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Sample records for female urodynamic stress

  1. Predictive Value of Urodynamics on Outcome After Midurethral Sling Surgery for Female Stress Urinary Incontinence EDITORIAL COMMENT

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Houwert, R. Marijn; Venema, Pieter L.; Aquarius, Annelies E.; Bruinse, Hein W.; Kil, Paul J. M.; Vervest, Harry A. M.

    2009-01-01

    Urodynamic investigation (UDI) is routinely performed before midurethral sling surgery (MUS) for female stress urinary incontinence to detect factors that may adversely affect the surgical outcome or confirm the diagnosis. A recent review, however, concluded that there was insufficient evidence to

  2. When to perform urodynamics before mid-urethral sling surgery for female stress urinary incontinence?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Houwert, R.M.; Roovers, J.P.W.R.; Venema, P.L.; Bruinse, H.W.; Dijkgraaf, M.G.W.; Vervest, H.A.M.

    2010-01-01

    INTRODUCTION AND HYPOTHESIS: Development of a model that can predict in which group of women pre-operative urodynamics can be safely omitted. METHODS: Three hundred and eighty-one uncomplicated women who underwent pre-operative urodynamics were evaluated. A multivariate logistic regression model was

  3. Predictive value of urodynamics on outcome after midurethral sling surgery for female stress urinary incontinence

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Houwert, R. Marijn; Venema, Pieter L.; Aquarius, Annelies E.; Bruinse, Hein W.; Kil, Paul J. M.; Vervest, Harry A. M.

    OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to evaluate the value of urodynamic investigation in the preoperative workup of midurethral sling surgery and to identify risk factors for failure after 3 different midurethral sling procedures. STUDY DESIGN: Retrospective cohort study. 437 women who underwent a

  4. The role of urodynamics in women with stress urinary incontinence ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Stress urinary incontinence (SUI) is a common condition with no standardized evaluation prior to surgery. The role of urodynamic studies (UDS) in the assessment of SUI has been the subject of considerable debate over the years. The Royal College of Obstetricians and Gynaecologists recommends urodynamic testing ...

  5. Urodynamic study in women with pure stress urinary incontinence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valdevenito, J P; Águila, F; Naser, M; Manríquez, V; Wenzel, C; Díaz, J P

    2015-03-01

    To describe the results of urodynamic study in women with pure stress urinary incontinence symptoms, including the characteristics of the overactive detrusor. No other clinical assessments were taken into account. A retrospective study in women with urinary incontinence consecutively evaluated by urodynamic study. From a total of 710 women, only 108 (15%) with pure stress urinary incontinence symptoms were selected. Women with prior urinary incontinence surgery, pelvic organ prolapse (stage ≥iii), pelvic radiotherapy, using medication active on the lower urinary tract and neurological diseases were excluded. Infusion rate was 70 ml/min. Detrusor overactivity was induced only by cough. A standardized cough stress test with progressive cough intensity was carried out. Reference urodynamic values for stress incontinent women are described. Urodynamic stress incontinence was observed in 79 women (73.1%), detrusor overactivity in 4 (3.7%) and mixed urodynamic diagnosis in 15 (13.8%). Test was inconclusive in 10 patients (9.2%). Two women had detrusor overactivity incontinence (1.9%). One patient had detrusor overactivity induced by cough without urodynamic stress incontinence (0.9%). There was an association between detrusor overactivity and nocturia ≥2 (P=.002; odds ratio: 3.74; 95% confidence interval: 1.22-11.39). One woman had a bladder outlet obstruction (0.9%). In women with pure stress urinary incontinence, without knowing the outcome of other clinical assessments, urodynamic study can provide useful information to define the proper therapy. Copyright © 2014 AEU. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  6. The history of the Society of Urodynamics, Female Pelvic Medicine, and Urogenital Reconstruction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weissbart, Steven J; Zimmern, Philippe E; Nitti, Victor W; Lemack, Gary E; Kobashi, Kathleen C; Vasavada, Sandip P; Wein, Alan J

    2018-03-25

    To review the history of the Society of Urodynamics, Female Pelvic Medicine and Urogenital Reconstruction (SUFU). We reviewed Society meeting minutes, contacted all living former Society presidents, searched the William P. Didusch Center for Urology History records, and asked Society members to share their important Society experiences in order to gather important historical information about the Society. The Society initially formed as the Urodynamics Society in 1969 in the backdrop of a growing passion for scientific research in the country after World War II ended. Since then, Society meetings have provided a pivotal forum for the advancement of science in lower urinary tract dysfunction. Meetings occurred annually until 2004, when the meeting schedule increased to biannual. The journal, Neurourology and Urodynamics, became the official journal of the Society in 2005. SUFU has authored important guidelines on urodynamics (2012), non-neurogenic overactive bladder (2012), and stress urinary incontinence (2017) and has shared important collaborations with other societies, including the American Urological Association (AUA), the International Continence Society (ICS), and the International Society of Pelvic Neuromodulation (ISPiN). SUFU has also been instrumental in trainee education and helped to establish formal fellowship training in the field in addition to holding a yearly educational meeting for urology residents. The Society has been led by 21 presidents throughout its history. Throughout the Society's near half-century long existence, the Society has fostered research, published guidelines, and educated trainees in order to improve the care of individuals suffering from lower urinary tract dysfunction. © 2018 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  7. Role of urodynamics in stress urinary incontinence: A critical appraisal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yande, Shirish Dattatraya; Joglekar, Omkar Vinay; Joshi, Maya

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: Role of urodynamics prior to surgery of stress urinary incontinence (SUI) is under constant debate. Demonstration of the presence of detrusor overactivity is the only aspect that has been emphasized in the literature so far. We believe that there are number of other factors which may influence the evaluation and in turn the choice of surgical management and prediction of outcome of treatment. They are as follows: (1) Presence of voiding inefficiency, (2) asymptomatic detrusor overactivity, (3) and severity of SUI. These features may complicate the precise evaluation of patients of SUI. The main objective of this study is to analyze the dynamics of leakage and voiding using urodynamics. This study also aims at correlating these findings with clinical information. Materials and Methods: One hundred consecutive cases referred to our center for preoperative evaluation of SUI were recruited in the study prospectively. All patients were interrogated using International Consultation on Incontinence Questionnaire. All patients underwent complete urodynamic evaluation including uroflowmetry, filling cystometry, leak point pressure measurement, and pressure flow studies, according to Good Urodynamic Practice guidelines. Patients’ symptoms were correlated with urodynamic findings, with special emphasis on the presence of detrusor overactivity, severity of SUI, voiding efficiency, and presence of bladder outlet obstruction. Clinical information and urodynamic findings were correlated using Chi-square test. Results: There is a statistically significant correlation between the presence of symptoms of urge urinary incontinence and urodynamic findings of detrusor overactivity at P incontinence (in addition to SUI) and urodynamic findings of intrinsic sphincter deficiency at P incontinence and incidental finding of detrusor overactivity at P urinary incontinence can predictably diagnose detrusor overactivity in these cases. However, the incidence of asymptomatic

  8. Clinical significance of video-urodynamic in female recurrent urinary tract infections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hijazi S

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Sameh Hijazi, Conrad LeitsmannDepartment of Urology, University Medical Center Goettingen, Goettingen, GermanyPurpose: We aimed to assess the value of video-urodynamic study (VUD in the identification of lower urinary tract voiding dysfunction in female recurrent urinary tract infections (UTIs.Patients and methods: A total of 54 women with recurrent UTIs who underwent VUDs between 2013 and 2015 were analyzed. They were carefully evaluated by complete history, voiding diary, physical investigation, urosonography, and VUDs.Results: Neurogenic and non-neurogenic voiding dysfunctions were found in 4% and 63% of women respectively. Detrusor sphincter dyssynergia, detrusor underactivity, and a combination of both were found in 17% (nine of 54, 22% (12 of 54, and 11% (six of 54 of women, respectively. Overactive bladder syndrome was determined in 28% (15 of 54 of women. Reduction in the maximal urinary flow rate to less than 15 mL/s and post-void residual volume were revealed in 63% (34 of 54 and 54% (29 of 54 of women, respectively. Stress urinary incontinence was noticed in 39% (21 of 54 of women with a median pad usage of three pads (range: 1–15 daily. Urgency and nocturia were complaints in 54% (29 of 54 and 43% (23 of 54 of women, respectively. The median voiding frequency and nocturia episodes were 7±4 (1–13 and 1±3 (0–12, respectively.Conclusion: Dysfunctional voiding can encourage the formation of recurrent UTIs in the female. The VUDs are the investigation of choice to diagnose voiding dysfunction.Keywords: urodynamic study, recurrent urinary tract infection, voiding dysfunction

  9. Accuracy of cystourethrometric findings in detecting urodynamic stress incontinence in women

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abdelsattar H. Al-Hasan; Al-Hasan, Al-Hadid; Ibrahim M. Al-Hadid; Roula A. Zayyat

    2010-01-01

    To determine the most accurate of cystourethrometric parameters in detecting urodynamic stress incontinence (USI ) in women. A case-control study was carried out in the Urodynamic Units in Aleppo University Hospitals, Aleppo, Syria, between January 2008 and June 2010. Seventy-six women suffering from either urgency, urge incontinence, stress incontinence, or mixed symptom, and attended to the urodynamic units were included in this study. Two groups were recruited, USI group (study group; n=52), who had the diagnosis of USI by the urodynamic study and non-USI group (control group; n=24), who did not have this diagnosis by urodynamic study. Comparison between the 2 groups in urodynamic findings was carried out. In the urodynamic study, maximal urethral closure pressure (MUCP) in the sitting position, transmission ratio (TR) in the sitting position, MUCP change (changing position from supine to sitting), and MUCP change% (percentage of maximal closure pressure change with position) were statistically lower in the USI group compared to control group. The most accurate parameters in detecting USI were MUCP change and MUCP change%, with a sensitivity of more than 90% and specificity of more than 70% at cut off values of Cystourethrometric parameters such as MUCP sitting, TR sitting, MUCP change, and MUCP change% measurement could be of value in distinguishing between USI women and non-USI women (Author).

  10. Stress urinary incontinence in the female

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baldelli, S.; Giovagnoni, A.; Bichi Secchi, E.; Argaglia, G.; Caraceni, E.; Muzzonigro, G.

    1988-01-01

    This work is aimed at demonstrating the validity of conventional radiological procedures, correlated with urodynamics, in the study of female urinary stress incontinence. In a study population of 110 patients with a clinical-urodynamic diagnosis of stress incontinence, radiological evaluation was performed by means of retrograde cystography, bead chain cystourethrography, and voiding cystourethrography. Radiographic findings were correlated with urodynamic data, and in particular with urethral pressure profile (fuctional lenght of the urethra, maximum closing pressure, maximum urethral pressure). In all patients the posterior urethro-vesical angle values were higher than 100 grade centigrades; moreover, a correlation was proven to exist between an increase in the angle of front urethral inclination, the lowering and mobility of the urethro-vesical junction, and the severeness of urodynamic findings. Furtheremore, in the different stages of urodynamic severeness, urethral funnelling was most frequent, and the flattening of the posterior vesical floor in voiding cystourethrography. The high reliability of the radiographic findings, although obtained by means of conventional techniques, and the variability of the morphodynamic results confirm the importance of a combined radiographic and urodynamic study in the evaluation of stress incontinence

  11. Ambulatory Recording of Urodynamic Functioning in Female Soldiers During Training

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Davis, Gary

    1997-01-01

    .... Fifty active duty female soldiers with exercise induced urinary incontinence and ten asymptomatic controls underwent conventional multi-channel cystometry and then ambulatory monitoring during work or exercise...

  12. Role of urodynamics in stress urinary incontinence: A critical appraisal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shirish Dattatraya Yande

    2016-01-01

    Conclusions: Urodynamic study in SUI has a potential of giving much more information than demonstration of Detrusor Overactivity alone. The predominant symptom of urge urinary incontinence can predictably diagnose detrusor overactivity in these cases. However, the incidence of asymptomatic detrusor overactivity remains as high as 15% and may have implication in postoperative results. This study clearly shows that there is a definite incidence of significant voiding dysfunction, which cannot be reliably evaluated without properly conducted pressure flow study. This factor may govern the choice of correct treatment which also predicts the outcome more reliably. Preoperative urodynamic study thus adds a dimension of precision to evaluation of the patients of SUI and may also influence technique and outcome measures in this group of patients.

  13. Urodynamic Testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Urinary Tract Imaging Urodynamic Testing Virtual Colonoscopy Urodynamic Testing What is the urinary tract? The urinary tract ... view of the urinary tract What is urodynamic testing? Urodynamic testing is any procedure that looks at ...

  14. Can we predict urinary stress incontinence by using demographic, clinical, imaging and urodynamic data?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wlaźlak, Edyta; Surkont, Grzegorz; Shek, Ka L; Dietz, Hans P

    2015-10-01

    It has been claimed that urethral hypermobility and resting urethral pressure can largely explain stress incontinence in women. In this study we tried to replicate these findings in an unselected cohort of women seen for urodynamic testing, including as many potential confounders as possible. This study is a retrospective analysis of data obtained from 341 women. They attended for urodynamic testing due to symptoms of pelvic floor dysfunction. We excluded from the analysis women with a history of previous anti-incontinence and prolapse surgery. All patients had a standardised clinical assessment, 4D transperineal pelvic floor ultrasound and multichannel urodynamic testing. Urodynamic stress incontinence (USI) was diagnosed by multichannel urodynamic testing. Its severity was subjectively graded as mild, moderate and severe. Candidate variables were: age, BMI, symptoms of prolapse, vaginal parity, significant prolapse (compartment-specific), levator avulsion, levator hiatal area, Oxford grading, midurethral mobility, maximum urethral pressure (MUP), maximum cough pressure and maximum Valsalva pressure reached. On binary logistic regression, the following parameters were statistically significant in predicting urodynamic stress incontinence: age (P=0.03), significant rectocele (P=0.02), max. abdominal pressure reached (negatively, Paccounting for multiple interdependencies, the following predictors remained significant: max. abdominal pressure reached (negatively, P<0.0001), cough pressure (P=0.006), midurethral mobility (P=0.003) and MUP (negatively, P<0.0001), giving an R(2) of 0.24. Mid-urethral mobility and MUP are the main predictors of USI. Demographic and clinical data are at best weak predictors. Our results suggest the presence of major unrecognised confounders. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.

  15. The relationships between preoperative urodynamic parameters and clinical outcomes in urinary stress incontinence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yaşar Bozkurt

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of present study was to evaluate the influence of urodynamic parameters on preoperative and postoperative clinical pictures in stress incontinence.Charts of patients, who were operated for stress incontinence using autologous rectus fascia sling between March 1999 and January 2005 in Tepecik Training and Research Hospital Urology Clinic, were evaluated retrospectively.A total of 41 patients were divided into two subgroups as, pure (10 patients and mixed stress incontinence (31 patients groups. Mean age of patients was 50.4 (33-70 years. Fifteen patients had intrinsic sphincter insufficiency (ISI. Mixed incontinence group had lower volume for first sensation and more detrusor overactivity than pure group. ISI did not alter the success of operation. Urodynamically no relationship was found between detrusor pressure and postoperative postvoiding residual urine (P>0.05.In conclusion, urodynamic evaluation before surgery was not related to preoperative and postoperative clinical picture of patients, but first sensation of bladder is only predictive for the success in fascial sling surgery.

  16. Does preoperative urodynamics improve outcomes for women undergoing surgery for stress urinary incontinence? A systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rachaneni, S; Latthe, P

    2015-01-01

    Urodynamics is widely used in the investigation of urinary incontinence. The existing evidence questions its add-on value in improving the outcome of surgical treatment for stress urinary incontinence (SUI). To compare the surgical outcomes in women with SUI or stress-predominant mixed urinary incontinence (MUI) based on urodynamic diagnoses compared with diagnoses based on office evaluation without urodynamics. We searched Cochrane, MedLine, Embase, CINAHL, LILACS, metaRegister of Controlled Trials (mRCT) and Google Scholar databases from inception until March 2013. We included randomised controlled trials (RCTs) comparing surgical outcomes in women investigated by urodynamics and women who had office evaluation only. Two independent reviewers (S.R. and P.L.) extracted the data and analysed it using review manager (revman) 5.2 software. Of the 388 articles identified, only four RCTs met our criteria. The data from one study are as yet unpublished. In the other three RCTs, the women with SUI or stress-predominant MUI were randomised either to office evaluation and urodynamics (n = 388) or to office evaluation only (n = 387). There was no statistical difference in the risk ratio (RR) of subjective cure in the two groups (RR 1.02, 95%CI 0.90-1.15, P = 0.79, I(2) = 45%), objective cure (RR 1.01, 95%CI 0.93-1.11, P = 0.28, I(2) = 20%) or complications such as voiding dysfunction (RR 1.54, 95%CI 0.61-3.89, P = 0.27, I(2) = 18%) or urinary urgency (RR 0.80, 95%CI 0.28-2.3, P = 0.19, I(2) = 40%). In women undergoing primary surgery for SUI or stress-predominant MUI without voiding difficulties, urodynamics does not improve outcomes - as long as the women undergo careful office evaluation. © 2014 Royal College of Obstetricians and Gynaecologists.

  17. TVT for the treatment of urodynamic stress incontinence: Efficacy and adverse effects at 13-year follow-up.

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    Serati, Maurizio; Sorice, Paola; Bogani, Giorgio; Braga, Andrea; Cantaluppi, Simona; Uccella, Stefano; Caccia, Giorgio; Salvatore, Stefano; Ghezzi, Fabio

    2017-01-01

    To assess long-term subjective, objective, and urodynamic outcomes of retropubic mid-urethral slings at 13-year follow-up. This was a prospective observational study. Consecutive women with proven urodynamic stress incontinence were treated with standard retropubic tension free vaginal tape (TVT). Patients with mixed incontinence and/or anatomic evidence of pelvic organ prolapse were excluded. All the included patients underwent preoperative clinical and urodynamic evaluations. During follow-up examinations, women were assessed for subjective satisfaction and objective cure rates. The Cox model was used in order to investigate factors predicting the risk of recurrent stress urinary incontinence (SUI), over the study period. Overall, 55 patients were suitable for the analysis. At 13-year follow-up, 47 out of 55 (85.5%) patients declared themselves cured (p-for-trend 0.02) and 48 out of 58 (87.2%) were at least improved (p-for-trend 0.07). No significant deterioration of objective cure rates was observed over time (P = 0.29). At the time of the last evaluation, 50 out of 55 (90.9%) women were objectively cured; urodynamic evaluation confirmed this finding in 49 (89.1%) patients. Considering factors predictive of SUI recurrence, we observed that, via multivariate analysis, obesity (HR 7.2; P = 0.01) and maximum detrusor pressure during the voiding phase ≤29 cmH 2 O (HR 8.0; P = 0.01) were the only independent predictors of recurrent SUI. Our data confirmed that TVT is a highly effective and safe procedure also at 13-year follow-up. Interestingly, we observed a significant decrease of subjective satisfaction over time. Neurourol. Urodynam. 36:192-197, 2017. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  18. Can Listening to Music Decrease Pain, Anxiety, and Stress During a Urodynamic Study? A Randomized Prospective Trial Focusing on Gender Differences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shim, Ji Sung; Chae, Ji Yun; Kang, Sung Gu; Park, Jae Young; Bae, Jae Hyun; Kang, Seok Ho; Park, Hong Seok; Moon, Du Geon; Cheon, Jun; Lee, Jeong Gu; Kim, Je Jong; Oh, Mi Mi

    2017-06-01

    To evaluate the effect of listening to music on pain, anxiety, or stress during a urodynamic study (UDS). A total of 74 female and 74 male patients who underwent UDS between March 2013 and October 2013 were prospectively randomized. The patients were divided into 2 groups according to gender (female, n = 74 vs male, n = 74) and into 2 subgroups according to whether they listened to music or not. Music group subjects played their preferred music during UDS. Before and after UDS, all subjects completed the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI) form and their degree of pain, anxiety, and satisfaction during examination were assessed by the visual analog scale (VAS, 0-10). Basic vital signs were also checked before and after the procedure. In the analysis of anxiety, pain, and stress scores, the mean shame, discomfort, and satisfaction scores (VAS) were significantly higher in female patients, whereas the mean score of willingness to retry the procedure was higher in male patients whether listening to music or not (P music group and the no-music group in either gender. In our study, music during UDS did not reduce anxiety, pain, and stress in either gender. In the analysis focusing on gender difference, female patients showed statistically higher levels of pain, anxiety, and stress scores than male patients whether listening to music or not. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Clinical risk factors and urodynamic predictors prior to surgical treatment for stress urinary incontinence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bing, Mette Hornum; Gimbel, Helga; Greisen, Susanne

    2015-01-01

    urethral pressure, and bladder-neck immobility were related to poorer outcome of surgery. CONCLUSIONS: This study summarized the available evidence regarding preoperative clinical risk factors and urodynamic parameters indicating decreased or adverse outcome of surgery, and this report also provides...

  20. Pre-operative urodynamics in women with stress urinary incontinence increases physician confidence, but does not improve outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zimmern, Philippe; Litman, Heather; Nager, Charles; Sirls, Larry; Kraus, Stephen R; Kenton, Kimberly; Wilson, Tracey; Sutkin, Gary; Siddiqui, Nazema; Vasavada, Sandip; Norton, Peggy

    2014-03-01

    To determine if pre-operative urodynamic testing (UDS) affects physicians' diagnostic confidence and if physician confidence affects treatment outcomes at 1 year. The Value of Urodynamic Evaluation (ValUE) trial randomized 630 women with predominant stress urinary incontinence (SUI) to office evaluation (OE) or OE plus UDS prior to surgery. After OE, physicians completed a checklist of five clinical diagnoses: SUI, overactive bladder (OAB) wet and dry, voiding dysfunction (VD), and intrinsic sphincter deficiency (ISD), and reported their confidence in each. Responses ranged from 1 to 5 with; 1 = "not very confident (confident (95 + %)." After UDS, investigators again rated their confidence in these five clinical diagnoses. Logistic regression analysis correlated physician confidence in diagnosis with treatment success. Of 315 women who received OE plus UDS, 294 had complete data. Confidence improved after UDS in patients with baseline SUI (4.52-4.63, P confidence after UDS was not associated with higher odds of treatment success although mean changes in confidence were slightly higher for those who achieved treatment success. Physician diagnoses shifted more from not confident to confident for ISD and OAB-wet after UDS (McNemar's P-value confidence in their clinical diagnoses; however, this did not correlate with treatment success. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  1. The predictive value of demonstrable stress incontinence during basic office evaluation and urodynamics in women without symptomatic urinary incontinence undergoing vaginal prolapse surgery

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Ploeg, J. Marinus; Zwolsman, Sandra E.; Posthuma, Selina; Wiarda, Hylco S.; van der Vaart, C. Huub; Roovers, Jan-Paul W. R.

    2017-01-01

    Women with pelvic organ prolapse without symptoms of urinary incontinence (UI) might demonstrate stress urinary incontinence (SUI) with or without prolapse reduction. We aimed to determine the value of demonstrable SUI during basic office evaluation or urodynamics in predicting SUI after vaginal

  2. TVT-O for the treatment of pure urodynamic stress incontinence: efficacy, adverse effects, and prognostic factors at 5-year follow-up.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serati, Maurizio; Bauer, Ricarda; Cornu, Jean Nicolas; Cattoni, Elena; Braga, Andrea; Siesto, Gabriele; Lizée, Daphné; Haab, François; Torella, Marco; Salvatore, Stefano

    2013-05-01

    Inside-out tension-free vaginal transobturator tape (TVT-O) is currently one of the most effective and popular procedures for the surgical treatment of female stress urinary incontinence (SUI), but data reporting long-term outcomes are scarce. To evaluate the efficacy and safety of TVT-O 5-yr implantation for management of pure SUI in women. A prospective observational study was conducted in four tertiary reference centers. Consecutive women presenting with urodynamically proven, pure SUI treated by TVT-O were included. Patients with mixed incontinence and/or anatomic evidence of pelvic organ prolapse were excluded. TVT-O implantation without any associated procedure. Data regarding subjective outcomes (International Consultation on Incontinence-Short Form [ICIQ-SF], Patient Global Impression of Improvement, patient satisfaction scores), objective cure (stress test) rates, and adverse events were collected during follow-up. Multivariable analyses were performed to investigate outcomes. Of the 191 women included, 21 (11.0%) had previously undergone a failed anti-incontinence surgical procedure. Six (3.1%) patients were lost to follow-up. The 5-yr subjective and objective cure rates were 90.3% and 90.8%, respectively. De novo overactive bladder (OAB) was reported by 24.3% of patients at 5-yr follow-up. Median ICIQ-SF score significantly improved from 17 (interquartile range [IQR]:16-17) preoperatively to 0 (IQR: 0-2) (pTVT-O implantation is a highly effective option for the treatment of women with pure SUI, showing a very high cure rate and a low incidence of complications after 5-yr follow-up. Copyright © 2012 European Association of Urology. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. INVESTIGATE-I (INVasive Evaluation before Surgical Treatment of Incontinence Gives Added Therapeutic Effect?): a mixed-methods study to assess the feasibility of a future randomised controlled trial of invasive urodynamic testing prior to surgery for stress urinary incontinence in women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hilton, Paul; Armstrong, Natalie; Brennand, Catherine; Howel, Denise; Shen, Jing; Bryant, Andrew; Tincello, Douglas G; Lucas, Malcolm G; Buckley, Brian S; Chapple, Christopher R; Homer, Tara; Vale, Luke; McColl, Elaine

    2015-02-01

    The position of invasive urodynamic testing in the diagnostic pathway for urinary incontinence (UI) is unclear. Systematic reviews have called for further trials evaluating clinical utility, although a preliminary feasibility study was considered appropriate. To inform the decision whether or not to proceed to a definitive randomised trial of invasive urodynamic testing compared with clinical assessment with non-invasive tests, prior to surgery in women with stress UI (SUI) or stress predominant mixed UI (MUI). A mixed-methods study comprising a pragmatic multicentre randomised pilot trial; economic evaluation; survey of clinicians' views about invasive urodynamic testing; qualitative interviews with clinicians and trial participants. Urogynaecology, female urology and general gynaecology units in Newcastle, Leicester, Swansea, Sheffield, Northumberland, Gateshead and South Tees. Trial recruits were women with SUI or stress predominant MUI who were considering surgery after unsuccessful conservative treatment. Relevant clinicians completed two online surveys. Subsets of survey respondents and trial participants took part in separate qualitative interview studies. Pilot trial participants were randomised to undergo clinical assessment with non-invasive tests (control arm); or assessment as controls, plus invasive urodynamic testing (intervention arm). Confirmation that units can identify and recruit eligible women; acceptability of investigation strategies and data collection tools; acquisition of outcome data to determine the sample size for a definitive trial. The proposed primary outcome for the definitive trial was International Consultation on Incontinence Modular Questionnaire (ICIQ) Female Lower Urinary Tract Symptoms (ICIQ-FLUTS) (total score) 6 months after surgery or the start of non-surgical treatment; secondary outcomes included: ICIQ-FLUTS (subscales); ICIQ Urinary Incontinence Short Form; ICIQ Lower Urinary Tract Symptoms Quality of Life; Urogenital

  4. Evaluation of the relationship between urodynamic examination and urinary tract infection based on urinalysis results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsai, Shih-Wei; Kung, Fu-Tsai; Chuang, Fei-Chi; Ou, Yu-Che; Wu, Chia-Jen; Huang, Kuan-Hui

    2013-12-01

    To determine risk factors for urinary tract infection (UTI) after urodynamic examination by evaluating patients' clinical characteristics and urodynamic parameters. Two hundred and sixty-one female patients (mean age 58.7 ± 12.3 years) from May to December 2011 who had lower urinary tract symptoms or needed definite diagnosis before pelvic floor reconstruction or anti-incontinence surgery received urodynamic examination. All patients received urinalysis on the scheduled day of urodynamic examination and 3 days after urodynamic examination. Mid-stream urine samples were obtained for urinalysis before urodynamic examination. If patients had UTI based on our urinalysis criteria before urodynamic examination, the investigation was postponed until the patient had a 3-7-day course of antibiotic treatment and urinalysis showed no UTI. Among 261 patients, 19 and 51 patients had UTI before and after urodynamic examination, respectively. Our data suggest that urodynamic examination causes significantly increased incidence of UTI. Increased number of vaginal births, UTI before investigation, diabetes and decreased average flow rate are risk factors for UTI after urodynamic examination. When the prevalence of UTI after urodynamic examination is higher than 10%, we recommend that prophylactic antibiotics should be given for high-risk patients with parameters such as older age, diabetes and multipara (>3). Those who have UTI before urodynamic examination and who are found to have a low average flow rate of less than 7 mL/second should take prophylactic antibiotics after examination. Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  5. Impact of transobturator vaginal tape on female stress urinary incontinence and sexual function

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tarek Soliman

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To evaluate the effect of vaginal transobturator tape (TOT on female stress urinary incontinence (SUI and sexual function. Patients and methods: In all, 145 patients with SUI underwent TOT repair using the ‘outside–in’ technique. All patients had been sexually active in the previous 6 months. Patients were evaluated by history, routine laboratory investigations, cough stress test, abdominopelvic ultrasonography, and full urodynamic studies. The preoperative data assessed included: age, parity, body mass index, menopausal status, and Stamey grade of SUI. The intraoperative data assessed included: operative time, blood loss, and hospital stay; intra- and postoperative complications were also assessed. At 2 weeks after discharge, patients were followed-up with a routine examination and cough stress test. After 6 months’ patients were assessed by urodynamic studies, maximum urinary flow rate, post-void residual urine volume. The following questionnaires were completed before and at 6 months after TOT insertion: International Consultation of Incontinence Questionnaire-Short Form (ICIQ-SF, Urogenital Distress Inventory-Short Form (UDI-6, and Female Sexual Function Index (FSFI. Results: All sociodemographic data of the 145 patients were collected. According to ICIQ-SF scores, 122 patients were cured, 19 had improved, and four failed. There were significant improvements in the UDI-6 and FSFI scores, indicating that the women had significant improvement in their sexual life. There were six cases of urinary tract infection, five cases had a fever, and eight patients complained of groin or thigh pain postoperatively. Conclusions: Correction of SUI using TOT appears to have a positive effect on female sexual function. Keywords: TOT, Stress urinary incontinence, Female sexual function, FSFI, Menopause

  6. Transobturator tape for female stress incontinence: A day surgery case

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Al Taweel Waleed

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim: To evaluate the effectiveness of transobturator vaginal tape (TOT in the treatment of female stress urinary incontinence (SUI and to analyze functional results and quality of life after12 months follow up. Materials and Methods : All women with SUI who underwent TOT procedure from outside to inside under general or regional anesthesia from December 2004 to January 2007 were included in the study. All must have had a minimal follow up of one year. The patients were prospectively evaluated with history including pads use/day, physical examination - pelvic examination, urinalysis, urogenital distress inventory (UDI-6, and analog global satisfaction scale - and urodynamic studies - filling cystometry, pressure-flow studies, and Valsalva leak point pressure. Results: Sixty two consecutive patients who fulfilled the inclusion criteria underwent TOT procedure by one surgeon. The mean age was 52 ± 9 years (range, 34-70 years and minimal follow up was one year (12-24 months. The mean operative time was 17 ± 4 minutes (15-31 with average amount of bleeding 62 ± 22 cc. We found objectively 89% cure or improvement rate after one year. Conclusion: The out-in transobturator approach is a very effective treatment of SUI with low morbidity and high success rate. However, longer follow up in larger populations should assess the long-term reliability of this attractive procedure.

  7. Invasive urodynamic testing prior to surgical treatment for stress urinary incontinence in women: cost-effectiveness and value of information analyses in the context of a mixed methods feasibility study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Homer, Tara; Shen, Jing; Vale, Luke; McColl, Elaine; Tincello, Douglas G; Hilton, Paul

    2018-01-01

    INVESTIGATE-I (INVasive Evaluation before Surgical Treatment of Incontinence Gives Added Therapeutic Effect?) was a mixed methods study to assess the feasibility of a future randomised controlled trial of invasive urodynamic testing (IUT) prior to surgery for stress urinary incontinence (SUI) in women. Here we report one of the study's five components, with the specific objectives of (i) exploring the cost-effectiveness of IUT compared with clinical assessment plus non-invasive tests (henceforth described as 'IUT' and 'no IUT' respectively) in women with SUI or stress-predominant mixed urinary incontinence (MUI) prior to surgery, and (ii) determining the expected net gain (ENG) from additional research. Study participants were women with SUI or stress-predominant MUI who had failed to respond to conservative treatments recruited from seven UK urogynaecology and female urology units. They were randomised to receive either 'IUT' or 'no IUT' before undergoing further treatment. Data from 218 women were used in the economic analysis. Cost utility, net benefit and value of information (VoI) analyses were performed within a randomised controlled pilot trial. Costs and quality-adjusted life years (QALYs) were estimated over 6 months to determine the incremental cost per QALY of 'IUT' compared to 'no IUT'. Net monetary benefit informed the VoI analysis. The VoI estimated the ENG and optimal sample size for a future definitive trial. At 6 months, the mean difference in total average cost was £138 ( p  = 0.071) in favour of 'IUT'; there was no difference in QALYs estimated from the SF-12 (difference 0.004; p  = 0.425) and EQ-5D-3L (difference - 0.004; p  = 0.725); therefore, the probability of IUT being cost-effective remains uncertain. The estimated ENG was positive for further research to address this uncertainty with an optimal sample size of 404 women. This is the largest economic evaluation of IUT. On average, up to 6 months after treatment, 'IUT' may

  8. Urodinâmica convencional versus cistometria simplificada para caracterização da incontinência urinária feminina Conventional urodynamics versus simplified cystometry for characterization of female urinary incontinence

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    Paulo Roberto Kawano

    2004-05-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: avaliar a concordância dos diferentes parâmetros urodinâmicos comparados à cistometria simplificada, permitindo uma diminuição na relação custo-benefício no diagnóstico da incontinência urinária de esforço (IUE na mulher. MÉTODOS: foram coletadas e avaliadas retrospectivamente as informações contidas dos prontuários de trinta pacientes acompanhadas, no período de janeiro de 2000 a março de 2001. Todas foram submetidas a exame físico geral e ginecológico. O estudo urodinâmico foi realizado pela técnica convencional, utilizando-se aparelho Dynograph Recorder R-611. A cistometria simplificada foi realizada com auxílio de um equipo em "Y" de PVC (pressão venosa central, conectado a um sonda de Foley 14 F, que permitia tanto a infusão de soro fisiológico como a captação da pressão intra-vesical. Foram analisados os parâmetros: volume residual, capacidade vesical, complacência, presença de contrações involuntárias do detrusor e perdas urinárias aos esforços. Para determinação da proporção de concordância entre os métodos foram utilizados o teste de concordância de Pearson e o teste de Wilcoxon, para amostras relacionadas. RESULTADOS: a média de idade foi de 50 anos, com extremos variando de 28 a 70 anos. O índice de concordância entre os estudos, na demonstração das perdas urinárias aos esforços, foi de 67%. Para a detecção das contrações involuntárias do detrusor, a proporção de concordância foi de 90%. A média do volume residual encontrado na cistometria simplificada foi de 16,8 ml contra 2 ml da urodinâmica convencional, com diferença significativa (p OBJECTIVE: to assess the concordance of different urodynamic parameters with simplified cystometry, thus improving the cost-benefit relationship for stress urinary incontinence (SUI diagnosis in woman. METHODS: we evaluated retrospectively the medical records of thirty patients treated, from January 2000 to March 2001. All

  9. Predictive value of clinical history compared with urodynamic study in 1,179 women

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    Jorge Milhem Haddad

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available SUMMARY Objective: to determine the positive predictive value of clinical history in comparison with urodynamic study for the diagnosis of urinary incontinence. Methods: retrospective analysis comparing clinical history and urodynamic evaluation of 1,179 women with urinary incontinence. The urodynamic study was considered the gold standard, whereas the clinical history was the new test to be assessed. This was established after analyzing each method as the gold standard through the difference between their positive predictive values. Results: the positive predictive values of clinical history compared with urodynamic study for diagnosis of stress urinary incontinence, overactive bladder and mixed urinary incontinence were, respectively, 37% (95% CI 31-44, 40% (95% CI 33-47 and 16% (95% CI 14-19. Conclusion: we concluded that the positive predictive value of clinical history was low compared with urodynamic study for urinary incontinence diagnosis. The positive predictive value was low even among women with pure stress urinary incontinence.

  10. Surgical Treatment of Female Stress Urinary Incontinence: AUA/SUFU Guideline.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kobashi, Kathleen C; Albo, Michael E; Dmochowski, Roger R; Ginsberg, David A; Goldman, Howard B; Gomelsky, Alexander; Kraus, Stephen R; Sandhu, Jaspreet S; Shepler, Tracy; Treadwell, Jonathan R; Vasavada, Sandip; Lemack, Gary E

    2017-10-01

    Stress urinary incontinence is a common problem experienced by many women that can have a significant negative impact on the quality of life of those who suffer from the condition and potentially those friends and family members whose lives and activities may also be limited. A comprehensive search of the literature was performed by ECRI Institute. This search included articles published between January 2005 and December 2015 with an updated abstract search conducted through September 2016. When sufficient evidence existed, the body of evidence for a particular treatment was assigned a strength rating of A (high), B (moderate), or C (low) for support of Strong, Moderate, or Conditional Recommendations. In the absence of sufficient evidence, additional information is provided as Clinical Principles and Expert Opinions. The AUA (American Urological Association) and SUFU (Society of Urodynamics, Female Pelvic Medicine & Urogenital Reconstruction) have formulated an evidence-based guideline focused on the surgical treatment of female stress urinary incontinence in both index and non-index patients. The surgical options for the treatment of stress urinary incontinence continue to evolve; as such, this guideline and the associated algorithm aim to outline the currently available treatment techniques as well as the data associated with each treatment. Indeed, the Panel recognizes that this guideline will require continued literature review and updating as further knowledge regarding current and future options continues to grow. Copyright © 2017 American Urological Association Education and Research, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. URODYNAMIC ASSESSMENT OF SACRAL ROOT ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Seventeen patients presented with an urgency-frequency syndrome, 9 with urge incontinence and 12 with chronic idiopathic urinary retention. All patients had failed to respond to various previous oral and intravesical treatments. The protocol included a four-day voiding diary and urodynamics before, during and after ...

  12. Cluster analysis identifies three urodynamic patterns in patients with orthotopic neobladder reconstruction.

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    Kwang Hyun Kim

    Full Text Available To classify patients with orthotopic neobladder based on urodynamic parameters using cluster analysis and to characterize the voiding function of each group.From January 2012 to November 2015, 142 patients with bladder cancer underwent radical cystectomy and Studer neobladder reconstruction at our institute. Of the 142 patients, 103 with complete urodynamic data and information on urinary functional outcomes were included in this study. K-means clustering was performed with urodynamic parameters which included maximal cystometric capacity, residual volume, maximal flow rate, compliance, and detrusor pressure at maximum flow rate. Three groups emerged by cluster analysis. Urodynamic parameters and urinary function outcomes were compared between three groups.Group 1 (n = 44 had ideal urodynamic parameters with a mean maximal bladder capacity of 513.3 ml and mean residual urine volume of 33.1 ml. Group 2 (n = 42 was characterized by small bladder capacity with low compliance. Patients in group 2 had higher rates of daytime incontinence and nighttime incontinence than patients in group 1. Group 3 (n = 17 was characterized by large residual urine volume with high compliance. When we examined gender differences in urodynamics and functional outcomes, residual urine volume and the rate of daytime incontinence were only marginally significant. However, females were significantly more likely to belong to group 2 or 3 (P = 0.003. In multivariate analysis to identify factors associated with group 1 which has the most ideal urodynamic pattern, age (OR 0.95, P = 0.017 and male gender (OR 7.57, P = 0.003 were identified as significant factors.While patients with ileal neobladder present with various voiding symptoms, three urodynamic patterns were identified by cluster analysis. Approximately half of patients had ideal urodynamic parameters. The other two groups were characterized by large residual urine and small capacity bladder with low compliance. Young

  13. The evidence for urodynamic investigation of patients with symptoms of urinary incontinence

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Urodynamic studies are the gold standard to objectively diagnose dysfunction of the lower urinary tract. The widely available evidence for the clinical relevance is, however, fragmented. This article summarizes the published knowledge supporting the use of urodynamic studies in urinary incontinence in female, male and frail patients, as well as patients with relevant neurological disease. Five technological innovations are discussed briefly. Standard urodynamic cystometry can, on the basis of a solid body of evidence, objectively unveil the entire function of the lower urinary tract in all patients with urinary incontinence, regardless of the patients' perception of (ab-)normality of signs and or symptoms. PMID:23513180

  14. Role of oxidative stress in female reproduction

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    Sharma Rakesh K

    2005-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract In a healthy body, ROS (reactive oxygen species and antioxidants remain in balance. When the balance is disrupted towards an overabundance of ROS, oxidative stress (OS occurs. OS influences the entire reproductive lifespan of a woman and even thereafter (i.e. menopause. OS results from an imbalance between prooxidants (free radical species and the body's scavenging ability (antioxidants. ROS are a double-edged sword – they serve as key signal molecules in physiological processes but also have a role in pathological processes involving the female reproductive tract. ROS affect multiple physiological processes from oocyte maturation to fertilization, embryo development and pregnancy. It has been suggested that OS modulates the age-related decline in fertility. It plays a role during pregnancy and normal parturition and in initiation of preterm labor. Most ovarian cancers appear in the surface epithelium, and repetitive ovulation has been thought to be a causative factor. Ovulation-induced oxidative base damage and damage to DNA of the ovarian epithelium can be prevented by antioxidants. There is growing literature on the effects of OS in female reproduction with involvement in the pathophsiology of preeclampsia, hydatidiform mole, free radical-induced birth defects and other situations such as abortions. Numerous studies have shown that OS plays a role in the pathoysiology of infertility and assisted fertility. There is some evidence of its role in endometriosis, tubal and peritoneal factor infertility and unexplained infertility. This article reviews the role OS plays in normal cycling ovaries, follicular development and cyclical endometrial changes. It also discusses OS-related female infertility and how it influences the outcomes of assisted reproductive techniques. The review comprehensively explores the literature for evidence of the role of oxidative stress in conditions such as abortions, preeclampsia, hydatidiform mole, fetal

  15. [Impact of global postural reeducation for treatment of female stress urinary incontinence].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fozzatti, Maria Celina Martins; Palma, Paulo; Herrmann, Viviane; Dambros, Miriam

    2008-01-01

    To evaluate the effect of global postural reeducation (GPR) on stress urinary incontinence (SUI) and quality of life in SUI female patients The study design was a prospective non-randomized clinical trial. Twenty-six patients with symptoms of SUI were selected from the Urogynecology Outpatient Clinics of the State University of Campinas (Unicamp), state of São Paulo, Brazil. Age ranged from 23 to 72 years old (mean 50.8). All women were submitted to anamnesis, physical exam, postural evaluation and urodynamic testing. Patients were treated by the GPR in individual 50 minute sessions weekly for three months and twice a month for the next three months. All patients were re-evaluated at the end of treatment and six months later by means of General Impression of Improvement, Incontinence Impact, General Perception of Health, Functional Evaluation of the Pelvic Floor, Number of Leaking Episodes and Pad Use. At the end of treatment 4 (16%) of the patients were cured, 18 (72%) had improved significantly and 3 (12%) failed. At 6 months, 6 (24%) were cured, 16 (64%) improved and 3 (12%) failed (p<0.001). Quality of Life questionnaires presented significant improvement (p<0.05) in all domains, with emphasis on General Perception of Health, Incontinence Impact and number of leaking episodes. The Functional Evaluation of the Pelvic Floor and Pad Use also presented significant (p<0.001) improvement. These results may demonstrate that GPR is an efficient alternative for treatment of stress urinary incontinence.

  16. Urodynamics - Basic concepts | Abdool | Obstetrics and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Urodynamic studies still remains a controversial investigation in the assessment of patients with urinary incontinence. A systematic review on the correlation between clinical and urodynamic diagnosis in classifying the type of urinary incontinence by van Leijsen et al in 2011 makes interesting reading. The review concluded ...

