WorldWideScience

Sample records for fermi gamma-ray sources

  1. Fermi Large Area Telescope Bright Gamma-ray Source List

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abdo, Aous A.; /Naval Research Lab, Wash., D.C.; Ackermann, M.; /KIPAC, Menlo Park /SLAC; Ajello, M.; /KIPAC, Menlo Park /SLAC; Atwood, W.B.; /UC, Santa Cruz; Axelsson, M.; /Stockholm U., OKC /Stockholm U.; Baldini, L.; /INFN, Pisa; Ballet, J.; /DAPNIA, Saclay; Band, D.L.; /NASA, Goddard /NASA, Goddard; Barbiellini, Guido; /INFN, Trieste /Trieste U.; Bastieri, Denis; /INFN, Padua /Padua U.; Bechtol, K.; /KIPAC, Menlo Park /SLAC; Bellazzini, R.; /INFN, Pisa; Berenji, B.; /KIPAC, Menlo Park /SLAC; Bignami, G.F.; /Pavia U.; Bloom, Elliott D.; /KIPAC, Menlo Park /SLAC; Bonamente, E.; /INFN, Perugia /Perugia U.; Borgland, A.W.; /KIPAC, Menlo Park /SLAC; Bregeon, J.; /INFN, Pisa; Brigida, M.; /Bari U. /INFN, Bari; Bruel, P.; /Ecole Polytechnique; Burnett, Thompson H.; /Washington U., Seattle /Bari U. /INFN, Bari /KIPAC, Menlo Park /SLAC /IASF, Milan /IASF, Milan /DAPNIA, Saclay /ASDC, Frascati /INFN, Perugia /Perugia U. /KIPAC, Menlo Park /SLAC /George Mason U. /Naval Research Lab, Wash., D.C. /NASA, Goddard /KIPAC, Menlo Park /SLAC /INFN, Perugia /Perugia U. /KIPAC, Menlo Park /SLAC /Montpellier U. /Sonoma State U. /Stockholm U., OKC /Royal Inst. Tech., Stockholm /Stockholm U. /KIPAC, Menlo Park /SLAC /ASDC, Frascati /NASA, Goddard /Maryland U. /Naval Research Lab, Wash., D.C. /INFN, Trieste /Pavia U. /Bari U. /INFN, Bari /KIPAC, Menlo Park /SLAC /UC, Santa Cruz /KIPAC, Menlo Park /SLAC /KIPAC, Menlo Park /SLAC /KIPAC, Menlo Park /SLAC /Montpellier U. /Bari U. /INFN, Bari /Ecole Polytechnique /NASA, Goddard; /more authors..

    2009-05-15

    Following its launch in 2008 June, the Fermi Gamma-ray Space Telescope (Fermi) began a sky survey in August. The Large Area Telescope (LAT) on Fermi in three months produced a deeper and better resolved map of the {gamma}-ray sky than any previous space mission. We present here initial results for energies above 100 MeV for the 205 most significant (statistical significance greater than {approx}10{sigma}) {gamma}-ray sources in these data. These are the best characterized and best localized point-like (i.e., spatially unresolved) {gamma}-ray sources in the early mission data.

  2. The Gamma-ray Sky with Fermi

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, David

    2012-01-01

    Gamma rays reveal extreme, nonthermal conditions in the Universe. The Fermi Gamma-ray Space Telescope has been exploring the gamma-ray sky for more than four years, enabling a search for powerful transients like gamma-ray bursts, novae, solar flares, and flaring active galactic nuclei, as well as long-term studies including pulsars, binary systems, supernova remnants, and searches for predicted sources of gamma rays such as dark matter annihilation. Some results include a stringent limit on Lorentz invariance derived from a gamma-ray burst, unexpected gamma-ray variability from the Crab Nebula, a huge gamma-ray structure associated with the center of our galaxy, surprising behavior from some gamma-ray binary systems, and a possible constraint on some WIMP models for dark matter.

  3. FERMI/LARGE AREA TELESCOPE BRIGHT GAMMA-RAY SOURCE LIST

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abdo, A. A.; Ackermann, M.; Ajello, M.; Bechtol, K.; Berenji, B.; Blandford, R. D.; Bloom, E. D.; Borgland, A. W.; Atwood, W. B.; Axelsson, M.; Battelino, M.; Baldini, L.; Bellazzini, R.; Ballet, J.; Band, D. L.; Barbiellini, G.; Bastieri, D.; Baughman, B. M.; Bignami, G. F.; Bonamente, E.

    2009-01-01

    Following its launch in 2008 June, the Fermi Gamma-ray Space Telescope (Fermi) began a sky survey in August. The Large Area Telescope (LAT) on Fermi in three months produced a deeper and better resolved map of the γ-ray sky than any previous space mission. We present here initial results for energies above 100 MeV for the 205 most significant (statistical significance greater than ∼10σ) γ-ray sources in these data. These are the best characterized and best localized point-like (i.e., spatially unresolved) γ-ray sources in the early mission data.

  4. The Gamma-ray Universe through Fermi

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, David J.

    2012-01-01

    Gamma rays, the most powerful form of light, reveal extreme conditions in the Universe. The Fermi Gamma-ray Space Telescope and its smaller cousin AGILE have been exploring the gamma-ray sky for several years, enabling a search for powerful transients like gamma-ray bursts, novae, solar flares, and flaring active galactic nuclei, as well as long-term studies including pulsars, binary systems, supernova remnants, and searches for predicted sources of gamma rays such as dark matter annihilation. Some results include a stringent limit on Lorentz invariance derived from a gamma-ray burst, unexpected gamma-ray variability from the Crab Nebula, a huge ga.nuna-ray structure associated with the center of our galaxy, surprising behavior from some gamma-ray binary systems, and a possible constraint on some WIMP models for dark matter.

  5. Gamma-ray sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hermsen, W.

    1980-01-01

    Results are presented from an analysis of the celestial gamma-ray fine-scale structure based on over half of the data which may ultimately be available from the COS-B satellite. A catalogue consisting of 25 gamma-ray sources measured at energies above 100 MeV is presented. (Auth.)

  6. Search for gamma-ray emitting AGN among unidentified Fermi-LAT sources using machine learning algorithms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Doert, Marlene [Technische Universitaet Dortmund (Germany); Ruhr-Universitaet Bochum (Germany); Einecke, Sabrina [Technische Universitaet Dortmund (Germany); Errando, Manel [Barnard College, Columbia University, New York City (United States)

    2015-07-01

    The second Fermi-LAT source catalog (2FGL) is the deepest all-sky survey of the gamma-ray sky currently available to the community. Out of the 1873 catalog sources, 576 remain unassociated. We present a search for active galactic nuclei (AGN) among these unassociated objects, which aims at a reduction of the number of unassociated gamma-ray sources and a more complete characterization of the population of gamma-ray emitting AGN. Our study uses two complimentary machine learning algorithms which are individually trained on the gamma-ray properties of associated 2FGL sources and thereafter applied to the unassociated sample. The intersection of the two methods yields a high-confidence sample of 231 AGN candidate sources. We estimate the performance of the classification by taking inherent differences between the samples of associated and unassociated 2FGL sources into account. A search for infra-red counterparts and first results from follow-up studies in the X-ray band using Swift satellite data for a subset of our AGN candidates are also presented.

  7. The Fermi All-Sky Variability Analysis: A List of Flaring Gamma-Ray Sources and the Search for Transients in our Galaxy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ackermann, M.; Ajello, M.; Albert, A.; Allafort, A.; Antolini, E.; Baldini, L.; Ballet, J.; Barbiellini, G; Bastieri, D.; Bechtol, K.; hide

    2013-01-01

    In this paper, we present the Fermi All-sky Variability Analysis (FAVA), a tool to systematically study the variability of the gamma-ray sky measured by the Large Area Telescope on board the Fermi Gamma-ray Space Telescope.For each direction on the sky, FAVA compares the number of gamma-rays observed in a given time window to the number of gamma-rays expected for the average emission detected from that direction. This method is used in weekly time intervals to derive a list of 215 flaring gamma-ray sources. We proceed to discuss the 27 sources found at Galactic latitudes smaller than 10 and show that, despite their low latitudes, most of them are likely of extragalactic origin.

  8. THE FERMI ALL-SKY VARIABILITY ANALYSIS: A LIST OF FLARING GAMMA-RAY SOURCES AND THE SEARCH FOR TRANSIENTS IN OUR GALAXY

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ackermann, M. [Deutsches Elektronen Synchrotron DESY, D-15738 Zeuthen (Germany); Ajello, M. [Space Sciences Laboratory, 7 Gauss Way, University of California, Berkeley, CA 94720-7450 (United States); Albert, A. [Department of Physics, Center for Cosmology and Astro-Particle Physics, The Ohio State University, Columbus, OH 43210 (United States); Allafort, A.; Bechtol, K.; Blandford, R. D.; Bloom, E. D.; Bottacini, E. [W. W. Hansen Experimental Physics Laboratory, Kavli Institute for Particle Astrophysics and Cosmology, Department of Physics and SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory, Stanford University, Stanford, CA 94305 (United States); Antolini, E.; Bonamente, E. [Dipartimento di Fisica, Universita degli Studi di Perugia, I-06123 Perugia (Italy); Baldini, L. [Universita di Pisa and Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Sezione di Pisa, I-56127 Pisa (Italy); Ballet, J. [Laboratoire AIM, CEA-IRFU/CNRS/Universite Paris Diderot, Service d' Astrophysique, CEA Saclay, F-91191 Gif sur Yvette (France); Barbiellini, G. [Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Sezione di Trieste, I-34127 Trieste (Italy); Bastieri, D. [Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Sezione di Padova, I-35131 Padova (Italy); Bellazzini, R.; Bregeon, J. [Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Sezione di Pisa, I-56127 Pisa (Italy); Bouvier, A. [Santa Cruz Institute for Particle Physics, Department of Physics and Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics, University of California at Santa Cruz, Santa Cruz, CA 95064 (United States); Brandt, T. J. [NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD 20771 (United States); Brigida, M. [Dipartimento di Fisica ' ' M. Merlin' ' dell' Universita e del Politecnico di Bari, I-70126 Bari (Italy); Bruel, P., E-mail: majello@slac.stanford.edu, E-mail: allafort@stanford.edu, E-mail: rolf.buehler@desy.de [Laboratoire Leprince-Ringuet, Ecole polytechnique, CNRS/IN2P3, Palaiseau (France); and others

    2013-07-01

    In this paper, we present the Fermi All-sky Variability Analysis (FAVA), a tool to systematically study the variability of the gamma-ray sky measured by the Large Area Telescope on board the Fermi Gamma-ray Space Telescope. For each direction on the sky, FAVA compares the number of gamma-rays observed in a given time window to the number of gamma-rays expected for the average emission detected from that direction. This method is used in weekly time intervals to derive a list of 215 flaring gamma-ray sources. We proceed to discuss the 27 sources found at Galactic latitudes smaller than 10 Degree-Sign and show that, despite their low latitudes, most of them are likely of extragalactic origin.

  9. THE FERMI ALL-SKY VARIABILITY ANALYSIS: A LIST OF FLARING GAMMA-RAY SOURCES AND THE SEARCH FOR TRANSIENTS IN OUR GALAXY

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ackermann, M.; Ajello, M.; Albert, A.; Allafort, A.; Bechtol, K.; Blandford, R. D.; Bloom, E. D.; Bottacini, E.; Antolini, E.; Bonamente, E.; Baldini, L.; Ballet, J.; Barbiellini, G.; Bastieri, D.; Bellazzini, R.; Bregeon, J.; Bouvier, A.; Brandt, T. J.; Brigida, M.; Bruel, P.

    2013-01-01

    In this paper, we present the Fermi All-sky Variability Analysis (FAVA), a tool to systematically study the variability of the gamma-ray sky measured by the Large Area Telescope on board the Fermi Gamma-ray Space Telescope. For each direction on the sky, FAVA compares the number of gamma-rays observed in a given time window to the number of gamma-rays expected for the average emission detected from that direction. This method is used in weekly time intervals to derive a list of 215 flaring gamma-ray sources. We proceed to discuss the 27 sources found at Galactic latitudes smaller than 10° and show that, despite their low latitudes, most of them are likely of extragalactic origin.

  10. CLASSIFICATION AND RANKING OF FERMI LAT GAMMA-RAY SOURCES FROM THE 3FGL CATALOG USING MACHINE LEARNING TECHNIQUES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saz Parkinson, P. M. [Department of Physics, The University of Hong Kong, Pokfulam Road, Hong Kong (China); Xu, H.; Yu, P. L. H. [Department of Statistics and Actuarial Science, The University of Hong Kong, Pokfulam Road, Hong Kong (China); Salvetti, D.; Marelli, M. [INAF—Istituto di Astrofisica Spaziale e Fisica Cosmica Milano, via E. Bassini 15, I-20133, Milano (Italy); Falcone, A. D. [Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics, The Pennsylvania State University, University Park, PA 16802 (United States)

    2016-03-20

    We apply a number of statistical and machine learning techniques to classify and rank gamma-ray sources from the Third Fermi Large Area Telescope Source Catalog (3FGL), according to their likelihood of falling into the two major classes of gamma-ray emitters: pulsars (PSR) or active galactic nuclei (AGNs). Using 1904 3FGL sources that have been identified/associated with AGNs (1738) and PSR (166), we train (using 70% of our sample) and test (using 30%) our algorithms and find that the best overall accuracy (>96%) is obtained with the Random Forest (RF) technique, while using a logistic regression (LR) algorithm results in only marginally lower accuracy. We apply the same techniques on a subsample of 142 known gamma-ray pulsars to classify them into two major subcategories: young (YNG) and millisecond pulsars (MSP). Once more, the RF algorithm has the best overall accuracy (∼90%), while a boosted LR analysis comes a close second. We apply our two best models (RF and LR) to the entire 3FGL catalog, providing predictions on the likely nature of unassociated sources, including the likely type of pulsar (YNG or MSP). We also use our predictions to shed light on the possible nature of some gamma-ray sources with known associations (e.g., binaries, supernova remnants/pulsar wind nebulae). Finally, we provide a list of plausible X-ray counterparts for some pulsar candidates, obtained using Swift, Chandra, and XMM. The results of our study will be of interest both for in-depth follow-up searches (e.g., pulsar) at various wavelengths and for broader population studies.

  11. CLASSIFICATION AND RANKING OF FERMI LAT GAMMA-RAY SOURCES FROM THE 3FGL CATALOG USING MACHINE LEARNING TECHNIQUES

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saz Parkinson, P. M.; Xu, H.; Yu, P. L. H.; Salvetti, D.; Marelli, M.; Falcone, A. D.

    2016-01-01

    We apply a number of statistical and machine learning techniques to classify and rank gamma-ray sources from the Third Fermi Large Area Telescope Source Catalog (3FGL), according to their likelihood of falling into the two major classes of gamma-ray emitters: pulsars (PSR) or active galactic nuclei (AGNs). Using 1904 3FGL sources that have been identified/associated with AGNs (1738) and PSR (166), we train (using 70% of our sample) and test (using 30%) our algorithms and find that the best overall accuracy (>96%) is obtained with the Random Forest (RF) technique, while using a logistic regression (LR) algorithm results in only marginally lower accuracy. We apply the same techniques on a subsample of 142 known gamma-ray pulsars to classify them into two major subcategories: young (YNG) and millisecond pulsars (MSP). Once more, the RF algorithm has the best overall accuracy (∼90%), while a boosted LR analysis comes a close second. We apply our two best models (RF and LR) to the entire 3FGL catalog, providing predictions on the likely nature of unassociated sources, including the likely type of pulsar (YNG or MSP). We also use our predictions to shed light on the possible nature of some gamma-ray sources with known associations (e.g., binaries, supernova remnants/pulsar wind nebulae). Finally, we provide a list of plausible X-ray counterparts for some pulsar candidates, obtained using Swift, Chandra, and XMM. The results of our study will be of interest both for in-depth follow-up searches (e.g., pulsar) at various wavelengths and for broader population studies

  12. FERMI LARGE AREA TELESCOPE OBSERVATION OF A GAMMA-RAY SOURCE AT THE POSITION OF ETA CARINAE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abdo, A. A.; Ackermann, M.; Ajello, M.; Allafort, A.; Bechtol, K.; Berenji, B.; Blandford, R. D.; Borgland, A. W.; Bouvier, A.; Baldini, L.; Bellazzini, R.; Bregeon, J.; Brez, A.; Ballet, J.; Barbiellini, G.; Bastieri, D.; Bonamente, E.; Brandt, T. J.; Brigida, M.; Bruel, P.

    2010-01-01

    The Large Area Telescope (LAT) on board the Fermi Gamma-ray Space Telescope detected a γ-ray source that is spatially consistent with the location of Eta Carinae. This source has been persistently bright since the beginning of the LAT survey observations (from 2008 August to 2009 July, the time interval considered here). The γ-ray signal is detected significantly throughout the LAT energy band (i.e., up to ∼100 GeV). The 0.1-100 GeV energy spectrum is well represented by a combination of a cutoff power-law model ( 10 GeV). The total flux (>100 MeV) is 3.7 +0.3 -0.1 x 10 -7 photons s -1 cm -2 , with additional systematic uncertainties of 10%, and consistent with the average flux measured by AGILE. The light curve obtained by Fermi is consistent with steady emission. Our observations do not confirm the presence of a γ-ray flare in 2008 October, as reported by Tavani et al., although we cannot exclude that a flare lasting only a few hours escaped detection by the Fermi LAT. We also do not find any evidence for γ-ray variability that correlates with the large X-ray variability of Eta Carinae observed during 2008 December and 2009 January. We are thus not able to establish an unambiguous identification of the LAT source with Eta Carinae.

  13. Jet emission in young radio sources: A Fermi large area telescope gamma-ray view

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Migliori, G.; Siemiginowska, A. [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, 60 Garden St., Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Kelly, B. C. [Department of Physics, Broida Hall, University of California, Santa Barbara, CA 93107 (United States); Stawarz, Ł. [Institute of Space and Astronautical Science, JAXA, 3-1-1 Yoshinodai, Chuo-ku, Sagamihara, Kanagawa 252-5210 (Japan); Celotti, A. [Scuola Internazionale Superiore di Studi Avanzati (SISSA), via Bonomea, 265-34136 Trieste (Italy); Begelman, M. C., E-mail: migliori@cfa.harvard.edu [JILA, University of Colorado and National Institute of Standards and Technology, 440 UCB, Boulder, CO 80309-0440 (United States)

    2014-01-10

    We investigate the contribution of the beamed jet component to the high-energy emission in young and compact extragalactic radio sources, focusing for the first time on the γ-ray band. We derive predictions on the γ-ray luminosities associated with the relativistic jet assuming a leptonic radiative model. The high-energy emission is produced via Compton scattering by the relativistic electrons in a spherical region at the considered scales (≲10 kpc). Simulations show a wide range of γ-ray luminosities, with intensities up to ∼10{sup 46}-10{sup 48} erg s{sup –1} depending on the assumed jet parameters. We find a highly linear relation between the simulated X-ray and γ-ray luminosities that can be used to select candidates for γ-ray detection. We compare the simulated luminosity distributions in the radio, X-ray, and γ-ray regimes with observations for the largest sample of X-ray-detected young radio quasars. Our analysis of ∼4-yr Fermi Large Area Telescope (LAT) data does not yield any statistically significant detections. However, the majority of the model-predicted γ-ray fluxes for the sample are near or below the current Fermi-LAT flux threshold and compatible with the derived upper limits. Our study gives constraints on the minimum jet power (L {sub jet,} {sub kin}/L {sub disk} > 0.01) of a potential jet contribution to the X-ray emission in the most compact sources (≲ 1 kpc) and on the particle-to-magnetic field energy density ratio that are in broad agreement with equipartition assumptions.

  14. The Animated Gamma-ray Sky Revealed by the Fermi Gamma-ray Space Telescope

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grenier, Isabelle

    2009-01-01

    The Fermi Gamma-ray Space Telescope has been observing the sky in gamma-rays since August 2008. In addition to breakthrough capabilities in energy coverage (20 MeV-300 GeV) and angular resolution, the wide field of view of the Large Area Telescope enables observations of 20% of the sky at any instant, and of the whole sky every three hours. It has revealed a very animated sky with bright gamma-ray bursts flashing and vanishing in minutes, powerful active galactic nuclei flaring over hours and days, many pulsars twinkling in the Milky Way, and X-ray binaries shimmering along their orbit. Most of these variable sources had not been seen by the Fermi predecessor, EGRET, and the wealth of new data already brings important clues to the origin of the high-energy emission and particles powered by the compact objects. The telescope also brings crisp images of the bright gamma-ray emission produced by cosmic-ray interactions in the interstellar medium, thus allowing to measure the cosmic nuclei and electron spectra across the Galaxy, to weigh interstellar clouds, in particular in the dark-gas phase. The telescope sensitivity at high energy will soon provide useful constraints on dark-matter annihilations in a variety of environments. I will review the current results and future prospects of the Fermi mission.

  15. Localization of Gamma-Ray Bursts Using the Fermi Gamma-Ray Burst Monitor

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Connaughton, V.; Briggs, M.S.; Goldstein, A.; Meegan, C.A.; Paciesas, W.S.; Preece, R.D.; Wilson-Hodge, C.A.; Gibby, M.H.; Greiner, J.; Gruber, D.; Jenke, P.; Kippen, R.M.; Pelassa, V.; Xiong, S.; Yu, H-F.; Bhat, P.N.; Burgess, J.M.; Byrne, D.; Fitzpatrick, G.; Foley, S.; Giles, M.M.; Guiriec, S.; van der Horst, A.J.; von Kienlin, A.; McBreen, S.; McGlynn, S.; Tierney, D.; Zhang, B..B.

    2015-01-01

    The Fermi Gamma-ray Burst Monitor (GBM) has detected over 1400 gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) since it began science operations in 2008 July. We use a subset of over 300 GRBs localized by instruments such as Swift, the Fermi Large Area Telescope, INTEGRAL, and MAXI, or through triangulations from the

  16. Constraining decaying dark matter with Fermi LAT gamma-rays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Le; Sigl, Günter; Weniger, Christoph; Maccione, Luca; Redondo, Javier

    2010-01-01

    High energy electrons and positrons from decaying dark matter can produce a significant flux of gamma rays by inverse Compton off low energy photons in the interstellar radiation field. This possibility is inevitably related with the dark matter interpretation of the observed PAMELA and FERMI excesses. The aim of this paper is providing a simple and universal method to constrain dark matter models which produce electrons and positrons in their decay by using the Fermi LAT gamma-ray observations in the energy range between 0.5 GeV and 300 GeV. We provide a set of universal response functions that, once convolved with a specific dark matter model produce the desired constraints. Our response functions contain all the astrophysical inputs such as the electron propagation in the galaxy, the dark matter profile, the gamma-ray fluxes of known origin, and the Fermi LAT data. We study the uncertainties in the determination of the response functions and apply them to place constraints on some specific dark matter decay models that can well fit the positron and electron fluxes observed by PAMELA and Fermi LAT. To this end we also take into account prompt radiation from the dark matter decay. We find that with the available data decaying dark matter cannot be excluded as source of the PAMELA positron excess

  17. Fermi GBM Observations of Terrestrial Gamma-Ray Flashes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson-Hodge, Colleen A.; Briggs, M. S.; Connaughton, V.; Fishman, G. J.; Bhat, P. N.; Paciesas, W. S.; Preece, R.; Kippen, R. M.; vonKienlin, A.; Dwyer, J. R.; hide

    2010-01-01

    This slide presentation explores the relationship between Terrestrial Gamma-Ray Flashes (TGF) and lightning. Using data from the World-Wide Lightning Location Network (WWLLN), and the gamma ray observations from Fermi's Gamma-ray Burst Monitor (GBM), the study reviews any causal relationship between TGFs and lightning. The conclusion of the study is that the TGF and lightning are simultaneous with out a causal relationship.

  18. Fermi Discovery of Gamma-Ray Emission from NGC 1275

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abdo, Aous A.; /Naval Research Lab, Wash., D.C.; Ackermann, M.; /Stanford U., HEPL /KIPAC, Menlo Park /Stanford U., Phys. Dept.; Ajello, M.; /Stanford U., HEPL /KIPAC, Menlo Park /Stanford U., Phys. Dept.; Asano, K.; /Tokyo Inst. Tech.; Baldini, L.; /INFN, Pisa; Ballet, J.; /DAPNIA, Saclay; Barbiellini, Guido; /INFN, Trieste /Trieste U.; Bastieri, Denis; /INFN, Padua /Padua U.; Baughman, B.M.; /Ohio State U.; Bechtol, K.; /Stanford U., HEPL /KIPAC, Menlo Park /Stanford U., Phys. Dept.; Bellazzini, R.; /INFN, Pisa; Blandford, R.D.; /Stanford U., HEPL /KIPAC, Menlo Park /Stanford U., Phys. Dept.; Bloom, Elliott D.; /Stanford U., HEPL /KIPAC, Menlo Park /Stanford U., Phys. Dept.; Bonamente, E.; /INFN, Perugia /Perugia U.; Borgland, A.W.; /Stanford U., HEPL /KIPAC, Menlo Park /Stanford U., Phys. Dept.; Bregeon, J.; /INFN, Pisa; Brez, A.; /INFN, Pisa; Brigida, M.; /Bari U. /INFN, Bari; Bruel, P.; /Ecole Polytechnique; Burnett, Thompson H.; /Washington U., Seattle; Caliandro, G.A.; /Bari U. /INFN, Bari /Stanford U., HEPL /KIPAC, Menlo Park /Stanford U., Phys. Dept. /IASF, Milan /IASF, Milan /DAPNIA, Saclay /ASDC, Frascati /INFN, Perugia /Perugia U. /SISSA, Trieste /George Mason U. /Naval Research Lab, Wash., D.C. /NASA, Goddard /Stanford U., HEPL /KIPAC, Menlo Park /Stanford U., Phys. Dept. /INFN, Perugia /Perugia U. /Stanford U., HEPL /KIPAC, Menlo Park /Stanford U., Phys. Dept. /Montpellier U. /ASDC, Frascati /Sonoma State U. /Stockholm U., OKC /Royal Inst. Tech., Stockholm /Stockholm U. /Stanford U., HEPL /KIPAC, Menlo Park /Stanford U., Phys. Dept. /Naval Research Lab, Wash., D.C. /INFN, Trieste /Bari U. /INFN, Bari /Stanford U., HEPL /KIPAC, Menlo Park /Stanford U., Phys. Dept. /NASA, Goddard /Stanford U., HEPL /KIPAC, Menlo Park /Stanford U., Phys. Dept. /Stanford U., HEPL /KIPAC, Menlo Park /Stanford U., Phys. Dept. /Stanford U., HEPL /KIPAC, Menlo Park /Stanford U., Phys. Dept. /CENBG, Gradignan /CENBG, Gradignan /Montpellier U. /Bari U. /INFN, Bari /Naval Research Lab, Wash., D.C. /Stanford U., HEPL /KIPAC, Menlo Park /Stanford U., Phys. Dept. /INFN, Trieste /Hiroshima U.; /more authors..

    2009-05-15

    We report the discovery of high-energy (E > 100 MeV) {gamma}-ray emission from NGC 1275, a giant elliptical galaxy lying at the center of the Perseus cluster of galaxies, based on observations made with the Large Area Telescope (LAT) of the Fermi Gamma-ray Space Telescope. The positional center of the {gamma}-ray source is only {approx}3{prime} away from the NGC 1275 nucleus, well within the 95% LAT error circle of {approx}5{prime}. The spatial distribution of {gamma}-ray photons is consistent with a point source. The average flux and power-law photon index measured with the LAT from 2008 August 4 to 2008 December 5 are F{sub {gamma}} = (2.10 {+-} 0.23) x 10{sup -7} ph (>100 MeV) cm{sup -2} s{sup -1} and {Gamma} = 2.17 {+-} 0.05, respectively. The measurements are statistically consistent with constant flux during the four-month LAT observing period. Previous EGRET observations gave an upper limit of F{sub {gamma}} < 3.72 x 10{sup -8} ph (>100 MeV) cm{sup -2} s{sup -1} to the {gamma}-ray flux from NGC 1275. This indicates that the source is variable on timescales of years to decades, and therefore restricts the fraction of emission that can be produced in extended regions of the galaxy cluster. Contemporaneous and historical radio observations are also reported. The broadband spectrum of NGC 1275 is modeled with a simple one-zone synchrotron/synchrotron self-Compton model and a model with a decelerating jet flow.

  19. Radio Follow-up on All Unassociated Gamma-Ray Sources from the Third Fermi Large Area Telescope Source Catalog

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schinzel, Frank K. [National Radio Astronomy Observatory, P.O. Box O, Socorro, NM 87801 (United States); Petrov, Leonid [Astrogeo Center, Falls Church, VA 22043 (United States); Taylor, Gregory B. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of New Mexico, Albuquerque, NM 87131 (United States); Edwards, Philip G., E-mail: fschinze@nrao.edu [CSIRO Astronomy and Space Science, P.O. Box 76, Epping, 1710 NSW (Australia)

    2017-04-01

    The third Fermi Large Area Telescope γ -ray source catalog (3FGL) contains over 1000 objects for which there is no known counterpart at other wavelengths. The physical origin of the γ -ray emission from those objects is unknown. Such objects are commonly referred to as unassociated and mostly do not exhibit significant γ -ray flux variability. We performed a survey of all unassociated γ -ray sources found in 3FGL using the Australia Telescope Compact Array and Very Large Array in the range 4.0–10.0 GHz. We found 2097 radio candidates for association with γ -ray sources. The follow-up with very long baseline interferometry for a subset of those candidates yielded 142 new associations with active galactic nuclei that are γ -ray sources, provided alternative associations for seven objects, and improved positions for another 144 known associations to the milliarcsecond level of accuracy. In addition, for 245 unassociated γ -ray sources we did not find a single compact radio source above 2 mJy within 3 σ of their γ -ray localization. A significant fraction of these empty fields, 39%, are located away from the Galactic plane. We also found 36 extended radio sources that are candidates for association with a corresponding γ -ray object, 19 of which are most likely supernova remnants or H ii regions, whereas 17 could be radio galaxies.

  20. The First Fermi-LAT Gamma-Ray Burst Catalog

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ackermann, M.; et al., [Unknown; van der Horst, A.J.

    2013-01-01

    In three years of observations since the beginning of nominal science operations in 2008 August, the Large Area Telescope (LAT) on board the Fermi Gamma-Ray Space Telescope has observed high-energy (gsim 20 MeV) γ-ray emission from 35 gamma-ray bursts (GRBs). Among these, 28 GRBs have been detected

  1. Fermi-LAT Observations of the Gamma-Ray Burst GRB 130427A

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ackermann, M.; et al., [Unknown; van der Horst, A.J.

    2014-01-01

    The observations of the exceptionally bright gamma-ray burst (GRB) 130427A by the Large Area Telescope aboard the Fermi Gamma-ray Space Telescope provide constraints on the nature of these unique astrophysical sources. GRB 130427A had the largest fluence, highest-energy photon (95 GeV), longest

  2. Constraining decaying dark matter with FERMI-LAT gamma rays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maccione, L.

    2011-01-01

    High energy electron sand positrons from decaying dark matter can produce a significant flux of gamma rays by inverse Compton of low energy photons in the interstellar radiation field. This possibility is inevitably related with the dark matter interpretation of the observed PAMELA and FERMI excesses. We will describe a simple and universal method to constrain dark matter models which produce electrons and positrons in their decay by using the FERMI-LAT gamma-ray observations in the energy range between 0.5 GeV and 300 GeV, by exploiting universal response functions that, once convolved with a specific dark matter model, produce the desired constraint. The response functions contain all the astrophysical inputs. Here is discussed the uncertainties in the determination of the response functions and apply them to place constraints on some specific dark matter decay models that can well fit the positron and electron fluxes observed by PAMELA and FERMI LAT, also taking into account prompt radiation from the dark matter decay. With the available data decaying dark matter can not be excluded as source of the PAMELA positron excess.

  3. The beginning of gamma-ray astronomy with Fermi

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paneque, D.

    2008-01-01

    The Fermi observatory is designed to perform gamma-ray astronomy in the energy range 20 MeV to 300 GeV, with supporting measurements for gamma-ray bursts from 10 keV to 30 MeV. Fermi was successfully launched on June 11 (2008) from the Kennedy Space Center at Cape Canaveral. The main instrument of Fermi is the Large Area Telescope (LAT), which provides break-through high-energy measurements using techniques typically used in particle detectors for collider experiments. The LAT consists of 16 identical towers in a four-by-four grid, each one containing a pair conversion tracker and a hodoscopic crystal calorimeter, all covered by a segmented plastic scintillator anti-coincidence shield. The LAT is currently monitoring the GeV gamma-ray sky with rather uniform exposure (covering 20% of the sky at any instant and the entire sky on a timescale of a few hours) and a sensitivity ∼ 30 times better than its predecessor, EGRET. The large performance improvement of LAT opens a new and important window on a wide variety of high-energy astrophysical phenomena, as well as potential to discover/study non-conventional physics. In the talk I will report the instrument performance, the mission status and science opportunities and will present some results derived from the first months of operation, which includes astronomical telegrams on AGN flares, 2 GCN circulars on LAT-detected GRBs and the monitoring of some selected sources (22 blazars and 1 high mass X-ray Binary). (author)

  4. Stellar Sources of Gamma-ray Bursts

    OpenAIRE

    Luchkov, B. I.

    2011-01-01

    Correlation analysis of Swift gamma-ray burst coordinates and nearby star locations (catalog Gliese) reveals 4 coincidences with good angular accuracy. The random probability is 4\\times 10^{-5}, so evidencing that coincident stars are indeed gamma-ray burst sources. Some additional search of stellar gamma-ray bursts is discussed.

  5. NEW FERMI-LAT EVENT RECONSTRUCTION REVEALS MORE HIGH-ENERGY GAMMA RAYS FROM GAMMA-RAY BURSTS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Atwood, W. B. [Santa Cruz Institute for Particle Physics, Department of Physics and Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics, University of California at Santa Cruz, Santa Cruz, CA 95064 (United States); Baldini, L. [Universita di Pisa and Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Sezione di Pisa, I-56127 Pisa (Italy); Bregeon, J.; Pesce-Rollins, M.; Sgro, C.; Tinivella, M. [Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Sezione di Pisa, I-56127 Pisa (Italy); Bruel, P. [Laboratoire Leprince-Ringuet, Ecole polytechnique, CNRS/IN2P3, Palaiseau (France); Chekhtman, A. [Center for Earth Observing and Space Research, College of Science, George Mason University, Fairfax, VA 22030 (United States); Cohen-Tanugi, J. [Laboratoire Univers et Particules de Montpellier, Universite Montpellier 2, CNRS/IN2P3, F-34095 Montpellier (France); Drlica-Wagner, A.; Omodei, N.; Rochester, L. S.; Usher, T. L. [W. W. Hansen Experimental Physics Laboratory, Kavli Institute for Particle Astrophysics and Cosmology, Department of Physics and SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory, Stanford University, Stanford, CA 94305 (United States); Granot, J. [Department of Natural Sciences, The Open University of Israel, 1 University Road, P.O. Box 808, Ra' anana 43537 (Israel); Longo, F. [Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Sezione di Trieste, I-34127 Trieste (Italy); Razzaque, S. [Department of Physics, University of Johannesburg, Auckland Park 2006 (South Africa); Zimmer, S., E-mail: melissa.pesce.rollins@pi.infn.it, E-mail: nicola.omodei@stanford.edu, E-mail: granot@openu.ac.il [Department of Physics, Stockholm University, AlbaNova, SE-106 91 Stockholm (Sweden)

    2013-09-01

    Based on the experience gained during the four and a half years of the mission, the Fermi-LAT Collaboration has undertaken a comprehensive revision of the event-level analysis going under the name of Pass 8. Although it is not yet finalized, we can test the improvements in the new event reconstruction with the special case of the prompt phase of bright gamma-ray bursts (GRBs), where the signal-to-noise ratio is large enough that loose selection cuts are sufficient to identify gamma rays associated with the source. Using the new event reconstruction, we have re-analyzed 10 GRBs previously detected by the Large Area Telescope (LAT) for which an X-ray/optical follow-up was possible and found four new gamma rays with energies greater than 10 GeV in addition to the seven previously known. Among these four is a 27.4 GeV gamma ray from GRB 080916C, which has a redshift of 4.35, thus making it the gamma ray with the highest intrinsic energy ({approx}147 GeV) detected from a GRB. We present here the salient aspects of the new event reconstruction and discuss the scientific implications of these new high-energy gamma rays, such as constraining extragalactic background light models, Lorentz invariance violation tests, the prompt emission mechanism, and the bulk Lorentz factor of the emitting region.

  6. Discoveries by the Fermi Gamma Ray Space Telescope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gehrels, Neil

    2011-01-01

    Fermi is a large space gamma-ray mission developed by NASA and the DOE with major contributions from France, Germany, Italy, Japan and Sweden. It was launched in June 2008 and has been performing flawlessly since then. The main instrument is the Large Area Telescope (LAT) operating in the 20 MeV to 300 GeV range and a smaller monitor instrument is the Gamma-ray Burst Monitor (GBM) operating in the 8 keV to 40 MeV range. New findings are occurring every week. Some of the key discoveries are: 1) Discovery of many new gamma-ray pulsars, including gamma-ray only and millisecond pulsars. 2) Detection of high energy gamma-ray emission from globular clusters, most likely due to summed emission from msec pulsars. 3) Discovery of delayed and extended high energy gamma-ray emission from short and long gamma-ray busts. 4) Detection of approximately 250 gamma-ray bursts per year with the GBM instrument. 5) Most accurate measurement of the cosmic ray electron spectrum between 30 GeV and 1 TeV, showing some excess above the conventional diffusion model. The talk will present the new discoveries and their implications.

  7. Searching the Gamma-Ray Sky for Counterparts to Gravitational Wave Sources Fermi Gamma-Ray Burst Monitor and Large Area Telescope Observations of LVT151012 and GW151226

    Science.gov (United States)

    Racusin, J. L.; Burns, E.; Goldstein, A.; Connaughton, V.; Wilson-Hodge, C. A.; Jenke, P.; Blackburn, L.; Briggs, M. S.; Broida, J.; Camp, J.; hide

    2017-01-01

    We present the Fermi Gamma-ray Burst Monitor (GBM) and Large Area Telescope (LAT) observations of the LIGO binary black hole merger event GW151226 and candidate LVT151012. At the time of the LIGO triggers on LVT151012 and GW151226, GBM was observing 68% and 83% of the localization regions, and LAT was observing 47% and 32%, respectively. No candidate electromagnetic counterparts were detected by either the GBM or LAT. We present a detailed analysis of the GBM and LAT data over a range of timescales from seconds to years, using automated pipelines and new techniques for characterizing the flux upper bounds across large areas of the sky. Due to the partial GBM and LAT coverage of the large LIGO localization regions at the trigger times for both events, differences in source distances and masses, as well as the uncertain degree to which emission from these sources could be beamed, these non-detections cannot be used to constrain the variety of theoretical models recently applied to explain the candidate GBM counterpart to GW150914.

  8. SEARCHING THE GAMMA-RAY SKY FOR COUNTERPARTS TO GRAVITATIONAL WAVE SOURCES: FERMI GAMMA-RAY BURST MONITO R AND LARGE AREA TELESCOPE OBSERVATIONS OF LVT151012 AND GW151226

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Racusin, J. L.; Camp, J.; Singer, L. [NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD 20771 (United States); Burns, E. [Physics Dept, University of Alabama in Huntsville, 320 Sparkman Dr., Huntsville, AL 35805 (United States); Goldstein, A.; Connaughton, V.; Littenberg, T.; Cleveland, W. [Universities Space Research Association, 320 Sparkman Dr. Huntsville, AL 35806 (United States); Wilson-Hodge, C. A.; Hui, C. M. [Astrophysics Office, ZP12, NASA/Marshall Space Flight Center, Huntsville, AL 35812 (United States); Jenke, P.; Briggs, M. S.; Bhat, P. N. [CSPAR, University of Alabama in Huntsville, 320 Sparkman Dr., Huntsville, AL 35805 (United States); Blackburn, L. [LIGO, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, MA 02139 (United States); Broida, J.; Christensen, N. [Physics and Astronomy, Carleton College, MN 55057 (United States); Shawhan, P. [Department of Physics, University of Maryland, College Park, MD 20742 (United States); Veitch, J. [University of Birmingham, Birmingham B15 2TT (United Kingdom); Fitzpatrick, G. [School of Physics, University College Dublin, Belfield, Stillorgan Road, Dublin 4 (Ireland); Gibby, M. H. [Jacobs Technology, Inc., Huntsville, AL (United States); Collaboration: Fermi LAT Collaboration; and others

    2017-01-20

    We present the Fermi Gamma-ray Burst Monitor (GBM) and Large Area Telescope (LAT) observations of the LIGO binary black hole merger event GW151226 and candidate LVT151012. At the time of the LIGO triggers on LVT151012 and GW151226, GBM was observing 68% and 83% of the localization regions, and LAT was observing 47% and 32%, respectively. No candidate electromagnetic counterparts were detected by either the GBM or LAT. We present a detailed analysis of the GBM and LAT data over a range of timescales from seconds to years, using automated pipelines and new techniques for characterizing the flux upper bounds across large areas of the sky. Due to the partial GBM and LAT coverage of the large LIGO localization regions at the trigger times for both events, differences in source distances and masses, as well as the uncertain degree to which emission from these sources could be beamed, these non-detections cannot be used to constrain the variety of theoretical models recently applied to explain the candidate GBM counterpart to GW150914.

  9. Finding Sub-threshold Short Gamma-ray Bursts in Fermi GBM Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burns, Eric; Fermi Gamma-ray Burst Monitor Team

    2018-01-01

    The all-sky monitoring capability of Fermi GBM makes it ideal for finding transients, and the most prolific detector of short gamma-ray bursts with about 40 on-board triggers per year. Because the observed brightness of short gamma-ray bursts has no correlation with redshift, weak short gamma-ray bursts are important during the gravitational wave era. With this in mind, we discuss two searches of GBM data to find short gamma-ray which were below the on-board trigger threshold. The untargeted search looks for significant background-subtracted signals in two or more detectors at various timescales in the continuous data, detecting ~80 additional short GRB candidates per year. The targeted search is the most sensitive search for weak gamma-ray signals in GBM data and is run over limited time intervals around sources of interest like gravitational waves.

  10. Detection of 16 Gamma-Ray Pulsars Through Blind Frequency Searches Using the Fermi LAT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anderson, B.; Atwood, W.B.; Dormody, M.; Johnson, R.P.; Porter, T.A.; Primack, J.R.; Sadrozinski, H.F.W.; Parkinson, P.M.S.; Ziegler, M.; Abdo, A.A.; Dermer, C.D.; Grove, J.E.; Gwon, C.; Johnson, W.N.; Lovellette, M.N.; Makeev, A.; Ray, P.S.; Strickman, M.S.; Wolff, M.T.; Wood, K.S.; Ackermann, M.; Ajello, M.; Bechtol, K.; Berenji, B.; Blandford, R.D.; Borgland, A.W.; Cameron, R.A.; Chiang, J.; Claus, R.; Digel, S.W.; Silva, E.D.E.; Drell, P.S.; Dubois, R.; Funk, S.; Glanzman, T.; Godfrey, G.; Hayashida, M.; Johannesson, G.; Kamae, T.; Kocian, M.L.; Lande, J.; Madejski, G.M.; Michelson, P.F.; Mitthumsiri, W.; Monzani, M.E.; Moskalenko, I.V.; Murgia, S.; Nolan, P.L.; Paneque, D.; Reimer, A.; Reimer, O.; Rochester, L.S.; Romani, R.W.; Tajima, H.; Tanaka, T.; Thayer, J.G.; Tramacere, A.; Uchiyama, Y.; Usher, T.L.; Van Etten, A.; Waite, A.P.; Wang, P.; Watters, K.; Ackermann, M.; Ajello, M.; Bechtol, K.; Berenji, B.; Bloom, E.D.; Borgland, A.W.; Cameron, R.A.; Chiang, J.; Claus, R.; Digel, S.W.; Silva, E.D.E.; Drell, P.S.; Dubois, R.; Glanzman, T.; Godfrey, G.; Hayashida, M.; Johannesson, G.; Kamae, T.; Kocian, M.L.; Lande, J.; Madejski, G.M.; Michelson, P.F.; Mitthumsiri, W.; Monzani, M.E.; Moskalenko, I.V.; Murgia, S.; Nolan, P.L.; Paneque, D.; Reimer, A.; Reimer, O.; Rochester, L.S.; Romani, R.W.; Tajima, H.; Tanaka, T.; Thayer, J.G.; Tramacere, A.; Uchiyama, Y.; Usher, T.L.; Van Etten, A.; Waite, A.P.; Wang, P.; Watters, K.; Axelsson, M.; Conrad, J.; Meurer, C.; Ryde, F.; Ylinen, T.; Axelsson, M.; Baldini, L.; Bellazzini, R.; Bregeon, J.; Brez, A.; Kuss, M.; Latronico, L.; Omodei, N.; Pesce-Rollins, M.; Razzano, M.; Sgro, C.; Spandre, G.; Ballet, J.; Casandjian, J.M.; Grenier, I.A.; Pierbattista, M.; Starck, J.L.

    2009-01-01

    Pulsars are rapidly rotating, highly magnetized neutron stars emitting radiation across the electromagnetic spectrum. Although there are more than 1800 known radio pulsars, until recently only seven were observed to pulse in gamma rays, and these were all discovered at other wavelengths. The Fermi Large Area Telescope (LAT) makes it possible to pinpoint neutron stars through their gamma-ray pulsations. We report the detection of 16 gamma-ray pulsars in blind frequency searches using the LAT. Most of these pulsars are coincident with previously unidentified gamma-ray sources, and many are associated with supernova remnants. Direct detection of gamma-ray pulsars enables studies of emission mechanisms, population statistics, and the energetics of pulsar wind nebulae and supernova remnants. (authors)

  11. Fermi-LAT Observations of the Gamma-Ray Burst GRB 130427A

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ackermann, M.; Ajello, M.; Asano, K.; Atwood, W. B.; Axelsson, M.; Baldini, L.; Ballet, J.; Barbiellini, G.; Baring, M. G.; Bastieri, D.; hide

    2013-01-01

    The observations of the exceptionally bright gamma-ray burst (GRB) 130427A by the Large Area Telescope aboard the Fermi Gamma-ray Space Telescope provide constraints on the nature of these unique astrophysical sources. GRB 130427A had the largest fluence, highest-energy photon (95 GeV), longest gamma-ray duration (20 hours), and one of the largest isotropic energy releases ever observed from a GRB. Temporal and spectral analyses of GRB 130427A challenge the widely accepted model that the nonthermal high-energy emission in the afterglow phase of GRBs is synchrotron emission radiated by electrons accelerated at an external shock.

  12. PSR J2030+364I: Radio Discovery and Gamma-ray Study of a Middle-aged Pulsar in the Now Identified Fermi-LAT Source 1FGL J2030.0+3641

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camilo, F.; Kerr, M.; Ray, P. S.; Ransom, S. M.; Johnston, S.; Romani, R. W.; Parent, D.; Decesar, M. E.; Harding, A. K.; Donato, D.; hide

    2011-01-01

    In a radio search with the Green Bank Telescope of three unidentified low Galactic latitude Fermi-LAT sources, we have discovered the middle-aged pulsar J2030+3641, associated with IFGL J2030.0+3641 (2FGL J2030.0+3640). Following the detection of gamma-ray pulsations using a radio ephemeris, we have obtained a phase-coherent timing solution based on gamma-ray and radio pulse arrival times that spans the entire Fermi mission. With a rotation period of 0.28, spin-down luminosity of 3 x 10(exp 34) erg/s, and characteristic age of 0.5 Myr, PSR J2030+3641 is a middle-aged neutron star with spin parameters similar to those of the exceedingly gamma-ray-bright and radio-undetected Geminga. Its gamma-ray flux is 1 % that of Geminga, primarily because of its much larger distance, as suggested by the large integrated column density of free electrons, DM = 246 pc/cu cm. We fit the gamma-ray light curve, along with limited radio polarimetric constraints, to four geometrical models of magnetospheric emission, and while none of the fits have high significance some are encouraging and suggest that further refinements of these models may be worthwhile. We argue that not many more non-millisecond radio pulsars may be detected along the Galactic plane that are responsible for LAT sources, but that modified methods to search for gamma-ray pulsations should be productive - PSR J2030+364 I would have been found blindly in gamma rays if only > or approx. 0.8 GeV photons had been considered, owing to its relatively flat spectrum and location in a region of high soft background.

  13. Millisecond Pulsars at Gamma-Ray Energies: Fermi Detections and Implications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harding, Alice K.

    2011-01-01

    The Fermi Gamma-Ray Space Telescope has revolutionized the study of pulsar physics with the discovery of new populations of radio quiet and millisecond gamma-ray pulsars. The Fermi Large Area Telescope has so far discovered approx.20 new gamma-ray millisecond pulsars (MSPs) by both folding at periods of known radio MSPs or by detecting them as gamma-ray sources that are followed up by radio pulsar searches. The second method has resulted in a phenomenally successful synergy, with -30 new radio MSPs (to date) having been discovered at Fermi unidentified source locations and the gamma-ray pulsations having then been detected in a number of these using the radio timing solutions. Many of the newly discovered MSPs may be suitable for addition to the collection of very stable MSPs used for gravitational wave detection. Detection of such a large number of MSPs was surprising, given that most have relatively low spin-down luminosity and surface field strength. I will discuss their properties and the implications for pulsar particle acceleration and emission, as well as their potential contribution to gamma-ray backgrounds and Galactic cosmic rays.

  14. The First FERMI-LAT Gamma-Ray Burst Catalog

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ackermann, M.; Ajello, M.; Asano, K.; Axelsson, M.; Baldini, L.; Ballet, J.; Barbiellini, G.; Bastieri, D.; Bechtol, K.; Bellazzini, R.; hide

    2013-01-01

    In three years of observations since the beginning of nominal science operations in 2008 August, the Large Area Telescope (LAT) on board the Fermi Gamma-Ray Space Telescope has observed high-energy great than (20 MeV) gamma-ray emission from 35 gamma-ray bursts (GRBs). Among these, 28 GRBs have been detected above 100 MeV and 7 GRBs above approximately 20 MeV. The first Fermi-LAT catalog of GRBs is a compilation of these detections and provides a systematic study of high-energy emission from GRBs for the first time. To generate the catalog, we examined 733 GRBs detected by the Gamma-Ray Burst Monitor (GBM) on Fermi and processed each of them using the same analysis sequence. Details of the methodology followed by the LAT collaboration for the GRB analysis are provided. We summarize the temporal and spectral properties of the LAT-detected GRBs. We also discuss characteristics of LAT-detected emission such as its delayed onset and longer duration compared with emission detected by the GBM, its power-law temporal decay at late times, and the fact that it is dominated by a power-law spectral component that appears in addition to the usual Band model.

  15. The Fermi Gamma-ray Burst Monitor (GBM) Terrestrial Gamma-ray Flash (TGF) Catalog

    Science.gov (United States)

    Briggs, M. S.; Roberts, O.; Fitzpatrick, G.; Stanbro, M.; Cramer, E.; Mailyan, B. G.; McBreen, S.; Connaughton, V.; Grove, J. E.; Chekhtman, A.; Holzworth, R.

    2017-12-01

    The revised Second Fermi GBM TGF catalog includes data on 4144 TGFs detected by the Fermi Gamma-ray Burst Monitor through 2016 July 31. The catalog includes 686 bright TGFs there were detected in orbit and 4135 TGFs that were discovered by ground analysis of GBM data (the two samples overlap). Thirty of the events may have been detected as electrons and positrons rather than gamma-rays: Terrestrial Electron Beams (TEBs). We also provide results from correlating the GBM TGFs with VLF radio detections of the World Wide Lightning Location Network (WWLLN). TGFs with WWLLN associations have their localization uncertainties improved from 800 to 10 km, making it possible to identify specific thunderstorms responsible for the TGFs and opening up new types of scientific investigations. There are 1544 TGFs with WWLLN associations; maps are provided for these and the other TGFs of the catalog. The data tables of the catalog are available for use by the scientific community at the Fermi Science Support Center, at https://fermi.gsfc.nasa.gov/ssc/data/access/gbm/tgf/.

  16. A possible origin of gamma rays from the Fermi Bubbles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thoudam, Satyendra

    2014-11-01

    One of the most exciting discoveries of recent years is a pair of gigantic gamma-ray emission regions, the so-called Fermi bubbles, above and below the Galactic center. The bubbles, discovered by the Fermi space telescope, extend up to ∼50° in Galactic latitude and are ∼40° wide in Galactic longitude. The gamma-ray emission is also found to correlate with radio, microwave and X-rays emission. The origin of the bubbles and the associated non-thermal emissions are still not clearly understood. Possible explanations for the non-thermal emission include cosmic-ray injection from the Galactic center by high speed Galactic winds/jets, acceleration by multiple shocks or plasma turbulence present inside the bubbles, and acceleration by strong shock waves associated with the expansion of the bubbles. In this paper, I will discuss the possibility that the gamma-ray emission is produced by the injection of Galactic cosmic-rays mainly protons during their diffusive propagation through the Galaxy. The protons interact with the bubble plasma producing π°-decay gamma rays, while at the same time, radio and microwave synchrotron emissions are produced by the secondary electrons/positrons resulting from the π± decays.

  17. A possible origin of gamma rays from the Fermi Bubbles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thoudam, Satyendra

    2014-01-01

    One of the most exciting discoveries of recent years is a pair of gigantic gamma-ray emission regions, the so-called Fermi bubbles, above and below the Galactic center. The bubbles, discovered by the Fermi space telescope, extend up to ∼50 ° in Galactic latitude and are ∼40 ° wide in Galactic longitude. The gamma-ray emission is also found to correlate with radio, microwave and X-rays emission. The origin of the bubbles and the associated non-thermal emissions are still not clearly understood. Possible explanations for the non-thermal emission include cosmic-ray injection from the Galactic center by high speed Galactic winds/jets, acceleration by multiple shocks or plasma turbulence present inside the bubbles, and acceleration by strong shock waves associated with the expansion of the bubbles. In this paper, I will discuss the possibility that the gamma-ray emission is produced by the injection of Galactic cosmic-rays mainly protons during their diffusive propagation through the Galaxy. The protons interact with the bubble plasma producing π ° -decay gamma rays, while at the same time, radio and microwave synchrotron emissions are produced by the secondary electrons/positrons resulting from the π ± decays

  18. THE FIRST FERMI-LAT GAMMA-RAY BURST CATALOG

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ackermann, M. [Deutsches Elektronen Synchrotron DESY, D-15738 Zeuthen (Germany); Ajello, M. [Space Sciences Laboratory, 7 Gauss Way, University of California, Berkeley, CA 94720-7450 (United States); Asano, K. [Interactive Research Center of Science, Tokyo Institute of Technology, Meguro City, Tokyo 152-8551 (Japan); Axelsson, M. [Department of Astronomy, Stockholm University, SE-106 91 Stockholm (Sweden); Baldini, L. [Università di Pisa and Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Sezione di Pisa I-56127 Pisa (Italy); Ballet, J. [Laboratoire AIM, CEA-IRFU/CNRS/Université Paris Diderot, Service d' Astrophysique, CEA Saclay, 91191 Gif sur Yvette (France); Barbiellini, G. [Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Sezione di Trieste, I-34127 Trieste (Italy); Bastieri, D. [Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Sezione di Padova, I-35131 Padova (Italy); Bechtol, K.; Bloom, E. D. [W. W. Hansen Experimental Physics Laboratory, Kavli Institute for Particle Astrophysics and Cosmology, Department of Physics and SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory, Stanford University, Stanford, CA 94305 (United States); Bellazzini, R.; Bregeon, J. [Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Sezione di Pisa, I-56127 Pisa (Italy); Bhat, P. N. [Center for Space Plasma and Aeronomic Research (CSPAR), University of Alabama in Huntsville, Huntsville, AL 35899 (United States); Bissaldi, E. [Institut für Astro- und Teilchenphysik and Institut für Theoretische Physik, Leopold-Franzens-Universität Innsbruck, A-6020 Innsbruck (Austria); Bonamente, E. [Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Sezione di Perugia, I-06123 Perugia (Italy); Bonnell, J.; Brandt, T. J. [NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD 20771 (United States); Bouvier, A., E-mail: nicola.omodei@stanford.edu, E-mail: giacomov@slac.stanford.edu [Santa Cruz Institute for Particle Physics, Department of Physics and Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics, University of California at Santa Cruz, Santa Cruz, CA 95064 (United States); and others

    2013-11-01

    In three years of observations since the beginning of nominal science operations in 2008 August, the Large Area Telescope (LAT) on board the Fermi Gamma-Ray Space Telescope has observed high-energy (∼> 20 MeV) γ-ray emission from 35 gamma-ray bursts (GRBs). Among these, 28 GRBs have been detected above 100 MeV and 7 GRBs above ∼20 MeV. The first Fermi-LAT catalog of GRBs is a compilation of these detections and provides a systematic study of high-energy emission from GRBs for the first time. To generate the catalog, we examined 733 GRBs detected by the Gamma-Ray Burst Monitor (GBM) on Fermi and processed each of them using the same analysis sequence. Details of the methodology followed by the LAT collaboration for the GRB analysis are provided. We summarize the temporal and spectral properties of the LAT-detected GRBs. We also discuss characteristics of LAT-detected emission such as its delayed onset and longer duration compared with emission detected by the GBM, its power-law temporal decay at late times, and the fact that it is dominated by a power-law spectral component that appears in addition to the usual Band model.

  19. THE FIRST FERMI-LAT GAMMA-RAY BURST CATALOG

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ackermann, M.; Ajello, M.; Asano, K.; Axelsson, M.; Baldini, L.; Ballet, J.; Barbiellini, G.; Bastieri, D.; Bechtol, K.; Bloom, E. D.; Bellazzini, R.; Bregeon, J.; Bhat, P. N.; Bissaldi, E.; Bonamente, E.; Bonnell, J.; Brandt, T. J.; Bouvier, A.

    2013-01-01

    In three years of observations since the beginning of nominal science operations in 2008 August, the Large Area Telescope (LAT) on board the Fermi Gamma-Ray Space Telescope has observed high-energy (∼> 20 MeV) γ-ray emission from 35 gamma-ray bursts (GRBs). Among these, 28 GRBs have been detected above 100 MeV and 7 GRBs above ∼20 MeV. The first Fermi-LAT catalog of GRBs is a compilation of these detections and provides a systematic study of high-energy emission from GRBs for the first time. To generate the catalog, we examined 733 GRBs detected by the Gamma-Ray Burst Monitor (GBM) on Fermi and processed each of them using the same analysis sequence. Details of the methodology followed by the LAT collaboration for the GRB analysis are provided. We summarize the temporal and spectral properties of the LAT-detected GRBs. We also discuss characteristics of LAT-detected emission such as its delayed onset and longer duration compared with emission detected by the GBM, its power-law temporal decay at late times, and the fact that it is dominated by a power-law spectral component that appears in addition to the usual Band model

  20. Modeling high-energy gamma-rays from the Fermi Bubbles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Splettstoesser, Megan

    2015-09-17

    In 2010, the Fermi Bubbles were discovered at the galactic center of the Milky Way. These giant gamma-ray structures, extending 55° in galactic latitude and 20°-30° in galactic longitude, were not predicted. We wish to develop a model for the gamma-ray emission of the Fermi Bubbles. To do so, we assume that second order Fermi acceleration requires charged particles and irregular magnetic fields- both of which are present in the disk of the Milky Way galaxy. By solving the steady-state case of the transport equation, I compute the proton spectrum due to second order Fermi acceleration. I compare the analytical solutions of the proton spectrum to a numerical solution. I find that the numerical solution to the transport equation converges to the analytical solution in all cases. The gamma-ray spectrum due to proton-proton interaction is compared to Fermi Bubble data (from Ackermann et al. 2014), and I find that second order Fermi acceleration is a good fit for the gamma-ray spectrum of the Fermi Bubbles at low energies with an injection source term of S = 1.5 x 10⁻¹⁰ GeV⁻¹cm⁻³yr⁻¹. I find that a non-steady-state solution to the gamma-ray spectrum with an injection source term of S = 2 x 10⁻¹⁰ GeV⁻¹cm⁻³yr⁻¹ matches the bubble data at high energies.

  1. Magic gamma rays, extra-atmospheric source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bolufer, P.

    2010-01-01

    Without the atmospheric layer, the cosmos radiation would kill every living, our planet would be like the moon. The cosmic gamma ray to collide with gases in land cover, as it is disintegrated. They are harmless, they form a cone of light that points to the cosmic source comes from. On April 25, 2009 was born on the island of Palma Magic II and Magic I the best observer of atmospheric gamma rays of low intensity. (Author)

  2. LOCALIZATION OF GAMMA-RAY BURSTS USING THE FERMI GAMMA-RAY BURST MONITOR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Connaughton, V.; Briggs, M. S.; Burgess, J. M. [CSPAR and Physics Department, University of Alabama in Huntsville, 320 Sparkman Drive, Huntsville, AL 35899 (United States); Goldstein, A.; Wilson-Hodge, C. A. [Astrophysics Office, ZP12, NASA/Marshall Space Flight Center, Huntsville, AL 35812 (United States); Meegan, C. A.; Jenke, P.; Pelassa, V.; Xiong, S.; Bhat, P. N. [CSPAR, University of Alabama in Huntsville, 320 Sparkman Drive, Huntsville, AL 35899 (United States); Paciesas, W. S. [Universities Space Research Association, Huntsville, AL (United States); Preece, R. D. [Department of Space Science, University of Alabama in Huntsville, 320 Sparkman Drive, Huntsville, AL 35899 (United States); Gibby, M. H. [Jacobs Technology, Inc., Huntsville, AL (United States); Greiner, J.; Yu, H.-F. [Max-Planck-Institut für extraterrestrische Physik, Giessenbachstrasse 1, D-85748 Garching (Germany); Gruber, D. [Planetarium Südtirol, Gummer 5, I-39053 Karneid (Italy); Kippen, R. M. [Los Alamos National Laboratory, NM 87545 (United States); Byrne, D.; Fitzpatrick, G.; Foley, S., E-mail: valerie@nasa.gov [School of Physics, University College Dublin, Belfield, Stillorgan Road, Dublin 4 (Ireland); and others

    2015-02-01

    The Fermi Gamma-ray Burst Monitor (GBM) has detected over 1400 gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) since it began science operations in 2008 July. We use a subset of over 300 GRBs localized by instruments such as Swift, the Fermi Large Area Telescope, INTEGRAL, and MAXI, or through triangulations from the InterPlanetary Network, to analyze the accuracy of GBM GRB localizations. We find that the reported statistical uncertainties on GBM localizations, which can be as small as 1°, underestimate the distance of the GBM positions to the true GRB locations and we attribute this to systematic uncertainties. The distribution of systematic uncertainties is well represented (68% confidence level) by a 3.°7 Gaussian with a non-Gaussian tail that contains about 10% of GBM-detected GRBs and extends to approximately 14°. A more complex model suggests that there is a dependence of the systematic uncertainty on the position of the GRB in spacecraft coordinates, with GRBs in the quadrants on the Y axis better localized than those on the X axis.

  3. The Fermi Gamma-ray Burst Monitor Instrument

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bhat, P. N.; Briggs, M. S.; Connaughton, V.; Paciesas, W. S.; Preece, R. D.; Meegan, C. A.; Lichti, G. G.; Diehl, R.; Greiner, J.; Kienlin, A. von; Fishman, G. J.; Kouveliotou, C.; Kippen, R. M.

    2009-01-01

    The Fermi Gamma-ray Space Telescope launched on June 11, 2008 carries two experiments onboard--the Large Area Telescope (LAT) and the Gamma-ray Burst Monitor (GBM). The primary mission of the GBM instrument is to support the LAT in observing γ-ray bursts (GRBs) by providing low-energy measurements with high temporal and spectral resolution as well as rapid burst locations over a large field-of-view (≥8 sr). The GBM will complement the LAT measurements by observing GRBs in the energy range 8 keV to 40 MeV, the region of the spectral turnover in most GRBs. The GBM detector signals are processed by the onboard digital processing unit (DPU). We describe some of the hardware features of the DPU and its expected limitations during intense triggers.

  4. On the origin of gamma rays in Fermi blazars: beyond the broad line region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costamante, L.; Cutini, S.; Tosti, G.; Antolini, E.; Tramacere, A.

    2018-05-01

    The gamma-ray emission in broad-line blazars is generally explained as inverse Compton (IC) radiation of relativistic electrons in the jet scattering optical-UV photons from the Broad Line Region (BLR), the so-called BLR External Compton scenario. We test this scenario on the Fermi gamma-ray spectra of 106 broad-line blazars detected with the highest significance or largest BLR, by looking for cut-off signatures at high energies compatible with γ-γ interactions with BLR photons. We do not find evidence for the expected BLR absorption. For 2/3 of the sources, we can exclude any significant absorption (τmax 5). We conclude that for 9 out of 10 objects, the jet does not interact with BLR photons. Gamma-rays seem either produced outside the BLR most of the time, or the BLR is ˜100 × larger than given by reverberation mapping. This means that i) External Compton on BLR photons is disfavoured as the main gamma-ray mechanism, vs IC on IR photons from the torus or synchrotron self-Compton; ii) the Fermi gamma-ray spectrum is mostly intrinsic, determined by the interaction of the particle distribution with the seed-photons spectrum; iii) without suppression by the BLR, broad-line blazars can become copious emitters above 100 GeV, as demonstrated by 3C 454.3. We expect the CTA sky to be much richer of broad-line blazars than previously thought.

  5. THE SECOND FERMI LARGE AREA TELESCOPE CATALOG OF GAMMA-RAY PULSARS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abdo, A. A. [Center for Earth Observing and Space Research, College of Science, George Mason University, Fairfax, VA 22030 (United States); Ajello, M. [Space Sciences Laboratory, 7 Gauss Way, University of California, Berkeley, CA 94720-7450 (United States); Allafort, A.; Bloom, E. D.; Bottacini, E. [W. W. Hansen Experimental Physics Laboratory, Kavli Institute for Particle Astrophysics and Cosmology, Department of Physics and SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory, Stanford University, Stanford, CA 94305 (United States); Baldini, L. [Università di Pisa and Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Sezione di Pisa, I-56127 Pisa (Italy); Ballet, J. [Laboratoire AIM, CEA-IRFU/CNRS/Université Paris Diderot, Service d' Astrophysique, CEA Saclay, F-91191 Gif sur Yvette (France); Barbiellini, G. [Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Sezione di Trieste, I-34127 Trieste (Italy); Baring, M. G. [Rice University, Department of Physics and Astronomy, MS-108, P.O. Box 1892, Houston, TX 77251 (United States); Bastieri, D. [Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Sezione di Padova, I-35131 Padova (Italy); Belfiore, A. [Santa Cruz Institute for Particle Physics, Department of Physics and Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics, University of California at Santa Cruz, Santa Cruz, CA 95064 (United States); Bellazzini, R.; Bregeon, J. [Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Sezione di Pisa, I-56127 Pisa (Italy); Bhattacharyya, B. [National Centre for Radio Astrophysics, Tata Institute of Fundamental Research, Pune 411 007 (India); Bissaldi, E. [Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Sezione di Trieste, and Università di Trieste, I-34127 Trieste (Italy); Bonamente, E. [Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Sezione di Perugia, I-06123 Perugia (Italy); Brandt, T. J. [NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD 20771 (United States); Brigida, M., E-mail: hartog@stanford.edu [Dipartimento di Fisica ' ' M. Merlin' ' dell' Università e del Politecnico di Bari, I-70126 Bari (Italy); and others

    2013-10-01

    This catalog summarizes 117 high-confidence ≥0.1 GeV gamma-ray pulsar detections using three years of data acquired by the Large Area Telescope (LAT) on the Fermi satellite. Half are neutron stars discovered using LAT data through periodicity searches in gamma-ray and radio data around LAT unassociated source positions. The 117 pulsars are evenly divided into three groups: millisecond pulsars, young radio-loud pulsars, and young radio-quiet pulsars. We characterize the pulse profiles and energy spectra and derive luminosities when distance information exists. Spectral analysis of the off-peak phase intervals indicates probable pulsar wind nebula emission for four pulsars, and off-peak magnetospheric emission for several young and millisecond pulsars. We compare the gamma-ray properties with those in the radio, optical, and X-ray bands. We provide flux limits for pulsars with no observed gamma-ray emission, highlighting a small number of gamma-faint, radio-loud pulsars. The large, varied gamma-ray pulsar sample constrains emission models. Fermi's selection biases complement those of radio surveys, enhancing comparisons with predicted population distributions.

  6. The second FERMI large area telescope catalog of gamma-ray pulsars

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abdo, A. A.; Ajello, M.; Allafort, A.; Baldini, L.; Ballet, J.; Barbiellini, G.; Baring, M. G.; Bastieri, D.; Belfiore, A.; Bellazzini, R.; Bhattacharyya, B.; Bissaldi, E.; Bloom, E. D.; Bonamente, E.; Bottacini, E.; Brandt, T. J.; Bregeon, J.; Brigida, M.; Bruel, P.; Buehler, R.; Burgay, M.; Burnett, T. H.; Busetto, G.; Buson, S.; Caliandro, G. A.; Cameron, R. A.; Camilo, F.; Caraveo, P. A.; Casandjian, J. M.; Cecchi, C.; Çelik, Ö.; Charles, E.; Chaty, S.; Chaves, R. C. G.; Chekhtman, A.; Chen, A. W.; Chiang, J.; Chiaro, G.; Ciprini, S.; Claus, R.; Cognard, I.; Cohen-Tanugi, J.; Cominsky, L. R.; Conrad, J.; Cutini, S.; D' Ammando, F.; de Angelis, A.; DeCesar, M. E.; De Luca, A.; den Hartog, P. R.; de Palma, F.; Dermer, C. D.; Desvignes, G.; Digel, S. W.; Di Venere, L.; Drell, P. S.; Drlica-Wagner, A.; Dubois, R.; Dumora, D.; Espinoza, C. M.; Falletti, L.; Favuzzi, C.; Ferrara, E. C.; Focke, W. B.; Franckowiak, A.; Freire, P. C. C.; Funk, S.; Fusco, P.; Gargano, F.; Gasparrini, D.; Germani, S.; Giglietto, N.; Giommi, P.; Giordano, F.; Giroletti, M.; Glanzman, T.; Godfrey, G.; Gotthelf, E. V.; Grenier, I. A.; Grondin, M. -H.; Grove, J. E.; Guillemot, L.; Guiriec, S.; Hadasch, D.; Hanabata, Y.; Harding, A. K.; Hayashida, M.; Hays, E.; Hessels, J.; Hewitt, J.; Hill, A. B.; Horan, D.; Hou, X.; Hughes, R. E.; Jackson, M. S.; Janssen, G. H.; Jogler, T.; Jóhannesson, G.; Johnson, R. P.; Johnson, A. S.; Johnson, T. J.; Johnson, W. N.; Johnston, S.; Kamae, T.; Kataoka, J.; Keith, M.; Kerr, M.; Knödlseder, J.; Kramer, M.; Kuss, M.; Lande, J.; Larsson, S.; Latronico, L.; Lemoine-Goumard, M.; Longo, F.; Loparco, F.; Lovellette, M. N.; Lubrano, P.; Lyne, A. G.; Manchester, R. N.; Marelli, M.; Massaro, F.; Mayer, M.; Mazziotta, M. N.; McEnery, J. E.; McLaughlin, M. A.; Mehault, J.; Michelson, P. F.; Mignani, R. P.; Mitthumsiri, W.; Mizuno, T.; Moiseev, A. A.; Monzani, M. E.; Morselli, A.; Moskalenko, I. V.; Murgia, S.; Nakamori, T.; Nemmen, R.; Nuss, E.; Ohno, M.; Ohsugi, T.; Orienti, M.; Orlando, E.; Ormes, J. F.; Paneque, D.; Panetta, J. H.; Parent, D.; Perkins, J. S.; Pesce-Rollins, M.; Pierbattista, M.; Piron, F.; Pivato, G.; Pletsch, H. J.; Porter, T. A.; Possenti, A.; Rainò, S.; Rando, R.; Ransom, S. M.; Ray, P. S.; Razzano, M.; Rea, N.; Reimer, A.; Reimer, O.; Renault, N.; Reposeur, T.; Ritz, S.; Romani, R. W.; Roth, M.; Rousseau, R.; Roy, J.; Ruan, J.; Sartori, A.; Saz Parkinson, P. M.; Scargle, J. D.; Schulz, A.; Sgrò, C.; Shannon, R.; Siskind, E. J.; Smith, D. A.; Spandre, G.; Spinelli, P.; Stappers, B. W.; Strong, A. W.; Suson, D. J.; Takahashi, H.; Thayer, J. G.; Thayer, J. B.; Theureau, G.; Thompson, D. J.; Thorsett, S. E.; Tibaldo, L.; Tibolla, O.; Tinivella, M.; Torres, D. F.; Tosti, G.; Troja, E.; Uchiyama, Y.; Usher, T. L.; Vandenbroucke, J.; Vasileiou, V.; Venter, C.; Vianello, G.; Vitale, V.; Wang, N.; Weltevrede, P.; Winer, B. L.; Wolff, M. T.; Wood, D. L.; Wood, K. S.; Wood, M.; Yang, Z.

    2013-09-19

    This catalog summarizes 117 high-confidence ≥0.1 GeV gamma-ray pulsar detections using three years of data acquired by the Large Area Telescope (LAT) on the Fermi satellite. Half are neutron stars discovered using LAT data through periodicity searches in gamma-ray and radio data around LAT unassociated source positions. The 117 pulsars are evenly divided into three groups: millisecond pulsars, young radio-loud pulsars, and young radio-quiet pulsars. We characterize the pulse profiles and energy spectra and derive luminosities when distance information exists. Spectral analysis of the off-peak phase intervals indicates probable pulsar wind nebula emission for four pulsars, and off-peak magnetospheric emission for several young and millisecond pulsars. We compare the gamma-ray properties with those in the radio, optical, and X-ray bands. We provide flux limits for pulsars with no observed gamma-ray emission, highlighting a small number of gamma-faint, radio-loud pulsars. The large, varied gamma-ray pulsar sample constrains emission models. Fermi's selection biases complement those of radio surveys, enhancing comparisons with predicted population distributions.

  7. The second fermi large area telescope catalog of gamma-ray pulsars

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abdo, A. A.; Ajello, M.; Allafort, A.; Baldini, L.; Ballet, J.; Barbiellini, G.; Baring, M. G.; Bastieri, D.; Belfiore, A.; Bellazzini, R.; Bhattacharyya, B.; Bissaldi, E.; Bloom, E. D.; Bonamente, E.; Bottacini, E.; Brandt, T. J.; Bregeon, J.; Brigida, M.; Bruel, P.; Buehler, R.; Burgay, M.; Burnett, T. H.; Busetto, G.; Buson, S.; Caliandro, G. A.; Cameron, R. A.; Camilo, F.; Caraveo, P. A.; Casandjian, J. M.; Cecchi, C.; Çelik, Ö.; Charles, E.; Chaty, S.; Chaves, R. C. G.; Chekhtman, A.; Chen, A. W.; Chiang, J.; Chiaro, G.; Ciprini, S.; Claus, R.; Cognard, I.; Cohen-Tanugi, J.; Cominsky, L. R.; Conrad, J.; Cutini, S.; D' Ammando, F.; de Angelis, A.; DeCesar, M. E.; De Luca, A.; den Hartog, P. R.; de Palma, F.; Dermer, C. D.; Desvignes, G.; Digel, S. W.; Di Venere, L.; Drell, P. S.; Drlica-Wagner, A.; Dubois, R.; Dumora, D.; Espinoza, C. M.; Falletti, L.; Favuzzi, C.; Ferrara, E. C.; Focke, W. B.; Franckowiak, A.; Freire, P. C. C.; Funk, S.; Fusco, P.; Gargano, F.; Gasparrini, D.; Germani, S.; Giglietto, N.; Giommi, P.; Giordano, F.; Giroletti, M.; Glanzman, T.; Godfrey, G.; Gotthelf, E. V.; Grenier, I. A.; Grondin, M. -H.; Grove, J. E.; Guillemot, L.; Guiriec, S.; Hadasch, D.; Hanabata, Y.; Harding, A. K.; Hayashida, M.; Hays, E.; Hessels, J.; Hewitt, J.; Hill, A. B.; Horan, D.; Hou, X.; Hughes, R. E.; Jackson, M. S.; Janssen, G. H.; Jogler, T.; Jóhannesson, G.; Johnson, R. P.; Johnson, A. S.; Johnson, T. J.; Johnson, W. N.; Johnston, S.; Kamae, T.; Kataoka, J.; Keith, M.; Kerr, M.; Knödlseder, J.; Kramer, M.; Kuss, M.; Lande, J.; Larsson, S.; Latronico, L.; Lemoine-Goumard, M.; Longo, F.; Loparco, F.; Lovellette, M. N.; Lubrano, P.; Lyne, A. G.; Manchester, R. N.; Marelli, M.; Massaro, F.; Mayer, M.; Mazziotta, M. N.; McEnery, J. E.; McLaughlin, M. A.; Mehault, J.; Michelson, P. F.; Mignani, R. P.; Mitthumsiri, W.; Mizuno, T.; Moiseev, A. A.; Monzani, M. E.; Morselli, A.; Moskalenko, I. V.; Murgia, S.; Nakamori, T.; Nemmen, R.; Nuss, E.; Ohno, M.; Ohsugi, T.; Orienti, M.; Orlando, E.; Ormes, J. F.; Paneque, D.; Panetta, J. H.; Parent, D.; Perkins, J. S.; Pesce-Rollins, M.; Pierbattista, M.; Piron, F.; Pivato, G.; Pletsch, H. J.; Porter, T. A.; Possenti, A.; Rainò, S.; Rando, R.; Ransom, S. M.; Ray, P. S.; Razzano, M.; Rea, N.; Reimer, A.; Reimer, O.; Renault, N.; Reposeur, T.; Ritz, S.; Romani, R. W.; Roth, M.; Rousseau, R.; Roy, J.; Ruan, J.; Sartori, A.; Saz Parkinson, P. M.; Scargle, J. D.; Schulz, A.; Sgrò, C.; Shannon, R.; Siskind, E. J.; Smith, D. A.; Spandre, G.; Spinelli, P.; Stappers, B. W.; Strong, A. W.; Suson, D. J.; Takahashi, H.; Thayer, J. G.; Thayer, J. B.; Theureau, G.; Thompson, D. J.; Thorsett, S. E.; Tibaldo, L.; Tibolla, O.; Tinivella, M.; Torres, D. F.; Tosti, G.; Troja, E.; Uchiyama, Y.; Usher, T. L.; Vandenbroucke, J.; Vasileiou, V.; Venter, C.; Vianello, G.; Vitale, V.; Wang, N.; Weltevrede, P.; Winer, B. L.; Wolff, M. T.; Wood, D. L.; Wood, K. S.; Wood, M.; Yang, Z.

    2013-09-19

    This catalog summarizes 117 high-confidence ≥0.1 GeV gamma-ray pulsar detections using three years of data acquired by the Large Area Telescope (LAT) on the Fermi satellite. Half are neutron stars discovered using LAT data through periodicity searches in gamma-ray and radio data around LAT unassociated source positions. The 117 pulsars are evenly divided into three groups: millisecond pulsars, young radio-loud pulsars, and young radio-quiet pulsars. We characterize the pulse profiles and energy spectra and derive luminosities when distance information exists. Spectral analysis of the off-peak phase intervals indicates probable pulsar wind nebula emission for four pulsars, and off-peak magnetospheric emission for several young and millisecond pulsars. We compare the gamma-ray properties with those in the radio, optical, and X-ray bands. We provide flux limits for pulsars with no observed gamma-ray emission, highlighting a small number of gamma-faint, radio-loud pulsars. The large, varied gamma-ray pulsar sample constrains emission models. Fermi's selection biases complement those of radio surveys, enhancing comparisons with predicted population distributions.

  8. FERMI DISCOVERY OF GAMMA-RAY EMISSION FROM NGC 1275

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abdo, A. A.; Ackermann, M.; Ajello, M.; Bechtol, K.; Blandford, R. D.; Bloom, E. D.; Borgland, A. W.; Asano, K.; Baldini, L.; Bellazzini, R.; Bregeon, J.; Brez, A.; Ballet, J.; Barbiellini, G.; Bastieri, D.; Baughman, B. M.; Bonamente, E.; Brigida, M.; Bruel, P.; Burnett, T. H.

    2009-01-01

    We report the discovery of high-energy (E > 100 MeV) γ-ray emission from NGC 1275, a giant elliptical galaxy lying at the center of the Perseus cluster of galaxies, based on observations made with the Large Area Telescope (LAT) of the Fermi Gamma-ray Space Telescope. The positional center of the γ-ray source is only ∼3' away from the NGC 1275 nucleus, well within the 95% LAT error circle of ∼5'. The spatial distribution of γ-ray photons is consistent with a point source. The average flux and power-law photon index measured with the LAT from 2008 August 4 to 2008 December 5 are F γ = (2.10 ± 0.23) x 10 -7 ph (>100 MeV) cm -2 s -1 and Γ = 2.17 ± 0.05, respectively. The measurements are statistically consistent with constant flux during the four-month LAT observing period. Previous EGRET observations gave an upper limit of F γ -8 ph (>100 MeV) cm -2 s -1 to the γ-ray flux from NGC 1275. This indicates that the source is variable on timescales of years to decades, and therefore restricts the fraction of emission that can be produced in extended regions of the galaxy cluster. Contemporaneous and historical radio observations are also reported. The broadband spectrum of NGC 1275 is modeled with a simple one-zone synchrotron/synchrotron self-Compton model and a model with a decelerating jet flow.

  9. Fermi Discovery of Gamma-Ray Emission from NGC 1275

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abdo, Aous A.; Ackermann, M.; Ajello, M.; Asano, K.; Baldini, L.; Ballet, J.; Barbiellini, Guido; Bastieri, Denis; Baughman, B.M.; Bechtol, K.; Bellazzini, R.; Blandford, R.D.; Bloom, Elliott D.; Bonamente, E.; Borgland, A.W.; Bregeon, J.; Brez, A.; Brigida, M.; Bruel, P.; Burnett, Thompson H.; Caliandro, G.A.

