WorldWideScience

Sample records for fermented beverage produced

  1. Textural characteristics of fermented milk beverages produced by kombucha

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Duraković Katarina G.

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Rheological properties of fermented dairy products are very important parameters of the product quality. The behaviour of gel formed during fermentation of milk is influenced by a great number of factors, such as: milk composition, starter culture, flavourings addition, etc. The aim of this research was to examine the influence of fat content, and kombucha inoculum concentration on textural characteristics of fermented milk beverages: firmness, consistency, cohesiveness and viscosity index after production and during 10 days of storage. Higher fat content of beverage affects the firmness, consistency, cohesiveness and viscosity index, while higher amount of inoculum in beverages has an opposite effect on textural characteristics of samples during storage.

  2. Screening and characterization of extracellular polysaccharides produced by Leuconostoc kimchii isolated from traditional fermented pulque beverage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torres-Rodríguez, Ingrid; Rodríguez-Alegría, María Elena; Miranda-Molina, Alfonso; Giles-Gómez, Martha; Conca Morales, Rodrigo; López-Munguía, Agustín; Bolívar, Francisco; Escalante, Adelfo

    2014-01-01

    We report the screening and characterization of EPS produced by LAB identified as Leuconostoc kimchii isolated from pulque, a traditional Mexican fermented, non-distilled alcoholic beverage produced by the fermentation of the sap extracted from several (Agave) maguey species. EPS-producing LAB constitutes an abundant bacterial group relative to total LAB present in sap and during fermentation, however, only two EPS-producing colony phenotypes (EPSA and EPSB, respectively) were detected and isolated concluding that despite the high number of polymer-producing LAB their phenotypic diversity is low. Scanning electron microcopy analysis during EPS-producing conditions revealed that both types of EPS form a uniform porous structure surrounding the bacterial cells. The structural characterization of the soluble and cell-associated EPS fractions of each polymer by enzymatic and acid hydrolysis, as by 1D- and 2D-NMR, showed that polymers produced by the soluble and cell-associated fractions of EPSA strain are dextrans consisting of a linear backbone of linked α-(1→6) Glcp in the main chain with α-(1→2) and α-(1→3)-linked branches. The polymer produced by the soluble fraction of EPSB strain was identified as a class 1 dextran with a linear backbone containing consecutive α-(1→6)-linked D-glucopyranosyl units with few α-(1→3)-linked branches, whereas the cell-associated EPS is a polymer mixture consisting of a levan composed of linear chains of (2→6)-linked β-D-fructofuranosyl residues with β-(2→6) connections, and a class 1 dextran. According to our knowledge this is the first report of dextrans and a levan including their structural characterization produced by L. kimchii isolated from a traditional fermented source.

  3. Yeasts Diversity in Fermented Foods and Beverages

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tamang, Jyoti Prakash; Fleet, Graham H.

    People across the world have learnt to culture and use the essential microorganisms for production of fermented foods and alcoholic beverages. A fermented food is produced either spontaneously or by adding mixed/pure starter culture(s). Yeasts are among the essential functional microorganisms encountered in many fermented foods, and are commercially used in production of baker's yeast, breads, wine, beer, cheese, etc. In Asia, moulds are predominant followed by amylolytic and alcohol-producing yeasts in the fermentation processes, whereas in Africa, Europe, Australia and America, fermented products are prepared exclusively using bacteria or bacteria-yeasts mixed cultures. This chapter would focus on the varieties of fermented foods and alcoholic beverages produced by yeasts, their microbiology and role in food fermentation, widely used commercial starters (pilot production, molecular aspects), production technology of some common commercial fermented foods and alcoholic beverages, toxicity and food safety using yeasts cultures and socio-economy

  4. Possibility of breast cancer prevention: use of soy isoflavones and fermented soy beverage produced using probiotics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takagi, Akimitsu; Kano, Mitsuyoshi; Kaga, Chiaki

    2015-05-13

    The various beneficial effects of soybeans, which are rich in phytochemicals, have received much attention because of increasing health awareness. Soy milk that has been fermented using lactic acid bacteria has been used to prepare cheese-like products, tofu (bean-curd), and yogurt-type products. However, the distinct odor of soybeans has limited the acceptance of such foods, particularly in Western countries. In Japan, while tofu and soy milk have long been habitually consumed, the development of novel, palatable food products has not been easy. The unpleasant odor of soy milk and the absorption efficiency for isoflavones can be improved using a recently developed fermented soy milk beverage. Cancer has been the leading cause of death, and breast cancer is the most common malignancy among women. The most common type of breast cancer is estrogen-dependent, and the anti-estrogenic effects of isoflavones are known. The present review focuses on the characteristics of soy milk fermented using probiotics, an epidemiological study examining the incidence of breast cancer and soy isoflavone consumption, and a non-clinical study examining breast cancer prevention using fermented soy milk beverage.

  5. Possibility of Breast Cancer Prevention: Use of Soy Isoflavones and Fermented Soy Beverage Produced Using Probiotics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akimitsu Takagi

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The various beneficial effects of soybeans, which are rich in phytochemicals, have received much attention because of increasing health awareness. Soy milk that has been fermented using lactic acid bacteria has been used to prepare cheese-like products, tofu (bean-curd, and yogurt-type products. However, the distinct odor of soybeans has limited the acceptance of such foods, particularly in Western countries. In Japan, while tofu and soy milk have long been habitually consumed, the development of novel, palatable food products has not been easy. The unpleasant odor of soy milk and the absorption efficiency for isoflavones can be improved using a recently developed fermented soy milk beverage. Cancer has been the leading cause of death, and breast cancer is the most common malignancy among women. The most common type of breast cancer is estrogen-dependent, and the anti-estrogenic effects of isoflavones are known. The present review focuses on the characteristics of soy milk fermented using probiotics, an epidemiological study examining the incidence of breast cancer and soy isoflavone consumption, and a non-clinical study examining breast cancer prevention using fermented soy milk beverage.

  6. Sensory analysis of fermented alcoholic beverages from jabuticaba produced in the city of Varre-Sai, RJ

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leticia Tinoco Gonçalves

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Jabuticaba (Myrciariasp is a fruit native to the Atlantic Forest, belonging to the Myrtaceae family, and commonly found in Brazil. It presents considerable economic potential because it can be consumed as raw fruit or processed food. In Varre-Sai, RJ, jabuticaba is strongly used in the industrialization of alcoholic beverages. The production of fermented alcoholic alternative is used to avoid waste, and make the most of the considerable nutritional value of the fruit. The content of anthocyanins in jabuticaba ranges from 310 and 315mg/100g, relatively high value compared to other fruits considered rich in antioxidants. Therefore, sensory analyses of jabuticaba alcoholic beverages produced in Varre-Sai can improve the quality of the product and potential sales. Given that the part of jabuticaba rich in phenolic compounds is the bark, the whole use of the fruit is the best alternative to take advantage of its benefits. Sensory analysis evaluated the acceptance of fermented alcoholic of Jabuticaba, in relation to its overall rating attributes, color, flavor and aroma, based on a 9-point hedonic scale, with ends named strongly disliked (1 and strongly liked (9; as well as purchase intention of tasters by a 5-point hedonic scale, with anchor points would certainly buy (5 and would not certainly buy (1. The results showed that the products had good acceptance and the fermented Sweet Tinto was rated best in all attributes, obtaining 90.18% frequency in the acceptance of hedonic scale, with respect to global acceptance. Even in the hypothetical situation of purchase, it received 74.5% of the votes in the good range of the scale. This shows that the alcoholic fermented beverages may be an alternative for the consumption of antioxidants, and that their production can improve the income of farmers as well as help avoid fruit wasting.

  7. Microbiological and chemical characteristics of tarubá, an indigenous beverage produced from solid cassava fermentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramos, Cíntia L; de Sousa, Edinaira S O; Ribeiro, Jessimara; Almeida, Tayanny M M; Santos, Claudia Cristina A do A; Abegg, Maxwel A; Schwan, Rosane F

    2015-08-01

    The aim of this work was to identify and characterize the microbiota present during fermentation and in the final beverage, tarubá, by culture-dependent and -independent methods. In addition, target chemical compounds (carbohydrates, organic acids, and ethanol) were evaluated. Lactic acid bacteria (LAB) and mesophilic bacteria were the predominant microorganisms. Among them, Lactobacillus plantarum, Lactobacillus brevis, Leuconostoc mesenteroides, and Bacillus subtilis were frequently isolated and detected by DGGE analysis. Torulaspora delbrueckii was the dominant yeast species. Yeast isolates Pichia exigua, Candida rugosa, T. delbrueckii, Candida tropicalis, Pichia kudriavzevii, Wickerhamomyces anomalus, and Candida ethanolica and bacteria isolates Lb. plantarum, Bacillus subtilis, Bacillus amyloliquefaciens, Bacillus licheniformis, Bacillus sp., and Chitinophaga terrae showed amylolytic activity. Only isolates of P. exigua and T. delbrueckii and all species of the genus Bacillus identified in this work exhibited proteolytic activity. All microbial isolates grew at 38 °C, and only the isolates belonging to Hanseniaspora uvarum species did not grow at 42 °C. These characteristics are important for further development of starter cultures; isolates of T. delbrueckii, P. exigua, and Bacillus species identified in this work displayed all of these properties and are potential strains for use as starter culture in cassava fermented food. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Traditional fermented foods and beverages of Namibia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jane Misihairabgwi

    2017-09-01

    Conclusion: Fermented foods and beverages play a major role in the diet, socioeconomic, and cultural activities of the Namibian population. Most are spontaneously fermented. Research is scarce and should be conducted on the microbiology, biochemistry, nutritional value, and safety of the fermented foods and beverages to ensure the health of the population.

  9. Acetic acid bacteria in fermented foods and beverages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Roos, Jonas; De Vuyst, Luc

    2018-02-01

    Although acetic acid bacteria (AAB) are commonly found in spontaneous or backslopped fermented foods and beverages, rather limited knowledge about their occurrence and functional role in natural food fermentation ecosystems is available. Not only is their cultivation, isolation, and identification difficult, their cells are often present in a viable but not culturable state. Yet, they are promising starter cultures either to better control known food fermentation processes or to produce novel fermented foods and beverages. This review summarizes the most recent findings on the occurrence and functional role of AAB in natural food fermentation processes such as lambic beer, water kefir, kombucha, and cocoa. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Low energy Kombucha fermented milk-based beverages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milanović Spasenija D.

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper investigates manufacturing of fermented beverages from two types of milk (1 % w/w and 2.2 % w/w fat by applying of Kombucha, which contains several yeasts and bacterial strains. The starter was the inoculum produced from previous Kombucha fermentation. The applied starter concentrations were: 10 % v/v, 15 % v/v and 20 % v/v. Also, the traditional yoghurt starter was used to produce the control samples. All fermentations were performed at 42oC and the changes in the pH were monitored. The fermentation process was about three times faster in the control yoghurt than in the Kombucha samples. Influence of Kombucha inoculum concentration on the rate of fermentation appeared not to be significant. All fermentations were stopped when the pH reached 4.4. After the production, the quality of the fermented milk beverages with Kombucha was determined and compared with the quality of the control yoghurt samples. It was concluded that the difference in fat contents in milks affects the difference in quantities of other components in the fermented milk beverages with Kombucha. Sensory characteristics of the beverages manufactured from the partially skimmed milk are much better than those of the fermented beverages produced from the low fat milk.

  11. Solid state fermentation for foods and beverages

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chen, J.; Zhu, Y.; Nout, M.J.R.; Sarkar, P.K.

    2013-01-01

    The book systematically describes the production of solid-state fermented food and beverage in terms of the history and development of SSF technology and SSF foods, bio-reactor design, fermentation process, various substrate origins and sustainable development. It emphasizes Oriental traditional

  12. Saccharomyces cerevisiae in the Production of Fermented Beverages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Graeme M Walker

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Alcoholic beverages are produced following the fermentation of sugars by yeasts, mainly (but not exclusively strains of the species, Saccharomyces cerevisiae. The sugary starting materials may emanate from cereal starches (which require enzymatic pre-hydrolysis in the case of beers and whiskies, sucrose-rich plants (molasses or sugar juice from sugarcane in the case of rums, or from fruits (which do not require pre-hydrolysis in the case of wines and brandies. In the presence of sugars, together with other essential nutrients such as amino acids, minerals and vitamins, S. cerevisiae will conduct fermentative metabolism to ethanol and carbon dioxide (as the primary fermentation metabolites as the cells strive to make energy and regenerate the coenzyme NAD+ under anaerobic conditions. Yeasts will also produce numerous secondary metabolites which act as important beverage flavour congeners, including higher alcohols, esters, carbonyls and sulphur compounds. These are very important in dictating the final flavour and aroma characteristics of beverages such as beer and wine, but also in distilled beverages such as whisky, rum and brandy. Therefore, yeasts are of vital importance in providing the alcohol content and the sensory profiles of such beverages. This Introductory Chapter reviews, in general, the growth, physiology and metabolism of S. cerevisiae in alcoholic beverage fermentations.

  13. Quality of fermented whey beverage with milk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rakin Marica B.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available One of the most economical ways of whey processing is the production of beverages, that represents a single process that exploits all the potential of whey as a raw material. Functional and sensory characteristics of whey based beverages are a criterion that is crucial to the marketing of products and win over consumers. The aim of this study was to determine nutritional and functional characteristics of fermented whey beverage with milk and commercial ABY-6 culture. The results showed that the applied starter culture can be used for the production of fermented whey based beverage with satisfactory nutritional properties. Addition of milk was important not only in the nutritional quality of the resulting product, but also improved the taste, the homogeneity and stability. Analysis of the chemical composition of fermented whey based beverage and nutritional information about it indicates that the product is a good source of protein and calcium. Fermented beverage contained 8.07 log (CFU/mL, showed antioxidant activity of at least 38.1% and the titratable acidity of 28.2°SH corresponding to the acidity of the product in this category. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. TR 31017 i br. 451-03-00605/2012-16/85

  14. Microorganisms in Fermented Apple Beverages: Current Knowledge and Future Directions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cousin, Fabien J; Le Guellec, Rozenn; Schlusselhuber, Margot; Dalmasso, Marion; Laplace, Jean-Marie; Cretenet, Marina

    2017-07-25

    Production of fermented apple beverages is spread all around the world with specificities in each country. 'French ciders' refer to fermented apple juice mainly produced in the northwest of France and often associated with short periods of consumption. Research articles on this kind of product are scarce compared to wine, especially on phenomena associated with microbial activities. The wine fermentation microbiome and its dynamics, organoleptic improvement for healthy and pleasant products and development of starters are now widely studied. Even if both beverages seem close in terms of microbiome and process (with both alcoholic and malolactic fermentations), the inherent properties of the raw materials and different production and environmental parameters make research on the specificities of apple fermentation beverages worthwhile. This review summarizes current knowledge on the cider microbial ecosystem, associated activities and the influence of process parameters. In addition, available data on cider quality and safety is reviewed. Finally, we focus on the future role of lactic acid bacteria and yeasts in the development of even better or new beverages made from apples.

  15. Fermented probiotic beverages based on acid whey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skryplonek, Katarzyna; Jasińska, Małgorzata

    2015-01-01

    Production of fermented probiotic beverages can be a good method for acid whey usage. The obtained products combine a high nutritional value of whey with health benefits claimed for probiotic bacteria. The aim of the study was to define quality properties of beverages based on fresh acid whey and milk with addition of buttermilk powder or sweet whey powder. Samples were inoculated with two strains of commercial probiotic cultures: Lactobacillus acidophilus La-5 or Bifidobacterium animalis Bb-12. After fermentation, samples were stored at refrigerated conditions. After 1, 4, 7, 14 and 21 days sensory characteristics, hardness, acetaldehyde content, titratable acidity, pH acidity and count of bacteria cells were evaluated. Throughout all storage period, the number of bacteria was higher than 8 log cfu/ml in the all samples. Beverages with La-5 strain had higher hardness and acidity, whilst samples with Bb-12 contained more acetaldehyde. Samples with buttermilk powder had better sensory properties than with sweet whey powder. Obtained products made of acid whey combined with milk and fortified with buttermilk powder or sweet whey powder, are good medium for growth and survival of examined probiotic bacteria strains. The level of bacteria was sufficient to provide health benefits to consumers.

  16. Pulque, a Traditional Mexican Alcoholic Fermented Beverage: Historical, Microbiological, and Technical Aspects

    OpenAIRE

    Escalante, Adelfo; López Soto, David R.; Velázquez Gutiérrez, Judith E.; Giles-Gómez, Martha; Bolívar, Francisco; López-Munguía, Agustín

    2016-01-01

    Pulque is a traditional Mexican alcoholic beverage produced from the fermentation of the fresh sap known as aguamiel (mead) extracted from several species of Agave (maguey) plants that grow in the Central Mexico plateau. Currently, pulque is produced, sold and consumed in popular districts of Mexico City and rural areas. The fermented product is a milky white, viscous, and slightly acidic liquid beverage with an alcohol content between 4 and 7? GL and history of consumption that dates back to...

  17. Production of Star Fruit Alcoholic Fermented Beverage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valim, Flávia de Paula; Aguiar-Oliveira, Elizama; Kamimura, Eliana Setsuko; Alves, Vanessa Dias; Maldonado, Rafael Resende

    2016-12-01

    Star fruit ( Averrhoa carambola ) is a nutritious tropical fruit. The aim of this study was to evaluate the production of a star fruit alcoholic fermented beverage utilizing a lyophilized commercial yeast ( Saccharomyces cerevisiae ). The study was conducted utilizing a 2 3 central composite design and the best conditions for the production were: initial soluble solids between 23.8 and 25 °Brix (g 100 g -1 ), initial pH between 4.8 and 5.0 and initial concentration of yeast between 1.6 and 2.5 g L -1 . These conditions yielded a fermented drink with an alcohol content of 11.15 °GL (L 100 L -1 ), pH of 4.13-4.22, final yeast concentration of 89 g L -1 and fermented yield from 82 to 94 %. The fermented drink also presented low levels of total and volatile acidities.

  18. Traditional fermented food and beverages for improved livelihoods

    OpenAIRE

    Mejia, Danilo; Marshall, Elaine

    2015-01-01

    "This booklet is intended to heighten awareness about the potential of fermented foods and beverages as a viable enterprise that can contribute to small-scale farmers' income, building on, and in full respect of, important social and cultural factors. It also looks at how fermented food and beverages contribute to food security through preservation and improved nutritional quality. It highlights the opportunities and challenges associated with small-scale fermentation activities, as well as m...

  19. Probiotic Delivery through Fermentation: Dairy vs. Non-Dairy Beverages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chaminda Senaka Ranadheera

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Probiotics are live microorganisms that, when administered in adequate amounts, confer a health benefit on the host, mainly through the process of replacing or including beneficial bacteria in the gastrointestinal tract. Fermented dairy foods such as yogurt, fermented milk and cheese are the major vehicle in delivering probiotics, and probiotic delivery have been traditionally associated with these fermented dairy foods. Additionally, many other non-dairy probiotic products and non-food form such as capsules, pills and tablets are also available and some of these non-food forms are highly popular among the consumers. Certain non-dairy probiotic foods, especially beverages that are non-fermented products, can also play an important role in probiotic delivery. There is an increasing demand for non-dairy probiotic foods (both fermented and non-fermented including fruit and vegetable juices, soy and certain cereal products due to vegetarianism, lactose intolerance and dairy allergies, as well as interest in low cholesterol foods. In this context, this review mainly focus on the different types of probiotic food products including beverages with special reference to their viability followed by a brief account on the applicability of using fermented and non-fermented beverage products in probiotic delivery.

  20. Probiotic properties of yeasts occurring in fermented food and beverages

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jespersen, Lene

    Besides being able to improve the quality and safety of many fermented food and beverages some yeasts offer a number of probiotic traits. Especially a group of yeast referred to as "Saccharomyces boulardii", though taxonomically belonging to Saccharomyces cerevisiae, has been claimed to have...... probiotic properties. Besides, yeasts naturally occurring globally in food and beverages will have traits that might have a positive impact on human health....

  1. Characteristics of fermented plant beverages in southern Thailand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charernjiratrakul, W.

    2005-05-01

    Full Text Available The characteristics of fermented plant beverages based on a sensory test, physico-chemical properties, enumeration of microorganisms present and their microbiological quality were investigated. A total of 19 samples of beverages collected from various sources in southern Thailand were examined. It was found that odor, color and clarity and the presence of Cu, Zn, K and Na were mainly dependent on the types of plant used and the additive of sugar or honey. Therefore, the appearance of the beverages was light brown and dark brown. An ester smell was occasionally detected. The fermented plant beverages had sour flavor that developed during fermentation and a little sweetness from residual sugar. The taste was related to the amounts of organic acid and sugar as measured in the ranges of 0.98-7.13% (pH 2.63-3.72 and 0.21-4.20%, respectively. The levels of alcohols measured as ethanol were between 0.03-3.32% and methanol in a range of 0.019 0.084%. Methanol production was dependent on both the fermentation process and the plant used. Total coliforms and Escherichia coli were not detected in any sample, whereas other microbes were detected in some samples as were total bacterial count, lactic acid bacteria, yeast and mold in amounts that differed depending on the fermentation time and also the level of sanitation of the production process.

  2. Improvement of production performance of functional fermented whey-based beverage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bulatović Maja Lj.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was improvement of the performances for the production of whey-based beverages with highly productive strains of Lactobacillus. Individual or mixed culture containing Lactobacillus helveticus ATCC 15009, Lactobacillus delbrueckii ssp. lactis NRRL B-4525 and Streptococcus thermophilus S3 were studied. The scientific hypothesis was that production performances, especially aroma and viable cell count, are positively affected by the strains combination and temperature. Based on the results, beverages obtained by mixed cultures Lb. helveticus ATCC 15009 - S. thermophilus S3 and Lb. delbrueckii ssp. lactis - S. thermophilus S3 had higher aroma values than beverages obtained by individual strains. The symbiosis of tested strains has positive impact on the aroma of produced beverage. In addition, the temperature has significant influence on cell viability during the storage and fermentation dynamic. The beverages produced by mixed cultures Lb. helveticus ATCC 15009 - S. thermophilus S3 and Lb. delbrueckii ssp. lactis - S. thermophilus S3 at 42 oC achieved higher storage stability (19 to 22 days than beverages produced at 37°C and 45°C (13 to 19 days. Subsequently, at 42 °C fermentation time for both mixed cultures was 1.5 h shorter, compared to the time achieved at 37°C.

  3. Sensory characteristics and volatile composition of a cereal beverage fermented with Bifidobacterium breve NCIMB 702257.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salmerón, Ivan; Rozada, Raquel; Thomas, Keith; Ortega-Rivas, Enrique; Pandiella, Severino S

    2014-04-01

    Most of the commercialized lactic acid fermented products are dairy-based. Hence, the development of non-dairy fermented products with probiotic properties draws significant attention within the functional foods industry. The microorganisms used in such products have complex enzyme systems through which they generate diverse metabolites (volatile and non-volatile) that provide significant flavour attributes of importance for fermented foods. The correlation of the volatile flavour compounds of a malt beverage fermented with a Bifidobacterium breve strain with its unique sensory characteristics was performed. The volatile composition analysis exposed the presence of 12 components. Eight of these flavour volatiles were produced through the metabolic activity of the bifidobacteria strain. Notably acetic acid, of reported sour flavour characteristics, exhibited the greatest intensity. Four components of considerable organoleptic characteristics were identified as Maillard-derived products, namely maltol, pyranone, 2 (5H)-furanmethanol and 3-furanmethanol. The sensory evaluation exhibited that the fermented cereal beverage had a sour flavour with mild sweet and malty notes. These results indicate that the volatile compounds identified can be appointed as significant flavour markers of the novel fermented cereal beverage.

  4. Development and characterization of an innovative synbiotic fermented beverage based on vegetable soybean

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carolina Battistini

    Full Text Available Abstract Soymilk was produced from vegetable soybean and fermented by probiotics (Lactobacillus acidophilus La-5, Bifidobacterium animalis Bb-12 in co-culture with Streptococcus thermophilus. The composition of the fermented beverage and oligosaccharides content were determined. The effect of fructooligosaccharides and inulin on the fermentation time and viability of probiotic microorganisms throughout 28 days of storage at 5 °C were evaluated. The soymilk from vegetable soybeans was fermented in just 3.2 h, when pH reached 4.8. Fermentation reduced the contents of stachyose and raffinose in soymilk. Prebiotics had no effect on acidification rate and on viability of B. animalis and S. thermophilus in the fermented beverage. The viable counts of B. animalis Bb-12 remained above 108 CFU mL-1 in the fermented soymilk during 28 days of storage at 5 °C while L. acidophilus La-5 was decreased by 1 log CFU mL-1. The fermented soymilk from vegetable soybeans showed to be a good food matrix to deliver probiotic bacteria, as well as a soy product with a lower content of non-digestible oligosaccharides.

  5. Fermented cereal beverages: from probiotic, prebiotic and synbiotic towards Nanoscience designed healthy drinks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salmerón, I

    2017-08-01

    The consumption of fermented foods by human kind goes a long way back in history and there are as many types of fermented food as civilizations. Food Science and Technology has progressed from designing nutritional foods towards food with health improvement characteristics such as functional foods. In this sense, the area of food with properties to improve gastrointestinal health such as probiotics, prebiotics and synbiotics has been the most important segment within functional foods. Most of these products are dairy-based so the development of nondairy gut improvement products has been of great interest for the food industry, resulting in the rise of cereal-based probiotic and synbiotic products. Finally, through Nanoscience and the application of Nanotechnology techniques in the food sector, it has been possible to design fermented beverages with synbiotic properties, and the incorporation of nanoparticles with unique and specific bioactivity, which has opened a new horizon in this segment of food created to improve human health and well-being. There is currently a great interest in producing healthy food in particular that which has an impact in improving the gastrointestinal health such as probiotics, prebiotics and synbiotics. Most of these functional foods are dairy based and have been greatly accepted worldwide. Nevertheless, there has been a need for the development of nondairy probiotic, prebiotic and synbiotic products. This has encouraged food scientists to study the feasibility of applying other fermenting substrates such as cereals for the development of innovative nondairy fermented functional foods. Therefore, in this review we have addressed the significance of applying cereals and their fractions for the development of probiotic, prebiotic and synbiotic beverages. Furthermore, we have presented the importance of including nanoscience and nanotechnology techniques for the creation of fermented cereal beverages that contain specific bioactive

  6. A Traditional Turkish Fermented Non-Alcoholic Grape-Based Beverage, “Hardaliye”

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fatma Coskun

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Hardaliye is a non-alcoholic fermented beverage produced in a traditional way in Thrace, the European part of Turkey. The nutritional value of hardaliye is derived from the grapes and the fermentation process. Health benefits of hardaliye are also related to etheric oils present in mustard seeds. Hardaliye is a lactic acid fermented traditional beverage produced from grape juice and crushed grapes with the addition of different concentrations of whole/ground or heat-treated mustard seeds and sour cherry leaves. The color of hardaliye reflects the original color of the grapes and has a characteristic aroma. Dark red grape is preferred. Benzoic acid is used as preservative during production. Benzoic acid inhibits or decreases alcohol production by affecting the yeast. Fermentation occurs at room temperature for 7–10 days. If the ambient temperature is low, fermentation process can be extended until 20 days. Once fermented, the hardaliye is stored at 4 °C for three to four months. The hardaliye is consumed either fresh or aged. If it is aged, hardaliye may contain alcohol. The industrial production is just in small-scale and it must be developed. More studies are required to determine characteristic properties of hardaliye. Identification of the product properties will supply improvement for industrial production.

  7. Pulque, a Traditional Mexican Alcoholic Fermented Beverage: Historical, Microbiological, and Technical Aspects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Escalante, Adelfo; López Soto, David R; Velázquez Gutiérrez, Judith E; Giles-Gómez, Martha; Bolívar, Francisco; López-Munguía, Agustín

    2016-01-01

    Pulque is a traditional Mexican alcoholic beverage produced from the fermentation of the fresh sap known as aguamiel (mead) extracted from several species of Agave (maguey) plants that grow in the Central Mexico plateau. Currently, pulque is produced, sold and consumed in popular districts of Mexico City and rural areas. The fermented product is a milky white, viscous, and slightly acidic liquid beverage with an alcohol content between 4 and 7° GL and history of consumption that dates back to pre-Hispanic times. In this contribution, we review the traditional pulque production process, including the microbiota involved in the biochemical changes that take place during aguamiel fermentation. We discuss the historical relevance and the benefits of pulque consumption, its chemical and nutritional properties, including the health benefits associated with diverse lactic acid bacteria with probiotic potential isolated from the beverage. Finally, we describe the actual status of pulque production as well as the social, scientific and technological challenges faced to preserve and improve the production of this ancestral beverage and Mexican cultural heritage.

  8. ANN and RSM modelling of antioxidant characteristics of kombucha fermented milk beverages with peppermint

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jasmina Vitas

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Antioxidant activity to stable DPPH radical (AADPPH and unstable hydroxyl radicals (AA.OH and nutraceuticals (monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFAs, polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs and ascorbic acid content of kombucha fermented milks with peppermint (KFM-P were modelled and optimised. Beverages were produced by the addition of 10 % of kombucha peppermint inoculum to the milk containing 0.8, 1.6 and 2.8 % milk fat at 37, 40 and 43 °C. Response surface methodology (RSM indicated opposite response surfaces for AADPPH and AA.OH PUFAs and ascorbic acid, as most significant and influential factors, were included in graphical optimization and gave the working region for obtaining products of highest antioxidant quality: lower temperatures and milk fat up to 1.8 %; higher temperatures and milk fat of maximum 1.6 %. ANN modelling of antioxidant characteristics of kombucha fermented milk beverages with peppermint was, as expected, more accurate than RSM.

  9. Development of a fermented quinoa-based beverage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ludena Urquizo, Fanny Emma; García Torres, Silvia Melissa; Tolonen, Tiina; Jaakkola, Mari; Pena-Niebuhr, Maria Grazzia; von Wright, Atte; Repo-Carrasco-Valencia, Ritva; Korhonen, Hannu; Plumed-Ferrer, Carme

    2017-05-01

    Quinoa is a crop that originated from the Andes. It has high nutritional value, outstanding agro-ecological adaptability, and low water requirements. Quinoa is an excellent crop alternative to help overcome food shortages, and it can also have a role in the prevention of developed world lifestyle diseases, such as type-2 diabetes, cardiovascular diseases, osteoporosis, inflammatory and autoimmune diseases, etc. In order to expand the traditional uses of quinoa and to provide new, healthier and more nutritious food products, a fermented quinoa-based beverage was developed. Two quinoa varieties (Rosada de Huancayo and Pasankalla) were studied. The fermentation process, viscosity, acidity, and metabolic activity during the preparation and storage of the drink were monitored, as well as the preliminary organoleptic acceptability of the product. The drink had viable and stable microbiota during the storage time and the fermentation proved to be mostly homolactic. Both quinoa varieties were suitable as base for fermented products; Pasankalla, however, has the advantage due to higher protein content, lower saponin concentration, and lower loss of viscosity during the fermentation process. These results suggest that the differences between quinoa varieties may have substantial effects on food processes and on the properties of final products. This is a factor that should be taken into account when planning novel products based on this grain.

  10. Fermentation of an Aromatized Wine-Based Beverage with Sambucus nigra L. Syrup (after Champenoise Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teodora Emilia Coldea

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The sparkling wine based beverage with elderflower (Sambucus nigra L. syrup presented improved sensorial characteristics. White wine used was Fetească regală variety, obtained in Micro winery of University of Agricultural Sciences and Veterinary Medicine of Cluj-Napoca. Elderflower syrup was prepared without thermal treatment, but was pasteurised before its addition to wine. Elderflower have many health benefits, such as diuretic, diaphoretic, or antioxidant activity. In this study it was used elderflower syrup both to improve the product s sensorial properties, and for their multiple benefits to health. The sparkling wine based beverage with elderflower syrup was produced by fermentation in the bottle (after Champenoise method, with the addition of wine yeast. The novelty brought by this paper is the use of elderflower syrup in alcoholic-beverage industry.

  11. Characterization of pomegranate juice and whey based novel beverage fermented by kefir grains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabokbar, Nayereh; Khodaiyan, Faramarz

    2015-06-01

    Mixture of pomegranate juice and whey was evaluated as a potential substrate for production of a novel probiotic beverage by kefir grains. Different fermentation conditions were used as viz: two fermentation temperature (19 ºC and 25 ºC) and two levels of kefir grains inoculum (5 % and 8%w/v). pH, acidity, lactose consumption as well as organic acids formation were determined during 32 hours of fermentation. Results showed that kefir grains were able to utilize lactose and decrease pH, increase acidity, produce lactic acid and acetic acid, while the level of citric acid decreased. It was observed these change depended on temperature and level of kefir grains with the highest changes at the temperature of 25 ºC and kefir grains inoculum of 8%w/v. Pomegranate juice and whey mixture therefore may serve as a suitable substrate for the production of novel probiotic dairy-fruit juice beverage by kefir grains and the sensory characteristics of this beverage were shown desirable results.

  12. Role of fermented beverages in the maintenance of weight loss

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monereo Megías, Susana; Arnoriaga Rodríguez, María; Olmedilla Ishishi, Yoko Lucía; Martínez de Icaya, Purificación

    2016-07-12

    Obesity is a very prevalent disease with multiple chronic complications that decrease or disappear after a small (5-10%) but maintained weight loss. Nevertheless, maintaining weight loss after the treatment is very difficult and it involves one of the biggest challenges to control this epidemic. Although the reasons that contribute to regain the lost weight are diverse and related to the biological response to caloric restriction and the lack of adherence to treatment, up to 20% of the patients are able to keep it off. The keys to success, involve the maintenance of healthy habits, exercise and a reasonable daily calorie intake to allow a normal way of life, without sacrificing the social life. At this point, learning to distinguish food and drink options in a society where social life often revolves around the table is very important. We review the keys to keep the weight off after a diet as well as the role of fermented beverages such as beer, in this process. In conclusion, maintenance the weight loss is harder than losing it. The mild-to-moderate consumption of fermented beverages such as beer is not associated with weight increase.

  13. Total phenolic content and antioxidant activities of pomegranate juice and whey based novel beverage fermented by kefir grains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabokbar, Nayereh; Khodaiyan, Faramarz

    2016-01-01

    Mixture of pomegranate juice and whey was evaluated as a potential substrate for production of a novel beverage by kefir grains. The effects of two different variables, fermentation, temperature (19 and 25 °C) and kefir grain amount (5 %w/v and 8 %w/v), on total phenolic content (TPC) and antioxidant activities of beverage were examined during a fermentation time of 32 h. TPC and antioxidant activities including 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging, reducing power, inhibition effect upon linoleic acid autoxidation and inhibition effect upon ascorbate autoxidation increased significantly (p < 0.05) during fermentation, but metal chelating effect showed no significant difference. The highest increases were observed when the temperature of 25 °C and kefir grain amount of 8 %w/v were applied. Results proved antioxidant activities of beverages were desirable and fermentation by kefir grains has the ability to enhance these antioxidant activities, as compared with unfermented beverage. Also pomegranate juice and whey were suitable media for producing a novel dairy-juice beverage.

  14. High-rate fermentative hydrogen production from beverage wastewater

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sivagurunathan, Periyasamy; Sen, Biswarup; Lin, Chiu-Yue

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Hybrid immobilized-bacterial cells show stable operation over 175 days. • Low HRT of 1.5 h shows peak hydrogen production rate of 55 L/L-d. • Electricity generation is 9024 kW-d from 55 L/L-d hydrogen using beverage wastewater. • Granular sludge formed only at 2–3 h HRT with presence of Selenomonas sp. - Abstract: Hydrogen production from beverage industry wastewater (20 g/L hexose equivalent ) using an immobilized cell reactor with a continuous mode of operation was studied at various hydraulic retention times (HRT, 8–1.5 h). Maximum hydrogen production rate (HPR) of 55 L/L-d was obtained at HRT 1.5 h (an organic loading of 320 g/L-d hexose equivalent ). This HPR value is much higher than those of other industrial wastewaters employed in fermentative hydrogen production. The cell biomass concentration peaked at 3 h HRT with a volatile suspended solids (VSS) concentration of 6.31 g/L (with presence of self-flocculating Selenomonas sp.), but it dropped to 3.54 gVSS/L at 1.5 h HRT. With the shortening of HRT, lactate concentration increased but the concentration of the dominant metabolite butyrate did not vary significantly. The Clostridium species dynamics was not significantly affected, but total microbial community structure changed with respect to HRT variation as evident from PCR–DGGE analyses. Analysis of energy production rate suggests that beverage wastewater is a high energy yielding feedstock, and can replace 24% of electricity consumption in a model beverage industry

  15. Potential of fermented papaya beverage in the prevention of foodborne illness incidence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Koh, S.P.

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Foodborne illness is recognized as an emerging infectious disease. The incidence of foodborne infections is common and the majority cases are undiagnosed or unreported. Apart from some diarrhea or minor gastrointestinal problem, some foodborne pathogenic microbes may cause death, particularly to those people with weakened immune system. In this study, we have developed a new fermented papaya beverage using symbiotic culture of yeast and acetic acid bacteria under controlled biofermentation process. An in-vitro assessment of fermented papaya beverage against few foodborne pathogenic microorganism was conducted to determine its minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC>99. Three types of foodborne pathogen: Escherichia coli O157, Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium ATCC 53648, Salmonella enterica serovar Enteritidis (isolated from infectious chicken were selected. From minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC>99 assay, both fermented papaya pulp and leaves beverages have shown 100% killing rate against three selected foodborne pathogenic microbes. Inversely, non-fermented papaya pulp and leaves beverages indicated no inhibition at all. In fact, further dilution of fermented papaya pulp and leaves beverages demonstrated different degree of MBC>99 and brix value, but the pH value remained less than 3.5. These findings indicated the combination of soluble solid compounds presents in both fermented papaya beverage and product acidity play an important role in the inhibition of pathogenic microorganisms. The preliminary promising results of this work have shown that the great potential of fermented papaya beverages as a preventive measure to reduce the incidence of foodborne illness.

  16. Next-generation sequencing approaches for improvement of lactic acid bacteria-fermented plant-based beverages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jordyn Bergsveinson

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Plant-based beverages and milk alternatives produced from cereals and legumes have grown in popularity in recent years due to a range of consumer concerns over dairy products. These plant-based products can often have undesirable physiochemical properties related to flavour, texture, and nutrient availability and/or deficiencies. Lactic acid bacteria (LAB fermentation offers potential remediation for many of these issues, and allows consumers to retain their perception of the resultant products as natural and additive-free. Using next-generation sequencing (NGS or omics approaches to characterize LAB isolates to find those that will improve properties of plant-based beverages is the most direct way to product improvement. Although NGS/omics approaches have been extensively used for selection of LAB for use in the dairy industry, a comparable effort has not occurred for selecting LAB for fermenting plant raw substrates, save those used in producing wine and certain types of beer. Here we review the few and recent applications of NGS/omics to profile and improve LAB fermentation of various plant-based substrates for beverage production. We also identify specific issues in the production of various LAB fermented plant-based beverages that such NGS/omics applications have the power to resolve.

  17. Anticancer activity of botanical compounds in ancient fermented beverages (review).

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGovern, P E; Christofidou-Solomidou, M; Wang, W; Dukes, F; Davidson, T; El-Deiry, W S

    2010-07-01

    Humans around the globe probably discovered natural remedies against disease and cancer by trial and error over the millennia. Biomolecular archaeological analyses of ancient organics, especially plants dissolved or decocted as fermented beverages, have begun to reveal the preliterate histories of traditional pharmacopeias, which often date back thousands of years earlier than ancient textual, ethnohistorical, and ethnological evidence. In this new approach to drug discovery, two case studies from ancient Egypt and China illustrate how ancient medicines can be reconstructed from chemical and archaeological data and their active compounds delimited for testing their anticancer and other medicinal effects. Specifically, isoscopoletin from Artemisia argyi, artemisinin from Artemisia annua, and the latter's more easily assimilated semi-synthetic derivative, artesunate, showed the greatest activity in vitro against lung and colon cancers. In vivo tests of these compounds previously unscreened against lung and pancreatic cancers are planned for the future.

  18. Non-Alcoholic Beverages from Fermented Cereals with Increased Oligosaccharide Content

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grazina Juodeikiene

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study is to develop a new technology for making traditional Lithuanian non-alcoholic beverage kvass from fermented cereals by extending the spectrum of raw materials (extruded rye and applying new biotechnological resources (xylanolytic enzymes and lactic acid bacteria (LAB to improve its functional properties. Arabinoxylans in extruded rye were very efficiently hydrolysed into oligosaccharides by xylanolytic complex Ceremix Plus MG. Using Ceremix Plus MG and LAB fermentation, the yield of arabinoxylooligosaccharides and xylooligosaccharides in beverage was increased to 300 and 1100 mg/L, respectively. Beverages fermented by LAB had lower pH values and ethanol volume fraction compared to the yeast-fermented beverage. The acceptability of the beverage fermented by Lactobacillus sakei was higher than of Pediococcus pentosaceus- or yeast-fermented beverages and similar to the acceptability of commercial kvass made from malt extract. The results showed that extruded rye, xylanolytic enzymes and LAB can be used for production of novel and safe high-value non-alcoholic beverages.

  19. Donkey Milk for Manufacture of Novel Functional Fermented Beverages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perna, Annamaria; Intaglietta, Immacolata; Simonetti, Amalia; Gambacorta, Emilio

    2015-06-01

    The aim of this work was to investigate on the functional features of a donkey milk probiotic berevage as a novel food. Particularly, it was to study the decrease of lactose content and the antioxidant activity of standard yogurt (YC) and probiotic yogurt (YP; Lactobacillus acidophilus, Lactobacillus casei) from donkey milk during the storage up to 30 d at 4 ºC. The evolution of lactose content using enzymatic-spectrophotometric kits was analyzed. Antioxidant activity of yogurt was measured using 2,2'-azino-bis-3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid (ABTS), ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP), and thiol assays. Parallel consumer sensory studies were carried out as consumer test in order to gain information about the impact of these novel fermented beverages on sensory perceptions. The statistical analysis has shown significant effect of studied factors. The results showed that the lactose content gradually decreased during storage in both yogurts, reaching values of 2.36% and 2.10% in YC and YP, respectively, at 30 d (P yogurt types, the antioxidant activity increased, but YP showed a higher antioxidant activity than YC. The results suggest that the antioxidant activity of yogurt samples was affected by cultures of lactic acid bacteria (LAB). We conclude that the fermented donkey milk could be configured as health and nutraceutical food, which aims to meet nutritional requirements of certain consumers groups with lactose or cow milk protein intolerance. © 2015 Institute of Food Technologists®

  20. Elaboration of fermented dairy beverages: acceptability and viability of probiotic cultures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriana Carla Santos de Menezes Ramos

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available This work aims to develop formulations of fermented dairy beverages with probiotic cultures (Lactobacillus acidophilus, Streptococcus thermophilus e Bifidobacterium bifidum yellow monbin flavored, to characterize the chemical composition and to evaluate the stability during refrigerated storage for 28 days.The dairy beverages were developed from an experimental design 3x3, with two factors and three levels each: yellow monbin pulp (15, 20 and 25% and whey (20, 30 and 40%. Nine formulations were produced and submitted to a sensory acceptability test. Thereafter three selected formulations were evaluated based on their microbiological characteristics, proximate composition, pH and titratable acidity. As the acceptance was higher than 70% in all the formulations, were selected that had a higher proportion of whey. Thus, the formulations F3, F6 e F9 were selected. Considering the proximate composition, the selected formulations not differed regarding for carbohydrates. The dairy beverages showed stability with respect to pH and acidity during the shelf life of 28 days and satisfactory results as the investigation of pathogenic microorganisms within the standards established. Quantification of lactic acid bacteria evidenced high numbers to Lactobacillus acidophilus and Streptococcus thermophilus, values between 11.6 to 10.2 CFU log/mL and 8.9 to 11 CFU log/mL, respectively. The species Bifidobacterium bifidum presented less than 6 log/ mL CFU for the formulations. Based on these results, the selected dairy beverages formulations had nutrition, technology and sensorial feasibility.

  1. A study on indigenous fermented foods and beverages of Kokrajhar, Assam, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yutika Narzary

    2016-12-01

    Conclusion: The application of scientific methodology in the processing of such fermented foods and beverages would contribute to sustainability of regional economy by boosting the livelihood of the rural people.

  2. Folk to functional: An explorative overview of rice-based fermented foods and beverages in India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mousumi Ray

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Fermented foods share an integral part of age-old wisdom from ancient Indian civilization. Over the generations, this pioneering practice of food fermentation has expanded and improved to preserve and fortify the available food resources, particularly to meet the hidden hunger. India, being the second largest producer of rice, has a great history of traditional rice-based fermented foods with different tastes and textures linked with cultural diversity and mostly prepared by rural women following village art techniques. Some of them have been scientifically investigated and it has been revealed that microflora in natural or starter culture plays imperative roles to bio-embolden the rice with varieties of health promoting macronutrients and micronutrients, phytochemicals, and other functional components during fermentation. In this review, some explorative information on traditional rice-based foods and beverages has been assembled to illustrate the global interest in Indian food heritage and their functional aspects. The review also deals with the preparation of raw materials, traditional processing, composition, and ethno-medicinal importance of each food to encourage entrepreneurs to develop large-scale production to meet the growing market demand of functional foods.

  3. Microbial Succession and Flavor Production in the Fermented Dairy Beverage Kefir.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walsh, Aaron M; Crispie, Fiona; Kilcawley, Kieran; O'Sullivan, Orla; O'Sullivan, Maurice G; Claesson, Marcus J; Cotter, Paul D

    2016-01-01

    Kefir is a putatively health-promoting dairy beverage that is produced when a kefir grain, consisting of a consortium of microorganisms, is added to milk to initiate a natural fermentation. Here, a detailed analysis was carried out to determine how the microbial population, gene content, and flavor of three kefirs from distinct geographic locations change over the course of 24-h fermentations. Metagenomic sequencing revealed that Lactobacillus kefiranofaciens was the dominant bacterial species in kefir during early stages of fermentations but that Leuconostoc mesenteroides became more prevalent in later stages. This pattern is consistent with an observation that genes involved in aromatic amino acid biosynthesis were absent from L. kefiranofaciens but were present in L. mesenteroides . Additionally, these shifts in the microbial community structure, and associated pathways, corresponded to changes in the levels of volatile compounds. Specifically, Acetobacter spp. correlated with acetic acid; Lactobacillus spp. correlated with carboxylic acids, esters and ketones; Leuconostoc spp. correlated with acetic acid and 2,3-butanedione; and Saccharomyces spp. correlated with esters. The correlation data suggest a causal relationship between microbial taxa and flavor that is supported by observations that addition of L. kefiranofaciens NCFB 2797 increased the levels of esters and ketones whereas addition of L. mesenteroides 213M0 increased the levels of acetic acid and 2,3-butanedione. Finally, we detected genes associated with probiotic functionalities in the kefir microbiome. Our results illustrate the dynamic nature of kefir fermentations and microbial succession patterns therein and can be applied to optimize the fermentation processes, flavors, and health-related attributes of this and other fermented foods. IMPORTANCE Traditional fermented foods represent relatively low-complexity microbial environments that can be used as model microbial communities to understand

  4. Microbiological and physical-chemical characteristics of fermented milk beverages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E.H.P. Andrade

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to evaluate some microbiological and physical-chemical characteristics of fermented milk beverages collected at the main supermarkets in Belo Horizonte (MG. 40 samples of the products corresponding to five distinct brands were collected. They were submitted to the following analyses: Most Probable Number (MPN of total (30ºC and thermal tolerant coliforms (45ºC, Salmonella spp., coagulase positive Staphylococcus, molds and yeasts, lactic acid bacteria, pH, titratable acidity and contents of moisture, total solids, protein and fat. The analyses were carried out during the last week of shelf life. The microbiological quality of the samples was good and the counts of lactic bacteria were above the minimum established by the official legislation. Streptococcus and Lactobacillus were isolated and identified from the products and Lactobacillus delbrueckii was molecularly identified in three samples. The mean values for the contents of fat and protein, titratable acidity, pH, moisture and total solids ranged from 1.24 to 1.98%; 1.88 to 2.22%; 0.54 to 0.66%; 3.91 to 4.16; 81.18 to 83.25% and 16.75 to 18.82%, respectively. All samples had protein content in agreement with the official legislation.

  5. A survey of consumer’ opinion about consumption and health benefits of fermented plant beverages in Thailand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chaiyavat CHAIYASUT

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Fermented beverages are widely used all over the country. Fermented plant beverages (FPB are prevalent in Thailand and FPBs are believed to cure and prevent many health oriented problems. The people of Thailand produce many varieties of FPBs in small scale or large scale and consume them in their daily lives. This study is a survey conducted among the representative consumers of FPBs in Thailand to know the consumer's opinion on FPBs, effects and benefits of FPBs, and real status of consumer satisfaction in Thailand. This study revealed that the rationale for the consumption of respective FPBs was to treat their health issues and for the betterment of their health. Most of the consumers of FPBs benefited in case of improving their physical and mental health. The current survey revealed the opinion of the FPBs consumers in Thailand. This study concluded that FPBs are health promoting drink that is affordable in the daily life of Thai people. The FPBs prepared in Thailand did not report any massive adverse effects in Thailand. Till now the preparation and consumption of FPBs are followed in Thailand and not influenced by adverse effects; FPBs are considered safe for human consumption.

  6. Manufacture of a beverage from cheese whey using a "tea fungus" fermentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belloso-Morales, Genette; Hernández-Sánchez, Humberto

    2003-01-01

    Kombucha is a sour beverage reported to have potential health effects prepared from the fermentation of black tea and sugar with a "tea fungus", a symbiotic culture of acetic acid bacteria and yeasts. Although black tea is the preferred substrate for Kombucha fermentation, other beverages have also been tested as substrates with fair results. Cheese whey is a by-product with a good amount of fermentable lactose that has been used before in the production of beverages, so the objective of this study was to test three types of whey (fresh sweet, fresh acid and reconstituted sweet) in the elaboration of a fermented beverage using a kombucha culture as inoculum. The isolation and identification of bacteria and yeasts from the fermented tea and wheys was done along with the study of the rates of change in sugar consumption, acid production and pH decrease. Several species of acetic acid bacteria (Acetobacter aceti subsp. aceti, Gluconobacter oxydans subsp. industrius, subsp. oxydans and Gluconoacetobacter xylinus) were isolated from the different kombuchas along with the yeasts Saccharomyces cerevisiae, Kluyveromyces marxianus, and Brettanomyces bruxelensis. The main metabolic products in the fermented wheys included ethanol, lactic and acetic acids. A good growth was obtained in both sweet wheys in which a pH of 3.3 and a total acid content (mainly lactic and acetic acids) of 0.07 mol/l was reached after 96 h. The sweet whey fermented beverages contained a relatively low lactose concentration (< 12 g/l). The final ethanol content was low (5 g/l) in all the fermented wheys. The whey products were strongly sour and salty non sparkling beverages.

  7. Lactobacillus plantarum and Streptococcus thermophilus as starter cultures for a donkey milk fermented beverage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turchi, Barbara; Pedonese, Francesca; Torracca, Beatrice; Fratini, Filippo; Mancini, Simone; Galiero, Alessia; Montalbano, Benedetta; Cerri, Domenico; Nuvoloni, Roberta

    2017-09-01

    Donkey milk is recently gaining attention due to its nutraceutical properties. Its low casein content does not allow caseification, so the production of a fermented milk would represent an alternative way to increase donkey milk shelf life. The aim of this study was to investigate the possibility of employing selected Streptococcus thermophilus and Lactobacillus plantarum isolates for the production of a novel donkey milk fermented beverage. Lysozyme resistance and the ability to acidify donkey milk were chosen as main selection parameters. Different fermented beverages (C1-C9) were produced, each with a specific combination of isolates, and stored at refrigerated conditions for 35days. The pH values and viability of the isolates were weekly assessed. In addition, sensory analysis was performed. Both S. thermophilus and L.plantarum showed a high degree of resistance to lysozyme with a Minimum Bactericidal Concentration>6.4mg/mL for 100% of S. thermophilus and 96% of L. plantarum. S. thermophilus and L. plantarum showed the ability to acidify donkey milk in 24h at 37°C, with an average ΔpH value of 2.91±0.16 and 1.78±0.66, respectively. Four L. plantarum and two S. thermophilus were chosen for the production of fermented milks. Those containing the association S. thermophilus/L. plantarum (C1-C4) reached a pH lower than 4.5 after 18h of fermentation and showed microbial loads higher than 7.00logcfu/mL until the end of the storage period. Moreover, comparing the microbial loads of samples containing both species and those containing S. thermophilus alone (C5), we highlighted the ability of L. plantarum to stimulate S. thermophilus replication. This boosted replication of S. thermophilus allowed to reach an appropriate pH in a time frame fitting the production schedule. This was not observed for samples containing a single species (C5-C9). Thus, L. plantarum strains seem to be good candidates in the production of a novel type of fermented milk, not only for their

  8. Production and Characterization of a Distilled Alcoholic Beverage Obtained by Fermentation of Banana Waste (Musa cavendishii from Selected Yeast

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mara Eli de Matos

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Banana is one of the most important fruits in the Brazilian diet and is mainly consumed naturally. Losses from crop to final consumer are high and estimated in about 30%. The aim of this work was to elaborate a distilled alcoholic beverage from discarded banana and to compare with commercial trademarks. Initially, yeast strains were isolated from banana fruit and characterized by their production of volatile aroma compounds. The highest aroma-producing yeast isolate was identified by ITS-rRNA gene sequencing as Pichia kluyveri. Pasteurized banana pulp and peel was fermented by the selected P. kluyveri at approximately 107 cells/mL. The sugars were converted quickly, and a high ethanol concentration (413 mg/L was achieved after 24 h of fermentation. The fermented banana must was distilled in a Femel Alambic, and the head, heart and tail fractions were collected. The banana brandy produced had highest concentration of volatile compounds compared to trademarks, such as isoamyl acetate (13.5 mg/L, ethyl hexanoate (0.8 mg/L and others. The results showed that whole banana must could be a good substrate for fermentation and distillation, and the sensory analysis performed revealed that the produced beverage had good acceptance by the tasters. This study demonstrates the potential of banana as a possible alternative to reduce waste and increase income to farmers.

  9. A novel non-dairy beverage from durian pulp fermented with selected probiotics and yeast.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Yuyun; Putra, Satya Dwi; Liu, Shao-Quan

    2018-01-16

    This study investigated the effects of sequential inoculation (Seq-I) of Bifidobacterium animalis subsp. lactis or Lactobacillus casei with yeast Williopsis saturnus on durian pulp fermentation. Seq-I of W. saturnus following B. animalis subsp. lactis did not bring about any significant differences compared to the B. animalis subsp. lactis monoculture due to the sharp early death of W. saturnus soon after inoculation. However, Seq-I of W. saturnus significantly enhanced the survival of L. casei and improved the utilization of fructose and glucose compared to L. casei monoculture. In addition, there were significant differences in the metabolism of organic acids especially for lactic acid and succinic acid. Furthermore, Seq-I produced significantly higher levels of volatile compounds including alcohols (ethanol and 2-phenylethyl alcohol) and acetate esters (2-phenylethyl acetate, isoamyl acetate and ethyl acetate), which would positively contribute to the flavour notes. Although the initial volatile sulphur compounds were reduced to trace levels after fermentation, but the durian odour still remained. This study suggests that the use of probiotics and W. saturnus to ferment durian pulp could act as a potential avenue to develop a novel non-dairy durian-based functional beverage to deliver probiotics. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Aroma Characterization and Safety Assessment of a Beverage Fermented by Trametes versicolor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yanyan; Fraatz, Marco Alexander; Müller, Julia; Schmitz, Hans-Joachim; Birk, Florian; Schrenk, Dieter; Zorn, Holger

    2015-08-12

    A cereal-based beverage was developed by fermentation of wort with the basidiomycete Trametes versicolor. The beverage possessed a fruity, fresh, and slightly floral aroma. The volatiles of the beverage were isolated by liquid-liquid extraction (LLE) and additionally by headspace solid phase microextraction (HS-SPME). The aroma compounds were analyzed by a gas chromatography system equipped with a tandem mass spectrometer and an olfactory detection port (GC-MS/MS-O) followed by aroma (extract) dilution analysis. Thirty-four different odor impressions were perceived, and 27 corresponding compounds were identified. Fifteen key odorants with flavor dilution (FD) factors ranging from 8 to 128 were quantitated, and their respective odor activity values (OAVs) were calculated. Six key odorants were synthesized de novo by T. versicolor. Furthermore, quantitative changes during the fermentation process were analyzed. To prepare for the market introduction of the beverage, a comprehensive safety assessment was performed.

  11. Elaboration and characterization of Japanese Raisin Tree (Hovenia dulcis Thumb. pseudofruits fermented alcoholic beverage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juliana Tensol PINTO

    Full Text Available Abstract Hovenia dulcis pseudofruits have underexplored properties for food purposes, despite their pleasant sensory characteristics and therapeutic benefits. The aim of this study was the elaboration and chemical characterization of the alcoholic fermented beverage of H. dulcis, using selected strain of Saccharomyces cerevisiae (CCMA 0200. The resulting fermented beverage presented high content of phenolic compounds and antioxidant activity when compared to other fruits and beverages (DPPH and ABTS assay. The alcohol content was 12.9 oGL and total sugars 3.57g/L. By the GC-MS analysis, 39 compounds were identified including metabolites with therapeutic potential such as eugenol, trans-farnesol salicylates. The flavonoid dihidromyricetin was identified and quantified (75.17 mg/L by HPLC-DAD and UPLC-MS/MS. The results reinforce the interest on nutraceutical and functional properties of this beverage and opens perspectives for new studies that value this underexplored pseudofruit.

  12. Fermentation process for alcoholic beverage production from mahua ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Ezedom Theresa

    2013-09-25

    Sep 25, 2013 ... Key words: Madhuca indica, ethanol, reducing sugar, fermentation. ... The mahua flowers obtained were cleaned and dried in hot air oven at 60°C ... methanol in the fermented sample was determined with the help of.

  13. A Traditional Turkish Fermented Non-Alcoholic Beverage, “Shalgam”

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fatma Coskun

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Shalgam is a traditional Turkish beverage produced by lactic acid fermentation. Shalgam is also sold in markets in some European cities. In shalgam production, bulgur flour (formed during the crushing process, it is the part that remains under the sieve after breaking the outer shells of boiled dried wheat for processing, salt, water, purple carrot, turnip, and sometimes red beet is used. The traditional method of production can take 10–12 days. Commercial production takes 4–5 days. Shalgam is a probiotic food and a good source of nutrients. It helps regulate the pH of the digestive system. It contains β-carotene, group B vitamins, calcium, potassium, and iron. People also use it as a medicine because of its antiseptic agents. Shalgam consumption should be increased and become worldwide.

  14. 40 CFR 180.522 - Fumigants for processed grains used in production of fermented malt beverage; tolerances for...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... production of fermented malt beverage; tolerances for residues. 180.522 Section 180.522 Protection of... PESTICIDE CHEMICAL RESIDUES IN FOOD Specific Tolerances § 180.522 Fumigants for processed grains used in production of fermented malt beverage; tolerances for residues. (a) General. Fumigants for processed grain...

  15. Ethnobotany of wild plants used for starting fermented beverages in Shui communities of southwest China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Liya; Zhuo, Jingxian; Lei, Qiyi; Zhou, Jiangju; Ahmed, Selena; Wang, Chaoying; Long, Yuxiao; Li, Feifei; Long, Chunlin

    2015-05-28

    Shui communities of southwest China have an extensive history of using wild plants as starters (Xiaoqu) to prepare fermented beverages that serve important roles in interpersonal relationships and cultural events. While the practice of using wild plants as starters for the preparation of fermented beverages was once prevalent throughout China, this tradition has seen a decline nationally since the 1930s. The traditional technique of preparing fermented beverages from wild plant starters remains well preserved in the Shui communities in southwest China and provides insight on local human-environment interactions and conservation of plant biodiversity for cultural purposes. The present study sought to examine the ethnobotany of wild plants used as starters for the preparation of fermented beverages including an inventory of plants used as a starter in liquor fermentation and associated knowledge and practices. Field surveys were carried out that consisted of semi-structured surveys and plant species inventories. One hundred forty-nine informants in twenty Shui villages were interviewed between July 2012 and October 2014 to document knowledge associated with wild plants used as a liquor fermentation starter. The inventories involved plant voucher specimens and taxonomic identification of plant collections. A total of 103 species in 57 botanical families of wild plants were inventoried and documented that are traditionally used as starters for preparing fermented beverages by Shui communities. The majority of the species (93.2%) have multiple uses in addition to being used as a starter with medicinal purposes being the most prevalent. Shui women are the major harvesters and users of wild plants used as starters for preparing fermented beverages and transfer knowledge orally from mother to daughter. Findings from this study can serve as a basis for future investigation on fermented beverages and foods and associated knowledge and cultural practices. However, with rapid

  16. Changes in the quality of zobo beverages produced from Hibiscus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Quality changes in zobo beverage produced from Hibiscus sabdarifa during storage and the effects of extracts of ginger (Zingiber officinale) alone or in combination with refrigeration at 6C were evaluated for six (6) weeks duration. Results shows that the total viable bacterial count increased from 0.9 ± 0.01 log10 cfu/ml to ...

  17. The quantitative analysis of thiamin and riboflavin and their respective vitamers in fermented alcoholic beverages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hucker, Barry; Wakeling, Lara; Vriesekoop, Frank

    2011-12-14

    This research aimed to develop a simple and effective method for analyzing thiamin (B(1)), riboflavin (B(2)) and their respective vitamers by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) in fermented alcoholic beverages. The method developed here employs a phosphate buffer/methanol gradient elution on a single reverse phase column, coupled with independent fluorescent detection regimes. It also employs a precolumn derivatization to convert thiamin to thiochrome via an alkaline potassium ferricyanide solution. The method described here allowed a spike recovery of better than 97%, with a typical linear detection range (R(2) ≥ 0.9997) between ≤ 5 and ≥ 500 μg/L for all vitamers studied. Lager style beers were found to contain significantly (p porters, 104.4 μg/L; wheat beers, 130.7 μg/L), which may be due to the raw material and extensive processing that occurs for this style. There was no statistical difference (p = 0.608) between the riboflavin content of each beer style. Furthermore, wines and ciders contain less thiamin and riboflavin than beer, which is also likely to be due to the base materials used and the differences in processing steps to produce these beverages.

  18. Factors affecting methanol content of fermented plant beverage ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    TrueFasterUser

    2013-07-03

    ANZFA) permitted the maximum concentration of methanol in spirit beverages at 8 g/L of ..... German Federal Republic Patent. DE 43 (13)549. Frenkel C, Peters JS, Tieman DM, Tiznado ME, Handa AK (1998). Pectin Methylesterase ...

  19. Production and characterization of distilled alcoholic beverages obtained by solid-state fermentation of black mulberry (Morus nigra L.) and black currant (Ribes nigrum L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alonso González, Elisa; Torrado Agrasar, Ana; Pastrana Castro, Lorenzo M; Orriols Fernández, Ignacio; Pérez Guerra, Nelson

    2010-02-24

    The present study was conducted to appraise the potential of black mulberry and black currant to be used as fermentation substrates for producing alcoholic beverages obtained by distillation of the fruits previously fermented with Sacchromyces cerevisiae IFI83. In the two distillates obtained, the volatile compounds that can pose health hazards are within the limits of acceptability fixed by the European Council (Regulation 110/2008) for fruit spirits. However, the amount of volatile substances in the black currant distillate (121.1 g/hL absolute alcohol (aa)) was lower than the minimum limit (200 g/hL aa) fixed by the aforementioned regulation. The mean volatile composition of both distillates was different from other alcoholic beverages such as four commercial Galician orujo spirits, Portuguese bagaceiras, and two distillates obtained from fermented whey and blackberry. The results obtained showed the feasibility for obtaining distillates from fermented black mulberry and black currant, which have their own distinctive characteristics.

  20. Content of sugar, organic acids and ethanol in fermented milk beverages obtained with different types of kombucha inoculum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iličić Mirela D.

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to examine the influence of different types and concentration of kombucha inoculum on content of sugar, organic acids and ethanol in the fermented beverages produced from milk of 0.9% fat content. Three different kombucha inoculums, cultivated on black tea with addition of sucrose: standard inoculum - 10% (w/w and 15% (w/w, concentrated by microfiltration- 10% (w/w and 15% (w/w, and concentrated by evaporation - 1.5% (w/w and 3.0% (w/w, were applied in the manufacture of fermented milk. Contents of lactose, galactose, glucose, fructose, organic acids, and ethanol in the kombuha fermented milk beverages were determined by the enzyme tests. It was found that the lactose content varied from 3.30 to 4.0 g/100g. All samples showed higher content glucose than fructose. The content of L-lactic acid in the samples ranged from 0.4 to 0.7 g/100g, while significantly lower level of D-lactic and acetic acid were determined in all samples of kombucha fermented milk (<0.06g/100g.[Project of the Serbian Ministry of Education, Science and Technological Development, Grant no. 46009

  1. Probiotic Delivery through Fermentation: Dairy vs. Non-Dairy Beverages

    OpenAIRE

    Chaminda Senaka Ranadheera; Janak K. Vidanarachchi; Ramon Silva Rocha; Adriano G. Cruz; Said Ajlouni

    2017-01-01

    Probiotics are live microorganisms that, when administered in adequate amounts, confer a health benefit on the host, mainly through the process of replacing or including beneficial bacteria in the gastrointestinal tract. Fermented dairy foods such as yogurt, fermented milk and cheese are the major vehicle in delivering probiotics, and probiotic delivery have been traditionally associated with these fermented dairy foods. Additionally, many other non-dairy probiotic products and non-food form ...

  2. Aspects of the manufacture and consumption of Kenyan traditional fermented beverages

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nout, M.J.R.

    1981-01-01

    This study was aimed at providing fundamental information con ern ing the manufacture, composition, and consumption of the major Kenyan traditional fermented beverages.

    In Chapter 1, the reader is introduced to Kenya, its population and climate, and several aspects of its agriculture

  3. The use of acid whey for the production of yogurt-type fermented beverages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katarzyna Skryplonek

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Acid whey is a by-product of cheese-making industry, which, in comparison to rennet whey, has less favourable processing properties and thus it is more difficult to utilize. The aim of the study was to evaluate the quality of yogurt-type fermented beverages based on acid whey. In the beverages production yogurt bacteria cultures Streptococcus thermophilus and Lactobacillus delbruecki ssp. bulgaricus (YO-MIX, Danisco, Denmark were used. The production process included combining of pasteurized acid whey with UHT milk, unsweetened condensed milk or skimmed milk powder. Milk was incorporated to beverages in order to enrich casein content and obtain product with quality characteristics similar to fermented milk drinks. Moreover, the beverages were supplemented with oligofructose and whey protein concentrate WPC 35. The products were stored under refrigerated conditions (5±1°C for 21 days. During the storage, an assessment of physicochemical properties and sensory characteristics was carried out. In addition, the beverages were evaluated in consumer preference test. The study showed, that by combining of acid whey with milk it is possible to obtain a products similar to yogurt, although their characteristics were influenced by the composition and storage time. During storage period, the acidity increased and acetaldehyde content decreased. Moreover the deterioration of sensory properties was observed. Consumer preference test indicated, that the best sensory properties had beverages from whey and condensed milk.

  4. Predictive modelling of Lactobacillus casei KN291 survival in fermented soy beverage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zielińska, Dorota; Dorota, Zielińska; Kołożyn-Krajewska, Danuta; Danuta, Kołożyn-Krajewska; Goryl, Antoni; Antoni, Goryl; Motyl, Ilona

    2014-02-01

    The aim of the study was to construct and verify predictive growth and survival models of a potentially probiotic bacteria in fermented soy beverage. The research material included natural soy beverage (Polgrunt, Poland) and the strain of lactic acid bacteria (LAB) - Lactobacillus casei KN291. To construct predictive models for the growth and survival of L. casei KN291 bacteria in the fermented soy beverage we design an experiment which allowed the collection of CFU data. Fermented soy beverage samples were stored at various temperature conditions (5, 10, 15, and 20°C) for 28 days. On the basis of obtained data concerning the survival of L. casei KN291 bacteria in soy beverage at different temperature and time conditions, two non-linear models (r(2)= 0.68-0.93) and two surface models (r(2)=0.76-0.79) were constructed; these models described the behaviour of the bacteria in the product to a satisfactory extent. Verification of the surface models was carried out utilizing the validation data - at 7°C during 28 days. It was found that applied models were well fitted and charged with small systematic errors, which is evidenced by accuracy factor - Af, bias factor - Bf and mean squared error - MSE. The constructed microbiological growth and survival models of L. casei KN291 in fermented soy beverage enable the estimation of products shelf life period, which in this case is defined by the requirement for the level of the bacteria to be above 10(6) CFU/cm(3). The constructed models may be useful as a tool for the manufacture of probiotic foods to estimate of their shelf life period.

  5. Determination of Ethyl Carbamate in Alcoholic Beverages and Fermented Foods Sold in Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryu, Dayeon; Choi, Bogyoung; Kim, Eunjoo; Park, Seri; Paeng, Hwijin; Kim, Cho-Il; Lee, Jee-Yeon; Yoon, Hae Jung; Koh, Eunmi

    2015-09-01

    Ethyl carbamate (EC) classified as a probable human carcinogen (Group 2A) is naturally formed in alcoholic beverages and fermented foods during fermentation process and/or during storage. The objective of this study was to analyze EC in 34 food items including 14 alcoholic beverages and 20 fermented foods sold in Korea. Each food was collected from 18 supermarkets in 9 metropolitan cities in Korea, and then made into composite. According to food composition and alcohol content, samples were divided into four matrices such as apple juice, milk, Soju (liquor containing about 20% alcohol), and rice porridge. The maximum EC value of 151.06 µg/kg was found in Maesilju (liquor made from Maesil and Soju). Whisky and Bokbunjaju (Korean black raspberry wine) contained 9.90 µg/kg and 6.30 µg/kg, respectively. EC was not detected in other alcoholic beverages. Of 20 fermented foods, Japanese-style soy sauce had highest level of 15.59 µg/kg and traditional one contained 4.18 µg/kg. Soybean paste had 1.18 µg/kg, however, EC was not found in other fermented foods.

  6. PHYSICOCHEMICAL AND RHEOLOGICAL CHARACTERIZATION OF COMMERCIAL DAIRY FERMENTED BEVERAGES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    KAMILLA SOARES MENDONÇA

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The Technical Regulation on Identity and Quality of Whey-based Drinks establish few parameters to dairy beverages, which may impair standardized product providing to the consumer. The ingathering of the physicochemical characteristics provides information that allow the standardization of the product and provide safety to the consumer, whereas the rheological characterization in important for the processing. Samples of five commercial brands of strawberry flavored dairy beverages, with ten to fourteen days of manufacture, from three different batches were analyzed in triplicate in order to study the percentage of protein, fat, pH, titratable acidity, total dry extract, fixed mineral residue and lactose. It was performed a colorimetric determination and verification of the presence of starch .The rheological tests were carried out in a rotational rheometer and the data was adjusted by Herschel-Bulkley’s model. The statistical analysis was executed by an analysis of variance and the Tukey’s test with 5% significance. The analysis showed that the percentages of lipids of three brands were below the required by legislation. Furthermore, the presence of starch in the composition was detected for all analyzed beverages. Both for the physicochemical and rheological parameters the brands of dairy beverage examined differed between themselves in several parameters. These results indicated the need to establish well-defined identity and quality standards aiming at product quality control and consumer safety improvement.

  7. Green and brown propolis: efficient natural biocides for the control of bacterial contamination of alcoholic fermentation of distilled beverage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Márcia Justino Rossini Mutton

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to evaluate the efficiency of natural biocides, brown and green propolis, for the control of bacterial contamination in the production of sugarcane spirit. The treatments consisted of brown and green propolis extracts, ampicillin, and a control and were assessed at the beginning and end of harvest season in ten fermentation cycles. In the microbiological analyses, the lactic acid bacteria were quantified in the inoculum before and after the treatment with biocides, and the viability of yeast cells during fermentation was evaluated. The levels of acids, glycerol, total residual reducing sugars, and ethanol were analyzed for the wine resulting from each fermentation cycle. A reduction in the number of bacterial contaminants in the inoculum in the treatments with the natural biocides was observed, but it did not affect the viability of yeast cells. The control of the contaminants led to the production of higher levels of ethanol and reduced acidity in the wine produced. The results of the use of brown and green propolis to control the growth microorganisms in the fermentation of sugarcane spirit can be of great importance for using alternative strategies to synthetic antibacterials in fermentation processes including other distilled beverage or spirits.