  17. Stress Coping Techniques For Female Doctors Encountering Sexual ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Stress Coping Techniques For Female Doctors Encountering Sexual Harassment From Their Patients. ... Nigerian Journal of Guidance and Counselling ... The findings of these study indicated that stress coping techniques is an effective method in the reduction of stress posed by sexual harassment on female doctors from ...

  18. Comparison of two experimental models of urodynamic evaluation in female rats Comparação de dois modelos experimentais para avaliação urodinâmica em ratas

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    Ana Beatriz Gomes de Souza

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: Urodynamic studies in small animals can be performed through urethral sounding or cystostomy. OBJECTIVE: To compare the two methods of urodynamic evaluation in female rats. METHODS: Ten female rats weighing on average 250g, under anesthesia with urethane (1,25 mg/kg were submitted in three repeats to an urethal catheter of 0,64 mm in external diameter for cystometric measurements of vesicle pressure(VP1 and contraction time (CT1. The catheter was extracted at a constant velocity of 0.05 cm/minute until complete exteriorization and determinations of maximal urethral pressure (UP1 and functional urethral length (FUL1. This was followed by a cystostomy with catheter PE50 and a new determination of the vesical pressure (VP2. After bladder denervation, a new cystometric record indirectly infered the maximum urethral closure pressure (UP2. The peak urethal pressure (UP3 and the functional urethral length (FUL2 were determined in another urethral sounding. The pressure registration system consisted of a continuous infusion pump regulated to a flow of 0.1 ml/minute connected both to the cystostomy catheter (PE-50 or the urethal catheter (0.64mm and the polygraph Narco-Biosystem. Statistical analysis employed the Wilcoxon non-parametric test RESULTS: Mean VP1= 48,2 mmHg (11,8 SD; Mean VP2 = 38,2 mmHg (9,0 SD "p" (VP1 X VP2 = 0,0039. Mean CT1=30,2 s (21,5 SD; Mean CT2=20,0 s(7 SD p (CT1 X CT2 = 1,28. Mean UP1 = 47,2 mmHg (6,5 SD; Mean UP2 = 21,3 mmHg (6,6 SD, mean UP3 = 40,7 mmHg(13,3 SD p (UP1 X UP2 = 0,002; "p" (UP1 X UP3 = 0,084; p (UP2 X UP3 = 0,002. Mean FUL1=14,2 mm (1,9 SD; Mean FUL2= 14,1mm (1,9 SD; p (FUL1 X FUL2 = 0,64. CONCLUSIONS: The methods employed to evaluate vesical and urethral pressures are different. The presence of the urethral catheter may be an obstructive factor. Surgical denervation up to the bladder neck level does not compromise urethral function.INTRODUÇÃO: O estudo urodinâmico em ratas pode ser realizado atrav

  19. Comparing effectiveness of combined transobturator tension-free vaginal mesh (Perigee) and transobturator tension-free vaginal tape (TVT-O) versus anterior colporrhaphy and TVT-O for associated cystocele and urodynamic stress incontinence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lau, Hei-Yu; Twu, Nae-Fang; Chen, Yi-Jen; Horng, Huann-Cheng; Juang, Chi-Mou; Chao, Kuan-Chong

    2011-06-01

    To evaluate the efficacy and safety of transobturator tension-free vaginal mesh (Perigee) and concomitant transobturator tension-free vaginal tape (TVT-O) for treating cystocele with urodynamic stress incontinence (UDSI). A retrospective study of 115 patients with symptomatic stages 2-3 cystocele and UDSI who were treated with a Perigee system (Group I, n=68) plus TVT-O procedure or traditional anterior colporrhaphy (Group II, n=47) plus TVT-O procedure. All patients were followed up for more than one year. Objective and subjective symptoms were evaluated at one year postoperatively. Statistical analysis was performed using SPSS software. The objective cure rates for cystocele at one year were significantly higher in Group I than in Group II (98.5% and 86.9%, P=0.018), respectively. The cure rates for UDSI in the two groups were 91.0% vs. 91.3% (P=1.000). Symptomatic improvement of frequency was better in Group I than Group II (87.7% vs. 70.0%, P=0.030). There were no significant differences with regard to intraoperative and postoperative complications between the two groups. The combination of the Perigee system and TVT-O offers a safe and effective treatment for cystocele with UDSI and may be performed as first-line treatment. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Magnitude of stress and academic achievement of female students ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Stress is a universal phenomenon which no human being is free from. This paper examined the magnitude of stress and academic achievement of female students of the University of Ilorin. It was a description survey type. The target population comprised the 400 level female students from the four randomly selected ...

  1. Impact of preoperative urodynamic testing for urinary incontinence and pelvic organ prolapse on clinical management in Chinese women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Liang; He, Ling; Wu, Shi-Liang; Sun, Ru-yi; Lu, Dan

    2016-01-01

    To assess the impact of preoperative urodynamic testing on the clinical management of urinary incontinence and pelvic organ prolapse. Urodynamic testing was performed prior to surgery in 307 patients with pelvic organ prolapse or urinary incontinence. The resulting changes to planned treatment were recorded and retrospectively assessed. Results of urodynamic testing prompted changes to the treatment plan in 136 cases (44.2%), including 86 cases of no or slight-stress urinary incontinence, 28 cases of bladder outlet obstruction, 12 cases of occult stress urinary incontinence and 10 cases of detrusor overactivity and urge urinary incontinence. Urodynamic testing excluded disadvantageous factors in 69 cases (22.4%), including 46 cases of overactive bladder and 23 cases of voiding dysfunction. The information provided to patients when seeking informed consent was augmented by the results of urodynamic testing in 63 cases (20.5%). Urodynamic testing was of no value in 39 cases (12.7%). Preoperative urodynamic testing for urinary incontinence and pelvic organ prolapse can result in changes to treatment plans, exclusion of disadvantageous factors, and augmentation of information provided to patients when seeking informed consent. © 2015 Japan Society of Obstetrics and Gynecology.

  2. personality traits as predictors of stress among female teachers

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Emeka Egbochuku

    The paper investigated the stress level of female teachers in Osun State Teaching. Service and determined the ... stress and each of the personality traits of extraversion (r= -0.073, p>0.05), locus of control (r= 0.047, p>0.05); self ...... Systems: Implication for Stress Management at workplace. Journal of. Social Psychology, 7 ...

  3. Value of MRI in female stress incontinence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ivanov, A.; Tunn, R.; Luening, M.; Fischer, W.; Schwenke, A.; Paris, S.; Dewey, C.

    1993-01-01

    Twenty women with stress incontinence were examined using conventional and dynamic MRI before and after reconstructive surgery. The results thus obtained were compared with those recorded in a control group of 15 asymptomatic women and in three patients with urogenital prolapse but without incontinence. MRI does not offer specific criteria for estimation of stress incontinence. However, it provides for preoperative evaluation of pelvic muscle condition as well as of grade and type of bladder and urethral prolapse. The displacement of the bladder and urethra in the sagittal plane is evaluated by means of a reference line, drawn between the lower border of the symphysis and the sacrococcygeal joint. The postoperative MRI examination enables visualization and estimation of the newly formed muscle sling and of the changes in the ventral urethrosymphyseal fixation. MRI is suitable for diagnosis of periurethral causes of stress incontinence and, generally, is a reliable method for verification of surgical succes. (orig.) [de

  4. Outpatient surgical treatment of female stress urinary incontinence under local anesthesia-sedation with contrasure needleless incision.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Navalón, V; Navalón, P; Pallás, Y; Ordoño, F; Monllor, E

    2014-01-01

    To evaluate the results obtained from out-patient surgical treatment of female stress urinary incontinence (SUI) with the use of trans-obturator tape (TOT) of a single Contrasure-Needleless incision (Neomedic-International). We performed an intervention with local anesthesia-sedation in outpatient regime between January 2007 to December 2011 on 96 patients affected by SUI using the placement of Needleless tension-free suburethral sling. Inclusion and discharge criteria and the results obtained as well as satisfaction grade were evaluated by a questionnaire. All the patients underwent a stress test, urodynamic study and quality of life questionnaire (ICIQ-SF) prior to and at least 3 months after the intervention. Tolerance to the procedure was good. Surgical time was less than 10 minutes and stay in the hospital up to discharge less than 2hours. The results obtained are superimposable to those reached with epidural anesthesia and hospitalization, the grade of satisfactions with the treatment received being superior to 90%. Almost all of the patients affected are candidates for inclusion in an outpatient surgery program. This noticeably improves the cost-efficacy ratio, without decreasing the health care or grade of satisfaction. Furthermore, the Contasure-Needleless system fulfills the criteria for minimally invasive surgery, providing better stability of the sling than the third generation "minibands" due to the greater length of the mesh and less post-operative pain regarding the conventional TOT as no cutaneous incisions are required. Copyright © 2012 AEU. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  5. The Level of Stress in Male and Female School Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Zamirullah; Lanin, Abul Barkat; Ahmad, Naseem

    2015-01-01

    This study aimed at the level of stress in male and female school students. For the purpose of the study the researcher randomly selected 64 school students aged between 14-18 years. To collect the data researcher used students stress scale (SSS) developed by Dr. Zaki Akhtar (2011). During collection of data researcher used means and method fit…

  6. Personality Traits as Predictors of Stress among female Teachers in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The paper investigated the stress level of female teachers in Osun State Teaching Service and determined the relationship between stress and each of the personality traits of self concept, extraversion, locus of control and achievement motivation. Using a sample of 370 teachers drawn from 50 randomly selected primary ...

  7. Puberty influences stress reactivity in female catfish Rhamdia quelen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barcellos, Leonardo J G; Woehl, Viviane M; Koakoski, Gessi; Oliveira, Thiago A; Ferreira, Daiane; da Rosa, João Gabriel S; de Abreu, Murilo S; Quevedo, Rosmari Mezzalira; Fagundes, Michele

    2014-04-10

    We investigated a group of Rhamdia quelen females during their entire first reproductive cycle and beginning of the 2nd cycle by evaluating the stress response at different phases of gonadal maturation. In mammals, including humans, pubertal development modulates stress response reactivity due to the maturation of the neuroendocrine stress axis. These shifts in the stress reactivity were also detected in salmonid fishes. This effect comes from changes in the sensitivity of the stress axis glands or in the capacity of the adrenal tissue to synthesise glucocorticoids. Here, for the first time, we show that similar to mammals and salmonid fishes, pre-pubertal female R. quelen exhibit a protracted stress response compared to adult fish, pointing to puberty as a key event on HPI axis modulation. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Surgical treatment of female stress urinary incontinence with the Gynecare TVT Secur™ System – preliminary report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Włodzimierz Baranowski

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Sling procedures were first introduced over 100 years ago in the treatment of stress urinaryincontinence. Since then they have evolved to become less invasive and safer. The sling procedure using theGynecare TVT Secur™ system is a new therapeutic option for women with stress urinary incontinence.Objectives: To evaluate the efficacy and safety of Gynecare TVT Secur™ in the surgical treatment of stressurinary incontinence in women. Material and methods: The study comprised consecutive female patients admitted to the Department ofGynaecology and Gynaecological Oncology of the Military Institute of Health Services in Warsaw, Poland, whohad been qualified for surgical treatment of stress urinary incontinence on the basis of physical signs and symptomsand the findings of a urodynamic study. The procedure was performed using the Gynecare TVT Secur™system with tapes introduced in an H- or U-shape mode. Results: Between October 2006 and September 2009, 77 sling procedures using the Gynecare TVT Secur™system were performed in women with stress urinary incontinence. Their mean age was 55.1 (30-76 years, meanBMI 28.5 (20.2-43.8 kg/m2. Sixty-nine implants were positioned in H-shape mode, 8 in U-shape mode. Fortyninewomen (63.6% were menopausal, 14 (18.2% previously had three or more natural deliveries, 13 (16.8%had a history of gynaecological surgeries. Thirty-one procedures were performed under general anaesthesia and46 under local anaesthesia. The mean duration of the surgery was 9 (4-42 minutes. It was possible to dischargefifty-seven (74% women on the day of the surgery. Urine retention was observed only in 1 (1.7% woman. Noother complications were recorded. Conclusions: The surgical treatment of urinary incontinence with sling procedures using the Gynecare TVTSecur™ system shows good immediate efficacy and safety. Considering this as well as the short duration ofthe procedure and its good tolerability under local anaesthesia, use

  9. Are prophylactic antibiotics necessary for urodynamic study?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cenk Gürbüz

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to assess the efficacy of prophylactic fosfomycin tromethamine (FT and ciprofloxacin in preventing bacteriuria caused by urodynamic studies (UDS. A total of 426 adult patients presenting for UDS were enrolled the study. A midstream urine sample was taken 72 hours before and 5 days after the procedure. All patients underwent a standard UDS. The 411 patients who had sterile urine before intervention were included in the study. Patients were randomized into three groups. Group1 received no prophylaxis (n = 133, Group 2 (n = 141 received oral ciprofloxacin (500 mg 1 hour before the procedure, and Group 3 (n = 137 received a single dose of FT approximately 12 hours before the procedure. Bacteriuria was evaluated for each group. Bacteriuria was detected in 3 (2.3%, 6 (4.3% and 3 patients (1.6% in Group 1, Group 2, and Group 3, respectively. The most common identified microorganism was Escherichia coli (E coli in 6 patients (50%. Among the E coli group, extended spectrum beta-lactamase producing E coli was seen in 2 patients (33.3%. Univariate analysis demonstrated that a history of urogenital operation (p < 0.01 and female gender (p < 0.01 were significant risk factors for bacteriuria. On multiple logistic regression analysis, the past urogenital operation history was the only significant independent risk factor for significant bacteriuria after UDS (OR = 14, 95% CI = 1.82–23.8, p = 0.01. The prevalence of bacteriuria after UDS was relatively low in the current study population. Therefore, for most patients, it may be unnecessary to use preventive prophylactic antibiotics. However, our results suggest that in patients with a previous history of urologic surgery, the risk for significant bacteriuria is increased and the use of prophylaxis should be considered.

  10. Predictors of Stress Fracture Susceptibility in Young Female Recruits

    Science.gov (United States)

    2004-09-02

    in U.S. Army Combat Medic Advanced individual training. Mil Med. 2000;165:647-652. 15. Hulkko A, Orava S. Stress fractures in athletes . Int J Sports ...379. 24. Miller C, Major N, Toth A. Pelvic stress injuries in the athlete : management and prevention. Sports Med. 2003;33:1003-1012. 25. Myburgh...recruits than has been reported in civilian athletes or male military recruits. Pelvic stress fractures are relatively rare in civilian male and female

  11. Trochanteric Stress Fracture in a Female Window Cleaner

    OpenAIRE

    Lee, Bong-Jin; Song, Jyewon

    2016-01-01

    Stress fractures may occur at various sites in the femur including the head, neck, shaft, supracondylar and condylar regions. To the best of our knowledge, stress fracture occurring in the trochanteric region has not been previously reported. We report here a case of trochanteric stress fracture in a 53-year-old female window cleaner treated with hip nailing without adverse consequences. Careful consideration of this entity is needed when evaluating patients who have repetitive jumping up and...

  12. Temporary amygdala inhibition reduces stress effects in female mice

    OpenAIRE

    Dalooei, Jila Rezaeian; Sahraei, Hedayat; Meftahi, Gholam Hossein; Khosravi, Maryam; Bahari, Zahra; Hatef, Boshra; Mohammadi, Alireza; Nicaeili, Fateme; Eftekhari, Fateme; Ghamari, Fateme; Hadipour, Mohamadmehdi; Kaka, Gholamreza

    2016-01-01

    The current study investigated the effect of temporary inhibition of amygdala in response to metabolic changes caused by stress in female mice. Unilateral and bilateral amygdala cannulation was carried out, and after a week of recovery, 2% lidocaine hydrochloride was injected into the mice amygdalae five minutes before the induction of stress. A communication box was employed to induce stress for four consecutive days and plasma corticosterone, food and water intake, weight changes, and anore...

  13. No primary role of ambulatory urodynamics for the management of spinal cord injury patients compared to conventional urodynamics.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Martens, F.M.J.; Kuppevelt, H.J.M. van; Beekman, J.A.; Heijnen, I.C.; D'Hauwers, K.W.M.; Heesakkers, J.P.F.A.

    2010-01-01

    AIMS: Adequate urodynamic assessment of bladder behavior is essential in spinal cord injury (SCI) patients. Ambulatory urodynamics are more sensitive to detect detrusor overactivity (DO) than conventional urodynamics. The primary objective of this study was to determine the value of ambulatory

  14. PRIMARY NOCTURNAL ENURESIS: A CLINICAL URODYNAMIC ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A urodynamic study was done in patients with polysymptomatic enuresis, a failed previous therapy and enuresis in adults. Initially, patients with monosymptomatic ... Detrusor instability was detected in 36% of the monosymptomatic patients and in 93% of the polysymptomatic patients. Bladder capacities at the first sensation ...

  15. The Correlation Between Clinical and Urodynamic Diagnosis in Classifying the Type of Urinary Incontinence in Women. A Systematic Review of the Literature

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Leijsen, Sanne A. L.; Evert, Janneke S. Hoogstad-van; Mol, Ben Willem J.; Vierhout, Mark E.; Milani, Alfred L.; Heesakkers, John P. F. A.; Kluivers, Kirsten B.

    2011-01-01

    Aims: To determine the reclassification rate of clinically diagnosed stress, mixed, and urge urinary incontinence after urodynamic investigation. Methods: A systematic review of the published literature in MEDLINE and EMBASE of clinical trials among women with urinary incontinence. Studies were

  16. The correlation between clinical and urodynamic diagnosis in classifying the type of urinary incontinence in women. A systematic review of the literature

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Leijsen, S.A.; Hoogstad-van Evert, J.S. van; Mol, B.W.; Vierhout, M.E.; Milani, A.L.; Heesakkers, J.P.F.A.; Kluivers, K.B.

    2011-01-01

    AIMS: To determine the reclassification rate of clinically diagnosed stress, mixed, and urge urinary incontinence after urodynamic investigation. METHODS: A systematic review of the published literature in MEDLINE and EMBASE of clinical trials among women with urinary incontinence. Studies were

  17. Chronic stress and pituitary-adrenal function in female pigs

    OpenAIRE

    Janssens, C.J.J.G.

    1994-01-01

    Introduction

    The main purpose of the studies described in this thesis was to gain more insight in the regulation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenocorticaI (HPA) system and the mechanisms underlying adaptation to chronic stress in female pigs. The function of the HPA axis, which coordinates multiple neuroendocrine and metabolic responses to stressors, has been subject of extensive basic and clinical research. HPA-activation by stressful stimuli results in an increase in circulating ...

  18. Transobturator Tape (TOT) for treatment of female stress incontinence

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective: Evaluation of the transobturator tape (TOT), the newest tension-free technique for the treatment of female stress urinary incontinence (SUI) and its early results with 6 months follow up. Patients and Methods: This study was conducted at King Saud Hospital, Saudi Arabia, between September 2002 and March 2004 ...

  19. Chronic stress and pituitary-adrenal function in female pigs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Janssens, C.J.J.G.

    1994-01-01

    Introduction

    The main purpose of the studies described in this thesis was to gain more insight in the regulation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenocorticaI (HPA) system and the mechanisms underlying adaptation to chronic stress in female pigs. The function of the HPA axis, which

  20. Stress and sleep disturbances in female college students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Shih-Yu; Wuertz, Caroline; Rogers, Rebecca; Chen, Yu-Ping

    2013-11-01

    To describe the sleep characteristics and examine the associations among perceived stress, sleep disturbances, depressive symptoms, and physical symptoms among female college students. A total of 103 students completed a battery of questionnaires. The students experienced high stress during the school year. The majority of them slept less than 6 hours during weekdays and experienced moderate fatigue. High stress levels are associated with sleep disturbances, less nocturnal total sleep time, higher fatigue severity, and more depressive symptoms. Perceived stress and sleep disturbances are significant predictors for depressive symptoms and physical symptoms. Compared to the good sleepers, the poor sleepers reported more daytime sleepiness, depressive symptoms, and physical symptoms. Interventions to reduce stress and improve sleep are critically needed in college education.

  1. Temporary amygdala inhibition reduces stress effects in female mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jila Rezaeian Dalooei

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The current study investigated the effect of temporary inhibition of amygdala in response to metabolic changes caused by stress in female mice. Unilateral and bilateral amygdala cannulation was carried out, and after a week of recovery, 2% lidocaine hydrochloride was injected into the mice amygdalae five minutes before the induction of stress. A communication box was employed to induce stress for four consecutive days and plasma corticosterone, food and water intake, weight changes, and anorexia were measured as stress-induced metabolic changes. Results demonstrated that stress, increases stress, increased plasma corticosterone concentrations, weight, food, and water intake. Temporary inhibition of the amygdala slightly decreased plasma corticosterone concentrations, but did not fully reduce the effect of stress. The bilateral injection of lidocaine hydrochloride to the amygdala reduced the effect of stress and reduced water intake and weight. Unilateral injection of lidocaine hydrochloride into the left and right amygdala reduced food intake. In conclusion, the present study demonstrated that the left side and right side of amygdala nuclei play a different role in metabolic responses in stress.

  2. Therapeutic Effect and Mechanism of Electrical Stimulation in Female Stress Urinary Incontinence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Min, Jie; Li, Bingshu; Liu, Cheng; Hong, Shasha; Tang, Jianming; Hu, Ming; Liu, Yaodan; Li, Suting; Hong, Li

    2017-06-01

    To investigate the therapeutic effect and underlying molecular mechanism of electrical stimulation (ES) in a murine stress urinary incontinence (SUI) model. Sixty female C57BL/6 mice were divided into 4 groups: CON group, no intervention; VD group, vaginal distension (VD) with an 8-mm dilator for 1 hour; VD + ES 20 group, 20 Hz ES for 0.5 hour for 7 days after VD; and VD + ES 50 group, 50 Hz ES for 7 days after VD. For functional studies, assessments of urodynamics and sneezing test were performed; then, anterior vaginal wall specimens were collected. Pathological changes were validated by Masson's trichrome and Van Gieson staining, and the expressions of collagen, transforming growth factor (TGF)-β1-Smad2/3 pathway components, and T-type calcium channels were detected by Western blotting and reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction. ES significantly increased maximum bladder capacity, leak point pressure, and sneezing positive rate in SUI mice. The staining results showed that collagen was disorganized in the VD group but became organized after ES, especially at 50 Hz. The same results were found for collagens I and III. The expression of TGF-β1, p-Smad2 and p-Smad3 significantly decreased in the VD group and significantly increased in the VD + ES groups, especially in the VD + ES 50 group. The expression of 2 T-type calcium channel subtypes (Cav 3.1 and Cav 3.2) decreased in the VD group compared with the CON group, but increased in the VD + ES group compared with the VD group. Dysregulation of collagen metabolism is involved in the pathogenesis of SUI. ES can ameliorate the symptoms of SUI by activating collagen regeneration through the TGFβ1-Smad2/3 pathway. T-type calcium channels might be involved in these processes. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Stressed and Losing Sleep: Sleep Duration and Perceived Stress among Affluent Adolescent Females

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeSilva Mousseau, Angela M.; Lund, Terese J.; Liang, Belle; Spencer, Renée; Walsh, Jill

    2016-01-01

    This study examined the relationship between stress and sleep duration for adolescent females from affluent backgrounds. Participants were 218 students attending two independent single-sex secondary schools. Ordinary Least Squares (OLS) regression models (cross-sectional and longitudinal) were run to examine the association between stress and…

  4. [Female stress urinary incontinence. Surgical repair with pubovaginal sling techniques].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Escribano Patiño, Gregorio; Hernández Fernández, Carlos; Subirá Ríos, David; Castaño González, Irene; Moralejo Gárate, Mercedes; Martinez Salamanca, Juan Ignacio

    2002-11-01

    To review the treatment of female stress urinary incontinence by new systems of tension-free urethral sling TVT type (Tension free vaginal tape) or IVS (intravaginal slingplasty), and the bone anchoring trasvaginal sling procedure Infast. We describe the surgical techniques of the various procedures and perform a bibliographic review on the topic. The pubovaginal sling has become the gold standard in the treatment of female stress urinary incontinence, mainly if there is sphincter intrinsic dysfunction. The concept of tension free medium urethra support has been the most important contribution, that questions the classification of incontinence in types I, II and III, because the pubocervical tension free sling can correct all three. Tension free urethral sling techniques have demonstrated to be effective, minimally invasive with a low complication rate, easily reproducible, and with good continence results in the mid-term.

  5. Circulatory Responses to Operative Stress in Females with Gestosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. V. Mikhno

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: to study the specific features of hemodynamic responses in females with gestosis in the perioperative period; to evaluate the impact of intensive care on the basis of co-administration of dalargin, dexamethasone, pen-toxifylline, and reamberin.Materials and methods. A Diamant KM-AP-01 rheograph (Saint Petersburg was used to study hemodynamic parameters in 142 patients in whom surgical delivery was made under spinal anesthesia. A control group comprised 30 patients with uncomplicated pregnancy; Group 1 included 26 females with moderate gestosis; Group 2 consisted of 27 females with moderate gestosis who received the developed intensive care regimen; Group 3 comprised 29 females with severe gestosis; Group 4 included 30 females to whom the developed intensive care regimen was applied on the basis of the concurrent use of dalargin, dexamethasone, pentoxifylline, and reamberin.Results: A neurogenic mechanism prevails in females with moderate gestosis. The decreased baseline cardiac index is mostly due to a high postload. Surgical stress does not deteriorate postoperative circulatory parameters, which suggests that females with moderate gestosis have adequate capacities for self-regulation. As gestosis progresses to a severe degree, a role of humoral mechanisms increases in the maintenance of arteriolar spasm. Arteriolar spasm and hypokinetic hemodynamics are retained within 5 postoperative days, which is indicative of the inadequacy of self-regulation and compensatory mechanisms in overcoming two stressors: severe gestosis and surgical aggression.Conclusion: the intensive care regimen developed on the basis of combined use of dalargin, dexamethasone, pentoxifylline, and reamberin favors a more intensive (the promptest normalization of circulatory parameters after surgical delivery in females with moderate and severe gestosis. 

  6. Is the adjustable TVA mesh effective for the long-term treatment of female stress incontinence?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romero-Maroto, J; Pérez-Seoane, H; Gómez-Perez, L; Pérez-Tomás, C; Pacheco-Bru, J J; López-López, A

    To assess the long-term safety and efficacy of the adjustable TVA mesh in treating stress urinary incontinence. Pseudoexperimental study, before and after, conducted in a university urology department. Eighty-two patients were invited to participate from January 2002 to March 2005. Thirty-two patients agreed to participate and were implanted an adjustable TVA mesh. The preoperative study included a medical history review, physical examination with full bladder, flowmetry, residue study, complete urodynamic study and the self-administered questionnaires I-QoL and ICIQ-SF. In the postoperative assessment, the PGI-I questionnaire was added, but a complete urodynamic study was not performed. Twenty-nine (90.6%) and 28 (87.5%) patients were continent in the stress test at 1 and 10 years, respectively. Twenty (62.5%) and 16 (50%) patients had no urine escape at 1 and 10 years, respectively. Twenty-eight (87.5%) and 25 (78%) patients were satisfied 1 and 10 years after the surgery, respectively. Twenty-eight (87.5%) and 21 (62.5%) patients had a good quality of life at 1 year and at 10 years, respectively. There were no significant complications at the end of the study period. Treatment of stress urinary incontinence with the TVA mesh presented a high degree of objective healing and satisfaction at 10 years, with no severe adverse effects. The study showed that satisfaction does not always mean total continence but rather it reflects the improvement of symptoms and consequent quality of life. Copyright © 2016 AEU. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  7. Diagnosis and conservative management of female stress urinary incontinence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anil Krishna Dass

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Urinary incontinence affects 17–45% of women worldwide and stress urinary incontinence is responsible for 48% of all cases. Detailed history, physical examination and investigations are crucial to identify the diagnosis underlying the incontinence symptoms to select effective therapy. Although mid-urethral sling procedures are considered to be ‘gold standard’ treatment of SUI, conservative treatment with pelvic floor muscle training and lifestyle modification is still the first line of management. This article discusses the diagnosis and conservative management of female SUI.

  8. Oxidative Stress in Female Athletes Using Combined Oral Contraceptives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cauci, Sabina; Buligan, Cinzia; Marangone, Micaela; Francescato, Maria Pia

    2016-12-01

    Oxidative stress in female athletes is understudied. We investigated oxidative stress in sportswomen of different disciplines according to combined oral contraceptive (OC) use and lifestyle/alimentary habits. Italian sportswomen (n = 144; mean age 23.4 ± 4.2 years; body mass index 21.2 ± 2.2 kg m -2 ; sport activity 9.2 ± 4.1 h week -1 ) were analyzed; 48 % were volleyball players, 12.5 % soccer players, 10.4 % track-and-field sports, and followed by other disciplines' athletes. Oxidative stress was evaluated by free oxygen radical test (FORT) assessing blood hydroperoxides and free oxygen radical defense (FORD) assay evaluating antioxidant capacity in OC users (n = 42) compared to non-OC users. Elevated oxidative stress levels (≥310 FORT units) were found in 92.9 % of OC users and in 23.5 % of non-OC users (crude OR = 42, 95 % CI 12-149, p chocolate and fish consumption. The markedly elevated oxidative stress we revealed in OC-user athletes could be detrimental to physical activity and elevate cardiovascular risk (as thromboembolism). Further research is needed to extend our results, to clarify the biochemical pathways leading to increased hydroperoxides (mainly lipid peroxides) and reduced antioxidant defense, and to elucidate the potential effects on athletic performance. OC use should be considered when developing gender-focused strategies against oxidative stress.

  9. Power of Proteomics in Linking Oxidative Stress and Female Infertility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Sajal; Sharma, Rakesh; Agarwal, Ashok

    2014-01-01

    Endometriosis, PCOS, and unexplained infertility are currently the most common diseases rendering large numbers of women infertile worldwide. Oxidative stress, due to its deleterious effects on proteins and nucleic acids, is postulated to be the one of the important mechanistic pathways in differential expression of proteins and in these diseases. The emerging field of proteomics has allowed identification of proteins involved in cell cycle, as antioxidants, extracellular matrix (ECM), cytoskeleton, and their linkage to oxidative stress in female infertility related diseases. The aim of this paper is to assess the association of oxidative stress and protein expression in the reproductive microenvironments such as endometrial fluid, peritoneal fluid, and follicular fluid, as well as reproductive tissues and serum. The review also highlights the literature that proposes the use of the fertility related proteins as potential biomarkers for noninvasive and early diagnosis of the aforementioned diseases rather than utilizing the more invasive methods used currently. The review will highlight the power of proteomic profiles identified in infertility related disease conditions and their linkage with underlying oxidative stress. The power of proteomics will be reviewed with regard to eliciting molecular mechanisms for early detection and management of these infertility related conditions. PMID:24900998

  10. Power of Proteomics in Linking Oxidative Stress and Female Infertility

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sajal Gupta

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Endometriosis, PCOS, and unexplained infertility are currently the most common diseases rendering large numbers of women infertile worldwide. Oxidative stress, due to its deleterious effects on proteins and nucleic acids, is postulated to be the one of the important mechanistic pathways in differential expression of proteins and in these diseases. The emerging field of proteomics has allowed identification of proteins involved in cell cycle, as antioxidants, extracellular matrix (ECM, cytoskeleton, and their linkage to oxidative stress in female infertility related diseases. The aim of this paper is to assess the association of oxidative stress and protein expression in the reproductive microenvironments such as endometrial fluid, peritoneal fluid, and follicular fluid, as well as reproductive tissues and serum. The review also highlights the literature that proposes the use of the fertility related proteins as potential biomarkers for noninvasive and early diagnosis of the aforementioned diseases rather than utilizing the more invasive methods used currently. The review will highlight the power of proteomic profiles identified in infertility related disease conditions and their linkage with underlying oxidative stress. The power of proteomics will be reviewed with regard to eliciting molecular mechanisms for early detection and management of these infertility related conditions.

  11. A prospective observational trial of pelvic floor muscle training for female stress urinary incontinence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balmforth, James R; Mantle, Jill; Bidmead, John; Cardozo, Linda

    2006-10-01

    To assess the impact of pelvic floor muscle training (PFMT) on bladder neck mobility in a prospective observational study, and to correlate any observed changes with objective, standardized outcome measures of the severity of stress urinary incontinence (SUI). Women with the symptom of SUI were recruited prospectively over a 3-year period from a tertiary referral urogynaecology clinic in a teaching hospital. A group of 97 treatment-naive women complaining of SUI and confirmed as having urodynamic SUI on video-urodynamic assessment agreed to participate. Bladder neck mobility on perineal ultrasonography was assessed immediately before and on completing a 14-week programme of 'PFM rehabilitation'. Treatment outcome was assessed using a standardized pad-test and a condition-specific, validated quality-of-life questionnaire (King's Health Questionnaire). Changes in functional anatomy were quantified using transperineal ultrasonography to measure the bladder neck position at rest, maximum PFM contraction and maximum Valsalva manoeuvre. Bladder neck rotational mobility from rest to maximum incursion and maximum excursion was calculated. Treatment with an intensive package of PFMT and behavioural modification resulted in significant elevation of the bladder neck position at all three measured positions. Displacement of the bladder neck on Valsalva (rotational excursion) was reduced after treatment, suggesting increased levator 'stiffness'. These changes in functional anatomy were associated with a statistically and clinically significant reduction in urine loss and improvement in condition-specific quality of life. The present results show that PFMT is an effective treatment for SUI and provide an important new insight into how dynamic pelvic floor anatomy can be modified by this widely used intervention.

  12. Urodynamic characteristics might be variable in bladder pain syndrome/interstitial cystitis patients with different non-bladder co-morbid conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Wei-Ming; Fan, Yu-Hua; Lin, Alex T L

    2018-03-01

    The aim of the study was to identify the impact of non-bladder co-morbid conditions on the urodynamic characteristics of patients with bladder pain syndrome/interstitial cystitis. Patients with bladder pain syndrome/interstitial cystitis completed the screening questionnaires for chronic fatigue syndrome, irritable bowel syndrome, fibromyalgia, temporo-mandibular disorders, multiple chemical sensitivities, tension/migraine headache, and localized myofascial pain disorder. They underwent either conventional pressure-flow urodynamic studies or video-urodynamic studies. Urodynamic variables were compared between patients with and those without co-morbid conditions. Of 111 patients (16 males and 95 females) with bladder pain syndrome/interstitial cystitis, 87 (78.4%) had at least one co-morbid condition (62% males vs 82% females, p = 0.005). Those with concomitant irritable bowel syndrome were younger and had urodynamic characteristics of smaller catheter-free voided volume, lower catheter-free average flow rate, smaller bladder volume on the first desire to void, and more prevalent dysfunctional voiding than those without irritable bowel syndrome. Patients with concomitant localized myofascial pain disorder also had larger bladder volume at the first desire to void and lower pressure at maximum flow than those without co-morbid myofascial pain disorder. There were no significant differences in urodynamic parameters between bladder pain syndrome/interstitial cystitis patients with and those without other co-morbidities. Bladder pain syndrome/interstitial cystitis patients, especially females, are more likely to have non-bladder co-morbidities, especially tension/migraine headache and localized myofascial pain. Bladder pain syndrome/interstitial cystitis Patients with co-morbid irritable bowel syndrome are younger and more likely to have abnormal urodynamic findings. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Taiwan LLC.

  13. The effects of oxidative stress on female reproduction: a review

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Oxidative stress (OS), a state characterized by an imbalance between pro-oxidant molecules including reactive oxygen and nitrogen species, and antioxidant defenses, has been identified to play a key role in the pathogenesis of subfertility in both males and females. The adverse effects of OS on sperm quality and functions have been well documented. In females, on the other hand, the impact of OS on oocytes and reproductive functions remains unclear. This imbalance between pro-oxidants and antioxidants can lead to a number of reproductive diseases such as endometriosis, polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS), and unexplained infertility. Pregnancy complications such as spontaneous abortion, recurrent pregnancy loss, and preeclampsia, can also develop in response to OS. Studies have shown that extremes of body weight and lifestyle factors such as cigarette smoking, alcohol use, and recreational drug use can promote excess free radical production, which could affect fertility. Exposures to environmental pollutants are of increasing concern, as they too have been found to trigger oxidative states, possibly contributing to female infertility. This article will review the currently available literature on the roles of reactive species and OS in both normal and abnormal reproductive physiological processes. Antioxidant supplementation may be effective in controlling the production of ROS and continues to be explored as a potential strategy to overcome reproductive disorders associated with infertility. However, investigations conducted to date have been through animal or in vitro studies, which have produced largely conflicting results. The impact of OS on assisted reproductive techniques (ART) will be addressed, in addition to the possible benefits of antioxidant supplementation of ART culture media to increase the likelihood for ART success. Future randomized controlled clinical trials on humans are necessary to elucidate the precise mechanisms through which OS affects female

  14. [Urodynamic changes after bladder augmentation surgery in paediatric patients with myelomeningocele due to neurogenic bladder].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaragoza Torres, Raúl Ignacio; Galarza-Flores, Mario Eduardo; Gómez-Castellanos, Julio Cesar; Barrera-de León, Juan Carlos

    2016-01-01

    Augmentation cystoplasty is a successful surgical procedure for the management of neurogenic bladder in children in order to improve urodynamic parameters. The aim of this article is to describe urodynamic changes after augmentation cystoplasty in children with myelomeningocele. A descriptive cross-sectional study including children aged 8-16 years with a myelomeningocele operated on for augmentation cystoplasty surgery with sigmoid colon segments due to a neurogenic bladder from the years 2003-2013. A urodynamic study was conducted before and after the surgical procedure. Non-probabilistic sample of consecutive cases. Descriptive statistics with frequencies and percentages, medians, and ranges. Inferential intra-group comparison with the Wilcoxon test and inter-group with Mann-Whitney U. SPSS 20.0 statistical package. The study included 50 patients, of whom 25 were male and 25 were female, with a median age of 12 years (range, 6-15 years). Bladder capacity improved from 52.8% to 95.9% (p<0.001), uninhibited contractions 1.4-1.8, contraction intensity 47-8.5 (p<0.001), mean pre-surgical and post-surgical filling pressure 40.8cm H2O and 11.0cm H2O, respectively (p<0.001), mean emptying pressure 48.5 vs. 3.6cm H2O (p<0.001), and bladder accommodation 4.6 vs. 41.3cm H2O (p<0.001). Augmentation cystoplasty with sigmoid colon significantly improved urodynamic parameters, such as bladder accommodation and filling pressure in children with myelomeningocele-associated neurogenic bladder. Copyright © 2015 Academia Mexicana de Cirugía A.C. Published by Masson Doyma México S.A. All rights reserved.

  15. The influence of menstrual cycle and androstadienone on female stress reactions: an fMRI study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ka Chun eChung

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Communicating threats and stress via biological signaling is common in animals. In humans, androstadienone (ANDR, a synthetic male steroid, is a socially relevant chemosignal exhibited to increase positive mood and cortisol levels specifically in (periovulatory females in positively arousing contexts. In a negative context, we expected that such effects of ANDR could amplify social evaluative threat depending on the stress sensitivity, which differs between menstrual cycle phases. Therefore, this fMRI study aimed to examine psychosocial stress reactions on behavioral, hormonal and neural levels in 31 naturally cycling females, between 15 early follicular (EF and 16 mid-luteal (ML females tested with ANDR and placebo treatment in a repeated-measures design.Regardless of odor stimulation, psychosocial stress (i.e. mental arithmetic task with social evaluative threat led to elevated negative mood and anxiety in all females. A negative association of social threat related amygdala activation and competence ratings appeared in ML-females, indicating enhanced threat processing by ANDR, particularly in ML-females who felt less competent early in the stress experience. Further, ML-females showed reduced performance and stronger stress-related hippocampus activation compared to EF-females under ANDR. Hippocampal activation in ML-females also correlated positively with post-stress subjective stress. Contrarily, such patterns were not observed in EF-females or under placebo in either group. Strikingly, unlike passive emotional processing, ANDR in a stressful context decreased cortisol concentration in all females. This points to a more complex interaction of ovarian/gonadal hormones in social threat processing and stress reactivity.Our findings suggest that ANDR enhanced initial evaluation of self-related social threat in ML-females. Female stress reactions are related to stress sensitivity through enhanced awareness and processing of social cues in a

  16. [Urodynamic disturbances among children with vesico-ureteral reflux (VUR)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piechuta, Leszek; Bieniaś, Beata; Wieczorkiewicz-Płaza, Anna; Borzecka, Halina; Zajaczkowska, Małgorzata

    2008-01-01

    Lower urinary tract dysfunction plays significant role in patogenesis of vesicoureteral reflux (VUR). Thus, urodynamic assessment is very useful in diagnosis and treatment of VUR. Assessment of the incidence of urodynamic disturbances among children with VUR. Retrospective assessment of 125 children with VUR including 93 assessed urodymically. Urodynamic disturbances were found in 58 patients (70.9% of examined children), of which--detrussor hyperactivity in 25 (43.1% of children with urodynamic disturbances), detrussor hyperactivity with subvesical obstruction or dysfunctional voiding in 6 (10.3%), dysfunctional voiding in 17 (29.3%), anatomical subvesical obstruction in 9 (15.5%), detrussor hypotony in 1 (1.7%). No disturbances were found in 27 (29.1% of examined children). Children with detrussor overactivity were the prevalent group among all children with lower urinary tract dysfunction. Children with lower urinary tract dysfunction constitute a significant part of children with VUR.

  17. The neurocognitive performance of female veterans with posttraumatic stress disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stricker, Nikki H; Keller, Jenna E; Castillo, Diane T; Haaland, Kathleen Y

    2015-04-01

    Neurocognitive problems are common with posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and are important to understand because of their association with the success of PTSD treatment and its potential neural correlates. To our knowledge, this is the first neurocognitive study in an all-female U.S. veteran sample, some of whom had PTSD. We examined neurocognitive performance and assessed whether learning deficits, common in PTSD, were associated with executive functioning. Veterans with PTSD (n = 56) and without (n = 53) were evaluated for psychiatric and neurocognitive status. The PTSD group had a lower estimated IQ (d = 0.53) and performed more poorly on all neurocognitive domains (d range = 0.57-0.88), except verbal retention (d = 0.04). A subset of the 2 groups that were matched on IQ and demographics similarly demonstrated poorer performance for the PTSD group on all neurocognitive domains (d range = 0.52-0.79), except verbal retention (d = 0.15). Within the PTSD group, executive functioning accounted for significant variance in verbal learning over and above IQ and processing speed (ΔR(2) = .06), as well as depression (ΔR(2) = .07) and PTSD severity (ΔR(2) = .06). This study demonstrated that female veterans with PTSD performed more poorly than females without PTSD on several neurocognitive domains, including verbal learning, processing speed, and executive functioning. Replication of these results using a control group of veterans with more similar trauma exposure, history of mild traumatic brain injury, and psychiatric comorbidities would solidify these findings. Published 2015. This article is a U.S. Government work and is in the public domain in the USA.

  18. Coping with the Stress of Infertility. Males Versus Females.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozkan, Sevgi; Karabulut, Aysun; Oğuz, Nevin; Sorkun, Hülya Cetin

    2015-01-01

    To investigate ways of coping with stress in infertile men and women. The study population was composed of 255 women and 238 men (total, 493) admitted to an infertility clinic between May 2012 and December 2012. A questionnaire was used to gather information and the Ways of Coping inventory was used for the evaluation of patients. The mean age of the study population was 28.33 ± 5.59 (mean ± SD) for females and 31.60 ± 5.64 for males. We found similar coping scores for men and women in all subscales (Self-confident, Desperate, Obedient, Optimistic, Social Support Seeking) (p > 0.05). The variables affected Coping with Stress Scores in a similar way for both women and men except for "age" and "the desire for psychological support." The Optimistic approach score was worse in men over age 35 and better in those desiring psychological support in both sexes (p Infertile men and women use similar coping strategies and have similar coping scores. They mainly use active strategies at a moderate level. Increasing age in the male group, and lack of desire for psychological support in both sexes, are the factors negatively affecting the Optimistic approach scores.

