae?) and crocodiles (cf. Diplocynodon sp.). A bird bone fragment ...

  19. Human dietary exposure and levels of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs), polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFs), dioxin-like polychlorinated biphenyls (DL-PCBs) and non-dioxin-like polychlorinated biphenyls (NDL-PCBs) in free-range eggs close to a secondary aluminum smelter, Northern Italy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Squadrone, S.; Brizio, P.; Nespoli, R.; Stella, C.; Abete, M.C.

    2015-01-01

    PCDD/Fs and PCBs are environmentally persistent substances that have been associated with adverse effects on human health. Contamination of soils, animal feed and pastures leads to their bioaccumulation of in food products of animal origin, which are considered the major source of intake of these contaminants in humans. We analyzed eggs from free-range hens, sampled from small farms, located within a distance of 4.5 km from a secondary aluminum smelter in Northern Italy. The concentrations of PCDD/Fs, DL-PCBs and NDL-PCBs were higher in eggs from locations close to the plant, and strongly exceeded the limits set by EU Regulation 1259/2011 (2.5 pg WHO TEQ fat g"−"1 for PCDD/Fs, 5.0 pg WHO TEQ g"−"1 for PCDD/Fs and DL-PCBs L, 40 ng g"−"1 for NDL-PCBs). Consuming contaminated eggs may pose a risk for human health, especially for children (≤9 years) and infants (≤3 years), due to the 2-fold excess of the current exposure limits. - Highlights: • We analyzed free-range eggs from farms close to a secondary aluminum smelter (ALS). • Concentrations of dioxins and PCBs strongly exceeded the limit set by EU Regulation. • Concentrations decrease at increasing distances from the plant. • Consuming contaminated eggs may pose a health risk for humans. - Concentrations of PCDD/Fs, DL-PCBs and NDL-PCBs are of concern in free-range eggs close to a secondary aluminum smelter.

  20. Group Psychotherapy in Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giannone, Francesca; Giordano, Cecilia; Di Blasi, Maria

    2015-10-01

    This article describes the history and the prevailing orientations of group psychotherapy in Italy (psychoanalytically oriented, psychodrama, CBT groups) and particularly group analysis. Provided free of charge by the Italian health system, group psychotherapy is growing, but its expansion is patchy. The main pathways of Italian training in the different group psychotherapy orientations are also presented. Clinical-theoretical elaboration on self development, psychopathology related to group experiences, and the methodological attention paid to objectives and methods in different clinical groups are issues related to group therapy in Italy. Difficulties in the relationship between research and clinical practice are discussed, as well as the empirical research network that tries to bridge the gap between research and clinical work in group psychotherapy. The economic crisis in Italy has led to massive cuts in health care and to an increasing demand for some forms of psychological treatment. For these reasons, and because of its positive cost-benefit ratio, group psychotherapy is now considered an important tool in the national health care system to expand the clinical response to different forms of psychological distress.

  1. Nuclear decommissioning in Italy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tripputi, I.

    2005-01-01

    Italy is in a unique position. Italy has been in the past among the leading countries in the pacific use of nuclear energy, but, as a consequence of the 1987 referendum decided to shutdown all operating power plants, to leave uncompleted the plants under construction and to stop all related research and industrial activities declaring a 5 years moratorium on any future initiative. The moratorium ended unnoticed in 1992, since there was no political move to restart nuclear power in Italy and, in practice, it is still acting. Therefore, now the major efforts in the nuclear field are focused on the closure of past liabilities assuring safety and security highest levels. This is a duty to be carried out by the generation that used this form of energy, but, at least for somebody, also a precondition for the acceptance of any future renaissance of nuclear energy in Italy. SOGIN is a Company carrying out a service for the country and fully committed to solve the liabilities left by the interrupted nuclear industry in Italy. To this aim SOGIN is managed as a private company to assure the highest possible efficiency, but, at the same time, is driven by moral and ethical objectives and the vision of protecting the environment and health and safety of the public. SOGIN blends in a synergic way the various ENEL experiences (design and operation of NPP's) and ENEA experiences (engineering and operation of R and D and industrial facilities supporting NPP's). Such a comprehensive combination of technical competences should not be dispersed in the medium and long term and the management is committed to facilitate the technical growth of the impressing number of motivated young people joining the Company, whose enthusiasm is contaminating every day also the 'veterans', to assure for the country an asset and a presidium of very specialized multi-disciplinary nuclear competences. Speaking of possible scenarios for the future, we should mention that the current international situation

  2. Rainfall thresholds for the possible occurrence of landslides in Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. T. Brunetti

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available In Italy, rainfall is the primary trigger of landslides that frequently cause fatalities and large economic damage. Using a variety of information sources, we have compiled a catalogue listing 753 rainfall events that have resulted in landslides in Italy. For each event in the catalogue, the exact or approximate location of the landslide and the time or period of initiation of the slope failure is known, together with information on the rainfall duration D, and the rainfall mean intensity I, that have resulted in the slope failure. The catalogue represents the single largest collection of information on rainfall-induced landslides in Italy, and was exploited to determine the minimum rainfall conditions necessary for landslide occurrence in Italy, and in the Abruzzo Region, central Italy. For the purpose, new national rainfall thresholds for Italy and new regional rainfall thresholds for the Abruzzo Region were established, using two independent statistical methods, including a Bayesian inference method and a new Frequentist approach. The two methods proved complementary, with the Bayesian method more suited to analyze small data sets, and the Frequentist method performing better when applied to large data sets. The new regional thresholds for the Abruzzo Region are lower than the new national thresholds for Italy, and lower than the regional thresholds proposed in the literature for the Piedmont and Lombardy Regions in northern Italy, and for the Campania Region in southern Italy. This is important, because it shows that landslides in Italy can be triggered by less severe rainfall conditions than previously recognized. The Frequentist method experimented in this work allows for the definition of multiple minimum rainfall thresholds, each based on a different exceedance probability level. This makes the thresholds suited for the design of probabilistic schemes for the prediction of rainfall-induced landslides. A scheme based on four

  3. Prototypes of risk-based flood forecasting systems in the Netherlands and Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bachmann D.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Flood forecasting, warning and emergency response are important components of flood management. Currently, the model-based prediction of discharge and/or water level in a river is common practice for operational flood forecasting. Based on the prediction of these values decisions about specific emergency measures are made within emergency response. However, the information provided for decision support is often restricted to pure hydrological or hydraulic aspects of a flood. Information about weak sections within the flood defences, flood prone areas and assets at risk in the protected areas are rarely used in current early warning and response systems. This information is often available for strategic planning, but is not in an appropriate format for operational purposes. This paper presents the extension of existing flood forecasting systems with elements of strategic flood risk analysis, such as probabilistic failure analysis, two dimensional flood spreading simulation and the analysis of flood impacts and consequences. This paper presents the first results from two prototype applications of the new developed concept: The first prototype is applied to the Rotterdam area situated in the western part of the Netherlands. The second pilot study focusses on a rural area between the cities of Mantua and Ferrara along the Po river (Italy.