  8. Analysis of bacterial community during the fermentation of pulque, a traditional Mexican alcoholic beverage, using a polyphasic approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Escalante, Adelfo; Giles-Gómez, Martha; Hernández, Georgina; Córdova-Aguilar, María Soledad; López-Munguía, Agustín; Gosset, Guillermo; Bolívar, Francisco

    2008-05-31

    In this study, the characterization of the bacterial community present during the fermentation of pulque, a traditional Mexican alcoholic beverage from maguey (Agave), was determined for the first time by a polyphasic approach in which both culture and non-culture dependent methods were utilized. The work included the isolation of lactic acid bacteria (LAB), aerobic mesophiles, and 16S rDNA clone libraries from total DNA extracted from the maguey sap (aguamiel) used as substrate, after inoculation with a sample of previously produced pulque and followed by 6-h fermentation. Microbiological diversity results were correlated with fermentation process parameters such as sucrose, glucose, fructose and fermentation product concentrations. In addition, medium rheological behavior analysis and scanning electron microscopy in aguamiel and during pulque fermentation were also performed. Our results showed that both culture and non-culture dependent approaches allowed the detection of several new and previously reported species within the alpha-, gamma-Proteobacteria and Firmicutes. Bacteria diversity in aguamiel was composed by the heterofermentative Leuconostoc citreum, L. mesenteroides, L. kimchi, the gamma-Proteobacteria Erwinia rhapontici, Enterobacter spp. and Acinetobacter radioresistens. Inoculation with previously fermented pulque incorporated to the system microbiota, homofermentative lactobacilli related to Lactobacillus acidophilus, several alpha-Proteobacteria such as Zymomonas mobilis and Acetobacter malorum, other gamma-Proteobacteria and an important amount of yeasts, creating a starting metabolic diversity composed by homofermentative and heterofermentative LAB, acetic and ethanol producing microorganisms. At the end of the fermentation process, the bacterial diversity was mainly composed by the homofermentative Lactobacillus acidophilus, the heterofermentative L. mesenteroides, Lactococcus lactis subsp. lactis and the alpha-Proteobacteria A. malorum. After

  9. Potentially synbiotic fermented beverage with aqueous extracts of quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa Willd) and soy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bianchi, F; Rossi, E A; Gomes, R G; Sivieri, K

    2015-09-01

    The aim of this study was to develop a potentially synbiotic beverage fermented with Lactobacillus casei LC-1 based on aqueous extracts of soy and quinoa with added fructooligosaccharides (FOS). Five formulations with differing proportions of soy and quinoa extracts were tested. The viability of the microorganism, the pH, and the acidity of all formulations were monitored until the 28th day of storage at 5 ℃. The chemical composition of the extracts and beverages and the rheological and sensory properties of the final products were analyzed. Although an increase in acidity and a decrease in pH were observed during the 28 days of storage, the viability of the probiotic microorganism was maintained at 10(8) CFU·mL(-1) in all formulated beverages throughout the storage period. An increase in viscosity and consistency in the formulations with higher concentrations of quinoa (F1 and F2) was observed. Formulation F4 (70% soy and 30% quinoa extracts) showed the least hysteresis. Formulations F4 and F5 (100% soy extract) had the best sensory acceptance while F4 resulted in the highest intention to purchase from a group of 80 volunteers. For chemical composition, F3 (50% soy and 50% quinoa extracts) and F4 showed the best results compared to similar fermented beverages. The formulation F4 was considered the best beverage overall. © The Author(s) 2014.

  10. Key volatile aroma compounds of lactic acid fermented malt based beverages - impact of lactic acid bacteria strains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nsogning Dongmo, Sorelle; Sacher, Bertram; Kollmannsberger, Hubert; Becker, Thomas

    2017-08-15

    This study aims to define the aroma composition and key aroma compounds of barley malt wort beverages produced from fermentation using six lactic acid bacteria (LAB) strains. Gas chromatography mass spectrometry-olfactometry and flame ionization detection was employed; key aroma compounds were determined by means of aroma extract dilution analysis. Fifty-six detected volatile compounds were similar among beverages. However, significant differences were observed in the concentration of individual compounds. Key aroma compounds (flavor dilution (FD) factors ≥16) were β-damascenone, furaneol, phenylacetic acid, 2-phenylethanol, 4-vinylguaiacol, sotolon, methional, vanillin, acetic acid, nor-furaneol, guaiacol and ethyl 2-methylbutanoate. Furthermore, acetaldehyde had the greatest odor activity value of up to 4266. Sensory analyses revealed large differences in the flavor profile. Beverage from L. plantarum Lp. 758 showed the highest FD factors in key aroma compounds and was correlated to fruity flavors. Therefore, we suggest that suitable LAB strain selection may improve the flavor of malt based beverages. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Characterization and sensory preference of fermented dairy beverages prepared with different concentrations of whey and araticum pulp

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexsandra Valéria Sousa Costa de Lima

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to develop a fermented dairy beverage flavored with araticum pulp, assess its physicochemical characteristics, microbiological quality, and sensory preference by the consumer. Araticum pulp was prepared using two different methods: with or without bleaching (50 ºC/5 minutes. Formulations of fermented dairy beverages consisting of whey (50%, standardized pasteurized milk (50%, and seven different concentrations of bleached araticum pulp (5.0, 7.5, 10.0, 12.5, 15.0, 17.5, and 20.0% w/v were prepared. In addition, seven formulations of fermented dairy beverage, without adding araticum pulp, and consisting of varying proportions of whey (40, 50, 60, 70, 80, 90, and 100% were developed. In all formulations, thickeners/stabilizers were added. All araticum pulp samples (with and without bleach and fermented dairy beverages (with and without araticum pulp were analyzed for the relevant physicochemical properties: pH, titratable acidity, acidity of pulp, acidity of fermented beverage, moisture, ash, fat, protein, crude fiber, ascorbic acid, carbohydrates, total solids, and caloric values. Microbiological counts of coliforms at 35 °C and 45 °C in the pulp and beverage, and molds and yeasts and Salmonella sp. in the pulp were obtained. Additionally, sensory analysis regarding preferences of the different fermented dairy beverage formulations was also performed. The araticum pulp samples without bleach, showed higher values of pH, moisture, protein, total fiber, and ascorbic acid, as compared to bleached pulp samples, while bleached araticum pulp showed higher values for other physicochemical parameters. Microbiological results showed that all pulps and fruit-dairy beverages were suitable for consumption. It was found that there was no significant consumer preference between different fermented beverage formulations, according to the different percentages of pulp. However, the formulations consisting of 40, 50, 60, and 70

  12. Analysis of methanol and its derivatives in illegally produced alcoholic beverages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arslan, M Mustafa; Zeren, Cem; Aydin, Zeki; Akcan, Ramazan; Dokuyucu, Recep; Keten, Alper; Cekin, Necmi

    2015-07-01

    Illegal alcohol production remains as a common issue worldwide. Methanol poisoning mostly occurs because of the methanol used in production of counterfeit alcohol instead of ethyl alcohol due to its low price or by drinking the liquids containing methyl alcohol. Pectolytic enzymes results in an increase of methanol levels in many fermentation products such as ciders or wines. Methanol poisonings are infrequently encountered in forensic medicine practice. However, sporadic cases due to methanol intoxication as well as epidemic cases have been reported. In this study, we aimed to identify existence of methanol and its metabolites in illegally produced alcoholic beverages used in Antakya region. Twelve legally produced alcohol samples and Fifty-six different illegally produced alcohol samples were collected from the markets and local producers. Existence of methanol, formic acid, methyl amine, methyl formate and trioxan were determined using GC-MS method in these samples. Fifty-six different illegal alcohol samples were analyzed in this study and methanol was detected in 39 (75%) of samples. Formic acid was detected in 3, formamide in 1, methyl amine in 6, methyl formate in 10 and trioxan in 2 samples. Overwhelming majority of illegal alcoholic beverages was detected to contain methanol. Interestingly this study also revealed the presence of trioxane, which has not previously reported among toxic agents in illegal alcohol samples. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd and Faculty of Forensic and Legal Medicine. All rights reserved.

  13. Assessment of chemical and sensory quality of sugarcane alcoholic fermented beverage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Resende Oliveira, Érica; Caliari, Márcio; Soares Soares Júnior, Manoel; Ribeiro Oliveira, Aryane; Cristina Marques Duarte, Renata; Valério de Barros Vilas Boas, Eduardo

    2018-01-01

    This study aimed to verify the technological feasibility, chemical quality and sensory acceptance of alcoholic fermented beverage obtained from sugarcane juice. A completely randomized design was applied. Sugar and alcohol content, phenolic (HPLC-MS) and volatile (GS-MS) compounds, pH, density, dry matter and acidity of the fermented beverage of sugarcane were quantified, as well as the acceptance of the product was carried out. The complete fermentation of sugarcane lasted 7 days, and it was obtained an alcohol content of 8.0% v/v. Titrable acidity of the beverage was of 67.31 meq L -1 , pH 4.03, soluble solids of 5 °Brix, reducing sugar of 0.07 g glucose 100 g -1 , density of 0.991 g cm -3 , reduced dry matter of 14.15 g L -1 , sulfates lower than 0.7 g K 2 SO 4  L -1 . Various phenolic compounds, among which, gallic acid (10.97%), catechin (1.73%), chlorogenic acid (3.52%), caffeic acid (1.49%), vanillic acid (0.28%), p -coumaric acid (0.24%), ferulic acid (6.63%), m -coumaric acid (0.36%), and o -coumaric acid (0.04%). Amongst aromatic compounds, were found mainly esters with fruity aromas (ethyl ester hexanoic acid and ethyl ester octanoic acid). The sugarcane juice can be commercialized as an alternative wine, as it presented adequate features to an alcoholic fermented beverage and was sensory accepted by consumers.

  14. Recent trends in the determination of biogenic amines in fermented beverages – A review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ordóñez, José Luis; Troncoso, Ana Maria; García-Parrilla, Maria Del Carmen; Callejón, Raquel Maria, E-mail: rcallejon@us.es

    2016-10-05

    Biogenic amines (BA) are generally considered as a food hazard, even though there is not a threshold for these biomolecules in the European legislation, except for histamine in fishery products. These compounds are formed during the storage and processing of certain foods through microbiological activity, and when present in high concentrations, could have toxicological effects, causing health problems in consumers, especially to sensitive persons. This fact, in addition to the economical concern involved, makes it necessary to control the amounts of biogenic amines in foods. For all these reasons, literature on biogenic amines in different food products, especially in fermented beverages, is extensive. This review provides an overview of the most recent trends in the determination of biogenic amines in fermented beverages focusing on novelty, improvement and optimization of analytical methods. Hence, the different sample treatment procedures (including derivatization), the most important analytical techniques and the most frequent applications are described and discussed. Although biogenic amines have been determined in wine and other fermented beverages for decades, new advancements and technical possibilities have allowed to increase the accuracy and sensitivity of analytical methods, in order to overcome the challenges posed by the complex matrices and their high intrinsic variability. Thus, the different purposes of BA determination (food safety, production process or food microbiology research) and the most widely employed analytical techniques have been reviewed. - Highlights: • A critical review on analytical methods for BA in fermented beverages is presented. • Recent sample treatments and analytical techniques are described and discussed. • A previous derivatization is needed in most liquid chromatographic methods. • BA determination is related to food safety, production process or microbiology research.

  15. Recent trends in the determination of biogenic amines in fermented beverages – A review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ordóñez, José Luis; Troncoso, Ana Maria; García-Parrilla, Maria Del Carmen; Callejón, Raquel Maria

    2016-01-01

    Biogenic amines (BA) are generally considered as a food hazard, even though there is not a threshold for these biomolecules in the European legislation, except for histamine in fishery products. These compounds are formed during the storage and processing of certain foods through microbiological activity, and when present in high concentrations, could have toxicological effects, causing health problems in consumers, especially to sensitive persons. This fact, in addition to the economical concern involved, makes it necessary to control the amounts of biogenic amines in foods. For all these reasons, literature on biogenic amines in different food products, especially in fermented beverages, is extensive. This review provides an overview of the most recent trends in the determination of biogenic amines in fermented beverages focusing on novelty, improvement and optimization of analytical methods. Hence, the different sample treatment procedures (including derivatization), the most important analytical techniques and the most frequent applications are described and discussed. Although biogenic amines have been determined in wine and other fermented beverages for decades, new advancements and technical possibilities have allowed to increase the accuracy and sensitivity of analytical methods, in order to overcome the challenges posed by the complex matrices and their high intrinsic variability. Thus, the different purposes of BA determination (food safety, production process or food microbiology research) and the most widely employed analytical techniques have been reviewed. - Highlights: • A critical review on analytical methods for BA in fermented beverages is presented. • Recent sample treatments and analytical techniques are described and discussed. • A previous derivatization is needed in most liquid chromatographic methods. • BA determination is related to food safety, production process or microbiology research.

  16. Production of fermented probiotic beverages from milk permeate enriched with whey retentate and identification of present lactic acid bacteria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jagoda Šušković

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available In this research the application of bacterial strains Lactobacillus acidophilus M92, Lactobacillus plantarum L4 and Enterococcus faecium L3 in the production of fermented probiotic beverages from milk permeate enriched with 10 % (v/v whey retentate, was investigated. In the previous researches of probiotic concept, probiotic properties of these three strains of lactic acid bacteria have been defined. At the end of controlled fermentation, probiotic strains have produced 7.4 g/L lactic acid, pH was decreased to 4.7, and number of live cells was around 108 CFU/mL. Number of viable count of probiotic bacteria, which were identified with RAPD (Random Amplified Polymorphic DNAmethod, was maintained at around 107 CFU/mL during 28 days of the preservation at 4 °C. Furthermore, a spontaneous fermentation of milk permeate enriched with 10 % (v/v of whey retentate was carried out and lactic acid bacteria present in these substrates were isolated. All of these bacterial strains have rapidly acidified the growth media and have shown antibacterial activity against chosen test-microorganisms, what are important properties of potential starter cultures for the fermentation of dairy products. The results of biochemical API analysis have identified isolated strains as Lactococcus lactis subsp. lactis and Lactobacillus helveticus.

  17. Yeast diversity in rice-cassava fermentations produced by the indigenous Tapirapé people of Brazil

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schwan, Rosane F.; Almeida, Euziclei G.; Souza-Dias, Maria Aparecida G.

    2007-01-01

    and peanuts. A fermentation using rice and cassava was conducted, and samples were collected at 4-h intervals for microbial analysis. The yeast population was low at the beginning of the fermentation and reached 6.9 x 10(7) CFU mL(-1) after 48 h. During the fermentation process common yeast species were......The Tapirapé people of the Tapi'itãwa tribe of Brazil produce several fermented foods and beverages, one of which is called 'cauim'. This beverage usually makes up the main staple food for adults and children. Several substrates are used in its production, including cassava, rice, corn, maize...... identified by sequencing of the D1/D2 domain of the large-subunit (26S) rRNA gene. The predominant yeast species found was Candida tropicalis. Candida intermedia, Candida parapsilosis, Pichia guilliermondii, Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Trichosporon asahii were also found in high numbers during...

  18. Manufacture and characterization of a yogurt-like beverage made with oat flakes fermented by selected lactic acid bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luana, Nionelli; Rossana, Coda; Curiel, José Antonio; Kaisa, Poutanen; Marco, Gobbetti; Rizzello, Carlo Giuseppe

    2014-08-18

    This study aimed at investigating the suitability of oat flakes for making functional beverages. Different technological options were assayed, including the amount of flakes, the inoculum of the starter and the addition of enzyme preparations. The beverage containing 25% (wt/wt) of oat flakes and fermented with L. plantarum LP09 was considered optimal on the basis of sensory and technological properties. The enzyme addition favored the growth of the starter, shortened the time needed to reach pH4.2 to ca. 8h, and favored a decrease of the quotient of fermentation. Fermentation increased the polyphenols availability and the antioxidant activity (25 and 70% higher, respectively) and decreased the hydrolysis index in vitro. Sensory analyses showed that fermented oat flakes beverage had the typical features of a yogurt-like beverage, enhancing the overall intensity of odor and flavor compared to the non-fermented control. Selection of proper processing and fermentation condition allowed the obtainment of a beverage with better nutritional and sensory properties. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Traditional biotechnology for new foods and beverages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hugenholtz, Jeroen

    2013-04-01

    The food and beverage industry is re-discovering fermentation as a crucial step in product innovation. Fermentation can provide various benefits such as unique flavor, health and nutrition, texture and safety (shelf life), while maintaining a 100% natural label. In this review several examples are presented on how fermentation is used to replace, modify or improve current, artificially produced, foods and beverages and how also fermentation can be used for completely novel consumer products. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Lactobacillus shenzhenensis sp. nov., isolated from a fermented dairy beverage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zou, Yuanqiang; Liu, Feng; Fang, Chengxiang; Wan, Daiwei; Yang, Rentao; Su, Qingqing; Yang, Ruifu; Zhao, Jiao

    2013-05-01

    Two Lactobacillus strains, designated LY-73(T) and LY-30B, were isolated from a dairy beverage, sold in Shenzhen market, China. The two isolates were Gram-positive, non-spore-forming, non-motile, facultatively anaerobic rods that were heterofermentative and did not exhibit catalase activity. Sequencing of the 16S rRNA, pheS and rpoA genes revealed that the two isolates shared 99.5, 99.8 and 99.9 % sequence similarity, which indicates that they belong to the same species. Phylogenetic analysis demonstrated clustering of the two isolates with the genus Lactobacillus. Strain LY-73(T) showed highest 16S rRNA gene sequence similarities with Lactobacillus harbinensis KACC 12409(T) (97.73%), Lactobacillus perolens DSM 12744(T) (96.96 %) and Lactobacillus selangorensis DSM 13344(T) (93.10 %). Comparative analyses of their rpoA and pheS gene sequences indicated that the novel strains were significantly different from other Lactobacillus species. Low DNA-DNA reassociation values (50.5 %) were obtained between strain LY-73(T) and its phylogenetically closest neighbours. The G+C contents of the DNA of the two novel isolates were 56.1 and 56.5 mol%. Straight-chain unsaturated fatty acids C18 : 1ω9c (78.85 and 74.29 %) were the dominant components, and the cell-wall peptidoglycan was of the l-Lys-d-Asp type. Based on phenotypic characteristics, and chemotaxonomic and genotypic data, the novel strains represent a novel species of the genus Lactobacillus, for which the name Lactobacillus shenzhenensis sp. nov. is proposed, with LY-73(T) ( = CCTCC M 2011481(T) = KACC 16878(T)) as the type strain.

  1. Dregs of our forgotten ancestors: fermentative microorganisms in the prehistory of Europe, the steppes and Indo-Iranian Asia, and their contemporary use in traditional and probiotic beverages

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fermentative microorganisms in the yeast genera Debaryomyces, Hyphopichia, Kluyveromyces, Lachancea, Saccharomyces, and Wickerhamomyces (and in the bacterial genus Lactobacillus) have been isolated from a variety of fermented beverages. These same microorganisms were very likely unknowingly utilized...

  2. Role of probiotic Lactobacillus fermentum KKL1 in the preparation of a rice based fermented beverage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghosh, Kuntal; Ray, Mousumi; Adak, Atanu; Halder, Suman K; Das, Arpan; Jana, Arijit; Parua Mondal, Saswati; Vágvölgyi, Csaba; Das Mohapatra, Pradeep K; Pati, Bikas R; Mondal, Keshab C

    2015-01-01

    A dominant lactic acid bacteria, Lactobacillus fermentum KKL1 was isolated from an Indian rice based fermented beverage and its fermentative behavior on rice was evaluated. The isolate grown well in rice and decreased the pH, with an increase of total titratable acidity on account of high yield in lactic acid and acetic acid. The production of α-amylase and glucoamylase by the strain reached plateau on 1st and 2nd day of fermentation respectively. The accumulation of malto-oligosaccharides of different degrees of polymerization was also found highest on 4th day. Besides, phytase activity along with accumulation of free minerals also unremittingly increased throughout the fermentation. The fermented materials showed free radical scavenging activity against DPPH radicals. In-vitro characteristics revealed the suitability of the isolate as probiotic organism. The above profiling revealed that probiotic L. fermentum KKL1 have the significant impact in preparation of rice beer and improves its functional characteristics. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. An ethnobotanical perspective on traditional fermented plant foods and beverages in Eastern Europe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sõukand, Renata; Pieroni, Andrea; Biró, Marianna; Dénes, Andrea; Dogan, Yunus; Hajdari, Avni; Kalle, Raivo; Reade, Benedict; Mustafa, Behxhet; Nedelcheva, Anely; Quave, Cassandra L; Łuczaj, Łukasz

    2015-07-21

    Fermented food and beverages represent an important part of the worldwide foodscape, medicinal food domain and domestic strategies of health care, yet relevant traditional knowledge in Europe is poorly documented. Review of primary ethnographic literature, archival sources and a few ad-hoc ethnobotanical field studies in seven selected Eastern European countries (Albania, Belarus, Bulgaria, Estonia, Hungary, Kosovo, and Poland) were conducted. Current or recently abandoned uses of 116 botanical taxa, belonging to 37 families in fermented food or medicinal food products were recorded. These findings demonstrate a rich bio-cultural diversity of use, and also a clear prevalence of the use of fruits of the tannin- and phenolic-rich Rosaceae species in alcoholic, lactic- and acetic acid fermented preparations. In the considered countries, fermentation still plays (or has played until recent years) a crucial role in folk cuisines and this heritage requires urgent and in-depth evaluation. Future studies should be aimed at further documenting and also bio-evaluating the ingredients and processes involved in the preparation of homemade fermented products, as this can be used to support local, community-based development efforts to foster food security, food sovereignty, and small-scale local food-based economies. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Comparation of instrumental and sensory methods in fermented milk beverages texture quality analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jovica Hardi

    2001-04-01

    Full Text Available The texture of the curd of fermented dairy products is one of the primary factors of their overall quality. The flow properties of fermented dairy products have characteristic of thixotropic (pseudoplastic type of liquids. At the same time, these products are viscoelastic systems, i.e. they are capable of texture renewal after applied deformation. Complex analysis of some of the properties is essentional for the system description . The aim of the present work was to completely describe the texture of fermented milk beverages . Three basic parameters were taken into consideration: structure, hardness (consistency and stability of the curd. The description model of these three parameters was applied on the basis of the experimental results obteined. Results obtained by present model were compared with the results of sensory analysis. Influence of milk fat content and skimmed milk powder addition on acidophilus milk texture quality was also examined using this model. It was shawn that, by using this model – on the basis of instrumental and sensory analyses, a complete and objective determination of texture quality of the fermented milk beverages can be obtained. High degree of correlation between instrumental and sensory results (r =0.8975 is obtained results of this work indicated that both factors (milk fat content and skimmed milk powder addition had an influence on texture quality. Samples with higher milk fat content had a better texture properties in comparsion with low fat content samples. Texture of all examined samples was improved by increasing skimmed milk powder content. Optimal amounts of skimmed milk powder addition with regard to milk fat content, in milk, is determined using the proposed model.

  5. Fuel cell-based instrumentation for ethanol determination in alcoholic beverages, fermentations, and biofluids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Parry, K W

    1988-01-01

    The main aim of this project was to devise an alternative method for ethanol assay, employing an electrochemical fuel cell sensor. Thus, the early part of this thesis describes the work carried out in the development of a new analytical technique for this purpose. This work resulted in the production of a successful prototype unit which has led to the development of a commercial instrument, vis., the Lion Drinks Alcolmeter (DA-1) available from Lion Laboratories Ltd. The problem of determining the ethanol content of a fermenting liquor at any point during a fermentation process was also broached and a novel technique combining a flow dilution system, dynamic headspace analysis and a fuel cell sensor was developed. This procedure, suitably automated, will enable the ethanolic content of a fermenting beverage to be determined at any stage during a fermentation, the results obtained in this manner being in excellent agreement with those obtained gas chromatographically. Methods of extending the linear working range of a fuel cell-based sampling system are reported in the hope that the encouraging results obtained may initiate further progress in this field. Finally, the sensing system used in this work has also been utilized with an alternative sampling procedure for the determination of ethanol in biological fluids, mainly for clinical and forensic applications. This work has also led to the production of a commercial instrument, viz. the Lion AE-D3 Alcolmeter.

  6. Traditional low-alcoholic and non-alcoholic fermented beverages consumed in European countries: a neglected food group.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baschali, Aristea; Tsakalidou, Effie; Kyriacou, Adamantini; Karavasiloglou, Nena; Matalas, Antonia-Leda

    2017-06-01

    Fermented beverages hold a long tradition and contribution to the nutrition of many societies and cultures worldwide. Traditional fermentation has been empirically developed in ancient times as a process of raw food preservation and at the same time production of new foods with different sensorial characteristics, such as texture, flavour and aroma, as well as nutritional value. Low-alcoholic fermented beverages (LAFB) and non-alcoholic fermented beverages (NAFB) represent a subgroup of fermented beverages that have received rather little attention by consumers and scientists alike, especially with regard to their types and traditional uses in European societies. A literature review was undertaken and research articles, review papers and textbooks were searched in order to retrieve data regarding the dietary role, nutrient composition, health benefits and other relevant aspects of diverse ethnic LAFB and NAFB consumed by European populations. A variety of traditional LAFB and NAFB consumed in European regions, such as kefir, kvass, kombucha and hardaliye, are presented. Milk-based LAFB and NAFB are also available on the market, often characterised as 'functional' foods on the basis of their probiotic culture content. Future research should focus on elucidating the dietary role and nutritional value of traditional and 'functional' LAFB and NAFB, their potential health benefits and consumption trends in European countries. Such data will allow for LAFB and NAFB to be included in national food composition tables.

  7. Degradation of Aflatoxin B1 during the Fermentation of Alcoholic Beverages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naoki Mochizuki

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Aflatoxin B1 (AFB1 is a contaminant of grain and fruit and has one of the highest levels of carcinogenicity of any natural toxin. AFB1 and the fungi that produce it can also contaminate the raw materials used for beer and wine manufacture, such as corn and grapes. Therefore, brewers must ensure strict monitoring to reduce the risk of contamination. In this study, the fate of AFB1 during the fermentation process was investigated using laboratory-scale bottom and top beer fermentation and wine fermentation. During fermentation, cool wort beer samples and wine must samples were artificially spiked with AFB1 and the levels of AFB1 remaining after fermentation were analyzed. AFB1 levels were unchanged during both types of fermentation used for beer but were reduced to 30% of their initial concentration in wine. Differential analysis of the spiked and unspiked wine samples showed that the degradation compound was AFB2a, a hydrated derivative of AFB1. Thus, the results showed that the risk of AFB1 carryover was still present for both types of beer fermentation but was reduced in the case of wine fermentation because of hydration.

  8. INFLUENCE OF DRINKING A PROBIOTIC FERMENTED MILK BEVERAGE CONTAINING BIFIDOBACTERIUM ANIMALIS ON THE SYMPTOMS OF CONSTIPATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thaís Rodrigues MOREIRA

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT BACKGROUND Constipation is a chronic problem in many patients all over the world. OBJECTIVE - To evaluate the effect of consumption of a probiotic fermented milk beverage containing Bifidobacterium animalis on the symptoms of constipation. METHODS - This randomized, double-blind controlled trial included 49 female patients aged 20 to 50 years and diagnosed with constipation according to the ROME III criteria (Diagnostic Criteria for Functional Gastrointestinal Disorders and the Bristol Stool Form Scale. The patients were randomized into two groups: the intervention group received the probiotic fermented milk beverage and the control group received non-probiotic milk. Participants were instructed to ingest 150 mL of the beverages during 60 days. At the end of this period, patients were assessed again by the ROME III criteria and Bristol scale. The Wilcoxon test was used to evaluate pre and post-intervention results of the ROME III criteria and Bristol scale. The statistical significance level was considered as 5% ( P ≤0.05. RESULTS - The intervention group showed improvement in the following criteria: straining during a bowel movement ( P <0.001, feeling of incomplete evacuation ( P <0.001 and difficulty in passing stool ( P <0.014, in addition to Bristol scale results ( P <0.001. In the control group, improvements were observed in the following criteria: straining during a bowel movement ( P <0.001, feeling of incomplete evacuation ( P <0.001 and difficulty in passing stool ( P <0.025, in addition to Bristol scale results ( P <0.001. No statistically significant post-intervention differences were observed between the two groups for the Rome III criteria and Bristol scale. CONCLUSION - The results show that the consumption of milk resulted in the improvement of constipation symptoms, regardless of the probiotic culture.

  9. INFLUENCE OF DRINKING A PROBIOTIC FERMENTED MILK BEVERAGE CONTAINING BIFIDOBACTERIUM ANIMALIS ON THE SYMPTOMS OF CONSTIPATION.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreira, Thaís Rodrigues; Leonhardt, Daiane; Conde, Simara Rufatto

    2017-01-01

    Constipation is a chronic problem in many patients all over the world. - To evaluate the effect of consumption of a probiotic fermented milk beverage containing Bifidobacterium animalis on the symptoms of constipation. - This randomized, double-blind controlled trial included 49 female patients aged 20 to 50 years and diagnosed with constipation according to the ROME III criteria (Diagnostic Criteria for Functional Gastrointestinal Disorders) and the Bristol Stool Form Scale. The patients were randomized into two groups: the intervention group received the probiotic fermented milk beverage and the control group received non-probiotic milk. Participants were instructed to ingest 150 mL of the beverages during 60 days. At the end of this period, patients were assessed again by the ROME III criteria and Bristol scale. The Wilcoxon test was used to evaluate pre and post-intervention results of the ROME III criteria and Bristol scale. The statistical significance level was considered as 5% ( P ≤0.05). - The intervention group showed improvement in the following criteria: straining during a bowel movement ( P <0.001), feeling of incomplete evacuation ( P <0.001) and difficulty in passing stool ( P <0.014), in addition to Bristol scale results ( P <0.001). In the control group, improvements were observed in the following criteria: straining during a bowel movement ( P <0.001), feeling of incomplete evacuation ( P <0.001) and difficulty in passing stool ( P <0.025), in addition to Bristol scale results ( P <0.001). No statistically significant post-intervention differences were observed between the two groups for the Rome III criteria and Bristol scale. - The results show that the consumption of milk resulted in the improvement of constipation symptoms, regardless of the probiotic culture.

  10. Draft Genome Sequence of Lactobacillus farciminis NBRC 111452, Isolated from K?so, a Japanese Sugar-Vegetable Fermented Beverage

    OpenAIRE

    Chiou, Tai-Ying; Oshima, Kenshiro; Suda, Wataru; Hattori, Masahira; Takahashi, Tomoya

    2016-01-01

    Here, we report the draft genome sequence of the Lactobacillus farciminis strain NBRC 111452, isolated from k?so, a Japanese sugar-vegetable fermented beverage. This genome information is of potential use in studies of Lactobacillus farciminis as a probiotic.

  11. Utilization of secondary energy - major uses in the fermentation and beverage industries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koch, H J

    1986-01-01

    With 18,5% the fermentation and beverage industry (not including liquors, wine and champagne) has the highest share of energy consumption within the food industry. At the same time, these two branches dispose of high secondary energy potentials which remain to be exploited yet. Secondary energy utilization primarily consists in the economic cooling of wort providing for the utilization of process water (80-82/sup 0/C), utilization of air-containing or air-void water vapors from wort boiling processes for technological heating processes, utilization of refrigerator super-heat enthalpies, the use of energy, conserving high-short heaters for larger units, in particular, and utilization of flue gas enthalpies with gaseous energy sources as the most efficient ones.

  12. The role of fermentable carbohydrates and beverages in the symptomatology of functional gastrointestinal disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moding, Magnus; Ohlsson, Bodil

    2017-11-01

    The pathophysiology behind functional gastrointestinal disease (FGID) has not been defined, but an intestinal accumulation of fermentable short-chain carbohydrates (FODMAPs) is thought to be involved. A restricted coffee intake is recommended. The aim was to investigate if symptoms of FGID were associated with intake of certain foods (including FODMAPs), as well as beverages (including coffee and tea). Data were used from participants, age range 45-75 years, who had answered the EpiHealth questionnaire about their background factors, health status and intake of food and beverages. After exclusion of organic bowel diseases, 16,840 participants remained. The impact of food and beverages on functional abdominal pain, functional bloating, functional constipation and functional diarrhea were examined by adjusted binary logistic regression. Wholemeal bread (Swedish cracker) (OR: 1.361; 95% CI: 1.001-1.851) and white bread (low fiber content) (OR: 1.527; 95% CI: 1.075-2.169) were associated with constipation, whereas soft wholemeal bread (high fiber content) was associated with diarrhea (OR: 1.601; 95% CI: 1.040-2.463). Cheese was associated with bloating (OR: 1.460; 95% CI: 1.004-2.123). A high tea intake was associated with abdominal pain (p for trend =.003), bloating (p for trend = .039) and diarrhea (p for trend <.001), whereas coffee intake was associated with a decreased risk of abdominal pain (p for trend = .002) and bloating (p for trend = .007). High soda intake associated with abdominal pain and bloating and juice with diarrhea. There are weak associations between intake of grain and dairy products and FGID symptoms. Tea is associated with increased risks, whereas coffee is associated with lower risks, of FGID symptoms.

  13. Vinegar rice (Oryza sativa L.) produced by a submerged fermentation process from alcoholic fermented rice

    OpenAIRE

    Spinosa,Wilma Aparecida; Santos Júnior,Vitório dos; Galvan,Diego; Fiorio,Jhonatan Luiz; Gomez,Raul Jorge Hernan Castro

    2015-01-01

    Considering the limited availability of technology for the production of rice vinegar and also due to the potential consumer product market, this study aimed to use alcoholic fermented rice (rice wine (Oryza sativa L.)) for vinegar production. An alcoholic solution with 6.28% (w/v) ethanol was oxidized by a submerged fermentation process to produce vinegar. The process of acetic acid fermentation occurred at 30 ± 0.3°C in a FRINGS® Acetator (Germany) for the production of vineg...

  14. Use of a Potential Probiotic, Lactobacillus plantarum L7, for the Preparation of a Rice-Based Fermented Beverage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sib Sankar Giri

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to isolate potential probiotic lactic acid bacteria from a traditional rice-based fermented beverage “bhaati jaanr” and to evaluate their role during preparation of the beverage. Among various isolates, Lactobacillus plantarum strain L7 exhibited satisfactory in vitro probiotic characteristics such as acid resistance and bile tolerance, cell surface hydrophobicity, auto-aggregation, antibiotic susceptibility, and antimicrobial activities. Therefore, performance of L7 as a starter culture in rice fermentation was determined during a 6-day rice fermentation study. L. plantarum L7 decreased the pH, associated with an increase in total titratable acidity and organic acid production up to the 4th day of fermentation. The highest concentrations of succinic acid (0.37 mg/g, lactic acid (4.95 mg/g, and acetic acid (0.36 mg/g were recorded on the 3rd, 4th, and 5th days of fermentation, respectively. Saccharifying (148.13 μg/min g−1 and liquefying (89.47 μg/min g−1 activities were the highest on days 3 and 2, respectively, and thereafter, they decreased. Phytase activity and the cleavage of free minerals (sodium, calcium, magnesium, manganese, and ferrous increased up to days 3–4. The concentration of various accumulated malto-oligosaccharides (glucose, fructose, maltotriose, and maltoterose was noted to be the maximum on days 4 and 5. Furthermore, gas chromatography-mass spectrometry analysis indicated the presence of various volatile compounds. The fermented material also exhibited 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl and 2,2′-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulphonic acid radical scavenging activity. Therefore, the probiotic, L. plantarum L7, has a significant role in the fermentation of this beverage and enhances its functional properties.

  15. Supplementation of adjuvants for increasing the nutritive value and cell viability of probiotic fermented milk beverage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shobharani, P; Agrawal, Renu

    2009-01-01

    Probiotic are microorganisms that, upon ingestion in adequate amounts, exert a beneficial effect on the host. In the present work, the potent probiotic Leuconostoc mesenteroides was used as a starter culture in the preparation of fermented milk beverage. The product was analyzed for protein, titrable acidity, fat, total sugar, fatty acids and minerals. The viability of culture and nutrition in the product was further enhanced with supplementation of adjuvants like tryptone, casein hydrolysate, cysteine hydrochloride and ascorbic acid. After 5 days, maximum viability was observed on supplementation of tryptone (100 mg/l). The protein content was enhanced by 1.1-fold in the presence of tryptone (100 mg/l) as compared with control after 5 days of storage. Fermented milk supplemented with tryptone (100 mg/l) showed maximum bioavailability of the minerals like iron (92.05%), zinc (95.02%) and magnesium (92.04%) as compared with control. The increase in the composition of beneficial fatty acids on supplementation of adjuvants supports the therapeutic value of the product.

  16. Current evidence on physiological activity and expected health effects of kombucha fermented beverage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vīna, Ilmāra; Semjonovs, Pāvels; Linde, Raimonds; Deniņa, Ilze

    2014-02-01

    Consumption of kombucha fermented tea (KT) has always been associated with different health benefits. Many personal experiences and testimonials of KT drinkers are available throughout the world on the ability of KT to protect against a vast number of metabolic and infectious diseases, but very little scientific evidence is available that validates the beneficial effects of KT. The aim of this review is to give an overview of the recent studies in search of experimental confirmation of the numerous KT health-promoting aspects cited previously. Analysis of the literature data is carried out in correspondence to the recent concepts of health protection's requirements. Attention is given to the active compounds in KT, responsible for the particular effect, and to the mechanisms of their actions. It is shown that KT can efficiently act in health prophylaxis and recovery due to four main properties: detoxification, antioxidation, energizing potencies, and promotion of depressed immunity. The recent experimental studies on the consumption of KT suggest that it is suitable for prevention against broad-spectrum metabolic and infective disorders. This makes KT attractive as a fermented functional beverage for health prophylaxis.

  17. Degradation of Aflatoxin B1 during the Fermentation of Alcoholic Beverages

    OpenAIRE

    Inoue, Tomonori; Nagatomi, Yasushi; Uyama, Atsuo; Mochizuki, Naoki

    2013-01-01

    Aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) is a contaminant of grain and fruit and has one of the highest levels of carcinogenicity of any natural toxin. AFB1 and the fungi that produce it can also contaminate the raw materials used for beer and wine manufacture, such as corn and grapes. Therefore, brewers must ensure strict monitoring to reduce the risk of contamination. In this study, the fate of AFB1 during the fermentation process was investigated using laboratory-scale bottom and top beer fermentation and wine...

  18. Antioxidant and Antibacterial Activity of the Beverage Obtained by Fermentation of Sweetened Lemon Balm (Melissa offi cinalis L.) Tea with Symbiotic Consortium of Bacteria and Yeasts

    OpenAIRE

    Dragoljub D. Cvetković; Siniša L. Markov; Vesna T. Tumbas Šaponjac; Jelena J. Vulić; Aleksandra S. Velićanski

    2014-01-01

    Kombucha is a fermented tea beverage which is traditionally prepared by fermenting sweetened black or green tea (Camellia sinensis L.) with symbiotic consortium of bacteria and yeasts (SCOBY). In this study, lemon balm (Melissa offi cinalis L.) was used as the only nitrogen source for kombucha fermentation. During the seven-day fermentation process, pH value, titratable acidity (TA), total phenolic content, phenolic compounds, and antioxidant activity against hydroxyl (˙OH) and 1,1-diphenyl-2...

  19. In vitro and in vivo assessment of anti-hyperglycemic and antioxidant effects of Oak leaves (Quercus convallata and Quercus arizonica) infusions and fermented beverages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gamboa-Gómez, Claudia I; Simental-Mendía, Luis E; González-Laredo, Rubén F; Alcantar-Orozco, Esteban J; Monserrat-Juarez, Victor H; Ramírez-España, Julio C; Gallegos-Infante, Jose Alberto; Moreno-Jiménez, Martha R; Rocha-Guzmán, Nuria E

    2017-12-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the anti-hyperglycemic and antioxidant effects of oak leaves infusions and fermented beverages from Quercus convallata and Q. arizonica in vitro and in vivo. Female C57BL/6 mice fed with high saturated fat and fructose diet-induced obesity were treated with oak leaves beverages (200 μL/per day equivalent to 15mg of lyophilized sample/Kg of body weight for infusions and 31mg of lyophilized sample/Kg of body weight for fermented beverages) for 3months and an oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) was performed. Blood plasma was obtained for determination of glucose, lipid profile, and oxidative stress markers (ABTS, nitric oxide, and ORAC assays). Insulin resistance was estimated using the product of triglycerides and glucose (TyG). Oak leaves infusions and fermented beverages exhibited exerted inhibition of α-amylase (8-15% and 5-9%, respectively) and α-glucosidase (98% and 99%, respectively) enzymes. After OGTT, the groups treated with either oak leaves infusions or fermented beverages showed lower glucose levels compared with the obesity control group (18%) and a similar glucose tolerance to healthy control group. On long-term evaluation, intervention groups showed a significant reduction in fasting glucose concentrations (41-50% for oak leaves infusions and 52-66% for fermented beverages) and TyG index (4.2-4.6% for oak leaves infusions and 5.9-7.5% for fermented beverages) compared with the obese control group. Oak leaves infusions and fermented beverages had antioxidant potential in vitro and scavenging activity for radicals such as peroxyl and peroxynitrite anions. Our results suggest anti-hyperglycemic and antioxidant effects of beverages prepared with leaves of Quercus species in vitro and in vivo. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Probiotic attributes of indigenous Lactobacillus spp. isolated from traditional fermented foods and beverages of north-western Himalayas using in vitro screening and principal component analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Kumari, Anila; Angmo, Kunzes; Monika; Bhalla, Tek Chand

    2016-01-01

    The present research was designed to explore indigenous probiotic Lactic acid bacteria from traditional fermented foods and beverages of North-western Himalayas for their probiotic potential. It was achieved through a step-by step approach focused on the technological characterization, evaluation of the probiotic traits and adherence ability. Fifty one LAB isolates from traditional fermented foods and beverages were initially screened for their technological properties and among them twenty i...

  1. Classification of juices and fermented beverages made from unripe, ripe and senescent apples based on the aromatic profile using chemometrics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braga, Cíntia Maia; Zielinski, Acácio Antonio Ferreira; Silva, Karolline Marques da; de Souza, Frederico Koch Fernandes; Pietrowski, Giovana de Arruda Moura; Couto, Marcelo; Granato, Daniel; Wosiacki, Gilvan; Nogueira, Alessandro

    2013-11-15

    The aim of this study was to assess differences between apple juices and fermented apple beverages elaborated with fruits from different varieties and at different ripening stages in the aroma profile by using chemometrics. Ripening influenced the aroma composition of the apple juice and fermented apple. For all varieties, senescent fruits provided more aromatic fermented apple beverages. However, no significant difference was noticed in samples made of senescent or ripe fruits of the Lisgala variety. Regarding the juices, ripe Gala apple had the highest total aroma concentration. Ethanal was the major compound identified in all the samples, with values between 11.83mg/L (unripe Lisgala juice) and 81.05mg/L (ripe Gala juice). 3-Methyl-1-butanol was the major compound identified in the fermented juices. Principal component analysis (PCA) and hierarchical cluster analysis (HCA) were applied and classified the juices and fermented juices based on physicochemical and aroma profile, demonstrating their applicability as tools to monitor the quality of apple-based products. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Chemical elements dynamic in the fermentation process of ethanol producing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nepomuceno, N.; Nadai Fernandes, E.A. de; Bacchi, M.A.

    1994-01-01

    This paper provides useful information about the dynamics of chemical elements analysed by instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA) and, found in the various segments of the fermentation process of producing ethanol from sugar cane. For this, a mass balance of Ce, Co, Cs, Eu, Fe, Hf, La, Sc, Sm, and Th, terrigenous elements, as well as Br, K, Rb, and Zn, sugar cane plant elements, has been demonstrated for the fermentation vats in industrial conditions of ethanol production. (author). 10 refs, 4 figs, 1 tab

  3. Evaluation of a potentially probiotic non-dairy beverage developed with honey and kefir grains: Fermentation kinetics and storage study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fiorda, Fernanda A; de Melo Pereira, Gilberto V; Thomaz-Soccol, Vanete; Rakshit, Sudip K; Soccol, Carlos R

    2016-12-01

    The aim of this work was to study the fermentation process of honey with kefir grains through a comprehensive understanding of its rheological properties, probiotic cell viability, instrumental color parameters and kinetic aspects in a batch bioreactor and during storage. The results showed that kefir grains were well adapted to bioreactor conditions, reaching high levels of cell viability (over 10 6 CFU mL -1 for total yeast and bacteria), phenolic compounds content (190 GAE/100 g) and acidification after 24 h of fermentation at 30 ℃. Colorimetric analysis showed that lightness (L*) and redness (a*) remained constant, while yellowness intensities (b*) decreased during fermentation time. After 35 days of storage, honey kefir beverage maintained its chemical characteristics and microbial viability as required to be classified as a probiotic product. The Ostwald-de-Waele (R 2  ≥ 0.98) and Herschel-Bulkley (R 2  ≥ 0.99) models can be used to predict the behavior of honey kefir beverage. The parameters analyzed in this study should be taken into account for industrial production of this novel non-dairy beverage. © The Author(s) 2016.

  4. Changes in the bacterial community in the fermentation process of kôso, a Japanese sugar-vegetable fermented beverage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiou, Tai-Ying; Suda, Wataru; Oshima, Kenshiro; Hattori, Masahira; Takahashi, Tomoya

    2017-02-01

    Kôso is a Japanese fermented beverage made with over 20 kinds of vegetables, mushrooms, and sugars. The changes in the bacterial population of kôso during fermentation at 25 °C over a period of 10 days were studied using 454 pyrosequencing of the 16S rRNA gene. The analysis detected 224 operational taxonomic units (OTUs) clustered from 8 DNA samples collected on days 0, 3, 7, and 10 from two fermentation batches. Proteobacteria were the dominant phylum in the starting community, but were replaced by Firmicutes within three days. Seventy-eight genera were identified from the 224 OTUs, in which Bifidobacterium, Leuconostoc, Lactococcus, and Lactobacillus dominated, accounting for over 96% of the total bacterial population after three days' fermentation. UniFrac-Principal Coordinate Analysis of longitudinal fermented samples revealed dramatic changes in the bacterial community in kôso, resulting in significantly low diversity at the end of fermentation as compared with the complex starting community.

  5. Anti-listerial Bactericidal Activity of Lactobacillus plantarum DM5 Isolated from Fermented Beverage Marcha.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Das, Deeplina; Goyal, Arun

    2013-09-01

    The strain Lactobacillus plantarum DM5 was isolated from fermented beverage Marcha of Sikkim and explored for its antagonistic activity against food-borne pathogens. The cell-free supernatant of L. plantarum DM5 showed antibacterial activity of 6,400 AU/mL in MRS medium (pH 6.0) against the indicator strain Staphylococcus aureus. MRS medium supplemented with 15 g/L of maltose at 37 °C under static condition yielded highest antimicrobial activity (6,400 AU/mL) with 3 % increase in specific activity when compared to 20 g/L glucose. The antimicrobial compound was heat stable (60 min at 100 °C) and was active over a wide pH range. It showed bactericidal effect on S. aureus and Listeria monocytogenes by causing 96 and 98 % of cell lysis, respectively. The cell morphology of the treated S. aureus and L. monocytogenes was completely deformed as revealed by scanning electron microscopy, suggesting the high potential of L. plantarum DM5 as natural preservatives in food industry. The antimicrobial compound was purified by 80 % ammonium sulphate precipitation and showed antimicrobial activity of 12,800 AU/mL with 19-fold purification and a molecular mass of 15.2 kDa, indicating the proteinaceous nature of the compound.

  6. Probiotic properties of Lactobacillus plantarum RYPR1 from an indigenous fermented beverage Raabadi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruby Yadav

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Present study documents the potential probiotic Lactobacillus isolated from indigenous fermented beverage Raabadi, consumed during summers in Haryana and Rajasthan regions of India. A total of 5 Raabadi samples were collected aseptically and 54 isolates were purified using MRS medium. All the isolates were assessed for tolerance to low pH and bile salts. It was observed that out of 54 only 24 isolates could survive the simulated gastric conditions. These isolates were further evaluated in vitro for cell surface hydrophobicity, cell surface hydrophobicity, hypocholesteramic activity, anti-oxidative potential, BSH activity, antagonistic activity and antibiotic resistance profile. In addition, the confirmation of phenol resistance was also done. On the basis of results obtained, the survival rate of isolates was noted and 6 isolates were finally selected for further studies. Among them Lactobacillus plantarum RYPR1 and RYPC7 showed good survival at pH 2 which shows good acid tolerance. Moreover, Lactobacillus plantarum RYPR1 showed the highest hydrophobicity (79.13% and represented the deconjugation of bile salts, which help in their adhesion to epithelial cells and colonization. Furthermore, RYPR1 also exhibited highest cholesterol reduction (59% and subsequent analysis of results revealed that the above mentioned isolates further exhibit a good hypocholesterolemic effect and could be possibly used to prevent hypercholesterolemia. The present study divulges that Lactobacillus plantarum RYPR1 has an excellent probiotic potential.

  7. Producing kombucha beverage from winter savory (Satureja montana L. tea inoculated by pellicle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cvetković Dragoljub D.

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The work is concerned with the possibility of preparing kombucha beverage from sweetened winter savory (local name Rtanj tea inoculated with the pellicle in a quantity of 2 -51 in the vessels (glass containers volume of 2 - 6 l. It was found that the process lasts a few days (2 - 5 longer than the traditional process of biotransformation of black tea into kombucha. It was also concluded that the rate of the process depends mostly on the volume container: medium ratio. In the subsequent kombucha fermentations the metabolic activity of the yeast and acetic fermentation cells did not change. The rate of the process was not influenced by the physiological state of the cells in the pellicle with the capacities larger than 31.

  8. Potential of volatile compounds produced by fungi to influence sensory quality of coffee beverage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Iamanaka, B. T.; Teixeira, A. A.; Teixeira, A. R. R.

    2014-01-01

    Fungi are known producers of a large number of volatile compounds (VCs). Several VCs such as 2,4,6 trichloroanisole (TCA), geosmin and terpenes have been found in coffee beverages, and these compounds can be responsible for off-flavor development. However, few studies have related the fungal...... contamination of coffee with the sensory characteristics of the beverage. The aim of this research was to investigate the production of VCs by fungi isolated from coffee and their potential as modifiers of the sensory coffee beverage quality. Three species were isolated from coffee from the southwest of São...... Paulo state and selected for the study: Penicillium brevicompactum, Aspergillus luchuensis (belonging to section Nigri) and Penicillium sp. nov. (related to Penicillium crustosum). VCs produced by the fungal inoculated in raw coffee beans were extracted and tentatively identified by SPME...

  9. The Application of State-of-the-Art Analytic Tools (Biosensors and Spectroscopy in Beverage and Food Fermentation Process Monitoring

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shaneel Chandra

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The production of several agricultural products and foods are linked with fermentation. Traditional methods used to control and monitor the quality of the products and processes are based on the use of simple chemical analysis. However, these methods are time-consuming and do not provide sufficient relevant information to guarantee the chemical changes during the process. Commonly used methods applied in the agriculture and food industries to monitor fermentation are those based on simple or single-point sensors, where only one parameter is measured (e.g., temperature or density. These sensors are used several times per day and are often the only source of data available from which the conditions and rate of fermentation are monitored. In the modern food industry, an ideal method to control and monitor the fermentation process should enable a direct, rapid, precise, and accurate determination of several target compounds, with minimal to no sample preparation or reagent consumption. Here, state-of-the-art advancements in both the application of sensors and analytical tools to monitor beverage and food fermentation processes will be discussed.

  10. Vinegar rice (Oryza sativa L. produced by a submerged fermentation process from alcoholic fermented rice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wilma Aparecida Spinosa

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Considering the limited availability of technology for the production of rice vinegar and also due to the potential consumer product market, this study aimed to use alcoholic fermented rice (rice wine (Oryza sativa L. for vinegar production. An alcoholic solution with 6.28% (w/v ethanol was oxidized by a submerged fermentation process to produce vinegar. The process of acetic acid fermentation occurred at 30 ± 0.3°C in a FRINGS® Acetator (Germany for the production of vinegar and was followed through 10 cycles. The vinegar had a total acidity of 6.85% (w/v, 0.17% alcohol (w/v, 1.26% (w/v minerals and 1.78% (w/v dry extract. The composition of organic acids present in rice vinegar was: cis-aconitic acid (6 mg/L, maleic acid (3 mg/L, trans-aconitic acid (3 mg/L, shikimic + succinic acid (4 mg/L, lactic acid (300 mg/L, formic acid (180 mg/L, oxalic acid (3 mg/L, fumaric acid (3 mg/L and itaconic acid (1 mg/L.

  11. Strain-Level Metagenomic Analysis of the Fermented Dairy Beverage Nunu Highlights Potential Food Safety Risks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walsh, Aaron M; Crispie, Fiona; Daari, Kareem; O'Sullivan, Orla; Martin, Jennifer C; Arthur, Cornelius T; Claesson, Marcus J; Scott, Karen P; Cotter, Paul D

    2017-08-15

    The rapid detection of pathogenic strains in food products is essential for the prevention of disease outbreaks. It has already been demonstrated that whole-metagenome shotgun sequencing can be used to detect pathogens in food but, until recently, strain-level detection of pathogens has relied on whole-metagenome assembly, which is a computationally demanding process. Here we demonstrated that three short-read-alignment-based methods, i.e., MetaMLST, PanPhlAn, and StrainPhlAn, could accurately and rapidly identify pathogenic strains in spinach metagenomes that had been intentionally spiked with Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli in a previous study. Subsequently, we employed the methods, in combination with other metagenomics approaches, to assess the safety of nunu, a traditional Ghanaian fermented milk product that is produced by the spontaneous fermentation of raw cow milk. We showed that nunu samples were frequently contaminated with bacteria associated with the bovine gut and, worryingly, we detected putatively pathogenic E. coli and Klebsiella pneumoniae strains in a subset of nunu samples. Ultimately, our work establishes that short-read-alignment-based bioinformatics approaches are suitable food safety tools, and we describe a real-life example of their utilization. IMPORTANCE Foodborne pathogens are responsible for millions of illnesses each year. Here we demonstrate that short-read-alignment-based bioinformatics tools can accurately and rapidly detect pathogenic strains in food products by using shotgun metagenomics data. The methods used here are considerably faster than both traditional culturing methods and alternative bioinformatics approaches that rely on metagenome assembly; therefore, they can potentially be used for more high-throughput food safety testing. Overall, our results suggest that whole-metagenome sequencing can be used as a practical food safety tool to prevent diseases or to link outbreaks to specific food products. Copyright

  12. Rapid Quantification of Major Volatile Metabolites in Fermented Food and Beverages Using Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farhana R. Pinu

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Here we present a method for the accurate quantification of major volatile metabolites found in different food and beverages, including ethanol, acetic acid and other aroma compounds, using gas chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry (GC-MS. The method is combined with a simple sample preparation procedure using sodium chloride and anhydrous ethyl acetate. The GC-MS analysis was accomplished within 4.75 min, and over 80 features were detected, of which 40 were positively identified using an in-house and a commercialmass spectrometry (MS library. We determined different analytical parameters of these metabolites including the limit of detection (LOD, limit of quantitation (LOQ and range of quantification. In order to validate the method, we also determined detailed analytical characteristics of five major fermentation end products including ethanol, acetic acid, isoamyl alcohol, ethyl-L-lactate and, acetoin. The method showed very low technical variability for the measurements of these metabolites in different matrices (<3% with an excellent accuracy (100% ± 5%, recovery (100% ± 10%, reproducibility and repeatability [Coefficient of variation (CV 1–10%]. To demonstrate the applicability of the method, we analysed different fermented products including balsamic vinegars, sourdough, distilled (whisky and non-distilled beverages (wine and beer.

  13. Rapid Quantification of Major Volatile Metabolites in Fermented Food and Beverages Using Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinu, Farhana R; Villas-Boas, Silas G

    2017-07-26

    Here we present a method for the accurate quantification of major volatile metabolites found in different food and beverages, including ethanol, acetic acid and other aroma compounds, using gas chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry (GC-MS). The method is combined with a simple sample preparation procedure using sodium chloride and anhydrous ethyl acetate. The GC-MS analysis was accomplished within 4.75 min, and over 80 features were detected, of which 40 were positively identified using an in-house and a commercialmass spectrometry (MS) library. We determined different analytical parameters of these metabolites including the limit of detection (LOD), limit of quantitation (LOQ) and range of quantification. In order to validate the method, we also determined detailed analytical characteristics of five major fermentation end products including ethanol, acetic acid, isoamyl alcohol, ethyl-L-lactate and, acetoin. The method showed very low technical variability for the measurements of these metabolites in different matrices (<3%) with an excellent accuracy (100% ± 5%), recovery (100% ± 10%), reproducibility and repeatability [Coefficient of variation (CV) 1-10%)]. To demonstrate the applicability of the method, we analysed different fermented products including balsamic vinegars, sourdough, distilled (whisky) and non-distilled beverages (wine and beer).

  14. Authentication of origins of fermentive ethanol in Philippine-made beverages by C,H,O isotope abundances

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sucgang, Raymond J.; Morco, Ryan; Bautista, Angel; Laguitan, Arlin; Sevilla III, Fortunato

    2010-01-01

    This paper demonstrates the expediency of radiocarbon liquid scintillation counting for detection of synthetic ethanol adulteration in Philippine-manufactured wines/alcoholic beverages. The impure wines are distinguished from the pure beverages by radiocarbon assay, taking advantage of the anticipated minor 1 4Carbon content of synthetic ethyl alcohol in comparison with the natural 1 4C abundance of the plant-derived, biogenic products. Biogenic samples give 12-15 dpm/g C activities, while synthetic samples exhibits 0-2 dpm/g C activities. The research moreover explores the utility of Deuterium, Oxygen 16 and 1 3Carbon/ 1 2Carbon isotope ratio analysis in the authentication of the botanical and geographical origins of beverages. Initial investigations revealed the mean of δ 1 8O in the Metro Manila area for precipitation, surface waters and ground waters to be -6.09 ± 2.9, -1.59 ± 2.2, and -6.64 ± 0.7 per mil.respectively. δ 2 H in Metro Manila for precipitation, surface waters and ground waters were -43.8 ± 1.2,-11.9 ± 16.2, -45.0 ± 4.8 per mil respectively. Vital information such as detection of illegal dilution with water, or enrichment using other sugars before and after fermentation, misrepresentation of geographical origin, and adulteration with petroleum-derived ethanol can be generated from the isotopic data. (author)

  15. Modeling cereal starch hydrolysis during simultaneous saccharification and lactic acid fermentation; case of a sorghum-based fermented beverage, gowé.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mestres, Christian; Bettencourt, Munanga de J C; Loiseau, Gérard; Matignon, Brigitte; Grabulos, Joël; Achir, Nawel

    2017-10-01

    Gowé is an acidic beverage obtained after simultaneous saccharification and fermentation (SSF) of sorghum. A previous paper focused on modeling the growth of lactic acid bacteria during gowé processing. This paper focuses on modeling starch amylolysis to build an aggregated SSF model. The activity of α-amylase was modeled as a function of temperature and pH, and the hydrolysis rates of both native and soluble starch were modeled via a Michaelis-Menten equation taking into account the maltose and glucose inhibition constants. The robustness of the parameter estimators was ensured by step by step identification in sets of experiments conducted with different proportions of native and gelatinized starch by modifying the pre-cooking temperature. The aggregated model was validated on experimental data and showed that both the pre-cooking and fermentation parameters, particularly temperature, are significant levers for controlling not only acid and sugar contents but also the expected viscosity of the final product. This generic approach could be used as a tool to optimize the sanitary and sensory quality of fermentation of other starchy products. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Characteristics of Korean Alcoholic Beverages Produced by Using Rice Nuruks Containing Aspergillus oryzae N159-1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hye Ryun; Lee, Ae Ran; Kim, Jae-Ho

    2017-06-01

    Herein, nuruks derived from non-glutinous and glutinous rice inoculated with Aspergillus oryzae N159-1 (having high alpha-amylase and beta-glucosidase activities) were used to produce Korean alcoholic beverages. The resultant beverages had enhanced fruity (ethyl caproate and isoamyl alcohol) and rose (2-phenethyl acetate and phenethyl alcohol) flavors and high taste scores.

  17. Characteristics of Korean Alcoholic Beverages Produced by Using Rice Nuruks Containing Aspergillus oryzae N159-1

    OpenAIRE

    Kim, Hye Ryun; Lee, Ae Ran; Kim, Jae-Ho

    2017-01-01

    Herein, nuruks derived from non-glutinous and glutinous rice inoculated with Aspergillus oryzae N159-1 (having high alpha-amylase and beta-glucosidase activities) were used to produce Korean alcoholic beverages. The resultant beverages had enhanced fruity (ethyl caproate and isoamyl alcohol) and rose (2-phenethyl acetate and phenethyl alcohol) flavors and high taste scores.

  18. Mead features fermented by Saccharomyces cerevisiae (lalvin k1 ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Alcoholic beverages are produced practically in every country in the world representing a significant percentage of the economy. Mead is one of the oldest beverages and it is easily obtained by the fermentation of a mixture of honey and water. However, it is still less studied compared to other beverages and does not have ...

  19. Lipolytic Changes in Fermented Sausages Produced with Turkey Meat: Effects of Starter Culture and Heat Treatment

    OpenAIRE

    Karslo?lu, Bet?l; ?i?ek, ?mran Ensoy; Kolsarici, Nuray; Cando?an, Kezban

    2014-01-01

    In this study, the effects of two different commercial starter culture mixes and processing methodologies (traditional and heat process) on the lipolytic changes of fermented sausages manufactured with turkey meat were evaluated during processing stages and storage. Free fatty acid (FFA) value increased with fermentation and during storage over 120 d in all fermented sausage groups produced with both processing methodologies (p

  20. Antioxidant and Antibacterial Activity of the Beverage Obtained by Fermentation of Sweetened Lemon Balm (Melissa offi cinalis L. Tea with Symbiotic Consortium of Bacteria and Yeasts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dragoljub D. Cvetković

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Kombucha is a fermented tea beverage which is traditionally prepared by fermenting sweetened black or green tea (Camellia sinensis L. with symbiotic consortium of bacteria and yeasts (SCOBY. In this study, lemon balm (Melissa offi cinalis L. was used as the only nitrogen source for kombucha fermentation. During the seven-day fermentation process, pH value, titratable acidity (TA, total phenolic content, phenolic compounds, and antioxidant activity against hydroxyl (˙OH and 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazil (DPPH radicals were measured to detect the connection between the fermentation time and antioxidant and antibacterial activities of lemon balm kombucha. Antibacterial activity of fi nished beverages with optimum acidity (TA=4–4.5 g/L, the value which is confi rmed by long-time kombucha consumers, and enhanced acidity (TA=8.12 g/L was tested against eleven wild bacterial strains. The results showed that lemon balm could be successfully used as an alternative to C. sinensis L. for kombucha fermentation. Total phenolic content and antioxidant activity against DPPH radicals of lemon balm fermentation broth were higher than those of traditional kombucha. Rosmarinic acid is the main phenolic compound of the lemon balm-based kombucha that probably provides biological activity of the beverage. Judging from the EC50 values, kombucha beverages exhibited higher antioxidant activities compared with C. sinensis L. and M. offi cinalis L. infusions, which can probably be ascribed to SCOBY metabolites. Lemon balm kombucha with both optimum and enhanced acidity showed antibacterial activity, which can be primarily ascribed to acetic acid, but also to some other tea components and SCOBY metabolites.

  1. Antioxidant and Antibacterial Activity of the Beverage Obtained by Fermentation of Sweetened Lemon Balm
(Melissa officinalis L.) Tea with Symbiotic Consortium 
of Bacteria and Yeasts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Velićanski, Aleksandra S; Cvetković, Dragoljub D; Markov, Siniša L; Šaponjac, Vesna T Tumbas; Vulić, Jelena J

    2014-12-01

    Kombucha is a fermented tea beverage which is traditionally prepared by fermenting sweetened black or green tea ( Camellia sinensis L.) with symbiotic consortium of bacteria and yeasts (SCOBY). In this study, lemon balm ( Melissa officinalis L.) was used as the only nitrogen source for kombucha fermentation. During the seven-day fermentation process, pH value, titratable acidity (TA), total phenolic content, phenolic compounds, and antioxidant activity against hydroxyl ( ˙ OH) and 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazil (DPPH) radicals were measured to detect the connection between the fermentation time and antioxidant and antibacterial activities of lemon balm kombucha. Antibacterial activity of finished beverages with optimum acidity (TA=4-4.5 g/L), the value which is confirmed by long-time kombucha consumers, and enhanced acidity (TA=8.12 g/L) was tested against eleven wild bacterial strains. The results showed that lemon balm could be successfully used as an alternative to C. sinensis L. for kombucha fermentation. Total phenolic content and antioxidant activity against DPPH radicals of lemon balm fermentation broth were higher than those of traditional kombucha. Rosmarinic acid is the main phenolic compound of the lemon balm-based kombucha that probably provides biological activity of the beverage. Judging from the EC 50 values, kombucha beverages exhibited higher antioxidant activities compared with C. sinensis L. and M. officinalis L. infusions, which can probably be ascribed to SCOBY metabolites. Lemon balm kombucha with both optimum and enhanced acidity showed antibacterial activity, which can be primarily ascribed to acetic acid, but also to some other tea components and SCOBY metabolites.

  2. Avaliação físico-química e sensorial de fermentado de acerola Physicochemical and sensorial evaluation of a fermented West Indian cherry beverage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edilene Cléa Dos Santos Segtowick

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available O processamento de frutas para a obtenção de bebidas é uma forma de agregar valor a essa matéria-prima e remunerar melhor o produtor rural por meio do aumento de demanda. Tendo essa ideia como premissa, o objetivo deste trabalho foi produzir fermentados de acerola e caracterizá-los físico-química e sensorialmente. A produção das bebidas foi baseada na legislação brasileira de fermentado de fruta e de vinho. Os fermentados foram produzidos a partir de suco (prensa e polpa (despolpadora de acerola, e adoçados com açúcar para a obtenção de três tipos de bebidas: seco, meio seco e suave. As bebidas foram analisadas físico-quimicamente quanto a pH, teor alcoólico, açúcar redutor, açúcar redutor total, acidez total, acidez volátil, acidez fixa, extrato seco, extrato seco reduzido, relação álcool/extrato seco reduzido, dióxido de enxofre livre, dióxido de enxofre total e turbidez. A análise sensorial das bebidas foi feita pelo teste de escala hedônica estruturada de nove pontos, sendo considerados aparência, odor, sabor e avaliação global. Os resultados das análises físico-químicas e sensorial foram submetidos à análise de variância e as médias foram comparadas pelo teste de Tukey (significância de 5%. Tanto as matérias-primas (suco e polpa como as diferentes concentrações de açúcar (seco, semisseco e suave interferiram nos parâmetros físico-químicos e sensoriais dos fermentados de acerola, sendo que os provadores demonstraram preferência pelas bebidas mais adocicadas.Fruit processing for beverage production purposes is a way of adding value to the raw material and of raising the farmer’s income by increasing the demand. Thus the objective of this work was the production of fermented West Indian cherry beverages and their physicochemical and sensory evaluation. The beverages were produced based on the Brazilian legislation for fermented fruit beverages and wine. The fermented beverages were produced

  3. Galactooligosaccharide Production from Pantoea anthophila Strains Isolated from “Tejuino”, a Mexican Traditional Fermented Beverage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudia V. Yañez-Ñeco

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Two Pantoea anthophila bacterial strains were isolated from “tejuino”, a traditional Mexican beverage, and studied as β-galactosidase producers for galactooligosaccharides synthesis. Using 400 g/L of lactose, 50 °C, and 15 U/mL of β-galactosidase activity with ethanol-permeabilized cells, the maximum galactooligosaccharides (GOS yield determined by High performance anion exchange chromatography with pulse amperometric detection (HPAEC-PAD was 136 g/L (34% w/w of total sugars at 96% of lactose conversion for Bac 55.2 and 145 g/L (36% w/w of total sugars at 94% of lactose conversion for Bac 69.1. The main synthesized products were the disaccharides allolactose [Gal-β(1 → 6-Glc] and 6-galactobiose [Gal-β(1 → 6-Gal], as well as the trisaccharides 3′-galactosyl-lactose [Gal-β(1 → 3-Gal-β(1 → 4-Glc], 6-galactotriose [Gal-β(1 → 6-Gal-β(1 → 6-Gal], 3′-galactosyl-allolactose [Gal-β(1 → 3-Gal-β(1 → 6-Glc], and 6′-galactosyl-lactose [Gal-β(1 → 6-Gal-β(1 → 4-Glc]. The β-galactosidases present in both strains showed a high transgalactosylation activity and formed principally β(1 → 3 and β(1 → 6 linkages. Considering the stability and bifidogenic properties of GOS containing such types of bonds, P. anthophila strains Bac 55.2 and Bac 69.1 possess a high potential as novel biocatalysts for prebiotic industrial production.

  4. Practical background modification fermented beverage technology for the formation of defined functional properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. V. Botvinnikova

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The problem of provision of population with dairy products is escalating due to the fact that today, throughout the world, particularly in Russia, there is a shortage of milk as raw material, increasing every year. In the future, the consumption of milk and dairy products will continue to outpace growth in milk production is solid. To solve this problem, domestic producers need to find new ways to increase production of raw milk and improve the consumer and functional properties of fermented dairy products. The work was proposed the use of acoustic effects of ultrasound, triggered by the ultrasound, the technological model UTA ABOUT, 4/22 OM (frequency mechanical vibrations 22 ± 1,65 kHz. The main factors determining consumer characteristics, were taken physico-chemical parameters, structural and mechanical characteristics and the accumulation of minor biologically active substances – kefiran. In the study was obtained results confirming the necessity of using ultrasonic impact (RAS in the production technology of dairy products.

  5. Integration of fermentation and cooling crystallisation to produce organic acids

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roa Engel, C.A.

    2010-01-01

    Fermentation products are gaining more attention in the last years due to the fact that the metabolic and genetic engineering field has been developing techniques to enhance fermentation yields and make biochemical processes competitive compared to traditional chemical production. However, as

  6. Microbiological diversity and prevalence of spoilage and pathogenic bacteria in commercial fermented alcoholic beverages (beer, fruit wine, refined rice wine, and yakju).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeon, Se Hui; Kim, Nam Hee; Shim, Moon Bo; Jeon, Young Wook; Ahn, Ji Hye; Lee, Soon Ho; Hwang, In Gyun; Rhee, Min Suk

    2015-04-01

    The present study examined 469 commercially available fermented alcoholic beverages (FABs), including beer (draft, microbrewed, and pasteurized), fruit wine (grape and others), refined rice wine, and yakju (raw and pasteurized). Samples were screened for Escherichia coli and eight foodborne pathogens (Bacillus cereus, Campylobacter jejuni, Clostridium perfringens, Escherichia coli O157:H7, Listeria monocytogenes, Salmonella spp., Staphylococcus aureus, and Yersinia enterocolitica), and the aerobic plate count, lactic acid bacteria, acetic acid bacteria, fungi, and total coliforms were also enumerated. Microbrewed beer contained the highest number of microorganisms (average aerobic plate count, 3.5; lactic acid bacteria, 2.1; acetic acid bacteria, 2.0; and fungi, 3.6 log CFU/ml), followed by draft beer and yakju (P beer samples) and B. cereus (detected in all FABs) were present in some products. B. cereus was detected most frequently in microbrewed beer (54.8% of samples) and nonpasteurized yakju (50.0%), followed by pasteurized yakju (28.8%), refined rice wine (25.0%), other fruit wines (12.3%), grape wine (8.6%), draft beer (5.6%), and pasteurized beer (2.2%) (P < 0.05). The finding that spore-forming B. cereus and coliform bacteria can survive the harsh conditions present in alcoholic beverages should be taken into account (alongside traditional quality indicators such as the presence of lactic acid-producing bacteria, acetic acid-producing bacteria, or both) when developing manufacturing systems and methods to prolong the shelf life of high-quality FAB products. New strategic quality management plans for various FABs are needed.