  19. Tension-Free Vaginal Tape, Transobturator Tape, and Own Modification of Transobturator Tape in the Treatment of Female Stress Urinary Incontinence: Comparative Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcin Zyczkowski

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. This study is a comparative evaluation of the TVT, TOT, and our own modification of TOT (mTOT in the treatment of female stress urinary incontinence from a single center experience. Material and Methods. The study was conducted on 527 patients with SUI diagnosed on the basis of urodynamic studies. They were divided into three groups—TVT: n=142, (TOT: n=129, and mTOT: n=256. All of the patients underwent evaluation at 1, 3, and 6 months after surgery. Results were statistically analysed and compared. Results. Objective and subjective effectiveness after the surgery were not significantly different in the study groups and ranged from 90.1% to 96.4%. Mean surgery time was 32.3, 28.2, and 26.4 in the TVT, TOT, and mTOT, respectively. Mean hospitalization time was 2.51 days. Mean catheter maintenance time was significantly higher in the TVT than in other groups. In the TVT group total incidence of complications was 13.4%, and it was significantly higher than that in TOT and mTOT (9.3% and 8.6%, resp.. Conclusions. TVT, TOT, and mTOT are highly effective and safe methods in the treatment of SUI. There are no differences in the efficacy between the methods with a little higher percentage of complications in the TVT group.

  20. One-Year Surgical Outcomes and Quality of Life after Minimally Invasive Sling Procedures for the Treatment of Female Stress Urinary Incontinence: TVT SECUR® vs. CureMesh®

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joo, Young Min; Choe, Jin Ho

    2010-01-01

    Purpose We compared the efficacy and safety of two minimally invasive sling procedures used to treat female stress urinary incontinence (SUI), tension-free vaginal tape (TVT) SECUR® and CureMesh®, and assessed the 1-year surgical outcomes. Materials and Methods Sixty women with SUI were assigned to undergo either the TVT SECUR (n=38) or CureMesh (n=22) procedures between April 2007 and June 2008. Patients were monitored via outpatient visits at 1 month, 3 months, and 1 year after surgery. The efficacy of these procedures was evaluated by the cough test or by a urodynamic study. At these postoperative visits, the patients also completed several questionnaires, including incontinence quality of life, patient's perception of urgency severity, the scored form of the Bristol Female Lower Urinary Tract Symptoms, visual analog scale, and questions about perceived benefit, satisfaction, and willingness to undergo the same operation again. The objective cure rate was defined as no leakage during the cough test with a full bladder. The subjective cure rate was evaluated by self-assessment of goal achievement performed 1 year postoperatively. Results The two groups were similar in preoperative characteristics and urodynamic parameters. The objective cure rates were similar between TVT SECUR and CureMesh (68.4% vs. 77.3%). All respondents reported improvement after surgery. There were no intra-operative complications. Conclusions Our results showed that the TVT SECUR and CureMesh procedures are both safe and simple to perform and have no significant differences in efficacy. Comparative studies with long-term follow-up are warranted to determine the true efficacy of these procedures. PMID:20495697

  1. [Evaluation of the empty bladder stress test in supine position as a marker of severity and quality of life in women with stress urinary incontinence].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arribillaga, Leandro; Ledesma, Marta; Bengió, Rubén G; Montedoro, Ariel; Pisano, Florencia; Orellana, Sergio; García Önto, Hernán; Bengió, Rubén H

    2016-06-01

    To assess the association between empty bladder stress test and objective and subjective measures of stress urinary incontinence (SUI) severity. Prospective, analytic and descriptive study of females with diagnosis of stress urinary incontinence referred for urodynamics study. Every patient underwent medical history (including number of daily pads) and physical examination, ISIQ-SF and short IIQ-7 questionnaires, and full urodynamic study, including the measurment of the abdominal leak pressure point (ALPP). Positive empty stress test was defined as stress urine leak on physical exam after uroflowmetry evacuation and in absence of significant post-void residual. To evaluate the relationship between empty bladder stress test and each one of the stress urinary incontinence severity measures, Stundent's t test was performed, considering a 〈0.05 value statistically significant. 107 patients were studied in the final analysis; of them 49 had empty bladder stress test (+) and 58 (-). Patients with positive test wet a greater number of protectors per day (3.9 vs 2.8; p 0.013), higher ICIQSF score (15.04 vs 12.22; p 0.0007), higher IIQ-7 score (52.2 vs 37.5; p 0.0049) and lower urodynamics ALPP (73 cm H2O vs 91 cm H2O; p 0.0002). Patients with SUI and positive empty bladder stress test had a strong association with the objective and subjective perception of urine incontinence severity with a negative impact in patients quality of life.

  2. Update on stress fractures in female athletes: epidemiology, treatment, and prevention

    OpenAIRE

    Chen, Yin-Ting; Tenforde, Adam S.; Fredericson, Michael

    2013-01-01

    Stress fractures are a common type of overuse injury in athletes. Females have unique risk factors such as the female athlete triad that contribute to stress fracture injuries. We review the current literature on risk factors for stress fractures, including the role of sports participation and nutrition factors. Discussion of the management of stress fractures is focused on radiographic criteria and anatomic location and how these contribute to return to play guidelines. We outline the curren...

  3. Mechanical contribution to lumbar stress injuries in female gymnasts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, S J

    1986-12-01

    Because female gymnasts as a group display higher than average incidences of stress-related pathologies of the lumbar spine, it was of interest to evaluate mechanical factors which are potential contributors. Lumbar hyperextension and impact forces were quantified for performances of five commonly executed gymnastics skills by four competitive collegiate women gymnasts. The skills performed were the front walkover, the back walkover, and the front handspring, the back handspring, and the handspring vault. Wielke's (1983) radius method was used to quantify lumbar curvatures from film data during normal relaxed standing postures and during subject performances of the five selected skills. A force platform was used to monitor vertical and lateral ground reaction forces at the terminations of the respective skill performances. Of the skills examined, the handspring vault produced the highest vertical and lateral impact forces, and the back handspring and back walkover required the greatest amounts of lumbar hyperextension. During the front and back walkovers and during the back handspring, maximum lumbar hyperextension occurred very close to the time that impact force was sustained by either the hands or the feet.

  4. Comparison of Efficacy and Satisfaction between the TVT-SECUR® and MONARC® Procedures for the Treatment of Female Stress Urinary Incontinence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeong, Moo Youl; Kim, Su Jin; Kim, Hyo Sin; Koh, Jun Sung; Kim, Joon Chul

    2010-11-01

    The tension-free vaginal tape SECUR® (TVT-S) is a new, minimally invasive sling procedure for treating female stress urinary incontinence (SUI). However, results of comparisons of the TVT-S with the transobturator tape (TOT) sling are lacking. Therefore, we investigated outcome and satisfaction of the TVT-S procedure compared with the TOT procedure. We included 64 patients with SUI who underwent the TVT-S (n=31) or TOT (MONARC®, n=33) procedure and were followed up for more than 1 year. The preoperative evaluation included history taking, pelvic examination, consecutive 3-day voiding diary, and urodynamic study including Valsalva leak point pressure. Postoperatively, continence status and subjective patient satisfaction were evaluated. Cure was defined as the absence of any episodes of involuntary urine leakage during stressful activities and a stress cough test. The TVT-S group (71.0%) showed a slightly lower cure rate than did the MONARC group (84.8%); however, there was no significant difference between the 2 groups (p=0.179). Nine of the patients who underwent the TVT-S showed incontinence postoperatively. Among them, the H approach was used in 7 patients and the U approach was done in 2 patients. Following TVT-S and MONARC, the patients' reported satisfaction was 80.6% and 78.8%, respectively. Patient satisfaction did not differ significantly between the two groups (p=0.854). Our results showed that the TVT-S and MONARC procedures may be comparable in terms of cure rate and patient satisfaction after more than 1 year of follow-up.

  5. Monitoring Perceived Stress and Recovery in Relation to Cycling Performance in Female Athletes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Otter, R. T. A.; Brink, M. S.; van der Does, H. T. D.; Lemmink, K. A. P. M.

    The purpose was to investigate perceived stress and recovery related to cycling performance of female athletes over one full year. 20 female athletes ( age, 27 +/- 8 years; VO2max, 50.3 +/- 4.6 mL center dot kg(-1) center dot min(-1)) were measured 8 times in one year to determine perceived stress

  6. Urodynamic characteristics might be variable in bladder pain syndrome/interstitial cystitis patients with different non-bladder co-morbid conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei-Ming Cheng

    2018-03-01

    Conclusion: Bladder pain syndrome/interstitial cystitis patients, especially females, are more likely to have non-bladder co-morbidities, especially tension/migraine headache and localized myofascial pain. Bladder pain syndrome/interstitial cystitis Patients with co-morbid irritable bowel syndrome are younger and more likely to have abnormal urodynamic findings.

  7. Relevance of stress and female sex hormones for emotion and cognition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    ter Horst, J P; de Kloet, E R; Schächinger, H; Oitzl, M S

    2012-07-01

    There are clear sex differences in incidence and onset of stress-related and other psychiatric disorders in humans. Yet, rodent models for psychiatric disorders are predominantly based on male animals. The strongest argument for not using female rodents is their estrous cycle and the fluctuating sex hormones per phase which multiplies the number of animals to be tested. Here, we will discuss studies focused on sex differences in emotionality and cognitive abilities in experimental conditions with and without stress. First, female sex hormones such as estrogens and progesterone affect emotions and cognition, contributing to sex differences in behavior. Second, females respond differently to stress than males which might be related to the phase of the estrous cycle. For example, female rats and mice express less anxiety than males in a novel environment. Proestrus females are less anxious than females in the other estrous phases. Third, males perform in spatial tasks superior to females. However, while stress impairs spatial memory in males, females improve their spatial abilities, depending on the task and kind of stressor. We conclude that the differences in emotion, cognition and responses to stress between males and females over the different phases of the estrous cycle should be used in animal models for stress-related psychiatric disorders.

  8. Stress urinary incontinence surgery trends in academic female pelvic medicine and reconstructive surgery urology practice in the setting of the food and drug administration public health notifications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rac, Goran; Younger, Austin; Clemens, James Q; Kobashi, Kathleen; Khan, Aqsa; Nitti, Victor; Jacobs, Ilana; Lemack, Gary E; Brown, Elizabeth T; Dmochowski, Roger; MacLachlan, Lara; Mourtzinos, Arthur; Ginsberg, David; Koski, Michelle; Rames, Ross; Rovner, Eric S

    2017-04-01

    To investigate the possible effects of the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) Public Health Notifications in 2008 and 2011 regarding surgical trends in transvaginal mesh (TVM) placement for stress urinary incontinence (SUI) and related mesh revision surgery in Female Pelvic Medicine & Reconstructive Surgery (FPMRS) practice in tertiary care academic medical centers in the United States. Surgical volume for procedures performed primarily by FPMRS surgeons at eight academic institutions across the US was collected using Current Procedural Terminology (CPT) codes for stress urinary incontinence repair and revision surgeries from 2007 to 2013. SAS statistical software was used to assess for trends in the data. There was a decrease in the use of synthetic mesh sling for the treatment of SUI at academic tertiary care centers over the past 7 years; however, this was not statistically significant. While the total number of surgical interventions for SUI remained stable, there was an increase in the utilization of autologous fascia pubovaginal slings (AFPVS). The number of mesh sling revision surgeries, including urethrolysis and removal or revision of slings, increased almost three-fold at these centers. These observed trends suggest a possible effect of the FDA Public Health Notifications regarding TVM on surgical practice for SUI in academic centers, even though they did not specifically warn against the use of synthetic mesh for this indication. Indications for surgery, complications, and outcomes were not evaluated during this retrospective study. However, such data may provide alternative insights into reasons for the observed trends. Neurourol. Urodynam. 36:1155-1160, 2017. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  9. Effect of extracorporeal magnetic energy stimulation on bothersome lower urinary tract symptoms and quality of life in female patients with stress urinary incontinence and overactive bladder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lo, Tsia-Shu; Tseng, Ling-Hong; Lin, Yi-Hao; Liang, Ching-Chung; Lu, Ching-Yi; Pue, Leng Boi

    2013-11-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the efficacy of extracorporeal magnetic stimulation (EMS) for the treatment of bothersome and severe symptoms of stress urinary incontinence (SUI) and overactive bladder syndrome (OAB) in female patients. A retrospective review was conducted on patients with SUI and OAB who were referred to EMS therapy. Successful treatment for the bothersome symptoms of OAB and SUI was defined as score ≤1 for questions 2 and 3 on the Urodynamic Distress Inventory-6. The objective cure of SUI and OAB was defined as no urinary leakage during the cough stress test and any urgency, urge incontinence and voiding frequency of less than eight times per 24 h based on the 3-day bladder diary, after the 9 weeks of treatment, respectively. Ninety-three patients with SUI or OAB underwent a 9-week course of EMS at 20 min twice weekly. Seventy-two (77%) patients completed EMS treatment. Geographical factor and poor economic status were two main factors for dropout. A total of 94.1% (32 of 34) and 86.8% (33 of 38) of subjects had successful treatment for the bothersome symptoms of OAB and SUI, respectively. In contrast, the cure rate for OAB and SUI was only 61.7% and 42.1%, respectively. There was also a significant improvement in both Urogenital Distress Inventory Short Form (bothersome on lower urinary tract symptoms) and the Incontinence Impact Questionnaire Short Form (quality of life) total score in both groups after EMS. EMS is a safe and effective alternative method for treating SUI and OAB. Further studies are needed to evaluate the long-term efficacy. © 2013 The Authors. Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology Research © 2013 Japan Society of Obstetrics and Gynecology.

  10. Developmental stress impairs performance on an association task in male and female songbirds, but impairs auditory learning in females only.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farrell, Tara M; Morgan, Amanda; MacDougall-Shackleton, Scott A

    2016-01-01

    In songbirds, early-life environments critically shape song development. Many studies have demonstrated that developmental stress impairs song learning and the development of song-control regions of the brain in males. However, song has evolved through signaller-receiver networks and the effect stress has on the ability to receive auditory signals is equally important, especially for females who use song as an indicator of mate quality. Female song preferences have been the metric used to evaluate how developmental stress affects auditory learning, but preferences are shaped by many non-cognitive factors and preclude the evaluation of auditory learning abilities in males. To determine whether developmental stress specifically affects auditory learning in both sexes, we subjected juvenile European starlings, Sturnus vulgaris, to either an ad libitum or an unpredictable food supply treatment from 35 to 115 days of age. In adulthood, we assessed learning of both auditory and visual discrimination tasks. Females reared in the experimental group were slower than females in the control group to acquire a relative frequency auditory task, and slower than their male counterparts to acquire an absolute frequency auditory task. There was no difference in auditory performance between treatment groups for males. However, on the colour association task, birds from the experimental group committed more errors per trial than control birds. There was no correlation in performance across the cognitive tasks. Developmental stress did not affect all cognitive processes equally across the sexes. Our results suggest that the male auditory system may be more robust to developmental stress than that of females.

  11. Cardiovascular response during urodynamics in individuals with spinal cord injury

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liu, N; Zhou, M-W; Biering-Sørensen, F

    2017-01-01

    STUDY DESIGN: Retrospective chart review. OBJECTIVES: To establish the frequency and severity of autonomic dysreflexia (AD) during urodynamics among individuals with chronic spinal cord injury (SCI) and to investigate the possible effect of the number of years since SCI on the severity of AD...... was more severe in individuals with complete (American Spinal Cord Association (ASIA) impairment scale (AIS) A) injuries, worse with greater time after SCI. CONCLUSION: Individuals with cervical SCI, DSD, poor bladder compliance or >2 years after SCI were associated with a higher possibility of developing...... AD during urodynamics. Furthermore, AD was more severe in complete (AIS A) individuals and was exacerbated with time after injury....

  12. Self-Reported Work and Family Stress of Female Primary Teachers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Narelle; Clarke, Valerie; Lavery, Judy

    2003-01-01

    Results of a self-report questionnaire indicated that female primary teachers in Australia report moderate levels of global, work, and family stress. Time and workload pressure was the major work stressor, and responsibility for child rearing the major family stressor. Work stress and home stress both impacted on each other. (EV)

  13. [Calcium and bone metabolism across women's life stages. Stress fracture in female athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yagishita, Kazuyoshi

    Stress fractures are common overuse injuries in athletes, especially in long-distance runner, jumping sports and gymnastics in female athletes. The pathology of stress fracture mainly includes repeated biomechanical loading, which leads to bone micro-damage and failure of bone structure. Female athlete triad(FAT), which includes low energy availability with or without an eating disorder, functional hypothalamic amenorrhea, and osteoporosis, is a serious healthcare concern in female athletes. For prevention and treatment of stress fracture, management of biomechanical factors modifying the load applied to a bone is important, and especially in female athletes, management for FAT is one of the important factors. This report outlines the current knowledge on the epidemiology, diagnosis, treatment and prevention of stress fracture, relating to FAT in female athletes.

  14. Association of symptoms with urodynamic findings in men with overactive bladder syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Zahrani, Ali A; Gajewski, Jerzy B

    2012-12-01

    Study Type--Therapy (review) Level of Evidence 4. What's known on the subject? and What does the study add? It is known that overactive bladder (OAB) symptoms correlate weakly with urodynamic findings, especially in female patients. The study shows that OAB symptoms also correlate weakly with urodynamic findings in male patients. More than third of male patients with OAB symptoms had evidence of BOO. The study finds that a pressure flow study is of benefit in the evaluation of this group of patients. • To assess the correlation between overactive bladder (OAB) symptoms with urodynamic (UD) findings in men. • We conducted a retrospective study of all UD studies involving men with OAB symptoms. • All UD studies were carried out at a single centre from 1994 to 2009 and were reported by one urology specialist. • There were 668 UD reports included in the final analysis. All patients had symptoms of urgency with or without urgency incontinence (UI). • There was a weak correlation between OAB symptoms and UD findings. • All storage symptoms, except frequency, correlated with a finding of detrusor overactivity (DO). • Severity of urgency correlated inversely with a finding of bladder outlet obstruction (BOO). • Both nocturia and frequency correlated inversely with maximum cystometric capacity. • More than 75% of patients had concomitant voiding symptoms. Severity of voiding symptoms (slow stream and incomplete emptying) correlated inversely with documentation of DO. Voiding symptoms were predictors of BOO, while severe urgency was a negative predictor for BOO. • There were weak correlations between OAB symptoms and UD findings. Most men with OAB symptoms had concomitant voiding symptoms and more than a third (43%) of these had evidence of BOO. • A pressure flow study is of benefit in the evaluation of patients with OAB symptoms. © 2012 THE AUTHORS. BJU INTERNATIONAL © 2012 BJU INTERNATIONAL.

  15. Differences in Urodynamic Parameters Between Women With Interstitial Cystitis and/or Bladder Pain Syndrome and Severe Overactive Bladder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shim, Ji Sung; Kang, Sung Gu; Park, Jae Young; Bae, Jae Hyun; Kang, Seok Ho; Park, Hong Seok; Moon, Du Geon; Cheon, Jun; Lee, Jeong Gu; Kim, Je Jong; Oh, Mi Mi

    2016-08-01

    To identify differences in urodynamic parameters between female outpatients with interstitial cystitis (IC) and/or bladder pain syndrome (BPS) and severe overactive bladder (OAB). This cross-sectional study included 24 and 28 consecutive IC/BPS and severe OAB female patients, respectively. IC/BPS was defined based on the American Urological Association guideline, and severe OAB was defined based on baseline symptoms recorded in a voiding diary. Before treatment, symptom assessment using questionnaires and a 3-day voiding diary, as well as laboratory tests, were performed at the initial visit. The patients' baseline characteristics and urodynamic parameters were compared between the IC/BPS and severe OAB groups. The IC/BPS group showed fewer episodes of urge incontinence and shorter duration of symptoms than the severe OAB group (P = .019, P = .017, respectively). Volumes at first sense, normal desire, strong desire, and maximal capacity during filling cystometry (MBC) were significantly higher in the severe OAB group than in the IC/BPS group (P <.001, P <.001, P = .006, P <.001, respectively). The IC/BPS and severe OAB groups showed significant differences in urodynamic parameters in terms of MBC and the volume discrepancy between MBC and maximal voided volume (P <.001, both). The receiver operating characteristic curve also showed an area under the curve of 0.760 and 0.783 for MBC and volume discrepancy, respectively (both P <.001). Data from our study suggest that combined with other clinical findings, urodynamic studies could provide useful information to differentiate between a diagnosis of IC/BPS or severe OAB. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Risk factors for stress fracture among young female cross-country runners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelsey, Jennifer L; Bachrach, Laura K; Procter-Gray, Elizabeth; Nieves, Jeri; Greendale, Gail A; Sowers, Maryfran; Brown, Byron W; Matheson, Kim A; Crawford, Sybil L; Cobb, Kristin L

    2007-09-01

    To identify risk factors for stress fracture among young female distance runners. Participants were 127 competitive female distance runners, aged 18-26, who provided at least some follow-up data in a randomized trial among 150 runners of the effects of oral contraceptives on bone health. After completing a baseline questionnaire and undergoing bone densitometry, they were followed an average of 1.85 yr. Eighteen participants had at least one stress fracture during follow-up. Baseline characteristics associated (Paffect risk. The results of this and other studies indicate that risk factors for stress fracture among young female runners include previous stress fractures, lower bone mass, and, although not statistically significant in this study, menstrual irregularity. More study is needed of the associations between stress fracture and age, calcium intake, and age at menarche. Given the importance of stress fractures to runners, identifying preventive measures is of high priority.

  17. URODYNAMIC EFFECTS OF BETA-ADRENOBLOCKERS: NEBIVOLOL ADVANTAGES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. P. Savenkov

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim. To compare urodynamic effects of beta-blockers with different selectivity (propranolol, metoprolol, nebivolol in patients with arterial hypertension (HT and concomitant benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH.Material and methods. 32 patients (aged 67,5 y.o. in average with HT of 1-2 stages were involved in the study. All patients had BPH (prostate volume >40 sm3 , increase of residual urine volume with moderate or severe low urinary tract symptoms (IPSS 8-25 and reduction of maximum urine flow rate to 5-13 ml/s. The urodynamic effect of beta-blockers was estimated by changes of urination frequency and uroflowmetry indices after single taking and 14-day therapy.Results. Propranolol and metoprolol led to aggravation of urination disorders. Nebivolol resulted in soft urodilating and urostimulating effects. It led to urination improvement and reduced a risk of urodynamic disorders.Conclusion. Urodynamic effects of cardiovascular drugs should be considered by practitioners especially in treatment of elderly patients.

  18. Urodynamic Bladder Patterns in Spinal Cord Injury Patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aziz, T.; Khan, A. A.; Iqbal, S.; Aziz, U.; Jilani, S.; Ayyub, A.

    2017-01-01

    Objective: To determine the frequency of various neurogenic bladder patterns in patients with traumatic spinal cord injury presenting at Armed Forces Institute of Rehabilitation Medicine Rawalpindi based on urodynamic studies. Study Design: Descriptive cross sectional study. Place and Duration of Study: Armed Forces Institute of Rehabilitation Medicine (AFIRM) Rawalpindi, from Jul 2014 to Jun 2016. Material and Methods: One hundred and forty traumatic spinal cord injury patients fulfilling the inclusion criteria were included both from indoor and outdoor departments through non-probability purposive sampling. Urodynamic studies were performed using the urodynamic equipment at urodynamic laboratory. Data were collected and recorded on specialized proforma by the principal investigator. Results: Among 140 study participants detrusor overactivity was found in 100 patients out of which 76 (76 percent) had thoracic level of injury, 20 (20 percent) had cervical level and 4 (4 percent) had lumbar level of injury. Detrusor areflexia was the bladder pattern in 40 patients out of which 26 (65 percent) had thoracic level of injury, 10 (25 percent) had cervical level, and 4 (10 percent) had lumbar level of injury. Conclusion: Detrusor overactivity was the commonest neurogenic bladder pattern among the traumatic spinal cord injury patients. (author)

  19. Ambulatory urodynamic monitoring of women with overactive bladder syndrome during single voiding cycle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dokmeci, Fulya; Cetinkaya, S Esra; Seval, M Murat; Dai, Omer

    2017-05-01

    To present data of standardized ambulatory urodynamic monitoring (AUM) performed in women with overactive bladder syndrome (OAB) and to evaluate the relevance of AUM data with clinical findings of the patients. Records of women with symptoms of OAB were retrospectively reviewed (n=249). Of women fulfilling the Overactive Bladder Awareness Tool (OAB-V8) with a score ≥8 and the 3-day voiding diary (VD) with a frequency >7/day (n=167), those who underwent urodynamic investigation were selected (n=76). The data of this study were retrieved from the records of Ankara University Cebeci Hospital and based on the AUM findings of single voiding cycle of women with OAB. AUM, which is among the institutionally approved primary urodynamic investigation methods, is performed with LUNA ambulatory monitoring recorder (MMS™) in the clinical setting with a standardized technique, in reproducing lower urinary tract symptoms of women since 2011. The relationship of the urodynamic data with the clinical findings were evaluated. AUM traces of women (n=76) with OAB revealed 63.1% DO, 64.4% urgency and 77.7% urinary incontinence of which were 14.4% urgency urinary incontinence (UUI), 25% stress urinary incontinence (SUI) and 38.1% mixed urinary incontinence (MUI). OAB patients with DO reported more urinary incontinence episodes/day, nocturia and mixed urinary incontinence in the voiding diary (p<0.04) and had significantly higher irritative symptom bother reflected by the questionnaires (p<0.04). Women with DO were more likely to be postmenopausal (p=0.02) and were found to have more urgency (p<0.001), urgency episodes (p=0.05) and incontinence (urge and mixed) (p<0.001). However, no association was found between the extent of pelvic organ prolapse and the presence of DO. AUM performed with a standardized technique during single voiding cycle seems to be a reliable method in reproducing symptoms of women with OAB. It provides both clinically relevant findings and objective

  20. Energy Metabolism in Cold-Stressed Females: Implications for Predictive Modeling

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Jacobs, Ira

    1997-01-01

    ... stress, and to evaluate the potential implications for survival time in the cold. Specifically, this study was designed to clarify the quantity and quality of energy substrate utilization in shivering female subjects during cold water immersion...

  1. Augmentation cystoplasty: Urodynamic and metabolic outcomes at 10-year follow-up.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Kwun-Chung; Kan, Chi-Fai; Chu, Peggy Sau-Kwan; Man, Chi-Wai; Wong, Bill Tak-Hing; Ho, Lap-Yin; Au, Wing-Hang

    2015-12-01

    To review the urodynamic outcomes, renal function and metabolic complications after augmentation cystoplasty with at least 10 years of follow-up. Augmentation cystoplasty performed in two tertiary referral centers from 1995 to 2004 were reviewed. Ten years or more postoperative course was studied by review of the clinical notes, urodynamic reports and laboratory results. A total of 40 patients were included in this study. The mean age at surgery was 43 years, and 47.5% of patients were female. Median follow up was 13 years. Bladder capacity significantly increased from 283 ± 151 to 492 ± 123 mL (P bladder was increased by 87%, and detrusor overactivity decreased by 54.2%. There were no significant changes in preoperative and postoperative estimated glomerular filtration rate (68.3 mL/min vs. 76.6 mL/min, P = 0.798). Three patients (7.5%) had more than one episode of symptomatic urinary tract infection per year. The present study confirms the effectiveness of augmentation cystoplasty in increasing bladder capacity, improving bladder compliance and reducing detrusor overactivity. The preservation of renal function and low metabolic complication rate provide solid evidence for carrying out this time-honored procedure in patients with neurogenic or non-neurogenic bladder dysfunction. © 2015 The Japanese Urological Association.

  2. Effect of Intermittent Feeding on Gonadal Function in Male And Female NMRI Mice During Chronic Stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Badri Zarrin Ehteram

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Stress can inhibit gonadal activity via Hypothalamus-Pituitary-Gonad (HPG axis activity suppression. In the present study, effects of intermittent feeding (IF on gonadal function under stress in male and female mice were evaluated. Twenty eight male and twenty eight female mice's were divided into four groups. The control group received adequate food and water without stress. The second group received four days of electric shock without food deprivation. The third group was deprived of food two hours/day for a week, and the fourth group was deprived of food (2 hours/day for seven consecutive days and then electric foot shock stress was applied to them for four days. Blood samples were collected from all animals for plasma testosterone, estrogen and/or Interlukin-6 (IL-6 evaluation. The animals’ gonads were also removed and fixed for the measure of their weight. Results showed that stress reduces both testosterone and estrogen levels, whereas IF did not change the hormone levels. In addition, stress increases blood IL-6 concentration. The combination of IF and stress, increased the hormone levels in animals. Stress and IF alone had no significant effect on gonadal weight in the male mice, whereas stress decreased gonadal weight in the females. Combination of stress with IF increased gonadal weight in both male and female mice. In conclusion stress showed a negative effect on gonadal function in both animals with more effect on females. Intermittent feeding inhibits the stress effect and even promotes the gonadal function in both sexes. The effect may be due to IL-6 reduction.

  3. Psychological stress on female mice diminishes the developmental potential of oocytes: a study using the predatory stress model.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu-Xiang Liu

    Full Text Available Although the predatory stress experimental protocol is considered more psychological than the restraint protocol, it has rarely been used to study the effect of psychological stress on reproduction. Few studies exist on the direct effect of psychological stress to a female on developmental competence of her oocytes, and the direct effect of predatory maternal stress on oocytes has not been reported. In this study, a predatory stress system was first established for mice with cats as predators. Beginning 24 h after injection of equine chorionic gonadotropin, female mice were subjected to predatory stress for 24 h. Evaluation of mouse responses showed that the predatory stress system that we established increased anxiety-like behaviors and plasma cortisol concentrations significantly and continuously while not affecting food and water intake of the mice. In vitro experiments showed that whereas oocyte maturation and Sr(2+ activation or fertilization were unaffected by maternal predatory stress, rate of blastocyst formation and number of cells per blastocyst decreased significantly in stressed mice compared to non-stressed controls. In vivo embryo development indicated that both the number of blastocysts recovered per donor mouse and the average number of young per recipient after embryo transfer of blastocysts with similar cell counts were significantly lower in stressed than in unstressed donor mice. It is concluded that the predatory stress system we established was both effective and durative to induce mouse stress responses. Furthermore, predatory stress applied during the oocyte pre-maturation stage significantly impaired oocyte developmental potential while exerting no measurable impact on nuclear maturation, suggesting that cytoplasmic maturation of mouse oocytes was more vulnerable to maternal stress than nuclear maturation.

  4. Female urinary stress incontinence treated with Teflon injections

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Osther, P J; Røhl, H

    1987-01-01

    Twenty-six women with urinary stress incontinence underwent transperineal or transurethral Teflon injections. The results were classified into three grades (good, moderate, and poor). Good or moderate results were obtained in 50%. No major immediate complications or long-term side-effects were...

  5. [Causes, characteristics and mid-term course of acute urinary retention in women referred to a urodynamics unit].

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Fadrique, G; Morales, G; Arlandis, S; Bonillo, M A; Jiménez-Cruz, J F

    2011-01-01

    Acute urinary retention (AUR) is uncommon in women and can be related to different conditions. Only some patients are referred to the urodynamics units for a more extensive study. We intend to describe the charcteristics and causes of AUR in women referred to our unit and to analyze their middle term evolution. We performed a descriptive retrospective study (January 1982-December 2006), including the women referred to our Uro-Neurology and Urodynamics Unit after suffering an AUR. Medical charts were reviewed with special emphasis on medical history, physical examination, and also complete urodynamics study during the AUR event and after its resolution. A total of 202 women were included, median age of 57 years (12-87 years). Prior to the AUR, 59 women (28.7%) reported voiding symptoms. The urodynamics findings were: 65 (32.2%) detrusor hypocontractility; 64 (31.7%) normal study; 37 (18.3%) detrusor acontractility; 21 (10.4%) bladder outlet obstruction; 15 (7.4%) poor pelvic floor relaxation. The causes of the AUR were: 53 neurological (26.2%); 46 unknown (22.8%); 19 gynecological (9.4%); 22 diabetes mellitus (10.9%); 16 urological (7.9%). Renal insufficiency was observed in 14 patients (6.9%). After the AUR 106 women (52.4%) needed some kind of prolonged treatment. In our experience, AUR in the female is mainly related to underlying neurologic/urogynecologic disease, even though the etiology could not be known in a significant percentage of patients. Half of the patients recovered completely and did not require any treatment. Copyright © 2011 AEU. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  6. Urethro-cystography for female urinary stress incontinence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Voigt, R.; Starker, K.; Friedrich-Schiller-Universitaet, Jena

    1985-01-01

    The normal parameters of urethro-cystography were evaluated in 324 examinations. There were definite differences between continent and pressure-incontinent women on the one hand, and stress-incontinent patients on the other, as regards the pubo-urethral angle, but not as regards the posterior vesico-urethral angle. Preoperative and post-operative urethro-cystograms showed statistically significant differences. (orig.) [de

  7. Transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation in female stress urinary incontinence

    OpenAIRE

    Zahra Shahshahan; Marjan Labbaf

    2006-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Stress urinary incontinence (SUI) is a prevalent medical problem for women especially through escalation of age. Many conservative nonsurgical therapies have been used for management of this problem which will usually be followed by high relapse rates or frequent side effects. Evaluation of the efficacy of transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation (TENS) in management of genuine SUI has been studied in a few trials. We sought to assess the effectiveness and complications of high...

  8. Gynecologic pain related to occupational stress among female factory workers in Tianjin, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sznajder, Kristin K; Harlow, Siobán D; Burgard, Sarah A; Wang, Yanrang; Han, Cheng; Liu, Jing

    2014-01-01

    Background: Dysmenorrhea, dyspareunia, and non-cyclic pelvic pain are health concerns for factory workers in China and may be increased by occupational stress. Objectives: To estimate the prevalence and demographic and occupational factors associated with three types of gynecologic pain among female factory workers in Tianjin. Methods: The study included 651 female workers from three factories in Tianjin, China. Logistic regression models were estimated to determine associations between occupational stress and gynecologic pain. Results: Occupational stress including high job strain, exhaustion, and stress related to working conditions was a risk factor for gynecologic pain. High job strain and poor job security were associated with an increased risk for dysmenorrhea. Compulsory overtime and exhaustion were associated with increased non-cyclic pelvic pain. Working overtime and exhaustion were associated with increased dyspareunia. Conclusions: As China’s population of female factory workers grows, research on the reproductive health of this population is essential. PMID:24804338

  9. URODYNAMIC EVALUATION OF VOIDING FUNCTION IN ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective The evaluation of voiding function in females with lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS) with a special emphasis on the evaluation of storage function and the state of continence. Patients and Methods 176 patients were investigated for urinary incontinence-related problems at the Unit for Neuro-Urology and ...

  10. Transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation in female stress urinary incontinence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zahra Shahshahan

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Stress urinary incontinence (SUI is a prevalent medical problem for women especially through escalation of age. Many conservative nonsurgical therapies have been used for management of this problem which will usually be followed by high relapse rates or frequent side effects. Evaluation of the efficacy of transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation (TENS in management of genuine SUI has been studied in a few trials. We sought to assess the effectiveness and complications of high frequency TENS in SUI. METHODS: In a clinical trial, 10 sessions of high frequency TENS with 15 minutes duration every other day were applied for 40 women with genuine SUI. Treatment results were evaluated by SUI severity index at the end of first and sixth months after final session of TENS and they were compared with the baseline index. RESULTS: Seven patients (17.5% were omitted from the study because of intolerance of TENS. In the remaining 33 patients, there was no sign of any complication. In comparison to baseline, severities of SUI showed significant decrements at first and second post-intervention evaluations (P<0.0001. There was a significant increase in SUI index from first month to sixth month (P<0.0001. CONCLUSIONS: TENS is a safe and cost-effective method for SUI management but its effectiveness decreases by time. KEY WORDS: Transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation, stress urinary incontinence.

  11. Predictive behaviors for anxiety and depression in female Wistar rats subjected to cafeteria diet and stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Costa Estrela, Dieferson; da Silva, Wellington Alves Mizael; Guimarães, Abraão Tiago Batista; de Oliveira Mendes, Bruna; da Silva Castro, André Luis; da Silva Torres, Iraci Lucena; Malafaia, Guilherme

    2015-11-01

    Obesity and chronic stress have been considered important public health problems that affect millions of people worldwide. Our aim was to analyze the effect of obesity associated with chronic stress on neurobehavioral parameters in female rats, considering that the association of these syndromes can enhance the negative effects on homeostasis. The animals were distributed into standard diet (Std), standard diet+stress (Std+stress), cafeteria diet (Cafe), and cafeteria diet+stress (Cafe+stress) groups. The animals of groups Std and Std+stress were fed with rodent standard feed. Groups Cafe and Cafe+stress, additionally to the standard feed, were offered palatable and calorie-rich processed food and cola-type soft drink ad libitum. From the eighth experimental week, groups Std+stress and Cafe+stress were subjected to restraint chronic stress model (50 days). After the stress protocol, predictive anxiety (open-field and elevated plus-maze tests) and depression (forced swim) were applied. The cafeteria diet was effective in inducing obesity. The ratio locomotion in the central quadrants/total locomotion evaluated during the open field test was not indicative of anxiogenic or anxiolytic effect in the animal's behavior. However, the elevated plus maze test showed that obese and stressed animals were prone to higher anxiety levels. In addition, the obese and stressed animals display less climbing behavior than all the other groups, which can be considered an indicator of depression-like behavior. Nevertheless, it is suggested that the mechanisms involved in effects of obesity associated with chronic stress be better investigated in female rats, considering the organic complexity related to these modern illnesses. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Urodynamic evaluation and electrical and pharmacologic neurostimulation. The rat model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mersdorf, A; Schmidt, R A; Tanagho, E A

    1993-05-01

    We introduce a rat model that allows simultaneous or independent recording of bladder and sphincteric activity. Via a polyethylene tube inserted into the bladder dome, bladder pressure is measured in response to constant intravesical saline perfusion. The electrical activity of the intra-abdominal urethra (a well-defined striated muscular tube which, in the rat, constitutes the external urethral sphincter) is recorded simultaneously with an electromyography needle electrode. Thus, precise statements can be made about detrusor/sphincter interrelationships. Changes in urodynamic parameters with the anesthetics urethane, methoxyflurane (Metofane), and thiobutabarbital sodium (Inactin) were investigated. High-frequency oscillations in intraluminal bladder pressure could be demonstrated during micturition cycles only in rats anesthetized with urethane or Metofane. As this high-frequency activity is generated by the striated muscle of the intra-abdominal urethra, the external sphincter of the rat is the force behind urine expulsion. The anesthetic Inactin combined with a low intravesical perfusion rate attenuated spontaneous bladder and sphincteric activity and abolished micturition cycles. This rat model can provide accurate and reproducible measurements of urodynamic changes in response to electrical stimulation of the pelvic and pudendal nerves and pharmacologic stimulation with neuropeptides at the lumbosacral spinal cord level. We recommend using this model with urethane or Metofane for physiologic studies of micturition and with Inactin for meticulous neuropharmacologic and electrostimulatory evaluation of urodynamic parameters.

  13. The revised Stress Measurement of Female Marriage Immigrants in Korea: Evaluation of the psychometric properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Min Hee; Yang, Sook Ja; Chee, Yeon Kyung

    2016-01-01

    The twenty-one item Stress Measurement of Female Marriage Immigrants (SMFMI) was developed to assess stress of female marriage immigrants in Korea. This study reports the psychometric properties of a revised SMFMI (SMFMI-R) for application with female marriage immigrants to Korea who were raising children. Participants were 190 female marriage immigrants from China, Vietnam, the Philippines, and other Asian countries, who were recruited using convenience sampling between November 2013 and December 2013. Survey questionnaires were translated into study participants' native languages (Chinese, Vietnamese, and English). Principal component analysis yielded nineteen items in four factors (family, parenting, cultural, and economic stress), explaining 63.5% of the variance, which was slightly better than the original scale. Confirmatory factor analysis indicated adequate fit for the four-factor model. Based on classic test theory and item response theory, strong support was provided for item discrimination, item difficulty, and internal consistency (Cronbach's alpha = 0.923). SMFMI-R scores were negatively associated with Korean proficiency and subjective economic status. The SMFMI-R is a valid, reliable, and comprehensive measure of stress for female marriage immigrants and can provide useful information to develop intervention programs for those who may be at risk for emotional stress.

  14. Monitoring Perceived Stress and Recovery in Relation to Cycling Performance in Female Athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Otter, R T A; Brink, M S; van der Does, H T D; Lemmink, K A P M

    2016-01-01

    The purpose was to investigate perceived stress and recovery related to cycling performance of female athletes over one full year. 20 female athletes (age, 27±8 years; ˙VO2max, 50.3±4.6 mL·kg(-1)·min(-1)) were measured 8 times in one year to determine perceived stress and recovery (RESTQ-Sport) in relation to cycling performance (Lamberts and Lambert Submaximal Cycle Test (LSCT)). All 19 RESTQ-Sport scales were calculated and scores of the 4 main categories were determined (i. e., general stress, general recovery, sport-specific stress and sport-specific recovery). A balance score of total stress and recovery was calculated by recovery-stress. Power at the second stage (P80), third stage (P90) and heart rate recovery (HRR60 s) of the LSCT were determined as performance parameters. 110 RESTQ-Sports and LSCTs were analysed using a multilevel approach (random intercepts model). Higher self-efficacy was related to improvement of all performance parameters. Higher total recovery stress, and lower emotional stress were related to improvement of P90 and HRR60 s. Higher sport-specific recovery was related to P80, higher general stress, fatigue and physical complaints were related to decreased P90 and higher social stress and injury were related to decreased HRR60 s. Improved perceived recovery and stress contributed to an improved performance. Relevant information could be provided by monitoring changes in perceived stress and recovery of female athletes. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  15. Dual-task performance under acute stress in female adolescents with borderline personality disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaess, Michael; Parzer, Peter; Koenig, Julian; Resch, Franz; Brunner, Romuald

    2016-09-01

    Research to elucidate early alterations of higher cognitive processes in adolescents with BPD is rare. This study investigated differences in dual-task performance in adolescents with BPD during stress and non-stress conditions. The study sample comprised 30 female adolescents with BPD and 34 healthy controls. The impact of stress on dual-task performance was measured using a standardized stressor. Self-reports of distress and measures of heart rate (HR) were obtained to measure stress reactivity. There were no group differences in task performance. Under stress conditions, the performance on the auditory task decreased in both groups but without significant group differences. Healthy controls showed an increase of mean HR after stress induction compared to no change in the BPD group. The finding of attenuated HR response to acute stress in adolescent patients with BPD may contradict current theories that the affective hyperresponsivity in BPD is based on a biologically determined mechanism.

  16. [Auto-reeducation of female stress urinary incontinence].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mauroy, Brigitte; Devillers, Patrick; Bonnal, Jean-Louis; Haber, Georges; Biserte, Jacques

    2002-04-01

    The Pelvia device is the fruit of the latest anatomic, functional and physiotherapeutic research into the pelvic floor. Thanks to its sophisticated technology, Pelvia is a user-friendly device fully suited to today's lifestyle of women, allowing them to do self-retraining exercises of the perineal muscles as an adjunct to the other therapies available. It is a reliable method to make patients aware of the strength and improvement of th perineal muscles contraction. It has nothing to do with "vaginal weight cones". This method is based on feedback, but the weight of the device itself does not only increase awareness but allows patients to increase their muscular strength. 30 women with stress urinary incontinence followed the protocol of self-retraining. All of them presented the following symptoms: urinary leakage, urethral urinary incontinence due to urethral hypermobility or sphincteral insufficiency, a perineum muscular testing below 4. After retraining the results were as follows: 17 cases of cure (57%); 9 cases (30%) were improved without full disappearance of incontinence; 4 cases failed (13%). The average follow-up period is 10 months (2-22). The results observed in 30 women seem promising. Of course this is only a small series and results need confirming by studying a larger series with a longer follow-up.

  17. [Mediating effect of mental elasticity on occupational stress and depression in female nurses].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Y W; Liu, G Z; Zhou, X T; Sheng, P J; Cui, F F; Shi, T

    2017-06-20

    Objective: To investigate the interaction between mental elasticityand occupational stress and depressionin female nurses and the mediating effect of mental elasticity, as well as the functioning way of mental elasticity in occupational stress-depression. Methods: From August to October, 2015, cluster sampling was used to select 122 female nurses in a county-level medical institution as study subjects. The Connor-Davidson Resilience Scale (CD-RISC) , Occupational Stress Inventory-Revised Edition (OSI-R) , and Self-Rating Depression Scale (SDS) were used to collect the data on mental elasticity, occupational stress, and depression and analyze their correlation and mediating effect. Results: The 122 female nurses had a mean mental elasticity score of 62.4±15.1, which was significantly lower than the Chinese norm (65.4±13.9) ( P effect on depression ( β =0.744, P effect on depression ( β =-0.221, P effect showed a significant direct effect of occupational stress on depression and a significant mediating effect of mental elasticity ( a =-0.527, b =-0.227, c =0.744, c '=0.627; all P effect of mental elasticity accounted for 16.08% of the total effect. Conclusion: As a partial mediating variable, mental elasticity has an indirect effect on the relationship between occupational stress and depression and can alleviate the adverse effect of occupational stress and reduce the development of depression.