    2009-01-01

    We report the discovery of high-energy (E > 100 MeV) γ-ray emission from NGC 1275, a giant elliptical galaxy lying at the center of the Perseus cluster of galaxies, based on observations made with the Large Area Telescope (LAT) of the Fermi Gamma-ray Space Telescope. The positional center of the γ-ray source is only ∼3(prime) away from the NGC 1275 nucleus, well within the 95% LAT error circle of ∼5(prime). The spatial distribution of γ-ray photons is consistent with a point source. The average flux and power-law photon index measured with the LAT from 2008 August 4 to 2008 December 5 are F γ = (2.10 ± 0.23) x 10 -7 ph (>100 MeV) cm -2 s -1 and Γ = 2.17 ± 0.05, respectively. The measurements are statistically consistent with constant flux during the four-month LAT observing period. Previous EGRET observations gave an upper limit of F γ -8 ph (>100 MeV) cm -2 s -1 to the γ-ray flux from NGC 1275. This indicates that the source is variable on timescales of years to decades, and therefore restricts the fraction of emission that can be produced in extended regions of the galaxy cluster. Contemporaneous and historical radio observations are also reported. The broadband spectrum of NGC 1275 is modeled with a simple one-zone synchrotron/synchrotron self-Compton model and a model with a decelerating jet flow.

  10. Gamma Rays from the Inner Milky Way: Dark Matter or Point Sources?

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva

    2015-01-01

    Studies of data from the Fermi Gamma-Ray Space Telescope have revealed bright gamma-ray emission from the central regions of our galaxy, with a spatial and spectral profile consistent with annihilating dark matter. I will present a new model-independent analysis that suggests that rather than originating from dark matter, the GeV excess may arise from a surprising new population of as-yet-unresolved gamma-ray point sources in the heart of the Milky Way.

  11. Anisotropies in the diffuse gamma-ray background measured by the Fermi-LAT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cuoco, A. [Stockholm University-Oskar Klein Center AlbaNova University Center, Fysikum, SE-10691 Stockholm (Sweden); Linden, T. [Department of Physics, University of California, Santa Cruz, 1156 High Street, Santa Cruz, CA 95064 (United States); Mazziotta, M.N. [Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Sezione di Bari, 70126 Bari (Italy); Siegal-Gaskins, J.M. [Einstein Postdoctoral Fellow, California Institute of Technology 1200 E. California Blvd., Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Vitale, Vincenzo, E-mail: vincenzo.vitale@roma2.infn.it [Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Sezione di Tor Vergata, 00133 Roma (Italy); Komatsu, E. [Texas Cosmology Center and Department of Astronomy, University of Texas, Austin, Dept. of Astronomy, 2511 Speedway, Austin, TX 78712 (United States)

    2012-11-11

    The small angular scale fluctuations of the (on large scale) isotropic gamma-ray background (IGRB) carry information about the presence of unresolved source classes. A guaranteed contribution to the IGRB is expected from the unresolved gamma-ray AGN while other extragalactic sources, Galactic gamma-ray source populations and dark matter Galactic and extragalactic structures (and sub-structures) are candidate contributors. The IGRB was measured with unprecedented precision by the Large Area Telescope (LAT) on-board of the Fermi gamma-ray observatory, and these data were used for measuring the IGRB angular power spectrum (APS). Detailed Monte Carlo simulations of Fermi-LAT all-sky observations were performed to provide a reference against which to compare the results obtained for the real data set. The Monte Carlo simulations are also a method for performing those detailed studies of the APS contributions of single source populations, which are required in order to identify the actual IGRB contributors. We present preliminary results of an anisotropy search in the IGRB. At angular scales <2 Degree-Sign (e.g., above multipole 155), angular power above the photon noise level is detected, at energies between 1 and 10 GeV in each energy bin, with statistical significance between 7.2 and 4.1{sigma}. The obtained energy dependences point to the presence of one or more unclustered source populations with the components having an average photon index {Gamma}=2.40{+-}0.07.

  12. New stage in high-energy gamma-ray studies with GAMMA-400 after Fermi-LAT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Topchiev N.P.

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Fermi-LAT has made a significant contribution to the study of high-energy gamma-ray diffuse emission and the observations of 3000 discrete sources. However, one third of all gamma-ray sources (both galactic and extragalactic are unidentified, the data on the diffuse gamma-ray emission should be clarified, and signatures of dark matter particles in the high-energy gamma-ray range are not observed up to now. GAMMA-400, the currently developing gamma-ray telescope, will have angular (∼0.01∘ at 100 GeV and energy (∼1% at 100 GeV resolutions in the energy range of 10–1000 GeV which are better than Fermi-LAT (as well as ground gamma-ray telescopes by a factor of 5–10. It will observe some regions of the Universe (such as the Galactic Center, Fermi Bubbles, Crab, Cygnus, etc. in a highly elliptic orbit (without shading the telescope by the Earth continuously for a long time. It will allow us to identify many discrete sources, to clarify the structure of extended sources, to specify the data on the diffuse emission, and to resolve gamma rays from dark matter particles.

  13. GAMMA-RAY OBSERVATIONS OF THE SUPERNOVA REMNANT RX J0852.0-4622 WITH THE FERMI LARGE AREA TELESCOPE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tanaka, T.; Allafort, A.; Funk, S.; Tajima, H.; Uchiyama, Y.; Ballet, J.; Giordano, F.; Hewitt, J.; Lemoine-Goumard, M.; Tibolla, O.

    2011-01-01

    We report on gamma-ray observations of the supernova remnant (SNR) RX J0852.0-4622 with the Large Area Telescope (LAT) on board the Fermi Gamma-ray Space Telescope. In the Fermi-LAT data, we find a spatially extended source at the location of the SNR. The extension is consistent with the SNR size seen in other wavelengths such as X-rays and TeV gamma rays, leading to the identification of the gamma-ray source with the SNR. The spectrum is well described as a power law with a photon index of Γ = 1.85 ± 0.06 (stat) +0.18 -0.19 (sys), which smoothly connects to the H.E.S.S. spectrum in the TeV energy band. We discuss the gamma-ray emission mechanism based on multiwavelength data. The broadband data can be fit well by a model in which the gamma rays are of hadronic origin. We also consider a scenario with inverse Compton scattering of electrons as the emission mechanism of the gamma rays. Although the leptonic model predicts a harder spectrum in the Fermi-LAT energy range, the model can fit the data considering the statistical and systematic errors.

  14. Detecting gamma-ray anisotropies from decaying dark matter. Prospects for Fermi LAT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ibarra, Alejandro; Tran, David

    2009-09-01

    Decaying dark matter particles could be indirectly detected as an excess over a simple power law in the energy spectrum of the diffuse extragalactic gamma-ray background. Furthermore, since the Earth is not located at the center of the Galactic dark matter halo, the exotic contribution from dark matter decay to the diffuse gamma-ray flux is expected to be anisotropic, offering a complementary method for the indirect search for decaying dark matter particles. In this paper we discuss in detail the expected dipole-like anisotropies in the dark matter signal, taking also into account the radiation from inverse Compton scattering of electrons and positrons from dark matter decay. A different source for anisotropies in the gamma-ray flux are the dark matter density fluctuations on cosmic scales. We calculate the corresponding angular power spectrum of the gamma-ray flux and comment on observational prospects. Finally, we calculate the expected anisotropies for the decaying dark matter scenarios that can reproduce the electron/positron excesses reported by PAMELA and the Fermi LAT, and we estimate the prospects for detecting the predicted gamma-ray anisotropy in the near future. (orig.)

  15. The Fermi GBM Gamma-Ray Burst Catalog: The First Two Years

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Paciesas, W.S.; Meegan, C.A.; von Kienlin, A.; Bhat, P.N.; Bissaldi, E.; Briggs, M.S.; M. Burgess, J.; Chaplin, V.; Connaughton, V.; Diehl, R.; Fishman, G.J.; Fitzpatrick, G.; Foley, S.; H. Gibby, M.; Giles, M.; Goldstein, A.; Greiner, J.; Gruber, D.; Guiriec, S.; van der Horst, A.J.; Kippen, R.M.; Kouveliotou, C.; Lichti, G.; Lin, L.; McBreen, S.; Preece, R.D.; Rau, A.; Tierney, D.; Wilson-Hodge, C.

    2012-01-01

    The Fermi Gamma-ray Burst Monitor (GBM) is designed to enhance the scientific return from Fermi in studying gamma-ray bursts (GRBs). In its first two years of operation GBM triggered on 491 GRBs. We summarize the criteria used for triggering and quantify the general characteristics of the triggered

  16. Gamma-ray astronomy from the ground and the space: first analyses of the HESS-II hybrid array and search for blazar candidates among the unidentified Fermi-LAT sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lefaucheur, Julien

    2015-01-01

    This manuscript is about high energy gamma-ray astronomy (between 30 GeV and 300 GeV) with the Fermi-LAT satellite and very high energy gamma-ray astronomy (above ∼100 GeV) via the H.E.S.S. experiment. The second phase of the H.E.S.S. experiment began in July 2012 with the inauguration of a fifth 28 m-diameter telescope added to the initial array composed of four 12 m-diameter imaging atmospheric Cherenkov telescopes. In the first part of this thesis, we present the development of an analysis in hybrid mode based on a multivariate method dedicated to detect and study sources with different spectral shapes and the first analysis results on real data. The second part is dedicated to the research of blazar candidates among the Fermi-LAT unidentified sources of the 2FGL catalog. A first development is based on a multivariate approach using discriminant parameters built with the 2FGL catalog parameters. A second development is done with the use of the WISE satellite catalog and a non-parametric technic in order to find the blazar-like infrared counterparts of the unidentified sources of the 2FGL catalog. (author)

  17. Fermi and Swift Gamma-Ray Burst Afterglow Population Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Racusin, Judith L.; Oates, S. R.; Schady, P.; Burrows, D. N.; dePasquale, M.; Donato, D.; Gehrels, N.; Koch, S.; McEnery, J.; Piran, T.; hide

    2011-01-01

    The new and extreme population of GRBs detected by Fermi -LAT shows several new features in high energy gamma-rays that are providing interesting and unexpected clues into GRB prompt and afterglow emission mechanisms. Over the last 6 years, it has been Swift that has provided the robust dataset of UV/optical and X-ray afterglow observations that opened many windows into components of GRB emission structure. The relationship between the LAT detected GRBs and the well studied, fainter, less energetic GRBs detected by Swift -BAT is only beginning to be explored by multi-wavelength studies. We explore the large sample of GRBs detected by BAT only, BAT and Fermi -GBM, and GBM and LAT, focusing on these samples separately in order to search for statistically significant differences between the populations, using only those GRBs with measured redshifts in order to physically characterize these objects. We disentangle which differences are instrumental selection effects versus intrinsic properties, in order to better understand the nature of the special characteristics of the LAT bursts.

  18. Dark matter and pulsar model constraints from Galactic Center Fermi-LAT gamma-ray observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gordon, Chris; Macías, Oscar

    2013-10-01

    Employing Fermi-LAT gamma-ray observations, several independent groups have found excess extended gamma-ray emission at the Galactic Center (GC). Both annihilating dark matter (DM) or a population of ˜103 unresolved millisecond pulsars (MSPs) are regarded as well-motivated possible explanations. However, there are significant uncertainties in the diffuse galactic background at the GC. We have performed a revaluation of these two models for the extended gamma-ray source at the GC by accounting for the systematic uncertainties of the Galactic diffuse emission model. We also marginalize over point-source and diffuse background parameters in the region of interest. We show that the excess emission is significantly more extended than a point source. We find that the DM (or pulsar-population) signal is larger than the systematic errors and therefore proceed to determine the sectors of parameter space that provide an acceptable fit to the data. We find that a population of 1000-2000 MSPs with parameters consistent with the average spectral shape of Fermi-LAT measured MSPs is able to fit the GC excess emission. For DM, we find that a pure τ+τ- annihilation channel is not a good fit to the data. But a mixture of τ+τ- and bb¯ with a ⟨σv⟩ of order the thermal relic value and a DM mass of around 20 to 60 GeV provides an adequate fit.

  19. EINSTEIN@HOME DISCOVERY OF FOUR YOUNG GAMMA-RAY PULSARS IN FERMI LAT DATA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pletsch, H. J.; Allen, B.; Aulbert, C.; Bock, O.; Eggenstein, H. B.; Fehrmann, H.; Machenschalk, B.; Papa, M. A. [Max-Planck-Institut für Gravitationsphysik (Albert-Einstein-Institut), D-30167 Hannover (Germany); Guillemot, L.; Champion, D. J.; Karuppusamy, R.; Kramer, M.; Ng, C. [Max-Planck-Institut für Radioastronomie, Auf dem Hügel 69, D-53121 Bonn (Germany); Anderson, D. [Space Sciences Laboratory, University of California, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States); Hammer, D.; Siemens, X. [Department of Physics, University of Wisconsin-Milwaukee, Milwaukee, WI 53201 (United States); Keith, M. [CSIRO Astronomy and Space Science, Australia Telescope National Facility (Australia); Ray, P. S., E-mail: holger.pletsch@aei.mpg.de, E-mail: lucas.guillemot@cnrs-orleans.fr [Space Science Division, Naval Research Laboratory, Washington, DC 20375-5352 (United States)

    2013-12-10

    We report the discovery of four gamma-ray pulsars, detected in computing-intensive blind searches of data from the Fermi Large Area Telescope (LAT). The pulsars were found using a novel search approach, combining volunteer distributed computing via Einstein@Home and methods originally developed in gravitational-wave astronomy. The pulsars PSRs J0554+3107, J1422–6138, J1522–5735, and J1932+1916 are young and energetic, with characteristic ages between 35 and 56 kyr and spin-down powers in the range 6 × 10{sup 34}—10{sup 36} erg s{sup –1}. They are located in the Galactic plane and have rotation rates of less than 10 Hz, among which the 2.1 Hz spin frequency of PSR J0554+3107 is the slowest of any known gamma-ray pulsar. For two of the new pulsars, we find supernova remnants coincident on the sky and discuss the plausibility of such associations. Deep radio follow-up observations found no pulsations, suggesting that all four pulsars are radio-quiet as viewed from Earth. These discoveries, the first gamma-ray pulsars found by volunteer computing, motivate continued blind pulsar searches of the many other unidentified LAT gamma-ray sources.

  20. The Second Fermi GBM Gamma-Ray Burst Catalog: The First Four Years

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    von Kienlin, A.; Meegan, C.A.; Paciesas, W.S.; Bhat, P.N.; Bissaldi, E.; Briggs, M.S.; Burgess, J.M.; Byrne, D.; Chaplin, V.; Cleveland, W.; Connaughton, V.; Collazzi, A.C.; Fitzpatrick, G.; Foley, S.; Gibby, M.; Giles, M.; Goldstein, A.; Greiner, J.; Gruber, D.; Guiriec, S.; van der Horst, A.J.; Kouveliotou, C.; Layden, E.; McBreen, S.; McGlynn, S.; Pelassa, V.; Preece, R.D.; Rau, A.; Tierney, D.; Wilson-Hodge, C.A.; Xiong, S.; Younes, G.; Yu, H-F.

    2014-01-01

    This is the second of a series of catalogs of gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) observed with the Fermi Gamma-ray Burst Monitor (GBM). It extends the first two-year catalog by two more years, resulting in an overall list of 953 GBM triggered GRBs. The intention of the GBM GRB catalog is to provide information

  1. Lunar occultations for gamma-ray source measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koch, David G.; Hughes, E. B.; Nolan, Patrick L.

    1990-01-01

    The unambiguous association of discrete gamma-ray sources with objects radiating at other wavelengths, the separation of discrete sources from the extended emission within the Galaxy, the mapping of gamma-ray emission from nearby galaxies and the measurement of structure within a discrete source cannot presently be accomplished at gamma-ray energies. In the past, the detection processes used in high-energy gamma-ray astronomy have not allowed for good angular resolution. This problem can be overcome by placing gamma-ray detectors on the moon and using the horizon as an occulting edge to achieve arcsec resolution. For purposes of discussion, this concept is examined for gamma rays above 100 MeV for which pair production dominates the detection process and locally-generated nuclear gamma rays do not contribute to the background.

  2. Spectrum of the isotropic diffuse gamma-ray emission derived from first-year Fermi Large Area Telescope data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdo, A A; Ackermann, M; Ajello, M; Atwood, W B; Baldini, L; Ballet, J; Barbiellini, G; Bastieri, D; Baughman, B M; Bechtol, K; Bellazzini, R; Berenji, B; Blandford, R D; Bloom, E D; Bonamente, E; Borgland, A W; Bregeon, J; Brez, A; Brigida, M; Bruel, P; Burnett, T H; Buson, S; Caliandro, G A; Cameron, R A; Caraveo, P A; Casandjian, J M; Cavazzuti, E; Cecchi, C; Celik, O; Charles, E; Chekhtman, A; Cheung, C C; Chiang, J; Ciprini, S; Claus, R; Cohen-Tanugi, J; Cominsky, L R; Conrad, J; Cutini, S; Dermer, C D; de Angelis, A; de Palma, F; Digel, S W; Di Bernardo, G; do Couto e Silva, E; Drell, P S; Drlica-Wagner, A; Dubois, R; Dumora, D; Farnier, C; Favuzzi, C; Fegan, S J; Focke, W B; Fortin, P; Frailis, M; Fukazawa, Y; Funk, S; Fusco, P; Gaggero, D; Gargano, F; Gasparrini, D; Gehrels, N; Germani, S; Giebels, B; Giglietto, N; Giommi, P; Giordano, F; Glanzman, T; Godfrey, G; Grenier, I A; Grondin, M-H; Grove, J E; Guillemot, L; Guiriec, S; Gustafsson, M; Hanabata, Y; Harding, A K; Hayashida, M; Hughes, R E; Itoh, R; Jackson, M S; Jóhannesson, G; Johnson, A S; Johnson, R P; Johnson, T J; Johnson, W N; Kamae, T; Katagiri, H; Kataoka, J; Kawai, N; Kerr, M; Knödlseder, J; Kocian, M L; Kuehn, F; Kuss, M; Lande, J; Latronico, L; Lemoine-Goumard, M; Longo, F; Loparco, F; Lott, B; Lovellette, M N; Lubrano, P; Madejski, G M; Makeev, A; Mazziotta, M N; McConville, W; McEnery, J E; Meurer, C; Michelson, P F; Mitthumsiri, W; Mizuno, T; Moiseev, A A; Monte, C; Monzani, M E; Morselli, A; Moskalenko, I V; Murgia, S; Nolan, P L; Norris, J P; Nuss, E; Ohsugi, T; Omodei, N; Orlando, E; Ormes, J F; Paneque, D; Panetta, J H; Parent, D; Pelassa, V; Pepe, M; Pesce-Rollins, M; Piron, F; Porter, T A; Rainò, S; Rando, R; Razzano, M; Reimer, A; Reimer, O; Reposeur, T; Ritz, S; Rochester, L S; Rodriguez, A Y; Roth, M; Ryde, F; Sadrozinski, H F-W; Sanchez, D; Sander, A; Saz Parkinson, P M; Scargle, J D; Sellerholm, A; Sgrò, C; Shaw, M S; Siskind, E J; Smith, D A; Smith, P D; Spandre, G; Spinelli, P; Starck, J-L; Strickman, M S; Strong, A W; Suson, D J; Tajima, H; Takahashi, H; Takahashi, T; Tanaka, T; Thayer, J B; Thayer, J G; Thompson, D J; Tibaldo, L; Torres, D F; Tosti, G; Tramacere, A; Uchiyama, Y; Usher, T L; Vasileiou, V; Vilchez, N; Vitale, V; Waite, A P; Wang, P; Winer, B L; Wood, K S; Ylinen, T; Ziegler, M

    2010-03-12

    We report on the first Fermi Large Area Telescope (LAT) measurements of the so-called "extragalactic" diffuse gamma-ray emission (EGB). This component of the diffuse gamma-ray emission is generally considered to have an isotropic or nearly isotropic distribution on the sky with diverse contributions discussed in the literature. The derivation of the EGB is based on detailed modeling of the bright foreground diffuse Galactic gamma-ray emission, the detected LAT sources, and the solar gamma-ray emission. We find the spectrum of the EGB is consistent with a power law with a differential spectral index gamma = 2.41 +/- 0.05 and intensity I(>100 MeV) = (1.03 +/- 0.17) x 10(-5) cm(-2) s(-1) sr(-1), where the error is systematics dominated. Our EGB spectrum is featureless, less intense, and softer than that derived from EGRET data.

  3. Terrestrial Gamma-ray Flashes (TGFs) Observed with the Fermi-Gamma-ray Burst Monitor: Temporal and Spectral Properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fishman, G. J.; Briggs, M. S.; Connaughton, W.; Wilson-Hodge, C.; Bhat, P. N.

    2010-01-01

    The Gamma-ray Burst Monitor (GBM) on the Fermi Gamma-ray Space Telescope Observatory (Fermi) was detecting 2.1 TGFs per week. This rate has increased by a factor of 8 since new flight software was uploaded to the spacecraft in November 2009 in order to increase the sensitivity of GBM to TGFs. Further upgrades to Fermi-GBM to allow observations of weaker TGFs are in progress. The high time resolution (2 s) allows temporal features to be resolved so that some insight may be gained on the origin and transport of the gamma-ray photons through the atmosphere. The absolute time of the TGFs, known to several microseconds, also allows accurate correlations of TGFs with lightning networks and other lightning-related phenomena. The thick bismuth germanate (BGO) scintillation detectors of the GBM system have observed photon energies from TGFs at energies above 40 MeV. New results on the some temporal aspects of TGFs will be presented along with spectral characteristics and properties of several electron-positron TGF events that have been identified.

  4. The Fermi Gamma-Ray Space Telescope, Exploding Stars, Neutron Stars, and Black Holes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, David J.

    2010-01-01

    Since August, 2008, the Fermi Gamma-ray Space Telescope has been scanning the sky, producing a full-sky image every three hours. These cosmic gamma-rays come from extreme astrophysical phenomena, many related to exploding stars (supernovae) or what these explosions leave behind: supernova remnants, neutron stars, and black holes. This talk uses sample Fermi results, plus simple demonstrations, to illustrate the exotic properties of these endpoints of stellar evolution.

  5. Fermi LAT Search for Dark Matter in Gamma-Ray Lines and the Inclusive Photon Spectrum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ackermann, M.; Ajello, M.; Albert, A.; Baldini, L.; Barbiellini, G.; Bechtol, K.; Bellazzini, R.; Berenji, B.; Blandford, R. D.; Bloom, E. D.; hide

    2012-01-01

    Dark matter particle annihilation or decay can produce monochromatic gamma-ray lines and contribute to the diffuse gamma-ray background. Flux upper limits are presented for gamma-ray spectral lines from 7 to 200 GeV and for the diffuse gamma-ray background from 4.8 GeV to 264 GeV obtained from two years of Fermi Large Area Telescope data integrated over most of the sky. We give cross section upper limits and decay lifetime lower limits for dark matter models that produce gamma-ray lines or contribute to the diffuse spectrum, including models proposed as explanations of the PAMELA and Fermi cosmic-ray data.

  6. Gamma-Rays from Galactic Compact Sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaaret, Philip

    2007-04-01

    Recent discoveries have revealed many sources of TeV photons in our Mikly Way galaxy powered by compact objects, either neutron stars or black holes. These objects must be powerful particle accelerators, some with peak energies of at least 100 TeV, and may be neutrino, as well as photon, sources. Future TeV observations will enable us to address key questions concerning particle acceleration by compact objects including the fraction of energy which accreting black holes channel into relativstic jet production, whether the compact object jets are leptonic or hadronic, and the mechanism by which pulsar winds accelerate relativistic particles. We report on work done related to compact Galactic objects in preparation of a White Paper on the status and future of ground-based gamma-ray astronomy requested by the Division of Astrophysics of the American Physical Society.

  7. SEARCH FOR GAMMA-RAY EMISSION FROM MAGNETARS WITH THE FERMI LARGE AREA TELESCOPE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abdo, A. A.; Ackermann, M.; Ajello, M.; Allafort, A.; Blandford, R. D.; Bloom, E. D.; Borgland, A. W.; Bouvier, A.; Baldini, L.; Bellazzini, R.; Bregeon, J.; Ballet, J.; Barbiellini, G.; Baring, M. G.; Bastieri, D.; Bonamente, E.; Brigida, M.; Bruel, P.; Burnett, T. H.; Caliandro, G. A.

    2010-01-01

    We report on the search for 0.1-10 GeV emission from magnetars in 17 months of Fermi Large Area Telescope (LAT) observations. No significant evidence for gamma-ray emission from any of the currently known magnetars is found. The most stringent upper limits to date on their persistent emission in the Fermi energy range are estimated between ∼10 -12 and10 -10 erg s -1 cm -2 , depending on the source. We also searched for gamma-ray pulsations and possible outbursts, also with no significant detection. The upper limits derived support the presence of a cutoff at an energy below a few MeV in the persistent emission of magnetars. They also show the likely need for a revision of current models of outer-gap emission from strongly magnetized pulsars, which, in some realizations, predict detectable GeV emission from magnetars at flux levels exceeding the upper limits identified here using the Fermi-LAT observations.

  8. Terrestrial Gamma-Ray Flashes (TGFs) Observed with the Fermi-Gamma-Ray Burst Monitor: The First Hundred TGFs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fishman, G J.; Briggs, M. S.; Connaughton, V.; Bhat, P. N.

    2010-01-01

    The Gamma-ray Burst Monitor (GBM) on the Fermi Gamma-ray Space Telescope Observatory (Fermi) is now detecting 2.1 TGFs per week. At this rate, nearly a hundred TGFs will have been detected by the time of this Meeting. This rate has increased by a factor of 8 since new flight software was uploaded to the spacecraft in November 2009 in order to increase the sensitivity of GBM to TGFs. The high time resolution (2 microseconds) allows temporal features to be resolved so that some insight may be gained on the origin and transport of the gamma-ray photons through the atmosphere. The absolute time of the TGFs, known to several microseconds, also allows accurate correlations of TGFs with lightning networks and other lightning-related phenomena. The thick bismuth germanate (BGO) scintillation detectors of the GBM system have observed photon energies from TGFs at energies above 40 MeV. New results on the some temporal aspects of TGFs will be presented.

  9. The Large Area Telescope on the Fermi Gamma-ray Space Telescope Mission

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Atwood, W.B.; /UC, Santa Cruz; Abdo, Aous A.; /Naval Research Lab, Wash., D.C.; Ackermann, M.; /Stanford U., HEPL /KIPAC, Menlo Park /Stanford U., Phys. Dept.; Anderson, B. /UC, Santa Cruz; Axelsson, M.; /Stockholm U.; Baldini, L.; /INFN, Pisa; Ballet, J.; /DAPNIA, Saclay; Band, D.L.; /NASA, Goddard /NASA, Goddard; Barbiellini, Guido; /INFN, Trieste /Trieste U.; Bartelt, J.; /Stanford U., HEPL /KIPAC, Menlo Park /Stanford U., Phys. Dept.; Bastieri, Denis; /INFN, Padua /Padua U.; Baughman, B.M.; /Ohio State U.; Bechtol, K.; /Stanford U., HEPL /KIPAC, Menlo Park /Stanford U., Phys. Dept.; Bederede, D.; /DAPNIA, Saclay; Bellardi, F.; /INFN, Pisa; Bellazzini, R.; /INFN, Pisa; Berenji, B.; /Stanford U., HEPL /KIPAC, Menlo Park /Stanford U., Phys. Dept.; Bignami, G.F.; /Pavia U.; Bisello, D.; /INFN, Padua /Padua U.; Bissaldi, E.; /Garching, Max Planck Inst., MPE; Blandford, R.D.; /Stanford U., HEPL /KIPAC, Menlo Park /Stanford U., Phys. Dept. /Stanford U., HEPL /KIPAC, Menlo Park /Stanford U., Phys. Dept. /Stanford U., HEPL /KIPAC, Menlo Park /Stanford U., Phys. Dept. /INFN, Perugia /Perugia U. /NASA, Goddard /Stanford U., HEPL /KIPAC, Menlo Park /Stanford U., Phys. Dept. /Stanford U., HEPL /KIPAC, Menlo Park /Stanford U., Phys. Dept. /INFN, Pisa /INFN, Pisa /Bari U. /INFN, Bari /Ecole Polytechnique /Washington U., Seattle /INFN, Padua /Padua U. /Bari U. /INFN, Bari /Stanford U., HEPL /KIPAC, Menlo Park /Stanford U., Phys. Dept. /IASF, Milan /IASF, Milan /Kalmar U. /Royal Inst. Tech., Stockholm /DAPNIA, Saclay /ASI, Rome /INFN, Pisa /INFN, Perugia /Perugia U. /Stanford U., HEPL /KIPAC, Menlo Park /Stanford U., Phys. Dept. /George Mason U. /Naval Research Lab, Wash., D.C. /NASA, Goddard /Stanford U., HEPL /KIPAC, Menlo Park /Stanford U., Phys. Dept. /DAPNIA, Saclay /NASA, Goddard /INFN, Perugia /Perugia U. /Stanford U., HEPL /KIPAC, Menlo Park /Stanford U., Phys. Dept. /Montpellier U. /Stanford U., HEPL /KIPAC, Menlo Park /Stanford U., Phys. Dept.; /more authors..

    2009-05-15

    The Large Area Telescope (Fermi/LAT, hereafter LAT), the primary instrument on the Fermi Gamma-ray Space Telescope (Fermi) mission, is an imaging, wide field-of-view (FoV), high-energy {gamma}-ray telescope, covering the energy range from below 20 MeV to more than 300 GeV. The LAT was built by an international collaboration with contributions from space agencies, high-energy particle physics institutes, and universities in France, Italy, Japan, Sweden, and the United States. This paper describes the LAT, its preflight expected performance, and summarizes the key science objectives that will be addressed. On-orbit performance will be presented in detail in a subsequent paper. The LAT is a pair-conversion telescope with a precision tracker and calorimeter, each consisting of a 4 x 4 array of 16 modules, a segmented anticoincidence detector that covers the tracker array, and a programmable trigger and data acquisition system. Each tracker module has a vertical stack of 18 (x, y) tracking planes, including two layers (x and y) of single-sided silicon strip detectors and high-Z converter material (tungsten) per tray. Every calorimeter module has 96 CsI(Tl) crystals, arranged in an eight-layer hodoscopic configuration with a total depth of 8.6 radiation lengths, giving both longitudinal and transverse information about the energy deposition pattern. The calorimeter's depth and segmentation enable the high-energy reach of the LAT and contribute significantly to background rejection. The aspect ratio of the tracker (height/width) is 0.4, allowing a large FoV (2.4 sr) and ensuring that most pair-conversion showers initiated in the tracker will pass into the calorimeter for energy measurement. Data obtained with the LAT are intended to (1) permit rapid notification of high-energy {gamma}-ray bursts and transients and facilitate monitoring of variable sources, (2) yield an extensive catalog of several thousand high-energy sources obtained from an all-sky survey, (3

  10. An alternative explanation for the GeV excess in the Fermi gamma ray data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gebauer, Iris; Boer, Wim de; Neumann, Alexander [Karlsruhe Institute of Technologie, Karlsruhe (Germany)

    2016-07-01

    Towards the Galactic center the diffuse Fermi Gamma Ray data show a 1-3 GeV excess, which has been interpreted previously as a new source, like dark matter annihilation, contributions from millisecond pulsars or cosmic rays interacting with molecular clouds. We search for this excess in the whole Galactic Plane and find it to be perfectly correlated with the spatial distribution of the {sup 26}Al line, thought to be a tracer of SNRs. So the excess is not only found in the Galactic Center, but found everywhere, where there are molecular clouds (MCs). This excludes the dark matter annihilation interpretation. If we assume the proton spectrum in MCs to be depleted at energies below 14 GeV by a combination of trapping, solar winds and energy losses, we find a perfect description of the whole gamma ray sky. In this case the excess is not an excess, but a depletion of low energy gamma rays below a few GeV due to the depletion of the protons in MCs below 14 GeV, which happens not only in the Galactic Center, but everywhere in the Galactic Plane, where there are MCs with star formation, as proven by the identical morphology of the excess and the 1.8 MeV line of {sup 26}Al, observed by Comptel and Integral.

  11. FERMI LARGE AREA TELESCOPE CONSTRAINTS ON THE GAMMA-RAY OPACITY OF THE UNIVERSE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abdo, A. A.; Ackermann, M.; Ajello, M.; Allafort, A.; Bechtol, K.; Berenji, B.; Blandford, R. D.; Bloom, E. D.; Borgland, A. W.; Bouvier, A.; Atwood, W. B.; Baldini, L.; Bellazzini, R.; Ballet, J.; Barbiellini, G.; Baring, M. G.; Bastieri, D.; Baughman, B. M.; Bhat, P. N.; Bonamente, E.

    2010-01-01

    The extragalactic background light (EBL) includes photons with wavelengths from ultraviolet to infrared, which are effective at attenuating gamma rays with energy above ∼10 GeV during propagation from sources at cosmological distances. This results in a redshift- and energy-dependent attenuation of the γ-ray flux of extragalactic sources such as blazars and gamma-ray bursts (GRBs). The Large Area Telescope on board Fermi detects a sample of γ-ray blazars with redshift up to z ∼ 3, and GRBs with redshift up to z ∼ 4.3. Using photons above 10 GeV collected by Fermi over more than one year of observations for these sources, we investigate the effect of γ-ray flux attenuation by the EBL. We place upper limits on the γ-ray opacity of the universe at various energies and redshifts and compare this with predictions from well-known EBL models. We find that an EBL intensity in the optical-ultraviolet wavelengths as great as predicted by the 'baseline' model of Stecker et al. can be ruled out with high confidence.

  12. Early Fermi Gamma-ray Space Telescope Observations of the Quasar 3C454.3

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abdo, A

    2009-05-07

    This is the first report of Fermi Gamma-ray Space Telescope observations of the quasar 3C 454.3, which has been undergoing pronounced long-term outbursts since 2000. The data from the Large Area Telescope (LAT), covering 2008 July 7-October 6, indicate strong, highly variable {gamma}-ray emission with an average flux of {approx} 3 x 10{sup -6} photons cm{sup -2} s{sup -1}, for energies > 100 MeV. The {gamma}-ray flux is variable, with strong, distinct, symmetrically-shaped flares for which the flux increases by a factor of several on a time scale of about three days. This variability indicates a compact emission region, and the requirement that the source is optically thin to pair-production implies relativistic beaming with Doppler factor {delta} > 8, consistent with the values inferred from VLBI observations of superluminal expansion ({delta} {approx} 25). The observed {gamma}-ray spectrum is not consistent with a simple power-law, but instead steepens strongly above {approx} 2 GeV, and is well described by a broken power-law with photon indices of {approx} 2.3 and {approx} 3.5 below and above the break, respectively. This is the first direct observation of a break in the spectrum of a high luminosity blazar above 100 MeV, and it is likely direct evidence for an intrinsic break in the energy distribution of the radiating particles. Alternatively, the spectral softening above 2GeV could be due to -ray absorption via photonphoton pair production on the soft X-ray photon field of the host AGN, but such an interpretation would require the dissipation region to be located very close ({approx}< 100 gravitational radii) to the black hole, which would be inconsistent with the X-ray spectrum of the source.

  13. Near stellar sources of gamma-ray bursts

    OpenAIRE

    Luchkov, B. I.; Markin, P. D.

    2012-01-01

    Correlation analysis of gamma-ray burst coordinates and nearby stars, registered on 2008-2011, revealed 5 coincidences with angular accuracy better than 0.1 degree. The random probability is $7\\times 10^{-7}$, so evidencing that coincident stars are indeed gamma-ray burst sources. The proposed method should be continued in order to provide their share in common balance of cosmic gamma-ray bursts.

  14. Search for Gamma-Ray Emission from Local Primordial Black Holes with the Fermi Large Area Telescope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ackermann, M.; Atwood, W. B.; Baldini, L.; Ballet, J.; Barbiellini, G.; Bastieri, D.; Bellazzini, R.; Berenji, B.; Bissaldi, E.; Blandford, R. D.; Bloom, E. D.; Bonino, R.; Bottacini, E.; Bregeon, J.; Bruel, P.; Buehler, R.; Cameron, R. A.; Caputo, R.; Caraveo, P. A.; Cavazzuti, E.; Charles, E.; Chekhtman, A.; Cheung, C. C.; Chiaro, G.; Ciprini, S.; Cohen-Tanugi, J.; Conrad, J.; Costantin, D.; D’Ammando, F.; de Palma, F.; Digel, S. W.; Di Lalla, N.; Di Mauro, M.; Di Venere, L.; Favuzzi, C.; Fegan, S. J.; Focke, W. B.; Franckowiak, A.; Fukazawa, Y.; Funk, S.; Fusco, P.; Gargano, F.; Gasparrini, D.; Giglietto, N.; Giordano, F.; Giroletti, M.; Green, D.; Grenier, I. A.; Guillemot, L.; Guiriec, S.; Horan, D.; Jóhannesson, G.; Johnson, C.; Kensei, S.; Kocevski, D.; Kuss, M.; Larsson, S.; Latronico, L.; Li, J.; Longo, F.; Loparco, F.; Lovellette, M. N.; Lubrano, P.; Magill, J. D.; Maldera, S.; Malyshev, D.; Manfreda, A.; Mazziotta, M. N.; McEnery, J. E.; Meyer, M.; Michelson, P. F.; Mitthumsiri, W.; Mizuno, T.; Monzani, M. E.; Moretti, E.; Morselli, A.; Moskalenko, I. V.; Negro, M.; Nuss, E.; Ojha, R.; Omodei, N.; Orienti, M.; Orlando, E.; Ormes, J. F.; Palatiello, M.; Paliya, V. S.; Paneque, D.; Persic, M.; Pesce-Rollins, M.; Piron, F.; Principe, G.; Rainò, S.; Rando, R.; Razzano, M.; Razzaque, S.; Reimer, A.; Reimer, O.; Ritz, S.; Sánchez-Conde, M.; Sgrò, C.; Siskind, E. J.; Spada, F.; Spandre, G.; Spinelli, P.; Suson, D. J.; Tajima, H.; Thayer, J. G.; Thayer, J. B.; Torres, D. F.; Tosti, G.; Troja, E.; Valverde, J.; Vianello, G.; Wood, K.; Wood, M.; Zaharijas, G.

    2018-04-01

    Black holes with masses below approximately 1015 g are expected to emit gamma-rays with energies above a few tens of MeV, which can be detected by the Fermi Large Area Telescope (LAT). Although black holes with these masses cannot be formed as a result of stellar evolution, they may have formed in the early universe and are therefore called primordial black holes (PBHs). Previous searches for PBHs have focused on either short-timescale bursts or the contribution of PBHs to the isotropic gamma-ray emission. We show that, in cases of individual PBHs, the Fermi-LAT is most sensitive to PBHs with temperatures above approximately 16 GeV and masses 6 × 1011 g, which it can detect out to a distance of about 0.03 pc. These PBHs have a remaining lifetime of months to years at the start of the Fermi mission. They would appear as potentially moving point sources with gamma-ray emission that become spectrally harder and brighter with time until the PBH completely evaporates. In this paper, we develop a new algorithm to detect the proper motion of gamma-ray point sources, and apply it to 318 unassociated point sources at a high galactic latitude in the third Fermi-LAT source catalog. None of the unassociated point sources with spectra consistent with PBH evaporation show significant proper motion. Using the nondetection of PBH candidates, we derive a 99% confidence limit on the PBH evaporation rate in the vicinity of Earth, {\\dot{ρ }}PBH}< 7.2× {10}3 {pc}}-3 {yr}}-1. This limit is similar to the limits obtained with ground-based gamma-ray observatories.

  15. FERMI OBSERVATIONS OF HIGH-ENERGY GAMMA-RAY EMISSION FROM GRB 080825C

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abdo, A. A.; Ackermann, M.; Bechtol, K.; Berenji, B.; Bloom, E. D.; Borgland, A. W.; Bouvier, A.; Asano, K.; Atwood, W. B.; Axelsson, M.; Baldini, L.; Bellazzini, R.; Bregeon, J.; Ballet, J.; Band, D. L.; Barbiellini, G.; Bastieri, D.; Bhat, P. N.; Bissaldi, E.; Bonamente, E.

    2009-01-01

    The Fermi Gamma-ray Space Telescope has opened a new high-energy window in the study of gamma-ray bursts (GRBs). Here we present a thorough analysis of GRB 080825C, which triggered the Fermi Gamma-ray Burst Monitor (GBM), and was the first firm detection of a GRB by the Fermi Large Area Telescope (LAT). We discuss the LAT event selections, background estimation, significance calculations, and localization for Fermi GRBs in general and GRB 080825C in particular. We show the results of temporal and time-resolved spectral analysis of the GBM and LAT data. We also present some theoretical interpretation of GRB 080825C observations as well as some common features observed in other LAT GRBs.

  16. Gamma-ray burst observations with new generation imaging atmospheric Cerenkov Telescopes in the FERMI era

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Covino, S.; Campana, S.; Garczarczyk, M.; Galante, N.; Gaug, M.; Antonelli, A.; Bastieri, D.; Longo, F.; Scapin, V.

    2009-01-01

    After the launch and successful beginning of operations of the FERMI satellite, the topics related to high-energy observations of gamma-ray bursts have obtained a considerable attention by the scientific community. Undoubtedly, the diagnostic power of high-energy observations in constraining the emission processes and the physical conditions of gamma-ray burst is relevant. We briefly discuss how gamma-ray burst observations with ground-based imaging array Cerenkov telescopes, in the GeV-TeV range, can compete and cooperate with FERMI observations, in the MeV-GeV range, to allow researchers to obtain a more detailed and complete picture of the prompt and afterglow phases of gamma-ray bursts.

  17. The Fermi Gamma Ray Space Telescope discovers the Pulsar in the Young Galactic Supernova-Remnant CTA 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abdo, Aous A.; Ackermann, M.; Atwood, W.B.; Baldini, L.; Ballet, J.; Barbiellini, G.; Baring, M.G.; Bastieri, Denis; Baughman, B.M.; Bechtol, K.; Bellazzini, R.; Berenji, B.; Blandford, R.D.; Bloom, Elliott D.; Bogaert, G.; Bonamente, E.; Borgland, A.W.; Bregeon, J.; Brez, A.; Brigida, M.; Bruel, P.

    2009-05-15

    Energetic young pulsars and expanding blast waves (supernova remnants, SNRs) are the most visible remains after massive stars, ending their lives, explode in core-collapse supernovae. The Fermi Gamma-Ray Space Telescope has unveiled a radio quiet pulsar located near the center of the compact synchrotron nebula inside the supernova remnant CTA 1. The pulsar, discovered through its gamma-ray pulsations, has a period of 316.86 ms, a period derivative of 3.614 x 10{sup -13} s s{sup -1}. Its characteristic age of 10{sup 4} years is comparable to that estimated for the SNR. It is conjectured that most unidentified Galactic gamma ray sources associated with star-forming regions and SNRs are such young pulsars.

  18. The Fermi Gamma Ray Space Telescope discovers the Pulsar in the Young Galactic Supernova-Remnant CTA 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abdo, Aous A.; Ackermann, M.; Atwood, W.B.; Baldini, L.; Ballet, J.; Barbiellini, G.; Baring, M.G.; Bastieri, Denis; Baughman, B.M.; Bechtol, K.; Bellazzini, R.; Berenji, B.; Blandford, R.D.; Bloom, Elliott D.; Bogaert, G.; Bonamente, E.; Borgland, A.W.; Bregeon, J.; Brez, A.; Brigida, M.; Bruel, P.

    2009-01-01

    Energetic young pulsars and expanding blast waves (supernova remnants, SNRs) are the most visible remains after massive stars, ending their lives, explode in core-collapse supernovae. The Fermi Gamma-Ray Space Telescope has unveiled a radio quiet pulsar located near the center of the compact synchrotron nebula inside the supernova remnant CTA 1. The pulsar, discovered through its gamma-ray pulsations, has a period of 316.86 ms, a period derivative of 3.614 x 10 -13 s s -1 . Its characteristic age of 10 4 years is comparable to that estimated for the SNR. It is conjectured that most unidentified Galactic gamma ray sources associated with star-forming regions and SNRs are such young pulsars

  19. Dark Matter Annihilation in The Galactic Center As Seen by the Fermi Gamma Ray Space Telescope

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hooper, Dan; /Fermilab /Chicago U., Astron. Astrophys. Ctr.; Goodenough, Lisa; /New York U.

    2010-10-01

    We analyze the first two years of data from the Fermi Gamma Ray Space Telescope from the direction of the inner 10{sup o} around the Galactic Center with the intention of constraining, or finding evidence of, annihilating dark matter. We find that the morphology and spectrum of the emission between 1.25{sup o} and 10{sup o} from the Galactic Center is well described by a the processes of decaying pions produced in cosmic ray collisions with gas, and the inverse Compton scattering of cosmic ray electrons in both the disk and bulge of the Inner Galaxy, along with gamma rays from known points sources in the region. The observed spectrum and morphology of the emission within approximately 1.25{sup o} ({approx}175 parsecs) of the Galactic Center, in contrast, cannot be accounted for by these processes or known sources. We find that an additional component of gamma ray emission is clearly present which is highly concentrated around the Galactic Center, but is not point-like in nature. The observed morphology of this component is consistent with that predicted from annihilating dark matter with a cusped (and possibly adiabatically contracted) halo distribution ({rho} {proportional_to} r{sup -1.34{+-}0.04}). The observed spectrum of this component, which peaks at energies between 2-4 GeV (in E{sup 2} units), is well fit by that predicted for a 7.3-9.2 GeV dark matter particle annihilating primarily to tau leptons with a cross section in the range of <{sigma}{nu}> = 3.3 x 10{sup -27} to 1.5 x 10{sup -26} cm{sup 3}/s, depending on how the dark matter distribution is normalized. We discuss other possible sources for this component, but argue that they are unlikely to account for the observed emission.

  20. Measuring The Variability Of Gamma-Ray Sources With AGILE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, Andrew W.; Vercellone, Stefano; Pellizzoni, Alberto; Tavani, Marco

    2005-01-01

    Variability in the gamma-ray flux above 100 MeV at various time scales is one of the primary characteristics of the sources detected by EGRET, both allowing the identification of individual sources and constraining the unidentified source classes. We present a detailed simulation of the capacity of AGILE to characterize the variability of gamma-ray sources, discussing the implications for source population studies

  1. UNVEILING THE NATURE OF THE UNIDENTIFIED GAMMA-RAY SOURCES. III. GAMMA-RAY BLAZAR-LIKE COUNTERPARTS AT LOW RADIO FREQUENCIES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Massaro, F.; Funk, S. [SLAC National Laboratory and Kavli Institute for Particle Astrophysics and Cosmology, 2575 Sand Hill Road, Menlo Park, CA 94025 (United States); D' Abrusco, R.; Paggi, A. [Harvard-Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory, 60 Garden Street, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Giroletti, M. [INAF Istituto di Radioastronomia, via Gobetti 101, I-40129 Bologna (Italy); Masetti, N. [INAF-Istituto di Astrofisica Spaziale e Fisica Cosmica di Bologna, via Gobetti 101, I-40129 Bologna (Italy); Tosti, G. [Dipartimento di Fisica, Universita degli Studi di Perugia, I-06123 Perugia (Italy); Nori, M. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Bologna, viale Berti Pichat 6/2, I-40127 Bologna (Italy)

    2013-07-01

    About one-third of the {gamma}-ray sources listed in the second Fermi Large Area Telescope catalog (2FGL) have no firmly established counterpart at lower energies and so are classified as unidentified gamma-ray sources (UGSs). Here, we propose a new approach to find candidate counterparts for the UGSs based on the 325 MHz radio survey performed with the Westerbork Synthesis Radio Telescope in the northern hemisphere. First, we investigate the low-frequency radio properties of blazars, the largest known population of {gamma}-ray sources; then we search for sources with similar radio properties combining the information derived from the Westerbork Northern Sky Survey (WENSS) with those of the NRAO Very Large Array Sky Survey. We present a list of candidate counterparts for 32 UGSs with at least one counterpart in the WENSS. We also performed an extensive research in the literature to look for infrared and optical counterparts of the {gamma}-ray blazar candidates selected using the low-frequency radio observations to confirm their nature. On the basis of our multifrequency research, we identify 23 new {gamma}-ray blazar candidates out of the 32 UGSs investigated. Comparison with previous results on the UGSs is also presented. Finally, we speculate on the advantages of using low-frequency radio observations to associate UGSs and to search for {gamma}-ray pulsar candidates.

  2. Search for Very High-energy Gamma Rays from the Northern Fermi Bubble Region with HAWC

    OpenAIRE

    Abeysekara, AU; Albert, A; Alfaro, R; Alvarez, C; Alvarez, JD; Arceo, R; Arteaga-Velázquez, JC; Ayala Solares, HA; Barber, AS; Bautista-Elivar, N; Becerril, A; Belmont-Moreno, E; BenZvi, SY; Berley, D; Braun, J

    2017-01-01

    © 2017. The American Astronomical Society. All rights reserved. We present a search for very high-energy gamma-ray emission from the Northern Fermi Bubble region using data collected with the High Altitude Water Cherenkov gamma-ray observatory. The size of the data set is 290 days. No significant excess is observed in the Northern Fermi Bubble region, so upper limits above 1 TeV are calculated. The upper limits are between and . The upper limits disfavor a proton injection spectrum that exten...

  3. Poisson denoising on the sphere: application to the Fermi gamma ray space telescope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmitt, J.; Starck, J. L.; Casandjian, J. M.; Fadili, J.; Grenier, I.

    2010-07-01

    The Large Area Telescope (LAT), the main instrument of the Fermi gamma-ray Space telescope, detects high energy gamma rays with energies from 20 MeV to more than 300 GeV. The two main scientific objectives, the study of the Milky Way diffuse background and the detection of point sources, are complicated by the lack of photons. That is why we need a powerful Poisson noise removal method on the sphere which is efficient on low count Poisson data. This paper presents a new multiscale decomposition on the sphere for data with Poisson noise, called multi-scale variance stabilizing transform on the sphere (MS-VSTS). This method is based on a variance stabilizing transform (VST), a transform which aims to stabilize a Poisson data set such that each stabilized sample has a quasi constant variance. In addition, for the VST used in the method, the transformed data are asymptotically Gaussian. MS-VSTS consists of decomposing the data into a sparse multi-scale dictionary like wavelets or curvelets, and then applying a VST on the coefficients in order to get almost Gaussian stabilized coefficients. In this work, we use the isotropic undecimated wavelet transform (IUWT) and the curvelet transform as spherical multi-scale transforms. Then, binary hypothesis testing is carried out to detect significant coefficients, and the denoised image is reconstructed with an iterative algorithm based on hybrid steepest descent (HSD). To detect point sources, we have to extract the Galactic diffuse background: an extension of the method to background separation is then proposed. In contrary, to study the Milky Way diffuse background, we remove point sources with a binary mask. The gaps have to be interpolated: an extension to inpainting is then proposed. The method, applied on simulated Fermi LAT data, proves to be adaptive, fast and easy to implement.

  4. Fermi observations of high-energy gamma-ray emission from GRB 080916C.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdo, A A; Ackermann, M; Arimoto, M; Asano, K; Atwood, W B; Axelsson, M; Baldini, L; Ballet, J; Band, D L; Barbiellini, G; Baring, M G; Bastieri, D; Battelino, M; Baughman, B M; Bechtol, K; Bellardi, F; Bellazzini, R; Berenji, B; Bhat, P N; Bissaldi, E; Blandford, R D; Bloom, E D; Bogaert, G; Bogart, J R; Bonamente, E; Bonnell, J; Borgland, A W; Bouvier, A; Bregeon, J; Brez, A; Briggs, M S; Brigida, M; Bruel, P; Burnett, T H; Burrows, D; Busetto, G; Caliandro, G A; Cameron, R A; Caraveo, P A; Casandjian, J M; Ceccanti, M; Cecchi, C; Celotti, A; Charles, E; Chekhtman, A; Cheung, C C; Chiang, J; Ciprini, S; Claus, R; Cohen-Tanugi, J; Cominsky, L R; Connaughton, V; Conrad, J; Costamante, L; Cutini, S; Deklotz, M; Dermer, C D; de Angelis, A; de Palma, F; Digel, S W; Dingus, B L; do Couto E Silva, E; Drell, P S; Dubois, R; Dumora, D; Edmonds, Y; Evans, P A; Fabiani, D; Farnier, C; Favuzzi, C; Finke, J; Fishman, G; Focke, W B; Frailis, M; Fukazawa, Y; Funk, S; Fusco, P; Gargano, F; Gasparrini, D; Gehrels, N; Germani, S; Giebels, B; Giglietto, N; Giommi, P; Giordano, F; Glanzman, T; Godfrey, G; Goldstein, A; Granot, J; Greiner, J; Grenier, I A; Grondin, M-H; Grove, J E; Guillemot, L; Guiriec, S; Haller, G; Hanabata, Y; Harding, A K; Hayashida, M; Hays, E; Hernando Morat, J A; Hoover, A; Hughes, R E; Jóhannesson, G; Johnson, A S; Johnson, R P; Johnson, T J; Johnson, W N; Kamae, T; Katagiri, H; Kataoka, J; Kavelaars, A; Kawai, N; Kelly, H; Kennea, J; Kerr, M; Kippen, R M; Knödlseder, J; Kocevski, D; Kocian, M L; Komin, N; Kouveliotou, C; Kuehn, F; Kuss, M; Lande, J; Landriu, D; Larsson, S; Latronico, L; Lavalley, C; Lee, B; Lee, S-H; Lemoine-Goumard, M; Lichti, G G; Longo, F; Loparco, F; Lott, B; Lovellette, M N; Lubrano, P; Madejski, G M; Makeev, A; Marangelli, B; Mazziotta, M N; McBreen, S; McEnery, J E; McGlynn, S; Meegan, C; Mészáros, P; Meurer, C; Michelson, P F; Minuti, M; Mirizzi, N; Mitthumsiri, W; Mizuno, T; Moiseev, A A; Monte, C; Monzani, M E; Moretti, E; Morselli, A; Moskalenko, I V; Murgia, S; Nakamori, T; Nelson, D; Nolan, P L; Norris, J P; Nuss, E; Ohno, M; Ohsugi, T; Okumura, A; Omodei, N; Orlando, E; Ormes, J F; Ozaki, M; Paciesas, W S; Paneque, D; Panetta, J H; Parent, D; Pelassa, V; Pepe, M; Perri, M; Pesce-Rollins, M; Petrosian, V; Pinchera, M; Piron, F; Porter, T A; Preece, R; Rainò, S; Ramirez-Ruiz, E; Rando, R; Rapposelli, E; Razzano, M; Razzaque, S; Rea, N; Reimer, A; Reimer, O; Reposeur, T; Reyes, L C; Ritz, S; Rochester, L S; Rodriguez, A Y; Roth, M; Ryde, F; Sadrozinski, H F-W; Sanchez, D; Sander, A; Saz Parkinson, P M; Scargle, J D; Schalk, T L; Segal, K N; Sgrò, C; Shimokawabe, T; Siskind, E J; Smith, D A; Smith, P D; Spandre, G; Spinelli, P; Stamatikos, M; Starck, J-L; Stecker, F W; Steinle, H; Stephens, T E; Strickman, M S; Suson, D J; Tagliaferri, G; Tajima, H; Takahashi, H; Takahashi, T; Tanaka, T; Tenze, A; Thayer, J B; Thayer, J G; Thompson, D J; Tibaldo, L; Torres, D F; Tosti, G; Tramacere, A; Turri, M; Tuvi, S; Usher, T L; van der Horst, A J; Vigiani, L; Vilchez, N; Vitale, V; von Kienlin, A; Waite, A P; Williams, D A; Wilson-Hodge, C; Winer, B L; Wood, K S; Wu, X F; Yamazaki, R; Ylinen, T; Ziegler, M

    2009-03-27

    Gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) are highly energetic explosions signaling the death of massive stars in distant galaxies. The Gamma-ray Burst Monitor and Large Area Telescope onboard the Fermi Observatory together record GRBs over a broad energy range spanning about 7 decades of gammaray energy. In September 2008, Fermi observed the exceptionally luminous GRB 080916C, with the largest apparent energy release yet measured. The high-energy gamma rays are observed to start later and persist longer than the lower energy photons. A simple spectral form fits the entire GRB spectrum, providing strong constraints on emission models. The known distance of the burst enables placing lower limits on the bulk Lorentz factor of the outflow and on the quantum gravity mass.

  5. Fermi Observations of high-energy gamma-ray emissions from GRB 080916C

    CERN Document Server

    Abdo, A A; Arimoto, M; Asano, K; Atwood, W B; Axelsson, M; Baldini, L; Ballet, J; Band, D L; Barbiellini, Guido; Baring, Matthew G; Bastieri, Denis; Battelino, M; Baughman, B M; Bechtol, K; Bellardi, F; Bellazzini, R; Berenji, B; Bhat, P N; Bissaldi, E; Blandford, R D; Bloom, Elliott D; Bogaert, G; Bogart, J R; Bonamente, E; Bonnell, J; Borgland, A W; Bouvier, A; Bregeon, J; Brez, A; Briggs, M S; Brigida, M; Bruel, P; Burnett, Thompson H; Burrows, David N; Busetto, Giovanni; Caliandro, G A; Cameron, R A; Caraveo, P A; Casandjian, J M; Ceccanti, M; Cecchi, C; Celotti, Annalisa; Charles, E; Chekhtman, A; Cheung, C.C.Teddy; Chiang, J; Ciprini, S; Claus, R; Cohen-Tanugi, Johann; Cominsky, Lynn R; Connaughton, V; Conrad, J; Costamante, L; Cutini, S; DeKlotz, M; Dermer, C D; De Angelis, Alessandro; de Palma, F; Digel, S W; Dingus, B L; do Couto e Silva, Eduardo; Drell, P S; Dubois, R; Dumora, D; Edmonds, Y; Evans, P A; Fabiani, D; Farnier, C; Favuzzi, C; Finke, Justin D; Fishman, G; Focke, W B; Frailis, M; Fukazawa, Y; Funk, S; Fusco, P; Gargano, F; Gasparrini, D; Gehrels, N; Germani, S; Giebels, B; Giglietto, N; Giommi, P; Giordano, F; Glanzman, Thomas Lynn; Godfrey, Gary L; Goldstein, A; Granot, J; Greiner, J; Grenier, I A; Grondin, M H; Grove, J.Eric; Guillemot, L; Guiriec, S; Haller, G; Hanabata, Y; Harding, Alice K; Hayashida, M; Hays, Elizabeth A; Hernando Morata, J A; Hoover, A; Hughes, R E; Johannesson, G; Johnson, A S; Johnson, R P; Johnson, T J; Johnson, W N; Kamae, Tsuneyoshi; Katagiri, H; Kataoka, J; Kavelaars, A; Kawai, N; Kelly, H; Kennea, J; Kerr, M; Kippen, R M; Knodlseder, J; Kocevski, D; Kocian, M L; Komin, N; Kouveliotou, C; Kuehn, Frederick Gabriel Ivar; Kuss, Michael; Lande, J; Landriu, D; Larsson, S; Latronico, L; Lavalley, C; Lee, B; Lee, S H; Lemoine-Goumard, M; Lichti, G G; Longo, F; Loparco, F; Lott, B; Lovellette, M N; Lubrano, Pasquale; Madejski, G M; Makeev, A; Marangelli, B; Mazziotta, M N; McBreen, Sheila; McEnery, J E; McGlynn, S; Meegan, C; Miszaros, P; Meurer, C; Michelson, P F; Minuti, M; Mirizzi, N; Mitthumsiri, W; Mizuno, T; Moiseev, A A; Monte, C; Monzani, M E; Moretti, E; Morselli, A; Moskalenko, Igor Vladimirovich; Murgia, Simona; Nakamori, T; Nelson, D; Nolan, P L; Norris, J P; Nuss, E; Ohno, M; Ohsugi, Takashi; Okumura, Akira; Omodei, N; Orlando, E; Ormes, J F; Ozaki, M; Paciesas, W S; Paneque, D; Panetta, J H; Parent, D; Pelassa, V; Pepe, M; Perri, M; Pesce-Rollins, M; Petrosian, Vahe; Pinchera, M; Piron, F; Porter, Troy A; Preece, R; Rainr, S; Ramirez-Ruiz, E; Rando, R; Rapposelli, E; Razzano, M; Razzaque, Soebur; Rea, N; Reimer, A; Reimer, O; Reposeur, Thierry; Reyes, Luis C; Ritz, S; Rochester, L S; Rodriguez, A Y; Roth, M; Ryde, F; Sadrozinski, H F W; Sanchez, D; Sander, A; Parkinson, P.M.Saz; Scargle, J D; Schalk, T L; Segal, K N; Sgro, C; Shimokawabe, T; Siskind, E J; Smith, D A; Smith, P D; Spandre, G; Spinelli, P; Stamatikos, M; Starck, Jean-Luc; Stecker, Floyd William; Steinle, H; Stephens, T E; Strickman, M S; Suson, Daniel J; Tagliaferri, G.; Tajima, Hiroyasu; Takahashi, H; Takahashi, T; Tanaka, T; Tenze, A; Thayer, J B; Thayer, J G; Thompson, D J; Tibaldo, L; Torres, Diego F; Tosti, G; Tramacere, A; Turri, M; Tuvi, S; Usher, T L; van der Horst, A J; Vigiani, L; Vilchez, N; Vitale, V; von Kienlin, A; Waite, A P; Williams, D A; Wilson-Hodge, C; Winer, B L; Wood, K S; Wu, X F; Yamazaki, R; Ylinen, T; Ziegler, M

    2009-01-01

    Gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) are highly energetic explosions signaling the death of massive stars in distant galaxies. The Gamma-ray Burst Monitor and Large Area Telescope onboard the Fermi Observatory together record GRBs over a broad energy range spanning about 7 decades of gammaray energy. In September 2008, Fermi observed the exceptionally luminous GRB 080916C, with the largest apparent energy release yet measured. The high-energy gamma rays are observed to start later and persist longer than the lower energy photons. A simple spectral form fits the entire GRB spectrum, providing strong constraints on emission models. The known distance of the burst enables placing lower limits on the bulk Lorentz factor of the outflow and on the quantum gravity mass.

  6. Nature of gamma-ray burst sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ventura, J.

    1983-01-01

    Observational evidence suggests that gamma ray bursts have a local galactic origin involving neutron stars. In this light we make a critical review of physics of the thermonuclear runaway model placing emphasis on self-consistency. We further show that some of the proposed models can be observationally excluded in the light of existing data from the Einstein Observatory. The possibility of gamma bursts arising in low mass binaries is finally discussed in the light of evolutionary scenarios leading to low luminosity systems

  7. Statistical measurement of the gamma-ray source-count distribution as a function of energy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zechlin, H.-S.; Cuoco, A.; Donato, F.; Fornengo, N.; Regis, M.

    2017-01-01

    Photon counts statistics have recently been proven to provide a sensitive observable for characterizing gamma-ray source populations and for measuring the composition of the gamma-ray sky. In this work, we generalize the use of the standard 1-point probability distribution function (1pPDF) to decompose the high-latitude gamma-ray emission observed with Fermi-LAT into: (i) point-source contributions, (ii) the Galactic foreground contribution, and (iii) a diffuse isotropic background contribution. We analyze gamma-ray data in five adjacent energy bands between 1 and 171 GeV. We measure the source-count distribution dN/dS as a function of energy, and demonstrate that our results extend current measurements from source catalogs to the regime of so far undetected sources. Our method improves the sensitivity for resolving point-source populations by about one order of magnitude in flux. The dN/dS distribution as a function of flux is found to be compatible with a broken power law. We derive upper limits on further possible breaks as well as the angular power of unresolved sources. We discuss the composition of the gamma-ray sky and capabilities of the 1pPDF method.

  8. Gamma ray bursts from extragalactic sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoyle, Fred; Burbidge, Geoffrey

    1992-01-01

    The properties of gamma ray bursts of classical type are found to be explicable in terms of high speed collisions between stars. A model is proposed in which the frequency of such collisions can be calculated. The model is then applied to the nuclei of galaxies in general on the basis that galaxies, or at least some fraction of them, originate in the expulsion of stars from creation centers. Evidence that low level activity of this kind is also taking place at the center of our own Galaxy is discussed. The implications for galactic evolution are discussed and a negative view of black holes is taken.

  9. Broad Line Radio Galaxies Observed with Fermi-LAT: The Origin of the GeV Gamma-Ray Emission

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kataoka, J.; /Waseda U., RISE; Stawarz, L.; /JAXA, Sagamihara /Jagiellonian U., Astron. Observ.; Takahashi, Y.; /Waseda U., RISE; Cheung, C.C.; /Natl. Acad. Sci. /Naval Research Lab, Wash., D.C.; Hayashida, M.; /SLAC /Stanford U., HEPL /KIPAC, Menlo Park; Grandi, P.; /Bologna Observ.; Burnett, T.H.; /Washington U., Seattle; Celotti, A.; /SISSA, Trieste; Fegan, S.J.; Fortin, P.; /Ecole Polytechnique; Maeda, K.; Nakamori, T.; /Waseda U., RISE; Taylor, G.B.; /New Mexico U.; Tosti, G.; /INFN, Perugia /Perugia U.; Digel, S.W.; /SLAC /Stanford U., HEPL /KIPAC, Menlo Park; McConville, W.; /NASA, Goddard /Maryland U.; Finke, J.; /Naval Research Lab, Wash., D.C.; D' Ammando, F.; /IASF, Palermo /INAF, Rome

    2012-06-07

    We report on a detailed investigation of the {gamma}-ray emission from 18 broad line radio galaxies (BLRGs) based on two years of Fermi Large Area Telescope (LAT) data. We confirm the previously reported detections of 3C 120 and 3C 111 in the GeV photon energy range; a detailed look at the temporal characteristics of the observed {gamma}-ray emission reveals in addition possible flux variability in both sources. No statistically significant {gamma}-ray detection of the other BLRGs was however found in the considered dataset. Though the sample size studied is small, what appears to differentiate 3C 111 and 3C 120 from the BLRGs not yet detected in {gamma}-rays is the particularly strong nuclear radio flux. This finding, together with the indications of the {gamma}-ray flux variability and a number of other arguments presented, indicate that the GeV emission of BLRGs is most likely dominated by the beamed radiation of relativistic jets observed at intermediate viewing angles. In this paper we also analyzed a comparison sample of high accretion-rate Seyfert 1 galaxies, which can be considered radio-quiet counterparts of BLRGs, and found none were detected in {gamma}-rays. A simple phenomenological hybrid model applied for the broad-band emission of the discussed radio-loud and radio-quiet type 1 active galaxies suggests that the relative contribution of the nuclear jets to the accreting matter is {ge} 1% on average for BLRGs, while {le} 0.1% for Seyfert 1 galaxies.

  10. Discovery of Pulsed Gamma Rays from the Young Radio Pulsar PSR J1028-5819 with the Fermi Large Area Telescope

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abdo, Aous A.; /Naval Research Lab, Wash., D.C.; Ackermann, M.; /Stanford U., HEPL /KIPAC, Menlo Park /Stanford U., Phys. Dept.; Atwood, W.B.; /UC, Santa Cruz; Baldini, L.; /INFN, Pisa; Ballet, J.; /DAPNIA, Saclay; Barbiellini, Guido; /INFN, Trieste /Trieste U.; Baring, Matthew G.; /Rice U.; Bastieri, Denis; /INFN, Padua /Padua U.; Baughman, B.M.; /Ohio State U.; Bechtol, K.; /Stanford U., HEPL /KIPAC, Menlo Park /Stanford U., Phys. Dept.; Bellazzini, R.; /INFN, Pisa; Berenji, B.; /Stanford U., HEPL /KIPAC, Menlo Park /Stanford U., Phys. Dept.; Bloom, Elliott D.; /Stanford U., HEPL /KIPAC, Menlo Park /Stanford U., Phys. Dept.; Bonamente, E.; /INFN, Perugia /Perugia U.; Borgland, A.W.; /Stanford U., HEPL /KIPAC, Menlo Park /Stanford U., Phys. Dept.; Bregeon, J.; /INFN, Pisa; Brez, A.; /INFN, Pisa; Brigida, M.; /Bari U. /INFN, Bari; Bruel, P.; /Ecole Polytechnique; Burnett, Thompson H.; /Washington U., Seattle; Caliandro, G.A.; /Bari U. /INFN, Bari /Stanford U., HEPL /KIPAC, Menlo Park /Stanford U., Phys. Dept. /IASF, Milan /IASF, Milan /DAPNIA, Saclay /INFN, Perugia /Perugia U. /Stanford U., HEPL /KIPAC, Menlo Park /Stanford U., Phys. Dept. /George Mason U. /Naval Research Lab, Wash., D.C. /NASA, Goddard /Stanford U., HEPL /KIPAC, Menlo Park /Stanford U., Phys. Dept. /INFN, Perugia /Perugia U. /Stanford U., HEPL /KIPAC, Menlo Park /Stanford U., Phys. Dept. /Montpellier U. /Sonoma State U. /Stockholm U., OKC /Royal Inst. Tech., Stockholm /Stockholm U. /Naval Research Lab, Wash., D.C. /INFN, Trieste /Bari U. /INFN, Bari /Stanford U., HEPL /KIPAC, Menlo Park /Stanford U., Phys. Dept. /NASA, Goddard /UC, Santa Cruz /Stanford U., HEPL /KIPAC, Menlo Park /Stanford U., Phys. Dept. /Stanford U., HEPL /KIPAC, Menlo Park /Stanford U., Phys. Dept. /Stanford U., HEPL /KIPAC, Menlo Park /Stanford U., Phys. Dept. /CENBG, Gradignan /CENBG, Gradignan /Stanford U., HEPL /KIPAC, Menlo Park /Stanford U., Phys. Dept. /Montpellier U. /Bari U. /INFN, Bari /Ecole Polytechnique /Stanford U., HEPL /KIPAC, Menlo Park /Stanford U., Phys. Dept. /INFN, Trieste /Hiroshima U. /Stanford U., HEPL /KIPAC, Menlo Park /Stanford U., Phys. Dept.; /more authors..

    2009-05-15

    Radio pulsar PSR J1028-5819 was recently discovered in a high-frequency search (at 3.1 GHz) in the error circle of the Energetic Gamma-Ray Experiment Telescope (EGRET) source 3EG J1027-5817. The spin-down power of this young pulsar is great enough to make it very likely the counterpart for the EGRET source. We report here the discovery of {gamma}-ray pulsations from PSR J1028-5819 in early observations by the Large Area Telescope (LAT) on the Fermi Gamma-Ray Space Telescope. The {gamma}-ray light curve shows two sharp peaks having phase separation of 0.460 {+-} 0.004, trailing the very narrow radio pulse by 0.200 {+-} 0.003 in phase, very similar to that of other known {gamma}-ray pulsars. The measured {gamma}-ray flux gives an efficiency for the pulsar of {approx}10-20% (for outer magnetosphere beam models). No evidence of a surrounding pulsar wind nebula is seen in the current Fermi data but limits on associated emission are weak because the source lies in a crowded region with high background emission. However, the improved angular resolution afforded by the LAT enables the disentanglement of the previous COS-B and EGRET source detections into at least two distinct sources, one of which is now identified as PSR J1028-5819.

  11. Fermi/GAMMA-RAY BURST MONITOR OBSERVATIONS OF SGR J0501+4516 BURSTS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lin Lin; Zhang Shuangnan; Kouveliotou, Chryssa; Baring, Matthew G.; Van der Horst, Alexander J.; Finger, Mark H.; Guiriec, Sylvain; Preece, Robert; Chaplin, Vandiver; Bhat, Narayan; Woods, Peter M.; Goegues, Ersin; Kaneko, Yuki; Scargle, Jeffrey; Granot, Jonathan; Von Kienlin, Andreas; Watts, Anna L.; Wijers, Ralph A. M. J.; Gehrels, Neil; Harding, Alice

    2011-01-01

    We present our temporal and spectral analyses of 29 bursts from SGR J0501+4516, detected with the gamma-ray burst monitor on board the Fermi Gamma-ray Space Telescope during 13 days of the source's activation in 2008 (August 22- September 3). We find that the T 90 durations of the bursts can be fit with a log-normal distribution with a mean value of ∼123 ms. We also estimate for the first time event durations of soft gamma repeater (SGR) bursts in photon space (i.e., using their deconvolved spectra) and find that these are very similar to the T 90 values estimated in count space (following a log-normal distribution with a mean value of ∼124 ms). We fit the time-integrated spectra for each burst and the time-resolved spectra of the five brightest bursts with several models. We find that a single power law with an exponential cutoff model fits all 29 bursts well, while 18 of the events can also be fit with two blackbody functions. We expand on the physical interpretation of these two models and we compare their parameters and discuss their evolution. We show that the time-integrated and time-resolved spectra reveal that E peak decreases with energy flux (and fluence) to a minimum of ∼30 keV at F = 8.7 x 10 -6 erg cm -2 s -1 , increasing steadily afterward. Two more sources exhibit a similar trend: SGRs J1550-5418 and 1806-20. The isotropic luminosity, L iso , corresponding to these flux values is roughly similar for all sources (0.4-1.5 x 10 40 erg s -1 ).

  12. High-energy emission from bright gamma-ray bursts using Fermi

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bissaldi, Elisabetta

    2010-05-25

    Among the scientific objectives of one of the present NASA missions, the Fermi Gamma-ray Space Telescope (FGST), is the study of gamma-ray bursts (GRBs). Fermi's payload comprises two science instruments, the Large Area Telescope (LAT) and the Gamma-Ray Burst Monitor (GBM). GBM was designed to detect and localize bursts for the Fermi mission. By means of an array of 12 NaI(Tl) (8 keV to 1 MeV) and two BGO (0.2 to 40 MeV) scintillation detectors, GBM extends the energy range (20 MeV to > 300 GeV) of the LAT instrument into the traditional range of current GRB databases. The physical detector response of the GBM instrument to GRBs has been determined with the help of Monte Carlo simulations, which are supported and verified by on-ground individual detector calibration measurements. The GBM detectors have been calibrated from 10 keV to 17.5 MeV using various gamma sources, and the detector response has been derived by simulations over the entire energy range (8 keV to 40 MeV) using GEANT. The GBM instrument has been operating successfully in orbit since June 11, 2008. The total trigger count from the time GBM triggering was enabled in July 2008 through December 2009 is 655, and about 380 of these triggers were classified as GRBs. Moreover, GBM detected several bursts in common with the LAT. These amazing detections mainly fulfill the primary science goal of GBM, which is the joint analysis of spectra and time histories of GRBs observed by both Fermi instruments. For every trigger, GBM provides near-real time on-board burst locations to permit repointing of the spacecraft and to obtain LAT observations of delayed emission from bursts. GBM and LAT refined locations are rapidly disseminated to the scientific community, often permitting extensive multiwavelength follow-up observations by NASA's Swift mission or other space- based observatories, and by numerous ground-based telescopes, thus allowing redshift determinations. Calculations of LAT upper limits are

  13. High-energy emission from bright gamma-ray bursts using Fermi

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bissaldi, Elisabetta

    2010-01-01

    Among the scientific objectives of one of the present NASA missions, the Fermi Gamma-ray Space Telescope (FGST), is the study of gamma-ray bursts (GRBs). Fermi's payload comprises two science instruments, the Large Area Telescope (LAT) and the Gamma-Ray Burst Monitor (GBM). GBM was designed to detect and localize bursts for the Fermi mission. By means of an array of 12 NaI(Tl) (8 keV to 1 MeV) and two BGO (0.2 to 40 MeV) scintillation detectors, GBM extends the energy range (20 MeV to > 300 GeV) of the LAT instrument into the traditional range of current GRB databases. The physical detector response of the GBM instrument to GRBs has been determined with the help of Monte Carlo simulations, which are supported and verified by on-ground individual detector calibration measurements. The GBM detectors have been calibrated from 10 keV to 17.5 MeV using various gamma sources, and the detector response has been derived by simulations over the entire energy range (8 keV to 40 MeV) using GEANT. The GBM instrument has been operating successfully in orbit since June 11, 2008. The total trigger count from the time GBM triggering was enabled in July 2008 through December 2009 is 655, and about 380 of these triggers were classified as GRBs. Moreover, GBM detected several bursts in common with the LAT. These amazing detections mainly fulfill the primary science goal of GBM, which is the joint analysis of spectra and time histories of GRBs observed by both Fermi instruments. For every trigger, GBM provides near-real time on-board burst locations to permit repointing of the spacecraft and to obtain LAT observations of delayed emission from bursts. GBM and LAT refined locations are rapidly disseminated to the scientific community, often permitting extensive multiwavelength follow-up observations by NASA's Swift mission or other space- based observatories, and by numerous ground-based telescopes, thus allowing redshift determinations. Calculations of LAT upper limits are mainly based

  14. An Overview of the Current Understanding of Gamma-Ray Bursts in the Fermi Era

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhat, P. N.; Guiriec, Sylvain

    2011-01-01

    Gamma-ray bursts are the most luminous explosions in the Universe, and their origin as well as mechanism are the focus of intense research and debate. More than three decades since their serendipitous discovery, followed by several breakthroughs from space-borne and ground-based observations, they remain one of the most interesting astrophysical phenomena yet to be completely understood. Since the launch of Fermi with its unprecedented energy band width spanning seven decades, the study of gamma-ray burst research has entered a new phase. Here we review the current theoretical understanding and observational highlights of gamma-ray burst astronomy and point out some of the potential promises of multi-wavelength observations in view of the upcoming ground based observational facilities .

  15. A Population of Gamma-Ray Millisecond Pulsars Seen with the Fermi Large Area Telescope

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dumora, D.; Grondin, M.H.; Guillemot, L.; Lemoine-Goumard, M.; Lovellette, M.N.; Parent, D.; Smith, D.A.; Abdo, A.A.; Chekhtman, A.; Dermer, C.D.; Grove, J.E.; Johnson, W.N.; Makeev, A.; Ray, P.S.; Strickman, M.S.; Wood, K.S.; Ackermann, M.; Ajello, M.; Bechtol, K.; Berenji, B.; Blandford, R.D.; Bloom, E.D.; Borgland, A.W.; Cameron, R.A.; Charles, E.; Chiang, J.; Claus, R.; Digel, S.W.; Silva, E.D.E.; Drell, P.S.; Dubois, R.; Edmonds, Y.; Focke, W.B.; Funk, S.; Glanzman, T.; Godfrey, G.; Hayashida, M.; Johannesson, G.; Kocian, M.L.; Lande, J.; Madejski, G.M.; Michelson, P.F.; Mitthumsiri, W.; Monzani, M.E.; Moskalenko, I.V.; Murgia, S.; Nolan, P.L.; Paneque, D.; Panetta, J.H.; Reimer, A.; Reimer, O.; Rochester, L.S.; Romani, R.W.; Tajima, H.; Tanaka, T.; Thayer, J.B.; Thayer, J.G.; Tramacere, A.; Uchiyama, Y.; Usher, T.L.; Van Etten, A.; Waite, A.P.; Wang, P.; Watters, K.; Atwood, W.B.; Dormody, M.; Johnson, R.P.; Porter, T.A.; Sadrozinski, H.F.W.; Schalk, T.L.; Thorsett, S.E.; Ziegler, M.; Axelsson, M.; Carlson, P.; Conrad, J.; Meurer, C.; Ryde, F.; Ylinen, T.; Axelsson, M.; Baldini, L.; Bellazzini, R.; Bregeon, J.; Brez, A.; Kuss, M.; Latronico, L.; Omodei, N.; Pesce-Rollins, M.; Razzano, M.; Sgro, C.; Spandre, G.; Ballet, J.; Casandjian, J.M.; Grenier, I.A.; Starck, J.L.

    2009-01-01

    Pulsars are born with sub-second spin periods and slow by electromagnetic braking for several tens of millions of years, when detectable radiation ceases. A second life can occur for neutron stars in binary systems. They can acquire mass and angular momentum from their companions, to be spun up to millisecond periods and begin radiating again. We searched Fermi Large Area Telescope data for pulsations from all known millisecond pulsars (MSPs) outside of globular clusters, using rotation parameters from radio telescopes. Strong gamma-ray pulsations were detected for eight MSPs. The gamma-ray pulse profiles and spectral properties resemble those of young gamma-ray pulsars. The basic emission mechanism seems to be the same for MSPs and young pulsars, with the emission originating in regions far from the neutron star surface. (authors)

  16. FERMI LARGE AREA TELESCOPE DISCOVERY OF GeV GAMMA-RAY EMISSION FROM THE VICINITY OF SNR W44

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Uchiyama, Yasunobu; Funk, Stefan; Katsuta, Junichiro [SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory, 2575 Sand Hill Road M/S 29, Menlo Park, CA 94025 (United States); Katagiri, Hideaki [College of Science, Ibaraki University, 2-1-1, Bunkyo, Mito 310-8512 (Japan); Lemoine-Goumard, Marianne [Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires de Bordeaux Gradignan, Universite Bordeaux 1, CNRS/IN2p3, 33175 Gradignan (France); Tajima, Hiroyasu; Tanaka, Takaaki [Kavli Institute for Particle Astrophysics and Cosmology, Stanford University, Stanford, CA 94305 (United States); Torres, Diego F., E-mail: uchiyama@slac.stanford.edu [Institut de Ciencies de l' Espai (IEEE-CSIC), Campus UAB, 08193 Barcelona (Spain)

    2012-04-20

    We report the detection of GeV {gamma}-ray emission from the molecular cloud complex that surrounds the supernova remnant (SNR) W44 using the Large Area Telescope on board Fermi. While the previously reported {gamma}-ray emission from SNR W44 is likely to arise from the dense radio-emitting filaments within the remnant, the {gamma}-ray emission that appears to come from the surrounding molecular cloud complex can be ascribed to the cosmic rays (CRs) that have escaped from W44. The non-detection of synchrotron radio emission associated with the molecular cloud complex suggests the decay of {pi}{sup 0} mesons produced in hadronic collisions as the {gamma}-ray emission mechanism. The total kinetic energy channeled into the escaping CRs is estimated to be W{sub esc} {approx} (0.3-3) Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 50} erg, in broad agreement with the conjecture that SNRs are the main sources of Galactic CRs.

  17. Dosimetry for terrestrial gamma-ray sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abdullah, S.A.; Dickson, H.W.; Kerr, G.D.; Miah, M.F.K.; Perdue, P.T.