  7. Optimization of processing conditions to improve antioxidant activities of apple juice and whey based novel beverage fermented by kefir grains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabokbar, Nayereh; Khodaiyan, Faramarz; Moosavi-Nasab, Marzieh

    2015-06-01

    A central composite design (CCD) was used to evaluate the effects of fermentation temperature (20-30 ºC) and kefir grains amount (2-8%w/v) on total phenolic content and antioxidant activities of apple juice and whey based novel beverage fermented by kefir grains. The response surface methodology (RSM) showed that the significant second-order polynomial regression equation with high R(2) (>0.86) was successfully fitted for all response as function of independent variable. The overall optimum region was found to be at the combined level of 7.56%w/v kefir grains and temperature of 24.82 ºC with the highest value for total phenolic content (TPC) and antioxidant activities. At this optimum point TPC, 1, 1-Diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl radical scavenging, metal chelating effect, reducing power, inhibition of linoleic acid autoxidation and inhibition of ascorbate autoxidation were 165.02 mgGA/l, 0.38 ml/1 ml, 0.757 (absorbance at 700 nm), 46.12 %, 65.33 % and 21 %, respectively. No significant difference (p < 0.05) was found between actual values and predicated values.

  8. Effect of bee pollen supplement on antimicrobial, chemical, rheological, sensorial properties and probiotic viability of fermented milk beverages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oktay Yerlikaya

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available In this research, effect of bee pollen supplement on antimicrobial, chemical, rheological, sensorial properties and probiotic viability of fermented milk beverages was studied. Bee pollens were added in the rate of 2.5 mg•mL-1 (B, 5 mg•mL-1 (C, 7.5 mg•mL-1 (D, 10 mg•mL-1 (E, and 20 mg•mL-1 (F. Control sample (A was not supplemented with bee pollen. Control and supplemented milk samples were fermented by a commercial ABT1 starter culture (Chr. Hansen, Hørsholm, Denmark containing Lactobacillus acidophilus La 5, Bifidobacterium animalis subs. lactis Bb 12, and Streptococcus thermophilus. While no antimicrobial impact was observed against L. monocytogenes, S. aureus, P. fluorescens, P. aeruginosa and A. hydrophilia upto 7.5 mg•mL-1 pollen addition, addition between 10 mg•mL-1 to 20 mg•mL-1 resulted in activity, and positive effect only in inhibition rates against bacteria such as S. thyphimurium and E. coli. Bee pollen supplements has shown a positive effect on probiotic viability and occurred on increase apparent viscosity, but their effect on sensorial properties was negative. Furthermore an improvement with increasing concentration of pollen addition that yielded no negative effect on physicochemical properties was detected.

  9. The Microbiota and Health Promoting Characteristics of the Fermented Beverage Kefir

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bourrie, Benjamin C. T.; Willing, Benjamin P.; Cotter, Paul D.

    2016-01-01

    Kefir is a complex fermented dairy product created through the symbiotic fermentation of milk by lactic acid bacteria and yeasts contained within an exopolysaccharide and protein complex called a kefir grain. As with other fermented dairy products, kefir has been associated with a range of health benefits such as cholesterol metabolism and angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibition, antimicrobial activity, tumor suppression, increased speed of wound healing, and modulation of the immune system including the alleviation of allergy and asthma. These reports have led to increased interest in kefir as a focus of research and as a potential probiotic-containing product. Here, we review those studies with a particular emphasis on the microbial composition and the health benefits of the product, as well as discussing the further development of kefir as an important probiotic product. PMID:27199969

  10. The Microbiota and health promoting characteristics of the fermented beverage Kefir.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benjamin C.T. Bourrie

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Kefir is a complex fermented dairy product created through the symbiotic fermentation of milk by lactic acid bacteria and yeasts contained within an exopolysaccharide and protein complex called a kefir grain. As with other fermented dairy products, kefir has been associated with a range of health benefits such as cholesterol metabolism and angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE inhibition, antimicrobial activity, tumor suppression, increased speed of wound healing, and modulation of the immune system including the alleviation of allergy and asthma. These reports have led to increased interest in kefir as a focus of research and as a potential probiotic-containing product. Here, we review those studies with a particular emphasis on the microbial composition and the health benefits of the product, as well as discussing the further development of kefir as an important probiotic product.

  11. The Microbiota and Health Promoting Characteristics of the Fermented Beverage Kefir.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bourrie, Benjamin C T; Willing, Benjamin P; Cotter, Paul D

    2016-01-01

    Kefir is a complex fermented dairy product created through the symbiotic fermentation of milk by lactic acid bacteria and yeasts contained within an exopolysaccharide and protein complex called a kefir grain. As with other fermented dairy products, kefir has been associated with a range of health benefits such as cholesterol metabolism and angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibition, antimicrobial activity, tumor suppression, increased speed of wound healing, and modulation of the immune system including the alleviation of allergy and asthma. These reports have led to increased interest in kefir as a focus of research and as a potential probiotic-containing product. Here, we review those studies with a particular emphasis on the microbial composition and the health benefits of the product, as well as discussing the further development of kefir as an important probiotic product.

  12. Development of novel quinoa-based yoghurt fermented with dextran producer Weissella cibaria MG1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zannini, Emanuele; Jeske, Stephanie; Lynch, Kieran M; Arendt, Elke K

    2018-03-02

    The aim of this study was to develop a novel beverage fermented with Weissella cibaria MG1 based on aqueous extracts of wholemeal quinoa flour. The protein digestibility of quinoa based-milk was improved by applying complex proteolytic enzymes able to increase protein solubility by 54.58%. The growth and fermentation characteristics of Weissella cibaria MG1, including EPS production at the end of fermentation, were investigated. Fermented wholemeal quinoa milk using MG1 showed high viable cell counts (>10 9 cfu/ml), a pH of 5.16, and significantly higher water holding capacity (WHC, 100%), viscosity (0.57mPas) and exopolysaccharide (EPS) amount (40mg/l) than the chemical acidified control. High EPS (dextran) concentration in quinoa milk caused earlier aggregation because more EPS occupy more space, and the chenopodin were forced to interact with each other. Microstructure observation indicated that the network structures of EPS-protein improve the texture of fermented quinoa milk. Overall, Weissella cibaria MG1 showed satisfactory technology properties and great potential for further possible application in the development of high viscosity fermented quinoa milk. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. A case of anti-Jo1 myositis with pleural effusions and pericardial tamponade developing after exposure to a fermented Kombucha beverage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Derk, Chris T; Sandorfi, Nora; Curtis, Mark T

    2004-08-01

    The pathogenesis of the idiopathic inflammatory myopathies has been postulated to be an environmental trigger causing the expression of the disease in a genetically predisposed patient. We report a case of anti-Jo1 antibody-positive myositis which was associated with pleural effusions, pericardial effusion with tamponade, and 'mechanic's hands', probably related to the consumption of a fermented Kombucha beverage. Kombucha 'mushroom', a symbiosis of yeast and bacteria, is postulated to be the trigger for our patient's disease owing to the proximity of his symptoms to the consumption of the Kombucha beverage.

  14. Comparative evaluation of extracellular β-D-fructofuranosidase in submerged and solid-state fermentation produced by newly identified Bacillus subtilis strain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lincoln, Lynette; More, Sunil S

    2018-04-17

    To screen and identify a potential extracellular β-D-fructofuranosidase or invertase producing bacterium from soil, and comparatively evaluate the enzyme biosynthesis under submerged and solid-state fermentation. Extracellular invertase producing bacteria were screened from soil. Identification of the potent bacterium was performed based on microscopic examinations and 16S rDNA molecular sequencing. Bacillus subtilis LYN12 invertase secretion was surplus with wheat bran humidified with molasses medium (70%), with elevated activity at 48 h and 37 °C under solid-state fermentation, whereas under submerged conditions increased activity was observed at 24 h and 45 °C in the molasses medium. The study revealed a simple fermentative medium for elevated production of extracellular invertase from a fast growing Bacillus strain. Bacterial invertases are scarce and limited reports are available. By far, this is the first report on the comparative analysis of optimization of extracellular invertase synthesis from Bacillus subtilis strain by submerged and solid-state fermentation. The use of agricultural residues increased yields resulting in development of a cost-effective and stable approach. Bacillus subtilis LYN12 invertase possesses excellent fermenting capability to utilize agro-industrial residues under submerged and solid-state conditions. This could be a beneficial candidate in food and beverage processing industries. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  15. CHARACTERIZATION AND ANALYSIS KOMBUCHA TEA ANTIOXIDANT ACTIVITY BASED ON LONG FERMENTATION AS A BEVERAGE FUNCTIONAL

    OpenAIRE

    Puspitasari, Yenny; Nurikasari, Maulina; Siwi, Retno Palupi Yoni

    2017-01-01

    Bacground: Kombucha is a symbiosis between bacteria (Acetobacter) and yeast (Saccharomyces), in English abbreviated SCOBY (Symbiotic Culture of Bacteria and Yeast). SCOBY in this research will be fermented using green tea media, to make kombucha tea product. Kombucha tea content is very beneficial for health, such as vitamin B1 (thiamine), vitamin B2 (riboflavin), vitamin B3 (niacin), vitamin B12 (cyanocobalamin), vitamin C, acetic acid, amino acids, glucoronic acid, lactic acid and antiocasi...

  16. Identification of Bacillus species occurring in Kantong, an acid fermented seed condiment produced in Ghana

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kpikpi, Elmer Nayra; Thorsen, Line; Glover, Richard

    2014-01-01

    Kantong is a condiment produced in Ghana by the spontaneous fermentation of kapok tree (Ceiba pentandra) seeds with cassava flour as an additive. Fermentation is over a 48h period followed by a drying and a kneading process. Although lactic acid bacteria (LAB) have previously been identified other...

  17. Lipolytic Changes in Fermented Sausages Produced with Turkey Meat: Effects of Starter Culture and Heat Treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karsloğlu, Betül; Çiçek, Ümran Ensoy; Kolsarici, Nuray; Candoğan, Kezban

    2014-01-01

    In this study, the effects of two different commercial starter culture mixes and processing methodologies (traditional and heat process) on the lipolytic changes of fermented sausages manufactured with turkey meat were evaluated during processing stages and storage. Free fatty acid (FFA) value increased with fermentation and during storage over 120 d in all fermented sausage groups produced with both processing methodologies (p<0.05). After drying stage, free fatty acid values of traditional style and heat processed fermented sausages were between 10.54-13.01% and 6.56-8.49%, respectively. Thiobarbituric acid (TBA) values of traditionally processed fermented sausages were between 0.220-0.450 mg·kg(-1), and TBA values of heat processed fermented sausages were in a range of 0.405-0.795 mg·kg(-1). Oleic and linoleic acids were predominant fatty acids in all fermented sausages. It was seen that fermented sausage groups produced with starter culture had lower TBA and FFA values in comparison with the control groups, and heat application inhibited the lipase enzyme activity and had an improving effect on lipid oxidation. As a result of these effects, heat processed fermented sausages had lower FFA and higher TBA values than the traditionally processed groups.

  18. Produce from Africa’s Gardens: Potential for Leafy Vegetable and Fruit Fermentations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oguntoyinbo, Folarin A.; Fusco, Vincenzina; Cho, Gyu-Sung; Kabisch, Jan; Neve, Horst; Bockelmann, Wilhelm; Huch, Melanie; Frommherz, Lara; Trierweiler, Bernhard; Becker, Biserka; Benomar, Nabil; Gálvez, Antonio; Abriouel, Hikmate; Holzapfel, Wilhelm H.; Franz, Charles M. A. P.

    2016-01-01

    A rich variety of indigenous fruits and vegetables grow in Africa, which contribute to the nutrition and health of Africa’s populations. Fruits and vegetables have high moisture and are thus inherently prone to accelerated spoilage. Food fermentation still plays a major role in combating food spoilage and foodborne diseases that are prevalent in many of Africa’s resource disadvantaged regions. Lactic acid fermentation is probably the oldest and best-accepted food processing method among the African people, and is largely a home-based process. Fermentation of leafy vegetables and fruits is, however, underutilized in Africa, although such fermented products could contribute toward improving nutrition and food security in this continent, where many are still malnourished and suffer from hidden hunger. Fermentation of leafy vegetables and fruits may not only improve safety and prolong shelf life, but may also enhance the availability of some trace minerals, vitamins and anti-oxidants. Cassava, cow-peas, amaranth, African nightshade, and spider plant leaves have a potential for fermentation, as do various fruits for the production of vinegars or fruit beers and wines. What is needed to accelerate efforts for production of fermented leaves and vegetables is the development of fermentation protocols, training of personnel and scale-up of production methods. Furthermore, suitable starter cultures need to be developed and produced to guarantee the success of the fermentations. PMID:27458430

  19. Development of a Fermented, Low-alcoholic Cherry-based Beverage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, Mia Irene

    2015-01-01

    Formålet med dette projekt var at udvikle en fermenteret, lav-alkoholisk drik baseret på lokale surkirsebær. Systematisk idegenerering blev brugt i de første faser af ideudviklingen. To forskellige vine blev brygget, ved brug af samme metode til fermentering af saft fra lokale ”Stevnsbær” surkirs......Formålet med dette projekt var at udvikle en fermenteret, lav-alkoholisk drik baseret på lokale surkirsebær. Systematisk idegenerering blev brugt i de første faser af ideudviklingen. To forskellige vine blev brygget, ved brug af samme metode til fermentering af saft fra lokale ”Stevnsbær...... opbevaring ved 25°C. Alle behandlinger, på nær tilsætning af kaliumsorbat, sikrede den mikrobielle stabilitet and ingen vækst blev observeret disse blandinger. To kirsebærvinsblandinger blev valgt til videre udvikling L9-(50:50) and FR-(25:75) (vin:juice).Til slut blev Busines Model Canvas brugt til...

  20. Lactobacillus delbrueckii subsp. jakobsenii subsp. nov., isolated from dolo wort, an alcoholic fermented beverage in Burkina Faso.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adimpong, David B; Nielsen, Dennis S; Sørensen, Kim I; Vogensen, Finn K; Sawadogo-Lingani, Hagrétou; Derkx, Patrick M F; Jespersen, Lene

    2013-10-01

    Lactobacillus delbrueckii is divided into five subspecies based on phenotypic and genotypic differences. A novel isolate, designated ZN7a-9(T), was isolated from malted sorghum wort used for making an alcoholic beverage (dolo) in Burkina Faso. The results of 16S rRNA gene sequencing, DNA-DNA hybridization and peptidoglycan cell-wall structure type analyses indicated that it belongs to the species L. delbrueckii. The genome sequence of isolate ZN7a-9(T) was determined by Illumina-based sequencing. Multilocus sequence typing (MLST) and split-decomposition analyses were performed on seven concatenated housekeeping genes obtained from the genome sequence of strain ZN7a-9(T) together with 41 additional L. delbrueckii strains. The results of the MLST and split-decomposition analyses could not establish the exact subspecies of L. delbrueckii represented by strain ZN7a-9(T) as it clustered with L. delbrueckii strains unassigned to any of the recognized subspecies of L. delbrueckii. Strain ZN7a-9(T) additionally differed from the recognized type strains of the subspecies of L. delbrueckii with respect to its carbohydrate fermentation profile. In conclusion, the cumulative results indicate that strain ZN7a-9(T) represents a novel subspecies of L. delbrueckii closely related to Lactobacillus delbrueckii subsp. lactis and Lactobacillus delbrueckii subsp. delbrueckii for which the name Lactobacillus delbrueckii subsp. jakobsenii subsp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is ZN7a-9(T) = DSM 26046(T) = LMG 27067(T).

  1. Genomic diversity of Saccharomyces cerevisiae yeasts associated with alcoholic fermentation of bacanora produced by artisanal methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Álvarez-Ainza, M L; Zamora-Quiñonez, K A; Moreno-Ibarra, G M; Acedo-Félix, E

    2015-03-01

    Bacanora is a spirituous beverage elaborated with Agave angustifolia Haw in an artisanal process. Natural fermentation is mostly performed with native yeasts and bacteria. In this study, 228 strains of yeast like Saccharomyces were isolated from the natural alcoholic fermentation on the production of bacanora. Restriction analysis of the amplified region ITS1-5.8S-ITS2 of the ribosomal DNA genes (RFLPr) were used to confirm the genus, and 182 strains were identified as Saccharomyces cerevisiae. These strains displayed high genomic variability in their chromosomes profiles by karyotyping. Electrophoretic profiles of the strains evaluated showed a large number of chromosomes the size of which ranged between 225 and 2200 kpb approximately.

  2. BEBIDA FERMENTADA DE SUERO DE QUESO FRESCO INOCULADA CON Lactobacillus casei FERMENTED FRESH CHEESE MILKWHEY BEVERAGE INOCULATED WITH Lactobacillus casei

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Margarita María Londoño Uribe

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Este trabajo tuvo por objetivo desarrollar una bebida fermentada de suero de queso fresco inoculada con Lactobacillus casei, a la cual se le evaluó la viabilidad del microorganismo, utilizando medios de cultivo selectivos, bajo condiciones anaeróbicas y, luego, se procedió a verificar su resistencia a los ácidos gástricos y sales biliares, simulando así, las condiciones del tracto gastrointestinal de los humanos. Para verificar la supervivencia durante el período de almacenamiento (21 días, la cepa, se caracterizó morfológica y bioquímicamente. Adicionalmente, se llevó a cabo la prueba de aceptabilidad, evaluando la bebida con 80 jueces. Se realizaron análisis físico-químicos, microbiológicos y sensoriales, a la materia prima y al producto elaborado, acorde a las normas vigentes en Colombia. La bebida fue saborizada con pulpa de maracuyá (Passi flora edulis. Se obtuvieron recuentos de viabilidad a pH 2,0, en agar MRS de 5,38∙10(7ufc∙g-1 y 1,3∙10(6ufc∙g-1 y en agar M17 de 6,96∙10(7ufc∙g-1 y de 1,16∙10(6ufc∙g-1, en los días 1 y 21, respectivamente. A pH 7,0, en agar MRS, se registraron valores de 3,37 ∙10(7ufc∙g-1 y 1.56 ∙10(6ufc∙g-1 y en agar M17 de 8,85∙10(7ufc∙g-1 y de 1,82∙10(6ufc∙g-1, en los días 1 y 21, respectivamente. La bebida desarrollada, tuvo una aceptación de “me gusta”, y presentó una vida de anaquel de hasta 21 días.The objective of this research was to develop a fermented fresh cheese milkwhey beverage inoculated with Lactobacillus casei, to which the viability of microorganism was evaluated using selective cultivation means under anaerobic conditions and then it was verified its biliary resistance to gastric acids and salts, simulating this way, the conditions of gastrointestinal tract of humans. To verify the survival during the period of storage (21 days, the stump was characterized morphological and bio-chemically. Additionally the test of acceptability was carried out

  3. Optimization of a fermented pumpkin-based beverage to improve Lactobacillus mali survival and α-glucosidase inhibitory activity: A response surface methodology approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W.Y. Koh

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this research was to develop an optimum fermentation and composition model for a new fermented pumpkin-based beverage with high probiotic survival and α-glucosidase inhibitory activity. Relationship between fermentation temperature, inoculum and ingredient concentration with response variables (fermentation time at the fermentation endpoint pH 4.5, survival rate of Lactobacillus mali K8 in pumpkin-based beverage treated with simulated gastrointestinal tract enzyme fluids, α-glucosidase inhibitory activity and sensory overall acceptability after 4 weeks of refrigerated storage was investigated using response surface methodology. Optimal formulation was obtained at an approximation of 40% pumpkin puree concentration, 8 Log CFU/mL inoculum and at 35 °C. The product derived from this optimum formula reached the fermentation endpoint after 28.34 ± 0.10 h and the quality change during 4 weeks storage was studied. The product achieved 88.56 ± 0.67% of L. mali survival after treatment with simulated gastric and intestinal juices; demonstrated 95.89 ± 0.30% α-glucosidase inhibitory activity, as well as scored 6.99 ± 0.40 on sensory overall acceptability after 4 weeks of storage. These findings illustrated that the model is effective in improving probiotic survival and α-glucosidase inhibitory activity with excellent sensory acceptability, thus may offer a dietary means for the management of hyperglycaemia. Keywords: Probiotics, Response surface methodology, Box-Behnken, Hyperglycaemia, Functional food

  4. Biotechnology for producing fuels and chemicals from biomass. Volume II. Fermentation chemicals from biomass

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Villet, R. (ed.)

    1981-02-01

    The technological and economic feasibility of producing some selected chemicals by fermentation is discussed: acetone, butanol, acetic acid, citric acid, 2,3-butanediol, and propionic acid. The demand for acetone and butanol has grown considerably. They have not been produced fermentatively for three decades, but instead by the oxo and aldol processes. Improved cost of fermentative production will hinge on improving yields and using cellulosic feedstocks. The market for acetic acid is likely to grow 5% to 7%/yr. A potential process for production is the fermentation of hydrolyzed cellulosic material to ethanol followed by chemical conversion to acetic acid. For about 50 years fermentation has been the chief process for citric acid production. The feedstock cost is 15% to 20% of the overall cost of production. The anticipated 5%/yr growth in demand for citric acid could be enhanced by using it to displace phosphates in detergent manufacture. A number of useful chemicals can be derived from 2,3-butanediol, which has not been produced commercially on a large scale. R and D are needed to establish a viable commercial process. The commercial fermentative production of propionic acid has not yet been developed. Recovery and purification of the product require considerable improvement. Other chemicals such as lactic acid, isopropanol, maleic anhydride, fumarate, and glycerol merit evaluation for commercial fermentative production in the near future.

  5. Fermented goats' milk produced with selected multiple starters as a potentially functional food.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minervini, Fabio; Bilancia, Maria Teresa; Siragusa, Sonya; Gobbetti, Marco; Caponio, Francesco

    2009-09-01

    A screening among five lactic acid bacteria, used alone or in combination, led to select a mixed starter (Streptococcus thermophilus CR12, Lactobacillus casei LC01, Lactobacillus helveticus PR4, Lactobacillus plantarum 1288) capable to produce a fermented goats' milk containing gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) and angiotensin-I converting enzyme (ACE)-inhibitory peptides. The fermented milk was characterized by cell counts of lactic acid bacteria not lower than 7.0 log cfu g(-1), even after 45 days of storage at 4 degrees C. Fermentation of goats' milk resulted in the production of ca. 28 mg kg(-1) of GABA. Furthermore the fermented goats' milk had an in vitro ACE-inhibitory activity of ca. 73%. Prolonged cold storage did not significantly affect both the concentration of GABA and the ACE-inhibitory activity. Moreover, the taurine content did not significantly vary during both fermentation and the entire storage period.

  6. Simultaneous co-fermentation of mixed sugars: a promising strategy for producing cellulosic ethanol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Soo Rin; Ha, Suk-Jin; Wei, Na; Oh, Eun Joong; Jin, Yong-Su

    2012-05-01

    The lack of microbial strains capable of fermenting all sugars prevalent in plant cell wall hydrolyzates to ethanol is a major challenge. Although naturally existing or engineered microorganisms can ferment mixed sugars (glucose, xylose and galactose) in these hydrolyzates sequentially, the preferential utilization of glucose to non-glucose sugars often results in lower overall yield and productivity of ethanol. Therefore, numerous metabolic engineering approaches have been attempted to construct optimal microorganisms capable of co-fermenting mixed sugars simultaneously. Here, we present recent findings and breakthroughs in engineering yeast for improved ethanol production from mixed sugars. In particular, this review discusses new sugar transporters, various strategies for simultaneous co-fermentation of mixed sugars, and potential applications of co-fermentation for producing fuels and chemicals. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. 19 CFR 10.199 - Duty-free entry for certain beverages produced in Canada from Caribbean rum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ...) Remained under the control of the customs authority of the intermediate country; (B) Did not enter into the...) Remained under the control of the customs authority of the intermediate country; (B) Did not enter into the... 19 Customs Duties 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Duty-free entry for certain beverages produced in...

  8. Profile of the alcohols produced in fermentations with malt contaminated with trichothecenes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reinehr Christian Oliveira

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available In order to study the influence of mycotoxins on the production of alcohols, a fermentative process on a laboratorial scale was simulated. Malt was contaminated with deoxynivalenol and T-2 in different ratios (up to 500 ppb, according to a 3² factorial design, and the alcohols obtained after the fermentation were determined through gas chromatography. The results showed that trichothecenes influenced the profile of the alcohols produced by Saccharomyces cerevisiae during the fermentative process of malt, especially the profile of methyl and isoamyl alcohols.

  9. Instrumental texture and sensory evaluation of fermented dairy beverages processed with reconstituted goat whey powder and a co-culture of Streptococcus thermophilus and Lactobacillus casei

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Áurea Marcela de Souza Pereira

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The effects of Lactobacillus casei BGP93 used as adjunct culture on the physicochemical, textural and sensory characteristics of a dairy beverage processed with goat Coalho cheese whey powder and Streptococcus thermophilus TA-40 as starter (ST-LC beverage were investigated in comparison to a control product (ST beverage without L. casei. No significant differences were observed between the ST and ST-LC trials concerning the acidification pattern throughout the fermentation process (P>0.05. Post-acidification was also not observed for both trials since their pH values were maintained stable, without significant differences during 21 days at 4 ± 1 °C. This pH stability reinforced the maintenance of firmness, consistency, cohesiveness and viscosity index without significant differences between the sampling periods throughout the whole storage in both trials, and also that no significant difference was verified between the ST and ST-LC beverages in the sensory evaluation (P>0.05.

  10. Phenolic Compounds from Fermented Berry Beverages Modulated Gene and Protein Expression To Increase Insulin Secretion from Pancreatic β-Cells in Vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Michelle H; de Mejia, Elvira Gonzalez

    2016-03-30

    Berries are a rich source of bioactive phenolic compounds that are able to bind and inhibit the enzyme dipeptidyl peptidase-IV (DPP-IV), a current target for type-2 diabetes therapy. The objectives were to determine the role of berry phenolic compounds to modulate incretin-cleaving DPP-IV and its substrate glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1), insulin secretion from pancreatic β-cells, and genes and proteins involved in the insulin secretion pathway using cell culture. Anthocyanins (ANC) from 50% blueberry-50% blackberry (Blu-Bla) and 100% blackberry (Bla) fermented beverages at 50 μM cyanidin-3-glucoside equivalents increased (p beverages have the potential to modulate DPP-IV and its substrate GLP-1, to increase insulin secretion, and to upregulate expression of mRNA of insulin-receptor associated genes and proteins in pancreatic β-cells.

  11. Improved fermentation performance to produce bioethanol from Gelidium amansii using Pichia stipitis adapted to galactose.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sukwong, Pailin; Ra, Chae Hun; Sunwoo, In Yung; Tantratian, Sumate; Jeong, Gwi-Taek; Kim, Sung-Koo

    2018-03-23

    This study employed a statistical method to obtain optimal hyper thermal acid hydrolysis conditions using Gelidium amansii (red seaweed) as a source of biomass. The optimal hyper thermal acid hydrolysis using G. amansii as biomass was determined as 12% (w/v) slurry content, 358.3 mM H 2 SO 4 , and temperature of 142.6 °C for 11 min. After hyper thermal acid hydrolysis, enzymatic saccharification was carried out. The total monosaccharide concentration was 45.1 g/L, 72.2% of the theoretical value of the total fermentable monosaccharides of 62.4 g/L based on 120 g dry weight/L in the G. amansii slurry. To increase ethanol production, 3.8 g/L 5-hydroxymethylfurfural (HMF) in the hydrolysate was removed by treatment with 3.5% (w/v) activated carbon for 2 min and fermented with Pichia stipitis adapted to high galactose concentrations via separate hydrolysis and fermentation. With complete HMF removal and the use of P. stipitis adapted to high galactose concentrations, 22 g/L ethanol was produced (yield 0.50). Fermentation with total HMF removal and yeast adapted to high galactose concentrations increased the fermentation performance and decreased the fermentation time from 96 to 36 h compared to traditional fermentation.

  12. Photosynthesis-fermentation hybrid system to produce lipid feedstock for algal biofuel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Yue; Dai, Junbiao; Wu, Qingyu

    2013-01-01

    To avoid bacterial contamination due to medium replacement in the expanded application of a photosynthesis-fermentation model, an integrated photosynthesis-fermentation hybrid system was set up and evaluated for algal lipid production using Chlorella protothecoides. In this system, the CO2-rich off-gas from the fermentation process was recycled to agitate medium in thephotobioreactor, which could provide initial cells for the heterotrophic fermentation. The cell concentration reached 1.03 +/- 0.07 g/L during photoautotrophic growth and then the concentrated green cells were switched to heterotrophic fermentation after removing over 99.5% ofnitrogen in the medium by a nitrogen removal device. At the end offermentation in the system, the cell concentration could reach as high as 100.51 +/- 2.03 g/L, and 60.05 +/- 1.38% lipid content was achieved simultaneously. The lipid yield (60.36 +/- 2.63 g/L) in the hybrid system was over 700 times higher than that in a photobioreactor and exceeded that by fermentation alone (47.56 +/- 7.31 g/L). The developed photosynthesis-fermentation hybrid system in this study was not only a feasible option to enhance microalgal lipid production, but also an environment-friendly approach to produce biofuel feedstock through concurrent utilization of ammonia nitrogen, CO2, and organic carbons.

  13. Characterization of angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitory activity of fermented milk produced by Lactobacillus helveticus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yongfu; Li, Changkun; Xue, Jiangang; Kwok, Lai-yu; Yang, Jie; Zhang, Heping; Menghe, Bilige

    2015-08-01

    Hypertension affects up to 30% of the adult population in most countries. It is a known risk factor for cardiovascular diseases, including coronary heart disease, peripheral artery disease, and stroke. Owing to the increased health awareness of consumers, the application of angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE)-inhibitory peptides produced by Lactobacillushelveticus to prevent or control high blood pressure has drawn wide attention. A total of 59 L. helveticus strains were isolated from traditional fermented dairy products and the ACE-inhibitory activity of the fermented milks produced with the isolated microorganisms was assayed. The ACE-inhibitory activity of 38 L. helveticus strains was more than 50%, and 3 strains (IMAU80872, IMAU80852, and IMAU80851) expressing the highest ACE-inhibitory activity were selected for further studies. Particularly, the gastrointestinal protease tolerance and thermostability of the ACE-inhibitory activity in the fermented milks were assessed. Based on these 2 criteria, IMAU80872 was found to be superior over the other 2 strains. Furthermore, IMAU80872 exhibited a high in vitro ACE-inhibitory activity at the following fermentation conditions: fermentation temperature at 40°C, inoculation concentration of 1×10(6) cfu/mL, and fermentation for 18h. Finally, by using ultra-performance liquid chromatography coupled with electrospray ionization quadrupole time-of-flight tandem mass spectrometry analysis, we observed changes of the metabolome along the milk fermentation process of IMAU80872. Furthermore, 6 peptides were identified, which might have ACE-inhibitory activity. In conclusion, we identified a novel ACE-inhibitory L. helveticus strain suitable for the production of fermented milk or other functional dairy products. Copyright © 2015 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Recovery of succinic acid produced by fermentation of a metabolically engineered Mannheimia succiniciproducens strain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Hyohak; Huh, Yun Suk; Lee, Sang Yup; Hong, Won Hi; Hong, Yeon Ki

    2007-12-01

    There have recently been much advances in the production of succinic acid, an important four-carbon dicarboxylic acid for many industrial applications, by fermentation of several natural and engineered bacterial strains. Mannheimia succiniciproducens MBEL55E isolated from bovine rumen is able to produce succinic acid with high efficiency, but also produces acetic, formic and lactic acids just like other anaerobic succinic acid producers. We recently reported the development of an engineered M. succiniciproducens LPK7 strain which produces succinic acid as a major fermentation product while producing much reduced by-products. Having an improved succinic acid producer developed, it is equally important to develop a cost-effective downstream process for the recovery of succinic acid. In this paper, we report the development of a simpler and more efficient method for the recovery of succinic acid. For the recovery of succinic acid from the fermentation broth of LPK7 strain, a simple process composed of a single reactive extraction, vacuum distillation, and crystallization yielded highly purified succinic acid (greater than 99.5% purity, wt%) with a high yield of 67.05wt%. When the same recovery process or even multiple reactive extraction steps were applied to the fermentation broth of MBEL55E, lower purity and yield of succinic acid were obtained. These results suggest that succinic acid can be purified in a cost-effective manner by using the fermentation broth of engineered LPK7 strain, showing the importance of integrating the strain development, fermentation and downstream process for optimizing the whole processes for succinic acid production.

  15. Exploring flavour-producing core microbiota in multispecies solid-state fermentation of traditional Chinese vinegar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zong-Min; Lu, Zhen-Ming; Shi, Jin-Song; Xu, Zheng-Hong

    2016-05-31

    Multispecies solid-state fermentation (MSSF), a natural fermentation process driven by reproducible microbiota, is an important technique to produce traditional fermented foods. Flavours, skeleton of fermented foods, was mostly produced by microbiota in food ecosystem. However, the association between microbiota and flavours and flavour-producing core microbiota are still poorly understood. Here, acetic acid fermentation (AAF) of Zhenjiang aromatic vinegar was taken as a typical case of MSSF. The structural and functional dynamics of microbiota during AAF process was determined by metagenomics and favour analyses. The dominant bacteria and fungi were identified as Acetobacter, Lactobacillus, Aspergillus, and Alternaria, respectively. Total 88 flavours including 2 sugars, 9 organic acids, 18 amino acids, and 59 volatile flavours were detected during AAF process. O2PLS-based correlation analysis between microbiota succession and flavours dynamics showed bacteria made more contribution to flavour formation than fungi. Seven genera including Acetobacter, Lactobacillus, Enhydrobacter, Lactococcus, Gluconacetobacer, Bacillus and Staphylococcus were determined as functional core microbiota for production of flavours in Zhenjiang aromatic vinegar, based on their dominance and functionality in microbial community. This study provides a perspective for bridging the gap between the phenotype and genotype of ecological system, and advances our understanding of MSSF mechanisms in Zhenjiang aromatic vinegar.

  16. Production of fermented cheese whey-based beverage using kefir grains as starter culture: evaluation of morphological and microbial variations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magalhães, Karina Teixeira; Pereira, Maria Alcina; Nicolau, Ana; Dragone, Giuliano; Domingues, Lucília; Teixeira, José António; de Almeida Silva, João Batista; Schwan, Rosane Freitas

    2010-11-01

    Whey valorization concerns have led to recent interest on the production of whey beverage simulating kefir. In this study, the structure and microbiota of Brazilian kefir grains and beverages obtained from milk and whole/deproteinised whey was characterized using microscopy and molecular techniques. The aim was to evaluate its stability and possible shift of probiotic bacteria to the beverages. Fluorescence staining in combination with Confocal Laser Scanning Microscopy showed distribution of yeasts in macro-clusters among the grain's matrix essentially composed of polysaccharides (kefiran) and bacteria. Denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis displayed communities included yeast affiliated to Kluyveromyces marxianus, Saccharomyces cerevisiae, Kazachatania unispora, bacteria affiliated to Lactobacillus kefiranofaciens subsp. Kefirgranum, Lactobacillus kefiranofaciens subsp. Kefiranofaciens and an uncultured bacterium also related to the genus Lactobacillus. A steady structure and dominant microbiota, including probiotic bacteria, was detected in the analyzed kefir beverages and grains. This robustness is determinant for future implementation of whey-based kefir beverages.

  17. Chemical-sensory properties and consumer preference of hibiscus beverages produced by improved industrial processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monteiro, Maria João P; Costa, Ana Isabel A; Fliedel, Geneviève; Cissé, Mady; Bechoff, Aurélie; Pallet, Dominique; Tomlins, Keith; Pintado, Maria Manuela E

    2017-06-15

    The need to increase sustainability and add value to traditional foods claiming health benefits led to the introduction of key improvements in the production of hibiscus beverages in Senegal. The physicochemical and sensory properties of three resulting products (an under-vacuum concentrate, a dilute-to-taste syrup and a ready-to-drink infusion) were assessed, vis-à-vis those of conventionally manufactured beverages, and their impact on local consumer preference determined (n=146). New beverages had more intense, redder colour and higher monomeric anthocyanin content, total phenolic content and antioxidant capacity. Moreover, their colour evaluations by trained panellists were mainly linked to colour density and anthocyanin/polyphenol content, while flavour assessments were associated to titratable acidity and sugar-to-acid ratio. Consumer evaluations, in turn, were driven by the beverages' red colour intensity, aroma strength and balance between sweetness and acidity. This explained why they overwhelmingly preferred the under-vacuum concentrate, regardless of their age, gender or frequency of hibiscus beverage consumption. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. The effect of fermentation temperature on the functional dairy product quality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kanurić Katarina G.

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to examine the possibility of fermented dairy beverage production by the application of kombucha cultivated on thyme tea in combination with a probiotic starter and to evaluate the quality of the new functional product. Fermented dairy beverages are produced from milk with 1.6% milk fat at three fermentation temperatures: 37°C, 40ºC and 43ºC.Chemical quality, rheological properties and products of added starter cultures metabolism were determined in the fermented dairy beverages after production and after10 days of storage. Produced fermented dairy beverages have reduced milk fat content and good textural characteristics. Besides the highly valuable milk components, they contain numerous compounds which have pronounced therapeutic properties. These products could be used as functional food in the diet of different populations for health improvement.

  19. Detection of Gluten during the Fermentation Process To Produce Soy Sauce.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Wanying; Watson, Damien; Bakke, Mikio; Panda, Rakhi; Bedford, Binaifer; Kande, Parnavi S; Jackson, Lauren S; Garber, Eric A E

    2017-04-03

    Advances have been made to provide people with celiac disease (CD) access to a diverse diet through an increase in the availability of gluten-free food products and regulations designed to increase label reliability. Despite advances in our knowledge regarding CD and analytical methods to detect gluten, little is known about the effects of fermentation on gluten detection. The enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and lateral flow devices routinely used by analytical laboratories and regulatory agencies to test for the presence of gluten in food were examined for their ability to detect gluten during the fermentation processes leading to the production of soy sauce, as well as in finished products. Similar results were observed irrespective of whether the soy sauce was produced using pilot-plant facilities or according to a homemade protocol. In both cases, gluten was not detected after moromi (brine-based) fermentation, which is the second stage of fermentation. The inability to detect gluten after moromi fermentation was irrespective of whether the assay used a sandwich configuration that required two epitopes or a competitive configuration that required only one epitope. Consistent with these results was the observation that ELISA, lateral flow devices, and Western immunoblot analyses were unable to detect gluten in commercial soy sauce, teriyaki sauce, and Worcestershire sauce. Although reports are lacking on problems associated with the consumption of fermented soy-containing sauces by consumers with CD, additional research is needed to determine whether all immunopathogenic elements in gluten are hydrolyzed during soy sauce production.

  20. Probiotic attributes of indigenous Lactobacillus spp. isolated from traditional fermented foods and beverages of north-western Himalayas using in vitro screening and principal component analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumari, Anila; Angmo, Kunzes; Monika; Bhalla, Tek Chand

    2016-05-01

    The present research was designed to explore indigenous probiotic Lactic acid bacteria from traditional fermented foods and beverages of North-western Himalayas for their probiotic potential. It was achieved through a step-by step approach focused on the technological characterization, evaluation of the probiotic traits and adherence ability. Fifty one LAB isolates from traditional fermented foods and beverages were initially screened for their technological properties and among them twenty isolates were selected. These isolates were further characterized and identified using 16S rRNA gene sequencing as Lactobacillus brevis (7 isolates), Lactobacillus casei (5), Lactobacillus paracasei (2), Lactobacillus buchneri (1), Lactobacillus plantarum (1) and Lactobacillus sp. (3). Identified isolates were evaluated by in vitro methods including survival in gastrointestinal tract, antibiotic susceptibility, antimicrobial activity, cell surface characteristics, exopolysacharride production and haemolytic activity. The results of these experiments were used as input data for Principal Component Analysis; thus, to select the most promising probiotic isolates. Three isolates (L. brevis PLA2, L. paracasei PLA8 and L. brevis PLA16) were found to be most technological relevant and promising probiotic candidates in comparison to commercial probiotic strains. L. brevis PLA2 was selected as best isolate with probiotic potential by in vitro adherence to the human intestinal HT-29 cell line.

  1. Foam adsorption as an ex situ capture step for surfactants produced by fermentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anic, Iva; Nath, Arijit; Franco, Pedro; Wichmann, Rolf

    2017-09-20

    In this report, a method for a simultaneous production and separation of a microbially synthesized rhamnolipid biosurfactant is presented. During the aerobic cultivation of flagella-free Pseudomonas putida EM383 in a 3.1L stirred tank reactor on glucose as a sole carbon source, rhamnolipids are produced and excreted into the fermentation liquid. Here, a strategy for biosurfactant capture from rhamnolipid enriched fermentation foam using hydrophobic-hydrophobic interaction was investigated. Five adsorbents were tested independently for the application of this capture technique and the best performing adsorbent was tested in a fermentation process. Cell-containing foam was allowed to flow out of the fermentor through the off-gas line and an adsorption packed bed. Foam was observed to collapse instantly, while the resultant liquid flow-through, which was largely devoid of the target biosurfactant, eluted towards the outlet channel of the packed bed column and was subsequently pumped back into the fermentor. After 48h of simultaneous fermentation and ex situ adsorption of rhamnolipids from the foam, 90% out of 5.5g of total rhamnolipids produced were found in ethanol eluate of the adsorbent material, indicating the suitability of this material for ex situ rhamnolipid capture from fermentation processes. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. New fermentation processes for producing itaconic acid and citric acid for industrial uses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Itaconic acid is an important industrial chemical that we have produced by fermentation of simple sugars using the yeast Pseudozyma antarctica. Itaconic acid is priced at ~$4 per kg and has an annual market volume of about 15,000 metric tons. Itaconic acid is used in the polymer industry and for m...

  3. Comparative studies of various hyaluronic acids produced by microbial fermentation for potential topical ophthalmic applications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Guillaumie, Fanny; Furrer, Pascal; Felt-Baeyens, Olivia

    2010-01-01

    This work presents a comparative study of various hyaluronic acids (HA) produced by fermentation of either Bacillus subtilis or Streptococcus towards the selection of an optimal molecular weight (MW) HA for the preparation of topical ophthalmic formulations. The influence of HA MW on water binding...

  4. Use of milk-based kombucha inoculum for milk fermentation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kolarov Ljiljana A.

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available In this investigation fermented milk beverages with 0.9% of milk fat were produced using 10 and 15% (v/v of traditional and milk-based kombucha inoculum by application of appropriate technological process. Milk fermentation using two types and concentrations of kombucha inoculum were stopped when the pH reached 4.5. Sigmoidal fermentation profiles were noticed with traditional kombucha inoculums and linear with milk-based kombucha inoculums. Chemical content and physico-chemical characteristics of kombucha fermented milk beverages were typical and yoghurt-like for all obtained products. The best textural and sensory characteristics possesed beverage obtained in fermentation of milk using 10% (v/v of milk-based kombucha inoculum.

  5. Influence of black tea concentrate on kombucha fermentation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Malbaša Radomir V.

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Kombucha is cultivated on substrates prepared with different concentrations of black tea and substrate obtained by diluting a substrate with highest concentration of black tea with cold tap water. Qualify of produced beverages is compared with the beverage obtained in traditional fermentation of 1.5 g/L of black tea, sweetened with 70 g/L of sucrose. Inoculation was performed with 10% (v/v of fermentation liquid from previous process, and the fermentation was carried out at 28°C under aerobic conditions, for ten days. Process of fermentation was monitored by following pH, total acids. D-gluconic acid and caffeine content. Beverages obtained in fermentation with diluted black tea concentrate had similar amounts of investigated metabolites compared with traditional one. Use of diluted black tea concentrate as a substrate needs the shorter time for the substrate preparation, which significantly saves energy.

  6. Screening and kinetics of glutaminase and glutamate decarboxylase producing lactic acid bacteria from fermented Thai foods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sasimar Woraharn

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available L-glutaminase and glutamic acid decarboxylase (GAD catalyzes the hydrolysis of L-glutamine and glutamate, respectively. L-glutaminase widely used in cancer therapy along with a combination of other enzymes and most importantly these enzymes were used in food industries, as a major catalyst of bioconversion. The current investigation was aimed to screen and select L-glutaminase, and GAD producing lactic acid bacteria (LAB. A total of 338 LAB were isolated from fermented meat, fermented fish, fermented soya bean, fermented vegetables and fruits. Among 338 isolates, 22 and 237 LAB has been found to be positive for L-glutaminase and GAD, respectively. We found that 30 days of incubation at 35 ºC and pH 6.0 was the optimum condition for glutaminase activity by G507/1. G254/2 was found to be the best for GAD activity with the optimum condition of pH 6.5, temperature 40 ºC and ten days of incubation. These LAB strains, G507/1 and G254/2, were identified as close relative of Lactobacillus brevis ATCC 14869 and Lactobacillus fermentum NBRC 3956, respectively by 16S rRNA sequencing. Further, improvements in up-stream of the fermentation process with these LAB strains are currently under development.

  7. Risks associated with endotoxins in feed additives produced by fermentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallace, R John; Gropp, Jürgen; Dierick, Noël; Costa, Lucio G; Martelli, Giovanna; Brantom, Paul G; Bampidis, Vasileios; Renshaw, Derek W; Leng, Lubomir

    2016-01-15

    Increasingly, feed additives for livestock, such as amino acids and vitamins, are being produced by Gram-negative bacteria, particularly Escherichia coli. The potential therefore exists for animals, consumers and workers to be exposed to possibly harmful amounts of endotoxin from these products. The aim of this review was to assess the extent of the risk from endotoxins in feed additives and to calculate how such risk can be assessed from the properties of the additive. Livestock are frequently exposed to a relatively high content of endotoxin in the diet: no additional hazard to livestock would be anticipated if the endotoxin concentration of the feed additive falls in the same range as feedstuffs. Consumer exposure will be unaffected by the consumption of food derived from animals receiving endotoxin-containing feed, because the small concentrations of endotoxin absorbed do not accumulate in edible tissues. In contrast, workers processing a dusty additive may be exposed to hazardous amounts of endotoxin even if the endotoxin concentration of the product is low. A calculation method is proposed to compare the potential risk to the worker, based on the dusting potential, the endotoxin concentration and technical guidance of the European Food Safety Authority, with national exposure limits.

  8. Optimization of mechanical properties of Al-metal matrix composite produced by direct fusion of beverage cans

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carrasco, C.; Inzunza, G.; Camurri, C.; Rodríguez, C.; Radovic, L.; Soldera, F.; Suarez, S.

    2014-01-01

    The collection of used beverage cans is limited in countries where they are not fabricated; their low value does not justify the extra charge of exporting them for further processing. To address this increasingly serious problem, here we optimize the properties of an aluminum metal matrix composite (Al-MMC) obtained through direct fusion of beverage cans by using the slag generated in the melting process as reinforcement. This method consists of a modified rheocasting process followed by thixoforming. Our main operational variable is the shear rate applied to a semi-solid bath, subsequent to which a suitable heat treatment (T8) is proposed to improve the mechanical properties. The microstructure, the phases obtained and their effect on composite mechanical properties are analyzed. The composite material produced has, under the best conditions, a yield stress of 175 MPa and a tensile strength of 273 MPa. These results demonstrate that the proposed process does indeed transform the used beverage cans into promising composite materials, e.g., for structural applications

  9. Optimization of mechanical properties of Al-metal matrix composite produced by direct fusion of beverage cans

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carrasco, C., E-mail: ccarrascoc@udec.cl [Department of Materials Engineering, University of Concepción, Edmundo Larenas 270, Concepción (Chile); Inzunza, G.; Camurri, C.; Rodríguez, C. [Department of Materials Engineering, University of Concepción, Edmundo Larenas 270, Concepción (Chile); Radovic, L. [Department of Chemical Engineering, University of Concepción, Edmundo Larenas 129, Concepción (Chile); Department of Energy and Geo-Environmental Engineering, Pennsylvania State University, University Park, PA 16802 (United States); Soldera, F.; Suarez, S. [Department of Materials Science, Saarland University, Campus D3.3, 66123 Saarbrücken (Germany)

    2014-11-03

    The collection of used beverage cans is limited in countries where they are not fabricated; their low value does not justify the extra charge of exporting them for further processing. To address this increasingly serious problem, here we optimize the properties of an aluminum metal matrix composite (Al-MMC) obtained through direct fusion of beverage cans by using the slag generated in the melting process as reinforcement. This method consists of a modified rheocasting process followed by thixoforming. Our main operational variable is the shear rate applied to a semi-solid bath, subsequent to which a suitable heat treatment (T8) is proposed to improve the mechanical properties. The microstructure, the phases obtained and their effect on composite mechanical properties are analyzed. The composite material produced has, under the best conditions, a yield stress of 175 MPa and a tensile strength of 273 MPa. These results demonstrate that the proposed process does indeed transform the used beverage cans into promising composite materials, e.g., for structural applications.

  10. fermentation

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    2012-05-17

    May 17, 2012 ... genes in glycolysis pathway, trehalose and steroid biosynthesis and heat shock proteins (HSP) in .... com) and prepared for microarray construction and analysis. .... a single time point of the late stage of VHG fermentation.

  11. Screening and characterization of lactic acid bacterial strains that produce fermented milk and reduce cholesterol levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guan, Xuefang; Xu, Qingxian; Zheng, Yi; Qian, Lei; Lin, Bin

    To screen for and characterize lactic acid bacteria strains with the ability to produce fermented milk and reduce cholesterol levels. The strains were isolated from traditional fermented milk in China. In vitro and in vivo evaluation of cholesterol-reduction were used to identify and verify strains of interest. Characteristics were analyzed using spectrophotometry and plate counting assays. The isolate HLX37 consistently produced fermented milk with strong cholesterol-reducing properties was identified as Lactobacillus plantarum (accession number: KR105940) and was thus selected for further study. The cholesterol reduction by strain HLX37 was 45.84%. The isolates were acid-tolerant at pH 2.5 and bile-tolerant at 0.5% (w/v) in simulated gastric juice (pH 2.5) for 2h and in simulated intestinal fluid (pH 8.0) for 3h. The auto-aggregation rate increased to 87.74% after 24h, while the co-aggregation with Escherichia coli DH5 was 27.76%. Strain HLX37 was intrinsically resistant to antibiotics such as penicillin, tobramycin, kanamycin, streptomycin, vancomycin and amikacin. Compared with rats in the model hyperlipidemia group, the total cholesterol content in the serum and the liver as well as the atherogenic index of rats in the viable fermented milk group significantly decreased by 23.33%, 32.37% and 40.23%, respectively. Fewer fat vacuoles and other lesions in liver tissue were present in both the inactivated and viable fermented milk groups compared to the model group. These studies indicate that strain HLX37 of L. plantarum demonstrates probiotic potential, potential for use as a candidate for commercial use for promoting health. Copyright © 2017 Sociedade Brasileira de Microbiologia. Published by Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  12. Screening and characterization of lactic acid bacterial strains that produce fermented milk and reduce cholesterol levels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xuefang Guan

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Objective To screen for and characterize lactic acid bacteria strains with the ability to produce fermented milk and reduce cholesterol levels. Methods The strains were isolated from traditional fermented milk in China. In vitro and in vivo evaluation of cholesterol-reduction were used to identify and verify strains of interest. Characteristics were analyzed using spectrophotometry and plate counting assays. Results The isolate HLX37 consistently produced fermented milk with strong cholesterol-reducing properties was identified as Lactobacillus plantarum (accession number: KR105940 and was thus selected for further study. The cholesterol reduction by strain HLX37 was 45.84%. The isolates were acid-tolerant at pH 2.5 and bile-tolerant at 0.5% (w/v in simulated gastric juice (pH 2.5 for 2 h and in simulated intestinal fluid (pH 8.0 for 3 h. The auto-aggregation rate increased to 87.74% after 24 h, while the co-aggregation with Escherichia coli DH5 was 27.76%. Strain HLX37 was intrinsically resistant to antibiotics such as penicillin, tobramycin, kanamycin, streptomycin, vancomycin and amikacin. Compared with rats in the model hyperlipidemia group, the total cholesterol content in the serum and the liver as well as the atherogenic index of rats in the viable fermented milk group significantly decreased by 23.33%, 32.37% and 40.23%, respectively. Fewer fat vacuoles and other lesions in liver tissue were present in both the inactivated and viable fermented milk groups compared to the model group. Conclusion These studies indicate that strain HLX37 of L. plantarum demonstrates probiotic potential, potential for use as a candidate for commercial use for promoting health.

  13. Characterization of bacterial diversity in pulque, a traditional Mexican alcoholic fermented beverage, as determined by 16S rDNA analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Escalante, Adelfo; Rodríguez, María Elena; Martínez, Alfredo; López-Munguía, Agustín; Bolívar, Francisco; Gosset, Guillermo

    2004-06-15

    The bacterial diversity in pulque, a traditional Mexican alcoholic fermented beverage, was studied in 16S rDNA clone libraries from three pulque samples. Sequenced clones identified as Lactobacillus acidophilus, Lactobacillus strain ASF360, L. kefir, L. acetotolerans, L. hilgardii, L. plantarum, Leuconostoc pseudomesenteroides, Microbacterium arborescens, Flavobacterium johnsoniae, Acetobacter pomorium, Gluconobacter oxydans, and Hafnia alvei, were detected for the first time in pulque. Identity of 16S rDNA sequenced clones showed that bacterial diversity present among pulque samples is dominated by Lactobacillus species (80.97%). Seventy-eight clones exhibited less than 95% of relatedness to NCBI database sequences, which may indicate the presence of new species in pulque samples.

  14. Isolation, Fermentation Optimization and Performance Studies of a Novel Biosurfactant Producing Strain Bacillus amyloliquefaciens

    OpenAIRE

    Zhang, W.; Zhang, X.; Cui, H.

    2015-01-01

    In this research, biosurfactant-producing bacteria were isolated from the outlet sludge of a canteen and one promising strain was identified through 16S rDNA sequence as Bacillus amyloliquefaciens. This strain can utilize water-soluble carbon source and the FT-IR analysis indicated the biosurfactant was probably glycolipids. Further factors (fermentation time, temperature, carbon source, nitrogen source, ion concentration) affecting the biosurfactant production were determined. The optimum fe...

  15. Cryopreservation of artificial gut microbiota produced with in vitro fermentation technology

    OpenAIRE

    Bircher, Lea; Schwab, Clarissa; Geirnaert, Annelies; Lacroix, Christophe

    2018-01-01

    Summary Interest in faecal microbiota transplantation (FMT) has increased as therapy for intestinal diseases, but safety issues limit its widespread use. Intestinal fermentation technology (IFT) can produce controlled, diverse and metabolically active ‘artificial’ colonic microbiota as potential alternative to common FMT. However, suitable processing technology to store this artificial microbiota is lacking. In this study, we evaluated the impact of the two cryoprotectives, glycerol (15% v/v)...

  16. [Isolation, identification and characterization of acid-producing strains from psychrotolerant biogas fermentation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wan, Yongqing; Zhang, Wei; Mandlaa; Tian, Ruihua; Wang, Ruigang; Duan, Kaihong

    2015-11-04

    The aim of this study was to screen acid-producing strains from the broth of psychrotolerant biogas fermentation and evaluate the acid-producing character of them. Acid-producing strains were isolated by a medium with methyl red at 4 degrees C in Petri dishes and identified by morphology observation and 16S rRNA sequencing. Moreover, the ability of hydrolysis of starch, fermentation of carbohydrates, liquefaction of gelatin and production of catalase were studied. Two acid-producing strains (FJ-8 and FJ-15) were isolated. The result of the 16S rRNA phylogenetic tree shows that FJ-8 and FJ-15 belong to Pseudomonas sp. and Shewanella sp., respectively. Both FJ-8 and FJ-15 could hydrolyze starch, liquidize gelatin and produce catalase. The optimum temperature for acid-producing of FJ-8 and FJ-15 is 15 degrees C and 20 degrees C, respectively. After 10 days cultivation at 4 degrees C, the concentration of acetic acid was 792 mg/L and 966 mg/L of FJ-8 and FJ-15, respectively. The selected strains, FJ-8 and FJ-15, have the potential to produce acids at low temperature.

  17. Quantitative approach to track lipase producing Pseudomonas sp. S1 in nonsterilized solid state fermentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahoo, R K; Subudhi, E; Kumar, M

    2014-06-01

    Proliferation of the inoculated Pseudomonas sp. S1 is quantitatively evaluated using ERIC-PCR during the production of lipase in nonsterile solid state fermentation an approach to reduce the cost of enzyme production. Under nonsterile solid state fermentation with olive oil cake, Pseudomonas sp. S1 produced 57·9 IU g(-1) of lipase. DNA fingerprints of unknown bacterial isolates obtained on Bushnell Haas agar (BHA) + tributyrin exactly matched with that of Pseudomonas sp. S1. Using PCR-based enumeration, population of Pseudomonas sp. S1 was proliferated from 7·6 × 10(4) CFU g(-1) after 24 h to 4·6 × 10(8) CFU g(-1) after 96 h, which tallied with the maximum lipase activity as compared to control. Under submerged fermentation (SmF), Pseudomonas sp. S1 produced maximum lipase (49 IU ml(-1) ) using olive oil as substrate, while lipase production was 9·754 IU ml(-1) when Pseudomonas sp. S1 was grown on tributyrin. Optimum pH and temperature of the crude lipase was 7·0 and 50°C. Crude enzyme activity was 71·2% stable at 50°C for 360 min. Pseudomonas sp. S1 lipase was also stable in methanol showing 91·6% activity in the presence of 15% methanol, whereas 75·5 and 51·1% of activity were retained in the presence of 20 and 30% methanol, respectively. Thus, lipase produced by Pseudomonas sp. S1 is suitable for the production of biodiesel as well as treatment of oily waste water. This study presents the first report on the production of thermophilic organic solvent tolerant lipase using agro-industry waste in nonsterile solid state fermentation. Positive correlation between survival of Pseudomonas sp. S1 and lipase production under nonsterile solid state fermentation was established, which may emphasize the need to combine molecular tools and solid state fermentation in future studies. Our study brings new insights into the lipase production in cost-effective manner, which is an industrially relevant approach. © 2014 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  18. Aroma characteristics of Moutai-flavour liquor produced with Bacillus licheniformis by solid-state fermentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, R; Wu, Q; Xu, Y

    2013-07-01

    The potential of Bacillus licheniformis as a starter culture for aroma concentration improvement in the fermentation of Chinese Moutai-flavour liquor was elucidated. The volatile compounds produced by B. licheniformis were identified by GC-MS, in which C4 compounds, pyrazines, volatile acids, aromatic and phenolic compounds were the main ingredients. The strains B. licheniformis (MT-6 and MT-15) produced more volatile compound concentrations, mainly C4 compounds, than the type strain of B. licheniformis (ATCC 14580) at the fermentation temperature of 55°C. Meanwhile, more volatile compound concentrations were produced by B. licheniformis in solid-state fermentation than in submerged state fermentation. Thus, the strains MT-6 and MT-15 were used as the Bacillus starter culture for investigating Moutai-flavour liquor production. The distilled liquor inoculated with Bacillus starter culture was significantly different from the liquor without inoculum. This was particularly evident in the fore-run part of the distilled sample which was inoculated with Bacillus starter culture, where volatile compounds greatly increased compared to the control. Furthermore, the distilled liquor with Bacillus starter culture showed improved results in sensory appraisals. These results indicated that B. licheniformis was one of the main species influencing the aroma characteristics of Moutai-flavour liquor. This is the first report of an investigation into the effect of Bacillus starter cultures on the flavour features of Moutai-flavour liquor, which verified that Bacillus licheniformis can enhance aroma concentration in Moutai-flavour liquor. Bacillus starter culture brought C4 compounds, pyrazines, volatile acids, aromatic and phenolic compounds to the liquor, which gave a better result in sensory appraisals. © 2013 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  19. Optimisation of continuous gas fermentation by immobilisation of acetate-producing Acetobacterium woodii.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steger, Franziska; Rachbauer, Lydia; Windhagauer, Matthias; Montgomery, Lucy F R; Bochmann, Günther

    2017-08-01

    Hydrogen from water electrolysis is often suggested as a way of storing the excess energy from wind and solar power plants. However, unlike natural gas, hydrogen is difficult to store and distribute. One solution is to convert the hydrogen into other fuels or bulk chemicals. In this study we investigated fermentation in which homoacetogenic clostridia apply the Wood-Ljungdahl pathway to generate acetate from H 2 and CO 2 . Acetate can be used as a bulk chemical or further transformed into biofuels. Autotrophic growth with CO 2 as the sole carbon source is slow compared to heterotrophic growth, so the aim of this work was to improve continuous gas fermentation by immobilising the acetate-producing clostridia, thus preventing their wash out from the bioreactor. Two homoacetogenic bacterial strains (Acetobacterium woodii and Moorella thermoacetica) were tested for their acetate production potential, with A. woodii proving to be the better strain with maximum acetate concentration of 29.57 g l -1 . Due to its stability during fermentation and good bacterial immobilisation, linen was chosen as immobilisation material for continuous fermentation. This study demonstrates the successful continuous fermentation of acetate from H 2 and CO 2 using A. woodii immobilised on a low-cost surface at high volumetric productivity of 1.21 ± 0.05 g acetate l -1 d -1 . This has great industrial potential and future studies should focus on the scale-up of this process. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Whey based beverages - new generation of dairy products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irena Jeličić

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available Whey is a by product in the process of cheese production. Composition and characteristics of whey are depending on the production technology, the end product and the quality of used milk. Liquid whey consists of approximately 93% water and contains almost 50% of total solids present in the milk of which lactose is main constituent. Lactose is the main constituent of whey while proteins represent less than 1% of total solids. Minerals and vitamins are present in fewer amounts also. Production of whey based beverages started in 1970's and until today a wide range of different whey based beverages has been developed. They can be produced from native sweet or acid whey, from deproteinised whey, from native whey which was diluted with water, from whey powder or by whey fermentation. Non alcoholic whey beverages include wide range of products obtained by mixing native sweet, diluted or acid whey with different additives like tropical fruits (but also other fruits like apples, pears, strawberries or cranberries, crops and their products (mainly bran, isolates of vegetable proteins, CO2, chocolate, cocoa, vanilla extracts and other aromatizing agents. Special attention is being paid to production of fermented whey beverages with probiotic bacteria where the most important step is the choice of suitable culture of bacteria in order to produce functional beverage with high nutritional value and acceptable sensory characteristics. Non alcoholic whey beverages also include dietetic beverages, drinks with hydrolyzed lactose, milk like drinks and powder drinks. Whey is a very good raw material for production of alcoholic beverages due to the fact that the main constituent of the solid content is lactose (about 70%. Alcoholic whey beverages include drinks with small amount of alcohol (up to 1,5%, whey beer and whey wine. Whey beverages are suitable for wide range of consumers – from children to the elderly ones. They have very high nutritional value and good

  1. Iodine stability and sensory quality of fermented fish and fish sauce produced with the use of iodated salt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chanthilath, Boualapha; Chavasit, Visith; Chareonkiatkul, Somsri; Judprasong, Kunchit

    2009-06-01

    Universal salt iodization promotes the use of iodated salt for producing industrial food products, although it might affect product quality and iodine stability. To assess iodine loss during fermentation of fermented fish and fish sauces produced by using iodated salt and the effect on product sensory quality. Fermented fish and fish sauces were produced with iodated rock and grain sea salts (approximately 30 ppm iodine). Fermented fish was prepared from freshwater fish mixed with salt and rice bran and fermented for 6 months at room temperature. Fish sauces were prepared by mixing anchovy with salt and fermenting either exposed to sunlight or in the shade for 12 months. Residual iodine was determined with a spectrophotometer at day 0 and months 1, 3, and 6 for fermented fish and day 0 and months 3, 6, and 12 for fish sauces. After fermentation, the products were tested for sensory acceptability by Laotian and Thai panelists (approximately 50 in each panel) after they were cooked and served in the traditional manner. After fermentation, the level of residual iodine was 7.61 ppm (16% loss) infermented fish, 5.57 ppm (55% loss) in fish sauce prepared with exposure to sunlight, and 9.52 ppm (13% loss) in fish sauce prepared in the shade. Sensory qualities of the products that were produced from fortified and unfortified salts as well as dishes prepared from these products were not significantly different (p > 0.05). It is feasible to produce fermented fish and fish sauces with iodated salt and maintain acceptable iodine levels.

  2. Glutaminase-producing Meyerozyma (Pichia) guilliermondii isolated from Thai soy sauce fermentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aryuman, Phichayaphorn; Lertsiri, Sittiwat; Visessanguan, Wonnop; Niamsiri, Nuttawee; Bhumiratana, Amaret; Assavanig, Apinya

    2015-01-02

    In this study, 34 yeast isolates were obtained from koji and moromi samples of Thai soy sauce fermentation. However, the most interesting yeast strain was isolated from the enriched 2 month-old (M2) moromi sample and identified as Meyerozyma (Pichia) guilliermondii EM2Y61. This strain is a salt-tolerant yeast that could tolerate up to 20% (w/v) NaCl and produce extracellular and cell-bound glutaminases. Interestingly, its glutaminases were more active in 18% (w/v) NaCl which is a salt concentration in moromi. The extracellular glutaminase's activity was found to be much higher than that of cell-bound glutaminase. The highest specific activity and stability of the extracellular glutaminase were found in 18% (w/v) NaCl at pH4.5 and 37°C. A challenge test by adding partially-purified extracellular glutaminase from M. guilliermondii EM2Y61 into 1 month-old (M1) moromi sample showed an increased conversion of L-glutamine to L-glutamic acid. This is the first report of glutaminase producing M. guilliermondii isolated from the moromi of Thai soy sauce fermentation. The results suggested the potential application of M. guilliermondii EM2Y61 as starter yeast culture to increase l-glutamic acid during soy sauce fermentation. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Draft Genome Sequence of Leuconostoc mesenteroides P45 Isolated from Pulque, a Traditional Mexican Alcoholic Fermented Beverage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riveros-Mckay, Fernando; Campos, Itzia; Giles-Gómez, Martha; Bolívar, Francisco; Escalante, Adelfo

    2014-11-06

    Leuconostoc mesenteroides P45 was isolated from the traditional Mexican pulque beverage. We report its draft genome sequence, assembled in 6 contigs consisting of 1,874,188 bp and no plasmids. Genome annotation predicted a total of 1,800 genes, 1,687 coding sequences, 52 pseudogenes, 9 rRNAs, 51 tRNAs, 1 noncoding RNA, and 44 frameshifted genes. Copyright © 2014 Riveros-Mckay et al.

  4. Co-cultivation of non-conventional yeast with Saccharomyces cerevisiae to increase the aroma complexity of fermented beverages

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rijswijck, van Irma M.H.

    2017-01-01

    Yeast are used as workhorses to convert hopped wort into beer. Conventionally, such yeasts belong to the genus Saccharomyces and most research on fermentation of wort for the production of beer has focussed on the species Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Saccharomyces

  5. Cryopreservation of artificial gut microbiota produced with in vitro fermentation technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bircher, Lea; Schwab, Clarissa; Geirnaert, Annelies; Lacroix, Christophe

    2018-01-01

    Interest in faecal microbiota transplantation (FMT) has increased as therapy for intestinal diseases, but safety issues limit its widespread use. Intestinal fermentation technology (IFT) can produce controlled, diverse and metabolically active 'artificial' colonic microbiota as potential alternative to common FMT. However, suitable processing technology to store this artificial microbiota is lacking. In this study, we evaluated the impact of the two cryoprotectives, glycerol (15% v/v) and inulin (5% w/v) alone and in combination, in preserving short-chain fatty acid formation and recovery of major butyrate-producing bacteria in three artificial microbiota during cryopreservation for 3 months at -80°C. After 24 h anaerobic fermentation of the preserved microbiota, butyrate and propionate production were maintained when glycerol was used as cryoprotectant, while acetate and butyrate were formed more rapidly with glycerol in combination with inulin. Glycerol supported cryopreservation of the Roseburia spp./Eubacterium rectale group, while inulin improved the recovery of Faecalibacterium prausnitzii. Eubacterium hallii growth was affected minimally by cryopreservation. Our data indicate that butyrate producers, which are key organisms for gut health, can be well preserved with glycerol and inulin during frozen storage. This is of high importance if artificially produced colonic microbiota is considered for therapeutic purposes. © 2017 The Authors. Microbial Biotechnology published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd and Society for Applied Microbiology.

  6. Comparison of methods for glycogen analysis of in vitro fermentation pellets produced with strained ruminal inoculum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, Mary Beth; Hatfield, Ronald D

    2015-11-01

    Microbial glycogen measurement is used to account for fates of carbohydrate substrates. It is commonly applied to washed cells or pure cultures which can be accurately subsampled, allowing the use of smaller sample sizes. However, the nonhomogeneous fermentation pellets produced with strained rumen inoculum cannot be accurately subsampled, requiring analysis of the entire pellet. In this study, two microbial glycogen methods were compared for analysis of such fermentation pellets: boiling samples for 3h in 30% KOH (KOH) or for 15min in 0.2M NaOH (NaOH), followed by enzymatic hydrolysis with α-amylase and amyloglucosidase, and detection of released glucose. Total α-glucan was calculated as glucose×0.9. KOH and NaOH did not differ in the α-glucan detected in fermentation pellets (29.9 and 29.6mg, respectively; P=0.61). Recovery of different control α-glucans was also tested using KOH, NaOH, and a method employing 45min of bead beating (BB). For purified beef liver glycogen (water-soluble) recovery, BB (95.0%)>KOH (91.4%)>NaOH (87.4%; PBB (93.8%)>KOH (91.0%; Pglycogen (water-insoluble granules) did not differ among KOH (87.0%), NaOH (87.6%), and BB (86.0%; P=0.81), but recoveries for all were below 90%. Differences among substrates in the need for gelatinization and susceptibility to destruction by alkali likely affected the results. In conclusion, KOH and NaOH glycogen methods provided comparable determinations of fermentation pellet α-glucan. The tests on purified α-glucans indicated that assessment of recovery in glycogen methods can differ by the control α-glucan selected. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  7. Flexible biorefinery for producing fermentation sugars, lignin and pulp from corn stover.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kadam, Kiran L; Chin, Chim Y; Brown, Lawrence W

    2008-05-01

    A new biorefining process is presented that embodies green processing and sustainable development. In the spirit of a true biorefinery, the objective is to convert agricultural residues and other biomass feedstocks into value-added products such as fuel ethanol, dissolving pulp, and lignin for resin production. The continuous biomass fractionation process yields a liquid stream rich in hemicellulosic sugars, a lignin-rich liquid stream, and a solid cellulose stream. This paper generally discusses potential applications of the three streams and specifically provides results on the evaluation of the cellulose stream from corn stover as a source of fermentation sugars and specialty pulp. Enzymatic hydrolysis of this relatively pure cellulose stream requires significantly lower enzyme loadings because of minimal enzyme deactivation from nonspecific binding to lignin. A correlation was shown to exist between lignin removal efficiency and enzymatic digestibility. The cellulose produced was also demonstrated to be a suitable replacement for hardwood pulp, especially in the top ply of a linerboard. Also, the relatively pure nature of the cellulose renders it suitable as raw material for making dissolving pulp. This pulping approach has significantly smaller environmental footprint compared to the industry-standard kraft process because no sulfur- or chlorine-containing compounds are used. Although this option needs some minimal post-processing, it produces a higher value commodity than ethanol and, unlike ethanol, does not need extensive processing such as hydrolysis or fermentation. Potential use of low-molecular weight lignin as a raw material for wood adhesive production is discussed as well as its use as cement and feed binder. As a baseline application the hemicellulosic sugars captured in the hydrolyzate liquor can be used to produce ethanol, but potential utilization of xylose for xylitol fermentation is also feasible. Markets and values of these applications are

  8. Identification and safety evaluation of Bacillus species occurring in high numbers during spontaneous fermentations to produce Gergoush, a traditional Sudanese bread snack

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thorsen, Line; Abdelgadir, Warda S.; Rønsbo, Mie Hvillum

    2011-01-01

    Gergoush is a naturally fermented Sudanese Bread snack produced in three fermentation steps (primary starter, adapted starter and final dough), followed by three baking steps for a half to one hour at above 200°C. This study examines the microbiota of two sets of fermentations performed at a trad......Gergoush is a naturally fermented Sudanese Bread snack produced in three fermentation steps (primary starter, adapted starter and final dough), followed by three baking steps for a half to one hour at above 200°C. This study examines the microbiota of two sets of fermentations performed...