  4. [Social cooperatives in Italy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villotti, P; Zaniboni, S; Fraccaroli, F

    2014-06-01

    This paper describes the role of social cooperatives in Italy as a type of economic, non-profit organization and their role in contributing to the economic and social growth of the country. The purpose of this paper is to learn more about the experience of the Italian social cooperatives in promoting the work integration process of disadvantaged workers, especially those suffering from mental disorders, from a theoretical and an empirical point of view. Social enterprise is the most popular and consolidated legal and organizational model for social enterprises in Italy, introduced by Law 381/91. Developed during the early 1980s, and formally recognized by law in the early 1990s, social cooperatives aim at pursuing the general interest of the community to promote the human needs and social inclusion of citizens. They are orientated towards aims that go beyond the interest of the business owners, the primary beneficiary of their activities is the community, or groups of disadvantaged people. In Italy, Law 381/91 distinguishes between two categories of social cooperatives, those producing goods of social utility, such as culture, welfare and educational services (A-type), and those providing economic activities for the integration of disadvantaged people into employment (B-type). The main purpose of B-type social cooperatives is to integrate disadvantaged people into the open labour market. This goal is reached after a period of training and working experience inside the firm, during which the staff works to improve both the social and professional abilities of disadvantaged people. During the years, B-type social co-ops acquired a particular relevance in the care of people with mental disorders by offering them with job opportunities. Having a job is central in the recovery process of people suffering from mental diseases, meaning that B-type social co-ops in Italy play an important rehabilitative and integrative role for this vulnerable population of workers. The

  5. Improving Flood Damage Assessment Models in Italy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amadio, M.; Mysiak, J.; Carrera, L.; Koks, E.

    2015-12-01

    The use of Stage-Damage Curve (SDC) models is prevalent in ex-ante assessments of flood risk. To assess the potential damage of a flood event, SDCs describe a relation between water depth and the associated potential economic damage over land use. This relation is normally developed and calibrated through site-specific analysis based on ex-post damage observations. In some cases (e.g. Italy) SDCs are transferred from other countries, undermining the accuracy and reliability of simulation results. Against this background, we developed a refined SDC model for Northern Italy, underpinned by damage compensation records from a recent flood event. Our analysis considers both damage to physical assets and production losses from business interruptions. While the first is calculated based on land use information, production losses are measured through the spatial distribution of Gross Value Added (GVA). An additional component of the model assesses crop-specific agricultural losses as a function of flood seasonality. Our results show an overestimation of asset damage from non-calibrated SDC values up to a factor of 4.5 for tested land use categories. Furthermore, we estimate that production losses amount to around 6 per cent of the annual GVA. Also, maximum yield losses are less than a half of the amount predicted by the standard SDC methods.

  6. Anaerobic treatment in Italy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Del Borghi, M; Solisio, C; Ferrailo, G

    1984-02-01

    In Italy, environmental protection and energy conservation have become very important since the increase in oil prices. The law requires that all waste waters have a B.O.D. of 40 mg/l by 1986 so there has been an expansion of purification plants since 1976, using anaerobic digestion. The report deals with the current state of anaerobic treatment in Italy with particular reference to (1) animal wastes. In intensive holdings, anaerobic digestion leads to a decrease in pollution and an increase in biogas generation which can be used to cover the energy demand of the process. The factors which influence the builders of digestors for farms are considered. (2) Non toxic industrial wastes. These are the waste waters emanating from the meat packing, brewing, pharmaceutical and chemical industries. Particular reference is made to the distillery plants using anaerobic treatment prior to aerobic digestion. (3) Urban wastes. The advantages and the disadvantages are considered and further research and development is recommended. 20 references.

  7. Library system of Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nataša Gerbec

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available In the European extent, Italy is the cradle of libraries and library sciences. In the past, Italian national public libraries played an important role through their vast book treasury. But only during the last thirty years have public libraries been developed following the Anglo-American public library model. Italy does not have any uniform or general legislation concerning libraries. On the state level, this area is regulated by some separate acts, while on the regional level there is a collection of various acts and regulations. Libraries are not strictly divided into general categories. It is required that the professionals engaged in Italian libraries should have secondary or university education. The level of their professional tasks depends on the type of library and its capacity. The competency for the development in the field of librarianship is assigned to The Ministry of Cultural and Environment Heritage as well as to its subordinate institutions (Central Institute for the Union catalogue of Italian Libraries and for Bibliographic Information, Central Institute for Book Pathology, Observatory for International Libraries Programmes.

  8. Forecasting giant, catastrophic slope collapse: lessons from Vajont, Northern Italy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kilburn, Christopher R. J.; Petley, David N.

    2003-08-01

    Rapid, giant landslides, or sturzstroms, are among the most powerful natural hazards on Earth. They have minimum volumes of ˜10 6-10 7 m 3 and, normally preceded by prolonged intervals of accelerating creep, are produced by catastrophic and deep-seated slope collapse (loads ˜1-10 MPa). Conventional analyses attribute rapid collapse to unusual mechanisms, such as the vaporization of ground water during sliding. Here, catastrophic collapse is related to self-accelerating rock fracture, common in crustal rocks at loads ˜1-10 MPa and readily catalysed by circulating fluids. Fracturing produces an abrupt drop in resisting stress. Measured stress drops in crustal rock account for minimum sturzstrom volumes and rapid collapse accelerations. Fracturing also provides a physical basis for quantitatively forecasting catastrophic slope failure.