    1975-01-01

    Dose rates from natural radionuclides and 137 Cs in soils of the Oak Ridge area have been determined from in situ and core sample measurements. Information on soil composition, density, and moisture content and on the distribution of cesium in the soil was obtained from the core samples. Measurements of radionuclide concentrations in the samples were made with a 4 x 4 in. NaI detector. Gamma-ray spectroscopy using a lithium-drifted germanium (GeLi) detector has been applied to the determination of radionuclide concentrations in soil and the associated gamma dose rates above the earth plane. An unshielded GeLi detector placed about 1 m above the earth detects gamma radiation from an area of about 100 m 2 . The equipment and data processing procedure are briefly described

  18. Spherical harmonics analysis of Fermi gamma-ray data and the Galactic dark matter halo

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Malyshev, Dmitry; Bovy, Jo; Cholis, Ilias

    2011-01-01

    We argue that the decomposition of gamma-ray maps in spherical harmonics is a sensitive tool to study dark matter (DM) annihilation or decay in the main Galactic halo of the Milky Way. Using the spherical harmonic decomposition in a window excluding the Galactic plane, we show for 1 yr of Fermi data that adding a spherical template (such as a line-of-sight DM annihilation profile) to an astrophysical background significantly reduces χ 2 of the fit to the data. In some energy bins the significance of this DM fraction is above three sigma. This can be viewed as a hint of a DM annihilation signal, although astrophysical sources cannot be ruled out at this moment. We use the derived DM fraction as a conservative upper limit on the DM annihilation signal. In the case of bb annihilation channel the limits are about a factor of 2 less constraining than the limits from dwarf galaxies. The uncertainty of our method is dominated by systematics related to modeling the astrophysical background. We show that with 1 yr of Fermi data the statistical sensitivity would be sufficient to detect DM annihilation with thermal freeze-out cross section for masses below 100 GeV.

  19. Gamma-Ray Emission in Dissipative Pulsar Magnetospheres: from Theory to Fermi Observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalapotharakos, Konstantinos; Harding, Alice K.; Kazanas, Demosthenes

    2014-01-01

    We compute the patterns of gamma-ray emission due to curvature radiation in dissipative pulsar magnetospheres. Our ultimate goal is to construct macrophysical models that are able to reproduce the observed gamma-ray light curve phenomenology recently published in the Second Fermi Pulsar Catalog. We apply specific forms of Ohm's law on the open field lines using a broad range for the macroscopic conductivity values that result in solutions ranging, from near-vacuum to near-force-free. Using these solutions, we generate model gamma-ray light curves by calculating realistic trajectories and Lorentz factors of radiating particles under the influence of both the accelerating electric fields and curvature radiation reaction. We further constrain our models using the observed dependence of the phase lags between the radio and gamma-ray emission on the gamma-ray peak separation. We perform a statistical comparison of our model radio-lag versus peak-separation diagram and the one obtained for the Fermi standard pulsars. We find that for models of uniform conductivity over the entire open magnetic field line region, agreement with observations favors higher values of this parameter. We find, however, significant improvement in fitting the data with models that employ a hybrid form of conductivity, specifically, infinite conductivity interior to the light cylinder and high but finite conductivity on the outside. In these models the gamma-ray emission is produced in regions near the equatorial current sheet but modulated by the local physical properties. These models have radio lags near the observed values and statistically best reproduce the observed light curve phenomenology. Additionally, they also produce GeV photon cut-off energies.

  20. Pulsed Gamma-Rays From PSR J2021 3651 with the Fermi Large Area Telescope

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abdo, Aous A.; Ackermann, M.; Ajello, Marco; Atwood, William B.; Baldini, L.; Ballet, J.; Barbiellini, Guido; Bastieri, Denis; Battelino, Milan; Baughman, B.M.; Bechtol, K.; Bellazzini, Ronaldo; Berenji, Bijan; Bloom, Elliott D.; Bogaert, G.; Borgland, Anders W.; Bregeon, J.; Brez, A.; Brigida, M.; Bruel, P.; Burnett, Thompson H.

    2009-01-01

    We report the detection of pulsed gamma-rays from the young, spin-powered radio pulsar PSR J2021+3651 using data acquired with the Large Area Telescope (LAT) on the Fermi Gamma-ray Space Telescope (formerly GLAST). The light curve consists of two narrow peaks of similar amplitude separated by 0.468 ± 0.002 in phase. The first peak lags the maximum of the 2 GHz radio pulse by 0.162 ± 0.004 ± 0.01 in phase. The integral gamma-ray photon flux above 100 MeV is (56 ± 3 ± 11) x 10 -8 cm -2 s -1 . The photon spectrum is well-described by an exponentially cut-off power law of the form dF/dE = kE -# Gamma#e (-E/E c ) where the energy E is expressed in GeV. The photon index is Γ = 1.5 ± 0.1 ± 0.1 and the exponential cut-off is E c = 2.4 ± 0.3 ± 0.5 GeV. The first uncertainty is statistical and the second is systematic. The integral photon flux of the bridge is approximately 10% of the pulsed emission, and the upper limit on off-pulse gamma-ray emission from a putative pulsar wind nebula is -2 but a poorly constrained magnetic geometry. Re-analysis of Chandra data enhanced the significance of the weak X-ray pulsations, and the first peak is roughly phase-aligned with the first gamma-ray peak. We discuss the emission region and beaming geometry based on the shape and spectrum of the gamma-ray light curve combined with radio and X-ray measurements, and the implications for the pulsar distance. Gamma-ray emission from the polar cap region seems unlikely for this pulsar.

  1. The Einstein@Home Gamma-ray Pulsar Survey. II. Source Selection, Spectral Analysis, and Multiwavelength Follow-up

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, J.; Clark, C. J.; Pletsch, H. J.; Guillemot, L.; Johnson, T. J.; Torne, P.; Champion, D. J.; Deneva, J.; Ray, P. S.; Salvetti, D.; Kramer, M.; Aulbert, C.; Beer, C.; Bhattacharyya, B.; Bock, O.; Camilo, F.; Cognard, I.; Cuéllar, A.; Eggenstein, H. B.; Fehrmann, H.; Ferrara, E. C.; Kerr, M.; Machenschalk, B.; Ransom, S. M.; Sanpa-Arsa, S.; Wood, K.

    2018-02-01

    We report on the analysis of 13 gamma-ray pulsars discovered in the Einstein@Home blind search survey using Fermi Large Area Telescope (LAT) Pass 8 data. The 13 new gamma-ray pulsars were discovered by searching 118 unassociated LAT sources from the third LAT source catalog (3FGL), selected using the Gaussian Mixture Model machine-learning algorithm on the basis of their gamma-ray emission properties being suggestive of pulsar magnetospheric emission. The new gamma-ray pulsars have pulse profiles and spectral properties similar to those of previously detected young gamma-ray pulsars. Follow-up radio observations have revealed faint radio pulsations from two of the newly discovered pulsars and enabled us to derive upper limits on the radio emission from the others, demonstrating that they are likely radio-quiet gamma-ray pulsars. We also present results from modeling the gamma-ray pulse profiles and radio profiles, if available, using different geometric emission models of pulsars. The high discovery rate of this survey, despite the increasing difficulty of blind pulsar searches in gamma rays, suggests that new systematic surveys such as presented in this article should be continued when new LAT source catalogs become available.

  2. THE DETECTABILITY OF DARK MATTER ANNIHILATION WITH FERMI USING THE ANISOTROPY ENERGY SPECTRUM OF THE GAMMA-RAY BACKGROUND

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hensley, Brandon S.; Pavlidou, Vasiliki; Siegal-Gaskins, Jennifer M.

    2010-01-01

    The energy dependence of the anisotropy (the anisotropy energy spectrum) of the large-scale diffuse gamma-ray background can reveal the presence of multiple source populations. Annihilating dark matter in the substructure of the Milky Way halo could give rise to a modulation in the anisotropy energy spectrum of the diffuse gamma-ray emission measured by Fermi, enabling the detection of a dark matter signal. We determine the detectability of a dark-matter-induced modulation for scenarios in which unresolved blazars are the primary contributor to the measured emission above ∼1 GeV and find that in some scenarios pair-annihilation cross sections on the order of the value expected for thermal relic dark matter can produce a detectable feature. We anticipate that the sensitivity of this technique to specific dark matter models could be improved by tailored likelihood analysis methods.

  3. An Ordinary Short Gamma-Ray Burst with Extraordinary Implications: Fermi -GBM Detection of GRB 170817A

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goldstein, A.; Roberts, O. J.; Connaughton, V. [Science and Technology Institute, Universities Space Research Association, Huntsville, AL 35805 (United States); Veres, P.; Briggs, M. S.; Hamburg, R.; Preece, R. D.; Poolakkil, S. [Center for Space Plasma and Aeronomic Research, University of Alabama in Huntsville, 320 Sparkman Drive, Huntsville, AL 35899 (United States); Burns, E.; Racusin, J.; Canton, T. Dal [NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD 20771 (United States); Kocevski, D.; Wilson-Hodge, C. A.; Hui, C. M.; Littenberg, T. [Astrophysics Office, ST12, NASA/Marshall Space Flight Center, Huntsville, AL 35812 (United States); Kienlin, A. von [Max-Planck-Institut für extraterrestrische Physik, Giessenbachstrasse 1, D-85748 Garching (Germany); Christensen, N.; Broida, J. [Physics and Astronomy, Carleton College, MN 55057 (United States); Siellez, K. [Center for Relativistic Astrophysics and School of Physics, Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta, GA 30332 (United States); Blackburn, L., E-mail: Adam.M.Goldstein@nasa.gov [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, 60 Garden Street, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); and others

    2017-10-20

    On 2017 August 17 at 12:41:06 UTC the Fermi Gamma-ray Burst Monitor (GBM) detected and triggered on the short gamma-ray burst (GRB) 170817A. Approximately 1.7 s prior to this GRB, the Laser Interferometer Gravitational-wave Observatory triggered on a binary compact merger candidate associated with the GRB. This is the first unambiguous coincident observation of gravitational waves and electromagnetic radiation from a single astrophysical source and marks the start of gravitational-wave multi-messenger astronomy. We report the GBM observations and analysis of this ordinary short GRB, which extraordinarily confirms that at least some short GRBs are produced by binary compact mergers.

  4. FERMI-LARGE AREA TELESCOPE OBSERVATIONS OF THE EXCEPTIONAL GAMMA-RAY OUTBURSTS OF 3C 273 IN 2009 SEPTEMBER

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abdo, A. A.; Ackermann, M.; Ajello, M.; Bechtol, K.; Berenji, B.; Blandford, R. D.; Bloom, E. D.; Borgland, A. W.; Bouvier, A.; Baldini, L.; Bellazzini, R.; Bregeon, J.; Brez, A.; Ballet, J.; Barbiellini, G.; Bastieri, D.; Bonamente, E.; Brigida, M.; Bruel, P.; Burnett, T. H.

    2010-01-01

    We present the light curves and spectral data of two exceptionally luminous gamma-ray outbursts observed by the Large Area Telescope experiment on board the Fermi Gamma-ray Space Telescope from 3C 273 in 2009 September. During these flares, having a duration of a few days, the source reached its highest γ-ray flux ever measured. This allowed us to study, in some details, their spectral and temporal structures. The rise and the decay are asymmetric on timescales of 6 hr, and the spectral index was significantly harder during the flares than during the preceding 11 months. We also found that short, very intense flares put out the same time-integrated energy as long, less intense flares like that observed in 2009 August.

  5. Diffuse gamma ray constraints on annihilating or decaying Dark Matter after Fermi

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cirelli, Marco; Panci, Paolo; Serpico, Pasquale D.

    2010-01-01

    We consider the diffuse gamma ray data from Fermi first year observations and compare them to the gamma ray fluxes predicted by Dark Matter annihilation or decay (both from prompt emission and from Inverse Compton Scattering), for different observation regions of the sky and a range of Dark Matter masses, annihilation/decay channels and Dark Matter galactic profiles. We find that the data exclude large regions of the Dark Matter parameter space not constrained otherwise and discuss possible directions for future improvements. Also, we further constrain Dark Matter interpretations of the e ± PAMELA/Fermi spectral anomalies, both for the annihilating and the decaying Dark Matter case: under very conservative assumptions, only models producing dominantly μ ± and assuming a cored Dark Matter galactic profile can fit the lepton data with masses around ∼2 TeV.

  6. Fermi-LAT Gamma-ray Bursts and Insight from Swift

    Science.gov (United States)

    Racusin, Judith L.

    2011-01-01

    A new revolution in GRB observation and theory has begun over the last 3 years since the launch of the Fermi gamma-ray space telescope. The new window into high energy gamma-rays opened by the Fermi-LAT is providing insight into prompt emission mechanisms and possibly also afterglow physics. The LAT detected GRBs appear to be a new unique subset of extremely energetic and bright bursts. In this talk I will discuss the context and recent discoveries from these LAT GRBs and the large database of broadband observations collected by Swift over the last 7 years and how through comparisons between the Swift, GBM, and LAT GRB samples, we can learn about the unique characteristics and relationships between each population.

  7. VHE and UHE gamma ray astronomy: transients and sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fegan, D.J.

    1987-01-01

    The transient and sporadic nature of a number of Cosmic gamma ray sources is examined in relation to VHE (10 11 to 10 14 eV) observations of pulsars and X-ray binary systems. Transients are not all that common but when they occur they generally produce emission of sufficient intensity and duration to obtain statistically significant effects which are gradually helping to establish a source catalog. A brief review is also made of the staus of UHE (>10 14 eV) gamma ray astronomy

  8. Fermi-LAT upper limits on gamma-ray emission from colliding wind binaries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Werner, Michael; Reimer, O.; Reimer, A.

    2013-01-01

    Here, colliding wind binaries (CWBs) are thought to give rise to a plethora of physical processes including acceleration and interaction of relativistic particles. Observation of synchrotron radiation in the radio band confirms there is a relativistic electron population in CWBs. Accordingly, CWBs have been suspected sources of high-energy γ-ray emission since the COS-B era. Theoretical models exist that characterize the underlying physical processes leading to particle acceleration and quantitatively predict the non-thermal energy emission observable at Earth. Furthermore, we strive to find evidence of γ-ray emission from a sample of seven CWB systems: WR 11, WR 70, WR 125, WR 137, WR 140, WR 146, and WR 147. Theoretical modelling identified these systems as the most favourable candidates for emitting γ-rays. We make a comparison with existing γ-ray flux predictions and investigate possible constraints. We used 24 months of data from the Large Area Telescope (LAT) on-board the Fermi Gamma Ray Space Telescope to perform a dedicated likelihood analysis of CWBs in the LAT energy range. As a result, we find no evidence of γ-ray emission from any of the studied CWB systems and determine corresponding flux upper limits. For some CWBs the interplay of orbital and stellar parameters renders the Fermi-LAT data not sensitive enough to constrain the parameter space of the emission models. In the cases of WR140 and WR147, the Fermi-LAT upper limits appear to rule out some model predictions entirely and constrain theoretical models over a significant parameter space. A comparison of our findings to the CWB η Car is made.

  9. Gamma-Ray Observations of Tycho’s Supernova Remnant with VERITAS and Fermi

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Archambault, S.; Bourbeau, E.; Feng, Q.; Griffin, S. [Physics Department, McGill University, Montreal, QC H3A 2T8 (Canada); Archer, A.; Buckley, J. H.; Bugaev, V.; Errando, M. [Department of Physics, Washington University, St. Louis, MO 63130 (United States); Benbow, W.; Cerruti, M. [Fred Lawrence Whipple Observatory, Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, Amado, AZ 85645 (United States); Bird, R.; Buchovecky, M. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of California, Los Angeles, CA 90095 (United States); Connolly, M. P. [School of Physics, National University of Ireland Galway, University Road, Galway (Ireland); Cui, W.; Finley, J. P. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Purdue University, West Lafayette, IN 47907 (United States); Dwarkadas, V. V. [Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics, University of Chicago, Chicago, IL 60637 (United States); Falcone, A. [Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics, 525 Davey Lab, Pennsylvania State University, University Park, PA 16802 (United States); Fleischhack, H. [DESY, Platanenallee 6, D-15738 Zeuthen (Germany); Fortson, L. [School of Physics and Astronomy, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN 55455 (United States); Furniss, A., E-mail: nahee@uchicago.edu [Department of Physics, California State University—East Bay, Hayward, CA 94542 (United States); and others

    2017-02-10

    High-energy gamma-ray emission from supernova remnants (SNRs) has provided a unique perspective for studies of Galactic cosmic-ray acceleration. Tycho’s SNR is a particularly good target because it is a young, type Ia SNR that has been well-studied over a wide range of energies and located in a relatively clean environment. Since the detection of gamma-ray emission from Tycho’s SNR by VERITAS and Fermi -LAT, there have been several theoretical models proposed to explain its broadband emission and high-energy morphology. We report on an update to the gamma-ray measurements of Tycho’s SNR with 147 hr of VERITAS and 84 months of Fermi -LAT observations, which represent about a factor of two increase in exposure over previously published data. About half of the VERITAS data benefited from a camera upgrade, which has made it possible to extend the TeV measurements toward lower energies. The TeV spectral index measured by VERITAS is consistent with previous results, but the expanded energy range softens a straight power-law fit. At energies higher than 400 GeV, the power-law index is 2.92 ± 0.42{sub stat} ± 0.20{sub sys}. It is also softer than the spectral index in the GeV energy range, 2.14 ± 0.09{sub stat} ± 0.02{sub sys}, measured in this study using Fermi -LAT data. The centroid position of the gamma-ray emission is coincident with the center of the remnant, as well as with the centroid measurement of Fermi -LAT above 1 GeV. The results are consistent with an SNR shell origin of the emission, as many models assume. The updated spectrum points to a lower maximum particle energy than has been suggested previously.

  10. Twelve Years of Education and Public Outreach with the Fermi Gamma-ray Space Telescope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cominsky, Lynn R.; McLin, K. M.; Simonnet, A.; Fermi E/PO Team

    2013-04-01

    During the past twelve years, NASA's Fermi Gamma-ray Space Telescope has supported a wide range of Education and Public Outreach (E/PO) activities, targeting K-14 students and the general public. The purpose of the Fermi E/PO program is to increase student and public understanding of the science of the high-energy Universe, through inspiring, engaging and educational activities linked to the mission’s science objectives. The E/PO program has additional more general goals, including increasing the diversity of students in the Science, Technology, Engineering and Mathematics (STEM) pipeline, and increasing public awareness and understanding of Fermi science and technology. Fermi's multi-faceted E/PO program includes elements in each major outcome category: ● Higher Education: Fermi E/PO promotes STEM careers through the use of NASA data including research experiences for students and teachers (Global Telescope Network), education through STEM curriculum development projects (Cosmology curriculum) and through enrichment activities (Large Area Telescope simulator). ● Elementary and Secondary education: Fermi E/PO links the science objectives of the Fermi mission to well-tested, customer-focused and NASA-approved standards-aligned classroom materials (Black Hole Resources, Active Galaxy Education Unit and Pop-up book, TOPS guides, Supernova Education Unit). These materials have been distributed through (Educator Ambassador and on-line) teacher training workshops and through programs involving under-represented students (after-school clubs and Astro 4 Girls). ● Informal education and public outreach: Fermi E/PO engages the public in sharing the experience of exploration and discovery through high-leverage multi-media experiences (Black Holes planetarium and PBS NOVA shows), through popular websites (Gamma-ray Burst Skymap, Epo's Chronicles), social media (Facebook, MySpace), interactive web-based activities (Space Mysteries, Einstein@Home) and activities by

  11. SPECTRAL PROPERTIES OF BRIGHT FERMI-DETECTED BLAZARS IN THE GAMMA-RAY BAND

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abdo, A. A.; Ackermann, M.; Ajello, M.; Bechtol, K.; Berenji, B.; Blandford, R. D.; Bloom, E. D.; Borgland, A. W.; Bouvier, A.; Atwood, W. B.; Axelsson, M.; Baldini, L.; Bellazzini, R.; Bregeon, J.; Brez, A.; Ballet, J.; Barbiellini, G.; Bastieri, D.; Bonamente, E.; Brigida, M.

    2010-01-01

    The gamma-ray energy spectra of bright blazars of the LAT Bright AGN Sample (LBAS) are investigated using Fermi-LAT data. Spectral properties (hardness, curvature, and variability) established using a data set accumulated over 6 months of operation are presented and discussed for different blazar classes and subclasses: flat spectrum radio quasars (FSRQs), low-synchrotron peaked BLLacs (LSP-BLLacs), intermediate-synchrotron peaked BLLacs (ISP-BLLacs), and high-synchrotron peaked BLLacs (HSP-BLLacs). The distribution of photon index (Γ, obtained from a power-law fit above 100 MeV) is found to correlate strongly with blazar subclass. The change in spectral index from that averaged over the 6 months observing period is < 0.2-0.3 when the flux varies by about an order of magnitude, with a tendency toward harder spectra when the flux is brighter for FSRQs and LSP-BLLacs. A strong departure from a single power-law spectrum appears to be a common feature for FSRQs. This feature is also present for some high-luminosity LSP-BLLacs, and a small number of ISP-BLLacs. It is absent in all LBAS HSP-BLLacs. For 3C 454.3 and AO 0235+164, the two brightest FSRQ source and LSP-BLLac source, respectively, a broken power law (BPL) gives the most acceptable of power law, BPL, and curved forms. The consequences of these findings are discussed.

  12. Stringent constraints on the dark matter annihilation cross section from subhalo searches with the Fermi Gamma-Ray Space Telescope

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berlin, Asher; Hooper, Dan

    2014-01-01

    The dark matter halo of the Milky Way is predicted to contain a very large number of smaller subhalos. As a result of the dark matter annihilations taking place within such objects, the most nearby and massive subhalos could appear as point-like or spatially extended gamma-ray sources, without observable counterparts at other wavelengths. In this paper, we use the results of the Aquarius simulation to predict the distribution of nearby subhalos, and compare this to the characteristics of the unidentified gamma-ray sources observed by the Fermi Gamma-Ray Space Telescope. Focusing on the brightest high latitude sources, we use this comparison to derive limits on the dark matter annihilation cross section. For dark matter particles lighter than ~200 GeV, the resulting limits are the strongest obtained to date, being modestly more stringent than those derived from observations of dwarf galaxies or the Galactic Center. We also derive independent limits based on the lack of unidentified gamma-ray sources with discernible spatial extension, but these limits are a factor of ~2-10 weaker than those based on point-like subhalos. Lastly, we note that four of the ten brightest high-latitude sources exhibit a similar spectral shape, consistent with 30-60 GeV dark matter particles annihilating to b quarks with an annihilation cross section on the order of sigma v ~ (5-10) x 10^-27 cm^3/s, or 8-10 GeV dark matter particles annihilating to taus with sigma v ~ (2.0-2.5) x 10^-27 cm^3/s.

  13. Fermi Detection of a Luminous gamma-ray Pulsar in a Globular Cluster

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freire, P. C. C.; Abdo, A. A.; Ajello, M.; Allafort, A.; Ballet, J.; Barbiellini, G.; Bastieri, D.; Bechtol, K.; Bellazzini, R.; Blandford, R. D.; hide

    2011-01-01

    We report the Fermi Large Area Telescope detection of gamma -ray (>100 mega-electron volts) pulsations from pulsar J1823--3021A in the globular cluster NGC 6624 with high significance (approx 7 sigma). Its gamma-ray luminosity L (sub 3) = (8:4 +/- 1:6) X 10(exp 34) ergs per second, is the highest observed for any millisecond pulsar (MSP) to date, and it accounts for most of the cluster emission. The non-detection of the cluster in the off-pulse phase implies that its contains < 32 gamma-ray MSPs, not approx 100 as previously estimated. The gamma -ray luminosity indicates that the unusually large rate of change of its period is caused by its intrinsic spin-down. This implies that J1823--3021A has the largest magnetic field and is the youngest MSP ever detected, and that such anomalous objects might be forming at rates comparable to those of the more normal MSPs.

  14. Constraints on Lorentz Invariance Violation from Fermi -Large Area Telescope Observations of Gamma-Ray Bursts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasileiou, V.; Jacholkowska, A.; Piron, F.; Bolmont, J.; Courturier, C.; Granot, J.; Stecker, Floyd William; Cohen-Tanugi, J.; Longo, F.

    2013-01-01

    We analyze the MeV/GeV emission from four bright Gamma-Ray Bursts (GRBs) observed by the Fermi-Large Area Telescope to produce robust, stringent constraints on a dependence of the speed of light in vacuo on the photon energy (vacuum dispersion), a form of Lorentz invariance violation (LIV) allowed by some Quantum Gravity (QG) theories. First, we use three different and complementary techniques to constrain the total degree of dispersion observed in the data. Additionally, using a maximally conservative set of assumptions on possible source-intrinsic spectral-evolution effects, we constrain any vacuum dispersion solely attributed to LIV. We then derive limits on the "QG energy scale" (the energy scale that LIV-inducing QG effects become important, E(sub QG)) and the coefficients of the Standard Model Extension. For the subluminal case (where high energy photons propagate more slowly than lower energy photons) and without taking into account any source-intrinsic dispersion, our most stringent limits (at 95% CL) are obtained from GRB 090510 and are E(sub QG,1) > 7.6 times the Planck energy (E(sub Pl)) and E(sub QG,2) > 1.3×10(exp 11) GeV for linear and quadratic leading order LIV-induced vacuum dispersion, respectively. These limits improve the latest constraints by Fermi and H.E.S.S. by a factor of approx. 2. Our results disfavor any class of models requiring E(sub QG,1) < or approx. E(sub Pl)

  15. Fermi-LAT Gamma-Ray Bursts and Insights from Swift

    Science.gov (United States)

    Racusin, Judith L.

    2010-01-01

    A new revolution in Gamma-ray Burst (GRB) observations and theory has begun over the last two years since the launch of the Fermi Gamma-ray Space Telescope. The new window into high energy gamma-rays opened by the Fermi-Large Area Telescope (LAT) is providing insight into prompt emission mechanisms and possibly also afterglow physics. The LAT detected GRBs appear to be a new unique subset of extremely energetic and bright bursts compared to the large sample detected by Swift over the last 6 years. In this talk, I will discuss the context and recent discoveries from these LAT GRBs and the large database of broadband observations collected by the Swift X-ray Telescope (XRT) and UV/Optical Telescope (UVOT). Through comparisons between the GRBs detected by Swift-BAT, G8M, and LAT, we can learn about the unique characteristics, physical differences, and the relationships between each population. These population characteristics provide insight into the different physical parameters that contribute to the diversity of observational GRB properties.

  16. Characterizing the source properties of terrestrial gamma ray flashes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dwyer, Joseph R.; Liu, Ningyu; Eric Grove, J.; Rassoul, Hamid; Smith, David M.

    2017-08-01

    Monte Carlo simulations are used to determine source properties of terrestrial gamma ray flashes (TGFs) as a function of atmospheric column depth and beaming geometry. The total mass per unit area traversed by all the runaway electrons (i.e., the total grammage) during a TGF, Ξ, is introduced, defined to be the total distance traveled by all the runaway electrons along the electric field lines multiplied by the local air mass density along their paths. It is shown that key properties of TGFs may be directly calculated from Ξ and its time derivative, including the gamma ray emission rate, the current moment, and the optical power of the TGF. For the calculations presented in this paper, a standard TGF gamma ray fluence, F0 = 0.1 cm-2 above 100 keV for a spacecraft altitude of 500 km, and a standard total grammage, Ξ0 = 1018 g/cm2, are introduced, and results are presented in terms of these values. In particular, the current moments caused by the runaway electrons and their accompanying ionization are found for a standard TGF fluence, as a function of source altitude and beaming geometry, allowing a direct comparison between the gamma rays measured in low-Earth orbit and the VLF-LF radio frequency emissions recorded on the ground. Such comparisons should help test and constrain TGF models and help identify the roles of lightning leaders and streamers in the production of TGFs.

  17. Energy spectrum of extragalactic gamma-ray sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Protheroe, R. J.

    1985-01-01

    The result of Monte Carlo electron photon cascade calculations for propagation of gamma rays through regions of extragalactic space containing no magnetic field are given. These calculations then provide upper limits to the expected flux from extragalactic sources. Since gamma rays in the 10 to the 14th power eV to 10 to the 17th power eV energy range are of interest, interactions of electrons and photons with the 3 K microwave background radiation are considered. To obtain an upper limit to the expected gamma ray flux from sources, the intergalactic field is assumed to be so low that it can be ignored. Interactions with photons of the near-infrared background radiation are not considered here although these will have important implications for gamma rays below 10 to the 14th power eV if the near infrared background radiation is universal. Interaction lengths of electrons and photons in the microwave background radiation at a temperature of 2.96 K were calculated and are given.

  18. Fermi-LAT View of Bright Flaring Gamma-Ray Blazars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bastieri, D.; Ciprini, S.; Gasparrini, D.

    2011-06-01

    The Fermi LAT provides a continuous and uniform monitoring of the Universe in the gamma-ray band. During the first year many gamma-ray blazar flares, some unidentified transients and emission by the Sun while in a quiet state were promptly detected. This is mainly due to the design of the mission, featuring a detector, the LAT with a wide field of view, and to the operation of the spacecraft itself, that can cover every region of the sky every 3 hours. Nevertheless, the scientific exploitation of this monitoring is more fruitful when early information about transients reaches a broader community. In this respect, the indefatigable activity of flare advocates, who worked on weekly shifts to validate the results and quickly broadcast information about flares and new detections, was the key to most scientific results.

  19. THE RADIO/GAMMA-RAY CONNECTION IN ACTIVE GALACTIC NUCLEI IN THE ERA OF THE FERMI LARGE AREA TELESCOPE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ackermann, M.; Ajello, M.; Allafort, A.; Berenji, B.; Blandford, R. D.; Bloom, E. D.; Borgland, A. W.; Angelakis, E.; Axelsson, M.; Baldini, L.; Bellazzini, R.; Bregeon, J.; Brez, A.; Ballet, J.; Barbiellini, G.; Bastieri, D.; Bonamente, E.; Bouvier, A.; Brigida, M.; Bruel, P.

    2011-01-01

    We present a detailed statistical analysis of the correlation between radio and gamma-ray emission of the active galactic nuclei (AGNs) detected by Fermi during its first year of operation, with the largest data sets ever used for this purpose. We use both archival interferometric 8.4 GHz data (from the Very Large Array and ATCA, for the full sample of 599 sources) and concurrent single-dish 15 GHz measurements from the Owens Valley Radio Observatory (OVRO, for a sub sample of 199 objects). Our unprecedentedly large sample permits us to assess with high accuracy the statistical significance of the correlation, using a surrogate data method designed to simultaneously account for common-distance bias and the effect of a limited dynamical range in the observed quantities. We find that the statistical significance of a positive correlation between the centimeter radio and the broadband (E > 100 MeV) gamma-ray energy flux is very high for the whole AGN sample, with a probability of -7 for the correlation appearing by chance. Using the OVRO data, we find that concurrent data improve the significance of the correlation from 1.6 x 10 -6 to 9.0 x 10 -8 . Our large sample size allows us to study the dependence of correlation strength and significance on specific source types and gamma-ray energy band. We find that the correlation is very significant (chance probability -7 ) for both flat spectrum radio quasars and BL Lac objects separately; a dependence of the correlation strength on the considered gamma-ray energy band is also present, but additional data will be necessary to constrain its significance.

  20. Pulsed Gamma-Rays From PSR J2021 3651 with the Fermi Large Area Telescope

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abdo, Aous A.; /Naval Research Lab, Wash., D.C.; Ackermann, M.; /Stanford U., HEPL /KIPAC, Menlo Park /Stanford U., Phys. Dept.; Ajello, Marco; /Stanford U., HEPL /KIPAC, Menlo Park /Stanford U., Phys. Dept.; Atwood, William B.; /UC, Santa Cruz; Baldini, L.; /INFN, Pisa; Ballet, J.; /DAPNIA, Saclay; Barbiellini, Guido; /INFN, Trieste /Trieste U.; Bastieri, Denis; /INFN, Padua /Padua U.; Battelino, Milan; /Royal Inst. Tech., Stockholm; Baughman, B.M.; /Ohio State U.; Bechtol, K.; /Stanford U., HEPL /KIPAC, Menlo Park /Stanford U., Phys. Dept.; Bellazzini, Ronaldo; /INFN, Pisa; Berenji, Bijan; /Stanford U., HEPL /KIPAC, Menlo Park /Stanford U., Phys. Dept.; Bloom, Elliott D.; /Stanford U., HEPL /KIPAC, Menlo Park /Stanford U., Phys. Dept.; Bogaert, G.; /Ecole Polytechnique; Borgland, Anders W.; /Stanford U., HEPL /KIPAC, Menlo Park /Stanford U., Phys. Dept.; Bregeon, J.; /INFN, Pisa; Brez, A.; /INFN, Pisa; Brigida, M.; /Bari U. /INFN, Bari; Bruel, P.; /Ecole Polytechnique; Burnett, Thompson H.; /Washington U., Seattle /Bari U. /INFN, Bari /Stanford U., HEPL /KIPAC, Menlo Park /Stanford U., Phys. Dept. /Columbia U. /IASF, Milan /IASF, Milan /DAPNIA, Saclay /INFN, Perugia /Perugia U. /Stanford U., HEPL /KIPAC, Menlo Park /Stanford U., Phys. Dept. /George Mason U. /Naval Research Lab, Wash., D.C. /IASF, Milan /IASF, Milan /NASA, Goddard /Stanford U., HEPL /KIPAC, Menlo Park /Stanford U., Phys. Dept. /INFN, Perugia /Perugia U. /LPCE, Orleans /Montpellier U. /Sonoma State U. /Royal Inst. Tech., Stockholm /Stockholm U. /ASI, Rome /NRAO, Charlottesville /Naval Research Lab, Wash., D.C. /INFN, Trieste /Pavia U. /Bari U. /INFN, Bari /Stanford U., HEPL /KIPAC, Menlo Park /Stanford U., Phys. Dept. /UC, Santa Cruz /Stanford U., HEPL /KIPAC, Menlo Park /Stanford U., Phys. Dept. /Stanford U., HEPL /KIPAC, Menlo Park /Stanford U., Phys. Dept. /Stanford U., HEPL /KIPAC, Menlo Park /Stanford U., Phys. Dept. /CENBG, Gradignan /CENBG, Gradignan /Manchester U. /Montpellier U. /Bari U. /INFN, Bari; /more authors..

    2011-11-30

    We report the detection of pulsed gamma-rays from the young, spin-powered radio pulsar PSR J2021+3651 using data acquired with the Large Area Telescope (LAT) on the Fermi Gamma-ray Space Telescope (formerly GLAST). The light curve consists of two narrow peaks of similar amplitude separated by 0.468 {+-} 0.002 in phase. The first peak lags the maximum of the 2 GHz radio pulse by 0.162 {+-} 0.004 {+-} 0.01 in phase. The integral gamma-ray photon flux above 100 MeV is (56 {+-} 3 {+-} 11) x 10{sup -8} cm{sup -2} s{sup -1}. The photon spectrum is well-described by an exponentially cut-off power law of the form dF/dE = kE{sup -{Gamma}}e{sup (-E/E{sub c})} where the energy E is expressed in GeV. The photon index is {Gamma} = 1.5 {+-} 0.1 {+-} 0.1 and the exponential cut-off is E{sub c} = 2.4 {+-} 0.3 {+-} 0.5 GeV. The first uncertainty is statistical and the second is systematic. The integral photon flux of the bridge is approximately 10% of the pulsed emission, and the upper limit on off-pulse gamma-ray emission from a putative pulsar wind nebula is < 10% of the pulsed emission at the 95% confidence level. Radio polarization measurements yield a rotation measure of RM = 524 {+-} 4 rad m{sup -2} but a poorly constrained magnetic geometry. Re-analysis of Chandra data enhanced the significance of the weak X-ray pulsations, and the first peak is roughly phase-aligned with the first gamma-ray peak. We discuss the emission region and beaming geometry based on the shape and spectrum of the gamma-ray light curve combined with radio and X-ray measurements, and the implications for the pulsar distance. Gamma-ray emission from the polar cap region seems unlikely for this pulsar.

  1. An Event Observed as a Terrestrial Gamma-ray Flash (TGF) and a Terrestrial Electron Beam (TEB) by Fermi GBM

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanbro, M.; Briggs, M. S.; Cramer, E.; Dwyer, J. R.; Roberts, O.

    2017-12-01

    Terrestrial Gamma-ray Flashes (TGFs) are sub-ms, intense flashes of gamma-rays. They are due to the acceleration of electrons with relativistic energies in thunderstorms that emit gamma-rays via bremsstrahlung. When these photons reach the upper atmosphere, they can produce secondary electrons and positrons that escape the atmosphere and propagate along the Earth's magnetic field line. Space instruments can detect these charged particles, known as Terrestrial Electron Beams (TEBs), after traveling thousands of kilometers from the thunderstorm. We present an event that was observed by the Fermi Gamma-ray Burst Monitor (GBM) as both a TGF and a TEB. To our knowledge this is the first such event that has ever been observed. We interpret the first pulse as a TGF with a duration of 0.2 ms. After 0.5 ms a second pulse is seen with a duration of 2 ms that we interpret as a TEB. Confirming this interpretation, a third pulse is seen 90 ms later, which is understood as a TEB magnetic mirror pulse. The World Wide Lightning Location Network (WWLLN) and the Earth Networks Total Lightning Network (ENTLN) detected a sferic, under the spacecraft footprint and within the southern magnetic footprint that is simultaneous with the first pulse. Along with the sferic, this unique observation allows us for the first time to test TGF and TEB models for the same event. We present Monte Carlo simulations of the first two pulses, including pitch angles for electrons and positrons, to see if the models can consistently describe the TGF/TEB spectra and time profiles originating from the same source.

  2. Fermi LAT Observation of Diffuse Gamma-Rays Produced through Interactions Between Local Interstellar Matter and High Energy Cosmic Rays

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abdo, A.A.; /Naval Research Lab, Wash., D.C. /Federal City Coll.; Ackermann, M.; /Stanford U., HEPL /KIPAC, Menlo Park /Stanford U., Phys. Dept.; Ajello, M.; /Stanford U., HEPL /KIPAC, Menlo Park /Stanford U., Phys. Dept.; Atwood, W.B.; /UC, Santa Cruz; Axelsson, M.; /Stockholm U. /Stockholm U., OKC; Baldini, L.; /INFN, Pisa; Ballet, J.; /DAPNIA, Saclay; Barbiellini, G.; /INFN, Trieste /Trieste U.; Bastieri, D.; /INFN, Padua /Padua U.; Baughman, B.M.; /Ohio State U.; Bechtol, K.; /Stanford U., HEPL /KIPAC, Menlo Park /Stanford U., Phys. Dept.; Bellazzini, R.; /INFN, Pisa; Berenji, B.; /Stanford U., HEPL /KIPAC, Menlo Park /Stanford U., Phys. Dept.; Bloom, E.D.; /Stanford U., HEPL /KIPAC, Menlo Park /Stanford U., Phys. Dept.; Bonamente, E.; /INFN, Perugia /Perugia U.; Borgland, A.W.; /Stanford U., HEPL /KIPAC, Menlo Park /Stanford U., Phys. Dept.; Bregeon, J.; /INFN, Pisa; Brez, A.; /INFN, Pisa; Brigida, M.; /Bari U. /INFN, Bari; Bruel, P.; /Ecole Polytechnique; Burnett, T.H.; /Washington U., Seattle /Bari U. /INFN, Bari /Stanford U., HEPL /KIPAC, Menlo Park /Stanford U., Phys. Dept. /IASF, Milan /Milan Polytechnic /Royal Inst. Tech., Stockholm /Stockholm U., OKC /DAPNIA, Saclay /INFN, Perugia /Perugia U. /NASA, Goddard /Naval Research Lab, Wash., D.C. /George Mason U. /NASA, Goddard /INFN, Perugia /Perugia U. /Stanford U., HEPL /KIPAC, Menlo Park /Stanford U., Phys. Dept. /Montpellier U. /Stockholm U. /Stockholm U., OKC /Royal Inst. Tech., Stockholm /ASDC, Frascati /Naval Research Lab, Wash., D.C. /INFN, Trieste /Bari U. /INFN, Bari /Stanford U., HEPL /KIPAC, Menlo Park /Stanford U., Phys. Dept. /Stanford U., HEPL /KIPAC, Menlo Park /Stanford U., Phys. Dept. /Stanford U., HEPL /KIPAC, Menlo Park /Stanford U., Phys. Dept. /Stanford U., HEPL /KIPAC, Menlo Park /Stanford U., Phys. Dept. /CENBG, Gradignan /CENBG, Gradignan /Montpellier U. /Bari U. /INFN, Bari /Ecole Polytechnique /Stanford U., HEPL /KIPAC, Menlo Park /Stanford U., Phys. Dept. /INFN, Trieste /Hiroshima U. /Stanford U., HEPL /KIPAC, Menlo Park /Stanford U., Phys. Dept. /Bari U. /INFN, Bari /INFN, Bari; /more authors..

    2012-03-30

    Observations by the Large Area Telescope (LAT) on the Fermi mission of diffuse {gamma}-rays in a mid-latitude region in the third quadrant (Galactic longitude l from 200{sup o} to 260{sup o} and latitude |b| from 22{sup o} to 60{sup o}) are reported. The region contains no known large molecular cloud and most of the atomic hydrogen is within 1 kpc of the solar system. The contributions of {gamma}-ray point sources and inverse Compton scattering are estimated and subtracted. The residual {gamma}-ray intensity exhibits a linear correlation with the atomic gas column density in energy from 100 MeV to 10 GeV. The measured integrated {gamma}-ray emissivity is (1.63 {+-} 0.05) x 10{sup -26} photons s{sup -1}sr{sup -1} H-atom{sup -1} and (0.66 {+-} 0.02) x 10{sup -26} photons s{sup -1}sr{sup -1} H-atom{sup -1} above 100 MeV and above 300 MeV, respectively, with an additional systematic error of {approx}10%. The differential emissivity from 100 MeV to 10 GeV agrees with calculations based on cosmic ray spectra consistent with those directly measured, at the 10% level. The results obtained indicate that cosmic ray nuclei spectra within 1 kpc from the solar system in regions studied are close to the local interstellar spectra inferred from direct measurements at the Earth within {approx}10%.

  3. WESF (173)Cs gamma ray sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kenna, B. T.

    1984-10-01

    The Waste Encapsulation and Storage Facility (WESP) at Hanford, Washington has been separating cesium from stored liquid defense waste since 1945. This is done to alleviate the heat generated by the decay of radioactive Cs137. The cesium is converted to CsCl, doubly encapsulated in 316l stainless steel, and placed in storage. The potential utility of these Cs137 capsules as gamma radiation sources was demonstrated. Registration of the capsule with the NRC as a sealed gamma source would facilitate the licensing of non-DOE irradiation facilities using this source. To grant this registration, the NRC requires characteristics of the capsule. It must also be demonstrated that the capsule will maintain its integrity under both normal circumstances and specified abnormal conditions. The required information is provided through collation of results of studies and tests done previously by other laboratories.

  4. Dark matter implications of Fermi-LAT measurement of anisotropies in the diffuse gamma-ray background

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gómez-Vargas, G.A.; Cuoco, A.; Linden, T.; Sánchez-Conde, M.A.; Siegal-Gaskins, J.M.; Delahaye, T.; Fornasa, M.; Komatsu, E.

    2014-01-01

    The detailed origin of the diffuse gamma-ray background is still unknown. However, the contribution of unresolved sources is expected to induce small-scale anisotropies in this emission, which may provide a way to identify and constrain the properties of its contributors. Recent studies have predicted the contributions to the angular power spectrum (APS) from extragalactic and galactic dark matter (DM) annihilation or decay. The Fermi-LAT collaboration reported detection of angular power with a significance larger than 3σ in the energy range from 1 GeV to 10 GeV on 22 months of data (Ackermann et al., 2012 [2]). For these preliminary results the already published Fermi-LAT APS measurements (Ackermann et al., 2012 [2]) are compared to the accurate predictions for DM anisotropies from state-of-the-art cosmological simulations as presented in Fornasa et al. (2013) [1] to derive constraints on different DM candidates

  5. Dark matter implications of Fermi-LAT measurement of anisotropies in the diffuse gamma-ray background

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gómez-Vargas, G.A., E-mail: germanarturo.gomez@uam.es [Departamento de Física Teórica, Universidad Autónoma de Madrid, Cantoblanco, E-28049 Madrid (Spain); Instituto de Física Teórica IFT-UAM/CSIC, Universidad Autónoma de Madrid, Cantoblanco, E-28049, Madrid (Spain); Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Sez. Roma Tor Vergata, Roma (Italy); Cuoco, A. [The Oskar Klein Centre for Cosmo Particle Physics, AlbaNova, SE-106 91 Stockholm (Sweden); Linden, T. [Department of Physics, University of California, Santa Cruz, CA 95064 (United States); Sánchez-Conde, M.A. [SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory and Kavli Institute for Particle Astrophysics and Cosmology, Menlo Park, CA 94025 (United States); Siegal-Gaskins, J.M. [California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Delahaye, T. [LAPTh, Universit e de Savoie, CNRS, 9 chemin de Bellevue, BP110, F-74941 Annecy-le-Vieux Cedex (France); Institut d' Astrophysique de Paris, UMR 7095 – CNRS, Universit e Pierre and Marie Curie, 98 bis boulevard Arago, 75014 Paris (France); Instituto de Física Teórica IFT-UAM/CSIC, Universidad Autónoma de Madrid, Cantoblanco, E-28049, Madrid (Spain); Fornasa, M. [School of Physics and Astronomy, University of Nottingham, NG7 2RD Nottingham (United Kingdom); Komatsu, E. [Max-Planck-Institut fur Astrophysik, Karl-Schwarzschild Str. 1, 85741 Garching (Germany); Kavli Institute for the Physics and Mathematics of the Universe (Kavli IPMU, WPI), Todai Institutes for Advanced Study, the University of Tokyo, Kashiwa 277-8583 (Japan); Texas Cosmology Center and the Department of Astronomy, The University of Texas at Austin, 1 University Station, C1400, Austin, TX 78712 (United States); and others

    2014-04-01

    The detailed origin of the diffuse gamma-ray background is still unknown. However, the contribution of unresolved sources is expected to induce small-scale anisotropies in this emission, which may provide a way to identify and constrain the properties of its contributors. Recent studies have predicted the contributions to the angular power spectrum (APS) from extragalactic and galactic dark matter (DM) annihilation or decay. The Fermi-LAT collaboration reported detection of angular power with a significance larger than 3σ in the energy range from 1 GeV to 10 GeV on 22 months of data (Ackermann et al., 2012 [2]). For these preliminary results the already published Fermi-LAT APS measurements (Ackermann et al., 2012 [2]) are compared to the accurate predictions for DM anisotropies from state-of-the-art cosmological simulations as presented in Fornasa et al. (2013) [1] to derive constraints on different DM candidates.

  6. The Fermi-GBM Gamma-Ray Burst Catalogs: The First Six Years

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bissaldi E.

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Since its launch in 2008, the Fermi Gamma-ray Burst Monitor (GBM has triggered and located on average approximately two gamma-ray bursts (GRBs every three days. Here we present the main results from the latest two catalogs provided by the Fermi-GBM science team, namely the third GBM GRB catalog [1] and the first GBM time-resolved spectral catalog [2]. The intention of the GBM GRB catalog is to provide information to the community on the most important observables of the GBM detected bursts. It comprises 1405 triggers identified as GRBs. For each one, location and main characteristics of the prompt emission, the duration, the peak flux and the fluence are derived. The GBM time-resolved spectral catalog presents high-quality time-resolved spectral analysis with high temporal and spectral resolution of the brightest bursts observed by Fermi GBM in a shorter period than the former catalog, namely four years. It comprises 1491 spectra from 81 bursts. Distributions of parameters, statistics of the parameter populations, parameter-parameter and parameter-uncertainty correlations, and their exact values are obtained.

  7. Gamma ray energy spectrum of a buried radioactive source

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Massey, N B

    1957-07-01

    Because of current attempts to utilize airborne gamma-ray scintillation spectrometers as a means of detecting and identifying buried radioactive mineral deposits, it has become important to study the effects of multiple scattering on the gamma-ray energy spectrum of a source buried in a semi-infinite medium. A series of ten experiments was made. First a scintillation detector was located in air at a fixed distance above a 250 microcurie cobalt-60 source suspended in a large tank. The level of water was raised from 25 cm below the source to 50 cm above, and the gamma-ray energy spectrum was observed. It was found that the high energy portion of the cobalt-60 spectrum remained identifiable even when the source was submerged more than five half-lengths. Further, the ratio of the counting rate of the total incident gamma radiation to the counting rate of the primary 1.33 MeV radiation was found to be very nearly linearly proportional to the depth of water cover. This leads to an empirical method for determining the depth of burial of a cobalt-60 point source. (author)

  8. THE HIGH-ENERGY, ARCMINUTE-SCALE GALACTIC CENTER GAMMA-RAY SOURCE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chernyakova, M.; Malyshev, D.; Aharonian, F. A.; Crocker, R. M.; Jones, D. I.

    2011-01-01

    Employing data collected during the first 25 months of observations by the Fermi-LAT, we describe and subsequently seek to model the very high energy (>300 MeV) emission from the central few parsecs of our Galaxy. We analyze the morphological, spectral, and temporal characteristics of the central source, 1FGL J1745.6-2900. The data show a clear, statistically significant signal at energies above 10 GeV, where the Fermi-LAT has angular resolution comparable to that of HESS at TeV energies. This makes a meaningful joint analysis of the data possible. Our analysis of the Fermi data (alone) does not uncover any statistically significant variability of 1FGL J1745.6-2900 at GeV energies on the month timescale. Using the combination of Fermi data on 1FGL J1745.6-2900 and HESS data on the coincident, TeV source HESS J1745-290, we show that the spectrum of the central gamma-ray source is inflected with a relatively steep spectral region matching between the flatter spectrum found at both low and high energies. We model the gamma-ray production in the inner 10 pc of the Galaxy and examine cosmic ray (CR) proton propagation scenarios that reproduce the observed spectrum of the central source. We show that a model that instantiates a transition from diffusive propagation of the CR protons at low energy to almost rectilinear propagation at high energies can explain well the spectral phenomenology. We find considerable degeneracy between different parameter choices which will only be broken with the addition of morphological information that gamma-ray telescopes cannot deliver given current angular resolution limits. We argue that a future analysis performed in combination with higher-resolution radio continuum data holds out the promise of breaking this degeneracy.

  9. FERMI LAT DISCOVERY OF EXTENDED GAMMA-RAY EMISSIONS IN THE VICINITY OF THE HB 3 SUPERNOVA REMNANT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Katagiri, H.; Yoshida, K. [College of Science, Ibaraki University, 2-1-1, Bunkyo, Mito 310-8512 (Japan); Ballet, J. [Laboratoire AIM, CEA-IRFU/CNRS/Université Paris Diderot, Service d’Astrophysique, CEA Saclay, F-91191 Gif sur Yvette (France); Grondin, M.-H.; Lemoine-Goumard, M. [Centre d’Études Nucléaires de Bordeaux Gradignan, IN2P3/CNRS, Université Bordeaux 1, BP120, F-33175 Gradignan Cedex (France); Hanabata, Y. [Institute for Cosmic-Ray Research, University of Tokyo, 5-1-5 Kashiwanoha, Kashiwa, Chiba, 277-8582 (Japan); Hewitt, J. W. [Department of Physics and Center for Space Sciences and Technology, University of Maryland Baltimore County, Baltimore, MD 21250 (United States); Kubo, H., E-mail: hideaki.katagiri.sci@vc.ibaraki.ac.jp, E-mail: 13nm169s@gmail.com [Department of Physics, Graduate School of Science, Kyoto University, Kyoto (Japan)

    2016-02-20

    We report the discovery of extended gamma-ray emission measured by the Large Area Telescope (LAT) onboard the Fermi Gamma-ray Space Telescope in the region of the supernova remnant (SNR) HB 3 (G132.7+1.3) and the W3 II complex adjacent to the southeast of the remnant. W3 is spatially associated with bright {sup 12}CO (J = 1–0) emission. The gamma-ray emission is spatially correlated with this gas and the SNR. We discuss the possibility that gamma rays originate in interactions between particles accelerated in the SNR and interstellar gas or radiation fields. The decay of neutral pions produced in nucleon–nucleon interactions between accelerated hadrons and interstellar gas provides a reasonable explanation for the gamma-ray emission. The emission from W3 is consistent with irradiation of the CO clouds by the cosmic rays accelerated in HB 3.

  10. Exploring the Extreme Universe with the Fermi Gamma-Ray Space Telescope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, David J.; Digel, Seth W.; Racusin, Judith L.

    2012-01-01

    In ways similar to experiments in nuclear and particle physics, high-energy astrophysics usesgamma rays and energetic charged particles toprobe processes that involve large energy transfers.Since its launch in 2008, the international Fermi Gamma-Ray Space Telescope has been exploringnatural particle accelerators and the interactionsof high-energy particles in the universe. Withsources ranging from thunderstorms on Earth to galaxies and exploding stars in distant parts of the cosmos, the telescopes subjects of study are almostas diverse as were those of the scientist whose name it bears.

  11. GAMMA-RAY LOUDNESS, SYNCHROTRON PEAK FREQUENCY, AND PARSEC-SCALE PROPERTIES OF BLAZARS DETECTED BY THE FERMI LARGE AREA TELESCOPE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Linford, J. D.; Taylor, G. B.; Schinzel, F. K., E-mail: jlinford@unm.edu [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of New Mexico, MSC07 4220, Albuquerque, NM 87131-0001 (United States)

    2012-09-20

    The parsec-scale radio properties of 232 active galactic nuclei, most of which are blazars, detected by the Large Area Telescope (LAT) on board the Fermi Gamma-ray Space Telescope have been observed contemporaneously by the Very Long Baseline Array (VLBA) at 5 GHz. Data from both the first 11 months (1FGL) and the first 2 years (2FGL) of the Fermi mission were used to investigate these sources' {gamma}-ray properties. We use the ratio of the {gamma}-ray-to-radio luminosity as a measure of {gamma}-ray loudness. We investigate the relationship of several radio properties to {gamma}-ray loudness and to the synchrotron peak frequency. There is a tentative correlation between {gamma}-ray loudness and synchrotron peak frequency for BL Lac objects in both 1FGL and 2FGL, and for flat-spectrum radio quasars (FSRQs) in 2FGL. We find that the apparent opening angle tentatively correlates with {gamma}-ray loudness for FSRQs, but only when we use the 2FGL data. We also find that the total VLBA flux density correlates with the synchrotron peak frequency for BL Lac objects and FSRQs. The core brightness temperature also correlates with synchrotron peak frequency, but only for the BL Lac objects. The low-synchrotron-peaked (LSP) BL Lac object sample shows indications of contamination by FSRQs which happen to have undetectable emission lines. There is evidence that the LSP BL Lac objects are more strongly beamed than the rest of the BL Lac object population.

  12. Fermi Bubble: Giant Gamma-Ray Bubbles in the Milky Way

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Meng

    Data from the Fermi-LAT reveal two gigantic gamma-ray emitting bubble structures (known as the Fermibubbles), extending˜50° above and below the Galactic center symmetric about the Galactic plane, with a width of˜40∘ in longitude. The gamma-ray emission associated with these bubbles has a significantly harder spectrum ({dN}/{dE} ˜ {E}^{-2}) than the inverse Compton emission from known cosmic ray electrons in the Galactic disk, or the gamma-rays produced by decay of pions from proton-ISM collisions. The bubbles are spatially correlated with the hard-spectrum microwave excess known as the WMAPhaze; the edges of the bubbles also line up with features in the ROSATsoft X-ray maps at 1.5-2keV. The Fermibubble is most likely created by some large episode of energy injection in the Galactic center, such as past accretion events onto the central massive black hole, or a nuclear starburst in the last˜10Myr. Study of the origin and evolution of the bubbles also has the potential to improve our understanding of recent energetic events in the inner Galaxy and the high-latitude cosmic ray population.

  13. Development of Compton gamma-ray sources at LLNL

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Albert, F.; Anderson, S. G.; Ebbers, C. A.; Gibson, D. J.; Hartemann, F. V.; Marsh, R. A.; Messerly, M. J.; Prantil, M. A.; Wu, S.; Barty, C. P. J. [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, NIF and Photon Science, 7000 East avenue, Livermore, CA 94550 (United States)

    2012-12-21

    Compact Compton scattering gamma-ray sources offer the potential of studying nuclear photonics with new tools. The optimization of such sources depends on the final application, but generally requires maximizing the spectral density (photons/eV) of the gamma-ray beam while simultaneously reducing the overall bandwidth on target to minimize noise. We have developed an advanced design for one such system, comprising the RF drive, photoinjector, accelerator, and electron-generating and electron-scattering laser systems. This system uses a 120 Hz, 250 pC, 2 ps, 0.35 mm mrad electron beam with 250 MeV maximum energy in an X-band accelerator scattering off a 150 mJ, 10 ps, 532 nm laser to generate 5 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 10} photons/eV/s/Sr at 0.5 MeV with an overall bandwidth of less than 1%. The source will be able to produce photons up to energies of 2.5 MeV. We also discuss Compton scattering gamma-ray source predictions given by numerical codes.

  14. Gamma-ray observations of the Orion Molecular Clouds with the Fermi Large Area Telescope

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ackermann, M.; Ajello, M.; Allafort, A.; Antolini, E.; Baldini, L.; Ballet, J.; Barbiellini, G.; Bastieri, D.; Bechtol, K.; Bellazzini, R.; Berenji, B.; Blandford, R. D.; Bloom, E. D.; Bonamente, E.; Borgland, A. W.; Bottacini, E.; Brandt, T. J.; Bregeon, J.; Brigida, M.; Bruel, P.; Buehler, R.; Buson, S.; Caliandro, G. A.; Cameron, R. A.; Caraveo, P. A.; Cecchi, C.; Chekhtman, A.; Chiang, J.; Ciprini, S.; Claus, R.; Cohen-Tanugi, J.; Conrad, J.; D' Ammando, F.; de Angelis, A.; de Palma, F.; Dermer, C. D.; do Couto e Silva, E.; Drell, P. S.; Drlica-Wagner, A.; Enoto, T.; Falletti, L.; Favuzzi, C.; Fegan, S. J.; Ferrara, E. C.; Focke, W. B.; Fukazawa, Y.; Fukui, Y.; Fusco, P.; Gargano, F.; Gasparrini, D.; Germani, S.; Giglietto, N.; Giordano, F.; Giroletti, M.; Glanzman, T.; Godfrey, G.; Guiriec, S.; Hadasch, D.; Hanabata, Y.; Harding, A. K.; Hayashida, M.; Hayashi, K.; Horan, D.; Hou, X.; Hughes, R. E.; Jackson, M. S.; Jóhannesson, G.; Johnson, A. S.; Kamae, T.; Katagiri, H.; Kataoka, J.; Kerr, M.; Knödlseder, J.; Kuss, M.; Lande, J.; Larsson, S.; Lee, S. -H.; Longo, F.; Loparco, F.; Lovellette, M. N.; Lubrano, P.; Makishima, K.; Mazziotta, M. N.; Mehault, J.; Mitthumsiri, W.; Moiseev, A. A.; Monte, C.; Monzani, M. E.; Morselli, A.; Moskalenko, I. V.; Murgia, S.; Nakamori, T.; Naumann-Godo, M.; Nishino, S.; Norris, J. P.; Nuss, E.; Ohno, M.; Ohsugi, T.; Okumura, A.; Orienti, M.; Orlando, E.; Ormes, J. F.; Ozaki, M.; Paneque, D.; Panetta, J. H.; Parent, D.; Pelassa, V.; Pesce-Rollins, M.; Pierbattista, M.; Piron, F.; Pivato, G.; Porter, T. A.; Rainò, S.; Razzano, M.; Reimer, A.; Reimer, O.; Roth, M.; Sadrozinski, H. F. -W.; Sgrò, C.; Siskind, E. J.; Spandre, G.; Spinelli, P.; Strong, A. W.; Takahashi, H.; Takahashi, T.; Tanaka, T.; Thayer, J. G.; Thayer, J. B.; Tibolla, O.; Tinivella, M.; Torres, D. F.; Tramacere, A.; Troja, E.; Uchiyama, Y.; Usher, T. L.; Vandenbroucke, J.; Vasileiou, V.; Vianello, G.; Vitale, V.; Waite, A. P.; Wang, P.; Winer, B. L.; Wood, K. S.; Yang, Z.; Zimmer, S.

    2012-08-08

    We report on the gamma-ray observations of giant molecular clouds Orion A and B with the Large Area Telescope (LAT) on board the Fermi Gamma-ray Space Telescope. The gamma-ray emission in the energy band between ~100 MeV and ~100 GeV is predicted to trace the gas mass distribution in the clouds through nuclear interactions between the Galactic cosmic rays (CRs) and interstellar gas. The gamma-ray production cross-section for the nuclear interaction is known to ~10% precision which makes the LAT a powerful tool to measure the gas mass column density distribution of molecular clouds for a known CR intensity. We present here such distributions for Orion A and B, and correlate them with those of the velocity-integrated CO intensity (W CO) at a 1° × 1° pixel level. The correlation is found to be linear over a W CO range of ~10-fold when divided in three regions, suggesting penetration of nuclear CRs to most of the cloud volumes. The W CO-to-mass conversion factor, X CO, is found to be ~2.3 × 1020 cm-2(K km s–1)–1 for the high-longitude part of Orion A (l > 212°), ~1.7 times higher than ~1.3 × 1020 found for the rest of Orion A and B. We interpret the apparent high X CO in the high-longitude region of Orion A in the light of recent works proposing a nonlinear relation between H2 and CO densities in the diffuse molecular gas. W CO decreases faster than the H2 column density in the region making the gas "darker" to W CO.

  15. Multifrequency Behaviour of the Gamma-Ray Binary System PSR B1259-63: Modelling the FERMI Flare

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brian van Soelen

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a brief overview of the multifrequency properties of the gamma-ray binary system PSR B1259-63 from radio to very high energy gamma-rays. A summary is also presented of the various models put forward to explain the Fermi "flare" detected in 2011. Initial results are presented of a new turbulence driven model to explain the GeV observations.

  16. DO THE FERMI GAMMA-RAY BURST MONITOR AND SWIFT BURST ALERT TELESCOPE SEE THE SAME SHORT GAMMA-RAY BURSTS?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burns, Eric; Briggs, Michael S.; Connaughton, Valerie; Zhang, Bin-Bin; Lien, Amy; Goldstein, Adam; Pelassa, Veronique; Troja, Eleonora

    2016-01-01

    Compact binary system mergers are expected to generate gravitational radiation detectable by ground-based interferometers. A subset of these, the merger of a neutron star with another neutron star or a black hole, are also the most popular model for the production of short gamma-ray bursts (GRBs). The Swift Burst Alert Telescope (BAT) and the Fermi Gamma-ray Burst Monitor (GBM) trigger on short GRBs (SGRBs) at rates that reflect their relative sky exposures, with the BAT detecting 10 per year compared to about 45 for GBM. We examine the SGRB populations detected by Swift BAT and Fermi GBM. We find that the Swift BAT triggers on weaker SGRBs than Fermi GBM, providing they occur close to the center of the BAT field of view, and that the Fermi GBM SGRB detection threshold remains flatter across its field of view. Overall, these effects combine to give the instruments the same average sensitivity, and account for the SGRBs that trigger one instrument but not the other. We do not find any evidence that the BAT and GBM are detecting significantly different populations of SGRBs. Both instruments can detect untriggered SGRBs using ground searches seeded with time and position. The detection of SGRBs below the on-board triggering sensitivities of Swift BAT and Fermi GBM increases the possibility of detecting and localizing the electromagnetic counterparts of gravitational wave (GW) events seen by the new generation of GW detectors

  17. DO THE FERMI GAMMA-RAY BURST MONITOR AND SWIFT BURST ALERT TELESCOPE SEE THE SAME SHORT GAMMA-RAY BURSTS?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burns, Eric; Briggs, Michael S. [University of Alabama in Huntsville, 320 Sparkman Drive, Huntsville, AL 35805 (United States); Connaughton, Valerie [Universities Space Research Association, Science and Technology Institute, 320 Sparkman Drive, Huntsville, AL 35805 (United States); Zhang, Bin-Bin [Center for Space Plasma and Aeronomic Research (CSPAR), University of Alabama in Huntsville, Huntsville, AL 35899 (United States); Lien, Amy [Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD 20771 (United States); Goldstein, Adam [NASA Postdoctoral Program, Space Science Office, VP62, NASA/Marshall Space Flight Center, Huntsville, AL 35812 (United States); Pelassa, Veronique [Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory, P.O. Box 97, Amado, AZ 85645 (United States); Troja, Eleonora, E-mail: eb0016@uah.edu [NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD 20771 (United States)

    2016-02-20

    Compact binary system mergers are expected to generate gravitational radiation detectable by ground-based interferometers. A subset of these, the merger of a neutron star with another neutron star or a black hole, are also the most popular model for the production of short gamma-ray bursts (GRBs). The Swift Burst Alert Telescope (BAT) and the Fermi Gamma-ray Burst Monitor (GBM) trigger on short GRBs (SGRBs) at rates that reflect their relative sky exposures, with the BAT detecting 10 per year compared to about 45 for GBM. We examine the SGRB populations detected by Swift BAT and Fermi GBM. We find that the Swift BAT triggers on weaker SGRBs than Fermi GBM, providing they occur close to the center of the BAT field of view, and that the Fermi GBM SGRB detection threshold remains flatter across its field of view. Overall, these effects combine to give the instruments the same average sensitivity, and account for the SGRBs that trigger one instrument but not the other. We do not find any evidence that the BAT and GBM are detecting significantly different populations of SGRBs. Both instruments can detect untriggered SGRBs using ground searches seeded with time and position. The detection of SGRBs below the on-board triggering sensitivities of Swift BAT and Fermi GBM increases the possibility of detecting and localizing the electromagnetic counterparts of gravitational wave (GW) events seen by the new generation of GW detectors.

  18. A new class of galactic discrete gamma ray sources: Chaotic winds of massive stars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Wan; White, Richard L.

    1992-01-01

    We propose a new class of galactic discrete gamma-ray sources, the chaotic, high mass-loss-rate winds from luminous early-type stars. Early-type stellar winds are highly unstable due to intrinsic line-driven instabilities, and so are permeated by numerous strong shocks. These shocks can accelerate a small fraction of thermal electrons and ions to relativistic energies via the first-order Fermi mechanism. A power-law-like photon spectrum extending from keV to above 10 MeV energies is produced by inverse Compton scattering of the extremely abundant stellar UV photons by the relativistic electrons. In addition, a typical pi(sup 0)-decay gamma-ray spectrum is generated by proton-ion interactions in the densest part of the winds.

  19. Observations of Pulsars with the Fermi Gamma-ray Space Telescope

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Parent, D.

    2009-11-01

    The Large Area Telescope (LAT) on Fermi, launched on 2008 June 11, is a space telescope to explore the high energy γ-ray universe. The instrument covers the energy range from 20 MeV to 300 GeV with greatly improved sensitivity and ability to localize γ-ray point sources. It detects γ-rays through conversion to electron-positron pairs and measurement of their direction in a tracker and their energy in a calorimeter. This thesis presents the γ-ray light curves and the phase-resolved spectral measurements of radio-loud gamma-ray pulsars detected by the LAT. The measurement of pulsar spectral parameters (i.e. integrated flux, spectral index, and energy cut-off) depends on the instrument response functions (IRFs). A method developed for the on-orbit validation of the effective area is presented using the Vela pulsar. The cut efficiencies between the real data and the simulated data are compared at each stage of the background rejection. The results are then propagated to the IRFs, allowing the systematic uncertainties of the spectral parameters to be estimated. The last part of this thesis presents the discoveries, using both the LAT observations and the radio and X ephemeris, of new individual γ-ray pulsars such as PSR J0205+6449, and the Vela-like pulsars J2229+6114 and J1048-5832. Timing and spectral analysis are investigated in order to constrain the γ-ray emission model. In addition, we discuss the properties of a large population of γ-ray pulsars detected by the LAT, including normal pulsars, and millisecond pulsars. (author)

  20. Anisotropies in the diffuse gamma-ray background from dark matter with Fermi LAT: A closer look

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cuoco, A.; Sellerholm, A.; Conrad, J.; Hannestad, S.

    2011-01-01

    We perform a detailed study of the sensitivity to the anisotropies related to dark matter (DM) annihilation in the isotropic gamma-ray background (IGRB) as measured by the Fermi Large Area Telescope (Fermi LAT). For the first time, we take into account the effects of the Galactic foregrounds and use a realistic representation of the Fermi LAT. We implement an analysis pipeline which simulates Fermi LAT data sets starting from model maps of the Galactic foregrounds, the Fermi-resolved point sources, the extragalactic diffuse emission and the signal from DM annihilation. The effects of the detector are taken into account by convolving the model maps with the Fermi LAT instrumental response. We then use the angular power spectrum to characterize the anisotropy properties of the simulated data and to study the sensitivity to DM. We consider DM anisotropies of extragalactic origin and of Galactic origin (which can be generated through annihilation in the Milky Way substructures) as opposed to a background of anisotropies generated by sources of astrophysical origin, blazars for example. We find that with statistics from 5 yr of observation, Fermi is sensitive to a DM contribution at the level of 1–10 per cent of the measured IGRB depending on the DM mass m χ and annihilation mode. In terms of the thermally averaged cross-section <σAv>, this corresponds to ~10 –25 cm 3 s –1 , i.e. slightly above the typical expectations for a thermal relic, for low values of the DM mass m χ ≲ 100 GeV. As a result, the anisotropy method for DM searches has a sensitivity comparable to the usual methods based only on the energy spectrum and thus constitutes an independent and complementary piece of information in the DM puzzle.

  1. Constraining the Milky Way dark matter density profile with gamma-rays with Fermi-LAT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bernal, Nicolás; Palomares-Ruiz, Sergio

    2012-01-01

    We study the abilities of the Fermi-LAT instrument on board of the Fermi mission to simultaneously constrain the Milky Way dark matter density profile and some dark matter particle properties, as annihilation cross section, mass and branching ratio into dominant annihilation channels. A single dark matter density profile is commonly assumed to determine the capabilities of gamma-ray experiments to extract dark matter properties or to set limits on them. However, our knowledge of the Milky Way halo is far from perfect, and thus in general, the obtained results are too optimistic. Here, we study the effect these astrophysical uncertainties would have on the determination of dark matter particle properties and conversely, we show how gamma-ray searches could also be used to learn about the structure of the Milky Way halo, as a complementary tool to other type of observational data that study the gravitational effect caused by the presence of dark matter. In addition, we also show how these results would improve if external information on the annihilation cross section and on the local dark matter density were included and compare our results with the predictions from numerical simulations

  2. Search for Very High Energy Gamma Rays from the Northern $\\textit{Fermi}$ Bubble Region with HAWC

    OpenAIRE

    Abeysekara, A. U.; Albert, A.; Alfaro, R.; Alvarez, C.; Álvarez, J. D.; Arceo, R.; Arteaga-Velázquez, J. C.; Solares, H. A. Ayala; Barber, A. S.; Bautista-Elivar, N.; Becerril, A.; Belmont-Moreno, E.; BenZvi, S. Y.; Berley, D.; Braun, J.

    2017-01-01

    We present a search of very high energy gamma-ray emission from the Northern $\\textit{Fermi}$ Bubble region using data collected with the High Altitude Water Cherenkov (HAWC) gamma-ray observatory. The size of the data set is 290 days. No significant excess is observed in the Northern $\\textit{Fermi}$ Bubble region, hence upper limits above $1\\,\\text{TeV}$ are calculated. The upper limits are between $3\\times 10^{-7}\\,\\text{GeV}\\, \\text{cm}^{-2}\\, \\text{s}^{-1}\\,\\text{sr}^{-1}$ and $4\\times 1...

  3. Virtual Gamma Ray Radiation Sources through Neutron Radiative Capture

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scott Wilde, Raymond Keegan

    2008-07-01

    The countrate response of a gamma spectrometry system from a neutron radiation source behind a plane of moderating material doped with a nuclide of a large radiative neutron capture cross-section exhibits a countrate response analogous to a gamma radiation source at the same position from the detector. Using a planar, surface area of the neutron moderating material exposed to the neutron radiation produces a larger area under the prompt gamma ray peak in the detector than a smaller area of dimensions relative to the active volume of the gamma detection system.

  4. Development of a simple gamma ray source seeking mobile platform

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miller, A.; Machrafi, R.; Mohany, A., E-mail: alexander.miller@uoit.ca [Univ. of Ontario Inst. of Tech., Oshawa, ON (Canada)

    2014-07-01

    This paper presents a novel method for a small, inexpensive mobile robot equipped with a lanthanum bromide detector to survey a local area and identify sources of gamma radiation. This is achieved by surrounding the lanthanum bromide detector with a lead sheath that blocks all gamma rays except those incident along the detector's axial direction. A 360{sup o} horizontal scan is performed by rotating both the robot and the lanthanum bromide detector and a directional profile of gamma radiation is constructed. (author)

  5. FERMI OBSERVATIONS OF HIGH-ENERGY GAMMA-RAY EMISSION FROM GRB 090217A

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ackermann, M.; Ajello, M.; Bechtol, K.; Berenji, B.; Blandford, R. D.; Borgland, A. W.; Bouvier, A.; Baldini, L.; Bellazzini, R.; Bregeon, J.; Brez, A.; Ballet, J.; Barbiellini, G.; Baring, M. G.; Bastieri, D.; Bhat, P. N.; Briggs, M. S.; Bissaldi, E.; Bonamente, E.; Brigida, M.

    2010-01-01

    The Fermi observatory is advancing our knowledge of gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) through pioneering observations at high energies, covering more than seven decades in energy with the two on-board detectors, the Large Area Telescope (LAT) and the Gamma-ray Burst Monitor (GBM). Here, we report on the observation of the long GRB 090217A which triggered the GBM and has been detected by the LAT with a significance greater than 9σ. We present the GBM and LAT observations and on-ground analyses, including the time-resolved spectra and the study of the temporal profile from 8 keV up to ∼1 GeV. All spectra are well reproduced by a Band model. We compare these observations to the first two LAT-detected, long bursts GRB 080825C and GRB 080916C. These bursts were found to have time-dependent spectra and exhibited a delayed onset of the high-energy emission, which are not observed in the case of GRB 090217A. We discuss some theoretical implications for the high-energy emission of GRBs.

  6. Pulsed Gamma-Rays From the Millisecond Pulsar J0030+0451 with the Fermi Large Area Telescope

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abdo, Aous A.; Ackermann, M.; Atwood, W.B.; Axelsson, M.; Baldini, L.; Ballet, J.; Barbiellini, Guido; Bastieri, Denis; Battelino, M.; Baughman, B.M.; Bechtol, K.; Bellazzini, R.; Berenji, B.; Bloom, Elliott D.; Bonamente, E.; Borgland, A.W.; Bregeon, J.; Brez, A.; Brigida, M.; Bruel, P.; Burnett, Thompson H.

    2009-01-01

    We report the discovery of gamma-ray pulsations from the nearby isolated millisecond pulsar PSR J0030+0451 with the Large Area Telescope (LAT) on the Fermi Gamma-ray Space Telescope (formerly GLAST). This discovery makes PSR J0030+0451 the second millisecond pulsar to be detected in gamma-rays after PSR J0218+4232, observed by the EGRET instrument on the Compton Gamma Ray Observatory. The spin-down power (dot E) = 3.5 x 10 33 ergs s -1 is an order of magnitude lower than the empirical lower bound of previously known gamma-ray pulsars. The emission profile is characterized by two narrow peaks, respectively 0.07 ± 0.01 and 0.08 ± 0.02 wide, separated by 0.44 ± 0.02 in phase. The first gamma-ray peak falls 0.15 ± 0.01 after the main radio peak. The pulse shape is similar to that of the 'normal' gamma-ray pulsars. An exponentially cut-off power-law fit of the emission spectrum leads to an integral photon flux above 100 MeV of (6.76 ± 1.05 ± 1.35) x 10 -8 cm -2 s -1 with cut-off energy (1.7 ± 0.4 ± 0.5) GeV. Based on its parallax distance of (300 ± 90) pc, we obtain a gamma-ray efficiency L γ /(dot E) ≅ 15% for the conversion of spin-down energy rate into gamma-ray radiation, assuming isotropic emission.

  7. PULSED GAMMA RAYS FROM THE MILLISECOND PULSAR J0030+0451 WITH THE FERMI LARGE AREA TELESCOPE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abdo, A. A.; Ackermann, M.; Bechtol, K.; Berenji, B.; Bloom, E. D.; Borgland, A. W.; Atwood, W. B.; Axelsson, M.; Battelino, M.; Baldini, L.; Bellazzini, R.; Bregeon, J.; Brez, A.; Ballet, J.; Barbiellini, G.; Bastieri, D.; Baughman, B. M.; Bonamente, E.; Brigida, M.; Bruel, P.

    2009-01-01

    We report the discovery of gamma-ray pulsations from the nearby isolated millisecond pulsar (MSP) PSR J0030+0451 with the Large Area Telescope on the Fermi Gamma-ray Space Telescope (formerly GLAST). This discovery makes PSR J0030+0451 the second MSP to be detected in gamma rays after PSR J0218+4232, observed by the EGRET instrument on the Compton Gamma-Ray Observatory. The spin-down power E-dot=3.5x10 33 erg s -1 is an order of magnitude lower than the empirical lower bound of previously known gamma-ray pulsars. The emission profile is characterized by two narrow peaks, 0.07 ± 0.01 and 0.08 ± 0.02 wide, respectively, separated by 0.44 ± 0.02 in phase. The first gamma-ray peak falls 0.15 ± 0.01 after the main radio peak. The pulse shape is similar to that of the 'normal' gamma-ray pulsars. An exponentially cutoff power-law fit of the emission spectrum leads to an integral photon flux above 100 MeV of (6.76 ± 1.05 ± 1.35) x 10 -8 cm -2 s -1 with cutoff energy (1.7 ± 0.4 ± 0.5) GeV. Based on its parallax distance of (300 ± 90) pc, we obtain a gamma-ray efficiency L γ /E-dot≅15 percent for the conversion of spin-down energy rate into gamma-ray radiation, assuming isotropic emission.

  8. Pulsed Gamma-Rays From the Millisecond Pulsar J0030+0451 with the Fermi Large Area Telescope

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abdo, Aous A.; /Naval Research Lab, Wash., D.C.; Ackermann, M.; /Stanford U., HEPL /KIPAC, Menlo Park /Stanford U., Phys. Dept.; Atwood, W.B.; /UC, Santa Cruz; Axelsson, M. /Stockholm U., OKC /Stockholm U.; Baldini, L.; /INFN, Pisa; Ballet, J.; /DAPNIA, Saclay; Barbiellini, Guido; /INFN, Trieste /Trieste U.; Bastieri, Denis; /INFN, Padua /Padua U.; Battelino, M.; /Stockholm U., OKC /Royal Inst. Tech., Stockholm; Baughman, B.M.; /Ohio State U.; Bechtol, K.; /Stanford U., HEPL /KIPAC, Menlo Park /Stanford U., Phys. Dept.; Bellazzini, R.; /INFN, Pisa; Berenji, B.; /Stanford U., HEPL /KIPAC, Menlo Park /Stanford U., Phys. Dept.; Bloom, Elliott D.; /Stanford U., HEPL /KIPAC, Menlo Park /Stanford U., Phys. Dept.; Bonamente, E.; /INFN, Perugia /Perugia U.; Borgland, A.W.; /Stanford U., HEPL /KIPAC, Menlo Park /Stanford U., Phys. Dept.; Bregeon, J.; /INFN, Pisa; Brez, A.; /INFN, Pisa; Brigida, M.; /Bari U. /INFN, Bari; Bruel, P.; /Ecole Polytechnique; Burnett, Thompson H.; /Washington U., Seattle /Bari U. /INFN, Bari /Stanford U., HEPL /KIPAC, Menlo Park /Stanford U., Phys. Dept. /IASF, Milan /IASF, Milan /DAPNIA, Saclay /INFN, Perugia /Perugia U. /Stanford U., HEPL /KIPAC, Menlo Park /Stanford U., Phys. Dept. /George Mason U. /Naval Research Lab, Wash., D.C. /NASA, Goddard /Stanford U., HEPL /KIPAC, Menlo Park /Stanford U., Phys. Dept. /INFN, Perugia /Perugia U. /Stanford U., HEPL /KIPAC, Menlo Park /Stanford U., Phys. Dept. /LPCE, Orleans /Montpellier U. /Sonoma State U. /Stockholm U., OKC /Royal Inst. Tech., Stockholm /Stockholm U. /ASDC, Frascati /Naval Research Lab, Wash., D.C. /INFN, Trieste /Bari U. /INFN, Bari /Stanford U., HEPL /KIPAC, Menlo Park /Stanford U., Phys. Dept. /UC, Santa Cruz /Stanford U., HEPL /KIPAC, Menlo Park /Stanford U., Phys. Dept. /Stanford U., HEPL /KIPAC, Menlo Park /Stanford U., Phys. Dept. /Stanford U., HEPL /KIPAC, Menlo Park /Stanford U., Phys. Dept. /CENBG, Gradignan /CENBG, Gradignan /Montpellier U. /Bari U. /INFN, Bari /Stanford U., HEPL /KIPAC, Menlo Park /Stanford U., Phys. Dept. /INFN, Trieste /Hiroshima U.; /more authors..

    2011-11-17

    We report the discovery of gamma-ray pulsations from the nearby isolated millisecond pulsar PSR J0030+0451 with the Large Area Telescope (LAT) on the Fermi Gamma-ray Space Telescope (formerly GLAST). This discovery makes PSR J0030+0451 the second millisecond pulsar to be detected in gamma-rays after PSR J0218+4232, observed by the EGRET instrument on the Compton Gamma Ray Observatory. The spin-down power {dot E} = 3.5 x 10{sup 33} ergs s{sup -1} is an order of magnitude lower than the empirical lower bound of previously known gamma-ray pulsars. The emission profile is characterized by two narrow peaks, respectively 0.07 {+-} 0.01 and 0.08 {+-} 0.02 wide, separated by 0.44 {+-} 0.02 in phase. The first gamma-ray peak falls 0.15 {+-} 0.01 after the main radio peak. The pulse shape is similar to that of the 'normal' gamma-ray pulsars. An exponentially cut-off power-law fit of the emission spectrum leads to an integral photon flux above 100 MeV of (6.76 {+-} 1.05 {+-} 1.35) x 10{sup -8} cm{sup -2} s{sup -1} with cut-off energy (1.7 {+-} 0.4 {+-} 0.5) GeV. Based on its parallax distance of (300 {+-} 90) pc, we obtain a gamma-ray efficiency L{sub {gamma}}/{dot E} {approx_equal} 15% for the conversion of spin-down energy rate into gamma-ray radiation, assuming isotropic emission.