  9. Separation, hydrolysis and fermentation of pyrolytic sugars to produce ethanol and lipids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lian, Jieni; Chen, Shulin; Zhou, Shuai; Wang, Zhouhong; O'Fallon, James; Li, Chun-Zhu; Garcia-Perez, Manuel

    2010-12-01

    This paper describes a new scheme to convert anhydrosugars found in pyrolysis oils into ethanol and lipids. Pyrolytic sugars were separated from phenols by solvent extraction and were hydrolyzed into glucose using sulfuric acid as a catalyst. Toxicological studies showed that phenols and acids were the main species inhibiting growth of the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. The sulfuric acids, and carboxylic acids from the bio-oils, were neutralized with Ba(OH)(2). The phase rich in sugar was further detoxified with activated carbon. The resulting aqueous phase rich in glucose was fermented with three different yeasts: S. cerevisiae to produce ethanol, and Cryptococcus curvatus and Rhodotorula glutinis to produce lipids. Yields as high as 0.473 g ethanol/g glucose and 0.167 g lipids/g sugar (0.266 g ethanol equivalent/g sugar), were obtained. These results confirm that pyrolytic sugar fermentation to produce ethanol is more efficient than for lipid production. Copyright (c) 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Development of a Solid-State Fermentation System for Producing Bioethanol from Food Waste

    Science.gov (United States)

    Honda, Hiroaki; Ohnishi, Akihiro; Fujimoto, Naoshi; Suzuki, Masaharu

    Liquid fermentation is the a conventional method of producing bioethanol. However, this method results in the formation of high concentrations waste after distillation and futher treatment requires more energy and is costly(large amounts of costly energy).Saccharification of dried raw garbage was tested for 12 types of Koji starters under the following optimum culture conditions: temperature of 30°C and initial moisture content of 50%.Among all the types, Aspergillus oryzae KBN650 had the highest saccharifying power. The ethanol-producing ability of the raw garbage was investigated for 72 strains of yeast, of which Saccharomyces cerevisiae A30 had the highest ethanol production(yield)under the following optimum conditions: 1 :1 ratio of dried garbage and saccharified garbage by weight, and initial moisture content of 60%. Thus, the solid-state fermentation system consisted of the following 4 processes: moisture control, saccharification, ethanol production and distillation. This system produced 0.6kg of ethanol from 9.6kg of garbage. Moreover the ethanol yield from all sugars was calculated to be 0.37.

  11. Production of Fermented Kale Juices with Lactobacillus Strains and Nutritional Composition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Seong Yeong

    2017-01-01

    Fermented kale juices using four types of lactobacilli were produced in the present study. After 48 h of fermentation time, viable cell counts of all ferments reached an above 109 CFU/mL. The viability of the ferments after cold storage in the refrigerator for 4 weeks showed 108 CFU/mL in all ferments. Among four types of fermented kale juices, the ferment of Lactobacillus acidophilus IFO 3025 indicated a good nutritional composition, including neutral sugar (1,909.76 μg/mL), reducing sugar (564.00 μg/mL, Pkale juices may be suggested as a healthy fermented beverage with essential nutrients. However, the acceptability of the fermented kale juice to the Korean taste should be further investigated with a trained taste panel to determine whether inoculated fermentation could be an option for the consumers. PMID:29043222

  12. Co-cultivation of non-conventional yeast with Saccharomyces cerevisiae to increase the aroma complexity of fermented beverages

    OpenAIRE

    Rijswijck, van, Irma M.H.

    2017-01-01

    Yeast are used as workhorses to convert hopped wort into beer. Conventionally, such yeasts belong to the genus Saccharomyces and most research on fermentation of wort for the production of beer has focussed on the species Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Saccharomyces pastorianus. Recently, there is an increasing interest in unravelling features of non-conventional yeast species for beer innovation. In this thesis, features of yeast isolates belonging to the species: Cyberlindnera fabianii, Pichi...

  13. Two Novel Strains of Torulaspora delbrueckii Isolated from the Honey Bee Microbiome and Their Use in Honey Fermentation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joseph P. Barry

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Yeasts are ubiquitous microbes found in virtually all environments. Many yeast species can ferment sugar into ethanol and CO2, and humans have taken advantage of these characteristics to produce fermented beverages for thousands of years. As a naturally abundant source of fermentable sugar, honey has had a central role in such fermentations since Neolithic times. However, as beverage fermentation has become industrialized, the processes have been streamlined, including the narrow and almost exclusive usage of yeasts in the genus Saccharomyces for fermentation. We set out to identify wild honey- or honey-bee-related yeasts that can be used in honey fermentation. Here, we isolated two strains of Torulaspora delbrueckii from the gut of a locally collected honey bee. Both strains were able to ferment honey sugar into mead but failed to metabolize more than a modest amount of wort sugar in trial beer fermentations. Further, the meads fermented by the T. delbrueckii strains displayed better sensory characteristics than mead fermented by a champagne yeast. The combination of T. delbrueckii and champagne yeast strains was also able to rapidly ferment honey at an industrial scale. Thus, wild yeasts represent a largely untapped reservoir for the introduction of desirable sensory characteristics in fermented beverages such as mead.

  14. Sensory evaluation and consumer acceptability of a beverage made from malted and fermented cereal: case of gowe from Benin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adinsi, Laurent; Akissoé, Noël H; Dalodé-Vieira, Générose; Anihouvi, Victor B; Fliedel, Geneviève; Mestres, Christian; Hounhouigan, Joseph D

    2015-01-01

    Sensory profile of gowe beverage was established with 10 gowe samples by 22 semitrained panelists. Besides, consumer study was performed on four representative gowe samples with 141 African ordinary consumers using a modified quantitative descriptive analysis. Gowe samples significantly differed (P  0.05). The principal component analysis plot revealed the effects of raw material and process: Sorghum gowe was differently scored from maize gowe samples (P consumer testing, three distinct patterns of consumer acceptability were observed, which were grouped as "Sugary gowe likers" (63.1% of consumers) followed by "Sugary and saccharified sorghum gowe likers" (20.6%) and "Pure maize gowe dislikers" (16.3%). Irrespective of the consumers cluster, saccharified malted sorghum gowe without sugar was the unique sample scored more than 6 over 9.

  15. Process for producing fuel grade ethanol by continuous fermentation, solvent extraction and alcohol separation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tedder, Daniel W.

    1985-05-14

    Alcohol substantially free of water is prepared by continuously fermenting a fermentable biomass feedstock in a fermentation unit, thereby forming an aqueous fermentation liquor containing alcohol and microorganisms. Continuously extracting a portion of alcohol from said fermentation liquor with an organic solvent system containing an extractant for said alcohol, thereby forming an alcohol-organic solvent extract phase and an aqueous raffinate. Said alcohol is separated from said alcohol-organic solvent phase. A raffinate comprising microorganisms and unextracted alcohol is returned to the fermentation unit.

  16. NEW STRAINS PRODUCER OF BIOBUTANOL. ІІ. RENEWABLE LIGNOCELLULOSE FERMENTATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tigunova O. O.

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of our work was to study generic and specific affinity of domestic strainsproducers, comparative productivity butanol strains-producers screening, fermentation of sugars being a part of renewable lignocelluloses raw materials and to determine the conditions for the butanol yield increasing. The objects of research were strains Clostridium acetobutylicum ІМВ В-7407 (IFBG C6H, IFBG C4B and IFBG C7P from «Collection microorganism’s stains and plants line for food and agriculture biotechnology» of Institute of Food Biotechnology and Genomics of the National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine. It was determined that domestic butanol-producing strains were relatively more productive and might be promising for improvement technology of butanol production.

  17. Arohynapenes A and B, new anticoccidial agents produced by Penicillium sp. Taxonomy, fermentation, and structure elucidation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masuma, R; Tabata, N; Tomoda, H; Haneda, K; Iwai, Y; Omura, S

    1994-01-01

    Penicillium sp. FO-2295, a water isolate, was found to produce a series of new anticoccidial compounds. Two active compounds, designated arohynapenes A and B, were isolated from the fermentation broth of the producing strain by solvent extration and preparative HPLC. Arohynapene A was deduced to be (2E,4E)-5-(5-hydroxy-2,6,8-trimethyl-5,6,7,8-tetrahydronaphtale ne)-2,4- pentadienoic acid, and arohynapene B was (2E,4E)-5-(2-hydroxymethyl-6,8-dimethyl-5,6,7,8-tetrahydronapht alene)-2,4- pentadienoic acid. Arohynapenes inhibited the growth of Eimeria tenella in an in vitro assay using BHK-21 cells as a host. No schizont in the cells was observed at concentrations ranging above 35.0 microM and 7.0 microM for arohynapenes A and B, respectively.

  18. Thermotolerant yeasts capable of producing bioethanol: isolation from natural fermented sources, identification and characterization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Azam Talukder

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Recently, the demands of biofuels have increased, because of their significant role in reducing various pollutants created by fossil fuels. Here, we have collected 25 samples containing various thermotolerant microorganisms from the nine natural fermented sources of Bangladesh, such as Boiled potato (Bp, Decomposed foods (Df, Municipal liquid waste (Mlw, Municipal solid waste (Msw, Sugarcane juice (Sc, Pantavat (Pv, Sugar molasses (Sm, Tari (Tari and Watermelon juice (Wm for bioethanol production. Among them, 18 isolates are capable of producing bioethanol. Cultural, morphological, physiological, biochemical and genetic analyses were carried out under various physiological conditions. Ethanol fermentation was checked by different carbon sources, temperatures and pH. All of the isolates could grow well in the medium containing Dextrose and Arabinose and only two strains Pv-1 and Bp-2 could ferment Xylose as a sole carbon source. At 42 °C, the highest ethanol concentration 6.58% (v/v was obtained by a strain Wm-1 isolated from Watermelon juice. At 37 °C, maximal ethanol concentrations of 6.74% (v/v, 6.50% (v/v and 6.22% (v/v were obtained by the strains Bp-2, Wm-l and Pv-1, respectively. Among the various pH tested, the highest ethanol concentration 6.6% (v/v was obtained at pH 4.5 by a strain named Tari-2. Finally, yeast 26S rDNA sequencing information identified the strains Sc-2 as Saccharomyces cerevisiae Pv-2, Tari-2 and Df-1 as Pichia kudriavzevii, Mlw-l and Bp-2 as Candida tropicalis, Pv-1 as Pichia guilliermondii and Df-2 as Candida rugosa.

  19. Indigenous and inoculated yeast fermentation of gabiroba (Campomanesia pubescens) pulp for fruit wine production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duarte, Whasley Ferreira; Dias, Disney Ribeiro; de Melo Pereira, Gilberto Vinicius; Gervásio, Ivani Maria; Schwan, Rosane Freitas

    2009-04-01

    The objectives of this study were to evaluate the potential of gabiroba Campomanesia pubescens (DC) O. Berg in the production of a beverage fermented using selected and wild yeasts from indigenous fermentation, analyze the volatile compounds profile present during the process of fermentation, and evaluate the sensory quality of the final beverage produced. Throughout the process of fermentation, when Saccharomyces cerevisiae UFLA CA 1162 was inoculated, there were stable viable populations around 9 log cells ml(-1). During indigenous fermentation, yeast population increased from 3.7 log CFU ml(-1) to 8.1 log CFU ml(-1) after 14 days. The diversity and dynamics of the yeast population during indigenous fermentation observed by PFGE analysis showed five different karyotyping profiles in the first days of fermentation. After the seventh day, there was a higher frequency of a similar S. cerevisiae profile. The yeast non-Saccharomyces were identified by sequencing of the ITS region as Candida quercitrusa and Issatchenkia terricola. Inoculated fermentations yielded a higher amount of alcohol than indigenous ones, indicating the efficiency of selected strains. There was also a greater concentration of higher alcohols, which are usually responsible for the flavor found in alcoholic beverages. Based on the characteristics of the pulp and acceptance in the sensory analysis, gabiroba fruits showed good potential for use in the production of fermented beverage.

  20. Geographical markers for Saccharomyces cerevisiae strains with similar technological origins domesticated for rice-based ethnic fermented beverages production in North East India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeyaram, Kumaraswamy; Tamang, Jyoti Prakash; Capece, Angela; Romano, Patrizia

    2011-11-01

    Autochthonous strains of Saccharomyces cerevisiae from traditional starters used for the production of rice-based ethnic fermented beverage in North East India were examined for their genetic polymorphism using mitochondrial DNA-RFLP and electrophoretic karyotyping. Mitochondrial DNA-RFLP analysis of S. cerevisiae strains with similar technological origins from hamei starter of Manipur and marcha starter of Sikkim revealed widely separated clusters based on their geographical origin. Electrophoretic karyotyping showed high polymorphism amongst the hamei strains within similar mitochondrial DNA-RFLP cluster and one unique karyotype of marcha strain was widely distributed in the Sikkim-Himalayan region. We conceptualized the possibility of separate domestication events for hamei strains in Manipur (located in the Indo-Burma biodiversity hotspot) and marcha strains in Sikkim (located in Himalayan biodiversity hotspot), as a consequence of less homogeneity in the genomic structure between these two groups, their clear separation being based on geographical origin, but not on technological origin and low strain level diversity within each group. The molecular markers developed based on HinfI-mtDNA-RFLP profile and the chromosomal doublets in chromosome VIII position of Sikkim-Himalayan strains could be effectively used as geographical markers for authenticating the above starter strains and differentiating them from other commercial strains.

  1. Isolation and Fermentation of Lactobacillus plantarum JR64 as an Omega 6 Probiotic Producer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lanjar Sumarno

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Application of lactic acid probiotic bacteria in health food diversification currently is progressing rapidly.  It is encouraged the study of searching the potential strains from local resources (Ponorogo Residence namely noni fruits (badeg pace and noni wine.  Aims of this study were to perform the isolation, identification, and production of  probiotic Lactobacillus sp. JR64 fermentation process as a producer of Omega-6 (ω-6 lowering cholesterol and design of probiotic creamy product.   Beginning stages of research was strains isolating and in-vitro testing, the best result were used in  molecular  identification technology development for the production of metabolites through the manipulation of environmental variation  of glucose 20 g / l, 30 g / l and 40 g / l that influenced the substrate concentration of linoleic acid productivity. The result of new isolates isolation showed that isolates that obtained from noni wine, Lactobacillus plantarum JR64, was potential as probiotic condidate.   The effieciency of fermentation  substrates using  Yx/s and Yp /s  in the exponential phase was the highest value for the fermentation of 24 hours of  Yx/ s; 17.03% and Y p/s; 74.72%, while the results of design and the best formulation for viability cells of lactobacillus  plantarum probiotics JR64 was composed of 15 g and 50g butter 15 g icing sugar as well as during storage of the refrigerant temperature was 8.92 x 108 CFU / ml.  [Key Words : Omega-6,  Lactobacillus plantarum JR64, fermentation

  2. An original method for producing acetaldehyde and diacetyl by yeast fermentation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irina Rosca

    Full Text Available Abstract In this study a natural culture medium that mimics the synthetic yeast peptone glucose medium used for yeast fermentations was designed to screen and select yeasts capable of producing high levels of diacetyl and acetaldehyde. The presence of whey powder and sodium citrate in the medium along with manganese and magnesium sulfate enhanced both biomass and aroma development. A total of 52 yeasts strains were cultivated in two different culture media, namely, yeast peptone glucose medium and yeast acetaldehyde-diacetyl medium. The initial screening of the strains was based on the qualitative reaction of the acetaldehyde with Schiff's reagent (violet color and diacetyl with Brady's reagent (yellow precipitate. The fermented culture media of 10 yeast strains were subsequently analyzed by gas chromatography to quantify the concentration of acetaldehyde and diacetyl synthesized. Total titratable acidity values indicated that a total titratable acidity of 5.5 °SH, implying culture medium at basic pH, was more favorable for the acetaldehyde biosynthesis using strain D15 (Candida lipolytica; 96.05 mg L-1 acetaldehyde while a total titratable acidity value of 7 °SH facilitated diacetyl flavor synthesis by strain D38 (Candida globosa; 3.58 mg L-1 diacetyl. Importantly, the results presented here suggest that this can be potentially used in the baking industry.

  3. Nutritional and fermentation parameters of Xaraés grass silage produced with bacterial additive

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erickson Tiago Pinheiro da Silva

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The use of bacterial additives in forage silages with low content of dry matter prevents undesirable fermentation and reduces losses by gases (PG and effluents (PE during the ensiling process. This study aimed to evaluate the fermentation parameters, chemical composition and in vitro digestibility of silage of Urochloa brizantha cv. Xaraés produced with bacterial additive. The inoculant contained the following strains: Propionibacterium acidipropionici + Lactobacillus plantarum; Lactobacillus buchnari; Propionibacterium acipropionici + commercial enzymes and Lactobacillus plantarum and Pediococcus pentosaccus, at 0, 25, 50, 75, 100, and 125% of the recommended level for sugarcane (2 g ton-1. The experiment was a completely randomized design with four replications, and six levels of inoculant (0, 25, 50, 75, 100, and 125%. There was a quadratic relationship between the inoculant addition and the levels of pH, PE, DMIVD, NDF, ADF and LIG of the silage. PG and MM increased linearly with the addition of inoculant. The N-NH3, DM, CP, CEL, HEM and EE were not affected by the inoculant. Bacterial additive at 50% provided increased DMIVD. Appropriate values were found for pH and NH3.

  4. Phenotypic characterisation of Saccharomyces spp. yeast for tolerance to stresses encountered during fermentation of lignocellulosic residues to produce bioethanol

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Background During industrial fermentation of lignocellulose residues to produce bioethanol, microorganisms are exposed to a number of factors that influence productivity. These include inhibitory compounds produced by the pre-treatment processes required to release constituent carbohydrates from biomass feed-stocks and during fermentation, exposure of the organisms to stressful conditions. In addition, for lignocellulosic bioethanol production, conversion of both pentose and hexose sugars is a pre-requisite for fermentative organisms for efficient and complete conversion. All these factors are important to maximise industrial efficiency, productivity and profit margins in order to make second-generation bioethanol an economically viable alternative to fossil fuels for future transport needs. Results The aim of the current study was to assess Saccharomyces yeasts for their capacity to tolerate osmotic, temperature and ethanol stresses and inhibitors that might typically be released during steam explosion of wheat straw. Phenotypic microarray analysis was used to measure tolerance as a function of growth and metabolic activity. Saccharomyces strains analysed in this study displayed natural variation to each stress condition common in bioethanol fermentations. In addition, many strains displayed tolerance to more than one stress, such as inhibitor tolerance combined with fermentation stresses. Conclusions Our results suggest that this study could identify a potential candidate strain or strains for efficient second generation bioethanol production. Knowledge of the Saccharomyces spp. strains grown in these conditions will aid the development of breeding programmes in order to generate more efficient strains for industrial fermentations. PMID:24670111

  5. Direct fermentation of sweet sorghum juice by Clostridium acetobutylicum and Clostridium tetanomorphum to produce bio-butanol and organic acids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Ndaba

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Single- and co-culture clostridial fermentation was conducted to obtain organic alcohols and acids from sweet sorghum juice as a low cost feedstock. Different inoculum concentrations of single cultures (3, 5, 10 v/v % as well as different ratios of C. acetobutylicum to C. tetanomorphum (3:10, 10:3, 6.5:6.5, 3:3, and 10:10 v/v %, respectively were utilized for the fermentation. The maximum butanol concentration of 6.49 g/L was obtained after 96 h fermentation with 10 % v/v C. acetobutylicum as a single culture. The fermentation with 10% v/v C. tetanomorphum resulted in more than 5 g/l butyric acid production. Major organic acid concentration (lactic acid of 2.7 g/L was produced when an inoculum ratio of 6.5: 6.5 %v/v C. acetobutylicum to C. tetanomorphum was used.

  6. Adding Flavor to Beverages with Non-Conventional Yeasts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Davide Ravasio

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Fungi produce a variety of volatile organic compounds (VOCs during their primary and secondary metabolism. In the beverage industry, these volatiles contribute to the the flavor and aroma profile of the final products. We evaluated the fermentation ability and aroma profiles of non-conventional yeasts that have been associated with various food sources. A total of 60 strains were analyzed with regard to their fermentation and flavor profile. Species belonging to the genera Candida, Pichia and Wickerhamomyces separated best from lager yeast strains according to a principal component analysis taking alcohol and ester production into account. The speed of fermentation and sugar utilization were analysed for these strains. Volatile aroma-compound formation was assayed via gas chromatography. Several strains produced substantially higher amounts of aroma alcohols and esters compared to the lager yeast strain Weihenstephan 34/70. Consequently, co-fermentation of this lager yeast strain with a Wickerhamomyces anomalus strain generated an increased fruity-flavour profile. This demonstrates that mixed fermentations utilizing non-Saccharomyces cerevisiae biodiversity can enhance the flavour profiles of fermented beverages.

  7. Use of Selected Lactic Acid Bacteria and Quinoa Flour for Manufacturing Novel Yogurt-Like Beverages

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lorusso, Anna; Montemurro, Marco; Rizzello, Carlo Giuseppe

    2018-01-01

    This study aimed at investigating the suitability of quinoa for making yogurt-like beverages. After the selection of the adequate technological parameters, the fermentation was carried out by using different lactic acid bacteria strains: a probiotic (Lactobacillus rhamnosus SP1), an exopolysaccharides (EPS)-producing (Weissella confusa DSM 20194), and one isolated from quinoa (Lactobacillus plantarum T6B10). During the 20 h of fermentation, W. confusa caused the highest viscosity increase. All the strains had improved concentration of free amino acids and γ-Aminobutyric acid (GABA), polyphenols availability, antioxidant activity (up to 54%), and protein digestibility. The nutritional index (NI) was the highest when L. rhamnosus SP1 was used. The starch hydrolysis index in vitro ranged from 52 to 60. During storage at 4 °C, viscosity and water holding capacity decreased with the exception of the beverage fermented with W. confusa, while all the nutritional characteristics remained stable or slightly increased. Sensory analyses showed that beverages had good textural and organoleptic profiles. Besides the well-known positive properties of the raw matrix, fermentation allowed the obtainment of beverages with different features. Due to the nutritional and functional characteristics conferred to the quinoa beverages, the use of the probiotic and EPS-producing strains showed adequate potential for the industrial application. PMID:29614769

  8. Use of Selected Lactic Acid Bacteria and Quinoa Flour for Manufacturing Novel Yogurt-Like Beverages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Lorusso

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed at investigating the suitability of quinoa for making yogurt-like beverages. After the selection of the adequate technological parameters, the fermentation was carried out by using different lactic acid bacteria strains: a probiotic (Lactobacillus rhamnosus SP1, an exopolysaccharides (EPS-producing (Weissella confusa DSM 20194, and one isolated from quinoa (Lactobacillus plantarum T6B10. During the 20 h of fermentation, W. confusa caused the highest viscosity increase. All the strains had improved concentration of free amino acids and γ-Aminobutyric acid (GABA, polyphenols availability, antioxidant activity (up to 54%, and protein digestibility. The nutritional index (NI was the highest when L. rhamnosus SP1 was used. The starch hydrolysis index in vitro ranged from 52 to 60. During storage at 4 °C, viscosity and water holding capacity decreased with the exception of the beverage fermented with W. confusa, while all the nutritional characteristics remained stable or slightly increased. Sensory analyses showed that beverages had good textural and organoleptic profiles. Besides the well-known positive properties of the raw matrix, fermentation allowed the obtainment of beverages with different features. Due to the nutritional and functional characteristics conferred to the quinoa beverages, the use of the probiotic and EPS-producing strains showed adequate potential for the industrial application.

  9. Use of Selected Lactic Acid Bacteria and Quinoa Flour for Manufacturing Novel Yogurt-Like Beverages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lorusso, Anna; Coda, Rossana; Montemurro, Marco; Rizzello, Carlo Giuseppe

    2018-04-01

    This study aimed at investigating the suitability of quinoa for making yogurt-like beverages. After the selection of the adequate technological parameters, the fermentation was carried out by using different lactic acid bacteria strains: a probiotic ( Lactobacillus rhamnosus SP1), an exopolysaccharides (EPS)-producing ( Weissella confusa DSM 20194), and one isolated from quinoa ( Lactobacillus plantarum T6B10). During the 20 h of fermentation, W. confusa caused the highest viscosity increase. All the strains had improved concentration of free amino acids and γ-Aminobutyric acid (GABA), polyphenols availability, antioxidant activity (up to 54%), and protein digestibility. The nutritional index (NI) was the highest when L. rhamnosus SP1 was used. The starch hydrolysis index in vitro ranged from 52 to 60. During storage at 4 °C, viscosity and water holding capacity decreased with the exception of the beverage fermented with W. confusa , while all the nutritional characteristics remained stable or slightly increased. Sensory analyses showed that beverages had good textural and organoleptic profiles. Besides the well-known positive properties of the raw matrix, fermentation allowed the obtainment of beverages with different features. Due to the nutritional and functional characteristics conferred to the quinoa beverages, the use of the probiotic and EPS-producing strains showed adequate potential for the industrial application.

  10. Fermentation Industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grady, C. P. L., Jr.; Grady, J. K.

    1978-01-01

    Presents a literature review of wastes from the fermentation industry, covering publications of 1976-77. This review focuses on: (1) alcoholic beverage production; (2) pharmaceuticals and biochemicals production; and (3) biomass production. A list of 62 references is also presented. (HM)

  11. Application of a Pivot Profile Variant Using CATA Questions in the Development of a Whey-Based Fermented Beverage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcelo Miraballes

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available During the development of a food product, the application of rapid descriptive sensory methodologies is very useful to determine the influence of different variables on the sensory characteristics of the product under development. The Pivot profile (PP and a variant of the technique that includes check-all-that-apply questions (PP + CATA were used for the development of a milk drink fermented from demineralised sweet whey. Starting from a base formula of partially demineralised sweet whey and gelatin, nine samples were elaborated, to which various concentrations of commercial sucrose, modified cassava starch, and whole milk powder were added. Differences in sucrose content affected the sample texture and flavour and the modified starch was able to decrease the fluidity and increase the texture of creaminess and firmness, of the samples. The two applied sensory methodologies achieved good discrimination between the samples and very similar results, although the data analysis was clearly simplified in relation to the difficulty and time consumed in the PP + CATA variant.

  12. Ultrasound-assisted extraction and characterization of hydrolytic and oxidative enzymes produced by solid state fermentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szabo, Orsolya Erzsebet; Csiszar, Emilia; Toth, Karolina; Szakacs, George; Koczka, Bela

    2015-01-01

    Ligninolytic and hydrolytic enzymes were produced with six selected fungi on flax substrate by solid state fermentation (SSF). The extracellular enzyme production of the organisms in two SSF media was evaluated by measuring the soluble protein concentration and the filter paper, endoxylanase, 1,4-β-d-glucosidase, 1,4-β-d-endoglucanase, polygalacturonase, lignin peroxidase, manganese peroxidase and laccase activities of the clear culture solutions produced by conventional extraction from the SSF materials. The SSF material of the best enzyme producer (Trichoderma virens TUB F-498) was further investigated to enhance the enzyme recovery by low frequency ultrasound treatment. Performance of both the original and ultrasound macerated crude enzyme mixtures was evaluated in degradation of the colored lignin-containing and waxy materials of raw linen fabric. Results proved that sonication (at 40%, 60% and 80% amplitudes, for 60min) did not result in reduction in the filter paper, lignin peroxidase and laccase activities of the crude enzyme solution, but has a significant positive effect on the efficiency of enzyme extraction from the SSF material. Depending on the parameters of sonication, the enzyme activities in the extracts obtained can be increased up to 129-413% of the original activities measured in the control extracts recovered by a common magnetic stirrer. Sonication also has an effect on both the enzymatic removal of the lignin-containing color materials and hydrophobic surface layer from the raw linen. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. A Glutamic Acid-Producing Lactic Acid Bacteria Isolated from Malaysian Fermented Foods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zareian, Mohsen; Ebrahimpour, Afshin; Bakar, Fatimah Abu; Mohamed, Abdul Karim Sabo; Forghani, Bita; Ab-Kadir, Mohd Safuan B.; Saari, Nazamid

    2012-01-01

    l-glutamaic acid is the principal excitatory neurotransmitter in the brain and an important intermediate in metabolism. In the present study, lactic acid bacteria (218) were isolated from six different fermented foods as potent sources of glutamic acid producers. The presumptive bacteria were tested for their ability to synthesize glutamic acid. Out of the 35 strains showing this capability, strain MNZ was determined as the highest glutamic-acid producer. Identification tests including 16S rRNA gene sequencing and sugar assimilation ability identified the strain MNZ as Lactobacillus plantarum. The characteristics of this microorganism related to its glutamic acid-producing ability, growth rate, glucose consumption and pH profile were studied. Results revealed that glutamic acid was formed inside the cell and excreted into the extracellular medium. Glutamic acid production was found to be growth-associated and glucose significantly enhanced glutamic acid production (1.032 mmol/L) compared to other carbon sources. A concentration of 0.7% ammonium nitrate as a nitrogen source effectively enhanced glutamic acid production. To the best of our knowledge this is the first report of glutamic acid production by lactic acid bacteria. The results of this study can be further applied for developing functional foods enriched in glutamic acid and subsequently γ-amino butyric acid (GABA) as a bioactive compound. PMID:22754309

  14. Analysis of microbial community variation during the mixed culture fermentation of agricultural peel wastes to produce lactic acid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Shaobo; Gliniewicz, Karol; Gerritsen, Alida T; McDonald, Armando G

    2016-05-01

    Mixed cultures fermentation can be used to convert organic wastes into various chemicals and fuels. This study examined the fermentation performance of four batch reactors fed with different agricultural (orange, banana, and potato (mechanical and steam)) peel wastes using mixed cultures, and monitored the interval variation of reactor microbial communities with 16S rRNA genes using Illumina sequencing. All four reactors produced similar chemical profile with lactic acid (LA) as dominant compound. Acetic acid and ethanol were also observed with small fractions. The Illumina sequencing results revealed the diversity of microbial community decreased during fermentation and a community of largely lactic acid producing bacteria dominated by species of Lactobacillus developed. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Paddy Husk as Support for Solid State Fermentation to Produce Xylanase from Bacillus pumilus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ranganathan KAPILAN

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available To optimize culture conditions for xylanase production by solid state fermentation (SSF using Bacillus pumilus, with paddy husk as support, solid medium contained 200 g of paddy husk with 800 mL of liquid fermentation medium [xylan, 20.0 g/L; peptone, 2.0 g/L; yeast extract, 2.5 g/L; K2HPO4, 2.5 g/L; KH2PO4, 1.0 g/L; NaCl, 0.1 g/L; (NH42SO4, 2.0 g/L, CaCl2·2H2O, 0.005 g/L; MgCl2·6H2O, 0.005 g/L; and FeCl3, 0.005 g/L] at pH 9.0 was applied. The highest xylanase activity (142.0 ±0.47 U/g DM] was obtained on the 6th day at 30°C. The optimized paddy husk to liquid fermentation medium ratio was 2:9, and the optimized culture temperature was 40°C. When commercial Birchwood xylan was replaced with different concentrations of corncob, xylanase production was maximized (224.2 U/g DM in the medium with 150 g/L corncob. Xylanase production was increased by sucrose, fructose and arabinose, whereas reduced by glucose, galactose, lactose and amylose. When organic nitrogen sources were replaced with locally available nitrogen sources such as groundnut powder or sesame seedcake powder or coconut seedcake powder or soy meal powder, the highest xylanase production (290.7 U/g DM was obtained in the medium with soy meal powder and 16.0 g/L of soy meal powder was the optimum (326.5±0.34 U/g DM. Based on the optimization studies, B. pumilus produced 2.3 times higher xylanase activity. The medium cost was reduced from 2 458.3 to 178.3 SLR/kg and the total activity which could be obtained from 1 kg of the medium was increased from 48 624 to 220 253 Units.

  16. A new alternative to produce gibberellic acid by solid state fermentation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristine Rodrigues

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Gibberellic acid (GA3 is an important hormone, which controls plant's growth and development. Solid State Fermentation (SSF allows the use of agro-industrial residues reducing the production costs. The screening of strains (four of Gibberella fujikuoroi and one of Fusarium moniliforme and substrates (citric pulp, soy bran, sugarcane bagasse, soy husk, cassava bagasse and coffee husk and inoculum preparation study were conducted in order to evaluate the best conditions to produce GA3 by SSF. Fermentation assays were carried out in erlenmeyers flasks at 29°C, with initial moisture of 75-80%. Different medium for inoculum production were tested in relation to cells viability and GA3 production by SSF. F. moniliforme LPB 03 and citric pulp were chosen for GA3 production. The best medium for inoculum production was citric pulp extract supplemented with sucrose. GA3 production by SSF reached 5.9 g /kg of dry CP after 3 days of fermentation.O ácido giberélico (GA3 é um importante hormônio vegetal. A fermentação no estado sólido (FES utiliza resíduos agro-industriais reduzindo os custos de produção. Neste trabalho a seleção de cepas (quatro de Gibberella fujikuoroi e uma de Fusarium moniliforme e substratos (polpa cítrica, casca de soja, bagaço de cana, farelo de soja, bagaço de mandioca e casca de café e o estudo da preparação do inóculo foram conduzidos para otimizar as condições de produção de GA3 por FES. Os ensaios foram realizados em frascos de erlenmeyer a 29°C, com umidade inicial de 75-80%. Diferentes meios para a produção do inóculo foram testados em relação à viabilidade das células e produção de GA3 por FES. F. moniliforme LPB03 e polpa cítrica foram escolhidos. O melhor meio para a produção de inóculo foi o extrato de polpa cítrica. A produção por FES alcançou 5.8 g de GA3/kg de polpa cítrica após 3 dias de fermentação.

  17. Consumer Acceptability of Cucumber Pickles Produced by Fermentation in Calcium Chloride Brine for Reduced Environmental Impact.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Emily M; Johanningsmeier, Suzanne D; Osborne, Jason A

    2015-06-01

    Fermentation of cucumbers in calcium chloride (CaCl2 ) brine has been proposed as an alternative process to reduce the environmental impact of traditional, high salt fermentations. The objective of this research was to determine whether consumer acceptability of pickle products would be impacted by fermentation and storage of cucumbers in CaCl2 brine. Cucumbers were fermented and stored with 0.1M CaCl2 or 1M sodium chloride (NaCl) in open-air, 3000 gal tanks at a commercial facility and processed into hamburger dill chips containing 0.38M NaCl. Cucumbers fermented in CaCl2 required additional desalting to reduce CaCl2 concentrations to that of current products. Consumers (n = 101) showed no significant preference for pickles from different fermentation treatments, whether stored for 2 mo (P = 0.75) or 8 mo (P = 0.68) prior to processing. In contrast, NaCl fermented pickles were preferred over CaCl2 fermented pickles stored for 10 mo and desalted only once (P consumer preference, and the 50% detection threshold of CaCl2 in dill pickle chips was found to be 61.8 ± 7.6 mM, indicating that processors could potentially use CaCl2 fermentations with a single desalting step. Consumer liking of flavor (n = 73) was not influenced by fermentation in CaCl2 or by 23 or 35 mM CaCl2 in finished products (P > 0.05), but variability in texture decreased consumer liking (P < 0.05). Although promising, individual fermentation variability and texture quality of CaCl2 fermented products should be further evaluated prior to broad implementation of this process. Published 2015. This article is a U.S. Government work and is in the public domain in the USA.

  18. Application of Baechu-Kimchi Powder and GABA-Producing Lactic Acid Bacteria for the Production of Functional Fermented Sausages

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Ji Hun; Kang, Ki Moon

    2017-01-01

    This study was carried out to determine the physicochemical, microbiological, and quality characteristics of a new type of fermented sausage manufactured by incorporating Baechu-kimchi powder and gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA)-producing lactic acid bacteria (LAB). The LAB count was at the maximum level by day nine of ripening in inoculated sausages, accompanied by a rapid decrease in the pH. The addition of kimchi powder decreased the lightness (L*) and increased the redness (a*) and, yellowness (b*) values, while also significantly increasing the hardness and chewiness of the sausage (p<0.05). Moreover, although the thiobarbituric acid reactive substances values increased in all samples during the study period, this increase was lower in the kimchi-treated samples, indicating a reduction in lipid oxidation. Overall, our results show that the addition of Baechu-kimchi powder to sausages reduced the off-flavor properties and improved the taste profile of the fermented sausage in sensory evaluations. The GABA content of all fermented sausages increased from 17.42-25.14 mg/kg on the third day of fermentation to 60.95-61.47 mg/kg on the thirtieth day. These results demonstrate that Baechu-kimchi powder and GABA-producing LAB could be functional materials in fermented sausage to improve quality characteristics. PMID:29725201

  19. Development and preservation of a cocktail beverage produced from Carrot (Daucus carrota), Pineapple (Ananas comosus) and Mango (Mangifera indoca L,)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boateng, A. A.

    2013-07-01

    Carrot is known to have the potential of providing vital nutrition as well as health and well-being to consumers. In this study, carrot juice was envisaged as a good vehicle for spreading its nutraceutical benefits. The study was then designed in two parts: (a) Survey to establish the beverage consumption pattern in the Anyaa-Sowutuom District in the Greater Accra Region of Ghana and (b) Carrot juice formulation and optimisation. The survey was conducted by administering a questionnaire to volunteer adult consumers. To develop an acceptable carrot juice beverage, pineapple juice and mango juice were included as components to improve taste and flavour respectively. A constrained, simplex centroid mixture design for three components was employed to optimise the proportions of the components in the final product based on sensory attributes. Chemical analyses as well as shelf stability studies were conducted for the optimised beverage preserved by chemicals and gamma radiation. Data obtained from the survey revealed that juices were very popular among consumers. The choice of a particular beverage was dependent on nutrition, taste and colour. Contour plots generated from sensory data of the products were overlaid to determine the optimum ratios of the components of the cocktail beverage. The optimised product consisted of 50-52% Carrot, 18-20% Pineapple and 28-30% Mango. Analysis of the beverage revealed 223 mg/100ml Potassium, 3.92 mg/100ml Pro-vitamin A (Beta carotene) and 43 mg/100ml vitamin C. After 8 weeks of storage 71% Pro-vitamin A was retained even under relatively higher doses (2.5kGy) of gamma radiation. The microbial quality of the beverage was good under all conditions. (au)

  20. Microbial ecology of fermentative hydrogen producing bioprocesses: useful insights for driving the ecosystem function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cabrol, Lea; Marone, Antonella; Tapia-Venegas, Estela; Steyer, Jean-Philippe; Ruiz-Filippi, Gonzalo; Trably, Eric

    2017-03-01

    One of the most important biotechnological challenges is to develop environment friendly technologies to produce new sources of energy. Microbial production of biohydrogen through dark fermentation, by conversion of residual biomass, is an attractive solution for short-term development of bioH2 producing processes. Efficient biohydrogen production relies on complex mixed communities working in tight interaction. Species composition and functional traits are of crucial importance to maintain the ecosystem service. The analysis of microbial community revealed a wide phylogenetic diversity that contributes in different-and still mostly unclear-ways to hydrogen production. Bridging this gap of knowledge between microbial ecology features and ecosystem functionality is essential to optimize the bioprocess and develop strategies toward a maximization of the efficiency and stability of substrate conversion. The aim of this review is to provide a comprehensive overview of the most up-to-date biodata available and discuss the main microbial community features of biohydrogen engineered ecosystems, with a special emphasis on the crucial role of interactions and the relationships between species composition and ecosystem service. The elucidation of intricate relationships between community structure and ecosystem function would make possible to drive ecosystems toward an improved functionality on the basis of microbial ecology principles. © FEMS 2017. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  1. Differential properties of Aspergillus niger tannase produced under solid-state and submerged fermentations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Renovato, Jaqueline; Gutiérrez-Sánchez, Gerardo; Rodríguez-Durán, Luis V; Bergman, Carl; Rodríguez, Raúl; Aguilar, Cristóbal Noe

    2011-09-01

    Significant differences on structure, stability, and catalytic properties of tannase were found when this enzyme was produced under solid-state and submerged fermentations (SSF and SmF) by Aspergillus niger. The specific activity was 5.5 times higher on SSF than in SmF. Significant differences in isoelectric points of tannases were found. The pH optima for both types of enzyme was found at 6 and the pH stability of SSF and SmF tannase were at 6 and 5-8, respectively. The optimal temperature range was from 50 to 60 °C for SmF tannase and 60 °C for SSF tannase, and both enzyme types showed tolerance to high temperatures (60-70 °C). The SSF tannase showed a major specificity for methyl gallate substrate while SmF tannase for tannic acid. All metal ions tested, had an activity inhibition from 30-46% on SSF tannase. SDS-PAGE analysis as well as gel localization studies of both SSF and SmF purified tannases showed a single band with a molecular weight of 102 and 105 kDa, respectively. Different levels of glycosylation were found among SSF and SmF purified tannases. This is the first report about structural differences among tannase produced under SSF and SmF and this study provides basis for explanation of the stability and catalytic differences observed previously for this two tannase types.

  2. Laboratory scale conceptual process development for the isolation of renewable glycolaldehyde from pyrolysis oil to produce fermentation feedstock

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vitasari, C.R.; Meindersma, G.W.; Haan, de A.B.

    2012-01-01

    A laboratory-based separation sequence has been developed to produce an aqueous glycolaldehyde solution as fermentation feedstock. It consists of water extraction of pyrolysis oil, acid removal, water removal, octanol extraction, phenolic removal, back-extraction, and washing. The octanol-free

  3. Differential sensitivity of polyhydroxyalkanoate producing bacteria to fermentation inhibitors and comparison of polyhydroxybutyrate production from Burkholderia cepacia and Pseudomonas pseudoflava

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diane Dietrich; Barbara Illman; Casey Crooks

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study is determine the relative sensitivity of a panel of seven polyhydroxyalkanoate producing bacteria to a panel of seven lignocellulosic-derived fermentation inhibitors representing aliphatic acids, furans and phenolics. A further aim was to measure the polyhydroxybutyrate production of select organisms on lignocellulosic-derived monosaccharides...

  4. Differential sensitivity of polyhydroxyalkanoate producing bacteria to fermentation inhibitors and comparison of polyhydroxybutyrate production from Burkholderia cepacia and Pseudomonas pseudoflava.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dietrich, Diane; Illman, Barbara; Crooks, Casey

    2013-06-04

    The aim of this study is determine the relative sensitivity of a panel of seven polyhydroxyalkanoate producing bacteria to a panel of seven lignocellulosic-derived fermentation inhibitors representing aliphatic acids, furans and phenolics. A further aim was to measure the polyhydroxybutyrate production of select organisms on lignocellulosic-derived monosaccharides arabinose, xylose, glucose and mannose. We examined the sensitivity of seven polyhydroxyalkanoate producing bacteria: Azohydromonas lata, Bacillus megaterium, Bacillus cereus, Burkholderia cepacia, Pseudomonas olevorans, Pseudomonas pseudoflava and Ralstonia eutropha, against seven fermentation inhibitors produced by the saccharification of lignocellulose: acetic acid, levulinic acid, coumaric acid, ferulic acid, syringaldehyde, furfural, and hyroxymethyfurfural. There was significant variation in the sensitivity of these microbes to representative phenolics ranging from 0.25-1.5 g/L coumaric and ferulic acid and between 0.5-6.0 g/L syringaldehyde. Inhibition ranged from 0.37-4 g/L and 0.75-6 g/L with acetic acid and levulinic acid, respectively. B. cepacia and P. pseudoflava were selected for further analysis of polyhydroxyalkanoate production. We find significant differences in sensitivity to the fermentation inhibitors tested and find these variations to be over a relevant concentration range given the concentrations of inhibitors typically found in lignocellulosic hydrolysates. Of the seven bacteria tested, B. cepacia demonstrated the greatest inhibitor tolerance. Similarly, of two organisms examined for polyhydroxybutyrate production, B. cepacia was notably more efficient when fermenting pentose substrates.

  5. Scale-up fermentation of oil palm empty fruit bunch to produce ruminant feed by radiation processing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Awang, M.R.; Mutaat, H.H.; Deres, R.M.; Kume, Tamikazu.

    1992-01-01

    Scale-up fermentation and irradiation conditions of empty fruit bunch (EFB) of oil palm were examined to produce a large amount of fermented products for animal feeds. The EFB substrates pasteurized by irradiation were inoculated with Coprinus cinereus. After 1 month incubation, the crude fiber contents decreased to 20 - 38% and crude protein contents increased to 9 - 13% in small scale fermentation using conical flask (6 - 20 g EFB). In the case of fermentation using polypropylene bags with 400 g EFB, crude fiber and protein contents were 32 - 34% and 11 - 14%, respectively. A larger plastic container packed with 1.5 kg EFB fiber of 10cm thickness was used for mushroom cultivation. After harvest of mushroom (yields were about 250 g per container), the quality of residual substrates improved further as reflected by its crude fiber content of only 16 - 20%, crude protein content of 6 - 8%. These results show that a large volume of products are available under the good aeration by increasing the number of plastic bags or containers. For the irradiation of a lot of fermentation substrates, the advantage of 60 Co gamma-ray and electron beam irradiator was also discussed. (author)

  6. Feed Fermentation with Reuteran- and Levan-Producing Lactobacillus reuteri Reduces Colonization of Weanling Pigs by Enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Yan; Galle, Sandra; Le, Minh Hong Anh; Zijlstra, Ruurd T; Gänzle, Michael G

    2015-09-01

    This study determined the effect of feed fermentation with Lactobacillus reuteri on growth performance and the abundance of enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC) in weanling piglets. L. reuteri strains produce reuteran or levan, exopolysaccharides that inhibit ETEC adhesion to the mucosa, and feed fermentation was conducted under conditions supporting exopolysaccharide formation and under conditions not supporting exopolysaccharide formation. Diets were chosen to assess the impact of organic acids and the impact of viable L. reuteri bacteria. Fecal samples were taken throughout 3 weeks of feeding; at the end of the 21-day feeding period, animals were euthanized to sample the gut digesta. The feed intake was reduced in pigs fed diets containing exopolysaccharides; however, feed efficiencies did not differ among the diets. Quantification of L. reuteri by quantitative PCR (qPCR) detected the two strains used for feed fermentation throughout the intestinal tract. Quantification of E. coli and ETEC virulence factors by qPCR demonstrated that fermented diets containing reuteran significantly (P reuteri reduced the level of colonization of weaning piglets with ETEC, and feed fermentation supplied concentrations of reuteran that may specifically contribute to the effect on ETEC. Copyright © 2015, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  7. Differential sensitivity of polyhydroxyalkanoate producing bacteria to fermentation inhibitors and comparison of polyhydroxybutyrate production from Burkholderia cepacia and Pseudomonas pseudoflava

    OpenAIRE

    Dietrich, Diane; Illman, Barbara; Crooks, Casey

    2013-01-01

    Background The aim of this study is determine the relative sensitivity of a panel of seven polyhydroxyalkanoate producing bacteria to a panel of seven lignocellulosic-derived fermentation inhibitors representing aliphatic acids, furans and phenolics. A further aim was to measure the polyhydroxybutyrate production of select organisms on lignocellulosic-derived monosaccharides arabinose, xylose, glucose and mannose. Findings We examined the sensitivity of seven polyhydroxyalkanoate producing ba...

  8. Biochemical characterisation of a glucoamylase from Aspergillus niger produced by solid-state fermentation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christiane Trevisan Slivinski

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available In this work, glucoamylase was produced by Aspergillus niger in solid-state fermentation. The enzyme was partially purified by ammonium sulphate precipitation and ion exchange and gel filtration chromatographies. Its molecular mass was estimated as 118.17 kDa by electrophoresis. The partially purified enzyme had an optimum pH range of 4.5-5.0 and an optimum temperature of 60 °C, with average activity 152.85 U mL-1. Thermal and pH stability assays with the crude extract showed that more than 60 % of the activity remained at pH 4.6 and 60 °C, even after an exposition to these conditions longer than 24 h. Yet, after purification, the enzyme was stable at these for at least 4 h, which indicated that its purification for use in starch saccharification was inadvisable. K M and Vmax were 0.34 mg mL-1 and 160.22 U mL-1, respectively.

  9. Chitooligomers preparation by chitosanase produced under solid state fermentation using shrimp by-products as substrate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nidheesh, T; Pal, Gaurav Kumar; Suresh, P V

    2015-05-05

    Solid state fermentation (SSF) conditions were statistically optimized for the production of chitosanase by Purpureocillium lilacinum CFRNT12 using shrimp by-products as substrate. Central composite design and response surface methodology were applied to evaluate the effect of variables and their optimization. Incubation temperature, incubation time, concentration of inoculum and yeast extract were found to influence the chitosanase production significantly. The R(2) value of 0.94 indicates the aptness of the model. The level of variables for optimal production of chitosanase was 32 ± 1°C temperature, 96 h incubation, 10.5% (w/v) inoculum, 1.05% (w/w) yeast extract and 65% (w/w) moisture content. The chitosanase production was found to increase from 2.34 ± 0.07 to 41.78 ± 0.73 units/g initial dry substrate after optimization. The crude chitosanase produced 4.43 mM of chitooligomers as exclusive end product from colloidal chitosan hydrolysis. These results indicate the potential of P. lilacinum CFRNT12 for the chitosanase production employing cost effective SSF using shrimp by-products. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Production and Recovery of Aroma Compounds Produced by Solid-State Fermentation Using Different Adsorbents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriane B. P. Medeiros

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Volatile compounds with fruity characteristics were produced by Ceratocystis fimbriata in two different bioreactors: columns (laboratory scale and horizontal drum (semi-pilot scale. Coffee husk was used as substrate for the production of volatile compounds by solid-state fermentation. The production of volatile compounds was significantly higher when horizontal drum bioreactor was used than when column bioreactors were used. These results showed that this model of bioreactor presents good perspectives for scale-up and application in an industrial production. Headspace analysis of the solid-state culture detected twelve compounds, among them: ethanol, acetaldehyde, ethyl acetate, ethyl propionate, and isoamyl acetate. Ethyl acetate was the predominant product in the headspace (28.55 µmol/L/g of initial dry matter. Activated carbon, Tenax-TA, and Amberlite XAD-2 were tested to perform the recovery of the compounds. The adsorbent columns were connected to the column-type bioreactor. All compounds present in the headspace of the columns were adsorbed in Amberlite XAD-2. With Tenax-TA, acetaldehyde was adsorbed in higher concentrations. However, the recovery found by using the activated carbon was very low.

  11. Antioxidant activity of pea protein hydrolysates produced by batch fermentation with lactic acid bacteria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stanisavljević Nemanja S.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Nine Lactobacillus strains known for surface proteinase activity were chosen from our collection and tested for their ability to grow in pea seed protein-based medium, and to hydrolyze purified pea proteins in order to produce peptides with antioxidant (AO activity. Two strains, Lactobacillus rhamnosus BGT10 and Lactobacillus zeae LMG17315, exhibited strong proteolytic activity against pea proteins. The AO activity of the pea hydrolysate fraction, MW <10 kDa, obtained by the fermentation of purified pea proteins with Lactobacillus rhamnosus BGT10, was tested by standard spectrophotometric assays (DPPH, ABTS, Fe3+-reducing capacity and the recently developed direct current (DC polarographic assay. The low molecular weight fraction of the obtained hydrolysate was separated using ion exchange chromatography, while the AO activity of eluted fractions was determined by means of a sensitive DC polarographic assay without previous concentration of samples. Results revealed that the fraction present in low abundance that contained basic peptides possessed the highest antioxidant activity. Based on the obtained results, it can be concluded that Lactobacillus rhamnosus BGT10 should be further investigated as a candidate strain for large-scale production of bioactive peptides from legume proteins. [Projekat Ministartsva nauke Republike Srbije, br. 173005 i br. 173026

  12. Modeling and investigation of submerged fermentation process to produce extracellular polysaccharide using Lactobacillus confusus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thirugnanasambandham, K; Sivakumar, V; Prakash Maran, J

    2014-12-19

    The main objective of the present study is to investigate and optimize the Submerged fermentation (SMF) process parameters such as addition of coconut water, NaCl dose, incubation time and temperature on the production of extracellular polysaccharide (EPS) and biomass production using Lactobacillus confuses. Response surface methodology (RSM) coupled with four factors three level Box-Behnken design (BBD) was employed to model the SMF process. RSM analysis indicated good correspondence between experimental and predicted values. Three dimentional (3D) response surface plots were used to study the interactive effects of process variables on SMF process. The optimum process conditions for the maximum production of EPS and biomass were found to be as follows; addition of coconut water of 40%, NaCl dose of 15%, incubation time of 24h and temperature of 35°C. Under these conditions, 10.57 g/L of EPS and 3.9 g/L of biomass were produced. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Fermented food in the context of a healthy diet: how to produce novel functional foods?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leroy, Frédéric; De Vuyst, Luc

    2014-11-01

    This review presents an overview of recent studies on the production of functional fermented foods, of both traditional and innovative natures, and the mapping of the functional compounds involved. The functional aspects of fermented foods are mostly related to the concept of probiotic bacteria or the targeted microbial generation of functional molecules, such as bioactive peptides, during food fermentation. Apart from conventional yoghurt and fermented milks, several fermented nondairy foods are globally gaining in interest, in particular from soy or cereal origin, sometimes novel but often originating from ethnic (Asian) diets. In addition, a range of functional nonmicrobial compounds may be added to the fermented food matrix. Overall, a wide variety of potential health benefits is being claimed, yet often poorly supported by mechanistic insights and rarely demonstrated with clinical trials or even animal models. Although functional foods offer considerable market potential, several issues still need to be addressed. As most of the studies on functional fermented foods are of a rather descriptive and preliminary nature, there is a clear need for mechanistic studies and well controlled in-vivo experiments.

  14. Interactions of meat-associated bacteriocin-producing Lactobacilli with Listeria innocua under stringent sausage fermentation conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leroy, Frédéric; Lievens, Kristoff; De Vuyst, Luc

    2005-10-01

    The kinetics of the antilisterial effect of meat-associated lactobacilli on Listeria innocua LMG 13568 were investigated during laboratory batch fermentations. During these fermentations, which were performed in a liquid meat simulation medium, a combination of process factors typical for European-style sausage fermentations was applied, such as a temperature of 20 degrees C and a representative pH and salting profile. Two bacteriocin-producing sausage isolates (Lactobacillus sakei CTC 494 and Lactobacillus curvatus LTH 1174), which have already proven efficacy in sausage trials, and one nonbacteriocinogenic, industrial strain (Lactobacillus sakei I), were evaluated. Staphylococcus carnosus 833 was included in the experiment because of its role in flavor and color development. When grown as a monoculture or upon cocultivation with L. sakei I and S. carnosus 833, L. innocua LMG 13568 developed slightly, despite the stress of low temperature, pH, lactic acid, salt, and nitrite. In contrast, when either of the bacteriocin producers was used, the L. innocua LMG 13568 population was rapidly inactivated with more than 3 log CFU ml(-1) after 2 days of fermentation. A bacteriocin-tolerant L. innocua LMG 13568 subpopulation (4 X 10(-4)) remained after bacteriocin inactivation. Thus, when the initial level of L. innocua LMG 13568 equaled 3 log CFU ml(-1), all cells were inactivated and no bacteriocin-tolerant cells were detected, even after 7 days of incubation. S. carnosus was not inactivated by the Lactobacillus bacteriocins and displayed slight growth.

  15. The availability of a lactose medium for tea fungus culture and Kombucha fermentation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Markov S.L.

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Kombucha is a traditional beverage that is prepared by fermenting sucrose-sweetened black tea. A medium is inoculated with a cellulose pellicle (popularly known as a “tea fungus” or fermentation brought from previous cultivation process. Our aim was to test the possibility of obtaining a Kombucha beverage using different concentration of lactose as an alternative source of C-atoms. A traditional medium sweetened with sucrose or without sugar was used as control. Without lactose-fermenting yeast strains in tea fungus, lactose is not an adequate alternative source of the C-atom for Kombucha fermentation because it is not possible to obtain Kombucha with an appropriate acidity during a seven-day fermentation. Compared with the traditional medium, fermentation is significantly slower with high differences in acid content. In unsweetened tea inoculated with the beverage obtained from a previous traditional process, Kombucha fermentation processes and produces a beverage without sugar and alcohol. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. TR 31044

  16. Efeito do teor de soro, açúcar e de frutooligossacarídeos sobre a população de bactérias lácticas probióticas em bebidas fermentadas Effect of whey, suggar and frutooligosacharides on the probiotic lactic acid bacteria population in fermented beverages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karime Giannetti Thamer

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available Nos últimos anos tem havido muito interesse por produtos alimentícios de baixas calorias e probióticos. A incorporação de Lactobacillus acidophilus e Bifidobacterium em bebidas fermentadas pode resultar em um produto lácteo com extraordinário valor terapêutico e eficaz redução calórica. O objetivo deste trabalho foi estudar o efeito do teor de soro, açúcar e de frutooligossacarídeos sobre a população de bactérias lácticas de doze formulações de bebidas fermentadas. Foram determinadas as populações de Streptococcus thermophilus, Lactobacillus delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus, Bifidobacterium e Lactobacillus acidophilus. As maiores populações de microrganismos probióticos foram observadas nas bebidas com mais baixa acidez e elevado teor de sólidos, além de haver predominância do Streptococcus thermophilus sobre os demais microrganismos. As amostras atenderam a legislação brasileira em vigor, independente das formulações, pela presença de no mínimo 10(6 UFC/mL de bactérias lácticas. As bebidas lácteas formuladas podem ser consideradas probióticas pelas contagens elevadas de Bifidobacterium spp. e Lactobacillus acidophilusThe demand for low calories and probiotics foods has increased during the last years. The incorporation of Lactobacillus acidophilus and Bifidobacterium in fermented beverages can result in dairy products with excellent therapeutic value and efficient calories reduction. The aim of this research was study the effects of whey, sugar and fructooligosaccharides levels on the lactic acid bacteria population of twelve formulations of fermented beverages. The populations of Streptococcus thermophilus, Lactobacillus delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus, Bifidobacterium spp. and Lactobacillus acidophilus were carried out. The highest probiotic microorganisms' populations were observed in beverages with lower acidity and higher solids level, besides there was a predominance of Streptococcus thermophilus over the

  17. Produce from Africa?s Gardens: Potential for Leafy Vegetable and Fruit Fermentations

    OpenAIRE

    Oguntoyinbo, Folarin A.; Fusco, Vincenzina; Cho, Gyu-Sung; Kabisch, Jan; Neve, Horst; Bockelmann, Wilhelm; Huch, Melanie; Frommherz, Lara; Trierweiler, Bernhard; Becker, Biserka; Benomar, Nabil; G?lvez, Antonio; Abriouel, Hikmate; Holzapfel, Wilhelm H.; Franz, Charles M. A. P.

    2016-01-01

    A rich variety of indigenous fruits and vegetables grow in Africa, which contribute to the nutrition and health of Africa’s populations. Fruits and vegetables have high moisture and are thus inherently prone to accelerated spoilage. Food fermentation still plays a major role in combating food spoilage and foodborne diseases that are prevalent in many of Africa’s resource disadvantaged regions. Lactic acid fermentation is probably the oldest and best-accepted food processing method among the A...

  18. Kombucha - functional beverage: Composition, characteristics and process of biotransformation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Markov Siniša L.

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Kombucha is a refreshing beverage obtained by the proces of biotransformation of sugared tea with a tea fungus. Kombucha is also frequently called "tea fungus" in the literature, although there is actually no fungus involved in the fermentation. The tea fungus is a symbiotic association of native yeasts and Acetobacteriaceae species fermenting sugared (5-10% black tea (0.2-0.5% into a kombucha beverage. After about 7-10 days incubation at room temperature, kombucha is ready. Growth patterns of tea fungus microorganisms during the biotransformation process of kombucha are not well documented. Tea fungus produces many substances, which with the supply of tea nutrients, give the drink its unusual flavour and healthy properties.

  19. Ribonucleic acids in different tea fungus beverages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Malbaša Radomir V.

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available In human nutrition, nucleic acids have to be balanced and limited up to 2 g/day because purines are degraded to urate, and excessive production of urate is a cause of gout which primarily affects adult males. Tea fungus beverage is a well known drink with high nutritional value and certain curative effects. Its benefits have been proved in a number of studies but it is still necessary to examine some potential harmful effects of this beverage. The aim of this paper was to investigate content of ribonucleic acids (RNA produced during tea fungus fermentation on a usual substrate sweetened black tea, and on Jerusalem artichoke tubers (J.A.T extract using method by Munro and Fleck (1966. pH, ribonucleic acids and also the production of proteins that affect purity of nucleic acids preparations were monitored. A higher value of RNA has been noticed in J.A.T. beverage (0.57 mg/ml and with observation of usual daily dose of the beverage it is completely safe and useful one.

  20. The effect of fermented buckwheat on producing l-carnitine- and γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA)-enriched designer eggs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Namhyeon; Lee, Tae-Kyung; Nguyen, Thi Thanh Hanh; An, Eun-Bae; Kim, Nahyun M; You, Young-Hyun; Park, Tae-Sub; Kim, Doman

    2017-07-01

    The potential of fermented buckwheat as a feed additive was studied to increase l-carnitine and γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) in designer eggs. Buckwheat contains high levels of lysine, methionine and glutamate, which are precursors for the synthesis of l-carnitine and GABA. Rhizopus oligosporus was used for the fermentation of buckwheat to produce l-carnitine and GABA that exert positive effects such as enhanced metabolism, antioxidant activities, immunity and blood pressure control. A novel analytical method for simultaneously detecting l-carnitine and GABA was developed using liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry (LC/MS) and LC/MS/MS. The fermented buckwheat extract contained 4 and 34 times more l-carnitine and GABA respectively compared with normal buckwheat. Compared with the control, the fermented buckwheat extract-fed group showed enriched l-carnitine (13.6%) and GABA (8.4%) in the yolk, though only l-carnitine was significantly different (P < 0.05). Egg production (9.4%), albumen weight (2.1%) and shell weight (5.8%) were significantly increased (P < 0.05). There was no significant difference in yolk weight, and total cholesterol (1.9%) and triglyceride (4.9%) in the yolk were lowered (P < 0.05). Fermented buckwheat as a feed additive has the potential to produce l-carnitine- and GABA-enriched designer eggs with enhanced nutrition and homeostasis. These designer eggs pose significant potential to be utilized in superfood production and supplement industries. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry.

  1. Screening and identification of lactic acid bacteria strains with high acid-producing from traditional fermented yak yogurt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chen Xiaoyong

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available A total of 57 strains of lactic acid bacteria (LAB were isolated and purified from traditional fermented Yak Yogurt in Hongyuan-Sichuan and Yangbajing-Tibet. The strains with high acid-produced were screened by soluble calcium circle and titratable acidity determination. The five strains, 7-1, 22-1, 28-1, 34-1 and 62-1, possessed the high acid-producing and the value of titratable acidity is 196.2, 191.1, 192.2, 194.8 and 200.2 T respectively. Based on 16S rDNA sequence analysis, 22-1 was identified as Lactococcus lactis subsp. lactis, 28-1 as Lactobacillus casei, 34-1 as Lactobacillus fermentium, 7-1 and 62-1 as Enterococcus durans. This study could provide the evidence for researching fermentation strains to improve yogurt quality.

  2. Identification, genetic diversity and cereulide producing ability of Bacillus cereus group strains isolated from Beninese traditional fermented food condiments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thorsen, Line; Azokpota, Paulin; Hansen, Bjarne Munk

    2010-01-01

    Bacillus cereus sensu lato is often detected in spontaneously fermented African foods but is rarely identified to species level. Only some of the B. cereus group species are reported to be pathogenic to humans and identification to species level is necessary to estimate the safety of these products...... (cluster 1). Highly similar PM13 profiles were obtained for seven of the isolates, one from afitin, one from iru and five from sonru (cluster 2). Four of the isolates, one from afitin and three from sonru, did not form any particular cluster. The PM13 profiles of cluster 2 isolates were identical to those...... which are specific to emetic toxin producers. Cereulide production of these isolates was confirmed by liquid chromatography mass spectrometry/mass spectrometry. This is the first report on cereulide producing B. cereus in African fermented foods. Occurrence of the opportunistic human pathogen B. cereus...

  3. High cell density cultures produced by internal retention: application in continuous ethanol fermentation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Berta Carola Pérez

    2004-07-01

    Full Text Available Ethanol has provoked great interest due to its potential as an alternative fuel. Nevertheless, fermentation processes must be developed by increasing the low volumetric productivity achieved in conventional cultures (batch or continuous to make this product become economically competitive. This can be achieved by using techniques leading to high cell concentration and reducing inhibition by the end-product. One of the frequently employed methods involves cell recycling. This work thus developed a membrane reactor incorporating a filtration module with 5 u,m stainless steel tubular units inside a 3L stirred jar fermenter for investigating its application in continuous ethanol production. The effects of cell concentration and transmembrane pressure difference on permeate flux were evaluated for testing the filtration module's performance. The internal cell retention system was operated in Saccharomyces cerevisiae continuous culture derived from sucrose, once fermentation conditions had been selected (30 °C, 1.25 -1.75 vvm, pH 4.5. Filter unit permeability was maintained by applying pulses of air. More than 97% of the grown cells were retained in the fermenter, reaching 51 g/L cell concentration and 8.51 g/L.h average ethanol productivity in culture with internal cell retention; this was twice that obtained in a conventional continuous culture. Key words: Membrane reactor, Saccharomyces cerevisiae, alcoholic fermentation, cell recycling.

  4. Evaluation of yogurt and various beverages as carriers of lactic acid bacteria producing 2-branched (1,3)-β-D-glucan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elizaquível, P; Sánchez, G; Salvador, A; Fiszman, S; Dueñas, M T; López, P; Fernández de Palencia, P; Aznar, R

    2011-07-01

    Probiotic cultures are increasingly being incorporated into a wide variety of food products. Although lactobacilli and bifidobacteria are the most frequently used, other lactic acid bacteria (LAB) have been reported to be potential probiotics. Of these, the cider isolates Pediococccus parvulus (strains 2.6 and CUPV22) and Lactobacillus suebicus CUPV221 produce a 2-branched (1,3)-β-d-glucan exopolysaccharide that decreases serum cholesterol levels and affects the activation of human macrophages. For this reason, these 3 strains were incorporated into yogurt, orange juice, and 2 juice-milk beverages to evaluate the effect of the food matrix on the resistance of these strains to simulated gastrointestinal tract conditions. Our results showed that incorporation of the LAB did not significantly affect the physical and rheological properties of the food matrices tested. When incorporated in yogurt, LAB strains population decreased by 2 to 3 log orders of magnitude during the shelf life of the product (28 d). However, no significant decrease was observed in the juice and juice-milk beverages during the same storage period, except for Lb. suebicus, whose viability decreased by 3 log orders of magnitude. When strains were subjected to gastrointestinal tract conditions, a decrease in the survival was observed at the lower pH (1.8). However, incorporation of these LAB strains into orange juice increases their resistance to lower pH conditions, thus improving survival to gastrointestinal stress. Moreover, a protective effect was observed for P. parvulus CUPV22 and 2.6 to gastric stress in juice-milk beverages and to gastrointestinal stress in yogurt. Lactobacillus suebicus CUPV221 did not survive when incorporated into yogurt and juice-milk beverage. Copyright © 2011 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Acidogenic fermentation characteristics of different types of protein-rich substrates in food waste to produce volatile fatty acids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Dongsheng; Yin, Jun; Yu, Xiaoqin; Wang, Meizhen; Long, Yuyang; Shentu, Jiali; Chen, Ting

    2017-03-01

    In this study, tofu and egg white, representing typical protein-rich substrates in food waste based on vegetable and animal protein, respectively, were investigated for producing volatile fatty acids (VFAs) by acidogenic fermentation. VFA production, composition, conversion pathways and microbial communities in acidogenesis from tofu and egg white with and without hydrothermal (HT) pretreatment were compared. The results showed HT pretreatment could improve the VFA production of tofu but not for egg white. The optimum VFA yields were 0.46g/gVS (tofu with HT) and 0.26g/gVS (egg white without HT), respectively. Tofu could directly produce VFAs through the Stickland reaction, while egg white was converted to lactate and VFAs simultaneously. About 30-40% of total protein remained in all groups after fermentation. Up to 50% of the unconverted soluble protein in the HT groups was protease. More lactate-producing bacteria, mainly Leuconostoc and Lactobacillus, were present during egg white fermentation. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Biodiversity of aerobic endospore-forming bacterial species occurring in Yanyanku and Ikpiru, fermented seeds of Hibiscus sabdariffa used to produce food condiments in Benin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Agbobatinkpo, Pélagie B.; Thorsen, Line; Nielsen, Dennis Sandris

    2013-01-01

    Yanyanku and Ikpiru made by the fermentation of Malcavene bean (Hibiscus sabdariffa) are used as functional additives for Parkia biglobosa seed fermentations in Benin. A total of 355 aerobic endospore-forming bacteria (AEFB) isolated from Yanyanku and Ikpiru produced in northern and southern Benin...

  7. Recovery of phytase produced by solid-state fermentation on citrus peel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Ernesto Rodríguez-Fernández

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The extraction of phytase produced by solid-state fermentation of citrus peel was studied employing a multistage leaching process. It was observed that the extracts containing EDTA retained over 90% of phytase activity at room temperature after 24 h after the leaching. A fractional design 2² (with 4 replicates at the central point was carried out for testing the pH and agitation as process independent factors. Only the interaction between the pH and agitation showed a significant influence. These factors were optimized with a central composite design. Agitation at 300 rpm and pH at 5.0 were the best conditions to extract the enzyme from solid matrix. The modeling of the process indicated that diffusivity of the enzyme in the solvent was the controlling mechanism. The corresponding kinetic constant and saturation concentration in this process were 0.89 min-1 and 4.0 IU/mL, respectively. The multistage process indicated that after two steps, it was possible to recover 85% of total enzyme produced.A extração de fitases produzidas por fermentação em estado sólido de polpa cítrica foi estudada utilizando um processo de extração sólido-líquido em varias etapas. A adição de EDTA permite manter durante 24 horas a temperatura ambiente 90% da atividade inicial do caldo com a enzima extraída. Um planejamento fatorial 2², com 4 replicas no ponto central, foi desenvolvido para testar os valores de ph e agitação convenientes para a extração das enzimas. A interação entre ambos os fatores foi estadisticamente significativa. A atividade da enzima foi otimizada nos valores onde o pH (5.0 e a agitação (350 rpm resultaram ser as melhores condições para extrair a enzima da matriz sólida. O ajuste do modelo matemático obtido mostra que é possível considerar a difusividade como o mecanismo que controla o processo de transferência de massa. A constante cinética que descreve este processo e a concentração de saturação foram 0.039 min

  8. Sluggish gallbladder emptying and gastrointestinal transit after intake of common alcoholic beverages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kasicka-Jonderko, A; Jonderko, K; Gajek, E; Piekielniak, A; Zawislan, R

    2014-02-01

    To study the movement along the gut and the effect upon the gallbladder volume of alcoholic beverages taken in the interdigestive state. The study comprised three research blocks attended by 12 healthy subjects each. Within a given research block volunteers underwent three examination sessions held on separate days, being offered an alcoholic beverage, or an aqueous ethanol solution of an identical proof, or a corresponding volume of isotonic glucose solution; the order of administration of the drinks was randomized. The beverages tested were: beer (4.7% vol, 400 ml), red wine (13.7% vol, 200 ml), whisky (43.5% vol, 100 ml) within the "Beer", "Wine", and "Whisky" research block, respectively. Gastric myoelectrical activity was examined electrogastrographically, gastric emptying with ¹³C-sodium acetate breath test, orocaecal transit with lactulose H₂ breath test, gallbladder emptying with ultrasonography, breath ethanol with alcotest. The study showed that alcoholic beverages were emptied from the stomach significantly slower than isotonic glucose. Alcoholic beverages produced by fermentation only (beer, red wine) were emptied from the stomach more slowly than ethanol solutions of identical proof, while gastric evacuation of whisky (distillation product) and matching alcohol solution was similar. The slower gastric evacuation of alcoholic beverages and ethanol solutions could not be ascribed to a disorganization of the gastric myoelectrical activity. The orocaecal transit of beer and red wine did not differ from that of isotonic glucose, whereas the orocaecal transit of whisky and high proof ethanol was markedly prolonged. Red wine and whisky, and to a similar extent control ethanol solutions caused an inhibition and delay of gallbladder emptying. We concluded that alcoholic beverages taken on an empty stomach exert a suppressive effect upon the transport function of the digestive tract and gallbladder emptying. The extent of this action depends on the type of a

  9. Food Technologies: Fermentation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nout, M.J.R.

    2014-01-01

    Fermentation refers to the use of microorganisms to achieve desirable food properties in the fermented food or beverage. Although the word ‘fermentation’ indicates ‘anaerobic metabolism,’ it is also used in a broader sense to indicate all anaerobic and aerobic microbiological and biochemical

  10. Asian fungal fermented food

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nout, M.J.R.; Aidoo, K.E.