  9. The occurrence of taeniids of wolves in Liguria (northern Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesca Gori

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Canids are definitive hosts of Taenia and Echinococcus species, which infect a variety of mammals as intermediate or accidental hosts including humans. Parasite transmission is based on domestic, semi-domestic and wildlife cycles; however, little is known of the epidemiological significance of wild large definitive hosts such as the wolf. In this study, 179 scats of wolves (Canis lupus italicus collected throughout the Italian region of Liguria were analyzed for the detection of taeniid infection. Taeniid egg isolation was performed using a sieving/flotation technique, and the species level was identified by PCR (gene target: 12S rRNA and nad 1 followed by sequence analyses. Based on sequence homologies of ≥99%, Taenia hydatigena was identified in 19.6%, Taenia krabbei in 4.5%, Taenia ovis in 2.2%, Taenia crassiceps in 0.6%, Hydatigera taeniaeformis in 0.6% and Echinococcus granulosus in 5.6% of the samples. According to these results, Canis lupus italicus can be considered as involved in the wild (including cervids and rodents and semi-domestic cycles (including sheep and goats of taeniids in this area.

  10. The structure of the window of Bobbio : (northern Apennines, Italy)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    den Haan, J.A.

    1979-01-01

    Field work in the tectonic window of Bobbio has demonstrated the following tectonic units: Tuscan unit, the lowermost unit in the window. It is composed of a turbiditic sequence of Oligocene or Early Miocene age, folded into a large recumbent syncline with a gently NE-dipping NE limb and a steeply

  11. The structure of the window of Bobbio : (northern Apennines, Italy)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Haan, J.A. den

    1979-01-01

    Field work in the tectonic window of Bobbio has demonstrated the following tectonic units: Tuscan unit, the lowermost unit in the window. It is composed of a turbiditic sequence of Oligocene or Early Miocene age, folded into a large recumbent syncline with a gently NE-dipping NE limb and a

  12. Epidemiology of Idiopathic Pulmonary Fibrosis in Northern Italy.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergio Harari

    Full Text Available Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF is the most common and severe form of idiopathic interstitial pneumonia. Despite its clinical relevance, few studies have examined the epidemiology of IPF and temporal variation in disease incidence and prevalence. Aim of the study was to investigate the prevalence, incidence and trends of IPF in Lombardy, a region with nearly 10 million inhabitants, during 2005-2010.For the identification of IPF patients, we used healthcare administrative databases of Lombardy Healthcare System and adopted three algorithms: generic, broad and narrow case definition (GCD, BCD, NCD. IPF cases were identified according to diagnoses reported in inpatient and outpatient claims occurred during 2000-2010. We estimated age- and sex-adjusted annual prevalence and incidence rates from 2005 to 2010, thus allowing for a 5-year washout period.The mean annual incidence rate was estimated at 2.3 and 5.3 per 100,000 person-years using NCD and GCD, respectively. IPF incidence was higher among males, and increased with age. Trend remained stable over the years. The estimated annual prevalence rate was 35.5, 22.4, and 12.6 per 100,000 person-years using GCD, BCD and NCD, respectively, and increased with age. Moreover, we observed a positive trend over the years. Using BCD and NCD, prevalence was higher among males.The results of this study, which is one of the largest population-based survey ever conducted according to strict criteria, indicated that prevalence of IPF increased across the years while incidence remained stable, thus suggesting that survival with IPF has improved.

  13. Tacit consent: the Church and birth control in northern Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dalla-Zuanna, Gianpiero

    2011-01-01

    This article employs novel documentation to examine ways in which the Church's moral rules on contraception were (or were not) communicated to parishioners in a predominantly Catholic context in a period of rapid fertility decline: the diocese of Padua, in the northeastern Italian region of Veneto, during the first half of the twentieth century. The account is based on documents that have until now been overlooked: the moral cases discussed during the periodic meetings among Padua priests in the years 1916–58, and the written answers provided by priests in response to a question asked of them concerning their efforts to combat the limiting of births. This documentation reveals the limited effect on the reproductive behavior of the position of the Catholic Church against birth control.

  14. MIDDLE TRIASSIC FORAMINIFERA FROM THE SECEDA CORE (DOLOMITES, NORTHERN ITALY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    FLORIAN MAURER

    2002-11-01

    Full Text Available The assemblage of foraminifera in turbidite beds in Middle Triassic basinal deposits straddling the Anisian/Ladinian boundary interval was studied in 224 thin sections. The fauna consists mainly of shallow-water inhabitants, associated with calcareous hyaline foraminifera (Lagenina of open marine environment. Due to a well established  biostratigraphy in the studied interval, the first and last appearance of some shallow water, benthic foraminifera can be assigned to the Mid Triassic ammonoid stratigraphy. The species Meandrospira dinarica Kochansky-Devidè & Pantic and Arenovidalina chialingchiagensis Ho are limited to the Reitzi ammonoid zone. The species Variostoma alta Kristan and Hoyenella gr. sinensis both do not superate the Curionii zone in age in the studied succession.  The biostratigraphic most important event occurs at the base of the Gredleri zone,  with the appearance of the family Involutinidae Bütschli, represented by the genera Lamelliconus and Aulotortus. The faunal composition is similar to those of neighbouring paleoprovinces, but generally a lower faunistical diversification compared to foraminiferal assemblages in the Anisian or Carnian is observed.   

  15. Airborne particulate matter in school classrooms of northern Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rovelli, Sabrina; Cattaneo, Andrea; Nuzzi, Camilla P; Spinazzè, Andrea; Piazza, Silvia; Carrer, Paolo; Cavallo, Domenico M

    2014-01-27

    Indoor size-fractioned particulate matter (PM) was measured in seven schools in Milan, to characterize their concentration levels in classrooms, compare the measured concentrations with the recommended guideline values, and provide a preliminary assessment of the efficacy of the intervention measures, based on the guidelines developed by the Italian Ministry of Healthand applied to mitigate exposure to undesirable air pollutants. Indoor sampling was performed from Monday morning to Friday afternoon in three classrooms of each school and was repeated in winter 2011-2012 and 2012-2013. Simultaneously, PM2.5 samples were also collected outdoors. Two different photometers were used to collect the PM continuous data, which were corrected a posteriori using simultaneous gravimetric PM2.5 measurements. Furthermore, the concentrations of carbon dioxide (CO2) were monitored and used to determine the Air Exchange Rates in the classrooms. The results revealed poor IAQ in the school environment. In several cases, the PM2.5 and PM10 24 h concentrations exceeded the 24 h guideline values established by the World Health Organization (WHO). In addition, the indoor CO2 levels often surpassed the CO2 ASHRAE Standard. Our findings confirmed that important indoor sources (human movements, personal clouds, cleaning activities) emitted coarse particles, markedly increasing the measured PM during school hours. In general, the mean PM2.5 indoor concentrations were lower than the average outdoor PM2.5 levels, with I/O ratios generally levels did not seem to significantly influence the indoor fine PM concentrations. Conversely, the frequent opening of doors and windows appeared to significantly contribute to the reduction of the average indoor CO2 levels.