  18. Estrogen receptor-a in the medial amygdala prevents stress-induced elevations in blood pressure in females

    Science.gov (United States)

    Psychological stress contributes to the development of hypertension in humans. The ovarian hormone, estrogen, has been shown to prevent stress-induced pressor responses in females by unknown mechanisms. Here, we showed that the antihypertensive effects of estrogen during stress were blunted in femal...

  19. [Analysis of risk factors about stress urinary incontinence in female].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Yan-feng; Lin, Jian; Li, Ya-qin; He, Xiao-yu; Xu, Bo; Hao, Lan; Song, Jian

    2003-12-01

    The aim was to assess the prevalence of stress urinary incontinence (SUI) in community dwelling women and to assess the relationship between the various risk factors and this disease. Selecting the community of Gulou at random and sending questionnaires to 6,066 women who living there. The questionnaire was designed to investigate the lower urinary tract symptoms, especially urinary incontinence. The questionnaire included some questions such as: age, weight, occupation, the level of education, menopause pregnancy and delivery, delivery through vagina or by cesarean section, the maximum body weight of fetus, chronic disease (hypertension, diabetes mellitus, cough, constipation), operation in abdomen and pelvis, the behaviour of life (smoking, alcohol abuse, exercise), the prevalence and frequency of urinary incontinence, the quality of life and the recognition of this disease. The collecting rate was 92.1% (5,587/6,066). The prevalence of urinary incontinence was 18.1% and the prevalence of SUI was 8.8%. Age (OR: 1.010, 95% CI: 1.001 - 1.025), higher body mass index (OR: 1.092, 95% CI: 1.054 - 1.132), hypertension (OR: 2.342, 95% CI: 1.026 - 5.349), constipation (OR: 1.448, 95% CI: 1.216 - 1.725), multiple abortion (OR: 1.306, 95% CI: 1.113 - 1.533), multipara (OR: 1.205, 95% CI: 1.009 - 1.440), using abdominal pressure in laboring (OR: 1.684, 95% CI: 1.140 - 2.489), straight cutting of perineum (OR: 2.244, 95% CI: 1.162 - 4.334), perineum tear (OR: 2.576, 95% CI: 1.724 - 3.851), infection of perineal incision (OR: 5.988, 95% CI: 1.936 - 18.616) were risk factors of SUI in women. Many risk factors can cause urinary incontinence, among them age, pregnancy and childbirth are most important ones.

  20. Myocardial glycophagy - a specific glycogen handling response to metabolic stress is accentuated in the female heart.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reichelt, M E; Mellor, K M; Curl, C L; Stapleton, D; Delbridge, L M D

    2013-12-01

    Cardiac metabolic stress is a hallmark of many cardiac pathologies, including diabetes. Cardiac glycogen mis-handling is a frequent manifestation of various cardiopathologies. Diabetic females have a higher risk of heart disease than males, yet sex disparities in cardiac metabolic stress settings are not well understood. Oestrogen acts on key glycogen regulatory proteins. The goal of this study was to evaluate sex-specific metabolic stress-triggered cardiac glycogen handling responses. Male and female adult C57Bl/6J mice were fasted for 48h. Cardiac glycogen content, particle size, regulatory enzymes, signalling intermediates and autophagic processes were evaluated. Female hearts exhibited 51% lower basal glycogen content than males associated with lower AMP-activated-kinase (AMPK) activity (35% decrease in pAMPK:AMPK). With fasting, glycogen accumulated in female hearts linked with decreased particle size and upregulation of Akt and AMPK signalling, activation of glycogen synthase and inactivation of glycogen phosphorylase. Fasting did not alter glycogen content or regulatory proteins in male hearts. Expression of glycogen autophagy marker, starch-binding-protein-domain-1 (STBD1), was 63% lower in female hearts than males and increased by 69% with fasting in females only. Macro-autophagy markers, p62 and LC3BII:I ratio, increased with fasting in male and female hearts. This study identifies glycogen autophagy ('glycophagy') as a potentially important component of the response to cardiac metabolic stress. Glycogen autophagy occurs in association with a marked and selective accumulation of glycogen in the female myocardium. Our findings suggest that sex-specific differences in glycogen handling may have cardiopathologic consequences in various settings, including diabetic cardiomyopathy. © 2013. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Lifetime physical activity and female stress urinary incontinence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nygaard, Ingrid E; Shaw, Janet M; Bardsley, Tyler; Egger, Marlene J

    2015-07-01

    We sought to estimate whether moderate/severe stress urinary incontinence (SUI) in middle-aged women is associated with overall lifetime physical activity (including leisure, household, outdoor, and occupational), as well as lifetime leisure (recreational), lifetime strenuous, and strenuous activity during the teen years. Recruitment for this case-control study was conducted in primary-care-level family medicine and gynecology clinics. A total of 1538 enrolled women ages 39-65 years underwent a Pelvic Organ Prolapse Quantification examination to assess vaginal support. Based on Incontinence Severity Index scores, cases had moderate/severe and controls had no/mild SUI. We excluded 349 with vaginal descent at/below the hymen (pelvic organ prolapse), 194 who did not return questionnaires, and 110 with insufficient activity data for analysis. In all, 213 cases were frequency matched 1:1 by age group to controls. Physical activity was measured using the Lifetime Physical Activity Questionnaire, in which women recall activity from menarche to present. We created separate multivariable logistic regression models for activity measures. SUI odds increased slightly with overall lifetime activity (odds ratio [OR], 1.20 per 70 additional metabolic equivalent of task-h/wk; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.02-1.41), and were not associated with lifetime strenuous activity (OR, 1.11; 95% CI, 0.99-1.25). In quintile analysis of lifetime leisure activity, which demonstrated a nonlinear pattern, all quintiles incurred about half the odds of SUI compared to reference (second quintile; P = .009). Greater strenuous activity in teen years modestly increased SUI odds (OR, 1.37 per 7 additional h/wk; 95% CI, 1.09-1.71); OR, 1.75; 95% CI, 1.15-2.66 in sensitivity analysis adjusting for measurement error. The predicted probability of SUI rose linearly in women exceeding 7.5 hours of strenuous activity/wk during teen years. Teen strenuous activity had a similar effect on SUI odds when

  2. Experienced and Perceived Stress in Females With Schizophrenia and Healthy Subjects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khodadadi Mogadam

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Background Schizophrenia is a psychiatric disorder characterized by chronic disturbances of thought and perception. Objectives The current study aimed to compare perceived stress in females with schizophrenia and that of healthy people. Patients and Methods The study sample included 50 patients with schizophrenia in Tuba rehabilitation center in Ardabil selected by available sampling method. Healthy group participants were selected through cloning by age, gender and marital status of the patient group. The data were collected by the questionnaire of Holmes-Rahe scale and Cohen et al. Data were analyzed by multivariate ANOVA (MANOVA using SPSS software. Results Compared with the normal subjects, patients with schizophrenia had a higher mean score in negative perceived and experienced stresses, but had a lower mean score in positive perceived stress as well as in total perceived stress. Conclusions Results showed the levels of perceived stress and negative stress play important role in the creation and maintenance of schizophrenia.

  3. Use of Noninvasive Bone Structural Measurements to Evaluate Stress Fracture Susceptibility Among Female Recruits in U.S. Marine Corps Basic Training: Individual Profiles of Stress Fracture Susceptibility Among Female Recruits in U.S. Marine Corps Basic Training

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Shaffer, Rick

    1996-01-01

    The objective of this study was to derive predictive models of stress fracture susceptibility in female military recruits by administering a questionnaire highlighting exercise and health habits prior...

  4. When should video be added to conventional urodynamics in adults and is it justified by the evidence? ICI-RS 2014.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anding, Ralf; Rosier, Peter; Smith, Phillip; Gammie, Andrew; Giarenis, Ilias; Rantell, Angela; Thiruchelvam, Nikesh; Arlandis, Salvador; Cardozo, Linda

    2016-02-01

    To debate and evaluate the evidence base regarding the added value of video to urodynamics in adults and to define research questions. In the ICI-RS Meeting 2014 a Think Tank analyzed the current guidelines recommending video urodynamics (VUD) and performed a literature search to determine the level of evidence for the additional value of the imaging with urodynamic assessment of both neurogenic and non-neurogenic lower urinary tract dysfunction. Current guidelines do not specify the added value of imaging to urodynamics. Recommendations are based on single center series and expert opinion. Standard imaging protocols are not available and evidence regarding the balance between number and timing of pictures, patient positioning, and exposure time on the one hand and diagnosis on the other hand is lacking. On the basis of expert consensus VUD is relevant in the follow-up of patients with spinal dysraphism. Evidence for the value of VUD in non-neurogenic lower urinary tract dysfunction is sparse. There is some evidence that VUD is not necessary in uncomplicated female SUI, but expert opinion suggests it might improve the evaluation of patients with recurrent SUI. There is only low level evidence for the addition of video to urodynamics. The ICI-RS Think Tank encourages better reporting of results of imaging and systematic reporting of X-ray doses. Specific research hypotheses regarding the added value of imaging are recommended. The panel suggests the development of standards for technically optimal VUD that is practically achievable with machines that are on the market. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  5. Efficacy of Calcium and Vitamin D Supplementation for the Prevention of Stress Fractures in Female Naval Recruits

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-09-01

    stress fractures in female track-and-field athletes : A retrospective analysis. Clin J Sport Med 1995; 5:229-235. 15 Figure 1...Macera C, Trone D, Shaffer R, Brodine S. Epidemiology of stress fracture and lower-extremity overuse injury in female recruits. Med Sci Sports Exerc...Rauh M, Brodine S, Trone D, Macera C. Predictors of stress fracture susceptibility in young female recruits. Am J Sports Med 2005;(Sept 16):1-8. (25

  6. Lower stress-reactive cortisol in female veterans associated with military status but not PTSD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pierce, Meghan E; Pritchard, Laurel M

    2016-09-01

    Female veterans are a growing yet understudied population. Currently, 14.6% of all troops deployed to Afghanistan and Iraq are female. Military service is associated with an increased risk for trauma exposure and subsequent development of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Dysregulation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis is frequently associated with PTSD. Few studies have examined females diagnosed with PTSD and only one study, to our knowledge, has examined HPA-axis dysregulation in female veterans. This study examined salivary cortisol in 52 female veterans and civilians both with and without PTSD. We collected saliva samples at bedtime and awakening, as well as in response to the Trier social stress test (TSST). We found that female veterans had blunted cortisol concentrations at all time points during the TSST compared to female civilians, regardless of PTSD status. Even though all groups showed the expected diurnal decline in cortisol, the difference between awakening and bedtime samples were significant only in civilians without PTSD. The results of our study suggest that stressors specific to the military may lead to lower than normal cortisol, which may not be associated with the expressions of PTSD.

  7. Brief, pre-learning stress reduces false memory production and enhances true memory selectively in females.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zoladz, Phillip R; Peters, David M; Kalchik, Andrea E; Hoffman, Mackenzie M; Aufdenkampe, Rachael L; Woelke, Sarah A; Wolters, Nicholas E; Talbot, Jeffery N

    2014-04-10

    Some of the previous research on stress-memory interactions has suggested that stress increases the production of false memories. However, as accumulating work has shown that the effects of stress on learning and memory depend critically on the timing of the stressor, we hypothesized that brief stress administered immediately before learning would reduce, rather than increase, false memory production. In the present study, participants submerged their dominant hand in a bath of ice cold water (stress) or sat quietly (no stress) for 3 min. Then, participants completed a short-term memory task, the Deese-Roediger-McDermott paradigm, in which they were presented with 10 different lists of semantically related words (e.g., candy, sour, sugar) and, after each list, were tested for their memory of presented words (e.g., candy), non-presented unrelated "distractor" words (e.g., hat), and non-presented semantically related "critical lure" words (e.g., sweet). Stress, overall, significantly reduced the number of critical lures recalled (i.e., false memory) by participants. In addition, stress enhanced memory for the presented words (i.e., true memory) in female, but not male, participants. These findings reveal that stress does not unequivocally enhance false memory production and that the timing of the stressor is an important variable that could mediate such effects. Such results could have important implications for understanding the dependability of eyewitness accounts of events that are observed following stress. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Serotonin-related gene expression in female monkeys with individual sensitivity to stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bethea, C L; Streicher, J M; Mirkes, S J; Sanchez, R L; Reddy, A P; Cameron, J L

    2005-01-01

    Female cynomolgus monkeys exhibit different degrees of reproductive dysfunction with moderate metabolic and psychosocial stress. In this study, the expression of four genes pivotal to serotonin neural function was assessed in monkeys previously categorized as highly stress resistant (n=3; normal menstrual cyclicity through two stress cycles), medium stress resistant (n=5; ovulatory in the first stress cycle but anovulatory in the second stress cycle), or low stress resistant (i.e. stress-sensitive; n=4; anovulatory as soon as stress is initiated). In situ hybridization and quantitative image analysis was used to measure mRNAs coding for SERT (serotonin transporter), 5HT1A autoreceptor, MAO-A and MAO-B (monoamine oxidases) at six levels of the dorsal raphe nucleus (DRN). Optical density (OD) and positive pixel area were measured with NIH Image software. In addition, serotonin neurons were immunostained and counted at three levels of the DRN. Finally, each animal was genotyped for the serotonin transporter long polymorphic region (5HTTLPR). Stress sensitive animals had lower expression of SERT mRNA in the caudal region of the DRN (PMAO-A mRNA signal in the stress-sensitive group (PMAO-A OD was positively correlated with progesterone from a pre-stress control cycle (PMAO-B mRNA exhibited a similar downward trend in the stress-sensitive group. MAO-B OD also correlated with control cycle progesterone (PMAO-A) or exhibited a lower trend (5HT1A, MAO-B) in the stress sensitive animals, which probably reflects the lower number of serotonin neurons present.

  9. Effects of early-life stress on cognitive function and hippocampal structure in female rodents

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Loi, M.; Mossink, J. C L; Meerhoff, G. F.; Den Blaauwen, J. L.; Lucassen, P. J.; Joëls, M.

    We tested the effect of early-life stress (ELS) - 24. h maternal deprivation (MD) at postnatal day (PND) 3 - on cognitive performance and hippocampal structure in 12-17-week-old female rats. Behavioral performance was examined in: the Elevated Plus Maze, as an index for general anxiety; the rodent

  10. A Window into South Korean Culture: Stress and Coping in Female High School Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    VanderGast, Tim S.; Foxx, Sejal Parikh; Flowers, Claudia; Rouse, Andrew Thomas; Decker, Karen M.

    2015-01-01

    In an effort to increase multicultural competence, professional counselors in the United States analyzed archival data from high school students from Seoul, South Korea. A sample of all female (N = 577) high school students responded to survey questions related to stress and coping. Results demonstrated statistical significance in levels of stress…

  11. Stress Fracture of the Pubic Ramus in a Female Long Distance Runner: A Case Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seçkin Şenışık

    2017-06-01

    Stress fractures of the pelvis should be included in the differential diagnosis of female distance runners who have prolonged groin pain increasing with exercise. Detailed medical history, physical examination, blood tests, and radiological images are keys to reach certain diagnosis. Treatment plan should include risk factor analysis and progressive training programs.

  12. Acculturative Stress, Self-Esteem, and Eating Pathology in Latina and Asian American Female College Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Claudat, Kimberly; White, Emily K; Warren, Cortney S

    2016-01-01

    The overarching purpose of this study was to explore the relationships among acculturative stress, self-esteem, and eating pathology in Asian American and Latina female college students. Participants (N = 638, mean age = 19.88) completed self-report measures of the variables of interest online. Bivariate correlations indicated that for women of both ethnic groups, acculturative stress was negatively correlated with self-esteem and positively correlated with eating pathology. Multigroup structural equation modeling indicated that for Asian American and Latina women, self-esteem partially mediated the relationship between acculturative stress and eating pathology. However, self-esteem did not serve as a significant moderator of this relationship for either ethnic group. Overall, data suggest that acculturative stress is associated with increased eating pathology and self-esteem may mediate this relationship. These relationships suggest that assessment of eating pathology and self-esteem may be indicated for women presenting clinically with acculturative stress concerns. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  13. Effects of Mineralocorticoid Receptor Overexpression on Anxiety and Memory after Early Life Stress in Female Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanatsou, Sofia; Ter Horst, Judith P; Harris, Anjanette P; Seckl, Jonathan R; Krugers, Harmen J; Joëls, Marian

    2015-01-01

    Early-life stress (ELS) is a risk factor for the development of psychopathology, particularly in women. Human studies have shown that certain haplotypes of NR3C2, encoding the mineralocorticoid receptor (MR), that result in gain of function, may protect against the consequences of stress exposure, including childhood trauma. Here, we tested the hypothesis that forebrain-specific overexpression of MR in female mice would ameliorate the effects of ELS on anxiety and memory in adulthood. We found that ELS increased anxiety, did not alter spatial discrimination and reduced contextual fear memory in adult female mice. Transgenic overexpression of MR did not alter anxiety but affected spatial memory performance and enhanced contextual fear memory formation. The effects of ELS on anxiety and contextual fear were not affected by transgenic overexpression of MR. Thus, MR overexpression in the forebrain does not represent a major resilience factor to early life adversity in female mice.

  14. Effects of mineralocorticoid receptor overexpression on anxiety and memory after early life stress in female mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sofia eKanatsou

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Early-life stress is a risk factor for the development of psychopathology, particularly in women. Human studies have shown that certain haplotypes of NR3C2, encoding the mineralocorticoid receptor (MR, that result in gain of function, may protect against the consequences of stress exposure, including childhood trauma. Here, we tested the hypothesis that forebrain-specific overexpression of MR in female mice would ameliorate the effects of early-life stress on anxiety and memory in adulthood. We found that early-life stress increased anxiety, did not alter spatial discrimination and reduced contextual fear memory in adult female mice. Transgenic overexpression of MR did not alter anxiety but affected spatial memory performance and enhanced contextual fear memory formation. The effects of early life stress on anxiety and contextual fear were not affected by transgenic overexpression of MR. Thus MR overexpression in the forebrain does not represent a major resilience factor to early life adversity in female mice.

  15. The stressed female brain: neuronal activity in the prelimbic but not infralimbic region of the medial prefrontal cortex suppresses learning after acute stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maeng, Lisa Y; Shors, Tracey J

    2013-01-01

    Women are nearly twice as likely as men to suffer from anxiety and post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), indicating that many females are especially vulnerable to stressful life experience. A profound sex difference in the response to stress is also observed in laboratory animals. Acute exposure to an uncontrollable stressful event disrupts associative learning during classical eyeblink conditioning in female rats but enhances this same type of learning process in males. These sex differences in response to stress are dependent on neuronal activity in similar but also different brain regions. Neuronal activity in the basolateral nucleus of the amygdala (BLA) is necessary in both males and females. However, neuronal activity in the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) during the stressor is necessary to modify learning in females but not in males. The mPFC is often divided into its prelimbic (PL) and infralimbic (IL) subregions, which differ both in structure and function. Through its connections to the BLA, we hypothesized that neuronal activity within the PL, but not IL, during the stressor is necessary to suppress learning in females. To test this hypothesis, either the PL or IL of adult female rats was bilaterally inactivated with GABAA agonist muscimol during acute inescapable swim stress. About 24 h later, all subjects were trained with classical eyeblink conditioning. Though stressed, females without neuronal activity in the PL learned well. In contrast, females with IL inactivation during the stressor did not learn well, behaving similarly to stressed vehicle-treated females. These data suggest that exposure to a stressful event critically engages the PL, but not IL, to disrupt associative learning in females. Together with previous studies, these data indicate that the PL communicates with the BLA to suppress learning after a stressful experience in females. This circuit may be similarly engaged in women who become cognitively impaired after stressful life

  16. The Stressed Female Brain: Neuronal activity in the prelimbic but not infralimbic region of the medial prefrontal cortex suppresses learning after acute stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lisa Y. Maeng

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Women are nearly twice as likely as men to suffer from anxiety and post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD, indicating that many females are especially vulnerable to stressful life experience. A profound sex difference in the response to stress is also observed in laboratory animals. Acute exposure to an uncontrollable stressful event disrupts associative learning during classical eyeblink conditioning in female rats but enhances this same type of learning process in males. These sex differences in response to stress are dependent on neuronal activity in similar but also different brain regions. Neuronal activity in the basolateral nucleus of the amygdala (BLA is necessary in both males and females. However, neuronal activity in the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC during the stressor is necessary to modify learning in females but not in males. The mPFC is often divided into its prelimbic (PL and infralimbic (IL subregions, which differ both in structure and function. Through its connections to the BLA, we hypothesized that neuronal activity within the PL, but not IL, during the stressor is necessary to suppress learning in females. To test this hypothesis, either the PL or IL of adult female rats was bilaterally inactivated with GABAA agonist muscimol during acute inescapable swim stress. 24h later, all subjects were trained with classical eyeblink conditioning. Though stressed, females without neuronal activity in the PL learned well. In contrast, females with IL inactivation during the stressor did not learn well, behaving similar to stressed vehicle-treated females. These data suggest that exposure to a stressful event critically engages the PL, but not IL, to disrupt associative learning in females. Together with previous studies, these data indicate that the PL communicates with the BLA to suppress learning after a stressful experience in females. This circuit may be similarly engaged in women who become cognitively impaired after stressful

  17. Urodynamics in boys after prenatally diagnosed vesicoureteric reflux

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thorup, Jørgen Mogens

    1996-01-01

    Over the years, several theories have been presented regarding the pathogenesis of vesicoureteral reflux (VUR) in children without neurological disease or posterior urethral valves. Primary VUR is one of many fetal uropathies detectable by prenatal sonography. Thirteen boys with a prenatal...... of patients with VUR and impaired renal function compared to: (1) reflux patients with bilateral normal renal function; and (2) "normal" controls. Patients with normal bilateral renal and bladder function had a low risk of urinary tract infection during the period of follow-up (1 to 6 years). Early urodynamic...

  18. International urodynamic basic spinal cord injury data set

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Craggs, M.; Kennelly, M.; Schick, E.

    2008-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To create the International Urodynamic Basic Spinal Cord Injury (SCI) Data Set within the framework of the International SCI Data Sets. SETTING: International working group. METHODS: The draft of the data set was developed by a working group consisting of members appointed...... by the Neurourology Committee of the International Continence Society, the European Association of Urology, the American Spinal Injury Association (ASIA), the International Spinal Cord Society (ISCoS) and a representative of the Executive Committee of the International SCI Standards and Data Sets. The final version...

  19. Are Elite Female Soccer Athletes at Risk for Disordered Eating Attitudes, Menstrual Dysfunction, and Stress Fractures?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prather, Heidi; Hunt, Devyani; McKeon, Kathryn; Simpson, Scott; Meyer, E Blair; Yemm, Ted; Brophy, Robert

    2016-03-01

    To determine the prevalence of stress fractures, menstrual dysfunction and disordered eating attitudes in elite female soccer athletes. Cross-sectional descriptive study. Female soccer athletes were recruited from a national level youth soccer club, an NCAA Division I university team, and a women's professional team. Two hundred twenty female soccer athletes with a mean age of 16.4 ± 4 years and BMI of 20.8 ± 2 kg/m(2) completed the study, representing all athletes from the included teams. One-time surveys completed by the athletes. Height and weight were recorded, and body mass index (BMI) was calculated for each athlete. Athletes reported age of menarche, history of missing 3 or more menses within a 12-month period and stress fracture. The Eating Attitudes Test (EAT-26) was used to assess the athlete's body perception and attitudes toward eating. Of the 220 soccer athletes, 3 athletes (1.6%) had a low BMI for their age, and 19 (8.6%) reported stress fractures of the lower extremity. Among athletes who had reached menarche, the average onset was 13 + 1 year; menstrual dysfunction were present in 21 (19.3%). On the EAT-26, 1 player scored in the high risk range (>20) and 17 (7.7%) scored in the intermediate risk range (10-19) for eating disorders. Athletes with an EAT-26 score ≥ 10 points had a significantly higher prevalence of menstrual dysfunction in the past year compared to athletes with an EAT-26 score of less than 10 (P = .02). Elite female soccer athletes are susceptible to stress fractures and menstrual dysfunction and have delayed onset of menarche despite normal BMI and appropriate body perception and attitudes towards eating. Further studies are needed to better understand stress fracture risk in female soccer athletes and in other team sports to determine how these findings relate to long-term bone health in this population. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  20. Social stress interacts with diet history to promote emotional feeding in females.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michopoulos, Vasiliki; Toufexis, Donna; Wilson, Mark E

    2012-09-01

    Stress-induced eating disorders cause significant health problems and are often co-morbid with mood disorders. Emotional feeding, particularly in women, may be important for the development of obesity and failed attempts to lose weight. However, prospective studies assessing the effect of chronic psychosocial stress on appetite in different dietary environments in females are lacking. The present study tested the hypothesis that chronic psychosocial stress would increase consumption of high caloric diet and this emotional feeding would persist even when a healthier diet was available. Socially housed female rhesus monkeys were studied to address whether subordination increases caloric intake when a high fat and sugar diet (HFSD) was available concurrently with a low fat, high fiber diet (LCD). Cortisol responsivity and food intake were quantified during this choice phase and when only the LCD was available. The order of diet condition was counterbalanced to assess whether a history of HFSD would affect appetite. All females preferred the HFSD but subordinates consumed significantly more calories during the choice phase. The increased calorie intake was maintained in subordinate monkeys even after withdrawal of the HFSD. Subordinate females demonstrated reduced glucocorticoid negative feedback, with post dexamethasone serum cortisol levels significantly predicting intake of the HFSD but not the LCD during the choice condition. The cortisol response to an acute stressor significantly predicted subsequent intake of a HFSD in all females. Continual exposure to the psychosocial stress of subordination in female monkeys results in excess caloric intake of foods that mimic a western dietary environment. In addition, this social stressor interacts with a history of HFSD intake to promote increased feeding even in a healthy dietary environment. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Percutaneous tibial nerve stimulation in the treatment of overactive bladder: urodynamic data.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vandoninck, V.; Balken, M.R. van; Finazzi Agro, E.; Petta, F.; Micali, F.; Heesakkers, J.P.F.A.; Debruyne, F.M.J.; Kiemeney, L.A.L.M.; Bemelmans, B.L.H.

    2003-01-01

    AIM: The aim of this study was to evaluate urodynamic changes after percutaneous tibial nerve stimulation (PTNS) for the treatment of complaints related to overactive bladder syndrome and to search for urodynamic-based predictive factors. METHODS: Ninety consecutive patients with symptoms related to

  2. The relevance of urodynamic studies for Urge syndrome and dysfunctional voiding: a multicenter controlled trial in children

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bael, An; Lax, Hildegard; de Jong, Tom P. V. M.; Hoebeke, Piet; Nijman, Rien J. M.; Sixt, Rune; Verhulst, John; Hirche, Herbert; van Gool, Jan D.; Walle, J. Vande; Hoebeke, P.; van Hoecke, E.; Renson, K.; de Paepe, H.; Bael, A. M.; Olbing, H.; Tamminen-Möbius, T.; Gäbel, E.; Lettgen, B.; Bald, M.; Rübben, H.; Bachmann, H.; Heilenkötter, K.; Janhsen, E.; Misselwitz, J.; John, U.; Güntek, S.; Schubert, J.; van Gool, J. D.; Dik, P.; Winkler-Seinstra, P.; Knopper-Stolker, G.; de Bruyn, E.; Vijverberg, M.; Verhulst, J.; Nijman, J. M.; van Zon, R.; Vlasblom, M.; van Mastrigt, R.; Hjälmås, K.; Jodal, U.; Hellström, A. L.; Sölsnes, E.; Hermansson, G.; Sixt, R.

    2008-01-01

    The objective of this study was to compare prospectively, in urge syndrome and dysfunctional voiding, clinical patterns with urodynamic patterns, to assess changes in urodynamic patterns after treatment, and to correlate urodynamic patterns and parameters with treatment outcome. In the European

  3. Social subordination produces distinct stress-related phenotypes in female rhesus monkeys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michopoulos, Vasiliki; Higgins, Melinda; Toufexis, Donna; Wilson, Mark E

    2012-07-01

    Social subordination in female macaques is imposed by harassment and the threat of aggression and produces reduced control over one's social and physical environment and a dysregulation of the limbic-hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis resembling that observed in people suffering from psychopathologies. These effects support the contention that this particular animal model is an ethologically relevant paradigm in which to investigate the etiology of stress-induced psychological illness related to women. Here, we sought to expand this model by performing a discriminate analysis (DA) on 33 variables within three domains; behavioral, metabolic/anthropomorphic, and neuroendocrine, collected from socially housed female rhesus monkeys in order to assess whether exposure to social subordination produces a distinct phenotype. A receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve was also calculated to determine each domain's classification accuracy. DA found significant markers within each domain that differentiated dominant and subordinate females. Subordinate females received more aggression, showed more submissive behavior, and received less of affiliation from others than did dominant females. Metabolic differences included increased leptin, and reduced adiponectin in dominant compared to subordinate females. Dominant females exhibited increased sensitivity to hormonal stimulation with higher serum LH in response to estradiol, cortisol in response to ACTH, and increased glucocorticoid negative feedback. Serum oxytocin, CSF DOPAC and serum PACAP were all significantly higher in dominant females. ROC curve analysis accurately predicted social status in all three domains. Results suggest that socially house rhesus monkeys represent a cogent animal model in which to study the physiology and behavioral consequences of chronic psychosocial stress in humans. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Use of Doppler ultrasound for non-invasive urodynamic diagnosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hideo Ozawa

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: A totally non-invasive transperineal urodynamic technique using Doppler ultrasonography has been developed. Methods: Since normal urine does not have blood cells, urine was thought not to produce the Doppler effects. However, basic studies confirmed that the decrease of pressure at high velocity (Bernouilli effect caused dissolved gas to form microbubbles, which are detected by Doppler ultrasonography. Subjects sat and the probe was advanced via remote control to achieve gentle contact with the perineal skin. The digital uroflow data signals and the color Doppler ultrasound video images were processed on a personal computer. The flow-velocity curves from two sites; the distal prostatic urethra just above the external sphincter (V1 and the sphincteric urethra (V2 were plotted against time. The parameters of both the pressure-flow studies and the Doppler ultrasound urodynamic studies were compared in men who had various degrees of obstruction. Results: Functional cross-sectional area at prostatic urethra (A1, calculated by Q max /V1, was lower in the group of bladder outlet obstruction (BOO vs. control group. Velocity ratio (VR, which was calculated by V1/V2, was the parameter having the best correlation with BOO index, though A1 had a similar correlation. This method is viable to diagnose the degree of BOO. Conclusions: The development of non-invasive Doppler ultrasound videourodynamics (Doppler UDS will dramatically expand the information on voiding function.

  5. The Dynamics of Migration-Related Stress and Coping of Female Domestic Workers from the Philippines: An Exploratory Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Ham, A.J.; Ujano-Batangan, M.T.; Ignacio, R.; Wolffers, I.N.

    2015-01-01

    Female domestic workers face many migration-related stressors that affect their mental health, but we know little about the dynamics of stress and coping in different migration phases. This exploratory study aims to assess stress and coping of female migrant domestic workers from the Philippines in

  6. Association between Diastolic Dysfunction with Inflammation and Oxidative Stress in Females ob/ob Mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sartori, Michelle; Conti, Filipe F.; Dias, Danielle da Silva; dos Santos, Fernando; Machi, Jacqueline F.; Palomino, Zaira; Casarini, Dulce E.; Rodrigues, Bruno; De Angelis, Kátia; Irigoyen, Maria-Claudia

    2017-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate autonomic and cardiovascular function, as well as inflammatory and oxidative stress markers in ob/ob female mice. Methods: Metabolic parameters, cardiac function, arterial pressure (AP), autonomic, hormonal, inflammatory, and oxidative stress markers were evaluated in 12-weeks female wild-type (WT group) and ob/ob mice (OB group). Results: OB animals showed increased body weight, blood glucose, and triglyceride levels, along with glucose intolerance, when compared to WT animals. Ejection fraction (EF) and AP were similar between groups; however, the OB group presented diastolic dysfunction, as well as an impairment on myocardial performance index. Moreover, the OB group exhibited important autonomic dysfunction and baroreflex sensitivity impairment, when compared to WT group. OB group showed increased Angiotensin II levels in heart and renal tissues; decreased adiponectin and increased inflammatory markers in adipose tissue and spleen. Additionally, OB mice presented a higher damage to proteins and lipoperoxidation and lower activity of antioxidant enzymes in kidney and heart. Correlations were found between autonomic dysfunction with angiotensin II and inflammatory mediators, as well as between inflammation and oxidative stress. Conclusions: Our results showed that female adult ob/ob mice presented discrete diastolic dysfunction accompanied by autonomic disorder, which is associated with inflammation and oxidative stress in these animals. PMID:28878683

  7. Association between Diastolic Dysfunction with Inflammation and Oxidative Stress in Females ob/ob Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michelle Sartori

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To evaluate autonomic and cardiovascular function, as well as inflammatory and oxidative stress markers in ob/ob female mice.Methods: Metabolic parameters, cardiac function, arterial pressure (AP, autonomic, hormonal, inflammatory, and oxidative stress markers were evaluated in 12-weeks female wild-type (WT group and ob/ob mice (OB group.Results: OB animals showed increased body weight, blood glucose, and triglyceride levels, along with glucose intolerance, when compared to WT animals. Ejection fraction (EF and AP were similar between groups; however, the OB group presented diastolic dysfunction, as well as an impairment on myocardial performance index. Moreover, the OB group exhibited important autonomic dysfunction and baroreflex sensitivity impairment, when compared to WT group. OB group showed increased Angiotensin II levels in heart and renal tissues; decreased adiponectin and increased inflammatory markers in adipose tissue and spleen. Additionally, OB mice presented a higher damage to proteins and lipoperoxidation and lower activity of antioxidant enzymes in kidney and heart. Correlations were found between autonomic dysfunction with angiotensin II and inflammatory mediators, as well as between inflammation and oxidative stress.Conclusions: Our results showed that female adult ob/ob mice presented discrete diastolic dysfunction accompanied by autonomic disorder, which is associated with inflammation and oxidative stress in these animals.

  8. What determines psychological well-being among Iranian female adolescents? Perceived stress may overshadow all determinants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hezomi, Haleh; Nadrian, Haidar

    2018-01-01

    Background: Mental health problems, as one of the most neglected issues among adolescents,are common during adolescence and emerging adulthood. The aim of present study was to investigate the determinants of psychological well being among female adolescents in Tabriz,Iran. Methods: In this cross-sectional study, multi-stage cluster sampling was employed to recruit 289 female high school students to participate in the study during 2013-2014. A 3-section questionnaire was applied to collect data. Hierarchical linear regression analysis was applied to illustrate the variations in psychological wellbeing score on the basis of socio-demographic and psychological variables. Results: Self-efficacy, hopefulness, happiness and life satisfaction were positively correlated (r> 0.400) and perceived stress was negatively associated with psychological well-being (r =-0.689). In the first model, satisfaction with family lifestyle (β = 0.168, P stress (β = -0.470, P psychological wellbeing, respectively (R 2 = 0.595, P stress (R 2 = 0.453, P psychological wellbeing, it seems that perceived stress has overshadowed the influence of a majority of the other factors. Such influence may be due to the specific cultural and context-based rules enforced for female adolescents in the Iranian community.

  9. Maternal Fructose Intake Induces Insulin Resistance and Oxidative Stress in Male, but Not Female, Offspring

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lourdes Rodríguez

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. Fructose intake from added sugars correlates with the epidemic rise in metabolic syndrome and cardiovascular diseases. However, consumption of beverages containing fructose is allowed during gestation. Recently, we found that an intake of fructose (10% wt/vol throughout gestation produces an impaired fetal leptin signalling. Therefore, we have investigated whether maternal fructose intake produces subsequent changes in their progeny. Methods. Blood samples from fed and 24 h fasted female and male 90-day-old rats born from fructose-fed, glucose-fed, or control mothers were used. Results. After fasting, HOMA-IR and ISI (estimates of insulin sensitivity were worse in male descendents from fructose-fed mothers in comparison to the other two groups, and these findings were also accompanied by a higher leptinemia. Interestingly, plasma AOPP and uricemia (oxidative stress markers were augmented in male rats from fructose-fed mothers compared to the animals from control or glucose-fed mothers. In contrast, female rats did not show any differences in leptinemia between the three groups. Further, insulin sensitivity was significantly improved in fasted female rats from carbohydrate-fed mothers. In addition, plasma AOPP levels tended to be diminished in female rats from carbohydrate-fed mothers. Conclusion. Maternal fructose intake induces insulin resistance, hyperleptinemia, and plasma oxidative stress in male, but not female, progeny.

  10. A displaced stress fracture of the femoral neck in an adolescent female distance runner with female athlete triad: A case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Okamoto Shinichi

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract This report presents a case of a displaced stress fracture of the femoral neck in an adolescent female distance runner with amenorrhea. Both reduction and internal fixation were performed early after the injury. At 24 months postoperatively, magnetic resonance imaging and bone scintigraphy showed no positive signs of femoral head necrosis and bone union was confirmed on plain X-ray. A medical examination for the presence of the signs of the female athlete triad by checking weight, calorie intake and menstrual cycles is most important to prevent such stress fractures. Athletes as well as their coaches or parents therefore need to understand female athlete triad.

  11. Academic examination stress increases disordered eating symptomatology in female university students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costarelli, V; Patsai, A

    2012-09-01

    It is well documented that stress and anxiety can affect eating behaviour and food intake in humans. The purpose of the current study was to explore the possible effect of academic examination stress on disordered eating attitudes, emotional eating, restraint eating, body image, anxiety levels and self-esteem in a group of female university students. The interrelationships of the above parameters were also examined. Sixty Greek female university students, 18-25 years old, have been recruited and completed, on two separate occasions: a) during an examination stress period, and b) during a control period, the following questionnaires: the Eating Attitudes Test (EAT-26), the Dutch Eating Behavior Questionnaire (DEBQ), the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI), the Rosenberg Self- Esteem Scale, the Body Image Pictorial Instrument Scale (COLLINS) and a specially designed General Background Questionnaire. Subjects reported significantly higher levels of disordered eating attitudes (EAT-26, p=0.01), higher levels of anxiety (p=0.000) and lower levels of self-esteem (p=0.016) during the examination stress period compared to the control period. Disordered eating attitudes (EAT-26) were significantly positively correlated with emotional eating (p=0.04) and restrained eating (p=0.010) and negatively correlated with levels of self-esteem (p=0.05) and perceived desired body image (p=0.008) during the exam stress period. Finally, EAT-26 was significantly positively correlated with levels of anxiety in both study periods. Academic examination stress seems to increase disordered eating symptomatology in female university students and is associated with lower levels of self-esteem, an important finding which warrants further investigation.

  12. Investigating Infertility-Related Stress and Adoption in Iranian Infertile Females with Assisted Reproductive Technology Failure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tayebe Hajiyan

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Background Using Assisted Reproductive Technologies (ART is a stressful experience marked by lengthy and invasive medical procedures, high financial cost and relatively low success rate. Adoption is considered as one of the infertility treatment methods that can have great impact on healing emotional problems of infertile couples and can improve their relationship. Objectives The current study aimed to investigate infertility-related stress and adoption in Iranian Infertile females with a history of ART failure, during year 2015. Methods This was a cross sectional study in which 30 Iranian infertile females, 30 to 45 years old, with primary infertility of five years or more, and history of ART failure, were investigated. Data collection instruments included the questionnaire of infertility and demographic factors, fertility problem inventory (FPI and adoption questionnaire. The data were analyzed by SPSS V22, using descriptive statistics and Pearson test to assess possible correlations. Results The mean of the total score of infertility stress of the participants was 186.1 ± 29.46 (moderate to high. All participants showed some level of infertility stress. The mean score of adoption was 38.4 ± 3.73 (moderate acceptance, 53.33% of which showed moderate acceptance. There was no relationship between infertility stress and adoption (correlation = - 0.13, P = 0.48. Conclusions Infertile females with a history of unsuccessful ART had a high level of infertility stress and moderate acceptance of adoption. We must pay more attention to psychological aspects of infertility and failure of treatment. There is an obvious need to increase society awareness about adoption and promote “adoption” as a sensible choice to form a family.

  13. Inhibition of a Descending Prefrontal Circuit Prevents Ketamine-Induced Stress Resilience in Females

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dolzani, S. D.; Baratta, M. V.; Moss, J. M.

    2018-01-01

    Stress is a potent etiological factor in the onset of major depressive disorder and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Therefore, significant efforts have been made to identify factors that produce resilience to the outcomes of a later stressor, in hopes of preventing untoward clinical outcomes....... The NMDA receptor antagonist ketamine has recently emerged as a prophylactic capable of preventing neurochemical and behavioral outcomes of a future stressor. Despite promising results of preclinical studies performed in male rats, the effects of proactive ketamine in female rats remains unknown...

  14. Effects of stress and coping on binge eating in female college students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sulkowski, Michael L; Dempsey, Jack; Dempsey, Allison G

    2011-08-01

    Limited research exists on the association between stress, coping, and binge eating. To address this paucity, this study explores these associations in a sample of 147 female college students, an at-risk population for binge eating. We hypothesized that emotional and avoidant coping would be positively associated with stress and binge eating. Conversely, we expected that rational and detached coping would be negatively related to stress and binge eating. Furthermore, we expected these coping styles to mediate the relationship between stress and binge eating. As predicted, emotion-focused and avoidant coping were positively associated with stress and binge eating. Additionally, emotion-focused coping partially mediated the relationship between stress and binge eating. However, no association was found between stress, rational or detached coping, and binge eating. These results are discussed within the context of a negative reinforcement model of binge eating. Lastly, the importance of providing evidence-based treatment for individuals with binge eating symptomology is discussed in light of our findings. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Relationship between job stress, temperament and depressive symptoms in female nurses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yoko Kikuchi

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: A casual relationship between temperament, job stress and depressive symptoms has not been established yet. The purpose of this study was to assess the relationships between job stress, temperament and depressive symptoms in female nurses at a Japanese general hospital. Material and Methods: A self-report survey was conducted among 706 nurses. We measured job stress, temperament, and depressive symptoms using the Brief-Job Stress Questionnaire, the TEMPS-A and a screening scale of items from the Ministry of Health, Labour and Welfare of Japan. In order to examine the causal relationship between the measures the stepwise multiple regression and path analyses were used. Results: Depressive symptoms were modestly correlated with job stress (γ = -0.23-0.30. Except for hyperthymic temperament measures, the correlations between depressive symptoms and temperament types were significant and moderate (γ = 0.36-0.50. Overtime, job control as well as depressive and cyclothymic types of temperament were significantly correlated with depressive symptoms (β = 0.15, p < 0.05; β = 0.19, p < 0.01; β = 0.26, p < 0.001; β = 0.32, p < 0.001, respectively. Path-analysis revealed that depressive and cyclothymic types of temperament influenced depressive symptoms both directly (β = 0.67, p < 0.001 and indirectly via job stress (β = 0.35, p < 0.001 from temperament to job stress; β = 0.20, p < 0.05 from job stress to depressive symptoms. Irritable and anxious types of temperament and quantitative job overload did not contri­bute to the path-analytic model. Conclusions: Health care professionals should consider temperament, especially depressive and cyclothymic types, in order to help employees cope better with job stress factors. We need further research about the effective intervention to help employees better cope with their job stress.

  16. Cough urethrocystography: The best radiological evaluation of female stress urinary incontinence?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Varpula, M.; Maekinen, J.; Kiilholma, P.