    2010-01-01

    In Asian countries, there is a long history of fermentation of foods and beverages. Diverse micro-organisms, including bacteria, yeasts and moulds, are used as starters, and a wide range of ingredients can be made into fermented foods. The main raw materials include cereals, leguminous seeds,

  11. Korean Ginseng Berry Fermented by Mycotoxin Non-producing Aspergillus niger and Aspergillus oryzae: Ginsenoside Analyses and Anti-proliferative Activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Zhipeng; Ahn, Hyung Jin; Kim, Nam Yeon; Lee, Yu Na; Ji, Geun Eog

    2016-01-01

    To transform ginsenosides, Korean ginseng berry (KGB) was fermented by mycotoxin non-producing Aspergillus niger and Aspergillus oryzae. Changes of ginsenoside profile and anti-proliferative activities were observed. Results showed that A. niger tended to efficiently transform protopanaxadiol (PPD) type ginsenosides such as Rb1, Rb2, Rd to compound K while A. oryzae tended to efficiently transform protopanaxatriol (PPT) type ginsenoside Re to Rh1 via Rg1. Butanol extracts of fermented KGB showed high cytotoxicity on human adenocarcinoma HT-29 cell line and hepatocellular carcinoma HepG2 cell line while that of unfermented KGB showed little. The minimum effective concentration of niger-fermented KGB was less than 2.5 µg/mL while that of oryzae-fermented KGB was about 5 µg/mL. As A. niger is more inclined to transform PPD type ginsenosides, niger-fermented KGB showed stronger anti-proliferative activity than oryzae-fermented KGB.

  12. The shifting beverage landscape.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Storey, Maureen

    2010-04-26

    STOREY, M.L. The shifting beverage landscape. PHYSIOL BEHAV, 2010. - Simultaneous lifestyle changes have occurred in the last few decades, creating an imbalance in energy intake and energy expenditure that has led to overweight and obesity. Trends in the food supply show that total daily calories available per capita increased 28% since 1970. Total energy intake among men and women has also increased dramatically since that time. Some have suggested that intake of beverages has had a disproportional impact on obesity. Data collected by the Beverage Marketing Corporation between 1988-2008 demonstrate that, in reality, fewer calories per ounce are being produced by the beverage industry. Moreover, data from the National Cancer Institute show that soft drink intake represents 5.5% of daily calories. Data from NHANES 1999-2003 vs. 2003-06 may demonstrate a shift in beverage consumption for age/gender groups, ages 6 to>60years. The beverages provided in schools have significantly changed since 2006 when the beverage industry implemented School Beverage Guidelines. This voluntary action has removed full-calorie soft drinks from participating schools across the country. This shift to lower-calorie and smaller-portion beverages in school has led to a significant decrease in total beverage calories in schools. These data support the concept that to prevent and treat obesity, public health efforts should focus on energy balance and that a narrow focus on sweetened beverages is unlikely to have any meaningful impact on this complex problem. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Producing Acetic Acid of Acetobacter pasteurianus by Fermentation Characteristics and Metabolic Flux Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Xuefeng; Yao, Hongli; Liu, Qing; Zheng, Zhi; Cao, Lili; Mu, Dongdong; Wang, Hualin; Jiang, Shaotong; Li, Xingjiang

    2018-03-19

    The acetic acid bacterium Acetobacter pasteurianus plays an important role in acetic acid fermentation, which involves oxidation of ethanol to acetic acid through the ethanol respiratory chain under specific conditions. In order to obtain more suitable bacteria for the acetic acid industry, A. pasteurianus JST-S screened in this laboratory was compared with A. pasteurianus CICC 20001, a current industrial strain in China, to determine optimal fermentation parameters under different environmental stresses. The maximum total acid content of A. pasteurianus JST-S was 57.14 ± 1.09 g/L, whereas that of A. pasteurianus CICC 20001 reached 48.24 ± 1.15 g/L in a 15-L stir stank. Metabolic flux analysis was also performed to compare the reaction byproducts. Our findings revealed the potential value of the strain in improvement of industrial vinegar fermentation.

  14. Quality and microbiological safety of fermented bovine dairy produced in Federal District, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diana Lima dos Reis

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Considering the growing importance of fermented dairy products in the domestic market and the scarcity of data in the Federal District (DF, it was evaluated the quality and microbiological safety of these products in the DF and its adaptation to current standards. The study was conducted in five dairy being collected 105 samples of fermented dairy products corresponding to 21 lots (n = 5 per lot, with 65 samples of yogurt, 20 of curd and 20 of fermented dairy drink. All samples were submitted to a count of aerobic mesophilic, psychrotrophic, coliforms at 35 ° C, Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus coagulase positive, Salmonella spp., molds, yeasts and viable lactic acid bacteria (BAL. The total lots analyzed, 62% were considered acceptable under the Regulatory Instructions n ° 46/2007 and n ° 16/2005. In order of quality, fermented dairy drink was the one with lots more apt to consumption (75% followed by yoghurt (61.5% and, lastly, curd (50%. For samples units, the results showed that: 17% of yoghurt samples, 15% of curd and 20% of fermented dairy drink showed scores above the allowed CT; 11% of yoghurt samples and 30% of fermented dairy drink showed BAL counts below specific minimum limits; and 61% samples of yogurt and curd were 30% of curd was with yeasts and molds counts above permitted. No samples showed the development of E. coli or Salmonella spp. Despite the absence of microbiological hazards in the samples analyzed, the study indicates problems in the production of these products in the DF that may be related to deficiencies in hygienic of the processes, most rigor in the quality controls of dairy and oversight of industries is needed.

  15. Influence of aeration in the fermentative activity of Kloeckera apiculata during fermentation of apple juice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Estela Escalante, Waldir D; Rychtera, Mojmir; Melzoch, Karel; Guerrero Ochoa, Manuel R

    2012-01-01

    The influence of aeration on the fermentative activity of Kloeckera apiculata RIVE 9-2-1 was studied in order to evaluate the production of metabolites of the fermentation. To achieve this, the strain was cultured in Erlenmeyer flasks containing sterilized and aroma removed apple juice, and the chemical compounds produced during fermentation in shaken (200 min-1) and static (without agitation) cultivation were determined. The results showed that the agitation of the culture medium increases production of higher alcohols (till 591.0 mg/L) compared to static cultivation, whereas on the contrary, the production of acetic acid, ethyl acetate and glycerol (260.0 ± 11.0 mg/L, 196.0 ± 10.0 mg/L y 2.6±0.2 g/L) were higher compared to shaken cultivation (222.0 ± 8.0 mg/L, 96.0 ± 4.5 mg/L and 1.8 ± 0.2 g/L) respectively. Batch cultivations carried out in bioreactor with air flux of 25 l/h reported a growth rate μ of 0.17 h-1, production of ethanol (12.5 ± 2.0 g/L) and other compounds typically produced during alcoholic fermentation. The concentration of dissolved oxygen in the fermentation medium affects its metabolism thus; insufficient amounts of oxygen would provoke a respirofermentative metabolism. The best results in terms of organoleptic quality of the fermented beverage regarding to aroma, taste and flavor was obtained when fermented in static cultivation. The control of aeration during fermentation can be used to control the synthesis of chemical compounds of sensory impact in the production of fermented beverages.

  16. Fermentation of tender coconut water by probiotic bacteria Bacillus coagulans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aishwarya Singh Gangwar

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Coconut water is currently being considered as an elixir for patients suffering from diseases like dengue and malaria as well as chikungunia to provide hydration properties to the body. It has become a popular beverage for many people owing to its palatability and high mineral content. In this study, the growth, survival and fermentation performance of the probiotic bacterium Bacillus coagulans in coconut water was assessed in order to produce a novel non-dairy, probiotic beverage. The species was characterized on the basis of morphology, physiology and biochemical parameters and its probiotic attributes were assessed. Batch fermentations were carried out for 2 days at a constant 37°C, thereafter the samples were subjected to microbiological and chemical analysis. The results suggested that the specie produced lactic acid and was acid and bile tolerant. The pH and titratable acidity of probiotic fermented coconut water were found to be 4.4 and 0.53 % lactic acid, respectively. The viscosity of fermented coconut water increased significantly from an initial 5.13 mPa.s to 5.35 mPa.s because of the increase in soluble solids content due to exopolysaccharide production by B. coagulans during fermentation. Also, the overall acceptability score of probiotic coconut water was higher than tender coconut water, suggesting its feasibility for use as a probiotic beverage.

  17. Improved process for producing a fermentation product from a lignocellulose-containing material

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2017-01-01

    The present invention relates to the production of hydrolyzates from a lignocellulose-containing material, and to fermentation of the hydrolyzates. More specifically, the present invention relates to the detoxification of phenolic inhibitors and toxins formed during the processing of lignocellulose...

  18. A process for producing a fermentation product from a lignocellulose-containing material

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2016-01-01

    The present invention relates to the production of hydrolyzates from a lignocellulose-containing material, and to fermentation of the hydrolyzates. More specifically, the present invention relates to the detoxification of phenolic inhibitors and toxins formed during the processing of lignocellulose...

  19. Evaluation of the nutritional value of locally produced forage in Korea using chemical analysis and in vitro ruminal fermentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ki, Kwang Seok; Park, Su Bum; Lim, Dong Hyun; Seo, Seongwon

    2017-03-01

    The use of locally produced forage (LPF) in cattle production has economic and environmental advantages over imported forage. The objective of this study was to characterize the nutritional value of LPF commonly used in Korea. Differences in ruminal fermentation characteristics were also examined for the LPF species commonly produced from two major production regions: Chungcheong and Jeolla. Ten LPF (five from each of the two regions) and six of the most widely used imported forages originating from North America were obtained at least three times throughout a year. Each forage species was pooled and analyzed for nutrient content using detailed chemical analysis. Ruminal fermentation characteristics were also determined by in vitro anaerobic incubations using strained rumen fluid for 0, 3, 6, 12, 24, and 48 h. At each incubation time, total gas, pH, ammonia, volatile fatty acid (VFA) concentrations, and neutral detergent fiber digestibility were measured. By fitting an exponential model, gas production kinetics were obtained. Significant differences were found in the non-fiber carbohydrate (NFC) content among the forage species and the regions (pruminal fermentation of LPF between the two regions and interactions between regions and forage species were also significant (pruminal fermentation was lower in the forages from Chungcheong than from Jeolla (p<0.01), and total VFA concentration was higher in Chungcheong than in Jeolla (p = 0.05). This implies that fermentation was more active with the forages from Chungcheong than from Jeolla. Analysis of gas production profiles showed the rate of fermentation differed among forage species (p<0.05). The results of the present study showed that the nutritional values of some LPF (i.e., corn silage and Italian ryegrass) are comparable to those of imported forages widely used in Korea. This study also indicated that the nutritional value of LPF differs by origin, as well as by forage species. Detailed analyses of nutrient

  20. Metabolomic and proteomic analysis of D-lactate-producing Lactobacillus delbrueckii under various fermentation conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Shaoxiong; Gao, Dacheng; Liu, Huanhuan; Wang, Cheng; Wen, Jianping

    2018-05-28

    As an important feedstock monomer for the production of biodegradable stereo-complex poly-lactic acid polymer, D-lactate has attracted much attention. To improve D-lactate production by microorganisms such as Lactobacillus delbrueckii, various fermentation conditions were performed, such as the employment of anaerobic fermentation, the utilization of more suitable neutralizing agents, and exploitation of alternative nitrogen sources. The highest D-lactate titer could reach 133 g/L under the optimally combined fermentation condition, increased by 70.5% compared with the control. To decipher the potential mechanisms of D-lactate overproduction, the time-series response of intracellular metabolism to different fermentation conditions was investigated by GC-MS and LC-MS/MS-based metabolomic analysis. Then the metabolomic datasets were subjected to weighted correlation network analysis (WGCNA), and nine distinct metabolic modules and eight hub metabolites were identified to be specifically associated with D-lactate production. Moreover, a quantitative iTRAQ-LC-MS/MS proteomic approach was employed to further analyze the change of intracellular metabolism under the combined fermentation condition, identifying 97 up-regulated and 42 down-regulated proteins compared with the control. The in-depth analysis elucidated how the key factors exerted influence on D-lactate biosynthesis. The results revealed that glycolysis and pentose phosphate pathways, transport of glucose, amino acids and peptides, amino acid metabolism, peptide hydrolysis, synthesis of nucleotides and proteins, and cell division were all strengthened, while ATP consumption for exporting proton, cell damage, metabolic burden caused by stress response, and bypass of pyruvate were decreased under the combined condition. These might be the main reasons for significantly improved D-lactate production. These findings provide the first omics view of cell growth and D-lactate overproduction in L. delbrueckii, which

  1. Kefir: a multifaceted fermented dairy product.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nielsen, Barbara; Gürakan, G Candan; Unlü, Gülhan

    2014-12-01

    Kefir is a fermented dairy beverage produced by the actions of the microflora encased in the "kefir grain" on the carbohydrates in the milk. Containing many bacterial species already known for their probiotic properties, it has long been popular in Eastern Europe for its purported health benefits, where it is routinely administered to patients in hospitals and recommended for infants and the infirm. It is beginning to gain a foothold in the USA as a healthy probiotic beverage, mostly as an artisanal beverage, home fermented from shared grains, but also recently as a commercial product commanding shelf space in retail establishments. This is similar to the status of yogurts in the 1970s when yogurt was the new healthy product. Scientific studies into these reported benefits are being conducted into these health benefits, many with promising results, though not all of the studies have been conclusive. Our review provides an overview of kefir's structure, microbial profile, production, and probiotic properties. Our review also discusses alternative uses of kefir, kefir grains, and kefiran (the soluble polysaccharide produced by the organisms in kefir grains). Their utility in wound therapy, food additives, leavening agents, and other non-beverage uses is being studied with promising results.

  2. Isolation and selection of new biosurfactant producing bacteria from degraded palm kernel cake under liquid state fermentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jamal, Parveen; Mir, Shajrat; Alam, Md Zahangir; Wan Nawawi, Wan M Fazli

    2014-01-01

    Biosurfactants are surface-active compounds produced by different microorganisms. The aim of this study was to introduce palm kernel cake (PKC) as a novel substrate for biosurfactant production using a potent bacterial strain under liquid state fermentation. This study was primarily based on the isolation and identification of biosurfactant-producing bacteria that could utilize palm kernel cake as a new major substrate. Potential bacterial strains were isolated from degraded PKC and screened for biosurfactant production with the help of the drop collapse assay and by analyzing the surface tension activity. From the screened isolates, a new strain, SM03, showed the best and most consistent results, and was therefore selected as the most potent biosurfactant-producing bacterial strain. The new strain was identified as Providencia alcalifaciens SM03 using the Gen III MicroPlate Biolog Microbial Identification System. The yield of the produced biosurfactant was 8.3 g/L.

  3. Ethanol at levels produced by Saccharomyces cerevisiae during wheat dough fermentation has a strong impact on dough properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jayaram, Vinay B; Rezaei, Mohammad N; Cuyvers, Sven; Verstrepen, Kevin J; Delcour, Jan A; Courtin, Christophe M

    2014-09-24

    Yeast's role in bread making is primarily the fermentative production of carbon dioxide to leaven the dough. Fermentation also impacts dough matrix rheology, thereby affecting the quality of the end product. Surprisingly, the role of ethanol, the other yeast primary metabolite, has been ill studied in this context. Therefore, this study aims to assess the potential impact of ethanol on yeastless dough extensibility and spread and gluten agglomeration at concentrations at which it is produced in fermenting dough, i.e., up to 60 mmol per 100 g of flour. Reduced dough extensibility and dough spread were observed upon incorporation of ethanol in the dough formula, and were more pronounced for a weak than for a strong flour. Uniaxial and biaxial extension tests showed up to 50% decrease in dough extensibility and a dough strength increase of up to 18% for 60 mmol of ethanol/100 g of flour. Ethanol enhanced gluten agglomeration of a weak flour. Sequential extraction of flour in increasing ethanol concentrations showed that better gluten-solvent interaction is a possible explanation for the changed dough behavior.

  4. Reverse osmosis influence over the content of metals and organic acids in low alcoholic beverages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrieş Mitică Tiberiu

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Wine is defined as an alcoholic beverage resulted from fermentation of grape must, having ethanol content higher than 8.5% (v/v. Wine consumption has health benefits related to the high concentration of polyphenolic compounds with antioxidant activity and cardiovascular protection effects. However, the alcohol content restricts wine consumption, but wines with low-alcohol content can be obtained with the help of the dealcoholisation process, after it was produced through alcoholic fermentation. The purpose of this work is to evaluate the organic acid concentration, metal content and other physical-chemical parameters of low alcoholic beverages obtained from grape must by a process which involves reverse osmosis, mixing in a variable ratio the permeate and concentrate and then fermentation. For the experiments, a Muscat Ottonel grape must from Iaşi vineyard was used. There were ten variants of beverages (wines with low alcoholic concentration, by mixing known quantities of the two phases resulting from the reverse osmosis process. These beverages (wines had an alcoholic concentration starting from 2.5% (v/v in the first variant, up to 7% (v/v in the tenth variant. Alcoholic concentration varies for each variant by 0.5% (v/v. After fermentation in 50 L stainless steel tanks, the samples were filtered with 0.45μm sterile membrane and bottled in 0.75 L glass bottles. After 2 months of storage at constant temperature, the beverage samples were analyzed to determine the metal content (AAS method, organic acids concentration (HPLC method, and other physical-chemical characteristics (OIV standard methods. The results obtained indicate that the very complex physical-chemical composition of the low alcoholic beverages analyzed is influenced by the specific chemical composition of a given grape must, as well as by the use of products obtained from reverse osmosis.

  5. Traditional biotechnology for new foods and beverages.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hugenholtz, J.

    2013-01-01

    The food and beverage industry is re-discovering fermentation as a crucial step in product innovation. Fermentation can provide various benefits such as unique flavor, health and nutrition, texture and safety (shelf life), while maintaining a 100% natural label. In this review several examples are

  6. Gaining electricity from in situ oxidation of hydrogen produced by fermentative cellulose degradation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niessen, J; Schröder, U; Harnisch, F; Scholz, F

    2005-01-01

    To exploit the fermentative hydrogen generation and direct hydrogen oxidation for the generation of electric current from the degradation of cellulose. Utilizing the metabolic activity of the mesophilic anaerobe Clostridium cellulolyticum and the thermophilic Clostridium thermocellum we show that electricity generation is possible from cellulose fermentation. The current generation is based on an in situ oxidation of microbially synthesized hydrogen at platinum-poly(tetrafluoroaniline) (Pt-PTFA) composite electrodes. Current densities of 130 mA l(-1) (with 3 g cellulose per litre medium) were achieved in poised potential experiments under batch and semi-batch conditions. The presented results show that electricity generation is possible by the in situ oxidation of hydrogen, product of the anaerobic degradation of cellulose by cellulolytic bacteria. For the first time, it is shown that an insoluble complex carbohydrate like cellulose can be used for electricity generation in a microbial fuel cell. The concept represents a first step to the utilization of macromolecular biomass components for microbial electricity generation.

  7. Methanogenesis of carbohydrates and their fermentation products by syntrophic methane producing bacteria isolated from freshwater sediments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tabassum, R; Ibrahim Rajoka, M [National Inst. for Biotechnology and Genetic Engineering, Faisalabad (Pakistan)

    2000-05-01

    Anaerobic conversion of substrates namely cellulose, cellobiose, glucose, volatile fatty acids, and methanol with a co-culture of fermentative, acidogenic, acetogenic, and methanogenic organisms isolated from freshwater sediments was performed. Maximum reduction of volatile solids (VS) was from cellulose, cellobiose and glucose followed by methanol and other compounds with a product yield coefficient (Y{sub p/s}) of 0.59 m{sup 3}/kg VS consumed with a volumetric productivity (Q{sub p}) of 15.7 mmol/l/d after 12 d fermentation of cellulose. Maximum methane content in the gas mixture was 86.1% with an average of 82.5 {+-} 3.6%. Batch culture methane production characteristics were analyzed and compared. The maximum values of Y{sub p/s}, from cellobiose, glucose, methanol, formate, acetate, propionate, and butyrate were 4.0, 2.2, 0.71. 0.22, 0.90. 1.6 and 1.43 mmol/M substrate used and are higher than those values reported in the literature. (Author)

  8. Successive membrane separation processes simplify concentration of lipases produced by Aspergillus niger by solid-state fermentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reinehr, Christian Oliveira; Treichel, Helen; Tres, Marcus Vinicius; Steffens, Juliana; Brião, Vandré Barbosa; Colla, Luciane Maria

    2017-06-01

    In this study, we developed a simplified method for producing, separating, and concentrating lipases derived from solid-state fermentation of agro-industrial residues by filamentous fungi. First, we used Aspergillus niger to produce lipases with hydrolytic activity. We analyzed the separation and concentration of enzymes using membrane separation processes. The sequential use of microfiltration and ultrafiltration processes made it possible to obtain concentrates with enzymatic activities much higher than those in the initial extract. The permeate flux was higher than 60 L/m 2 h during microfiltration using 20- and 0.45-µm membranes and during ultrafiltration using 100- and 50-kDa membranes, where fouling was reversible during the filtration steps, thereby indicating that the fouling may be removed by cleaning processes. These results demonstrate the feasibility of lipase production using A. niger by solid-state fermentation of agro-industrial residues, followed by successive tangential filtration with membranes, which simplify the separation and concentration steps that are typically required in downstream processes.

  9. Production of bioethanol from fermented sugars of sugarcane bagasse produced by lignocellulolytic enzymes of Exiguobacterium sp. VSG-1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vijayalaxmi, S; Anu Appaiah, K A; Jayalakshmi, S K; Mulimani, V H; Sreeramulu, K

    2013-09-01

    Exiguobacterium sp. VSG-1 was isolated from the soil sample and characterized for the production of lignocellulolytic enzymes. Production of these enzymes by the strain VSG-1 was carried out using steam-exploded sugarcane bagasse (SCB) and found to secrete cellulase, pectinase, mannanase, xylanase, and tannase. The growth and enzyme production were found to be optimum at pH 9.0 and 37 °C. Upon steam explosion of SCB, the cellulose increased by 42 %, whereas hemicelluloses and lignin decreased by 40 and 62 %, respectively. Enzymatic hydrolysis of steam-exploded SCB yielded 640 g/l of total sugars. Fermentation of sugars produced from pretreated SCB was carried out by using Saccharomyces cerevisiae at pH 5.0 and 30 °C. The alcohol produced was calculated and found to be 62.24 g/l corresponding to 78 % of the theoretical yield of ethanol. Hence, the strain VSG-1 has an industrial importance for the production of fermentable sugars for biofuels.

  10. Rehydration beverage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenleaf, John E. (Inventor)

    1995-01-01

    A novel rehydration beverage containing sodium chloride, sodium citrate, and aspartame useful for rapid restoration of hydration homeostasis is disclosed. The beverage is particularly useful for restoration of normal body fluid volumes and their intracellular and extracellular distribution during a hypohydration state observed in astronauts and air passengers.

  11. Purification of an Exopolygalacturonase from Penicillium viridicatum RFC3 Produced in Submerged Fermentation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eleni Gomes

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available An exo-PG obtained from Penicillium viridicatum in submerged fermentation was purified to homogeneity. The apparent molecular weight of the enzyme was 92 kDa, optimum pH and temperature for activity were pH 5 and 50–55∘C. The exo-PG showed a profile of an exo-polygalacturonase, releasing galacturonic acid by hydrolysis of pectin with a high degree of esterification (D.E.. Ions Ca2+ enhanced the stability of enzyme and its activity by 30%. The Km was 1.30 in absence of Ca2+ and 1.16 mg mL−1 in presence of this ion. In relation to the Vmax the presence of this ion increased from 1.76 to 2.07 μmol min−1mg−1.

  12. Purification of an Exopolygalacturonase from Penicillium viridicatum RFC3 Produced in Submerged Fermentation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomes, Eleni; Leite, Rodrigo Simões Ribeiro; da Silva, Roberto; Silva, Dênis

    2009-01-01

    An exo-PG obtained from Penicillium viridicatum in submerged fermentation was purified to homogeneity. The apparent molecular weight of the enzyme was 92 kDa, optimum pH and temperature for activity were pH 5 and 50–55°C. The exo-PG showed a profile of an exo-polygalacturonase, releasing galacturonic acid by hydrolysis of pectin with a high degree of esterification (D.E.). Ions Ca2+ enhanced the stability of enzyme and its activity by 30%. The K m was 1.30 in absence of Ca2+ and 1.16 mg mL−1 in presence of this ion. In relation to the V max the presence of this ion increased from 1.76 to 2.07 μmol min−1mg−1. PMID:20148174

  13. Chemical composition and fermentative parameters of heart of palm waste produced from Alexander Palm ensiled with chemical additives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Geraldo Fábio Viana Bayão

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT The objective of this study was to evaluate the chemical composition and the fermentative parameters of heart of palm waste produced from Alexander Palm, ensiled with chemical additives. Treatments consisted of silage of the sheath with or without calcium oxide. In the silage without calcium oxide, we evaluated the control silage (without additive and the silage enriched with 5.0 g kg−1 urea (urea. In the silage with calcium oxide, we evaluated the silage enriched with 5.0 g kg−1 calcium oxide (control and the silage enriched with 5.0 g kg−1 urea and 5.0 g kg−1 calcium oxide (urea. Experimental silos were distributed in a completely randomized design in a 2 × 2 factorial arrangement (inclusion or lack of lime × inclusion or lack of urea, with four replicates. Crude protein concentration was greater in the silages that received urea, whereas in the case of neutral detergent fiber and acid detergent fiber, the lowest levels were found in the control silage. Control silage had the lowest pH (3.75 and the silages that received lime displayed the lowest lactic acid content. Effluent losses were greater in the control silage and in the silage with lime (56.1 kg t−1 and 58.4 kg t−1, respectively. Silages prepared with waste from heart of palm production and enriched only with urea showed a better chemical composition and improved fermentation parameter estimates. We recommend the use of this waste only with additives that can improve the chemical characteristics of the forage. Without additives, unwanted fermentation processes may occur and compromise the quality of the silage.

  14. Atypical yeasts identified as Saccharomyces cerevisiae by MALDI-TOF MS and gene sequencing are the main responsible of fermentation of chicha, a traditional beverage from Peru.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vallejo, Juan Andrés; Miranda, Patricia; Flores-Félix, José David; Sánchez-Juanes, Fernando; Ageitos, José M; González-Buitrago, José Manuel; Velázquez, Encarna; Villa, Tomás G

    2013-12-01

    Chicha is a drink prepared in several Andean countries from Inca's times by maize fermentation. Currently this fermentation is carried out in familiar artesanal "chicherías" that make one of the most known types of chicha, the "chicha de jora". In this study we isolate and identify the yeasts mainly responsible of the fermentation process in this type of chicha in 10 traditional "chicherías" in Cusco region in Peru. We applied by first time MALDI-TOF MS analysis for the identification of yeast of non-clinic origin and the results showed that all of yeast strains isolated belong to the species Saccharomyces cerevisiae. These results agree with those obtained after the analysis of the D1/D2 and 5.8S-ITS regions. However the chicha strains have a phenotypic profile that differed in more than 40% as compared to that of current S. cerevisiae strains. To the best of our knowledge this is the first report concerning the yeasts involved in chicha fermentation. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  15. Prospects and challenges for the recovery of 2-butanol produced by vacuum fermentation - a techno-economic analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira, Joana P C; Lopez-Gomez, Gustavo; Reyes, Noelia G; van der Wielen, Luuk A M; Straathof, Adrie J J

    2017-07-01

    The conceptual design of a bio-based process for 2-butanol production is presented for the first time. Considering a hypothetical efficient producing strain, a vacuum fermentation is proposed to alleviate product toxicity, but the main challenge is the energy-efficient product recovery from the vapor. Three downstream scenarios were examined for this purpose: 1) multi-stage vapor recompression; 2) temperature swing adsorption; and 3) vapor absorption. The processes were simulated using Aspen Plus, considering a production capacity of 101 kton/yr. Process optimization was performed targeting the minimum selling price of 2-butanol. The feasibility of the different configurations was analyzed based on the global energy requirements and capital expenditure. The use of integrated adsorption and absorption minimized the energy duty required for azeotrope purification, which represents 11% of the total operational expenditure in Scenario 1. The minimum selling price of 2-butanol as commodity chemical was estimated as 1.05 $/kg, 1.21 $/kg, and 1.03 $/kg regarding the fermentation integrated with downstream scenarios 1), 2), and 3), respectively. Significant savings in 2-butanol production could be achieved in the suggested integrated configurations if more efficient microbial strains were engineered, and more selective adsorption and absorption materials were found for product recovery. Copyright © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  16. Bioactivity of a Novel Glycolipid Produced by a Halophilic Buttiauxella sp. and Improving Submerged Fermentation Using a Response Surface Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdolrazagh Marzban

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available An antimicrobial glycolipid biosurfactant (GBS, extracted and identified from a marine bacterium, was studied to inhibit pathogenic microorganisms. Production of the GBS was optimized using a statistical method, a response surface method (RSM with a central composite design (CCD for obtaining maximum yields on a cost-effective substrate, molasses. The GBS-producing bacterium was identified as Buttiauxella Species in terms of biochemical and molecular characteristics. This compound showed a desirable antimicrobial activity against some pathogens such as E. coli, Bacillus subtilis, Bacillus cereus, Candida albicans, Aspergilus niger, Salmonella enterica. The rheological studies described the stability of the GBS at high values in a range of pH (7–8, temperature (20–60 and salinity (0%–3%. The statistical optimization of GBS fermentation was found to be pH 7, temperature 33 °C, Peptone 1%, NaCl 1% and molasses 1%. The potency of the GBS as an effective antimicrobial agent provides evidence for its use against food and human pathogens. Moreover, favorable production of the GBS in the presence of molasses as a cheap substrate and the feasibility of pilot scale fermentation using an RSM method could expand its uses in food, pharmaceutical products and oil industries.

  17. Pulque production from fermented agave sap as a dietary supplement in Prehispanic Mesoamerica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Correa-Ascencio, Marisol; Robertson, Ian G; Cabrera-Cortés, Oralia; Cabrera-Castro, Rubén; Evershed, Richard P

    2014-09-30

    Although in modern societies fermented beverages are associated with socializing, celebration, and ritual, in ancient times they were also importa`nt sources of essential nutrients and potable water. In Mesoamerica, pulque, an alcoholic beverage produced from the fermented sap of several species of maguey plants (Agavaceae; Fig. 1) is hypothesized to have been used as a dietary supplement and risk-buffering food in ancient Teotihuacan (150 B.C. to A.D. 650). Although direct archaeological evidence of pulque production is lacking, organic residue analysis of pottery vessels offers a new avenue of investigation. However, the chemical components of alcoholic beverages are water-soluble, greatly limiting their survival over archaeological timescales compared with hydrophobic lipids widely preserved in food residues. Hence, we apply a novel lipid biomarker approach that considers detection of bacteriohopanoids derived from the ethanol-producing bacterium Zymomonas mobilis for identifying pulque production/consumption in pottery vessels. Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry selected ion monitoring (m/z 191) of lipid extracts of >300 potsherds revealed characteristic bacteriohopanoid distributions in a subset of 14 potsherds. This hopanoid biomarker approach offers a new means of identifying commonly occurring bacterially fermented alcoholic beverages worldwide, including palm wine, beer, cider, perry, and other plant sap- or fruit-derived beverages [Swings J, De Ley J (1977) Bacteriol Rev 41(1):1-46].

  18. Special Beer obtained by Synchronous Alcoholic Fermentation of Two Different Origin Substrates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena MUDURA

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Beer is the most consumed alcoholic beverage worldwide. Both beer and wine are  recognized since ancient times for their health benefits. Nowadays, these beverages are consumed for its sensory, social interaction, and recently even in culinary dishes. In addition, studies showed the benefits of beer moderate consumption on health. Beer is a low-alcohol beverage and also presents many nutritional properties outlined by its nutritional content rich in vitamins, minerals and antioxidants that come from the raw material (malt and hop. Wishing to attract as many niches of consumers, brewers tend to produce every year new and innovative beers. The purpose of this study was to develop the technology for an innovative special beer. The synchronous alcoholic fermentation of two different origin substrates – wort and grape must - was monitored and their composition was assessed in order to obtain special beer with superior sensory properties. Technological process was developed in the Winery Pilot Station of the UASVM Cluj-Napoca. Special beer was obtained by alcoholic fermentation of hopped dark wort with grape must from the autochthonous Feteasca neagra grapes variety. Second fermentation process was followed by the maturation (3 weeks at 5oC in order to harmonize sensory qualities. The entire process was monitored considering fermentation and final products physicochemical parameters. The optimized ratio of the two fermentation substrates was of 2.5:3 on primary raw materials – beer wort and grapes must. The process was monitored on optimizing the fermentation process. The best fermentation yield was obtained when lower fermentation extracts were used. This study demonstrated that the simultaneous fermentation of the two substrates with different glucidic origin may proceed under controlled conditions and may be carried out so as to obtain the desired fermentation products with improved sensorial properties and increased health benefits.

  19. Isolation and characterization of Ethanologenbacterium HitB49 gen. nov. sp. nov., an anaerobic, high hydrogen-producing bacterium with a special ethanol-type-fermentation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lin, M. [Harbin Inst. of Technology, Harbin, HL (China). School of Municipal and Environmental Engineering]|[Nanyang Technological Univ., Singapore (Singapore). Inst. of Environmental Science and Engineering; Ren, N.Q.; Wang, A.J. [Harbin Inst. of Technology, Harbin, HL (China). School of Municipal and Environmental Engineering; Liang, D.T.; Tay, J.H. [Nanyang Technological Univ., Singapore (Singapore). Inst. of Environmental Science and Engineering

    2004-07-01

    Hydrogen, an important future energy source, can be produced by several fermentative microorganisms. The factor that prevents widespread biohydrogen production is the difficulty in isolating the ideal high hydrogen-producing bacterium (HPB). In this study, the Hungate technology was used to isolate and cultivate 210 strains of dominant fermentative bacteria. They were isolated from 6 sludges with ethanol-type fermentation (ETF) bioreactors. The study examined the production of hydrogen in pH 4, very low pH in ETF. The maximum rate in the biohydrogen-producing reactor was promising under continuous flow condition. The novel genus of HPB was Ethanologenbacterium Hit, of which strain B49 belonged to the ETF bacteria.

  20. Soyamilk fermented with riboflavin-producing Lactobacillus plantarum CRL 2130 reverts and prevents ariboflavinosis in murine models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juarez Del Valle, M; Laiño, J E; de Moreno de LeBlanc, A; Savoy de Giori, G; LeBlanc, J G

    2016-10-01

    It has been previously shown that Lactobacillus plantarum CRL 2130 is able to produce riboflavin in soyamilk. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the efficiency of this riboflavin-bio-enriched soyamilk to revert and/or prevent the nutritional deficiency of riboflavin using different animal models. When used to supplement the diets of previously depleted animals, it was shown that the growth, riboflavin status and morphology of the small intestines reverted to normal parameters and were similar to animals supplemented with commercial riboflavin. In the prevention model, the same tendency was observed, where animals that received soyamilk fermented with L. plantarum CRL 2130 did not show signs of riboflavin deficiency. This new bio-fortified soya-based product could be used as part of normal diets to provide a more natural alternative to mandatory fortification with riboflavin for the prevention of its deficiency.

  1. The Effect of Fe Concentration on the Quality and Quantity of Biogas Produced From Fermentation of Palm Oil Mill Effluent

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irvan Matseh

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this research is to study the effect of Fe concentration as a trace metal on the quality and quantity of biogas produced from the fermentation of palm oil mill effluent (POME. Raw POME as feed was obtained from one of the palm oil mills belong to PTPN IV, other materials used were hydrochloric acid, sodium bicarbonate, and trace metals. Observed variables were volume of biogas, concentration of Fe in raw POME and biodigester, degradation rate of total solid (TS and volatile solid (VS, M-Alkalinity, pH, H2S and CO2 concentration in biogas at hydraulic retention time (HRT 6 days. Before HRT of 6 days reached, initial trace metal compositions were 25.2 mg/L of Fe, 0.42 mg/L of Co, and 0.49 mg/L of Ni. After that, composition of trace metal were consisted only Co and Ni. The results showed that Fe as a trace metal did not affect the production or quantity of biogas. When Fe concentration reached over to 330 mg/L then concentration of CH4, total solid (TS and volatile solid (VS decreased. Moreover, the higher the Fe contents the smaller of H2S production. Fe content in POME from the same mill had different concentration, as the consequence biogas with different H2S concentrations were produced as well. Thus, Fe in the trace metals is no longer required if high concentration of Fe already existed in POME because it can reduce the formation of H2S. In addition, too high concentration of Fe in POME can be toxic for microorganism in the fermentation of biogas.

  2. IMPACT OF THE FERMENTATION PROCESS WITH IMMOBILIZED YEAST CELLS ON THE AROMA PROFILE AND SENSORY QUALITY OF DISTILLATES PRODUCED FROM TWO FIG (Ficus carica L. CULTIVARS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Borislav Miličević

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this research was to investigate the influence of immobilized cell fermentation on aroma and sensory characteristics of distillates produced from two fig varieties commonly grown in Croatia (Petrovača bijela and Petrovača crna. Distillate samples were produced both by classical and immobilized yeast fermentation technology. Aroma profile was determined using GC/FID and sensory analysis was conducted according to German DLG model. Results showed that immobilized cell technique gives distillates with higher ethanol and lower ester contents, but of higher sensory quality. It is a promising technique for production of high quality fruit distillates.

  3. TRADITIONAL FERMENTED FOODS OF LESOTHO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tendekayi H. Gadaga

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes the traditional methods of preparing fermented foods and beverages of Lesotho. Information on the preparation methods was obtained through a combination of literature review and face to face interviews with respondents from Roma in Lesotho. An unstructured questionnaire was used to capture information on the processes, raw materials and utensils used. Four products; motoho (a fermented porridge, Sesotho (a sorghum based alcoholic beverage, hopose (sorghum fermented beer with added hops and mafi (spontaneously fermented milk, were found to be the main fermented foods prepared and consumed at household level in Lesotho. Motoho is a thin gruel, popular as refreshing beverage as well as a weaning food. Sesotho is sorghum based alcoholic beverage prepared for household consumption as well as for sale. It is consumed in the actively fermenting state. Mafi is the name given to spontaneously fermented milk with a thick consistency. Little research has been done on the technological aspects, including the microbiological and biochemical characteristics of fermented foods in Lesotho. Some of the traditional aspects of the preparation methods, such as use of earthenware pots, are being replaced, and modern equipment including plastic utensils are being used. There is need for further systematic studies on the microbiological and biochemical characteristics of these these products.

  4. Exploring the Degradation of Gallotannins Catalyzed by Tannase Produced by Aspergillus niger GH1 for Ellagic Acid Production in Submerged and Solid-State Fermentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chávez-González, Mónica L; Guyot, Sylvain; Rodríguez-Herrera, Raul; Prado-Barragán, Arely; Aguilar, Cristóbal N

    2018-06-01

    Due to great interest on producing bioactive compounds for functional foods and biopharmaceuticals, it is important to explore the microbial degradation of potential sources of target biomolecules. Gallotannins are polyphenols present in nature, an example of them is tannic acid which is susceptible to enzymatic hydrolysis. This hydrolysis is performed by tannase or tannin acyl hydrolase, releasing in this way, biomolecules with high-added value. In the present study, chemical profiles obtained after fungal degradation of tannic acid under two bioprocesses (submerged fermentation (SmF) and solid state fermentation (SSF)) were determined. In both fermentation systems (SmF and SSF), Aspergillus niger GH1 strain and tannic acid as a sole carbon source and inducer were used (the presence of tannic acid promotes production of enzyme tannase). In case of SSF, polyurethane foam (PUF) was used like as support of fermentation; culture medium only was used in case of submerged fermentation. Fermentation processes were monitored during 72 h; samples were taken kinetically every 8 h; and all extracts obtained were partially purified to obtain polyphenolic fraction and then were analyzed by liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS). Molecules like gallic acid and n-galloyl glucose were identified as intermediates in degradation of tannic acid; during SSF was identified ellagic acid production. The results obtained in this study will contribute to biotechnological production of ellagic acid.

  5. Utilization of inulin-containing waste in industrial fermentations to produce biofuels and bio-based chemicals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hughes, Stephen R; Qureshi, Nasib; López-Núñez, Juan Carlos; Jones, Marjorie A; Jarodsky, Joshua M; Galindo-Leva, Luz Ángela; Lindquist, Mitchell R

    2017-04-01

    Inulins are polysaccharides that belong to an important class of carbohydrates known as fructans and are used by many plants as a means of storing energy. Inulins contain 20 to several thousand fructose units joined by β-2,1 glycosidic bonds, typically with a terminal glucose unit. Plants with high concentrations of inulin include: agave, asparagus, coffee, chicory, dahlia, dandelion, garlic, globe artichoke, Jerusalem artichoke, jicama, onion, wild yam, and yacón. To utilize inulin as its carbon and energy source directly, a microorganism requires an extracellular inulinase to hydrolyze the glycosidic bonds to release fermentable monosaccharides. Inulinase is produced by many microorganisms, including species of Aspergillus, Kluyveromyces, Penicillium, and Pseudomonas. We review various inulinase-producing microorganisms and inulin feedstocks with potential for industrial application as well as biotechnological efforts underway to develop sustainable practices for the disposal of residues from processing inulin-containing crops. A multi-stage biorefinery concept is proposed to convert cellulosic and inulin-containing waste produced at crop processing operations to valuable biofuels and bioproducts using Kluyveromyces marxianus, Yarrowia lipolytica, Rhodotorula glutinis, and Saccharomyces cerevisiae as well as thermochemical treatments.

  6. Potential of bacteriocin-producing lactic acid bacteria for safety improvements of traditional Thai fermented meat and human health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swetwiwathana, Adisorn; Visessanguan, Wonnop

    2015-11-01

    Lactic acid bacteria (LAB) are very important in converting of agricultural products into safe, delicious and shelf stable foods for human consumption. The preservative activity of LAB in foods is mainly attributed to the production of anti-microbial metabolites such as organic acids and bacteriocins which enables them to grow and control the growth of pathogens and spoilage microorganisms. Besides ensuring safety, bacteriocin-producing LAB with their probiotic potentials could also be emerging as a means to develop functional meat products with desirable health benefits. Nevertheless, to be qualified as a candidate probiotic culture, other prerequisite probiotic properties of bacteriocin-producing LAB have to be assessed according to regulatory guidelines for probiotics. Nham is an indigenous fermented sausage of Thailand that has gained popularity and acceptance among Thais. Since Nham is made from raw meat and is usually consumed without cooking, risks due to undesirable microorganisms such as Salmonella spp., Staphylococcus aureus, and Listeria monocytogenes, are frequently observed. With an ultimate goal to produce safer and healthier product, our research attempts on the development of a variety of new Nham products are discussed. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Prevalence of sorbitol non-fermenting Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli in Black Bengal goats on smallholdings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Das Gupta, M; Das, A; Islam, M Z; Biswas, P K

    2016-09-01

    A cross-sectional survey was carried out in Bangladesh with the sampling of 514 Black Bengal goats on smallholdings to determine the presence of sorbitol non-fermenting (SNF) Shiga toxin-producing E. coli (STEC). Swab samples collected from the recto-anal junction were plated onto cefixime and potassium tellurite added sorbitol MacConkey (CT-SMAC) agar, a selective medium for STEC O157 serogroup, where this serogroup and other SNF STEC produce colourless colonies. The SNF E. coli (SNF EC) isolates obtained from the survey were investigated by PCR for the presence of Shiga toxin-producing genes, stx1 and stx2, and two other virulence genes, eae and hlyA that code for adherence factor (intimin protein) and pore-forming cytolysin, respectively. The SNF EC isolates were also assessed for the presence of the rfbO157 gene to verify their identity to O157 serogroup. The results revealed that the proportions of goats carrying SNF EC isolates and stx1 and stx2 genes were 6·2% (32/514) [95% confidence interval (CI) 4·4-8·7)], 1·2% (95% CI 0·5-2·6) and 1·2% (95% CI 0·5-2·6), respectively. All the SNF STEC tested negative for rfbO157, hlyA and eae genes. The risk for transmission of STEC from Black Bengal goats to humans is low.

  8. Purification and characteristics of a novel bacteriocin produced by Enterococcus faecalis L11 isolated from Chinese traditional fermented cucumber.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Yurong; Li, Benling; Li, Dapeng; Zhang, Liyuan

    2016-05-01

    To purify and characterize a novel bacteriocin with broad inhibitory spectrum produced by an isolate of Enterococcus faecalis from Chinese fermented cucumber. E. faecalis L11 produced a bacteriocin with antimicrobial activity against both Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus. The amino acid sequence of the purified bacteriocin, enterocin L11, was assayed by Edman degradation method. It differs from other class II bacteriocins and exhibited a broad antimicrobial activity against not only Gram-positive bacteria, including Bacillus subtilis, S. aureus, Listeria monocytogenes, Sarcina flava, Lactobacillus acidophilus, L. plantarum, L. delbrueckii subsp. delbrueckii, L. delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus and Streptococcus thermophilus, but also some Gram-negative bacteria including Salmonella typhimurium, E. coli and Shigella flexneri. Enterocin L11 retained 91 % of its activity after holding at 121 °C for 30 min. It was also resistant to acids and alkalis. Enterocin L11 is a novel broad-spectrum Class II bacteriocin produced by E. faecalis L11, and may have potential as a food biopreservative.

  9. Multi-Residue studies of pesticides in fermented dried cocoa beans and selected cocoa products produced in Ghana

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frimpong, S. K

    2011-01-01

    Cocoa is a major cash crop and contributes significantly to Ghana's economy. Majority of this contribution is as a result of foreign earnings in foreign trade partnership. Cocoa products are consumed locally aside it generating foreign income for the country. Pesticide residues above allowable limits in cocoa beans have potential detrimental effects on human health, depending on the frequency of exposure and/or the potency or toxicity of the pesticide. Pesticide residues on cocoa also attract trade sanctions from international trading partners. The approved pesticides, which are used to control pests in the growing cocoa in Ghana, are: Diazinon, Cypermethrin, Deltamethrin, Acetamiprid, Imidicloprid and Pyrethrums; nevertheless some unapproved pesticides on cocoa such as Pirimiphos-methyl, Chlorpyrifos, Endosulfan, Fenitrotion, Fenvalerate, Permethrin and others find their way for use on cocoa in Ghana. The main objective of this study was to determine the levels of pesticide residues in fermented dried cocoa beans produced and ready for export in Ghana, using gas chromatography mass spectrometry. It also seeks to provide the baseline information on contamination levels of pesticide residues in semi-finished and selected finished fermented dried cocoa beans products. Fermented dried cocoa beans were sampled at random in the two main COCOBOD warehouses located in Tema and Takoradi. Semi-finished and finished cocoa products were obtained from processing industries in Tema. Two extraction methods were used. The second extraction method was as by the QuEChERS method for vegetable oils which was used for the cocoa butter samples only, after being liquefied in water bath at 40 degrees celsius. The investigated pesticides consisted of fifteen organochlorine pesticides, thirteen organophosphorous pesticides and nine synthetic pyrethroids pesticides. Percentage recoveries ranged from 70-110 percent, with instrumental detection limits of 0.3ug/kg, 0.15ug/g and 0.15ug/g for

  10. Martinomycin, a new polyether antibiotic produced by Streptomyces salvialis. I. Taxonomy, fermentation and biological activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernan, V S; Montenegro, D A; Goodman, J J; Alluri, M R; Carter, G T; Abbanat, D R; Pearce, C J; Maiese, W M; Greenstein, M

    1994-12-01

    Actinomycete culture LL-D37187 has been found to produce the new polyether antibiotic martinomycin. Taxonomic studies, including morphological, physiological, and cell wall chemistry analyses, revealed that culture LL-D37187 is a novel streptomycete species, and the proposed name is Streptomyces salvialis. Martinomycin exhibits activity against the Southern Army Worm (Spodoptera eridania) and Gram-positive bacteria.

  11. Cellobiose fermenting yeast produces varied forms of native ß-glucosidase

    Science.gov (United States)

    The rapid growing yeast strain NRRL Y-50464 is robust to environmental stress and resistant to 2-furaldehyde (furfural) and 5-[hydroxymethyl]-2-furaldehyde (HMF). It is able to utilize cellobiose as its sole source of carbon and produces ethanol from lignocellulosic biomass by simultaneous saccharif...

  12. Multistep process to produce fermentable sugars and lignosulfonates from softwood enzymolysis residues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yalan Liu; Jinwu Wang; Michael P. Wolcott

    2016-01-01

    The residual solids from enzymatic hydrolysis are usually burned to produce energy and have been explored as a feedstock for various products including activated carbon and lignin based polymers. These products require additional procedures unrelated to the existing biorefinery equipment. In the current study, we proposed successive sulfite treatments to utilize the...

  13. Optimization of Fermentation Conditions for the Production of Bacteriocin Fermentate

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-03-30

    FERMENTATION CONDITIONS FOR THE PRODUCTION OF BACTERIOCIN “ FERMENTATE ” by Anthony Sikes Wayne Muller and Claire Lee March 2015...From - To) October 2010 – November 2013 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE OPTIMIZATION OF FERMENTATION CONDITIONS FOR THE PRODUCTION OF BACTERIOCIN “ FERMENTATE ...nisin and pediocin. Whey + yeast extract was the best performing whey fermentation media. The nisin producer strain Lactococcus. lactis ssp. lactis was

  14. Haze in beverages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siebert, Karl J

    2009-01-01

    Beverages such as beer, wine, clear fruit juices, teas, and formulated products with similar ingredients are generally expected by consumers to be clear (free of turbidity) and to remain so during the normal shelf life of the product. Hazy products are often regarded as defective and perhaps even potentially harmful. Since consumers are usually more certain of what they perceive visually than of what they taste or smell, the development of haze in a clear product can reduce the likelihood of repeat purchasing of a product and can have serious economic consequences to a producer. Hazes are caused by suspended insoluble particles of colloidal or larger size that can be perceived visually or by instruments. Hazes in clear beverages can arise from a number of causes, but are most often due to protein-polyphenol interaction. The nature of protein-polyphenol interaction and its effect on haze particles, analysis of haze constituents, and stabilization of beverages against haze formation are reviewed.

  15. Producing methane, methanol and electricity from organic waste of fermentation reaction using novel microbes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhiman, Saurabh Sudha; Shrestha, Namita; David, Aditi; Basotra, Neha; Johnson, Glenn R; Chadha, Bhupinder S; Gadhamshetty, Venkataramana; Sani, Rajesh K

    2018-06-01

    Residual solid and liquid streams from the one-pot CRUDE (Conversion of Raw and Untreated Disposal into Ethanol) process were treated with two separate biochemical routes for renewable energy transformation. The solid residual stream was subjected to thermophilic anaerobic digestion (TAD), which produced 95 ± 7 L methane kg -1 volatile solid with an overall energy efficiency of 12.9 ± 1.7%. A methanotroph, Methyloferula sp., was deployed for oxidation of mixed TAD biogas into methanol. The residual liquid stream from CRUDE process was used in a Microbial Fuel Cell (MFC) to produce electricity. Material balance calculations confirmed the integration of biochemical routes (i.e. CRUDE, TAD, and MFC) for developing a sustainable approach of energy regeneration. The current work demonstrates the utilization of different residual streams originated after food waste processing to release minimal organic load to the environment. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Catalytic Properties of Amylolytic Enzymes Produced by Gongronella butleri Using Agroindustrial Residues on Solid-State Fermentation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cavalheiro, Gabriéla Finoto; Sanguine, Isadora Stranieri; Santos, Flávia Regina da Silva; da Costa, Ana Carolina; Fernandes, Matheus; da Paz, Marcelo Fossa; Fonseca, Gustavo Graciano

    2017-01-01

    Amylases catalyze the hydrolysis of starch, a vegetable polysaccharide abundant in nature. These enzymes can be utilized in the production of syrups, alcohol, detergent, pharmaceutical products, and animal feed formulations. The aim of this study was to optimize the production of amylases by the filamentous fungus Gongronella butleri by solid-state fermentation and to evaluate the catalytic properties of the obtained enzymatic extract. The highest amylase production, 63.25 U g−1 (or 6.32 U mL−1), was obtained by culturing the fungus in wheat bran with 55% of initial moisture, cultivated for 96 h at 25°C. The enzyme presented optimum activity at pH 5.0 and 55°C. The amylase produced was stable in a wide pH range (3.5–9.5) and maintained its catalytic activity for 1 h at 40°C. Furthermore, the enzymatic extract hydrolyzed starches from different vegetable sources, presenting predominant dextrinizing activity for all substrates evaluated. However, the presence of glucose was observed in a higher concentration during hydrolysis of corn starch, indicating the synergistic action of endo- and exoamylases, which enables the application of this enzymatic extract to produce syrups from different starch sources. PMID:29376074

  17. Catalytic Properties of Amylolytic Enzymes Produced by Gongronella butleri Using Agroindustrial Residues on Solid-State Fermentation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriéla Finoto Cavalheiro

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Amylases catalyze the hydrolysis of starch, a vegetable polysaccharide abundant in nature. These enzymes can be utilized in the production of syrups, alcohol, detergent, pharmaceutical products, and animal feed formulations. The aim of this study was to optimize the production of amylases by the filamentous fungus Gongronella butleri by solid-state fermentation and to evaluate the catalytic properties of the obtained enzymatic extract. The highest amylase production, 63.25 U g−1 (or 6.32 U mL−1, was obtained by culturing the fungus in wheat bran with 55% of initial moisture, cultivated for 96 h at 25°C. The enzyme presented optimum activity at pH 5.0 and 55°C. The amylase produced was stable in a wide pH range (3.5–9.5 and maintained its catalytic activity for 1 h at 40°C. Furthermore, the enzymatic extract hydrolyzed starches from different vegetable sources, presenting predominant dextrinizing activity for all substrates evaluated. However, the presence of glucose was observed in a higher concentration during hydrolysis of corn starch, indicating the synergistic action of endo- and exoamylases, which enables the application of this enzymatic extract to produce syrups from different starch sources.

  18. Detectionn and activity of plantaricin OL15 a bacteriocin produced by Lactobacillus plantarum OL15 isolated from Algerian fermented olives.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nour-Eddine, Karam

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available Lactobacillus plantarum OL15 previously isolated from Algerian fermented green olives produces antimicrobial conpounds in its culture medium. Inhibitory action against other strains of Lactobacillus, Lactococcus , and Propionibacterium was observed . Activity was completely or partially inactivated by proteolytic enzymes, stable at pH values ranging from 3.0 to 8.0, and heat stable even after autoclaving at 121 °C for 15 min. The bacteriocin activity was able to pass through cellulose membranes with 100,000 but not through 10,000 molecular weight cut-off.Lactobacillus plantarum OL15, aislado de aceitunas verdes argelinas, produce un compuesto antimicrobiano en el medio de cultivo, observándose un efecto inhibidor frente a otras cepas de Lactobacillus, Lactococcus y Propionibacterium . Dicha actividad desaparece completa o parcialmente después del tratamiento con enzimas proteolíticas, es estable al pH en el rango de 3,0 a 8,0 y es, asimismo estable al calor incluso después de someterla a un proceso térmico de 121 ºC durante 15 minutos. La bacteriocina pasa a través de membranas de celulosa de corte molecular de 1000.000 pero no a través de las de 10.000.

  19. Reduced toxicity of malachite green decolorized by laccase produced from Ganoderma sp. rckk-02 under solid-state fermentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Abha; Shrivastava, Bhuvnesh; Kuhad, Ramesh Chander

    2015-10-01

    Statistical designs were applied for optimizing laccase production from a white-rot fungus, Ganoderma sp. rckk-02 under solid-state fermentation (SSF). Compared to unoptimized conditions [2,154 U/gds (Unit per gram of dry substrate)], the optimization process resulted in a 17.3-fold increase in laccase production (37,423 U/gds). The laccase produced was evaluated for its potential to decolorize a recalcitrant synthetic dye, malachite green. Laccase at dosage of 30 U/ml in presence of 1 mM of 1-hydroxybenzotriazole (HBT) almost completely decolorized 100 and 200 mg/l of malachite green in 16 and 20 h, respectively, at 30 °C, pH 5.5 and 150 rpm. While, higher dyes concentrations of 300, 400 and 500 mg/l were decolorized to 72, 62 and 55 % in 24, 28 and 32 h, respectively, under similar conditions. Furthermore, it was observed that the decolorized malachite green was less toxic towards the growth of five white-rot fungi tested viz. Crinipellis sp. RCK-1, Ganoderma sp. rckk-02, Coriolopsis Caperata RCK 2011, Phanerochaete chrysosporium K3 and Pycnoporous cinnabarinus PB. The present study demonstrates the potential of Ganoderma sp. rckk-02 to produce high titres of laccase under SSF, which can be exploited in conjunction with redox mediator for the decolorization of high concentrations of malachite green from water bodies.

  20. Purification and Characterization of Bacteriocin Produced by Bacillus subtilis R75 Isolated from Fermented Chunks of Mung Bean (Phaseolus radiatus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Riti Kapoor

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Food-grade bacteria capable of producing bacteriocin with desirable preservation attributes have been isolated from traditional Indian fermented food dal vari, which has not been investigated so far. Among different isolates, Bacillus subtilis R75, isolated on MRS agar, exhibited antagonism against a wide range of foodborne pathogens that cause serious spoilage. Extracellularly produced bacteriocin was purified by single step gel exclusion column chromatography. The purity rate and molecular mass of 12 kDa of this compound were determined using SDS-PAGE. Activity units (AU of bacteriocin were increased in each step of purification, reaching up to 5·10^6 AU/mL. The increase in the activity units directly affected the antimicrobial activity of purified bacteriocin, resulting in an increase up to 200, 333 and 175 % of the inhibition zones against indicator bacteria. Continuous decrease in the number of viable cells of microorganisms within 10 h after adding purified bacteriocin proved its bactericidal action. It withstood very high temperature, up to 121 °C, for 10 min, wider pH range, from 4.0 to 11.0, complete inactivation in the presence of proteolytic enzymes and storage stability up to 2.5 months.

  1. Isolation, Purification, and Characterization of Xylanase Produced by a New Species of Bacillus in Solid State Fermentation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajashri D. Kamble

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available A thermoalkalophilic new species of Bacillus, similar to Bacillus arseniciselenatis DSM 15340, produced extracellular xylanase under solid state fermentation when wheat bran is used as carbon source. The extracellular xylanase was isolated by ammonium sulfate (80% precipitation and purified using ion exchange chromatography. The molecular weight of xylanase was ~29.8 ;kDa. The optimum temperature and pH for the enzyme activity were 50°C and pH 8.0. The enzyme was active on birchwood xylan and little active on p-nitrophenyl xylopyranoside but not on Avicel, CMC, cellobiose, and starch, showing its absolute substrate specificity. For birchwood xylan, the enzyme gave a Km 5.26 ;mg/mL and Vmax 277.7 ;μmol/min/mg, respectively. In addition, the xylanase was also capable of producing high-quality xylo-oligosaccharides, which indicated its application potential not only in pulp biobleaching processes but also in the nutraceutical industry.

  2. Purification and characterization of plantaricin 163, a novel bacteriocin produced by Lactobacillus plantarum 163 isolated from traditional Chinese fermented vegetables.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Meizhong; Zhao, Haizhen; Zhang, Chong; Yu, Jiansheng; Lu, Zhaoxin

    2013-11-27

    Presumptive lactic acid bacteria (LAB) strains isolated from traditional Chinese fermented vegetables were screened for bacteriocin production. A novel bacteriocin-producing strain, Lactobacillus plantarum 163, was identified on the basis of its physiobiochemical characteristics and characterized by 16S rDNA sequencing. The novel bacteriocin, plantaricin 163, produced by Lb. plantarum 163 was purified by salt precipitation, gel filtration, and reverse-phase high-performance liquid chromatography (RP-HPLC). Matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF-MS) analysis of plantaricin 163 revealed the molecular weight to be 3553.2 Da. The complete amino acid sequence showed VFHAYSARGNYYGNCPANWPSCRNNYKSAGGK, and no similarity to known bacteriocins was found. Plantaricin 163 was highly thermostable (20 min, 121 °C), active in the presence of acidic pH (3-5), sensitive to protease, and exhibited broad-spectrum antimicrobial activity against LAB and other tested Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria. The results suggest that plantaricin 163 may be employed as a biopreservative in the food industry.

  3. Saccharomyces cerevisiae Fermentation Effects on Pollen: Archaeological Implications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Crystal A. Dozier

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Pollen is the reproductive agent of flowering plants; palynology is utilized by archaeologists because sporopollenin, a major component in the exine of pollen grains, is resistant to decay and morphologically distinctive. Wine, beer, and mead have been identified in the archaeological record by palynological assessment due to indicator species or due to a pollen profile similar to that recovered from honey, a common source of sugar in a variety of fermented beverages. While most palynologists have assumed that pollen grains are resistant to alcoholic fermentation, a recent study in food science implies that pollen is a yeast nutrient because pollen-enriched meads produce more alcohol. The experiment presented here explores the potential distortion of the pollen record through fermentation by brewing a traditional, pollen-rich mead with Saccharomyces cerevisiae. In this experiment, the pollen grains did not undergo any discernible morphological changes nor were distorted in the pollen profile. Any nutrition that the yeast garners from the pollen therefore leaves sporopollenin intact. These results support palynological research on residues of alcoholic beverages and confirms that the fermentation process does not distort the pollen profile of the original substance. The paper concludes with the potential and limits of palynological study to assess fermentation within the archaeological record.

  4. The Fermentative and Aromatic Ability of Kloeckera and Hanseniaspora Yeasts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Díaz-Montaño, Dulce M.; de Jesús Ramírez Córdova, J.

    Spontaneous alcoholic fermentation from grape, agave and others musts into an alcoholic beverage is usually characterized by the presence of several non-Saccharomyces yeasts. These genera yeasts are dominant in the early stages of the alcoholic fermentation. However the genera Hanseniaspora and Kloeckera may survive at a significant level during fermentation and can influence the chemical composition of the beverage. Several strains belonging to the species Kloeckera api-culata and Hanseniaspora guilliermondii have been extensively studied in relation to the formation of some metabolic compounds affecting the bouquet of the final product. Indeed some apiculate yeast showed positive oenological properties and their use in the alcoholic fermentations has been suggested to enhance the aroma and flavor profiles. The non- Saccharomyces yeasts have the capability to produce and secrete enzymes in the medium, such as β -glucosidases, which release monoterpenes derived from their glycosylated form. These compounds contribute to the higher fruit-like characteristic of final product. This chapter reviews metabolic activity of Kloeckera and Hanseniaspora yeasts in several aspects: fermentative capability, aromatic compounds production and transformation of aromatic precursor present in the must, also covers the molecular methods for identifying of the yeast

  5. The microbial diversity of an industrially produced lambic beer shares members of a traditionally produced one and reveals a core microbiota for lambic beer fermentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spitaels, Freek; Wieme, Anneleen D; Janssens, Maarten; Aerts, Maarten; Van Landschoot, Anita; De Vuyst, Luc; Vandamme, Peter

    2015-08-01

    The microbiota involved in lambic beer fermentations in an industrial brewery in West-Flanders, Belgium, was determined through culture-dependent and culture-independent techniques. More than 1300 bacterial and yeast isolates from 13 samples collected during a one-year fermentation process were identified using matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry followed by sequence analysis of rRNA and various protein-encoding genes. The bacterial and yeast communities of the same samples were further analyzed using denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis of PCR-amplified V3 regions of the 16S rRNA genes and D1/D2 regions of the 26S rRNA genes, respectively. In contrast to traditional lambic beer fermentations, there was no Enterobacteriaceae phase and a larger variety of acetic acid bacteria were found in industrial lambic beer fermentations. Like in traditional lambic beer fermentations, Saccharomyces cerevisiae, Saccharomyces pastorianus, Dekkera bruxellensis and Pediococcus damnosus were the microorganisms responsible for the main fermentation and maturation phases. These microorganisms originated most probably from the wood of the casks and were considered as the core microbiota of lambic beer fermentations. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Formulation and characterization of novel functional beverages with antioxidant and anti-acetylcholinesterase activities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suree Nanasombat

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Nowadays, there is increased consumer demand for high-antioxidant foods. Drinking high-antioxidant beverages may help to protect against aging, Alzheimer’s disease, and other chronic diseases. Grapes and some plants including Phyllanthus emblica, Terminalia chebula, Kaempferia parviflora, Centella asiatica, Nelumbo nucifera, Rauvolfia serpentina, Ginkgo biloba, Crocus sativus, Clitoria ternatea and others are well-known to possess antioxidant, neuroprotective and other health-promoting activities. Thus, it is possible to use these plants for the development of new functional beverages. Methods: Ten formulations of beverages were produced. The 5 non-alcoholic beverages contained dried medicinal plants, fresh grapes and others and are as follows: beverage B1: 10.2% K. parviflora rhizomes, 5.1% brown sugar and 84.7% water; beverage B2: 0.45% Ardisia polycephala leaves, 0.45% C. asiatica leaves, 0.36% C. ternatea flowers, 0.45% C. sativus pollens, 0.45% G. biloba leaves, 0.45% Melodorum fruticosum flowers, 0.90% N. nucifera petals, 0.45% Nymphaea lotus petals, 5.43% crystalline sugar and 90.58% water; beverage B3: 0.62% A. polycephala fruits, 0.35% C. ternatea flowers, 0.44% G. biloba leaves, 2.64% K. parviflora rhizomes, 1.76% P. emblica fruits, 0.88% T. chebula fruits, 5.28% brown sugar and 88.03% water; beverage B4: 0.51% Acorus calamus stems, 0.68% C. ternatea flowers, 4.23% K. parviflora rhizomes, 0.85% N. nucifera petals, 0.85% N. lotus petals, 0.85% M. fruticosum flowers, 0.34% R. serpentina roots, 0.34% U. gambir, 1.69% Zingiber officinale rhizomes, 5.08% brown sugar and 84.60% water; beverage B5: 53.09% fresh grapes, 2.65% brown sugar and 44.25% water. After heating, filtering, and cooling, these beverages were put in sterile bottles. One part of each beverage was stored at 4C for 23 weeks before analyzing, but the other two parts were used to prepare the alcoholic beverage of each formulation. Grapes were mixed with the

  7. Flexible fermentation of organically loaded industrial waste waters using a beverage manufacturer as an example; Flexible Vergaerung organisch belasteter Industrie-Abwaesser am Beispiel eines Getraenkeherstellers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ganagin, Waldemar; Loewen, Achim; Nelles, Michael [HAWK Hochschule fuer Angewandte Wissenschaft und Kunst Hildesheim/Holzminden/Goettingen, Goettingen (Germany). Fachgebiet Nachhaltige Energie- und Umwelttechnik (NEUTec)

    2013-10-01

    Industrial organic waste water is usually treated directly in an own or public sewage treatment plant which is highly cost-intensive. The anaerobic digestion of those waste waters is sometimes difficult to control. HAWK is working in a project about this topic, where a fixed bed reactor is investigated for the operation as a flexible plant. For this reason a semi-industrial pilot plant was developed and the capability will be tested on several sites. The gas production ought to run according to the companies demands and is integrated in the operation and processes. This flexible plant is specifically designed to deal with small amounts of waste water with low organic components and even sometimes discontinuously loads. This process is tested in a beverage factory. The reactor was implemented in the existing infrastructure and their waste water is treated. The assessment of the measurements shows, that the fixed bed reactor can handle the organic compounds of the waste water very well and reduce them significantly. Even fluctuating loads and a low organic concentration do not harm the process. The effect of power generation is an additional benefit for this system This innovative approach with low energy input and additional profit from the power sale makes the waste water treatment on site as a real alternative to the conventional treatment. (orig.)

  8. Isolation of Bacillus sp Producing Polyhydroxyalkanoate (PHA from Isfahan Refinery Wastewater and Qualification of Production in Submerged Fermentation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahsa Keshavarz Azam

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The aim of present study was isolation of polyhydroxybutyrate producing Bacillus species from oil refinery waste water, Isfahan, Iran and primarily optimization of production condition. Petroleum wastes are rich of carbon sources and have low amounts of nitrogen and phosphorus sources. AS the most important factor in production of intracellular inclusions is increasing the C/N ratio, it seemed that polyhydroxybutyrate producing microorganisms will be found in these wastes. Materials and methods: Bacillus species were isolated and purified from oil refinery wastewater. The polymer was verified using different staining procedures. Polymer was extracted by digestion method and the optimum production conditions were investigated in minimal salt medium with the organic carbon source by submerged fermentation. Production of polyhydroxybutyrate was studied using dry weight and optical density measurement. Results: Between various isolated Bacillus strains, two of them (B1 and B2 were polyhydroxybutyrate producers. Maximum PHA production based on dry weight and concentration were obtained for strain B1 after 72 hours incubation, at 31°C, in the presence of glucose as carbon source and yeast extract as nitrogen source, pH=7, and aeration in 120 rpm; and for strain B2 in the same condition, except optimal temperature which was 32°C. The most production amounts were 367 mg.ml-1 for B1 and 473 mg.ml-1 for B2 isolates. Also the most polymer percentage was 52/16 and 58.43 for B1 and B2 isolates respectively. Discussion and conclusion: The results showed that the production of polyhydroxybutyrate was increased by optimization of the conditions in both isolates. Using petroleum wastes as well as production of biodegradable plastics, leads to decontamination of theses wastes.

  9. Fermentative capabilities and volatile compounds produced by Kloeckera/Hanseniaspora and Saccharomyces yeast strains in pure and mixed cultures during Agave tequilana juice fermentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    González-Robles, Ivonne Wendolyne; Estarrón-Espinosa, Mirna; Díaz-Montaño, Dulce María

    2015-09-01

    The fermentative and aromatic capabilities of Kloeckera africana/Hanseniaspora vineae K1, K. apiculata/H. uvarum K2, and Saccharomyces cerevisiae S1 and S2 were studied in pure and mixed culture fermentations using Agave tequila juice as the culture medium. In pure and mixed cultures, Kloeckera/Hanseniaspora strains showed limited growth and sugar consumption, as well as low ethanol yield and productivity, compared to S. cerevisiae, which yielded more biomass, ethanol and viable cell concentrations. In pure and mixed cultures, S. cerevisiae presented a similar behaviour reaching high biomass production, completely consuming the sugar, leading to high ethanol production. Furthermore, the presence of S. cerevisiae strains in the mixed cultures promoted the production of higher alcohols, acetaldehyde and ethyl esters, whereas Kloeckera/Hanseniaspora strains stimulated the production of ethyl acetate and 2-phenyl ethyl acetate compounds.

  10. Culture-independent analysis of lactic acid bacteria diversity associated with mezcal fermentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narváez-Zapata, J A; Rojas-Herrera, R A; Rodríguez-Luna, I C; Larralde-Corona, C P

    2010-11-01

    Mezcal is an alcoholic beverage obtained from the distillation of fermented juices of cooked Agave spp. plant stalks (agave must), and each region in Mexico with denomination of origin uses defined Agave species to prepare mezcal with unique organoleptic characteristics. During fermentation to produce mezcal in the state of Tamaulipas, not only alcohol-producing yeasts are involved, but also a lactic acid bacterial community that has not been characterized yet. In order to address this lack of knowledge on this traditional Mexican beverage, we performed a DGGE-16S rRNA analysis of the lactic acid bacterial diversity and metabolite accumulation during the fermentation of a typical agave must that is rustically produced in San Carlos County (Tamaulipas, Mexico). The analysis of metabolite production indicated a short but important malolactic fermentation stage not previously described for mezcal. The denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) analysis of the 16S rRNA genes showed a distinctive lactic acid bacterial community composed mainly of Pediococcus parvulus, Lactobacillus brevis, Lactobacillus composti, Lactobacillus parabuchneri, and Lactobacillus plantarum. Some atypical genera such as Weissella and Bacillus were also found in the residual must. Our results suggest that the lactic acid bacteria could strongly be implicated in the organoleptic attributes of this traditional Mexican distilled beverage.