  16. Airborne Particulate Matter in School Classrooms of Northern Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sabrina Rovelli

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Indoor size-fractioned particulate matter (PM was measured in seven schools in Milan, to characterize their concentration levels in classrooms, compare the measured concentrations with the recommended guideline values, and provide a preliminary assessment of the efficacy of the intervention measures, based on the guidelines developed by the Italian Ministry of Healthand applied to mitigate exposure to undesirable air pollutants. Indoor sampling was performed from Monday morning to Friday afternoon in three classrooms of each school and was repeated in winter 2011–2012 and 2012–2013. Simultaneously, PM2.5 samples were also collected outdoors. Two different photometers were used to collect the PM continuous data, which were corrected a posteriori using simultaneous gravimetric PM2.5 measurements. Furthermore, the concentrations of carbon dioxide (CO2 were monitored and used to determine the Air Exchange Rates in the classrooms. The results revealed poor IAQ in the school environment. In several cases, the PM2.5 and PM10 24 h concentrations exceeded the 24 h guideline values established by the World Health Organization (WHO. In addition, the indoor CO2 levels often surpassed the CO2 ASHRAE Standard. Our findings confirmed that important indoor sources (human movements, personal clouds, cleaning activities emitted coarse particles, markedly increasing the measured PM during school hours. In general, the mean PM2.5 indoor concentrations were lower than the average outdoor PM2.5 levels, with I/O ratios generally <1. Fine PM was less affected by indoor sources, exerting a major impact on the PM1–2.5 fraction. Over half of the indoor fine particles were estimated to originate from outdoors. To a first approximation, the intervention proposed to reduce indoor particle levels did not seem to significantly influence the indoor fine PM concentrations. Conversely, the frequent opening of doors and windows appeared to significantly contribute to the reduction of the average indoor CO2 levels.

  17. [Incidence of biological accidents at work and immune status for vaccine-preventable diseases among resident physicians in specialist training at Ferrara University Hospital].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stefanati, Armando; Brosio, Federica; Kuhdari, Parvanè; Baccello, Valeria; De Paris, Paola; Nardini, Marco; Boschetto, Piera; Lupi, Silvia; Gabutti, Giovanni

    2017-01-01

    The hospital as a work environment is particularly characterized by various risks for healthcare workers (HCWs). The main risk is represented by biological accidents, associated with the parenteral transmission of pathogens. Biological injuries can occur during the care service and the manipulation of biological fluids. Hepatitis B (and hepatitis D), hepatitis C and HIV are the most common infections transmitted by biological injuries. Physicians should acquire awareness of the risks associated with their professional activity during their training as medical residents (MRs). Some infectious diseases are preventable by vaccination and the "National Immunization Plan 2017-2019" (PNPV) recommends HCWs vaccination against hepatitis B, influenza, measles -mumps -rubella, chicken pox, and pertussis. Besides, not only HCWs' vaccination can prevent the disease in healthcare professionals, but it also may reduce the transmission to patients. Therefore, active immunization of HCWs by recommended vaccinations plays an important role to prevent disease cases, complications and death in patients. An increased awareness of risk behaviors is the first important point to address in order to reduce biological accidents and infectious diseases transmission, so as to reduce their frequency. Besides, HCWs' vaccination is useful to reinforce protection and to prevent the transmission of some infectious diseases in case of exposure. The aim of this five-year incidence study is to investigate the MRs' biological accidents characteristics and to analyze the MRs' immune status at the University of Ferrara in the period 2011-2015. Data on MRs' biological accidents and immune status at Azienda Ospedaliero-Universitaria of Ferrara in 2011-2015 were analyzed by Microsoft Excel 2007 Software. In this study, the percentage of MRs' biological injuries compared to the total number of MRs showed an annual variability, with a peak in 2011 (11.9%). During the analyzed period, there were 190

  18. DV142 The application of the LOICZ-model on the Sacco di Goro Lagoon, Italy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Edel, I.M.A.

    2002-01-01

    This report examines the application of the LOICZ-model to the Sacca di Goro lagoon. This estuary is located in the Po river delta, along de North Adriatic Coast, in Northern Italy. Activities in the lagoon itself, like fishery, aquaculture, tourism and activities in the hinterland, like:

  19. Luister in het duister: De perceptie van vroegnederlandse schilderkunst in Italië

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leeuwen, R. van

    2007-01-01

    Lustre in the dark: The perception of Early Netherlandish painting in renaissance Italy Variations in the effects of light are the reason why Northern and Italian art of the fifteenth century mimics reality in different ways. Italian artists attempted to define our concept of three-dimensionality

  20. The Development of the Humanistic Curriculum in Fifteenth-Century Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grendler, Paul F.

    One of the major changes in educational practices occurred during the Italian Renaissance, when a system of pre-university education based on a thorough grounding in the Latin, and to a lesser extent, the Greek classics began. This change started in early 15th century northern Italy and lasted until well into the 20th century. Italian school…

  1. ITALY AT CERN

    CERN Multimedia

    23 - 26 June 2003 Main Building Bldg 60 - ground and 1st floor 09.00 hrs - 17.30 hrs Twenty-four companies will present their latest technology at the "Italy at CERN" exhibition. The Italian industry will exhibit products and technologies which are related to the field of particle physics. The main subjects are: cryogenics and vacuum technologies, electric power and power electronics, mechanical components, small and precision machined mechanical components, engineering, industrial plants, industrial machinery, automation, telecommunication, instrumentation, data processing and electronics. The exhibition is being organised by the INFN of Padova. There follows : - the list of exhibitors. A detailed programme will be available in due course at : - your Divisional secretariat, - the exhibition, - on the SPL homepage http://spl-div.web.cern.ch/spl-div/member_states/exhibitions_visits.htm LIST OF EXHIBITORS 1 Aerimpianti Spa13 Europa Metalli - LMI spa 2 AERSAT Spa14 FBM ICOSS srl 3 Andalo' Gianni Srl15 Finsys...