    1989-01-01

    Urethrocystography and simultaneous urethrocystometry were performed on 40 women with primary urinary incontinence. The posterior urethrovesical angle, inclination angle, urethropelvic angle, and an orifice descent angle, not earlier described, were measured on radiographs obtained at rest, during coughing and during straining. The orifice descent angle was used to describe the descent of the internal urethral orifice in the cough radiographs, and was the only measurement that provided a significant correlation with urethrocystometry. The other angles measured, and radiographs obtained at rest or during straining were not useful in the evaluation of female stress urinary incontinence. The authors conclude that the best imaging method for the evaluation of female stress urinary incontinence is urethrocystography employing a single lateral view taken during coughing, with measurement of the orifice descent angle. (orig.)

  17. Posttraumatic Stress Disorder Relapse and Clitoral Reconstruction After Female Genital Mutilation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdulcadir, Jasmine; Bianchi Demicheli, Francesco; Willame, Alexia; Recordon, Nathalie; Petignat, Patrick

    2017-02-01

    Evidence on clitoral reconstruction after female genital mutilation is lacking. A woman with female genital mutilation experiencing clitoral pain during sex consulted to undergo clitoral reconstruction. The surgery was complicated by a wound infection responsible for severe postoperative pain. Such genital pain made our patient recall the traumatic experience of genital mutilation and experience a relapse of posttraumatic stress disorder symptoms. She reported anxiety; spontaneous, intrusive recurrent memories of the cutting; hypervigilance; and depressed mood. We successfully treated the infection and posttraumatic stress disorder. At 6 months postsurgery, she reported no clitoral pain and improved sexual function. Genital pain after clitoral reconstruction may cause recall of memories of the genital mutilation. We recommend multidisciplinary comprehensive psychosexual care and adequate analgesia.

  18. REACTION OF THE FEMALE BODY TO STRESS IN A CHEMICAL PROTECTIVE CLOTHING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiří SLABOTINSKÝ

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This article deals with the reaction of the female body to the use of an insulation chemical protective clothing combined with working – thermal and mental stress to which the female is exposed. The article provides a concise overview of protective chemical clothings and factors affecting their comfort; it describes the regularities corresponding to the physiological reaction, important for the body’s reaction to the use of a chemical protective clothing. Further, the article contains a description of the measurement and evaluation of physiological parameters of non-acclimated women during testing of these clothings and, finally, comparison with the results for males under the same stress which is unfavourable for women.

  19. Do male and female gammarids defend themselves differently during chemical stress?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gismondi, E.; Cossu-Leguille, C.; Beisel, J.-N.

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: •Gammarus roeseli females are less sensitive to cadmium than males. •Energy mobilization under chemical stress is difference according to gender. •Gender could take into account to an overview of xenobiotics effects on population. -- Abstract: To investigate xenobiotic impacts on organism physiology, several studies involve biomarker assessment. However, most studies do not take into account the toxic effect on both males and females. Here, we have investigated the influence of gender on the detoxification response (reduced glutathione, metallothionein, γ-glutamylcystein ligase and carotenoid), energy reserves (protein, lipids and glycogen) and biomarker of toxic effects (malondialdehyde) in Gammarus roeseli exposed to cadmium. A principal component analysis revealed that G. roeseli males and females were differently impacted by cadmium. We observed lower malondialdehyde levels in females than in males, whatever the condition tested (i.e. control, 2 and 8 μg Cd L −1 ), although the pattern of responses of control and exposures to 2 or 8 μg L −1 was the same for both genders. Results could be linked to apparently more effective detoxification displayed by females than by males. Protein concentrations were unchanged in both genders, lipids contents were always significantly decreased and glycogen contents decreased only in females. This study supports the importance of taking into account the gender in ecotoxicological studies to have an overview of xenobiotics effects on a population

  20. Do male and female gammarids defend themselves differently during chemical stress?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gismondi, E., E-mail: gismondi.eric@gmail.com; Cossu-Leguille, C.; Beisel, J.-N.

    2013-09-15

    Highlights: •Gammarus roeseli females are less sensitive to cadmium than males. •Energy mobilization under chemical stress is difference according to gender. •Gender could take into account to an overview of xenobiotics effects on population. -- Abstract: To investigate xenobiotic impacts on organism physiology, several studies involve biomarker assessment. However, most studies do not take into account the toxic effect on both males and females. Here, we have investigated the influence of gender on the detoxification response (reduced glutathione, metallothionein, γ-glutamylcystein ligase and carotenoid), energy reserves (protein, lipids and glycogen) and biomarker of toxic effects (malondialdehyde) in Gammarus roeseli exposed to cadmium. A principal component analysis revealed that G. roeseli males and females were differently impacted by cadmium. We observed lower malondialdehyde levels in females than in males, whatever the condition tested (i.e. control, 2 and 8 μg Cd L{sup −1}), although the pattern of responses of control and exposures to 2 or 8 μg L{sup −1} was the same for both genders. Results could be linked to apparently more effective detoxification displayed by females than by males. Protein concentrations were unchanged in both genders, lipids contents were always significantly decreased and glycogen contents decreased only in females. This study supports the importance of taking into account the gender in ecotoxicological studies to have an overview of xenobiotics effects on a population.

  1. Perceived stress, psychological well-being and burnout among female nurses working in government hospitals

    OpenAIRE

    Divinakumar K J; Shivram Bhat Pookala; Ram Chandra Das

    2014-01-01

    Background: Few studies have studied about the Burnout among government employed Female Nurses in India. Methods: A cross sectional survey was done by mailing questionnaires containing Perceived Stress Scale (PSS-10), Copenhagen Burnout Inventory (CBI) and General Health Questionnaire (GHQ-28) to all 603 Nurses posted in thirty government hospitals of central India. Fifty seven percent responded and 298 valid questionnaires were analysed. Results: Sixty three nurses (21%) had GHQ 28 sc...

  2. Pharmacological manipulation of serotonin receptors during brain embryogenesis favours stress resiliency in female rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gianluca Lavanco

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Manipulations of the serotonin transmission during early development induce long-lasting changes in the serotonergic circuitry throughout the brain. However, little is known on the developmental consequences in the female progeny. Therefore, this study aimed at exploring the behavioural effects of pre- and postnatal stimulation of the serotonergic system by 5-methoxytryptamine in adolescent female rats on behavioural reactivity and anxiety- like phenotype. Our results show that perinatal 5- methoxythyptamine decreased total distance travelled and rearing frequency in the novel enviroment, and increased the preference for the centre of the arena in the open field test. Moreover, perinatal 5-methoxytryptamine increased the percentages of entries and time spent on the open arms of the elevated plus maze, with respect to perinatally vehicle-exposed rats. Thus, perinatal stimulation of serotonin receptors does not impair the functional response to the emotional challenges in female rats, favouring the occurrence of a stress-resilient phenotype.

  3. Relationships between Salivary Melatonin Levels, Quality of Sleep, and Stress in Young Japanese Females

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yasuhiro Ito

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available A decrease in the quality of sleep is believed to cause anxiety and worsen depression. Comparisons of salivary melatonin levels with different factors including quality of sleep, state and trait anxieties, and depression, were conducted to examine whether there is a relationship between melatonin, presumably associated with sleep, and psychological stress. The saliva of healthy young females was collected during the daytime and before they went to bed at night (when they were awake and resting in a sitting position, and salivary melatonin levels were measured. The quality of sleep was scored using the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI–-a questionnaire method. State and trait anxieties, and depression were scored using other questionnaire methods: the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI and Self-Rating Depression Scale (SDS, respectively. The following findings were obtained: (1 Salivary melatonin levels measured during the daytime and before going to bed were higher in females with a high depression score, compared to those with a low score, and there was a correlation between the depression scores and salivary melatonin levels measured at night; and (2 salivary melatonin levels measured before going to bed at night (in a sitting position were higher in females with a high state anxiety score, suggesting a correlation between state anxiety scores and salivary melatonin levels during the night. Both depression and a sense of anxiety are forms of psychological stress. Therefore, it is assumed that, when a person is under psychological stress, the action of melatonin as a ligand on its receptor is reduced. Meaning psychological stress may induce oxidative stress in the body. On the other hand, no correlation was noted between the quality of sleep and salivary melatonin levels during the night, presumably because saliva was collected when the subjects were awake and sitting, rather than sleeping.

  4. Female combat amputees have higher rates of posttraumatic stress disorder disability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rivera, Jessica C; Krueger, Chad A; Johnson, Anthony E

    2015-01-01

    The civilian trauma literature suggests that the sexes differ in physical and mental health outcomes following traumatic injury. In order to determine if the reaction to combat injury is different between the sexes in a specific war wounded population, service members with amputations, we examined the disability profiles of male and female amputees. All US combatants who sustained a major extremity amputation between October 2001 and July 2011 were examined for demographic and injury information from the Department of Defense Trauma Registry and for disability outcomes in the service specific Physical Evaluation Boards. The proportions of women versus men with various disabling conditions were compared using Fisher's Exact Test and the mean disability ratings for each condition were compared using student's t tests. Among 1,107 amputees, 21 were female. There was no difference in the average age, military rank, or Injury Severity Score between the sexes. While the most common military occupation of male amputees was infantry service, the most common occupation for the female amputee was military police. The overall disability ratings between females and males were not different (82% for females, 75% for males). Female amputees had more frequent disability from posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD, 8/21 [38%] vs 168/818 [17%]). Disability ratings from PTSD tended to also be higher in women. Outside of variable occupational descriptions, both male and female amputees were exposed to explosions resulting in their injuries. Consistent with many civilian trauma and veterans' population studies, female amputees have higher frequencies of disability from PTSD. These results support the need for additional effort and attention directed towards optimizing physical and mental fitness following deployment in order to reduce disability and promote return to duty. Because certain conditions, such as PTSD, may be more or less common in men versus women veterans, postdeployment

  5. Acute stress among adolescents and female rape victims measured by ASC-Kids: a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nilsson, Doris; Nordenstam, Carin; Green, Sara; Wetterhall, Annika; Lundin, Tom; Svedin, Carl Göran

    2015-01-01

    Rape is considered a stressful trauma and often with durable consequences. How the aftermath of rape is for young adolescents' girls considering acute stress is an overlooked field and remains to be studied. In this study, we wanted to investigate acute stress among adolescent victims of rape and the psychometric properties of the Acute Stress Checklist for Children (ASC-Kids). A clinical sample (n = 79) of raped girls, 13-17 years old who had turned to a special rape victim unit for treatment, answered the ASC-Kids. ASC-Kids was also given to a group of minor stressed, non-raped adolescents in the same age range (n = 154) together with the University of California at Los Angeles Post-traumatic Stress Disorder Reaction Index (UCLA PTSD RI), and the Sense of Coherence Scale 13 (SOC-13). The scores from the groups were compared and showed significant differences in mean values on all the diagnostic criteria of acute stress disorder. In the clinical group, 36.7% obtained full ASD criteria. ASC-Kids could discriminate well between groups. Cronbach's alpha was found to be excellent, and the correlation between the UCLA PTSD RI and ASC-Kids found to be good; both ASC-Kids and UCLA PTSD RI had a good and moderate negative correlation with SOC-13. Adolescent female rape victims were shown to have a very high level of acute stress, and the ASC-Kids was found to have sound psychometrics and can be a valuable screening instrument to support clinicians in their assessments of an indication of adolescents after potentially stressful events such as rape.

  6. Bilateral pedicle stress fractures in a female athlete: case report and review of the literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parvataneni, Hari K; Nicholas, Stephen J; McCance, Sean E

    2004-01-15

    Clinical case report of bilateral stress fractures of the pedicle in a female athlete presenting with back pain. To report this unusual case and surgical treatment and to review the relevant literature. Low back pain is a frequent complaint in athletes, with the majority of cases being related to muscular or soft tissue etiology. Spondylolysis, or pars fracture, is the most common injury of the neural arch. Stress fracture of the pedicle is a much less common occurrence. Bilateral pedicle fractures in an otherwise healthy athlete has not been previously reported in the orthopedic literature. A 19-year-old female athlete presented with low back pain limiting sports and daily activities. Radiographic workup revealed bilateral stress fractures of the pedicles of the L5 vertebra. Circumferential fusion of the L5-S1 segment was performed after failure of conservative treatment. Anterior interbody structural allograft and a vertical mesh cage were combined with instrumented posterolateral fusion using segmental pedicle screws and autogenous iliac crest bone graft. The patient achieved complete pain relief, solid fusion, and return to normal function. In this uncommon case of bilateral stress fractures of the pedicle, circumferential fusion assures full immobilization of the injured motion segment and assures a high probability of successful healing.

  7. Stress and the Adolescent Brain: Plasticity of Reproductive Behaviors in Female

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farideh Zafari Zangeneh

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Early life events influence life-long patterns of emotionality and stress responsiveness and alter the rate of brain and body aging.  Much research attention has focused on the programming effects of the hypothalamus pituitary axis (HPA in early life and on understanding HPA function in response to stressors in adulthood. In comparison, there has been relatively little research on adolescence, a time of significant brain development particularly in the frontal lobe and a time which is of great importance for mental and physical health. The hippocampus, amygdala, and prefrontal cortex undergo stress-induced structural remodeling, which alters behavioral and physiological responses. During adolescence, HPA function is characterized by a prolonged activation in response to stressors compared to adulthood, which may render ongoing development of the brain vulnerable. Stress reactivity is markedly influenced by both the pubertal maturation and the experience of the individual. The frequency of the pulses is increased in chronic stress, since the neuroendocrine system is such a good candidate for mediators of many diseases linked to chronic stress. The activity of HPA axis  in life time of female,  sex maturity, pregnancy or lactation is a plasticity of the diurnal rhythm of pulse amplitude; chronic stress can change this program for   formation disorder in behavioral and physiological responses.

  8. Work related perceived stress and muscle activity during standardized computer work among female computer users

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsman, P; Thorn, S; Søgaard, K

    2009-01-01

    The current study investigated the associations between work-related perceived stress and surface electromyographic (sEMG) parameters (muscle activity and muscle rest) during standardized simulated computer work (typing, editing, precision, and Stroop tasks). It was part of the European case......-control study, NEW (Neuromuscular assessment in the Elderly Worker). The present cross-sectional study was based on a questionnaire survey and sEMG measurements among Danish and Swedish female computer users aged 45 or older (n=49). The results show associations between work-related perceived stress...... and trapezius muscle activity and rest during standardized simulated computer work, and provide partial empirical support for the hypothesized pathway of stress induced muscle activity in the association between an adverse psychosocial work environment and musculoskeletal symptoms in the neck and shoulder....

  9. Evaluation of the utility of video-urodynamics in children with urinary tract infection and voiding dysfunction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glazier, D B; Murphy, D P; Fleisher, M H; Cummings, K B; Barone, J G

    1997-11-01

    To assess the use of video-urodynamic studies (VUDS) in children with urinary tract infection (UTI) and symptoms of voiding dysfunction (frequency, urgency, incontinence), to ascertain whether VUDS significantly assists in diagnosis and deciding treatment. Over a 16-month period, all children seen at our centre with a UTI in conjunction with previous symptoms suggestive of voiding dysfunction underwent free and pressure-flow VUDS. Forty-two children underwent VUDS and 38 (mean age 9 years, range 4-16, 15 male, 23 female) had sufficient information to be included in the study. All children had a prior history of voiding dysfunction (mean 55 months). Only five patients were found to have reflux and three of these had associated detrusor instability. In addition, 24 of 33 patients who did not have reflux had abnormalities on urodynamic study, the most common problem being detrusor instability in 17 of 24 patients. Other abnormalities included sphincter dyssynergia (five patients), poor bladder compliance (two) and hypersensitivity on bladder filling (three). VUDS can provide information about the aetiology of UTI and voiding dysfunction in children that cannot be obtained from any other source. The results of VUDS can be used to select specific treatments, to avoid inappropriate therapy and to identify children who may benefit from follow-up studies despite normal findings on voiding cystourethrography. From these results, we believe that VUDS should be considered for children with UTI and voiding dysfunction.

  10. International Continence Society Good Urodynamic Practices and Terms 2016

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rosier, Peter F W M; Schaefer, Werner; Lose, Gunnar

    2017-01-01

    was developed in the period from December 2013 to December 2015. In July, a draft was posted on the ICS website for membership comments and discussed at the ICS 2015 annual meeting. The input of ICS membership was included in the final draft before ICS approval and subsequent peer review (for this journal......). RESULTS: This evidence-based ICS-GUP2016 has newly or more precisely defined more than 30 terms and provides standards for the practice, quality control, interpretation, and reporting of urodynamics; cystometry and pressure-flow analysis. Furthermore, the working group has included recommendations for pre......-testing information and for patient information and preparation. On the basis of earlier ICS standardisations and updating according to available evidence, the practice of uroflowmetry, cystometry, and pressure-flow studies are further detailed. CONCLUSION: ICS-GUP2016 updates and adds on to ICS-GUP2002 to improve...

  11. Female Caregivers and Stroke Severity Determines Caregiver Stress in Stroke Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menon, Bindu; Salini, P; Habeeba, K; Conjeevaram, Jyoti; Munisusmitha, K

    2017-01-01

    Stroke is among the major causes of short- and long-term disability. This study aimed to understand the caregivers (CGs) stress in stroke survivors. A 22-item questionnaire was administered to 201 CGs of stroke survivors. The variables tested were physical and mental health, social support, financial, and personal problems. CGs were divided into Group A (Barthel index [BI] 75) according to patient's BI, according to gender (male and female CG) and relation; spouses (wife, husband), daughters, sons, daughter-in-law, grandchildren, and rest (father, mother, brother, sister, and in-laws). Data were analyzed using SPSS software version-21. Data were analyzed to determine which variables of the patient effects the CG stress. Majority of the CGs (74.62%) were females. 65% of CGs graded their burden as moderate to severe. 81% of CGs had left their work for caregiving. More than half of the CGs felt sleep disturbance and physical strain. Psychological instability and financial burdens were reported in 3/4 th of CGs. Group A CGs faced more sleep, financial, health, and social life disturbance. Patient's bladder and bowel problems, shoulder pain, patients noncooperative attitude for medication administration, and physiotherapy were more upsetting for Group A CGs. Female CGs were subjected to more sleep disturbance, physical and psychological stress, faced more difficulty regarding the patient's bladder, bowel, personal hygiene needs, and physiotherapy. Female CGs felt less motivated in caregiving than male CGs. Wives and daughters-in-law experienced more burden. Time spent and burden perceived was more by female CGs (χ 2 = 15.199, P = 0.002) than males (χ 2 = 11.931, P = 0.018); wives and daughters than other relations (χ 2 = 32.184, P = 0.000), (χ 2 = 35.162, P = 0.019). Our study showed that caregiving burden was predominantly shouldered by females CGs. CGs faced physical, psychological, and socioeconomic burden. The burden was more evident in female CGs and in

  12. Female caregivers and stroke severity determines caregiver stress in stroke patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bindu Menon

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Stroke is among the major causes of short- and long-term disability. This study aimed to understand the caregivers (CGs stress in stroke survivors. Materials and Methods: A 22-item questionnaire was administered to 201 CGs of stroke survivors. The variables tested were physical and mental health, social support, financial, and personal problems. CGs were divided into Group A (Barthel index [BI] 75 according to patient's BI, according to gender (male and female CG and relation; spouses (wife, husband, daughters, sons, daughter-in-law, grandchildren, and rest (father, mother, brother, sister, and in-laws. Data were analyzed using SPSS software version–21. Data were analyzed to determine which variables of the patient effects the CG stress. Results: Majority of the CGs (74.62% were females. 65% of CGs graded their burden as moderate to severe. 81% of CGs had left their work for caregiving. More than half of the CGs felt sleep disturbance and physical strain. Psychological instability and financial burdens were reported in 3/4th of CGs. Group A CGs faced more sleep, financial, health, and social life disturbance. Patient's bladder and bowel problems, shoulder pain, patients noncooperative attitude for medication administration, and physiotherapy were more upsetting for Group A CGs. Female CGs were subjected to more sleep disturbance, physical and psychological stress, faced more difficulty regarding the patient's bladder, bowel, personal hygiene needs, and physiotherapy. Female CGs felt less motivated in caregiving than male CGs. Wives and daughters-in-law experienced more burden. Time spent and burden perceived was more by female CGs (χ2 = 15.199, P = 0.002 than males (χ2 = 11.931, P = 0.018; wives and daughters than other relations (χ2 = 32.184, P = 0.000, (χ2 = 35.162, P = 0.019. Conclusion: Our study showed that caregiving burden was predominantly shouldered by females CGs. CGs faced physical, psychological, and socioeconomic

  13. What determines psychological well-being among Iranian female adolescents? Perceived stress may overshadow all determinants

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    Haleh Heizomi

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Mental health problems, as one of the most neglected issues among adolescents,are common during adolescence and emerging adulthood. The aim of present study was to investigate the determinants of psychological well being among female adolescents in Tabriz,Iran.Methods: In this cross-sectional study, multi-stage cluster sampling was employed to recruit 289 female high school students to participate in the study during 2013–2014. A 3-section questionnaire was applied to collect data. Hierarchical linear regression analysis was applied to illustrate the variations in psychological wellbeing score on the basis of socio-demographic and psychological variables.Results: Self-efficacy, hopefulness, happiness and life satisfaction were positively correlated (r> 0.400 and perceived stress was negatively associated with psychological well-being (r =-0.689. In the first model, satisfaction with family lifestyle (β = 0.168, P < 0.001 and perceived stress (β = -0.470, P < 0.001 were the most significant positive and negative predictors for psychological wellbeing, respectively (R2 = 0.595, P < 0.001. In the second model (step 6,physical activity (β = -0.109, P < 0.019, have/had boyfriend (β = 0.237, P < 0.001, hopefulness(β = -0.130, P < 0.05 and happiness (-β = 0.387, P < 0.001 were significant predictors for perceived stress (R2 = 0.453, P < 0.001.Conclusion: Considering the various behavioral, mental and social predictors of psychological wellbeing, it seems that perceived stress has overshadowed the influence of a majority of the other factors. Such influence may be due to the specific cultural and context-based rules enforced for female adolescents in the Iranian community.

  14. The relationship between depressive symptoms among female workers and job stress and sleep quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Ho-Sung; Kim, Young-Wook; Park, Hyoung-Wook; Lee, Kang-Ho; Jeong, Baek-Geun; Kang, Yune-Sik; Park, Ki-Soo

    2013-07-22

    Recently, workers' mental health has become important focus in the field of occupational health management. Depression is a psychiatric illness with a high prevalence. The association between job stress and depressive symptoms has been demonstrated in many studies. Recently, studies about the association between sleep quality and depressive symptoms have been reported, but there has been no large-scaled study in Korean female workers. Therefore, this study was designed to investigate the relationship between job stress and sleep quality, and depressive symptoms in female workers. From Mar 2011 to Aug 2011, 4,833 female workers in the manufacturing, finance, and service fields at 16 workplaces in Yeungnam province participated in this study, conducted in combination with a worksite-based health checkup initiated by the National Health Insurance Service (NHIS). In this study, a questionnaire survey was carried out using the Korean Occupational Stress Scale-Short Form(KOSS-SF), Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index(PSQI) and Center for Epidemiological Studies-Depression Scale(CES-D). The collected data was entered in the system and analyzed using the PASW (version 18.0) program. A correlation analysis, cross analysis, multivariate logistic regression analysis, and hierarchical multiple regression analysis were conducted. Among the 4,883 subjects, 978 subjects (20.0%) were in the depression group. Job stress(OR=3.58, 95% CI=3.06-4.21) and sleep quality(OR=3.81, 95% CI=3.18-4.56) were strongly associated with depressive symptoms. Hierarchical multiple regression analysis revealed that job stress displayed explanatory powers of 15.6% on depression while sleep quality displayed explanatory powers of 16.2%, showing that job stress and sleep quality had a closer relationship with depressive symptoms, compared to the other factors. The multivariate logistic regression analysis yielded odds ratios between the 7 subscales of job stress and depressive symptoms in the range of 1

  15. Evidence of female-specific glial deficits in the hippocampus in a mouse model of prenatal stress.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Behan, Aine T

    2011-01-01

    Prenatal stress (PS) has been associated with an increased incidence of numerous neuropsychiatric disorders, including depression, anxiety, schizophrenia, and autism. To determine the effects of PS on hippocampal-dependent behaviour hippocampal morphology, we examined behavioural responses and hippocampal cytoarchitecture of a maternal restraint stress paradigm of PS in C57BL6 mice. Female offspring only showed a reduction in hippocampal glial count in the pyramidal layer following PS. Additionally, only PS females showed increased depressive-like behaviour with cognitive deficits predominantly in female offspring when compared to males. This data provides evidence for functional female-specific glial deficits within the hippocampus as a consequence of PS.

  16. Evidence of female-specific glial deficits in the hippocampus in a mouse model of prenatal stress.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Behan, Aine T

    2012-02-01

    Prenatal stress (PS) has been associated with an increased incidence of numerous neuropsychiatric disorders, including depression, anxiety, schizophrenia, and autism. To determine the effects of PS on hippocampal-dependent behaviour hippocampal morphology, we examined behavioural responses and hippocampal cytoarchitecture of a maternal restraint stress paradigm of PS in C57BL6 mice. Female offspring only showed a reduction in hippocampal glial count in the pyramidal layer following PS. Additionally, only PS females showed increased depressive-like behaviour with cognitive deficits predominantly in female offspring when compared to males. This data provides evidence for functional female-specific glial deficits within the hippocampus as a consequence of PS.

  17. Efficacy of Electrical Pudendal Nerve Stimulation in Treating Female Stress Incontinence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Siyou; Lv, Jianwei; Feng, Xiaoming; Wang, Ge; Lv, Tingting

    2016-05-01

    To compare the efficacies of electrical pudendal nerve stimulation (EPNS) vs electromyogram biofeedback (BF)-assisted pelvic floor muscle training (PFMT) plus transvaginal electrical stimulation (TES) in treating female stress urinary incontinence (SUI) and to evaluate the posttreatment and long-term efficacies of EPNS for female SUI. Forty-two female SUI patients were randomized into groups I and II, 21 in each group. The two groups were treated by EPNS and BF-assisted PFMT plus TES, respectively, for comparison of their effects. Group III (196 patients) were treated by EPNS for evaluation of its effects. To perform EPNS, long acupuncture needles were deeply inserted into four sacrococcygeal points and electrified to stimulate pudendal nerves. Outcome measures were stress test, 24-hour pad test, and a questionnaire to measure the severity of symptoms and quality of life in women with SUI. After 4 weeks of treatment, the questionnaire score was lower and the therapeutic effect was better in group I (questionnaire score 0 [0, 6] and a ≥ 50% symptom improvement rate of 85.7%, respectively) than in group II (questionnaire score 9 [5.5, 15.5] and a ≥ 50% symptom improvement rate of 28.6%) (both P < .01). In group III, complete resolution occurred in 94 cases (48.0%), with a ≥ 50% symptom improvement rate of 85.7%, after 20.3 ± 16.8 sessions of treatment. At the mean follow-up of 52.9 months, complete resolution occurred in 32 (47.1%) of the 68 patients in group III who attained ≥50% posttreatment improvement. EPNS is more effective than BF-assisted PFMT plus TES in treating female SUI. It has good posttreatment and long-term effects on female SUI. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. A displaced stress fracture of the femoral neck in an adolescent female distance runner with female athlete triad: A case report

    OpenAIRE

    Okamoto, Shinichi; Arai, Yuji; Hara, Kunio; Tsuzihara, Takashi; Kubo, Toshikazu

    2010-01-01

    Abstract This report presents a case of a displaced stress fracture of the femoral neck in an adolescent female distance runner with amenorrhea. Both reduction and internal fixation were performed early after the injury. At 24 months postoperatively, magnetic resonance imaging and bone scintigraphy showed no positive signs of femoral head necrosis and bone union was confirmed on plain X-ray. A medical examination for the presence of the signs of the female athlete triad by checking weight, ca...

  19. The Role of Lexical Stress on the Use of Vocal Fry in Young Adult Female Speakers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibson, Todd A

    2017-01-01

    Vocal fry is a voice register often used by young adult women for sociolinguistic purposes. Some acoustic correlates of lexical stress, however, appear incompatible with the use of vocal fry. The objective of this study was to systematically examine the role of lexical stress in the use of vocal fry by young adult women. This is a semi-randomized controlled laboratory study. Fifty female undergraduate students were recorded repeating one-, two-, three-, and four-syllable nonwords that conformed to English phonotactics. Nonwords were presented in order from shorter to longer lengths, with stimuli randomized within syllable length. Perceptual analyses of recordings were augmented by acoustic analyses to identify each syllable in which vocal fry occurred. Eighty-six percent of participants produced at least one episode of vocal fry. Vocal fry was more likely to occur in unstressed than stressed position, and the likelihood increased as distance from the stressed syllable increased. There was considerable variability in the use of vocal fry. Frequent and infrequent users varied on the degree to which they used vocal fry in single-syllable nonwords. Vocal fry use persists among young adult women even in the absence of syntactic and pragmatic influences. Lexical stress appeared to dramatically reduce the use of vocal fry. Patterns of vocal fry use appeared to be different for frequent and infrequent users of this vocal register. Copyright © 2017 The Voice Foundation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Talar body fatigue stress fractures: three cases observed in elite female gymnasts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rossi, F. [National Institute of Sports Medicine of the Italian Olympic Committee, Rome (Italy); Dragoni, S. [National Institute of Sports Medicine of the Italian Olympic Committee, Rome (Italy); Istituto Nazionale di Medicina dello Sport, Rome (Italy)

    2005-07-01

    To introduce and emphasize the clinical and radiological findings of three talar body fatigue stress fractures in competitive athletes. Clinical and radiographic skeletal records of 24,562 athletes taken between 1962 and 2002 were retrospectively reviewed. Among these, 6851 files related to acute foot and ankle injuries or chronic post-traumatic sequelae were found. There were 925 (3.76%) stress fatigue fractures selected from the whole collection. Among these there were three cases (0.32%) of talar body stress fractures diagnosed in elite female gymnasts 15 - 17 years old. The negative first radiograph become positive 4-6 weeks later. Scintigraphy was positive at an early stage and consistent for the diagnosis. CT and MRI gave positive results 1-2 weeks after the beginning of symptoms which were always greatly diagnostic. The sports medicine literature lacks reports of talar body fatigue stress fractures. The poor initial sensitivity of radiography makes it problematic to establish an early diagnosis. A wise combination of scintigraphy, CT and MRI has therefore to be relied upon. Familiarity with this rare location for a stress fracture may prevent delayed diagnosis and long-lasting damage, both of which are important factors in competitive athletes. (orig.)

  1. Talar body fatigue stress fractures: three cases observed in elite female gymnasts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rossi, F.; Dragoni, S.

    2005-01-01

    To introduce and emphasize the clinical and radiological findings of three talar body fatigue stress fractures in competitive athletes. Clinical and radiographic skeletal records of 24,562 athletes taken between 1962 and 2002 were retrospectively reviewed. Among these, 6851 files related to acute foot and ankle injuries or chronic post-traumatic sequelae were found. There were 925 (3.76%) stress fatigue fractures selected from the whole collection. Among these there were three cases (0.32%) of talar body stress fractures diagnosed in elite female gymnasts 15 - 17 years old. The negative first radiograph become positive 4-6 weeks later. Scintigraphy was positive at an early stage and consistent for the diagnosis. CT and MRI gave positive results 1-2 weeks after the beginning of symptoms which were always greatly diagnostic. The sports medicine literature lacks reports of talar body fatigue stress fractures. The poor initial sensitivity of radiography makes it problematic to establish an early diagnosis. A wise combination of scintigraphy, CT and MRI has therefore to be relied upon. Familiarity with this rare location for a stress fracture may prevent delayed diagnosis and long-lasting damage, both of which are important factors in competitive athletes. (orig.)

  2. Bisphenol A induces oxidative stress and DNA damage in hepatic tissue of female rat offspring

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jehane I. Eid

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Bisphenol A (BPA is an endocrine disrupting compound widely spread in our living environment. It is a contaminant with increasing exposure to it and exerts both toxic and estrogenic effects on mammalian cells. Due to the limited information concerning the effect of BPA on the liver, the present study was designed to assess hepatic tissue injury induced by early life exposure to BPA in female rat offspring. Rat dams (n = 9 were gavaged with 0.5 and 50 mg of BPA/kg b.w./day throughout lactation until weaning. The sham group received olive oil for the same duration while the control group did not receive any injection. The liver tissue was collected from female pups at different pubertal periods (PND50, 90 and 110 to evaluate oxidative stress biomarkers, extent of DNA damage and histopathological changes. Our results indicated that early life exposure to BPA significantly increased oxidative/nitrosative stress, decreased antioxidant enzyme activities, induced DNA damage and chronic severe inflammation in the hepatic tissue in a time dependent manner. These data suggested that BPA causes long-term adverse effects on the liver, which leads to deleterious effects in the liver of female rat offspring.

  3. Clinical Characteristics and Urodynamic Analysis of Urinary Dysfunction in Multiple Sclerosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tao Wang

    2016-01-01

    Conclusions: Urodynamic parameters examined are important in providing an accurate diagnosis, guiding management decisions of MS. Early and effective treatment may improve the bladder function and the quality of life at the early stages of MS.

  4. Urodynamic studies for management of urinary incontinence in children and adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clement, Keiran David; Lapitan, Marie Carmela M; Omar, Muhammad Imran; Glazener, Cathryn M A

    2013-10-29

    Urodynamic tests are used to investigate people who have urinary incontinence or other urinary symptoms in order to make a definitive, objective diagnosis. The aim is to help select the treatment most likely to be successful. The investigations are invasive and time consuming. The objective of this review was to determine if treatment according to a urodynamic-based diagnosis, compared to treatment based on history and examination, led to more effective clinical care of people with urinary incontinence and better clinical outcomes.The intention was to test the following hypotheses in predefined subgroups of people with incontinence:(i) urodynamic investigations improve the clinical outcomes;(ii) urodynamic investigations alter clinical decision making;(iii) one type of urodynamic test is better than another in improving the outcomes of management of incontinence or influencing clinical decisions, or both. We searched the Cochrane Incontinence Group Specialised Register, which contains trials identified from the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL), MEDLINE and MEDLINE In-Process, handsearching of journals and conference proceedings (searched 19 February 2013), and the reference lists of relevant articles. Randomised and quasi-randomised trials comparing clinical outcomes in groups of people who were and were not investigated using urodynamics, or comparing one type of urodynamic test against another were included. Trials were excluded if they did not report clinical outcomes. Two review authors independently assessed trial quality and extracted data. Eight trials involving around 1100 people were included but data were only available for 1036 women in seven trials, of whom 526 received urodynamics. There was some evidence of risk of bias. The four deaths and 12 dropouts in the control arm of one trial were unexplained.There was significant evidence that the tests did change clinical decision making. Women in the urodynamic arms of three trials

  5. Female Sexual Function Following Surgical Treatment of Stress Urinary Incontinence: Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bicudo-Fürst, Maria Cláudia; Borba Leite, Pedro Henrique; Araújo Glina, Felipe Placco; Baccaglini, Willy; de Carvalho Fürst, Rafael Vilhena; Bezerra, Carlos Alberto; Glina, Sidney

    2017-12-27

    The impact of surgery for stress urinary incontinence (SUI) on female sexual function has received attention in the medical literature, but not in a structured manner. To assess the most recent evidence on the impact of surgical management for female SUI on female sexual function. The review and meta-analysis of available articles published in Medline, Cochrane, LILACS, SCOPUS, Web of Science, CINHAL, and EMBASE included prospective randomized and non-randomized studies that assessed patients who underwent surgical treatment for UI through 2 validated questionnaires: the Pelvic Organ Prolapse Urinary Incontinence Sexual Questionnaire (PISQ-12) and the Female Sexual Function Index (FSFI). The following terms were searched: (urinary incontinence OR female OR woman OR women) AND (suburethral slings OR transobturator tape* OR transobturator suburethral tape OR trans-obturator tape* OR urethral sling* OR midurethral sling* OR mid-urethral sling* OR "standard midurethral slings" OR tensionless vaginal tape* OR mini sling* OR Burch* OR "Burch colposuspension" OR "urologic surgical procedures" OR "tension-free vaginal tape" OR pubovaginal sling) AND (sexual behavior OR "Female Sexual Function Index" OR FSFI OR sexual function OR "Pelvic Organ Prolapse/Urinary Incontinence Sexual Questionnaire" OR PISQ-12). 1,043 articles were retrieved; 9 studies were included for qualitative analysis and 4 were included for meta-analysis. 25 articles were excluded because they used questionnaires other than the FSFI and PISQ-12. Meta-analysis of 2 studies composed of 411 women who underwent to retropubic and transobturator sling intervention and completed the PISQ-12 questionnaire showed an increase in sexual function of 2.40 points after transobturator compared with retropubic sling intervention (95% CI = -2.48 to -2.32; I 2  = 35%, P Urinary Incontinence: Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis. Sex Med Rev 2017;X:XXX-XXX. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  6. Instructural Strategies for Reducing Stress and Improving Self-Efficacy and Job Performance of Female Naval Recruits

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Idar, Imelda

    1998-01-01

    ... do. However, contrary to the general belief that females are more stressed than male recruits, it was found that there is little to no difference in the traits of efficacy, role ambiguity, role conflict...

  7. Evaluation of the relationship between urodynamic examination and urinary tract infection based on urinalysis results

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shih-Wei Tsai

    2013-12-01

    Conclusion: When the prevalence of UTI after urodynamic examination is higher than 10%, we recommend that prophylactic antibiotics should be given for high-risk patients with parameters such as older age, diabetes and multipara (>3. Those who have UTI before urodynamic examination and who are found to have a low average flow rate of less than 7 mL/second should take prophylactic antibiotics after examination.

  8. An open multicenter study of polyacrylamide hydrogel (Bulkamid®) for female stress and mixed urinary incontinence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lose, Gunnar; Sørensen, Helle Christina; Axelsen, Susanne Maigaard

    2010-01-01

    Polyacrylamide hydrogel (PAHG, Bulkamid®) is a promising urethral bulking agent. This multicenter study was carried out to evaluate safety and efficacy of Bulkamid® for female stress and mixed urinary incontinence.......Polyacrylamide hydrogel (PAHG, Bulkamid®) is a promising urethral bulking agent. This multicenter study was carried out to evaluate safety and efficacy of Bulkamid® for female stress and mixed urinary incontinence....

  9. MRI assessment of mid-urethral ligament changes in female stress urinary incontinence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bai Mei; Liu Hongyi; Han Yue; Xu Guoping; Fang Ping; Zhao Yang; Li Jingjin

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the MRI value in changes of mid-urethral ligament injury of female stress urinary incontinence (SUI). Methods: Comparison of MRI changes of mid-urethral ligament on 30 healthy female volunteers and 20 female SUI patients. Chi-square test was used to compare the form of SUI patient's mid-urethral support ligaments. Results: The female mid-urethral support ligaments were composed of 4 groups of ligaments, including the periurethral ligament and pubourethral ligaments (1 pair), and at both sides of the urethra's paraurethral ligaments (1 pair) and suburethral ligament lying dorsal urethra, connecting the urethra and pelvic arcus tendinous fasciae. In normal MRI, ligament was a thin strip and showed low signal on both T 1 WI and T 2 WI, T 2 WI sagittal and cross-section scan was the best combination to show the middle urethral support ligaments changes, with tension; 6 patients (20%) in the 30 patients normal control group could be seen tortuously and slack like around the urethra ligaments. Twenty SUI patients mid-urethral support ligaments were performance laxity or rupture,rates were 39% (47/120) and 42% (50/120) (χ 2 =43.191, P<0.05). On T 2 WI, the ligamentous laxity was floating,and loss tension, also could performance one side extension and thinner than the other side. The ligament rupture was performance of the signal interruption, ligament contracture and one end of ligament attachment points separation. Conclusion: MRI can objective effective evaluate the mid-urethral support ligaments' pathological changes in stress urinary incontinence patients. (authors)

  10. International Children's Continence Society standardization report on urodynamic studies of the lower urinary tract in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bauer, Stuart B; Nijman, Rien J M; Drzewiecki, Beth A; Sillen, Ulla; Hoebeke, Piet

    2015-09-01

    The objective of this document created by the ICCS standardization subcommittee is to provide a uniform guideline on measurement, quality control and documentation of urodynamic studies in children. This guideline was created using expert opinion and critical review of the published literature on urodynamic studies in children. Currently no standardized guideline or level 1 data exists on the proper technique for this subject matter. The document provides a throughout explanation on how to approach a child who presents with lower urinary tract dysfunction, whether it be of neurogenic, anatomic or functional origin. Formation of an urodynamic question after a comprehensive history and physical examination is paramount in selecting the urodynamic study(ies) that will be most appropriate for each child. Appropriate application of each test with careful consideration of the needs of the child and family will provide the most accurate and reproducible results. Recommendations on how to execute each of the components of an urodynamic study as well as interpretation are included in the document. Urodynamic studies have become a major tool in evaluating lower urinary tract dysfunction in children. There are many subtleties in performing these studies in children in juxtaposition to adults; therefore, adaptations specific to children must be made to achieve accurate and reproducible results. Uniformity in how the studies are conducted from center to center will allow for healthier transparency and enhanced comparison of results in both clinical and research situations. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  11. Differences in urodynamic voiding variables recorded by conventional cystometry and ambulatory monitoring in symptomatic women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Pablo Valdevenito

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Objectives To determine whether there are differences in pressure and flow measurements between conventional cystometry (CONV and ambulatory urodynamic monitoring (AMB in women with overactive bladder syndrome and urinary incontinence. Materials and Methods Retrospective study which included female subjects who underwent both CONV (with saline filling medium and AMB, separated by less than 24 months, not using medication active on the lower urinary tract and without history of prior pelvic surgery. Both tests were carried out in compliance with the International Continence Society standards. The paired Student’s t test was used to compare continuous variables. Bland-Altman statistics were used to assess the agreement of each variable between both studies. Results Thirty women with a median (range age of 50 (14 - 73 years met the inclusion criteria. AMB was carried out at a mean (SD of 11 (6 months after CONV. Measurements of pves and pabd at the end of filling, and Qmax were significantly higher from AMB recordings. There were no differences in pdet at the end of filling, pdetQmax or pdetmax during voiding, nor significant difference in Vvoid. Conclusions We provide previously undocumented comparative voiding data between CONV and AMB for patients who most commonly require both investigations. Our findings show higher values of Qmax but similar values of pdetQmax measured by AMB which may partly reflect an overall lower catheter caliber, physiological filling but perhaps also more ‘normal’ voiding conditions.

  12. [Effect of early scream sound stress on learning and memory in female rats].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Lili; Han, Bo; Zhao, Xiaoge; Mi, Lihua; Song, Qiang; Huang, Chen

    2015-12-01

    To investigate the effect of early scream sound stress on the ability of spatial learning and memory, the levels of norepinephrine (NE) and corticosterone (CORT) in serum, and the morphology of adrenal gland.
 Female Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats were treated daily with scream sound from postnatal day 1(P1) for 21 d. Morris water maze was used to measure the spatial learning and memory ability. The levels of serum NE and CORT were determined by radioimmunoassay. Adrenal gland of SD rats was collected and fixed in formalin, and then embedded with paraffin. The morphology of adrenal gland was observed by HE staining.
 Exposure to early scream sound decreased latency of escape and increased times to cross the platform in Morris water maze test (Psound stress can enhance spatial learning and memory ability in adulthood, which is related to activation of the hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenal axis and sympathetic nervous system.