  11. Production and antioxidative activity of alcoholic beverages made ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Fermentation yeast was isolated from a Thai traditional alcoholic beverage called Thai ou, which is drunk through bamboo tubes. The isolated yeast was identified as a strain of the genus Saccharomyces cerevisiae. The alcoholic beverage made with the isolated yeast designated as S. cerevisiae NP01 from black rice ...

  12. Mycological evaluation of a ground cocoa-based beverage ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Cocoa beans (Theobroma cacao) are processed into cocoa beverage through fermentation, drying, roasting and grounding of the seed to powder. The mycological quality of 39 samples of different brand of these cocoa – based beverage referred to as 'eruku oshodi' collected from 3 different markets in south – west Nigeria ...

  13. Aproveitamento do camu-camu (Myrciaria dubia para produção de bebida alcoólica fermentada The use of camu-camu (Myrciaria dubia for the production of a fermented alcoholic beverage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberto Nobuyuki Maeda

    2003-01-01

    to a need to develop adequate technology for it's production on non-flooded land and the industrial use of this fruit. This study had as its main objective to verify if camu-camu is adequate for the production of fermented alcoholic beverages, measuring the effect of blanching the fruit and the incorporation of the fruit peel with the fruit pulp on the nutritional and sensory characteristics of the drink. The fruits were separated into 4 groups, two being blanched (90 ºC for 7 minutes. After the pulp was removed, the peels of one group from each blanching treatment were incorporated into the respective pulps and their chemical composition evaluated. After sugar correction of the must, pasteurisation, fermentation (25 days, decanting, pasteurisation (70 ºC for 15 minutes, filtering and clarification, the beverages were evaluated as to their chemical composition, sweetened and submitted to sensory analysis. Blanching reduced the concentration of ascorbic acid in the pulps (33 % and the addition of the peel increased the amount of dry matter (39 % in pulp, ascorbic acid (33 % in pulp, 23 % in must and 50 % in drink and phenolic compounds (50 % in drink. The sensory profile and acceptability suggest that camu-camu is adequate for the production of fermented alcoholic beverages and that the addition of the peel to the pulp contributes positively to it's acceptability (6.7 with versus 6.2 without, of 9 points possible. The beverage had flavour characteristic of the fruit, a orangish-red color and agreeable taste.

  14. Succinic acid in levels produced by yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae) during fermentation strongly impacts wheat bread dough properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jayaram, Vinay B; Cuyvers, Sven; Verstrepen, Kevin J; Delcour, Jan A; Courtin, Christophe M

    2014-05-15

    Succinic acid (SA) was recently shown to be the major pH determining metabolite produced by yeast during straight-dough fermentation (Jayaram et al., 2013), reaching levels as high as 1.6 mmol/100 g of flour. Here, the impact of such levels of SA (0.8, 1.6 and 2.4 mmol/100 g flour) on yeastless dough properties was investigated. SA decreased the development time and stability of dough significantly. Uniaxial extension tests showed a consistent decrease in dough extensibility upon increasing SA addition. Upon biaxial extension in the presence of 2.4 mmol SA/100 g flour, a dough extensibility decrease of 47-65% and a dough strength increase of 25-40% were seen. While the SA solvent retention capacity of flour increased with increasing SA concentration in the solvent, gluten agglomeration decreased with gluten yield reductions of over 50%. The results suggest that SA leads to swelling and unfolding of gluten proteins, thereby increasing their interaction potential and dough strength, but simultaneously increasing intermolecular electrostatic repulsive forces. These phenomena lead to the reported changes in dough properties. Together, our results establish SA as an important yeast metabolite for dough rheology. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. LCA of 1,4-Butanediol Produced via Direct Fermentation of Sugars from Wheat Straw Feedstock within a Territorial Biorefinery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Annachiara Forte

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The bio-based industrial sector has been recognized by the European Union as a priority area toward sustainability, however, the environmental profile of bio-based products needs to be further addressed. This study investigated, through the Life Cycle Assessment (LCA approach, the environmental performance of bio-based 1,4-butanediol (BDO produced via direct fermentation of sugars from wheat straw, within a hypothetical regional biorefinery (Campania Region, Southern Italy. The aim was: (i to identify the hotspots along the production chain; and (ii to assess the potential environmental benefits of this bio-based polymer versus the reference conventional product (fossil-based BDO. Results identified the prevailing contribution to the total environmental load of bio-based BDO in the feedstock production and in the heat requirement at the biorefinery plant. The modeled industrial bio-based BDO supply chain, showed a general reduction of the environmental impacts compared to the fossil-based BDO. The lowest benefits were gained in terms of acidification and eutrophication, due to the environmental load of the crop phase for feedstock cultivation.

  16. Characterization of antimicrobial lipopeptides produced by Bacillus sp. LM7 isolated from chungkookjang, a Korean traditional fermented soybean food.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Mi-Hwa; Lee, Jiyeon; Nam, Young-Do; Lee, Jong Suk; Seo, Myung-Ji; Yi, Sung-Hun

    2016-03-16

    A wild-type microorganism exhibiting antimicrobial activities was isolated from the Korean traditional fermented soybean food Chungkookjang and identified as Bacillus sp. LM7. During its stationary growth phase, the microorganism secreted an antimicrobial substance, which we partially purified using a simple two-step procedure involving ammonium sulfate precipitation and heat treatment. The partially purified antimicrobial substance, Anti-LM7, was stable over a broad pH range (4.0-9.0) and at temperatures up to 80 °C for 30 min, and was resistant to most proteolytic enzymes and maintained its activity in 30% (v/v) organic solvents. Anti-LM7 inhibited the growth of a broad range of Gram-positive bacteria, including Bacillus cereus and Listeria monocytogenes, but it did not inhibit lactic acid bacteria such as Lactobacillus plantarum and Lactococcus lactis subsp. Lactis. Moreover, unlike commercially available nisin and polymyxin B, Anti-LM7 inhibited certain fungal strains. Lastly, liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry analysis of Anti-LM7 revealed that it contained eight lipopeptides belonging to two families: four bacillomycin D and four surfactin analogs. These Bacillus sp. LM7-produced heterogeneous lipopeptides exhibiting extremely high stability and a broad antimicrobial spectrum are likely to be closely related to the antimicrobial activity of Chungkookjang, and their identification presents an opportunity for application of the peptides in environmental bioremediation, pharmaceutical, cosmetic, and food industries. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Whey-derived valuable products obtained by microbial fermentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pescuma, Micaela; de Valdez, Graciela Font; Mozzi, Fernanda

    2015-08-01

    Whey, the main by-product of the cheese industry, is considered as an important pollutant due to its high chemical and biological oxygen demand. Whey, often considered as waste, has high nutritional value and can be used to obtain value-added products, although some of them need expensive enzymatic synthesis. An economical alternative to transform whey into valuable products is through bacterial or yeast fermentations and by accumulation during algae growth. Fermentative processes can be applied either to produce individual compounds or to formulate new foods and beverages. In the first case, a considerable amount of research has been directed to obtain biofuels able to replace those derived from petrol. In addition, the possibility of replacing petrol-derived plastics by biodegradable polymers synthesized during bacterial fermentation of whey has been sought. Further, the ability of different organisms to produce metabolites commonly used in the food and pharmaceutical industries (i.e., lactic acid, lactobionic acid, polysaccharides, etc.) using whey as growth substrate has been studied. On the other hand, new low-cost functional whey-based foods and beverages leveraging the high nutritional quality of whey have been formulated, highlighting the health-promoting effects of fermented whey-derived products. This review aims to gather the multiple uses of whey as sustainable raw material for the production of individual compounds, foods, and beverages by microbial fermentation. This is the first work to give an overview on the microbial transformation of whey as raw material into a large repertoire of industrially relevant foods and products.

  18. The γ-aminobutyric acid-producing ability under low pH conditions of lactic acid bacteria isolated from traditional fermented foods of Ishikawa Prefecture, Japan, with a strong ability to produce ACE-inhibitory peptides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barla, Florin; Koyanagi, Takashi; Tokuda, Naoko; Matsui, Hiroshi; Katayama, Takane; Kumagai, Hidehiko; Michihata, Toshihide; Sasaki, Tetsuya; Tsuji, Atsushi; Enomoto, Toshiki

    2016-06-01

    Many traditional fermented products are onsumed in Ishikawa Prefecture, Japan, such as kaburazushi , narezushi , konkazuke , and ishiru. Various kinds of lactic acid bacteria (LAB) are associated with their fermentation, however, characterization of LAB has not yet been elucidated in detail. In this study, we evaluated 53 isolates of LAB from various traditional fermented foods by taxonomic classification at the species level by analyzing the 16S ribosomal RNA gene (rDNA) sequences and carbohydrate assimilation abilities. We screened isolates that exhibited high angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitory activities in skim milk or soy protein media and produced high γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) concentrations in culture supernatants when grown in de Man Rogosa Sharpe broth in the presence of 1% (w/v) glutamic acid. The results revealed that 10 isolates, i.e., Lactobacillus buchneri (2 isolates), Lactobacillus brevis (6 isolates), and Weissella hellenica (2 isolates) had a high GABA-producing ability of >500 mg/100 ml after 72 h of incubation at 35 °C. The ACE inhibitory activity of the whey cultured with milk protein by using L. brevis (3 isolates), L. buchneri (2 isolates), and W. hellenica (2 isolates) was stronger than that of all whey cultured with soy protein media, and these IC 50 were GABA-producing activities at pH 3, suggesting that they could be powerful candidates for use in the fermentation of food materials having low pH.

  19. Recovery of carboxylic acids produced during dark fermentation of food waste by adsorption on Amberlite IRA-67 and activated carbon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yousuf, Ahasa; Bonk, Fabian; Bastidas-Oyanedel, Juan-Rodrigo; Schmidt, Jens Ejbye

    2016-10-01

    Amberlite IRA-67 and activated carbon were tested as promising candidates for carboxylic acid recovery by adsorption. Dark fermentation was performed without pH control and without addition of external inoculum at 37°C in batch mode. Lactic, acetic and butyric acids, were obtained, after 7days of fermentation. The maximum acid removal, 74%, from the Amberlite IRA-67 and 63% from activated carbon was obtained from clarified fermentation broth using 200gadsorbent/Lbroth at pH 3.3. The pH has significant effect and pH below the carboxylic acids pKa showed to be beneficial for both the adsorbents. The un-controlled pH fermentation creates acidic environment, aiding in adsorption by eliminating use of chemicals for efficient removal. This study proposes simple and easy valorization of waste to valuable chemicals. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Operation of a two-stage continuous fermentation process producing hydrogen and methane from artificial food wastes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nagai, Kohki; Mizuno, Shiho; Umeda, Yoshito; Sakka, Makiko [Toho Gas Co., Ltd. (Japan); Osaka, Noriko [Tokyo Gas Co. Ltd. (Japan); Sakka, Kazuo [Mie Univ. (Japan)

    2010-07-01

    An anaerobic two-stage continuous fermentation process with combined thermophilic hydrogenogenic and methanogenic stages (two-stage fermentation process) was applied to artificial food wastes on a laboratory scale. In this report, organic loading rate (OLR) conditions for hydrogen fermentation were optimized before operating the two-stage fermentation process. The OLR was set at 11.2, 24.3, 35.2, 45.6, 56.1, and 67.3 g-COD{sub cr} L{sup -1} day{sup -1} with a temperature of 60 C, pH5.5 and 5.0% total solids. As a result, approximately 1.8-2.0 mol-H{sub 2} mol-hexose{sup -1} was obtained at the OLR of 11.2-56.1 g-COD{sub cr} L{sup -1} day{sup -1}. In contrast, it was inferred that the hydrogen yield at the OLR of 67.3 g-COD{sub cr} L{sup -1} day{sup -1} decreased because of an increase in lactate concentration in the culture medium. The performance of the two-stage fermentation process was also evaluated over three months. The hydraulic retention time (HRT) of methane fermentation was able to be shortened 5.0 days (under OLR 12.4 g-COD{sub cr} L{sup -1} day{sup -1} conditions) when the OLR of hydrogen fermentation was 44.0 g-COD{sub cr} L{sup -1} day{sup -1}, and the average gasification efficiency of the two-stage fermentation process was 81% at the time. (orig.)

  1. Dynamic modeling and analyses of simultaneous saccharification and fermentation process to produce bio-ethanol from rice straw.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ko, Jordon; Su, Wen-Jun; Chien, I-Lung; Chang, Der-Ming; Chou, Sheng-Hsin; Zhan, Rui-Yu

    2010-02-01

    The rice straw, an agricultural waste from Asians' main provision, was collected as feedstock to convert cellulose into ethanol through the enzymatic hydrolysis and followed by the fermentation process. When the two process steps are performed sequentially, it is referred to as separate hydrolysis and fermentation (SHF). The steps can also be performed simultaneously, i.e., simultaneous saccharification and fermentation (SSF). In this research, the kinetic model parameters of the cellulose saccharification process step using the rice straw as feedstock is obtained from real experimental data of cellulase hydrolysis. Furthermore, this model can be combined with a fermentation model at high glucose and ethanol concentrations to form a SSF model. The fermentation model is based on cybernetic approach from a paper in the literature with an extension of including both the glucose and ethanol inhibition terms to approach more to the actual plants. Dynamic effects of the operating variables in the enzymatic hydrolysis and the fermentation models will be analyzed. The operation of the SSF process will be compared to the SHF process. It is shown that the SSF process is better in reducing the processing time when the product (ethanol) concentration is high. The means to improve the productivity of the overall SSF process, by properly using aeration during the batch operation will also be discussed.

  2. Improving the Organoleptic Properties of a Craft Mezcal Beverage by Increasing Fatty Acid Ethyl Ester Contents through ATF1 Expression in an Engineered Kluyveromyces marxianus UMPe-1 Yeast.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campos-García, Jesús; Vargas, Alejandra; Farías-Rosales, Lorena; Miranda, Ana L; Meza-Carmen, Víctor; Díaz-Pérez, Alma L

    2018-05-02

    Mezcal, a traditional beverage that originated in Mexico, is produced from species of the Agavaceae family. The esters associated with the yeasts utilized during fermentation are important for improving the organoleptic properties of the beverage. We improved the ester contents in a mezcal beverage by using the yeast Kluyveromyces marxianus, which was engineered with the ATF1 gene. ATF1 expression in the recombinant yeast significantly increased compared with that in the parental yeast, but its fermentative parameters were unchanged. Volatile-organic-compound-content analysis showed that esters had significantly increased in the mezcal produced with the engineered yeast. In a sensory-panel test, 48% of the panelists preferred the mezcal produced from the engineered yeast, 30% preferred the mezcal produced from the wild type, and 15 and 7% preferred the two mezcal types produced following the routine procedure. Correlation analysis showed that the fruitiness/sweetness description of the mezcal produced using the ATF1-engineered K. marxianus yeast correlated with the content of the esters, whose presence improved the organoleptic properties of the craft mezcal beverage.

  3. Purification and biochemical characterization of an Aspergillus niger phytase produced by solid-state fermentation using triticale residues as substrate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neira-Vielma, Alberto A; Aguilar, Cristóbal N; Ilyina, Anna; Contreras-Esquivel, Juan C; Carneiro-da-Cunha, María das Graça; Michelena-Álvarez, Georgina; Martínez-Hernández, José L

    2018-03-01

    In this study, an extracellular phytase produced by Aspergillus niger 7A-1, was biochemically characterized for possible industrial application. The enzyme was purified from a crude extract obtained by solid-state fermentation (SSF) of triticale waste. The extract was obtained by microfiltration, ultrafiltration (300, 100 and 30 kDa) and DEAE-Sepharose column chromatography. The molecular weight of the purified enzyme was estimated to be 89 kDa by SDS-PAGE. The purified enzyme was most active at pH 5.3 and 56 °C, and retained 50% activity over a wide pH range of 4 to 7. The enzymatic thermostability assay showed that the enzyme retained more than 70% activity at 80 °C for 60 s, 40% activity for 120 s and 9% after 300 s. The phytase showed broad substrate specificity, a K m value of 220 μM and V max of 25 μM/min. The purified phytase retained 50% of its activity with phosphorylated compounds such as phenyl phosphate, 1-Naphthyl phosphate, 2-Naphthyl phosphate, p-Nitrophenyl phosphate and Glycerol-2-phosphate. The inhibition of phytase activity by metal ions was observed to be drastically inhibited (50%) by Ca ++ and was slightly inhibited (10%) by Ni ++ , K + , and Na + , at 10 and 20 mM concentrations. A positive effect was obtained with Mg ++ , Mn ++ , Cu ++ , Cd ++ and Ba ++ at 25 and 35% with stimulatory effect on the phytase activity.

  4. Purification and biochemical characterization of an Aspergillus niger phytase produced by solid-state fermentation using triticale residues as substrate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alberto A. Neira-Vielma

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available In this study, an extracellular phytase produced by Aspergillus niger 7A-1, was biochemically characterized for possible industrial application. The enzyme was purified from a crude extract obtained by solid-state fermentation (SSF of triticale waste. The extract was obtained by microfiltration, ultrafiltration (300, 100 and 30 kDa and DEAE-Sepharose column chromatography. The molecular weight of the purified enzyme was estimated to be 89 kDa by SDS-PAGE. The purified enzyme was most active at pH 5.3 and 56 °C, and retained 50% activity over a wide pH range of 4 to 7. The enzymatic thermostability assay showed that the enzyme retained more than 70% activity at 80 °C for 60 s, 40% activity for 120 s and 9% after 300 s. The phytase showed broad substrate specificity, a Km value of 220 μM and Vmax of 25 μM/min. The purified phytase retained 50% of its activity with phosphorylated compounds such as phenyl phosphate, 1-Naphthyl phosphate, 2-Naphthyl phosphate, p-Nitrophenyl phosphate and Glycerol-2-phosphate. The inhibition of phytase activity by metal ions was observed to be drastically inhibited (50% by Ca++ and was slightly inhibited (10% by Ni++, K+, and Na+, at 10 and 20 mM concentrations. A positive effect was obtained with Mg++, Mn++, Cu++, Cd++ and Ba++ at 25 and 35% with stimulatory effect on the phytase activity.

  5. Non-dairy probiotic beverages: the next step into human health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gawkowski, D; Chikindas, M L

    2013-06-01

    Probiotics are live microorganisms that, when administered in adequate amounts, confer a health benefit to the host. The two main genera of microorganisms indicated as sources of probiotic bacteria are Lactobacillus and Bifidobacterium. Historically used to produce fermented dairy products, certain strains of both genera are increasingly utilised to formulate other functional foods. As the consumers' understanding of the role of probiotics in health grows, so does the popularity of food containing them. The result of this phenomenon is an increase in the number of probiotic foods available for public consumption, including a rapidly-emerging variety of probiotic-containing non-dairy beverages, which provide a convenient way to improve and maintain health. However, the composition of non-dairy probiotic beverages can pose specific challenges to the survival of the health conferring microorganisms. To overcome these challenges, strain selection and protection techniques play an integral part in formulating a stable product. This review discusses non-dairy probiotic beverages, characteristics of an optimal beverage, and commonly used probiotic strains, including spore-forming bacteria. It also examines the most recent developments in probiotic encapsulation technology with focus on nano-fibre formation as a means of protecting viable cells. Utilising bacteria's natural armour or creating barrier mechanisms via encapsulation technology will fuel development of stable non-dairy probiotic beverages.

  6. Looking for practical tools to achieve next-future applicability of dark fermentation to produce bio-hydrogen from organic materials in Continuously Stirred Tank Reactors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tenca, A; Schievano, A; Lonati, S; Malagutti, L; Oberti, R; Adani, F

    2011-09-01

    This study aimed at finding applicable tools for favouring dark fermentation application in full-scale biogas plants in the next future. Firstly, the focus was obtaining mixed microbial cultures from natural sources (soil-inocula and anaerobically digested materials), able to efficiently produce bio-hydrogen by dark fermentation. Batch reactors with proper substrate (1 gL(glucose)(-1)) and metabolites concentrations, allowed high H(2) yields (2.8 ± 0.66 mol H(2)mol(glucose)(-1)), comparable to pure microbial cultures achievements. The application of this methodology to four organic substrates, of possible interest for full-scale plants, showed promising and repeatable bio-H(2) potential (BHP=202 ± 3 NL(H2)kg(VS)(-1)) from organic fraction of municipal source-separated waste (OFMSW). Nevertheless, the fermentation in a lab-scale CSTR (nowadays the most diffused typology of biogas-plant) of a concentrated organic mixture of OFMSW (126 g(TS)L(-1)) resulted in only 30% of its BHP, showing that further improvements are still needed for future full-scale applications of dark fermentation. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Isolation of a novel alginate lyase-producing Bacillus litoralis strain and its potential to ferment Sargassum horneri for biofertilizer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Mingpeng; Chen, Lei; Liu, Zhengyi; Zhang, Zhaojie; Qin, Song; Yan, Peisheng

    2016-12-01

    Algae have long been used to augment plant productivity through their beneficial effects. Alginate oligosaccharide is believed to be one of the important components to enhance growth and crop yield. In this study, we isolated and characterized a Bacillus litoralis strain, named Bacillus M3, from decayed kelps. We further demonstrated that the M3 strain could secrete alginate lyase to degrade alginate. The crude enzyme exhibited the highest activity (33.74 U/mg) at pH 7.0 and 50°C. The M3 strain was also able to ferment the brown alga Sargassum horneri. Fermentation results revealed that a fermentation period of 8-12 hr was the best harvest time with the highest level of alginate oligosaccharides. Plant growth assay showed that the seaweed fermentation extract had an obvious promotion effect on root and seedling growth of Lycopersicon eseulentum L. Our results suggest that fermentation extract of Sargassum horneri by the novel strain of Bacillus litoralis M3 has significant development potential for biofertilizer production and agriculture application. © 2016 The Authors. MicrobiologyOpen published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  8. Microbial Species Diversity, Community Dynamics, and Metabolite Kinetics of Water Kefir Fermentation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laureys, David

    2014-01-01

    Water kefir is a sour, alcoholic, and fruity fermented beverage of which the fermentation is started with water kefir grains. These water kefir grains consist of polysaccharide and contain the microorganisms responsible for the water kefir fermentation. In this work, a water kefir fermentation process was followed as a function of time during 192 h to unravel the community dynamics, the species diversity, and the kinetics of substrate consumption and metabolite production. The majority of the water kefir ecosystem was found to be present on the water kefir grains. The most important microbial species present were Lactobacillus casei/paracasei, Lactobacillus harbinensis, Lactobacillus hilgardii, Bifidobacterium psychraerophilum/crudilactis, Saccharomyces cerevisiae, and Dekkera bruxellensis. The microbial species diversities in the water kefir liquor and on the water kefir grains were similar and remained stable during the whole fermentation process. The major substrate, sucrose, was completely converted after 24 h of fermentation, which coincided with the production of the major part of the water kefir grain polysaccharide. The main metabolites of the fermentation were ethanol and lactic acid. Glycerol, acetic acid, and mannitol were produced in low concentrations. The major part of these metabolites was produced during the first 72 h of fermentation, during which the pH decreased from 4.26 to 3.45. The most prevalent volatile aroma compounds were ethyl acetate, isoamyl acetate, ethyl hexanoate, ethyl octanoate, and ethyl decanoate, which might be of significance with respect to the aroma of the end product. PMID:24532061

  9. Microbial species diversity, community dynamics, and metabolite kinetics of water kefir fermentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laureys, David; De Vuyst, Luc

    2014-04-01

    Water kefir is a sour, alcoholic, and fruity fermented beverage of which the fermentation is started with water kefir grains. These water kefir grains consist of polysaccharide and contain the microorganisms responsible for the water kefir fermentation. In this work, a water kefir fermentation process was followed as a function of time during 192 h to unravel the community dynamics, the species diversity, and the kinetics of substrate consumption and metabolite production. The majority of the water kefir ecosystem was found to be present on the water kefir grains. The most important microbial species present were Lactobacillus casei/paracasei, Lactobacillus harbinensis, Lactobacillus hilgardii, Bifidobacterium psychraerophilum/crudilactis, Saccharomyces cerevisiae, and Dekkera bruxellensis. The microbial species diversities in the water kefir liquor and on the water kefir grains were similar and remained stable during the whole fermentation process. The major substrate, sucrose, was completely converted after 24 h of fermentation, which coincided with the production of the major part of the water kefir grain polysaccharide. The main metabolites of the fermentation were ethanol and lactic acid. Glycerol, acetic acid, and mannitol were produced in low concentrations. The major part of these metabolites was produced during the first 72 h of fermentation, during which the pH decreased from 4.26 to 3.45. The most prevalent volatile aroma compounds were ethyl acetate, isoamyl acetate, ethyl hexanoate, ethyl octanoate, and ethyl decanoate, which might be of significance with respect to the aroma of the end product.

  10. Different temperatures select distinctive acetic acid bacteria species and promotes organic acids production during Kombucha tea fermentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Filippis, Francesca; Troise, Antonio Dario; Vitaglione, Paola; Ercolini, Danilo

    2018-08-01

    Kombucha is a traditional beverage produced by tea fermentation, carried out by a symbiotic consortium of bacteria and yeasts. Acetic Acid Bacteria (AAB) usually dominate the bacterial community of Kombucha, driving the fermentative process. The consumption of this beverage was often associated to beneficial effects for the health, due to its antioxidant and detoxifying properties. We characterized bacterial populations of Kombucha tea fermented at 20 or 30 °C by using culture-dependent and -independent methods and monitored the concentration of gluconic and glucuronic acids, as well as of total polyphenols. We found significant differences in the microbiota at the two temperatures. Moreover, different species of Gluconacetobacter were selected, leading to a differential abundance of gluconic and glucuronic acids. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Antioxidant, Antibacterial and Color Analysis of Garlic Fermented in Kombucha and Red Grape Vinegar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Ebrahimi Pure

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Background and Objective: Garlic, in different types, is a very common food ingredient all over the world. Traditionally, garlic is fermented in grape vinegar to produce garlic pickles; in this study, to produce a novel fermented food, garlic was fermented in kombucha beverage; then, antibacterial and chemical properties and color changes of garlics fermented in kombucha and vinegar were compared with each other and those of fresh garlic.Material and Methods: Folin-Ciocalteu assay was performed to evaluate total phenolic contents; free radical scavenging activity was evaluated using 2,2- diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl. Disk diffusion method was performed to measure inhibitory activity against testing bacteria. A digital method was designed for color analysis. All data were statistically analyzed by ANOVA test at significant level of (p≤0.05.Results and Conclusion: Fresh garlic extract had the highest inhibitory effect (mean 27.7 mm against tested bacteria; kombucha fermented garlic showed bigger inhibition zone (mean 21.7 mm than vinegar fermented garlic (mean 17.9 mm. Anti-staphylococcus aureus activity of fresh garlic was stronger than gentamycin and amoxicillin; inhibitory effect of garlic extracts against tested bacteria was significant in comparison with standard antibiotics. Fresh-garlic extract contained highest amount of phenolic contents; fermentation of garlic in kombucha decreased phenolic content of garlic bulbs by 1.92% and IC50 factor for antioxidant activity was 10.25% higher than fresh garlic; fermentation in vinegar reduced 21% of phenolic contents and IC50 obtained 47.4% higher than fresh garlic. Fermentation of garlic reduces the density of colors and luminosity, but the reduction in garlics fermented in vinegar is more than in kombucha. Appearance of vinegar fermented garlic changed to yellowish and kombucha inclined the color to reddish. Fermentation of garlic in kombucha provides better preservation of biological properties of

  12. Microbiological, biochemical, and functional aspects of sugary kefir fermentation - A review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fiorda, Fernanda Assumpção; de Melo Pereira, Gilberto Vinicius; Thomaz-Soccol, Vanete; Rakshit, Sudip Kumar; Pagnoncelli, Maria Giovana Binder; Vandenberghe, Luciana Porto de Souza; Soccol, Carlos Ricardo

    2017-09-01

    Sugary kefir beverage is produce by fermenting raw sugar solution with kefir grains, the latter consisting of polysaccharide and microorganisms. This beverage, with great consumption in countries such as USA, Japan, France, and Brazil, represents a promising market to functional cultured drinks. This paper reviews the microbial diversity and interaction, kinetics, safety, and bioactivities of sugary kefir fermentation. The literature reviewed here demonstrates that sugary kefir possesses a similar microbial association relative to traditional milk kefir fermentation, especially among lactic acid bacteria and yeast species, such as Lactobacillus, Leuconostoc, Kluyveromyces, Pichia, and Saccharomyces. However, a selective pressure at species level is generally observed, as, for example, the stimulation of Saccharomyces species metabolism, leading to a high content of alcohol in the final product. This also seems to stimulate the growth of acetic acid bacteria that benefit of increased ethanol production to acetic acid metabolism. Existing reports have suggested important bioactivities associated with sugary kefir beverage consumption, such as antimicrobial, antiedematogenic, anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, cicatrizing, and healing activities. Other alternative non-dairy substrates, such as fruits, vegetables, and molasses, have also been tested for adaptation of kefir grains and production of functional beverages with distinct sensory characteristics. This diversification is of crucial importance for the production of new probiotic products to provide people with special needs (lactose intolerance) and vegan consumers. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Fermented corn flour poisoning in rural areas of China. III. Isolation and identification of main toxin produced by causal microorganisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, W J; Chen, X M; Meng, H D; Meng, Z H

    1989-03-01

    Flavotoxin A was isolated from Pseudomonas cocovenenans subsp. farinofermentans culture in semisolid potato-dextrose-agar medium, which was isolated from fermented corn meal that had caused food poisoning outbreaks in China. The isolation, purification, and chemical structure of this toxin were studied. The NMR spectra, the uv spectra, and molar extinction coefficients, and the mass spectra of Flavotoxin A are in good agreement with those reported for bongkrekic acid. Therefore, Flavotoxin A and bongkrekic acid are the same organic chemical compound; the molecular formula is C28H38O7. The oral LD50 of the purified Flavotoxin A in mice was 3.16 mg/kg (1.53-6.15 mg/kg). The existence of bongkrekic acid in toxic fermented corn samples collected during food poisoning outbreaks was also confirmed. It is concluded that bongkrekic acid has played an important role in the outbreaks of fermented corn poisoning.

  14. Biotransformation of soy whey into soy alcoholic beverage by four commercial strains of Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chua, Jian-Yong; Lu, Yuyun; Liu, Shao-Quan

    2017-12-04

    Soy whey is a liquid waste stream generated from tofu and soy protein manufacturing, and is commonly disposed of into the drainage system in food industry. Instead of disposing of soy whey as a waste, it could be used to produce alcoholic beverages. This study investigated the feasibility of converting soy whey into soy alcoholic beverage using four commercial Saccharomyces cerevisiae strains as a zero-waste approach to tackle the soy whey disposal issue. The four Saccharomyces yeasts grew by approximately 2logCFU/mL and produced approximately 7-8% (v/v) of ethanol. Isoflavone glucosides were hydrolyzed and transformed into isoflavone aglycones, increasing the antioxidant capacity. New aroma-active volatiles, especially esters and higher alcohols, were produced and imparted fruity and floral notes to the soy alcoholic beverage. Therefore, alcoholic fermentation would serve as a solution toward zero-waste manufacturing by biotransforming soy whey into a world's first novel functional alcoholic beverage naturally enriched with free isoflavones. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Pretreatment of Dried Distiller Grains with Solubles by Soaking in Aqueous Ammonia and Subsequent Enzymatic/Dilute Acid Hydrolysis to Produce Fermentable Sugars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nghiem, Nhuan P; Montanti, Justin; Kim, Tae Hyun

    2016-05-01

    Dried distillers grains with solubles (DDGS), a co-product of corn ethanol production in the dry-grind process, was pretreated by soaking in aqueous ammonia (SAA) using a 15 % w/w NH4OH solution at a solid/liquid ratio of 1:10. The effect of pretreatment on subsequent enzymatic hydrolysis was studied at two temperatures (40 and 60 °C) and four reaction times (6, 12, 24, and 48 h). Highest glucose yield of 91 % theoretical was obtained for the DDGS pretreated at 60 °C and 24 h. The solubilized hemicellulose in the liquid fraction was further hydrolyzed with dilute H2SO4 to generate fermentable monomeric sugars. The conditions of acid hydrolysis included 1 and 4 wt% acid, 60 and 120 °C, and 0.5 and 1 h. Highest yields of xylose and arabinose were obtained at 4 wt% acid, 120 °C, and 1 h. The fermentability of the hydrolysate obtained by enzymatic hydrolysis of the SAA-pretreated DDGS was demonstrated in ethanol fermentation by Saccharomyces cerevisiae. The fermentability of the hydrolysate obtained by consecutive enzymatic and dilute acid hydrolysis was demonstrated using a succinic acid-producing microorganism, strain Escherichia coli AFP184. Under the fermentation conditions, complete utilization of glucose and arabinose was observed, whereas only 47 % of xylose was used. The succinic acid yield was 0.60 g/g total sugar consumed.

  16. Lactic Acid Bacteria Exopolysaccharides in Foods and Beverages: Isolation, Properties, Characterization, and Health Benefits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lynch, Kieran M; Zannini, Emanuele; Coffey, Aidan; Arendt, Elke K

    2018-03-25

    Exopolysaccharides produced by lactic acid bacteria are a diverse group of polysaccharides produced by many species. They vary widely in their molecular, compositional, and structural characteristics, including mechanisms of synthesis. The physiochemical properties of these polymers mean that they can be exploited for the sensorial and textural enhancement of a variety of food and beverage products. Traditionally, lactic acid bacteria exopolysaccharides have an important role in fermented dairy products and more recently are being applied for the improvement of bakery products. The health benefits that are continually being associated with these polysaccharides enable the development of dual function, added-value, and clean-label products. To fully exploit and understand the functionality of these exopolysaccharides, their isolation, purification, and thorough characterization are of great importance. This review considers each of the above factors and presents the current knowledge on the importance of lactic acid bacteria exopolysaccharides in the food and beverage industry.

  17. Research on the Solid State Fermentation of Jerusalem Artichoke Pomace for Producing R,R-2,3-Butanediol by Paenibacillus polymyxa ZJ-9.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Can; Zhang, Li; Gao, Jian; Xu, Hong; Xue, Feng; Huang, Weiwei; Li, Yan

    2017-06-01

    R,R-2,3-butanediol (R,R-2,3-BD) was produced by Paenibacillus polymyxa ZJ-9, which was capable of utilizing inulin without previous hydrolysis. The Jerusalem artichoke pomace (JAP) derived from the conversion of Jerusalem artichoke powder into inulin extract, which was usually used for biorefinery by submerged fermentation (SMF), was utilized in solid state fermentation (SSF) to produce R,R-2,3-BD. In this study, the fermentation parameters of SSF were optimized and determined in flasks. A novel bioreactor was designed and assembled for the laboratory scale-up of SSF, with a maximum yield of R,R-2,3-BD (67.90 g/kg (JAP)). This result is a 36.3% improvement compared with the flasks. Based on the same bath of Jerusalem artichoke powder, the total output of R,R-2,3-BD increased by 38.8% for the SSF of JAP combined with the SMF of inulin extraction. Overall, the utilization of JAP for R,R-2,3-BD production was beneficial to the comprehensive utilization of Jerusalem artichoke tuber.

  18. Sucrose fermentation by Saccharomyces cerevisiae lacking hexose transport.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batista, Anderson S; Miletti, Luiz C; Stambuk, Boris U

    2004-01-01

    Sucrose is the major carbon source used by Saccharomyces cerevisiae during production of baker's yeast, fuel ethanol and several distilled beverages. It is generally accepted that sucrose fermentation proceeds through extracellular hydrolysis of the sugar, mediated by the periplasmic invertase, producing glucose and fructose that are transported into the cells and metabolized. In the present work we analyzed the contribution to sucrose fermentation of a poorly characterized pathway of sucrose utilization by S. cerevisiae cells, the active transport of the sugar through the plasma membrane and its intracellular hydrolysis. A yeast strain that lacks the major hexose transporters (hxt1-hxt7 and gal2) is incapable of growing on or fermenting glucose or fructose. Our results show that this hxt-null strain is still able to ferment sucrose due to direct uptake of the sugar into the cells. Deletion of the AGT1 gene, which encodes a high-affinity sucrose-H(+) symporter, rendered cells incapable of sucrose fermentation. Since sucrose is not an inducer of the permease, expression of the AGT1 must be constitutive in order to allow growth of the hxt-null strain on sucrose. The molecular characterization of active sucrose transport and fermentation by S. cerevisiae cells opens new opportunities to optimize yeasts for sugarcane-based industrial processes.

  19. Prevalence of Salmonella spp. and Listeria monocytogenes at small-scale spanish factories producing traditional fermented sausages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Belen; Garriga, Margarita; Aymerich, Teresa

    2011-05-01

    The manufacturing of fermented sausages is subject to natural contamination processes that can potentially carry foodborne pathogens along the process chain and result in contamination of the final product. The aim of this study was to evaluate the occurrence of Salmonella spp. and Listeria monocytogenes at different sampling points during the manufacturing process of fuet, a type of traditional fermented sausage, at 10 small-scale Spanish factories. The presence of both pathogens was studied in the raw materials (19 casings and 19 meat batters), the final products (19 fermented sausages), and the factory equipment (12 mincing, 12 mixing, and 19 stuffing machines, 19 cutting tables, 11 knives, and 12 cold rooms) by using classical microbiological techniques and real-time PCR. Salmonella was not detected in the equipment analyzed or in the final products, but it was detected in the raw materials (23.7% of samples). L. monocytogenes showed higher incidence than Salmonella and was detected in the equipment (11.8% of samples), the raw materials (28.9%), and the final products (15.8%), confirming its ubiquity throughout the manufacturing process of fermented sausages. Five factories were further investigated to study the changes in the distribution of pathogens in the fuet production process over a period of either 2 or 3 years. There was considerable variation in the incidence of both pathogens at different sampling periods, and there was no relation between seasonal variations or geographic location of the factories.

  20. PF1163A and B, new antifungal antibiotics produced by Penicillium sp. I. Taxonomy of producing strain, fermentation, isolation and biological activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nose, H; Seki, A; Yaguchi, T; Hosoya, A; Sasaki, T; Hoshiko, S; Shomura, T

    2000-01-01

    Two novel antifungal antibiotics, PF1163A and B, were isolated from the fermentation broth of Penicillium sp. They were purified from the solid cultures of rice media using ethyl acetate extraction, silica gel and Sephadex LH-20 column chromatographies. PF1163A and B showed potent growth inhibitory activity against pathogenic fungal strain Candida albicans but did not show cytotoxic activity against mammalian cells. These compounds inhibited the ergosterol biosynthesis in Candida albicans.

  1. Characterization of the Extended-Spectrum beta-Lactamase Producers among Non-Fermenting Gram-Negative Bacteria Isolated from Burnt Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mojdeh Hakemi Vala

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Please cite this article as: Hakemi Vala M, Hallajzadeh M, Fallah F, Hashemi A, Goudarzi H. Characterization of the extended-spectrum beta-lactamase producers among non-fermenting gram-negative bacteria isolated from burnt patients. Arch Hyg Sci 2013;2(1:1-6. Background & Aims of the Study: Extended-spectrum beta-Lactamases (ESBLs represent a major group of beta-lactamases which are responsible for resistance to oxyimino-cephalosporins and aztreonam and currently being identified in large numbers throughout the world. The objective of this study was to characterize ESBL producers among non-fermenter gram-negative bacteria isolated from burnt patients. Materials & Methods: During April to July 2012, 75 non-fermenter gram-negative bacilli were isolated from 240 bacterial cultures collected from wounds of burnt patients admitted to the Burn Unit at Shahid Motahari Hospital (Tehran, Iran. Bacterial isolation and identification was done using standard methods. Antimicrobial susceptibility testing was performed by disk diffusion method for all strains against selected antibiotics and minimum inhibitory concentration was determined by microdilution test. The ability to produce ESBL was detected through double disk synergy test among candidate strains. Results: Of 75 non-fermenter isolates, 47 Pseudomonas aeruginosa and 28 Acinetobacter baumannii were identified. The resistance of P. aeruginosa isolates to tested antibiotics in antibiogram test were 100% to cefpodoxime, 82.98% to ceftriaxone, 78.73% to imipenem, 75% to meropenem, 72.72% to gentamicin, 69.23% to ciprofloxacin and aztreonam, 67.57% to cefepime, 65.95% to ceftazidime, and 61.53% to piperacillin. The results for Acinetobacter baumannii were 100% to ceftazidime, cefepime, ciprofloxacin, imipenem, meropenem, cefpodoxime, and cefotaxim, 96.85% to gentamicin, 89.65% to ceftriaxone, 65.51% to aztreonam, and 40% to piperacillin. Double disk synergy test showed that 21 (28% of non-fermenter

  2. Mystery behind Chinese liquor fermentation

    OpenAIRE

    Jin, Guangyuan; Zhu, Yang; Xu, Yan

    2017-01-01

    Background Chinese liquor, a very popular fermented alcoholic beverage with thousands of years’ history in China, though its flavour formation and microbial process have only been partly explored, is facing the industrial challenge of modernisation and standardisation for food quality and safety as well as sustainability. Meanwhile, the hidden knowledge behind the complicated and somehow empirical solid-state fermentation process of Chinese liquor can enrich the food sector to improve our qua...

  3. Effects of fermentation by Saccharomyces cerevisiae and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    yassine

    2013-02-13

    Feb 13, 2013 ... Full Length Research Paper. Effect of Saccharomyces cerevisiae fermentation on the ... 2003). Besides, several alcoholic beverages such as wine or liqueurs are obtained from fruit juices fermented by Saccharomyces ..... (2003). Kinetics of pigment release from hairy root cultures of Beta vulgaris under the ...

  4. Effects of fermentation by Saccharomyces cerevisiae and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    yassine

    2013-02-13

    Feb 13, 2013 ... Effect of Saccharomyces cerevisiae fermentation on the ... beetroot, fermentation, Saccharomyces cerevisiae, betalain compounds. ... by Saccharomyces cerevisiae strains (González et al., .... Both red and yellow pigments were influenced during S. .... in beverages such as white wine, grape fruit, and green.

  5. The γ-aminobutyric acid-producing ability under low pH conditions of lactic acid bacteria isolated from traditional fermented foods of Ishikawa Prefecture, Japan, with a strong ability to produce ACE-inhibitory peptides

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Florin Barla

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Many traditional fermented products are onsumed in Ishikawa Prefecture, Japan, such as kaburazushi, narezushi, konkazuke, and ishiru. Various kinds of lactic acid bacteria (LAB are associated with their fermentation, however, characterization of LAB has not yet been elucidated in detail. In this study, we evaluated 53 isolates of LAB from various traditional fermented foods by taxonomic classification at the species level by analyzing the 16S ribosomal RNA gene (rDNA sequences and carbohydrate assimilation abilities. We screened isolates that exhibited high angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE inhibitory activities in skim milk or soy protein media and produced high γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA concentrations in culture supernatants when grown in de Man Rogosa Sharpe broth in the presence of 1% (w/v glutamic acid. The results revealed that 10 isolates, i.e., Lactobacillus buchneri (2 isolates, Lactobacillus brevis (6 isolates, and Weissella hellenica (2 isolates had a high GABA-producing ability of >500 mg/100 ml after 72 h of incubation at 35 °C. The ACE inhibitory activity of the whey cultured with milk protein by using L. brevis (3 isolates, L. buchneri (2 isolates, and W. hellenica (2 isolates was stronger than that of all whey cultured with soy protein media, and these IC50 were < 1 mg protein/ml. Three of 10 isolates had high GABA-producing activities at pH 3, suggesting that they could be powerful candidates for use in the fermentation of food materials having low pH.

  6. Isolation and characterization of three distinct forms of lipases from Candida rugosa produced in solid state fermentation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sailas Benjamin

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available Three distinct forms (Lip A, Lip B and Lip C of extra-cellular lipases (EC- 3.1.1.3, produced by Candida rugosa in solid state fermentation (SSF were purified and characterised. SSF was carried out in glass columns using coconut oil cake and wheat bran. The enzyme was purified from the aqueous extract of fermented matter by ammonium sulphate precipitation, dialysis, ultra-filtration and gel filtration using Sephadex-200 to a 43-fold purification and 64.35-mg/ml specific activity. SDS-PAGE of purified enzyme revealed three distinct bands, indicating the existence of three iso-forms, Lip A, Lip B and Lip C with apparent molecular weight about 64,000, 62,000 and 60,000 Da, respectively. All the three iso-forms were optimally active at 35-40ºC and pH 7-8. They showed marked differences in their Km values with different saturated and unsaturated triacyl glycerols. Ag++ and Hg++ strongly inhibited enzyme activity of all the iso-forms, Mn++ has no effect and Ca++ and Mg++ enhanced the activity. EDTA also strongly inhibited the enzyme activities of iso-forms. However, activities of all the three lipases were completely inhibited by serine protease inhibitors such as 3,4-dichloroisocoumarin, pefabloc and partially by phenylmethanesulphonyl fluoride. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report describing the purification and characterisation of C. rugosa lipase iso-forms from solid cultures. These lipase iso-forms with diverse characteristics produced in solid cultures may find potential application in biomedical field.Três formas distintas (Lip A, Lip B e Lip C de lipases extracelulares (EC- 3,1,1,3, produzidas por Candida rugosa em fermentação no estado sólido (SSF foram purificadas e caracterizadas. A fermentação foi realizada em colunas de vidro usando como substrato bolo de óleo de coco e o farelo de trigo. O enzima obtida no extrato aquoso do material fermentado foi precipitada com do sulfato de do amônio, dialisada , ultra

  7. Probiotic potentials of cereal-based beverages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Enujiugha, Victor N; Badejo, Adebanjo A

    2017-03-04

    Probiotics offer remarkable potential for the prevention and management of various infective and noninfective disorders. They are reported to play key roles in the suppression of gastrointestinal infections, antimicrobial activity, improvement in lactose metabolism, reduction in serum cholesterol, immune system stimulation, antimutagenic properties, anticarcinogenic properties, anti-diarrheal properties, and improvement in inflammatory bowel disease. Although probiotic foods are classically confined to beverages and cheese, containing live organisms of the lactic acid bacteria family, such health-promoting foods are traditionally dairy-based, comprising milk and its fermented products. However, recent research focuses on the probiotic potentials of fermented cereal-based beverages which are especially consumed in developing countries characterized by low nutritional security and high incidence of gut pathogen infections. Moreover, lactose intolerance and cholesterol content associated with dairy products, coupled with the vegetarian tendencies of diverse populations in the third world, tend to enforce the recent recourse to nondairy beverages. Probiotic microorganisms are mostly of human or animal origin; however, strains recognized as probiotics are also found in nondairy fermented substrates. This review examines the potentials of some traditional cereal-based beverages to serve as probiotic foods, their microbial and functional properties, as well as their process optimization and storage for enhanced utilization.

  8. Predicting the concentration of verotoxin-producing Escherichia coli bacteria during processing and storage of fermented raw-meat sausages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quinto, E J; Arinder, P; Axelsson, L; Heir, E; Holck, A; Lindqvist, R; Lindblad, M; Andreou, P; Lauzon, H L; Marteinsson, V Þ; Pin, C

    2014-05-01

    A model to predict the population density of verotoxigenic Escherichia coli (VTEC) throughout the elaboration and storage of fermented raw-meat sausages (FRMS) was developed. Probabilistic and kinetic measurement data sets collected from publicly available resources were completed with new measurements when required and used to quantify the dependence of VTEC growth and inactivation on the temperature, pH, water activity (aw), and concentration of lactic acid. Predictions were compared with observations in VTEC-contaminated FRMS manufactured in a pilot plant. Slight differences in the reduction of VTEC were predicted according to the fermentation temperature, 24 or 34°C, with greater inactivation at the highest temperature. The greatest reduction was observed during storage at high temperatures. A population decrease greater than 6 decimal logarithmic units was observed after 66 days of storage at 25°C, while a reduction of only ca. 1 logarithmic unit was detected at 12°C. The performance of our model and other modeling approaches was evaluated throughout the processing of dry and semidry FRMS. The greatest inactivation of VTEC was predicted in dry FRMS with long drying periods, while the smallest reduction was predicted in semidry FMRS with short drying periods. The model is implemented in a computing tool, E. coli SafeFerment (EcSF), freely available from http://www.ifr.ac.uk/safety/EcoliSafeFerment. EcSF integrates growth, probability of growth, and thermal and nonthermal inactivation models to predict the VTEC concentration throughout FRMS manufacturing and storage under constant or fluctuating environmental conditions.

  9. Particle formation induced by sonication during yogurt fermentation - Impact of exopolysaccharide-producing starter cultures on physical properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Körzendörfer, Adrian; Nöbel, Stefan; Hinrichs, Jörg

    2017-07-01

    Two major quality defects of yogurt are syneresis and the presence of large particles, and several reasons have been extensively discussed. Vibrations during fermentation, particularly generated by pumps, must be considered as a further cause as latest research showed that both ultrasound and low frequencies induced visible particles. The aim of this study was to investigate the impact of sonication during fermentation with starter cultures differing in exopolysaccharide (EPS) synthesis on the physical properties of set (syneresis, firmness) and stirred yogurt (large particles, laser diffraction, rheology). Skim milk was fermented with starter cultures YC-471 (low EPS) or YF-L 901 (high EPS) (Chr. Hansen) and sonicated for 5min at pH5.2. Sonicated set gels exhibited syneresis and were softer than respective controls. The mechanical treatment was adjusted to quantify visible particles (d≥0.9mm) in stirred yogurts properly. Sonication significantly increased particle numbers, however, the effect was less pronounced when YF-L 901 was used, indicating EPS as a tool to reduce syneresis and particle formation due to vibrations. Rheological parameters and size of microgel particles were rather influenced by starter cultures than by sonication. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Microbiological, technological and therapeutic properties of kefir: a natural probiotic beverage

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Oliveira Leite, Analy Machado; Miguel, Marco Antonio Lemos; Peixoto, Raquel Silva; Rosado, Alexandre Soares; Silva, Joab Trajano; Paschoalin, Vania Margaret Flosi

    2013-01-01

    Kefir is a fermented milk beverage produced by the action of bacteria and yeasts that exist in symbiotic association in kefir grains. The artisanal production of the kefir is based on the tradition of the peoples of Caucasus, which has spread to other parts of the world, from the late 19th century, and nowadays integrates its nutritional and therapeutic indications to the everyday food choices of several populations. The large number of microorganisms present in kefir and their microbial interactions, the possible bioactive compounds resulting of microbial metabolism, and the benefits associated with the use this beverage confers kefir the status of a natural probiotic, designated as the 21th century yoghurt. Several studies have shown that kefir and its constituents have antimicrobial, antitumor, anticarcinogenic and immunomodulatory activity and also improve lactose digestion, among others. This review includes data on the technological aspects, the main beneficial effects on human health of kefir and its microbiological composition. Generally, kefir grains contain a relatively stable and specific microbiota enclosed in a matrix of polysaccharides and proteins. Microbial interactions in kefir are complex due to the composition of kefir grains, which seems to differ among different studies, although some predominant Lactobacillus species are always present. Besides, the specific populations of individual grains seem to contribute to the particular sensory characteristics present in fermented beverages. This review also includes new electron microscopy data on the distribution of microorganisms within different Brazilian kefir grains, which showed a relative change in its distribution according to grain origin. PMID:24294220

  11. Microbiological, technological and therapeutic properties of kefir: a natural probiotic beverage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Analy Machado de Oliveira Leite

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Kefir is a fermented milk beverage produced by the action of bacteria and yeasts that exist in symbiotic association in kefir grains. The artisanal production of the kefir is based on the tradition of the peoples of Caucasus, which has spread to other parts of the world, from the late 19th century, and nowadays integrates its nutritional and therapeutic indications to the everyday food choices of several populations. The large number of microorganisms present in kefir and their microbial interactions, the possible bioactive compounds resulting of microbial metabolism, and the benefits associated with the use this beverage confers kefir the status of a natural probiotic, designated as the 21th century yoghurt. Several studies have shown that kefir and its constituents have antimicrobial, antitumor, anticarcinogenic and immunomodulatory activity and also improve lactose digestion, among others. This review includes data on the technological aspects, the main beneficial effects on human health of kefir and its microbiological composition. Generally, kefir grains contain a relatively stable and specific microbiota enclosed in a matrix of polysaccharides and proteins. Microbial interactions in kefir are complex due to the composition of kefir grains, which seems to differ among different studies, although some predominant Lactobacillus species are always present. Besides, the specific populations of individual grains seem to contribute to the particular sensory characteristics present in fermented beverages. This review also includes new electron microscopy data on the distribution of microorganisms within different Brazilian kefir grains, which showed a relative change in its distribution according to grain origin.

  12. Microbiological, technological and therapeutic properties of kefir: a natural probiotic beverage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Oliveira Leite, Analy Machado; Miguel, Marco Antonio Lemos; Peixoto, Raquel Silva; Rosado, Alexandre Soares; Silva, Joab Trajano; Paschoalin, Vania Margaret Flosi

    2013-01-01

    Kefir is a fermented milk beverage produced by the action of bacteria and yeasts that exist in symbiotic association in kefir grains. The artisanal production of the kefir is based on the tradition of the peoples of Caucasus, which has spread to other parts of the world, from the late 19(th) century, and nowadays integrates its nutritional and therapeutic indications to the everyday food choices of several populations. The large number of microorganisms present in kefir and their microbial interactions, the possible bioactive compounds resulting of microbial metabolism, and the benefits associated with the use this beverage confers kefir the status of a natural probiotic, designated as the 21(th) century yoghurt. Several studies have shown that kefir and its constituents have antimicrobial, antitumor, anticarcinogenic and immunomodulatory activity and also improve lactose digestion, among others. This review includes data on the technological aspects, the main beneficial effects on human health of kefir and its microbiological composition. Generally, kefir grains contain a relatively stable and specific microbiota enclosed in a matrix of polysaccharides and proteins. Microbial interactions in kefir are complex due to the composition of kefir grains, which seems to differ among different studies, although some predominant Lactobacillus species are always present. Besides, the specific populations of individual grains seem to contribute to the particular sensory characteristics present in fermented beverages. This review also includes new electron microscopy data on the distribution of microorganisms within different Brazilian kefir grains, which showed a relative change in its distribution according to grain origin.

  13. Influence of aeration in the fermentative activity of Kloeckera apiculata during fermentation of apple juice; Influencia de la aireacion en la actividad fermentativa de Kloeckera apiculata durante la fermentacion de jugo de manzana

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Estela Escalante, Waldir D; Rychtera, Mojmir; Melzoch, Karel; Guerrero Ochoa, Manuel R

    2012-07-01

    The influence of aeration on the fermentative activity of Kloeckera apiculata RIVE 9-2-1 was studied in order to evaluate the production of metabolites of the fermentation. To achieve this, the strain was cultured in Erlenmeyer flasks containing sterilized and aroma removed apple juice, and the chemical compounds produced during fermentation in shaken (200 min-1) and static (without agitation) cultivation were determined. The results showed that the agitation of the culture medium increases production of higher alcohols (till 591.0 mg/L) compared to static cultivation, whereas on the contrary, the production of acetic acid, ethyl acetate and glycerol (260.0 ± 11.0 mg/L, 196.0 ± 10.0 mg/L y 2.6±0.2 g/L) were higher compared to shaken cultivation (222.0 ± 8.0 mg/L, 96.0 ± 4.5 mg/L and 1.8 ± 0.2 g/L) respectively. Batch cultivations carried out in bioreactor with air flux of 25 l/h reported a growth rate μ of 0.17 h-1, production of ethanol (12.5 ± 2.0 g/L) and other compounds typically produced during alcoholic fermentation. The concentration of dissolved oxygen in the fermentation medium affects its metabolism thus; insufficient amounts of oxygen would provoke a respirofermentative metabolism. The best results in terms of organoleptic quality of the fermented beverage regarding to aroma, taste and flavor was obtained when fermented in static cultivation. The control of aeration during fermentation can be used to control the synthesis of chemical compounds of sensory impact in the production of fermented beverages.

  14. The composition of readily available carbon sources produced by fermentation of fish faeces is affected by dietary protein:energy ratios

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Letelier-Gordo, Carlos Octavio; Larsen, Bodil Katrine; Dalsgaard, Johanne

    2017-01-01

    , 17, 19, 21 and 23 g/MJ) to rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) on the production of volatile fatty acids (VFAs) and ethanol during 7 days fermentation of the produced fish faeces. The total yields of VFAs and ethanol obtained (expressed as chemical oxygen demand (COD)) ranged between 0.21–0.24 g...... of acetic and valeric acid. Changing the diet composition thus affects the composition of readily available carbon that can be derived from the faeces. This can be applied to enhance on-farm single sludge denitrification and reduce the need for adding external carbon sources such as e.g. methanol....

  15. Mystery behind Chinese liquor fermentation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jin, Guangyuan; Zhu, Yang; Xu, Yan

    2017-01-01

    Background Chinese liquor, a very popular fermented alcoholic beverage with thousands of years’ history in China, though its flavour formation and microbial process have only been partly explored, is facing the industrial challenge of modernisation and standardisation for food quality and safety as

  16. A Ugandan Traditional Fermented Cereal Beverage

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    African Journal of Food, Agriculture, Nutrition and Development. Journal Home · ABOUT THIS JOURNAL · Advanced Search · Current Issue · Archives · Journal Home > Vol 3, No 1 (2003) >. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads.

  17. Relationships among gas production, end products of rumen fermentation and microbial N produced in vitro at two incubation times

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cattani, Mirko; Maccarana, Laura; Hansen, Hanne Helene

    2013-01-01

    at 48 h. At t½, the valerate content in rumen fl uid was negligible. However, relatively large amounts of valerate were measured after 48 h, probably the result of microbial lysis. Results suggest that relationships among end-products of rumen fermentation can be more accurately evaluated at a substrate...... for ammonia N (N-NH3), volatile fatty acids (VFA), residual NDF and N bound to residual NDF (N-NDF). Values of GP were also predicted from VFA. Microbial N (MN) was computed as the difference between N present at the beginning and at the end of incubation. At 48 h, the relationship between GP measured...

  18. Pre-fermentation addition of grape tannin increases the varietal thiols content in wine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larcher, Roberto; Tonidandel, Loris; Román Villegas, Tomás; Nardin, Tiziana; Fedrizzi, Bruno; Nicolini, Giorgio

    2015-01-01

    The recent finding that grape tannin may contain significant amount of S-glutathionylated (GSH-3MH) and S-cysteinylated (Cys-3MH) precursors of the varietal thiols 3-mercapto-1-hexanol and 3-mercaptohexyl acetate, characteristic of Sauvignon blanc wines, offers new opportunities for enhancing the tropical aroma in fermented beverages. In this study this new hypothesis was investigated: Müller Thurgau (17 samples) and Sauvignon blanc (15 samples) grapes were fermented with and without addition of a selected grape tannin. As expected, the tannin-added juices were higher in precursors, and they produced wines with increased free thiols. Preliminary informal sensory tests confirmed that in particular the Sauvignon wines produced with the tannin addition were often richer with increased "fruity/green" notes than the corresponding reference wines. This outcome confirms that grape tannin addition prior to fermentation can fortify the level of these compounds. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Antioxidant and Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme Inhibitory Activity of Eucalyptus camaldulensis and Litsea glaucescens Infusions Fermented with Kombucha Consortium

    OpenAIRE

    Gamboa-Gómez, Claudia I.; González-Laredo, Rubén F.; Gallegos-Infante, José Alberto; Pérez, MŞ del Mar Larrosa; Moreno-Jiménez, Martha R.; Flores-Rueda, Ana G.; Rocha-Guzmán, Nuria E.

    2016-01-01

    Physicochemical properties, consumer acceptance, antioxidant and angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitory activities of infusions and fermented beverages of Eucalyptus camaldulensis and Litsea glaucescens were compared. Among physicochemical parameters, only the pH of fermented beverages decreased compared with the unfermented infusions. No relevant changes were reported in consumer preference between infusions and fermented beverages. Phenolic profi le measured by UPLC MS/MS analysis d...

  20. Simultaneous or separated; comparison approach for saccharification and fermentation process in producing bio-ethanol from EFB

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bardant, Teuku Beuna; Dahnum, Deliana; Amaliyah, Nur

    2017-11-01

    Simultaneous Saccharification Fermentation (SSF) of palm oil (Elaeis guineensis) empty fruit bunch (EFB) pulp were investigated as a part of ethanol production process. SSF was investigated by observing the effect of substrate loading variation in range 10-20%w, cellulase loading 5-30 FPU/gr substrate and yeast addition 1-2%v to the ethanol yield. Mathematical model for describing the effects of these three variables to the ethanol yield were developed using Response Surface Methodology-Cheminformatics (RSM-CI). The model gave acceptable accuracy in predicting ethanol yield for Simultaneous Saccharification and Fermentation (SSF) with coefficient of determination (R2) 0.8899. Model validation based on data from previous study gave (R2) 0.7942 which was acceptable for using this model for trend prediction analysis. Trend prediction analysis based on model prediction yield showed that SSF gave trend for higher yield when the process was operated in high enzyme concentration and low substrate concentration. On the other hand, even SHF model showed better yield will be obtained if operated in lower substrate concentration, it still possible to operate in higher substrate concentration with slightly lower yield. Opportunity provided by SHF to operate in high loading substrate make it preferable option for application in commercial scale.

  1. Breeding of Coenzyme Q10 Produced Strain by Low-Energy Ion Implantation and Optimization of Coenzyme Q10 Fermentation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xu Dejun; Zheng Zhiming; Wang Peng; Wang Li; Yuan Hang; Yu Zengliang

    2008-01-01

    In order to increase the production efficiency of coenzyme Q 10 , the original strain Agrobacterium tumefaciens ATCC 4452 was mutated by means of Nitrogen ions implantation. A mutant strain, ATX 12, with high contents of coenzyme Q 10 was selected. Subsequently, the conditions such as carbohydrate concentration, nitrogen source concentration, inoculum's size, seed age, aeration and temperature which might affect the production of CoQ 10 were investigated in detail. Under optimal conditions, the maximum concentration of the intracellular CoQ 10 reached 200.3 mg/L after 80 h fed-batch fermentation, about 245% increasing in CoQ 10 production after ion implantation, compared to the original strain. (ion beam bioengineering)

  2. Designer Yeasts for the Fermentation Industry of the 21st Century

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isak S. Pretorius

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available The budding yeast, Saccharomyces cerevisiae, has enjoyed a long and distinguished history in the fermention industry. Owing to its efficiency in producing alcohol, S. cerevisiae is, without doubt, the most important commercial microorganism with GRAS (Generally Regarded As Safe status. By brewing beer and sparkling wine, mankind’s oldest domesticated organism made possible the world’s first biotechnological processes. With the emergence of modern molecular genetics, S. cerevisiae has again been harnessed to shift the frontiers of mankind’s newest revolution, genetic engineering. S. cerevisiae is at the forefront of many of these developments in modern biotechnology. Consequently, the industrial importance of S. cerevisiae has extended beyond traditional fermentation. Today, the products of yeast biotechnologies impinge on many commercially important sectors, including food, beverages, biofuels, chemicals, industrial enzymes, pharmaceuticals, agriculture and the environment. Nevertheless, since ethyl alcohol produced by yeast fermentation is likely to remain the foremost worldwide biotechnological commodity for the foreseeable future, this review focuses on advances made with respect to the development of tailor- made yeast strains for the fermented beverage and biofuel industries.

  3. Residues of pharmaceutical products in recycled organic manure produced from sewage sludge and solid waste from livestock and relationship to their fermentation level.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Motoyama, Miki; Nakagawa, Shuhei; Tanoue, Rumi; Sato, Yuri; Nomiyama, Kei; Shinohara, Ryota

    2011-07-01

    In recent years, sludge generated in sewage treatment plants (STPs) and solid waste from livestock being utilized is useful for circulation of nourishment in farmlands as recycled organic manure (ROM). In this study, we determined the residue levels and patterns of 12 pharmaceutical products generated by human activity in the ROMs produced from human waste sludge (HWS), sewage sludge (SS), cattle manure (CM), poultry manure (PM), swine manure (SM) and horse manure (HM). The kind and number of pharmaceutical products detected in ROMs were different. Fluoroquinolones (FQs) were detected at high levels in HWS and SS samples. In addition, the detection frequency and concentration levels of sulfonamides (SAs) in PM and SM were high. Moreover, high concentrations of chlortetracycline (CTC) were found in only SM. These differences reflect specific adherence adsorption of the pharmaceutical products to different livestock and humans. Moreover, it was found that the concentrations of pharmaceutical products and fermentation levels of ROMs had significant positive correlation (r=0.41, p=0.024). When the fermentation test of ROM was conducted in a rotary fermentor in a lab scale test, the residue levels of pharmaceutical products decreased effectively except carbamazepine (CBZ). The rates of decrease were in the case of tetracyclines (TCs): 85-92%, FQs: 81-100%, erythromycine: 67%, SAs: 79-95%, trimethoprim: 86% and CBZ: 37% by 30 d. Pharmaceutical products that can be decomposed by fermentation process at the lowest impact of residual antibiotic activities may therefore be considered as environmentally friendly medicines. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. an Unrecorded Alcohol Beverage

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    NICO

    Chemical analysis of volatile compounds fromkhadi, an unrecorded alcoholic beverage from Botswana, was ... quality, some of them may be contaminated and toxic, thereby ... home-brewed alcoholic beverages exist in Botswana and are.

  5. Uniqueness of Ethiopian traditional alcoholic beverage of plant origin, tella

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mooha Lee

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available There are many kinds of traditional fermented beverages in Ethiopia, not only of animal origin, but also of plant origin. In everyday life people enjoy fermented beverages and particularly when having guests, they like to treat them to traditional alcoholic beverages. Tella, tej, areki, borde, and shamita are drinks that each household brews to treat guests. Substrates for their production are from locally available raw materials. Therefore, the basic production method is the same, but the tastes may vary. One of the most consumed fermented alcoholic beverages is tella, which is made mostly with barley but wheat, maize, sorghum, and teff are utilized depending on the region. Its production process shows the similarity to beer: addition of malt and gesho which has the same function as hops in beer. The main fermentation yeast is Saccharomyces cerevisiae and saccharification of cereal starch seems to depend on malt. However, the degree of alcoholic fermentation is low and alcohol content varies between 2 and 6%. Lactic acid bacteria are very active in tella so pH ranges 4–5 give typical tastes such as sourness, sweetness, and bitterness. As the Ethiopian economy improves, more people drink western style beers. Tella has not been commercialized yet, so the process has not been standardized and modernized. Considering the case of Korean makgeolli and the Ethiopian creativity of utilizing gesho in tella, Ethiopia should pay more attention to tella for globalization.

  6. Dietary supplementation with bovine lactoferrampin-lactoferricin produced by Pichia pastoris fed-batch fermentation affects intestinal microflora in weaned piglets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Xiang-Shan; Shao, Hua; Li, Tie-Jun; Tang, Zhi-Ru; Huang, Rui-Ling; Wang, Sheng-Ping; Kong, Xiang-Feng; Wu, Xin; Yin, Yu-Long

    2012-10-01

    This work is aimed at investigating the effects of recombinant bovine lactoferrampin-lactoferricin (LFA-LFC) instead of chlortetracycline on intestinal microflora in weaned piglets. The high cost of peptide production from either native digestion or chemical synthesis limits the clinical application of antimicrobial peptides. The expression of recombinant peptides in yeast may be an effective alternative. In the current study, recombinant LFA-LFC was produced via fed-batch fermentation in recombinant strain Pichia pastoris (KM71) XS10. Uniform design U6(6(4)) was used to optimize the fermentation conditions. The target peptide purified via cation-exchange and size-exclusion chromatography was added into the dietary of weaned piglets. After 21 days, the Lactobacilli, Bifidobacteria, and Enterobacteria in the chyme of the gut were quantified using real-time polymerase chain reaction. The results showed that approximately 82 mg of LFA-LFC was secreted into 1 L of medium under optimized conditions. Moreover, purified peptide showed strong antimicrobial activities against all the tested microorganisms. Compared with the control group, the LFA-LFC group increased the amount of Lactobacilli and Bifidobacteria (P<0.05) in the chyme of the stomach, duodenum, jejunum, ileum, colon, and caecum. These results show that dietary supplementation with LFA-LFC can affect intestinal microflora in weaned piglets.

  7. Characterization of fermented broccoli (Brassica oleracea L. and spinach (Amaranthus sp. produced using microfiltration membrane as folic acid source for smart food formula

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susilowati Agustine

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Purifying and drying both fermented biomasses of broccoli (Brassica oleracea L. and spinach (Amaranthus sp. by Kombucha culture has been conducted to recover concentrate and powder of folic acid. The aims of this study is to determine the differences of particles characteristics and compositions of concentrate and powder from both mentioned folic acid source through Micro Filtration (MF membrane and without MF membrane. The best folic acid produced by MF membrane process (room temperature, stirrer rotation speed 400 rpm, pressure 40 psia and 30 minutes and drying (30 °C, 22 cm Hg and 24 hours were resulted in biomass of the concentrate and powder with compositions of total solids 6.29 % and 96.91 %, total polyphenol 0.25 % and 0.06 %, folic acid 58.8 μg/mL and 54.33 μg/mL, reducing sugar 105.34 mg/mL and 441.39 mg/mL, and total acids 0.57 % and 2.33 %, respectively. In optimum condition, fermented spinach concentrate contributed to particles distribution with diameter size (Ø between 0,4 and 100 μm (75.45 %, and with Ø between 100 and 1000 μm (26.3 %, otherwise, the process without MF membrane was resulted the particles distribution respectively 74.1 % and 25.9% by each interval of Ø.

  8. Effect of γ-Aminobutyric Acid (GABA Producing Bacteria on Rumen Fermentation, Biogenic Amine Production and Anti-oxidation Using Corn Meal as Substrate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bum Seung Ku

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The effects and significance of γ-amino butyric acid (GABA producing bacteria (GPB on in vitro rumen fermentation and reduction of biogenic amines (histamine, methylamine, ethylamine, and tyramine using corn meal as a substrate were determined. Ruminal samples collected from ruminally fistulated Holstein cows served as inoculum and corn was used as substrate at 2% dry matter (DM. Different inclusion rates of GPB and GABA were evaluated. After incubation, addition of GPB had no significant effect on in vitro fermentation pH and total gas production, but significantly increased the ammonia nitrogen (NH3-N concentration and reduced the total biogenic amines production (p<0.05. Furthermore, antioxidation activity was improved as indicated by the significantly higher concentration of superoxide dismutase (SOD and glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px among treated samples when compared to the control (p<0.05. Additionally, 0.2% GPB was established as the optimum inclusion level. Taken together, these results suggest the potential of utilizing GPB as feed additives to improve growth performance in ruminants by reducing biogenic amines and increasing anti-oxidation.

  9. The Brewing Process: Optimizing the Fermentation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teodora Coldea

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Beer is a carbonated alcoholic beverage obtained by alcoholic fermentation of malt wort boiled with hops. Brown beer obtained at Beer Pilot Station of University of Agricultural Sciences and Veterinary Medicine Cluj-Napoca was the result of a recipe based on blond, caramel and black malt in different proportions, water, hops and yeast. This study aimed to monitorize the evolution of wort in primary and secondary alcoholic fermentation in order to optimize the process. Two wort batches were assambled in order to increase the brewing yeast fermentation performance. The primary fermentation was 14 days, followed by another 14 days of secondary fermentation (maturation. The must fermentation monitoring was done by the automatic FermentoStar analyzer. The whole fermentation process was monitorized (temperature, pH, alcohol concentration, apparent and total wort extract.

  10. 76 FR 22913 - Alcoholic Beverage Control Ordinance of the Paiute Tribe of Utah

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-25

    ...: A. ``Alcoholic Beverage(s)'' means and shall include beer, wine, and liquor, as herein defined. B... Paiutes. ``Band'' means any one of the five constituent Bands. C. ``Beer'' means a product that contains..., and is obtained by fermentation, infusion, or decoction of any malted grain. Such products may or may...