  2. ITALY AT CERN

    CERN Multimedia

    2003-01-01

    23 - 26 June 2003 Main Building Bldg 60 - ground and 1st floor 09.30 hrs - 17.30 hrs Twenty-four companies will present their latest technology at the "Italy at CERN" exhibition. The Italian industry will exhibit products and technologies which are related to the field of particle physics. The main subjects are: cryogenics and vacuum technologies, electric power and power electronics, mechanical components, small and precision machined mechanical components, engineering, industrial plants, industrial machinery, automation, telecommunication, instrumentation, data processing and electronics. The exhibition is being organised by the INFN of Padova. There follows: - the list of exhibitors. A detailed programme will be available in due course: - from your Divisional secretariat, - at the exhibition, - on the SPL homepage http://spl-div.web.cern.ch/spl-div/member_states/exhibitions_visits.htm LISTE DES EXPOSANTS / LIST OF EXHIBITORS 1 Aerimpianti Spa13 Europa Metalli - LMI spa 2 AERSAT Spa14 FBM ICOSS srl 3 Anda...

  3. Italy at CERN

    CERN Multimedia

    2011-01-01

    Nineteen companies will present their latest technology at the industrial exhibition “Italy at CERN”. Italian industries will exhibit products and technologies related to the field of particle physics. The full event programme is available here.   Individual interviews will take place at either the companies’ exhibition stands or in the Main Building’s conference rooms. The firms will be in contact with relevant users and technicians, but anyone wishing to speak with a particular firm is welcome to visit the exhibition or to get in touch with organiser Karin Robert. Italian Industries will also be sponsoring a free concert in the Main Auditorium on Tuesday 11 October at 8:00 pm. The "Trio Poem" concert will feature music by Beethoven and A. Dvořák, with Alberto Torin on the piano, Enrico Carraro on the violin, and Davide Bernardi on the cello.

  4. Italy at CERN

    CERN Multimedia

    Caroline Laignel

    2005-01-01

    15 - 17 November 2005 Main Building Bldg 60 - ground and 1st floor 09:00 - 17:30 Twenty-six companies will present their latest technology at the "Italy at CERN" exhibition. Italian industry will exhibit products and technologies which are related to the field of particle physics. The main subjects are: electrical engineering, electronics, logistics, mechanical engineering, vacuum and low-temperature technology.   The exhibition is being organised by the INFN in Padua. The exhibitors are listed below.   A detailed programme will be available in due course : from your Departmental secretariat, at the exhibition, on the FI homepage http://fi-dep.web.cern.ch/fi-dep/structure/memberstates/exhibitions_visits.htm LIST OF EXHIBITORS  Ansaldo Superconduttori Spa CAEN Spa CECOM Snc Consorzio Canavese Export CPE Italia Spa Criotec Impianti Srl CTE Sistemi Srl Carpenteria S. Antonio Spa E.E.I. Equipaggiamenti Elettronici Industriali Elettronica Conduttori Srl Goma Elettronica Spa ICAR Spa Intercond Spa Keno...

  5. [Dietary habits and cancer: the experience of EPIC-Italy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sieri, Sabina; Agnoli, Claudia; Pala, Valeria; Mattiello, Amalia; Panico, Salvatore; Masala, Giovanna; Assedi, Melania; Tumino, Rosario; Frasca, Graziella; Sacerdote, Carlotta; Vineis, Paolo; Krogh, Vittorio

    2015-01-01

    to investigate hypothesised relationships between diet and cancer by assessing diet as a whole, in the Italian cohort EPIC. multicentric prospective study. 47,749 volunteers were recruited between 1993 and 1998 in the centres of Varese and Turin (Northern Italy), Florence (Central Italy), Naples and Ragusa (Southern Italy). Information on diet and lifestyle were collected through validated questionnaires. Anthropometric measurements were taken and biological samples collected using standardised protocols. follow-up was carried out by accessing regional cancer and mortality registries, hospital discharge records, and by telephone inquiries (only for Naples). After a median follow-up of 11 years, 879 incident cases of breast cancer, 421 cases of colorectal cancer, and 152 deaths were identified. Multivariate Cox regression models were used to estimate risks in relation to dietary characteristics. the "Olive oil & Salad" dietary pattern, characterised by high consumption of raw vegetables and olive oil, was associated with a lower risk of overall mortality in the elderly. Adherence to a Mediterranean diet rich in vegetables and fruit was associated with reduced risk of colon cancer. Consumption of high-glycemic carbohydrates was associated with higher incidence of breast cancer and colorectal cancer. Reduced risk of colon cancer was also found in regular consumers of yoghurt. the accuracy and comprehensiveness of EPIC-Italy data made it possible to investigate both individual dietary components and dietary habits as a whole, to thereby provide Italians with dietary and lifestyle advice that will help them to remain healthy.

  6. [Primary care in Italy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez-Sagrado, T

    Italy is not a country where Spanish doctors emigrate, as there is an over-supply of health care professionals. The Italian Servizio Sanitario Nazionale has some differences compared to the Spanish National Health System. The Servizio Sanitario Nazionale is financed by national and regional taxes and co-payments. There are taxes earmarked for health, and Primary Care receives 50% of the total funds. Italian citizens and residents in Italy have the right to free health cover. However, there are co-payments for laboratory and imaging tests, pharmaceuticals, specialist ambulatory services, and emergencies. Co-payments vary in the different regions. The provision of services is regional, and thus fragmentation and major inequities are the norm. Doctors in Primary Care are self-employed and from 2000 onwards, there are incentives to work in multidisciplinary teams. Salary is regulated by a national contract and it is the sum of per-capita payments and extra resources for specific activities. Responsibilities are similar to those of Spanish professionals. However, medical care is more personal. Relationships between Primary Care and specialised care depend on the doctors' relationships. Primary Care doctors are gatekeepers for specialised care, except for gynaecology, obstetrics and paediatrics. Specialised training is compulsory in order to work as general practitioner. The Italian Health Care System is a national health system like the Spanish one. However, health care professionals are self-employed, and there are co-payments. In spite of co-payments, Italians have one of the highest average life expectancy, and they support a universal and publicly funded health-care system. Copyright © 2017 Sociedad Española de Médicos de Atención Primaria (SEMERGEN). Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  7. Mercury emissions and stable isotopic compositions at Vulcano Island (Italy)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zambardi, T.; Sonke, J. E.; Toutain, J. P.; Sortino, F.; Shinohara, H.