  9. GAMMA-RAY EMISSION FROM PSR J0007+7303 USING SEVEN YEARS OF FERMI LARGE AREA TELESCOPE OBSERVATIONS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Jian; Torres, Diego F.; De Oña Wilhelmi, Emma; Rea, Nanda; Martin, Jonatan [Institute of Space Sciences (CSIC–IEEC), Campus UAB, Carrer de Magrans s/n, E-08193 Barcelona (Spain)

    2016-11-01

    Based on more than seven years of Fermi Large Area Telescope Pass 8 data, we report on a detailed analysis of the bright gamma-ray pulsar (PSR) J0007+7303. We confirm that PSR J0007+7303 is significantly detected as a point source also during the off-peak phases with a test statistic value of 262 (∼16 σ ). In the description of the off-peak spectrum of PSR J0007+7303, a power law with an exponential cutoff at 2.7 ± 1.2 ± 1.3 GeV (the first/second uncertainties correspond to statistical/systematic errors) is preferred over a single power law at a level of 3.5 σ . The possible existence of a cutoff hints at a magnetospheric origin of the emission. In addition, no extended gamma-ray emission is detected that is compatible with either the supernova remnant (CTA 1) or the very high-energy (>100 GeV) pulsar wind nebula. A flux upper limit of 6.5 × 10{sup −12} erg cm{sup −2} s{sup −1} in the energy range 10–300 GeV is reported, for an extended source assuming the morphology of the VERITAS detection. During on-peak phases, a sub-exponential cutoff is significantly preferred (∼11 σ ) for representing the spectral energy distribution, in both the phase-averaged and phase-resolved spectra. Three glitches are detected during the observation period and we found no flux variability at the time of the glitches or in the long-term behavior. We also report the discovery of a previously unknown gamma-ray source in the vicinity of PSR J0007+7303, Fermi J0020+7328, which we associate with the z = 1.781 quasar S5 0016+73. A concurrent analysis of this source is needed to correctly characterize the behavior of CTA 1 and it is also presented in the paper.

  10. Simultaneous Planck, Swift, and Fermi Observations of X-ray and Gamma-ray Selected Blazars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giommi, P.; Polenta, G.; Laehteenmaeki, A.; Thompson, D. J.; Capalbi, M.; Cutini, S.; Gasparrini, D.; Gonzalez, Nuevo, J.; Leon-Tavares, J.; Lopez-Caniego, M.; hide

    2012-01-01

    We present simultaneous Planck, Swift, Fermi, and ground-based data for 105 blazars belonging to three samples with flux limits in the soft X-ray, hard X-ray, and gamma-ray bands, with additional 5 GHz flux-density limits to ensure a good probability of a Planck detection. We compare our results to those of a companion paper presenting simultaneous Planck and multi-frequency observations of 104 radio-loud northern active galactic nuclei selected at radio frequencies. While we confirm several previous results, our unique data set allows us to demonstrate that the selection method strongly influences the results, producing biases that cannot be ignored. Almost all the BL Lac objects have been detected by the Fermi Large Area Telescope (LAT), whereas 30% to 40% of the flat-spectrum radio quasars (FSRQs) in the radio, soft X-ray, and hard X-ray selected samples are still below the gamma-ray detection limit even after integrating 27 months of Fermi-LAT data. The radio to sub-millimetre spectral slope of blazars is quite flat, with (alpha) approx 0 up to about 70GHz, above which it steepens to (alpha) approx -0.65. The BL Lacs have significantly flatter spectra than FSRQs at higher frequencies. The distribution of the rest-frame synchrotron peak frequency (nu(sup s)(sub peak)) in the spectral energy distribution (SED) of FSRQs is the same in all the blazar samples with (nu(sup s)(sub peak)) = 10(exp 13.1 +/- 0.1) Hz, while the mean inverse Compton peak frequency, (nu(sup IC)(sub peak)), ranges from 10(exp 21) to 10(exp 22) Hz. The distributions of nu(sup s)(sub peak) and nu(sup IC)(sub peak) of BL Lacs are much broader and are shifted to higher energies than those of FSRQs; their shapes strongly depend on the selection method. The Compton dominance of blazars. defined as the ratio of the inverse Compton to synchrotron peak luminosities, ranges from less than 0.2 to nearly 100, with only FSRQs reaching values larger than about 3. Its distribution is broad and depends

  11. BOW TIES IN THE SKY. I. THE ANGULAR STRUCTURE OF INVERSE COMPTON GAMMA-RAY HALOS IN THE FERMI SKY

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Broderick, Avery E.; Shalaby, Mohamad [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Waterloo, 200 University Avenue West, Waterloo, ON, N2L 3G1 (Canada); Tiede, Paul [Perimeter Institute for Theoretical Physics, 31 Caroline Street North, Waterloo, ON, N2L 2Y5 (Canada); Pfrommer, Christoph [Heidelberg Institute for Theoretical Studies, Schloss-Wolfsbrunnenweg 35, D-69118 Heidelberg (Germany); Puchwein, Ewald [Institute of Astronomy and Kavli Institute for Cosmology, University of Cambridge, Madingley Road, Cambridge, CB3 0HA (United Kingdom); Chang, Philip [Department of Physics, University of Wisconsin-Milwaukee, 1900 E. Kenwood Boulevard, Milwaukee, WI 53211 (United States); Lamberts, Astrid [Theoretical Astrophysics, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States)

    2016-12-01

    Extended inverse Compton halos are generally anticipated around extragalactic sources of gamma rays with energies above 100 GeV. These result from inverse Compton scattered cosmic microwave background photons by a population of high-energy electron/positron pairs produced by the annihilation of the high-energy gamma rays on the infrared background. Despite the observed attenuation of the high-energy gamma rays, the halo emission has yet to be directly detected. Here, we demonstrate that in most cases these halos are expected to be highly anisotropic, distributing the upscattered gamma rays along axes defined either by the radio jets of the sources or oriented perpendicular to a global magnetic field. We present a pedagogical derivation of the angular structure in the inverse Compton halo and provide an analytic formalism that facilitates the generation of mock images. We discuss exploiting this fact for the purpose of detecting gamma-ray halos in a set of companion papers.

  12. Constraining the High-Energy Emission from Gamma-Ray Bursts with Fermi

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gehrels, Neil; Harding, A. K.; Hays, E.; Racusin, J. L.; Sonbas, E.; Stamatikos, M.; Guirec, S.

    2012-01-01

    We examine 288 GRBs detected by the Fermi Gamma-ray Space Telescope's Gamma-ray Burst Monitor (GBM) that fell within the field-of-view of Fermi's Large Area Telescope (LAT) during the first 2.5 years of observations, which showed no evidence for emission above 100 MeV. We report the photon flux upper limits in the 0.1-10 GeV range during the prompt emission phase as well as for fixed 30 s and 100 s integrations starting from the trigger time for each burst. We compare these limits with the fluxes that would be expected from extrapolations of spectral fits presented in the first GBM spectral catalog and infer that roughly half of the GBM-detected bursts either require spectral breaks between the GBM and LAT energy bands or have intrinsically steeper spectra above the peak of the nuF(sub v) spectra (E(sub pk)). In order to distinguish between these two scenarios, we perform joint GBM and LAT spectral fits to the 30 brightest GBM-detected bursts and find that a majority of these bursts are indeed softer above E(sub pk) than would be inferred from fitting the GBM data alone. Approximately 20% of this spectroscopic subsample show statistically significant evidence for a cut-off in their high-energy spectra, which if assumed to be due to gamma gamma attenuation, places limits on the maximum Lorentz factor associated with the relativistic outflow producing this emission. All of these latter bursts have maximum Lorentz factor estimates that are well below the minimum Lorentz factors calculated for LAT-detected GRBs, revealing a wide distribution in the bulk Lorentz factor of GRB outflows and indicating that LAT-detected bursts may represent the high end of this distribution.

  13. Testing the Isotropic Universe Using the Gamma-Ray Burst Data of Fermi/GBM

    Science.gov (United States)

    Řípa, Jakub; Shafieloo, Arman

    2017-12-01

    The sky distribution of gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) has been intensively studied by various groups for more than two decades. Most of these studies test the isotropy of GRBs based on their sky number density distribution. In this work, we propose an approach to test the isotropy of the universe through inspecting the isotropy of the properties of GRBs such as their duration, fluences, and peak fluxes at various energy bands and different timescales. We apply this method on the Fermi/Gamma-ray Burst Monitor (GBM) data sample containing 1591 GRBs. The most noticeable feature we found is near the Galactic coordinates l≈ 30^\\circ , b≈ 15^\\circ , and radius r≈ 20^\\circ {--}40^\\circ . The inferred probability for the occurrence of such an anisotropic signal (in a random isotropic sample) is derived to be less than a percent in some of the tests while the other tests give results consistent with isotropy. These are based on the comparison of the results from the real data with the randomly shuffled data samples. Considering the large number of statistics we used in this work (some of which are correlated with each other), we can anticipate that the detected feature could be a result of statistical fluctuations. Moreover, we noticed a considerably low number of GRBs in this particular patch, which might be due to some instrumentation or observational effects that can consequently affect our statistics through some systematics. Further investigation is highly desirable in order to clarify this result, e.g., utilizing a larger future Fermi/GBM data sample as well as data samples of other GRB missions and also looking for possible systematics.

  14. Modeling Gamma-Ray Bursts in the Swift-Fermi era

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hascoet, Romain

    2012-01-01

    Gamma-Ray Bursts (GRBs) are short flashes (≅ 10 ms-100 s) of gamma-rays (keV-MeV). These very bright and variable events are followed by an afterglow detected from the X-ray to the optical and radio domains, which decays rapidly and vanishes in a few days/weeks. Their extreme luminosity make them detectable up to cosmological distances (at least to a redshift of 9). They are produced by relativistic jets launched by a newborn compact object. The gamma-ray emission is attributed to internal mechanisms occurring within the jet and the afterglow to the deceleration by the circum-burst medium. The Swift satellite launched in 2004 has improved our knowledge of the afterglow (especially the early phase), while the Fermi satellite launched in 2008 has opened a new spectral window at high energy (above 100 MeV). My research work is in line with these recent observational breakthroughs which challenge the 'standard' GRB model that was established in the 90's. I have developed numerical tools that are well adapted to model in a consistent way the different emission phases experienced by the relativistic jet, from the photosphere to the deceleration. Using these tools, I have obtained several results that contribute to a better understanding of GRB physics. Regarding the GRB itself, I developed a new approach to compute precisely the opacity seen by a high-energy photon that propagates within a ultra-relativistic jet. By comparing predictions to Fermi observations, I obtain critical constraints on the physical conditions in the relativistic jet (especially the Lorentz factor). I have also tried to identify observational signatures that could help to discriminate between different emission models: spectral (optical and high energy emission, thermal component) and temporal (transition to the afterglow) signatures. Regarding the afterglow, I have carried on the development of an alternative model - the 'reverse shock' model - recently proposed to explain the phenomenological

  15. Gamma-ray imaging of the Quinby sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gregor, J.; Hensley, D.C.

    1996-01-01

    The Quinby sources are alumina cylinders 7 inches in diameter and 8 inches high doped with weapons grade plutonium. We describe a computer tomography system for reconstructing three-dimensional images of these sources. Each reconstruction maps the spatial distribution of the internal [sup 241]Am gamma ray activity and is computed using an iterative, expectation-maximization algorithm with detection efficiencies based both on geometric model of the experimental setup and attenuation corrections. Constructed about a decade ago, the Quinby sources were to contain uniformly distributed material. However, for some of the sources we have found regions where the plutonium solution, tends to be concentrated. The ultimate goal of this work is to provide the basis for self-shielding corrections when analyzing differential dieaway neutron measurements

  16. Revisiting the Gamma-Ray Source 2FGL J1823.8+4312

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stern, Daniel; Assef, Roberto J.

    2013-02-01

    One of the great challenges of gamma-ray astronomy is identifying the lower energy counterparts to these high-energy sources. Recently, in this journal, Massaro et al. attempted to find the counterpart of 2FGL J1823.8+4312, a gamma-ray active galactic nucleus (AGN) of uncertain type from the Second Fermi Large Area Telescope catalog. After considering mid-infrared data in the field from the Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer (WISE), those authors conclude that the preferred identification of 2FGL J1823.8+4312 is WISE J182352.33+431452.5, despite the fact that the mid-infrared source is undetected at radio energies. They claim that WISE J182352.33+431452.5 constitutes the discovery of a new class of extragalactic X-ray source, either a radio-faint blazar or the prototype of a new class of active galaxy with an enigmatic spectral energy distribution. This conclusion is claimed to be independent of whether or not the WISE source is the actual counterpart to 2FGL J1823.8+4312. Based on a re-analysis of public data in this field and new spectroscopy from Palomar, we conclude that WISE J182352.33+431452.5 is a dust-reddened quasar at z = 0.560, a representative example of a very common extragalactic AGN class. Were WISE J182352.33+431452.5 to be associated with the gamma-ray emission, this would be an unusual and exciting discovery. However, we argue that 2FGL J1823.8+4312 is more likely associated with either WISE J182409.25+431404.7 or, more likely, WISE J182419.04+430949.6, two radio-loud sources in the field. The former is a radio-loud quasar and the latter is an optically variable source with a featureless blue spectrum.

  17. Compact sources as the origin of the soft gamma-ray emission of the Milky Way

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lebrun, F.; Terrier, R.; Bazzano, A.

    2004-01-01

    The Milky Way is known to be an abundant source of gamma-ray photons(1), now determined to be mainly diffuse in nature and resulting from interstellar processes(2). In the soft gamma-ray domain, point sources are expected to dominate, but the lack of sensitive high-resolution observations did...... the origin of the soft gamma-rays is therefore necessary to determine the dominant particle acceleration processes and to gain insights into the physical and chemical equilibrium of the interstellar medium(7). Here we report observations in the soft gamma-ray domain that reveal numerous compact sources. We...

  18. Anisotropies in the diffuse gamma-ray background from dark matter with Fermi LAT: a closer look

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cuoco, Alessandro; Sellerholm, A.; Conrad, J.

    2011-01-01

    We perform a detailed study of the sensitivity to the anisotropies related to dark matter (DM) annihilation in the isotropic gamma-ray background (IGRB) as measured by the Fermi Large Area Telescope (Fermi LAT). For the first time, we take into account the effects of the Galactic foregrounds...... of the detector are taken into account by convolving the model maps with the Fermi LAT instrumental response. We then use the angular power spectrum to characterize the anisotropy properties of the simulated data and to study the sensitivity to DM. We consider DM anisotropies of extragalactic origin...

  19. Measurement of the high-energy gamma-ray emission from the Moon with the Fermi Large Area Telescope

    CERN Document Server

    Ackermann, M.; Albert, A.; Atwood, W. B.; Baldini, L.; Barbiellini, G.; Bastieri, D.; Bellazzini, R.; Bissaldi, E.; Blandford, R. D.; Bonino, R.; Bottacini, E.; Bregeon, J.; Bruel, P.; Buehler, R.; Caliandro, G. A.; Cameron, R. A.; Caragiulo, M.; Caraveo, P.A.; Cavazzuti, E.; Cecchi, C.; Chekhtman, A.; Chiang, J.; Chiaro, G.; Ciprini, S.; Claus, R.; Cohen-Tanugi, J.; Costanza, F.; Cuoco, A.; Cutini, S.; D'Ammando, F.; de Angelis, A.; de Palma, F.; Desiante, R.; Digel, S.W.; Di Venere, L.; Drell, P.S.; Favuzzi, C.; Fegan, S.J.; Focke, W.B.; Franckowiak, A.; Funk, S.; Fusco, P.; Gargano, F.; Gasparrini, D.; Giglietto, N.; Giordano, F.; Giroletti, M.; Glanzman, T.; Godfrey, G.; Grenier, I. A.; Grove, J.E.; Guiriec, S.; Harding, A. K.; Hewitt, J. W.; Horan, D.; Hou, X.; Iafrate, G.; Jóhannesson, G.; Kamae, T.; Kuss, M.; Larsson, S.; Latronico, L.; Li, J.; Li, L.; Longo, F.; Loparco, F.; Lovellette, M.N.; Lubrano, P.; Magill, J.; Maldera, S.; Manfreda, A.; Mayer, M.; Mazziotta, M.N.; Michelson, P.F.; Mitthumsiri, W.; Mizuno, T.; Monzani, M.E.; Morselli, A.; Murgia, S.; Nuss, E.; Omodei, N.; Orlando, E.; Ormes, J.F.; Paneque, D.; Perkins, J. S.; Pesce-Rollins, M.; Petrosian, V.; Piron, F.; Pivato, G.; Rainò, S.; Rando, R.; Razzano, M.; Reimer, A.; Reimer, O.; Sgrò, C.; Reposeur, T.; Siskind, E.J.; Spada, F.; Spandre, G.; Spinelli, P.; Takahashi, H.; Thayer, J.B.; Thompson, D.J.; Tibaldo, L.; Torres, D. F.; Tosti, G.; Troja, E.; Vianello, G.; Winer, B. L.; Wood, K. S.; Yassine, M.; Cerutti, F.; Ferrari, A.; Sala, P.R.

    2016-01-01

    We have measured the gamma-ray emission spectrum of the Moon using the data collected by the Large Area Telescope onboard the Fermi satellite during its first 7 years of operation, in the energy range from 30 MeV up to a few GeV. We have also studied the time evolution of the flux, finding a correlation with the solar activity. We have developed a full Monte Carlo simulation describing the interactions of cosmic rays with the lunar surface. The results of the present analysis can be explained in the framework of this model, where the production of gamma rays is due to the interactions of cosmic-ray proton and helium nuclei with the surface of the Moon. Finally, we have used our simulation to derive the cosmic-ray proton and helium spectra near Earth from the Moon gamma-ray data.

  20. Jet Physics of Accreting Super-Massive Black Holes in the Era of the Fermi Gamma-ray Space Telescope

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    D' Ammando, Filippo, E-mail: dammando@ira.inaf.it [Dipartimento di Fisica e Astronomia, Universitá di Bologna, Bologna (Italy); Istituto di Radioastronomia (INAF), Bologna (Italy)

    2017-11-28

    The Fermi Gamma-ray Space Telescope with its main instrument on-board, the Large Area Telescope (LAT), opened a new era in the study of high-energy emission from Active Galactic Nuclei (AGN). When combined with contemporaneous ground- and space-based observations, Fermi-LAT achieves its full capability to characterize the jet structure and the emission mechanisms at work in radio-loud AGN with different black hole mass and accretion rate, from flat spectrum radio quasars to narrow-line Seyfert 1 (NLSy1) galaxies. Here, I discuss important findings regarding the blazar population included in the third LAT catalog of AGN and the γ-ray emitting NLSy1. Moreover, the detection of blazars at redshift beyond three in γ rays allows us to constrain the growth and evolution of heavy black holes over cosmic time, suggesting that the radio-loud phase may be important for a fast black hole growth in the early Universe. Finally, results on extragalactic objects from the third catalog of hard LAT sources are presented.

  1. Jet Physics of Accreting Super-Massive Black Holes in the Era of the Fermi Gamma-ray Space Telescope

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Filippo D'Ammando

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available The Fermi Gamma-ray Space Telescope with its main instrument on-board, the Large Area Telescope (LAT, opened a new era in the study of high-energy emission from Active Galactic Nuclei (AGN. When combined with contemporaneous ground- and space-based observations, Fermi-LAT achieves its full capability to characterize the jet structure and the emission mechanisms at work in radio-loud AGN with different black hole mass and accretion rate, from flat spectrum radio quasars to narrow-line Seyfert 1 (NLSy1 galaxies. Here, I discuss important findings regarding the blazar population included in the third LAT catalog of AGN and the γ-ray emitting NLSy1. Moreover, the detection of blazars at redshift beyond three in γ rays allows us to constrain the growth and evolution of heavy black holes over cosmic time, suggesting that the radio-loud phase may be important for a fast black hole growth in the early Universe. Finally, results on extragalactic objects from the third catalog of hard LAT sources are presented.

  2. FERMI-LAT DETECTION OF PULSED GAMMA-RAYS ABOVE 50 GeV FROM THE VELA PULSAR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leung, Gene C. K.; Takata, J.; Ng, C. W.; Cheng, K. S. [Department of Physics, The University of Hong Kong, Pokfulam Road (Hong Kong); Kong, A. K. H.; Tam, P. H. T. [Institute of Astronomy and Department of Physics, National Tsing Hua University, Hsinchu, Taiwan (China); Hui, C. Y., E-mail: gene930@connect.hku.hk, E-mail: takata@hku.hk [Department of Astronomy and Space Science, Chungnam National University, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-12-20

    The first Fermi-Large Area Telescope (LAT) catalog of sources above 10 GeV reported evidence of pulsed emission above 25 GeV from 12 pulsars, including the Vela pulsar, which showed evidence of pulsation at >37 GeV energy bands. Using 62 months of Fermi-LAT data, we analyzed the gamma-ray emission from the Vela pulsar and searched for pulsed emission above 50 GeV. Having confirmed the significance of the pulsation in 30-50 GeV with the H test (p-value ∼10{sup –77}), we extracted its pulse profile using the Bayesian block algorithm and compared it with the distribution of the five observed photons above 50 GeV using the likelihood ratio test. Pulsation was significantly detected for photons above 50 GeV with a p-value of =3 × 10{sup –5} (4.2σ). The detection of pulsation is significant above 4σ at >79 GeV and above 3σ at >90 GeV energy bands, making this the highest energy pulsation significantly detected by the LAT. We explore the non-stationary outer gap scenario of the very high-energy emissions from the Vela pulsar.

  3. FERMI LAT OBSERVATIONS OF LS I +610303: FIRST DETECTION OF AN ORBITAL MODULATION IN GeV GAMMA RAYS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abdo, A. A.; Ackermann, M.; Ajello, M.; Bechtol, K.; Berenji, B.; Blandford, R.; Bloom, E. D.; Borgland, A. W.; Atwood, W. B.; Axelsson, M.; Baldini, L.; Bellazzini, R.; Bregeon, J.; Brez, A.; Ballet, J.; Barbiellini, G.; Bastieri, D.; Baughman, B. M.; Bonamente, E.; Brigida, M.

    2009-01-01

    This Letter presents the first results from the observations of LS I +61 0 303 using Large Area Telescope data from the Fermi Gamma-Ray Space Telescope between 2008 August and 2009 March. Our results indicate variability that is consistent with the binary period, with the emission being modulated at 26.6 ± 0.5 days. This constitutes the first detection of orbital periodicity in high-energy gamma rays (20 MeV-100 GeV, HE). The light curve is characterized by a broad peak after periastron, as well as a smaller peak just before apastron. The spectrum is best represented by a power law with an exponential cutoff, yielding an overall flux above 100 MeV of 0.82 ± 0.03(stat) ± 0.07(syst) 10 -6 ph cm -2 s -1 , with a cutoff at 6.3 ± 1.1(stat) ± 0.4(syst) GeV and photon index Γ = 2.21 ± 0.04(stat) ± 0.06(syst). There is no significant spectral change with orbital phase. The phase of maximum emission, close to periastron, hints at inverse Compton scattering as the main radiation mechanism. However, previous very high-energy gamma ray (>100 GeV, VHE) observations by MAGIC and VERITAS show peak emission close to apastron. This and the energy cutoff seen with Fermi suggest that the link between HE and VHE gamma rays is nontrivial.

  4. Fermi LAT Observations of LS I +61 303: First Detection of an Orbital Modulation in GeV Gamma Rays

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abdo, A.A.; /Federal City Coll. /Naval Research Lab, Wash., D.C.; Ackermann, M.; /Stanford U., HEPL /KIPAC, Menlo Park /Stanford U., Phys. Dept.; Ajello, M.; /Stanford U., HEPL /KIPAC, Menlo Park /Stanford U., Phys. Dept.; Atwood, W.B.; /UC, Santa Cruz; Axelsson, M.; /Stockholm U., OKC /Stockholm U.; Baldini, L.; /INFN, Pisa; Ballet, J.; /DAPNIA, Saclay; Barbiellini, G.; /INFN, Trieste /Trieste U.; Bastieri, D.; /INFN, Padua /Padua U.; Baughman, B.M.; /Ohio State U.; Bechtol, K.; /Stanford U., HEPL /KIPAC, Menlo Park /Stanford U., Phys. Dept.; Bellazzini, R.; /INFN, Pisa; Berenji, B.; /Stanford U., HEPL /KIPAC, Menlo Park /Stanford U., Phys. Dept.; Blandford, R.; /Stanford U., HEPL /KIPAC, Menlo Park /Stanford U., Phys. Dept.; Bloom, E.D.; /Stanford U., HEPL /KIPAC, Menlo Park /Stanford U., Phys. Dept.; Bonamente, E.; /INFN, Perugia /Perugia U.; Borgland, A.W.; /Stanford U., HEPL /KIPAC, Menlo Park /Stanford U., Phys. Dept.; Bregeon, J.; /INFN, Pisa; Brez, A.; /INFN, Pisa; Brigida, M.; /Bari U. /INFN, Bari; Bruel, P.; /Ecole Polytechnique /Washington U., Seattle /Bari U. /INFN, Bari /Stanford U., HEPL /KIPAC, Menlo Park /Stanford U., Phys. Dept. /IASF, Milan /Milan Polytechnic /DAPNIA, Saclay /ASDC, Frascati /INFN, Perugia /Perugia U. /NASA, Goddard /Stanford U., HEPL /KIPAC, Menlo Park /Stanford U., Phys. Dept. /DAPNIA, Saclay /Naval Research Lab, Wash., D.C. /George Mason U. /NASA, Goddard /Stanford U., HEPL /KIPAC, Menlo Park /Stanford U., Phys. Dept. /INFN, Perugia /Perugia U. /Stanford U., HEPL /KIPAC, Menlo Park /Stanford U., Phys. Dept. /Montpellier U. /Sonoma State U. /Stockholm U., OKC /Royal Inst. Tech., Stockholm /Stockholm U. /DAPNIA, Saclay /NASA, Goddard /CSST, Baltimore /ASDC, Frascati /Naval Research Lab, Wash., D.C. /INFN, Trieste /Pavia U. /Bari U. /INFN, Bari /Stanford U., HEPL /KIPAC, Menlo Park /Stanford U., Phys. Dept. /UC, Santa Cruz /Stanford U., HEPL /KIPAC, Menlo Park /Stanford U., Phys. Dept. /Stanford U., HEPL /KIPAC, Menlo Park /Stanford U., Phys. Dept. /SLAC /Stanford U., HEPL /KIPAC, Menlo Park /Stanford U., Phys. Dept. /Grenoble, CEN; /more authors..

    2012-04-02

    This Letter presents the first results from the observations of LS I +61{sup o}303 using Large Area Telescope data from the Fermi Gamma-Ray Space Telescope between 2008 August and 2009 March. Our results indicate variability that is consistent with the binary period, with the emission being modulated at 26.6 {+-} 0.5 days. This constitutes the first detection of orbital periodicity in high-energy gamma rays (20 MeV-100 GeV, HE). The light curve is characterized by a broad peak after periastron, as well as a smaller peak just before apastron. The spectrum is best represented by a power law with an exponential cutoff, yielding an overall flux above 100 MeV of 0.82 {+-} 0.03(stat) {+-} 0.07(syst) 10{sup -6} ph cm{sup -2} s{sup -1}, with a cutoff at 6.3 {+-} 1.1(stat) {+-} 0.4(syst) GeV and photon index {Gamma} = 2.21 {+-} 0.04(stat) {+-} 0.06(syst). There is no significant spectral change with orbital phase. The phase of maximum emission, close to periastron, hints at inverse Compton scattering as the main radiation mechanism. However, previous very high-energy gamma ray (>100 GeV, VHE) observations by MAGIC and VERITAS show peak emission close to apastron. This and the energy cutoff seen with Fermi suggest that the link between HE and VHE gamma rays is nontrivial.

  5. Testing the anisotropy in the angular distribution of Fermi/GBM gamma-ray bursts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarnopolski, M.

    2017-12-01

    Gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) were confirmed to be of extragalactic origin due to their isotropic angular distribution, combined with the fact that they exhibited an intensity distribution that deviated strongly from the -3/2 power law. This finding was later confirmed with the first redshift, equal to at least z = 0.835, measured for GRB970508. Despite this result, the data from CGRO/BATSE and Swift/BAT indicate that long GRBs are indeed distributed isotropically, but the distribution of short GRBs is anisotropic. Fermi/GBM has detected 1669 GRBs up to date, and their sky distribution is examined in this paper. A number of statistical tests are applied: nearest neighbour analysis, fractal dimension, dipole and quadrupole moments of the distribution function decomposed into spherical harmonics, binomial test and the two-point angular correlation function. Monte Carlo benchmark testing of each test is performed in order to evaluate its reliability. It is found that short GRBs are distributed anisotropically in the sky, and long ones have an isotropic distribution. The probability that these results are not a chance occurrence is equal to at least 99.98 per cent and 30.68 per cent for short and long GRBs, respectively. The cosmological context of this finding and its relation to large-scale structures is discussed.

  6. Can past gamma-ray bursts explain both INTEGRAL and ATIC/PAMELA/Fermi anomalies simultaneously?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Calvez, Antoine; Kusenko, Alexander

    2010-01-01

    Gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) have been invoked to explain both the 511 keV emission from the Galactic bulge and the high-energy positron excess inferred from the ATIC, PAMELA, and Fermi data. While independent explanations can be responsible for these phenomena, we explore the possibility of their common GRB-related origin by modeling the GRB distribution and estimating the rates. For an expected Milky Way long GRB rate, neither of the two signals is generic; the local excess requires a 2% coincidence while the signal from the Galactic center requires a 20% coincidence with respect to the timing of the latest GRB. The simultaneous explanation requires a 0.4% coincidence. Considering the large number of statistical 'trials' created by multiple searches for new physics, the coincidences of a few percent cannot be dismissed as unlikely. Alternatively, both phenomena can be explained by GRB if the Galactic rate is higher than expected. We also show that a similar result is difficult to obtain assuming a simplified short GRB distribution.

  7. THE THIRD FERMI GBM GAMMA-RAY BURST CATALOG: THE FIRST SIX YEARS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bhat, P. Narayana; Meegan, Charles A.; Briggs, Michael S.; Burns, Eric; Chaplin, Vandiver; Fitzpatrick, Gerard; Jenke, Peter A.; Von Kienlin, Andreas; Greiner, Jochen; Paciesas, William S.; Cleveland, William H.; Connaughton, Valerie; Burgess, J. Michael; Collazzi, Andrew C.; Diekmann, Anne M.; Gibby, Melissa H.; Giles, Misty M.; Goldstein, Adam M.; Kippen, R. Marc; Kouveliotou, Chryssa

    2016-01-01

    Since its launch in 2008, the Fermi Gamma-ray Burst Monitor (GBM) has triggered and located on average approximately two γ -ray bursts (GRBs) every three days. Here, we present the third of a series of catalogs of GRBs detected by GBM, extending the second catalog by two more years through the middle of 2014 July. The resulting list includes 1405 triggers identified as GRBs. The intention of the GBM GRB catalog is to provide information to the community on the most important observables of the GBM-detected GRBs. For each GRB, the location and main characteristics of the prompt emission, the duration, peak flux, and fluence are derived. The latter two quantities are calculated for the 50–300 keV energy band where the maximum energy release of GRBs in the instrument reference system is observed, and also for a broader energy band from 10 to 1000 keV, exploiting the full energy range of GBM's low-energy [Nai[Tl)] detectors. Using statistical methods to assess clustering, we find that the hardness and duration of GRBs are better fit by a two-component model with short-hard and long-soft bursts than by a model with three components. Furthermore, information is provided on the settings and modifications of the triggering criteria and exceptional operational conditions during years five and six in the mission. This third catalog is an official product of the Fermi GBM science team, and the data files containing the complete results are available from the High-Energy Astrophysics Science Archive Research Center.

  8. THE THIRD FERMI GBM GAMMA-RAY BURST CATALOG: THE FIRST SIX YEARS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bhat, P. Narayana; Meegan, Charles A.; Briggs, Michael S.; Burns, Eric; Chaplin, Vandiver; Fitzpatrick, Gerard; Jenke, Peter A. [The Center for Space Plasma and Aeronomic Research (CSPAR), University of Alabama in Huntsville, 320 Sparkman Drive, Huntsville, AL 35805 (United States); Von Kienlin, Andreas; Greiner, Jochen [Max-Planck-Institut für extraterrestrische Physik, Giessenbachstrasse 1, D-85748 Garching (Germany); Paciesas, William S.; Cleveland, William H.; Connaughton, Valerie [Universities Space Research Association, 320 Sparkman Drive, Huntsville, AL 35805 (United States); Burgess, J. Michael [The Oskar Klein Centre for Cosmoparticle Physics, AlbaNova, SE-106 91 Stockholm (Sweden); Collazzi, Andrew C. [SciTec Inc., 100 Wall Street, Princeton NJ, 08540 (United States); Diekmann, Anne M.; Gibby, Melissa H.; Giles, Misty M. [Jacobs Technology, Inc., Huntsville, Alabama (United States); Goldstein, Adam M. [ZP12 Astrophysics Office, NASA-Marshall Space Flight Center, Huntsville, AL 35812 (United States); Kippen, R. Marc [Los Alamos National Laboratory, MS B244, P.O. Box 1663, Los Alamos, NM 87545 (United States); Kouveliotou, Chryssa [Department of Physics, The George Washington University, 725 21st Street NW, Washington, DC 20052 (United States); and others

    2016-04-01

    Since its launch in 2008, the Fermi Gamma-ray Burst Monitor (GBM) has triggered and located on average approximately two γ -ray bursts (GRBs) every three days. Here, we present the third of a series of catalogs of GRBs detected by GBM, extending the second catalog by two more years through the middle of 2014 July. The resulting list includes 1405 triggers identified as GRBs. The intention of the GBM GRB catalog is to provide information to the community on the most important observables of the GBM-detected GRBs. For each GRB, the location and main characteristics of the prompt emission, the duration, peak flux, and fluence are derived. The latter two quantities are calculated for the 50–300 keV energy band where the maximum energy release of GRBs in the instrument reference system is observed, and also for a broader energy band from 10 to 1000 keV, exploiting the full energy range of GBM's low-energy [Nai[Tl)] detectors. Using statistical methods to assess clustering, we find that the hardness and duration of GRBs are better fit by a two-component model with short-hard and long-soft bursts than by a model with three components. Furthermore, information is provided on the settings and modifications of the triggering criteria and exceptional operational conditions during years five and six in the mission. This third catalog is an official product of the Fermi GBM science team, and the data files containing the complete results are available from the High-Energy Astrophysics Science Archive Research Center.

  9. Fermi LAT Detection of Pulsed Gamma-Rays From the Vela-Like Pulsars PSR J1048-5832 and PSR J2229+6114

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abdo, A.A.; /Naval Research Lab, Wash., D.C. /Federal City Coll.; Ackermann, M.; /Stanford U., HEPL /KIPAC, Menlo Park /Stanford U., Phys. Dept.; Ajello, M.; /Stanford U., HEPL /KIPAC, Menlo Park /Stanford U., Phys. Dept.; Atwood, W.B.; /UC, Santa Cruz; Axelsson, M.; /Stockholm U. /Stockholm U., OKC; Baldini, L.; /INFN, Pisa; Ballet, J.; /DAPNIA, Saclay; Barbiellini, G.; /INFN, Trieste /Trieste U.; Baring, M.G.; /Rice U.; Bastieri, D.; /INFN, Padua /Padua U.; Baughman, B.M.; /Ohio State U.; Bechtol, K.; /Stanford U., HEPL /KIPAC, Menlo Park /Stanford U., Phys. Dept.; Bellazzini, R.; /INFN, Pisa; Berenji, B.; /Stanford U., HEPL /KIPAC, Menlo Park /Stanford U., Phys. Dept.; Bloom, E.D.; /Stanford U., HEPL /KIPAC, Menlo Park /Stanford U., Phys. Dept.; Bonamente, E.; /INFN, Perugia /Perugia U.; Borgland, A.W.; /Stanford U., HEPL /KIPAC, Menlo Park /Stanford U., Phys. Dept.; Bregeon, J.; /INFN, Pisa; Brez, A.; /INFN, Pisa; Brigida, M.; /Bari U. /INFN, Bari; Bruel, P.; /Ecole Polytechnique /Bari U. /INFN, Bari /Stanford U., HEPL /KIPAC, Menlo Park /Stanford U., Phys. Dept. /Columbia U. /IASF, Milan /Milan Polytechnic /DAPNIA, Saclay /INFN, Perugia /Perugia U. /Naval Research Lab, Wash., D.C. /George Mason U. /NASA, Goddard /Stanford U., HEPL /KIPAC, Menlo Park /Stanford U., Phys. Dept. /INFN, Perugia /Perugia U. /Stanford U., HEPL /KIPAC, Menlo Park /Stanford U., Phys. Dept. /LPCE, Orleans /Montpellier U. /Stockholm U. /Stockholm U., OKC /INFN, Trieste /Bari U. /INFN, Bari /UC, Santa Cruz /Stanford U., HEPL /KIPAC, Menlo Park /Stanford U., Phys. Dept. /Stanford U., HEPL /KIPAC, Menlo Park /Stanford U., Phys. Dept. /Stanford U., HEPL /KIPAC, Menlo Park /Stanford U., Phys. Dept. /CENBG, Gradignan /CENBG, Gradignan /Montpellier U. /Bari U. /INFN, Bari /INFN, Trieste /Arecibo Observ. /Hiroshima U. /Stanford U., HEPL /KIPAC, Menlo Park /Stanford U., Phys. Dept. /Bari U. /INFN, Bari /INFN, Bari /NASA, Goddard /Maryland U. /INFN, Perugia /Perugia U.; /more authors..

    2012-03-29

    We report the detection of {gamma}-ray pulsations ({ge}0.1 GeV) from PSR J2229+6114 and PSR J1048-5832, the latter having been detected as a low-significance pulsar by EGRET. Data in the {gamma}-ray band were acquired by the Large Area Telescope (LAT) aboard the Fermi Gamma-ray Space Telescope, while the radio rotational ephemerides used to fold the {gamma}-ray light curves were obtained using the Green Bank Telescope, the Lovell telescope at Jodrell Bank, and the Parkes Telescope. The two young radio pulsars, located within the error circles of the previously unidentified EGRET sources 3EG J1048-5840 and 3EG J2227+6122, present spin-down characteristics similar to the Vela pulsar. PSR J1048-5832 shows two sharp peaks at phases 0.15 {+-} 0.01 and 0.57 {+-} 0.01 relative to the radio pulse confirming the EGRET light curve, while PSR J2229+6114 presents a very broad peak at phase 0.49 {+-} 0.01. The {gamma}-ray spectra above 0.1 GeV of both pulsars are fit with power laws having exponential cutoffs near 3 GeV, leading to integral photon fluxes of (2.19 {+-} 0.22 {+-} 0.32) x 10{sup -7} cm{sup -2} s{sup -1} for PSR J1048-5832 and (3.77 {+-} 0.22 {+-} 0.44) x 10{sup -7} cm{sup -2} s{sup -1} for PSR J2229+6114. The first uncertainty is statistical and the second is systematic. PSR J1048-5832 is one of the two LAT sources which were entangled together as 3EG J1048-5840. These detections add to the growing number of young {gamma}-ray pulsars that make up the dominant population of GeV {gamma}-ray sources in the Galactic plane.

  10. The GAMMA Ray Sky as Seen by Fermi: Opening a New Window on the High Energy Space Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-01-01

    important early discoveries of Fermi have been from objects in our galaxy. The LAT has discovered 12 new pulsars that seem to be visible only in gamma...have now been discov- ered by LAT. Finally, the discovery of pulsed gamma rays from several radio pulsars with millisecond spin periods, previously... pulsars , stars whose repeating emissions can be used as ultra-precise chronometers. Measurement of gamma radiation provides unique insight

  11. Precision linac and laser technologies for nuclear photonics gamma-ray sources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Albert, F.; Hartemann, F. V.; Anderson, S. G.; Cross, R. R.; Gibson, D. J.; Hall, J.; Marsh, R. A.; Messerly, M.; Wu, S. S.; Siders, C. W.; Barty, C. P. J. [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, NIF and Photon Science, 7000 East Avenue, Livermore, California 94550 (United States)

    2012-05-15

    Tunable, high precision gamma-ray sources are under development to enable nuclear photonics, an emerging field of research. This paper focuses on the technological and theoretical challenges related to precision Compton scattering gamma-ray sources. In this scheme, incident laser photons are scattered and Doppler upshifted by a high brightness electron beam to generate tunable and highly collimated gamma-ray pulses. The electron and laser beam parameters can be optimized to achieve the spectral brightness and narrow bandwidth required by nuclear photonics applications. A description of the design of the next generation precision gamma-ray source currently under construction at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory is presented, along with the underlying motivations. Within this context, high-gradient X-band technology, used in conjunction with fiber-based photocathode drive laser and diode pumped solid-state interaction laser technologies, will be shown to offer optimal performance for high gamma-ray spectral flux, narrow bandwidth applications.

  12. FERMI LARGE AREA TELESCOPE FIRST SOURCE CATALOG

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abdo, A. A.; Ackermann, M.; Ajello, M.; Allafort, A.; Bechtol, K.; Berenji, B.; Blandford, R. D.; Bloom, E. D.; Antolini, E.; Bonamente, E.; Atwood, W. B.; Axelsson, M.; Baldini, L.; Bellazzini, R.; Ballet, J.; Barbiellini, G.; Bastieri, D.; Bisello, D.; Baughman, B. M.; Belli, F.

    2010-01-01

    We present a catalog of high-energy gamma-ray sources detected by the Large Area Telescope (LAT), the primary science instrument on the Fermi Gamma-ray Space Telescope (Fermi), during the first 11 months of the science phase of the mission, which began on 2008 August 4. The First Fermi-LAT catalog (1FGL) contains 1451 sources detected and characterized in the 100 MeV to 100 GeV range. Source detection was based on the average flux over the 11 month period, and the threshold likelihood Test Statistic is 25, corresponding to a significance of just over 4σ. The 1FGL catalog includes source location regions, defined in terms of elliptical fits to the 95% confidence regions and power-law spectral fits as well as flux measurements in five energy bands for each source. In addition, monthly light curves are provided. Using a protocol defined before launch we have tested for several populations of gamma-ray sources among the sources in the catalog. For individual LAT-detected sources we provide firm identifications or plausible associations with sources in other astronomical catalogs. Identifications are based on correlated variability with counterparts at other wavelengths, or on spin or orbital periodicity. For the catalogs and association criteria that we have selected, 630 of the sources are unassociated. Care was taken to characterize the sensitivity of the results to the model of interstellar diffuse gamma-ray emission used to model the bright foreground, with the result that 161 sources at low Galactic latitudes and toward bright local interstellar clouds are flagged as having properties that are strongly dependent on the model or as potentially being due to incorrectly modeled structure in the Galactic diffuse emission.

  13. Fermi

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Fermi is a powerful space observatory that will open a wide window on the universe. Gamma rays are the highest-energy form of light, and the gamma-ray sky is...

  14. Radio Observations of Gamma-ray Novae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linford, Justin D.; Chomiuk, L.; Ribeiro, V.; project, E.-Nova

    2014-01-01

    Recent detection of gamma-ray emission from classical novae by the Large Area Telescope (LAT) on board the Fermi Gamma-ray Space Telescope surprised many in the astronomical community. We present results from radio observations, obtained using the Karl G. Jansky Very Large Array (VLA), of three gamma-ray novae: Mon2012, Sco2012, and Del2013. Radio observations allow for the calculation of ejecta masses, place limits on the distances, and provide information about the gamma-ray emission mechanism for these sources.

  15. Modelling the luminosity function of long gamma-ray bursts using Swift and Fermi

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paul, Debdutta

    2018-01-01

    I have used a sample of long gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) common to both Swift and Fermi to re-derive the parameters of the Yonetoku correlation. This allowed me to self-consistently estimate pseudo-redshifts of all the bursts with unknown redshifts. This is the first time such a large sample of GRBs from these two instruments is used, both individually and in conjunction, to model the long GRB luminosity function. The GRB formation rate is modelled as the product of the cosmic star formation rate and a GRB formation efficiency for a given stellar mass. An exponential cut-off power-law luminosity function fits the data reasonably well, with ν = 0.6 and Lb = 5.4 × 1052 ergs- 1, and does not require a cosmological evolution. In the case of a broken power law, it is required to incorporate a sharp evolution of the break given by Lb ∼ 0.3 × 1052(1 + z)2.90 erg s- 1, and the GRB formation efficiency (degenerate up to a beaming factor of GRBs) decreases with redshift as ∝ (1 + z)-0.80. However, it is not possible to distinguish between the two models. The derived models are then used as templates to predict the distribution of GRBs detectable by CZT Imager onboard AstroSat as a function of redshift and luminosity. This demonstrates that via a quick localization and redshift measurement of even a few CZT Imager GRBs, AstroSat will help in improving the statistics of GRBs both typical and peculiar.

  16. Constraints on Cosmic Rays, Magnetic Fields, and Dark Matter from Gamma-ray Observations of the Coma Cluster of Galaxies with VERITAS and FERMI

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arlen, T.; Aune, T.; Beilicke, M.; Benbow, W.; Bouvier, A.; Buckley, J. H.; Bugaev, V.; Byrum, K.; Cannon, A.; Cesarini, A.; hide

    2012-01-01

    Observations of radio halos and relics in galaxy clusters indicate efficient electron acceleration. Protons should likewise be accelerated and, on account of weak energy losses, can accumulate, suggesting that clusters may also be sources of very high energy (VHE; E greater than100 GeV) gamma-ray emission. We report here on VHE gamma-ray observations of the Coma galaxy cluster with the VERITAS array of imaging Cerenkov telescopes, with complementing Fermi Large Area Telescope observations at GeV energies. No significant gamma-ray emission from the Coma Cluster was detected. Integral flux upper limits at the 99 confidence level were measured to be on the order of (2-5) x 10(sup -8) photons m(sup -2) s(sup -1) (VERITAS,greater than 220 GeV) and approximately 2 x 10(sup -6) photons m(sup -2) s(sup -1) (Fermi, 1-3 GeV), respectively. We use the gamma-ray upper limits to constrain cosmic rays (CRs) and magnetic fields in Coma. Using an analytical approach, the CR-to-thermal pressure ratio is constrained to be less than 16% from VERITAS data and less than 1.7% from Fermi data (averaged within the virial radius). These upper limits are starting to constrain the CR physics in self-consistent cosmological cluster simulations and cap the maximum CR acceleration efficiency at structure formation shocks to be 50. Alternatively, this may argue for non-negligible CR transport processes such as CR streaming and diffusion into the outer cluster regions. Assuming that the radio-emitting electrons of the Coma halo result from hadronic CR interactions, the observations imply a lower limit on the central magnetic field in Coma of approximately (2-5.5)microG, depending on the radial magnetic field profile and on the gamma-ray spectral index. Since these values are below those inferred by Faraday rotation measurements in Coma (for most of the parameter space), this renders the hadronic model a very plausible explanation of the Coma radio halo. Finally, since galaxy clusters are dark

  17. Detailed investigation of the gamma-ray emission in the vicinity of SNR W28 with Fermi-LAT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hanabata, Y. [Institute for Cosmic-Ray Research, University of Tokyo, 5-1-5 Kashiwanoha, Kashiwa, Chiba 277-8582 (Japan); Katagiri, H. [College of Science, Ibaraki University, 2-1-1, Bunkyo, Mito 310-8512 (Japan); Hewitt, J.W. [CRESST, University of Maryland, Baltimore County, Baltimore, MD 21250 (United States); Ballet, J. [Laboratoire AIM, CEA-IRFU/CNRS/Université Paris Diderot, Service d' Astrophysique, CEA Saclay, F-91191 Gif sur Yvette (France); Fukazawa, Y. [Department of Physical Sciences, Hiroshima University, Higashi-Hiroshima, Hiroshima 739-8526 (Japan); Fukui, Y.; Hayakawa, T. [Department of Physics and Astrophysics, Nagoya University, Chikusa-ku Nagoya 464-8602 (Japan); Lemoine-Goumard, M. [Centre d' Études Nucléaires de Bordeaux Gradignan, IN2P3/CNRS, Université Bordeaux 1, BP120, F-33175 Gradignan Cedex (France); Pedaletti, G.; Torres, D. F. [Institut de Ciències de l' Espai (IEEE-CSIC), Campus UAB, 08193 Barcelona (Spain); Strong, A. W. [Max-Planck Institut für extraterrestrische Physik, D-85748 Garching (Germany); Yamazaki, R., E-mail: hanabata@icrr.u-tokyo.ac.jp, E-mail: katagiri@mx.ibaraki.ac.jp [Department of Physics and Mathematics, Aoyama Gakuin University, Sagamihara, Kanagawa 252-5258 (Japan)

    2014-05-10

    We present a detailed investigation of the γ-ray emission in the vicinity of the supernova remnant (SNR) W28 (G6.4–0.1) observed by the Large Area Telescope (LAT) on board the Fermi Gamma-ray Space Telescope. We detected significant γ-ray emission spatially coincident with TeV sources HESS J1800–240A, B, and C, located outside the radio boundary of the SNR. Their spectra in the 2-100 GeV band are consistent with the extrapolation of the power-law spectra of the TeV sources. We also identified a new source of GeV emission, dubbed Source W, which lies outside the boundary of TeV sources and coincides with radio emission from the western part of W28. All of the GeV γ-ray sources overlap with molecular clouds in the velocity range from 0 to 20 km s{sup –1}. Under the assumption that the γ-ray emission toward HESS J1800–240A, B, and C comes from π{sup 0} decay due to the interaction between the molecular clouds and cosmic rays (CRs) escaping from W28, they can be naturally explained by a single model in which the CR diffusion coefficient is smaller than the theoretical expectation in the interstellar space. The total energy of the CRs escaping from W28 is constrained through the same modeling to be larger than ∼2 × 10{sup 49} erg. The emission from Source W can also be explained with the same CR escape scenario.

  18. Detailed investigation of the gamma-ray emission in the vicinity of SNR W28 with Fermi-LAT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hanabata, Y.; Katagiri, H.; Hewitt, J.W.; Ballet, J.; Fukazawa, Y.; Fukui, Y.; Hayakawa, T.; Lemoine-Goumard, M.; Pedaletti, G.; Torres, D. F.; Strong, A. W.; Yamazaki, R.

    2014-01-01

    We present a detailed investigation of the γ-ray emission in the vicinity of the supernova remnant (SNR) W28 (G6.4–0.1) observed by the Large Area Telescope (LAT) on board the Fermi Gamma-ray Space Telescope. We detected significant γ-ray emission spatially coincident with TeV sources HESS J1800–240A, B, and C, located outside the radio boundary of the SNR. Their spectra in the 2-100 GeV band are consistent with the extrapolation of the power-law spectra of the TeV sources. We also identified a new source of GeV emission, dubbed Source W, which lies outside the boundary of TeV sources and coincides with radio emission from the western part of W28. All of the GeV γ-ray sources overlap with molecular clouds in the velocity range from 0 to 20 km s –1 . Under the assumption that the γ-ray emission toward HESS J1800–240A, B, and C comes from π 0 decay due to the interaction between the molecular clouds and cosmic rays (CRs) escaping from W28, they can be naturally explained by a single model in which the CR diffusion coefficient is smaller than the theoretical expectation in the interstellar space. The total energy of the CRs escaping from W28 is constrained through the same modeling to be larger than ∼2 × 10 49 erg. The emission from Source W can also be explained with the same CR escape scenario.

  19. Gamma-Ray Flaring Activity from the Gravitationally Lensed Blazar PKS 1830-211 Observed by Fermi LAT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abdo, A. A.; et al.

    2015-01-23

    The Large Area Telescope (LAT) on board the Fermi Gamma-ray Space Telescope routinely detects the MeV-peaked flat-spectrum radio quasar PKS 1830–211 (z = 2.507). Its apparent isotropic γ-ray luminosity (E > 100 MeV), averaged over ~3 years of observations and peaking on 2010 October 14/15 at 2.9 × 10(50) erg s(–)(1), makes it among the brightest high-redshift Fermi blazars. No published model with a single lens can account for all of the observed characteristics of this complex system. Based on radio observations, one expects time-delayed variability to follow about 25 days after a primary flare, with flux about a factor of 1.5 less. Two large γ-ray flares of PKS 1830–211 have been detected by the LAT in the considered period, and no substantial evidence for such a delayed activity was found. This allows us to place a lower limit of about 6 on the γ-ray flux ratio between the two lensed images. Swift XRT observations from a dedicated Target of Opportunity program indicate a hard spectrum with no significant correlation of X-ray flux with the γ-ray variability. The spectral energy distribution can be modeled with inverse Compton scattering of thermal photons from the dusty torus. The implications of the LAT data in terms of variability, the lack of evident delayed flare events, and different radio and γ-ray flux ratios are discussed. Microlensing effects, absorption, size and location of the emitting regions, the complex mass distribution of the system, an energy-dependent inner structure of the source, and flux suppression by the lens galaxy for one image path may be considered as hypotheses for understanding our results.

  20. Gamma-ray measurements at the WNR white neutron source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nelson, R.O.; Wender, S.A.; Mayo, D.R.

    1994-01-01

    Photon production data have been acquired in the incident neutron energy range, 1 n γ 56 Fe, and 207,208 Pb. These data are useful both for testing nuclear reaction models at intermediate energies and for numerous applied purposes. BGO detectors do not have the good energy resolution of Ge detectors, but have much greater detection efficiency for gamma rays with energies greater than a few MeV. We have used an array of 5 BGO detectors to measure cross sections and angular distributions for photon production from C and N. A large, well-shielded BGO detector has been used to measure fast neutron capture in the giant resonance region with a maximum gamma-ray energy of 52 MeV. We present results of our study of the isovector giant quadrupole resonance in 41 Ca via these capture measurements. Recent measurements of inclusive photon spectra from our neutron proton Bremsstrahlung experiment have been made using a gamma-ray telescope to detect gamma-rays in the energy range, 40 γ < 300 MeV. This detector is briefly described. The advantages and disadvantages of these detector systems are discussed using examples from our measurements. The status of current measurements is presented

  1. Gamma ray burst source locations with the Ulysses/Compton/PVO Network

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cline, T.L.; Hurley, K.C.; Boer, M.; Sommer, M.; Niel, M.; Fishman, G.J.; Kouveliotou, C.; Meegan, C.A.; Paciesas, W.S.; Wilson, R.B.; Laros, J.G.; Klebesadel, R.W.

    1991-01-01

    The new interplanetary gamma-ray burst network will determine source fields with unprecedented accuracy. The baseline of the Ulysses mission and the locations of Pioneer-Venus Orbiter and of Mars Observer will ensure precision to a few tens of arc seconds. Combined with the event phenomenologies of the Burst and Transient Source Experiment on Compton Observatory, the source locations to be achieved with this network may provide a basic new understanding of the puzzle of gamma ray bursts

  2. Gamma ray generator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Firestone, Richard B; Reijonen, Jani

    2014-05-27

    An embodiment of a gamma ray generator includes a neutron generator and a moderator. The moderator is coupled to the neutron generator. The moderator includes a neutron capture material. In operation, the neutron generator produces neutrons and the neutron capture material captures at least some of the neutrons to produces gamma rays. An application of the gamma ray generator is as a source of gamma rays for calibration of gamma ray detectors.

  3. Mapping correlation of a simulated dark matter source and a point source in the gamma-ray sky - Oral Presentation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gibson, Alexander [SLAC National Accelerator Lab., Menlo Park, CA (United States)

    2015-08-23

    In my research, I analyzed how two gamma-ray source models interact with one another when optimizing to fit data. This is important because it becomes hard to distinguish between the two point sources when they are close together or looking at low energy photons. The reason for the first is obvious, the reason why they become harder to distinguish at lower photon energies is the resolving power of the Fermi Gamma-Ray Space Telescope gets worse at lower energies. When the two point sources are highly correlated (hard to distinguish between), we need to change our method of statistical analysis. What I did was show that highly correlated sources have larger uncertainties associated with them, caused by an optimizer not knowing which point source’s parameters to optimize. I also mapped out where their is high correlation for 2 different theoretical mass dark matter point sources so that people analyzing them in the future knew where they had to use more sophisticated statistical analysis.

  4. SGR J1550-5418 BURSTS DETECTED WITH THE FERMI GAMMA-RAY BURST MONITOR DURING ITS MOST PROLIFIC ACTIVITY

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Van der Horst, A. J.; Finger, M. H. [Universities Space Research Association, NSSTC, Huntsville, AL 35805 (United States); Kouveliotou, C. [Space Science Office, VP62, NASA/Marshall Space Flight Center, Huntsville, AL 35812 (United States); Gorgone, N. M. [Connecticut College, New London, CT 06320 (United States); Kaneko, Y.; Goegues, E.; Lin, L. [Sabanc Latin-Small-Letter-Dotless-I University, Orhanl Latin-Small-Letter-Dotless-I -Tuzla, Istanbul 34956 (Turkey); Baring, M. G. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Rice University, MS-108, P.O. Box 1892, Houston, TX 77251 (United States); Guiriec, S.; Bhat, P. N.; Chaplin, V. L.; Goldstein, A. [University of Alabama, Huntsville, CSPAR, Huntsville, AL 35805 (United States); Granot, J. [Racah Institute of Physics, Hebrew University, Jerusalem 91904 (Israel); Watts, A. L. [Astronomical Institute ' Anton Pannekoek' , University of Amsterdam, Postbus 94249, 1090 GE Amsterdam (Netherlands); Bissaldi, E.; Gruber, D. [Max Planck Institute for Extraterrestrial Physics, Giessenbachstrasse, Postfach 1312, 85748 Garching (Germany); Gehrels, N.; Harding, A. K. [NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD 20771 (United States); Gibby, M. H.; Giles, M. M., E-mail: A.J.VanDerHorst@uva.nl [Jacobs Technology, Inc., Huntsville, AL (United States); and others

    2012-04-20

    We have performed detailed temporal and time-integrated spectral analysis of 286 bursts from SGR J1550-5418 detected with the Fermi Gamma-ray Burst Monitor (GBM) in 2009 January, resulting in the largest uniform sample of temporal and spectral properties of SGR J1550-5418 bursts. We have used the combination of broadband and high time-resolution data provided with GBM to perform statistical studies for the source properties. We determine the durations, emission times, duty cycles, and rise times for all bursts, and find that they are typical of SGR bursts. We explore various models in our spectral analysis, and conclude that the spectra of SGR J1550-5418 bursts in the 8-200 keV band are equally well described by optically thin thermal bremsstrahlung (OTTB), a power law (PL) with an exponential cutoff (Comptonized model), and two blackbody (BB) functions (BB+BB). In the spectral fits with the Comptonized model, we find a mean PL index of -0.92, close to the OTTB index of -1. We show that there is an anti-correlation between the Comptonized E{sub peak} and the burst fluence and average flux. For the BB+BB fits, we find that the fluences and emission areas of the two BB functions are correlated. The low-temperature BB has an emission area comparable to the neutron star surface area, independent of the temperature, while the high-temperature BB has a much smaller area and shows an anti-correlation between emission area and temperature. We compare the properties of these bursts with bursts observed from other SGR sources during extreme activations, and discuss the implications of our results in the context of magnetar burst models.

  5. SGR J1550-5418 Bursts Detected with the Fermi Gamma-Ray Burst Monitor during Its Most Prolific Activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    vanderHorst, A. J.; Kouveliotou, C.; Gorgone, N. M.; Kaneko, Y.; Baring, M. G.; Guiriec, S.; Gogus, E,; Granot, J.; Watts, A. L.; Lin, L.; hide

    2012-01-01

    We have performed detailed temporal and time-integrated spectral analysis of 286 bursts from SGR J1550-5418 detected with the Fermi Gamma-ray Burst Monitor (GBM) in 2009 January, resulting in the largest uniform sample of temporal and spectral properties of SGR J1550-5418 bursts. We have used the combination of broadband and high time-resolution data provided with GBM to perform statistical studies for the source properties.We determine the durations, emission times, duty cycles, and rise times for all bursts, and find that they are typical of SGR bursts. We explore various models in our spectral analysis, and conclude that the spectra of SGR J15505418 bursts in the 8-200 keV band are equally well described by optically thin thermal bremsstrahlung (OTTB), a power law (PL) with an exponential cutoff (Comptonized model), and two blackbody (BB) functions (BB+BB). In the spectral fits with the Comptonized model, we find a mean PL index of -0.92, close to the OTTB index of -1. We show that there is an anti-correlation between the Comptonized E(sub peak) and the burst fluence and average flux. For the BB+BBfits, we find that the fluences and emission areas of the two BB functions are correlated. The low-temperature BB has an emission area comparable to the neutron star surface area, independent of the temperature, while the high temperature BB has a much smaller area and shows an anti-correlation between emission area and temperature.We compare the properties of these bursts with bursts observed from other SGR sources during extreme activations, and discuss the implications of our results in the context of magnetar burst models.

  6. GRB 090926A AND BRIGHT LATE-TIME FERMI LARGE AREA TELESCOPE GAMMA-RAY BURST AFTERGLOWS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Swenson, C. A.; Roming, P. W. A.; Vetere, L.; Kennea, J. A.; Maxham, A.; Zhang, B. B.; Zhang, B.; Schady, P.; Holland, S. T.; Kuin, N. P. M.; Oates, S. R.; De Pasquale, M.; Page, K. L.

    2010-01-01

    GRB 090926A was detected by both the Gamma-ray Burst Monitor and Large Area Telescope (LAT) instruments on board the Fermi Gamma-ray Space Telescope. Swift follow-up observations began ∼13 hr after the initial trigger. The optical afterglow was detected for nearly 23 days post trigger, placing it in the long-lived category. The afterglow is of particular interest due to its brightness at late times, as well as the presence of optical flares at T0+10 5 s and later, which may indicate late-time central engine activity. The LAT has detected a total of 16 gamma-ray bursts; nine of these bursts, including GRB 090926A, also have been observed by Swift. Of the nine Swift-observed LAT bursts, six were detected by UVOT, with five of the bursts having bright, long-lived optical afterglows. In comparison, Swift has been operating for five years and has detected nearly 500 bursts, but has only seen ∼30% of bursts with optical afterglows that live longer than 10 5 s. We have calculated the predicted gamma-ray fluence, as would have been seen by the Burst Alert Telescope (BAT) on board Swift, of the LAT bursts to determine whether this high percentage of long-lived optical afterglows is unique, when compared to BAT-triggered bursts. We find that, with the exception of the short burst GRB 090510A, the predicted BAT fluences indicate that the LAT bursts are more energetic than 88% of all Swift bursts and also have brighter than average X-ray and optical afterglows.

  7. Search for Gamma-Ray Emission from the Coma Cluster with Six Years of Fermi-LAT Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ackermann, M.; Ajello, M.; Albert, A.; Atwood, W. B.; Baldini, L.; Ballet, J.; Barbiellini, G.; Bastieri, D.; Bechtol, K.; Bellazzini, R.; hide

    2016-01-01

    We present results from gamma-ray observations of the Coma cluster incorporating six years of Fermi-LAT data and the newly released 'Pass 8' event-level analysis. Our analysis of the region reveals low-significance residual structures within the virial radius of the cluster that are too faint for a detailed investigation with the current data. Using a likelihood approach that is free of assumptions on the spectral shape we derive upper limits on the gamma-ray flux that is expected from energetic particle interactions in the cluster. We also consider a benchmark spatial and spectral template motivated by models in which the observed radio halo is mostly emission by secondary electrons. In this case, the median expected and observed upper limits for the flux above 100 MeV are 1.7 x 10(exp -9) ph cm(exp -2) s(exp -1) and 5.2 x 10(exp -9) ph cm(exp -2) s(exp -1) respectively (the latter corresponds to residual emission at the level of 1.8sigma). These bounds are comparable to or higher than predicted levels of hadronic gamma-ray emission in cosmic-ray (CR) models with or without reacceleration of secondary electrons, although direct comparisons are sensitive to assumptions regarding the origin and propagation mode of CRs and magnetic field properties. The minimal expected gamma-ray flux from radio and star-forming galaxies within the Coma cluster is roughly an order of magnitude below the median sensitivity of our analysis.

  8. Hunting 1-500 GeV dark matter gamma-ray lines with the Fermi LAT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vertongen, Gilles; Weniger, Christoph

    2010-12-01

    Monochromatic photons could be produced in the annihilation or decay of dark matter particles. At high energies, the search for such line features in the cosmic gamma-ray spectrum is essentially background free because plausible astrophysical processes are not expected to produce such a signal. The observation of a gamma-ray line would hence be a 'smoking-gun' signature for dark matter, making the search for such signals particularly attractive. Among the different dark matter models predicting gamma-ray lines, the local supersymmetric extension of the standard model with small R-parity violation and gravitino LSP is of particular interest because it provides a framework where primordial nucleosynthesis, gravitino dark matter and thermal leptogenesis are naturally consistent. Using the two-years Fermi LAT data, we present a dedicated search for gamma-ray lines coming from dark matter annihilation or decay in the Galactic halo. Taking into account the full detector response, and using a binned profile likelihood method, we search for significant line features in the energy spectrum of the diffuse flux observed in different regions of the sky. No evidence for line signals at the 5σ level is found for photon energies between 1 and 500 GeV, and the corresponding bounds on dark matter decay rates and annihilation cross sections are presented. Implications for gravitino dark matter in presence of small R-parity violation are discussed, as well as the impact of our results on the prospect for seeing long-lived neutralinos or staus at the LHC. (orig.)

  9. The high intensity {gamma}-ray source (HI{gamma}S) and recent results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tonchev, A.P. [Duke University and TUNL, Triangle University Nuclear Laboratory, P.O. Box 90308, Durham, NC 27708 0308 (United States)]. E-mail: tonchev@tunl.duke.edu; Boswell, M. [University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill and TUNL, Chapel Hill, NC 27599 (United States); Howell, C.R. [Duke University and TUNL, Triangle University Nuclear Laboratory, P.O. Box 90308, Durham, NC 27708 0308 (United States); Karwowski, H.J. [University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill and TUNL, Chapel Hill, NC 27599 (United States); Kelley, J.H. [North Carolina State University and TUNL, Raleigh, NC 27695 (United States); Tornow, W. [Duke University and TUNL, Triangle University Nuclear Laboratory, P.O. Box 90308, Durham, NC 27708 0308 (United States); Wu, Y.K. [Duke University and Duke Free Electron Laser Laboratory, Durham, NC 27708-0319 (United States)

    2005-12-15

    The high intensity {gamma}-ray source (HI{gamma}S) utilizes intra-cavity backscattering of free electron laser photons from the Duke electron storage ring to produce a unique monoenergetic beam of high-flux {gamma}-rays with high polarization and selectable energy resolution. At present, {gamma}-ray beams with energies from 2 to 58 MeV are available with intensities as high as 10{sup 5}-5 x 10{sup 6} {gamma}/s, energy spreads of 3% or better, and nearly 100% linear polarization. The quality and intensity of the {gamma}-ray beams at HI{gamma}S are responsible for the unprecedented performance of this facility in a broad range of research programs in nuclear structure, nuclear astrophysics and nuclear applications. Recent results from excitation of isomeric states in ({gamma}, n) reactions and parity assignments of dipole states determined via the ({gamma}, {gamma}') reaction are presented.

  10. Energy–angle correlation of neutrons and gamma-rays emitted from an HEU source

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miloshevsky, G., E-mail: gennady@purdue.edu; Hassanein, A.

    2014-06-01

    Special Nuclear Materials (SNM) yield very unique fission signatures, namely correlated neutrons and gamma-rays. A major challenge is not only to detect, but also to rapidly identify and recognize SNM with certainty. Accounting for particle multiplicity and correlations is one of standard ways to detect SNM. However, many parameter data such as joint distributions of energy, angle, lifetime, and multiplicity of neutrons and gamma-rays can lead to better recognition of SNM signatures in the background radiation noise. These joint distributions are not well understood. The Monte Carlo simulations of the transport of neutrons and gamma-rays produced from spontaneous and interrogation-induced fission of SNM are carried out using the developed MONSOL computer code. The energy spectra of neutrons and gamma-rays from a bare Highly Enriched Uranium (HEU) source are investigated. The energy spectrum of gamma-rays shows spectral lines by which HEU isotopes can be identified, while those of neutrons do not show any characteristic lines. The joint probability density function (JPDF) of the energy–angle association of neutrons and gamma-rays is constructed. Marginal probability density functions (MPDFs) of energy and angle are derived from JPDF. A probabilistic model is developed for the analysis of JPDF and MPDFs. This probabilistic model is used to evaluate mean values, standard deviations, covariance and correlation between the energy and angle of neutrons and gamma-rays emitted from the HEU source. For both neutrons and gamma-rays, it is found that the energy–angle variables are only weakly correlated.

  11. Fermi/LAT Observations of Swift/BAT Seyfert Galaxies: On the Contribution of Radio-Quiet Active Galactic Nuclei to the Extragalactic gamma-Ray Background

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teng, Stacy H.; Mushotzky, Richard F.; Sambruna, Rita M.; Davis, David S.; Reynolds, Christopher S.

    2011-01-01

    We present the analysis of 2.1 years of Fermi Large Area Telescope (LAT) data on 491 Seyfert galaxies detected by the Swift Burst Alert Telescope (BAT) survey. Only the two nearest objects, NGC 1068 and NGC 4945, which were identified in the Fermi first year catalog, are detected. Using Swift/BAT and radio 20 cm fluxes, we define a new radio-loudness parameter R(sub X,BAT) where radio-loud objects have logR(sub X,BAT) > -4.7. Based on this parameter, only radio-loud sources are detected by Fermi/LAT. An upper limit to the flux of the undetected sources is derived to be approx.2x10(exp -11) photons/sq cm/s, approximately seven times lower than the observed flux of NGC 1068. Assuming a median redshift of 0.031, this implies an upper limit to the gamma-ray (1-100 GeV) luminosity of BAT Seyfert galaxies with significant Fermi/LAT detections. A majority of these objects do not have Swift/BAT counterparts, but their possible optical counterparts include blazars, flat-spectrum radio quasars, and quasars.

  12. Highlights of GeV Gamma-Ray Astronomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, David J.

    2010-01-01

    Because high-energy gamma rays are primarily produced by high-energy particle interactions, the gamma-ray survey of the sky by the Fermi Gamma-ray Space Telescope offers a view of sites of cosmic ray production and interactions. Gamma-ray bursts, pulsars, pulsar wind nebulae, binary sources, and Active Galactic Nuclei are all phenomena that reveal particle acceleration through their gamma-ray emission. Diffuse Galactic gamma radiation, Solar System gamma-ray sources, and energetic radiation from supernova remnants are likely tracers of high-energy particle interactions with matter and photon fields. This paper will present a broad overview of the constantly changing sky seen with the Large Area Telescope (LAT) on the Fermi spacecraft.

  13. Study of the high energy gamma-ray emission from the crab pulsar with the MAGIC telescope and Fermi-LAT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saito, Takayuki

    2010-01-01

    My thesis deals with a fundamental question of high energy gamma-ray astronomy. Namely, I studied the cut-off shape of the Crab pulsar spectrum to distinguish between the leading scenarios for the pulsar models. Pulsars are celestial objects, which emit periodic pulsed electromagnetic radiation (pulsation) from radio to high energy gamma-rays. Two major scenarios evolved in past 40 years to explain the pulsation mechanism: the inner magnetosphere scenario and the outer magnetosphere scenario. Both scenarios predict a high energy cut-off in the gamma-ray energy spectrum, but with different cut-off sharpness. An exponential cut-off is expected for the outer magnetosphere scenario while a super-exponential cut-off is predicted for the inner magnetosphere scenario. Therefore, one of the best ways to confirm or refute these scenarios is to measure the energy spectrum of a pulsar at around the cut-off energy, i.e., at energies between a few GeV and a few tens of GeV. All past attempts to measure pulsar spectra with ground-based instruments have failed while satellite-borne detectors had a too small area to study detailed spectra in the GeV domain. In this thesis, the gamma-ray emission at around the cut-off energy from the Crab pulsar is studied with the MAGIC telescope. The public data of the satellite-borne gamma-ray detector, Fermi-LAT, are also analyzed in order to discuss the MAGIC observation results in comparison with the adjacent energy band. In late 2007, a new trigger system (SUM trigger system) allowed to reduce the threshold energy of the MAGIC telescope from 50 GeV to 25 GeV and the Crab pulsar was successfully detected during observations from October 2007 and January 2009. My analysis reveals that the energy spectrum is consistent with a simple power law between 25 GeV to 100 GeV. The extension of the energy spectrum up to 100 GeV rules out the inner magnetosphere scenario. Fermi-LAT started operation in August 2008. The Fermi-LAT data reveal that a power

  14. Study of the high energy gamma-ray emission from the crab pulsar with the MAGIC telescope and Fermi-LAT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saito, Takayuki

    2010-12-06

    My thesis deals with a fundamental question of high energy gamma-ray astronomy. Namely, I studied the cut-off shape of the Crab pulsar spectrum to distinguish between the leading scenarios for the pulsar models. Pulsars are celestial objects, which emit periodic pulsed electromagnetic radiation (pulsation) from radio to high energy gamma-rays. Two major scenarios evolved in past 40 years to explain the pulsation mechanism: the inner magnetosphere scenario and the outer magnetosphere scenario. Both scenarios predict a high energy cut-off in the gamma-ray energy spectrum, but with different cut-off sharpness. An exponential cut-off is expected for the outer magnetosphere scenario while a super-exponential cut-off is predicted for the inner magnetosphere scenario. Therefore, one of the best ways to confirm or refute these scenarios is to measure the energy spectrum of a pulsar at around the cut-off energy, i.e., at energies between a few GeV and a few tens of GeV. All past attempts to measure pulsar spectra with ground-based instruments have failed while satellite-borne detectors had a too small area to study detailed spectra in the GeV domain. In this thesis, the gamma-ray emission at around the cut-off energy from the Crab pulsar is studied with the MAGIC telescope. The public data of the satellite-borne gamma-ray detector, Fermi-LAT, are also analyzed in order to discuss the MAGIC observation results in comparison with the adjacent energy band. In late 2007, a new trigger system (SUM trigger system) allowed to reduce the threshold energy of the MAGIC telescope from 50 GeV to 25 GeV and the Crab pulsar was successfully detected during observations from October 2007 and January 2009. My analysis reveals that the energy spectrum is consistent with a simple power law between 25 GeV to 100 GeV. The extension of the energy spectrum up to 100 GeV rules out the inner magnetosphere scenario. Fermi-LAT started operation in August 2008. The Fermi-LAT data reveal that a power

  15. All-Sky Monitoring of Variable Sources with Fermi GBM

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson-Hodge, Colleen A.; Cherry, Michael L.; Case, Gary L.; Camero-Arranz, Ascension; Chaplin, Vandiver; Connaughton, Valerie; Finger, Mark H.; Jenke, Pater; Rodi, James C.; Baumgartner, Wayne H.; hide

    2011-01-01

    This slide presentation reviews the monitoring of variable sources with the Fermi Gamma Ray Burst Monitor (GBM). It reviews the use of the Earth Occultation technique, the observations of the Crab Nebula with the GBM, and the comparison with other satellite's observations. The instruments on board the four satellites indicate a decline in the Crab from 2008-2010.

  16. THE SEARCH FOR BLAZARS AMONG THE UNIDENTIFIED EGRET gamma-RAY SOURCES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pieter J. Meintjes

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we report the results of a multi-wavelength follow-up study of selected flat spectrum extragalactic radio-optical counterparts within the error boxes of 13 unidentified EGRET sources. Two of these previously unidentified counterparts have been selected for optical photometric and spectroscopic follow-up studies. Spectroscopic observations made with the 4.1m SOAR telescope at Cerro Pachón, Chile, showed that the spectra of the optical counterparts of 3EG J0821−5814 (PKS J0820−5705 and 3EG J0706−3837 (PMN J0710−3835 correspond to a flat spectrum radio quasar (FSRQ and LINER-Seyfert I galaxy respectively. Optical photometry of these sources, performed with the 1.0m telescope at Sutherland (South-Africa shows noticeable intranight variability for PKS J0820−5705, as well as a 5 sigma variation of the mean brightness in the R-filter over a timescale of three nights. Significant variability has been detected in the B-band for PMN J0710−3835 as well. The gamma-ray spectral indices of all 13 candidates range between 2–3, correlating well with the BL Lacs and FSRQs detected with Fermi-LAT in the first 11 months of operation.

  17. DETECTION OF GAMMA-RAY EMISSION FROM THE STARBURST GALAXIES M82 AND NGC 253 WITH THE LARGE AREA TELESCOPE ON FERMI

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abdo, A. A.; Ackermann, M.; Ajello, M.; Bechtol, K.; Berenji, B.; Bloom, E. D.; Borgland, A. W.; Atwood, W. B.; Axelsson, M.; Baldini, L.; Bellazzini, R.; Bregeon, J.; Brez, A.; Ballet, J.; Barbiellini, G.; Bastieri, D.; Bonamente, E.; Brigida, M.; Bruel, P.; Burnett, T. H.

    2010-01-01

    We report the detection of high-energy γ-ray emission from two starburst galaxies using data obtained with the Large Area Telescope on board the Fermi Gamma-ray Space Telescope. Steady point-like emission above 200 MeV has been detected at significance levels of 6.8σ and 4.8σ, respectively, from sources positionally coincident with locations of the starburst galaxies M82 and NGC 253. The total fluxes of the sources are consistent with γ-ray emission originating from the interaction of cosmic rays with local interstellar gas and radiation fields and constitute evidence for a link between massive star formation and γ-ray emission in star-forming galaxies.

  18. VizieR Online Data Catalog: Flaring gamma-ray sources; LAT 7.4yr (2FAV) (Abdollahi+, 2017)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdollahi, S.; Ackermann, M.; Ajello, M.; Albert, A.; Baldini, L.; Ballet, J.; Barbiellini, G.; Bastieri, D.; Becerra Gonzalez, J.; Bellazzini, R.; Bissaldi, E.; Blandford, R. D.; Bloom, E. D.; Bonino, R.; Bottacini, E.; Bregeon, J.; Bruel, P.; Buehler, R.; Buson, S.; Cameron, R. A.; Caragiulo, M.; Caraveo, P. A.; Cavazzuti, E.; Cecchi, C.; Chekhtman, A.; Cheung, C. C.; Chiaro, G.; Ciprini, S.; Conrad, J.; Costantin, D.; Costanza, F.; Cutini, S.; D'Ammando, F.; de Palma, F.; Desai, A.; Desiante, R.; Digel, S. W.; di Lalla, N.; di Mauro, M.; di Venere, L.; Donaggio, B.; Drell, P. S.; Favuzzi, C.; Fegan, S. J.; Ferrara, E. C.; Focke, W. B.; Franckowiak, A.; Fukazawa, Y.; Funk, S.; Fusco, P.; Gargano, F.; Gasparrini, D.; Giglietto, N.; Giomi, M.; Giordano, F.; Giroletti, M.; Glanzman, T.; Green, D.; Grenier, I. A.; Grove, J. E.; Guillemot, L.; Guiriec, S.; Hays, E.; Horan, D.; Jogler, T.; Johannesson, G.; Johnson, A. S.; Kocevski, D.; Kuss, M.; La Mura, G.; Larsson, S.; Latronico, L.; Li, J.; Longo, F.; Loparco, F.; Lovellette, M. N.; Lubrano, P.; Magill, J. D.; Mal! Dera, S.; Manfreda, A.; Mayer, M.; Mazziotta, M. N.; Michelson, P. F.; Mitthumsiri, W.; Mizuno, T.; Monzani, M. E.; Morselli, A.; Moskalenko, I. V.; Negro, M.; Nuss, E.; Ohsugi, T.; Omodei, N.; Orienti, M.; Orlando, E.; Paliya, V. S.; Paneque, D.; Perkins, J. S.; Persic, M.; Pesce-Rollins, M.; Petrosian, V.; Piron, F.; Porter, T. A.; Principe, G.; Raino, S.; Rando, R.; Razzano, M.; Razzaque, S.; Reimer, A.; Reimer, O.; Sgro, C.; Simone, D.; Siskind, E. J.; Spada, F.; Spandre, G.; Spinelli, P.; Stawarz, L.; Suson, D. J.; Takahashi, M.; Tanaka, K.; Thayer, J. B.; Thompson, D. J.; Torres, D. F.; Torresi, E.; Tosti, G.; Troja, E.; Vianello, G.; Wood, K. S.

    2018-04-01

    To build the second catalog of flaring gamma-ray sources (2FAV) catalog, we apply the Fermi All-sky Variability Analysis (FAVA; Ackermann+ 2013, J/ApJ/771/57) to the first 387 weeks of Fermi observations, from Mission Elapsed Time (MET) 239557418 to 473615018, or Modified Julian Date (MJD) from 54682 (2008 August 4) to 57391 (2016 January 4). In this time range, a total of 7106 seed flares were found, roughly 18 per week. As for the previous catalog, FAVA uses weekly time bins. Two independent energy bands are used, 0.1-0.8GeV and 0.8-300GeV, to enhance the sensitivity to spectrally soft and hard flares, respectively. (2 data files).