  11. Optimization of Nutrient Composition for Producing ACE Inhibitory Peptides from Goat Milk Fermented by Lactobacillus bulgaricus LB6.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shu, Guowei; Shi, Xiaoyu; Chen, He; Ji, Zhe; Meng, Jiangpeng

    2018-03-23

    Hypertension is a serious threat to human health and food-derived angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE; EC 3.4.15.1) inhibitory peptides can be used to regulate high blood pressure without side effects. The composition of the nutrient medium for the production of these peptides by fermenting goat milk with Lactobacillus bulgaricus LB6 was optimized to increase the ACE inhibitory activity by Box-Behnken design (BBD) of response surface methodology (RSM) in the present study. Soybean peptone, glucose, and casein had significant effects on both ACE inhibition rate and viable counts of L. bulgaricus LB6 during incubation. The results showed that the maximum values of ACE inhibition rate and viable counts for L. bulgaricus LB6 were reaching to 86.37 ± 0.53% and 8.06 × 10 7 under the optimal conditions, which were 0.35% (w/w) soybean peptone, 1.2% (w/w) glucose, and 0.15% (w/w) casein. The results were in close agreement with the model prediction. The optimal values of the medium component concentrations can be a good reference for obtaining ACE inhibitory peptides from goat milk.

  12. Characteristics of the soil-like substrates produced with a novel technique combining aerobic fermentation and earthworm treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Wenli; He, Wenting; Li, Leyuan; Liu, Hong

    2012-12-01

    The soil-like substrate (SLS) technique is key for improving the closure of bioregenerative life support system (BLSS) by recycling the inedible biomass of higher plants. In this study, a novel SLS technique (NSLST) was proposed: aerobic fermentations at 35 °C for 1 day, then 60 °C for 6 days, finally 30 °C for 3 days, followed by earthworm treatment for 70 days. Comparing with the original SLS technique (OSLST), its process cycle was 13 days shorter, and the dry weight loss rate (81.1%) was improved by 24.77%. The cellulose and lignin degradation rates were 96.6% and 94.6%. The concentrations of available N, P and K in mature SLS were respectively 776.1 mg/L, 348.0 mg/L and 7943.0 mg/L. Low CH4 and NH3 production was observed, but no accumulation. According to the seed germination test, the SLSs were feasible for plant growth. This investigation will provide a preliminary foundation for BLSS design.

  13. Fermented milk for hypertension

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Usinger, Lotte; Reimer, Christina; Ibsen, Hans

    2012-01-01

    Fermented milk has been suggested to have a blood pressure lowering effect through increased content of proteins and peptides produced during the bacterial fermentation. Hypertension is one of the major risk factors for cardiovascular disease world wide and new blood pressure reducing lifestyle...

  14. MEMPELAJARI KARAKTERISTIK SARI BUAH DARI MENGKUDU (Morinda citrifolia Linn. YANG DIHASILKAN MELALUI FERMENTASI [Characteristic of Noni (Morinda citrifolia Linn Fruit Juice Produced by Fermentation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivonne P Kusuma3

    2003-08-01

    Full Text Available Fermentation is one of the methods to get noni juice. In this research, noni is fermented in hanged system and submerged system for 1, 2, 3, and 4 weeks. The result showed the longer fermentation increased pH, alcohol content, turbidity, viscosity, microbial content, and decrease ascorbic acid and acid content, soluble solid content, color and flavor acceptance. Differennt system fermentation affected percent yield, soluble solid content, turbidity of juice, panels opinion to color significantly. Noni juice of submerged system has higher percent yield, higher soluble solid content, turbidity, but provided lighter color than noni juice of hanged system. Juice of submerged system is better than hanged system. Juice from three weeks fermentation indicated changes of metabolism activity which is shown by some characteristic changes. Fruit juice made by submerged fermentation system had more diverse compounds than fruit juice without fermentation.

  15. Purification and Properties of Polygalacturonase Produced by Thermophilic Fungus Thermoascus aurantiacus CBMAI-756 on Solid-State Fermentation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo da Silva Martins

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Polygalacturonases are enzymes involved in the degradation of pectic substances, being extensively used in food industries, textile processing, degumming of plant rough fibres, and treatment of pectic wastewaters. Polygalacturonase (PG production by thermophilic fungus Thermoascus aurantiacus on solid-state fermentation was carried out in culture media containing sugar cane bagasse and orange bagasse in proportions of 30% and 70% (w/w at 45°C for 4 days. PG obtained was purified by gel filtration and ion-exchange chromatography. The highest activity was found between pH 4.5 and 5.5, and the enzyme preserved more than 80% of its activity at pH values between 5.0 and 6.5. At pH values between 3.0 and 4.5, PG retained about 73% of the original activity, whereas at pH 10.0 it remained around 44%. The optimum temperature was 60–65°C. The enzyme was completely stable when incubated for 1 hour at 50°C. At 55°C and 60°C, the activity decreased 55% and 90%, respectively. The apparent molecular weight was 29.3 kDa, Km of 1.58 mg/mL and Vmax of 1553.1 μmol/min/mg. The presence of Zn+2, Mn+2, and Hg+2 inhibited 59%, 77%, and 100% of enzyme activity, respectively. The hydrolysis product suggests that polygalacturonase was shown to be an endo/exoenzyme.

  16. Characterization of Chitosan Produced from Fermented Shrimp Shell Waste by Bacillus subtilis NA12 Using Gamma Radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bashandy, A.S.; Raffat, E.A.; Ibrahim, H.M.M.; El Tayeb, T.S.; Gamal, R.F.

    2017-01-01

    This study focused on characterization of chitosan obtained in a previous study from fermented shrimp shell waste (SSW) by Bacillus subtilis NA12. Extracted chitin was exposed to different gamma radiation doses (5-35 kGy). The molecular weight of the resultant chitosan decreased constantly with increasing radiation dose from 1.9 × 10"6 (g/mol) (non-irradiated) to 3.7 ×10"4 (g/mol) (at 35 kGy). The degree of deacetylation (DDA %) was determined by using potentiometric titration. The structural properties of chitin and chitosan were characterized by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), X-ray diffraction analysis (XRD), and thermogravimetric analysis (TGA). The prepared chitosan has higher solubility and DDA % compared to the standard chitosan. FT-IR analysis clearly confirmed the successful extraction of pure chitin and chitosan. TGA showed that chitin exhibited a stable structure toward thermal decomposition than chitosan. XRD analysis revealed that extracted chitin was more crystalline than prepared chitosan. Chitosan with different molecular weights was evaluated as an antibacterial agent against representative pathogenic bacterial strains. Chitosan obtained at 35 kGy, with molecular weight 3.7×10"4 (g/mol ) and DDA of 87.9 %, showed the highest antimicrobial activity against Escherichia coli, Klebsiella sp., Staphylococcus aureus and Pseudomonas aeruginosa. It revealed inhibition zone diameter of 5.4 ± 0.2, 5.4 ± 0.12, 3.5 ± 0.21 and 1.4 ± 0.06 cm, respectively

  17. Consumers' perceptions toward 3 different fermented dairy products: Insights from focus groups, word association, and projective mapping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esmerino, Erick A; Ferraz, Juliana P; Filho, Elson R Tavares; Pinto, Letícia P F; Freitas, Mônica Q; Cruz, Adriano G; Bolini, Helena M A

    2017-11-01

    Yogurts, fermented milk beverages, and fermented milks have great similarity and are widely accepted by Brazilian population, but the factors that influence their choice and consumption are unknown. In this sense, the present study aimed to identify the main aspects involved in consumers' perception of 3 different products, comparing the findings by using the 2 fast qualitative methods, word association and projective mapping, and a standard method, focus group. The tasks were performed by different participants through graphic stimuli (word association and projective mapping) and focus interviews (focus group). Results showed that all the 3 methodologies identified numerous intrinsic and extrinsic factors that influence the consumer choices regarding fermented dairy products. Major dimensions were closely related to the sensory aspects, emotional factors, perception of benefits, and composition, among others. It is noteworthy that the stimuli related to fermented milk beverages evoked rejecting responses, possibly due to the dissociation between information and consumers' expectation. Although minor differences were observed between the number and type of dimensions that were obtained, similar conclusions can be drawn from all 3 sensory methods, which shows the relevance of qualitative and projective methods for investigation of consumers' perception. These findings can help dairy companies to provide subsidies and guidelines for the reformulation of their products, marketing strategies, and improvement in the communication between producers and consumers from different fermented dairy products. Copyright © 2017 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. In vitro and in vivo probiotic assessment of Leuconostoc mesenteroides P45 isolated from pulque, a Mexican traditional alcoholic beverage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giles-Gómez, Martha; Sandoval García, Jorge Giovanni; Matus, Violeta; Campos Quintana, Itzia; Bolívar, Francisco; Escalante, Adelfo

    2016-01-01

    Pulque is a Mexican traditional alcoholic, non-distilled, fermented beverage produced by the fermentation of the sap, known as aguamiel, extracted from several maguey (Agave) species. Pulque has traditionally been considered a healthy beverage due to its nutrient content and also a traditional medicine for the treatment of gastrointestinal disorders and intestinal infections. During pulque fermentation, the development of acidity, alcohol and viscosity define its final sensorial properties, developing an enriched environment where dominant lactic acid bacteria (LAB), including diverse Leuconostoc species, are present. Because traditional pulque is consumed directly from the fermentation vessel, the naturally associated LAB are ingested and reach the human small intestine alive. Here, we report the in vitro and in vivo probiotic assessment of Leuconostoc mesenteroides strain P45 isolated from pulque. This isolated LAB species exhibited lysozyme, acid (pH 3.5) and bile salts (0.1 and 0.3 % oxgall) resistance. Antibacterial activity against the pathogens Listeria monocytogenes, enteropathogenic Escherichia coli, Salmonella enterica serovar Typhi and S. enterica serovar Typhimurium were observed in assays involving cell-to-cell contact, cell-free 2× concentrated supernatants and cell-to-cell contact under exopolysaccharide-producing conditions. The in vivo probiotic assessment showed an anti-infective activity of L. mesenteroides P45 against S. enterica serovar Typhimurium in challenged male and female BALB/c mice. Analysis of the available genome sequence of strain P45 allowed identified a pre-bacteriocin coding gene and six peptidoglycan hydrolase enzymes, probably involved in the antimicrobial activity of this strain. The results presented in this study support some potential microbial mechanisms associated with the beneficial effects on human health of this LAB involved in the fermentation of pulque.

  19. 27 CFR 24.197 - Production by fermentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Production by fermentation... fermentation. In producing special natural wine by fermentation, flavoring materials may be added before or during fermentation. Special natural wine produced by fermentation may be ameliorated in the same manner...

  20. Decreased production of higher alcohols by Saccharomyces cerevisiae for Chinese rice wine fermentation by deletion of Bat aminotransferases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Cui-Ying; Qi, Ya-Nan; Ma, Hong-Xia; Li, Wei; Dai, Long-Hai; Xiao, Dong-Guang

    2015-04-01

    An appropriate level of higher alcohols produced by yeast during the fermentation is one of the most important factors influencing Chinese rice wine quality. In this study, BAT1 and BAT2 single- and double-gene-deletion mutant strains were constructed from an industrial yeast strain RY1 to decrease higher alcohols during Chinese rice wine fermentation. The results showed that the BAT2 single-gene-deletion mutant strain produced best improvement in the production of higher alcohols while remaining showed normal growth and fermentation characteristics. Furthermore, a BAT2 single-gene-deletion diploid engineered strain RY1-Δbat2 was constructed and produced low levels of isobutanol and isoamylol (isoamyl alcohol and active amyl alcohol) in simulated fermentation of Chinese rice wine, 92.40 and 303.31 mg/L, respectively, which were 33.00 and 14.20 % lower than those of the parental strain RY1. The differences in fermentation performance between RY1-Δbat2 and RY1 were minor. Therefore, construction of this yeast strain is important in future development in Chinese wine industry and provides insights on generating yeast strains for other fermented alcoholic beverages.

  1. Ethanol yield and volatile compound content in fermentation of agave must by Kluyveromyces marxianus UMPe-1 comparing with Saccharomyces cerevisiae baker's yeast used in tequila production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    López-Alvarez, Arnoldo; Díaz-Pérez, Alma Laura; Sosa-Aguirre, Carlos; Macías-Rodríguez, Lourdes; Campos-García, Jesús

    2012-05-01

    In tequila production, fermentation is an important step. Fermentation determines the ethanol productivity and organoleptic properties of the beverage. In this study, a yeast isolated from native residual agave must was identified as Kluyveromyces marxianus UMPe-1 by 26S rRNA sequencing. This yeast was compared with the baker's yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae Pan1. Our findings demonstrate that the UMPe-1 yeast was able to support the sugar content of agave must and glucose up to 22% (w/v) and tolerated 10% (v/v) ethanol concentration in the medium with 50% cells survival. Pilot and industrial fermentation of agave must tests showed that the K. marxianus UMPe-1 yeast produced ethanol with yields of 94% and 96% with respect to fermentable sugar content (glucose and fructose, constituting 98%). The S. cerevisiae Pan1 baker's yeast, however, which is commonly used in some tequila factories, showed 76% and 70% yield. At the industrial level, UMPe-1 yeast shows a maximum velocity of fermentable sugar consumption of 2.27g·L(-1)·h(-1) and ethanol production of 1.38g·L(-1)·h(-1), providing 58.78g ethanol·L(-1) at 72h fermentation, which corresponds to 96% yield. In addition, the major and minor volatile compounds in the tequila beverage obtained from UMPe-1 yeast were increased. Importantly, 29 volatile compounds were identified, while the beverage obtained from Pan1-yeast contained fewer compounds and in lower concentrations. The results suggest that the K. marxianus UMPe-1 is a suitable yeast for agave must fermentation, showing high ethanol productivity and increased volatile compound content comparing with a S. cerevisiae baker's yeast used in tequila production. Copyright © 2012 The Society for Biotechnology, Japan. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Physico-chemical, microbiological and rheological evaluation of dairy beverage and fermented milk added of probiotics/ Avaliação físico-química, microbiológica e reológica de bebida láctea e leite fermentado adicionados de probióticos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elane Schwinden Prudêncio

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available Lactic beverage (sample 1, with 70% of milk and 30% of cheese whey, and fermented milk (sample 2, with 100% of milk, added of Lactobacillus acidophilus La-5, Bifidobacterium Bb-12 and Streptococcus thermophilus, were evaluated about physico-chemical composition, enumeration of viable cells of probiotic bacteria and rheological measurements, in the temperatures of 2.0 ± 0.1 ºC; 4.0 ± 0.1 ºC; 6.0 ± 0.1 ºC and 8.0 ± 0.1 ºC. The whey addition resulted in lactic beverage with lesser contents (p 0.05. According to Brazilian legislation the lactic beverage and fermented milk were considered probiotic (> 106 CFU/mL. The two samples (1 and 2 had behaved as pseudoplastic fluids, confirming the non- Newtonian behavior and had presented thixotropy. The values for the activation energy were equal to 1.89 Kcal.mol-1, for the lactic beverage, and 1.84 Kcal.mol-1, for the fermented milk, indicating that the activation energy was not influenced by the amount of whey used, as well as the temperature also did not influence on the apparent viscosity of samples 1 and 2.Bebida láctea (amostra 1, com 70 % de leite e 30 % de soro de queijo, e leite fermentado (amostra 2, com 100% de leite, adicionados de Lactobacillus acidophilus La-5, Bifidobacterium Bb-12 e Streptococcus thermophilus, foram avaliados quanto à composição físico-química, contagem de células viáveis de bactérias probióticas e medidas reológicas, nas temperaturas de 2,0 ± 0,1ºC; 4,0 ± 0,1 ºC; 6,0 ± 0,1 ºC e 8,0± 0,1 ºC. A adição de soro resultou em uma bebida láctea com menores teores (p 0,05. De acordo com a legislação brasileira, a bebida láctea e o leite fermentado foram considerados probióticos (> 106 UFC/mL. As duas amostras (1 e 2 comportaram-se como fluidos pseudoplásticos, confirmando o comportamento não-Newtoniano e apresentaram tixotropia. Os valores para a energia de ativação foram iguais a 1,89 Kcal.mol-1, para a bebida láctea, e 1,84 Kcal.mol-1, para o

  3. Characterization of Compounds with Tumor-Cell Proliferation Inhibition Activity from Mushroom (Phellinus baumii) Mycelia Produced by Solid-State Fermentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Henan; Shao, Qian; Wang, Wenhan; Zhang, Jingsong; Zhang, Zhong; Liu, Yanfang; Yang, Yan

    2017-04-27

    The inhibition of tumor-cell proliferationbyan organicsolvent extract from the solid-state fermentation of Phellinus baumii mycelia inoculated in rice medium was investigated in vitro. The active compounds inhibiting tumor-cell proliferation were characterized. Results revealed that all (petroleum ether, chloroform, ethyl acetate, and butanol) fractions inhibited tumor-cell proliferation in a dose-dependent fashion. The ethyl acetate extract had the highest inhibitory effecton tumor-cell proliferation, and the butanol fraction had the lowest. Six compounds were isolated and purified from the ethyl acetate extract of P. baumii mycelia by the tandem application of silica-gel column chromatography (SGCC), high-speed countercurrent chromatography (HSCCC), and preparative HPLC. These compounds were identified by NMR and electrospray ionization-mass spectrometry (ESI-MS) spectroscopic methods as ergosterol (RF1), ergosta-7,22-dien-3β-yl pentadecanoate (RF3), 3,4-dihydroxy benzaldehyde(RF6), inoscavinA (RF7), baicalein(RF10), and 24-ethylcholesta-5,22-dien-3β-ol (RF13). To further clarify the activity of these compounds, the cell-proliferation-inhibition tests of these compounds on various tumor cells were carried out and evaluatedin vitro. Results suggested that compounds RF6, RF7, and RF10 had potent inhibition effects on the proliferation of a series of tumor cell lines, including K562, L1210, SW620, HepG2, LNCaP, and MCF-7cells. These findings indicated that P. baumii mycelia produced by solid-state fermentation in rice canbe used to obtain active compounds with the ability to inhibittumor-cell proliferation.

  4. Characterization of Compounds with Tumor–Cell Proliferation Inhibition Activity from Mushroom (Phellinus baumii Mycelia Produced by Solid-State Fermentation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henan Zhang

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available The inhibition of tumor-cell proliferationbyan organicsolvent extract from the solid-state fermentation of Phellinus baumii mycelia inoculated in rice medium was investigated in vitro. The active compounds inhibiting tumor-cell proliferation were characterized. Results revealed that all (petroleum ether, chloroform, ethyl acetate, and butanol fractions inhibited tumor-cell proliferation in a dose-dependent fashion. The ethyl acetate extract had the highest inhibitory effecton tumor-cell proliferation, and the butanol fraction had the lowest. Six compounds were isolated and purified from the ethyl acetate extract of P. baumii mycelia by the tandem application of silica-gel column chromatography (SGCC, high-speed countercurrent chromatography (HSCCC, and preparative HPLC. These compounds were identified by NMR and electrospray ionization-mass spectrometry (ESI-MS spectroscopic methods as ergosterol (RF1, ergosta-7,22-dien-3β-yl pentadecanoate (RF3, 3,4-dihydroxy benzaldehyde(RF6, inoscavinA (RF7, baicalein(RF10, and 24-ethylcholesta-5,22-dien-3β-ol (RF13. To further clarify the activity of these compounds, the cell-proliferation-inhibition tests of these compounds on various tumor cells were carried out and evaluatedin vitro. Results suggested that compounds RF6, RF7, and RF10 had potent inhibition effects on the proliferation of a series of tumor cell lines, including K562, L1210, SW620, HepG2, LNCaP, and MCF-7cells. These findings indicated that P. baumii mycelia produced by solid-state fermentation in rice canbe used to obtain active compounds with the ability to inhibittumor-cell proliferation.

  5. Ferment first, then compost

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dany, Christian

    2012-11-01

    If communal organic waste is simply dumped, it is harmful to the environment. But if it is used to produce biogas, it can become a significant source of energy. Currently, there are two dry fermentation processes available. (orig.)

  6. High-level folate production in fermented foods by the B12 producer Lactobacillus reuteri JCM1112

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Santos, F.; Wegkamp, A.; de Vos, W.M.; Smid, E.J.; Hugenholtz, J.

    2008-01-01

    We observed that Lactobacillus reuteri JCM1112 produces B12 and folate. However, the folate/B12 mass ratio found was far below that desired for human consumption (~170:1). We used metabolic engineering applying genetic and physiological approaches to improve this ratio and developed a generic and

  7. Acidic organic compounds in beverage, food, and feed production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quitmann, Hendrich; Fan, Rong; Czermak, Peter

    2014-01-01

    Organic acids and their derivatives are frequently used in beverage, food, and feed production. Acidic additives may act as buffers to regulate acidity, antioxidants, preservatives, flavor enhancers, and sequestrants. Beneficial effects on animal health and growth performance have been observed when using acidic substances as feed additives. Organic acids could be classified in groups according to their chemical structure. Each group of organic acids has its own specific properties and is used for different applications. Organic acids with low molecular weight (e.g. acetic acid, lactic acid, and citric acid), which are part of the primary metabolism, are often produced by fermentation. Others are produced more economically by chemical synthesis based on petrochemical raw materials on an industrial scale (e.g. formic acid, propionic and benzoic acid). Biotechnology-based production is of interest due to legislation, consumer demand for natural ingredients, and increasing environmental awareness. In the United States, for example, biocatalytically produced esters for food applications can be labeled as "natural," whereas identical conventional acid catalyst-based molecules cannot. Natural esters command a price several times that of non-natural esters. Biotechnological routes need to be optimized regarding raw materials and yield, microorganisms, and recovery methods. New bioprocesses are being developed for organic acids, which are at this time commercially produced by chemical synthesis. Moreover, new organic acids that could be produced with biotechnological methods are under investigation for food applications.

  8. Occurrence and function of yeasts in Asian indigenous fermented foods

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Aidoo, K.E.; Nout, M.J.R.; Sarkar, P.K.

    2006-01-01

    In the Asian region, indigenous fermented foods are important in daily life. In many of these foods, yeasts are predominant and functional during the fermentation. The diversity of foods in which yeasts predominate ranges from leavened bread-like products such as nan and idli, to alcoholic beverages

  9. Koji – where East meets West in fermentation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yang Zhu, Yang; Tramper, J.

    2013-01-01

    Almost all biotechnological processes originate from traditional food fermentations, i.e. the many indigenous processes that can be found already in the written history of thousands of years ago. We still consume many of these fermented foods and beverages on a daily basis today. The evolution of

  10. Health benefits of fermented foods: microbiota and beyond

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Marco, Maria L.; Heeney, Dustin; Binda, Sylvie; Cifelli, Christopher J.; Cotter, Paul D.; Foligné, Benoit; Gänzle, Michael; Kort, Remco; Pasin, Gonca; Pihlanto, Anne; Smid, Eddy J.; Hutkins, Robert

    2017-01-01

    Fermented foods and beverages were among the first processed food products consumed by humans. The production of foods such as yogurt and cultured milk, wine and beer, sauerkraut and kimchi, and fermented sausage were initially valued because of their improved shelf life, safety, and organoleptic

  11. Health benefits of fermented foods : microbiota and beyond

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Marco, Maria L.; Heeney, Dustin; Binda, Sylvie; Cifelli, Christopher J.; Cotter, Paul D.; Foligné, Benoit; Gänzle, Michael; Kort, Remco; Pasin, Gonca; Pihlanto, Anne; Smid, Eddy J.; Hutkins, Robert

    2017-01-01

    Fermented foods and beverages were among the first processed food products consumed by humans. The production of foods such as yogurt and cultured milk, wine and beer, sauerkraut and kimchi, and fermented sausage were initially valued because of their improved shelf life, safety, and organoleptic

  12. The Effects of Technological Modifications on the Fermentation of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... load of borde from all the above treatments. It was found possible to shorten the duration and simplify the technology of borde fermentation with some variations in acceptability. Key Words: food processing; traditional fermentation; cereal beverage, borde; Ethiopia Journal of Food Technology in Africa Vol.9(1) 2004: 3-12 ...

  13. An environmental life cycle assessment comparing Australian sugarcane with US corn and UK sugar beet as producers of sugars for fermentation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Renouf, M.A.; Wegener, M.K.; Nielsen, L.K.

    2008-01-01

    Sugarcane is a highly suitable substrate for the production of bio-products. As well as producing high yields of sugar, much of the plant's fibre is also recovered and used as a source of renewable energy. A life cycle assessment (LCA) of sugarcane production and processing in Australia was performed to develop an environmental profile of sugarcane as a source of bio-products. The application examined was fermentation products from sugar. The sugarcane results were compared with results for other sugar producing crops-US corn and UK sugar beet-to gauge its relative environmental performance. The results show sugarcane to have an advantage in respect of energy input, greenhouse gas emissions and possibly acidification potential due to its high saccharide yield and the displacement of fossil fuels with surplus renewable energy from cane fibre (bagasse). However Australian sugarcane can exhibit high nitrous oxide emissions, which would reduce greenhouse gas advantages in some regions. For eutrophication, sugar beet provides advantages due to the avoided production of other agricultural crops displaced by the use of beet pulp as an animal feed. The three factors found to have the most influence on the environmental impacts of these agro-industrial systems were the commodities displaced by by-products, agricultural yields, and nitrogen use efficiency

  14. An environmental life cycle assessment comparing Australian sugarcane with US corn and UK sugar beet as producers of sugars for fermentation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Renouf, M.A. [School of Geography, Planning and Architecture, The University of Queensland, Brisbane, QLD 4072 (Australia); CRC for Sugar Industry Innovation through Biotechnology, The University of Queensland, Brisbane, QLD 4072 (Australia); Wegener, M.K. [School of Natural and Rural Systems Management, The University of Queensland, QLD 4072 (Australia); CRC for Sugar Industry Innovation through Biotechnology, The University of Queensland, Brisbane, QLD 4072 (Australia); Nielsen, L.K. [Australian Institute of Bioengineering and Nanotechnology, The University of Queensland, Brisbane, QLD 4072 (Australia); CRC for Sugar Industry Innovation through Biotechnology, The University of Queensland, Brisbane, QLD 4072 (Australia)

    2008-12-15

    Sugarcane is a highly suitable substrate for the production of bio-products. As well as producing high yields of sugar, much of the plant's fibre is also recovered and used as a source of renewable energy. A life cycle assessment (LCA) of sugarcane production and processing in Australia was performed to develop an environmental profile of sugarcane as a source of bio-products. The application examined was fermentation products from sugar. The sugarcane results were compared with results for other sugar producing crops - US corn and UK sugar beet - to gauge its relative environmental performance. The results show sugarcane to have an advantage in respect of energy input, greenhouse gas emissions and possibly acidification potential due to its high saccharide yield and the displacement of fossil fuels with surplus renewable energy from cane fibre (bagasse). However Australian sugarcane can exhibit high nitrous oxide emissions, which would reduce greenhouse gas advantages in some regions. For eutrophication, sugar beet provides advantages due to the avoided production of other agricultural crops displaced by the use of beet pulp as an animal feed. The three factors found to have the most influence on the environmental impacts of these agro-industrial systems were the commodities displaced by by-products, agricultural yields, and nitrogen use efficiency. (author)

  15. Cloning and Expression of Plantaricin W Produced by Lactobacillus plantarum U10 Isolate from "Tempoyak" Indonesian Fermented Food as Immunity Protein in Lactococcus lactis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lages, Aksar Chair; Mustopa, Apon Zaenal; Sukmarini, Linda; Suharsono

    2015-10-01

    Plantaricins, one of bacteriocin produced by Lactobacillus plantarum, are already known to have activities against several pathogenic bacterium. L. plantarum U10 isolated from "tempoyak," an Indonesian fermented food, produced one kind of plantaricin designated as plantaricin W (plnW). The plnW is suggested as a putative membrane location of protein and has similar conserved motif which is important as immunity to bacteriocin itself. Thus, due to study about this plantaricin, several constructs have been cloned and protein was analyzed in Lactococcus lactis. In this study, plnW gene was successfully cloned into vector NICE system pNZ8148 and created the transformant named L. lactis NZ3900 pNZ8148-WU10. PlnW protein was 25.3 kDa in size. The concentration of expressed protein was significantly increased by 10 ng/mL nisin induction. Furthermore, PlnW exhibited protease activity with value of 2.22 ± 0.05 U/mL and specific activity about 1.65 ± 0.03 U/mg protein with 50 ng/mL nisin induction. Immunity study showed that the PlnW had immunity activity especially against plantaricin and rendered L. lactis recombinant an immunity broadly to other bacteriocins such as pediocin, fermentcin, and acidocin.

  16. Evaluation of MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry for differentiation of Pichia kluyveri strains isolated from traditional fermentation processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De la Torre González, Francisco Javier; Gutiérrez Avendaño, Daniel Oswaldo; Gschaedler Mathis, Anne Christine; Kirchmayr, Manuel Reinhart

    2018-06-06

    Non- Saccharomyces yeasts are widespread microorganisms and some time ago were considered contaminants in the beverage industry. However, nowadays they have gained importance for their ability to produce aromatic compounds, which in alcoholic beverages improves aromatic complexity and therefore the overall quality. Thus, identification and differentiation of the species involved in fermentation processes is vital and can be classified in traditional methods and techniques based on molecular biology. Traditional methods, however, can be expensive, laborious and/or unable to accurately discriminate on strain level. In the present study, a total of 19 strains of Pichia kluyveri isolated from mezcal, tejuino and cacao fermentations were analyzed with rep-PCR fingerprinting and matrix assisted laser desorption ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS). The comparative analysis between MS spectra and rep-PCR patterns obtained from these strains showed a high similarity between both methods. However, minimal differences between the obtained rep-PCR and MALDI-TOF MS clusters could be observed. The data shown suggests that MALDI-TOF MS is a promising alternative technique for rapid, reliable and cost-effective differentiation of natives yeast strains isolated from different traditional fermented foods and beverages. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  17. Antifungal effect of kefir fermented milk and shelf life improvement of corn arepas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gamba, Raúl Ricardo; Caro, Carlos Andrés; Martínez, Olga Lucía; Moretti, Ana Florencia; Giannuzzi, Leda; De Antoni, Graciela Liliana; León Peláez, Angela

    2016-10-17

    Fungal contamination negatively affects the production of cereal foods such as arepa loaf, an ancient corn bread consumed daily in several countries of Latin-America. Chemical preservatives such as potassium sorbate are applied in order to improve the arepa's shelf life and to reduce the health risks. The use of natural preservatives such as natural fermented products in food commodities is a common demand among the consumers. Kefir is a milk fermented beverage obtained by fermentation of kefir grains. Its antibacterial and probiotic activity has been exhaustively demonstrated. Our objectives were to determine the antifungal effect of kefir fermented milk on Aspergillus flavus AFUNL5 in vitro and to study if the addition of kefir fermented milk to arepas could produce shelf life improvement. We determined the antifungal effect on solid medium of kefir cell-free supernatants (CFS) obtained under different fermentation conditions. Additionally, we compared the antifungal effect of kefir CFS with that obtained with unfermented milk artificially acidified with lactic plus acetic acids (lactic and acetic acids at the same concentration determined in kefir CFS) or with hydrochloric acid. Finally, kefir was added to the corn products either in the loaf recipe (kefir-baked arepas) or sprayed onto the baked-loaf surface (kefir-sprayed arepas). The loaves' resistance to natural and artificial fungal contamination and their organoleptic profiles were studied. The highest fungal inhibition on solid medium was achieved with kefir CFS produced by kefir grains CIDCA AGK1 at 100 g/L, incubated at 30 °C and fermented until pH 3.3. Other CFS obtained from different fermentation conditions achieved less antifungal activity than that mentioned above. However, CFS of milk fermented with kefir grains, until pH 4.5 caused an increase of growth rates. Additionally, CFS produced by kefir grains CIDCA AGK1 at 100 g/L, incubated at 30 °C and fermented until pH 3.3 achieved higher

  18. Antioxidant and Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme Inhibitory Activity of Eucalyptus camaldulensis and Litsea glaucescens Infusions Fermented with Kombucha Consortium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gamboa-Gómez, Claudia I; González-Laredo, Rubén F; Gallegos-Infante, José Alberto; Pérez, Mş Del Mar Larrosa; Moreno-Jiménez, Martha R; Flores-Rueda, Ana G; Rocha-Guzmán, Nuria E

    2016-09-01

    Physicochemical properties, consumer acceptance, antioxidant and angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitory activities of infusions and fermented beverages of Eucalyptus camaldulensis and Litsea glaucescens were compared. Among physicochemical parameters, only the pH of fermented beverages decreased compared with the unfermented infusions. No relevant changes were reported in consumer preference between infusions and fermented beverages. Phenolic profile measured by UPLC MS/MS analysis demonstrated significant concentration changes of these compounds in plant infusions and fermented beverages. Fermentation induced a decrease in the concentration required to stabilize 50% of DPPH radical ( i . e . lower IC 50 ). Additionally, it enhanced the antioxidant activity measured by the nitric oxide scavenging assay (14% of E. camaldulensis and 49% of L. glaucescens ); whereas relevant improvements in the fermented beverage were not observed in the lipid oxidation assay compared with unfermented infusions. The same behaviour was observed in the inhibitory activity of ACE; however, both infusions and fermented beverages had lower IC 50 than positive control (captopril). The present study demonstrated that fermentation has an influence on the concentration of phenolics and their potential bioactivity. E. camaldulensis and L. glaucescens can be considered as natural sources of biocompounds with antihypertensive potential used either as infusions or fermented beverages.

  19. Antioxidant and Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme Inhibitory Activity of Eucalyptus camaldulensis and Litsea glaucescens Infusions Fermented with Kombucha Consortium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudia I. Gamboa-Gómez

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Physicochemical properties, consumer acceptance, antioxidant and angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE inhibitory activities of infusions and fermented beverages of Eucalyptus camaldulensis and Litsea glaucescens were compared. Among physicochemical parameters, only the pH of fermented beverages decreased compared with the unfermented infusions. No relevant changes were reported in consumer preference between infusions and fermented beverages. Phenolic profi le measured by UPLC MS/MS analysis demonstrated significant concentration changes of these compounds in plant infusions and fermented beverages. Fermentation induced a decrease in the concentration required to stabilize 50 % of DPPH radical (i.e. lower IC50. Additionally, it enhanced the antioxidant activity measured by the nitric oxide scavenging assay (14 % of E. camaldulensis and 49 % of L. glaucescens; whereas relevant improvements in the fermented beverage were not observed in the lipid oxidation assay compared with unfermented infusions. The same behaviour was observed in the inhibitory activity of ACE; however, both infusions and fermented beverages had lower IC50 than positive control (captopril. The present study demonstrated that fermentation has an influence on the concentration of phenolics and their potential bioactivity. E. camaldulensis and L. glaucescens can be considered as natural sources of biocompounds with antihypertensive potential used either as infusions or fermented beverages.

  20. Solid state fermentation of carinata (Brassica carinata) meal using various fungal strains to produce a protein-rich product for feed application

    Science.gov (United States)

    In this study, the efficacy of several fungal strains to reduce GLS (GLS) content and enhance protein content during solid state fermentation (SSF) of carinata meal was evaluated. Solid state fermentation of hexane extracted (HE) and cold pressed (CP) carinata meals were performed at 50% moisture co...

  1. Metabolite profile of koji amazake and its lactic acid fermentation product by Lactobacillus sakei UONUMA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oguro, Yoshifumi; Nishiwaki, Toshikazu; Shinada, Ryota; Kobayashi, Kazuya; Kurahashi, Atsushi

    2017-08-01

    The koji amazake is a traditional sweet Japanese beverage. It has been consumed for over a thousand years in Japan; nonetheless, little is yet known of the ingredients in koji amazake. Therefore, this study aimed to analyze the metabolites of koji amazake using a metabolomics approach. Additionally, we reformed the flavor of koji amazake by lactic acid fermentation (LAF-amazake) using Lactobacillus sakei UONUMA, which was isolated from snow caverns. The purpose of this article is to identify the ingredients in these beverages. In LAF-amazake and koji amazake, sugars, amino acids, organic acids, and vitamin B complex were determined in the two beverages, and over 300 compounds were detected in total. Thirteen saccharides were identified including two unknown trisaccharides, and there were no differences in these between the two beverages. In LAF-amazake, lactic acid, vitamin B2 (riboflavin), B3 (nicotinic acid and nicotinamide), and B6 (pyridoxine) were significantly increased as compared to koji amazake, whereas malate and glutamine decreased. These results suggested that LAF, malolactic fermentation, and glutamine deamidation occurred simultaneously in LAF-amazake. L. sakei UONUMA strains produced these vitamins. Moreover, it was surprising that acetylcholine, a well-known neurotransmitter, was newly generated in LAF-amazake. Here, we have succeeded in reforming the flavor of koji amazake and obtained these metabolic data on the two beverages. The present study could provide useful basic information for promoting functional analyses of koji amazake and LAF-amazake for human health. Copyright © 2017 The Society for Biotechnology, Japan. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. CARACTERÍSTICAS FÍSICAS E QUÍMICAS DE BEBIDAS LÁCTEAS FERMENTADAS E PREPARADAS COM SORO DE QUEIJO MINAS FRESCAL PHYSICAL AND CHEMICAL CHARACTERISTICS OF FERMENTED DAIRY BEVERAGES USING MINAS CHEESE WHEY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Keila Emílio de ALMEIDA

    2001-08-01

    Full Text Available Nesta pesquisa procurou-se verificar as características físicas e químicas de bebidas lácteas preparadas com três concentrações de soro de queijo Minas Frescal (30, 40 e 50%, empregando-se dois tipos de culturas lácticas: uma tradicional para iogurte (YC-180 contendo cepas mistas de Streptococcus salivarus subsp. thermophilus, Lactobacillus delbrueckii subsp. lactis e Lactobacillus delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus e outra (ABY-1 contendo cepas mistas de Lactobacillus delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus, Lactobacillus acidophillus, Bifidobacteria e Streptococcus salivarius subsp. thermophilus. Constatou-se que as bebidas lácteas apresentaram diferença estatística no tempo zero para os teores de gordura e de extrato seco. À medida em que se elevou a proporção de soro em relação ao leite, os teores de gordura e de extrato seco diminuíram. O teor de proteína também diminuiu à medida em que se aumentou o teor de soro nas bebidas lácteas, embora a diferença não tenha sido tão acentuada quanto as observadas para os teores de gordura e de extrato seco. Em relação à lactose, não se constatou diferença entre os tratamentos. Os teores de soro não influenciaram o índice de proteólise das bebidas lácteas. Verificou-se todavia que as bebidas elaboradas com a cultura probiótica ABY-1 apresentaram valores superiores para proteólise quando comparadas às bebidas elaboradas com as culturas YC-180. As bebidas lácteas elaboradas com 30% de soro apresentaram maiores valores para viscosidade. As bebidas elaboradas com a cultura YC-180 apresentaram valores superiores para viscosidade durante o período de armazenamento.This research studies the physical and chemical characteristics of dairy beverages formulated with three different concentrations (30, 40 and 50 % of Minas cheese whey, using two kinds of dairy cultures: the traditional yogurt (YC--180 culture, holding mixed strains of Streptococcus salivarus subsp. thermophilus, Lactobacillus

  3. Nutritional value and proteases of Lentinus citrinus produced by solid state fermentation of lignocellulosic waste from tropical region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Rita Gaia Machado

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper examined the growth and yield performance of Lentinus citrinus on cupuaçu exocarp (Theobroma grandiflorum mixed with litter (CE + LI or rice bran (Oryza sativa (CE + RB in the ratio of 2:1 (800 g:200 g to investigate the nutritional composition and proteolytic potential of the fruiting body produced. Significance values of yield were determined on substrate combinations. In CE + LI the biological efficiency of the mushrooms was 93.5% and the content of fat (4.5%, fiber (11.0%, protein (27.0% and amino acids were higher when compared with CE + RB. Among the amino acids, the amount of glutamic acid, aspartic acid, alanine, arginine and leucine was high. The biological efficiency on CE + RB reduced to 84.2% and based on the nutritional value, carbohydrates (53.59%, energy (324.33 kcal and minerals such as zinc, iron, copper, potassium and phosphorus were higher in this substrate combination. Protease activity from fruiting body was significant in CE + LI (463.55 U/mL. This protease showed an optimal activity at 50 °C in neutral and alkaline pH with maximum stability at 30 °C at alkaline pH. This is the first report of L. citrinus fruiting body nutritional composition with potential for human food and application in industrial processes.

  4. Microbial fermented tea - a potential source of natural food preservatives

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mo, H.Z.; Yang Zhu, Yang; Chen, Z.M.

    2008-01-01

    Antimicrobial activities of microbial fermented tea are much less known than its health beneficial properties. These antimicrobial activities are generated in natural microbial fermentation process with tea leaves as substrates. The antimicrobial components produced during the fermentation process

  5. Munkoyo : des racines comme sources potentielles en enzymes amylolytiques et une boisson fermentée traditionnelle (synthèse bibliographique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Foma, RK.

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Munkoyo: roots as potential sources of amylolytic enzymes and a traditional fermented beverage. A review. Munkoyo is a fermented cereal-based beverage. The special feature of this beverage is the use of munkoyo roots as the source of amylolytic enzymes for manufacturing the beverage. This review summarizes the scientific knowledge on munkoyo. The following points are discussed: botanical description; distribution areas; propagation; chemical composition of roots; amylolytic enzymes in the roots and their properties; production process of the beverage; biochemical processes involved in the production of the beverage; and nutritional values and toxicity of the beverage. In order to highlight the value of munkoyo roots and to orientate research towards the optimization and/or industrialization of the production process, discussions are focused on a comparison of munkoyo with other fermented beverages and sources of amylolytic enzymes.

  6. 13-week dietary study and in vitro and in vivo genotoxicity studies of a structuring fat produced through a microalgal fermentation process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R.A. Matulka

    Full Text Available Microalgae are increasingly being utilized as food ingredients for a variety of applications, including as sources of protein, egg and dairy substitutes, and cooking oils. The dietary safety of a new structuring fat produced using a heterotrophic fermentation process by a strain of Prototheca moriformis was evaluated in a 13-week dietary toxicity study and compared with kokum fat, a structuring fat of similar composition used in the food industry and derived from Garcinia indica seeds. The algal structuring fat was evaluated for its genotoxic potential using both in vitro and in vivo assays. No treatment-related adverse events occurred in rats consuming algal structuring fat or kokum fat in the 13-week study; no treatment-related effects were reported for body weight, food consumption, urinalysis, hematology, clinical chemistry, gross pathology, organ weights, or histopathology. While statistically significant effects occurred in some parameters, none were dose-related or considered adverse. Overall, the NOAELs for the algal structuring fat and the kokum fat were 100 000 ppm, the highest concentrations tested. The algal structuring fat was not mutagenic in the bacterial reverse mutation assay in the Salmonella typhimurium or Escherichia coli strains tested and was not clastogenic in the in vivo mouse bone marrow chromosome aberration assay. Keywords: Microalgae, Stearic acid, Subchronic toxicity, Kokum, Prototheca moriformis, Structuring fat

  7. Production and characterization of rhamnolipids produced by Serratia rubidaea SNAU02 under solid-state fermentation and its application as biocontrol agent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nalini, S; Parthasarathi, R

    2014-12-01

    The present study aimed at exploring mahua (Madhuca indica) oil cake as a novel substrate for the production of biosurfactant by Serratia rubidaea SNAU02 under solid-state fermentation (SSF). Response surface methodology showed followings as the optimal conditions for the production of biosurfactant: mahua oil cake 7.48 g, 2.5 ml inoculum size (1×10(8) cells/ml), and pH 7.22 and 31 °C temperature. The characterization of the biosurfactant by TLC, FT-IR and GC-MS revealed the presence of rhamnolipid. The presence of rhamnosyl transferase gene responsible for biosynthesis of rhamnolipid was identified. The strain SNAU02 exhibited antifungal activity and demonstrated no toxicity against the seeds of Brassica oleracea and Artemia salina employed as a bio-indicator. The present findings indicated the potential of mahua oil cake as suitable substrate for the production of rhamnolipids in SSF by S. rubidaea SNAU02 and application potential of the biosurfactant produced as biocontrol agent against plant pathogens. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Antibacterial and Synergistic Activity Against β-Lactamase-Producing Nosocomial Bacteria by Bacteriocin of LAB Isolated From Lesser Known Traditionally Fermented Products of India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Koel Biswas

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available There is an ever-growing need to control antibiotic-resistance owing to alarming resistance to commonly available antimicrobial agents for which contemporary and alternative approaches are being explored. The present study assessed the antibacterial activity of bacteriocins from lactic acid bacteria (LAB from lesser known traditionally fermented products of India for their synergistic potential with common antibiotics against clinical β-lactamases producing pathogens. A total of 84 isolates of LAB were screened for their antibacterial efficacy against Streptococcus pyogenes, Enterococcus faecalis, Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumoniae and Bacillus cereus as well as against clinical pathogens harbouring β-lactamase genes such as blaCTX-M, blaVIM, blaIMP, blaSHV and blaNDM. Synergistic activity of bacteriocins were determined in combination with antibiotics namely, cefotaxime, polymyxin B, imipenem and tigecycline. Purified bacteriocins from Lactobacillus, Pediococcus and Enterococcus inhibited the growth of β-lactamase harbouring clinical pathogens which significantly higher inhibitions when compared with antibiotics alone. Minimum inhibitory concentration of the extracts ranged from 6.66 to 26.66 mg/ml and 10 to 33.33 mg/ml for Pediococcus pentosaceus LU11 and Lactobacillus plantarum LS6. The bacteriocinogenic activity of LAB opens scope for bioprospection of antibacterial components in the current struggle against increasing pandrug resistance and slowing down the expansion of multi-drug resistance.

  9. A novel strategy for producing compost with enhanced biopesticide properties through solid-state fermentation of biowaste and inoculation with Bacillus thuringiensis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ballardo, Cindy; Barrena, Raquel; Artola, Adriana; Sánchez, Antoni

    2017-12-01

    In the framework of a circular economy, organic solid wastes are considered to be resources useful for obtaining value-added products. Among other potential uses, biodegradable wastes from agricultural, industrial, and domestic sources are being studied to obtain biopesticides through solid-state fermentation (SSF), mainly at the laboratory scale. The suitability of biowaste (source-selected organic fraction of municipal solid waste) for use as a substrate for Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) growth under non-sterile conditions in a 10 L SSF reactor was determined in this study. An operational strategy for setting up a semi-continuous process yielding a stabilised organic compost-like material enriched with Bt suitable for use as a soil amendment was developed. Concentrations of 1.7·10 7 -2.2·10 7 and 1.3·10 7 -2.1·10 7  CFU g -1 DM for Bt viable cells and spores, respectively, were obtained in the final material. As the results confirmed, Bt-enriched compost-like material with potential biopesticide properties can be produced from non-sterile biowaste. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Purification and Characterization of Tannin Acyl Hydrolase Produced by Mixed Solid State Fermentation of Wheat Bran and Marigold Flower by Penicillium notatum NCIM 923

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saswati Gayen

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Tannin acyl hydrolase produced extracellularly by the fungal strain Penicillium notatum NCIM 923 in mixed solid state fermentation of wheat bran and marigold flower in the ratio 4 : 1 was purified from the cell-free extract broth by ammonium sulphate fractionation followed by diethylaminoethyl-cellulose column chromatography. Tannase was purified by 19.89-fold with yield of 11.77%. The specific activity of crude tannase was found to be 1.31 U/mg protein while that of purified tannase was 22.48 U/mg protein. SDS-PAGE analysis indicated that the enzyme is dimeric with one major band of molecular mass 97 kDa and a very light band of molecular mass 43 kDa. Temperature of 35 to 40°C and pH 5 were optimum for tannase activity. The enzyme retained more than 60% of its stability at 60°C and 40% stability at pH 3 and 8, respectively. Km was found to be 0.33×10-2 M and Vmax=40 U/mg. Since the enzyme is active over a wide range of pH and temperature, it could find potential use in the food processing industry.

  11. Purification and characterization of tannin acyl hydrolase produced by mixed solid state fermentation of wheat bran and marigold flower by Penicillium notatum NCIM 923.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gayen, Saswati; Ghosh, Uma

    2013-01-01

    Tannin acyl hydrolase produced extracellularly by the fungal strain Penicillium notatum NCIM 923 in mixed solid state fermentation of wheat bran and marigold flower in the ratio 4 : 1 was purified from the cell-free extract broth by ammonium sulphate fractionation followed by diethylaminoethyl-cellulose column chromatography. Tannase was purified by 19.89-fold with yield of 11.77%. The specific activity of crude tannase was found to be 1.31 U/mg protein while that of purified tannase was 22.48 U/mg protein. SDS-PAGE analysis indicated that the enzyme is dimeric with one major band of molecular mass 97 kDa and a very light band of molecular mass 43 kDa. Temperature of 35 to 40°C and pH 5 were optimum for tannase activity. The enzyme retained more than 60% of its stability at 60°C and 40% stability at pH 3 and 8, respectively. K m was found to be 0.33 × 10(-2) M and V max = 40 U/mg. Since the enzyme is active over a wide range of pH and temperature, it could find potential use in the food processing industry.

  12. Processed dairy beverages pH evaluation: consequences of temperature variation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferreira, Fabiana Vargas; Pozzobon, Roselaine Terezinha

    2009-01-01

    This study assessed the pH from processed dairy beverages as well as eventual consequences deriving from different ingestion temperatures. 50 adults who accompanied children attended to at the Dentistry School were randomly selected and they answered a questionnaire on beverages. The beverages were divided into 4 groups: yogurt (GI) fermented milk (GII), chocolate-based products (GIII) and fermented dairy beverages (GIV). They were asked which type, flavor and temperature. The most popular beverages were selected, and these made up the sample. A pH meter Quimis 400A device was used to verify pH. The average pH from each beverage was calculated and submitted to statistical analysis (Variance and Tukey test with a 5% significance level). for groups I, II and III beverages, type x temperature interaction was significant, showing the pH averages were influenced by temperature variation. At iced temperatures, they presented lower pH values, which were considered statistically significant when compared to the values found for the same beverages at room temperature. All dairy beverages, with the exception of the chocolate-based type presented pH below critical level for enamel and present corrosive potential; as to ingestion temperature, iced temperature influenced pH reducing its values, in vitro.

  13. Daqu - a traditional Chinese liquor fermentation starter

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zheng, X.; Rezaei Tabrizi, M.; Nout, M.J.R.; Han, B.

    2011-01-01

    Chinese liquor is one of the world's oldest distilled alcoholic beverages, and it is typically obtained with the use of Daqufermentation starters. Daqu is a saccharifying and fermenting agent, having a significant impact on the flavour of the product. Daqucan be categorized according to maximum

  14. Safety and quality parameters of ready-to-cook minced pork meat products supplemented with Helianthus tuberosus L. tubers fermented by BLIS producing lactic acid bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stimbirys, Arturas; Bartkiene, Elena; Siugzdaite, Jurate; Augeniene, Dovile; Vidmantiene, Daiva; Juodeikiene, Grazina; Maruska, Audrius; Stankevicius, Mantas; Cizeikiene, Dalia

    2015-07-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the influence of additives of Jerusalem artichoke (JA), fermented with P. acidilactici KTU05-7, P. pentosaceus KTU05-9, L. sakei KTU05-6, on the quality and safety parameters of ready - to cook - minced pork (RCMP). Fermented JA additives reduced pH of the meat products and decreased water holding capacity (WHC) from 2.01 till 2.93 %. Concentrations of biogenic amines in RCMP with additives of the lactic acid bacteria (LAB) - fermented JA were significantly lower comparing with control sample. The number of pathogenic bacteria in artificially contaminated meat samples was significantly reduced in case of LAB-fermented JA additives. The highest antimicrobial activity was obtained using P. acidilactici fermented JA additives. The amounts of microbial pathogens E. coli and Ent. faecalis, S. aureus and Streptococcus spp. were determined 3.41, 3.38, 3,96 and 4.74 log CFU/g correspondingly, whereas without LAB-fermented JA additives were 8.94, 7.75, 8.82 and 8.58 log CFU/g, correspondingly. A possibility to improve sensory properties (flavor) of RCMP using LAB fermented JA additives was investigated. The composition of volatile compounds of RCMP without additive and with LAB-fermented JA additives was analyzed using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). The results of sensory evaluation of meat products supplemented with fermented JA additives revealed specific odor, which is pleasant and acceptable for consumers might be explainable that LAB-fermented JA additives have shown considerable differences mainly due to the accumulation of volatiles such as toluene, ethylbenzene, decane, undecane, 2 methyl undecane. N-morpholinomethyl-isopropyl-sulfide, 6-undecilamine and N,N-dimethyl-1-pentadecanamine were not determined in RCMP with LAB-fermented JA additives. The results obtained show, that P. acidilactici fermented JA 5 % additive is most suitable for the RCMP processing in order to prevent microbiological spoilage, increase

  15. Functional Properties of Microorganisms in Fermented Foods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jyoti Prakash Tamang

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Fermented foods have unique functional properties imparting some health benefits to consumers due to presence of functional microorganisms, which possess probiotics properties, antimicrobial, antioxidant, peptide production, etc. Health benefits of some global fermented foods are synthesis of nutrients, prevention of cardiovascular disease, prevention of cancer, gastrointestinal disorders, allergic reactions, diabetes, among others. The present paper is aimed to review the information on some functional properties of the microorganisms associated with fermented foods and beverages, and their health-promoting benefits to consumers.

  16. Fermentative alcohol production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilke, Charles R.; Maiorella, Brian L.; Blanch, Harvey W.; Cysewski, Gerald R.

    1982-01-01

    An improved fermentation process for producing alcohol which includes the combination of vacuum fermentation and vacuum distillation. Preferably, the vacuum distillation is carried out in two phases, one a fermentor proper operated at atmospheric pressure and a flash phase operated at reduced pressure with recycle of fermentation brew having a reduced alcohol content to the fermentor, using vapor recompression heating of the flash-pot recycle stream to heat the flash-pot or the distillation step, and using "water load balancing" (i.e., the molar ratio of water in the fermentor feed is the same as the molar ratio of water in the distillation overhead).

  17. Isolation, selection and evaluation of yeasts for use in fermentation of coffee beans by the wet process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Melo Pereira, Gilberto Vinícius; Soccol, Vanete Thomaz; Pandey, Ashok; Medeiros, Adriane Bianchi Pedroni; Andrade Lara, João Marcos Rodrigues; Gollo, André Luiz; Soccol, Carlos Ricardo

    2014-10-01

    During wet processing of coffee, the ripe cherries are pulped, then fermented and dried. This study reports an experimental approach for target identification and selection of indigenous coffee yeasts and their potential use as starter cultures during the fermentation step of wet processing. A total of 144 yeast isolates originating from spontaneously fermenting coffee beans were identified by molecular approaches and screened for their capacity to grow under coffee-associated stress conditions. According to ITS-rRNA gene sequencing, Pichia fermentans and Pichia kluyveri were the most frequent isolates, followed by Candida Candida glabrata, quercitrusa, Saccharomyces sp., Pichia guilliermondii, Pichia caribbica and Hanseniaspora opuntiae. Nine stress-tolerant yeast strains were evaluated for their ability to produce aromatic compounds in a coffee pulp simulation medium and for their pectinolytic activity. P. fermentans YC5.2 produced the highest concentrations of flavor-active ester compounds (viz., ethyl acetate and isoamyl acetate), while Saccharomyces sp. YC9.15 was the best pectinase-producing strain. The potential impact of these selected yeast strains to promote flavor development in coffee beverages was investigated for inoculating coffee beans during wet fermentation trials at laboratory scale. Inoculation of a single culture of P. fermentans YC5.2 and co-culture of P. fermentans YC5.2 and Saccharomyces sp. YC9.15 enhanced significantly the formation of volatile aroma compounds during the fermentation process compared to un-inoculated control. The sensory analysis indicated that the flavor of coffee beverages was influenced by the starter cultures, being rated as having the higher sensory scores for fruity, buttery and fermented aroma. This demonstrates a complementary role of yeasts associated with coffee quality through the synthesis of yeast-specific volatile constituents. The yeast strains P. fermentans YC5.2 and Saccharomyces sp. YC9.15 have a great

  18. Purification and Characterization of Plantaricin JLA-9: A Novel Bacteriocin against Bacillus spp. Produced by Lactobacillus plantarum JLA-9 from Suan-Tsai, a Traditional Chinese Fermented Cabbage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Shengming; Han, Jinzhi; Bie, Xiaomei; Lu, Zhaoxin; Zhang, Chong; Lv, Fengxia

    2016-04-06

    Bacteriocins are ribosomally synthesized peptides with antimicrobial activity produced by numerous bacteria. A novel bacteriocin-producing strain, Lactobacillus plantarum JLA-9, isolated from Suan-Tsai, a traditional Chinese fermented cabbage, was screened and identified by its physiobiochemical characteristics and 16S rDNA sequence analysis. A new bacteriocin, designated plantaricin JLA-9, was purified using butanol extraction, gel filtration, and reverse-phase high-performance liquid chromatography. The molecular mass of plantaricin JLA-9 was shown to be 1044 Da by MALDI-TOF-MS analyses. The amino acid sequence of plantaricin JLA-9 was predicted to be FWQKMSFA by MALDI-TOF-MS/MS, which was confirmed by Edman degradation. This bacteriocin exhibited broad-spectrum antibacterial activity against Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria, especially Bacillus spp., high thermal stability (20 min, 121 °C), and narrow pH stability (pH 2.0-7.0). It was sensitive to α-chymotrypsin, pepsin, alkaline protease, and papain. The mode of action of this bacteriocin responsible for outgrowth inhibition of Bacillus cereus spores was studied. Plantaricin JLA-9 had no detectable effects on germination initiation over 1 h on monitoring the hydration, heat resistance, and 2,6-pyridinedicarboxylic acid (DPA) release of spores. Rather, germination initiation is a prerequisite for the action of plantaricin JLA-9. Plantaricin JLA-9 inhibited growth by preventing the establishment of oxidative metabolism and disrupting membrane integrity in germinating spores within 2 h. The results suggest that plantaricin JLA-9 has potential applications in the control of Bacillus spp. in the food industry.

  19. Distinct Domestication Trajectories in Top-Fermenting Beer Yeasts and Wine Yeasts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonçalves, Margarida; Pontes, Ana; Almeida, Pedro; Barbosa, Raquel; Serra, Marta; Libkind, Diego; Hutzler, Mathias; Gonçalves, Paula; Sampaio, José Paulo

    2016-10-24

    Beer is one of the oldest alcoholic beverages and is produced by the fermentation of sugars derived from starches present in cereal grains. Contrary to lager beers, made by bottom-fermenting strains of Saccharomyces pastorianus, a hybrid yeast, ale beers are closer to the ancient beer type and are fermented by S. cerevisiae, a top-fermenting yeast. Here, we use population genomics to investigate (1) the closest relatives of top-fermenting beer yeasts; (2) whether top-fermenting yeasts represent an independent domestication event separate from those already described; (3) whether single or multiple beer yeast domestication events can be inferred; and (4) whether top-fermenting yeasts represent non-recombinant or recombinant lineages. Our results revealed that top-fermenting beer yeasts are polyphyletic, with a main clade composed of at least three subgroups, dominantly represented by the German, British, and wheat beer strains. Other beer strains were phylogenetically close to sake, wine, or bread yeasts. We detected genetic signatures of beer yeast domestication by investigating genes previously linked to brewing and using genome-wide scans. We propose that the emergence of the main clade of beer yeasts is related with a domestication event distinct from the previously known cases of wine and sake yeast domestication. The nucleotide diversity of the main beer clade more than doubled that of wine yeasts, which might be a consequence of fundamental differences in the modes of beer and wine yeast domestication. The higher diversity of beer strains could be due to the more intense and different selection regimes associated to brewing. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Characterization of Acetic Acid Bacteria in Traditional Acetic Acid Fermentation of Rice Vinegar (Komesu) and Unpolished Rice Vinegar (Kurosu) Produced in Japan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nanda, Kumiko; Taniguchi, Mariko; Ujike, Satoshi; Ishihara, Nobuhiro; Mori, Hirotaka; Ono, Hisayo; Murooka, Yoshikatsu

    2001-01-01

    Bacterial strains were isolated from samples of Japanese rice vinegar (komesu) and unpolished rice vinegar (kurosu) fermented by the traditional static method. Fermentations have never been inoculated with a pure culture since they were started in 1907. A total of 178 isolates were divided into groups A and B on the basis of enterobacterial repetitive intergenic consensus-PCR and random amplified polymorphic DNA fingerprinting analyses. The 16S ribosomal DNA sequences of strains belonging to each group showed similarities of more than 99% with Acetobacter pasteurianus. Group A strains overwhelmingly dominated all stages of fermentation of both types of vinegar. Our results indicate that appropriate strains of acetic acid bacteria have spontaneously established almost pure cultures during nearly a century of komesu and kurosu fermentation. PMID:11157275

  1. Kombucha tea fermentation: Microbial and biochemical dynamics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chakravorty, Somnath; Bhattacharya, Semantee; Chatzinotas, Antonis; Chakraborty, Writachit; Bhattacharya, Debanjana; Gachhui, Ratan

    2016-03-02

    Kombucha tea, a non-alcoholic beverage, is acquiring significant interest due to its claimed beneficial properties. The microbial community of Kombucha tea consists of bacteria and yeast which thrive in two mutually non-exclusive compartments: the soup or the beverage and the biofilm floating on it. The microbial community and the biochemical properties of the beverage have so far mostly been described in separate studies. This, however, may prevent understanding the causal links between the microbial communities and the beneficial properties of Kombucha tea. Moreover, an extensive study into the microbial and biochemical dynamics has also been missing. In this study, we thus explored the structure and dynamics of the microbial community along with the biochemical properties of Kombucha tea at different time points up to 21 days of fermentation. We hypothesized that several biochemical properties will change during the course of fermentation along with the shifts in the yeast and bacterial communities. The yeast community of the biofilm did not show much variation over time and was dominated by Candida sp. (73.5-83%). The soup however, showed a significant shift in dominance from Candida sp. to Lachancea sp. on the 7th day of fermentation. This is the first report showing Candida as the most dominating yeast genus during Kombucha fermentation. Komagateibacter was identified as the single largest bacterial genus present in both the biofilm and the soup (~50%). The bacterial diversity was higher in the soup than in the biofilm with a peak on the seventh day of fermentation. The biochemical properties changed with the progression of the fermentation, i.e., beneficial properties of the beverage such as the radical scavenging ability increased significantly with a maximum increase at day 7. We further observed a significantly higher D-saccharic acid-1,4-lactone content and caffeine degradation property compared to previously described Kombucha tea fermentations. Our

  2. Changes in free-radical scavenging ability of kombucha tea during fermentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jayabalan, R; Subathradevi, P; Marimuthu, S; Sathishkumar, M; Swaminathan, K

    2008-07-01

    Kombucha tea is a fermented tea beverage produced by fermenting sugared black tea with tea fungus (kombucha). Free-radical scavenging abilities of kombucha tea prepared from green tea (GTK), black tea (BTK) and tea waste material (TWK) along with pH, phenolic compounds and reducing power were investigated during fermentation period. Phenolic compounds, scavenging activity on DPPH radical, superoxide radical (xanthine-xanthine oxidase system) and inhibitory activity against hydroxyl radical mediated linoleic acid oxidation (ammonium thiocyanate assay) were increased during fermentation period, whereas pH, reducing power, hydroxyl radical scavenging ability (ascorbic acid-iron EDTA) and anti-lipid peroxidation ability (thiobarbituric assay) were decreased. From the present study, it is obvious that there might be some chances of structural modification of components in tea due to enzymes liberated by bacteria and yeast during kombucha fermentation which results in better scavenging performance on nitrogen and superoxide radicals, and poor scavenging performance on hydroxyl radicals. Copyright © 2007 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Acid and alcohol tolerance of Escherichia coli O157:H7 in pulque, a typical Mexican beverage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gómez-Aldapa, Carlos A; Díaz-Cruz, Claudio A; Villarruel-López, Angelica; Del Refugio Torres-Vitela, M; Rangel-Vargas, Esmeralda; Castro-Rosas, Javier

    2012-03-01

    Pulque is a traditional Mexican fermented alcoholic beverage produced from the nectar of maguey agave plants. No data exist on the behavior of Escherichia coli O157:H7 in agave nectar and pulque. An initial trial was done of the behavior of E. coli O157:H7 during fermentation of nectar from a single producer, a nectar mixture from different producers and "seed" pulque. A second trial simulating artisanal pulque production was done by contaminating fresh nectar with a cocktail of three E. coli O157:H7 strains, storing at 16 ° and 22 °C for 14 h, adding seed pulque and fermenting until pulque was formed. A third trial used pulque from the second trial stored at 22 °C as seed to ferment fresh nectar at 22 °C for 48 h (fermentation cycle). This procedure was repeated for an additional two fermentation cycles. During incubation at 16 ° or 22 °C in the first trial, the E. coli O157:H7 strains multiplied in both the single producer nectar and nectar mixture, reaching maximum concentration at 12h. E. coli O157:H7 cell concentration then decreased slowly, although it survived at least 72 h in both fermented nectars. E. coli O157:H7 did not multiply in the seed pulque but did survive at least 72 h. In the second trial, the numbers of E. coli O157:H7 increased approximately 1.5 log CFU/ml at 22 °C and 1.2 log CFU/ml at 16 °C after 14 h. After seed pulque was added, E. coli O157:H7 concentration decreased to approximately 2 log CFU/ml, and then remained constant until pulque was produced. In the third trial, the E. coli O157:H7 cells multiplied and survived during at least three nectar fermentation cycles. The results suggest that E. coli O157:H7 can develop acid and alcohol tolerance in pulque, and constitutes a public health risk for pulque consumers. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Carbonated fermented dairy drink - effect on quality and shelf life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ravindra, Menon Rekha; Rao, K Jayaraj; Nath, B Surendra; Ram, Chand

    2014-11-01

    Processing conditions were standardized for a carbonated sweetened fermented dairy beverage. The optimum level of carbonation for the beverage filled in 200 ml glass bottles was found to be at 50 psi pressure for 30 seconds. The beverage samples were stored under refrigerated conditions (7 °C) and evaluated at weekly intervals for their sensory, chemical and microbial quality. The uncarbonated control samples were found to keep well till 5 weeks of storage while the carbonated beverage was acceptable up to 12 weeks of storage. Carbonation did not significantly alter the pH of the beverage, while a marginal increase in titratable acidity was recorded for the carbonated samples. Carbonation was found to arrest the development of lipolysis and proteolysis in the beverage during storage. Microbiological investigations established the inhibition of yeast and mold growth due to dissolved CO2.

  5. Production of enterocin A by Enterococcus faecium MMRA isolated from 'Rayeb', a traditional Tunisian dairy beverage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rehaiem, A; Martínez, B; Manai, M; Rodríguez, A

    2010-05-01

    Characterization and purification of a bacteriocin produced by a wild Enterococcus faecium strain, isolated from a Tunisian traditional fermented milk. Enterococcus faecium MMRA was selected on the basis of its strong anti-Listeria activity. The antibacterial activity was sensitive to proteases, confirming its proteinaceous nature. It was extremely heat stable (15 min at 121 degrees C), remained active over a wide pH range (2-12), and also after treatment with lipase, amylase, organic solvents, detergents, lyophilisation and long-term storage at -20 degrees C. Production of the bacteriocin occurred throughout the logarithmic growth phase, it did not adhere to the surface of the producer cells and the mode of action was bactericidal. After partial purification of the active supernatants, a 4-kDa band with antibacterial activity was revealed by SDS-PAGE electrophoresis and bioassay. Tryptic digestion followed by MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry identified the peptide as enterocin A. The inhibitory activity of Ent. faecium MMRA, a wild strain isolated from the artisan dairy beverage 'Rayeb', is due to the synthesis of an enterocin A. Traditional fresh Tunisian fermented dairy products are generally manufactured with raw milk that can be used as a source of uncharacterized wild lactic acid bacteria strains. To our knowledge, this is the first report on the isolation of an enterocin A producing Ent. faecium from 'Rayeb'. This bacteriocin or the producing strain might have a promising potential in biopreservation to enhance the hygienic quality of this dairy product.

  6. Metabolite profiling of the fermentation process of "yamahai-ginjo-shikomi" Japanese sake

    OpenAIRE

    Tatsukami, Yohei; Morisaka, Hironobu; Aburaya, Shunsuke; Aoki, Wataru; Kohsaka, Chihiro; Tani, Masafumi; Hirooka, Kiyoo; Yamamoto, Yoshihiro; Kitaoka, Atsushi; Fujiwara, Hisashi; Wakai, Yoshinori; Ueda, Mitsuyoshi

    2018-01-01

    Sake is a traditional Japanese alcoholic beverage prepared by multiple parallel fermentation of rice. The fermentation process of “yamahai-ginjo-shikomi” sake is mainly performed by three microbes, Aspergillus oryzae, Saccharomyces cerevisiae, and Lactobacilli; the levels of various metabolites fluctuate during the fermentation of sake. For evaluation of the fermentation process, we monitored the concentration of moderate-sized molecules (m/z: 200–1000) dynamically changed during the fermenta...

  7. KINETIKA FERMENTASI ASAM ASETAT (VINEGAR OLEH BAKTERI Acetobacter aceti B 127 DARI ETANOL HASIL FERMENTASI LIMBAH CAIR PULP KAKAO [Kinetics of Acetic Acid (Vinegar Fermentation By Acetobacter aceti B127 from Ethanol Produced by Fermentation of Liquid Waste of Cacao Pulp

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Supli Effendi

    2002-08-01

    Full Text Available Acetic acid concentration is one of vinegar’s quality parameter. Acetic acid concentration in vinegar is influenced by the activity of acetic acid bacteria. This research studied the kinetics of anaerobic fermentation of liquid waste of cacao pulp by Saccharomyces cerevisiae R60 to produce ethanol and the kinetics of acetic acid fermentation from ethanol by Acetobacter aceti B127. The kinetics of acetic acid fermentation from ethanol by Acetobacter aceti B127 can be used as a basic of bioprocess design for aerobic fermentation in general and acetic acid fermentation from ethanol by Acetobacter aceti B127 in particular. Fermentation medium used was liquid waste of cocoa pulp with sugar content of 12.85%, and the addition of sucrosa and urea. The parameter observed was growth of Saccharomyces cerevisiae R60 and Acetobacter aceti B127, and chemical analysis including concentration of ethanol, total sugar and acetic acid, content. The research result showed that the  value was 0.048 hour-1, Y P was 0.676, Qp value was 0.033 hour-, and KLa value was 0.344, QO2.Cx value was 0.125 (mgO2L-1jam-1, Y X was s O2 0.378 (x 108selmL-1g-1¬¬O2, and dCT was 0.150 mgL-1hour-1. Concentration of acetic acid in the product was 4.24% or 42.4 gL-1

  8. Mitigation of Patulin in Fresh and Processed Foods and Beverages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ioi, J David; Zhou, Ting; Tsao, Rong; F Marcone, Massimo

    2017-05-11

    Patulin is a mycotoxin of food safety concern. It is produced by numerous species of fungi growing on fruits and vegetables. Exposure to the toxin is connected to issues neurological, immunological, and gastrointestinal in nature. Regulatory agencies worldwide have established maximum allowable levels of 50 µg/kg in foods. Despite regulations, surveys continue to find patulin in commercial food and beverage products, in some cases, to exceed the maximum limits. Patulin content in food can be mitigated throughout the food processing chain. Proper handling, storage, and transportation of food can limit fungal growth and patulin production. Common processing techniques including pasteurisation, filtration, and fermentation all have an effect on patulin content in food but individually are not sufficient safety measures. Novel methods to remove or detoxify patulin have been reviewed. Non-thermal processing techniques such as high hydrostatic pressure, UV radiation, enzymatic degradation, binding to microorganisms, and chemical degradation all have potential but have not been optimised. Until further refinement of these methods, the hurdle approach to processing should be used where food safety is concerned. Future development should focus on determining the nature and safety of chemicals produced from the breakdown of patulin in treatment techniques.

  9. Development of a Brief Questionnaire to Assess Habitual Beverage Intake (BEVQ-15): Sugar-Sweetened Beverages and Total Beverage Energy Intake

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hedrick, Valisa E.; Savla, Jyoti; Comber, Dana L.; Flack, Kyle D.; Estabrooks, Paul A.; Nsiah-Kumi, Phyllis A.; Ortmeier, Stacie; Davy, Brenda M.