  13. Anxiety response and restraint-induced stress differentially affect ethanol intake in female adolescent rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acevedo, María Belén; Fabio, Maria Carolina; Fernández, Macarena Soledad; Pautassi, Ricardo Marcos

    2016-10-15

    Anxiety disorders are more likely to occur in women than in men, usually emerge during adolescence and exhibit high comorbidity with alcohol use disorders (AUD). Adolescents with high levels of anxiety or heightened reactivity to stress may be at-risk for developing AUD. An approach to analyze if high levels of inborn anxiety predict greater ethanol drinking is to assess the latter variable in subjects classified as high- or low-anxiety responders. The present study assessed ethanol drinking in adolescent, female Wistar, rats classified as high-, low- or average-anxiety responders and exposed or not to restraint stress (RS, Exp. 1). Classification was made through a multivariate index derived from testing anxiety responses in an elevated plus maze and a light-dark box tests. RS was applied after animals had been initiated to ethanol drinking. Intake of sweetened ethanol was unaffected by level of anxiety response. Adolescents with high levels of inborn anxiety exhibited significantly higher intake of unsweetened ethanol than counterparts with standard levels of anxiety, yet this effect was inhibited by RS exposure. Experiment 2 assessed FOS immunoreactivity after RS. Stress induced a significant increase in FOS immunoreactivity at the paraventricular nucleus, yet this effect was unaffected by level of anxiety response. Female adolescents with high levels of basal anxiety may be at-risk for exhibiting increased predisposition for ethanol intake and preference. The study also indicates that stress may exert differential effects on adolescent ethanol intake as a function of the level of anxiety response. Copyright © 2016 IBRO. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Chronic work stress and exhaustion is associated with higher allostastic load in female school teachers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bellingrath, Silja; Weigl, Tobias; Kudielka, Brigitte M

    2009-01-01

    Epidemiological studies have shown that chronic work stress or unfavourable psychosocial work conditions are prospectively associated with different adverse health outcomes. The aim of the present cross-sectional study was to investigate the relationship between work-related chronic stress as well as exhaustion and a cumulative measure of physiological wear-and-tear called allostastic load (AL). AL could be a possible biological pathway for how chronic work stress and exhaustion lead to health impairments in the long run. As the teaching profession has been proposed to be a potentially high stressful occupation, chronic work stress (effort-reward-imbalance) and exhaustion were assessed in 104 female school teachers. AL was first analyzed according to McEwen's classical model comprised of ten parameters including cortisol, epinephrine and norepinephrine, dehydroepiandrosterone-sulphate (DHEA-S), waist/hip-ratio (WHR), glycosylated haemoglobin (HbA1c), high-density lipoprotein (HDL), total cholesterol/HDL-ratio, and systolic and diastolic blood pressure. Additionally it was extended to include tumor-necrosis-factor-alpha (TNF-alpha), C-reactive protein (CRP), fibrinogen, D-dimer, percent-body-fat, triglycerides, and glucose levels. A substantial proportion of our sample was highly exhausted whereas relatively few teachers showed high effort-reward-imbalance. AL scores were significantly higher in women high on effort-reward-imbalance or suffering from exhaustion. Although all teachers had been in a good health status, chronic work stress as well as exhaustion appears to be associated with changes in a multi-system summary indicator of physiological risk.

  15. Family-Work Conflict and Type-E Personality as Stress Inducers in Married Female Nigerian University Administrators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shobola, A. A.; Nwoha, P. C.

    2013-01-01

    This piece of article is culled from a larger study. The study investigated the relationship between family-work conflict, Type-E personality and stress in married female Nigerian University Administrators. The study adopted ex-post facto design. The sample consisted of 800 female administrators in the senior cadre of executive/administrative…

  16. Excess Stress Fractures, Musculoskeletal Injuries, and Health Care Utilization Among Unfit and Overweight Female Army Trainees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krauss, Margot R; Garvin, Nadia U; Boivin, Michael R; Cowan, David N

    2017-02-01

    Musculoskeletal injuries are prevalent among military trainees and certain occupations. Fitness and body mass index (BMI) have been associated with musculoskeletal conditions, including stress fractures. The incidence of, and excess health care utilization for, stress fracture and non-stress fracture overuse musculoskeletal injuries during the first 6 months of service is higher among unfit female recruits. Those who exceeded body fat limits are at a greater risk of incident stress fractures, injuries, or health care utilization compared with weight-qualified recruits. Cohort study; Level of evidence, 3. All applicants to the United States Army were required to take a preaccession fitness test during the study period (February 2005-September 2006). The test included a 5-minute step test scored as pass or fail. BMI was recorded at application. There were 2 distinct comparisons made in this study: (1) between weight-qualified physically fit and unfit women and (2) between weight-qualified physically fit women and those who exceeded body fat limits. We compared the incidence of, and excess health care utilization for, musculoskeletal injuries, including stress fractures and physical therapy visits, during the first 183 days of military service. Among the weight-qualified women, unfit participants had a higher non-stress fracture injury incidence and related excess health care utilization rate compared with fit women, with rate ratios of 1.32 (95% CI, 1.14-1.53) and 1.18 (95% CI, 1.10-1.27), respectively. Among fit women, compared with the weight-qualified participants, those exceeding body fat limits had higher rate ratios for non-stress fracture injury incidence and related excess health care utilization of 1.27 (95% CI, 1.07-1.50) and 1.20 (95% CI, 1.11-1.31), respectively. Weight-qualified women who were unfit had a higher incidence of stress fractures and related excess health care utilization compared with fit women, with rate ratios of 1.62 (95% CI, 1

  17. An Investigation into How Female Teachers Manage Stress and Teacher Burnout: A Case Study of West Akim Municipality of Ghana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Addison, Asonaba Kofi; Yankyera, George

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate into how female teachers in Asamankese Circuit II in West Akim Municipality of Ghana Education Service manage stress and teacher burnout, and explore the causes, effects, and ways of improving work-related stress for better standard of education. The study was conducted with qualitative research…

  18. The dynamics of migration-related stress and coping of female domestic workers from the Philippines: an exploratory study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Ham, Alida Joanna; Ujano-Batangan, Maria Theresa; Ignacio, Raquel; Wolffers, Ivan

    2015-01-01

    Female domestic workers face many migration-related stressors that affect their mental health, but we know little about the dynamics of stress and coping in different migration phases. This exploratory study aims to assess stress and coping of female migrant domestic workers from the Philippines in different phases of the migration process; prior to migration, in the country of destination and upon return to the Philippines. Data were collected in 2010 using questionnaires (N = 500). Validation of findings took place in a work shop (23 participants) and two focus groups (13 and 8 participants). Stress levels of women were significantly higher abroad than in the Philippines. Stress and coping in the Philippines was primarily related to financial issues, while stress and coping abroad related more strongly loneliness, working conditions and employers. Findings from this study provide insight in the phase-specific and transnational dimensions of stress and coping.

  19. Management of female stress urinary incontinence: A care pathway and update.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Capobianco, Giampiero; Madonia, Massimo; Morelli, Sonia; Dessole, Francesco; De Vita, Davide; Cherchi, Pier Luigi; Dessole, Salvatore

    2018-03-01

    Stress urinary incontinence (SUI) is a condition characterized by an involuntary loss of urine occurring as result of an increase in intra-abdominal pressure due to effort or exertion or on sneezing or coughing. Estimates of its prevalence in the female population range from 10% to 40%. A literature search of the Medline, Cochrane library, EMBASE, NLH, ClinicalTrials.gov and Google Scholar databases was done up to July 2017, restricted to English-language articles, using terms related to SUI, medical therapy, surgical therapy and treatment options. The search terms included female stress urinary incontinence, mid-urethral sling, tension-free vaginal tape (TVT) and transobturator tape (TOT, TVT-O). Original articles, reviews and meta-analyses were included. Surgical therapy should be considered only after conservative therapies (e.g. an exercise programme or topical estrogens) have failed. Synthetic mid-urethral slings are the gold standard for the surgical treatment of SUI according to the 2016 guidelines of the European Society of Urology (ESU) and the 2017 position statement of the European Urogynaecological Association (EUA). The therapeutic options are numerous but further research into new therapeutic strategies is needed to achieve a better balance between efficacy and adverse events. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Impact of military trauma exposures on posttraumatic stress and depression in female veterans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldstein, Lizabeth A; Dinh, Julie; Donalson, Rosemary; Hebenstreit, Claire L; Maguen, Shira

    2017-03-01

    Previous research has demonstrated the deleterious effects of traumatic military experiences on symptoms of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and depression in female veterans. However, more research is needed to identify the unique predictors of distressing psychological symptoms when both combat-related and sexual trauma are considered, particularly as women's combat exposure in the military increases. Female veterans who had attended at least one appointment at a large Veterans Health Administration medical center were invited to complete questionnaires about traumatic military exposures and psychiatric symptoms. A total of 403 veterans responded, with 383 respondents' data used in analyses. Multiple regression analyses were conducted with trauma exposure items entered simultaneously to determine their association with symptoms of (1) PTSD and (2) depression. Sexual assault had the strongest relationship with both posttraumatic and depressive symptoms. Sexual assault, sexual harassment, feeling in danger of being killed, and seeing others killed/injured were associated with symptoms of PTSD, but only sexual assault and sexual harassment were associated with symptoms of depression, even when accounting for several aspects of combat exposure. Improving assessment for trauma exposure and developing treatments personalized to type of trauma experienced are important clinical research priorities as female service members' roles in the military expand. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  1. Hydric stress-dependent effects of Plasmodium falciparum infection on the survival of wild-caught Anopheles gambiae female mosquitoes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aboagye-Antwi, Fred; Guindo, Amadou; Traoré, Amadou S; Hurd, Hilary; Coulibaly, Mamadou; Traoré, Sékou; Tripet, Frédéric

    2010-08-26

    Whether Plasmodium falciparum, the agent of human malaria responsible for over a million deaths per year, causes fitness costs in its mosquito vectors is a burning question that has not yet been adequately resolved. Understanding the evolutionary forces responsible for the maintenance of susceptibility and refractory alleles in natural mosquito populations is critical for understanding malaria transmission dynamics. In natural mosquito populations, Plasmodium fitness costs may only be expressed in combination with other environmental stress factors hence this hypothesis was tested experimentally. Wild-caught blood-fed Anopheles gambiae s.s. females of the M and S molecular form from an area endemic for malaria in Mali, West Africa, were brought to the laboratory and submitted to a 7-day period of mild hydric stress or kept with water ad-libitum. At the end of this experiment all females were submitted to intense desiccation until death. The survival of all females throughout both stress episodes, as well as their body size and infection status was recorded. The importance of stress, body size and molecular form on infection prevalence and female survival was investigated using Logistic Regression and Proportional-Hazard analysis. Females subjected to mild stress exhibited patterns of survival and prevalence of infection compatible with increased parasite-induced mortality compared to non-stressed females. Fitness costs seemed to be linked to ookinetes and early oocyst development but not the presence of sporozoites. In addition, when females were subjected to intense desiccation stress, those carrying oocysts exhibited drastically reduced survival but those carrying sporozoites were unaffected. No significant differences in prevalence of infection and infection-induced mortality were found between the M and S molecular forms of Anopheles gambiae. Because these results suggest that infected mosquitoes may incur fitness costs under natural-like conditions, they are

  2. Total workload, work stress and perceived symptoms in Swedish male and female white-collar employees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krantz, Gunilla; Berntsson, Leeni; Lundberg, Ulf

    2005-04-01

    The aim of this study was to analyse how paid work, unpaid household tasks, child care, work-child care interactions and perceived work stress are associated with reported symptoms in male and female white-collar employees. A questionnaire was mailed to 1300 men and 1300 women belonging to the white-collar sector, with at least 35 hours of regular employment a week and a participant age of between 32 and 58 years. It contained items relating to total workload (hours spent on paid work, unpaid household tasks and childcare), subjective indices for work stress and symptoms. The response rate was 65% (743 women; 595 men). Gender difference in symptom prevalence was tested by analyses of variance. Odds ratios were used to estimate the bivariate associations between work-related variables and symptom prevalence. A multivariate analysis estimated the effect of paid and unpaid work interaction, work-childcare interplay and possible synergy. The frequency and severity of symptoms was higher in women than in men (P work and household duties (OR 2.09; 1.06-4.14), whereas men responded more selectively to long working hours, i.e. >50 h/week (OR 1.61; 1.02-2.54). However, childcare (working long hours. Working life and private circumstances and the interplay between them need to be taken into account to curb stress-related ill health in both men and women.

  3. USE OF URODYNAMIC TEST IN MEN WITH LOWER URINARY TRACT SYMPTOMS: EVALUATION OF 150 PATIENTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M KABIRI

    2003-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Use of urodynamic test in men with lower urinartract symptoms in the absence of any abnormality on rutine urologic evaluation (i.e, physical exam, urine analysis, radiologic and endoscopic investigations. Detection of these disorders can therefore load to proper treatment of patients who received in appropriate therapy. We studied the relative frequency of neurogenic disorders on urodynamic testing of young men with lower urinary tract symptoms and normal routine urologic evaluation. Methods: We conducted a descriptive study by consecutive sampling of 150 male patients 20 to 40 years old with lower urinary tract symptoms and normal finding on routine urologic evaluations. Urodynamic studies (uroflowmetry, cystometry and pressure- flow study were performed after; interview; Physical exames, neurourologic evaluation and a review of previous laboratory and radiologic studies. Statistical analysis with Chi-square and Fisher's exact test was performed using SPSS software. Results: Neurogenic disorders were in 42 (28% patients. Abnormal urodynamic finding were observed in 82 (54.7% patients (P = 0.001. Abnormal urodynamic finding were most commonly related to the urethra (40 patients, 48.8% P < 0.110.The frequency of abnormal urodnamic findings increased with increasing age (P = 0.001. Abnormal urodynamic findings were more common in married as compared to single patients (63.8% versus 44.3%; P < 0.001. The abnormal urodyniamic findings were more than in patients with history of urinary tract infection or a history of abdominal operation. Discussion: Neurogenic disorders were detected in ore than a quarter of young males with lower urinary tract symptoms and a normal routine urologic evaluation. Therefore, urodynamic tests can help in well management of patients with theirs low cost.

  4. Effects of High-Fat Diet on Stress Response in Male and Female Wildtype and Prolactin Knockout Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalyani, Manu; Hasselfeld, Kathryn; Janik, James M; Callahan, Phyllis; Shi, Haifei

    2016-01-01

    Prolactin (PRL) is well characterized for its roles in initiation and maintenance of lactation, and it also suppresses stress-induced responses. Feeding a high-fat diet (HFD) disrupts activity of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis. Whether PRL regulates HPA axis activation under HFD feeding is not clear. Male and female wildtype (WT) and PRL knockout (KO) mice were fed either a standard low-fat diet (LFD) or HFD for 12 weeks. Circulating corticosterone (CORT) levels were measured before, during, and after mice were subjected to an acute restraint stress or remained in their home cages as no stress controls. HFD feeding increased leptin levels, but the increase was lower in KO than in WT mice. All stressed female groups and only LFD-fed stressed males had elevated CORT levels compared to their no stress same-sex counterparts regardless of genotype. These results indicated that HFD consumption blunted the HPA axis response to acute stress in males but not females. Additionally, basal hypothalamic CRH content was lower in HFD than LFD males, but was similar among female groups. Furthermore, although basal CORT levels were similar among KO and WT groups, CORT levels were higher in KO mice than their WT counterparts during stress, suggesting that loss of PRL led to greater HPA axis activation. Basal PRL receptor mRNA levels in the choroid plexus were higher in HFD than LFD same-sex counterparts, suggesting activation of central PRL's action by HFD feeding in both males and females. Current results confirmed PRL's roles in suppression of the stress-induced HPA axis activation. Although HFD feeding activated central PRL's action in both sexes, only the male HPA axis was dampened by HFD feeding.

  5. Sex-Specific Metabolic Outcomes in Offspring of Female Rats Born Small or Exposed to Stress During Pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheong, Jean N; Cuffe, James S M; Jefferies, Andrew J; Anevska, Kristina; Moritz, Karen M; Wlodek, Mary E

    2016-11-01

    Low birth weight increases adult metabolic disease risk in both the first (F1) and second (F2) generation. Physiological stress during pregnancy in F1 females that were born small induces F2 fetal growth restriction, but the long-term metabolic health of these F2 offspring is unknown. Uteroplacental insufficiency (restricted) or sham (control) surgery was performed in F0 rats. F1 females (control, restricted) were allocated to unstressed or stressed pregnancies. F2 offspring exposed to maternal stress in utero had reduced birth weight. At 6 months, F2 stressed males had elevated fasting glucose. In contrast, F2 restricted males had reduced pancreatic β-cell mass. Interestingly, these metabolic deficits were not present at 12 month. F2 males had increased adrenal mRNA expression of steroidogenic acute regulatory protein and IGF-1 receptor when their mothers were born small or exposed to stress during pregnancy. Stressed control F2 males had increased expression of adrenal genes that regulate androgen signaling at 6 months, whereas expression increased in restricted male and female offspring at 12 months. F2 females from stressed mothers had lower area under the glucose curve during glucose tolerance testing at 12 months compared with unstressed females but were otherwise unaffected. If F1 mothers were either born small or exposed to stress during her pregnancy, F2 offspring had impaired physiological outcomes in a sex- and age-specific manner. Importantly, stress during pregnancy did not exacerbate disease risk in F2 offspring of mothers born small, suggesting that they independently program disease in offspring through different mechanisms.

  6. Estresse ocupacional em mulheres policiais Occupational stress among female police officers

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    Maria Cecília de Souza Minayo

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Aborda-se o estresse ocupacional em mulheres policiais militares do Rio de Janeiro. Parte-se de uma abordagem qualitativa (entrevistas, grupos focais e observação das percepções dessas mulheres sobre diferenças de gênero no trabalho policial, relação entre estresse ocupacional e problemas de saúde e estratégias para amenizar o estresse. Participaram 42 mulheres: oficiais e praças, profissionais operacionais e de saúde. Os resultados revelam que as policiais relacionam o cotidiano do trabalho ao estresse, citam diversos sintomas e mostram como o relacionamento familiar é afetado. Seu estresse tem origem basicamente na questão organizacional e gerencial do trabalho. Discriminação de gênero e assédio são percebidos como importantes fatores estressantes. O sofrimento psíquico aparece mais fortemente entre as oficiais com cargos de chefia; e as atividades operacionais são percebidas como mais estressantes pelo risco que oferecem. O exercício físico é a estratégia considerada mais eficaz para prevenir as consequências do estresse. Conclui-se que, embora as mulheres estejam presentes na PM há muitos anos, a organização e o gerenciamento praticamente continuam sob a ótica masculina e são necessários investimentos em ações preventivas do estresse sob a perspectiva de gênero.The scope of this study is occupational stress among female police officers in Rio de Janeiro. A qualitative approach was initially used (interviews, focal groups and observations to establish their perceptions regarding gender differences in the performance of police work, the relationship between occupational stress and health issues and the strategies used to mitigate this type of stress. A total of 42 participants including female officers and staff and operational and health professionals were involved. The participants link stress to their daily work, cite a number of symptoms and show how family relationships are affected. Stress originates

  7. Differential effects of chronic stress in young-adult and old female mice: cognitive-behavioral manifestations and neurobiological correlates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lotan, A; Lifschytz, T; Wolf, G; Keller, S; Ben-Ari, H; Tatarsky, P; Pillar, N; Oved, K; Sharabany, J; Merzel, T K; Matsumoto, T; Yamawaki, Y; Mernick, B; Avidan, E; Yamawaki, S; Weller, A; Shomron, N; Lerer, B

    2017-12-19

    Stress-related psychopathology is highly prevalent among elderly individuals and is associated with detrimental effects on mood, appetite and cognition. Conversely, under certain circumstances repeated mild-to-moderate stressors have been shown to enhance cognitive performance in rodents and exert stress-inoculating effects in humans. As most stress-related favorable outcomes have been reported in adolescence and young-adulthood, this apparent disparity could result from fundamental differences in how aging organisms respond to stress. Furthermore, given prominent age-related alterations in sex hormones, the effect of chronic stress in aging females remains a highly relevant yet little studied issue. In the present study, female C57BL/6 mice aged 3 (young-adult) and 20-23 (old) months were subjected to 8 weeks of chronic unpredictable stress (CUS). Behavioral outcomes were measured during the last 3 weeks of the CUS protocol, followed by brain dissection for histological and molecular end points. We found that in young-adult female mice, CUS resulted in decreased anxiety-like behavior and enhanced cognitive performance, whereas in old female mice it led to weight loss, dysregulated locomotion and memory impairment. These phenotypes were paralleled by differential changes in the expression of hypothalamic insulin and melanocortin-4 receptors and were consistent with an age-dependent reduction in the dynamic range of stress-related changes in the hippocampal transcriptome. Supported by an integrated microRNA (miRNA)-mRNA expression analysis, the present study proposes that, when confronted with ongoing stress, neuroprotective mechanisms involving the upregulation of neurogenesis, Wnt signaling and miR-375 can be harnessed more effectively during young-adulthood. Conversely, we suggest that aging alters the pattern of immune activation elicited by stress. Ultimately, interventions that modulate these processes could reduce the burden of stress-related psychopathology

  8. Adolescent environmental enrichment prevents behavioral and physiological sequelae of adolescent chronic stress in female (but not male) rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Brittany L; Morano, Rachel L; Ulrich-Lai, Yvonne M; Myers, Brent; Solomon, Matia B; Herman, James P

    2017-11-22

    The late adolescent period is characterized by marked neurodevelopmental and endocrine fluctuations in the transition to early adulthood. Adolescents are highly responsive to the external environment, which enhances their ability to adapt and recover from challenges when given nurturing influences, but also makes them vulnerable to aberrant development when exposed to prolonged adverse situations. Female rats are particularly sensitive to the effects of chronic stress in adolescence, which manifests as passive coping strategies and blunted hypothalamo-pituitary adrenocortical (HPA) stress responses in adulthood. We sought to intervene by exposing adolescent rats to environmental enrichment (EE) immediately prior to and during chronic stress, hypothesizing that EE would minimize or prevent the long-term effects of stress that emerge in adult females. To test this, we exposed male and female rats to EE on postnatal days (PND) 33-60 and implemented chronic variable stress (CVS) on PND 40-60. CVS consisted of twice-daily unpredictable stressors. Experimental groups included: CVS/unenriched, unstressed/EE, CVS/EE and unstressed/unenriched (n = 10 of each sex/group). In adulthood, we measured behavior in the open field test and forced swim test (FST) and collected blood samples following the FST. We found that environmental enrichment given during the adolescent period prevented the chronic stress-induced transition to passive coping in the FST and reversed decreases in peak adrenocortical responsiveness observed in adult females. Adolescent enrichment had little to no effect on males or unstressed females tested in adulthood, indicating that beneficial effects are specific to females that were exposed to chronic stress.

  9. Factors that influence the urodynamic results of botulinum toxin in the treatment of neurogenic hyperactivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gutiérrez-Martín, P; Vírseda-Chamorro, M; Salinas Casado, J; Gómez-Rodríguez, A; Esteban-Fuertes, M

    2015-05-01

    To determine the urodynamic efficacy and factors that influence the urodynamic results of treatment of neurogenic detrusor hyperactivity with intradetrusor injection of botulinum toxin type A (BTX-A) in patients with spinal cord injury (SCI). A retrospective study was conducted with a cohort of 70 patients composed of 40 men and 30 women with stable SCI (mean age, 39 ± 13.3 years) who underwent an intradetrusor injection of 300 IUs of BTX-A. A urodynamic study was conducted prior to the injection and 6 ± 4.3 months after the treatment. New urodynamic studies were subsequently performed up to an interval of 16 ± 12.2 months. The BTX-A significantly increased (p bladder capacity, the bladder volume of the first involuntary contraction of the detrusor and the postvoid residue. We observed a decrease that tended towards statistical significance (p bladder accommodation nor the urethral resistance index (bladder outlet obstruction index) varied significantly. The increase in vesical capacity was maintained in 50% of the sample for more than 32 months. Age, sex, anticholinergic treatment and lesion age showed no influence in terms of the increase in bladder capacity. The indwelling urinary catheter (IUC) was the only statistically significant negative factor. The urodynamic effect of BTX-A is maintained for a considerable time interval. The IUC negatively influences the result of the treatment. Copyright © 2014 AEU. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  10. A putative causal relationship between genetically determined female body shape and posttraumatic stress disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polimanti, Renato; Amstadter, Ananda B; Stein, Murray B; Almli, Lynn M; Baker, Dewleen G; Bierut, Laura J; Bradley, Bekh; Farrer, Lindsay A; Johnson, Eric O; King, Anthony; Kranzler, Henry R; Maihofer, Adam X; Rice, John P; Roberts, Andrea L; Saccone, Nancy L; Zhao, Hongyu; Liberzon, Israel; Ressler, Kerry J; Nievergelt, Caroline M; Koenen, Karestan C; Gelernter, Joel

    2017-11-27

    The nature and underlying mechanisms of the observed increased vulnerability to posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) in women are unclear. We investigated the genetic overlap of PTSD with anthropometric traits and reproductive behaviors and functions in women. The analysis was conducted using female-specific summary statistics from large genome-wide association studies (GWAS) and a cohort of 3577 European American women (966 PTSD cases and 2611 trauma-exposed controls). We applied a high-resolution polygenic score approach and Mendelian randomization analysis to investigate genetic correlations and causal relationships. We observed an inverse association of PTSD with genetically determined anthropometric traits related to body shape, independent of body mass index (BMI). The top association was related to BMI-adjusted waist circumference (WC adj ; R = -0.079, P body shape and PTSD, which could be mediated by evolutionary mechanisms involved in human sexual behaviors.

  11. Traumatic Dissociation as a Predictor of Posttraumatic Stress Disorder in South African Female Rape Survivors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nöthling, Jani; Lammers, Kees; Martin, Lindi; Seedat, Soraya

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Women survivors of rape are at an increased risk for posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Traumatic dissociation has been identified as a precursor of PTSD. This study assessed the predictive potential of traumatic dissociation in PTSD and depression development. The study followed a longitudinal, prospective design. Ninety-seven female rape survivors were recruited from 2 clinics in Cape Town, South Africa. Clinical interviews and symptom status assessments of the participants were completed to measure dissociation, childhood traumas, resilience, depression, and PTSD. Traumatic dissociation was a significant predictor of PTSD and depression. The linear combination of prior dissociation, current dissociation, and resilience significantly explained 20.7% of the variance in PTSD. Dissociation mediated the relationship between resilience and PTSD. As traumatic dissociation significantly predicts PTSD, its early identification and management may reduce the risk of developing PTSD. Interventions focused on promoting resilience may also be successful in reducing the risk of dissociation following rape. PMID:25906104

  12. Effects of chronic mild stress on parameters of bone assessment in adult male and female rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabrício L. Valente

    Full Text Available Abstract: Osteoporosis is a multifactorial disease of high prevalence and has great impact on quality of life, because the effects on bone structure increase the risk of fractures, what may be very debilitating. Based on the observation that patients with depression have lower bone mineral density than healthy individuals, many studies have indicated that stress could be an aggravating factor for bone loss. This study evaluates the effect of a protocol of chronic mild stress (CMS on parameters of bone assessment in male and female rats. Five 5-monh-old rats of each sex underwent a schedule of stressor application for 28 days. Stressors included cold, heat, restraint, cage tilt, isolation, overnight illumination, and water and food deprivation. Five rats of each sex were kept under minimum intervention as control group. The animals were weighed at beginning and end of the period, and after euthanasia had their bones harvested. Femur, tibia and lumbar vertebrae were analyzed by bone densitometry. Biomechanical tests were performed in femoral head and diaphysis. Trabecular bone volume was obtained from histomorphometric analysis of femoral head and vertebral body, as well as of femoral midshaft cross-sectional measures. Not all parameters analyzed showed effect of CMS. However, tibial and L4 vertebral bone mineral density and cross-sectional cortical/medullar ratio of femoral shaft were lower in female rats submitted to the CMS protocol. Among male rats, the differences were significant for femoral trabecular bone volume and maximum load obtained by biomechanical test. Thus, it could be confirmed that CMS can affect the balance of bone homeostasis in rats, what may contribute to the establishment of osteopenia or osteoporosis.

  13. Objective and subjective measurement of sleep disturbance in female trauma survivors with posttraumatic stress disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Werner, Kimberly B; Griffin, Michael G; Galovski, Tara E

    2016-06-30

    Sleep disturbance may be the most often endorsed symptom of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Much of this research is based on subjective reports from trauma survivors; however, objective measures of sleep-related impairment have yielded findings inconsistent with self-report data. More studies investigating subjective and objective assessments concordantly are needed to understand sleep impairment in PTSD. The current study examined PTSD-related sleep disturbance in a female interpersonal violence cohort with full PTSD diagnoses (N=51) assessing subjective (global and daily diary measures) and objective (actigraphy) sleep measures concurrently. PTSD severity was positively associated with global, subjective reports of sleep impairment and insomnia. Subjective measures of sleep (including global sleep impairment, insomnia, and daily sleep diary reports of total sleep time, sleep efficiency, and sleep onset latency) were moderately to strongly correlated. However, no significant correlations between subjective and objective reports of sleep impairment were found in this cohort. Analyses demonstrated an overall elevation in subjectively reported sleep impairment when compared to objective measurement assessed concurrently. Findings demonstrate a lack of agreement between subjective and objective measurements of sleep in a PTSD-positive female cohort, suggesting objective and subjective sleep impairments are distinct sleep parameters that do not necessarily directly co-vary. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Chronic juvenile stress produces corticolimbic dendritic architectural remodeling and modulates emotional behavior in male and female rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eiland, Lisa; Ramroop, Johnny; Hill, Matthew N; Manley, Jasmine; McEwen, Bruce S

    2012-01-01

    Nearly 12% of US children are exposed to intense adverse experiences. Research has demonstrated that these experiences can negatively impact adult health, often resulting in psychopathology. Less attention, however, is given to the impact of childhood adverse experiences on childhood health and wellbeing. Using a rodent model of chronic juvenile stress (restraint 6 h daily from postnatal day 20 to 41), we report that chronic stress has significant immediate morbidities in both males and females during this developmental window. Specifically, we demonstrate that chronic juvenile stress produces depressive-like behavior and significant neuronal remodeling of brain regions likely involved in these behavioral alterations: the hippocampus, prefrontal cortex and amygdala. Chronically stressed males and females exhibit anhedonia, increased locomotion when exposed to novelty, and altered coping strategies when exposed to acute stress. Coincident with these behavioral changes, we report simplification of dendrites in the hippocampus and prefrontal cortex and concurrent hypertrophy of dendrites in the amygdala. Taken together, these results demonstrate that chronically stressed juveniles exhibit aberrant behavioral responses to acute challenges that occur in conjunction with stress-induced remodeling of brain regions intimately involved in regulating emotionality and stress reactivity. Further, the absence of sex differences in our reported stress responses, likely speaks to the decreased sensitivity of immature HPA regulating brain regions to sex hormones. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Aging rather than stress strongly influences amino acid metabolisms in the brain and genital organs of female mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kodaira, Momoko; Nagasawa, Mao; Yamaguchi, Takeshi; Ikeda, Hiromi; Minaminaka, Kimie; Chowdhury, Vishwajit S; Yasuo, Shinobu; Furuse, Mitsuhiro

    2017-03-01

    Aging and stress affect quality of life, and proper nourishment is one of means of preventing this effect. Today, there is a focus on the amount of protein consumed by elderly people; however, changes in the amino acid metabolism of individuals have not been fully considered. In addition, the difference between average life span and healthy life years is larger in females than it is in males. To prolong the healthy life years of females, in the present study we evaluated the influence of stress and aging on metabolism and emotional behavior by comparing young and middle-aged female mice. After 28 consecutive days of immobilization stress, behavioral tests were conducted and tissue sampling was performed. The results showed that the body weight of middle-aged mice was severely lowered by stress, but emotional behaviors were hardly influenced by either aging or stress. Aging influenced changes in amino acid metabolism in the brain and increased various amino acid levels in the uterus and ovary. In conclusion, we found that aged mice were more susceptible to stress in terms of body-weight reduction, and that amino acid metabolisms in the brain and genital organs were largely influenced by aging rather than by stress. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Stress-induced oxytocin release and oxytocin cell number and size in prepubertal and adult male and female rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minhas, Sumeet; Liu, Clarissa; Galdamez, Josselyn; So, Veronica M; Romeo, Russell D

    2016-08-01

    Studies indicate that adolescent exposure to stress is a potent environmental factor that contributes to psychological and physiological disorders, though the mechanisms that mediate these dysfunctions are not well understood. Periadolescent animals display greater stress-induced hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis responses than adults, which may contribute to these vulnerabilities. In addition to the HPA axis, the hypothalamo-neurohypophyseal tract (HNT) is also activated in response to stress. In adults, stress activates this system resulting in secretion of oxytocin from neurons in the supraoptic (SON) and paraventricular (PVN) nuclei. However, it is currently unknown whether a similar or different response occurs in prepubertal animals. Given the influence of these hormones on a variety of emotional behaviors and physiological systems known to change as an animal transitions into adulthood, we investigated stress-induced HPA and HNT hormonal responses before and after stress, as well as the number and size of oxytocin-containing cells in the SON and PVN of prepubertal (30d) and adult (70d) male and female rats. Though we found the well-established protracted adrenocorticotropic hormone and corticosterone response in prepubertal males and females, only adult males and prepubertal females showed a significant stress-induced increase in plasma oxytocin levels. Moreover, though we found no pubertal changes in the number of oxytocin cells, we did find a pubertal-related increase in oxytocin somal size in both the SON and PVN of males and females. Taken together, these data indicate that neuroendocrine systems can show different patterns of stress reactivity before and after adolescent development and that these responses can be further modified by sex. Given the impact of these hormones on a variety of systems, it will be imperative to further explore these changes in hormonal stress reactivity and their role in adolescent health. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier

  17. Could Urinary Tract Infection Cause Female Stress Urinary Incontinence? A Clinical Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heydari, Fatemeh; Motaghed, Zahra; Abbaszadeh, Fatemeh

    2016-01-01

    Stress urinary incontinence (SUI), the most common type of urinary incontinence (UI), is usually defined as leakage of urine during movement or activity which puts pressure on the bladder, such as coughing, sneezing, running or heavy lifting. It is reported in most countries that 15% to 40% of women struggle with SUI and its severe implications for daily life, including social interactions, sexuality, and psychological wellbeing. The aim of our study was to assess the relationship between urinary tract infection and the severity of stress urinary incontinence (SUI). This research was a cross-sectional study conducted in a public urology clinic in Tehran. The study population was all females with complaints of SUI who visited the clinic during 2014. We compared Valsalva leak point pressure (VLPP) in two groups of patients, with and without history of urinary tract infection (UTI). According to the findings of our study, the mean VLPP was 83.10 cm H2O in the group with UTI history, and 81.29 cm H2O in those without history of UTI. The difference in VLPP between the two groups was not significant (P < 0.05), even after controlling for confounding variables including age, body mass index, history of hysterectomy and number of deliveries. Our study did not confirm a significant relationship between UTI and severity of SUI as measured by VLPP. A decisive opinion would require extensive future studies by prospective methods.

  18. [Physics of materials and female stress urinary continence: New concepts: I) Elasticity under bladder].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guerquin, B

    2015-09-01

    Improving the understanding of the adaptation to stress of urinary continence. A transversal analysis between physics of materials and the female anatomy. Laws of physics of the materials and of their viscoelastic behavior are applied to the anatomy of the anterior vaginal wall. The anterior vaginal wall may be divided into two segments of different viscoelastic behavior, the vertical segment below the urethra and the horizontal segment below the bladder. If the urethra gets crushed on the first segment according to the hammock theory, the crushing of the bladder on the second segment is, on the other hand, damped by its important elasticity. The importance of this elasticity evokes an unknown function: damping under the bladder that moderates and delays the increase of intravesical pressure. This damping function below the bladder is increased in the cystocele, which is therefore a continence factor; on the other hand, it is impaired in obesity, which is therefore a factor of SUI. It is necessary to include in the theory of stress continence, the notion of a damping function below the bladder. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  19. Larval stress alters dengue virus susceptibility in Aedes aegypti (L.) adult females.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, David S; Alcalay, Yehonatan; Lovin, Diane D; Cunningham, Joanne M; Eng, Matthew W; Chadee, Dave D; Severson, David W

    2017-10-01

    In addition to genetic history, environmental conditions during larval stages are critical to the development, success and phenotypic fate of the Aedes aegypti mosquito. In particular, previous studies have shown a strong genotype-by-environment component to adult mosquito body size in response to optimal vs stressed larval conditions. Here, we expand upon those results by investigating the effects of larval-stage crowding and nutritional limitation on the susceptibility of a recent field isolate of Aedes aegypti to dengue virus serotype-2. Interestingly, female mosquitoes from larvae subjected to a stressed regime exhibited significantly reduced susceptibility to disseminated dengue infection 14days post infection compared to those subjected to optimal regimes. Short term survivorship post-infected blood feeding was not significantly different. As with body size, dengue virus susceptibility of a mosquito population is determined by a combination of genetic and environmental factors and is likely maintained by balancing selection. Here, we provide evidence that under different environmental conditions, the innate immune response of field-reared mosquitoes exhibits a large range of phenotypic variability with regard to dengue virus susceptibility. Further, as with body size, our results suggest that mosquitoes reared under optimal laboratory conditions, as employed in all mosquito-pathogen studies to date, may not always be realistic proxies for natural populations. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Oral exposure to dibutyl phthalate exacerbates chronic lymphocytic thyroiditis through oxidative stress in female Wistar rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Yang; Li, Jinquan; Yan, Biao; Zhu, Yuqing; Liu, Xudong; Chen, Mingqing; Li, Dai; Lee, Ching-Chang; Yang, Xu; Ma, Ping

    2017-11-13

    Chronic lymphocytic thyroiditis (CLT) is a common autoimmune disorder. The possible pathogenic role and mechanism of dibutyl phthalate (DBP) in CLT is still controversial. Experiments were conducted after 35-days of oral exposure to the three concentrations of DBP or saline, and three immunizations with thyroglobulin (TG). Healthy female Wistar rats were randomly divided into ten exposure groups (n = 8 each): (A) saline control, (B) 0.5 mg/kg/d DBP, (C) 5 mg/kg/d DBP, (D) 50 mg/kg/d DBP, (E) TG-immunized group, (F) TG- combined with 0.5 mg/kg/d DBP, (G) TG- combined with 5 mg/kg/d DBP, (H) TG- combined with 50 mg/kg/d DBP, (I) TG- combined with 50 mg/kg/d DBP plus 100 mg/kg/d vitamin C; (J) 100 mg/kg/d vitamin C. We showed that oral exposure DBP can aggravate CLT in rats. This deterioration was concomitant with increased thyroid auto antibodies, Th1/Th2 imbalance and Th17 immune response, activated pro-inflammatory and apoptosis pathways, and increased thyroid dysfunction in rats. Our results also suggested that DBP could promote oxidative damage. The study also found that vitamin C reduced the levels of oxidative stress and alleviated CLT. In short, the study showed that DBP exacerbated CLT through oxidative stress.

  1. The Effect of Air Velocity on the Prevention of Heat Stress in Iranian Veiled Females

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Habibi

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Background Some environmental factors such as the ambient temperature, radiant temperature, humidity and air velocity as well as clothing and activity level are effective to induce heat strain on the workers. Objectives The current study aimed to evaluate the effect of air velocity on Iranian veiled females at various exercise intensities and climatic conditions. Methods The current experimental study was conducted on 51 healthy veiled females with Islamic clothing (n = 30 in two hot-dry climatic chambers (wet-bulb globe temperature (WBGT = 32 ± 0.1°C and WBGT = 30 ± 0.1°C, 40% relative humidity (RH without air velocity and (n = 21 with air velocity 0.31 m/s in sitting and light workload conditions, respectively, for 60 minutes. The WBGT, oral temperature and heart rate were measured simultaneously every five minutes during the heat exposure and resting state. Data were analyzed using correlation and line regression by SPSS ver. 16. Results In both groups, oral temperature and heart rate increased during heat exposure. The increase of oral temperature and heart rate were larger in the group with air velocity (sitting position, 37.05 ± 0.20°C, 98.30 ± 7.79 bpm, light workload, 37.34 ± 0.24°C, 124.08 ± 6.09 bpm compared those of the group without air velocity (sitting position, 36.70 ± 0.36°C, 69.74 ± 0.98 bpm, light workload, 36.71 ± 0.27°C, 110.78 ± 17.9 bpm. The difference in physiological strain index (PSI between resting and low workload were higher in with air velocity group than those of the group without air velocity. Conclusions The results showed that the heat stress increased by increasing air velocity and humidity in both groups. The air velocity with high humidity can be considered as a positive factor in the occurrence of heat strain. Therefore, the incidence of heat stress decreases with the increase of humidity and reduction of air velocity or with increase of air velocity and reduction of humidity in Iranian veiled

  2. Treatment with a CRH-R1 antagonist prevents stress-induced suppression of the central neural drive to the reproductive axis in female macaques

    OpenAIRE

    Herod, S. M.; Pohl, C. R.; Cameron, J. L.

    2010-01-01

    In response to everyday life stress, some individuals readily develop reproductive dysfunction (i.e., they are stress sensitive), whereas others are more stress resilient. When exposed to mild combined psychosocial plus metabolic stress (change in social environment plus reduced diet), female cynomolgus monkeys can be categorized as stress sensitive (SS; they rapidly become anovulatory in response to stress), medium stress resilient (MSR; they slowly become anovulatory in response to prolonge...

  3. Prenatal stress causes alterations in the morphology of microglia and the inflammatory response of the hippocampus of adult female mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diz-Chaves Yolanda

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Stress during fetal life increases the risk of affective and immune disorders later in life. The altered peripheral immune response caused by prenatal stress may impact on brain function by the modification of local inflammation. In this study we have explored whether prenatal stress results in alterations in the immune response in the hippocampus of female mice during adult life. Methods Pregnant C57BL/6 mice were subjected three times/day during 45 minutes to restraint stress from gestational Day 12 to delivery. Control non-stressed pregnant mice remained undisturbed. At four months of age, non-stressed and prenatally stressed females were ovariectomized. Fifteen days after surgery, mice received an i.p. injection of vehicle or of 5 mg/kg of lipopolysaccharide (LPS. Mice were sacrificed 20 hours later by decapitation and the brains were removed. Levels of interleukin-1β (IL1β, interleukin-6 (IL-6, tumor necrosis factor α (TNF-α, interferon γ-inducible protein 10 (IP10, and toll-like receptor 4 mRNA were assessed in the hippocampus by quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction. Iba1 immunoreactivity was assessed by immunocytochemistry. Statistical significance was determined by one-way or two-way analysis of variance. Results Prenatal stress, per se, increased IL1β mRNA levels in the hippocampus, increased the total number of Iba1-immunoreactive microglial cells and increased the proportion of microglial cells with large somas and retracted cellular processes. In addition, prenatally stressed and non-stressed animals showed different responses to peripheral inflammation induced by systemic administration of LPS. LPS induced a significant increase in mRNA levels of IL-6, TNF-α and IP10 in the hippocampus of prenatally stressed mice but not of non-stressed animals. In addition, after LPS treatment, prenatally stressed animals showed a higher proportion of Iba1-immunoreactive cells in the hippocampus with

  4. Impact of supervised physiotherapeutic pelvic floor exercises for treating female stress urinary incontinence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Míriam Raquel Diniz Zanetti

    Full Text Available CONTEXT AND OBJECTIVE: Urinary incontinence is a public health problem that affects more than 200 million people worldwide. Stress incontinence is the most prevalent type. Pelvic floor muscle exercises have been used for treating it, although there is no consensus regarding their application. The aim of this study was to compare the results from treating female stress urinary incontinence with pelvic floor muscle exercises with or without physiotherapist supervision. DESIGN AND SETTING: This was a randomized, prospective, controlled trial in the Urogynecology and Vaginal Surgery Sector, Universidade Federal de São Paulo. METHODS: Forty-four women were randomized to be treated for stress urinary incontinence with pelvic floor exercises for three consecutive months, into two groups: one with and the other without physiotherapist supervision. They were evaluated before and after treatment using a quality-of-life questionnaire, pad test, micturition diary and subjective evaluation. Descriptive analysis was used to evaluate the population. The homogeneity of the two groups was evaluated using the Kruskal-Wallis and Chi-squared tests. The success of the two groups after treatment was evaluated using the Wilcoxon test. RESULTS: The supervised group showed statistically greater improvement in the pad test, micturition diary and quality of life than did the control group. In the subjective evaluation, only 23.8% of the control group patients were satised with their treatment. In the supervised group, 66.8% of patients did not want any other treatment. CONCLUSION: Supervised pelvic floor muscle exercises presented better results in objective and subjective evaluations than did unsupervised exercises.