  19. DISCOVERY OF NINE GAMMA-RAY PULSARS IN FERMI LARGE AREA TELESCOPE DATA USING A NEW BLIND SEARCH METHOD

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pletsch, H. J.; Allen, B.; Aulbert, C.; Fehrmann, H. [Albert-Einstein-Institut, Max-Planck-Institut fuer Gravitationsphysik, D-30167 Hannover (Germany); Guillemot, L.; Kramer, M.; Barr, E. D.; Champion, D. J.; Eatough, R. P.; Freire, P. C. C. [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Radioastronomie, Auf dem Huegel 69, D-53121 Bonn (Germany); Ray, P. S. [Space Science Division, Naval Research Laboratory, Washington, DC 20375-5352 (United States); Belfiore, A.; Dormody, M. [Santa Cruz Institute for Particle Physics, Department of Physics and Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics, University of California at Santa Cruz, Santa Cruz, CA 95064 (United States); Camilo, F. [Columbia Astrophysics Laboratory, Columbia University, New York, NY 10027 (United States); Caraveo, P. A. [INAF-Istituto di Astrofisica Spaziale e Fisica Cosmica, I-20133 Milano (Italy); Celik, Oe.; Ferrara, E. C. [NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD 20771 (United States); Hessels, J. W. T. [Astronomical Institute ' Anton Pannekoek' , University of Amsterdam, Postbus 94249, 1090 GE Amsterdam (Netherlands); Keith, M. [CSIRO Astronomy and Space Science, Australia Telescope National Facility, Epping NSW 1710 (Australia); Kerr, M., E-mail: holger.pletsch@aei.mpg.de, E-mail: guillemo@mpifr-bonn.mpg.de [W. W. Hansen Experimental Physics Laboratory, Kavli Institute for Particle Astrophysics and Cosmology, Department of Physics and SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory, Stanford University, Stanford, CA 94305 (United States); and others

    2012-01-10

    We report the discovery of nine previously unknown gamma-ray pulsars in a blind search of data from the Fermi Large Area Telescope (LAT). The pulsars were found with a novel hierarchical search method originally developed for detecting continuous gravitational waves from rapidly rotating neutron stars. Designed to find isolated pulsars spinning at up to kHz frequencies, the new method is computationally efficient and incorporates several advances, including a metric-based gridding of the search parameter space (frequency, frequency derivative, and sky location) and the use of photon probability weights. The nine pulsars have spin frequencies between 3 and 12 Hz, and characteristic ages ranging from 17 kyr to 3 Myr. Two of them, PSRs J1803-2149 and J2111+ 4606, are young and energetic Galactic-plane pulsars (spin-down power above 6 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 35} erg s{sup -1} and ages below 100 kyr). The seven remaining pulsars, PSRs J0106+4855, J0622+3749, J1620-4927, J1746-3239, J2028+3332, J2030+4415, and J2139+4716, are older and less energetic; two of them are located at higher Galactic latitudes (|b| > 10 Degree-Sign ). PSR J0106+4855 has the largest characteristic age (3 Myr) and the smallest surface magnetic field (2 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 11} G) of all LAT blind-search pulsars. PSR J2139+4716 has the lowest spin-down power (3 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 33} erg s{sup -1}) among all non-recycled gamma-ray pulsars ever found. Despite extensive multi-frequency observations, only PSR J0106+4855 has detectable pulsations in the radio band. The other eight pulsars belong to the increasing population of radio-quiet gamma-ray pulsars.

  20. Discovery of Nine Gamma-Ray Pulsars in Fermi-Lat Data Using a New Blind Search Method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Celik-Tinmaz, Ozlem; Ferrara, E. C.; Pletsch, H. J.; Allen, B.; Aulbert, C.; Fehrmann, H.; Kramer, M.; Barr, E. D.; Champion, D. J.; Eatough, R. P.; hide

    2011-01-01

    We report the discovery of nine previously unknown gamma-ray pulsars in a blind search of data from the Fermi Large Area Telescope (LAT). The pulsars were found with a novel hierarchical search method originally developed for detecting continuous gravitational waves from rapidly rotating neutron stars. Designed to find isolated pulsars spinning at up to kHz frequencies, the new method is computationally efficient, and incorporates several advances, including a metric-based gridding of the search parameter space (frequency, frequency derivative and sky location) and the use of photon probability weights. The nine pulsars have spin frequencies between 3 and 12 Hz, and characteristic ages ranging from 17 kyr to 3 Myr. Two of them, PSRs Jl803-2149 and J2111+4606, are young and energetic Galactic-plane pulsars (spin-down power above 6 x 10(exp 35) ergs per second and ages below 100 kyr). The seven remaining pulsars, PSRs J0106+4855, J010622+3749, Jl620-4927, Jl746-3239, J2028+3332,J2030+4415, J2139+4716, are older and less energetic; two of them are located at higher Galactic latitudes (|b| greater than 10 degrees). PSR J0106+4855 has the largest characteristic age (3 Myr) and the smallest surface magnetic field (2x 10(exp 11)G) of all LAT blind-search pulsars. PSR J2139+4716 has the lowest spin-down power (3 x l0(exp 33) erg per second) among all non-recycled gamma-ray pulsars ever found. Despite extensive multi-frequency observations, only PSR J0106+4855 has detectable pulsations in the radio band. The other eight pulsars belong to the increasing population of radio-quiet gamma-ray pulsars.

  1. Diffuse gamma-ray emission from self-confined cosmic rays around Galactic sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Angelo, Marta; Morlino, Giovanni; Amato, Elena; Blasi, Pasquale

    2018-02-01

    The propagation of particles accelerated at supernova remnant shocks and escaping the parent remnants is likely to proceed in a strongly non-linear regime, due to the efficient self-generation of Alfvén waves excited through streaming instability near the sources. Depending on the amount of neutral hydrogen present in the regions around the sites of supernova explosions, cosmic rays may accumulate an appreciable grammage in the same regions and get self-confined for non-negligible times, which in turn results in an enhanced rate of production of secondaries. Here we calculate the contribution to the diffuse gamma-ray background due to the overlap along lines of sight of several of these extended haloes as due to pion production induced by self-confined cosmic rays. We find that if the density of neutrals is low, the haloes can account for a substantial fraction of the diffuse emission observed by Fermi-Large Area Telescope (LAT), depending on the orientation of the line of sight with respect to the direction of the Galactic Centre.

  2. Conservative constraints on dark matter from the Fermi-LAT isotropic diffuse gamma-ray background spectrum

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abazajian, Kevork N.; Agrawal, Prateek; Chacko, Zackaria [Maryland Center for Fundamental Physics, Department of Physics, University of Maryland, College Park, Maryland 20742 (United States); Kilic, Can, E-mail: kev@umd.edu, E-mail: apr@umd.edu, E-mail: zchacko@umd.edu, E-mail: kilic@physics.rutgers.edu [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Rutgers University, Piscataway, NJ 08854 (United States)

    2010-11-01

    We examine the constraints on final state radiation from Weakly Interacting Massive Particle (WIMP) dark matter candidates annihilating into various standard model final states, as imposed by the measurement of the isotropic diffuse gamma-ray background by the Large Area Telescope aboard the Fermi Gamma-Ray Space Telescope. The expected isotropic diffuse signal from dark matter annihilation has contributions from the local Milky Way (MW) as well as from extragalactic dark matter. The signal from the MW is very insensitive to the adopted dark matter profile of the halos, and dominates the signal from extragalactic halos, which is sensitive to the low mass cut-off of the halo mass function. We adopt a conservative model for both the low halo mass survival cut-off and the substructure boost factor of the Galactic and extragalactic components, and only consider the primary final state radiation. This provides robust constraints which reach the thermal production cross-section for low mass WIMPs annihilating into hadronic modes. We also reanalyze limits from HESS observations of the Galactic Ridge region using a conservative model for the dark matter halo profile. When combined with the HESS constraint, the isotropic diffuse spectrum rules out all interpretations of the PAMELA positron excess based on dark matter annihilation into two lepton final states. Annihilation into four leptons through new intermediate states, although constrained by the data, is not excluded.

  3. Conservative constraints on dark matter from the Fermi-LAT isotropic diffuse gamma-ray background spectrum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abazajian, Kevork N.; Agrawal, Prateek; Chacko, Zackaria; Kilic, Can

    2010-01-01

    We examine the constraints on final state radiation from Weakly Interacting Massive Particle (WIMP) dark matter candidates annihilating into various standard model final states, as imposed by the measurement of the isotropic diffuse gamma-ray background by the Large Area Telescope aboard the Fermi Gamma-Ray Space Telescope. The expected isotropic diffuse signal from dark matter annihilation has contributions from the local Milky Way (MW) as well as from extragalactic dark matter. The signal from the MW is very insensitive to the adopted dark matter profile of the halos, and dominates the signal from extragalactic halos, which is sensitive to the low mass cut-off of the halo mass function. We adopt a conservative model for both the low halo mass survival cut-off and the substructure boost factor of the Galactic and extragalactic components, and only consider the primary final state radiation. This provides robust constraints which reach the thermal production cross-section for low mass WIMPs annihilating into hadronic modes. We also reanalyze limits from HESS observations of the Galactic Ridge region using a conservative model for the dark matter halo profile. When combined with the HESS constraint, the isotropic diffuse spectrum rules out all interpretations of the PAMELA positron excess based on dark matter annihilation into two lepton final states. Annihilation into four leptons through new intermediate states, although constrained by the data, is not excluded

  4. Search for Gamma-Ray Emission from DES Dwarf Spheroidal Galaxy Candidates with Fermi-LAT Data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Drlica-Wagner, A.; et al.

    2015-08-04

    Due to their proximity, high dark-matter (DM) content, and apparent absence of non-thermal processes, Milky Way dwarf spheroidal satellite galaxies (dSphs) are excellent targets for the indirect detection of DM. Recently, eight new dSph candidates were discovered using the first year of data from the Dark Energy Survey (DES). We searched for gamma-ray emission coincident with the positions of these new objects in six years of Fermi Large Area Telescope data. We found no significant excesses of gamma-ray emission. Under the assumption that the DES candidates are dSphs with DM halo properties similar to the known dSphs, we computed individual and combined limits on the velocity-averaged DM annihilation cross section for these new targets. If the estimated DM content of these dSph candidates is confirmed, they will constrain the annihilation cross section to lie below the thermal relic cross section for DM particles with masses $\\lesssim 20\\,\\mathrm{GeV}$ annihilating via the $b\\bar{b}$ or τ(+)τ(-) channels.

  5. The InterPlanetary Network Supplement to the Second Fermi GBM Catalog of Cosmic Gamma-Ray Bursts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hurley, K. [University of California, Berkeley, Space Sciences Laboratory, 7 Gauss Way, Berkeley, CA 94720-7450 (United States); Aptekar, R. L.; Golenetskii, S. V.; Frederiks, D. D.; Svinkin, D. S. [Ioffe Institute, Politekhnicheskaya 26, St. Petersburg 194021 (Russian Federation); Pal’shin, V. D. [Vedeneeva 2-31, St. Petersburg (Russian Federation); Briggs, M. S.; Meegan, C. [University of Alabama in Huntsville, NSSTC, 320 Sparkman Drive, Huntsville, AL 35805 (United States); Connaughton, V. [Universities Space Research Association, NSSTC, 320 Sparkman Drive, Huntsville, AL 35805 (United States); Goldsten, J. [Applied Physics Laboratory, Johns Hopkins University, Laurel, MD 20723 (United States); Boynton, W.; Fellows, C.; Harshman, K. [University of Arizona, Department of Planetary Sciences, Tucson, Arizona 85721 (United States); Mitrofanov, I. G.; Golovin, D. V.; Kozyrev, A. S.; Litvak, M. L.; Sanin, A. B. [Space Research Institute, 84/32, Profsoyuznaya, Moscow 117997 (Russian Federation); Rau, A.; Kienlin, A. von, E-mail: khurley@ssl.berkeley.edu [Max-Planck-Institut für extraterrestrische Physik, Giessenbachstrasse, Postfach 1312, Garching, D-85748 (Germany); and others

    2017-04-01

    InterPlanetary Network (IPN) data are presented for the gamma-ray bursts in the second Fermi Gamma-Ray Burst Monitor (GBM) catalog. Of the 462 bursts in that catalog between 2010 July 12 and 2012 July 11, 428, or 93%, were observed by at least 1 other instrument in the 9-spacecraft IPN. Of the 428, the localizations of 165 could be improved by triangulation. For these bursts, triangulation gives one or more annuli whose half-widths vary between about 2.′3° and 16°, depending on the peak flux, fluence, time history, arrival direction, and the distance between the spacecraft. We compare the IPN localizations with the GBM 1 σ , 2 σ , and 3 σ error contours and find good agreement between them. The IPN 3 σ error boxes have areas between about 8 square arcminutes and 380 square degrees, and are an average of 2500 times smaller than the corresponding GBM 3 σ localizations. We identify four bursts in the IPN/GBM sample whose origins were given as “uncertain,” but may in fact be cosmic. This leads to an estimate of over 99% completeness for the GBM catalog.

  6. Multichannel Poisson denoising and deconvolution on the sphere: application to the Fermi Gamma-ray Space Telescope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmitt, J.; Starck, J. L.; Casandjian, J. M.; Fadili, J.; Grenier, I.

    2012-10-01

    A multiscale representation-based denoising method for spherical data contaminated with Poisson noise, the multiscale variance stabilizing transform on the sphere (MS-VSTS), has been previously proposed. This paper first extends this MS-VSTS to spherical two and one dimensions data (2D-1D), where the two first dimensions are longitude and latitude, and the third dimension is a meaningful physical index such as energy or time. We then introduce a novel multichannel deconvolution built upon the 2D-1D MS-VSTS, which allows us to get rid of both the noise and the blur introduced by the point spread function (PSF) in each energy (or time) band. The method is applied to simulated data from the Large Area Telescope (LAT), the main instrument of the Fermi Gamma-ray Space Telescope, which detects high energy gamma-rays in a very wide energy range (from 20 MeV to more than 300 GeV), and whose PSF is strongly energy-dependent (from about 3.5 at 100 MeV to less than 0.1 at 10 GeV).

  7. AFTERGLOW OBSERVATIONS OF FERMI LARGE AREA TELESCOPE GAMMA-RAY BURSTS AND THE EMERGING CLASS OF HYPER-ENERGETIC EVENTS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cenko, S. B.; Butler, N. R.; Cobb, B. E.; Cucchiara, A.; Bloom, J. S.; Perley, D. A.; Filippenko, A. V.; Frail, D. A.; Harrison, F. A.; Haislip, J. B.; Reichart, D. E.; Ivarsen, K. M.; LaCluyze, A. P.; Berger, E.; Chandra, P.; Fox, D. B.; Prochaska, J. X.; Glazebrook, K.; Kasliwal, M. M.; Kulkarni, S. R.

    2011-01-01

    We present broadband (radio, optical, and X-ray) light curves and spectra of the afterglows of four long-duration gamma-ray bursts (GRBs; GRBs 090323, 090328, 090902B, and 090926A) detected by the Gamma-Ray Burst Monitor and Large Area Telescope (LAT) instruments on the Fermi satellite. With its wide spectral bandpass, extending to GeV energies, Fermi is sensitive to GRBs with very large isotropic energy releases (10 54 erg). Although rare, these events are particularly important for testing GRB central-engine models. When combined with spectroscopic redshifts, our afterglow data for these four events are able to constrain jet collimation angles, the density structure of the circumburst medium, and both the true radiated energy release and the kinetic energy of the outflows. In agreement with our earlier work, we find that the relativistic energy budget of at least one of these events (GRB 090926A) exceeds the canonical value of 10 51 erg by an order of magnitude. Such energies pose a severe challenge for models in which the GRB is powered by a magnetar or a neutrino-driven collapsar, but remain compatible with theoretical expectations for magnetohydrodynamical collapsar models (e.g., the Blandford-Znajek mechanism). Our jet opening angles (θ) are similar to those found for pre-Fermi GRBs, but the large initial Lorentz factors (Γ 0 ) inferred from the detection of GeV photons imply θΓ 0 ∼ 70-90, values which are above those predicted in magnetohydrodynamic models of jet acceleration. Finally, we find that these Fermi-LAT events preferentially occur in a low-density circumburst environment, and we speculate that this might result from the lower mass-loss rates of their lower-metallicity progenitor stars. Future studies of Fermi-LAT afterglows at radio wavelengths with the order-of-magnitude improvement in sensitivity offered by the Extended Very Large Array should definitively establish the relativistic energy budgets of these events.

  8. Search for Spatially Extended Fermi-LAT Sources Using Two Years of Data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lande, Joshua; Ackermann, Markus; Allafort, Alice; Ballet, Jean; Bechtol, Keith; Burnett, Toby; Cohen-Tanugi, Johann; Drlica-Wagner, Alex; Funk, Stefan; Giordano, Francesco; Grondin, Marie-Helene; Kerr, Matthew; Lemoine-Goumard, Marianne

    2012-07-13

    Spatial extension is an important characteristic for correctly associating {gamma}-ray-emitting sources with their counterparts at other wavelengths and for obtaining an unbiased model of their spectra. We present a new method for quantifying the spatial extension of sources detected by the Large Area Telescope (LAT), the primary science instrument on the Fermi Gamma-ray Space Telescope (Fermi). We perform a series of Monte Carlo simulations to validate this tool and calculate the LAT threshold for detecting the spatial extension of sources. We then test all sources in the second Fermi -LAT catalog (2FGL) for extension. We report the detection of seven new spatially extended sources.

  9. FERMI GAMMA-RAY SPACE TELESCOPE OBSERVATIONS OF THE GAMMA-RAY OUTBURST FROM 3C454.3 IN NOVEMBER 2010

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abdo, A. A.; Ackermann, M.; Ajello, M.; Allafort, A.; Berenji, B.; Blandford, R. D.; Bloom, E. D.; Borgland, A. W.; Buehler, R.; Baldini, L.; Bellazzini, R.; Bregeon, J.; Ballet, J.; Barbiellini, G.; Bastieri, D.; Buson, S.; Bonamente, E.; Bouvier, A.; Brigida, M.; Bruel, P.

    2011-01-01

    The flat-spectrum radio quasar 3C454.3 underwent an extraordinary 5 day γ-ray outburst in 2010 November when the daily flux measured with the Fermi Large Area Telescope (LAT) at photon energies E > 100 MeV reached (66 ± 2) x 10 -6 photons cm -2 s -1 . This is a factor of three higher than its previous maximum flux recorded in 2009 December and ∼> 5 times brighter than the Vela pulsar, which is normally the brightest source in the γ-ray sky. The 3 hr peak flux was (85 ± 5)x10 -6 photons cm -2 s -1 , corresponding to an apparent isotropic luminosity of (2.1 ± 0.2)x10 50 erg s -1 , the highest ever recorded for a blazar. In this Letter, we investigate the features of this exceptional event in the γ-ray band of the Fermi-LAT. In contrast to previous flares of the same source observed with the Fermi-LAT, clear spectral changes are observed during the flare.

  10. Imaging phase holdup distribution of three phase flow systems using dual source gamma ray tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Varma, Rajneesh; Al-Dahhan, Muthanna; O'Sullivan, Joseph

    2008-01-01

    Full text: Multiphase reaction and process systems are used in abundance in the chemical and biochemical industry. Tomography has been successfully employed to visualize the hydrodynamics of multiphase systems. Most of the tomography methods (gamma ray, x-ray and electrical capacitance and resistance) have been successfully implemented for two phase dynamic systems. However, a significant number of chemical and biochemical systems consists of dynamic three phases. Research effort directed towards the development of tomography techniques to image such dynamic system has met with partial successes for specific systems with applicability to limited operating conditions. A dual source tomography scanner has been developed that uses the 661 keV and 1332 keV photo peaks from the 137 Cs and 60 Co for imaging three phase systems. A new approach has been developed and applied that uses the polyenergetic Alternating Minimization (A-M) algorithm, developed by O'Sullivan and Benac (2007), for imaging the holdup distribution in three phases' dynamic systems. The new approach avoids the traditional post image processing approach used to determine the holdup distribution where the attenuation images of the mixed flow obtained from gamma ray photons of two different energies are used to determine the holdup of three phases. In this approach the holdup images are directly reconstructed from the gamma ray transmission data. The dual source gamma ray tomography scanner and the algorithm were validated using a three phase phantom. Based in the validation, three phase holdup studies we carried out in slurry bubble column containing gas liquid and solid phases in a dynamic state using the dual energy gamma ray tomography. The key results of the holdup distribution studies in the slurry bubble column along with the validation of the dual source gamma ray tomography system would be presented and discussed

  11. Gamma-ray emission spectra from spheres with 14 MeV neutron source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamamoto, Junji; Kanaoka, Takeshi; Murata, Isao; Takahashi, Akito; Sumita, Kenji

    1989-01-01

    Energy spectra of neutron-induced gamma-rays emitted from spherical samples were measured using a 14 MeV neutron source. The samples in use were LiF, Teflon:(CF 2 ) n , Si, Cr, Mn, Co, Cu, Nb, Mo, W and Pb. A diameter of the sphere was either 40 or 60 cm. The gamma-ray energy in the emission spectra covered the range from 500 keV to 10 MeV. Measured spectra were compared with transport calculations using the nuclear data files of JENDL-3T and ENDF/B-IV. The agreements between the measurements and the JENDL-3T calculations were good in the emission spectra for the low energy gamma-rays from inelastic scattering. (author)

  12. Limits on the space density of gamma-ray burst sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Epstein, R.I.

    1985-01-01

    Gamma-ray burst spectra which extend to several MeV without significant steepening indicate that there is negligible degradation due to two-photon pair production. The inferred low rate of photon-photon reactions is used to give upper limits to the distances to the sources and to the intensity of the radiation from the sources. These limits are calculated under the assumptions that the bursters are neutron stars which emit uncollimated gamma rays. The principal results are that the space density of the gamma-ray burst sources exceeds approx.10 -6 pc -3 if the entire surface of the neutron star radiates and exceeds approx.10 -3 pc -3 if only a small cap or thin strip in the stellar surface radiates. In the former case the density of gamma-ray bursters is approx.1% of the inferred density of extinct pulsars, and in the latter case the mean mass density of burster sources is a few percent of the density of unidentified dark matter in the solar neighborhood. In both cases the X-ray intensity of the sources is far below the Rayleigh-Jeans limit, and the total flux is at most comparable to the Eddington limit. This implies that low-energy self-absorption near 10 keV is entirely negligible and that radiation-driven explosions are just barely possible

  13. Advanced techniques for high resolution spectroscopic observations of cosmic gamma-ray sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matteson, J.L.; Pelling, M.R.; Peterson, L.E.

    1985-08-01

    We describe an advanced gamma-ray spectrometer that is currently in development. It will obtain a sensitivity of -4 ph/cm -2 -sec in a 6 hour balloon observation and uses innovative techniques for background reduction and source imaging

  14. X-ray and. gamma. -ray sources: a comparison of their characteristics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Freund, A K [Institut Max von Laue - Paul Langevin, 38 - Grenoble (France)

    1979-11-01

    A comparison of the various source characteristics, in particular the available fluxes of radiation in the X-ray/..gamma..-ray region from (1) high power rotary anode X-ray generators, (2) radioactive ..gamma..-ray sources and (3) high energy electron storage rings is presented. Some of the specific characteristics and possible applications of synchrotron radiation as a source are discussed in detail, together with problems associated with the monochromatization of the continuous radiation in the X-ray/..gamma..-ray region. The new high energy machines PEP at Stanford, the 8 GeV storage ring CESR at Cornell and the PETRA storage ring in Hamburg, which will soon come into operation provide a spectrum of high intensity radiation reaching well above h..gamma..sub(photon)=100 keV. The possibilities of using ondulators (wigglers), and laser-electron scattering for constructing high repetition rate tunable ..gamma..-ray sources are also discussed. Finally the potentials of using the powerful spontaneous emission of ..gamma..-quanta by relativistic channeled particles are mentioned.

  15. Structure shielding from cloud and fallout gamma ray sources for assessing the consequences of reactor accidents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burson, Z.G.; Profio, A.E.

    1975-12-01

    Radiation shielding provided by transportation vehicles and structures typical of where people live and work were estimated for cloud and fallout gamma-ray sources resulting from a hypothetical reactor accident. Dose reduction factors are recommended for a variety of situations for realistically assessing the consequences of reactor accidents

  16. Discovery of Pulsations from the Pulsar J0205 6449 in SNR 3C 58 with the Fermi Gamma-Ray Space Telescope

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abdo, Aous A.; /Naval Research Lab, Wash., D.C.; Ackermann, M.; /Stanford U., HEPL /KIPAC, Menlo Park /Stanford U., Phys. Dept.; Ajello, Marco; /Stanford U., HEPL /KIPAC, Menlo Park /Stanford U., Phys. Dept.; Atwood, William B.; /UC, Santa Cruz; Axelsson, M.; /Stockholm U., OKC /Stockholm U.; Baldini, L.; /INFN, Pisa; Ballet, J.; /DAPNIA, Saclay; Barbiellini, Guido; /INFN, Trieste /Trieste U.; Bastieri, Denis; /INFN, Padua /Padua U.; Baughman, B.M.; /Ohio State U.; Bechtol, K.; /Stanford U., HEPL /KIPAC, Menlo Park /Stanford U., Phys. Dept.; Bellazzini, Ronaldo; /INFN, Pisa; Berenji, Bijan; /Stanford U., HEPL /KIPAC, Menlo Park /Stanford U., Phys. Dept.; Blandford, Roger D.; /Stanford U., HEPL /KIPAC, Menlo Park /Stanford U., Phys. Dept.; Bloom, Elliott D.; /Stanford U., HEPL /KIPAC, Menlo Park /Stanford U., Phys. Dept.; Bonamente, E.; /INFN, Perugia /Perugia U.; Borgland, Anders W.; /Stanford U., HEPL /KIPAC, Menlo Park /Stanford U., Phys. Dept.; Bouvier, A.; /Stanford U., HEPL /KIPAC, Menlo Park /Stanford U., Phys. Dept.; Bregeon, J.; /INFN, Pisa; Brez, A.; /INFN, Pisa; Brigida, M.; /Bari U. /INFN, Bari /Ecole Polytechnique /Washington U., Seattle /Bari U. /INFN, Bari /Stanford U., HEPL /KIPAC, Menlo Park /Stanford U., Phys. Dept. /Columbia U. /IASF, Milan /IASF, Milan /DAPNIA, Saclay /INFN, Perugia /Perugia U. /NASA, Goddard /George Mason U. /Naval Research Lab, Wash., D.C. /NASA, Goddard /Stanford U., HEPL /KIPAC, Menlo Park /Stanford U., Phys. Dept. /INFN, Perugia /Perugia U. /Stanford U., HEPL /KIPAC, Menlo Park /Stanford U., Phys. Dept. /LPCE, Orleans /Montpellier U. /Stockholm U., OKC /Royal Inst. Tech., Stockholm /Stockholm U. /Naval Research Lab, Wash., D.C. /INFN, Trieste /Bari U. /INFN, Bari /Stanford U., HEPL /KIPAC, Menlo Park /Stanford U., Phys. Dept. /UC, Santa Cruz /Stanford U., HEPL /KIPAC, Menlo Park /Stanford U., Phys. Dept. /Stanford U., HEPL /KIPAC, Menlo Park /Stanford U., Phys. Dept. /Stanford U., HEPL /KIPAC, Menlo Park /Stanford U., Phys. Dept. /CENBG, Gradignan /CENBG, Gradignan /Stanford U., HEPL /KIPAC, Menlo Park /Stanford U., Phys. Dept. /Manchester U. /Montpellier U. /Bari U. /INFN, Bari /Stanford U., HEPL /KIPAC, Menlo Park /Stanford U., Phys. Dept.; /more authors..

    2011-12-01

    We report the discovery of {gamma}-ray pulsations ({ge}0.1 GeV) from the young radio and X-ray pulsar PSR J0205 + 6449 located in the Galactic supernova remnant 3C 58. Data in the {gamma}-ray band were acquired by the Large Area Telescope aboard the Fermi Gamma-ray Space Telescope (formerly GLAST), while the radio rotational ephemeris used to fold {gamma}-rays was obtained using both the Green Bank Telescope and the Lovell telescope at Jodrell Bank. The light curve consists of two peaks separated by 0.49 {+-} 0.01 {+-} 0.01 cycles which are aligned with the X-ray peaks. The first {gamma}-ray peak trails the radio pulse by 0.08 {+-} 0.01 {+-} 0.01, while its amplitude decreases with increasing energy as for the other {gamma}-ray pulsars. Spectral analysis of the pulsed {gamma}-ray emission suggests a simple power law of index -2.1 {+-} 0.1 {+-} 0.2 with an exponential cutoff at 3.0{sub -0.7}{sup +1.1} {+-} 0.4 GeV. The first uncertainty is statistical and the second is systematic. The integral {gamma}-ray photon flux above 0.1 GeV is (13.7 {+-} 1.4 {+-} 3.0) x 10{sup -8} cm{sup -2} s{sup -1}, which implies for a distance of 3.2 kpc and assuming a broad fan-like beam a luminosity of 8.3 x 10{sup 34} erg s{sup -1} and an efficiency {eta} of 0.3%. Finally, we report a 95% upper limit on the flux of 1.7 x 10{sup -8} cm{sup -2} s{sup -1} for off-pulse emission from the object.

  17. Constraining the source properties of individual Terrestrial Gamma-ray Flashes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mailyan, B.; Cramer, E.; Fitzpatrick, G.; Bhat, P.; Briggs, M.; Stanbro, M.; Roberts, O.; McBreen, S.; Connaughton, V.; Dwyer, J.

    2017-01-01

    We report on the spectral analysis of two individual Terrestrial Gamma-ray Flashes (TGFS) observed with the Fermi Gamma- ray Burst Monitor (GBM). The large GBM sample provides some events suitable for individual spectral analysis: sufficiently bright, localized by ground-based radio, and with the gamma rays reaching a detector unobstructed. We account for the low counts in individual TGFS by using Poisson likelihood, and we also consider instrumental effects. The data are fit with models obtained from Monte Carlo simulations of the large scale Relativistic Runaway Electron Avalanche (RREA) model, including propagation through the atmosphere. Two beaming geometries were considered: In one, the photons retain the intrinsic distribution from scattering (narrow), and in the other, the photons are smeared into a wider beam (wide). Large-scale RREA models can accommodate both narrow and wide beams, with narrow beams suggest large-scale RREA in organized electric fields while wide beams may imply converging or diverging electric fields. Wide beams are also consistent with acceleration in the electric fields of lightning leaders, but the TGFS that favor narrow beam models appear inconsistent with some lightning leader models. (author)

  18. REVISITING THE LONG/SOFT-SHORT/HARD CLASSIFICATION OF GAMMA-RAY BURSTS IN THE FERMI ERA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Fuwen; Yan Jingzhi; Wei Daming; Shao Lang

    2012-01-01

    We perform a statistical analysis of the temporal and spectral properties of the latest Fermi gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) to revisit the classification of GRBs. We find that the bimodalities of duration and the energy ratio (E peak /Fluence) and the anti-correlation between spectral hardness (hardness ratio (HR), peak energy, and spectral index) and duration (T 90 ) support the long/soft-short/hard classification scheme for Fermi GRBs. The HR-T 90 anti-correlation strongly depends on the spectral shape of GRBs and energy bands, and the bursts with the curved spectra in the typical BATSE energy bands show a tighter anti-correlation than those with the power-law spectra in the typical BAT energy bands. This might explain why the HR-T 90 correlation is not evident for those GRB samples detected by instruments like Swift with a narrower/softer energy bandpass. We also analyze the intrinsic energy correlation for the GRBs with measured redshifts and well-defined peak energies. The current sample suggests E p,rest = 2455 × (E iso /10 52 ) 0.59 for short GRBs, significantly different from that for long GRBs. However, both the long and short GRBs comply with the same E p,rest -L iso correlation.

  19. FERMI/LARGE AREA TELESCOPE DISCOVERY OF GAMMA-RAY EMISSION FROM THE FLAT-SPECTRUM RADIO QUASAR PKS 1454-354

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abdo, A. A.; Ackermann, M.; Bechtol, K.; Berenji, B.; Blandford, R. D.; Bloom, E. D.; Borgland, A. W.; Atwood, W. B.; Axelsson, M.; Baldini, L.; Bellazzini, R.; Bregeon, J.; Brez, A.; Ballet, J.; Barbiellini, G.; Bastieri, D.; Baughman, B. M.; Bogaert, G.; Bonamente, E.; Brigida, M.

    2009-01-01

    We report the discovery by the Large Area Telescope (LAT) onboard the Fermi Gamma-Ray Space Telescope of high-energy γ-ray (GeV) emission from the flat-spectrum radio quasar PKS 1454-354 (z = 1.424). On 2008 September 4, the source rose to a peak flux of (3.5 ± 0.7) x 10 -6 ph cm -2 s -1 (E > 100 MeV) on a timescale of hours and then slowly dropped over the following 2 days. No significant spectral changes occurred during the flare. Fermi/LAT observations also showed that PKS 1454-354 is the most probable counterpart of the unidentified EGRET source 3EG J1500-3509. Multiwavelength measurements performed during the following days (7 September with Swift; 6-7 September with the ground-based optical telescope Automated Telescope for Optical Monitoring; 13 September with the Australia Telescope Compact Array) resulted in radio, optical, UV, and X-ray fluxes greater than archival data, confirming the activity of PKS 1454-354.

  20. Measurements of gamma-ray dose from a moderated 252Cf source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McDonald, J.C.; Griffith, R.V.; Plato, P.; Miklos, J.

    1983-06-01

    The gamma-ray dose fraction from a moderated 252 Cf source was determined by using three types of dosimetry systems. Measurements were carried out in air at a distance of 35 cm from the surface of the moderating sphere (50 cm from the source which is at the center of the sphere) to the geometrical center of each detector. The moderating sphere is 0.8-mm-thick stainless steel shell filled with D 2 O and covered with 0.5 mm of cadmium. Measurements were also carried out with instruments and dosimeters positioned at the surface of a 40 cm x 40 cm x 15 cm plexiglass irradiation phantom whose front surface was also 35 cm from the surface of the moderating sphere. A-150 tissue-equivalent (TE) plastic ionization chambers and a TE proportional counter (TEPC) were used to measure tissue dose, from which the neutron dose equivalent was computed. The ratio of gamma-ray dose to the neutron dose equivalent was determined by using a relatively neutron-insensitive Geiger-Mueller (GM) counter and thermoluminescent dosimeters (TLD). In addition, the event-size spectrum measured by the TEPC was also used to compute the gamma-ray dose fraction. The average value for the ratio of gamma-ray dose to neutron dose equivalent was found to be 0.18 with an uncertainty of about +-18%

  1. STEADY-STATE HADRONIC GAMMA-RAY EMISSION FROM 100-MYR-OLD FERMI BUBBLES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Crocker, Roland M.; Bicknell, Geoffrey V.; Sutherland, Ralph S. [Research School of Astronomy and Astrophysics, Australian National University, Canberra (Australia); Carretti, Ettore; Hill, Alex S. [CSIRO Astronomy and Space Science, Marsfield, N.S.W. (Australia)

    2014-08-20

    Fermi Bubbles are enigmatic γ-ray features of the Galactic bulge. Both putative activity (within few × Myr) connected to the Galactic center super-massive black hole and, alternatively, nuclear star formation have been claimed as the energizing source of the Bubbles. Likewise, both inverse-Compton emission by non-thermal electrons (''leptonic'' models) and collisions between non-thermal protons and gas (''hadronic'' models) have been advanced as the process supplying the Bubbles' γ-ray emission. An issue for any steady state hadronic model is that the very low density of the Bubbles' plasma seems to require that they accumulate protons over a multi-gigayear timescale, much longer than other natural timescales occurring in the problem. Here we present a mechanism wherein the timescale for generating the Bubbles' γ-ray emission via hadronic processes is ∼few × 10{sup 8} yr. Our model invokes the collapse of the Bubbles' thermally unstable plasma, leading to an accumulation of cosmic rays and magnetic field into localized, warm (∼10{sup 4} K), and likely filamentary condensations of higher-density gas. Under the condition that these filaments are supported by non-thermal pressure, the hadronic emission from the Bubbles is L {sub γ} ≅ 2 × 10{sup 37} erg s{sup –1} M-dot {sub in}/(0.1 M{sub ⊙} yr{sup –1} ) T{sub FB}{sup 2}/(3.5×10{sup 7} K){sup 2} M {sub fil}/M {sub pls}, equal to their observed luminosity (normalizing to the star-formation-driven mass flux into the Bubbles and their measured plasma temperature and adopting the further result that the mass in the filaments, M {sub fil} is approximately equal to the that of the Bubbles' plasma, M {sub pls})

  2. Point source search techniques in ultra high energy gamma ray astronomy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alexandreas, D.E.; Biller, S.; Dion, G.M.; Lu, X.Q.; Yodh, G.B.; Berley, D.; Goodman, J.A.; Haines, T.J.; Hoffman, C.M.; Horch, E.; Sinnis, C.; Zhang, W.

    1993-01-01

    Searches for point astrophysical sources of ultra high energy (UHE) gamma rays are plagued by large numbers of background events from isotropic cosmic rays. Some of the methods that have been used to estimate the expected number of background events coming from the direction of a possible source are found to contain biases. Search techniques that avoid this problem are described. There is also a discussion of how to optimize the sensitivity of a search to emission from a point source. (orig.)

  3. A Fieldable-Prototype Large-Area Gamma-ray Imager for Orphan Source Search

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ziock, Klaus-Peter [ORNL; Fabris, Lorenzo [ORNL; Carr, Dennis [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL); Collins, Jeff [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL); Cunningham, Mark F [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL); Habte Ghebretatios, Frezghi [ORNL; Karnowski, Thomas Paul [ORNL; Marchant, William [University of California, Berkeley

    2008-01-01

    We have constructed a unique instrument for use in the search for orphan sources. The system uses gamma-ray imaging to "see through" the natural background variations that effectively limit the search range of normal devices to ~10 m. The imager is mounted in a 4.9- m-long trailer and can be towed by a large personal vehicle. Source locations are determined both in range and along the direction of travel as the vehicle moves. A fully inertial platform coupled to a Global Positioning System receiver is used to map the gamma-ray images onto overhead geospatial imagery. The resulting images provide precise source locations, allowing rapid follow-up work. The instrument simultaneously searches both sides of the street to a distance of 50 m (100-m swath) for milliCurieclass sources with near-perfect performance.

  4. Extended gamma-ray sources around pulsars constrain the origin of the positron flux at Earth

    OpenAIRE

    Abeysekara, A. U.; Albert, A.; Alfaro, R.; Alvarez, C.; Álvarez, J. D.; Arceo, R.; Arteaga-Velázquez, J. C.; Rojas, D. Avila; Solares, H. A. Ayala; Barber, A. S.; Bautista-Elivar, N.; Becerril, A.; Belmont-Moreno, E.; BenZvi, S. Y.; Berley, D.

    2017-01-01

    The unexpectedly high flux of cosmic ray positrons detected at Earth may originate from nearby astrophysical sources, dark matter, or unknown processes of cosmic-ray secondary production. We report the detection, using the HighAltitude Water Cherenkov Observatory (HAWC), of extended tera-electron volt gamma-ray emission coincident with the locations of two nearby middle-aged pulsars (Geminga and PSR B0656+14). The HAWC observations demonstrate that these pulsars are indeed local sources of ac...

  5. First detection in gamma-rays of a young radio galaxy: Fermi -LAT observations of the compact symmetric object PKS 1718−649

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Migliori, G.; Loh, A.; Corbel, S. [Laboratoire AIM (CEA/IRFU—CNRS/INSU—Université Paris Diderot), CEA DSM/SAp, F-91191 Gif-sur-Yvette (France); Siemiginowska, A.; Sobolewska, M. [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, 60 Garden Street, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Ostorero, L. [Dipartimento di Fisica, Università degli Studi di Torino and Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare (INFN), Via P. Giuria 1, I-10125 Torino (Italy); Stawarz, Ł., E-mail: giulia.migliori@cea.fr [Astronomical Observatory, Jagiellonian University, ul. Orla 171, 30-244 Kraków (Poland)

    2016-04-20

    We report the γ -ray detection of a young radio galaxy, PKS 1718−649, belonging to the class of compact symmetric objects (CSOs), with the Large Area Telescope (LAT) on board the Fermi satellite. The third Fermi Gamma-ray LAT catalog (3FGL) includes an unassociated γ -ray source, 3FGL J1728.0−6446, located close to PKS 1718−649. Using the latest Pass 8 calibration, we confirm that the best-fit 1 σ position of the γ -ray source is compatible with the radio location of PKS 1718−649. Cross-matching of the γ -ray source position with the positions of blazar sources from several catalogs yields negative results. Thus, we conclude that PKS 1718−649 is the most likely counterpart to the unassociated LAT source. We obtain a detection test statistics TS ∼ 36 (>5 σ ) with a best-fit photon spectral index Γ = 2.9 ± 0.3 and a 0.1–100 GeV photon flux density F {sub 0.1−100} {sub GeV} = (11.5 ± 0.3) × 10{sup −9} ph cm{sup −2} s{sup −1}. We argue that the linear size (∼2 pc), the kinematic age (∼100 years), and the source distance ( z = 0.014) make PKS 1718−649 an ideal candidate for γ -ray detection in the framework of the model proposing that the most compact and the youngest CSOs can efficiently produce GeV radiation via inverse-Compton scattering of the ambient photon fields by the radio lobe non-thermal electrons. Thus, our detection of the source in γ -rays establishes young radio galaxies as a distinct class of extragalactic high-energy emitters and yields a unique insight on the physical conditions in compact radio lobes interacting with the interstellar medium of the host galaxy.

  6. On the intrinsic shape of the gamma-ray spectrum for Fermi blazars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Shi-Ju; Wu, Qingwen; Zheng, Yong-Gang; Yin, Yue; Song, Jia-Li; Zou, Hang; Feng, Jian-Chao; Dong, Ai-Jun; Wu, Zhong-Zu; Zhang, Zhi-Bin; Wu, Lin-Hui

    2018-05-01

    The curvature of the γ-ray spectrumin blazarsmay reflect the intrinsic distribution of emitting electrons, which will further give some information on the possible acceleration and cooling processes in the emitting region. The γ-ray spectra of Fermi blazars are normally fitted either by a single power-law (PL) or a log-normal (call Logarithmic Parabola, LP) form. The possible reason for this difference is not clear. We statistically explore this issue based on the different observational properties of 1419 Fermi blazars in the 3LAC Clean Sample.We find that the γ-ray flux (100MeV–100GeV) and variability index follow bimodal distributions for PL and LP blazars, where the γ-ray flux and variability index show a positive correlation. However, the distributions of γ-ray luminosity and redshift follow a unimodal distribution. Our results suggest that the bimodal distribution of γ-ray fluxes for LP and PL blazars may not be intrinsic and all blazars may have an intrinsically curved γ-ray spectrum, and the PL spectrum is just caused by the fitting effect due to less photons.

  7. Airborne system for mapping and tracking extended gamma ray sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stuart, T.P.; Hendricks, T.J.; Wallace, G.G.; Cleland, J.R.

    1976-01-01

    An airborne system was developed for mapping and tracking extended sources of airborne or terrestrially distributed γ-ray emitters. The system records 300 channel γ-ray spectral data every three seconds on magnetic tape. Computer programs have been written to isolate the contribution from the particular radionuclide of interest. Aircraft position as sensed by a microwave ranging system is recorded every second on magnetic tape. Measurements of airborne stack releases of 41 A concentrations versus time or aircraft position agree well with computer code predictions

  8. CORRELATION OF SUPERNOVA REMNANT MASERS AND GAMMA-RAY SOURCES

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hewitt, John W.; Yusef-Zadeh, Farhad; Wardle, Mark

    2009-01-01

    Supernova remnants (SNRs) interacting with molecular clouds are potentially exciting systems in which to detect evidence of cosmic ray acceleration. Prominent γ-ray emission is produced via the decay of neutral pions when cosmic rays encounter nearby dense clouds. In many of the SNRs coincident with γ-ray sources, the presence of OH (1720 MHz) masers is used to identify interaction with dense gas and to provide a kinematic distance to the system. In this Letter we use statistical tests to demonstrate that there is a correlation between these masers and a class of GeV- to TeV-energy γ-ray sources coincident with interacting remnants. For pion decay the γ-ray luminosity provides a direct estimate of the local cosmic ray density. We find the cosmic ray density is enhanced by one to two orders of magnitude over the local solar value, comparable to X-ray-induced ionization in these remnants. The inferred ionization rates are sufficient to explain non-equilibrium chemistry in the post-shock gas, where high columns of hydroxyl are observed.

  9. Neutron and gamma-ray sources in LWR high-level nuclear waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dupree, S.A.

    1977-06-01

    Predictions of the composition of high-level waste from U-fueled LWRs have been used to calculate the neutron and gamma-ray sources in such waste at cooling times of 3 and 10 years. The results are intended for interim application to studies of waste shipping and storage pending the availability of more exact knowledge of fuel recycling and of waste concentration and solidification

  10. Are gamma-ray bursts the sources of ultra-high energy cosmic rays?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baerwald, Philipp

    2014-07-01

    We reconsider the possibility that gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) are the sources of the ultra-high energy cosmic rays (UHECRs) within the internal shock model, assuming a pure proton composition of the UHECRs. For the first time, we combine the information from gamma-rays, cosmic rays, prompt neutrinos, and cosmogenic neutrinos quantitatively in a joint cosmic ray production and propagation model, and we show that the information on the cosmic energy budget can be obtained as a consequence. In addition to the neutron model, we consider alternative scenarios for the cosmic ray escape from the GRBs, i.e., that cosmic rays can leak from the sources. We find that the dip model, which describes the ankle in UHECR observations by the pair production dip, is strongly disfavored in combination with the internal shock model because (a) unrealistically high baryonic loadings (energy in protons versus energy in electrons/gamma-rays) are needed for the individual GRBs and (b) the prompt neutrino flux easily overshoots the corresponding neutrino bound. On the other hand, GRBs may account for the UHECRs in the ankle transition model if cosmic rays leak out from the source at the highest energies. In that case, we demonstrate that future neutrino observations can efficiently test most of the parameter space - unless the baryonic loading is much larger than previously anticipated.

  11. {gamma}-Ray background sources in the VESUVIO spectrometer at ISIS spallation neutron source

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pietropaolo, A. [CNISM Milano-Bicocca, Universita degli Studi di Milano-Bicocca, Dipartimento di Fisica ' G. Occhialini' , Piazza della Scienza 3, 20126 Milano (Italy); NAST Center (Nanoscienze-Nanotecnologie-Strumentazione), Universita degli Studi di Roma Tor Vergata, via della Ricerca Scientifica 1, 00133 Roma (Italy)], E-mail: antonino.pietropaolo@mib.infn.it; Perelli Cippo, E. [Universita degli Studi di Milano-Bicocca, Dipartimento di Fisica ' G. Occhialini' , Piazza della Scienza 3, 20126 Milano (Italy); Gorini, G. [CNISM Milano-Bicocca, Universita degli Studi di Milano-Bicocca, Dipartimento di Fisica ' G. Occhialini' , Piazza della Scienza 3, 20126 Milano (Italy); NAST Center (Nanoscienze-Nanotecnologie-Strumentazione), Universita degli Studi di Roma Tor Vergata, via della Ricerca Scientifica 1, 00133 Roma (Italy); Tardocchi, M. [Universita degli Studi di Milano-Bicocca, Dipartimento di Fisica ' G. Occhialini' , Piazza della Scienza 3, 20126 Milano (Italy); Schooneveld, E.M. [ISIS Facility, Rutherford Appleton Laboratory, Chilton, Didcot, Oxfordshire 0QX OX11 (United Kingdom); Andreani, C.; Senesi, R. [Universia degli Studi di Roma Tor Vergata, Dipartimento di Fisica and NAST Center (Nanoscienze-Nanotecnologie-Strumentazione), via della Ricerca Scientifica 1, 00133 Roma (Italy)

    2009-09-01

    An investigation of the gamma background was carried out in the VESUVIO spectrometer at the ISIS spallation neutron source. This study, performed with a yttrium-aluminum-perovskite (YAP) scintillator, follows high resolution pulse height measurements of the gamma background carried out on the same instrument with the use of a high-purity germanium detector. In this experimental work, a mapping of the gamma background was attempted, trying to find the spatial distribution and degree of directionality of the different contributions identified in the previous study. It is found that the gamma background at low times is highly directional and mostly due to the gamma rays generated in the moderator-decoupler system. The other contributions, consistently to the findings of a previous experiment, are identified as a nearly isotropic one due to neutron absorption in the walls of the experimental hall, and a directional one coming from the beam dump.

  12. Identifying the TeV gamma-ray source MGRO J2228+61, FINALLY!

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aliu, Ester

    2012-09-01

    New VERITAS observations of MGRO J2228+61 allow us to associate its TeV emission with the enigmatic radio supernova remnant SNR G106.3+2.7. This remnant is part of a large complex that includes the Boomerang pulsar and nebula. The reduced field suggests that the TeV emission is not powered by the Boomerang, but instead associated with a much larger remnant. A recent SUZAKU X-ray observation of the smaller gamma-ray error box reveals two possible pulsar candidates. We propose short ACIS exposures to identify these sources to determine if one or both can be responsible for the gamma-ray emission. This will allow us to address the long standing problem on the nature of both MGRO J2228+61 and SNR G106.3+2.7.

  13. Distance limit for a class of model gamma-ray burst sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, W. K. H.

    1978-01-01

    It is pointed out that MeV photons have actually been observed in bursts. These observations imply that the nonrelativistic sources cannot be further away than a few kpc from the sun and, therefore, must be galactic. The 27 April 1972 event observed by Apollo 16 shows at higher energies a power law spectrum with a possible line feature around 4 MeV. The optical depth of a homogeneous, isotropic radiation field is estimated with the aid of formulae used by Nikishov (1962) and Jauch and Rohrlich (1955). On the basis of an investigation of the various factors involved, it is tentatively suggested that the gamma-ray bursts which have been detected are galactic, but are in the majority of the cases not connected with unique irreversible star transformation. It appears also unlikely that the gamma-ray bursts are connected with galactic novae.

  14. Advanced Laser-Compton Gamma-Ray Sources for Nuclear Materials Detection, Assay and Imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barty, C. P. J.

    2015-10-01

    Highly-collimated, polarized, mono-energetic beams of tunable gamma-rays may be created via the optimized Compton scattering of pulsed lasers off of ultra-bright, relativistic electron beams. Above 2 MeV, the peak brilliance of such sources can exceed that of the world's largest synchrotrons by more than 15 orders of magnitude and can enable for the first time the efficient pursuit of nuclear science and applications with photon beams, i.e. Nuclear Photonics. Potential applications are numerous and include isotope-specific nuclear materials management, element-specific medical radiography and radiology, non-destructive, isotope-specific, material assay and imaging, precision spectroscopy of nuclear resonances and photon-induced fission. This review covers activities at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory related to the design and optimization of mono-energetic, laser-Compton gamma-ray systems and introduces isotope-specific nuclear materials detection and assay applications enabled by them.

  15. The Multi-Messenger Approach to High-Energy Gamma-Ray Sources

    CERN Document Server

    Paredes, Josep M; Torres, Diego F

    2008-01-01

    This book provides a theoretical and observational overview of the state of the art of gamma-ray astrophysics, and their impact and connection with the physics of cosmic rays and neutrinos. With the aim of shedding new and fresh light on the problem of the nature of the gamma-ray sources, particularly those yet unidentified, this book summarizes contributions to a workshop that continues with the series initiated by the meeting held at Tonantzintla in October 2000, and Hong-Kong in May 2004. This books will be of interest for all active researchers in the field of high energy astrophysics and astroparticle physics, as well as for graduate students entering into the subject.

  16. Secondary gamma-ray skyshine from 14 MeV Neutron Source Facility (OKTAVIAN). Comparison of measurement with its simulation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morotomi, Ryutaro; Kondo, Tetsuo; Murata, Isao; Yoshida, Shigeo; Takahashi, Akito [Osaka Univ., Department of Nuclear Engineering, Suita, Osaka (Japan); Yamamoto, Takayoshi [Osaka Univ., Radio Isotope Research Center, Suita, Osaka (Japan)

    2000-03-01

    Measurement of secondary gamma-ray skyshine was performed at the Intense 14 MeV Neutron Source Facility (OKTAVIAN) of Osaka University with NaI and Hp-Ge detectors. From the result of measurements, some mechanism of secondary gamma-ray skyshine from 14 MeV neutron source facility was found out. The analysis of the measured result were carried out with MCNP-4B for four nuclear data files of JENDL-3.2, JENDL-F.F., FENDL-2, and ENDF/B-VI. It was confirmed that all the nuclear data are fairly reliable for calculations of secondary gamma-ray skyshine. (author)

  17. Compact FEL-driven inverse compton scattering gamma-ray source

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Placidi, M. [Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States); Di Mitri, S., E-mail: simone.dimitri@elettra.eu [Elettra - Sincrotrone Trieste S.C.p.A., 34149 Basovizza, Trieste (Italy); Pellegrini, C. [SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory, Menlo Park, CA 94025 (United States); University of California, Los Angeles, CA 90095 (United States); Penn, G. [Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States)

    2017-05-21

    Many research and applications areas require photon sources capable of producing gamma-ray beams in the multi-MeV energy range with reasonably high fluxes and compact footprints. Besides industrial, nuclear physics and security applications, a considerable interest comes from the possibility to assess the state of conservation of cultural assets like statues, columns etc., via visualization and analysis techniques using high energy photon beams. Computed Tomography scans, widely adopted in medicine at lower photon energies, presently provide high quality three-dimensional imaging in industry and museums. We explore the feasibility of a compact source of quasi-monochromatic, multi-MeV gamma-rays based on Inverse Compton Scattering (ICS) from a high intensity ultra-violet (UV) beam generated in a free-electron laser by the electron beam itself. This scheme introduces a stronger relationship between the energy of the scattered photons and that of the electron beam, resulting in a device much more compact than a classic ICS for a given scattered energy. The same electron beam is used to produce gamma-rays in the 10–20 MeV range and UV radiation in the 10–15 eV range, in a ~4×22 m{sup 2} footprint system.

  18. Neutron beam design for low intensity neutron and gamma-ray radioscopy using small neutron sources

    CERN Document Server

    Matsumoto, T

    2003-01-01

    Two small neutron sources of sup 2 sup 5 sup 2 Cf and sup 2 sup 4 sup 1 Am-Be radioisotopes were used for design of neutron beams applicable to low intensity neutron and gamma ray radioscopy (LINGR). In the design, Monte Carlo code (MCNP) was employed to generate neutron and gamma ray beams suited to LINGR. With a view to variable neutron spectrum and neutron intensity, various arrangements were first examined, and neutron-filter, gamma-ray shield and beam collimator were verified. Monte Carlo calculations indicated that with a suitable filter-shield-collimator arrangement, thermal neutron beam of 3,900 ncm sup - sup 2 s sup - sup 1 with neutron/gamma ratio of 7x10 sup 7 , and 25 ncm sup - sup 2 s sup - sup 1 with very large neutron/gamma ratio, respectively, could be produced by using sup 2 sup 5 sup 2 Cf(122 mu g) and a sup 2 sup 4 sup 1 Am-Be(37GBq)radioisotopes at the irradiation port of 35 cm from the neutron sources.

  19. Abstracts of papers to be presented at the fifth symposium on x- and gamma-ray sources and applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1981-01-01

    The program and abstracts of papers are presented. Topics include radiation sources, radiation detectors, mathematical models and data analysis, gamma-ray spectroscopy, instrumentation, applications of x-ray fluorescence, PIXE, and x-ray absorption

  20. Abstracts of papers to be presented at the fifth symposium on x- and gamma-ray sources and applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1981-01-01

    The program and abstracts of papers are presented. Topics include radiation sources, radiation detectors, mathematical models and data analysis, gamma-ray spectroscopy, instrumentation, applications of x-ray fluorescence, PIXE, and x-ray absorption. (ACR)

  1. Clustering of gamma-ray burst types in the Fermi GBM catalogue: indications of photosphere and synchrotron emissions during the prompt phase

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acuner, Zeynep; Ryde, Felix

    2018-04-01

    Many different physical processes have been suggested to explain the prompt gamma-ray emission in gamma-ray bursts (GRBs). Although there are examples of both bursts with photospheric and synchrotron emission origins, these distinct spectral appearances have not been generalized to large samples of GRBs. Here, we search for signatures of the different emission mechanisms in the full Fermi Gamma-ray Space Telescope/GBM (Gamma-ray Burst Monitor) catalogue. We use Gaussian Mixture Models to cluster bursts according to their parameters from the Band function (α, β, and Epk) as well as their fluence and T90. We find five distinct clusters. We further argue that these clusters can be divided into bursts of photospheric origin (2/3 of all bursts, divided into three clusters) and bursts of synchrotron origin (1/3 of all bursts, divided into two clusters). For instance, the cluster that contains predominantly short bursts is consistent of photospheric emission origin. We discuss several reasons that can determine which cluster a burst belongs to: jet dissipation pattern and/or the jet content, or viewing angle.

  2. Gamma-ray pulsar physics: gap-model populations and light-curve analyses in the Fermi era

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pierbattista, M.

    2010-01-01

    This thesis research focusses on the study of the young and energetic isolated ordinary pulsar population detected by the Fermi gamma-ray space telescope. We compared the model expectations of four emission models and the LAT data. We found that all the models fail to reproduce the LAT detections, in particular the large number of high E objects observed. This inconsistency is not model dependent. A discrepancy between the radio-loud/radio-quiet objects ratio was also found between the observed and predicted samples. The L γ α E 0.5 relation is robustly confirmed by all the assumed models with particular agreement in the slot gap (SG) case. On luminosity bases, the intermediate altitude emission of the two pole caustic SG model is favoured. The beaming factor f Ω shows an E dependency that is slightly visible in the SG case. Estimates of the pulsar orientations have been obtained to explain the simultaneous gamma and radio light-curves. By analysing the solutions we found a relation between the observed energy cutoff and the width of the emission slot gap. This relation has been theoretically predicted. A possible magnetic obliquity α alignment with time is rejected -for all the models- on timescale of the order of 10 6 years. The light-curve morphology study shows that the outer magnetosphere gap emission (OGs) are favoured to explain the observed radio-gamma lag. The light curve moment studies (symmetry and sharpness) on the contrary favour a two pole caustic SG emission. All the model predictions suggest a different magnetic field layout with an hybrid two pole caustic and intermediate altitude emission to explain both the pulsar luminosity and light curve morphology. The low magnetosphere emission mechanism of the polar cap model, is systematically rejected by all the tests done. (author) [fr

  3. Gamma ray astronomy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hillier, R.

    1984-01-01

    The book reviews the development of gamma ray astronomy over the past twenty five years. A large section of the book is devoted to the problems of background radiation and the design of detectors. Gamma rays from the sun, the galactic disc, the galaxy, and extra galactic sources; are also discussed. (U.K.)

  4. Comparison of Terrestrial Gamma Ray Flash Simulations with Observations by Fermi

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-10-31

    all the runaway elections (i.e., the total grammage) during a TGF, X , is introduced, defined to be the total distance traveled by all the runaway ... runaway electrons and their accompanying ionization are found for a standard TGF fluence, as a function of source altitude and beaming geometry...Such comparisons should help test and constrain TGF models and help identify the roles of lightning leaders and streamers in the production of TGFs. As

  5. Instrument for observing transient cosmic gamma-ray sources for the ISEE-C Heliocentric spacecraft

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Evans, W.D.; Aiello, W.P.; Klebesadel, R.W.

    1977-12-01

    Satellite instrumentation that would serve as one element of a three-satellite network to provide precise directional information for the recently discovered cosmic gamma-ray bursts is described. The proposed network would be capable of determining source locations with uncertainties of less than one arc minute, sufficient for a meaningful optical and radio search. The association of the gamma bursts with a known type of astrophysical object provides the most direct method for establishing source distances and thus defining the overall energetics of the emission process

  6. A shape and mesh adaptive computational methodology for gamma ray dose from volumetric sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mirza, N.M.; Ali, B.; Mirza, S.M.; Tufail, M.; Ahmad, N.

    1991-01-01

    Indoor external exposure to the population is dominated by gamma rays emitted from the walls and the floor of a room. A shape and mesh size adaptive flux calculational approach has been developed for a typical wall source. Parametric studies of the effect of mesh size on flux calculations have been done. The optimum value of the mesh size is found to depend strongly on distance from the source, permissible limits on uncertainty in flux predictions and on computer Central Processing Unit time. To test the computations, a typical wall source was reduced to a point, a line and an infinite volume source having finite thickness, and the computed flux values were compared with values from corresponding analytical expressions for these sources. Results indicate that the errors under optimum conditions remain less than 6% for the fluxes calculated from this approach when compared with the analytical values for the point and the line source approximations. Also, when the wall is simulated as an infinite volume source having finite thickness, the errors in computed to analytical flux ratios remain large for smaller wall dimensions. However, the errors become less than 10% when the wall dimensions are greater than ten mean free paths for 3 MeV gamma rays. Also, specific dose rates from this methodology remain within the difference of 15% for the values obtained by Monte Carlo method. (author)

  7. Gamma-Ray Loudness, Synchrotron Peak Frequency, and Parsec-scale Properties of Blazars Detected by the Fermi Large Area Telescope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linford, J. D.; Taylor, G. B.; Schinzel, F. K.

    2012-09-01

    The parsec-scale radio properties of 232 active galactic nuclei, most of which are blazars, detected by the Large Area Telescope (LAT) on board the Fermi Gamma-ray Space Telescope have been observed contemporaneously by the Very Long Baseline Array (VLBA) at 5 GHz. Data from both the first 11 months (1FGL) and the first 2 years (2FGL) of the Fermi mission were used to investigate these sources' γ-ray properties. We use the ratio of the γ-ray-to-radio luminosity as a measure of γ-ray loudness. We investigate the relationship of several radio properties to γ-ray loudness and to the synchrotron peak frequency. There is a tentative correlation between γ-ray loudness and synchrotron peak frequency for BL Lac objects in both 1FGL and 2FGL, and for flat-spectrum radio quasars (FSRQs) in 2FGL. We find that the apparent opening angle tentatively correlates with γ-ray loudness for FSRQs, but only when we use the 2FGL data. We also find that the total VLBA flux density correlates with the synchrotron peak frequency for BL Lac objects and FSRQs. The core brightness temperature also correlates with synchrotron peak frequency, but only for the BL Lac objects. The low-synchrotron-peaked (LSP) BL Lac object sample shows indications of contamination by FSRQs which happen to have undetectable emission lines. There is evidence that the LSP BL Lac objects are more strongly beamed than the rest of the BL Lac object population.

  8. FERMI/LARGE AREA TELESCOPE DISCOVERY OF GAMMA-RAY EMISSION FROM A RELATIVISTIC JET IN THE NARROW-LINE QUASAR PMN J0948+0022

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abdo, A. A.; Ackermann, M.; Ajello, M.; Bechtol, K.; Bloom, E. D.; Borgland, A. W.; Axelsson, M.; Battelino, M.; Baldini, L.; Bellazzini, R.; Bregeon, J.; Brez, A.; Ballet, J.; Barbiellini, G.; Bastieri, D.; Baughman, B. M.; Bonamente, E.; Brigida, M.; Caliandro, G. A.; Bruel, P.

    2009-01-01

    We report the discovery by the Large Area Telescope (LAT) onboard the Fermi Gamma-Ray Space Telescope of high-energy γ-ray emission from the peculiar quasar PMN J0948+0022 (z = 0.5846). The optical spectrum of this object exhibits rather narrow Hβ (FWHM(Hβ) ∼1500 km s -1 ), weak forbidden lines, and is therefore classified as a narrow-line type I quasar. This class of objects is thought to have relatively small black hole mass and to accrete at a high Eddington ratio. The radio loudness and variability of the compact radio core indicate the presence of a relativistic jet. Quasi-simultaneous radio/optical/X-ray and γ-ray observations are presented. Both radio and γ-ray emissions (observed over five months) are strongly variable. The simultaneous optical and X-ray data from Swift show a blue continuum attributed to the accretion disk and a hard X-ray spectrum attributed to the jet. The resulting broadband spectral energy distribution (SED) and, in particular, the γ-ray spectrum measured by Fermi are similar to those of more powerful Flat-Spectrum Radio Quasars (FSRQs). A comparison of the radio and γ-ray characteristics of PMN J0948+0022 with the other blazars detected by LAT shows that this source has a relatively low radio and γ-ray power with respect to other FSRQs. The physical parameters obtained from modeling the SED also fall at the low power end of the FSRQ parameter region discussed in Celotti and Ghisellini. We suggest that the similarity of the SED of PMN J0948+0022 to that of more massive and more powerful quasars can be understood in a scenario in which the SED properties depend on the Eddington ratio rather than on the absolute power.

  9. GAMMA-RAY LOUDNESS, SYNCHROTRON PEAK FREQUENCY, AND PARSEC-SCALE PROPERTIES OF BLAZARS DETECTED BY THE FERMI LARGE AREA TELESCOPE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Linford, J. D.; Taylor, G. B.; Schinzel, F. K.

    2012-01-01

    The parsec-scale radio properties of 232 active galactic nuclei, most of which are blazars, detected by the Large Area Telescope (LAT) on board the Fermi Gamma-ray Space Telescope have been observed contemporaneously by the Very Long Baseline Array (VLBA) at 5 GHz. Data from both the first 11 months (1FGL) and the first 2 years (2FGL) of the Fermi mission were used to investigate these sources' γ-ray properties. We use the ratio of the γ-ray-to-radio luminosity as a measure of γ-ray loudness. We investigate the relationship of several radio properties to γ-ray loudness and to the synchrotron peak frequency. There is a tentative correlation between γ-ray loudness and synchrotron peak frequency for BL Lac objects in both 1FGL and 2FGL, and for flat-spectrum radio quasars (FSRQs) in 2FGL. We find that the apparent opening angle tentatively correlates with γ-ray loudness for FSRQs, but only when we use the 2FGL data. We also find that the total VLBA flux density correlates with the synchrotron peak frequency for BL Lac objects and FSRQs. The core brightness temperature also correlates with synchrotron peak frequency, but only for the BL Lac objects. The low-synchrotron-peaked (LSP) BL Lac object sample shows indications of contamination by FSRQs which happen to have undetectable emission lines. There is evidence that the LSP BL Lac objects are more strongly beamed than the rest of the BL Lac object population.

  10. Three Millisecond Pulsars in Fermi LAT Unassociated Bright Sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ransom, S. M.; Ray, P. S.; Camilo, F.; Roberts, M. S. E.; Celik, O.; Wolff, M. T.; Cheung, C. C.; Kerr, M.; Pennucci, T.; DeCesar, M. E.; hide

    2010-01-01

    We searched for radio pulsars in 25 of the non-variable, unassociated sources in the Fermi LAT Bright Source List with the Green Bank Telescope at 820 MHz. We report the discovery of three radio and gamma-ray millisecond pulsar (MSPs) from a high Galactic latitude subset of these sources. All of the pulsars are in binary systems, which would have made them virtually impossible to detect in blind gamma-ray pulsation searches. They seem to be relatively normal, nearby (pulsars are power law in nature with exponential cutoffs at a few Ge V, as has been found with most other pulsars. The MSPs have all been detected as X-ray point sources. Their soft X-ray luminosities of approx 10(exp 30) - 10(exp 31) erg/s are typical of the rare radio MSPs seen in X-rays.

  11. Guaranteed Unresolved Point Source Emission and the Gamma-ray Background

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pavlidou, Vasiliki; Siegal-Gaskins, Jennifer M.; Brown, Carolyn; Fields, Brian D.; Olinto, Angela V.

    2007-01-01

    The large majority of EGRET point sources remain without an identified low-energy counterpart, and a large fraction of these sources are most likely extragalactic. Whatever the nature of the extragalactic EGRET unidentified sources, faint unresolved objects of the same class must have a contribution to the diffuse extragalactic gamma-ray background (EGRB). Understanding this component of the EGRB, along with other guaranteed contributions from known sources (blazars and normal galaxies), is essential if we are to use this emission to constrain exotic high-energy physics. Here, we follow an empirical approach to estimate whether the contribution of unresolved unidentified sources to the EGRB is likely to be important. Additionally, we discuss how upcoming GLAST observations of EGRET unidentified sources, their fainter counterparts, and the Galactic and extragalactic diffuse backgrounds, will shed light on the nature of the EGRET unidentified sources even without any positional association of such sources with low-energy counterparts

  12. The rise in the positron fraction. Distance limits on positron point sources from cosmic ray arrival directions and diffuse gamma-rays

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gebauer, Iris; Bentele, Rosemarie [Karlsruhe Institute of Technology, Karlsruhe (Germany)

    2016-07-01

    The rise in the positron fraction as observed by AMS and previously by PAMELA, cannot be explained by the standard paradigm of cosmic ray transport in which positrons are produced by cosmic-ray-gas interactions in the interstellar medium. Possible explanations are pulsars, which produce energetic electron-positron pairs in their rotating magnetic fields, or the annihilation of dark matter. Here we assume that these positrons originate from a single close-by point source, producing equal amounts of electrons and positrons. The propagation and energy losses of these electrons and positrons are calculated numerically using the DRAGON code, the source properties are optimized to best describe the AMS data. Using the FERMI-LAT limits on a possible dipole anisotropy in electron and positron arrival directions, we put a limit on the minimum distance of such a point source. The energy losses that these energetic electrons and positrons suffer on their way through the galaxy create gamma ray photons through bremsstrahlung and Inverse Compton scattering. Using the measurement of diffuse gamma rays from Fermi-LAT we put a limit on the maximum distance of such a point source. We find that a single electron positron point source powerful enough to explain the locally observed positron fraction must reside between 225 pc and 3.7 kpc distance from the sun and compare to known pulsars.

  13. Improvement of gamma-ray Sn transport calculations including coherent and incoherent scatterings and secondary sources of bremsstrahlung and fluorescence: Determination of gamma-ray buildup factors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kitsos, S.; Diop, C.M.; Assad, A.; Nimal, J.C.; Ridoux, P.

    1996-01-01

    Improvements of gamma-ray transport calculations in S n codes aim at taking into account the bound-electron effect of Compton scattering (incoherent), coherent scattering (Rayleigh), and secondary sources of bremsstrahlung and fluorescence. A computation scheme was developed to take into account these phenomena by modifying the angular and energy transfer matrices, and no modification in the transport code has been made. The incoherent and coherent scatterings as well as the fluorescence sources can be strictly treated by the transfer matrix change. For bremsstrahlung sources, this is possible if one can neglect the charged particles path as they pass through the matter (electrons and positrons) and is applicable for the energy range of interest for us (below 10 MeV). These improvements have been reported on the kernel attenuation codes by the calculation of new buildup factors. The gamma-ray buildup factors have been carried out for 25 natural elements up to 30 mean free paths in the energy range between 15 keV and 10 MeV

  14. Dissecting the Gamma-Ray Background in Search of Dark Matter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cholis, Ilias; Hooper, Dan; McDermott, Samuel D.

    2014-02-01

    Several classes of astrophysical sources contribute to the approximately isotropic gamma-ray background measured by the Fermi Gamma-Ray Space Telescope. In this paper, we use Fermi's catalog of gamma-ray sources (along with corresponding source catalogs at infrared and radio wavelengths) to build and constrain a model for the contributions to the extragalactic gamma-ray background from astrophysical sources, including radio galaxies, star-forming galaxies, and blazars. We then combine our model with Fermi's measurement of the gamma-ray background to derive constraints on the dark matter annihilation cross section, including contributions from both extragalactic and galactic halos and subhalos. The resulting constraints are competitive with the strongest current constraints from the Galactic Center and dwarf spheroidal galaxies. As Fermi continues to measure the gamma-ray emission from a greater number of astrophysical sources, it will become possible to more tightly constrain the astrophysical contributions to the extragalactic gamma-ray background. We project that with 10 years of data, Fermi's measurement of this background combined with the improved constraints on the astrophysical source contributions will yield a sensitivity to dark matter annihilations that exceeds the strongest current constraints by a factor of ~ 5 - 10.

  15. Characteristics of prepared gamma-ray calibration sources for radioactivity measurement of environmental and radiation control samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Samat, S.B.; Oi, Yoshihiro; Taki, Mitsumasa; Manabe, Iwao; Yoshida, Makoto; Minami, Kentaro

    1995-03-01

    Several types of calibration source having different density were prepared using one or combinations of those materials, namely foam cement, liquid, glass beads, polystyrene foam bead and hard plastic bead for gamma-ray spectrometry of the samples with different densities and shapes(variable height with constant base area). For each type of the source, a few sources were prepared to examine characteristics in such cases as (a) different heights but constant density, and (b) constant height and constant density. For the foam cement source, several sources with different densities and a constant height were prepared. All the sources were measured with a gamma-ray spectrometry system and the results were discussed. This report also presents the results obtained from the experiments for the evaluation of (1) the variation of detector efficiency-energy with gamma-ray energy, and (2) the variation of detector efficiency with density of the sources. (author)

  16. Multiwavelength Study of Gamma-Ray Bright Blazars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morozova, Daria; Larionov, V. M.; Hagen-Thorn, V. A.; Jorstad, S. G.; Marscher, A. P.; Troitskii, I. S.

    2011-01-01

    We investigate total intensity radio images of 6 gamma-ray bright blazars (BL Lac, 3C 279, 3C 273, W Com, PKS 1510-089, and 3C 66A) and their optical and gamma-ray light curves to study connections between gamma-ray and optical brightness variations and changes in the parsec-scale radio structure. We use high-resolution maps obtained by the BU group at 43 GHz with the VLBA, optical light curves constructed by the St.Petersburg State U. (Russia) team using measurements with the 0.4 m telescope of St.Petersburg State U. (LX200) and the 0.7 m telescope of the Crimean Astrophysical Observatory (AZT-8), and gamma-ray light curves, which we have constructed with data provided by the Fermi Large Area Telescope. Over the period from August 2008 to November 2009, superluminal motion is found in all 6 objects with apparent speed ranging from 2c to 40c. The blazars with faster apparent speeds, 3C 273, 3C 279, PKS 1510-089, and 3C 66A, exhibit stronger variability of the gamma-ray emission. There is a tendency for sources with sharply peaked gamma-ray flares to have faster jet speed than sources with gamma-ray light curves with no sharp peaks. Gamma-ray light curves with sharply peaked gamma-ray flares possess a stronger gamma-ray/optical correlations. The research at St.Petersburg State U. was funded by the Minister of Education and Science of the Russian Federation (state contract N#P123). The research at BU was funded in part by NASA Fermi Guest Investigator grant NNX08AV65G and by NSF grant AST-0907893. The VLBA is an instrument of the National Radio Astronomy Observatory, a facility of the National Science Foundation operated under cooperative agreement by Associated Universities, Inc.

  17. Using Deep Learning for Gamma Ray Source Detection at the First G-APD Cherenkov Telescope (FACT)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bieker, Jacob

    2018-06-01

    Finding gamma-ray sources is of paramount importance for Imaging Air Cherenkov Telescopes (IACT). This study looks at using deep neural networks on data from the First G-APD Cherenkov Telescope (FACT) as a proof-of-concept of finding gamma-ray sources with deep learning for the upcoming Cherenkov Telescope Array (CTA). In this study, FACT’s individual photon level observation data from the last 5 years was used with convolutional neural networks to determine if one or more sources were present. The neural networks used various architectures to determine which architectures were most successful in finding sources. Neural networks offer a promising method for finding faint and extended gamma-ray sources for IACTs. With further improvement and modifications, they offer a compelling method for source detection for the next generation of IACTs.

  18. Combination of e+/e- ratio from AMS-02 and gamma ray line from Fermi-LAT with implication for Dark Matter

    OpenAIRE

    Li, Shiyuan; Luo, Yonggang

    2013-01-01

    The precise AMS-02 data provide definite information for the e+/e- ratio in 100 - 350 GeV region. Assuming that the recent gamma ray line observed by Fermi-LAT experiment is product of dark matter in space and taken as input. We make a global fit for the AMS-02 e+/e- spectrum with both dark matter and pulsar contribution. For this spectrum over 130 GeV, pulsar is the dominant contribution. We also investigate the constrains on hadron production from dark matter annihilation.

  19. Neutron and gamma ray streaming experiments at the fast neutron source reactor 'YAYOI'

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oka, Yoshiaki; Yanagisawa, Ichiro; Akiyama, Masatsugu; An, Shigehiro

    1979-07-01

    Neutron and gamma ray streaming experiments were performed in the ducts and cavities that were located in the heavy concrete shields of the fast neutron source reactor YAYOI of University of Tokyo. The configurations have the feature that the streaming through the ducts are occurred following the scattering in the cavity. The axes of the ducts are perpendicular to the source radiation from the core. The spectrum of the source was modified by putting a plug in the beam hole of the core. An aluminum plug and the plug which contains paraffin were used. The decay in the ducts, however, hardly depends on the source spectrum. The decay in the ducts is nearly exponential. (author)

  20. Gamma Ray Bursts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gehrels, Neil; Meszaros, Peter

    2012-01-01

    Gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) are bright flashes of gamma-rays coming from the cosmos. They occur roughly once per day ,last typically lOs of seconds and are the most luminous events in the universe. More than three decades after their discovery, and after pioneering advances from space and ground experiments, they still remain mysterious. The launch of the Swift and Fermi satellites in 2004 and 2008 brought in a trove of qualitatively new data. In this review we survey the interplay between these recent observations and the theoretical models of the prompt GRB emission and the subsequent afterglows.

  1. Technology Needs for Gamma Ray Astronomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gehrels, Neil

    2011-01-01

    Gamma ray astronomy is currently in an exciting period of multiple missions and a wealth of data. Results from INTEGRAL, Fermi, AGILE, Suzaku and Swift are making large contributions to our knowledge of high energy processes in the universe. The advances are due to new detector and imaging technologies. The steps to date have been from scintillators to solid state detectors for sensors and from light buckets to coded aperture masks and pair telescopes for imagers. A key direction for the future is toward focusing telescopes pushing into the hard X-ray regime and Compton telescopes and pair telescopes with fine spatial resolution for medium and high energy gamma rays. These technologies will provide finer imaging of gamma-ray sources. Importantly, they will also enable large steps forward in sensitivity by reducing background.

  2. High energy X-ray observations of COS-B gamma-ray sources from OSO-8

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dolan, J. F.; Crannell, C. J.; Dennis, B. R.; Frost, K. J.; Orwig, L. E.; Caraveo, P. A.

    1985-01-01

    During the three years between satellite launch in June 1975 and turn-off in October 1978, the high energy X-ray spectrometer on board OSO-8 observed nearly all of the COS-B gamma-ray source positions given in the 2CG catalog (Swanenburg et al., 1981). An X-ray source was detected at energies above 20 keV at the 6-sigma level of significance in the gamma-ray error box containing 2CG342 - 02 and at the 3-sigma level of significance in the error boxes containing 2CG065 + 00, 2CG195 + 04, and 2CG311 - 01. No definite association between the X-ray and gamma-ray sources can be made from these data alone. Upper limits are given for the 2CG sources from which no X-ray flux was detected above 20 keV.

  3. Constraints on the bulk Lorentz factor of gamma-ray bursts with the detection rate by Fermi LAT

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Ye; Liu, Ruo-Yu; Wang, Xiang-Yu

    2018-05-01

    The bulk Lorentz factor(Γ) of the outflow is an essential parameter to understanding the physics of gamma-ray burst (GRB). Informations about the Lorentz factors of some individual GRBs have been obtained from the spectral features of the high-energy gamma-ray emissions (>100 MeV), assuming that the spectral breaks or cutoffs are due to the pair-production attenuation (i.e., γγ → e+e-). In this paper, we attempt to interpret the dependence of the LAT detection rate of GRBs on the number of high-energy gamma-rays, taking into account the attenuation effect. We first simulate a long-GRB sample with Monte Carlo method using the luminosity function, rate distribution with redshift and properties of the GRB spectrum. To characterize the distribution of the Lorentz factors, we assume that the Lorentz factors follow the relation Γ =Γ _0E_iso,52k, where Eiso, 52 is the isotropic photon energy in unit of 1052erg. After taking into account the attenuation effect related with the above Lorentz factor distribution, we are able to reproduce the LAT-detected rate of GRBs as the function of the number of gamma-rays for suitable choice of the values of Γ0 and k. The result suggests that the distribution of the bulk Lorentz factor for the majority of GRBs is in the range of 50 - 250.

  4. Development of a Watt-level gamma-ray source based on high-repetition-rate inverse Compton scattering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mihalcea, D.; Murokh, A.; Piot, P.; Ruan, J.

    2017-07-01

    A high-brilliance (~1022 photon s-1 mm-2 mrad-2 /0.1%) gamma-ray source experiment is currently being planned at Fermilab (Eγ≃1.1 MeV). The source implements a high-repetition-rate inverse Compton scattering by colliding electron bunches formed in a ~300-MeV superconducting linac with a high-intensity laser pulse. This paper describes the design rationale along with some of technical challenges associated to producing high-repetition-rate collision. The expected performances of the gamma-ray source are also presented.

  5. High-energy sources at low radio frequency: the Murchison Widefield Array view of Fermi blazars

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Giroletti, M.; Massaro, F.; D’Abrusco, R.; Lico, R.; Burlon, D.

    2016-01-01

    Low-frequency radio arrays are opening a new window for the study of the sky, both to study new phenomena and to better characterize known source classes. Being flat-spectrum sources, blazars are so far poorly studied at low radio frequencies. In this paper, we characterize the spectral properties of the blazar population at low radio frequency, compare the radio and high-energy properties of the gamma-ray blazar population, and search for radio counterparts of unidentified gamma-ray sources. We cross-correlated the 6100 deg"2 Murchison Widefield Array Commissioning Survey catalogue with the Roma blazar catalogue, the third catalogue of active galactic nuclei detected by Fermi-LAT, and the unidentified members of the entire third catalogue of gamma-ray sources detected by Fermi-LAT. When available, we also added high-frequency radio data from the Australia Telescope 20 GHz catalogue. We find low-frequency counterparts for 186 out of 517 (36%) blazars, 79 out of 174 (45%) gamma-ray blazars, and 8 out of 73 (11%) gamma-ray blazar candidates. The mean low-frequency (120–180 MHz) blazar spectral index is (α_l_o_w) = 0.57 ± 0.02: blazar spectra are flatter than the rest of the population of low-frequency sources, but are steeper than at ~GHz frequencies. Low-frequency radio flux density and gamma-ray energy flux display a mildly significant and broadly scattered correlation. Ten unidentified gamma-ray sources have a (probably fortuitous) positional match with low radio frequency sources. Low-frequency radio astronomy provides important information about sources with a flat radio spectrum and high energy. However, the relatively low sensitivity of the present surveys still misses a significant fraction of these objects. Finally, upcoming deeper surveys, such as the GaLactic and Extragalactic All-Sky MWA (GLEAM) survey, will provide further insight into this population.

  6. Interstellar medium around supernova remnants associated with gamma-ray sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duvidovich, L.; Petriella, A.; Giacani, E.; Dubner, G.