    2009-01-01

    Sampling and analyses methods for determining the stable isotopic compositions of Hg in an active volcanic system were tested and optimized at the volcanic complex of Vulcano (Aeolian Islands, Italy). Condensed gaseous fumarole Hg (fum)T, plume gaseous elemental Hg (g)0 and plume particulate Hg (p)II were obtained at fumaroles F0, F5, F11, and FA. The average total Hg emissions, based on Hg T/SO 2 in condensed fumarolic gases and plumes, range from 2.5 to 10.1 kg y - 1 , in agreement with published values [Ferrara, R., Mazzolai, B., Lanzillotta, E., Nucaro, E., Pirrone, N., 2000. Volcanoes as emission sources of atmospheric mercury in the Mediterranean Basin. Sci. Total Environ. 259(1-3), 115-121; Aiuppa, A., Bagnato, E., Witt, M.L.I., Mather, T.A., Parello, F., Pyle, D.M., Martin, R.S., 2007. Real-time simultaneous detection of volcanic Hg and SO 2 at La Fossa Crater, Vulcano (Aeolian Islands, Sicily). Geophys. Res. Lett. 34(L21307).]. Plume Hg (p)II increases with distance from the fumarole vent, at the expense of Hg (g)0 and indicates significant in-plume oxidation and condensation of fumarole Hg (fum)T. Relative to the NIST SRM 3133 Hg standard, the stable isotopic compositions of Hg are δ 202Hg (fum)T = - 0.74‰ ± 0.18 (2SD, n = 4) for condensed gaseous fumarole Hg (fum)T, δ 202Hg (g)0 = - 1.74‰ ± 0.36 (2SD, n = 1) for plume gaseous elemental Hg (g)0 at the F0 fumarole, and δ 202Hg (p)II = - 0.11‰ ± 0.18 (2SD, n = 4) for plume particulate Hg (p)II. The enrichment of Hg (p)II in the heavy isotopes and Hg (g)0 in the light isotopes relative to the total condensed fumarolic Hg (fum)T gas complements the speciation data and demonstrates a gas-particle fractionation occurring after the gas expulsion in ambient T° atmosphere. A first order Rayleigh equilibrium condensation isotope fractionation model yields a fractionation factor α cond-gas of 1.00135 ± 0.00058.

  8. Italy INAF Data Center Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Negusini, M.; Sarti, P.

    2013-01-01

    This report summarizes the activities of the Italian INAF VLBI Data Center. Our Data Center is located in Bologna, Italy and belongs to the Institute of Radioastronomy, which is part of the National Institute of Astrophysics.

  9. The courts in Renaissance Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beatrice Del Bo

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available This review article offers a brief introduction to the issue of the courts in Renaissance Italy along with a selective description of bibliographic sources and electronic resources.

  10. Reply to the "Comment on "The May 1 20 (MW 6.1) and 29 (MW 6.0), 2012, Emilia (Po Plain, northern Italy) earthquakes: New seismotectonic implications from subsurface geology and high-quality hypocenter location" by Carannante et al., 2015" by Bonini L., et al.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Argnani, Andrea; Carannante, Simona; Massa, Marco; Lovati, Sara; D'Alema, Ezio

    2016-12-01

    In their comments Bonini et al. argue that our seismotectonic interpretation of the Emilia 2012 seismic sequence does not agree with observations, and follow three lines of arguments to support their statement. These concern the structural interpretation of seismic reflection profiles, the relationship between seismogenic sources and seismicity patterns, and the fit of inferred fault geometry to InSAR observations. These lines of arguments are mostly repeating what has been previously presented by the same authors, and none of them, as discussed in detail in our reply, presents a strong case against our structural interpretation, that, we are convinced, does not conflict with the available data. The two adjacent rupture surfaces outlined by accurately relocated aftershocks are an indication of the presence of two different active fault planes. Interpretation of seismic profiles supports seismological observation and indicates the occurrence of relevant along-strike changes in structural style. These pieces of information have been integrated to build a new seismotectonic interpretation for the area of the Emilia 2012 seismic sequence. Analysis of geodetic data from the area of the Emilia earthquakes has produced very different models of the fault planes; unlike what has been stated by Bonini et al., who see a difficult fit to InSAR data for the fault planes we have identified, the most recent results are consistent with our interpretation that see a steep fault in the upper 8-10 km under the Mirandola anticline. We point out that the geological structures in the subsurface of the Ferrara Arc do change along strike, and the attempt of Bonini et al. to explain both the May 20 and May 29 sequences using a single cross section is not appropriate.

  11. Italy of censuses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rey, G M

    1983-06-01

    To supplement census data on Italy's economy, Istat conducted a sample survey of 2% of households. This paper reports survey findings in 3 areas: age structure of the population, employment and unemployment patterns by region, and structure of the productive system. Those over age 65 years have increased from 11% of the population in 1971 to 13% in 1981 and are forecast to constitute 14.5% in 1991. Women accounted for 51.3% of the total population in 1981 but 58.5% of those over age 65. 12% of households have a member over age 75. The 0-14 year age group has declined from 24.4% of the population in 1971 to 21.5% in 1981 and is projected to comprise 17.4% in 1991. The labor force activity rate was 39.8% in 1981. Unemployment was set at 14.7% in the census sample compared with 9.1% in Istat's quarterly survey of the labor force. 60% of the difference between these 2 figures was accounted for by Campania, Sicily, Puglia, Calabria, and Latium. These 5 regions, which account for only 30% of total employment, are the areas with the most acute employment problems and highest proportions of casual employment in agriculture and traditional services. Agriculture accounted for 22% of total unemployment, construction for 18.5%, and traditional industry for 14%--percentages that are higher than the share of total employment represented by these sectors. In the South, 20.4% of employment is in agriculture, 18.1% in industry, 12.6% in construction, and 48.9% in services. The average worker in the South supports 3.3 persons compared with 2.5 persons in the North. Survey results indicate a substantial shift in the sectoral composition of employment as well as a change in the size of productive units. There has been an increase in the highly specialized components of the economy, including services to firms. The average size of factories has declined, with a proliferation of small and medium sized units. These findings suggest a need to broaden and deepen Italy's industrial base