    2012-01-01

    Introduction Energy-containing beverages, specifically sugar-sweetened beverages (SSB), may contribute to weight gain and obesity development. Yet, no rapid assessment tools are available which quantify habitual beverage intake (grams, energy) in adults. Objective Determine the factorial validity of a newly developed beverage intake questionnaire (BEVQ) and identify potential to reduce items. Methods Participants from varying economic and educational backgrounds (n=1,596; age 43±12 yrs; BMI 31.5±0.2 kg/m2) completed a 19-item BEVQ (BEVQ-19). Beverages that contributed beverage, or SSB, energy and grams were identified for potential removal. Factor analyses identified beverage categories that could potentially be combined. Regression analyses compared BEVQ-19 outcomes with the reduced version’s (BEVQ-15) variables. Inter-item reliability was assessed using Cronbach’s Alpha. Following BEVQ-15 development, a subsequent study (n=70; age 37±2 yrs; BMI 24.5±0.4 kg/m2) evaluated the relative validity of the BEVQ-15 through comparison of three 24-hour dietary recalls’ (FIR) beverage intake. Results Three beverage items were identified for elimination (vegetable juice, meal replacement drinks, mixed alcoholic drinks); beer and light beer were combined into one category. Regression models using BEVQ-15 variables explained 91–99% of variance in the four major outcomes of the BEVQ-19 (all Pbeverage energy (R2=0.59) were more highly correlated with FIR than previously reported for the BEVQ-19. The BEVQ-15 produced a lower readability score of 4.8, which is appropriate for individuals with a fourth grade education or greater. Conclusion The BEVQ-19 can be reduced to a 15-item questionnaire. This brief dietary assessment tool will enable researchers and practitioners to rapidly (administration time of ~2 min) assess habitual beverage intake, and to determine possible associations of beverage consumption with health-related outcomes, such as weight status. PMID

  10. Bioethanol production from ball milled bagasse using an on-site produced fungal enzyme cocktail and xylose-fermenting Pichia stipitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buaban, Benchaporn; Inoue, Hiroyuki; Yano, Shinichi; Tanapongpipat, Sutipa; Ruanglek, Vasimon; Champreda, Verawat; Pichyangkura, Rath; Rengpipat, Sirirat; Eurwilaichitr, Lily

    2010-07-01

    Sugarcane bagasse is one of the most promising agricultural by-products for conversion to biofuels. Here, ethanol fermentation from bagasse has been achieved using an integrated process combining mechanical pretreatment by ball milling, with enzymatic hydrolysis and fermentation. Ball milling for 2 h was sufficient for nearly complete cellulose structural transformation to an accessible amorphous form. The pretreated cellulosic residues were hydrolyzed by a crude enzyme preparation from Penicillium chrysogenum BCC4504 containing cellulase activity combined with Aspergillus flavus BCC7179 preparation containing complementary beta-glucosidase activity. Saccharification yields of 84.0% and 70.4% for glucose and xylose, respectively, were obtained after hydrolysis at 45 degrees C, pH 5 for 72 h, which were slightly higher than those obtained with a commercial enzyme mixture containing Acremonium cellulase and Optimash BG. A high conversion yield of undetoxified pretreated bagasse (5%, w/v) hydrolysate to ethanol was attained by separate hydrolysis and fermentation processes using Pichia stipitis BCC15191, at pH 5.5, 30 degrees C for 24 h resulting in an ethanol concentration of 8.4 g/l, corresponding to a conversion yield of 0.29 g ethanol/g available fermentable sugars. Comparable ethanol conversion efficiency was obtained by a simultaneous saccharification and fermentation process which led to production of 8.0 g/l ethanol after 72 h fermentation under the same conditions. This study thus demonstrated the potential use of a simple integrated process with minimal environmental impact with the use of promising alternative on-site enzymes and yeast for the production of ethanol from this potent lignocellulosic biomass. 2009. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  11. Overexpression of smORF YNR034W-A/EGO4 in Saccharomyces cerevisiae increases the fermentative efficiency of Agave tequilana Weber must.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vargas-Maya, Naurú Idalia; González-Hernández, Gloria Angélica; Padilla-Guerrero, Israel Enrique; Torres-Guzmán, Juan Carlos

    2017-01-01

    Fermentative processes are widely used to produce food, beverages and biofuels. Saccharomyces cerevisiae is an efficient ethanol-producing microorganism. However, a concentration of high ethanol and other metabolites can affect yeast viability and decrease the ethanol yield. Many studies have focused on improving the fermentative efficiency, mostly through the genetic engineering of genes that have a direct impact on specific metabolic pathways. In the present study, we characterized a small open reading frame encoding a protein with an unknown function and biological role termed YNR034W-A. We analyzed the expression profile of the YNR034W-A gene during growth and glucose treatment, finding that it is expressed during the diauxic shift and stationary phase and is negatively regulated by glucose. We overexpressed the YNR034W-A gene in the BY4741 laboratory strain and a wild-type yeast strain (AR5) isolated during the Tequila fermentation process. Transformant derivatives of the AR5 strain showed an improved fermentative efficiency during fermentation of Agave tequilana Weber juice. We suggest that the improved fermentative efficiency is the result of a higher stress tolerance response in the YNR034W-A overexpressing transformant.

  12. Electro-Fermentation - Merging Electrochemistry with Fermentation in Industrial Applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schievano, Andrea; Pepé Sciarria, Tommy; Vanbroekhoven, Karolien; De Wever, Heleen; Puig, Sebastià; Andersen, Stephen J; Rabaey, Korneel; Pant, Deepak

    2016-11-01

    Electro-fermentation (EF) merges traditional industrial fermentation with electrochemistry. An imposed electrical field influences the fermentation environment and microbial metabolism in either a reductive or oxidative manner. The benefit of this approach is to produce target biochemicals with improved selectivity, increase carbon efficiency, limit the use of additives for redox balance or pH control, enhance microbial growth, or in some cases enhance product recovery. We discuss the principles of electrically driven fermentations and how EF can be used to steer both pure culture and microbiota-based fermentations. An overview is given on which advantages EF may bring to both existing and innovative industrial fermentation processes, and which doors might be opened in waste biomass utilization towards added-value biorefineries. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Adaptive evolution of Saccharomyces cerevisiae with enhanced ethanol tolerance for Chinese rice wine fermentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Shuang; Xu, Yan

    2014-08-01

    High tolerance towards ethanol is a desirable property for the Saccharomyces cerevisiae strains used in the alcoholic beverage industry. To improve the ethanol tolerance of an industrial Chinese rice wine yeast, a sequential batch fermentation strategy was used to adaptively evolve a chemically mutagenized Chinese rice wine G85 strain. The high level of ethanol produced under Chinese rice wine-like fermentation conditions was used as the selective pressure. After adaptive evolution of approximately 200 generations, mutant G85X-8 was isolated and shown to have markedly increased ethanol tolerance. The evolved strain also showed higher osmotic and temperature tolerances than the parental strain. Laboratory Chinese rice wine fermentation showed that the evolved G85X-8 strain was able to catabolize sugars more completely than the parental G85 strain. A higher level of yeast cell activity was found in the fermentation mash produced by the evolved strain, but the aroma profiles were similar between the evolved and parental strains. The improved ethanol tolerance in the evolved strain might be ascribed to the altered fatty acids composition of the cell membrane and higher intracellular trehalose concentrations. These results suggest that adaptive evolution is an efficient approach for the non-recombinant modification of industrial yeast strains.

  14. Effect of modified cassava starch on the rheological and quality properties of a dairy beverage prepared with sweet whey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paola Catalina IMBACHÍ-NARVÁEZ

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The effect of sweet whey and octenyl succinic anhydride (OSA-modified cassava starch on the quality and rheological properties of fermented dairy beverages was evaluated. Sweet whey (45-65% and OSA-modified cassava starch (0.8-1.2% were added to determine an optimal fermented dairy beverage with the highest viscosity and the lowest syneresis possible. The optimal fermented dairy beverage corresponded to the addition of 40.9% sweet whey and 1.13% OSA-modified cassava starch with respect to the milk and sweet whey mixture. Moreover, the rheological and quality properties of the optimal fermented dairy beverage were compared to a commercial beverage (control during 22 days of storage. No significant differences were found in soluble solids, acidity, pH and consistency index during the time evaluated, while the syneresis of both products showed an increase during storage. OSA-modified cassava starch can be used as a stabiliser in sweet whey fermented dairy beverages because it helps improve its quality properties.

  15. A combined meta-barcoding and shotgun metagenomic analysis of spontaneous wine fermentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sternes, Peter R; Lee, Danna; Kutyna, Dariusz R; Borneman, Anthony R

    2017-07-01

    Wine is a complex beverage, comprising hundreds of metabolites produced through the action of yeasts and bacteria in fermenting grape must. Commercially, there is now a growing trend away from using wine yeast (Saccharomyces) starter cultures, toward the historic practice of uninoculated or "wild" fermentation, where the yeasts and bacteria associated with the grapes and/or winery perform the fermentation. It is the varied metabolic contributions of these numerous non-Saccharomyces species that are thought to impart complexity and desirable taste and aroma attributes to wild ferments in comparison to their inoculated counterparts. To map the microflora of spontaneous fermentation, metagenomic techniques were employed to characterize and monitor the progression of fungal species in 5 different wild fermentations. Both amplicon-based ribosomal DNA internal transcribed spacer (ITS) phylotyping and shotgun metagenomics were used to assess community structure across different stages of fermentation. While providing a sensitive and highly accurate means of characterizing the wine microbiome, the shotgun metagenomic data also uncovered a significant overabundance bias in the ITS phylotyping abundance estimations for the common non-Saccharomyces wine yeast genus Metschnikowia. By identifying biases such as that observed for Metschnikowia, abundance measurements from future ITS phylotyping datasets can be corrected to provide more accurate species representation. Ultimately, as more shotgun metagenomic and single-strain de novo assemblies for key wine species become available, the accuracy of both ITS-amplicon and shotgun studies will greatly increase, providing a powerful methodology for deciphering the influence of the microbial community on the wine flavor and aroma. © The Authors 2017. Published by Oxford University Press.

  16. Hydrogen Production by Thermophilic Fermentation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Niel, van E.W.J.; Willquist, K.; Zeidan, A.A.; Vrije, de T.; Mars, A.E.; Claassen, P.A.M.

    2012-01-01

    Of the many ways hydrogen can be produced, this chapter focuses on biological hydrogen production by thermophilic bacteria and archaea in dark fermentations. The thermophiles are held as promising candidates for a cost-effective fermentation process, because of their relatively high yields and broad

  17. Enzymatic activity of proteases and its isoenzymes in fermentation process in cultivars of cocoa (Theobroma cacao L. produced in southern Bahia, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciane Santos SOUSA

    Full Text Available Abstract The fermentation of cocoa seeds envolves microbial processes and the action of enzymes. To identify the possible differences in the cocoa fermentation process, with regards to proteolysis, this study has the objective of determining protease activity (under predetermined conditions and its isoenzymes in two cocoa cultivars (PH-16 and HRT-1188 in different cocoa fermentation times, in addition to establishing the microbial load (molds and yeasts and aerobic mesophilic. Protease and its isoenzymes were extracted and partially purified and the enzymatic activities determined by spectrophotometry. The results showed that the proteases activity was higher at 66h of fermentation for both cultivars. When the isoenzymes activity was evaluated, the results demonstrated similar activity behavior for both cultivars, with regards to the isoenzymes aminopeptidase and carboxypeptidase, although the behavior of the endoprotease isoenzyme activity proved to be a little different for TSH-1188 cultivar. Concerning microbiological analyses, the results indicate that the period after molds and yeast counting reduction is consistent with the period of protease activity increase.

  18. Applying and influence of polymer materials for packaging dairy beverages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milanović Spasenija D.

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Functional food is positioned above the traditional, with the potential to improve human health. Thanks to very good physico-mechanical and barrier properties polymers became very popular in food industry as a packaging materials. Wild range of fermented dairy products could be packed in this packaging materials according to their’s inertness as well. Functional milk beverage was obtained from milk with 0,9% milk fat content by applying 10% v/v of kombucha’s inoculum cultivated on a black tea sweetened with sucrose. The beverage was packed in a different packaging materials: polyamid-polyethylen (PA/PE coextruded foil bags and polyprophylen (PP cups closed with aluminium (Al foil lids under atmospheric conditions (ATM. Beverages were storaged for 15 days at 4°C. The quality of kombucha inoculum, milk and obtained kombucha fermented milk beverage were analysed. Characterization of the packaging materials was done by investigating physico-mechanical, barrier and structural properties. The composition and changes in the headspace atmosphere, after production and during the storage, were analysed. The influence of packaging material properties and packaging conditions on the biochemical transformations of the milk’s components (the content of: lactose, L-lactic acid, D-galactose, ethanol, B1 and B2 vitamins influenced by kombucha starter were analysed as well. On the bases of the obtained results of characterisation of packaging materials, it can be concluded that PA/PE and PP materials are proper to be used for analysed beverage’s packaging. Also, there is no significant difference in content of components which were quantified, between analysed materials in correlation with the packed fermented milk beverage. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. III-46009

  19. System for extracting protein from a fermentation product

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawton, Jr., John Warren; Bootsma, Jason Alan; Lewis, Stephen Michael

    2016-04-26

    A method of producing bioproducts from a feedstock in a system configured to produce ethanol and distillers grains from a fermentation product is disclosed. A system configured to process feedstock into a fermentation product and bioproducts including ethanol and meal is disclosed. A bioproduct produced from a fermentation product produced from a feedstock in a biorefining system is disclosed.

  20. Method for extracting protein from a fermentation product

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawton, Jr., John Warren; Bootsma, Jason Alan; Lewis, Stephen Michael

    2014-02-18

    A method of producing bioproducts from a feedstock in a system configured to produce ethanol and distillers grains from a fermentation product is disclosed. A system configured to process feedstock into a fermentation product and bioproducts including ethanol and meal is disclosed. A bioproduct produced from a fermentation product produced from a feedstock in a biorefining system is disclosed.

  1. Procedure of brewing alcohol as a staple food: case study of the fermented cereal liquor "Parshot" as a staple food in Dirashe special woreda, southern Ethiopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sunano, Yui

    2016-07-01

    For most brews, alcohol fermentation and lactic fermentation take place simultaneously during the brewing process, and alcohol fermentation can progress smoothly because the propagation of various microorganisms is prevented by lactic fermentation. It is not necessary to cause lactic fermentation with a thing generated naturally and intentionally. The people living in the Dirashe area in southern Ethiopia drink three types of alcoholic beverages that are prepared from cereals. From these alcoholic beverages, parshot is prepared by the addition of plant leaves for lactic fermentation and nech chaka by adding cereal powder for lactic fermentation before alcohol fermentation. People living in the Dirashe area partake of parshot as part of their staple diet. The brewing process used for parshot and a food culture with alcoholic beverages as parts of the staple diet are rare worldwide. This article discusses the significance of using lactic fermentation before alcoholic fermentation and focuses on lactic fermentation in the brewing methods used for the three kinds of alcoholic beverages consumed in the Dirashe area. We initially observed the brewing process and obtained information about the process from the people in that area. Next, we determined the pH and analyzed the lactic acid (g/100 g) and ethanol (g/100 g) content during lactic fermentation of parshot and nech chaka; the ethyl acetate (mg/100 g) and volatile base nitrogen (mg/100 g) content during this period was also analyzed. In addition, we compared the ethanol (g/100 g) content of all three kinds of alcoholic beverages after completion of brewing. The results showed that it was possible to consume large quantities of these alcoholic beverages because of the use of lactic fermentation before alcoholic fermentation, which improved the safety and preservation characteristics of the beverages by preventing the propagation of various microorganisms, improving flavor, and controlling the alcohol level.

  2. Profitables Food & Beverage Management

    OpenAIRE

    Studer, Adrian; Blatter, Martin; Glenz-Mounir, Chantal

    2008-01-01

    Die Diplomarbeit befasst sich mit dem Thema „Profitables Food & Beverage Management“, es geht darum, wie Restaurationsstätten, Beherbergungsbetriebe und Campingbetreiber ihren Umsatz innerhalb kürzester Zeit um 6 bis 8 % und den Gewinn um 8 bis 10 % steigern können. Grundlage für die Diplomarbeit ist das Buch „Profitables Food & Beverage Management“ von Urs Schaffer1 und die angebotenen Kurse von ritzy*2. Mit dem Buch und dem Module Profit Management auf dem ritzycampus3 haben die Wirte, Hote...

  3. Novel Method of Lactic Acid Production by Electrodialysis Fermentation

    OpenAIRE

    Hongo, Motoyoshi; Nomura, Yoshiyuki; Iwahara, Masayoshi

    1986-01-01

    In lactic acid fermentation by Lactobacillus delbrueckii, the produced lactic acid affected the lactic acid productivity. Therefore, for the purpose of alleviating this inhibitory effect, an electrodialysis fermentation method which can continuously remove produced lactic acid from the fermentation broth was applied to this fermentation process. As a result, the continuation of fermentation activity was obtained, and the productivity was three times higher than in non-pH-controlled fermentati...

  4. Mothers’ Perceptions of Toddler Beverages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manuela Rigo

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: The prevalence of obesity among Australian pre-school children is a major concern with links to poor health outcomes. One contributing factor is excess energy intake. Sugar-sweetened beverages are energy-dense, nutrient-poor, readily available and have been implicated in the increasing prevalence of obesity. Furthermore, preschooler beverage consumption may develop into dietary habits that track into adulthood. There is little research on factors influencing parents’ decision-making when serving beverages to their preschoolers, or on mothers’ perceptions of preschooler’s beverages. The aim of this study was to explore mothers’ perceptions of commonly consumed preschooler beverages. Methods: The Repertory Grid Technique and the Laddering Technique methodologies were utilized in interviews with 28 mothers from Melbourne, Australia, to explore beverage perceptions. Results: A large number of diverse perceptual categories (‘constructs’ (n = 22 about beverages were elicited, demonstrating the complexity of mothers’ perceptions when making beverage choices for their preschoolers. The five most common categories were related to health, sugar, dairy, packaging, and additives. Thematic analysis of responses from the laddering method identified three major themes: concerns about the types of beverages mothers would like to provide their preschoolers, the healthiness of a beverage, and the sugar content. Conclusions: Mothers’ perceptions of beverages are sophisticated and need to be included in the design of health communication strategies by health promoters and government agencies to influence mothers’ beverage selections for their preschoolers.

  5. Investigation and Analysis of the Content of Biogenic Amines in Fermented Alcoholic Beverage%发酵型饮料酒中生物胺含量的调查与分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张敬; 赵树欣; 薛洁; 张凤杰; 赵彩云

    2012-01-01

    利用反相高效液相色谱技术,以丹磺酰氯柱前衍生,分析了我国市场中32个啤酒样品、32个葡萄酒样品和12个黄酒样品中生物胺的含量。结果表明,我国啤酒、葡萄酒样品中含有较低的生物胺物质,平均含量分别为4.787 mg/L和11.240 mg/L,黄酒中生物胺含量较高,达到了78.304 mg/L。3种饮料酒含量较多的单体生物胺均为腐胺和酪胺,我国葡萄酒中的组胺含量低于国际现有组胺标准的最低限量要求。不同企业生产的啤酒样品和不同原产地的葡萄酒样品中组胺含量存在显著差异,黄酒样品中生物胺含量为18.603~140.010 mg/L,样品间差异很大。%Biogentic amines were analyzed in thirty two samples of beer,twenty seven samples of wine and twelve samples of Chinese rice wine from the Chinese market,using HPLC detection after pre-column derivatization with dansyl chloride.The results showed that the content of biogentic amines in Chinese beer and wine samples was in a relatively low level,with the average being 4.787 mg/L and 11.240 mg/L respectively.While the samples of rice wine contained a high level of biogenic amines,reaching 78.304 mg/L.The monomer biogenic amines that had a relatively high level of content in the three alcoholic beverage mentioned above were all putrescine and tyramine.The content of histamine in wine from Chinese market is below the minimum requirements of existing international histamine standard.Significant differences in the content of histamine were found both among the samples of beer from different enterprises and the samples of wine with different origins.The content of biogenic amines varied widely among the samples of the rice wine,which ranged from 18.603 mg/L to 140.010 mg/L.

  6. Biocontrol activity of four non- and low-fermenting yeast strains against Aspergillus carbonarius and their ability to remove ochratoxin A from grape juice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fiori, Stefano; Urgeghe, Pietro Paolo; Hammami, Walid; Razzu, Salvatorico; Jaoua, Samir; Migheli, Quirico

    2014-10-17

    Aspergillus spp. infection of grape may lead to ochratoxin A (OTA) contamination in processed beverages such as wine and grape juice. The aim of the current study was to evaluate the biocontrol potential of two non-fermenting (Cyberlindnera jadinii 273 and Candida friedrichii 778) and two low-fermenting (Candida intermedia 235 and Lachancea thermotolerans 751) yeast strains against the pathogenic fungus and OTA-producer Aspergillus carbonarius, and their ability to remove OTA from grape juice. Two strains, 235 and 751, showed a significant ability to inhibit A. carbonarius both on grape berries and in in vitro experiments. Neither their filtrate nor their autoclaved filtrate culture broth was able to prevent consistently pathogen growth. Volatile organic compounds (VOCs) produced by all four selected yeasts were likely able to consistently prevent pathogen sporulation in vitro. VOCs produced by the non-fermenting strain 778 also significantly reduced A. carbonarius vegetative growth. Three yeast strains (235, 751, and 778) efficiently adsorbed artificially spiked OTA from grape juice, while autoclaving treatment improved OTA adsorption capacity by all the four tested strains. Biological control of A. carbonarius and OTA-decontamination using yeast is proposed as an approach to meet the Islamic dietary laws concerning the absence of alcohol in halal beverages. Copyright © 2014 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Evaluation of the effect of process variables on the fatty acid profile of single cell oil produced by Mortierella using solid-state fermentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asadi, Seyedeh Zeinab; Khosravi-Darani, Kianoush; Nikoopour, Houshang; Bakhoda, Hossein

    2015-03-01

    This article reviews some of the aspects of single cell oil (SCO) production using solid-state fermentation (SSF) by fungi of the genus Mortierella. This article provides an overview of the advantages of SSF for SCO formation by the aforementioned fungus and demonstrates that the content of the polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) depend on the type of fermentation media and culture conditions. Process variables that influence lipid accumulation by Mortierella spp. and the profile of the fatty acids are discussed, including incubation temperature, time, aeration, growth phase of the mycelium, particle size of the substrate, carbon to nitrogen ratio, initial moisture content and pH as well as supplementation of the substrate with nitrogen and oil. Finally, the article highlights future research trends for the scaled-up production of PUFAs in SSF.

  8. Phytase-producing capacity of yeasts isolated from traditional African fermented food products and PHYPk gene expression of Pichia kudriavzevii strains

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Greppi, Anna; Krych, Lukasz; Costantini, Antonella

    2015-01-01

    Phytate is known as a strong chelate of minerals causing their reduced uptake by the human intestine. Ninety-three yeast isolates from traditional African fermented food products, belonging to nine species (Pichia kudriavzevii, Saccharomyces cerevisiae, Clavispora lusitaniae, Kluyveromyces...... marxianus, Millerozyma farinosa, Candida glabrata, Wickerhamomyces anomalus, Hanseniaspora guilliermondii and Debaryomyces nepalensis) were screened for phytase production on solid and liquid media. 95% were able to grow in the presence of phytate as sole phosphate source, P. kudriavzevii being the best...

  9. The Solubility of Cr-Organic Produced by Hydrolysis, Bioprocess and Bioremediation and its Effect on Fermented Rate, Digestibility and Rumen Microbe Population (in vitro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    UH Tanuwiria

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available The research was conducted to study the production of organic chromium from the leather tanning waste and its effect on in vitro rumen fermentation activities. The research was divided into two phases. The first phase was production of organic chromium by alkali hydrolysis, S cereviceae bioprocess, and duckweed bioremediation that perceived solubility in neutral and acid solution. The second phase was the supplementation of organic-Cr in ration seen from in-vitro fermented rate, digestibility and microbe rumen population. Research was conducted experimentally using 4x4 factorial patterns, on the basis of Completely Randomized Design (CRD with three replications in each experimental unit. The first factor was the type of organic-Cr and the second factor was the supplement in ration at four levels, 1, 2, 3 and 4 ppm. The results of this research indicated that organic chromium can be synthesized by alkali hydrolysis, S cereviseae bioprocess and the activity of duckweed bioremediation. Among the three of processes referred, the highest level of Cr was obtained from S cereviseae bioprocess that was originated from leather-tanning waste. The levels of organic-Cr that was resulted from alkali hydrolysis, bioprocess from Cl3Cr.6H2O, bioprocess from Cr leather-tanning waste, and from duckweed bioremediation were 354, 1011, 3833 and 310 mg/kg, respectively. Organic-Cr characteristic of each product has relatively similar in ferment ability, dry matter and organic matter digestibility and rumen ecosystem. There is an indication that dry matter and organic matter digestibility and rumen microbe population in ration that was added with organic Cr from alkali hydrolysis was higher than other supplements. (Animal Production 12(3: 175-183 (2010Key Words: organic-Cr, rumen fermentation activities, rumen microbe population

  10. Production of sensory compounds by means of the yeast Dekkera bruxellensis in different nitrogen sources with the prospect of producing cachaça.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castro Parente, Denise; Vidal, Esteban Espinosa; Leite, Fernanda Cristina Bezerra; de Barros Pita, Will; de Morais, Marcos Antonio

    2015-01-01

    The distilled spirit made from sugar cane juice, also known as cachaça, is a traditional Brazilian beverage that in recent years has increased its market share among international distilled beverages. Several volatile compounds produced by yeast cells during the fermentation process are responsible for the unique taste and aroma of this drink. The yeast Dekkera bruxellensis has acquired increasing importance in the fermented beverage production, as the different metabolites produced by this yeast may be either beneficial or harmful to the end-product. Since D. bruxellensis is often found in the fermentation processes carried out in ethanol fuel distillation in Brazil, we employed this yeast to analyse the physiological profile and production of aromatic compounds and to examine whether it is feasible to regard it as a cachaça-producing microorganism. The assays were performed on a small scale and simulated the conditions for the production of handmade cachaça. The results showed that the presence of aromatic and branched-chain amino acids in the medium has a strong influence on the metabolism and production of flavours by D. bruxellensis. The assimilation of these alternative nitrogen sources led to different fermentation yields and the production of flavouring compounds. The influence of the nitrogen source on the metabolism of fusel alcohols and esters in D. bruxellensis highlights the need for further studies of the nitrogen requirements to obtain the desired level of sensory compounds in the fermentation. Our results suggest that D. bruxellensis has the potential to play a role in the production of cachaça. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  11. The Curing Agent Sodium Nitrite, Used in the Production of Fermented Sausages, Is Less Inhibiting to the Bacteriocin-Producing Meat Starter Culture Lactobacillus curvatus LTH 1174 under Anaerobic Conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verluyten, Jurgen; Messens, Winy; De Vuyst, Luc

    2003-01-01

    Curvacin A is a listericidal bacteriocin produced by Lactobacillus curvatus LTH 1174, a strain isolated from fermented sausage. The response of this strain to an added curing agent (sodium nitrite) in terms of cell growth and bacteriocin production was investigated in vitro by laboratory fermentations with modified MRS broth. The strain was highly sensitive to nitrite; even a concentration of 10 ppm of curing agent inhibited its growth and both volumetric and specific bacteriocin production. A meat simulation medium containing 5 ppm of sodium nitrite was tested to investigate the influence of the gas phase on the growth and bacteriocin production of L. curvatus LTH 1174. Aerating the culture during growth had no effect on biomass formation, but the oxidative stress caused a higher level of specific bacteriocin production and led to a metabolic shift toward acetic acid production. Anaerobic conditions, on the other hand, led to an increased biomass concentration and less growth inhibition. Also, higher maximum volumetric bacteriocin activities and a higher level of specific bacteriocin production were obtained in the presence of sodium nitrite than in fermentations under aerobic conditions or standard conditions of air supply. These results indicate that the inhibitory effect of the curing agent is at least partially masked under anaerobic conditions. PMID:12839751

  12. The curing agent sodium nitrite, used in the production of fermented sausages, is less inhibiting to the bacteriocin-producing meat starter culture Lactobacillus curvatus LTH 1174 under anaerobic conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verluyten, Jurgen; Messens, Winy; De Vuyst, Luc

    2003-07-01

    Curvacin A is a listericidal bacteriocin produced by Lactobacillus curvatus LTH 1174, a strain isolated from fermented sausage. The response of this strain to an added curing agent (sodium nitrite) in terms of cell growth and bacteriocin production was investigated in vitro by laboratory fermentations with modified MRS broth. The strain was highly sensitive to nitrite; even a concentration of 10 ppm of curing agent inhibited its growth and both volumetric and specific bacteriocin production. A meat simulation medium containing 5 ppm of sodium nitrite was tested to investigate the influence of the gas phase on the growth and bacteriocin production of L. curvatus LTH 1174. Aerating the culture during growth had no effect on biomass formation, but the oxidative stress caused a higher level of specific bacteriocin production and led to a metabolic shift toward acetic acid production. Anaerobic conditions, on the other hand, led to an increased biomass concentration and less growth inhibition. Also, higher maximum volumetric bacteriocin activities and a higher level of specific bacteriocin production were obtained in the presence of sodium nitrite than in fermentations under aerobic conditions or standard conditions of air supply. These results indicate that the inhibitory effect of the curing agent is at least partially masked under anaerobic conditions.

  13. canned beverages in Nigeria

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    hope&shola

    5.0 mg/l set by United States Environmental Protection Agency (US EPA). The selenium levels ... eyes, and bones (ATSDR, 1990). Selenium is a metal ... 3.30. Seoul, South Korea. Three Crown Milk. 3.21. Lagos, Nigeria. Luna Milk. 2.95. Jedda ..... and acute effects of copper in drinking water and beverages.Rev. Environ ...

  14. Aluminium beverage can recycling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lewinski, A von

    1985-08-01

    Canned beverages have become a controversial issue in this era of ecological sensitivity. METALL has already discussed the problem of can recycling. The present article discusses the technical aspects of aluminium can recycling. Two further articles will follow on aluminium can recycling in North America and on the results of European pilot projects.

  15. Development and physical-chemical, microbiological and sensory characterization of fermented dairy beverage prepared with different stabilizers/thickenerDesenvolvimento e caracterização físico-química, microbiológica e sensorial de bebida láctea fermentada elaborada com diferentes estabilizantes/espessantes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rakel Cândido Nascimento

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available This study was conducted to evaluate the physical-chemical, sensory and microbiological characteristics of fermented dairy beverages prepared with 10% sucrose, 50% milk and 50% whey and added five different stabilizers/thickeners in two concentrations (0,50% and 1,00% in relation to the final formulation. Ten treatments have been developed: PCPS 1,00% = protein (0,50% and whey protein concentrate (0,50%; GP 1,00% = powdered gelatin (1,00%; GG 1,00% = guar gum (1,00%; AM 1.00% = corn starch (1,00%; GGCMC 1,00% = guar gum (0,50% and carboxymethylcellulose (0,50%; PCPS 0,50 % = protein (0,25% and whey protein concentrate (0,25%; GP 0.50% = powdered gelatin (0,50%; GG 0.50% = guar (0,50%; AM 0,50% = corn starch (0,50%; GGCMC 0,50% = guar gum (0,25% and carboxymethylcellulose (0,25%. The fermented dairy beverages were evaluated for pH, acidity in lactic acid, moisture, ash, fat, protein, viscosity, syneresis, sensory acceptance (in a nine-point hedonic scale and count of coliforms at 35ºC and 45°C. The results were submitted to ANOVA and mean test with significance level of 5%. It was observed that the types and percentages of stabilizers/thickeners mainly influenced the values of syneresis, viscosity and acceptance of samples. Those of the treatments containing protein and whey protein concentrate (1,00%, guar gum (1,00% and gelatin (0,50% showed viscosity/consistency similiar/compatible with yogurt and commercial fermented dairy beverages and showed no syneresis, after processing. All formulations were safe to be consumed considering the microbiological results and according to the legislation. The treatment with 0,50% gelatin stood out for the best acceptance for appearance, aroma, color and texture.Este trabalho foi realizado com o objetivo de avaliar as características físico-químicas, sensoriais e a qualidade microbiológica de bebidas lácteas fermentadas elaboradas com 10% de sacarose, 50% de leite e 50% de soro de queijo e adicionadas

  16. Antioxidant and Antibacterial Activity of Kombucha Beverages Prepared using Banana Peel, Common Nettles and Black Tea Infusions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Ebrahimi Pure

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Backgrounds and Objective: Kombucha is a several thousand years old traditional fermented beverage originated from East. While black tea infusion is the common substrate for preparing kombucha, other herbal infusions can be applied for this reason too. Common medicinal herbs or even waste herbal materials, like banana peel, could be suitable substrates for preparing kombucha analogues. In this study, kombuchas were fermented using nettles leaf and banana peel infusions. Materials and Methods: Herbal infusions were fermented by kombucha fungi. Folin-Ciocalteu assay was performed to evaluate total phenolic contents; Free radical scavenging activity was evaluated using 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl. Disk diffusion method was performed to measure inhibitory activity against testing bacteria. All data were statistically analyzed by ANOVA test at significant level of p≤0.05. Results and Conclusion: Black tea contained highest amount of phenolics (530.5 ppm gallic acid equivalent and fermentation decomposed approximately 50% of phenolic contents to 265.5 ppm while phenolic content of nettles infusion and fermented beverage were 173 gAE and 188 gAE respectively and for banana peel, 136.5 gAE and 155 gAE; it indicated increase of phenolic contents due to fermentation that may be cause of protein contents of nettles and banana peel gone under fermentation by lactic acid bacteria. Fermented beverage of three herbs had higher antioxidant potent than infusions. Kombucha from banana peel showed the highest antioxidant activity by inhibiting 94.62% of DPPH. While antioxidant activity of fermented beverages of black tea and nettles leaf were more related to their acetic acid content, it was found that a considerable part of antioxidant activity of banana peel kombucha was due to other acids and phenolics. No antibacterial activity was observed from either of samples. Banana peel, as a waste herbal material, and nettles leaf are good ingredients for being

  17. Understanding Kombucha Tea Fermentation: A Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villarreal-Soto, Silvia Alejandra; Beaufort, Sandra; Bouajila, Jalloul; Souchard, Jean-Pierre; Taillandier, Patricia

    2018-03-01

    Kombucha is a beverage of probable Manchurian origins obtained from fermented tea by a microbial consortium composed of several bacteria and yeasts. This mixed consortium forms a powerful symbiosis capable of inhibiting the growth of potentially contaminating bacteria. The fermentation process also leads to the formation of a polymeric cellulose pellicle due to the activity of certain strains of Acetobacter sp. The tea fermentation process by the microbial consortium was able to show an increase in certain biological activities which have been already studied; however, little information is available on the characterization of its active components and their evolution during fermentation. Studies have also reported that the use of infusions from other plants may be a promising alternative. Kombucha is a traditional fermented tea whose consumption has increased in the recent years due to its multiple functional properties such as anti-inflammatory potential and antioxidant activity. The microbiological composition of this beverage is quite complex and still more research is needed in order to fully understand its behavior. This study comprises the chemical and microbiological composition of the tea and the main factors that may affect its production. © 2018 Institute of Food Technologists®.

  18. Whey as a raw material for the production of functional beverages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bulatović Maja Lj.

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available One of the least utilized by-products of food industry, despite the great potential that is described, is the whey, which is obtained as a by-product of the technological process production of cheese and casein. The excess whey, which occurs in this process in very high yields, with failure to processing is becoming a very big polluter, what is completely at odds with the potential that such materials possess. On the other hand, the modern tempo and way of life, and increasingly polluted environmental also, impose the need to produce food products that would help the human body in the fight against harmful agents which are exposed to daily. One of the more effective solution is the production of fermented functional beverages based on whey, which achieved this intention in the most natural and most comfortable way. Considering the rather untapped potential of whey as a raw material and growing food shortages in the world market, the aim of this study was to analyze the possibilities of production of functional beverages based on whey, with satisfactory sensory characteristics, in order to demonstrate the attractiveness of whey as raw material in the food industry. This paper presents an overview of the wide possibilities for the use of whey with a special emphasis on its attractiveness and the necessity of its utilizing.

  19. Effect of alcoholic beverages on progeny and reproduction of mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernanda Dias Figueiro

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Alcohol is the most commonly consumed substance in the world. The objective of this study was to evaluate the influence of alcoholic beverages on male reproduction and possible alterations in their offspring. The mice were divided into 4 groups: beer, wine, cachaça (a type of sugarcane rum, with ethanol concentrations of 1.9 g/kg, and control group treated with PBS. The treatment period was 35 days. The animals which received cachaça, demonstrated significant weight loss in the testes and epididymis. The alcoholic beverages promoted significant testosterone level and fertilization index diminution, and morphological alterations in the spermatozoa. The beer group presented decreased implantation sites and a high frequency of dominant lethal. The number of reabsorptions in the wine group was increased. The fermented beverages presented higher potential to induce visceral malformations, while the cachaça caused fetal skeletal malformations. The cachaça treated group presented a negative impact on semen quality and fertilization potential. The treatment with different alcoholic beverages, during spermatogenesis, demonstrated contrasting degrees of induction of toxic effects, interfering in a general aspect in male reproductive performance, fetal viability during intrauterine life, and birth defects. From the data, it is possible to infer that the distillated beverage caused more harmful effects to reproduction in this study.

  20. Diversity of yeasts involved in the fermentation of tchoukoutou, an opaque sorghum beer from Benin

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kayode, A.P.P.; Vieira-Dalode, G.; Linnemann, A.R.; Kotchoni, S.O.; Hounhouigan, A.J.D.; Boekel, van M.A.J.S.; Nout, M.J.R.

    2011-01-01

    Opaque sorghum beers are traditional alcoholic beverages in several African countries. Known as tchoukoutou in Benin, the beer is often obtained from an uncontrolled fermentation. It is consumed in an actively fermenting state and has a sour taste. The present study characterized and identified the

  1. Sensory quality evaluation of whey-based beverages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Veronika Legarová

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Whey as a by-product of the cheese industry is a source of biological and functional valuable proteins. The aim of this research was to evaluate the commercial potential of whey-based dairy beverages containing a definite amount of semi-skimmed milk addition. The purpose of this paper was to improve the whey flavour via its fermentation by commercial yogurt starter cultures, and via 25 % and 50 % of milk addition. The course of fermentation was monitored by pH and titratable acidity changes. The sensory profile of non-fermented and fermented drinks was assessed using unstructured graphical scales. No significant differences in acidity were found between the samples which were fermented for 3 or 4 hours, but a significant difference was found between samples of whey drinks without milk and samples with milk addition. Fermentation by yoghurt culture did not bring statistically significant improvement of the whey drink organoleptic properties, while the addition of milk was the most important factor influencing not only the total sensory quality of the whey drinks but also their flavour, appearance, colour, viscosity and homogeneity.

  2. Protein concentrations of sweet soysauces from Rhizopus oryzae and R. oligosporus fermentation without moromi fermentation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    NOOR SOESANTI HANDAJANI

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available Soy sauce was produce from soybean that fermented with koji/tempeh fungi and thenfermented under salt solution or moromi fermentation. The objectives of this experiment was to compare of protein (total and soluble content of sweet soy sauce that produced from soybean fermented with Rhizopus oryzae and R. oligosporus without moromi fermentation to the sweet soysauce with moromi fermentation one. The total and soluble proteins of sweet soy sauces that produce from soybean without moromi fermentation were higher that sweet soy sauces that produce with moromi fermentation. Soluble protein of sweet soy sauce that produced from soybean fermented with R. oligosporus without moromi fermentation was 8.2% and meet to the highest quality of sweet soy sweet sauce based on Indonesia Industrial Standard. Soluble protein of sweet soy sauce that produced from soybean fermented with R. oryzae without moromi fermentation was 4.1% and meet to the medium quality of sweet soy sweet sauce based on Indonesia Industrial Standard.

  3. Microbiological and chemical characteristics of Brazilian kefir during fermentation and storage processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leite, A M O; Leite, D C A; Del Aguila, E M; Alvares, T S; Peixoto, R S; Miguel, M A L; Silva, J T; Paschoalin, V M F

    2013-07-01

    The microbial community composition and chemical characteristics of a Brazilian milk kefir sample produced during its manufacturing and refrigerated storage were investigated by culture-dependent and -independent methods and HPLC. Lactococcus lactis ssp. cremoris and ssp. lactis, Leuconostoc mesenteroides, Acetobacter lovaniensis, and Saccharomyces cerevisiae were isolated, whereas the detected bands on denaturing gel gradient electrophoresis corresponded to Lactobacillus kefiranofaciens, Lactobacillus kefiri, Lactobacillus parakefiri, and S. cerevisiae. After fermentation, lactic acid bacteria were present at levels of 10 log units, whereas acetic acid bacteria and yeast were present at levels of 7.8 and 6 log units, respectively. The lactic acid bacteria and yeast counts remained constant, whereas acetic acid bacteria counts decreased to 7.2 log units during storage. From fermentation to final storage, the pH, lactose content and citric acid of the kefir beverage decreased, followed by an increase in the concentrations of glucose, galactose, ethanol, and lactic, acetic, butyric, and propionic acids. These microbiological and chemical characteristics contribute to the unique taste and aroma of kefir. This research may serve as a basis for the future industrial production of this beverage in Brazil. Copyright © 2013 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Optimization and Scale-Up of Coffee Mucilage Fermentation for Ethanol Production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Orrego

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Coffee, one of the most popular food commodities and beverage ingredients worldwide, is considered as a potential source for food industry and second-generation biofuel due to its various by-products, including mucilage, husk, skin (pericarp, parchment, silver-skin, and pulp, which can be produced during the manufacturing process. A number of research studies have mainly investigated the valuable properties of brewed coffee (namely, beverage, functionalities, and its beneficial effects on cognitive and physical performances; however, other residual by-products of coffee, such as its mucilage, have rarely been studied. In this manuscript, the production of bioethanol from mucilage was performed both in shake flasks and 5 L bio-reactors. The use of coffee mucilage provided adequate fermentable sugars, primarily glucose with additional nutrient components, and it was directly fermented into ethanol using a Saccharomyces cerevisiae strain. The initial tests at the lab scale were evaluated using a two-level factorial experimental design, and the resulting optimal conditions were applied to further tests at the 5 L bio-reactor for scale up. The highest yields of flasks and 5 L bio-reactors were 0.46 g ethanol/g sugars, and 0.47 g ethanol/g sugars after 12 h, respectively, which were equal to 90% and 94% of the theoretically achievable conversion yield of ethanol.

  5. Dietary calcium phosphate content and oat β-glucan influence gastrointestinal microbiota, butyrate-producing bacteria and butyrate fermentation in weaned pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Metzler-Zebeli, Barbara U; Zijlstra, Ruurd T; Mosenthin, Rainer; Gänzle, Michael G

    2011-03-01

    This study aimed to evaluate the effects of oat β-glucan in combination with low- and high-dietary calcium phosphate (CaP) content on gastrointestinal bacterial microbiota, prevalence of butyrate-production pathway genes and fermentation end-products in 32 weaned pigs allocated to four diets: a cornstarch-casein-based diet with low [65% of the calcium (Ca) and phosphorous (P) requirement] and high CaP content (125% and 115% of the Ca and P requirement, respectively); and low and high CaP diets supplemented with 8.95% of oat β-glucan concentrate. Pigs were slaughtered after 14 days, and digesta were collected for quantitative PCR analysis, and quantification of short-chain fatty acids and lactate. The high CaP content reduced gastric lactate and streptococci and propionate in the large intestine. Oat β-glucan distinctly raised gastric bacterial numbers, and colonic lactobacilli and bifidobacteria. Although not reflected by gene copies of butyrate-production pathway genes, oat β-glucan also increased gastric, caecal and colonic butyrate concentrations, which may be favourable for intestinal development in weaned pigs. Thus, a high CaP content negatively affected the intestinal abundance of certain fermentation end-products, whereas oat β-glucan generally enhanced bacterial numbers and activity. The results emphasize the importance of the stomach for bacterial metabolism of oat β-glucan in weaned pigs. © 2010 Federation of European Microbiological Societies. Published by Blackwell Publishing Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Diversity of yeasts involved in the fermentation of tchoukoutou, an opaque sorghum beer from Benin

    OpenAIRE

    Kayode, A.P.P.; Vieira-Dalode, G.; Linnemann, A.R.; Kotchoni, S.O.; Hounhouigan, A.J.D.; Boekel, van, M.A.J.S.; Nout, M.J.R.

    2011-01-01

    Opaque sorghum beers are traditional alcoholic beverages in several African countries. Known as tchoukoutou in Benin, the beer is often obtained from an uncontrolled fermentation. It is consumed in an actively fermenting state and has a sour taste. The present study characterized and identified the yeasts involved in the fermentation process of this type of beer using the phenotypical approach. Of 12 beers from 4 different locations, the mean values of the pH, titratable acidity, dry matter c...

  7. Effect of fermentation and subsequent pasteurization processes on amino acids composition of orange juice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cerrillo, I; Fernández-Pachón, M S; Collado-González, J; Escudero-López, B; Berná, G; Herrero-Martín, G; Martín, F; Ferreres, F; Gil-Izquierdo, A

    2015-06-01

    The fermentation of fruit produces significant changes in their nutritional composition. An orange beverage has been obtained from the controlled alcoholic fermentation and thermal pasteurization of orange juice. A study was performed to determine the influence of both processes on its amino acid profile. UHPLC-QqQ-MS/MS was used for the first time for analysis of orange juice samples. Out of 29 amino acids and derivatives identified, eight (ethanolamine, ornithine, phosphoethanolamine, α-amino-n-butyric acid, hydroxyproline, methylhistidine, citrulline, and cystathionine) have not previously been detected in orange juice. The amino acid profile of the orange juice was not modified by its processing, but total amino acid content of the juice (8194 mg/L) was significantly increased at 9 days of fermentation (13,324 mg/L). Although the pasteurization process produced partial amino acid degradation, the total amino acid content was higher in the final product (9265 mg/L) than in the original juice, enhancing its nutritional value.

  8. Fate of acid-resistant and non-acid resistant Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli strains in experimentally contaminated French fermented raw meat sausages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montet, M P; Christieans, S; Thevenot, D; Coppet, V; Ganet, S; Muller, M L Delignette; Dunière, L; Miszczycha, S; Vernozy-Rozand, C

    2009-02-28

    Both pathogenic and nonpathogenic E. coli exhibit a stress response to sublethal environmental stresses. Several studies have reported acid tolerance and survival characteristics of E. coli O157:H7 in foodstuffs, but there are few reports about the tolerance of non-O157 serogroups (STEC) to organic acids in foods. The purpose of this study was to examine the effect of the manufacturing process of French fermented raw meat sausages on the growth and survival of acid-resistant (AR) and non-acid resistant (NAR) STEC strains. The six strains, 3 AR and 3 NAR, were inoculated separately into raw sausage mixture at a level of 10(4)-10(5) CFU/g. A total of 19 batches of sausages were manufactured. A rapid and similar decrease in the number of both AR and NAR STEC strains, from less than 1 to 1.5 log(10) CFU/g, was observed during the first 5 days of fermentation at 20-24 degrees C. This rapid decrease was followed by a more gradual but continuous decrease in STEC counts after drying at 13-14 degrees C, up to day 35. The STEC counts were <10 CFU/g after 35 days for the NAR strains and the same concentration for the AR strains on the best before date (day 60). It was not possible to detect any NAR STEC after 60 days. The present study shows that the process used in the manufacture of French sausages results in a complete destruction of NAR STEC strains after 60 days, but it does not have the same effect on the AR STEC strains.

  9. Scleroglucan: Fermentative Production, Downstream Processing and Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shrikant A. Survase

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Exopolysaccharides produced by a variety of microorganisms find multifarious industrial applications in foods, pharmaceutical and other industries as emulsifiers, stabilizers, binders, gelling agents, lubricants, and thickening agents. One such exopolysaccharide is scleroglucan, produced by pure culture fermentation from filamentous fungi of genus Sclerotium. The review discusses the properties, fermentative production, downstream processing and applications of scleroglucan.

  10. Process Parameters Affecting the Synthesis of Natural Flavors by Shiitake (Lentinula edodes during the Production of a Non-Alcoholic Beverage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sibel Özdemir

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available A novel alcohol-free beverage with a fruity, slightly sour, sweetish, fresh, and plum-like flavor was produced by incorporating the edible mushroom shiitake (Lentinula edodes into the fermentation process. Shiitake pellets were used as a biocatalyst to promote the synthesis of the fruity esters methyl 2-methylbutanoate and 2-phenylethanol from amino acids and an organic acid present in the wort. We investigated the impact of two critical process parameters (volumetric power input and inoculum concentration on the morphology of, and flavor production by, the shiitake pellets in a 1 L stirred bioreactor. Increasing the volumetric power input and biomass concentration influenced the morphology of the pellets and promoted the production of the most important flavor compound methyl 2-methylbutanoate in the beverage. Furthermore the worty off-flavor methional was degraded during the cultivation in stirred bioreactor by shiitake pellets. These findings provide useful information to facilitate the scale-up of the biotransformation and fermentation process in bioreactors.

  11. Ethyl carbamate in alcoholic beverages from Mexico (tequila, mezcal, bacanora, sotol) and Guatemala (cuxa): market survey and risk assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lachenmeier, Dirk W; Kanteres, Fotis; Kuballa, Thomas; López, Mercedes G; Rehm, Jürgen

    2009-01-01

    Ethyl carbamate (EC) is a recognized genotoxic carcinogen, with widespread occurrence in fermented foods and beverages. No data on its occurrence in alcoholic beverages from Mexico or Central America is available. Samples of agave spirits including tequila, mezcal, bacanora and sotol (n=110), and of the sugarcane spirit cuxa (n=16) were purchased in Mexico and Guatemala, respectively, and analyzed for EC. The incidence of EC contamination was higher in Mexico than in Guatemala, however, concentrations were below international guideline levels (Mexico.

  12. Food and Beverage Stylist and Photography

    OpenAIRE

    BEKAR, Aydan; KARAKULAK, Çisem

    2016-01-01

    A food and beverage stylist makes food and beverage look appetizing by preaparing them properly in order to get customers’ attention. A food and beverage photographer gets the most impressive image by using different shooting techniques. Food and beverage stylists and phtographers prepare attractive and unusual menus ,brochures, banners and ads for food and beverage enterprises so that products can look better when customers see them. People see the works of food and beverage styling and phot...

  13. Substitution of sugar-sweetened beverages with other beverage alternatives

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zheng, Miaobing; Allman-Farinelli, Margaret; Heitmann, Berit Lilienthal

    2015-01-01

    alternatives on long-term health outcomes. METHOD: We systematically retrieved studies from six electronic databases from inception to November 2013. Prospective cohort studies and randomized controlled trials (RCTs) examining the effects of substituting beverage alternatives for SSBs on long-term health...... to high. Evidence from both cohort studies and RCTs showed substitution of SSBs by various beverage alternatives was associated with long-term lower energy intake and lower weight gain. However, evidence was insufficient to draw conclusions regarding the effect of beverage substitution on other health...... outcomes, and which beverage alternative is the best choice. CONCLUSIONS: Although studies on this topic are sparse, the available evidence suggests a potential beneficial effect on body weight outcomes when SSBs are replaced by water or low-calorie beverages. Further studies in this area are warranted...

  14. Comparison of the fate of the top six non-O157 shiga-toxin producing Escherichia coli (STEC) and E. coli O157:H7 during the manufacture of dry fermented sausages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balamurugan, S; Ahmed, Rafath; Gao, Anli; Strange, Phil

    2017-10-16

    The study examined the relative fate of the top six non-O157 shiga-toxin producing Escherichia coli (STEC) and E. coli O157:H7 during the manufacture of dry fermented sausages (DFS). Three separate batches of sausages containing a five-strain cocktail for each serogroup and uninoculated control were manufactured and subjected to identical fermentation, maturation and dry curing conditions. Changes in physicochemical properties and inoculated STEC numbers were enumerated during the DFS production stages and log reduction and log reduction rates were calculated. Inoculation of very high concentrations (8logCFUg -1 ) of STEC in the sausage batter did not significantly (P>0.05) affect the changes in the pH, a w , moisture, protein, fat content compared to the uninoculated DFS. There was a significant (P0.05) from each other. These results indicate that the lethality of DFS production processes observed against E. coli O157:H7 would result in a similar inactivation of the top six non-O157 STEC. Crown Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Fermented dairy products: knowledge and consumption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hekmat, Sharareh; Koba, Lesia

    2006-01-01

    Much has been published on the nutritional and health benefits of fermented dairy products, especially those containing probiotic microorganisms. However, consumers may not be familiar with the term "fermented dairy products," and therefore may not take full advantage of them. University students' knowledge and consumption patterns of fermented dairy products were assessed. University students (n=223) completed a survey consisting of a section on demographics and another on knowledge and consumption patterns. The majority of respondents (62%) were not familiar with the term "fermented dairy products." Most respondents consumed yogourt a few times a week (40%) or a few times a month (30%). Almost all respondents (92%) were unable to identify the difference between regular and probiotic yogourt. Most respondents (93%) had not heard of acidophilus milk, but the majority (65%) would be willing to try it. Most respondents were unsure whether sour cream (65%), yogourt beverages (74%), and cheddar cheese (61%) were fermented dairy products. Sixty percent of respondents never consumed yogourt drinks. Education is needed about fermented dairy products, especially probiotics, and their nutritional and health benefits. Such education may increase their acceptability and consumption.

  16. Fermentative production of isobutene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Leeuwen, Bianca N M; van der Wulp, Albertus M; Duijnstee, Isabelle; van Maris, Antonius J A; Straathof, Adrie J J

    2012-02-01

    Isobutene (2-methylpropene) is one of those chemicals for which bio-based production might replace the petrochemical production in the future. Currently, more than 10 million metric tons of isobutene are produced on a yearly basis. Even though bio-based production might also be achieved through chemocatalytic or thermochemical methods, this review focuses on fermentative routes from sugars. Although biological isobutene formation is known since the 1970s, extensive metabolic engineering is required to achieve economically viable yields and productivities. Two recent metabolic engineering developments may enable anaerobic production close to the theoretical stoichiometry of 1isobutene + 2CO(2) + 2H(2)O per mol of glucose. One relies on the conversion of 3-hydroxyisovalerate to isobutene as a side activity of mevalonate diphosphate decarboxylase and the other on isobutanol dehydration as a side activity of engineered oleate hydratase. The latter resembles the fermentative production of isobutanol followed by isobutanol recovery and chemocatalytic dehydration. The advantage of a completely biological route is that not isobutanol, but instead gaseous isobutene is recovered from the fermenter together with CO(2). The low aqueous solubility of isobutene might also minimize product toxicity to the microorganisms. Although developments are at their infancy, the potential of a large scale fermentative isobutene production process is assessed. The production costs estimate is 0.9 Euro kg(-1), which is reasonably competitive. About 70% of the production costs will be due to the costs of lignocellulose hydrolysate, which seems to be a preferred feedstock.

  17. Beverages contribute extra calories to meals and daily energy intake in overweight and obese women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Appelhans, Bradley M; Bleil, Maria E; Waring, Molly E; Schneider, Kristin L; Nackers, Lisa M; Busch, Andrew M; Whited, Matthew C; Pagoto, Sherry L

    2013-10-02

    Caloric beverages may promote obesity by yielding energy without producing satiety, but prior laboratory and intervention studies are inconclusive. This study examined whether the diets of free-living overweight and obese women show evidence that calories from beverages are offset by reductions in solid food within individual eating occasions and across entire days. Eighty-two women weighed and recorded all consumed foods and beverages for seven days. Beverages were coded as high-calorie (≥ 0.165 kcal/g) or low-calorie (food were calculated for each eating occasion and day. In covariate-adjusted models, energy intake from solid food did not differ between eating occasions that included high-calorie or low-calorie beverages and those with no reported beverage. Energy intake from solid food was also unrelated to the number of high-calorie or low-calorie beverages consumed per day. On average, eating occasions that included a high-calorie beverage were 169 kcal higher in total energy than those with no reported beverage, and 195 kcal higher in total energy than those that included a low-calorie beverage. Each high-calorie beverage consumed per day contributed an additional 147 kcal to women's daily energy intake, whereas low-calorie beverage intake was unrelated to daily energy intake. Beverages contributed to total energy intake in a near-additive fashion among free-living overweight and obese women, suggesting a need to develop more effective interventions to reduce caloric beverage intake in the context of weight management, and to potentially reexamine dietary guidelines. © 2013.

  18. Beverages contribute extra calories to meals and daily energy intake in overweight and obese women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Appelhans, Bradley M.; Bleil, Maria E.; Waring, Molly E.; Schneider, Kristin L.; Nackers, Lisa M.; Busch, Andrew M.; Whited, Matthew C.; Pagoto, Sherry L.

    2013-01-01

    Caloric beverages may promote obesity by yielding energy without producing satiety, but prior laboratory and intervention studies are inconclusive. This study examined whether the diets of free-living overweight and obese women show evidence that calories from beverages are offset by reductions in solid food within individual eating occasions and across entire days. Eighty-two women weighed and recorded all consumed foods and beverages for seven days. Beverages were coded as high-calorie (≥0.165 kcal/g) or low-calorie (food were calculated for each eating occasion and day. In covariate-adjusted models, energy intake from solid food did not differ between eating occasions that included high-calorie or low-calorie beverages and those with no reported beverage. Energy intake from solid food was also unrelated to the number of high-calorie or low-calorie beverages consumed per day. On average, eating occasions that included a high-calorie beverage were 169 kcal higher in total energy than those with no reported beverage, and 195 kcal higher in total energy than those that included a low-calorie beverage. Each high-calorie beverage consumed per day contributed an additional 147 kcal to women’s daily energy intake, whereas low-calorie beverage intake was unrelated to daily energy intake. Beverages contributed to total energy intake in a near-additive fashion among free-living overweight and obese women, suggesting a need to develop more effective interventions to reduce caloric beverage intake in the context of weight management, and to potentially reexamine dietary guidelines. PMID:24041722

  19. Health benefits of fermented foods: microbiota and beyond.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marco, Maria L; Heeney, Dustin; Binda, Sylvie; Cifelli, Christopher J; Cotter, Paul D; Foligné, Benoit; Gänzle, Michael; Kort, Remco; Pasin, Gonca; Pihlanto, Anne; Smid, Eddy J; Hutkins, Robert

    2017-04-01

    Fermented foods and beverages were among the first processed food products consumed by humans. The production of foods such as yogurt and cultured milk, wine and beer, sauerkraut and kimchi, and fermented sausage were initially valued because of their improved shelf life, safety, and organoleptic properties. It is increasingly understood that fermented foods can also have enhanced nutritional and functional properties due to transformation of substrates and formation of bioactive or bioavailable end-products. Many fermented foods also contain living microorganisms of which some are genetically similar to strains used as probiotics. Although only a limited number of clinical studies on fermented foods have been performed, there is evidence that these foods provide health benefits well-beyond the starting food materials. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Preference mapping of lemon lime carbonated beverages with regular and diet beverage consumers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leksrisompong, P P; Lopetcharat, K; Guthrie, B; Drake, M A

    2013-02-01

    The drivers of liking of lemon-lime carbonated beverages were investigated with regular and diet beverage consumers. Ten beverages were selected from a category survey of commercial beverages using a D-optimal procedure. Beverages were subjected to consumer testing (n = 101 regular beverage consumers, n = 100 diet beverage consumers). Segmentation of consumers was performed on overall liking scores followed by external preference mapping of selected samples. Diet beverage consumers liked 2 diet beverages more than regular beverage consumers. There were no differences in the overall liking scores between diet and regular beverage consumers for other products except for a sparkling beverage sweetened with juice which was more liked by regular beverage consumers. Three subtle but distinct consumer preference clusters were identified. Two segments had evenly distributed diet and regular beverage consumers but one segment had a greater percentage of regular beverage consumers (P beverage consumers) did not have a large impact on carbonated beverage liking. Instead, mouthfeel attributes were major drivers of liking when these beverages were tested in a blind tasting. Preference mapping of lemon-lime carbonated beverage with diet and regular beverage consumers allowed the determination of drivers of liking of both populations. The understanding of how mouthfeel attributes, aromatics, and basic tastes impact liking or disliking of products was achieved. Preference drivers established in this study provide product developers of carbonated lemon-lime beverages with additional information to develop beverages that may be suitable for different groups of consumers. © 2013 Institute of Food Technologists®

  1. A procedure for the sensory evaluation of Salama da sugo, a typical fermented sausage produced in the Emilia Romagna Region, Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coloretti, Fabio; Grazia, Luigi; Gardini, Fausto; Lanciotti, Rosalba; Montanari, Chiara; Tabanelli, Giulia; Chiavari, Cristiana

    2015-03-30

    Salama da sugo is a fermented sausage from the Ferrara tradition (Italy, Emilia-Romagna region), subjected to a long ripening period (4-6 months) and characterised by a high content of wine and spices in the mixture. It can be consumed after cooking and it is served with its sugo, i.e. the liquid extracted by cooking process. The aim of this work was to set up a method for the sensory profile of Salama da sugo as a request for Protected Geographical Indication (PGI) has been made to the European Commission. A system of sample preparation that provides for the precooking in an autoclave and cooking in boiling water was set up. A specific sheet for sensory evaluation of Salama da sugo has been created and reports 23 descriptors identified during the lexicon development. The differences in sensory profile of four samples were evaluated and principal component analysis highlighted the more discriminant parameters, i.e. odour intensity, wine odour, spicy aroma, fat/lean connection, sweet, bitter, juiciness, chewiness and pricking. The proposed method allows the standardisation of sensory profiling of Salama da sugo, and is also to verify compliance with the specification PGI. © 2014 Society of Chemical Industry.

  2. Phytase-producing capacity of yeasts isolated from traditional African fermented food products and PHYPk gene expression of Pichia kudriavzevii strains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greppi, Anna; Krych, Łukasz; Costantini, Antonella; Rantsiou, Kalliopi; Hounhouigan, D Joseph; Arneborg, Nils; Cocolin, Luca; Jespersen, Lene

    2015-07-16

    Phytate is known as a strong chelate of minerals causing their reduced uptake by the human intestine. Ninety-three yeast isolates from traditional African fermented food products, belonging to nine species (Pichia kudriavzevii, Saccharomyces cerevisiae, Clavispora lusitaniae, Kluyveromyces marxianus, Millerozyma farinosa, Candida glabrata, Wickerhamomyces anomalus, Hanseniaspora guilliermondii and Debaryomyces nepalensis) were screened for phytase production on solid and liquid media. 95% were able to grow in the presence of phytate as sole phosphate source, P. kudriavzevii being the best growing species. A phytase coding gene of P. kudriavzevii (PHYPk) was identified and its expression was studied during growth by RT-qPCR. The expression level of PHYPk was significantly higher in phytate-medium, compared to phosphate-medium. In phytate-medium expression was seen in the lag phase. Significant differences in gene expression were detected among the strains as well as between the media. A correlation was found between the PHYPk expression and phytase extracellular activity. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Challenges in industrial fermentation technology research

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Formenti, Luca Riccardo; Nørregaard, Anders; Bolic, Andrijana

    2014-01-01

    Industrial fermentation processes are increasingly popular, and are considered an important technological asset for reducing our dependence on chemicals and products produced from fossil fuels. However, despite their increasing popularity, fermentation processes have not yet reached the same...... engineering challenges: scaling up and scaling down fermentation processes, the influence of morphology on broth rheology and mass transfer, and establishing novel sensors to measure and control insightful process parameters. The greatest emphasis is on the challenges posed by filamentous fungi, because...

  4. Économie d'un procédé d'hydrolyse enzymatique et fermentation de la paille de blé pour la production d'alcool carburant Economics of a Process for Producing Alcohol Fuels by Enzymatic Hydrolysis and Fermentation of Wheat Straw

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arlie J. P.

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available Après définition des grandes lignes d'un procédé de base d'hydrolyse-fermentation de la paille de blé, l'analyse de sensibilité montre que le rendement de l'hydrolyse a une grande importance sur les bilans énergétique et économique. Des rendements de l'ordre de 85 % permettent d'obtenir des valeurs d'investissement par tonne de pétrole économisée tout à fait comparables à celles obtenues par d'autres techniques de valorisation de la biomasse en alcool, telle la synthèse du méthanol obtenu après gazéification du bois à l'oxygène. The basic features of a process for production from cereal straw of an acetone-butanol mixture for use as a gasoline substitute are described. They include pretreatment and enzymatic hydrolysis of the substrate followed by fermentation of the sugars produced. A cost evaluation based on the performances of a reference process is presented. Then, an analysis of the sensitivity of the cost price of the process to the variation of the important parameters such as production capacity, enzyme productivity, hydrolysis yield is carried out. The energy balance of the process is presented.

  5. Effects of pH control and concentration on microbial oil production from Chlorella vulgaris cultivated in the effluent of a low-cost organic waste fermentation system producing volatile fatty acids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Hyun Uk; Kim, Young Mo; Choi, Yun-Nam; Xu, Xu; Shin, Dong Yun; Park, Jong Moon

    2015-05-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the feasibility of applying volatile fatty acids (VFAs) produced from low-cost organic waste to the major carbon sources of microalgae cultivation for highly efficient biofuel production. An integrated process that consists of a sewage sludge fermentation system producing VFAs (SSFV) and mixotrophic cultivation of Chlorella vulgaris (C. vulgaris) was operated to produce microbial lipids economically. The effluents from the SSFV diluted to different concentrations at the level of 100%, 50%, and 15% were prepared for the C. vulgaris cultivation and the highest biomass productivity (433±11.9 mg/L/d) was achieved in the 100% culture controlling pH at 7.0. The harvested biomass included lipid contents ranging from 12.87% to 20.01% under the three different effluent concentrations with and without pH control. The composition of fatty acids from C. vulgaris grown on the effluents from the SSFV complied with the requirements of high-quality biodiesel. These results demonstrated that VFAs produced from the SSFV are favorable carbon sources for cultivating C. vulgaris. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Nutritional evaluation of groundnut oil cake in formulated diets for rohu, Labeo rohita (Hamilton fingerlings after solid state fermentation with a tannase producing yeast, Pichia kudriavzevii (GU939629 isolated from fish gut

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Koushik Ghosh

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available De-oiled groundnut oil cake (GOC was bio-processed through solid state fermentation (SSF for 15 days at 34 ± 1 °C by a tannase producing yeast, Pichia kudriavzevii (GU939629 isolated from the gut of a freshwater carp, Cirrhinus cirrhosus. SSF of GOC was effective in significantly (P < 0.05 reducing crude fibre content and antinutritional factors (e.g., tannin, phytic acid and trypsin inhibitor, whereas enhancing crude protein, lipid, ash, total free amino acids and fatty acids. Bio-processing revealed significant increase in the levels of argenine, histidine, isoleusine, lysine, methyonine and threonine in the GOC. Eight isonitrogenous (37.5% and isocaloric (18.8 kJ g−1 experimental diets were prepared incorporating raw (R1–R4 and fermented (F1–F4 GOC at 20%, 30%, 40% and 50% levels by weight replacing fishmeal and other feed ingredients into a fishmeal-based reference diet (RD and fed to rohu, Labeo rohita, fingerlings (initial weight 3.24 ± 0.11 g for 80 days. In general, diets with SSF-processed GOC produced significantly better performance than the raw GOC in terms of growth, feed utilization, nutrient digestibility, carcass composition and digestive enzyme activity. Rohu fingerlings fed the diet F3 containing 40% fermented GOC resulted in best performance in terms of weight gain (final weight 7.08 ± 0.06 g, specific growth rate (% day−1, protein efficiency ratio and apparent net protein utilization. Highest protein (14.93 ± 0.51% and lipid deposition in the carcass were also recorded in the group of fish reared on diet F3. In comparison to the FM based reference diet, the present study explored the possibility of replacing 45–55% of FM through incorporation of 40–50% (w/w SSF-processed GOC in the diets for rohu fingerlings.

  7. Factors affecting methanol content of fermented plant beverage ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    TrueFasterUser

    2013-07-03

    Jul 3, 2013 ... 2Food and Drug Administration (FDA), Ministry of Public Health, Thailand. 3Health ... Therefore, quality and safety of the FPBs will be accepted .... they were grinded with grinder and stored in closed container at ... PME activity determination, the pH of obtained supernatant was .... See Table 1 for F1 to F4. A.

  8. TLC analysis of some phenolic compounds in kombucha beverage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Malbaša Radomir V.

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Black and green tea contains a wide range of natural phenolic compounds Flavanoids and their glycosides, catechins and the products of their condensation, and phenolic acids are the most important. Kombucha beverage is obtained by fermentation of tea fungus on black or green tea sweetened with sucrose. The aim of this paper was to investigate the composition of some phenolic compounds, catechin, epicatechin, quercetin, myricetin, gallic and tanic acid, and monitoring of their status during tea fungus fermentation. The method used for this study was thin layer chromatography with two different systems. The main phenolic compounds in the samples with green tea were catechin and epicatechin, and in the samples with black tea it was quercetin.

  9. Effect of Fermentation Conditions and Plucking Standards of Tea Leaves on the Chemical Components and Sensory Quality of Fermented Juice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ping Tang

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The effects of fermentation conditions (temperature, time, and pH and plucking standards (one leaf and a bud to four leaves and a bud on the chemical components and sensory quality of the fermented juices processed from crushed fresh tea leaves were investigated. The results showed that optimum fermentation conditions that resulted in fermented juices of the best sensory quality and the highest content of TFs were a temperature of 35°C, time duration of 75 min, and pH 5.1. The fermented juices processed from new shoots with three leaves and a bud or four leaves and a bud afforded high overall acceptability and TF concentration. These differences arise because tea leaves with different plucking standards have different catechin content and enzyme activities. Fermented tea juice possessed higher concentrations of chemical components such as soluble solids, amino acids, and TFs and exhibited better sensory quality as compared to black tea infusion. The TF concentrations decreased as the pH of the fermenting juice increased, and the fermented juice showed the best overall acceptability. These results provide essential information for the improvement of the processing of black tea beverage by suggesting fermentation of fresh tea leaves as a better alternative to their infusion.

  10. Continuous alcoholic fermentation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smidrkal, M; Nejedly, A

    1956-01-01

    Results are given of investigations on the continuous production of ethanol on a laboratory and on a semi-commercial scale. The suggested devices are particularly described. Under constant conditions the production cycle required 12 to 17 days, the acidity being 4.0 to 415 ml. 0.1 N NaOH/100 ml and the concentration of fermented wort 10.5 to 11%. The maximum production from 1 h of fermentation space during 24 h was 8.67 l of absolute alcohol when the efflux was divided into several basins; when the efflux of sweet wort was collected into one basin only, the maximum production was 7.20 l of absolute alcohol. The amount of alcohol produced was 62.20 l/100 kg sugar.

  11. Butanol by fermentation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hongo, M

    1960-07-19

    BuOH is produced by inoculating a carbohydrate mash with Clostridium saccharoperbutylacetonicum (ATCC 13564), fermenting the inoculated mash, and recovering the BuOH by fractional distillation. Thus, a medium containing sugar 4, (NH/sub 4/)/sub 2/SO/sub 4/ 0.2, Ca superphosphate 0.1, and CoCO/sub 3/ 0.3% is inoculated with a C. saccharoperbutylacetonicum culture and cultivated at 30/sup 0/ until the acidity begins to decrease. Then the culture is transferred to a second medium of similar composition. This transfer is repeated a third time, and then the culture is transferred to the main mash (same composition) and fermented for 60 hours at 30/sup 0/. The yield of BuOH is 11.5 g/1 or 25.5% of the sugar supplied.

  12. Characteristics of bacterial and fungal growth in plastic bottled beverages under a consuming condition model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watanabe, Maiko; Ohnishi, Takahiro; Araki, Emiko; Kanda, Takashi; Tomita, Atsuko; Ozawa, Kazuhiro; Goto, Keiichi; Sugiyama, Kanji; Konuma, Hirotaka; Hara-Kudo, Yukiko

    2014-01-01

    Microbial contamination in unfinished beverages can occur when drinking directly from the bottle. Various microorganisms, including foodborne pathogens, are able to grow in these beverages at room temperature or in a refrigerator. In this study, we elucidated the characteristics of microorganism growth in bottled beverages under consuming condition models. Furthermore, we provide insight into the safety of partially consumed bottled beverages with respect to food hygiene. We inoculated microorganisms, including foodborne pathogens, into various plastic bottled beverages and analysed the dynamic growth of microorganisms as well as bacterial toxin production in the beverages. Eight bottled beverage types were tested in this study, namely green tea, apple juice drink, tomato juice, carbonated drink, sport drink, coffee with milk, isotonic water and mineral water, and in these