    2017-07-01

    Supernova remnants (SNRs) are potential sources of gamma-rays, either through inverse Compton scattering of electrons off ambient photons or through the decay of neutral pions created by the collision of energetic protons with dense ambient gas. The SNRs G298.6-0.0 and G298.5-0.3 are proposed to be associated to the gamma-ray sources 3FGL J1214.0-6236 and 3FGL J1212.2-6251, respectively. They are located in a complex portion of the Galactic plane, also containing sources of powerful stellar winds such as the star Wolf Rayet HD104994 and the HII regions G298.559-00.114, G298.868-00.432 and G298.228-00.331 with ongoing star formation. We present a study of the neutral hydrogen distribution towards the mentioned SNRs. We found a structure with ellipsoidal morphology that encloses a region containing G298.5-0.3, G298.6-0.0, HD104994, G298.559-00.114 and G298.228-00.331. This HI feature is detected in the velocity range 89-100 km s-1. We propose that the neutral gas would be the accelerated portion (which would explain its high radial velocity) of a gas shell swept up by a series of expansive and explosive events. The rest of this shell (at radial velocities compatible with the systemic velocity of the objects) is not visible because of confusion with galactic emission. We also inspected the distribution of the 12CO gas and found a dense molecular cloud at the systemic velocity of ˜ 22 km s-1 corresponding to the kinematical distance of ˜ 10.4 kpc, compatible with the distance to the SNR G298.6-0.0. This molecular cloud is in spatial coincidence, projected in the sky plane, with the very high energy source associated with the remnant. This fact, suggesting a possible hadronic origin for the gamma-rays emission. Regarding to the SNR G298.5-0.3, smaller and fainter than the previous one, the angular resolution of the molecular data is insufficient to draw meaningful conclusions.

  7. X-band RF Photoinjector for Laser Compton X-ray and Gamma-ray Sources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marsh, R. A. [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Anderson, G. G. [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Anderson, S. G. [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Gibson, D. J. [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Barty, C. J. [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)

    2015-05-06

    Extremely bright narrow bandwidth gamma-ray sources are expanding the application of accelerator technology and light sources in new directions. An X-band test station has been commissioned at LLNL to develop multi-bunch electron beams. This multi-bunch mode will have stringent requirements for the electron bunch properties including low emittance and energy spread, but across multiple bunches. The test station is a unique facility featuring a 200 MV/m 5.59 cell X-band photogun powered by a SLAC XL4 klystron driven by a Scandinova solid-state modulator. This paper focuses on its current status including the generation and initial characterization of first electron beam. Design and installation of the inverse-Compton scattering interaction region and upgrade paths will be discussed along with future applications.

  8. Bulk - Samples gamma-rays activation analysis (PGNAA) with Isotopic Neutron Sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    HASSAN, A.M.

    2009-01-01

    An overview is given on research towards the Prompt Gamma-ray Neutron Activation Analysis (PGNAA) of bulk-samples. Some aspects in bulk-sample PGNAA are discussed, where irradiation by isotopic neutron sources is used mostly for in-situ or on-line analysis. The research was carried out in a comparative and/or qualitative way or by using a prior knowledge about the sample material. Sometimes we need to use the assumption that the mass fractions of all determined elements add up to 1. The sensitivity curves are also used for some elements in such complex samples, just to estimate the exact percentage concentration values. The uses of 252 Cf, 241 Arn/Be and 239 Pu/Be isotopic neutron sources for elemental investigation of: hematite, ilmenite, coal, petroleum, edible oils, phosphates and pollutant lake water samples have been mentioned.

  9. Characterization of a gamma-ray source based on a laser-plasma accelerator with applications to radiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Edwards, R.D.; Sinclair, M.A.; Goldsack, T.J.; Krushelnick, K.; Beg, F.N.; Clark, E.L.; Dangor, A.E.; Najmudin, Z.; Tatarakis, M.; Walton, B.; Zepf, M.; Ledingham, K.W.D.; Spencer, I.; Norreys, P.A.; Clarke, R.J.; Kodama, R.; Toyama, Y.; Tampo, M.

    2002-01-01

    The application of high intensity laser-produced gamma rays is discussed with regard to picosecond resolution deep-penetration radiography. The spectrum and angular distribution of these gamma rays is measured using an array of thermoluminescent detectors for both an underdense (gas) target and an overdense (solid) target. It is found that the use of an underdense target in a laser plasma accelerator configuration produces a much more intense and directional source. The peak dose is also increased significantly. Radiography is demonstrated in these experiments and the source size is also estimated

  10. Overview of high intensity x-ray and gamma-ray sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prestwich, K.R.; Lee, J.R.; Ramirez, J.J.; Sanford, T.W.L.; Agee, F.J.; Frazier, G.B.; Miller, A.R.

    1987-01-01

    The requirements for intense x-ray and gamma-ray sources to simulate the radiation effects from nuclear weapons has led to the development of several types of terawatt-pulsed power systems. One example of a major gamma-ray source is Aurora, a 10-MV, 1.6-MA, 120-ns four-module, electron-beam generator. Recent requirements to improve the dose rate has led to the Aurora upgrade program and to the development of the 20-MV, 800-kA, 40-ns Hermes-III electron-beam accelerator. The Aurora program includes improvements to the pulsed power system and research on techniques to improve the pulse shape of the electron beam. Hermes III will feature twenty 1-MV, 800-kA induction accelerator cavities supplying energy to a magnetically insulated transmission line adder. Hermes III will become operational in 1988. Intense x-ray sources consist of pulsed power systems that operate with 1-MV to 2-MV output voltages and up to 25-TW output powers. These high powers are achieved with either low impedance electron-beam generators or multimodular pulsed power systems. The low-impedance generators have high voltage Marx generators that store the energy and then sequentially transfer this energy to pulse-forming transmission lines with lower and lower impedance until the high currents are reached. In the multimode machines, each module produces 0.7-TW to 4-TW output pulses, and all of the modules are connected together to supply energy to a single diode

  11. GAMSOURCE - WRS system module number 38474 for calculating gamma-ray sources produced by neutron capture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grimstone, M.J.

    1978-06-01

    The WRS Modular Programming System has been developed as a means by which programmes may be more efficiently constructed, maintained and modified. In this system a module is a self-contained unit typically composed of one or more Fortran routines, and a programme is constructed from a number of such modules. This report describes one WRS module, the function of which is to calculate the source strength of gamma-rays arising from neutron capture in a system represented in one-dimensional geometry. The information given in this manual is of use both to the programmer wishing to incorporate the module in a programme, and to the user of such a programme. (author)

  12. White source gamma-ray production spectral measurement facilities in the USA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Larson, D.C.; Dickens, J.K.; Nelson, R.O.; Wender, S.A.

    1991-01-01

    The two primary neutron sources for measuring gamma-ray production (GRP) cross sections for basic and applied work in the USA are the Oak Ridge Electron Linear Accelerator (ORELA) located at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) and the Weapons Neutron Research (WNR) facility located at the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). ORELA is based on a 180-MeV electron linear accelerator, while the WNR facility uses the Los Alamos Meson Physics Facility 800 MeV proton beam to produce neutrons. The facilities collectively cover the neutron-energy range from thermal to over 700 MeV. The paper describes the present capabilities for GRP measurements at each facility. 18 refs

  13. TOWARD IDENTIFYING THE UNASSOCIATED GAMMA-RAY SOURCE 1FGL J1311.7-3429 WITH X-RAY AND OPTICAL OBSERVATIONS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kataoka, J.; Takahashi, Y.; Maeda, K. [Research Institute for Science and Engineering, Waseda University, 3-4-1, Okubo, Shinjuku, Tokyo 169-8555 (Japan); Yatsu, Y.; Kawai, N. [Tokyo Institute of Technology, 2-12-1, Ohokayama, Meguro, Tokyo 152-8551 (Japan); Urata, Y.; Tsai, A. [Institute of Astronomy, National Central University, Chung-Li 32054, Taiwan (China); Cheung, C. C. [National Research Council Research Associate, National Academy of Sciences, Washington, DC 20001 (United States); Totani, T.; Makiya, R. [Department of Astronomy, Kyoto University, Kitashirakawa, Sakyo-ku, Kyoto 606-8502 (Japan); Hanayama, H.; Miyaji, T., E-mail: kataoka.jun@waseda.jp [Ishigakijima Astronomical Observatory, National Astronomical Observatory of Japan, 1024-1 Arakawa, Ishigaki, Okinawa, 907-0024 (Japan)

    2012-10-01

    We present deep optical and X-ray follow-up observations of the bright unassociated Fermi-LAT gamma-ray source 1FGL J1311.7-3429. The source was already known as an unidentified EGRET source (3EG J1314-3431, EGR J1314-3417), hence its nature has remained uncertain for the past two decades. For the putative counterpart, we detected a quasi-sinusoidal optical modulation of {Delta}m {approx} 2 mag with a period of {approx_equal}1.5 hr in the Rc, r', and g' bands. Moreover, we found that the amplitude of the modulation and peak intensity changed by {approx}>1 mag and {approx}0.5 mag, respectively, over our total six nights of observations from 2012 March to May. Combined with Swift UVOT data, the optical-UV spectrum is consistent with a blackbody temperature, kT {approx_equal} 1 eV and the emission volume radius R{sub bb} {approx_equal} 1.5 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 4} d{sub kpc} km (d{sub kpc} is the distance to the source in units of 1 kpc). In contrast, deep Suzaku observations conducted in 2009 and 2011 revealed strong X-ray flares with a light curve characterized with a power spectrum density of P(f) {proportional_to} f {sup -2.0{+-}0.4}, but the folded X-ray light curves suggest an orbital modulation also in X-rays. Together with the non-detection of a radio counterpart, and significant curved spectrum and non-detection of variability in gamma-rays, the source may be the second 'radio-quiet' gamma-ray emitting millisecond pulsar candidate after 1FGL J2339.7-0531, although the origin of flaring X-ray and optical variability remains an open question.

  14. A STATISTICAL APPROACH TO RECOGNIZING SOURCE CLASSES FOR UNASSOCIATED SOURCES IN THE FIRST FERMI-LAT CATALOG

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ackermann, M. [Deutsches Elektronen Synchrotron DESY, D-15738 Zeuthen (Germany); Ajello, M.; Allafort, A.; Berenji, B.; Blandford, R. D.; Bloom, E. D.; Borgland, A. W.; Buehler, R. [W. W. Hansen Experimental Physics Laboratory, Kavli Institute for Particle Astrophysics and Cosmology, Department of Physics and SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory, Stanford University, Stanford, CA 94305 (United States); Antolini, E.; Bonamente, E. [Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Sezione di Perugia, I-06123 Perugia (Italy); Baldini, L.; Bellazzini, R.; Bregeon, J. [Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Sezione di Pisa, I-56127 Pisa (Italy); Ballet, J. [Laboratoire AIM, CEA-IRFU/CNRS/Universite Paris Diderot, Service d' Astrophysique, CEA Saclay, 91191 Gif sur Yvette (France); Barbiellini, G. [Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Sezione di Trieste, I-34127 Trieste (Italy); Bastieri, D. [Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Sezione di Padova, I-35131 Padova (Italy); Bouvier, A. [Santa Cruz Institute for Particle Physics, Department of Physics and Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics, University of California at Santa Cruz, Santa Cruz, CA 95064 (United States); Brandt, T. J. [CNRS, IRAP, F-31028 Toulouse Cedex 4 (France); Brigida, M. [Dipartimento di Fisica ' M. Merlin' dell' Universita e del Politecnico di Bari, I-70126 Bari (Italy); Bruel, P., E-mail: monzani@slac.stanford.edu, E-mail: vilchez@cesr.fr, E-mail: salvetti@lambrate.inaf.it, E-mail: elizabeth.c.ferrara@nasa.gov [Laboratoire Leprince-Ringuet, Ecole polytechnique, CNRS/IN2P3, Palaiseau (France); and others

    2012-07-01

    The Fermi Large Area Telescope (LAT) First Source Catalog (1FGL) provided spatial, spectral, and temporal properties for a large number of {gamma}-ray sources using a uniform analysis method. After correlating with the most-complete catalogs of source types known to emit {gamma} rays, 630 of these sources are 'unassociated' (i.e., have no obvious counterparts at other wavelengths). Here, we employ two statistical analyses of the primary {gamma}-ray characteristics for these unassociated sources in an effort to correlate their {gamma}-ray properties with the active galactic nucleus (AGN) and pulsar populations in 1FGL. Based on the correlation results, we classify 221 AGN-like and 134 pulsar-like sources in the 1FGL unassociated sources. The results of these source 'classifications' appear to match the expected source distributions, especially at high Galactic latitudes. While useful for planning future multiwavelength follow-up observations, these analyses use limited inputs, and their predictions should not be considered equivalent to 'probable source classes' for these sources. We discuss multiwavelength results and catalog cross-correlations to date, and provide new source associations for 229 Fermi-LAT sources that had no association listed in the 1FGL catalog. By validating the source classifications against these new associations, we find that the new association matches the predicted source class in {approx}80% of the sources.

  15. Discovery of a Nonblazar Gamma-Ray Transient Source Near the Galactic Plane: GRO J1838-04

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tavani, M.; Oliversen, Ronald (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    We report the discovery of a remarkable gamma-ray transient source near the Galactic plane, GRO J1838-04. This source was serendipitously discovered by EGRET in 1995 June with a peak intensity of approx. (4 +/- 1) x 10(exp -6) photons/sq cm s (for photon energies larger than 100 MeV) and a 5.9 sigma significance. At that time, GRO J1838-04 was the second brightest gamma-ray source in the sky. A subsequent EGRET pointing in 1995 late September detected the source at a flux smaller than its peak value by a factor of approx. 7. We determine that no radio-loud spectrally flat blazar is within the error box of GRO J1838-04. We discuss the origin of the gamma-ray transient source and show that interpretations in terms of active galactic nuclei or isolated pulsars are highly problematic. GRO J1838-04 provides strong evidence for the existence of a new class of variable gamma-ray sources.

  16. Gamma-ray flares from the Crab Nebula.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdo, A A; Ackermann, M; Ajello, M; Allafort, A; Baldini, L; Ballet, J; Barbiellini, G; Bastieri, D; Bechtol, K; Bellazzini, R; Berenji, B; Blandford, R D; Bloom, E D; Bonamente, E; Borgland, A W; Bouvier, A; Brandt, T J; Bregeon, J; Brez, A; Brigida, M; Bruel, P; Buehler, R; Buson, S; Caliandro, G A; Cameron, R A; Cannon, A; Caraveo, P A; Casandjian, J M; Çelik, Ö; Charles, E; Chekhtman, A; Cheung, C C; Chiang, J; Ciprini, S; Claus, R; Cohen-Tanugi, J; Costamante, L; Cutini, S; D'Ammando, F; Dermer, C D; de Angelis, A; de Luca, A; de Palma, F; Digel, S W; do Couto e Silva, E; Drell, P S; Drlica-Wagner, A; Dubois, R; Dumora, D; Favuzzi, C; Fegan, S J; Ferrara, E C; Focke, W B; Fortin, P; Frailis, M; Fukazawa, Y; Funk, S; Fusco, P; Gargano, F; Gasparrini, D; Gehrels, N; Germani, S; Giglietto, N; Giordano, F; Giroletti, M; Glanzman, T; Godfrey, G; Grenier, I A; Grondin, M-H; Grove, J E; Guiriec, S; Hadasch, D; Hanabata, Y; Harding, A K; Hayashi, K; Hayashida, M; Hays, E; Horan, D; Itoh, R; Jóhannesson, G; Johnson, A S; Johnson, T J; Khangulyan, D; Kamae, T; Katagiri, H; Kataoka, J; Kerr, M; Knödlseder, J; Kuss, M; Lande, J; Latronico, L; Lee, S-H; Lemoine-Goumard, M; Longo, F; Loparco, F; Lubrano, P; Madejski, G M; Makeev, A; Marelli, M; Mazziotta, M N; McEnery, J E; Michelson, P F; Mitthumsiri, W; Mizuno, T; Moiseev, A A; Monte, C; Monzani, M E; Morselli, A; Moskalenko, I V; Murgia, S; Nakamori, T; Naumann-Godo, M; Nolan, P L; Norris, J P; Nuss, E; Ohsugi, T; Okumura, A; Omodei, N; Ormes, J F; Ozaki, M; Paneque, D; Parent, D; Pelassa, V; Pepe, M; Pesce-Rollins, M; Pierbattista, M; Piron, F; Porter, T A; Rainò, S; Rando, R; Ray, P S; Razzano, M; Reimer, A; Reimer, O; Reposeur, T; Ritz, S; Romani, R W; Sadrozinski, H F-W; Sanchez, D; Saz Parkinson, P M; Scargle, J D; Schalk, T L; Sgrò, C; Siskind, E J; Smith, P D; Spandre, G; Spinelli, P; Strickman, M S; Suson, D J; Takahashi, H; Takahashi, T; Tanaka, T; Thayer, J B; Thompson, D J; Tibaldo, L; Torres, D F; Tosti, G; Tramacere, A; Troja, E; Uchiyama, Y; Vandenbroucke, J; Vasileiou, V; Vianello, G; Vitale, V; Wang, P; Wood, K S; Yang, Z; Ziegler, M

    2011-02-11

    A young and energetic pulsar powers the well-known Crab Nebula. Here, we describe two separate gamma-ray (photon energy greater than 100 mega-electron volts) flares from this source detected by the Large Area Telescope on board the Fermi Gamma-ray Space Telescope. The first flare occurred in February 2009 and lasted approximately 16 days. The second flare was detected in September 2010 and lasted approximately 4 days. During these outbursts, the gamma-ray flux from the nebula increased by factors of four and six, respectively. The brevity of the flares implies that the gamma rays were emitted via synchrotron radiation from peta-electron-volt (10(15) electron volts) electrons in a region smaller than 1.4 × 10(-2) parsecs. These are the highest-energy particles that can be associated with a discrete astronomical source, and they pose challenges to particle acceleration theory.

  17. Gamma-ray flares from the Crab nebula

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abdo, A.A.; Ackermann, M.; Ajello, M.; Allafort, A.; Baldini, L.; Ballet, J.; Casandjian, J.M.; Grenier, I.A.; Naumann-Godo, M.; Pierbattista, M.; Tibaldo, L.

    2011-01-01

    A young and energetic pulsar powers the well-known Crab Nebula. Here, we describe two separate gamma-ray (photon energy greater than 100 mega-electron volts) flares from this source detected by the Large Area Telescope on board the Fermi Gamma-ray Space Telescope. The first flare occurred in February 2009 and lasted approximately 16 days. The second flare was detected in September 2010 and lasted approximately 4 days. During these outbursts, the gamma-ray flux from the nebula increased by factors of four and six, respectively. The brevity of the flares implies that the gamma rays were emitted via synchrotron radiation from peta-electron-volt (10 15 electron volts) electrons in a region smaller than 1.4 * 10 -2 parsecs. These are the highest-energy particles that can be associated with a discrete astronomical source, and they pose challenges to particle acceleration theory. (authors)

  18. Physics and astrophysics with gamma-ray telescopes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vandenbroucke, J. [Kavli Institute for Particle Astrophysics and Cosmology, Department of Physics and SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory, Stanford University, Stanford, CA 94305 (United States)

    2012-08-15

    In the past few years gamma-ray astronomy has entered a golden age. A modern suite of telescopes is now scanning the sky over both hemispheres and over six orders of magnitude in energy. At {approx}TeV energies, only a handful of sources were known a decade ago, but the current generation of ground-based imaging atmospheric Cherenkov telescopes (H.E.S.S., MAGIC, and VERITAS) has increased this number to nearly one hundred. With a large field of view and duty cycle, the Tibet and Milagro air shower detectors have demonstrated the promise of the direct particle detection technique for TeV gamma rays. At {approx}GeV energies, the Fermi Gamma-ray Space Telescope has increased the number of known sources by nearly an order of magnitude in its first year of operation. New classes of sources that were previously theorized to be gamma-ray emitters have now been confirmed observationally. Moreover, there have been surprise discoveries of GeV gamma-ray emission from source classes for which no theory predicted it was possible. In addition to elucidating the processes of high-energy astrophysics, gamma-ray telescopes are making essential contributions to fundamental physics topics including quantum gravity, gravitational waves, and dark matter. I summarize the current census of astrophysical gamma-ray sources, highlight some recent discoveries relevant to fundamental physics, and describe the synergetic connections between gamma-ray and neutrino astronomy. This is a brief overview intended in particular for particle physicists and neutrino astronomers, based on a presentation at the Neutrino 2010 conference in Athens, Greece. I focus in particular on results from Fermi (which was launched soon after Neutrino 2008), and conclude with a description of the next generation of instruments, namely HAWC and the Cherenkov Telescope Array.

  19. Discovery of a point-like very-high-energy gamma-ray source in Monoceros

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aharonian, F.A.; Benbow, W.; Berge, D.; Bernlohr, K.; Bolz, O.; Braun, I.; Buhler, R.; Carrigan, S.; Costamante, L.; Domainko, W.; Egberts, K.; Forster, A.; Funk, S.; Hauser, D.; Hermann, G.; Hinton, J.A.; Hofmann, W.; Hoppe, S.; Khelifi, B.; Kosack, K.; Masterson, C.; Panter, M.; Rowell, G.; van Eldik, C.; Volk, H.J.; Akhperjanian, A.G.; Sahakian, V.; Bazer-Bachi, A.R.; Borrel, V.; Marcowith, A.; Olive, J.P.; Beilicke, M.; Cornils, R.; Heinzelmann, G.; Raue, M.; Ripken, J.; Bernlohr, K.; Funk, Seb.; Fussling, M.; Kerschhaggl, M.; Lohse, T.; Schlenker, S.; Schwanke, U.; Boisson, C.; Martin, J.M.; Sol, H.; Brion, E.; Glicenstein, J.F.; Goret, P.; Moulin, E.; Rolland, L.

    2007-01-01

    Aims. The complex Monoceros Loop SNR/Rosette Nebula region contains several potential sources of very-high-energy (VHE) γ-ray emission and two as yet unidentified high-energy EGRET sources. Sensitive VHE observations are required to probe acceleration processes in this region. Methods. The HESS telescope array has been used to search for very high-energy gamma-ray sources in this region. CO data from the NANTEN telescope were used to map the molecular clouds in the region, which could act as target material for γ-ray production via hadronic interactions. Results. We announce the discovery of a new γ-ray source, HESS J0632+057, located close to the rim of the Monoceros SNR. This source is unresolved by HESS and has no clear counterpart at other wavelengths but is possibly associated with the weak X-ray source 1RXS J063258.3+054857, the Be-star MWC148 and/or the lower energy γ-ray source 3EGJ0634+0521. No evidence for an associated molecular cloud was found in the CO data. (authors)

  20. Measurement of secondary gamma-ray skyshine and groundshine from intense 14 MeV neutron source facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoshida, Shigeo; Morotomi, Ryutaro; Kondo, Tetsuo; Murata, Isao; Takahashi, Akito [Osaka Univ., Suita (Japan). Dept. of Nuclear Engineering

    2000-03-01

    Secondary gamma-ray skyshine and groundshine, including the direct contribution from the facility building, have been measured with an Hp-Ge detector and an NaI(Tl) detector at the Intense 14 MeV Neutron Source Facility OKTAVIAN of Osaka University, Japan. The mechanism of secondary gamma-rays propagation were analyzed with the measured spectrum with the Hp-Ge detector. The contribution of the skyshine was shown to be a continuum spectrum that was composed of mainly Compton scattered high energy secondary gamma-rays generated in the facility building created by (n, {gamma}) reaction. The contribution of the groundshine considerably contained secondary gamma-rays generated by {sup nat}Si (n, {gamma}) reaction in soil, including the albedo contribution from the ground. And the total contribution contained capture gamma-rays from iron (Fe) and other nuclides. The measurements with the NaI(Tl) detector as well as the Hp-Ge detector were carried out to investigate the dependence of gamma-ray dose as a function of distance from the neutron source up to hundreds meters. Consequently, it was found that the dependence could be fitted with the function of const.{center_dot}exp(-r/{lambda})/r{sup n}, where n values were around 2 except for the skyshine (n {approx} 1). It was thus indicated that the contribution of the skyshine could be propagated farther downfield than the direct contribution from the facility. The measured ratios of the three contributions (skyshine, groundshine, and direct contributions) and the distance dependence in each path were shown to be in good agreement with calculated results by the Monte Carlo transport code MCNP-4A. And the total contributions for the two detectors of NaI(Tl) and Hp-Ge agree excellently with each other. (author)

  1. Space-time analysis of the Seismic Waves propagation and World Wide Lightning Location Network data association with the Terrestrial Gamma-ray Flashes detected by the Fermi Gamma-ray Burst Monitor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sorokin, L.

    2017-01-01

    The natural high intensity sub-millisecond electromagnetic pulses associated with seismic waves from earthquakes can trigger +CG, -CG and IC lightning discharges, transient luminous events (TLEs) and non luminous events as TGFS. The lightning discharges with higher peak currents are more probable during the moments when seismic waves from earthquakes pass through a place of lightning. Huge charge transfer of triggered +CG, -CG and IC lightning discharges can radiate powerful electromagnetic emission. Space-time analysis of the seismic wave’s propagation and WWLLN data was done together with the second Fermi GBM Terrestrial Gamma-ray Flashes (TGF) Catalog. A total number of 1203 events from the WWLLN associations table were associated with the entrance the exact seismic waves from earthquakes in the place of lightning. Only 11 events from 1214 associations were rejected. After that the full list of 1049 TGFs has been checked out. As the result the 1038 TGFS has been associated with earthquakes. Among them 42 events with time difference exceeding ±100 sec were found. As the result 996 events get inside the time interval for the space-time analysis ±100 sec, they correspond to 95% from the total number of 1049 TGFS. The probability density function for the Time difference data was calculated and more preferably can be explained by the probability density functions of Cauchy distribution. The Phases of Seismic Waves and earthquakes magnitude associated with selected 996 TGFS from WWLLN associations table were studied. (author)

  2. The first fermi-lat catalog of sources above 10 GeV

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ackermann, M.; Ajello, M.; Allafort, A.; Atwood, W. B.; Baldini, L.; Ballet, J.; Barbiellini, G.; Bastieri, D.; Bechtol, K.; Belfiore, A.; Bellazzini, R.; Bernieri, E.; Bissaldi, E.; Bloom, E. D.; Bonamente, E.; Brandt, T. J.; Bregeon, J.; Brigida, M.; Bruel, P.; Buehler, R.; Burnett, T. H.; Buson, S.; Caliandro, G. A.; Cameron, R. A.; Campana, R.; Caraveo, P. A.; Casandjian, J. M.; Cavazzuti, E.; Cecchi, C.; Charles, E.; Chaves, R. C. G.; Chekhtman, A.; Cheung, C. C.; Chiang, J.; Chiaro, G.; Ciprini, S.; Claus, R.; Cohen-Tanugi, J.; Cominsky, L. R.; Conrad, J.; Cutini, S.; D' Ammando, F.; de Angelis, A.; de Palma, F.; Dermer, C. D.; Desiante, R.; Digel, S. W.; Di Venere, L.; Drell, P. S.; Drlica-Wagner, A.; Favuzzi, C.; Fegan, S. J.; Ferrara, E. C.; Focke, W. B.; Fortin, P.; Franckowiak, A.; Funk, S.; Fusco, P.; Gargano, F.; Gasparrini, D.; Gehrels, N.; Germani, S.; Giglietto, N.; Giommi, P.; Giordano, F.; Giroletti, M.; Godfrey, G.; Gomez-Vargas, G. A.; Grenier, I. A.; Guiriec, S.; Hadasch, D.; Hanabata, Y.; Harding, A. K.; Hayashida, M.; Hays, E.; Hewitt, J.; Hill, A. B.; Horan, D.; Hughes, R. E.; Jogler, T.; Jóhannesson, G.; Johnson, A. S.; Johnson, T. J.; Johnson, W. N.; Kamae, T.; Kataoka, J.; Kawano, T.; Knödlseder, J.; Kuss, M.; Lande, J.; Larsson, S.; Latronico, L.; Lemoine-Goumard, M.; Longo, F.; Loparco, F.; Lott, B.; Lovellette, M. N.; Lubrano, P.; Massaro, E.; Mayer, M.; Mazziotta, M. N.; McEnery, J. E.; Mehault, J.; Michelson, P. F.; Mizuno, T.; Moiseev, A. A.; Monzani, M. E.; Morselli, A.; Moskalenko, I. V.; Murgia, S.; Nemmen, R.; Nuss, E.; Ohsugi, T.; Okumura, A.; Orienti, M.; Ormes, J. F.; Paneque, D.; Perkins, J. S.; Pesce-Rollins, M.; Piron, F.; Pivato, G.; Porter, T. A.; Rainò, S.; Razzano, M.; Reimer, A.; Reimer, O.; Reposeur, T.; Ritz, S.; Romani, R. W.; Roth, M.; Saz Parkinson, P. M.; Schulz, A.; Sgrò, C.; Siskind, E. J.; Smith, D. A.; Spandre, G.; Spinelli, P.; Stawarz, Łukasz; Strong, A. W.; Suson, D. J.; Takahashi, H.; Thayer, J. G.; Thayer, J. B.; Thompson, D. J.; Tibaldo, L.; Tinivella, M.; Torres, D. F.; Tosti, G.; Troja, E.; Uchiyama, Y.; Usher, T. L.; Vandenbroucke, J.; Vasileiou, V.; Vianello, G.; Vitale, V.; Werner, M.; Winer, B. L.; Wood, K. S.; Wood, M.

    2013-11-14

    We present a catalog of gamma-ray sources at energies above 10 GeV based on data from the Large Area Telescope (LAT) accumulated during the first three years of the Fermi Gamma-ray Space Telescope mission. The first Fermi-LAT catalog of >10GeV sources (1FHL) has 514 sources. For each source we present location, spectrum, a measure of variability, and associations with cataloged sources at other wavelengths. We found that 449 (87%) could be associated with known sources, of which 393 (76% of the 1FHL sources) are active galactic nuclei. Of the 27 sources associated with known pulsars, we find 20 (12) to have significant pulsations in the range >10GeV (>25GeV). In this work we also report that, at energies above 10 GeV, unresolved sources account for 27+/-8 % of the isotropic gamma-ray background, while the unresolved Galactic population contributes only at the few percent level to the Galactic diffuse background. We also highlight the subset of the 1FHL sources that are best candidates for detection at energies above 50-100 GeV with current and future ground-based gamma-ray observatories.

  3. Development of a sealed source radiation detector system for gamma ray scanning of petroleum distillation columns

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vasquez Salvador, Pablo Antonio

    2004-01-01

    Gamma Ray Scanning is an online technique to 'view' the hydraulic performance of an operating column, with no disruption to operating processes conditions (pressure and temperature), as a cost-effective solution. The principle of this methodology consists of a small suitably sealed gamma radiation source and a radiation detector experimentally positioned to the column, moving concurrently in small increments on opposite sides and the quantity of gamma transmitted. The source-detector system consists of: a sealed ''6 0 Co radioactive source in a panoramic lead radiator, a scintillator detector coupled to a ratemeter / analyzer and a mobile system. In this work, a gamma scanning sealed source-detector system for distillation columns, was developed, comparing two scintillator detectors: NaI(Tl) (commercial) and CsI(Tl) (IPEN). In order to project the system, a simulated model of a tray-type distillation column was used. The equipment developed was tested in an industrial column for water treatment (6.5 m diameter and 40 m height). The required activities of 6 ''0Co, laboratory (11.1 MBq) and industrial works (1.48 TBq) were calculated by simulation software. Both, the NaI(Tl) and the CsI(Tl) detectors showed good proprieties for gamma scanning applications, determining the position and presence or absence of trays. (author)

  4. Galactic sources of high energy neutrinos: Expectation from gamma-ray data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sahakyan N.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The recent results from ground based γ-ray detectors (HESS, MAGIC, VERITAS provide a population of TeV galactic γ-ray sources which are potential sources of High Energy (HE neutrinos. Since the γ-rays and ν-s are produced from decays of neutral and charged pions, the flux of TeV γ-rays can be used to estimate the upper limit of ν flux and vice versa; the detectability of ν flux implies a minimum flux of the accompanying γ-rays (assuming the internal and the external absorption of γ-rays is negligible. Using this minimum flux, it is possible to find the sources which can be detected with cubic-kilometer telescopes. I will discuss the possibility to detect HE neutrinos from powerful galactic accelerators, such as Supernova Remnants (SNRs and Pulsar Wind Nebulae (PWNe and show that likely only RX J1713.7-3946, RX J0852.0-4622 and Vela X can be detected by current generation of instruments (IceCube and Km3Net. It will be shown also, that galactic binary systems could be promising sources of HE ν-s. In particular, ν-s and γ-rays from Cygnus X-3 will be discussed during recent gamma-ray activity, showing that in the future such kind of activities could produce detectable flux of HE ν-s.

  5. Examining The Fermi-LAT Third Source Catalog in search of dark matter subhalos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bertoni, Bridget [Department of Physics, University of Washington, Seattle, WA 98195 (United States); Hooper, Dan [Center for Particle Astrophysics, Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory, Batavia, IL 60510 (United States); Linden, Tim, E-mail: bbertoni@stanford.edu, E-mail: dhooper@fnal.gov, E-mail: linden.70@osu.edu [Kavli Institute for Cosmological Physics, University of Chicago, Chicago, IL 60637 (United States)

    2015-12-01

    Dark matter annihilations taking place in nearby subhalos could appear as gamma-ray sources without detectable counterparts at other wavelengths. In this study, we consider the collection of unassociated gamma-ray sources reported by the Fermi Collaboration in an effort to identify the most promising dark matter subhalo candidates. While we identify 24 bright, high-latitude, non-variable sources with spectra that are consistent with being generated by the annihilations of ∼ 20–70 GeV dark matter particles (assuming annihilations to b b-bar ), it is not possible at this time to distinguish these sources from radio-faint gamma-ray pulsars. Deeper multi-wavelength observations will be essential to clarify the nature of these sources. It is notable that we do not find any such sources that are well fit by dark matter particles heavier than ∼100 GeV. We also study the angular distribution of the gamma-rays from this set of subhalo candidates, and find that the source 3FGL J2212.5+0703 prefers a spatially extended profile (of width ∼ 0.15°) over that of a point source, with a significance of 4.2σ (3.6σ after trials factor). Although not yet definitive, this bright and high-latitude gamma-ray source is well fit as a nearby subhalo of m{sub χ} ≅ 20–50 GeV dark matter particles (annihilating to b b-bar ) and merits further multi-wavelength investigation. Based on the subhalo distribution predicted by numerical simulations, we derive constraints on the dark matter annihilation cross section that are competitive to those resulting from gamma-ray observations of dwarf spheroidal galaxies, the Galactic Center, and the extragalactic gamma-ray background.

  6. FERMI LARGE AREA TELESCOPE OBSERVATIONS OF GAMMA-RAY PULSARS PSR J1057-5226, J1709-4429, AND J1952+3252

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abdo, A. A.; Ajello, M.; Bechtol, K.; Berenji, B.; Borgland, A. W.; Bouvier, A.; Buehler, R.; Antolini, E.; Bonamente, E.; Baldini, L.; Bellazzini, R.; Bregeon, J.; Brez, A.; Ballet, J.; Barbiellini, G.; Baring, M. G.; Bastieri, D.; Brigida, M.; Bruel, P.; Burnett, T. H.

    2010-01-01

    The Fermi Large Area Telescope (LAT) data have confirmed the pulsed emission from all six high-confidence gamma-ray pulsars previously known from the EGRET observations. We report results obtained from the analysis of 13 months of LAT data for three of these pulsars (PSR J1057-5226, PSR J1709-4429, and PSR J1952+3252) each of which had some unique feature among the EGRET pulsars. The excellent sensitivity of LAT allows more detailed analysis of the evolution of the pulse profile with energy and also of the variation of the spectral shape with phase. We measure the cutoff energy of the pulsed emission from these pulsars for the first time and provide a more complete picture of the emission mechanism. The results confirm some, but not all, of the features seen in the EGRET data.

  7. Lunar based gamma ray astronomy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haymes, R.C.

    1985-01-01

    Gamma ray astronomy represents the study of the universe on the basis of the electromagnetic radiation with the highest energy. Gamma ray astronomy provides a crucial tool for the understanding of astronomical phenomena, taking into account nucleosynthesis in supernovae, black holes, active galaxies, quasars, the sources of cosmic rays, neutron stars, and matter-antimatter annihilation. Difficulties concerning the conduction of studies by gamma ray astronomy are related to the necessity to perform such studies far from earth because the atmosphere is a source of gamma rays. Studies involving the use of gamma ray instruments in earth orbit have been conducted, and more gamma ray astronomy observations are planned for the future. Imperfections of studies conducted in low earth orbit could be overcome by estalishing an observatory on the moon which represents a satellite orbiting at 60 earth radii. Details concerning such an observatory are discussed. 5 references

  8. Equipment for x- and gamma ray radiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abd Nasir Ibrahim; Azali Muhammad; Ab Razak Hamzah; Abd Aziz Mohamed; Mohammad Pauzi Ismail

    2004-01-01

    The following topics related to the equipment for x - and gamma ray radiography are discussed in this chapter. The topics are x-ray source for Industrial Radiography: properties of x-ray, generation of x-ray, mechanism of x-ray production, x-ray equipment, power supply, distribution of x-ray intensity along the tube: gamma ray source for Industrial Radiography: properties of gamma rays, gamma ray sources, gamma ray projectors on cameras, source changing. Care of Radiographic Equipments: Merits and Demerits of x and Gamma Rays

  9. AGILE Observations of the Gravitational-wave Source GW170817: Constraining Gamma-Ray Emission from an NS-NS Coalescence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verrecchia, F.; Tavani, M.; Donnarumma, I.; Bulgarelli, A.; Evangelista, Y.; Pacciani, L.; Ursi, A.; Piano, G.; Pilia, M.; Cardillo, M.; Parmiggiani, N.; Giuliani, A.; Pittori, C.; Longo, F.; Lucarelli, F.; Minervini, G.; Feroci, M.; Argan, A.; Fuschino, F.; Labanti, C.; Marisaldi, M.; Fioretti, V.; Trois, A.; Del Monte, E.; Antonelli, L. A.; Barbiellini, G.; Caraveo, P.; Cattaneo, P. W.; Colafrancesco, S.; Costa, E.; D'Amico, F.; Ferrari, A.; Giommi, P.; Morselli, A.; Paoletti, F.; Pellizzoni, A.; Picozza, P.; Rappoldi, A.; Soffitta, P.; Vercellone, S.; Baroncelli, L.; Zollino, G.

    2017-12-01

    The LIGO-Virgo Collaboration (LVC) detected, on 2017 August 17, an exceptional gravitational-wave (GW) event temporally consistent within ˜ 1.7 {{s}} with the GRB 1708117A observed by Fermi-GBM and INTEGRAL. The event turns out to be compatible with a neutron star-neutron star (NS-NS) coalescence that subsequently produced a radio/optical/X-ray transient detected at later times. We report the main results of the observations by the AGILE satellite of the GW170817 localization region (LR) and its electromagnetic (EM) counterpart. At the LVC detection time T 0, the GW170817 LR was occulted by the Earth. The AGILE instrument collected useful data before and after the GW/GRB event because in its spinning observation mode it can scan a given source many times per hour. The earliest exposure of the GW170817 LR by the gamma-ray imaging detector started about 935 s after T 0. No significant X-ray or gamma-ray emission was detected from the LR that was repeatedly exposed over timescales of minutes, hours, and days before and after GW170817, also considering Mini-calorimeter and Super-AGILE data. Our measurements are among the earliest ones obtained by space satellites on GW170817 and provide useful constraints on the precursor and delayed emission properties of the NS-NS coalescence event. We can exclude with high confidence the existence of an X-ray/gamma-ray emitting magnetar-like object with a large magnetic field of {10}15 {{G}}. Our data are particularly significant during the early stage of evolution of the EM remnant.

  10. The inert doublet model in the light of Fermi-LAT gamma-ray data: a global fit analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eiteneuer, Benedikt; Goudelis, Andreas; Heisig, Jan

    2017-09-01

    We perform a global fit within the inert doublet model taking into account experimental observables from colliders, direct and indirect dark matter searches and theoretical constraints. In particular, we consider recent results from searches for dark matter annihilation-induced gamma-rays in dwarf spheroidal galaxies and relax the assumption that the inert doublet model should account for the entire dark matter in the Universe. We, moreover, study in how far the model is compatible with a possible dark matter explanation of the so-called Galactic center excess. We find two distinct parameter space regions that are consistent with existing constraints and can simultaneously explain the excess: One with dark matter masses near the Higgs resonance and one around 72 GeV where dark matter annihilates predominantly into pairs of virtual electroweak gauge bosons via the four-vertex arising from the inert doublet's kinetic term. We briefly discuss future prospects to probe these scenarios.

  11. The inert doublet model in the light of Fermi-LAT gamma-ray data: a global fit analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eiteneuer, Benedikt; Heisig, Jan [RWTH Aachen University, Institute for Theoretical Particle Physics and Cosmology, Aachen (Germany); Goudelis, Andreas [UMR 7589 CNRS and UPMC, Laboratoire de Physique Theorique et Hautes Energies (LPTHE), Paris (France)

    2017-09-15

    We perform a global fit within the inert doublet model taking into account experimental observables from colliders, direct and indirect dark matter searches and theoretical constraints. In particular, we consider recent results from searches for dark matter annihilation-induced gamma-rays in dwarf spheroidal galaxies and relax the assumption that the inert doublet model should account for the entire dark matter in the Universe. We, moreover, study in how far the model is compatible with a possible dark matter explanation of the so-called Galactic center excess. We find two distinct parameter space regions that are consistent with existing constraints and can simultaneously explain the excess: One with dark matter masses near the Higgs resonance and one around 72 GeV where dark matter annihilates predominantly into pairs of virtual electroweak gauge bosons via the four-vertex arising from the inert doublet's kinetic term. We briefly discuss future prospects to probe these scenarios. (orig.)

  12. Three-dimensional localization of low activity gamma-ray sources in real-time scenarios

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sharma, Manish K., E-mail: mksrkf@mst.edu; Alajo, Ayodeji B.; Lee, Hyoung K.

    2016-03-21

    Radioactive source localization plays an important role in tracking radiation threats in homeland security tasks. Its real-time application requires computationally efficient and reasonably accurate algorithms even with limited data to support detection with minimum uncertainty. This paper describes a statistic-based grid-refinement method for backtracing the position of a gamma-ray source in a three-dimensional domain in real-time. The developed algorithm used measurements from various known detector positions to localize the source. This algorithm is based on an inverse-square relationship between source intensity at a detector and the distance from the source to the detector. The domain discretization was developed and implemented in MATLAB. The algorithm was tested and verified from simulation results of an ideal case of a point source in non-attenuating medium. Subsequently, an experimental validation of the algorithm was performed to determine the suitability of deploying this scheme in real-time scenarios. Using the measurements from five known detector positions and for a measurement time of 3 min, the source position was estimated with an accuracy of approximately 53 cm. The accuracy improved and stabilized to approximately 25 cm for higher measurement times. It was concluded that the error in source localization was primarily due to detection uncertainties. In verification and experimental validation of the algorithm, the distance between {sup 137}Cs source and any detector position was between 0.84 m and 1.77 m. The results were also compared with the least squares method. Since the discretization algorithm was validated with a weak source, it is expected that it can localize the source of higher activity in real-time. It is believed that for the same physical placement of source and detectors, a source of approximate activity 0.61–0.92 mCi can be localized in real-time with 1 s of measurement time and same accuracy. The accuracy and computational

  13. Gamma-Ray Bursts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pellizza, L. J.

    Gamma-ray bursts are the brightest transient sources in the gamma-ray sky. Since their discovery in the late 1960s, the investigation of the astrophysical sys- tems in which these phenomena take place, and the physical mechanisms that drive them, has become a vast and prolific area of modern astrophysics. In this work I will briefly describe the most relevant observations of these sources, and the models that describe their nature, emphasizing on the in- vestigations about the progenitor astrophysical systems. FULL TEXT IN SPANISH

  14. Three-dimensional reconstruction of neutron, gamma-ray, and x-ray sources using spherical harmonic decomposition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Volegov, P. L.; Danly, C. R.; Fittinghoff, D.; Geppert-Kleinrath, V.; Grim, G.; Merrill, F. E.; Wilde, C. H.

    2017-11-01

    Neutron, gamma-ray, and x-ray imaging are important diagnostic tools at the National Ignition Facility (NIF) for measuring the two-dimensional (2D) size and shape of the neutron producing region, for probing the remaining ablator and measuring the extent of the DT plasmas during the stagnation phase of Inertial Confinement Fusion implosions. Due to the difficulty and expense of building these imagers, at most only a few two-dimensional projections images will be available to reconstruct the three-dimensional (3D) sources. In this paper, we present a technique that has been developed for the 3D reconstruction of neutron, gamma-ray, and x-ray sources from a minimal number of 2D projections using spherical harmonics decomposition. We present the detailed algorithms used for this characterization and the results of reconstructed sources from experimental neutron and x-ray data collected at OMEGA and NIF.

  15. Random pulsing of neutron source for inelastic neutron scattering gamma ray spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hertzog, R.C.

    1981-01-01

    Method and apparatus are described for use in the detection of inelastic neutron scattering gamma ray spectroscopy. Data acquisition efficiency is enhanced by operating a neutron generator such that a resulting output burst of fast neutrons is maintained for as long as practicably possible until a gamma ray is detected. Upon the detection of a gamma ray the generator burst output is terminated. Pulsing of the generator may be accomplished either by controlling the burst period relative to the burst interval to achieve a constant duty cycle for the operation of the generator or by maintaining the burst period constant and controlling the burst interval such that the resulting mean burst interval corresponds to a burst time interval which reduces contributions to the detected radiation of radiation occasioned by other than the fast neutrons

  16. Diagnosis of Catalyst Cooler and Riser in RFCC using Sealed gamma-ray Source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Jin Seop; Kim, Jong Bum; Jung, Sung Hee; Kim, Jae Ho

    2005-12-01

    With a quantitative growth of the petroleum industry, a lot of budget are spent for the maintenance and repairs of facilities related to the process annually. Among them, the RFCC(residual fluid catalytic cracking) is a highly value-added unit which converts gas oil and heavier streams to lighter, more valuable products such as propylene, gasoline by an injection of atmospheric residue into the fluided catalyst. In this study, field experiments were performed to analyze the reasons of an abnormal operation in the catalyst cooler and the catalyst riser belonged to the RFCC unit respectively and to estimate the amount of seriousness using sealed gamma-ray source( 60 Co). The catalyst cooler functions cooling for the regeneration of a catalyst, which will be used to a new media in the RFCC unit. The catalyst riser, while, plays an important part in transporting to next cyclotron steps by mixing of an oil, steam and a catalyst mechanically. The purposes of this study is what was the condition of catalyst flow pattern and whether the coke was produced in an inside process or not. Gamma radiation counts were measured by the detector(NaI) positioned outside the pipe-wall diametrically opposite to the gamma source with a regular space. From the results, the section different from the distribution pattern of nearby catalyst in a facility was found. And this became the definitive information to a process operator. Diagnosis technique using gamma radiation source is proved to be the effective and reliable method in providing information on the media distribution in a facility

  17. Gamma-Ray Pulsars: Beaming Evolution, Stats and Unident. EGRET Sources

    OpenAIRE

    Yadigaroglu, I. -A.; Romani, Roger W.

    1994-01-01

    We compute the variation of the beaming fraction with the efficiency of high energy gamma-ray production in the outer gap pulsar model of Romani and Yadigaroglu. This allows us to correct the fluxes observed for pulsars in the EGRET band and to derive a simple estimate of the variation of efficiency with age. Integration of this model over the population of young neutron stars gives the expected number of gamma-ray pulsars along with their distributions in age and distance. This model also sh...

  18. PSR J2021+4026 in the Gamma Cygni Region: The First Variable Gamma-Ray Pulsar Seen by the Fermi LAT

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allafort, A.; Baldini, L.; Ballet, J.; Barbiellini, G.; Baring, M. G.; Bastieri, D.; Bellazzini, R.; Bonamente, E.; Bottacini, E.; Brandt, T. J.; hide

    2013-01-01

    Long-term monitoring of PSR J2021+4026 in the heart of the Cygnus region with the Fermi Large Area Telescope unveiled a sudden decrease in flux above 100 MeV over a timescale shorter than a week. The "jump" was near MJD 55850 (2011 October 16), with the flux decreasing from (8.33 plus or minus 0.08)×10(exp -10) erg cm(exp -2) s(exp -1) to (6.86 plus or minus 0.13)× 10 (exp -1)0 erg cm (exp -2) s(exp -1). Simultaneously, the frequency spindown rate increased from (7.8 plus or minus 0.1) × 10(exp -13) Hz s(exp -1) to (8.1 plus or minus 0.1) × 10(exp -1)3 Hz s(exp -1). Significant (greater than 5 sigma) changes in the pulse profile and marginal (less than 3 sigma) changes in the emission spectrum occurred at the same time. There is also evidence for a small, steady flux increase over the 3 yr preceding MJD 55850. This is the first observation at gamma-ray energies of mode changes and intermittent behavior, observed at radio wavelengths for other pulsars. We argue that the change in pulsed gamma-ray emission is due to a change in emission beaming and we speculate that it is precipitated by a shift in the magnetic field structure, leading to a change of either effective magnetic inclination or effective current.

  19. Development of a gamma ray spectrometry software for neutron activation analysis using the open source concept

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lucia, Silvio Rogerio de; Maihara, Vera Akiko; Menezes, Mario O. de

    2009-01-01

    In this work, a new software - SAANI (Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis Software) was developed and used for gamma ray spectra analysis in the Neutron Activation Laboratory (LAN) of the Nuclear and Energetic Research Institute (IPEN-CNEN/SP). The software was developed to completely replace the old one - VISPECT. Besides the visual improvement in the user interface, the new software will allow the standardization of several procedures which are done nowadays in several different ways by each researcher, avoiding intermediate steps in the calculations. By using a modern programming language - Python, together with the graphical library Qt (by Trolltech), both multi-platform, the new software is able to run in Windows, Linux and other platforms. In addition to this, the new software has being designed to be extensible through plug-ins. In order to achieve the proposed initial scope, that is, completely replace the old software, SAANI has undergone several and different kinds of tests, using spectra from certified reference materials, standards and common spectra already analyzed by other software or that were used in international inter-comparisons. The results obtained by SAANI in all tests were considered very good. Some small discrepancies were found and after careful search and analysis, their source was identified as being an accuracy bug in the old software. Usability and robustness tests were conducted by installing SAANI in several laboratory computers and following them during daily utilization. The results of these tests also indicated that SAANI was ready to be used by all researchers in the LAN-IPEN. (author)

  20. Radiation transport in earth for neutron and gamma ray point sources above an air-ground interface

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lillie, R.A.; Santoro, R.T.

    1979-03-01

    Two-dimensional discrete ordinates methods were used to calculate the instantaneous dose rate in silicon and neutron and gamma ray fluences as a function of depth in earth from point sources at various heights (1.0, 61.3, and 731.5 meters) above an air--ground interface. The radiation incident on the earth's surface was transported through an earth-only and an earth--concrete model containing 0.9 meters of borated concrete beginning 0.5 meters below the earth's surface to obtain fluence distributions to a depth of 3.0 meters. The inclusion of borated concrete did not significantly reduce the total instantaneous dose rate in silicon and, in all cases, the secondary gamma ray fluence and corresponding dose are substantially larger than the primary neutron fluence and corresponding dose for depths greater than 0.6 meter. 4 figures, 4 tables

  1. High resolution inelastic gamma-ray measurements with a white neutron source from 1 to 200 MeV

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nelson, R.O.; Laymon, C.M.; Wender, S.A.

    1990-01-01

    Measurements of prompt gamma rays following neutron-induced reactions have recently been made at the spallation neutron source at the WNR target area of LAMPF using germanium detectors. These experiments provide extensive excitation function data for inelastic neutron scattering as well as for other reactions such as (n,{alpha}), (n,n{alpha}), (n,p), (n,np), (n,nnp) and (n,xn) for 1 {le} {times} {le} 11. The continuous energy coverage available from 1 MeV to over 200 MeV is ideal for excitation function measurements and greatly extends the energy range for such data. The results of these measurements will provide a database for interpretation of gamma-ray spectra from the planned Mars Observer mission, aid in radiation transport calculations, allow verification of nuclear reaction models, and improve the evaluated neutron reaction data base.

  2. High resolution inelastic gamma-ray measurements with a white neutron source from 1 to 200 MeV

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nelson, R.O.; Laymon, C.M.; Wender, S.A.

    1990-01-01

    Measurements of prompt gamma rays following neutron-induced reactions have recently been made at the spallation neutron source at the WNR target area of LAMPF using germanium detectors. These experiments provide extensive excitation function data for inelastic neutron scattering as well as for other reactions such as (n,α), (n,nα), (n,p), (n,np), (n,nnp) and (n,xn) for 1 ≤ x ≤ 11. The continuous energy coverage available from 1 MeV to over 200 MeV is ideal for excitation function measurements and greatly extends the energy range for such data. The results of these measurements will provide a database for interpretation of gamma-ray spectra from the planned Mars Observer mission, aid in radiation transport calculations, allow verification of nuclear reaction models, and improve the evaluated neutron reaction data base

  3. Medicina ToO of the non-identified gamma-ray source AGL J1412-0522

    Science.gov (United States)

    Egron, Elise; Pilia, Maura; Righini, Simona; Pellizzoni, Alberto; Loru, Sara; Giroletti, Marcello

    2017-09-01

    Following the AGILE detection of a non-identified gamma-ray source AGL J1412-0522 on 5-7 August 2017 (ATel #10623), we performed radio observations with the 32-m Medicina radio telescope at 8.5 GHz (with 680 MHz bandwidth) on 9 August 2017 from 12:40 to 19:00 UTC and on 10 August 2017 from 14:00 to 17:50 UTC. We carried out squared on-the-fly maps of 45.5'x45.5' centered on the gamma-ray position (ra=14:12:06.0, dec=-05:22:14.9) to take into account the 0.4 deg position error from AGILE results.

  4. Radiation transport in earth for neutron and gamma-ray point sources above an air-ground interface

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lillie, R.A.; Santoro, R.T.

    1980-01-01

    Two-dimensional discrete-ordinates methods have been used to calculate the instantaneous dose rate in silicon and neutron and gamma-ray fluences as a function of depth in earth from point sources at various heights (1.0, 61.3, and 731.5 m) above an air-ground interface. The radiation incident on the earth's surface was transported through an earth-only and an earth-concrete model containing 0.9 m of borated concrete beginning 0.5 m below the earth's surface to obtain fluence distributions to a depth of 3.0 m. The inclusion of borated concrete did not significantly reduce the total instantaneous dose rate in silicon, and in all cases, the secondary gamma-ray fluence and corresponding dose are substantially larger than the primary neutron fluence and corresponding dose for depths > 0.6 m

  5. Very high-energy {gamma}-ray observations of the Crab nebula and other potential sources with the GRAAL experiment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arqueros, F.A.; Ballestrin, J.; Berenguel, M.; Borque, D.M.; Camacho, E.F.; Diaz, M.; Enriquez, R.; Gebauer, H.J.; Plaga, R.

    2001-07-01

    The Gamma Ray Astronomy at Almeria (GRAAL) experiment uses 63 heliostat-mirrors with a total mirror area of {approx}2500 m''2 from the CESA-1 field to collect Cherenkov light from air showers. The detector is located in a central solar tower and detects photon-induced showers with an energy threshold of 250{+-}110 GeV and an asymptotic effective detection area of about 15000 m''2. Data sets taken in the period September 1999-September 2000 in the direction of the Crab pulsar and the active galaxy 3C 454.3 were analysed for high energy {gamma}-ray emission. Evidence for {gamma}-ray flux from the Crab pulsar with an integral flux of 2.2{+-}0.4 (stat) ''1.9{sub 1}.5 (syst x 10''-9 cm''-2 s''-1) above threshold and a significance of 4.5 {sigma} in a total (usable) observing time of 7 hours and 10 minutes on source was found. No evidence for emission from the other sources was seen. The effect of the field-of-view restricted to the central part of a detected air shower on the lateral distribution and iming properties of Cherenkov light and their effect on an efficient {gamma}-hadron separation are discussed. (Author) 6 refs.

  6. Effect of sample moisture and bulk density on performance of the 241Am-Be source based prompt gamma rays neutron activation analysis setup. A Monte Carlo study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Almisned, Ghada

    2010-01-01

    Monte Carlo simulations were carried out using the dependence of gamma ray yield on the bulk density and moisture content for five different lengths of Portland cement samples in a thermal neutron capture based Prompt Gamma ray Neutron Activation Analysis (PGNAA) setup for source inside moderator geometry using an 241 Am-Be neutron source. In this study, yields of 1.94 and 6.42 MeV prompt gamma rays from calcium in the five Portland cement samples were calculated as a function of sample bulk density and moisture content. The study showed a strong dependence of the 1.94 and 6.42 MeV gamma ray yield upon the sample bulk density but a weaker dependence upon sample moisture content. For an order of magnitude increase in the sample bulk density, an order of magnitude increase in the gamma rays yield was observed, i.e., a one-to-one correspondence. In case of gamma ray yield dependence upon sample moisture content, an order of magnitude increase in the moisture content of the sample resulted in about 16-17% increase in the yield of 1.94 and 6.42 MeV gamma rays from calcium. (author)

  7. VizieR Online Data Catalog: Fermi LAT second source catalog (2FGL) (Nolan+, 2012)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nolan, P. L.; Abdo, A. A.; Ackermann, M.; Ajello, M.; Allafort, A.; Antolini, E.; Atwood, W. B.; Axelsson, M.; Baldini, L.; Ballet, J.; Barbiellini, G.; Bastieri, D.; Bechtol, K.; Belfiore, A.; Bellazzini, R.; Berenji, B.; Bignami, G. F.; Blandford, R. D.; Bloom, E. D.; Bonamente, E.; Bonnell, J.; Borgland, A. W.; Bottacini, E.; Bouvier, A.; Brandt, T. J.; Bregeon, J.; Brigida, M.; Bruel, P.; Buehler, R.; Burnett, T. H.; Buson, S.; Caliandro, G. A.; Cameron, R. A.; Campana, R.; Canadas, B.; Cannon, A.; Caraveo, P. A.; Casandjian, J. M.; Cavazzuti, E.; Ceccanti, M.; Cecchi, C.; Celik, O.; Charles, E.; Chekhtman, A.; Cheung, C. C.; Chiang, J.; Chipaux, R.; Ciprini, S.; Claus, R.; Cohen-Tanugi, J.; Cominsky, L. R.; Conrad, J.; Corbet, R.; Cutini, S.; D'Ammando, F.; Davis, D. S.; de Angelis, A.; Decesar, M. E.; Deklotz, M.; de Luca A.; den Hartog, P. R.; de Palma, F.; Dermer, C. D.; Digel, S. W.; Do Couto, E. Silva E.; Drell, P. S.; Drlica-Wagner, A.; Dubois, R.; Dumora, D.; Enoto, T.; Escande, L.; Fabiani, D.; Falletti, L.; Favuzzi, C.; Fegan, S. J.; Ferrara, E. C.; Focke, W. B.; Fortin, P.; Frailis, M.; Fukazawa, Y.; Funk, S.; Fusco, P.; Gargano, F.; Gasparrini, D.; Gehrels, N.; Germani, S.; Giebels, B.; Giglietto, N.; Giommi, P.; Giordano, F.; Giroletti, M.; Glanzman, T.; Godfrey, G.; Grenier, I. A.; Grondin, M.-H.; Grove, J. E.; Guillemot, L.; Guiriec, S.; Gustafsson, M.; Hadasch, D.; Hanabata, Y.; Harding, A. K.; Hayashida, M.; Hays, E.; Hill, A. B.; Horan, D.; Hou, X.; Hughes, R. E.; Iafrate, G.; Itoh, R.; Johannesson, G.; Johnson, R. P.; Johnson, T. E.; Johnson, A. S.; Johnson, T. J.; Kamae, T.; Katagiri, H.; Kataoka, J.; Katsuta, J.; Kawai, N.; Kerr, M.; Knodlseder, J.; Kocevski, D.; Kuss, M.; Lande, J.; Landriu, D.; Latronico, L.; Lemoine-Goumard, M.; Lionetto, A. M.; Llena Garde, M.; Longo, F.; Loparco, F.; Lott, B.; Lovellette, M. N.; Lubrano, P.; Madejski, G. M.; Marelli, M.; Massaro, E.; Mazziotta, M. N.; McConville, W.; McEnery, J. E.; Mehault, J.; Michelson, P. F.; Minuti, M.; Mitthumsiri, W.; Mizuno, T.; Moiseev, A. A.; Mongelli, M.; Monte, C.; Monzani, M. E.; Morselli, A.; Moskalenko, I. V.; Murgia, S.; Nakamori, T.; Naumann-God, O. M.; Norris, J. P.; Nuss, E.; Nymark, T.; Ohno, M.; Ohsugi, T.; Okumura, A.; Omodei, N.; Orlando, E.; Ormes, J. F.; Ozaki, M.; Paneque, D.; Panetta, J. H.; Parent, D.; Perkins, J. S.; Pesce-Rollins, M.; Pierbattista, M.; Pinchera, M.; Piron, F.; Pivato, G.; Porter, T. A.; Racusin, J. L.; Raino, S.; Rando, R.; Razzano, M.; Razzaque, S.; Reimer, A.; Reimer, O.; Reposeur, T.; Ritz, S.; Rochester, L. S.; Romani, R. W.; Roth, M.; Rousseau, R.; Ryde, F.; Sadrozinski, H. F.-W.; Salvetti, D.; Sanchez, D. A.; Saz Parkinson, P. M.; Sbarra, C.; Scargle, J. D.; Schalk, T. L.; Sgro, C.; Shaw, M. S.; Shrader, C.; Siskind, E. J.; Smith, D. A.; Spandre, G.; Spinelli, P.; Stephens, T. E.; Strickman, M. S.; Suson, D. J.; Tajima, H.; Takahashi, H.; Takahashi, T.; Tanaka, T.; Thayer, J. G.; Thayer, J. B.; Thompson, D. J.; Tibaldo, L.; Tibolla, O.; Tinebra, F.; Tinivella, M.; Torres, D. F.; Tosti, G.; Troja, E.; Uchiyama, Y.; Vandenbroucke, J.; van Etten, A.; van Klaveren, B.; Vasileiou, V.; Vianello, G.; Vitale, V.; Waite, A. P.; Wallace, E.; Wang, P.; Werner, M.; Winer, B. L.; Wood, D. L.; Wood, K. S.; Wood, M.; Yang, Z.; Zimmer, S.

    2012-06-01

    This paper presents a catalog of high-energy γ-ray sources detected, in the 100MeV-100GeV energy range, in the first two years of the Fermi Gamma-ray Space Telescope mission by the Large Area Telescope (LAT), during the period 2008 August 4 (15:43 UTC)-2010 August 1 (01:17 UTC). (4 data files).

  8. Calculation of neutron and gamma-ray energy spectra in liquid air and liquid nitrogen due to 14-MeV neutron and californium-252 sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Straker, E.A.; Gritzner, M.L.; Harris, L. Jr.

    1978-01-01

    Calculations of neutron and gamma-ray fluences from 14-MeV neutron and 252 Cf sources in liquid air and liquid nitrogen have been performed. These calculations were made specifically for comparison with experimental data measured at Stohl, Federal Republic of Germany. The discrete-ordinates method was utilized with neutron and gamma-ray cross sections from ENDF/B-IV. One-dimensional calculational models were developed for the sources and tank. Limited comparisons are made with experimental data

  9. Investigation of gamma-ray fingerprint identifying mechanism for the types of radiation sources

    CERN Document Server

    Liu Su Ping; Gu Dang Chang; Gong-Jian; Hao Fan Hua; Hu Guang Chun

    2002-01-01

    Radiation fingerprints sometimes can be used to label and identify the radiation resources. For instance, in a future nuclear reduction treaty that requires verification of irreversible dismantling of reduced nuclear warheads, the radiation fingerprints of nuclear warheads are expected to play a key role in labelling and identifying the reduced warheads. It would promote the development of nuclear warheads deep-cuts verification technologies if authors start right now some investigations on the issues related to the radiation fingerprints. The author dedicated to the investigation of gamma-ray fingerprint identifying mechanism for the types of radiation resources. The purpose of the identifying mechanism investigation is to find a credible way to tell whether any two gamma-ray spectral fingerprints that are under comparison are radiated from the same resource. The authors created the spectrum pattern comparison (SPC) to study the comparability of the two radiation fingerprints. Guided by the principle of SPC,...

  10. Investigation of gamma-ray fingerprint identifying mechanism for the types of radiation sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Suping; Wu Huailong; Gu Dangchang; Gong Jian; Hao Fanhua; Hu Guangchun

    2002-01-01

    Radiation fingerprints sometimes can be used to label and identify the radiation resources. For instance, in a future nuclear reduction treaty that requires verification of irreversible dismantling of reduced nuclear warheads, the radiation fingerprints of nuclear warheads are expected to play a key role in labelling and identifying the reduced warheads. It would promote the development of nuclear warheads deep-cuts verification technologies if authors start right now some investigations on the issues related to the radiation fingerprints. The author dedicated to the investigation of gamma-ray fingerprint identifying mechanism for the types of radiation resources. The purpose of the identifying mechanism investigation is to find a credible way to tell whether any two gamma-ray spectral fingerprints that are under comparison are radiated from the same resource. The authors created the spectrum pattern comparison (SPC) to study the comparability of the two radiation fingerprints. Guided by the principle of SPC, the authors programmed a software dedicated to identify the types of radiation resources. The efficiency of the software was tested by a series of experiments with some laboratory gamma-ray resources. The experiments were designed to look into the relations between comparability and radioactive statistics, and the relations between comparability and some measurement conditions such as real time, resource activity and background etc. Two main results can be drawn from the investigation: 1) it is quite feasible to use the concept of spectral comparability to answer the question whether any two gamma-ray fingerprints are identity or not; 2) the identifying mechanism can only identify the types of radiation resources, and cannot identify the individuals with the same type and small differences

  11. The Fermi-LAT gamma-ray excess at the Galactic Center in the singlet-doublet fermion dark matter model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Horiuchi, Shunsaku; Macias, Oscar [Center for Neutrino Physics, Department of Physics, Virginia Tech, Blacksburg, VA 24061 (United States); Restrepo, Diego; Rivera, Andrés; Zapata, Oscar [Instituto de Física, Universidad de Antioquia, Calle 70 No. 52-21, Medellín (Colombia); Silverwood, Hamish, E-mail: horiuchi@vt.edu, E-mail: oscar.macias@vt.edu, E-mail: restrepo@udea.edu.co, E-mail: afelipe.rivera@udea.edu.co, E-mail: oalberto.zapata@udea.edu.co, E-mail: h.g.m.silverwood@uva.nl [GRAPPA, University of Amsterdam, Science Park 904, 1098 XH Amsterdam (Netherlands)

    2016-03-01

    The singlet-doublet fermion dark matter model (SDFDM) provides a good DM candidate as well as the possibility of generating neutrino masses radiatively. The search and identification of DM requires the combined effort of both indirect and direct DM detection experiments in addition to the LHC. Remarkably, an excess of GeV gamma rays from the Galactic Center (GCE) has been measured with the Fermi Large Area Telescope (LAT) which appears to be robust with respect to changes in the diffuse galactic background modeling. Although several astrophysical explanations have been proposed, DM remains a simple and well motivated alternative. In this work, we examine the sensitivities of dark matter searches in the SDFDM scenario using Fermi-LAT, CTA, IceCube/DeepCore, LUX, PICO and LHC with an emphasis on exploring the regions of the parameter space that can account for the GCE. We find that DM particles present in this model with masses close to ∼ 99 GeV and ∼ (173–190) GeV annihilating predominantly into the W{sup +}W{sup −} channel and t t-bar channel respectively, provide an acceptable fit to the GCE while being consistent with different current experimental bounds. We also find that much of the obtained parameter space can be ruled out by future direct search experiments like LZ and XENON-1T, in case of null results by these detectors. Interestingly, we show that the most recent data by LUX is starting to probe the best fit region in the SDFDM model.

  12. Simulations of a spectral gamma-ray logging tool response to a surface source distribution on the borehole wall

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wilson, R.D.; Conaway, J.G.

    1991-01-01

    We have developed Monte Carlo and discrete ordinates simulation models for the large-detector spectral gamma-ray (SGR) logging tool in use at the Nevada Test Site. Application of the simulation models produced spectra for source layers on the borehole wall, either from potassium-bearing mudcakes or from plate-out of radon daughter products. Simulations show that the shape and magnitude of gamma-ray spectra from sources distributed on the borehole wall depend on radial position with in the air-filled borehole as well as on hole diameter. No such dependence is observed for sources uniformly distributed in the formation. In addition, sources on the borehole wall produce anisotropic angular fluxes at the higher scattered energies and at the source energy. These differences in borehole effects and in angular flux are important to the process of correcting SGR logs for the presence of potassium mudcakes; they also suggest a technique for distinguishing between spectral contributions from formation sources and sources on the borehole wall. These results imply the existence of a standoff effect not present for spectra measured in air-filled boreholes from formation sources. 5 refs., 11 figs

  13. Search for gamma-ray spectral lines with the Fermi Large Area Telescope and dark matter implications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ackermann, M.; Ajello, M.; Albert, A.; Allafort, A.; Baldini, L.; Barbiellini, G.; Bastieri, D.; Bechtol, K.; Bellazzini, R.; Bissaldi, E.; Bloom, E. D.; Bonamente, E.; Bottacini, E.; Brandt, T. J.; Bregeon, J.; Brigida, M.; Bruel, P.; Buehler, R.; Buson, S.; Caliandro, G. A.; Cameron, R. A.; Caraveo, P. A.; Casandjian, J. M.; Cecchi, C.; Charles, E.; Chaves, R. C. G.; Chekhtman, A.; Chiang, J.; Ciprini, S.; Claus, R.; Cohen-Tanugi, J.; Conrad, J.; Cutini, S.; D’Ammando, F.; de Angelis, A.; de Palma, F.; Dermer, C. D.; Digel, S. W.; Di Venere, L.; Drell, P. S.; Drlica-Wagner, A.; Essig, R.; Favuzzi, C.; Fegan, S. J.; Ferrara, E. C.; Focke, W. B.; Franckowiak, A.; Fukazawa, Y.; Funk, S.; Fusco, P.; Gargano, F.; Gasparrini, D.; Germani, S.; Giglietto, N.; Giordano, F.; Giroletti, M.; Glanzman, T.; Godfrey, G.; Gomez-Vargas, G. A.; Grenier, I. A.; Guiriec, S.; Gustafsson, M.; Hadasch, D.; Hayashida, M.; Hill, A. B.; Horan, D.; Hou, X.; Hughes, R. E.; Inoue, Y.; Izaguirre, E.; Jogler, T.; Kamae, T.; Knödlseder, J.; Kuss, M.; Lande, J.; Larsson, S.; Latronico, L.; Longo, F.; Loparco, F.; Lovellette, M. N.; Lubrano, P.; Malyshev, D.; Mayer, M.; Mazziotta, M. N.; McEnery, J. E.; Michelson, P. F.; Mitthumsiri, W.; Mizuno, T.; Moiseev, A. A.; Monzani, M. E.; Morselli, A.; Moskalenko, I. V.; Murgia, S.; Nakamori, T.; Nemmen, R.; Nuss, E.; Ohsugi, T.; Okumura, A.; Omodei, N.; Orienti, M.; Orlando, E.; Ormes, J. F.; Paneque, D.; Perkins, J. S.; Pesce-Rollins, M.; Piron, F.; Pivato, G.; Rainò, S.; Rando, R.; Razzano, M.; Razzaque, S.; Reimer, A.; Reimer, O.; Romani, R. W.; Sánchez-Conde, M.; Schulz, A.; Sgrò, C.; Siegal-Gaskins, J.; Siskind, E. J.; Snyder, A.; Spandre, G.; Spinelli, P.; Suson, D. J.; Tajima, H.; Takahashi, H.; Thayer, J. G.; Thayer, J. B.; Tibaldo, L.; Tinivella, M.; Tosti, G.; Troja, E.; Uchiyama, Y.; Usher, T. L.; Vandenbroucke, J.; Vasileiou, V.; Vianello, G.; Vitale, V.; Winer, B. L.; Wood, K. S.; Wood, M.; Yang, Z.; Zaharijas, G.; Zimmer, S.

    2013-10-22

    Weakly interacting massive particles (WIMPs) are a theoretical class of particles that are excellent dark matter candidates. WIMP annihilation or decay may produce essentially monochromatic γ rays detectable by the Fermi Large Area Telescope (LAT) against the astrophysical γ -ray emission of the Galaxy. We have searched for spectral lines in the energy range 5–300 GeV using 3.7 years of data, reprocessed with updated instrument calibrations and an improved energy dispersion model compared to the previous Fermi-LAT Collaboration line searches. We searched in five regions selected to optimize sensitivity to different theoretically motivated dark matter density distributions. We did not find any globally significant lines in our a priori search regions and present 95% confidence limits for annihilation cross sections of self-conjugate WIMPs and decay lifetimes. Our most significant fit occurred at 133 GeV in our smallest search region and had a local significance of 3.3 standard deviations, which translates to a global significance of 1.5 standard deviations. We discuss potential systematic effects in this search, and examine the feature at 133 GeV in detail. We find that the use both of reprocessed data and of additional information in the energy dispersion model contributes to the reduction in significance of the linelike feature near 130 GeV relative to significances reported in other works. We also find that the feature is narrower than the LAT energy resolution at the level of 2 to 3 standard deviations, which somewhat disfavors the interpretation of the 133 GeV feature as a real WIMP signal.

  14. The characterisation of Melanesian obsidian sources and artefacts using the proton induced gamma-ray emission (PIGME) technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bird, J.R.; Ambrose, W.R.; Russell, L.H.; Scott, M.D.

    1981-09-01

    Proton induced gamma-ray emission (PIGME) has been used to determine F, Na and Al concentrations in obsidian from known locations in Melanesia and to relate artefacts from this region to such sources. The PIGME technique is a fast, non-destructive, and accurate method for determining these three elements with essentially no special sample preparation. The measuring technique is described and results are listed for sources, chiefly in the Papua New Guinea region. Their classification is discussed in terms of groups which are distinguishable by the PIGME method. Over 700 artefact results are listed; these show the occurrence of an additional group that is not geographically identified

  15. THE ORIGIN OF GAMMA RAYS FROM GLOBULAR CLUSTERS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cheng, K. S.; Chernyshov, D. O.; Dogiel, V. A.; Hui, C. Y.; Kong, A. K. H.

    2010-01-01

    Fermi has detected gamma-ray emission from eight globular clusters (GCs). It is commonly believed that the energy sources of these gamma rays are millisecond pulsars (MSPs) inside GCs. Also it has been standard to explain the spectra of most Fermi Large Area Telescope pulsars including MSPs resulting from the curvature radiation (CR) of relativistic electrons/positrons inside the pulsar magnetosphere. Therefore, gamma rays from GCs are expected to be the collection of CR from all MSPs inside the clusters. However, the angular resolution is not high enough to pinpoint the nature of the emission. In this paper, we calculate the gamma rays produced by the inverse Compton (IC) scattering between relativistic electrons/positrons in the pulsar wind of MSPs in the GCs and background soft photons including cosmic microwave/relic photons, background star lights in the clusters, the galactic infrared photons, and the galactic star lights. We show that the gamma-ray spectrum from 47 Tucanae can be explained equally well by upward scattering of either the relic photons, the galactic infrared photons, or the galactic star lights, whereas the gamma-ray spectra from the other seven GCs are best fitted by the upward scattering of either the galactic infrared photons or the galactic star lights. We also find that the observed gamma-ray luminosity is correlated better with the combined factor of the encounter rate and the background soft photon energy density. Therefore, the IC scattering may also contribute to the observed gamma-ray emission from GCs detected by Fermi in addition to the standard CR process. Furthermore, we find that the emission region of high-energy photons from GCs produced by the IC scattering is substantially larger than the cores of GCs with a radius >10 pc. The diffuse radio and X-rays emitted from GCs can also be produced by the synchrotron radiation and IC scattering, respectively. We suggest that future observations including radio, X-rays, and gamma rays

  16. Fission product gamma-ray sources as an alternative to cobalt-60 sources for sewage sludge sterilization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Herrnberger, V.R.D.

    1975-01-01

    The sterilization of sewage sludge is now performed successfully using 60 Co gamma-ray sources. The question arises whether more economic gamma-ray sources exist that could replace the 60 Co source. The following types of sources are considered: Spent fuel elements; mixtures of solidified fission products; and isolated solidified fission products such as 134 / 137 Cs. For a particular irradiation plant the specific source costs (S.Fr./Ci) and their contribution to the irradiation costs for 1 m 3 of sewage irradiated to a dose of 250 krad(S.Fr./m 3 ) are determined and compared with the costs of a plant using a 60 Co source. The encapsulation costs and the effect of the gamma absorption of the source are taken into account. Different encapsulation and source management techniques are reviewed to find the most economic for each source type. A spent fuel element irradiation facility is recommended for use either in combination with a sewage water purification plant or as part of a power reactor station where it replaces the storage water pool for the spent fuel elements. Additional source capsules are not envisaged, as long as double-walled source containers are used. The fission product mixtures are enclosed in double-walled capsules of two different forms: Small cylindrical rods and hollow cylinders. For caesium and cobalt cylindrical rods only are used. The main conclusions of the study are that the highest irradiation costs arise from the use of a fission product mixture source. The costs are, however, only 15% above those of a 60 Co plant. To be competitive the flow-rate has to be adapted to the decreasing activity of the source, resulting in a reduction to 20% within ten years of source utilization. The integrated irradiation plant with a spent fuel element source offers irradiation costs comparable with those of a 60 Co plant, if the flow-rate is constant during one year of source utilization. The irradiation costs are reduced to 25% of those of a 60 Co plant

  17. Hunting for treasures among the Fermi unassociated sources: A multiwavelength approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Acero, F.; Ojha, R.; Donato, D.; Ferrara, E.; Stevens, J.; Edwards, P. G.; Blanchard, J.; Lovell, J. E. J.; Thompson, D. J.

    2013-01-01

    The Fermi Gamma-Ray Space Telescope has been detecting a wealth of sources where the multiwavelength counterpart is either inconclusive or missing altogether. We present a combination of factors that can be used to identify multiwavelength counterparts to these Fermi unassociated sources. This approach was used to select and investigate seven bright, high-latitude unassociated sources with radio, UV, X-ray, and γ-ray observations. As a result, four of these sources are candidates to be active galactic nuclei, and one to be a pulsar, while two do not fit easily into these known categories of sources. The latter pair of extraordinary sources might reveal a new category subclass or a new type of γ-ray emitter. These results altogether demonstrate the power of a multiwavelength approach to illuminate the nature of unassociated Fermi sources.

  18. THE GAMMA-RAY AND NEUTRINO SKY: A CONSISTENT PICTURE OF FERMI-LAT, MILAGRO, AND ICECUBE RESULTS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gaggero, Daniele; Urbano, Alfredo; Valli, Mauro; Grasso, Dario; Marinelli, Antonio

    2015-01-01

    We compute the γ-ray and neutrino diffuse emission of the Galaxy on the basis of a recently proposed phenomenological model characterized by radially dependent cosmic-ray (CR) transport properties. We show how this model, designed to reproduce both Fermi-LAT γ-ray data and local CR observables, naturally reproduces the anomalous TeV diffuse emission observed by Milagro in the inner Galactic plane. Above 100 TeV our picture predicts a neutrino flux that is about five (two) times larger than the neutrino flux computed with conventional models in the Galactic Center region (full-sky). Explaining in that way up to ∼25% of the flux measured by IceCube, we reproduce the full-sky IceCube spectrum adding an extra-Galactic component derived from the muonic neutrinos flux in the northern hemisphere. We also present precise predictions for the Galactic plane region where the flux is dominated by the Galactic emission

  19. Constraint on dark matter annihilation with dark star formation using Fermi extragalactic diffuse gamma-ray background data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yuan, Qiang; Yue, Bin; Chen, Xuelei; Zhang, Bing

    2011-01-01

    It has been proposed that during the formation of the first generation stars there might be a ''dark star'' phase in which the power of the star comes from dark matter annihilation. The adiabatic contraction process to form the dark star would result in a highly concentrated density profile of the host halo at the same time, which may give enhanced indirect detection signals of dark matter. In this work we investigate the extragalactic γ-ray background from dark matter annihilation with such a dark star formation scenario, and employ the isotropic γ-ray data from Fermi-LAT to constrain the model parameters of dark matter. The results suffer from large uncertainties of both the formation rate of the first generation stars and the subsequent evolution effects of the host halos of the dark stars. We find, in the most optimistic case for γ-ray production via dark matter annihilation, the expected extragalactic γ-ray flux will be enhanced by 1-2 orders of magnitude. In such a case, the annihilation cross section of the supersymmetric dark matter can be constrained to the thermal production level, and the leptonic dark matter model which is proposed to explain the positron/electron excesses can be well excluded. Conversely, if the positron/electron excesses are of a dark matter annihilation origin, then the early Universe environment is such that no dark star can form

  20. Gamma rays at airplane altitudes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iwai, J.; Koss, T.; Lord, J.; Strausz, S.; Wilkes, J.; Woosley, J.

    1990-01-01

    An examination of the gamma ray flux above 1 TeV in the atmosphere is needed to better understand the anomalous showers from point sources. Suggestions are made for future experiments on board airplanes

  1. Analysis of the propagation of neutrons and gamma-rays from the fast neutron source reactor YAYOI

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoshida, Shigeo, E-mail: neutron@keyaki.cc.u-tokai.ac.jp [Department of Energy Science and Engineering, School of Engineering, Tokai University, Hiratsuka, Kanagawa 259-1292 (Japan); Murata, Isao [Division of Electrical, Electronic and Information Engineering, Osaka University, Suita, Osaka 565-0871 (Japan); Nakagawa, Tsutomu; Saito, Isao [Nuclear Professional School, School of Engineering, The University of Tokyo, Tokai-mura, Naka-gun, Ibaraki 319-1188 (Japan)

    2011-10-01

    The skyshine effect is crucial for designing appropriate shielding. To investigate the skyshine effect, the propagation of neutrons was measured and analyzed at the fast neutron source reactor YAYOI. Pulse height spectra and dose distributions of neutron and secondary gamma-ray were measured outside YAYOI, and analyzed with MCNP-5 and JENDL-3.3. Comparison with the experimental results showed good agreement. Also, a semi-empirical formula was successfully derived to describe the dose distribution. The formulae can be used to predict the skyshine effect at YAYOI, and will be useful for estimating the skyshine effect and designing the shield structure for fusion facilities.