  12. Gamasoidosis caused by the special lineage L1 of Dermanyssus gallinae (Acarina: Dermanyssidae): A case of heavy infestation in a public place in Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pezzi, Marco; Leis, Marilena; Chicca, Milvia; Roy, Lise

    2017-10-01

    Among Gamasina (Acari: Mesostigmata) mites, some dermanyssoid species are known to cause gamasoidosis, a human dermatitis characterized by papulosquamous eruptions and urticarian lesions. We describe a case of mite infestation which occurred in public conference halls in Ferrara (Italy), affecting four people who attended the place and showed signs of gamasoidosis. The mites were collected and characterized using scanning electron microscopy, light microscopy and mitochondrial DNA sequencing (Cytochrome c oxidase subunit I partial CDS). Based on morphological and molecular data, the species responsible for the infestation was identified as the special lineage L1 of the poultry red mite, Dermanyssus gallinae (De Geer) (Acarina: Dermanissydae), a cryptic species known to be associated with pigeons. Rock doves, Columba livia Gmelin (Columbiformes: Columbidae) were roosting on the top of the public building, thus the mites probably gained access to the halls through small window openings. The present case report is the first one providing morpho-molecular identification of a D. gallinae cryptic species responsible of gamasoidosis in Italy. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Italy au CERN

    CERN Multimedia

    FI Department

    2008-01-01

    4 – 6 March 2008 Main Building Bldg 60 - ground and 1st floor 09.00 hrs - 17.30 hrs Nineteen companies will present their latest technology at the "Italy at CERN" exhibition. Italian industry will exhibit products and technologies related to the field of particle physics. The main subjects are civil engineering and buildings, data processing, electrical engineering, electronics, industrial support, mechanical engineering, particle detectors and vacuum and low-temperature technology. The exhibition is being organised by the INFN of Padova. The exhibitors are listed below. More details on the firms can be found at the following link: http://fi-dep.web.cern.ch/fi-dep/structure/memberstates/exhibitions_visits.htm LIST OF EXHIBITORS Boffetti Impianti S.r.l. Bozzi & Figli S.r.l. C.A.E.N. S.p.A. Cavicel S.p.A. Comecer S.p.A. E.E.I. Elettronica Conduttori S.r.l. Euromec S.r.l. Eurotech S.p.A. IRST Fondazione Bruno Kessler IVG Colbacchini S.p.A. Krohne Italia S.r.l. Luvata For...

  14. ITALY AT CERN

    CERN Multimedia

    FI Department

    2008-01-01

    4 – 6 March 2008 Main Building Bldg 60 - ground and 1st floor 09.00 hrs - 17.30 hrs Nineteen companies will present their latest technology at the "Italy at CERN" exhibition. Italian industry will exhibit products and technologies related to the field of particle physics. The main subjects are civil engineering and buildings, data processing, electrical engineering, electronics, industrial support, mechanical engineering, particle detectors and vacuum and low-temperature technology. The exhibition is being organised by the INFN of Padova. The exhibitors are listed below. More details on the firms can be found at the following link: http://fi-dep.web.cern.ch/fi-dep/structure/memberstates/exhibitions_visits.htm LIST OF EXHIBITORS Boffetti Impianti S.r.l. Bozzi & Figli S.r.l. C.A.E.N. S.p.A. Cavicel S.p.A. Comecer S.p.A. E.E.I. Elettronica Conduttori S.r.l. Euromec S.r.l. Eurotech S.p.A. IRST Fondazione Bruno Kessler IVG Colbacchini S.p.A. Krohne Italia S.r.l. Luvata For...

  15. Italy at CERN

    CERN Multimedia

    Caroline Laignel

    2005-01-01

    15 - 17 November 2005 Main Building Bldg 60 - ground and 1st floor 09:00 - 17:30 Twenty-six companies will present their latest technology at the "Italy at CERN" exhibition. Italian industry will exhibit products and technologies which are related to the field of particle physics.The main subjects are: electrical engineering, electronics, logistics, mechanical engineering, vacuum and low-temperature technology. The exhibition is being organised by the INFN in Padua.The exhibitors are listed below.A detailed programme will be available in due course : from your Departmental secretariat, at the exhibition, on the FI homepage http://fi-dep.web.cern.ch/fi-dep/structure/memberstates/exhibitions_visits.htm LIST OF EXHIBITORS  Ansaldo Superconduttori Spa CAEN Spa CECOM Snc Consorzio Canavese Export CPE Italia Spa Criotec Impianti Srl CTE Sistemi Srl Carpenteria S. Antonio Spa E.E.I. Equipaggiamenti Elettronici Industriali Elettronica Conduttori Srl Goma Elettronica Spa ICAR Spa Intercond Spa Kenotec Srl O...

  16. Educazione all'igiene orale ed eradicazione della carie dentale nellíinfanzia. Risultati finali di uno studio in un campione di popolazione infantile di Ferrara

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Bergamini

    2003-05-01

    Full Text Available

    Introduzione: poichè nel 1985 l’O.M.S. collocò l’eradicazione della carie infantile fra gli obiettivi epidemiologici da raggiungere nella regione europea entro l’anno 2000, è stato effettuato uno screening microbiologico finalizzato all’isolamento di germi cariogeni nel cavo orale dei bambini.

    Materiali e metodi: secondo le procedure correnti, sono stati eseguiti tamponi gengivo-coronali in 476 bambini delle scuole elementari e medie inferiori di Ferrara, cui è stato somministrato anche un questionario, mirato a conoscere il loro grado di informazione sull’igiene orale. Risultati: nel periodo Gennaio-Aprile 2000, sono stati esaminati 476 bambini suddivisi per sesso ed età [6-8 anni: 67 maschi, 98 femmine; 9-11: 53 maschi, 81 femmine; 12-14: 99 maschi, 78 femmine]. Sono stati isolati 119 ceppi di Rothia dentocariosa, con una preponderanza fra i maschi di 12-14 anni (n. 86; 86,8%. Dai questionari (476 consegnati; 399 compilati si evince che l’86,4% ritiene importante l’igiene orale, ma solo il 51,8% si lava i denti dopo ogni pasto ed appena il 22,3% esegue un controllo periodico dal dentista. Rothia dentocariosa è stata isolata nel 56,5% di coloro che si lavano i denti una volta al giorno e nel 75,9% di quelli che non li lavano.