  5. Interactions of early adversity with stress-related gene polymorphisms impact regional brain structure in females.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Arpana; Labus, Jennifer; Kilpatrick, Lisa A; Bonyadi, Mariam; Ashe-McNalley, Cody; Heendeniya, Nuwanthi; Bradesi, Sylvie; Chang, Lin; Mayer, Emeran A

    2016-04-01

    Early adverse life events (EALs) have been associated with regional thinning of the subgenual cingulate cortex (sgACC), a brain region implicated in the development of disorders of mood and affect, and often comorbid functional pain disorders, such as irritable bowel syndrome (IBS). Regional neuroinflammation related to chronic stress system activation has been suggested as a possible mechanism underlying these neuroplastic changes. However, the interaction of genetic and environmental factors in these changes is poorly understood. The current study aimed to evaluate the interactions of EALs and candidate gene polymorphisms in influencing thickness of the sgACC. 210 female subjects (137 healthy controls; 73 IBS) were genotyped for stress and inflammation-related gene polymorphisms. Genetic variation with EALs, and diagnosis on sgACC thickness was examined, while controlling for race, age, and total brain volume. Compared to HCs, IBS had significantly reduced sgACC thickness (p = 0.03). Regardless of disease group (IBS vs. HC), thinning of the left sgACC was associated with a significant gene-gene environment interaction between the IL-1β genotype, the NR3C1 haplotype, and a history of EALs (p = 0.05). Reduced sgACC thickness in women with the minor IL-1β allele, was associated with EAL total scores regardless of NR3C1 haplotype status (p = 0.02). In subjects homozygous for the major IL-1β allele, reduced sgACC with increasing levels of EALs was seen only with the less common NR3C1 haplotype (p = 0.02). These findings support an interaction between polymorphisms related to stress and inflammation and early adverse life events in modulating a key region of the emotion arousal circuit.

  6. [Autonomic nervous system alteration in multiple sclerosis patients with urinary symptoms. Clinical, urodynamic and cardiovascular study].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amarenco, G; Raibaut, P; Hubeaux, K; Jousse, M; Sheikh Ismaël, S; Lapeyre, E

    2013-12-01

    To assess symptoms related to autonomic nervous system alteration in a population of patients suffering from multiple sclerosis (MS) and presenting with urinary symptoms. We investigated 65 patients (mean age 47.5 years) suffering from MS, and presenting with urological dysfunction by means of symptom scores, urodynamic investigation, cardiovascular autonomic function tests (orthostatic hypotension testing, Valsalva test, deep breath test, cold pressor test) and sympathetic skin responses. Forty-five (69%) patients suffered from overactive bladder, 48 (73%) from voiding dysfunction, 14 (21%) from urinary retention and 13 (20%) from fecal incontinence. Urodynamic investigation demonstrated overactive detrusor in 46 (70%) cases, and underactive detrusor in four (6%) cases. Twenty-five (38%) patients had dysautonomia without correlation neither with clinical or urodynamic data, nor gravity of multiple sclerosis (EDSS). In this series, the prevalence of dysautonomia was high in patients suffering from MS and presenting with urinary disorders. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  7. Do patients with symptoms and signs of lower urinary tract dysfunction need a urodynamic diagnosis? ICI-RS 2013.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosier, Peter F W M; Giarenis, Ilias; Valentini, Francoise A; Wein, Alan; Cardozo, Linda

    2014-06-01

    The ICI-RS Think Tank discussed the diagnostic process for patients who present with symptoms and signs of lower urinary tract (LUT) dysfunction. This manuscript reflects the Think Tank's summary and opinion. An overview of the existing evidence and consensus regarding urodynamic testing was presented and discussed in relation to contemporary treatment strategies. Evidence of the validity of the diagnostic process in relation to the contemporary management paradigm is incomplete, scattered, and sometimes conflicting and therefore a process redesign may be necessary. The Think Tanks' suggestion, contained in this manuscript, is that the symptoms and signs that the patients present can be more precisely delineated as syndromes. The overactive bladder syndrome (OAB-S); the stress urinary incontinence syndrome (SUI-S); the urinary incontinence syndrome (UI-S); the voiding dysfunction syndrome (VD-S); and or the neurogenic LUT dysfunction syndrome (NLUTD-S) may become evidence based starting point for initial management. Consistent addition of the word syndrome, if adequately defined, acknowledges the uncertainty, but will improve outcome and will improve selection of patients that need further (invasive) diagnosis before management. The ICS-RS Think Tank has summarized the level of evidence for UDS and discussed the evidence in association with the currently changing management paradigm. The ICI-RS Think Tank recommends that the diagnostic process for patients with LUTD can be redesigned. Carefully delineated and evidence based LUTD syndromes may better indicate, personalize and improve the outcome of initial management, and may also contribute to improved and rational selection of patients for invasive UDS. Neurourol. Urodynam. 33:581-586, 2014. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  8. Higher stress scores for female medical students measured by the Kessler Psychological Distress Scale (K10 in Pakistan

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    Khadija Qamar

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to determine the stress level of medical students and the relationship between stress and academic year. A cross-sectional, descriptive study was conducted at an undergraduate medical school with a five-year curriculum, in Pakistan, from January 2014 to April 2014. Medical students in the first four years were included in the study. The Kessler Psychological Distress Scale (K10, a self-administered questionnaire, was distributed to the students. A total of 445 medical students completed the questionnaire. The average stress score was 19.61 (SD = 6.76 with a range from 10 to 43. Stress was experienced by 169 students (41.7%. The scores of female students were higher than scores of males, indicating a higher stress level (P = 0.011. The relationship between stress and academic year was insignificant (P = 0.392.

  9. [Genitourinary changes in multiple sclerosis: the need for a urodynamic study].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martín, C; Salinas, J; Fernández-Durán, A; Fernández-Gómez, J; Jiménez, N; Gangoiti, L

    In this study we have evaluated the urinary and sexual alterations of patients with multiple sclerosis (MS) by means of neurourological and neuroandrological studies. In 41 patients with MS we took a clinical history and made a neurourological physical examination. We also did a full urodynamic study including measurement of flow and postmictional residue, cystomanometry and test of the detrusor pressure/mictional flow. Selective electromyography of the periurethral sphincter and a cystourethrographic study were also done. In patients complaining of erection dysfunction this was also studied by means of an erection test with intracavernosal vasoactive drugs and special neurophysiological techniques including the obtention of S2-S4 evoked potentials in the bulbo-cavernosal muscle and the somatosensorial potentials of the pudendal nerve. In patients with MS there is a predominance of mixed and irritative urinary symptoms rather than obstructive symptoms. The vesico-urethral dysfunction of upper motor neurone type was the most frequent urodynamic diagnosis. There were no statistically significant differences between the urinary symptoms of the different urodynamic diagnoses. Ninety percent of the patients with erectile dysfunction had associated vesico-urethral dysfunction of upper motor neurone type and 100% of the patient with erectile dysfunction had dysfunction of the sphincter of the urinary bladder. In patients with MS there is no correlation between the clinical symptoms and urodynamic diagnosis. Therefore urodynamic diagnosis is essential not only for diagnosis but also for development of suitable treatment. The urodynamic diagnosis of dysfunction of the bladder sphincter is a risk factor in patients with MS. In our series 100% of the cases with erectile dysfunction also had dysfunction of the bladder sphincter.

  10. Urodynamics in women from menopause to oldest age: what motive? what diagnosis?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Françoise A. Valentini

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: To analyze age-associated changes as a motive for urodynamics and urodynamic diagnosis in community-dwelling menopausal women and to discuss the role of menopause and ageing. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Four hundred and forty nine consecutive menopausal women referred for urodynamic evaluation of lower urinary tract (LUT symptoms, met the inclusion criteria and were stratified into 3 age groups: 55-64 years (A, 65-74 years (B, and 75-93 years (C. Comprehensive assessment included previous medical history and clinical examination. Studied items were motive for urodynamics, results of uroflows (free flow and intubated flow and cystometry, urethral pressure profilometry, and final urodynamic diagnosis. RESULTS: The main motive was incontinence (66.3% with significant increase of mixed incontinence in group C (p = 0.028. Detrusor function significantly deteriorated in the oldest group, mainly in absence of neurological disease (overactivity p = 0.019; impaired contractility p = 0.028. In the entire population, underactivity predominated in group C (p = 0.0024. A progressive decrease of maximum urethral closure pressure occurred with ageing. In subjects with no detrusor overactivity there was a decrease with age of detrusor pressure at opening and at maximum flow, and of maximum flow while post void residual increased only in the C group. CONCLUSION: In our population of community-dwelling menopausal women, incontinence was the main motive for urodynamics increasing with ageing. A brisk change in LUT function of women older than 75 years underlined deterioration in bladder function with a high incidence of detrusor hyperactivity with or without impaired contractility while change in urethral function was progressive. Effect of ageing appears to be predominant compared to menopause.

  11. Prenatal stress, regardless of concurrent escitalopram treatment, alters behavior and amygdala gene expression of adolescent female rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ehrlich, David E.; Neigh, Gretchen N.; Bourke, Chase H.; Nemeth, Christina L.; Hazra, Rimi; Ryan, Steven J.; Rowson, Sydney; Jairam, Nesha; Sholar, Courtney; Rainnie, Donald G.; Stowe, Zachary N.; Owens, Michael J.

    2015-01-01

    Depression during pregnancy has been linked to in utero stress and is associated with long-lasting symptoms in offspring, including anxiety, helplessness, attentional deficits, and social withdrawal. Depression is diagnosed in 10-20% of expectant mothers, but the impact of antidepressant treatment on offspring development is not well documented, particularly for females. Here, we used a prenatal stress model of maternal depression to test the hypothesis that in utero antidepressant treatment could mitigate the effects of prenatal stress. We also investigated the effects of prenatal stress and antidepressant treatment on gene expression related to GABAergic and serotonergic neurotransmission in the amygdala, which may underlie behavioral effects of prenatal stress. Nulliparous female rats were implanted with osmotic minipumps delivering clinically-relevant concentrations of escitalopram and mated. Pregnant dams were exposed to 12 days of mixed-modality stressors, and offspring were behaviorally assessed in adolescence (postnatal day 28) and adulthood (beyond day 90) to determine the extent of behavioral change. We found that in utero stress exposure, regardless of escitalopram treatment, increased anxiety-like behavior in adolescent females and profoundly influenced amygdala expression of the chloride transporters KCC2 and NKCC1, which regulate GABAergic function. In contrast, prenatal escitalopram exposure alone elevated amygdala expression of 5-HT1A receptors. In adulthood, anxiety-like behavior returned to baseline and gene expression effects in the amygdala abated, whereas deficits emerged in novel object recognition for rats exposed to stress during gestation. These findings suggest prenatal stress causes age-dependent deficits in anxiety-like behavior and amygdala function in female offspring, regardless of antidepressant exposure. PMID:26032436

  12. Stress and Coping in Academically High-Achieving Females Before the Onset of Disordered Eating: The Role of Academic Achievement

    OpenAIRE

    JENNIFER KRAFCHEK

    2017-01-01

    This qualitative case study investigated the experiences of fourteen academically high-achieving females before the onset of disordered eating and the role of academic achievement in the process of stress and coping. Findings showed that academic achievement was both a coping strategy and a stressor for all participants. A timeline analysis revealed a complex process that involved three phases in the build up of stress before the onset of disordered eating. The role of academic achievement ch...

  13. Chronic Juvenile Stress Produces Corticolimbic Dendritic Architectural Remodeling and Modulates Emotional Behavior in Male and Female Rats

    OpenAIRE

    Eiland, Lisa; Ramroop, Johnny; Hill, Matthew N.; Manley, Jasmine; McEwen, Bruce S.

    2011-01-01

    Nearly 12% of US children are exposed to intense adverse experiences. Research has demonstrated that these experiences can negatively impact adult health, often resulting in psychopathology. Less attention, however, is given to the impact of childhood adverse experiences on childhood health and wellbeing. Using a rodent model of chronic juvenile stress (restraint 6h daily from postnatal day 20–41), we report that chronic stress has significant immediate morbidities in both males and females d...

  14. Exploration of Relationship Between Stress and Spirituality Characteristics of Male and Female Engineering Students: A Comprehensive Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yadav, Radha; Khanna, Ashu; Singh, Dharmendra

    2017-04-01

    This observational paper endeavours to recognize the connection between spirituality and stress. Four types of indicators are utilized for the estimation of anxiety, vis-à-vis, behavioural indicators, emotional indicators, sleep indicators and personal habits. As per pre-documented theory, if spirituality is high within an individual, then his/her stress will be low and vice versa. In college, the stress of education and scoring grades influences the understudy. Information is gathered through a survey in the light of spirituality index and stress index. Findings prove that the indicators of the stress are more visible in female students. Apart from this, there has been not much substantial study in the area of stress and spirituality among college students. Hence, the main purpose of this study was to discuss the various types of stress and effects of spirituality on the engineering students belonging to the age group of 21-26 years, prioritizing the indicators of stress as per the gender of students. The entire study constituted of a sample group of 200 participants, and for the entire process, correlation analysis was used to find the relative relation between spirituality and stress among girls and boys. T test is used for rejection of the null hypothesis. The article focuses on the current issues that students have been facing in the twenty-first century. Result of the study showed that there is a negative relationship between the spirituality and stress of male and female students. Moreover, the article provides unique contribution to the literature and also offers suggestions for generating new research ideas that can be used to ameliorate the problems that plague individuals and organizations in today's world. This is the first article which covers the spirituality and stress of the engineering student and discusses the impact on young adults, as well as highlighting certain ways to overcome stress and enhance spirituality.

  15. Post-learning stress enhances long-term memory and differentially influences memory in females depending on menstrual stage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zoladz, Phillip R; Peters, David M; Cadle, Chelsea E; Kalchik, Andrea E; Aufdenkampe, Rachael L; Dailey, Alison M; Brown, Callie M; Scharf, Amanda R; Earley, McKenna B; Knippen, Courtney L; Rorabaugh, Boyd R

    2015-09-01

    Most work has shown that post-learning stress enhances long-term memory; however, there have been recent inconsistencies in this literature. The purpose of the present study was to examine further the effects of post-learning stress on long-term memory and to explore any sex differences that may exist. Male and female participants learned a list of 42 words that varied in emotional valence and arousal level. Following encoding, participants completed a free recall assessment and then submerged their hand into a bath of ice cold (stress) or lukewarm (no stress) water for 3 min. The next day, participants were given free recall and recognition tests. Stressed participants recalled more words than non-stressed participants 24h after learning. Stress also enhanced female participants' recall of arousing words when they were in the follicular, but not luteal, phase. These findings replicate previous work examining post-learning stress effects on memory and implicate the involvement of sex-related hormones in such effects. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Low-cost transobturator vaginal tape inside-out procedure for the treatment of female stress urinary incontinence using ordinary polypropylene mesh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    ElSheemy, Mohammed S; Elsergany, Ragheb; ElShenoufy, Ahmed

    2015-04-01

    The aim of this study is to describe the use of ordinary polypropylene mesh and our modified helical passers through a transobturator vaginal tape inside-out technique (TVT-O) as a low-cost alternative to available commercial kits in the treatment of stress urinary incontinence (SUI) with evaluation of its long-term safety and efficacy. This is important in developing countries due to limited health care resources. Tailored (11 × 1.5 cm) polypropylene tape was inserted in 59 women from June 2006 to June 2009 at the Urology Department, Cairo University Hospitals as an open prospective study. SUI was diagnosed by positive cough stress test (CST) and abdominal leak point pressure (ALPP). Patients with post-void residual urine (PVRU) > 100 ml, bladder capacity polypropylene suture (1 %) and felt subcutaneous polypropylene sutures (3 %). We had no cases of erosions or de novo urgency. SUIQQ indices improved significantly, while urodynamic parameters showed no significant difference postoperatively. Of the patients, 54 (91 %) were cured and 3 (5 %) improved, while failure was detected in 2 (3 %) patients. Our technique is safe with excellent 5-year results. It should be considered as a low-cost alternative to available commercial kits in the treatment of SUI mainly for public health systems with few financial resources.

  17. Effect of acupuncture on rabbit bladder with urodynamic indexes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meng, Xianjun; Han, Jing; Ye, Xiaoran; Huang, Xiaoqing

    2013-02-01

    To study the effect of acupuncture on rabbit bladder with urodynamic indexes. New Zealand male rabbits were divided into control group, model group, treatment group 1 treated by acupuncture at Shenshu (BL 23) and treatment group 2 treated by acupuncture at Zhongji (CV 3). The urine dynamic parameters through the urethral catheter were detected in each group in order: fluctuation of pressure at filling phase of urinary bladder and flow rate in urination phase, which were used as quantification indexes of urinary bladder function. The urinary bladder abnormal model was prepared by administration of cholinergic stimulant; Regulatory effects of acupuncture at Shenshu (BL 23) and Zhongji (CV 3) on the abnormal state of the urinary bladder were respectively observed. 1) In the filling phase of urinary bladder and in the urination phase, the intravesical pressure wave in infilling (IPWI) and intravesical discharge rate (IDR) could be respectively recorded. 2) IPWI and IDR could become abnormality by neostigmine methyl sulfate [stability type IPWI: the control group (n = 20, 80%) vs the model group (n = 15, 14.3%), P vs the model group (n = 15, y = 40.0 - 5.15x), P acupuncture at Shenshu (BL 23) and Zhongji (CV 3) [the stability type IPWI wave: the model group (n = 2, 14.3%) vs the treatment group 1 (n = 3, 30%), P > 0.05; the instability type IPWI wave: the model group (n = 13, 85.7%) in vs the treatment group 2 (n = 6, 60%), P > 0.05]; 4) Abnormal IDR also could be turned to normality by acupuncture at Shenshu (BL 23) and Zhongji (CV 3), respectively [IDR and the time regression equation: the model group (n = 15, y = 40.0 - 5.15x) vs the treatment group 1 (n = 10, y = 18.9 - 0.499x), P vs the treatment group 2 (n = 10, y = 17.5 - 0.251x), P acupuncture effects; 2) The effect of acupuncture in the bladder filling phase is smaller than that in the urination phase; 3) Acupuncture has a very obvious effect on intravesical discharge rate.

  18. A putative causal relationship between genetically determined female body shape and posttraumatic stress disorder

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    Renato Polimanti

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The nature and underlying mechanisms of the observed increased vulnerability to posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD in women are unclear. Methods We investigated the genetic overlap of PTSD with anthropometric traits and reproductive behaviors and functions in women. The analysis was conducted using female-specific summary statistics from large genome-wide association studies (GWAS and a cohort of 3577 European American women (966 PTSD cases and 2611 trauma-exposed controls. We applied a high-resolution polygenic score approach and Mendelian randomization analysis to investigate genetic correlations and causal relationships. Results We observed an inverse association of PTSD with genetically determined anthropometric traits related to body shape, independent of body mass index (BMI. The top association was related to BMI-adjusted waist circumference (WCadj; R = –0.079, P < 0.001, Q = 0.011. We estimated a relative decrease of 64.6% (95% confidence interval = 27.5–82.7 in the risk of PTSD per 1-SD increase in WCadj. MR-Egger regression intercept analysis showed no evidence of pleiotropic effects in this association (Ppleiotropy = 0.979. We also observed associations of genetically determined WCadj with age at first sexual intercourse and number of sexual partners (P = 0.013 and P < 0.001, respectively. Conclusions There is a putative causal relationship between genetically determined female body shape and PTSD, which could be mediated by evolutionary mechanisms involved in human sexual behaviors.

  19. Serum leptin and cortisol, related to acutely perceived academic examination stress and performance in female university students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haleem, Darakhshan J; Inam, Qurrat-Ul-Aen; Haider, Saida; Perveen, Tahira; Haleem, Muhammad Abdul

    2015-12-01

    Leptin, identified as an antiobesity hormone, also has important role in responses to stress and processing of memory. This study was designed to determine effects of academic examination stress-induced changes in serum leptin and its impact on academic performance. Eighty five healthy female students (age 19-21 years; BMI 21.9 ± 1.6) were recruited for the study. Serum leptin and cortisol were monitored at base line (beginning of academic session) and on the day of examination; using a standardized ELISA kit. Acute perception of academic examination stress was determined with the help of a questionnaire derived from Hamilton Anxiety Scale and self report of stress perception. Academic performance was evaluated by the percentage of marks obtained in the examination. Serum cortisol levels were positively correlated (p stress but not with academic performance. There was an inverted U-shape relationship between level of stress and academic performance. Leptin increased in all stress groups and correlated (p stress and circulating leptin. The findings suggest the peptide hormone, leptin, is a biomarker of stress perception and a mediator of facilitating effects of stress on cognition.

  20. A Scaphoid Stress Fracture in a Female Collegiate-Level Shot-Putter and Review of the Literature

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    Jessica M. Kohring

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Scaphoid stress fractures are rare injuries that have been described in young, high-level athletes who exhibit repetitive loading with the wrist in extension. We present a case of an occult scaphoid stress fracture in a 22-year-old female Division I collegiate shot-putter. She was successfully treated with immobilization in a thumb spica splint for 6 weeks. Loaded wrist extension activities can predispose certain high-level athletes to sustain scaphoid stress fractures, and a high index of suspicion in this patient population may aid prompt diagnosis and management of this rare injury.

  1. Muscle oxygenation and glycolysis in females with trapezius myalgia during stress and repetitive work using microdialysis and NIRS

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sjøgaard, Gisela; Rosendal, Lars; Kristiansen, Jesper

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this investigation was to study female workers active in the labour market for differences between those with trapezius myalgia (MYA) and without (CON) during repetitive pegboard (PEG) and stress (STR) tasks regarding (1) relative muscle load, (2) trapezius muscle blood flow, (3...

  2. Anterior tension band plating for anterior tibial stress fractures in high-performance female athletes: a report of 4 cases

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Borens, Olivier; Sen, Milan K.; Huang, Russel C.; Richmond, Jeffrey; Kloen, Peter; Jupiter, Jesse B.; Helfet, David L.

    2006-01-01

    Stress fracture of the anterior tibial cortex is an extremely challenging fracture to treat, especially in the high-performance female athlete who requires rapid return to competition. Previous reports have not addressed treating these fractures in the world-class athlete with anterior plating. We

  3. The Severity of Childhood Abuse and Neglect in Relationship to Posttraumatic Stress Disorder among Female Sex Workers in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Daalder, A.L.; Bogaerts, S.; Bijleveld, C.C.J.H.

    2013-01-01

    In this article, the relationship between childhood abuse and neglect and post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) in adulthood is examined in a sample of 123 female indoor sex workers in the Netherlands. It was hypothesized that the severity of childhood abuse and neglect is associated with the

  4. Hydric stress-dependent effects of Plasmodium falciparum infection on the survival of wild-caught Anopheles gambiae female mosquitoes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aboagye-Antwi Fred

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Whether Plasmodium falciparum, the agent of human malaria responsible for over a million deaths per year, causes fitness costs in its mosquito vectors is a burning question that has not yet been adequately resolved. Understanding the evolutionary forces responsible for the maintenance of susceptibility and refractory alleles in natural mosquito populations is critical for understanding malaria transmission dynamics. Methods In natural mosquito populations, Plasmodium fitness costs may only be expressed in combination with other environmental stress factors hence this hypothesis was tested experimentally. Wild-caught blood-fed Anopheles gambiae s.s. females of the M and S molecular form from an area endemic for malaria in Mali, West Africa, were brought to the laboratory and submitted to a 7-day period of mild hydric stress or kept with water ad-libitum. At the end of this experiment all females were submitted to intense desiccation until death. The survival of all females throughout both stress episodes, as well as their body size and infection status was recorded. The importance of stress, body size and molecular form on infection prevalence and female survival was investigated using Logistic Regression and Proportional-Hazard analysis. Results Females subjected to mild stress exhibited patterns of survival and prevalence of infection compatible with increased parasite-induced mortality compared to non-stressed females. Fitness costs seemed to be linked to ookinetes and early oocyst development but not the presence of sporozoites. In addition, when females were subjected to intense desiccation stress, those carrying oocysts exhibited drastically reduced survival but those carrying sporozoites were unaffected. No significant differences in prevalence of infection and infection-induced mortality were found between the M and S molecular forms of Anopheles gambiae. Conclusions Because these results suggest that infected

  5. Dietary whey protein stimulates mitochondrial activity and decreases oxidative stress in mouse female brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shertzer, Howard G; Krishan, Mansi; Genter, Mary Beth

    2013-08-26

    In humans and experimental animals, protein-enriched diets are beneficial for weight management, muscle development, managing early stage insulin resistance and overall health. Previous studies have shown that in mice consuming a high fat diet, whey protein isolate (WPI) reduced hepatosteatosis and insulin resistance due in part to an increase in basal metabolic rate. In the current study, we examined the ability of WPI to increase energy metabolism in mouse brain. Female C57BL/6J mice were fed a normal AIN-93M diet for 12 weeks, with (WPI group) or without (Control group) 100g WPI/L drinking water. In WPI mice compared to controls, the oxidative stress biomarkers malondialdehyde and 4-hydroxyalkenals were 40% lower in brain homogenates, and the production of hydrogen peroxide and superoxide were 25-35% less in brain mitochondria. Brain mitochondria from WPI mice remained coupled, and exhibited higher rates of respiration with proportionately greater levels of cytochromes a+a3 and c+c1. These results suggested that WPI treatment increased the number or improved the function of brain mitochondria. qRT-PCR revealed that the gene encoding a master regulator of mitochondrial activity and biogenesis, Pgc-1alpha (peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-gamma coactivator-1alpha) was elevated 2.2-fold, as were the PGC-1alpha downstream genes, Tfam (mitochondrial transcription factor A), Gabpa/Nrf-2a (GA-binding protein alpha/nuclear respiratory factor-2a), and Cox-6a1 (cytochrome oxidase-6a1). Each of these genes had twice the levels of transcript in brain tissue from WPI mice, relative to controls. There was no change in the expression of the housekeeping gene B2mg (beta-2 microglobulin). We conclude that dietary whey protein decreases oxidative stress and increases mitochondrial activity in mouse brain. Dietary supplementation with WPI may be a useful clinical intervention to treat conditions associated with oxidative stress or diminished mitochondrial activity in the

  6. Prenatal stress modifies behavior and hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal function in female guinea pig offspring: effects of timing of prenatal stress and stage of reproductive cycle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kapoor, Amita; Matthews, Stephen G

    2008-12-01

    Prenatal stress is associated with altered behavior and hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis function postnatally. Recent studies suggest that these outcomes are dependent on the timing of the prenatal stress. The majority of these studies have been carried out in male offspring. We hypothesized that a short period of prenatal stress would result in female offspring that exhibit differences in open-field behavior and HPA axis activity, but the outcome would depend on the timing of the prenatal stress and the stage of the reproductive cycle. Pregnant guinea pigs were exposed to a strobe light during the fetal brain growth spurt [gestational d 50-52 (PS50)] or during the period of rapid brain myelination [gestational d 60-62 (PS60)]. Open-field activity was assessed in juvenile and adult female offspring. HPA axis function was tested in adult offspring. All tests in adulthood were carried out during the estrous and luteal phases of the reproductive cycle to determine the effect of stage on HPA axis programming. Tissues were collected upon completion of the study for analysis by in situ hybridization. PS60 offspring exhibited decreased activity in an open field during the estrous phase of the reproductive cycle compared with control offspring. Both PS50 and PS60 offspring exhibited a lower salivary cortisol response to a stressor, only during the estrous phase. Consistent with the behavioral and endocrine data, PS60 females exhibited lower plasma estradiol levels, reduced ovary weight, and increased glucocorticoid receptor mRNA in the paraventricular nucleus. In conclusion, we have demonstrated that there are effects of prenatal stress on behavior and HPA axis functioning in female offspring but that the outcomes are dependent on the timing of the prenatal stress together with the status of the reproductive cycle.

  7. Physical discomfort and psychosocial job stress among male and female operators at telecommunication call centers in Taiwan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Yen-Hui; Chen, Chih-Yong; Lu, Shih-Yi

    2009-07-01

    The prevalence of job stress, distributions of major job stressors, and associations between perceived job stress levels and multiple physical discomforts are assessed via a cross-sectional study of 1023 male and female operators at telecommunication call centers in Taiwan. Cases of discomfort are identified via questionnaire surveys requiring respondents to self-reported symptoms of discomfort. Information is obtained on demographics, health status, perceived job stress levels, major job stressors and psychosocial job characteristics. Multivariate logistic regression models are developed to predict physical discomfort in nine body areas. 'Eye strain', 'hoarse or painful throat' and 'musculoskeletal discomfort' are the most pronounced and prevalent complaints after prolonged work time at call centers. Female operators had higher prevalence of physical discomfort than male operators for all body areas. 'Encountering difficult customers' ranked as the most important job stress factor among both male and female operators. Working in a call center for more than 4 years is strongly associated with discomfort in all body areas (odds ratio ranges from 1.65 to 2.15). Analysis of risk factors vs. physical discomfort reveals that operators who perceive higher job stress have significantly increased risk of several health complaints, including eye strain, tinnitus, hoarse or painful throat, chronic cough with phlegm, chest tightness, irritable stomach or peptic ulcers, frequent urination and musculoskeletal discomfort.

  8. Influence of stress systems and physical activity on different dimensions of fatigue in female fibromyalgia patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doerr, Johanna M; Fischer, Susanne; Nater, Urs M; Strahler, Jana

    2017-02-01

    Fatigue is a defining characteristic and one of the most debilitating features of fibromyalgia syndrome (FMS). The mechanisms underlying different dimensions of fatigue in FMS remain unclear. The aim of the current study was to test whether stress-related biological processes and physical activity modulate fatigue experience. Using an ambulatory assessment design, 26 female FMS patients reported general, mental, and physical fatigue levels at six time points per day for 14 consecutive days. Salivary cortisol and alpha-amylase were analyzed as markers of neuroendocrine functioning. Participants wore wrist actigraphs for the assessment of physical activity. Lower increases in cortisol after awakening predicted higher mean daily general and physical fatigue levels. Additionally, mean daily physical activity positively predicted next-day mean general fatigue. Levels of physical fatigue at a specific time point were positively associated with momentary cortisol levels. The increase in cortisol after awakening did not mediate the physical activity - fatigue relationship. There were no associations between alpha-amylase and fatigue. Our findings imply that both changes in hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis activity and physical activity contribute to variance in fatigue in the daily lives of patients with FMS. This study helps to paint a clearer picture of the biological and behavioral underpinnings of fatigue in FMS and highlight the necessity of interdisciplinary treatment approaches targeting biological, behavioral and psychological aspects of FMS. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Reliability of voiding colpo-cysto-urethrography in female urinary stress incontinence before and after treatment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Klarskov, P.; Jepsen, P.V.; Dorph, S.

    Voiding colpo-cysto-urethrography was performed in 52 consecutive female patients with genuine urinary stress incontinence before treatment and in 50 of the patients after treatment. The patients were randomized to either pelvic floor training or surgery. Surgery included a colposuspension operation in patients with an anterior suspension defect and a vaginal repair in patients with a posterior suspension defect. All pre- and posttreatment examinations were reevaluated blindly by one observer 4 to 6 years later. The pretreatment radiologic reevaluation was in agreement with the original classification in 79% and not in agreement in 21%. Pelvic floor training did not change the degree of suspension defect systematically. The effect of squeezing was significantly improved following pelvic floor training. A colposuspension gave rise to a typical radiologic configuration of the bladder and urethra. A vaginal repair was not detectable radiologically and it did not correct a posterior descent. The degree of descent and the degree of incontinence were not correlated and it was not possible radiologically to distinguish treatment failures from treatment success.

  10. Reliability of voiding colpo-cysto-urethrography in female urinary stress incontinence before and after treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klarskov, P.; Jepsen, P.V.; Dorph, S.

    1988-01-01

    Voiding colpo-cysto-urethrography was performed in 52 consecutive female patients with genuine urinary stress incontinence before treatment and in 50 of the patients after treatment. The patients were randomized to either pelvic floor training or surgery. Surgery included a colposuspension operation in patients with an anterior suspension defect and a vaginal repair in patients with a posterior suspension defect. All pre- and posttreatment examinations were reevaluated blindly by one observer 4 to 6 years later. The pretreatment radiologic reevaluation was in agreement with the original classification in 79% and not in agreement in 21%. Pelvic floor training did not change the degree of suspension defect systematically. The effect of squeezing was significantly improved following pelvic floor training. A colposuspension gave rise to a typical radiologic configuration of the bladder and urethra. A vaginal repair was not detectable radiologically and it did not correct a posterior descent. The degree of descent and the degree of incontinence were not correlated and it was not possible radiologically to distinguish treatment failures from treatment success. (orig.)

  11. Vaginal weight cones. Theoretical framework, effect on pelvic floor muscle strength and female stress urinary incontinence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bø, K

    1995-02-01

    The purpose of the present review article is to analyze the scientific background for the use of vaginal cones in measurement of pelvic floor muscle (PFM) strength and effect on female stress urinary incontinence (SUI). Literature search is based on articles written in English language compiled from MEDLINE, EMBASE, BIOSIS, and SCISEARCH from 1985 up to 1993. Only one study and one abstract were found dealing with methodology of cones used as measuring devices for PFM strength. Six articles were found evaluating the effect of cones on PFM strength and/or SUI. The analysis of the literature revealed that there is low correlation between PFM strength (measured by vaginal squeeze pressure and vaginal palpation) and ability to hold the cones in incontinent women. The theoretical basis for strength development using cones can be questioned. The studies evaluating effect on PFM strength and SUI have flaws in design, outcome variables and measurement of PFM strength. Including drop out rates, subjective improvement rates vary between 30-63% in uncontrolled studies. It is concluded that cones may not be used as objective measuring devices for PFM strength. There is a need for prospective controlled randomized studies applying reliable and valid outcome variables to evaluate the effect of cones in treatment of SUI.

  12. Risk factors for posttraumatic stress disorder in female help-seeking victims of sexual assault.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elklit, Ask; Christiansen, Dorte M

    2013-01-01

    Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is common in the aftermath of rape and other sexual assault, but the risk factors leading to PTSD following rape have been shown to differ from those related to PTSD following nonsexual assault. This prospective study examined risk factors for PTSD severity in 148 female help-seeking victims of sexual assault. Approximately 70% of the victims experienced significant levels of traumatization, with 45% reporting symptoms consistent with a probable PTSD diagnosis. Regression analyses showed that relationship with the assailant, number of assailants, the nature of the assault, perceived positive social support, support satisfaction, feeling let down by others, and prior exposure to sexual trauma did not significantly predict PTSD severity at the final level of analysis. In accordance with suggestions by Dancu, Riggs, Hearst-Ikeda, and Shoyer (1996), it is suggested that this is partly caused by a very high degree of traumatization in the sample. Instead, previous nonsexual traumatic experiences and negative affectivity accounted for 30% of the variance in PTSD severity. Although more research is needed on risk factors of assault-related PTSD, these findings suggest that although sexual assault is associated with a high degree of PTSD severity, prior nonsexual victimization and high levels of negative affectivity appear to further increase the vulnerability toward developing symptoms of assault-related PTSD.

  13. Role of relaxin-3/RXFP3 system in stress-induced binge-like eating in female rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calvez, Juliane; de Ávila, Camila; Matte, Louis-Olivier; Guèvremont, Geneviève; Gundlach, Andrew L; Timofeeva, Elena

    2016-03-01

    Binge eating is frequently stimulated by stress. The neuropeptide relaxin-3 (RLN3) and its native receptor RXFP3 are implicated in stress and appetitive behaviors. We investigated the dynamics of the central RLN3/RXFP3 system in a newly established model of stress-induced binge eating. Female Sprague-Dawley rats were subjected to unpredictable intermittent 1-h access to 10% sucrose. When sucrose intake stabilized, rats were assessed for consistency of higher or lower sucrose intake in response to three unpredictable episodes of foot-shock stress; and assigned as binge-like eating prone (BEP) or binge-like eating resistant (BER). BEP rats displayed elevated consumption of sucrose under non-stressful conditions (30% > BER) and an additional marked increase in sucrose intake (60% > BER) in response to stress. Conversely, sucrose intake in BER rats was unaltered by stress. Chow intake was similar in both phenotypes on 'non-stress' days, but was significantly reduced by stress in BER, but not BEP, rats. After stress, BEP, but not BER, rats displayed a significant increase in RLN3 mRNA levels in the nucleus incertus. In addition, in response to stress, BEP, but not BER, rats had increased RXFP3 mRNA levels in the paraventricular and supraoptic nuclei of the hypothalamus. Intracerebroventricular administration of a selective RXFP3 antagonist, R3(B1-22)R, blocked the stress-induced increase in sucrose intake in BEP rats and had no effect on sucrose intake in BER rats. These results provide important evidence for a role of the central RLN3/RXFP3 system in the regulation of stress-induced binge eating in rats, and have therapeutic implications for eating disorders. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. The association between stress, coping, and sexual risk behaviors over 24 months among African-American female adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hulland, Erin N; Brown, Jennifer L; Swartzendruber, Andrea L; Sales, Jessica M; Rose, Eve S; DiClemente, Ralph J

    2015-01-01

    Heightened psychosocial stress coupled with maladaptive coping may be associated with greater sexual risk engagement. This study examined the association between stress levels and coping strategy use as predictors of sexual risk behavior engagement over 24 months among African-American adolescent females (N = 701; M = 17.6 years) enrolled in an STI/HIV risk-reduction intervention program. Participants completed audio computer assisted self-interview (ACASI) measures of global stress, interpersonal stress, coping strategy use, and sexual behaviors prior to intervention participation. Follow-up ACASI assessments were conducted at 6, 12, 18, and 24 months post-intervention. Generalized estimated equation models examined associations between baseline stress levels and coping strategy use as predictors of condom use (past 90 days, last sex) and multiple partners during follow-up. Global stress and individual coping strategy usage were not associated with differences in condom use. Higher interpersonal stress was associated with lower proportion condom use (p = .018), inconsistent condom use (p = .011), and not using a condom at last sex (p = .002). There were no significant associations between stress levels, coping strategy use, and multiple partners. Future research should explore mechanisms that may underlie the association between elevated interpersonal stress and decreased condom use among this population.

  15. How frequent are overactive bladder symptoms in women with urodynamic verification of an overactive bladder?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeniel, Ahmet Özgür; Ergenoğlu, Mete Ahmet; Meseri, Reci; Aşkar, Niyazi; Itil, Ismail Mete

    2012-01-01

    To determine the relationship between overactive bladder symptoms and urodynamic verification of overactive bladder. Between June 2011 and November 2011, 159 patients underwent urodynamics (UDS) at our urogynecology unit in the Ege University Hospital. Of these, 95 patients who complained of urgency, did not have any overt neurological diseases, bladder outlet obstruction and did not take any medication affecting the lower urinary tract function were evaluated. SPSS (ver. 15.0) was used to evaluate the data and the chi-square test and t test for independent samples were used for analysis. The mean age was found to be 54.5±12. Frequency was the most frequent symptom in women with overactive bladder (OAB) (82.1%), nocturia (57.8%) and (57.8%) urgency urinary incontinence followed in frequency. Detrusor over activity incidence was found to be 38.9%. There was no significant relationship between the presence of detrusor over activity (DOA) and OAB symptoms. Leak at urodynamics was found in 46.3% and there is no significant association with detrusor overactivity. Total bladder capacity was found to be significantly lower in women who had DOA (p=0.000). It appears that overactive bladder symptoms do not predict detrusor over activity. Urodynamic investigation is not mandatory in the initial management of women with only OAB symptoms.

  16. A computer program for on-line measurement, storage, analysis and retrieval of urodynamic data

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    R. van Mastrigt (Ron)

    1984-01-01

    textabstractA computer program is presented which allows for direct connection of a minicomputer to a urodynamic set-up. The program stores measured pressure and flow data in a random access disc file with minimal intervention of the urodynamicist, and enables the direct application of a number of

  17. The role of urodynamic studies in the diagnosis and treatment of patients with spina bifida

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alatas, I.; Demirci, H.; Canaz, Huseyin; Akdemir, O.; Baydin, S.; Ozel, K.