  2. Cosmic gamma-ray background radiation. Current understandings and problems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Inoue, Yoshiyuki

    2015-01-01

    The cosmic gamma-ray background radiation is one of the most fundamental observables in the gamma-ray band. Although the origin of the cosmic gamma-ray background radiation has been a mystery for a long time, the Fermi gamma-ray space telescope has recently measured it at 0.1-820 GeV and revealed that the cosmic GeV gamma-ray background is composed of blazars, radio galaxies, and star-forming galaxies. However, Fermi still leaves the following questions. Those are dark matter contribution, origins of the cosmic MeV gamma-ray background, and the connection to the IceCube TeV-PeV neutrino events. In this proceeding, I will review the current understandings of the cosmic gamma-ray background and discuss future prospects of cosmic gamma-ray background radiation studies. (author)

  3. Terrestrial gamma-ray flashes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marisaldi, Martino; Fuschino, Fabio; Labanti, Claudio; Tavani, Marco; Argan, Andrea; Del Monte, Ettore; Longo, Francesco; Barbiellini, Guido; Giuliani, Andrea; Trois, Alessio; Bulgarelli, Andrea; Gianotti, Fulvio; Trifoglio, Massimo

    2013-08-01

    Lightning and thunderstorm systems in general have been recently recognized as powerful particle accelerators, capable of producing electrons, positrons, gamma-rays and neutrons with energies as high as several tens of MeV. In fact, these natural systems turn out to be the highest energy and most efficient natural particle accelerators on Earth. Terrestrial Gamma-ray Flashes (TGFs) are millisecond long, very intense bursts of gamma-rays and are one of the most intriguing manifestation of these natural accelerators. Only three currently operative missions are capable of detecting TGFs from space: the RHESSI, Fermi and AGILE satellites. In this paper we review the characteristics of TGFs, including energy spectrum, timing structure, beam geometry and correlation with lightning, and the basic principles of the associated production models. Then we focus on the recent AGILE discoveries concerning the high energy extension of the TGF spectrum up to 100 MeV, which is difficult to reconcile with current theoretical models.

  4. Terrestrial gamma-ray flashes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marisaldi, Martino; Fuschino, Fabio; Labanti, Claudio; Tavani, Marco; Argan, Andrea; Del Monte, Ettore; Longo, Francesco; Barbiellini, Guido; Giuliani, Andrea; Trois, Alessio; Bulgarelli, Andrea; Gianotti, Fulvio; Trifoglio, Massimo

    2013-01-01

    Lightning and thunderstorm systems in general have been recently recognized as powerful particle accelerators, capable of producing electrons, positrons, gamma-rays and neutrons with energies as high as several tens of MeV. In fact, these natural systems turn out to be the highest energy and most efficient natural particle accelerators on Earth. Terrestrial Gamma-ray Flashes (TGFs) are millisecond long, very intense bursts of gamma-rays and are one of the most intriguing manifestation of these natural accelerators. Only three currently operative missions are capable of detecting TGFs from space: the RHESSI, Fermi and AGILE satellites. In this paper we review the characteristics of TGFs, including energy spectrum, timing structure, beam geometry and correlation with lightning, and the basic principles of the associated production models. Then we focus on the recent AGILE discoveries concerning the high energy extension of the TGF spectrum up to 100 MeV, which is difficult to reconcile with current theoretical models

  5. Measuring device for strong gamma-ray sources; Dispositif de mesure des fortes sources emettrices {gamma}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Engelman, J; Vagner, J [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1956-07-01

    We are given the description of a hollow argon-filled cylindrical ionisation chamber which is to be used to measure gamma-emitting sources. The instrument is currently used at the Measures Department in routine gauging of some radioelements. Sources are introduced into the central part of the chamber through a remote handling device. Measures are directly registered, it is not worth while removing the source from the container; a deviation of the source has little effect on the ionization current. The chamber was gauged to test such elements as: {sup 198}Au, {sup 60}Co, {sup 192}Ir, {sup 24}Na, {sup 137}Cs. Its measuring power approximately ranges from 100 micro-curies to 5 curies. (author) [French] On decrit une chambre d'ionisation cylindrique creuse, a remplissage d'argon, destinee a la mesure des sources emettrices {gamma}. Cet appareil est utilise couramment par la Section Mesures pour l'etalonnage de routine d'un certain nombre de radioelements. Les sources sont mises en place au centre de la chambre par un dispositif de manipulation a distance. La mesure est faite directement, sans qu'il soit necessaire d'extraire la source de son container; un decentrement de la source n'a en effet pas d'influence sensible sur le courant d'ionisation. Cette chambre d'ionisation a ete etalonnee pour divers radioelements: {sup 198}Au, {sup 60}Co, {sup 192}Ir, {sup 24}Na, {sup 137}Cs. La flamme d'activite mesurable s'etend de 100 microcuries a 5 curies, environ. (auteur)

  6. Apparatus for gamma ray radiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kobayashi, Masatoshi; Enomoto, Shigemasa; Oga, Hiroshi

    1979-01-01

    This is the standard of Japan Non-Destructive Inspection Society, NDIS 1101-79, which stipulates on the design, construction and testing method of the apparatuses for gamma ray radiography used for taking industrial radiograms. The gamma ray apparatuses stipulated in this standard are those containing sealed radioactive isotopes exceeding 100 μCi, which emit gamma ray. The gamma ray apparatuses are classified into three groups according to their movability. The general design conditions, the irradiation dose rate and the sealed radiation sources for the gamma ray apparatuses are stipulated. The construction of the gamma ray apparatuses must be in accordance with the notification No. 52 of the Ministry of Labor, and safety devices and collimators must be equipped. The main bodies of the gamma ray apparatuses must pass the vibration test, penetration test, impact test and shielding efficiency test. The method of each test is described. The attached equipments must be also tested. The tests according to this standard are carried out by the makers of the apparatuses. The test records must be made when the apparatuses have passed the tests, and the test certificates are attached. The limit of guarantee by the endurance test must be clearly shown. The items to be shown on the apparatuses are stipulated. (Kako, I.)

  7. Discovery of Pulsations from the Pulsar J0205 6449 in SNR 3C 58 with the Fermi Gamma-Ray Space Telescope

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abdo, Aous A.; Ackermann, M.; Ajello, Marco; Atwood, William B.; Axelsson, M.; Baldini, L.; Ballet, J.; Barbiellini, Guido; Bastieri, Denis; Baughman, B.M.; Bechtol, K.; Bellazzini, Ronaldo; Berenji, Bijan; Blandford, Roger D.; Bloom, Elliott D.; Bonamente, E.; Borgland, Anders W.; Bouvier, A.; Bregeon, J.; Brez, A.; Brigida, M.

    2009-01-01

    We report the discovery of γ-ray pulsations ((ge)0.1 GeV) from the young radio and X-ray pulsar PSR J0205 + 6449 located in the Galactic supernova remnant 3C 58. Data in the γ-ray band were acquired by the Large Area Telescope aboard the Fermi Gamma-ray Space Telescope (formerly GLAST), while the radio rotational ephemeris used to fold γ-rays was obtained using both the Green Bank Telescope and the Lovell telescope at Jodrell Bank. The light curve consists of two peaks separated by 0.49 ± 0.01 ± 0.01 cycles which are aligned with the X-ray peaks. The first γ-ray peak trails the radio pulse by 0.08 ± 0.01 ± 0.01, while its amplitude decreases with increasing energy as for the other γ-ray pulsars. Spectral analysis of the pulsed γ-ray emission suggests a simple power law of index -2.1 ± 0.1 ± 0.2 with an exponential cutoff at 3.0 -0.7 +1.1 ± 0.4 GeV. The first uncertainty is statistical and the second is systematic. The integral γ-ray photon flux above 0.1 GeV is (13.7 ± 1.4 ± 3.0) x 10 -8 cm -2 s -1 , which implies for a distance of 3.2 kpc and assuming a broad fan-like beam a luminosity of 8.3 x 10 34 erg s -1 and an efficiency η of 0.3%. Finally, we report a 95% upper limit on the flux of 1.7 x 10 -8 cm -2 s -1 for off-pulse emission from the object.

  8. DISCOVERY OF PULSATIONS FROM THE PULSAR J0205+6449 IN SNR 3C 58 WITH THE FERMI GAMMA-RAY SPACE TELESCOPE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abdo, A. A.; Ackermann, M.; Ajello, M.; Bechtol, K.; Berenji, B.; Blandford, R. D.; Bloom, E. D.; Borgland, A. W.; Bouvier, A.; Atwood, W. B.; Axelsson, M.; Baldini, L.; Bellazzini, R.; Bregeon, J.; Brez, A.; Ballet, J.; Barbiellini, G.; Bastieri, D.; Baughman, B. M.; Bonamente, E.

    2009-01-01

    We report the discovery of γ-ray pulsations (≥0.1 GeV) from the young radio and X-ray pulsar PSR J0205 + 6449 located in the Galactic supernova remnant 3C 58. Data in the γ-ray band were acquired by the Large Area Telescope aboard the Fermi Gamma-ray Space Telescope (formerly GLAST), while the radio rotational ephemeris used to fold γ-rays was obtained using both the Green Bank Telescope and the Lovell telescope at Jodrell Bank. The light curve consists of two peaks separated by 0.49 ± 0.01 ± 0.01 cycles which are aligned with the X-ray peaks. The first γ-ray peak trails the radio pulse by 0.08 ± 0.01 ± 0.01, while its amplitude decreases with increasing energy as for the other γ-ray pulsars. Spectral analysis of the pulsed γ-ray emission suggests a simple power law of index -2.1 ± 0.1 ± 0.2 with an exponential cutoff at 3.0 +1.1 -0.7 ± 0.4 GeV. The first uncertainty is statistical and the second is systematic. The integral γ-ray photon flux above 0.1 GeV is (13.7 ± 1.4 ± 3.0) x 10 -8 cm -2 s -1 , which implies for a distance of 3.2 kpc and assuming a broad fan-like beam a luminosity of 8.3 x 10 34 erg s -1 and an efficiency η of 0.3%. Finally, we report a 95% upper limit on the flux of 1.7 x 10 -8 cm -2 s -1 for off-pulse emission from the object.

  9. Development of an open source software of quantitative analysis for radionuclide determination by gamma-ray spectrometry using semiconductor detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maduar, Marcelo Francis

    2010-01-01

    Radioactivity quantification of gamma-ray emitter radionuclides in samples measured by HPGe gamma-ray spectrometry relies on the analysis of the photopeaks present in the spectra, especially on the accurate determination of their net areas. Such a task is usually performed with the aid of proprietary software tools. This work presents a methodology, algorithm descriptions and an open source application, called OpenGamma, for the peak search and analysis in order to obtain the relevant peaks parameters and radionuclides activities. The computational implementation is released entirely in open-source license for the main code and with the use of open software packages for interface design and mathematical libraries. The procedure for the peak search is performed on a three step approach. Firstly a preliminary search is done by using the second-difference method, consisting in the generation of a derived spectrum in order to find candidate peaks. In the second step, the experimental peaks widths are assessed and well formed and isolated ones are chosen to obtain a FWHM vs. channel relationship, by application of the Levenberg-Marquardt minimization method for non-linear fitting. Lastly, regions of the spectrum with grouped peaks are marked and a non-linear fit is again applied to each region to obtain baseline and photopeaks terms; from these terms, peaks net areas are then assessed. (author)

  10. An Indication of Anisotropy in Arrival Directions of Ultra-high-energy Cosmic Rays through Comparison to the Flux Pattern of Extragalactic Gamma-Ray Sources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aab, A.; Abreu, P.; Aglietta, M.; Albuquerque, I. F. M.; Allekotte, I.; Almela, A.; Castillo, J. Alvarez; Alvarez-Muñiz, J.; Anastasi, G. A.; Anchordoqui, L.; Andrada, B.; Andringa, S.; Aramo, C.; Arsene, N.; Asorey, H.; Assis, P.; Avila, G.; Badescu, A. M.; Balaceanu, A.; Barbato, F.; Luz, R. J. Barreira; Beatty, J. J.; Becker, K. H.; Bellido, J. A.; Berat, C.; Bertaina, M. E.; Bertou, X.; Biermann, P. L.; Biteau, J.; Blaess, S. G.; Blanco, A.; Blazek, J.; Bleve, C.; Boháčová, M.; Bonifazi, C.; Borodai, N.; Botti, A. M.; Brack, J.; Brancus, I.; Bretz, T.; Bridgeman, A.; Briechle, F. L.; Buchholz, P.; Bueno, A.; Buitink, S.; Buscemi, M.; Caballero-Mora, K. S.; Caccianiga, L.; Cancio, A.; Canfora, F.; Caruso, R.; Castellina, A.; Catalani, F.; Cataldi, G.; Cazon, L.; Chavez, A. G.; Chinellato, J. A.; Chudoba, J.; Clay, R. W.; Cerutti, A. C. Cobos; Colalillo, R.; Coleman, A.; Collica, L.; Coluccia, M. R.; Conceição, R.; Consolati, G.; Contreras, F.; Cooper, M. J.; Coutu, S.; Covault, C. E.; Cronin, J.; D’Amico, S.; Daniel, B.; Dasso, S.; Daumiller, K.; Dawson, B. R.; Almeida, R. M. de; Jong, S. J. de; Mauro, G. De; de Mello Neto, J. R. T.; Mitri, I. De; Oliveira, J. de; Souza, V. de; Debatin, J.; Deligny, O.; Castro, M. L. Díaz; Diogo, F.; Dobrigkeit, C.; D’Olivo, J. C.; Dorosti, Q.; Anjos, R. C. dos; Dova, M. T.; Dundovic, A.; Ebr, J.; Engel, R.; Erdmann, M.; Erfani, M.; Escobar, C. O.; Espadanal, J.; Etchegoyen, A.; Falcke, H.; Farmer, J.; Farrar, G.; Fauth, A. C.; Fazzini, N.; Fenu, F.; Fick, B.; Figueira, J. M.; Filipčič, A.; Freire, M. M.; Fujii, T.; Fuster, A.; Gaïor, R.; García, B.; Gaté, F.; Gemmeke, H.; Gherghel-Lascu, A.; Ghia, P. L.; Giaccari, U.; Giammarchi, M.; Giller, M.; Głas, D.; Glaser, C.; Golup, G.; Berisso, M. Gómez; Vitale, P. F. Gómez; González, N.; Gorgi, A.; Grillo, A. F.; Grubb, T. D.; Guarino, F.; Guedes, G. P.; Halliday, R.; Hampel, M. R.; Hansen, P.; Harari, D.; Harrison, T. A.; Haungs, A.; Hebbeker, T.; Heck, D.; Heimann, P.; Herve, A. E.; Hill, G. C.; Hojvat, C.; Holt, E.; Homola, P.; Hörandel, J. R.; Horvath, P.; Hrabovský, M.; Huege, T.; Hulsman, J.; Insolia, A.; Isar, P. G.; Jandt, I.; Johnsen, J. A.; Josebachuili, M.; Jurysek, J.; Kääpä, A.; Kambeitz, O.; Kampert, K. H.; Keilhauer, B.; Kemmerich, N.; Kemp, E.; Kemp, J.; Kieckhafer, R. M.; Klages, H. O.; Kleifges, M.; Kleinfeller, J.; Krause, R.; Krohm, N.; Kuempel, D.; Mezek, G. Kukec; Kunka, N.; Awad, A. Kuotb; Lago, B. L.; LaHurd, D.; Lang, R. G.; Lauscher, M.; Legumina, R.; Oliveira, M. A. Leigui de; Letessier-Selvon, A.; Lhenry-Yvon, I.; Link, K.; Presti, D. Lo; Lopes, L.; López, R.; Casado, A. López; Lorek, R.; Luce, Q.; Lucero, A.; Malacari, M.; Mallamaci, M.; Mandat, D.; Mantsch, P.; Mariazzi, A. G.; Mariş, I. C.; Marsella, G.; Martello, D.; Martinez, H.; Bravo, O. Martínez; Meza, J. J. Masías; Mathes, H. J.; Mathys, S.; Matthews, J.; Matthiae, G.; Mayotte, E.; Mazur, P. O.; Medina, C.; Medina-Tanco, G.; Melo, D.; Menshikov, A.; Merenda, K. -D.; Michal, S.; Micheletti, M. I.; Middendorf, L.; Miramonti, L.; Mitrica, B.; Mockler, D.; Mollerach, S.; Montanet, F.; Morello, C.; Morlino, G.; Mostafá, M.; Müller, A. L.; Müller, G.; Muller, M. A.; Müller, S.; Mussa, R.; Naranjo, I.; Nellen, L.; Nguyen, P. H.; Niculescu-Oglinzanu, M.; Niechciol, M.; Niemietz, L.; Niggemann, T.; Nitz, D.; Nosek, D.; Novotny, V.; Nožka, L.; Núñez, L. A.; Oikonomou, F.; Olinto, A.; Palatka, M.; Pallotta, J.; Papenbreer, P.; Parente, G.; Parra, A.; Paul, T.; Pech, M.; Pedreira, F.; Pȩkala, J.; Pelayo, R.; Peña-Rodriguez, J.; Pereira, L. A. S.; Perlin, M.; Perrone, L.; Peters, C.; Petrera, S.; Phuntsok, J.; Pierog, T.; Pimenta, M.; Pirronello, V.; Platino, M.; Plum, M.; Poh, J.; Porowski, C.; Prado, R. R.; Privitera, P.; Prouza, M.; Quel, E. J.; Querchfeld, S.; Quinn, S.; Ramos-Pollan, R.; Rautenberg, J.; Ravignani, D.; Ridky, J.; Riehn, F.; Risse, M.; Ristori, P.; Rizi, V.; Rodrigues de Carvalho, W.; Rodriguez Fernandez, G.; Rodriguez Rojo, J.; Roncoroni, M. J.; Roth, M.; Roulet, E.; Rovero, A. C.; Ruehl, P.; Saffi, S. J.; Saftoiu, A.; Salamida, F.; Salazar, H.; Saleh, A.; Salina, G.; Sánchez, F.; Sanchez-Lucas, P.; Santos, E. M.; Santos, E.; Sarazin, F.; Sarmento, R.; Sarmiento-Cano, C.; Sato, R.; Schauer, M.; Scherini, V.; Schieler, H.; Schimp, M.; Schmidt, D.; Scholten, O.; Schovánek, P.; Schröder, F. G.; Schröder, S.; Schulz, A.; Schumacher, J.; Sciutto, S. J.; Segreto, A.; Shadkam, A.; Shellard, R. C.; Sigl, G.; Silli, G.; Šmída, R.; Snow, G. R.; Sommers, P.; Sonntag, S.; Soriano, J. F.; Squartini, R.; Stanca, D.; Stanič, S.; Stasielak, J.; Stassi, P.; Stolpovskiy, M.; Strafella, F.; Streich, A.; Suarez, F.; Durán, M. Suarez; Sudholz, T.; Suomijärvi, T.; Supanitsky, A. D.; Šupík, J.; Swain, J.; Szadkowski, Z.; Taboada, A.; Taborda, O. A.; Theodoro, V. M.; Timmermans, C.; Peixoto, C. J. Todero; Tomankova, L.; Tomé, B.; Elipe, G. Torralba; Travnicek, P.; Trini, M.; Ulrich, R.; Unger, M.; Urban, M.; Galicia, J. F. Valdés; Valiño, I.; Valore, L.; van Aar, G.; van Bodegom, P.; Berg, A. M. van den; Vliet, A. van; Varela, E.; Cárdenas, B. Vargas; Vázquez, R. A.; Veberič, D.; Ventura, C.; Quispe, I. D. Vergara; Verzi, V.; Vicha, J.; Villaseñor, L.; Vorobiov, S.; Wahlberg, H.; Wainberg, O.; Walz, D.; Watson, A. A.; Weber, M.; Weindl, A.; Wiedeński, M.; Wiencke, L.; Wilczyński, H.; Wirtz, M.; Wittkowski, D.; Wundheiler, B.; Yang, L.; Yushkov, A.; Zas, E.; Zavrtanik, D.; Zavrtanik, M.; Zepeda, A.; Zimmermann, B.; Ziolkowski, M.; Zong, Z.; Zuccarello, F.

    2018-02-01

    A new analysis of the dataset from the Pierre Auger Observatory provides evidence for anisotropy in the arrival directions of ultra-high-energy cosmic rays on an intermediate angular scale, which is indicative of excess arrivals from strong, nearby sources. The data consist of 5514 events above 20 EeV with zenith angles up to 80 deg recorded before 2017 April 30. Sky models have been created for two distinct populations of extragalactic gamma-ray emitters: active galactic nuclei from the second catalog of hard Fermi-LAT sources (2FHL) and starburst galaxies from a sample that was examined with Fermi-LAT. Flux-limited samples, which include all types of galaxies from the Swift-BAT and 2MASS surveys, have been investigated for comparison. The sky model of cosmic-ray density constructed using each catalog has two free parameters, the fraction of events correlating with astrophysical objects and an angular scale characterizing the clustering of cosmic rays around extragalactic sources. A maximum-likelihood ratio test is used to evaluate the best values of these parameters and to quantify the strength of each model by contrast with isotropy. It is found that the starburst model fits the data better than the hypothesis of isotropy with a statistical significance of 4.0 sigma, the highest value of the test statistic being for energies above 39 EeV. The three alternative models are favored against isotropy with 2.7-3.2 sigma significance. The origin of the indicated deviation from isotropy is examined and prospects for more sensitive future studies are discussed.

  11. An Indication of Anisotropy in Arrival Directions of Ultra-high-energy Cosmic Rays through Comparison to the Flux Pattern of Extragalactic Gamma-Ray Sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aab, A.; Abreu, P.; Aglietta, M.; Albuquerque, I. F. M.; Allekotte, I.; Almela, A.; Alvarez Castillo, J.; Alvarez-Muñiz, J.; Anastasi, G. A.; Anchordoqui, L.; Andrada, B.; Andringa, S.; Aramo, C.; Arsene, N.; Asorey, H.; Assis, P.; Avila, G.; Badescu, A. M.; Balaceanu, A.; Barbato, F.; Barreira Luz, R. J.; Beatty, J. J.; Becker, K. H.; Bellido, J. A.; Berat, C.; Bertaina, M. E.; Bertou, X.; Biermann, P. L.; Biteau, J.; Blaess, S. G.; Blanco, A.; Blazek, J.; Bleve, C.; Boháčová, M.; Bonifazi, C.; Borodai, N.; Botti, A. M.; Brack, J.; Brancus, I.; Bretz, T.; Bridgeman, A.; Briechle, F. L.; Buchholz, P.; Bueno, A.; Buitink, S.; Buscemi, M.; Caballero-Mora, K. S.; Caccianiga, L.; Cancio, A.; Canfora, F.; Caruso, R.; Castellina, A.; Catalani, F.; Cataldi, G.; Cazon, L.; Chavez, A. G.; Chinellato, J. A.; Chudoba, J.; Clay, R. W.; Cobos Cerutti, A. C.; Colalillo, R.; Coleman, A.; Collica, L.; Coluccia, M. R.; Conceição, R.; Consolati, G.; Contreras, F.; Cooper, M. J.; Coutu, S.; Covault, C. E.; Cronin, J.; D’Amico, S.; Daniel, B.; Dasso, S.; Daumiller, K.; Dawson, B. R.; de Almeida, R. M.; de Jong, S. J.; De Mauro, G.; de Mello Neto, J. R. T.; De Mitri, I.; de Oliveira, J.; de Souza, V.; Debatin, J.; Deligny, O.; Díaz Castro, M. L.; Diogo, F.; Dobrigkeit, C.; D’Olivo, J. C.; Dorosti, Q.; dos Anjos, R. C.; Dova, M. T.; Dundovic, A.; Ebr, J.; Engel, R.; Erdmann, M.; Erfani, M.; Escobar, C. O.; Espadanal, J.; Etchegoyen, A.; Falcke, H.; Farmer, J.; Farrar, G.; Fauth, A. C.; Fazzini, N.; Fenu, F.; Fick, B.; Figueira, J. M.; Filipčič, A.; Freire, M. M.; Fujii, T.; Fuster, A.; Gaïor, R.; García, B.; Gaté, F.; Gemmeke, H.; Gherghel-Lascu, A.; Ghia, P. L.; Giaccari, U.; Giammarchi, M.; Giller, M.; Głas, D.; Glaser, C.; Golup, G.; Gómez Berisso, M.; Gómez Vitale, P. F.; González, N.; Gorgi, A.; Grillo, A. F.; Grubb, T. D.; Guarino, F.; Guedes, G. P.; Halliday, R.; Hampel, M. R.; Hansen, P.; Harari, D.; Harrison, T. A.; Haungs, A.; Hebbeker, T.; Heck, D.; Heimann, P.; Herve, A. E.; Hill, G. C.; Hojvat, C.; Holt, E.; Homola, P.; Hörandel, J. R.; Horvath, P.; Hrabovský, M.; Huege, T.; Hulsman, J.; Insolia, A.; Isar, P. G.; Jandt, I.; Johnsen, J. A.; Josebachuili, M.; Jurysek, J.; Kääpä, A.; Kambeitz, O.; Kampert, K. H.; Keilhauer, B.; Kemmerich, N.; Kemp, E.; Kemp, J.; Kieckhafer, R. M.; Klages, H. O.; Kleifges, M.; Kleinfeller, J.; Krause, R.; Krohm, N.; Kuempel, D.; Kukec Mezek, G.; Kunka, N.; Kuotb Awad, A.; Lago, B. L.; LaHurd, D.; Lang, R. G.; Lauscher, M.; Legumina, R.; Leigui de Oliveira, M. A.; Letessier-Selvon, A.; Lhenry-Yvon, I.; Link, K.; Lo Presti, D.; Lopes, L.; López, R.; López Casado, A.; Lorek, R.; Luce, Q.; Lucero, A.; Malacari, M.; Mallamaci, M.; Mandat, D.; Mantsch, P.; Mariazzi, A. G.; Mariş, I. C.; Marsella, G.; Martello, D.; Martinez, H.; Martínez Bravo, O.; Masías Meza, J. J.; Mathes, H. J.; Mathys, S.; Matthews, J.; Matthiae, G.; Mayotte, E.; Mazur, P. O.; Medina, C.; Medina-Tanco, G.; Melo, D.; Menshikov, A.; Merenda, K.-D.; Michal, S.; Micheletti, M. I.; Middendorf, L.; Miramonti, L.; Mitrica, B.; Mockler, D.; Mollerach, S.; Montanet, F.; Morello, C.; Morlino, G.; Mostafá, M.; Müller, A. L.; Müller, G.; Muller, M. A.; Müller, S.; Mussa, R.; Naranjo, I.; Nellen, L.; Nguyen, P. H.; Niculescu-Oglinzanu, M.; Niechciol, M.; Niemietz, L.; Niggemann, T.; Nitz, D.; Nosek, D.; Novotny, V.; Nožka, L.; Núñez, L. A.; Oikonomou, F.; Olinto, A.; Palatka, M.; Pallotta, J.; Papenbreer, P.; Parente, G.; Parra, A.; Paul, T.; Pech, M.; Pedreira, F.; Pȩkala, J.; Pelayo, R.; Peña-Rodriguez, J.; Pereira, L. A. S.; Perlin, M.; Perrone, L.; Peters, C.; Petrera, S.; Phuntsok, J.; Pierog, T.; Pimenta, M.; Pirronello, V.; Platino, M.; Plum, M.; Poh, J.; Porowski, C.; Prado, R. R.; Privitera, P.; Prouza, M.; Quel, E. J.; Querchfeld, S.; Quinn, S.; Ramos-Pollan, R.; Rautenberg, J.; Ravignani, D.; Ridky, J.; Riehn, F.; Risse, M.; Ristori, P.; Rizi, V.; Rodrigues de Carvalho, W.; Rodriguez Fernandez, G.; Rodriguez Rojo, J.; Roncoroni, M. J.; Roth, M.; Roulet, E.; Rovero, A. C.; Ruehl, P.; Saffi, S. J.; Saftoiu, A.; Salamida, F.; Salazar, H.; Saleh, A.; Salina, G.; Sánchez, F.; Sanchez-Lucas, P.; Santos, E. M.; Santos, E.; Sarazin, F.; Sarmento, R.; Sarmiento-Cano, C.; Sato, R.; Schauer, M.; Scherini, V.; Schieler, H.; Schimp, M.; Schmidt, D.; Scholten, O.; Schovánek, P.; Schröder, F. G.; Schröder, S.; Schulz, A.; Schumacher, J.; Sciutto, S. J.; Segreto, A.; Shadkam, A.; Shellard, R. C.; Sigl, G.; Silli, G.; Šmída, R.; Snow, G. R.; Sommers, P.; Sonntag, S.; Soriano, J. F.; Squartini, R.; Stanca, D.; Stanič, S.; Stasielak, J.; Stassi, P.; Stolpovskiy, M.; Strafella, F.; Streich, A.; Suarez, F.; Suarez Durán, M.; Sudholz, T.; Suomijärvi, T.; Supanitsky, A. D.; Šupík, J.; Swain, J.; Szadkowski, Z.; Taboada, A.; Taborda, O. A.; Theodoro, V. M.; Timmermans, C.; Todero Peixoto, C. J.; Tomankova, L.; Tomé, B.; Torralba Elipe, G.; Travnicek, P.; Trini, M.; Ulrich, R.; Unger, M.; Urban, M.; Valdés Galicia, J. F.; Valiño, I.; Valore, L.; van Aar, G.; van Bodegom, P.; van den Berg, A. M.; van Vliet, A.; Varela, E.; Vargas Cárdenas, B.; Vázquez, R. A.; Veberič, D.; Ventura, C.; Vergara Quispe, I. D.; Verzi, V.; Vicha, J.; Villaseñor, L.; Vorobiov, S.; Wahlberg, H.; Wainberg, O.; Walz, D.; Watson, A. A.; Weber, M.; Weindl, A.; Wiedeński, M.; Wiencke, L.; Wilczyński, H.; Wirtz, M.; Wittkowski, D.; Wundheiler, B.; Yang, L.; Yushkov, A.; Zas, E.; Zavrtanik, D.; Zavrtanik, M.; Zepeda, A.; Zimmermann, B.; Ziolkowski, M.; Zong, Z.; Zuccarello, F.; The Pierre Auger Collaboration

    2018-02-01

    A new analysis of the data set from the Pierre Auger Observatory provides evidence for anisotropy in the arrival directions of ultra-high-energy cosmic rays on an intermediate angular scale, which is indicative of excess arrivals from strong, nearby sources. The data consist of 5514 events above 20 {EeV} with zenith angles up to 80° recorded before 2017 April 30. Sky models have been created for two distinct populations of extragalactic gamma-ray emitters: active galactic nuclei from the second catalog of hard Fermi-LAT sources (2FHL) and starburst galaxies from a sample that was examined with Fermi-LAT. Flux-limited samples, which include all types of galaxies from the Swift-BAT and 2MASS surveys, have been investigated for comparison. The sky model of cosmic-ray density constructed using each catalog has two free parameters, the fraction of events correlating with astrophysical objects, and an angular scale characterizing the clustering of cosmic rays around extragalactic sources. A maximum-likelihood ratio test is used to evaluate the best values of these parameters and to quantify the strength of each model by contrast with isotropy. It is found that the starburst model fits the data better than the hypothesis of isotropy with a statistical significance of 4.0σ, the highest value of the test statistic being for energies above 39 {EeV}. The three alternative models are favored against isotropy with 2.7σ–3.2σ significance. The origin of the indicated deviation from isotropy is examined and prospects for more sensitive future studies are discussed. Any correspondence should be addressed to .

  12. NuSTAR Discovery Of A Young, Energetic Pulsar Associated with the Luminous Gamma-Ray Source HESS J1640-465

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gotthelf, E. V.; Tomsick, J. A.; Halpern, J. P.; Gelfand, J. D.; Harrison, F. A.; Boggs, S. E.; Christensen, F. E.; Craig, W. W.; Hailey, J. C.; Kaspi, V. M.; hide

    2014-01-01

    We report the discovery of a 206 ms pulsar associated with the TeV gamme-ray source HESS J1640-465 using the Nuclear Spectroscopic Telescope Array (NuSTAR) X-ray observatory. PSR J1640-4631 lies within the shelltype supernova remnant (SNR) G338.3-0.0, and coincides with an X-ray point source and putative pulsar wind nebula (PWN) previously identified in XMM-Newton and Chandra images. It is spinning down rapidly with period derivative P = 9.758(44) × 10(exp -13), yielding a spin-down luminosity E = 4.4 × 10(exp 36) erg s(exp -1), characteristic age tau(sub c) if and only if P/2 P = 3350 yr, and surface dipole magnetic field strength B(sub s) = 1.4×10(exp 13) G. For the measured distance of 12 kpc to G338.3-0.0, the 0.2-10 TeV luminosity of HESS J1640-465 is 6% of the pulsar's present E. The Fermi source 1FHL J1640.5-4634 is marginally coincident with PSR J1640-4631, but we find no gamma-ray pulsations in a search using five years of Fermi Large Area Telescope (LAT) data. The pulsar energetics support an evolutionary PWN model for the broadband spectrum of HESS J1640-465, provided that the pulsar's braking index is n approximately equal to 2, and that its initial spin period was P(sub 0) approximately 15 ms.

  13. An analytical calculation of the peak efficiency for cylindrical sources perpendicular to the detector axis in gamma-ray spectrometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aguiar, Julio C. [Autoridad Regulatoria Nuclear, Laboratorio de Espectrometria Gamma-CTBTO, Av. Del Libertador 8250, C1429BNP Buenos Aires (Argentina)], E-mail: jaguiar@sede.arn.gov.ar

    2008-08-15

    An analytical expression for the so-called full-energy peak efficiency {epsilon}(E) for cylindrical source with perpendicular axis to an HPGe detector is derived, using point-source measurements. The formula covers different measuring distances, matrix compositions, densities and gamma-ray energies; the only assumption is that the radioactivity is homogeneously distributed within the source. The term for the photon self-attenuation is included in the calculation. Measurements were made using three different sized cylindrical sources of {sup 241}Am, {sup 57}Co, {sup 137}Cs, {sup 54}Mn, and {sup 60}Co with corresponding peaks of 59.5, 122, 662, 835, 1173, and 1332 keV, respectively, and one measurement of radioactive waste drum for 662, 1173, and 1332 keV.

  14. A LUMINOUS GAMMA-RAY BINARY IN THE LARGE MAGELLANIC CLOUD

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Corbet, R. H. D. [University of Maryland, Baltimore County, and X-ray Astrophysics Laboratory, Code 662 NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt Rd., MD 20771 (United States); Chomiuk, L.; Strader, J. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Michigan State University, East Lansing, MI 48824 (United States); Coe, M. J. [University of Southampton, School of Physics and Astronomy, Southampton SO17 1BJ (United Kingdom); Coley, J. B. [NASA Postdoctoral Program, and Astroparticle Physics Laboratory, Code 661 NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt Rd., MD 20771 (United States); Dubus, G. [Institut de Planétologie et d’Astrophysique de Grenoble, Univ. Grenoble Alpes, CNRS, F-38000 Grenoble (France); Edwards, P. G.; Stevens, J. [Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organisation Astronomy and Space Science, P.O. Box 76, Epping, New South Wales 1710 (Australia); Martin, P. [Institut de Recherche en Astrophysique et Planétologie, Université de Toulouse, CNRS, F-31028 Toulouse cedex 4 (France); McBride, V. A.; Townsend, L. J. [Department of Astronomy, University of Cape Town, Private Bag X3, Rondebosch 7701 (South Africa); Udalski, A. [Warsaw University Observatory, Al. Ujazdowskie 4, 00-478 Warszawa (Poland)

    2016-10-01

    Gamma-ray binaries consist of a neutron star or a black hole interacting with a normal star to produce gamma-ray emission that dominates the radiative output of the system. Only a handful of such systems have been previously discovered, all within our Galaxy. Here, we report the discovery of a luminous gamma-ray binary in the Large Magellanic Cloud, found with the Fermi Large Area Telescope (LAT), from a search for periodic modulation in all sources in the third Fermi LAT catalog. This is the first such system to be found outside the Milky Way. The system has an orbital period of 10.3 days, and is associated with a massive O5III star located in the supernova remnant DEM L241, previously identified as the candidate high-mass X-ray binary (HMXB) CXOU J053600.0–673507. X-ray and radio emission are also modulated on the 10.3 day period, but are in anti-phase with the gamma-ray modulation. Optical radial velocity measurements suggest that the system contains a neutron star. The source is significantly more luminous than similar sources in the Milky Way, at radio, optical, X-ray, and gamma-ray wavelengths. The detection of this extra-galactic system, but no new Galactic systems, raises the possibility that the predicted number of gamma-ray binaries in our Galaxy has been overestimated, and that HMXBs may be born containing relatively slowly rotating neutron stars.

  15. About cosmic gamma ray lines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diehl, Roland

    2017-06-01

    Gamma ray lines from cosmic sources convey the action of nuclear reactions in cosmic sites and their impacts on astrophysical objects. Gamma rays at characteristic energies result from nuclear transitions following radioactive decays or high-energy collisions with excitation of nuclei. The gamma-ray line from the annihilation of positrons at 511 keV falls into the same energy window, although of different origin. We present here the concepts of cosmic gamma ray spectrometry and the corresponding instruments and missions, followed by a discussion of recent results and the challenges and open issues for the future. Among the lessons learned are the diffuse radioactive afterglow of massive-star nucleosynthesis in 26Al and 60Fe gamma rays, which is now being exploited towards the cycle of matter driven by massive stars and their supernovae; large interstellar cavities and superbubbles have been recognised to be of key importance here. Also, constraints on the complex processes making stars explode as either thermonuclear or core-collapse supernovae are being illuminated by gamma-ray lines, in this case from shortlived radioactivities from 56Ni and 44Ti decays. In particular, the three-dimensionality and asphericities that have recently been recognised as important are enlightened in different ways through such gamma-ray line spectroscopy. Finally, the distribution of positron annihilation gamma ray emission with its puzzling bulge-dominated intensity disctribution is measured through spatially-resolved spectra, which indicate that annihilation conditions may differ in different parts of our Galaxy. But it is now understood that a variety of sources may feed positrons into the interstellar medium, and their characteristics largely get lost during slowing down and propagation of positrons before annihilation; a recent microquasar flare was caught as an opportunity to see positrons annihilate at a source.

  16. THE INTERPLANETARY NETWORK SUPPLEMENT TO THE BURST AND TRANSIENT SOURCE EXPERIMENT 5B CATALOG OF COSMIC GAMMA-RAY BURSTS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hurley, K.; Briggs, M. S.; Kippen, R. M.; Kouveliotou, C.; Fishman, G.; Meegan, C.; Cline, T.; Trombka, J.; McClanahan, T.; Boynton, W.; Starr, R.; McNutt, R.; Boer, M.

    2011-01-01

    We present Interplanetary Network localization information for 343 gamma-ray bursts observed by the Burst and Transient Source Experiment (BATSE) between the end of the 4th BATSE catalog and the end of the Compton Gamma-Ray Observatory (CGRO) mission, obtained by analyzing the arrival times of these bursts at the Ulysses, Near Earth Asteroid Rendezvous (NEAR), and CGRO spacecraft. For any given burst observed by CGRO and one other spacecraft, arrival time analysis (or t riangulation ) results in an annulus of possible arrival directions whose half-width varies between 11 arcsec and 21 0 , depending on the intensity, time history, and arrival direction of the burst, as well as the distance between the spacecraft. This annulus generally intersects the BATSE error circle, resulting in an average reduction of the area of a factor of 20. When all three spacecraft observe a burst, the result is an error box whose area varies between 1 and 48,000 arcmin 2 , resulting in an average reduction of the BATSE error circle area of a factor of 87.

  17. Gamma Ray Bursts - Observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gehrels, N.; Cannizzo, J. K.

    2010-01-01

    We are in an exciting period of discovery for gamma-ray bursts. The Swift observatory is detecting 100 bursts per year, providing arcsecond localizations and sensitive observations of the prompt and afterglow emission. The Fermi observatory is observing 250 bursts per year with its medium-energy GRB instrument and about 10 bursts per year with its high-energy LAT instrument. In addition, rapid-response telescopes on the ground are providing new capabilities to study optical emission during the prompt phase and spectral signatures of the host galaxies. The combined data set is enabling great advances in our understanding of GRBs including afterglow physics, short burst origin, and high energy emission.

  18. Study of the precision of the gamma-ray burst source locations obtained with the Ulysses/PVO/CGRO network

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cline, T.L.; Hurley, K.C.; Sommer, M.; Boer, M.; Niel, M.; Fishman, G.; Kouveliotou, C.; Meegan, C.; Paciesas, W.S.; Wilson, R.B.; Laros, J.G.; Klebesadel, R.W.

    1994-01-01

    The interplanetary gamma-ray burst network of the Ulysses, Compton-GRO, and Pioneer-Venus Orbiter missions has made source localizations with fractional-arc-minute precision for a number of events, and with auxiliary data, will provide useful annular-segment loci for many more. These studies have, thus far, yielded one possible counterpart, a Rosat x-ray association with the 92 May 1 burst. Similar to the historic 1978 November 19 burst/Einstein association, this possibility gives hope that network studies will provide a fundamental source clue for 'classical' bursts, just as a second supernova remnant in a network-defined source field has done for sgr events

  19. Cosmic gamma-ray burst

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamagami, Takamasa

    1985-01-01

    Ballon experiments for searching gamma-ray burst were carried out by employing rotating-cross modulation collimators. From a very long observation of total 315 hours during 1975 to 1979, three gamma-ray intensity anomalies were observed which were speculated as a gamma-ray burst. As for the first gamma-ray intensity anomaly observed in 1975, the burst source could be located precisely but the source, heavenly body, could not be specified. Gamma-ray burst source estimation was made by analyzing distribution of burst source in the celestial sphere, burst size distribution, and burst peak. Using the above-mentioned data together with previously published ones, apparent inconsistency was found between the observed results and the adopted theory that the source was in the Galaxy, and this inconsistency was found due to the different time profiles of the burst observed with instruments of different efficiency. It was concluded by these analysis results that employment of logN - logP (relation between burst frequency and burst count) was better than that of logN - logS (burst size) in the examination of gamma-ray burst because the former was less uncertain than the latter. Analyzing the author's observed gamma-ray burst data and the related published data, it was clarified that the burst distribution was almost P -312 for the burst peak value larger than 10 -6 erg/cm 2 .sec. The author could indicate that the calculated celestial distribution of burst source was consistent with the observed results by the derivation using the logN - logP relationship and that the burst larger than 10 -6 erg/cm 2 .sec happens about one thousand times a year, about ten times of the previous value. (Takagi, S.)

  20. An image-based search for pulsars among Fermi unassociated LAT sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frail, D. A.; Ray, P. S.; Mooley, K. P.; Hancock, P.; Burnett, T. H.; Jagannathan, P.; Ferrara, E. C.; Intema, H. T.; de Gasperin, F.; Demorest, P. B.; Stovall, K.; McKinnon, M. M.

    2018-03-01

    We describe an image-based method that uses two radio criteria, compactness, and spectral index, to identify promising pulsar candidates among Fermi Large Area Telescope (LAT) unassociated sources. These criteria are applied to those radio sources from the Giant Metrewave Radio Telescope all-sky survey at 150 MHz (TGSS ADR1) found within the error ellipses of unassociated sources from the 3FGL catalogue and a preliminary source list based on 7 yr of LAT data. After follow-up interferometric observations to identify extended or variable sources, a list of 16 compact, steep-spectrum candidates is generated. An ongoing search for pulsations in these candidates, in gamma rays and radio, has found 6 ms pulsars and one normal pulsar. A comparison of this method with existing selection criteria based on gamma-ray spectral and variability properties suggests that the pulsar discovery space using Fermi may be larger than previously thought. Radio imaging is a hitherto underutilized source selection method that can be used, as with other multiwavelength techniques, in the search for Fermi pulsars.

  1. Gasdynamics of relativistically expanding gamma-ray burst sources - Kinematics, energetics, magnetic fields, and efficiency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meszaros, P.; Laguna, P.; Rees, M. J.

    1993-01-01

    We calculate both analytically and numerically the evolution of highly relativistic fireballs through the stages of free expansion and coasting, and determine the dependence of the thermodynamic and radiation variables in the comoving and laboratory flames. The dynamics and the comoving geometry change at the (lab) expansion factors r/r(0) greater than eta and r/r(0) greater than eta-squared, respectively, where eta = E(0)/M(0)c-squared is the initial Lorentz factor. In the lab, the gas appears concentrated in a thin shell of width r(0) until r/r(0) of less than about eta-squared, and increases linearly after that. Magnetic fields may have been important in the original impulsive event. We discuss their effect on the fireball dynamics and also consider their effects on the radiation emitted when the fireball runs into an external medium and is decelerated. The inverse synchro-Compton mechanism can then yield high radiative efficiency in the reverse shock (and through turbulent instabilities and mixing also in the forward blast wave), producing a burst of nonthermal radiation mainly in the MeV to GeV range. The energy and duration depend on eta, the magnetic field strength, and the external density, and can match the range of properties observed in cosmic gamma-ray bursts.

  2. 7th International Fermi Symposium

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-10-01

    The two Fermi instruments have been surveying the high-energy sky since August 2008. The Large Area Telescope (LAT) has discovered more than three thousand gamma-ray sources and many new source classes, bringing the importance of gamma-ray astrophysics to an ever-broadening community. The LAT catalog includes supernova remnants, pulsar wind nebulae, pulsars, binary systems, novae, several classes of active galaxies, starburst galaxies, normal galaxies, and a large number of unidentified sources. Continuous monitoring of the high-energy gamma-ray sky has uncovered numerous outbursts from a wide range of transients. Fermi LAT's study of diffuse gamma-ray emission in our Galaxy revealed giant bubbles, as well as an excess of gamma-rays from the Galactic center region, both observations have become exciting puzzles for the astrophysics community. The direct measurement of a harder-than- expected cosmic-ray electron spectrum may imply the presence of nearby cosmic-ray accelerators. LAT data have provided stringent constraints on new phenomena such as supersymmetric dark-matter annihilations as well as tests of fundamental physics. The full reprocessing of the entire mission dataset with Pass 8 includes improved event reconstruction, a wider energy range, better energy measurements, and significantly increased effective area, all them boosting the discovery potential and the ability to do precision observations with LAT. The Gamma-ray Burst Monitor (GBM) continues to be a prolific detector of gamma-ray transients: magnetars, solar flares, terrestrial gamma-ray flashes and gamma-ray bursts at keV to MeV energies, complementing the higher energy LAT observations of those sources in addition to providing valuable science return in their own right. All gamma-ray data are made immediately available at the Fermi Science Support Center (http://fermi.gsfc.nasa.gov/ssc). These publicly available data and Fermi analysis tools have enabled a large number of important studies. We

  3. Observations Of Gamma-ray Loud Blazars With The VLBA At 5 GHz

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linford, Justin; Taylor, G. B.; Romani, R.; Readhead, A. C. S.; Reeves, R.; Richards, J. L.; Helmboldt, J. F.

    2011-01-01

    The Fermi Gamma-ray Space Telescope has been scanning the sky for more than a year. About half of the sources detected by Fermi's Large Area Telesope (LAT) are active galactic nuclei (AGN). Nearly all of these gamma-ray loud AGN are blazars; strong, compact radio emitters that exhibit variability in their flux and apparent superluminal motion in their jets. Several groups are currently monitoring the radio properties of these gamma-ray loud blazars. We present results from both archival and contemporaneous observations of 200 LAT-detected blazars using the Very Long Baseline Array (VLBA) at a frequency of 5 GHz (wavelength of 6 cm). Our large, flux-limited sample provides unique insights into the mechanism that produces strong gamma-ray emissions. We explore the parsec-scale properties of the cores and jets of these highly energetic objects, including core polarization. We compare the gamma-ray loud blazars to their gamma-ray quiet counterparts in the VLBA Imaging and Polarimetry Survey (VIPS). We also investigate the differences between the BL Lacertae objects (BL Lacs) and flat-spectrum radio quasars (FSRQs).

  4. New Theoretical Estimates of the Contribution of Unresolved Star-Forming Galaxies to the Extragalactic Gamma-Ray Background (EGB) as Measured by EGRET and the Fermi-LAT

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venters, Tonia M.

    2011-01-01

    We present new theoretical estimates of the contribution of unresolved star-forming galaxies to the extragalactic gamma-ray background (EGB) as measured by EGRET and the Fermi-LAT. We employ several methods for determining the star-forming galaxy contribution the the EGB, including a method positing a correlation between the gamma-ray luminosity of a galaxy and its rate of star formation as calculated from the total infrared luminosity, and a method that makes use of a model of the evolution of the galaxy gas mass with cosmic time. We find that depending on the model, unresolved star-forming galaxies could contribute significantly to the EGB as measured by the Fermi-LAT at energies between approx. 300 MeV and approx. few GeV. However, the overall spectrum of unresolved star-forming galaxies can explain neither the EGRET EGB spectrum at energies between 50 and 200 MeV nor the Fermi-LAT EGB spectrum at energies above approx. few GeV.

  5. Study on the optimization of the water Cherenkov detector array of the LHAASO project for surveying VHE gamma ray sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Hui-Cai; Chen, Ming-Jun; Jia, Huan-Yu; Gao, Bo; Wu, Han-Rong; Yao, Zhi-Guo; Yuo, Xiao-Hao; Zhou, Bin; Zhu, Feng-Rong

    2014-01-01

    It is prpopsed that a water Cherenkov detector array, LHAASO-WCDA, is to be built at Shangri-la, Yunnan Province, China. As one of the major components of the LHAASO project, the main purpose of it is to survey the northern sky for gamma ray sources in the energy range of 100 GeV-30 TeV. In order to design the water Cherenkov array efficiently to economize the budget, a Monte Carlo simulation is carried out. With the help of the simulation, the cost performance of different configurations of the array are obtained and compared with each other, serving as a guide for the more detailed design of the experiment in the next step.

  6. Study on the optimization of the water Cherenkov detector array of the LHAASO project for surveying VHE gamma ray sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Huicai; Chen Mingjun; Gao Bo; Wu Hanrong; Yao Zhiguo; Zhou Bin; Jia Huanyu; Zhu Fengrong; You Xiaohao

    2014-01-01

    It is proposed that a water Cherenkov detector array, LHAASO-WCDA, is to be built at Shangri-la, Yunnan Province, China. As one of the major components of the LHAASO project, the main purpose of it is to survey the northern sky for gamma ray sources in the energy range of 100 GeV-30 TeV. In order to design the water Cherenkov array efficiently to economize the budget, a Monte Carlo simulation is carried out. With the help of the simulation, the cost performance of different configurations of the array are obtained and compared with each other, serving as a guide for the more detailed design of the experiment in the next step. (authors)

  7. Dual isotope notch observer for isotope identification, assay and imaging with mono-energetic gamma-ray sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barty, Christopher P.J.

    2013-02-05

    A dual isotope notch observer for isotope identification, assay and imaging with mono-energetic gamma-ray sources includes a detector arrangement consists of three detectors downstream from the object under observation. The latter detector, which operates as a beam monitor, is an integrating detector that monitors the total beam power arriving at its surface. The first detector and the middle detector each include an integrating detector surrounding a foil. The foils of these two detectors are made of the same atomic material, but each foil is a different isotope, e.g., the first foil may comprise U235 and second foil may comprise U238. The integrating detectors surrounding these pieces of foil measure the total power scattered from the foil and can be similar in composition to the final beam monitor. Non-resonant photons will, after calibration, scatter equally from both foils.

  8. MILAGRO OBSERVATIONS OF MULTI-TeV EMISSION FROM GALACTIC SOURCES IN THE FERMI BRIGHT SOURCE LIST

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abdo, A. A.; Linnemann, J. T.; Allen, B. T.; Chen, C.; Aune, T.; Berley, D.; Goodman, J. A.; Christopher, G. E.; Kolterman, B. E.; Mincer, A. I.; Nemethy, P.; DeYoung, T.; Dingus, B. L.; Hoffman, C. M.; Ellsworth, R. W.; Gonzalez, M. M.; Hays, E.; McEnery, J. E.; Huentemeyer, P. H.; Morgan, T.

    2009-01-01

    We present the result of a search of the Milagro sky map for spatial correlations with sources from a subset of the recent Fermi Bright Source List (BSL). The BSL consists of the 205 most significant sources detected above 100 MeV by the Fermi Large Area Telescope. We select sources based on their categorization in the BSL, taking all confirmed or possible Galactic sources in the field of view of Milagro. Of the 34 Fermi sources selected, 14 are observed by Milagro at a significance of 3 standard deviations or more. We conduct this search with a new analysis which employs newly optimized gamma-hadron separation and utilizes the full eight-year Milagro data set. Milagro is sensitive to gamma rays with energy from 1 to 100 TeV with a peak sensitivity from 10 to 50 TeV depending on the source spectrum and declination. These results extend the observation of these sources far above the Fermi energy band. With the new analysis and additional data, multi-TeV emission is definitively observed associated with the Fermi pulsar, J2229.0+6114, in the Boomerang pulsar wind nebula (PWN). Furthermore, an extended region of multi-TeV emission is associated with the Fermi pulsar, J0634.0+1745, the Geminga pulsar.

  9. OBSERVATION OF THE TeV GAMMA-RAY SOURCE MGRO J1908+06 WITH ARGO-YBJ

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bartoli, B.; Catalanotti, S. [Dipartimento di Fisica dell' Universita di Napoli ' Federico II' , Complesso Universitario di Monte Sant' Angelo, via Cinthia, 80126 Napoli (Italy); Bernardini, P.; Bleve, C. [Dipartimento di Matematica e Fisica ' Ennio De Giorgi' , Universita del Salento, via per Arnesano, 73100 Lecce (Italy); Bi, X. J.; Cao, Z.; Chen, S. Z.; Chen, Y. [Key Laboratory of Particle Astrophysics, Institute of High Energy Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, P.O. Box 918, 100049 Beijing (China); Bolognino, I. [Dipartimento di Fisica Nucleare e Teorica dell' Universita di Pavia, via Bassi 6, 27100 Pavia (Italy); Branchini, P.; Budano, A. [Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Sezione di Roma Tre, via della Vasca Navale 84, 00146 Roma (Italy); Melcarne, A. K. Calabrese [Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare-CNAF, Viale Berti-Pichat 6/2, 40127 Bologna (Italy); Camarri, P. [Dipartimento di Fisica dell' Universita di Roma ' Tor Vergata' , via della Ricerca Scientifica 1, 00133 Roma (Italy); Cardarelli, R. [Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Sezione di Roma Tor Vergata, via della Ricerca Scientifica 1, 00133 Roma (Italy); Cattaneo, C. [Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Sezione di Pavia, via Bassi 6, 27100 Pavia (Italy); Chen, T. L. [Tibet University, 850000 Lhasa, Xizang (China); Creti, P. [Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Sezione di Lecce, via per Arnesano, 73100 Lecce (Italy); Cui, S. W. [Hebei Normal University, Shijiazhuang 050016, Hebei (China); Dai, B. Z. [Yunnan University, 2 North Cuihu Rd., 650091 Kunming, Yunnan (China); Staiti, G. D' Ali [Dipartimento di Fisica, Universita degli Studi di Palermo, Viale delle Scienze, Edificio 18, 90128 Palermo (Italy); Collaboration: Argo-YBJ Collaboration; and others

    2012-12-01

    The extended gamma-ray source MGRO J1908+06, discovered by the Milagro air shower detector in 2007, has been observed for {approx}4 years by the ARGO-YBJ experiment at TeV energies, with a statistical significance of 6.2 standard deviations. The peak of the signal is found at a position consistent with the pulsar PSR J1907+0602. Parameterizing the source shape with a two-dimensional Gauss function, we estimate an extension of {sigma}{sub ext} = 0.{sup 0}49 {+-} 0.{sup 0}22, which is consistent with a previous measurement by the Cherenkov Array H.E.S.S. The observed energy spectrum is dN/dE = 6.1 {+-} 1.4 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup -13} (E/4 TeV){sup -2.54{+-}0.36} photons cm{sup -2} s{sup -1} TeV{sup -1}, in the energy range of {approx}1-20 TeV. The measured gamma-ray flux is consistent with the results of the Milagro detector, but is {approx}2-3 times larger than the flux previously derived by H.E.S.S. at energies of a few TeV. The continuity of the Milagro and ARGO-YBJ observations and the stable excess rate observed by ARGO-YBJ and recorded in four years of data support the identification of MGRO J1908+06 as the steady powerful TeV pulsar wind nebula of PSR J1907+0602, with an integrated luminosity over 1 TeV {approx} 1.8 times the luminosity of the Crab Nebula.

  10. Rarefaction acceleration of ultrarelativistic magnetized jets in gamma-ray burst sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Komissarov, Serguei S.; Vlahakis, Nektarios; Königl, Arieh

    2010-09-01

    When a magnetically dominated superfast-magnetosonic long/soft gamma-ray burst (GRB) jet leaves the progenitor star, the external pressure support will drop and the jet may enter the regime of ballistic expansion, during which additional magnetic acceleration becomes ineffective. However, recent numerical simulations by Tchekhovskoy et al. have suggested that the transition to this regime is accompanied by a spurt of acceleration. We confirm this finding numerically and attribute the acceleration to a sideways expansion of the jet, associated with a strong magnetosonic rarefaction wave that is driven into the jet when it loses pressure support, which induces a conversion of magnetic energy into kinetic energy of bulk motion. This mechanism, which we dub rarefaction acceleration, can only operate in a relativistic outflow because in this case the total energy can still be dominated by the magnetic component even in the superfast-magnetosonic regime. We analyse this process using the equations of relativistic magnetohydrodynamics and demonstrate that it is more efficient at converting internal energy into kinetic energy when the flow is magnetized than in a purely hydrodynamic outflow, as was found numerically by Mizuno et al. We show that, just as in the case of the magnetic acceleration of a collimating jet that is confined by an external pressure distribution - the collimation-acceleration mechanism - the rarefaction-acceleration process in a magnetized jet is a consequence of the fact that the separation between neighbouring magnetic flux surfaces increases faster than their cylindrical radius. However, whereas in the case of effective collimation-acceleration the product of the jet opening angle and its Lorentz factor does not exceed ~1, the addition of the rarefaction-acceleration mechanism makes it possible for this product to become >>1, in agreement with the inference from late-time panchromatic breaks in the afterglow light curves of long/soft GRBs.

  11. The radio and optical counterpart of the new Fermi LAT flaring source J0109+6134

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paredes, J. M.; Martí, J.; Peracaula, M.

    2010-02-01

    Following the recent ATELs #2414, #2416 and #2420 concerning the Fermi-LAT, AGILE and Swift/XRT consistent detections of the new gamma-ray flaring source J0109+6134, we wish to remind that the proposed radio counterpart (VCS2 J0109+6133/GT 0106+613) was extensively observed nearly two decades ago by different authors in the context of the GT catalogue of Galactic Plane radio sources (Taylor and Gregory 1983, AJ, 88, 1784; Gregory and Taylor 1986, AJ 92, 371).

  12. Very high-energy gamma rays from gamma-ray bursts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chadwick, Paula M

    2007-05-15

    Very high-energy (VHE) gamma-ray astronomy has undergone a transformation in the last few years, with telescopes of unprecedented sensitivity having greatly expanded the source catalogue. Such progress makes the detection of a gamma-ray burst at the highest energies much more likely than previously. This paper describes the facilities currently operating and their chances for detecting gamma-ray bursts, and reviews predictions for VHE gamma-ray emission from gamma-ray bursts. Results to date are summarized.

  13. Open-source implementation of an algorithm for photopeaks search and analysis in gamma-ray spectrometry with semiconductor detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maduar, Marcelo F.; Pecequilo, Brigitte R.S.

    2009-01-01

    Radioactivity quantification of gamma-ray emitter radionuclides in samples measured by HPGe gamma spectrometers relies on the analysis of the photopeaks present in the spectra, especially on the accurate determination of their net areas. This paper presents a methodology and an algorithm description for the peak search and analysis in order to obtain the relevant peaks parameters and their uncertainties. The procedure is performed on a three step approach: a preliminary search is done by using the second-difference method; experimental peaks widths are assessed in order to obtain a width vs. channel relationship and to define regions with single or overlapping peaks; a non-linear fit is applied to each region of the spectrum with candidate peaks. The final target function is in the form G(x) = B(x) + F(x), where B(x) is the baseline composed by a sum of a weighed left-side B L (x) and right-side B R (x) base-line quadratic functions and the photopeaks term F(x) is a sum of Gaussian functions. The computational implementation is released entirely in open-source license. The code was developed in C++ language and the interface was developed with Qt GUI software toolkit. GNU scientific library, GSL, was employed to perform linear and non-linear fitting procedures as needed. Spectra previously generated at our laboratories were analyzed with the presented methodology and with the commercial software package WinnerGamma. Results obtained are consistent with those obtained with the aforementioned package, suggesting that it could be safely used in general-purpose gamma-ray spectrometry. (author)

  14. GAMMA RAYS FROM STAR FORMATION IN CLUSTERS OF GALAXIES

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Storm, Emma M.; Jeltema, Tesla E.; Profumo, Stefano

    2012-01-01

    Star formation in galaxies is observed to be associated with gamma-ray emission, presumably from non-thermal processes connected to the acceleration of cosmic-ray nuclei and electrons. The detection of gamma rays from starburst galaxies by the Fermi Large Area Telescope (LAT) has allowed the determination of a functional relationship between star formation rate and gamma-ray luminosity. Since star formation is known to scale with total infrared (8-1000 μm) and radio (1.4 GHz) luminosity, the observed infrared and radio emission from a star-forming galaxy can be used to quantitatively infer the galaxy's gamma-ray luminosity. Similarly, star-forming galaxies within galaxy clusters allow us to derive lower limits on the gamma-ray emission from clusters, which have not yet been conclusively detected in gamma rays. In this study, we apply the functional relationships between gamma-ray luminosity and radio and IR luminosities of galaxies derived by the Fermi Collaboration to a sample of the best candidate galaxy clusters for detection in gamma rays in order to place lower limits on the gamma-ray emission associated with star formation in galaxy clusters. We find that several clusters have predicted gamma-ray emission from star formation that are within an order of magnitude of the upper limits derived in Ackermann et al. based on non-detection by Fermi-LAT. Given the current gamma-ray limits, star formation likely plays a significant role in the gamma-ray emission in some clusters, especially those with cool cores. We predict that both Fermi-LAT over the course of its lifetime and the future Cerenkov Telescope Array will be able to detect gamma-ray emission from star-forming galaxies in clusters.

  15. Compton Gamma-Ray Observatory

    Science.gov (United States)

    1991-01-01

    This photograph shows the Compton Gamma-Ray Observatory (GRO) being deployed by the Remote Manipulator System (RMS) arm aboard the Space Shuttle Atlantis during the STS-37 mission in April 1991. The GRO reentered Earth atmosphere and ended its successful mission in June 2000. For nearly 9 years, the GRO Burst and Transient Source Experiment (BATSE), designed and built by the Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC), kept an unblinking watch on the universe to alert scientists to the invisible, mysterious gamma-ray bursts that had puzzled them for decades. By studying gamma-rays from objects like black holes, pulsars, quasars, neutron stars, and other exotic objects, scientists could discover clues to the birth, evolution, and death of stars, galaxies, and the universe. The gamma-ray instrument was one of four major science instruments aboard the Compton. It consisted of eight detectors, or modules, located at each corner of the rectangular satellite to simultaneously scan the entire universe for bursts of gamma-rays ranging in duration from fractions of a second to minutes. In January 1999, the instrument, via the Internet, cued a computer-controlled telescope at Las Alamos National Laboratory in Los Alamos, New Mexico, within 20 seconds of registering a burst. With this capability, the gamma-ray experiment came to serve as a gamma-ray burst alert for the Hubble Space Telescope, the Chandra X-Ray Observatory, and major gound-based observatories around the world. Thirty-seven universities, observatories, and NASA centers in 19 states, and 11 more institutions in Europe and Russia, participated in the BATSE science program.

  16. Relativistic motion in gamma-ray bursts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krolik, J.H.; Pier, E.A.

    1991-01-01

    Three fundamental problems affect models of gamma-ray bursts, i.e., the energy source, the ability of high-energy photons to escape the radiation region, and the comparative weakness of X-ray emission. It is indicated that relativistic bulk motion of the gamma-ray-emitting plasma generically provides a solution to all three of these problems. Results show that, if the plasma that produces gamma-ray bursts has a bulk relativistic velocity with Lorentz factor gamma of about 10, several of the most troubling problems having to do with gamma-ray bursts are solved. 42 refs

  17. Extragalactic Gamma-Ray Astrophysics

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva

    2016-01-01

    During the last decades, various classes of radio-loud active galactic nuclei have been established as sources of high-energy radiation extending over a very broad range from soft gamma-rays (photon energies E~MeV) up to very-high-energy gamma-rays (E>100 GeV). These include blazars of different types, as well as young and evolved radio galaxies. The observed gamma-ray emission from such implies efficient particle acceleration processes taking place in highly magnetized and relativistic jets produced by supermassive black holes, processes that have yet to be identified and properly understood. In addition, nearby starforming and starburst galaxies, some of which host radio-quiet Seyfert-type nuclei, have been detected in the gamma-ray range as well. In their cases, the observed gamma-ray emission is due to non-thermal activity in the interstellar medium, possibly including also a contribution from accretion disks and nuclear outflows. Finally, the high-energy emission from clusters of galaxies remains elusive...

  18. Measurements of prompt gamma-rays from fast-neutron induced fission with the LICORNE directional neutron source

    CERN Document Server

    Wilson, J N; Halipre, P; Oberstedt, S; Oberstedt, A

    2014-01-01

    At the IPN Orsay we have developed a unique, directional, fast neutron source called LICORNE, intended initially to facilitate prompt fission gamma measurements. The ability of the IPN Orsay tandem accelerator to produce intense beams of $^7$Li is exploited to produce quasi-monoenergetic neutrons between 0.5 - 4 MeV using the p($^7$Li,$^7$Be)n inverse reaction. The available fluxes of up to 7 × 10$^7$ neutrons/second/steradian for the thickest hydrogen-rich targets are comparable to similar installations, but with two added advantages: (i) The kinematic focusing produces a natural neutron beam collimation which allows placement of gamma detectors adjacent to the irradiated sample unimpeded by source neutrons. (ii) The background of scattered neutrons in the experimental hall is drastically reduced. The dedicated neutron converter was commissioned in June 2013. Some preliminary results from the first experiment using the LICORNE neutron source at the IPN Orsay are presented. Prompt fission gamma rays from fas...

  19. Observations of the unidentified gamma-ray source TeV J2032+4130 by Veritas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aliu, E.; Errando, M. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Barnard College, Columbia University, NY 10027 (United States); Aune, T. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of California, Los Angeles, CA 90095 (United States); Behera, B.; Chen, X.; Federici, S. [DESY, Platanenallee 6, D-15738 Zeuthen (Germany); Beilicke, M.; Buckley, J. H.; Bugaev, V. [Department of Physics, Washington University, St. Louis, MO 63130 (United States); Benbow, W.; Cerruti, M. [Fred Lawrence Whipple Observatory, Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, Amado, AZ 85645 (United States); Berger, K. [Department of Physics and Astronomy and the Bartol Research Institute, University of Delaware, Newark, DE 19716 (United States); Bird, R. [School of Physics, University College Dublin, Belfield, Dublin 4 (Ireland); Cardenzana, J. V. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Iowa State University, Ames, IA 50011 (United States); Ciupik, L. [Astronomy Department, Adler Planetarium and Astronomy Museum, Chicago, IL 60605 (United States); Connolly, M. P. [School of Physics, National University of Ireland Galway, University Road, Galway (Ireland); Cui, W. [Department of Physics, Purdue University, West Lafayette, IN 47907 (United States); Duke, C. [Department of Physics, Grinnell College, Grinnell, IA 50112-1690 (United States); Dumm, J. [School of Physics and Astronomy, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN 55455 (United States); Falcone, A., E-mail: pratik.majumdar@saha.ac.in, E-mail: gareth.hughes@desy.de [Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics, 525 Davey Lab, Pennsylvania State University, University Park, PA 16802 (United States); and others

    2014-03-01

    TeV J2032+4130 was the first unidentified source discovered at very high energies (VHEs; E > 100 GeV), with no obvious counterpart in any other wavelength. It is also the first extended source to be observed in VHE gamma rays. Following its discovery, intensive observational campaigns have been carried out in all wavelengths in order to understand the nature of the object, which have met with limited success. We report here on a deep observation of TeV J2032+4130 based on 48.2 hr of data taken from 2009 to 2012 by the Very Energetic Radiation Imaging Telescope Array System experiment. The source is detected at 8.7 standard deviations (σ) and is found to be extended and asymmetric with a width of 9.'5 ± 1.'2 along the major axis and 4.'0 ± 0.'5 along the minor axis. The spectrum is well described by a differential power law with an index of 2.10 ± 0.14{sub stat} ± 0.21{sub sys} and a normalization of (9.5 ± 1.6{sub stat} ± 2.2{sub sys}) × 10{sup –13} TeV{sup –1} cm{sup –2} s{sup –1} at 1 TeV. We interpret these results in the context of multiwavelength scenarios which particularly favor the pulsar wind nebula interpretation.

  20. The Advanced Gamma-ray Imaging System (AGIS): Extragalactic Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coppi, Paolo S.; Extragalactic Science Working Group; AGIS Collaboration

    2010-03-01

    The Advanced Gamma-ray Imaging System (AGIS), a proposed next-generation array of Cherenkov telescopes, will provide an unprecedented view of the high energy universe. We discuss how AGIS, with its larger effective area, improved angular resolution, lower threshold, and an order of magnitude increase in sensitivity, impacts the extragalactic science possible in the very high energy domain. Likely source classes detectable by AGIS include AGN, GRBs, clusters, star-forming galaxies, and possibly the cascade radiation surrounding powerful cosmic accelerators. AGIS should see many of the sources discovered by Fermi. With its better sensitivity and angular resolution, AGIS then becomes a key instrument for identifying and characterizing Fermi survey sources, the majority of which will have limited Fermi photon statistics and localizations.

  1. Nomogram for Determining Shield Thickness for Point and Line Sources of Gamma Rays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Joenemalm, C.; Malen, K

    1966-10-01

    A set of nomograms is given for the determination of the required shield thickness against gamma radiation. The sources handled are point and infinite line sources with shields of Pb, Fe, magnetite concrete (p = 3.6), ordinary concrete (p = 2.3) or water. The gamma energy range covered is 0.5 - 10 MeV. The nomograms are directly applicable for source and dose points on the surfaces of the shield. They can easily be extended to source and dose points in other positions by applying a geometrical correction. Also included are data for calculation of the source strength for the most common materials and for fission product sources

  2. Nomogram for Determining Shield Thickness for Point and Line Sources of Gamma Rays

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Joenemalm, C; Malen, K

    1966-10-15

    A set of nomograms is given for the determination of the required shield thickness against gamma radiation. The sources handled are point and infinite line sources with shields of Pb, Fe, magnetite concrete (p = 3.6), ordinary concrete (p = 2.3) or water. The gamma energy range covered is 0.5 - 10 MeV. The nomograms are directly applicable for source and dose points on the surfaces of the shield. They can easily be extended to source and dose points in other positions by applying a geometrical correction. Also included are data for calculation of the source strength for the most common materials and for fission product sources.

  3. Study with the sigma data base of the galactic bulge hard x-ray and gamma-ray sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vargas, Marielle

    1997-01-01

    The Sigma coded-mask telescope on board the Granat spacecraft produces sky images in the hard X-ray and soft gamma-ray energy domain (30-1300 keV) with an angular resolution of 15 arc minutes. The observations of the 18 Angstroms x 17 Angstroms region around the Galactic Center, performed with Sigma regularly during seven years, allowed the detection of a cluster of 17 sources showing activity beyond 40 ke V. This cluster is identified with the Galactic Bulge and its core coincides with the Galactic Center. Each of these sources reveals matter accretion by a collapse star in binary system. Its nature is determined by the luminosity and the spectral behavior recorded beyond 40 keV. Three accreting black holes show peculiar transient activities and comparable flare luminosities providing a criterion to evaluate distance of other specimens located elsewhere in the Galaxy. No sign of activity has been detected from the very center of the Galaxy where a supermassive black hole would be placed and would accrete the surrounding matter. (author) [fr

  4. Effect of source angular distribution on the evaluation of gamma-ray skyshine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sheu, R.D.; Jiang, S.H. [Dept. of Engineering and System Science, National Tsing Hua Univ., Taiwan (China); Chang, B.J.; Chen, I.J. [Division of Health Physics, Inst. of Nuclear Energy Research, Taiwan (China)

    2000-03-01

    The effect of the angular distribution of the equivalent point source on the analysis of the skyshine dose rates was investigated in detail. The dedicated skyshine codes SKYDOSE and McSKY were revised to include the capability of dealing with the anisotropic source. It was found that a replace of the cosine-distributed source by an isotropic source will overestimate the skyshine dose rates for large roof-subtended angles and cause underestimation for small roof-subtended angles. For building with roof shielding, however, replacing the cosine-distributed source by an isotropic source will always underestimate the skyshine dose rates. The skyshine dose rates from a volume source calculated by the dedicated skyshine code agree very well with those of the MCNP Monte Carlo calculation. (author)

  5. Discovery of an Unidentified Fermi Object as a Black Widow-Like Millisecond Pulsar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kong, A. K. H.; Huang, R. H. H.; Cheng, K. S.; Takata, J.; Yatsu, Y.; Cheung, C. C.; Donato, D.; Lin, L. C. C.; Kataoka, J.; Takahashi, Y.; hide

    2012-01-01

    The Fermi Gamma-ray Space Telescope has revolutionized our knowledge of the gamma-ray pulsar population, leading to the discovery of almost 100 gamma-ray pulsars and dozens of gamma-ray millisecond pulsars (MSPs). Although the outer-gap model predicts different sites of emission for the radio and gamma-ray pulsars, until now all of the known gamma-ray MSPs have been visible in the radio. Here we report the discovery of a radio-quiet" gamma-ray emitting MSP candidate by using Fermi, Chandra, Swift, and optical observations. The X-ray and gamma-ray properties of the source are consistent with known gamma-ray pulsars. We also found a 4.63-hr orbital period in optical and X-ray data. We suggest that the source is a black widow-like MSP with a approx. 0.1 Stellar Mass late-type companion star. Based on the profile of the optical and X-ray light-curves, the companion star is believed to be heated by the pulsar while the X-ray emissions originate from pulsar magnetosphere and/or from intra-binary shock. No radio detection of the source has been reported yet and although no gamma-ray/radio pulsation has been found, we estimated that the spin period of the MSP is approx. 3-5 ms based on the inferred gamma-ray luminosity.

  6. Gamma ray astronomy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fichtel, C.E.

    1975-01-01

    The first certain detection of celestial high energy gamma rays came from a satellite experiment flown on the third Orbiting Solar Observatory (OSO-111). A Gamma ray spark chamber telescope with substantively greater sensitivity and angular resolution (a few degrees) flown on the second Small Astronomy Satellite (SAS-II) has now provided a better picture of the gamma ray sky, and particularly the galactic plane and pulsars. This paper will summarize the present picture of gamma ray astronomy as it has developed at this conference from measurements made with experiments carried out on balloons, those remaining on the ground, and ones flown on satellites. (orig.) [de

  7. Radio measurements in the fields of gamma-ray sources. Pt. 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sieber, W.; Schlickeiser, R.

    1982-01-01

    The γ-ray source CG 195+04 has been searched for radio counterparts at wavelengths between 2.8 cm and 18 cm with the 100-m telescope of the Max-Planck-Institut fuer Radioastronomie, Bonn. We have detected a number of sources and measured their spectra. Our positions may form the basis for future surveys in other frequency ranges. Different physical emission models suggest compactness of the γ-ray source. (orig.)

  8. Transport calculations of. gamma. -ray flux density and dose rate about implantable californium-252 sources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shapiro, A; Lin, B I [Cincinnati Univ., Ohio (USA). Dept. of Chemical and Nuclear Engineering; Windham, J P; Kereiakes, J G

    1976-07-01

    ..gamma.. flux density and dose rate distributions have been calculated about implantable californium-252 sources for an infinite tissue medium. Point source flux densities as a function of energy and position were obtained from a discrete-ordinates calculation, and the flux densities were multiplied by their corresponding kerma factors and added to obtain point source dose rates. The point dose rates were integrated over the line source to obtain line dose rates. Container attenuation was accounted for by evaluating the point dose rate as a function of platinum thickness. Both primary and secondary flux densities and dose rates are presented. The agreement with an independent Monte Carlo calculation was excellent. The data presented should be useful for the design of new source configurations.

  9. Binary millisecond pulsar discovery via gamma-ray pulsations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pletsch, H J; Guillemot, L; Fehrmann, H; Allen, B; Kramer, M; Aulbert, C; Ackermann, M; Ajello, M; de Angelis, A; Atwood, W B; Baldini, L; Ballet, J; Barbiellini, G; Bastieri, D; Bechtol, K; Bellazzini, R; Borgland, A W; Bottacini, E; Brandt, T J; Bregeon, J; Brigida, M; Bruel, P; Buehler, R; Buson, S; Caliandro, G A; Cameron, R A; Caraveo, P A; Casandjian, J M; Cecchi, C; Çelik, Ö; Charles, E; Chaves, R C G; Cheung, C C; Chiang, J; Ciprini, S; Claus, R; Cohen-Tanugi, J; Conrad, J; Cutini, S; D'Ammando, F; Dermer, C D; Digel, S W; Drell, P S; Drlica-Wagner, A; Dubois, R; Dumora, D; Favuzzi, C; Ferrara, E C; Franckowiak, A; Fukazawa, Y; Fusco, P; Gargano, F; Gehrels, N; Germani, S; Giglietto, N; Giordano, F; Giroletti, M; Godfrey, G; Grenier, I A; Grondin, M-H; Grove, J E; Guiriec, S; Hadasch, D; Hanabata, Y; Harding, A K; den Hartog, P R; Hayashida, M; Hays, E; Hill, A B; Hou, X; Hughes, R E; Jóhannesson, G; Jackson, M S; Jogler, T; Johnson, A S; Johnson, W N; Kataoka, J; Kerr, M; Knödlseder, J; Kuss, M; Lande, J; Larsson, S; Latronico, L; Lemoine-Goumard, M; Longo, F; Loparco, F; Lovellette, M N; Lubrano, P; Massaro, F; Mayer, M; Mazziotta, M N; McEnery, J E; Mehault, J; Michelson, P F; Mitthumsiri, W; Mizuno, T; Monzani, M E; Morselli, A; Moskalenko, I V; Murgia, S; Nakamori, T; Nemmen, R; Nuss, E; Ohno, M; Ohsugi, T; Omodei, N; Orienti, M; Orlando, E; de Palma, F; Paneque, D; Perkins, J S; Piron, F; Pivato, G; Porter, T A; Rainò, S; Rando, R; Ray, P S; Razzano, M; Reimer, A; Reimer, O; Reposeur, T; Ritz, S; Romani, R W; Romoli, C; Sanchez, D A; Saz Parkinson, P M; Schulz, A; Sgrò, C; do Couto e Silva, E; Siskind, E J; Smith, D A; Spandre, G; Spinelli, P; Suson, D J; Takahashi, H; Tanaka, T; Thayer, J B; Thayer, J G; Thompson, D J; Tibaldo, L; Tinivella, M; Troja, E; Usher, T L; Vandenbroucke, J; Vasileiou, V; Vianello, G; Vitale, V; Waite, A P; Winer, B L; Wood, K S; Wood, M; Yang, Z; Zimmer, S

    2012-12-07

    Millisecond pulsars, old neutron stars spun up by accreting matter from a companion star, can reach high rotation rates of hundreds of revolutions per second. Until now, all such "recycled" rotation-powered pulsars have been detected by their spin-modulated radio emission. In a computing-intensive blind search of gamma-ray data from the Fermi Large Area Telescope (with partial constraints from optical data), we detected a 2.5-millisecond pulsar, PSR J1311-3430. This unambiguously explains a formerly unidentified gamma-ray source that had been a decade-long enigma, confirming previous conjectures. The pulsar is in a circular orbit with an orbital period of only 93 minutes, the shortest of any spin-powered pulsar binary ever found.

  10. Recent status on cobalt-60 gamma ray radiation sources production and its application in China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cao Zhijian; Song Yunjiang; Zhang Chunhua; Li Maoling

    1993-01-01

    This paper describes the status of Co-60 γ ray radiation sources and their application in China. At present, the production capacity of Co-60 γ ray radiation sources in China is about 11.1 PBq (0.3 MCi) per year. 5 years later, it is increased to 37 PBq (1 MCi) per year. The radioactivity of each source is 370 TBq - 740 TBq (1000-2000 Ci). There are over 150 Co-60 γ ray radiation facilities with total design capacity of over 370 PBq (10 MCi) and practical capacity of about 92.5 PBq (2.5 MCi) in operation. The number of Co-60 γ ray radiation facilities with practical capacity of over 3.7 PBq (0.1 MCi) is 14. The main applications of the Co-60 γ ray sources are radiation crosslinking, radiation sterilization of disposable medical supplies and food irradiation. The prospects for Co-60 γ ray radiation source application in China are good. (author)

  11. X-ray Studies of Unidentified Galactic TeV Gamma-ray Sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pühlhofer, Gerd

    2009-05-01

    Many of the recently discovered Galactic TeV sources remain unidentified to date. A large fraction of the sources is possibly associated with relic pulsar wind nebula (PWN) systems. One key question here is the maximum energy (beyond TeV) attained in the compact PWNe. Hard X-ray emission can trace those particles, but current non-focussing X-ray instruments above 10 keV have difficulties to deconvolve the hard pulsar spectrum from its surrounding nebula. Some of the new TeV sources are also expected to originate from middle-aged and possibly even from old supernova remnants (SNR). But no compelling case for such an identification has been found yet. In established young TeV-emitting SNRs, X-ray imaging above 10 keV could help to disentangle the leptonic from the hadronic emission component in the TeV shells, if secondary electrons produced in hadronic collisions can be effectively detected. As SNRs get older, the high energy electron component is expected to fade away. This may allow to verify the picture through X-ray spectral evolution of the source population. Starting from the lessons we have learned so far from X-ray follow-up observations of unidentified TeV sources, prospects for Simbol-X to resolve open questions in this field will be discussed.