    Conclusioni: considerando che Rothia dentocariosa non risulta essere un normale saprofita del cavo orale ma è probabilmente un germe opportunista in grado di promuovere attivamente le lesioni della carie iniziale, il suo isolamento può essere considerato un indice precoce di lesione cariogena in progressione. Ne deriva che, nonostante i notevoli progressi compiuti negli ultimi anni, paragonabili a quelli di nazioni ad alto tenore sociosanitario, l’obiettivo dell’eradicazione totale della carie dalla popolazione infantile ferrarese non è stato ancora raggiunto. Ciò principalmente a causa di un difetto di formazione culturale sia

  17. Efficient Asymptotic Preserving Deterministic methods for the Boltzmann Equation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-01

    35 ∗Department of Mathematics, University of Ferrara , Ferrara , Italy †Department of Mathematics and...Department of Mathematics, University of Ferrara , Ferrara , Italy 8. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION REPORT NUMBER 9. SPONSORING/MONITORING AGENCY NAME(S) AND...Computer Science, University of Catania, Catania, Italy VKI - 1 - RTO-EN-AVT-194 8 - 1 Report Documentation Page Form ApprovedOMB No. 0704

  18. New insights into the 2012 Emilia (Italy) seismic sequence through advanced numerical modeling of ground deformation InSAR measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tizzani, P.; Castaldo, R.; Solaro, G.; Pepe, S.; Bonano, M.; Casu, F.; Manunta, M.; Manzo, M.; Pepe, A.; Samsonov, S.; Lanari, R.; Sansosti, E.

    2013-05-01

    We provide new insights into the two main seismic events that occurred in 2012 in the Emilia region, Italy. We extend the results from previous studies based on analytical inversion modeling of GPS and RADARSAT-1 InSAR measurements by exploiting RADARSAT-2 data. Moreover, we benefit from the available large amount of geological and geophysical information through finite element method (FEM) modeling implemented in a structural-mechanical context to investigate the impact of known buried structures on the modulation of the ground deformation field. We find that the displacement pattern associated with the 20 May event is consistent with the activation of a single fault segment of the inner Ferrara thrust, in good agreement with the analytical solution. In contrast, the interpretation of the 29 May episode requires the activation of three different fault segments and a block roto-translation of the Mirandola anticline. The proposed FEM-based methodology is applicable to other seismic areas where the complexity of buried structures is known and plays a fundamental role in the modulation of the associated surface deformation pattern.

  19. Nuclear power in Italy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Santarossa, G.

    1990-01-01

    As is known to most of this audience in November of 1987 a referendum determined a rejection of nuclear power in Italy. The referendum may be taken into consideration here as a large scale experiment which offers points of interest to this conference and problems to be aware of, in approaching a severe confrontation with the public. To give a synopsis of the Italian perspective I will examine: first the public acceptance in the situation before Chernobyl, then the most disturbing and sensitive factors of Chernobyl's consequences; how the opposition to nuclear energy worked with the support of most media and the strong pressures of an anti-nuclear political party, the syllogism of the opponents and the arguments used, the causes of major weakness of the defenders and how a new perception of nuclear risk was generated in the public. I will come to the topic of utility acceptance by mentioning that ENEL, as the National Utility, in its role is bound to a policy of compliance with Government decisions. It is oriented today to performance of feasibility studies and development of requirements for the next generation of reactors in order to maintain an updated proposal for a future recovery of the nuclear option. I will then try to identify in general terms the factors determining the future acceptance of nuclear power. They will be determined in the interdisciplinary area of politics, media and public interactions with the utilities the uses of the technology are forced to follow, by political constraints, two main directives: working only in new projects to achieve, if possible, new safety goals

  20. Nuclear power in Italy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Santarossa, G [ENEA, Rome (Italy)

    1990-07-01

    As is known to most of this audience in November of 1987 a referendum determined a rejection of nuclear power in Italy. The referendum may be taken into consideration here as a large scale experiment which offers points of interest to this conference and problems to be aware of, in approaching a severe confrontation with the public. To give a synopsis of the Italian perspective I will examine: first the public acceptance in the situation before Chernobyl, then the most disturbing and sensitive factors of Chernobyl's consequences; how the opposition to nuclear energy worked with the support of most media and the strong pressures of an anti-nuclear political party, the syllogism of the opponents and the arguments used, the causes of major weakness of the defenders and how a new perception of nuclear risk was generated in the public. I will come to the topic of utility acceptance by mentioning that ENEL, as the National Utility, in its role is bound to a policy of compliance with Government decisions. It is oriented today to performance of feasibility studies and development of requirements for the next generation of reactors in order to maintain an updated proposal for a future recovery of the nuclear option. I will then try to identify in general terms the factors determining the future acceptance of nuclear power. They will be determined in the interdisciplinary area of politics, media and public interactions with the utilities the uses of the technology are forced to follow, by political constraints, two main directives: working only in new projects to achieve, if possible, new safety goals.

  1. Fatto in Italia: Refashioning Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tiziana Ferrero-Regis

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available This article discusses how the Made in Italy brand helped Italy to recover from economic recession in the 1980s, but also how it redefined the country's identity after the traumatic years of terrorism and especially after the murder of the Christian Democratic Party Secretary, Aldo Moro, at the hands of the Red Brigades. In this period cinema as a form of artistic achievement declined, while fashion and industrial design moved at the centre stage of economic and creative success. The rampant consumerism of the 1980s, fuelled by tax reforms that favoured a wider urban middle class, the retreat of unionism, the abandonment of collective bargaining in many industrial sectors, industrial restructuring with the consequent growth of black market economy in the provincial areas of the so-called Third Italy first and the South later, were all factors that contributed to a social and economic shift within Italy itself. Commercial consumption, propagated by the proliferation of local commercial television networks, hedonism and a re-articulation of identity through appearance replaced the 1970s' political activism and ideological opposition to fashion. Ultimately, 'Made in Italy' was a multidimensional phenomenon that presented itself as a new cultural model for the country’s political tribes of the 1970s.