  12. X-ray Studies of Unidentified Galactic TeV Gamma-ray Sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Puehlhofer, Gerd

    2009-01-01

    Many of the recently discovered Galactic TeV sources remain unidentified to date. A large fraction of the sources is possibly associated with relic pulsar wind nebula (PWN) systems. One key question here is the maximum energy (beyond TeV) attained in the compact PWNe. Hard X-ray emission can trace those particles, but current non-focussing X-ray instruments above 10 keV have difficulties to deconvolve the hard pulsar spectrum from its surrounding nebula.Some of the new TeV sources are also expected to originate from middle-aged and possibly even from old supernova remnants (SNR). But no compelling case for such an identification has been found yet. In established young TeV-emitting SNRs, X-ray imaging above 10 keV could help to disentangle the leptonic from the hadronic emission component in the TeV shells, if secondary electrons produced in hadronic collisions can be effectively detected. As SNRs get older, the high energy electron component is expected to fade away. This may allow to verify the picture through X-ray spectral evolution of the source population.Starting from the lessons we have learned so far from X-ray follow-up observations of unidentified TeV sources, prospects for Simbol-X to resolve open questions in this field will be discussed.

  13. Calibration of intense 60Co gamma ray sources at the Savannah River Plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bibler, N.E.

    1976-05-01

    Three different dosimeters were used to calibrate Savannah River Plant 60 Co sources having intensities greater than 10 7 rads/hr. These dosimeters are (a) ceric sulfate dissolved in 0.4M H 2 SO 4 , (b) oxalic acid dissolved in water, and (c) a commercially available nylon film containing a radiochromic dye. Response per unit dose to these dosimeters is independent of radiation intensity at 10 4 to 10 11 rads/hr. The dosimeters were calibrated at 6.0 x 10 5 rads/hr with a 60 Co source whose intensity was determined with the standard Fricke dosimeter. For the sources at 10 7 rads/hr or greater, intensities were calculated from slopes of linear plots of dosimeter response versus irradiation time. Individual dose rates varied from 1.0 x 10 7 to 4.6 x 10 7 rads/hr. Each source was calibrated with at least two different dosimeters. Relative standard deviations varied from 2 to 9 percent. A conservative estimate of the uncertainty in the accuracy of these dosimeters is 10 percent. Of the three dosimeters, the nylon film is easiest to use and is therefore recommended for future calibrations

  14. Sixth symposium on x- and gamma ray sources and applications. Abstracts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1985-01-01

    Abstracts are provided for technical presentations in the areas of: gamma and x-ray sources, kinds of detectors, characterization of detectors and detector systems, models and data analysis, gamma spectroscopy, instrumentation, x-ray fluorescence, tomography, x-ray absorption, and pion induced x-ray emission

  15. Optimization of H.E.S.S. instrumental performances for the analysis of weak gamma-ray sources: Application to the study of HESS J1832-092

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laffon, H.

    2012-01-01

    H.E.S.S. (High Energy Stereoscopic System) is an array of very-high energy gamma-ray telescopes located in Namibia. These telescopes take advantage of the atmospheric Cherenkov technique using stereoscopy, allowing to detect gamma-rays between 100 GeV and a few tens of TeV. The location of the H.E.S.S. telescopes in the Southern hemisphere allows to observe the central parts of our galaxy, the Milky Way. Tens of new gamma-ray sources were thereby discovered thanks to the galactic plane survey strategy. After ten years of fruitful observations with many detections, it is now necessary to improve the detector performance in order to detect new sources by increasing the sensitivity and improving the angular resolution. The aim of this thesis consists in the development of advanced analysis techniques allowing to make sharper analysis. An automatic tool to look for new sources and to improve the subtraction of the background noise is presented. It is optimized for the study of weak sources that needs a very rigorous analysis. A combined reconstruction method is built in order to improve the angular resolution without reducing the statistics, which is critical for weak sources. These advanced methods are applied to the analysis of a complex region of the galactic plane near the supernova remnant G22.7-0.2, leading to the detection of a new source, HESS J1832-092. Multi-wavelength counterparts are shown and several scenarios are considered to explain the origin of the gamma-ray signal of this astrophysical object. (author)

  16. Coded aperture detector for high precision gamma-ray burst source locations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Helmken, H.; Gorenstein, P.

    1977-01-01

    Coded aperture collimators in conjunction with position-sensitive detectors are very useful in the study of transient phenomenon because they combine broad field of view, high sensitivity, and an ability for precise source locations. Since the preceeding conference, a series of computer simulations of various detector designs have been carried out with the aid of a CDC 6400. Particular emphasis was placed on the development of a unit consisting of a one-dimensional random or periodic collimator in conjunction with a two-dimensional position-sensitive Xenon proportional counter. A configuration involving four of these units has been incorporated into the preliminary design study of the Transient Explorer (ATREX) satellite and are applicable to any SAS or HEAO type satellite mission. Results of this study, including detector response, fields of view, and source location precision, will be presented

  17. Fermi GBM Trigger Catalog

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Fermi is a powerful space observatory that will open a wide window on the universe. Gamma rays are the highest-energy form of light, and the gamma-ray sky is...

  18. Calculation of gamma ray dose buildup factors in water for isotropic point, plane mono directional and line sources using MCNP code

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Atak, H.; Celikten, O. S.; Tombakoglu, M.

    2009-01-01

    Gamma ray dose buildup factors in water for isotropic point, plane mono directional and infinite/finite line sources were calculated using the MCNP code. The buildup factors are determined for gamma ray energies of 1, 2, 3 and 4 Mev and for shield thicknesses of 1, 2, 4 and 7 mean free paths. The calculated buildup factors were then fitted in the Taylor and Berger forms. For the line sources a buildup factor table was also constructed using the Sievert function and the constants in Taylor form derived in this study to compare with the Monte Carlo results. All buildup factors were compared with the tabulated data given in literature. In order to reduce the statistical errors on buildup factors, 'forced collision' option was used in the MCNP calculations.

  19. DISCOVERY OF HIGH-ENERGY GAMMA-RAY EMISSION FROM THE BINARY SYSTEM PSR B1259-63/LS 2883 AROUND PERIASTRON WITH FERMI

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abdo, A. A.; Ackermann, M.; Ajello, M.; Allafort, A.; Bechtol, K.; Berenji, B.; Blandford, R. D.; Borgland, A. W.; Buehler, R.; Cameron, R. A.; Ballet, J.; Barbiellini, G.; Bastieri, D.; Buson, S.; Bellazzini, R.; Bregeon, J.; Bonamente, E.; Brigida, M.; Bruel, P.; Caliandro, G. A.

    2011-01-01

    We report on the discovery of ≥100 MeV γ-rays from the binary system PSR B1259-63/LS 2883 using the Large Area Telescope (LAT) on board Fermi. The system comprises a radio pulsar in orbit around a Be star. We report on LAT observations from near apastron to ∼128 days after the time of periastron, t p , on 2010 December 15. No γ-ray emission was detected from this source when it was far from periastron. Faint γ-ray emission appeared as the pulsar approached periastron. At ∼t p + 30 days, the ≥100 MeV γ-ray flux increased over a period of a few days to a peak flux 20-30 times that seen during the pre-periastron period, but with a softer spectrum. For the following month, it was seen to be variable on daily timescales, but remained at ∼(1-4) x 10 -6 cm -2 s -1 before starting to fade at ∼t p + 57 days. The total γ-ray luminosity observed during this period is comparable to the spin-down power of the pulsar. Simultaneous radio and X-ray observations of the source showed no corresponding dramatic changes in radio and X-ray flux between the pre-periastron and post-periastron flares. We discuss possible explanations for the observed γ-ray-only flaring of the source.

  20. Systematization of efficiency correction for gamma-ray disk sources with semiconductor detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chatani, Hiroshi

    1999-01-01

    Full energy peak efficiency correction for disk sources has been systematically studied using the mapping method with two high-purity germanium detectors and two low-energy photon spectrometers. The following are found using only single-line (i.e., no coincidence summing loses) γ-rays: (1) The efficiency distributions on a plane parallel to the entrance window of semiconductor detectors is in perfect accord with Gaussian curves inside the circumference of the cylindrical Ge crystal, however, they deviate from the curves outside the circumference. (2) The width parameters of the Gaussian function fitted to the efficiency distributions have a systematic relationship with γ-ray energy. (3) The mapping method is of practical use and has satisfactory accuracy

  1. Gamma-Ray Pulsars: Beaming Evolution, Statistics, and Unidentified EGRET Sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yadigaroglu, I.-A.; Romani, Roger W.

    1995-08-01

    We compute the variation of the beaming fraction with the efficiency of high-energy γ-ray production in the outer gap pulsar model of Romani and Yadigaroglu. This allows us to correct the fluxes observed for pulsars in the EGRET band and to derive a simple estimate of the variation of efficiency with age. Integration of this model over the population of young neutron stars gives the expected number of γ-ray pulsars along with their distributions in age and distance. This model also shows that many of the unidentified EGRET plane sources should be pulsars and predicts the γ-ray fluxes of known radio pulsars. The contribution of unresolved pulsars to the background flux in the EGRET band is found to be ˜5%.

  2. Low-luminosity gamma-ray bursts as the sources of ultrahigh-energy cosmic ray nuclei

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, B. Theodore; Murase, Kohta; Kimura, Shigeo S.; Horiuchi, Shunsaku; Mészáros, Peter

    2018-04-01

    Recent results from the Pierre Auger Collaboration have shown that the composition of ultrahigh-energy cosmic rays (UHECRs) becomes gradually heavier with increasing energy. Although gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) have been promising sources of UHECRs, it is still unclear whether they can account for the Auger results because of their unknown nuclear composition of ejected UHECRs. In this work, we revisit the possibility that low-luminosity GRBs (LL GRBs) act as the sources of UHECR nuclei and give new predictions based on the intrajet nuclear composition models considering progenitor dependencies. We find that the nuclear component in the jet can be divided into two groups according to the mass fraction of silicon nuclei, Si-free and Si-rich. Motivated by the connection between LL GRBs and transrelativistic supernovae, we also consider the hypernova ejecta composition. Then, we discuss the survivability of UHECR nuclei in the jet base and internal shocks of the jets, and show that it is easier for nuclei to survive for typical LL GRBs. Finally, we numerically propagate UHECR nuclei ejected from LL GRBs with different composition models and compare the resulting spectra and composition to Auger data. Our results show that both the Si-rich progenitor and hypernova ejecta models match the Auger data well, while the Si-free progenitor models have more difficulty in fitting the spectrum. We argue that our model is consistent with the newly reported cross-correlation between the UHECRs and starburst galaxies, since both LL GRBs and hypernovae are expected to be tracers of the star-formation activity. LL GRBs have also been suggested as the dominant origin of IceCube neutrinos in the PeV range, and the LL GRB origin of UHECRs can be critically tested by near-future multimessenger observations.

  3. A study of electron-positron pair equilibria in models of compact X- and gamma-ray sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bjoernsson, G.

    1990-01-01

    Thermal electron-positron pair equilibria in two temperature models of compact x ray and gamma ray sources are studied. The pairs are assumed to be heated by Coulomb interaction with the much hotter protons and cooled by bremsstrahlung emission, Compton scattering, and annihilation. Two parameters, the proton optical depth and the compactness, characterize each equilibrium state. It is shown that a careful account of the energy balance is very important when the stability properties of the pair equilibria in a spherical plasma cloud are determined. The equilibria are found to be unstable in a very limited range of compactness and proton optical depth. This particular instability is unlikely to be the cause of the observed variability of the compact sources and implies that it is possible to build up high pair densities by a thermal mechanism in two temperature environments. The most important result considers the effects of pairs on the structure of geometrically and effectively optically thin accretion disks. A new approach for solving for the equilibrium structure of the disks is presented. In effect, the pair equilibrium states are projected into the space spanned by the disk structure parameters. This allows a direct visualization of all possible disk solutions at once. Each solution profile needs to be calculated only once and a complete disk solution is obtained by a simple radial coordinate transformation. The disk solutions are thus seen to be scale free in terms of the radial coordinate as well as in terms of the mass of the central object and the accretion rate. Two particular disk solutions are given. It is shown that including electron-positron pairs in the disk structure calculations leads to a breakdown of the thin disk assumptions and that more detailed disk modeling is required before electron-positron pairs can be self-consistently included

  4. Inverse Compton gamma-ray source for nuclear physics and related applications at the Duke FEL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    O'Shea, P.G.; Litvinenko, V.N.; Madey, J.M.J.

    1995-01-01

    In recent years the development of intense, short-wavelength FEL light sources has opened opportunities for the development new applications of high-energy Compton-backscattered photons. These applications range from medical imaging with X-ray photons to high-energy physics with γγ colliders. In this paper we discuss the possibilities for nuclear physics studies using polarized Compton backscattered γ-rays from the Duke storage-ring-driven UV-FEL. There are currently a number of projects that produce polarized γ-rays for nuclear physics studies. All of these facilities operate by scattering conventional laser-light against electrons circulating in a storage ring. In our scheme, intra-cavity scattering of the UV-FEL light will produce a γ-flux enhancement of approximately 10 3 over existing sources. The Duke ring can operate at energies up to 1.2 GeV and can produce FEL photons up to 12.5 eV. We plan to generate γ-rays up to 200 MeV in energy with an average flux in excess of 10 7 /s/MeV, using a modest scattering beam of 10-mA average stored current. The γ-ray energy may be tuned by varying the FEL wavelength or by adjusting the stored electron beam energy. Because of the intense flux, we can eliminate the need for photon energy tagging by collimating of the γ-ray beam. We will discuss the characteristics of the device and its research opportunities

  5. Public List of LAT-Detected Gamma-Ray Pulsars

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The following is a compilation of all publicly-announced gamma-ray pulsars detected using the Fermi LAT. Each of the detections has been vetted by the LAT team,...

  6. The Effect of Gamma-ray Detector Energy Resolution on the Ability to Identify Radioactive Sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nelson, K.E.; Gosnell, T.B.; Knapp, D.A.

    2009-01-01

    This report describes the results of an initial study on radiation detector spectral resolution, along with the underlying methodology used. The study was done as part of an ongoing effort in Detection Modeling and Operational Analysis (DMOA) for the DNDO System Architecture Directorate. The study objective was to assess the impact of energy resolution on radionuclide identification capability, measured by the ability to reliably discriminate between spectra associated with 'threats' (defined as fissile materials) and radioactive 'non-threats' that might be present in the normal stream of commerce. Although numerous factors must be considered in deciding which detector technology is appropriate for a specific application, spectral resolution is a critical one for homeland security applications in which a broad range of non-threat sources are present and very low false-alarm rates are required. In this study, we have proposed a metric for quantifying discrimination capability, and have shown how this metric depends on resolution. In future work we will consider other important factors, such as efficiency and volume, and the relative frequency of spectra known to be discrimination challenges in practical applications

  7. Modeling of Pulses in Terrestrial Gamma-ray Flashes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Wei; Celestin, Sebastien; Pasko, Victor

    2015-04-01

    Terrestrial Gamma-ray Flashes (TGFs) are high-energy photon bursts originating from the Earth's atmosphere that are associated with lightning activities. After their discovery in 1994 by the Burst and Transient Source Experiment (BATSE) detector aboard the Compton Gamma-Ray Observatory [Fishman et al., Science, 264, 1313, 1994], this phenomenon has been further observed by the Reuven Ramaty High Energy Solar Spectroscopic Imager (RHESSI) [Smith et al., Science, 307, 1085, 2005], the Fermi Gamma-ray Space Telescope [Briggs et al., JGR, 115, A07323, 2010] and the Astrorivelatore Gamma a Immagini Leggero (AGILE) satellite [Marisaldi et al., JGR, 115, A00E13, 2010]. Photon spectra corresponding to the mechanism of relativistic runaway electron avalanches (RREAs) usually provide a very good agreement with satellite observations [Dwyer and Smith, GRL, 32, L22804, 2005]. On the other hand, Celestin and Pasko [JGR, 116, A03315, 2011] have shown theoretically that the large flux of thermal runaway electrons generated by streamers during the negative corona flash stage of stepping lightning leaders in intracloud lightning flashes could be responsible for TGFs. Recently, based on analysis of the temporal profiles of 278 TGF events observed by the Fermi Gamma-Ray Burst Monitor, Foley et al. [JGR, 119, 5931, 2014] have suggested that 67% of TGF pulses detected are asymmetric and these asymmetric pulses are consistent with the production mechanism of TGFs by relativistic feedback discharges. In the present work, we employ a Monte Carlo model to study the temporal distribution of photons at low-orbit satellite altitudes during TGF events. Using the pulse fitting method described in [Foley et al., 2014], we further investigate the characteristics of TGF pulses. We mainly focus on the effects of Compton scattering on the symmetry properties and the rise and fall times of TGF pulses.

  8. Gamma-Ray Emission of the Kes 73/1E 1841-045 Region Observed with the Fermi Large Area Telescope

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yeung, Paul K. H.; Kong, Albert K. H. [Institute of Astronomy and Department of Physics, National Tsing Hua University, Hsinchu, Taiwan (China); Tam, P. H. Thomas [Institute of Astronomy and Space Science, Sun Yat-Sen University, Guangzhou 510275 (China); Hui, C. Y. [Department of Astronomy and Space Science, Chungnam National University, Daejeon 305-764 (Korea, Republic of); Takata, Jumpei [School of physics, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan 430074 (China); Cheng, K. S., E-mail: paul2012@connect.hku.hk, E-mail: akong@phys.nthu.edu.tw, E-mail: tanbxuan@mail.sysu.edu.cn [Department of Physics, University of Hong Kong, Pokfulam Road (Hong Kong)

    2017-03-01

    The supernova remnant (SNR) Kes 73 and/or the magnetar 1E 1841-045 at its center can deposit a large amount of energy to the surroundings and is potentially responsible for particle acceleration. Using the data taken with the Fermi Large Area Telescope (LAT), we confirmed the presence of an extended source whose centroid position is highly consistent with this magnetar/SNR pair. Its emission is intense from 100 MeV to >100 GeV. Its LAT spectrum can be decoupled into two components, which are respectively governed by two different mechanisms. According to the young age of this system, the magnetar is seemingly a necessary and sufficient source for the downward-curved spectrum below 10 GeV, as the observed <10 GeV flux is too high for the SNR to account for. On the other hand, the SNR is reasonably responsible for the hard spectrum above 10 GeV. Further studies of this region in the TeV regime is required so that we can perform physically meaningful comparisons of the >10 GeV spectrum and the TeV spectrum.

  9. A semianalytical method for calculating the parameters of the electromagnetic halos around extragalactic gamma-ray sources

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kel'ner, [No Value; Khangulyan, DV; Aharonian, FA

    2004-01-01

    The ultrahigh-energy (>20 TeV) gamma rays emitted by active galactic nuclei can be absorbed in intergalactic space through the production of electron-positron pairs during their interaction with extragalactic background photon fields. The electrons and positrons produced by this interaction form an

  10. Variable gamma-ray sky at 1 GeV

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pshirkov, M. S.; Rubtsov, G. I.

    2013-01-01

    We search for the long-term variability of the gamma-ray sky in the energy range E > 1 GeV with 168 weeks of the gamma-ray telescope Fermi-LAT data. We perform a full sky blind search for regions with variable flux looking for deviations from uniformity. We bin the sky into 12288 pixels using the HEALPix package and use the Kolmogorov-Smirnov test to compare weekly photon counts in each pixel with the constant flux hypothesis. The weekly exposure of Fermi-LAT for each pixel is calculated with the Fermi-LAT tools. We consider flux variations in a pixel significant if the statistical probability of uniformity is less than 4 × 10 −6 , which corresponds to 0.05 false detections in the whole set. We identified 117 variable sources, 27 of which have not been reported variable before. The sources with previously unidentified variability contain 25 active galactic nuclei (AGN) belonging to the blazar class (11 BL Lacs and 14 FSRQs), one AGN of an uncertain type, and one pulsar PSR J0633+1746 (Geminga).

  11. Semi-quantitative and simulation analyses of effects of {gamma} rays on determination of calibration factors of PET scanners with point-like {sup 22}Na sources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hasegawa, Tomoyuki [School of Allied Health Sciences, Kitasato University, 1-15-1, Kitasato, Minamiku, Sagamihara, Kanagawa, 252-0373 (Japan); Sato, Yasushi [National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology, 1-1-1, Umezono, Tsukuba, Ibaraki, 305-8568 (Japan); Oda, Keiichi [Tokyo Metropolitan Institute of Gerontology, 1-1, Nakamachi, Itabashi, Tokyo, 173-0022 (Japan); Wada, Yasuhiro [RIKEN Center for Molecular Imaging Science, 6-7-3, Minamimachi, Minatoshima, Chuo, Kobe, Hyogo, 650-0047 (Japan); Murayama, Hideo [National Institute of Radiological Sciences, 4-9-1, Anagawa, Inage, Chiba, 263-8555 (Japan); Yamada, Takahiro, E-mail: hasegawa@kitasato-u.ac.jp [Japan Radioisotope Association, 2-28-45, Komagome, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo, 113-8941 (Japan)

    2011-09-21

    The uncertainty of radioactivity concentrations measured with positron emission tomography (PET) scanners ultimately depends on the uncertainty of the calibration factors. A new practical calibration scheme using point-like {sup 22}Na radioactive sources has been developed. The purpose of this study is to theoretically investigate the effects of the associated 1.275 MeV {gamma} rays on the calibration factors. The physical processes affecting the coincidence data were categorized in order to derive approximate semi-quantitative formulae. Assuming the design parameters of some typical commercial PET scanners, the effects of the {gamma} rays as relative deviations in the calibration factors were evaluated by semi-quantitative formulae and a Monte Carlo simulation. The relative deviations in the calibration factors were less than 4%, depending on the details of the PET scanners. The event losses due to rejecting multiple coincidence events of scattered {gamma} rays had the strongest effect. The results from the semi-quantitative formulae and the Monte Carlo simulation were consistent and were useful in understanding the underlying mechanisms. The deviations are considered small enough to correct on the basis of precise Monte Carlo simulation. This study thus offers an important theoretical basis for the validity of the calibration method using point-like {sup 22}Na radioactive sources.

  12. The Advanced Gamma-ray Imaging System (AGIS): Galactic Astrophysics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Digel, Seth William; Funk, S.; Kaaret, P. E.; Tajima, H.; AGIS Collaboration

    2010-03-01

    The Advanced Gamma-ray Imaging System (AGIS), a concept for a next-generation atmospheric Cherenkov telescope array, would provide unprecedented sensitivity and resolution in the energy range >50 GeV, allowing great advances in the understanding of the populations and physics of sources of high-energy gamma rays in the Milky Way. Extrapolation based on the known source classes and the performance parameters for AGIS indicates that a survey of the Galactic plane with AGIS will reveal hundreds of TeV sources in exquisite detail, for population studies of a variety of source classes, and detailed studies of individual sources. AGIS will be able to study propagation effects on the cosmic rays produced by Galactic sources by detecting the diffuse glow from their interactions in dense interstellar gas. AGIS will complement and extend results now being obtained in the GeV range with the Fermi mission, by providing superior angular resolution and sensitivity to variability on short time scales, and of course by probing energies that Fermi cannot reach.

  13. FAST's Discovery of a New Millisecond Pulsar (MSP) toward the Fermi-LAT unassociated source 3FGL J0318.1+0252

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Pei; Li, Di; Zhu, Weiwei; Zhang, Chengmin; Yan, Jun; Hou, Xian; Clark, Colin J.; Saz Parkinson, Pablo M.; Michelson, Peter F.; Ferrara, Elizabeth C.; Thompson, David J.; Smith, David A.; Ray, Paul S.; Kerr, Matthew; Shen, Zhiqiang; Wang, Na; Fermi-LAT Collaboration

    2018-04-01

    The Five hundred-meter Aperture Spherical radio Telescope (FAST), operated by the National Astronomical Observatories, Chinese Academy of Sciences, has discovered a radio millisecond pulsar (MSP) coincident with the unassociated gamma-ray source 3FGL J0318.1+0252 (Acero et al. 2015 ApJS, 218, 23), also known as FL8Y J0318.2+0254 in the recently released Fermi Large Area Telescope (LAT) 8-year Point Source List (FL8Y).

  14. Physical constraints on models of gamma-ray bursters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Epstein, R.I.

    1985-01-01

    This report deals with the constraints that can be placed on models of gamma-ray burst sources based on only the well-established observational facts and physical principles. The premise is developed that the very hard x-ray and gamma-ray continua spectra are well-established aspects of gamma-ray bursts. Recent theoretical work on gamma-ray bursts are summarized with emphasis on the geometrical properties of the models. Constraints on the source models which are implied by the x-ray and gamma-ray spectra are described. The allowed ranges for the luminosity and characteristic dimension for gamma-ray burst sources are shown. Some of the deductions and inferences about the nature of the gamma-ray burst sources are summarized. 67 refs., 3 figs

  15. Einstein@Home discovers a radio-quiet gamma-ray millisecond pulsar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Colin J.; Pletsch, Holger J.; Wu, Jason; Guillemot, Lucas; Kerr, Matthew; Johnson, Tyrel J.; Camilo, Fernando; Salvetti, David; Allen, Bruce; Anderson, David; Aulbert, Carsten; Beer, Christian; Bock, Oliver; Cuéllar, Andres; Eggenstein, Heinz-Bernd; Fehrmann, Henning; Kramer, Michael; Kwang, Shawn A.; Machenschalk, Bernd; Nieder, Lars; Ackermann, Markus; Ajello, Marco; Baldini, Luca; Ballet, Jean; Barbiellini, Guido; Bastieri, Denis; Bellazzini, Ronaldo; Bissaldi, Elisabetta; Blandford, Roger D.; Bloom, Elliott D.; Bonino, Raffaella; Bottacini, Eugenio; Brandt, Terri J.; Bregeon, Johan; Bruel, Philippe; Buehler, Rolf; Burnett, Toby H.; Buson, Sara; Cameron, Rob A.; Caputo, Regina; Caraveo, Patrizia A.; Cavazzuti, Elisabetta; Cecchi, Claudia; Charles, Eric; Chekhtman, Alexandre; Ciprini, Stefano; Cominsky, Lynn R.; Costantin, Denise; Cutini, Sara; D’Ammando, Filippo; De Luca, Andrea; Desiante, Rachele; Di Venere, Leonardo; Di Mauro, Mattia; Di Lalla, Niccolò; Digel, Seth W.; Favuzzi, Cecilia; Ferrara, Elizabeth C.; Franckowiak, Anna; Fukazawa, Yasushi; Funk, Stefan; Fusco, Piergiorgio; Gargano, Fabio; Gasparrini, Dario; Giglietto, Nico; Giordano, Francesco; Giroletti, Marcello; Gomez-Vargas, Germán A.; Green, David; Grenier, Isabelle A.; Guiriec, Sylvain; Harding, Alice K.; Hewitt, John W.; Horan, Deirdre; Jóhannesson, Guðlaugur; Kensei, Shiki; Kuss, Michael; La Mura, Giovanni; Larsson, Stefan; Latronico, Luca; Li, Jian; Longo, Francesco; Loparco, Francesco; Lovellette, Michael N.; Lubrano, Pasquale; Magill, Jeffrey D.; Maldera, Simone; Manfreda, Alberto; Mazziotta, Mario N.; McEnery, Julie E.; Michelson, Peter F.; Mirabal, Nestor; Mitthumsiri, Warit; Mizuno, Tsunefumi; Monzani, Maria Elena; Morselli, Aldo; Moskalenko, Igor V.; Nuss, Eric; Ohsugi, Takashi; Omodei, Nicola; Orienti, Monica; Orlando, Elena; Palatiello, Michele; Paliya, Vaidehi S.; de Palma, Francesco; Paneque, David; Perkins, Jeremy S.; Persic, Massimo; Pesce-Rollins, Melissa; Porter, Troy A.; Principe, Giacomo; Rainò, Silvia; Rando, Riccardo; Ray, Paul S.; Razzano, Massimiliano; Reimer, Anita; Reimer, Olaf; Romani, Roger W.; Saz Parkinson, Pablo M.; Sgrò, Carmelo; Siskind, Eric J.; Smith, David A.; Spada, Francesca; Spandre, Gloria; Spinelli, Paolo; Thayer, Jana B.; Thompson, David J.; Torres, Diego F.; Troja, Eleonora; Vianello, Giacomo; Wood, Kent; Wood, Matthew

    2018-01-01

    Millisecond pulsars (MSPs) are old neutron stars that spin hundreds of times per second and appear to pulsate as their emission beams cross our line of sight. To date, radio pulsations have been detected from all rotation-powered MSPs. In an attempt to discover radio-quiet gamma-ray MSPs, we used the aggregated power from the computers of tens of thousands of volunteers participating in the Einstein@Home distributed computing project to search for pulsations from unidentified gamma-ray sources in Fermi Large Area Telescope data. This survey discovered two isolated MSPs, one of which is the only known rotation-powered MSP to remain undetected in radio observations. These gamma-ray MSPs were discovered in completely blind searches without prior constraints from other observations, raising hopes for detecting MSPs from a predicted Galactic bulge population. PMID:29503868

  16. Modulated High-Energy Gamma-Ray Emission from the Micro-quasar Cygnus X-3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abdo, A.A.; Cheung, C.C.; Dermer, C.D.; Grove, J.E.; Johnson, W.N.; Lovellette, M.N.; Makeev, A.; Ray, P.S.; Strickman, M.S.; Wood, K.S.; Abdo, A.A.; Cheung, C.C.; Ackermann, M.; Ajello, M.; Bechtol, K.; Berenji, B.; Blandford, R.D.; Bloom, E.D.; Borgland, A.W.; Cameron, R.A.; Chiang, J.; Claus, R.; Digel, S.W.; Silva, E.D.E.; Drell, P.S.; Dubois, R.; Focke, W.B.; Glanzman, T.; Godfrey, G.; Hayashida, M.; Johannesson, G.; Johnson, A.S.; Kamae, T.; Kocian, M.L.; Lande, J.; Madejski, G.M.; Michelson, P.F.; Mitthumsiri, W.; Monzani, M.E.; Moskalenko, I.V.; Murgia, S.; Nolan, P.L.; Paneque, D.; Reimer, A.; Reimer, O.; Rochester, L.S.; Romani, R.W.; Tanaka, T.; Thayer, J.B.; Tramacere, A.; Uchiyama, Y.; Usher, T.L.; Waite, A.P.; Wang, P.; Ackermann, M.; Ajello, M.; Bechtol, K.; Berenji, B.; Blandford, R.D.; Bloom, E.D.; Borgland, A.W.; Cameron, R.A.; Chiang, J.; Claus, R.; Digel, S.W.; Silva, E.D.E.; Drell, P.S.; Dubois, R.; Focke, W.B.; Glanzman, T.; Godfrey, G.; Hayashida, M.; Johannesson, G.; Johnson, A.S.; Kamae, T.; Kocian, M.L.; Lande, J.; Madejski, G.M.; Michelson, P.F.; Mitthumsiri, W.; Monzani, M.E.; Moskalenko, I.V.; Murgia, S.; Nolan, P.L.; Paneque, D.; Reimer, A.; Reimer, O.; Rochester, L.S.; Romani, R.W.; Tanaka, T.; Thayer, J.B.; Tramacere, A.; Uchiyama, Y.; Usher, T.L.; Waite, A.P.; Wang, P.; Axelsson, M.; Hjalmarsdotter, L.; Axelsson, M.; Conrad, J.; Hjalmarsdotter, L.; Jackson, M.S.; Meurer, C.; Ryde, F.; Ylinen, T.; Baldini, L.; Bellazzini, R.; Brez, A.; Kuss, M.; Latronico, L.; Omodei, N.; Pesce-Rollins, M.; Razzano, M.; Sgro, C.; Ballet, J.; Casandjian, J.M.; Chaty, S.; Corbel, S.; Grenier, I.A.; Koerding, E.; Rodriguez, J.; Starck, J.L.; Tibaldo, L.

    2009-01-01

    Micro-quasars are accreting black holes or neutron stars in binary systems with associated relativistic jets. Despite their frequent outburst activity, they have never been unambiguously detected emitting high-energy gamma rays. The Fermi Large Area Telescope (LAT) has detected a variable high-energy source coinciding with the position of the x-ray binary and micro-quasar Cygnus X-3. Its identification with Cygnus X-3 is secured by the detection of its orbital period in gamma rays, as well as the correlation of the LAT flux with radio emission from the relativistic jets of Cygnus X-3. The gamma-ray emission probably originates from within the binary system, opening new areas in which to study the formation of relativistic jets. (authors)

  17. Einstein@Home discovers a radio-quiet gamma-ray millisecond pulsar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Colin J; Pletsch, Holger J; Wu, Jason; Guillemot, Lucas; Kerr, Matthew; Johnson, Tyrel J; Camilo, Fernando; Salvetti, David; Allen, Bruce; Anderson, David; Aulbert, Carsten; Beer, Christian; Bock, Oliver; Cuéllar, Andres; Eggenstein, Heinz-Bernd; Fehrmann, Henning; Kramer, Michael; Kwang, Shawn A; Machenschalk, Bernd; Nieder, Lars; Ackermann, Markus; Ajello, Marco; Baldini, Luca; Ballet, Jean; Barbiellini, Guido; Bastieri, Denis; Bellazzini, Ronaldo; Bissaldi, Elisabetta; Blandford, Roger D; Bloom, Elliott D; Bonino, Raffaella; Bottacini, Eugenio; Brandt, Terri J; Bregeon, Johan; Bruel, Philippe; Buehler, Rolf; Burnett, Toby H; Buson, Sara; Cameron, Rob A; Caputo, Regina; Caraveo, Patrizia A; Cavazzuti, Elisabetta; Cecchi, Claudia; Charles, Eric; Chekhtman, Alexandre; Ciprini, Stefano; Cominsky, Lynn R; Costantin, Denise; Cutini, Sara; D'Ammando, Filippo; De Luca, Andrea; Desiante, Rachele; Di Venere, Leonardo; Di Mauro, Mattia; Di Lalla, Niccolò; Digel, Seth W; Favuzzi, Cecilia; Ferrara, Elizabeth C; Franckowiak, Anna; Fukazawa, Yasushi; Funk, Stefan; Fusco, Piergiorgio; Gargano, Fabio; Gasparrini, Dario; Giglietto, Nico; Giordano, Francesco; Giroletti, Marcello; Gomez-Vargas, Germán A; Green, David; Grenier, Isabelle A; Guiriec, Sylvain; Harding, Alice K; Hewitt, John W; Horan, Deirdre; Jóhannesson, Guðlaugur; Kensei, Shiki; Kuss, Michael; La Mura, Giovanni; Larsson, Stefan; Latronico, Luca; Li, Jian; Longo, Francesco; Loparco, Francesco; Lovellette, Michael N; Lubrano, Pasquale; Magill, Jeffrey D; Maldera, Simone; Manfreda, Alberto; Mazziotta, Mario N; McEnery, Julie E; Michelson, Peter F; Mirabal, Nestor; Mitthumsiri, Warit; Mizuno, Tsunefumi; Monzani, Maria Elena; Morselli, Aldo; Moskalenko, Igor V; Nuss, Eric; Ohsugi, Takashi; Omodei, Nicola; Orienti, Monica; Orlando, Elena; Palatiello, Michele; Paliya, Vaidehi S; de Palma, Francesco; Paneque, David; Perkins, Jeremy S; Persic, Massimo; Pesce-Rollins, Melissa; Porter, Troy A; Principe, Giacomo; Rainò, Silvia; Rando, Riccardo; Ray, Paul S; Razzano, Massimiliano; Reimer, Anita; Reimer, Olaf; Romani, Roger W; Saz Parkinson, Pablo M; Sgrò, Carmelo; Siskind, Eric J; Smith, David A; Spada, Francesca; Spandre, Gloria; Spinelli, Paolo; Thayer, Jana B; Thompson, David J; Torres, Diego F; Troja, Eleonora; Vianello, Giacomo; Wood, Kent; Wood, Matthew

    2018-02-01

    Millisecond pulsars (MSPs) are old neutron stars that spin hundreds of times per second and appear to pulsate as their emission beams cross our line of sight. To date, radio pulsations have been detected from all rotation-powered MSPs. In an attempt to discover radio-quiet gamma-ray MSPs, we used the aggregated power from the computers of tens of thousands of volunteers participating in the Einstein@Home distributed computing project to search for pulsations from unidentified gamma-ray sources in Fermi Large Area Telescope data. This survey discovered two isolated MSPs, one of which is the only known rotation-powered MSP to remain undetected in radio observations. These gamma-ray MSPs were discovered in completely blind searches without prior constraints from other observations, raising hopes for detecting MSPs from a predicted Galactic bulge population.

  18. Observations of gamma-ray bursts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Strong, I.B.; Klebesadel, R.W.; Evans, W.D.

    1975-01-01

    Observational data on gamma-ray bursts are reviewed. Information is grouped into temporal properties, energy fluxes and spectral properties, and directions and distributions of the sources in space. (BJG)

  19. GMRT DISCOVERY OF PSR J1544+4937: AN ECLIPSING BLACK-WIDOW PULSAR IDENTIFIED WITH A FERMI-LAT SOURCE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bhattacharyya, B.; Roy, J.; Gupta, Y. [National Centre for Radio Astrophysics, Tata Institute of Fundamental Research, Pune 411 007 (India); Ray, P. S.; Wolff, M. T.; Wood, K. S. [Space Science Division, Naval Research Laboratory, Washington, DC 20375-5352 (United States); Bhattacharya, D. [Inter-University Centre for Astronomy and Astrophysics, Pune 411 007 (India); Romani, R. W.; Den Hartog, P. R.; Kerr, M.; Michelson, P. F. [W. W. Hansen Experimental Physics Laboratory, Kavli Institute for Particle Astrophysics and Cosmology, Department of Physics and SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory, Stanford University, Stanford, CA 94305 (United States); Ransom, S. M. [National Radio Astronomy Observatory (NRAO), Charlottesville, VA 22903 (United States); Ferrara, E. C.; Harding, A. K. [NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD 20771 (United States); Camilo, F. [Columbia Astrophysics Laboratory, Columbia University, New York, NY 10027 (United States); Cognard, I. [Laboratoire de Physique et Chimie de l' Environnement, LPCE UMR 6115 CNRS, F-45071 Orleans Cedex 02 (France); Johnston, S.; Keith, M. [CSIRO Astronomy and Space Science, Australia Telescope National Facility, Epping, NSW 1710 (Australia); Saz Parkinson, P. M. [Santa Cruz Institute for Particle Physics, Department of Physics and Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics, University of California at Santa Cruz, Santa Cruz, CA 95064 (United States); Wood, D. L. [Praxis Inc., Alexandria, VA 22303 (United States)

    2013-08-10

    Using the Giant Metrewave Radio Telescope, we performed deep observations to search for radio pulsations in the directions of unidentified Fermi-Large Area Telescope {gamma}-ray sources. We report the discovery of an eclipsing black-widow millisecond pulsar, PSR J1544+4937, identified with the uncataloged {gamma}-ray source FERMI J1544.2+4941. This 2.16 ms pulsar is in a 2.9 hr compact circular orbit with a very low mass companion (M{sub c} > 0.017M{sub Sun }). At 322 MHz this pulsar is found to be eclipsing for 13% of its orbit, whereas at 607 MHz the pulsar is detected throughout the low-frequency eclipse phase. Variations in the eclipse ingress phase are observed, indicating a clumpy and variable eclipsing medium. Moreover, additional short-duration absorption events are observed around the eclipse boundaries. Using the radio timing ephemeris we were able to detect {gamma}-ray pulsations from this pulsar, confirming it as the source powering the {gamma}-ray emission.

  20. Gamma-Ray Lenses for Astrophysics-and the Gamma-Ray Imager Mission GRI

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wunderer, C. B.; Ballmoos, P. V.; Barriere, N.

    2009-01-01

    Observations of the gamma-ray sky reveal the most powerful sources and the most violent events in the Universe. While at lower wavebands the observed emission is generally dominated by thermal processes, the gamma-ray sky provides us with a view on the non-thermal Universe. Here particles are acc...

  1. Distinguish natural sources out of secular equilibrium with their parents or daughters in Gamma ray spectrum analyses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mao Yahong; Liu Yigang

    2005-01-01

    Objective: To determine materials containing natural radionuclides in or out secular equilibrium with their parents or daughters. Methods: In gamma ray spectrum analyses, the activity concentration of every daughter is the same as that of its parent when the material is in secular equilibrium. The activity concentrations of daughters and their parents are different when the material is out of secular equilibrium. Results: It is different to determine whether the exposures from these materials should be exempted that materials containing natural radionuclides are in or out of secular equilibrium with their parents or daughters. Conclusion: It is important to determine materials containing natural radionuclides in or out secular equilibrium with their parents or daughters in gamma ray spectrum analyses. (authors)

  2. AGIS: A Next-generation TeV Gamma-ray Observatory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vandenbroucke, Justin

    2010-05-01

    The Advanced Gamma-ray Imaging System (AGIS) is a next-generation array of imaging atmospheric Cherenkov telescopes for gamma-ray astronomy in the 100 GeV to 100 TeV band. TeV astronomy has flourished in the last few years. Together with the extremely successful first year of the Fermi LAT telescope for GeV gamma-ray astronomy, we are now in a golden age of gamma-ray astronomy. AGIS seeks to continue the success of gamma-ray astronomy by discovering hundreds of new TeV sources and improving our understanding of known sources, as well as searching for signals from dark matter annihilation. AGIS will feature 36 Schwarzschild-Couder (SC) telescopes spanning 1 km2. The two-mirror SC design allows a wide field of view (8 deg diameter) and high-resolution (0.05 deg diameter) pixellation. I will present the science capabilities of the AGIS observatory as well as the technical design and current status of the project.

  3. Observations and numerical studies of gamma-ray emission in colliding-wind binaries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reitberger, K.

    2014-01-01

    Massive stars in binary systems have long been regarded as potential sources of high-energy gamma rays. The emission is thought to arise in the region where the stellar winds collide, thereby producing accelerated particles which subsequently emit gamma rays.This scenario is supported by observations with the Fermi Large Area Telescope presented in this thesis. To address the underlying emission mechanisms in a quantitative way, numerical simulations that incorporate hydrodynamics, the acceleration of charged particles as well as the subsequent gamma-ray emission were found to be needed.This thesis presents the analysis of a high-energy gamma-ray source and its identification with the particle-accelerating colliding-wind binary system Eta Carinae. In order to go beyond the present understanding of such objects, this work provides detailed description of a new 3D-hydrodynamical model, which incorporates the line-driven acceleration of the winds, gravity, orbital motion and the radiative cooling of the shocked plasma, as well as the diffusive shock acceleration of charged particles in the wind collision region. In a subsequent step we simulate and study the resulting gamma-ray emission via relativistic bremsstrahlung, anisotropic inverse Compton radiation and neutral pion decay. (author) [de

  4. Basics of Gamma Ray Detection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stinnett, Jacob [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Venkataraman, Ram [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2017-09-13

    The objective of this training is to explain the origin of x-rays and gamma rays, gamma ray interactions with matter, detectors and electronics used in gamma ray-spectrometry, and features of a gamma-ray spectrum for nuclear material that is safeguarded.

  5. Fermi GBM: Highlights from the First Year

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson-Hodge, Colleen A.

    2009-01-01

    The Fermi Gamma ray Burst Monitor is an all-sky instrument sensitive to photons from about 8 keV to 40 MeV. I will summarize highlights from the first year, including triggered observations of gamma ray bursts, soft gamma ray repeaters, and terrestrial gamma flashes, and observations in the continuous data of X-ray binaries and accreting X-ray pulsars. GBM provides complementary observations to Swift/BAT, observing many of the same sources, but over a wider energy range.

  6. On The gamma-ray emission from Reticulum II and other dwarf galaxies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hooper, Dan; Linden, Tim

    2015-09-01

    The recent discovery of ten new dwarf galaxy candidates by the Dark Energy Survey (DES) and the Panoramic Survey Telescope and Rapid Response System (Pan-STARRS) could increase the Fermi Gamma-Ray Space Telescope's sensitivity to annihilating dark matter particles, potentially enabling a definitive test of the dark matter interpretation of the long-standing Galactic Center gamma-ray excess. In this paper, we compare the previous analyses of Fermi data from the directions of the new dwarf candidates (including the relatively nearby Reticulum II) and perform our own analysis, with the goal of establishing the statistical significance of any gamma-ray signal from these sources. We confirm the presence of an excess from Reticulum II, with a spectral shape that is compatible with the Galactic Center signal. The significance of this emission is greater than that observed from 99.84% of randomly chosen high-latitude blank-sky locations, corresponding to a local detection significance of 3.2σ. We caution that any dark matter interpretation of this excess must be validated through observations of additional dwarf spheroidal galaxies, and improved calculations of the relative J-factor of dwarf spheroidal galaxies. We improve upon the standard blank-sky calibration approach through the use of multi-wavelength catalogs, which allow us to avoid regions that are likely to contain unresolved gamma-ray sources.

  7. Gamma-ray lines from radiative dark matter decay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garny, Mathias; Ibarra, Alejandro; Tran, David; Weniger, Christoph

    2011-01-01

    The decay of dark matter particles which are coupled predominantly to charged leptons has been proposed as a possible origin of excess high-energy positrons and electrons observed by cosmic-ray telescopes PAMELA and Fermi LAT. Even though the dark matter itself is electrically neutral, the tree-level decay of dark matter into charged lepton pairs will generically induce radiative two-body decays of dark matter at the quantum level. Using an effective theory of leptophilic dark matter decay, we calculate the rates of radiative two-body decays for scalar and fermionic dark matter particles. Due to the absence of astrophysical sources of monochromatic gamma rays, the observation of a line in the diffuse gamma-ray spectrum would constitute a strong indication of a particle physics origin of these photons. We estimate the intensity of the gamma-ray line that may be present in the energy range of a few TeV if the dark matter decay interpretation of the leptonic cosmic-ray anomalies is correct and comment on observational prospects of present and future Imaging Cherenkov Telescopes, in particular the CTA

  8. Measurement of the neutron and gamma-ray spectra originating from a 14-MeV neutron source in liquid nitrogen and liquid air

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Broecker, B.; Clausen, K.; Schneider-Kuehnle, P.; Weinert, M.

    1975-01-01

    An experiment to measure the radiation transport originating from a 14-MeV neutron source in liquid nitrogen and liquid air is presented. Neutron and gamma-ray spectra were measured with a proton-recoil NE 213 scintillator and with four spherical proportional counters in a tank filled with liquid nitrogen or liquid air. The neutron spectra cover the energy range of 20 keV to 18 MeV. The source-detector separation varies in the liquid medium between 60 and 240 cm. The experimental setup is briefly described and the errors are estimated. (2 tables, 9 figures) (auth)

  9. Astrophysical interpretation of the anisotropies in the unresolved gamma-ray background

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ando, Shin'ichiro; Fornasa, Mattia; Fornengo, Nicolao; Regis, Marco; Zechlin, Hannes-S.

    2017-06-01

    Recently, a new measurement of the auto- and cross-correlation angular power spectrum (APS) of the isotropic gamma-ray background was performed, based on 81 months of data of the Fermi Large-Area Telescope (LAT). Here, we fit, for the first time, the new APS data with a model describing the emission of unresolved blazars. These sources are expected to dominate the anisotropy signal. The model we employ in our analysis reproduces well the blazars resolved by Fermi LAT. When considering the APS obtained by masking the sources listed in the 3FGL catalog, we find that unresolved blazars underproduce the measured APS below ˜1 GeV . Contrary to past results, this suggests the presence of a new contribution to the low-energy APS, with a significance of, at least, 5 σ . The excess can be ascribed to a new class of faint gamma-ray emitters. If we consider the APS obtained by masking the sources in the 2FGL catalog, there is no underproduction of the APS below 1 GeV, but the new source class is still preferred over the blazars-only scenario (with a significance larger than 10 σ ). The properties of the new source class and the level of anisotropies induced in the isotropic gamma-ray background are the same, independent of the APS data used. In particular, the new gamma-ray emitters must have a soft energy spectrum, with a spectral index ranging, approximately, from 2.7 to 3.2. This complicates their interpretation in terms of known sources, since, normally, star-forming and radio galaxies are observed with a harder spectrum. The new source class identified here is also expected to contribute significantly to the intensity of the isotropic gamma-ray background.

  10. FERMI OBSERVATIONS OF GRB 090510: A SHORT-HARD GAMMA-RAY BURST WITH AN ADDITIONAL, HARD POWER-LAW COMPONENT FROM 10 keV TO GeV ENERGIES

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ackermann, M.; Bechtol, K.; Berenji, B.; Blandford, R. D.; Bloom, E. D.; Borgland, A. W.; Bouvier, A.; Asano, K.; Atwood, W. B.; Axelsson, M.; Baldini, L.; Bellazzini, R.; Bregeon, J.; Ballet, J.; Barbiellini, G.; Baring, M. G.; Bastieri, D.; Bhat, P. N.; Bissaldi, E.; Bonamente, E.

    2010-01-01

    We present detailed observations of the bright short-hard gamma-ray burst GRB 090510 made with the Gamma-ray Burst Monitor (GBM) and Large Area Telescope (LAT) on board the Fermi observatory. GRB 090510 is the first burst detected by the LAT that shows strong evidence for a deviation from a Band spectral fitting function during the prompt emission phase. The time-integrated spectrum is fit by the sum of a Band function with E peak = 3.9 ± 0.3 MeV, which is the highest yet measured, and a hard power-law component with photon index -1.62 ± 0.03 that dominates the emission below ∼20 keV and above ∼100 MeV. The onset of the high-energy spectral component appears to be delayed by ∼0.1 s with respect to the onset of a component well fit with a single Band function. A faint GBM pulse and a LAT photon are detected 0.5 s before the main pulse. During the prompt phase, the LAT detected a photon with energy 30.5 +5.8 -2.6 GeV, the highest ever measured from a short GRB. Observation of this photon sets a minimum bulk outflow Lorentz factor, Γ∼> 1200, using simple γγ opacity arguments for this GRB at redshift z = 0.903 and a variability timescale on the order of tens of ms for the ∼100 keV-few MeV flux. Stricter high confidence estimates imply Γ ∼> 1000 and still require that the outflows powering short GRBs are at least as highly relativistic as those of long-duration GRBs. Implications of the temporal behavior and power-law shape of the additional component on synchrotron/synchrotron self-Compton, external-shock synchrotron, and hadronic models are considered.

  11. GAMMA-RAY EMISSION FROM TWO BLAZARS BEHIND THE GALACTIC PLANE: B2013+370 AND B2023+336

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kara, E.; Errando, M.; Aliu, E.; Mukherjee, R.; Max-Moerbeck, W.; Readhead, A. C. S.; Richards, J. L.; Böttcher, M.; Fortin, P.; Halpern, J. P.

    2012-01-01

    B2013+370 and B2023+336 are two blazars at low-galactic latitude that were previously proposed to be the counterparts for the EGRET unidentified sources 3EG J2016+3657 and 3EG J2027+3429. Gamma-ray emission associated with the EGRET sources has been detected by the Fermi Gamma-ray Space Telescope, and the two sources, 1FGL J2015.7+3708 and 1FGL J2027.6+3335, have been classified as unidentified in the 1 year catalog. This analysis of the Fermi Large Area Telescope (LAT) data collected during 31 months reveals that the 1FGL sources are spatially compatible with the blazars and are significantly variable, supporting the hypothesis of extragalactic origin for the gamma-ray emission. The gamma-ray light curves are compared with 15 GHz radio light curves from the 40 m telescope at the Owens Valley Radio Observatory. Simultaneous variability is seen in both bands for the two blazar candidates. The study is completed with the X-ray analysis of 1FGL J2015.7+3708 using Swift observations that were triggered in 2010 August by a Fermi-detected flare. The resulting spectral energy distribution shows a two-component structure typical of blazars. We also identify a second source in the field of view of 1FGL J2027.6+3335 with similar characteristics to the known LAT pulsars. This study gives solid evidence favoring blazar counterparts for these two unidentified EGRET and Fermi sources, supporting the hypothesis that a number of unidentified gamma-ray sources at low-galactic latitudes are indeed of extragalactic origin.

  12. WHAT IS THE REDSHIFT OF THE GAMMA-RAY BL LAC SOURCE S4 0954+65?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Landoni, M. [INAF—Istituto Nazionale di Astrofisica, Osservatorio Astronomico di Brera, Via E. Bianchi 46, I-23807 Merate (Italy); Falomo, R. [INAF—Istituto Nazionale di Astrofisica, Osservatorio Astronomico di Padova, Vicolo dell’Osservatorio 5, I-35122 Padova (Italy); Treves, A. [Universita’ degli Studi dell’Insubria, Via Valleggio 11, I-22100 (Italy); Scarpa, R.; Payá, D. Reverte, E-mail: marco.landoni@brera.inaf.it [Instituto de Astrofsica de Canarias, C/O Via Lactea, s/n E38205—La Laguna (Tenerife) (Spain)

    2015-12-15

    High signal-to-noise ratio spectroscopic observations of the BL Lac object S4 0954+65 at the alleged redshift z = 0.367 are presented. This source was detected at gamma frequencies by the MAGIC (TeV) and FERMI (GeV) telescopes during a remarkable outburst that occurred in 2015 February, making the determination of its distance particularly relevant for our understanding of the properties of the extragalactic background light. Contrary to previous reports on the redshift, we found that the optical spectrum is featureless at an equivalent width limit of ∼0.1 Å. A critical analysis of the existing observations indicates that the redshift is still unknown. Based on the new data we estimate a lower limit to the redshift at z ≥ 0.45.

  13. DISCOVERY OF GAMMA-RAY PULSATIONS FROM THE TRANSITIONAL REDBACK PSR J1227-4853

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnson, T. J. [College of Science, George Mason University, Fairfax, VA 22030 (United States); Ray, P. S.; Cheung, C. C. [Space Science Division, Naval Research Laboratory, Washington, DC 20375-5352 (United States); Roy, J.; Bhattacharyya, B.; Stappers, B. W. [Jodrell Bank Centre for Astrophysics, School of Physics and Astronomy, The University of Manchester, Manchester M13 9PL (United Kingdom); Harding, A. K. [NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD 20771 (United States); Pletsch, H. J.; Fort, S. [Albert-Einstein-Institut, Max-Planck-Institut für Gravitationsphysik, D-30167 Hannover (Germany); Camilo, F. [Columbia Astrophysics Laboratory, Columbia University, New York, NY 10027 (United States); Deneva, J. [National Research Council Research Associate, National Academy of Sciences, Washington, DC 20001 (United States); Kerr, M., E-mail: tyrel.j.johnson@gmail.com, E-mail: Paul.Ray@nrl.navy.mil, E-mail: jayanta.roy@manchester.ac.uk [CSIRO Astronomy and Space Science, Australia Telescope National Facility, Epping NSW 1710 (Australia)

    2015-06-10

    The 1.69 ms spin period of PSR J1227−4853 was recently discovered in radio observations of the low-mass X-ray binary XSS J12270−4859 following the announcement of a possible transition to a rotation-powered millisecond pulsar state, inferred from decreases in optical, X-ray, and gamma-ray flux from the source. We report the detection of significant (5σ) gamma-ray pulsations after the transition, at the known spin period, using ∼1 year of data from the Large Area Telescope (LAT) on board the Fermi Gamma-ray Space Telescope. The gamma-ray light curve of PSR J1227−4853 can be fit by one broad peak, which occurs at nearly the same phase as the main peak in the 1.4 GHz radio profile. The partial alignment of light-curve peaks in different wavebands suggests that at least some of the radio emission may originate at high altitude in the pulsar magnetosphere, in extended regions co-located with the gamma-ray emission site. We folded the LAT data at the orbital period, both pre- and post-transition, but find no evidence for significant modulation of the gamma-ray flux. Analysis of the gamma-ray flux over the mission suggests an approximate transition time of 2012 November 30. Continued study of the pulsed emission and monitoring of PSR J1227−4853, and other known redback systems, for subsequent flux changes will increase our knowledge of the pulsar emission mechanism and transitioning systems.

  14. Gamma-ray Emission from Globular Clusters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pak-Hin T. Tam

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Over the last few years, the data obtained using the Large Area Telescope (LAT aboard the Fermi Gamma-ray Space Telescope has provided new insights on high-energy processes in globular clusters, particularly those involving compact objects such as MilliSecond Pulsars (MSPs. Gamma-ray emission in the 100 MeV to 10 GeV range has been detected from more than a dozen globular clusters in our galaxy, including 47 Tucanae and Terzan 5. Based on a sample of known gammaray globular clusters, the empirical relations between gamma-ray luminosity and properties of globular clusters such as their stellar encounter rate, metallicity, and possible optical and infrared photon energy densities, have been derived. The measured gamma-ray spectra are generally described by a power law with a cut-off at a few gigaelectronvolts. Together with the detection of pulsed γ-rays from two MSPs in two different globular clusters, such spectral signature lends support to the hypothesis that γ-rays from globular clusters represent collective curvature emission from magnetospheres of MSPs in the clusters. Alternative models, involving Inverse-Compton (IC emission of relativistic electrons that are accelerated close to MSPs or pulsar wind nebula shocks, have also been suggested. Observations at >100 GeV by using Fermi/LAT and atmospheric Cherenkov telescopes such as H.E.S.S.-II, MAGIC-II, VERITAS, and CTA will help to settle some questions unanswered by current data.

  15. THE FIRST FERMI-LAT CATALOG OF SOURCES ABOVE 10 GeV

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ackermann, M.; Buehler, R.; Ajello, M.; Allafort, A.; Bechtol, K.; Bloom, E. D.; Atwood, W. B.; Belfiore, A.; Baldini, L.; Ballet, J.; Barbiellini, G.; Bastieri, D.; Bellazzini, R.; Bregeon, J.; Bernieri, E.; Bissaldi, E.; Bonamente, E.; Brandt, T. J.; M. Merlin dell'Università e del Politecnico di Bari, I-70126 Bari (Italy))" data-affiliation=" (Dipartimento di Fisica M. Merlin dell'Università e del Politecnico di Bari, I-70126 Bari (Italy))" >Brigida, M.; Bruel, P.

    2013-01-01

    We present a catalog of γ-ray sources at energies above 10 GeV based on data from the Large Area Telescope (LAT) accumulated during the first 3 yr of the Fermi Gamma-ray Space Telescope mission. The first Fermi-LAT catalog of >10 GeV sources (1FHL) has 514 sources. For each source we present location, spectrum, a measure of variability, and associations with cataloged sources at other wavelengths. We found that 449 (87%) could be associated with known sources, of which 393 (76% of the 1FHL sources) are active galactic nuclei. Of the 27 sources associated with known pulsars, we find 20 (12) to have significant pulsations in the range >10 GeV (>25 GeV). In this work we also report that, at energies above 10 GeV, unresolved sources account for 27% ± 8% of the isotropic γ-ray background, while the unresolved Galactic population contributes only at the few percent level to the Galactic diffuse background. We also highlight the subset of the 1FHL sources that are best candidates for detection at energies above 50-100 GeV with current and future ground-based γ-ray observatories

  16. The Radio/Gamma-Ray Connection from 120 MHz to 230 GHz

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcello Giroletti

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Radio loud active galactic nuclei are composed of different spatial features, each one characterized by different spectral properties in the radio band. Among them, blazars are the most common class of sources detected at gamma-rays by Fermi, and their radio emission is dominated by the flat spectrum compact core. In this contribution, we explore the connection between emission at high energy revealed by Fermi and at radio frequencies. Taking as a reference the strong and very highly significant correlation found between gamma rays and cm-λ radio emission, we explore the different behaviours found as we change the energy range in gamma rays and in radio, therefore changing the physical parameters of the zones involved in the emitted radiation. We find that the correlation weakens when we consider (1 gamma rays of energy above 10 GeV (except for high synchrotron peaked blazars or (2 low frequency radio data taken by the Murchison Widefield Array; on the other hand, the correlation strengthens when we consider mm-λ data taken by Atacama Large Millimeter Array (ALMA.

  17. Gamma ray astronomy with COS-B

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Swanenburg, B.N.

    1981-01-01

    Observational results in the field of gamma-ray astronomy that have been obtained to date with the COS-B satellite are discussed and questions raised by these observations are summarized. Following a brief review of the instrumental characteristics of COS-B and the extent of COS-B gamma-ray coverage of the sky, particular attention is given to the questions raised by the discovery of many unidentified gamma-ray sources with no apparent optical, X-ray or radio counterparts and the detection of high-energy gamma radiation from the quasar 3C 273, which suggests the role of gamma-ray emission in the creation of other radiation

  18. Thermal neutron capture gamma-rays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tuli, J.K.

    1983-01-01

    The energy and intensity of gamma rays as seen in thermal neutron capture are presented. Only those (n,α), E = thermal, reactions for which the residual nucleus mass number is greater than or equal to 45 are included. These correspond to evaluations published in Nuclear Data Sheets. The publication source data are contained in the Evaluated Nuclear Structure Data File (ENSDF). The data presented here do not involve any additional evaluation. Appendix I lists all the residual nuclides for which the data are included here. Appendix II gives a cumulated index to A-chain evaluations including the year of publication. The capture gamma ray data are given in two tables - the Table 1 is the list of all gamma rays seen in (n,#betta#) reaction given in the order of increasing energy; the Table II lists the gamma rays according to the nuclide

  19. Gamma ray auto absorption correction evaluation methodology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gugiu, Daniela; Roth, Csaba; Ghinescu, Alecse

    2010-01-01

    Neutron activation analysis (NAA) is a well established nuclear technique, suited to investigate the microstructural or elemental composition and can be applied to studies of a large variety of samples. The work with large samples involves, beside the development of large irradiation devices with well know neutron field characteristics, the knowledge of perturbing phenomena and adequate evaluation of correction factors like: neutron self shielding, extended source correction, gamma ray auto absorption. The objective of the works presented in this paper is to validate an appropriate methodology for gamma ray auto absorption correction evaluation for large inhomogeneous samples. For this purpose a benchmark experiment has been defined - a simple gamma ray transmission experiment, easy to be reproduced. The gamma ray attenuation in pottery samples has been measured and computed using MCNP5 code. The results show a good agreement between the computed and measured values, proving that the proposed methodology is able to evaluate the correction factors. (authors)

  20. Gamma-rays from decaying dark matter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bertone, G. [Paris-6 Univ., 75 (France). Inst. d' Astrophysique; Buchmueller, W.; Covi, L.; Ibarra, A. [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Hamburg (Germany)

    2007-10-15

    We study the prospects for detecting gamma-rays from decaying Dark Matter (DM), focusing in particular on gravitino DM in R-parity breaking vacua. Given the substantially different angular distribution of the predicted gamma-ray signal with respect to the case of annihilating DM, and the relatively poor (of order 0.1 ) angular resolution of gamma-ray detectors, the best strategy for detection is in this case to look for an exotic contribution to the gamma-ray flux at high galactic latitudes, where the decaying DM contribution would resemble an astrophysical extragalactic component, similar to the one inferred by EGRET observations. Upcoming experiments such as GLAST and AMS-02 may identify this exotic contribution and discriminate it from astrophysical sources, or place significant constraints on the mass and lifetime of DM particles. (orig.)

  1. A neutron capture gamma-ray system using isotopic neutron sources and its application for elemental analysis of some saudi samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bahareth, R.; Alamoudi, Z.; Hassan, A.M.

    2005-01-01

    The design and construction of a prompt gamma-ray spectrometer using 226 R a/Be and 252 C f isotopic neutron sources are described. The characteristic curves of the system for energy and efficiency are presented. Elemental investigations of three Saudi samples [Table salt, Glass and Lubrication oil] have been done. For sake of comparison, the data obtained is compared with the results obtained for the same samples using different techniques. A discussion on the results as well as on the comparative studies is given

  2. CAMAC gamma ray scanning system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moss, C.E.; Pratt, J.C.; Shunk, E.R.

    1981-01-01

    A flexible gamma-ray scanning system, based on a LeCroy 3500 multichannel analyzer and CAMAC modules, is described. The system is designed for making simultaneous passive and active scans of objects of interest to nuclear safeguards. The scanner is a stepping-motor-driven carriage; the detectors, a bismuth-germanate scintillator and a high-purity germanium detector. A total of sixteen peaks in the two detector-produced spectra can be integrated simultaneously, and any scan can be viewed during data acquisition. For active scanning, the 2615-keV gamma-ray line from a 232 U source and the 4439-keV gamma-ray line from 9 Be(α,n) 12 C were selected. The system can be easily reconfigured to accommodate up to seven detectors because it is based on CAMAC modules and FORTRAN. The system is designed for field use and is easily transported. Examples of passive and active scans are presented

  3. Parsec-Scale Properties of Gamma-Ray Bright Blazars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linford, Justin Dee

    The parsec-scale radio properties of blazars detected by the Large Area Telescope (LAT) on board the Fermi Gamma-ray Space Telescope have been investigated using observations with the Very Long Baseline Array (VLBA). Comparisons between LAT and non-LAT detected samples were made using both archival and contemporaneous data. In total, 244 sources were used in the LAT-detected sample. This very large, radio flux-limited sample of active galactic nuclei (AGN) provides insights into the mechanism that produces strong gamma-ray emission. It has been found that LAT-detected BL Lac objects are very similar to the non-LAT BL Lac objects in most properties, although LAT BL Lac objects may have longer jets. The LAT flat spectrum radio quasars (FSRQs) are significantly different from non-LAT FSRQs and are likely extreme members of the FSRQ population. Archival radio data indicated that there was no significant correlation between radio flux density and gamma-ray flux, especially at lower flux levels. However, contemporaneous observations showed a strong correlation. Most of the differences between the LAT and non-LAT populations are related to the cores of the sources, indicating that the gamma-ray emission may originate near the base of the jets (i.e., within a few pc of the central engine). There is some indication that LAT-detected sources may have larger jet opening angles than the non-LAT sources. Strong core polarization is significantly more common among the LAT sources, suggesting that gamma-ray emission is related to strong, uniform magnetic fields at the base of the jets of the blazars. Observations of sources in two epochs indicate that core fractional polarization was higher when the objects were detected by the LAT. The low-synchrotron peaked (LSP) BL Lac object sample shows indications of contamination by FSRQs which happen to have undetectable emission lines. There is evidence that the LSP BL Lac objects are more strongly beamed than the rest of the BL Lac

  4. Gamma Ray Bursts-Afterglows and Counterparts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fishman, Gerald J

    1998-01-01

    Several breakthrough discoveries were made last year of x-ray, optical and radio afterglows and counterparts to gamma-ray bursts, and a redshift has been associated with at least one of these. These discoveries were made possible by the fast, accurate gamma-ray burst locations of the BeppoSAX satellite. It is now generally believed that the burst sources are at cosmological distances and that they represent the most powerful explosions in the Universe. These observations also open new possibilities for the study of early star formation, the physics of extreme conditions and perhaps even cosmology. This session will concentrate on recent x-ray, optical and radio afterglow observations of gamma-ray bursts, associated redshift measurements, and counterpart observations. Several review and theory talks will also be presented, along with a summary of the astrophysical implications of the observations. There will be additional poster contributions on observations of gamma-ray burst source locations at wavelengths other than gamma rays. Posters are also solicited that describe new observational capabilities for rapid follow-up observations of gamma-ray bursts.

  5. Analysis of hard X-ray emission from selected very high energy {gamma}-ray sources observed with INTEGRAL

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoffmann, Agnes Irene Dorothee

    2009-11-13

    A few years ago, the era of very high energy {gamma}-ray astronomy started, when the latest generation of Imaging Atmospheric Cherenkov Telescopes (IACT) like H.E.S.S. began to operate and to resolve the sources of TeV emission. Identifications via multi-wavelength studies reveal that the detected sources are supernova remnants and active galactic nuclei, but also pulsar wind nebulae and a few binaries. One widely discussed open question is, how these sources are able to accelerate particles to such high energies. The understanding of the underlying particle distribution, the acceleration processes taking place, and the knowledge of the radiation processes which produce the observed emission, is, therefore, of crucial interest. Observations in the hard X-ray domain can be a key to get information on these particle distributions and processes. Important for this thesis are the TeV and the hard X-ray range. The two instruments, H.E.S.S. and INTEGRAL, whose data were used, are, therefore, described in detail. The main part of this thesis is focused on the X-ray binary system LS 5039/RX J1826.2-1450. It was observed in several energy ranges. The nature of the compact object is still not known, and it was proposed either to be a microquasar system or a non-accreting pulsar system. The observed TeV emission is modulated with the orbital cycle. Several explanations for this variability have been discussed in recent years. The observations with INTEGRAL presented in this thesis have provided new information to solve this question. Therefore, a search for a detection in the hard X-ray range and for its orbital dependence was worthwhile. Since LS 5039 is a faint source and the sky region where it is located is crowded, a very careful, non-standard handling of the INTEGRAL data was necessary, and a cross-checking with other analysis methods was essential to provide reliable results. We found that LS 5039 is emitting in the hard X-ray energy range. A flux rate and an upper

  6. Found: A Galaxy's Missing Gamma Rays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohler, Susanna

    2016-04-01

    Recent reanalysis of data from the Fermi Gamma-ray Space Telescope has resulted in the first detection of high-energy gamma rays emitted from a nearby galaxy. This discovery reveals more about how supernovae interact with their environments.Colliding Supernova RemnantAfter a stellar explosion, the supernovas ejecta expand, eventually encountering the ambient interstellar medium. According to models, this generates a strong shock, and a fraction of the kinetic energy of the ejecta is transferred into cosmic rays high-energy radiation composed primarily of protons and atomic nuclei. Much is still unknown about this process, however. One open question is: what fraction of the supernovas explosion power goes into accelerating these cosmic rays?In theory, one way to answer this is by looking for gamma rays. In a starburst galaxy, the collision of the supernova-accelerated cosmic rays with the dense interstellar medium is predicted to produce high-energy gamma rays. That radiation should then escape the galaxy and be visible to us.Pass 8 to the RescueObservational tests of this model, however, have beenstumped by Arp 220. This nearby ultraluminous infrared galaxy is the product of a galaxy merger ~700 million years ago that fueled a frenzy of starbirth. Due to its dusty interior and extreme levels of star formation, Arp 220 has long been predicted to emit the gamma rays produced by supernova-accelerated cosmic rays. But though weve looked, gamma-ray emission has never been detected from this galaxy until now.In a recent study, a team of scientists led by Fang-Kun Peng (Nanjing University) reprocessed 7.5 years of Fermi observations using the new Pass 8 analysis software. The resulting increase in resolution revealed the first detection of GeV emission from Arp 220!Acceleration EfficiencyGamma-ray luminosity vs. total infrared luminosity for LAT-detected star-forming galaxies and Seyferts. Arp 220s luminosities are consistent with the scaling relation. [Peng et al. 2016

  7. Possibility of observation by the Antares telescope of the gamma ray point sources observed by the Egret detector and study of a prototype

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saouter, S.

    2004-09-01

    The ANTARES collaboration aims to install an underwater neutrino telescope at 2 500 m deep and 40 km away from Toulon (France). The neutrinos are detected thanks to their interaction by charged current in the medium surrounding the telescope which can be rock or water. The produced muon emits Tcherenkov light along its path in water. This light is detected by a three-dimensional network of 900 photomultipliers divided into 12 independent lines. To validate the chosen techniques, a prototype made up of a fifth of line was deployed in 2003. A reconstruction algorithm was developed on simulated data whose results are presented. However, a technical failure made the data recorded by the prototype unsuitable. The detection potential of Antares to gamma ray sources observed by Egret is studied. Indeed, under the assumption of a gamma ray production via high-energy hadrons, a comparable flux of neutrinos associated is predicted. By supposing the two fluxes equal and an energy spectrum varying as E -2 eleven sources are potentially detectable in one year. The Antares sensitivity to such a spectrum depends on the declination of the source with an optimum of 3.6 10 -4 m -2 s -1 GeV -1 in one year at 90% of confidence level for a declination of - 90 deg C. (author)

  8. Time domain astronomy with Swift and Fermi | Gehrels | Rwanda ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Swift and Fermi are unveiling an unexpectedly rich tapestry of behavior in the transient γ−ray sky. Sources which were already known to be transient − such as pulsars, gamma-ray bursts, and blazars − have been studied in ever-increasing detail. For example, Fermi/LAT has detected 117 pulsars of which 56 are new.

  9. Gamma ray astronomy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Broomhead, Laurent.

    1980-01-01

    The nuclear gamma astronomy is presented, in particular the Gamma Ray Observatory, an enormous eight tonnes machine fitted with gamma telescopes, scheduled for launching around 1985. It is thereby hoped to study the natural nuclear reactions which occur when stars explode [fr

  10. Gamma ray calibration system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rosauer, P.J.; Flaherty, J.J.

    1981-01-01

    This invention is in the field of gamma ray inspection devices for tubular products and the like employing an improved calibrating block which prevents the sensing system from being overloaded when no tubular product is present, and also provides the operator with a means for visually detecting the presence of wall thicknesses which are less than a required minimum. (author)

  11. Possible galactic origin of. gamma. -ray bursts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Manchanda, R K; Ramsden, D [Southampton Univ. (UK). Dept. of Physics

    1977-03-31

    It is stated that extragalactic models for the origin of non-solar ..gamma..-ray bursts include supernova bursts in remote galaxies, and the collapse of the cores of active stars, whilst galactic models are based on flare stars, thermonuclear explosions in neutron stars and the sudden accretion of cometary gas on to neutron stars. The acceptability of any of these models may be tested by the observed size spectrum of the ..gamma..-ray bursts. The extragalactic models predict a power law spectrum with number index -1.5, whilst for the galactic models the number index will be -1. Experimental data on ..gamma..-ray bursts is, however, still meagre, and so far only 44 confirmed events have been recorded by satellite-borne instruments. The number spectrum of the observed ..gamma..-ray bursts indicates that the observed distribution for events with an energy < 10/sup -4/ erg/cm/sup 2/ is flat; this makes the choice of any model completely arbitrary. An analysis of the observed ..gamma..-ray events is here presented that suggests very interesting possibilities for their origin. There appears to be a preferred mean energy for ..gamma..-ray bursts; some 90% of the recorded events show a mean energy between 5 x 10/sup -5/ and 5 x 10/sup -4/ erg/cm/sup 2/, contrary to the predicted characteristics of the number spectrum of various models. A remarkable similarity is found between the distribution of ..gamma..-ray bursts and that of supernova remnants, suggesting a genetic relationship between the two and the galactic origin of the ..gamma..-ray bursts, and the burst source could be identified with completely run down neutron stars, formed during supernova explosions.

  12. Gamma ray constraints on decaying dark matter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cirelli, M.; Moulin, E.; Panci, P.

    2012-01-01

    We derive new bounds on decaying dark matter from the gamma ray measurements of (i) the isotropic residual (extragalactic) background by Fermi and (ii) the Fornax galaxy cluster by H.E.S.S. We find that those from (i) are among the most stringent constraints currently available, for a large range...... of dark matter masses and a variety of decay modes, excluding half-lives up to similar to 10(26) to few 10(27) seconds. In particular, they rule out the interpretation in terms of decaying dark matter of the e(+/-) spectral features in PAMELA, Fermi and H.E.S.S., unless very conservative choices...

  13. Very Rapid High-amplitude Gamma-Ray Variability in Luminous Blazar PKS 1510-089 Studied with Fermi-LAT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saito, S.; Stawarz, L.; Tanaka, Y.T.; Takahashi, T.; Madejski, G.; D' Ammando, F.

    2013-03-20

    Here we report on the detailed analysis of the γ-ray light curve of a luminous blazar PKS 1510-089 observed in the GeV range with the Large Area Telescope (LAT) onboard the Fermi satellite during the period 2011 September - December. By investigating the properties of the detected three major flares with the shortest possible time binning allowed by the photon statistics, we find a variety of temporal characteristics and variability patterns. This includes a clearly asymmetric profile (with a faster flux rise and a slower decay) of the flare resolved on sub-daily timescales, a superposition of many short uncorrelated flaring events forming the apparently coherent longer-duration outburst, and a huge single isolated outburst unresolved down to the timescale of three-hours. In the latter case we estimate the corresponding γ-ray flux doubling timescale to be below one hour, which is extreme and never previously reported for any active galaxy

  14. The Gamma-Ray Imager GRI

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wunderer, Cornelia B.; GRI Collaboration

    2008-03-01

    Observations of the gamma-ray sky reveal the most powerful sources and the most violent events in the Universe. While at lower wavebands the observed emission is generally dominated by thermal processes, the gamma-ray sky provides us with a view on the non-thermal Universe. Here particles are accelerated to extreme relativistic energies by mechanisms which are still poorly understood, and nuclear reactions are synthesizing the basic constituents of our world. Cosmic accelerators and cosmic explosions are major science themes that are addressed in the gamma-ray regime. ESA's INTEGRAL observatory currently provides the astronomical community with a unique tool to investigate the sky up to MeV energies and hundreds of sources, new classes of objects, extraordinary views of antimatter annihilation in our Galaxy, and fingerprints of recent nucleosynthesis processes have been discovered. NASA's GLAST mission will similarly take the next step in surveying the high-energy ( GeV) sky, and NuSTAR will pioneer focusing observations at hard X-ray energies (to 80 keV). There will be clearly a growing need to perform deeper, more focused investigations of gamma-ray sources in the 100-keV to MeV regime. Recent technological advances in the domain of gamma-ray focusing using Laue diffraction and multilayer-coated mirror techniques have paved the way towards a gamma-ray mission, providing major improvements compared to past missions regarding sensitivity and angular resolution. Such a future Gamma-Ray Imager will allow the study of particle acceleration processes and explosion physics in unprecedented detail, providing essential clues on the innermost nature of the most violent and most energetic processes in the Universe.

  15. Black Hole Accretion in Gamma Ray Bursts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agnieszka Janiuk

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available We study the structure and evolution of the hyperaccreting disks and outflows in the gamma ray bursts central engines. The torus around a stellar mass black hole is composed of free nucleons, Helium, electron-positron pairs, and is cooled by neutrino emission. Accretion of matter powers the relativistic jets, responsible for the gamma ray prompt emission. The significant number density of neutrons in the disk and outflowing material will cause subsequent formation of heavier nuclei. We study the process of nucleosynthesis and its possible observational consequences. We also apply our scenario to the recent observation of the gravitational wave signal, detected on 14 September 2015 by the two Advanced LIGO detectors, and related to an inspiral and merger of a binary black hole system. A gamma ray burst that could possibly be related with the GW150914 event was observed by the Fermi satellite. It had a duration of about 1 s and appeared about 0.4 s after the gravitational-wave signal. We propose that a collapsing massive star and a black hole in a close binary could lead to the event. The gamma ray burst was powered by a weak neutrino flux produced in the star remnant’s matter. Low spin and kick velocity of the merged black hole are reproduced in our simulations. Coincident gravitational-wave emission originates from the merger of the collapsed core and the companion black hole.

  16. Gamma ray bursts: Current status of observations and theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meegan, C.A.

    1990-04-01

    Gamma ray bursts display a wide range of temporal and spectral characteristics, but typically last several seconds and emit most of their energy in a low energy, gamma ray region. The burst sources appear to be isotropically distributed on the sky. Several lines of evidence suggest magnetic neutron stars as sources for bursts. A variety of energy sources and emission mechanisms are proposed

  17. Gamma-ray bursts

    CERN Document Server

    Wijers, Ralph A M J; Woosley, Stan

    2012-01-01

    Cosmic gamma ray bursts (GRBs) have fascinated scientists and the public alike since their discovery in the late 1960s. Their story is told here by some of the scientists who participated in their discovery and, after many decades of false starts, solved the problem of their origin. Fourteen chapters by active researchers in the field present a detailed history of the discovery, a comprehensive theoretical description of GRB central engine and emission models, a discussion of GRB host galaxies and a guide to how GRBs can be used as cosmological tools. Observations are grouped into three sets from the satellites CGRO, BeppoSAX and Swift, and followed by a discussion of multi-wavelength observations. This is the first edited volume on GRB astrophysics that presents a fully comprehensive review of the subject. Utilizing the latest research, Gamma-ray Bursts is an essential desktop companion for graduate students and researchers in astrophysics.

  18. Gamma ray camera

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, S.-H.; Robbins, C.D.

    1979-01-01

    An Anger gamma ray camera is improved by the substitution of a gamma ray sensitive, proximity type image intensifier tube for the scintillator screen in the Anger camera. The image intensifier tube has a negatively charged flat scintillator screen, a flat photocathode layer, and a grounded, flat output phosphor display screen, all of which have the same dimension to maintain unit image magnification; all components are contained within a grounded metallic tube, with a metallic, inwardly curved input window between the scintillator screen and a collimator. The display screen can be viewed by an array of photomultipliers or solid state detectors. There are two photocathodes and two phosphor screens to give a two stage intensification, the two stages being optically coupled by a light guide. (author)

  19. Cosmic-ray world with gamma-ray astronomy: a wealth on information, an even more open issue

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cardillo Martina

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Since from their discovery in 1912, Cosmic-Rays (CRs are one of the most debated issues of the high energy astrophysics. Their origin is still a fundamental problem and is the subject of very intense research. Until now, the best candidate sources of Galactic CR component are Supernova Remnants (SNRs but final proof for the origin of CRs up to the knee can only be obtained through two fundamental signatures, the detection of a clear gamma-ray signature of π0 decay in Galactic sources and the identification of sources emitting a photon spectrum up to PeV energies. Both indications are quite difficult to obtain. The two gamma-ray satellites, AGILE and Fermi, together with ground telescopes operating in the TeV energy range (HESS, VERITAS and MAGIC, collected a great amount of data from SNRs. In spite of the recent discovery of the neutral pion spectral signature in the SNR W44 spectrum by AGILE (and confirmed by Fermi-LAT, all gamma-ray data collected at GeV and TeV energies for several young and middle-aged SNRs provide interesting challenges to current theoretical models. The emerging view from gamma-ray and particle detection is intriguing and lead to revisit the CR-SNR paradigm, considering also the contribution of other kind of sources.

  20. Gamma-ray lasers or grasers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wilson, G.V.H.; George, E.P.; Hora, H.

    1976-01-01

    A method is described for controlling the emission and direction of gamma rays from excited nuclei contained in a sample source of suitable geometry having its major axis parallel to the proposed direction of gamma ray emission, comprising subjecting said sample source to thermal or dynamic polarization at temperatures approaching absolute zero in the presence of a strong magnetic field, and when a pulse of coherent gamma radiation is required along said major axis rotating the active nuclei through 90 0 by employing a short pulse of radio frequency oscillations in an auxilliary coil around the sample source

  1. Review of GRANAT observations of gamma-ray bursts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Terekhov, O.; Denissenko, D.; Sunyaev, R.

    1995-01-01

    The GRANAT observatory was launched into a high apogee orbit on 1 December, 1989. Three instr