    2015-01-01

    Aim: Spina bifida (SB) is a congenital deformity that is frequently seen in infancy. Surgical treatment and clinical follow-up of patients with the diagnosis of SB are important to provide education to the patients and their relatives, to increase patient survival, to ensure that they have a more comfortable life. Neuro-urological problems are highly important for the patients in terms of both social and medical. Materials and Methods: The medical records of patients who underwent surgery for SB and tethered cord syndrome at our clinic in the past year were retrospectively evaluated. The results of urodynamic studies of the patients were evaluated. The results of patients who underwent control urodynamic studies during the follow-up period were compared with the previous results, and their clinical courses were determined. Results: The most frequent urodynamic changes in patients were hyperactive detrusor activity and detrusor sphincter dyssynergy preoperatively. Conclusion: A significant improvement was observed when the results of postoperative urodynamic studies were evaluated in patients who underwent surgery for tethered cord. PMID:25972935

  18. Quality control in urodynamics and the role of software support in the QC procedure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hogan, S; Jarvis, P; Gammie, A; Abrams, P

    2011-11-01

    This article aims to identify quality control (QC) best practice, to review published QC audits in order to identify how closely good practice is followed, and to carry out a market survey of the software features that support QC offered by urodynamics machines available in the UK. All UK distributors of urodynamic systems were contacted and asked to provide information on the software features relating to data quality of the products they supply. The results of the market survey show that the features offered by manufacturers differ greatly. Automated features, which can be turned off in most cases, include: cough recognition, detrusor contraction detection, and high pressure alerts. There are currently no systems that assess data quality based on published guidelines. A literature review of current QC guidelines for urodynamics was carried out; QC audits were included in the literature review to see how closely guidelines were being followed. This review highlights the fact that basic QC is not being carried out effectively by urodynamicists. Based on the software features currently available and the results of the literature review there is both the need and capacity for a greater degree of automation in relation to urodynamic data quality and accuracy assessment. Some progress has been made in this area and certain manufacturers have already developed automated cough detection. Copyright © 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  19. Signal processing in urodynamics: towards high definition urethral pressure profilometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klünder, Mario; Sawodny, Oliver; Amend, Bastian; Ederer, Michael; Kelp, Alexandra; Sievert, Karl-Dietrich; Stenzl, Arnulf; Feuer, Ronny

    2016-03-22

    Urethral pressure profilometry (UPP) is used in the diagnosis of stress urinary incontinence (SUI) which is a significant medical, social, and economic problem. Low spatial pressure resolution, common occurrence of artifacts, and uncertainties in data location limit the diagnostic value of UPP. To overcome these limitations, high definition urethral pressure profilometry (HD-UPP) combining enhanced UPP hardware and signal processing algorithms has been developed. In this work, we present the different signal processing steps in HD-UPP and show experimental results from female minipigs. We use a special microtip catheter with high angular pressure resolution and an integrated inclination sensor. Signals from the catheter are filtered and time-correlated artifacts removed. A signal reconstruction algorithm processes pressure data into a detailed pressure image on the urethra's inside. Finally, the pressure distribution on the urethra's outside is calculated through deconvolution. A mathematical model of the urethra is contained in a point-spread-function (PSF) which is identified depending on geometric and material properties of the urethra. We additionally investigate the PSF's frequency response to determine the relevant frequency band for pressure information on the urinary sphincter. Experimental pressure data are spatially located and processed into high resolution pressure images. Artifacts are successfully removed from data without blurring other details. The pressure distribution on the urethra's outside is reconstructed and compared to the one on the inside. Finally, the pressure images are mapped onto the urethral geometry calculated from inclination and position data to provide an integrated image of pressure distribution, anatomical shape, and location. With its advanced sensing capabilities, the novel microtip catheter collects an unprecedented amount of urethral pressure data. Through sequential signal processing steps, physicians are provided with

  20. Preconception paternal stress in rats alters dendritic morphology and connectivity in the brain of developing male and female offspring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harker, A; Raza, S; Williamson, K; Kolb, B; Gibb, R

    2015-09-10

    The goal of this research was to examine the effect of preconception paternal stress (PPS) on the subsequent neurodevelopment and behavior of male and female offspring. Prenatal (gestational) stress has been shown to alter brain morphology in the developing brain, and is presumed to be a factor in the development of some adult psychopathologies. Our hypothesis was that paternal stress in the preconception period could impact brain development in the offspring, leading to behavioral abnormalities later in life. The purpose of this study was to examine the effect of preconception paternal stress on developing male and female offspring brain morphology in five brain areas; medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC), orbitofrontal cortex (OFC), parietal cortex (Par1), hippocampus (CA1) and nucleus accumbens (NAc). Alterations in dendritic measures and spine density were observed in each brain area examined in paternal stress offspring. Our two main findings reveal; (1) PPS alters brain morphology and organization and these effects are different than the effects of stress observed at other ages; and, (2) the observed dendritic changes were sexually dimorphic. This study provides direct evidence that PPS modifies brain architecture in developing offspring, including dendritic length, cell complexity, and spine density. Alterations observed may contribute to the later development of psychopathologies and maladaptive behaviors in the offspring. Copyright © 2015 IBRO. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Associated factors to urinary incontinence in women undergoing urodynamic testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Juliana Cristina Pereira da; Soler, Zaida Aurora Sperli Geraldes; DominguesWysocki, Anneliese

    2017-04-03

    Analyzing factors associated with urinary incontinence (UI) among women submitted to urodynamic testing. A cross-sectional study of 150 women attended at a urological center. Data were analyzed using univariate and multivariate statistics. White women (79.3%), overweight (45.3%), menopausal (53.3%), who drink coffee (82.7%), sedentary (65.3%), who had vaginal birth (51.4%), with episiotomy (80%), and who underwent the Kristeller maneuver (69%). 60.7% had Urethral Hypermobility (UH). A statistical association was found between: weight change and UH (p = 0.024); menopause, Intrinsic Sphincter Deficiency (ISD) and Detrusor Instability (DI) (p = 0.001); gynecological surgery, ISD and DI (p = 0.014); hysterectomy and all types of UI (p = 0.040); physical activity and mixed UI (p = 0.014). Interventions and guidance on preventing UI and strengthening pelvic muscles should be directed at women who present weight changes, who are sedentary menopausal women, and those who have undergone hysterectomy or other gynecological surgery. Studies on pelvic strengthening methods are needed in order to take into account the profile of the needs presented by women. Analisar os fatores associados à Incontinência Urinária (IU) entre mulheres submetidas a estudo urodinâmico. Estudo transversal realizado com 150 mulheres atendidas em um centro urológico. Os dados foram analisados por meio de estatística uni e multivariada. Mulheres brancas (79,3%), com sobrepeso (45,3%), na menopausa (53,3%), que ingeriam café (82,7%), sedentárias (65,3%), que fizeram parto normal (51,4%), com episiotomia (80%), que sofreram Manobra de Kristeller (69%). 60,7% apresentavam HipermobilidadeUretral (HU).Houve associação estatística entre: mudança de peso e HU (p=0,024); menopausa,Deficiência Esfincteriana Intrínseca (DEI) e Instabilidade Detrusora (ID) (p=0,001); cirurgia ginecológica, DEI e ID (p=0,014); histerectomia etodos os tipos de IU (p=0,040); realização de atividade física eIU mista

  2. Acute spinal cord injury--do ambulatory patients need urodynamic investigations?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bellucci, Carlos H Suzuki; Wöllner, Jens; Gregorini, Flavia; Birnböck, Dorothee; Kozomara, Marko; Mehnert, Ulrich; Schubert, Martin; Kessler, Thomas M

    2013-04-01

    We compared the urodynamic parameters of ambulatory vs nonambulatory acute spinal cord injured patients. A total of 27 women and 33 men (mean age 58 years) with neurogenic lower urinary tract dysfunction due to acute spinal cord injury (duration of injury less than 40 days) were prospectively evaluated. The patients were dichotomized according to the mobility for moderate distances subscale of the SCIM (Spinal Cord Independence Measure) version III into ambulatory (score of 3 or greater) and nonambulatory (score less than 3). Videourodynamic parameters including maximum detrusor pressure during the storage phase, bladder compliance, detrusor overactivity, detrusor external sphincter dyssynergia and vesicoureterorenal reflux were compared between the groups. Of the 60 patients with acute spinal cord injury 17 were ambulatory and 43 were nonambulatory. Mean ± SD duration of injury at urodynamic investigation was 30 ± 8 days. The lesion level was cervical in 14 patients, thoracic in 28 and lumbar/sacral in 18. Comparing unfavorable urodynamic parameters, no significant differences were found between ambulatory vs nonambulatory patients in terms of a high pressure system during the storage phase (29% vs 33%, p = 0.81), a low compliance bladder (12% vs 7%, p = 0.54), detrusor overactivity (24% vs 47%, p = 0.1), detrusor external sphincter dyssynergia (18% vs 21%, p = 0.77) and vesicoureterorenal reflux (0% vs 5%, p = 0.36). Ambulatory and nonambulatory patients with acute spinal cord injury have a similar risk of unfavorable urodynamic measures. Thus, we strongly recommend the same neurourological assessment including urodynamic investigations in all acute spinal cord injury patients independent of the ability to walk. Copyright © 2013 American Urological Association Education and Research, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Interventions to decrease pain and anxiety in patients undergoing urodynamic testing: A randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solomon, Ellen R; Ridgeway, Beri

    2016-11-01

    To determine if music (at 60 beats/min) or watching a pre-procedure educational video decreases pain and anxiety in women undergoing multichannel urodynamic testing compared to usual care. Women undergoing multichannel urodynamic testing at a tertiary care center were randomized to one of three groups: usual care (UC), music (M), in which music was played throughout the urodynamic test, or video (V), in which subjects watched an informational video on the procedure prior to undergoing the test. Visual analog scales (VAS) were used to measure patient's pain and anxiety before and after the test. Demographic information was obtained and five-item Likert questionnaires were given to assess information seeking behavior, preparedness, embarrassment, and privacy. 98 subjects were included in this analysis. In the overall group, mean perceived pain on the pre-test VAS was significantly higher than the post-test VAS with pre-test mean (SD) 47(±30) and post-test mean (SD) 26(±23), P = 0.0001. Overall the anxiety pre-test VAS was significantly greater than post-test VAS with pre-test mean (SD) 46.9(±29) and post-test mean 17.9(±18), P = 0.0001. There were no differences in pain and anxiety scores between the two intervention groups and usual care. Patients who were randomized to usual care or the video arm felt more prepared for the test compared to patients who were randomized to the music arm, with (mean ± SD): usual care (42 ± 8), video (43 ± 9), music (37 ± 11), P = 0.002. Music and an educational video do not decrease pain or anxiety in subjects undergoing multichannel urodynamics compared to usual care. Neurourol. Urodynam. 35:975-979, 2016. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  4. Male and female hypertrophic rat cardiac myocyte functional responses to ischemic stress and β-adrenergic challenge are different.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bell, James R; Curl, Claire L; Harding, Tristan W; Vila Petroff, Martin; Harrap, Stephen B; Delbridge, Lea M D

    2016-01-01

    Cardiac hypertrophy is the most potent cardiovascular risk factor after age, and relative mortality risk linked with cardiac hypertrophy is greater in women. Ischemic heart disease is the most common form of cardiovascular pathology for both men and women, yet significant differences in incidence and outcomes exist between the sexes. Cardiac hypertrophy and ischemia are frequently occurring dual pathologies. Whether the cellular (cardiomyocyte) mechanisms underlying myocardial damage differ in women and men remains to be determined. In this study, utilizing an in vitro experimental approach, our goal was to examine the proposition that responses of male/female cardiomyocytes to ischemic (and adrenergic) stress may be differentially modulated by the presence of pre-existing cardiac hypertrophy. We used a novel normotensive custom-derived hypertrophic heart rat (HHR; vs control strain normal heart rat (NHR)). Cardiomyocyte morphologic and electromechanical functional studies were performed using microfluorimetric techniques involving simulated ischemia/reperfusion protocols. HHR females exhibited pronounced cardiac/cardiomyocyte enlargement, equivalent to males. Under basal conditions, a lower twitch amplitude in female myocytes was prominent in normal but not in hypertrophic myocytes. The cardiomyocyte Ca(2+) responses to β-adrenergic challenge differed in hypertrophic male and female cardiomyocytes, with the accentuated response in males abrogated in females-even while contractile responses were similar. In simulated ischemia, a marked and selective elevation of end-ischemia Ca(2+) in normal female myocytes was completely suppressed in hypertrophic female myocytes-even though all groups demonstrated similar shifts in myocyte contractile performance. After 30 min of simulated reperfusion, the Ca(2+) desensitization characterizing the male response was distinctively absent in female cardiomyocytes. Our data demonstrate that cardiac hypertrophy produces dramatically

  5. Efficacy and safety of TVT-O and TVT-Secur in the treatment of female stress urinary incontinence: 1-year follow-up.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tommaselli, Giovanni A; Di Carlo, Costantino; Gargano, Virginia; Formisano, Carmen; Scala, Mariamaddalena; Nappi, Carmine

    2010-10-01

    To reduce complications of transobturator tension-free vaginal tape, single-incision devices were introduced in the last years. We here report a comparison between the tension-free vaginal tape-obturator (TVT-O) and the TVT-Secur techniques in terms of efficacy and safety. Eighty-four patients with stress urinary incontinence (SUI) were scheduled to undergo TVT-O or TVT-Secur. Duration of the procedure, subjective estimate of blood loss, intraoperative and postoperative complications, postoperative postvoidal residue (PVR), time to first voiding, and pain level were recorded. Urodynamic tests, PVR, Incontinence Questionnaire Short Form (ICIQ-SF), King's Health Questionnaire, and a urinary diary were performed before and 12 months after procedure. No differences in terms of cure rate were observed between the two groups (81.6% vs. 83.8%). Complication rate in the TVT-Secur group was lower (8.1%) than in the TVT-O group (15.8%), but not significant. Both techniques seem to be effective and safe, with a low incidence of complications in both groups.

  6. Responses to capture stress and exogenous corticosterone vary with body condition in female red-sided garter snakes (Thamnophis sirtalis parietalis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dayger, Catherine A; Cease, Arianne J; Lutterschmidt, Deborah I

    2013-09-01

    This study examined whether hormonal and behavioral responses to capture stress and exogenous corticosterone (CORT) vary with body condition in female red-sided garter snakes (Thamnophis sirtalis parietalis). Female snakes were collected during the spring mating season and treated with 4 h of capture stress. We measured plasma CORT and estradiol before, during and after capture stress treatment followed by latency to copulate, a measure of female receptivity. Body condition was determined as the residual from a regression of body mass on snout-vent-length. Baseline CORT did not differ between females in positive and negative body condition, but females in negative body condition showed a significantly larger increase in plasma CORT in response to capture stress. Estradiol, which is generally low during the mating season in this population, did not change in response to capture stress. Body condition, but not capture stress, influenced latency to copulate, suggesting that females are resistant to the behavioral effects of capture stress during the spring mating season. In a second experiment, only females in negative body condition increased latency to copulate in response to injection of a physiological (15 μg) dose of exogenous CORT, while all females responded to a pharmacological (60 μg) dose. These results indicate that behavioral responses to exogenous CORT vary with female body condition during the short mating season. Taken together, our data suggest that variation in body condition may be associated with differences in HPA axis sensitivity and/or glucocorticoid receptor density in the brain. © 2013.

  7. Role of testosterone in resistance to development of stress-related vascular diseases in male and female organisms: models of hypertension and ulcer bleeding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Semyachkina-Glushkovskaya, O.; Pavlov, A.; Semyachkin-Glushkovskiy, I.; Zinchenko, E.; Kassim, M.; Al-Fatle, F.; Al Hassani, L.; Ulanova, M.; Gekaluk, A.

    2015-03-01

    In this paper, we discuss a relationship between stress-induced formation of hypertension and ulcer bleeding and the level of serum testosterone in female and male rats. We show that the secretion of testosterone is an important sign of severity of stress-induced damages of vascular homeostasis in males but not in females.

  8. Laser treatment of female stress urinary incontinence: optical, thermal, and tissue damage simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hardy, Luke A.; Chang, Chun-Hung; Myers, Erinn M.; Kennelly, Michael J.; Fried, Nathaniel M.

    2016-02-01

    Treatment of female stress urinary incontinence (SUI) by laser thermal remodeling of subsurface tissues is studied. Light transport, heat transfer, and thermal damage simulations were performed for transvaginal and transurethral methods. Monte Carlo (MC) provided absorbed photon distributions in tissue layers (vaginal wall, endopelvic fascia, urethral wall). Optical properties (n,μa,μs,g) were assigned to each tissue at λ=1064 nm. A 5-mm-diameter laser beam and power of 5 W for 15 s was used, based on previous experiments. MC output was converted into absorbed energy, serving as input for ANSYS finite element heat transfer simulations of tissue temperatures over time. Convective heat transfer was simulated with contact cooling probe set at 0 °C. Thermal properties (κ,c,ρ) were assigned to each tissue layer. MATLAB code was used for Arrhenius integral thermal damage calculations. A temperature matrix was constructed from ANSYS output, and finite sum was incorporated to approximate Arrhenius integral calculations. Tissue damage properties (Ea,A) were used to compute Arrhenius sums. For the transvaginal approach, 37% of energy was absorbed in endopelvic fascia layer with 0.8% deposited beyond it. Peak temperature was 71°C, treatment zone was 0.8-mm-diameter, and almost all of 2.7-mm-thick vaginal wall was preserved. For transurethral approach, 18% energy was absorbed in endopelvic fascia with 0.3% deposited beyond it. Peak temperature was 80°C, treatment zone was 2.0-mm-diameter, and only 0.6 mm of 2.4-mm-thick urethral wall was preserved. A transvaginal approach is more feasible than transurethral approach for laser treatment of SUI.

  9. Dose-Response Effect of Tualang Honey on Postprandial Antioxidant Activity and Oxidative Stress in Female Athletes: A Pilot Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmad, Nur Syamsina; Abdul Aziz, Azlina; Kong, Kin Weng; Hamid, Mohamad Shariff A; Cheong, Jadeera Phaik Geok; Hamzah, Sareena Hanim

    2017-12-01

    Tualang honey (TH) contains antioxidants such as ascorbic acid, phenolic acids, and flavonoids that may be protective against oxidative stress of exercise. The aim of this study was to examine the postprandial antioxidant activity and oxidative stress after ingestion of high and low dosages of TH in female athletes. Twenty female athletes (aged 21.3 [2.1] years; body weight [BW] 54.1 [5.7] kg) were randomly assigned into two groups and consumed either 1.5 g/kg BW TH (high honey; HH; n = 10) or 0.75 g/kg BW TH (low honey; LH; n = 10). Blood sample was collected at fasting and at 0.5, 1, 2, and 3 h after TH consumption. Plasma was analyzed for total phenolic content (TPC), antioxidant activity (ferric reducing antioxidant power [FRAP]), and oxidative stress biomarkers (malondialdehyde [MDA] and reactive oxygen species [ROS]). The 3-h area under the curve (AUC) for MDA was significantly lower in the LH group compared with HH group, suggesting less oxidative stress in the LH group. However, the AUCs for TPC, FRAP, and ROS were not affected by the dosages. The concentrations of TPC and FRAP increased from baseline to 2 and 1 h after TH consumption, respectively, and concentrations returned toward baseline at 3 h in both LH and HH groups. MDA concentration significantly decreased (p antioxidant activity and suppressing oxidative stress in female athletes. The time-course effect of TH that provides optimal antioxidant activity and oxidative stress protection was between 1 and 2 h after its consumption.

  10. Comparing anger, anger expression, life stress and social support between Korean female nursing and general university students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jun, Won Hee; Lee, Gyungjoo

    2017-12-01

    To compare anger, anger expression, life stress and social support among female students at a nursing university and a general university and to examine factors affecting anger in each group. University students typically experience constant stress resulting from factors like academic requirements, personal relationships and career decisions; this tends to promote anger. Particularly, nursing students' anger can negatively affect the quality of care that they provide, and also their mental health. Therefore, anger management of nursing students is very important in the training and development of future nurses. Nursing education needs to confirm factors associated with anger of nursing students compared with general university students to develop specific intervention programs for decreasing their anger levels. A descriptive, cross-sectional design was used. Participants were 286 female students (146 from a nursing university and 140 from a general university); they completed self-report surveys examining anger, anger expression, life stress and social support. A stepwise multiple regression analysis was done to identify factors affecting anger. Data were collected from 15 May-10 June 2016. In the stepwise multiple regression analysis, we entered three anger expression factors, eight life stress factors and social support as explanatory variables; factors affecting anger among nursing students were anger-out and same-sex peer relationship stress. In general university students, anger-out, anger-control and anger-in were identified as factors affecting anger. Becoming proficient in beneficial anger expression techniques and reducing stress from same-sex peer relationships will reduce anger among female nursing students. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  11. The relationship of anxiety, stress, and depression with suicidal thoughts among female adolescents: The meditating role of victim of bullying

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahmud Najafi

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Bullying is a form of low-level violence in the school environment that if unnoticed to become dangerous forms of violence occurs. The aim of this study was examining the relationship between anxiety, stress and depression and female adolescents' suicidal thoughts with the meditating role of the victim of bullying. Materials and Methods: This study is descriptive and has used the correlation method. For this purpose in the academic year 2016-2017, 300 students of high school girl students (seventh and eighth grade of public schools of Pakdasht city were selected by random cluster sampling method and they filled in the suicidal thoughts, anxiety, stress, depression and victim of bullying questionnaire. For data analysis, Pearson’s correlation method and structural equation modeling were used by using SPSS-19 and LISRELV8.80 software. Results: Pearson’s correlational results showed that there is a positive and meaningful relation between anxiety, stress, depression and victim of bullying with suicidal thoughts (P≤0.01. Also the victim of bullying variable has a meditating role in relation among research variable and all of the direct and indirect effects of anxiety, stress, depression and victim of bullying on suicidal thoughts are meaningful.  Conclusion: The results indicate that anxiety, stress, depression along with victim of bullying in female adolescents cause suicidal thoughts therefore preventing and reducing the risk at schools is absolutely necessary.

  12. Effect of Kegel Exercises on the Management of Female Stress Urinary Incontinence: A Systematic Review of Randomized Controlled Trials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seong-Hi Park

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of Kegel exercises on reducing urinary incontinence symptoms in women with stress urinary incontinence. Methods. Randomized controlled trials (RCTs were conducted on females with stress urinary incontinence who had done Kegel exercises and met inclusion criteria in articles published between 1966 and 2012. The articles from periodicals indexed in KoreaMed, NDSL, Ovid Medline, Embase, Scopus, and other databases were selected, using key terms such as “Kegel” or “pelvic floor exercise.” Cochrane’s risk of bias was applied to assess the internal validity of the RCTs. Eleven selected studies were analyzed by meta-analysis using RevMan 5.1. Results. Eleven trials involving 510 women met the inclusion criteria. All trials contributed data to one or more of the main or secondary outcomes. They indicated that Kegel exercises significantly reduced the urinary incontinence symptoms of female stress urinary incontinence. There was no heterogeneity in the selected studies except the standardized bladder volumes of the pad test. Conclusion. There is some evidence that, for women with stress urinary incontinence, Kegel exercises may help manage urinary incontinence. However, while these results are helpful for understanding how to treat or cure stress urinary incontinence, further research is still required.

  13. Emotional intelligence, life satisfaction and subjective happiness in female student health professionals: the mediating effect of perceived stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruiz-Aranda, D; Extremera, N; Pineda-Galán, C

    2014-03-01

    The objective of the present study was to extend previous findings by examining the relationship between emotional intelligence (EI) and well-being indicators (life satisfaction and happiness) in a 12-week follow-up study. In addition, we examined the influence of perceived stress on the relationship between EI and well-being. Female students from the School of Health Sciences (n = 264) completed an ability measure of emotional intelligence. After 12 weeks, participants completed the Perceived Stress Scale, Satisfaction with Life Scale and Subjective Happiness Scale. Participants with higher EI reported less perceived stress and higher levels of life satisfaction and happiness. The results of this study suggest that perceived stress mediates the relationship between EI and well-being indicators, specifically life satisfaction and happiness. These findings suggest an underlying process by which high emotional intelligence may increase well-being in female students in nursing and allied health sciences by reducing the experience of stress. The implications of these findings for future research and for working with health professions to improve well-being outcomes are discussed. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  14. Prenatal Stress Produces Sex Specific Changes in Depression-like Behavior in Rats: Implications for Increased Vulnerability in Females

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sickmann, Helle Mark; Arentzen, Tine S; Dyrby, Tim

    2015-01-01

    Stress during rat gestation can elicit depression-like physiological and behavioral responses in the offspring. However, human clinical depression is more prevalent among females than males. Accordingly, we examined how repeated variable prenatal stress (PS) alters rat anxiety- and depression...... stressor (elevated platform) before EPM testing. Dams exposed to the stressor battery had increased plasma corticosterone levels compared with controls. Male PS offspring displayed changes in locomotor and rearing/climbing activity relative to controls. Additionally, anxiety measures in the EPM were...... affected in control animals after acute stressor exposure, however, this response was blunted in PS offspring. Moreover, FST immobility, as an indicator of depressive-like behavior, was increased in female but not male PS rats. Altogether, our results identify both sex- and circadian phase-specific effects...

  15. The effect of army vest design on the occurrence of stress fractures and overuse injuries in female military recruits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palmanovich, Ezequiel; Frankl, M; Nyska, M; Hetsroni, I; Constantini, N; Trejo, L; Bechar, R; Novak, G; Lankovsky, Z; Mann, G

    2017-08-01

    Stress fractures (SFs) occur when microdamage caused by repetitive mechanical load exceeds the biological load-bearing capacity of the bone. The study objective was to test whether a vest specifically designed and manufactured for female recruits, compared with the standard vest used on a regular basis by Border Police recruits, would reduce the incidence of SF in female Border Police recruits. Data based on reports of military personnel show that women are more likely to sustain SFs. A follow-up of 240 female Border Police infantry recruits, divided into two trial groups, was conducted from 2007 to 2009. Two different vests were evaluated-the standard special unit fighting vest, which was conventionally used by both men and women during basic training, and the new fighting vest, specially design for female body shape. No significant difference was noted in the number of SFs between the two groups which may be attributed to increased weight of the new vest. There was a lower incidence of long bone SFs which may have been due to the superior vest design. The female Border Police Infantry recruits expressed great satisfaction with the new vest. Increased effort should be invested to further reduce the weight of female combat gear, alongside efforts to improve fit and comfort. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.

  16. The relationship of anxiety, stress, and depression with suicidal thoughts among female adolescents: The meditating role of victim of bullying

    OpenAIRE

    Mahmud Najafi; Zahra Kermani Mamazandi; Afzal Akbari Balutbangan

    2017-01-01

    Introduction: Bullying is a form of low-level violence in the school environment that if unnoticed to become dangerous forms of violence occurs. The aim of this study was examining the relationship between anxiety, stress and depression and female adolescents' suicidal thoughts with the meditating role of the victim of bullying. Materials and Methods: This study is descriptive and has used the correlation method. For this purpose in the academic year 2016-2017, 300 students of high school gir...

  17. [Clinical Observation of Heat-sensitive Moxibustion Combined with Kegel Exercise Therapy for Female Stress Urinary Incontinence].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Dan; Deng, Peng; Jiao, Lin; Xiong, Jun; Xie, Ding-Yi; Chen, Ri-Xin

    2017-08-25

    To compare the clinical effects of heat-sensitive moxibustion combined with kegel exercise therapy and simple kegel exercise therapy on female stress urinary incontinence. Forty-five female patients with stress urinary incontinence were randomly divided into a treatment group ( n =23) and a control group ( n =22). Kegel exercise therapy was applied in the two groups. Heat-sensitive moxibustion was used at Zhongji (CV 3), Qihai (CV 6), Ciliao (BL 32) and Shen-shu (BL 23) in the treatment group, once a day for the first 10 times, and once every other day until 5 sessions were given, 10 times as one session. 1-hour pad test, International Incontinence Advisory Board questionnaire (ICIQ-SF) and the number of urine leakage were observed before and after treatment. And the clinical effect was evaluated. The curative rate of 43.48%(10/23) and the total effective rate of 95.65%(22/23) in the treatment group were respectively better than those of 18.18% (4/22) and 63.64%(14/22) in the control group (both P kegel exercise therapy achieves better effect than simple kegel exercise therapy on female stress urinary incontinence.

  18. Treatment of stress urinary incontinence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fischer-Rasmussen, W

    1990-01-01

    This review presents reported cure and improvement rates of stress urinary incontinence in women obtained by different treatment modalities. Apart from the urodynamic findings, histological and histochemical changes of the pelvic floor may be clinically relevant to treatment in the future. Long-t...

  19. [Knockdown of InR gene in ventral nephrocytes promotes resistance to toxic stress in Drosophila melanogaster females].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andreenkova, O V; Karpova, E K; Menshanov, P N; Rauschenbach, I Yu

    2015-02-01

    Hemolymph filtration in insects is performed by nephrocytes, additional cells of the circulatory system that are not connected to Malpighian vessels. Drosophila has two types of nephrocytes: the ventral ("garland"), which are situated around the connection site of the esophagus and proventriculus, and the pericardial, which are localized around the heart. In this study, we examined the role of the of insulin-like receptor (InR)gene in regulation of the function of ventral nephrocytes (VNC) in D. melanogaster females. Immunofluorescent analysis of female VNC with anti-InR antibodies revealed for the first time that the InR gene is expressed in VNC cells. To determine whether a change in the level of InR expression has an effect on VNC function in Drosophila females, we implemented an antisense suppressor of the InR gene, together with a driver that is expressed specifically in VNC. VNC function was evaluated by survival of the females exposed to toxic stress (treatment with AgNO3). This study has shown for the first time that suppression of InR expression in VNC leads to a rise in the survival of flies under conditions of toxic stress.

  20. Attenuation of the cortisol response to stress in female rainbow trout chronically exposed to dietary selenomethionine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wiseman, Steve, E-mail: steve.wiseman@usask.ca [Toxicology Centre, University of Saskatchewan, Saskatoon, SK, S7N 5B3 (Canada); Thomas, Jith K.; McPhee, Landon; Hursky, Olesya; Raine, Jason C. [Toxicology Centre, University of Saskatchewan, Saskatoon, SK, S7N 5B3 (Canada); Pietrock, Michael [Toxicology Centre, University of Saskatchewan, Saskatoon, SK, S7N 5B3 (Canada); Department of Veterinary Biomedical Sciences, University of Saskatchewan, Saskatoon, SK, S7N 5B3 (Canada); Giesy, John P. [Toxicology Centre, University of Saskatchewan, Saskatoon, SK, S7N 5B3 (Canada); Department of Veterinary Biomedical Sciences, University of Saskatchewan, Saskatoon, SK, S7N 5B3 (Canada); Department of Zoology, College of Science, King Saud University, P.O. Box 2455, Riyadh 11451 (Saudi Arabia); Department of Biology and Chemistry, City University of Hong Kong, Kowloon, Hong Kong (Hong Kong); School of Biological Sciences, University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong (Hong Kong); Department of Zoology, Center for Integrative Toxicology, Michigan State University, East Lansing, MI 48824 (United States); State Key Laboratory of Pollution Control and Resource Reuse and School of the Environment, Nanjing University, Nanjing (China); Hecker, Markus [Toxicology Centre, University of Saskatchewan, Saskatoon, SK, S7N 5B3 (Canada); School of Environment and Sustainability, University of Saskatchewan, Saskatoon, SK, S7N 5CB (Canada); Janz, David M. [Toxicology Centre, University of Saskatchewan, Saskatoon, SK, S7N 5B3 (Canada); Department of Veterinary Biomedical Sciences, University of Saskatchewan, Saskatoon, SK, S7N 5B3 (Canada)

    2011-10-15

    Highlights: Trout exposed to Se-Met had greater concentration of cortisol compared to controls. Transcript abundance of mc2r was greater in trout exposed to Se-Met. Trout exposed to Se-Met had a reduced cortisol response to a handling stressor. Cortisone concentration was greater in Se-Met exposed trout post-handling stressor. - Abstract: Selenomethionine (Se-Met) is the major dietary form of selenium (Se). While Se is a required nutrient, it can also influence the physiological stress response because it stimulates greater concentrations of cortisol in blood plasma of exposed fish. However, little is known about the effects of exposure to Se on the ability to cope with a secondary stressor. In the current study, female rainbow trout were exposed to an environmentally relevant dietary concentration (8.47 mg Se/kg dry mass (dm)) of Se-Met for 126 d, after which time fish were subjected to a 3-min handling stressor and sampled at 2 h and 24 h post-stressor exposure. Concentrations of cortisol, cortisone, glucose, and lactate in blood plasma and concentrations of glycogen and triglycerides in liver and muscle were determined. Abundances of transcripts of proteins involved in corticosteroidogenesis were determined using quantitative RT-PCR. Concentrations of cortisol were significantly greater in blood plasma of trout exposed to Se-Met, relative to control trout sampled prior to the handling stressor. A typical response of cortisol to the handling stressor was observed in the control trout. However, trout exposed to Se-Met were unable to mount a cortisol response to the handling stressor. Concentrations of cortisone, the inactive metabolite of cortisol, were significantly greater following the handling stressor in trout exposed to Se-Met. In trout exposed to Se-Met, transcript abundance of melanocortin 2 receptor (mc2r) and peripheral benzodiazepine receptor (pbr) were greater, which is consistent with the conclusion that synthesis of cortisol was greater. However

  1. Clinical Guideline for Female Lower Urinary Tract Symptoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takahashi, Satoru; Takei, Mineo; Nishizawa, Osamu; Yamaguchi, Osamu; Kato, Kumiko; Gotoh, Momokazu; Yoshimura, Yasukuni; Takeyama, Masami; Ozawa, Hideo; Shimada, Makoto; Yamanishi, Tomonori; Yoshida, Masaki; Tomoe, Hikaru; Yokoyama, Osamu; Koyama, Masayasu

    2016-01-01

    The "Japanese Clinical Guideline for Female Lower Urinary Tract Symptoms," published in Japan in November 2013, contains two algorithms (a primary and a specialized treatment algorithm) that are novel worldwide as they cover female lower urinary tract symptoms other than urinary incontinence. For primary treatment, necessary types of evaluation include querying the patient regarding symptoms and medical history, examining physical findings, and performing urinalysis. The types of evaluations that should be performed for select cases include evaluation with symptom/quality of life (QOL) questionnaires, urination records, residual urine measurement, urine cytology, urine culture, serum creatinine measurement, and ultrasonography. If the main symptoms are voiding/post-voiding, specialized treatment should be considered because multiple conditions may be involved. When storage difficulties are the main symptoms, the patient should be assessed using the primary algorithm. When conditions such as overactive bladder or stress incontinence are diagnosed and treatment is administered, but sufficient improvement is not achieved, the specialized algorithm should be considered. In case of specialized treatment, physiological re-evaluation, urinary tract/pelvic imaging evaluation, and urodynamic testing are conducted for conditions such as refractory overactive bladder and stress incontinence. There are two causes of voiding/post-voiding symptoms: lower urinary tract obstruction and detrusor underactivity. Lower urinary tract obstruction caused by pelvic organ prolapse may be improved by surgery. © 2015 Wiley Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.

  2. Prevalence of menstrual problems and their association with psychological stress in young female students studying health sciences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nazish Rafique

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: To identify the prevalence of various menstrual problems in young females studying health sciences and to identify their association with academic stress. Methods: This was a cross-sectional study, conducted in the health colleges of Immam Abdulrahman Bin Faisal University, Dammam, Saudi Arabia between February 2015 and February 2016. Seven hundred and thirty-eight female students aged 18-25 years anonymously completed menstrual problem identification and perceived stress scale questionnaire. The data was analyzed using the Statistical Package for Social Sciences version 16.0. Results: Ninety-one percent of the students were suffering from some kind of menstrual problem. The different menstrual problems reported, and their incidences included irregular menstruation (27%, abnormal vaginal bleeding (9.3%, amenorrhea (9.2%, menorrhagia (3.4%, dysmenorrhea (89.7%, and premenstrual symptoms (46.7%. High perceived stress (HPS was identified in 39% of the students. A significant positive correlation was found between HPS and menstrual problems. Students with HPS had 4 times, 2 times, and 2.8 times increased odds ratio for experiencing amenorrhea, dysmenorrhea, and premenstrual syndrome (p less than 0.05. Conclusion: The most prevalent menstrual problems (dysmenorrhea and premenstrual symptoms in the target population were strongly associated with stress. Therefore, it is recommended that health science students should be provided with early psychological and gynecological counselling to prevent future complications.

  3. Perceptions of infertility and treatment stress in females as compared with males entering in vitro fertilization treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collins, A; Freeman, E W; Boxer, A S; Tureck, R

    1992-02-01

    To determine gender similarities and differences in perceptions of infertility and anticipated treatment stress in couples enrolling for in vitro fertilization (IVF) treatment. Both partners were evaluated at enrollment of IVF treatment. The evaluation was part of the screening procedure. The Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology at a teaching hospital. Two hundred consecutive couples who entered an IVF treatment program. Self-report questionnaire included items on the duration of infertility, degree of social support, effect of infertility on sexual relationship, expected likelihood of achieving pregnancy, anticipation of stress during treatment, and a self-rating scale of emotional reactions to infertility. The women anticipated more stress in IVF treatment but also rated greater degree of social support than the men. Both partners overestimated their chances of a successful treatment outcome. Factor analysis of the Infertility Scale produced three factors that were similar for both sexes. The first factor represented the desire to have a child as a major focus of life with inadequacy of the male role, social functioning and work efficiency, and pressure to have a child following. Women reported more stress, but the factors affecting stress of infertility were very similar for both partners. The intense focus on having a child was the predominant factor in anticipated stress of IVF treatment for both males and females.

  4. The effect of chemically induced colitis, psychological stress and their combination on visceral pain in female Wistar rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deiteren, Annemie; Vermeulen, Wim; Moreels, Tom G; Pelckmans, Paul A; De Man, Joris G; De Winter, Benedicte Y

    2014-09-01

    Visceral sensitivity is of pathophysiological importance in abdominal pain disorders and can be modulated by inflammation and stress. However, it is unclear whether inflammation and stress alter visceral perception independently of each other or in conjunction through neuroendocrine interactions. Therefore, we compared the short- and long-term effects of experimental colitis and water avoidance stress (WAS), alone or in combination, on visceral sensitivity in female Wistar rats. Colitis was induced by trinitrobenzene sulfonic acid (TNBS) and colonoscopically confirmed. During WAS, rats were placed on a platform surrounded by water for 1 h. Visceral sensitivity was assessed by quantifying the visceromotor responses (VMRs) to colorectal distension. Activation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis was determined by measuring serum corticosterone in a separate protocol. TNBS instillation resulted in overt colitis, associated with significant visceral hypersensitivity during the acute inflammatory phase (3 days post-TNBS; n = 8/group); after colitis had subsided (28 days post-TNBS), hypersensitivity was resolved (n = 4-8/group). Single WAS was associated with increased VMRs of a magnitude comparable to acute TNBS-induced hypersensitivity (n = 8/group). However, after repetitive WAS no significant hypersensitivity was present (n = 8/group). No additive effect of colitis and stress was seen on visceral pain perception (n = 6-8/group). Corticosterone levels were only increased in acute TNBS-colitis, acute WAS and their combination. To conclude, both colitis and stress successfully induced short-term visceral hypersensitivity and activated the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis, but long-term effects were absent. In addition, our current findings do not support an additive effect of colitis and stress on visceral sensitivity in female Wistar rats.

  5. Urodynamic catheter moisture sensor: A novel device to improve leak point pressure detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marshall, Blake R; Arlen, Angela M; Kirsch, Andrew J

    2016-06-01

    High-quality urodynamic studies in patients with neurogenic lower urinary tract dysfunction are important, as UDS may be the only reliable gauge of potential risk for upper tract deterioration and the optimal tool to guide lower urinary tract management. Reliance on direct visualization of leakage during typical UDS remains a potential source of error. Given the necessity of accurate leak point pressures, we developed a wireless leak detection sensor to eliminate the need for visual inspection during UDS. A mean decrease in detrusor leak point pressure of 3 cm/H2 0 and a mean 11% decrease in capacity at leakage was observed when employing the sensor compared to visual inspection in children undergoing two fillings during a single UDS session. Removing the visual inspection component of UDS may improve accuracy of pressure readings. Neurourol. Urodynam. 35:647-648, 2016. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  6. Stress, health and quality of life of female migrant domestic workers in Singapore: a cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anjara, S G; Nellums, L B; Bonetto, C; Van Bortel, T

    2017-10-10

    There is a global increase in migrant workers. In Singapore, there are over 230,000 migrant domestic workers (MDWs). Female MDWs may experience high levels of stress and social isolation, which may negatively impact on their health and quality of life. There have also been documented cases of abuse and exploitation. However, there is a lack of empirical research with this population. This study aimed to investigate factors impacting on the health and quality of life of female MDWs in Singapore, including socio-demographic and job related characteristics, stress, social isolation, and working management style. A cross-sectional survey was carried out with 182 female MDWs in Singapore. The survey examined health and quality of life (WHOQoL-Bréf), social connectedness (the Friendship Scale), and preferred and experienced working management style (the Theory X and Theory Y Questionnaire). Descriptive analyses were carried out in addition to ANOVA, t-tests, and chi-square tests, followed by a multivariate analysis using linear regression. Participants were found to have good overall quality of life and satisfaction with health. Age and working experience were found to be significantly (p life and three domains (psychological, social, and environmental health). Agreement between experienced and preferred working management style was also found to be associated with higher quality of life scores (with the exception of the social relationships domain). Though women reported relatively good overall quality of life, more than half of participants reported feeling stressed. In addition, nearly 20% of participants reported being isolated or very isolated. Stress was identified to be associated with isolation. In the multivariate analysis, stress was found to contribute to worse quality of life in all domains except social relationships, after adjusting for confounders. Social connectedness was positively associated with all domains of quality of life, and agreement of

  7. Early life stress is associated with anxiety, increased stress responsivity and preference for "comfort foods" in adult female rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Machado, Tania Diniz; Dalle Molle, Roberta; Laureano, Daniela Pereira; Portella, André Krumel; Werlang, Isabel Cristina Ribas; Benetti, Carla da Silva; Noschang, Cristie; Silveira, Patrícia Pelufo

    2013-09-01

    Chronic stress increases anxiety and encourages intake of palatable foods as "comfort foods". This effect seems to be mediated by altered function of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis. In the current study, litters of Wistar rats were subjected to limited access to nesting material (Early-Life Stress group - ELS) or standard care (Control group) from postnatal day 2 to 9. In adult life, anxiety was assessed using the novelty-suppressed feeding test (NSFT), and acute stress responsivity by measurement of plasma corticosterone and ACTH levels. Preference for palatable foods was monitored by a computerized system (BioDAQ, Research Diets(®)) in rats receiving only regular chow or given the choice of regular and palatable diet for 30 days. ELS-augmented adulthood anxiety in the NSFT (increased latency to eat in a new environment; decreased chow intake upon return to the home cage) and increased corticosterone (but not ACTH) secretion in response to stress. Despite being lighter and consuming less rat chow, ELS animals ate more palatable foods during chronic exposure compared with controls. During preference testing, controls receiving long-term access to palatable diet exhibited reduced preference for the diet relative to controls exposed to regular chow only, whereas ELS rats demonstrated no such reduction in preference after prolonged palatable diet exposure. The increased preference for palatable foods showed by ELS animals may result from a habit of using this type of food to ameliorate anxiety.

  8. Relationship between oxidative stress and circulating testosterone and cortisol in pre-spawning female brown trout

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoogenboom, Mia O.; Metcalfe, Neil B.; Groothuis, Ton G. G.; de Vries, Bonnie; Costantini, David

    2012-01-01

    Reproduction in vertebrates is an energy-demanding process that is mediated by endogenous hormones and potentially results in oxidative stress. The primary aim of this study was to quantify the relationship between oxidative stress parameters (antioxidant capacity and levels of reactive oxygen

  9. Effects of Mineralocorticoid Receptor Overexpression on Anxiety and Memory after Early Life Stress in Female Mice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kanatsou, Sofia; Ter Horst, Judith P; Harris, Anjanette P; Seckl, Jonathan R; Krugers, Harmen J; Joëls, Marian

    2016-01-01

    Early-life stress (ELS) is a risk factor for the development of psychopathology, particularly in women. Human studies have shown that certain haplotypes of NR3C2, encoding the mineralocorticoid receptor (MR), that result in gain of function, may protect against the consequences of stress exposure,

  10. Coping with Workplace Stress: A Multiple-Group Comparison of Female Managers and Clerical Workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Long, Bonita C.

    1998-01-01

    A causal model of workplace stress was refined and cross-validated. Multivariate analysis and multiple-group structural equation modeling were used to investigate the effects of social roles on patterns of coping with workplace stress and job satisfaction. Differences found between managers (n=249) and clerical workers (n=214) suggest power and…

  11. The Consequence of Combined Pain and Stress on Work Ability in Female Laboratory Technicians

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Kenneth Jay; Friborg, Maria Kristine; Sjøgaard, Gisela

    2015-01-01

    Musculoskeletal pain and stress-related disorders are leading causes of impaired work ability, sickness absences and disability pensions. However, knowledge about the combined detrimental effect of pain and stress on work ability is lacking. This study investigates the association between pain in...

  12. Effects of Mineralocorticoid Receptor Overexpression on Anxiety and Memory after Early Life Stress in Female Mice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kanatsou, S.; ter Horst, J.P.; Harris, A.P.; Seckl, J.R.; Krugers, H.J.; Joëls, M.

    2015-01-01

    Early-life stress (ELS) is a risk factor for the development of psychopathology, particularly in women. Human studies have shown that certain haplotypes of NR3C2, encoding the mineralocorticoid receptor (MR), that result in gain of function, may protect against the consequences of stress exposure,

  13. Chronic stress and social housing differentially affect neurogenesis in male and female rats

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Westenbroek, Christel; Boer, Johan A. den; Veenhuis, Maarten; Horst, Gert J. ter

    2004-01-01

    Stress plays an important role in the development of affective disorders. Women show a higher prevalence for these disorders than men. The course of a depression is thought to be positively influenced by social support. We have used a chronic stress model in which rats received foot-shocks daily for

  14. Implications of psychosocial stress on memory formation in a typical male versus female student sample.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cornelisse, S.; van Stegeren, A.H.; Joëls, M.

    2011-01-01

    Stress is known to differentially modulate memory function. Memory can be impaired or strengthened by stress, depending on e.g. the memory type and phase under study, the emotional value of the learned information and the sex of the subjects. Here, we addressed the latter and investigated the impact

  15. Effects of Stress and Nicotine on Cognitive Function in Male and Female Rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-05-20

    with caffeine to better model the human condition in military personnel. Another common stressor within military personnel is sleep deprivation . The...administration method in previous studies (3; 39; 43; 68; 105). 8 STRESS One definition of stress is the body’s response to a threat (91). This

  16. Optogenetic inhibition of dorsal medial prefrontal cortex attenuates stress-induced reinstatement of palatable food seeking in female rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calu, Donna J; Kawa, Alex B; Marchant, Nathan J; Navarre, Brittany M; Henderson, Mark J; Chen, Billy; Yau, Hau-Jie; Bossert, Jennifer M; Schoenbaum, Geoffrey; Deisseroth, Karl; Harvey, Brandon K; Hope, Bruce T; Shaham, Yavin

    2013-01-02

    Relapse to maladaptive eating habits during dieting is often provoked by stress. Recently, we identified a role of dorsal medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) neurons in stress-induced reinstatement of palatable food seeking in male rats. It is unknown whether endogenous neural activity in dorsal mPFC drives stress-induced reinstatement in female rats. Here, we used an optogenetic approach, in which female rats received bilateral dorsal mPFC microinjections of viral constructs coding light-sensitive eNpHR3.0-eYFP or control eYFP protein and intracranial fiber optic implants. Rats were food restricted and trained to lever press for palatable food pellets. Subsequently, pellets were removed, and lever pressing was extinguished; then the effect of bilateral dorsal mPFC light delivery on reinstatement of food seeking was assessed after injections of the pharmacological stressor yohimbine (an α-2 andrenoceptor antagonist) or pellet priming, a manipulation known to provoke food seeking in hungry rats. Dorsal mPFC light delivery attenuated yohimbine-induced reinstatement of food seeking in eNpHR3.0-injected but not eYFP-injected rats. This optical manipulation had no effect on pellet-priming-induced reinstatement or ongoing food-reinforced responding. Dorsal mPFC light delivery attenuated yohimbine-induced Fos immunoreactivity and disrupted neural activity during in vivo electrophysiological recording in awake rats. Optical stimulation caused significant outward currents and blocked electrically evoked action potentials in eNpHR3.0-injected but not eYFP-injected mPFC hemispheres. Light delivery alone caused no significant inflammatory response in mPFC. These findings indicate that intracranial light delivery in eNpHR3.0 rats disrupts endogenous dorsal mPFC neural activity that plays a role in stress-induced relapse to food seeking in female rats.

  17. [The 4-stage continence-micturition cycle. The presentation of a urodynamic, diagnostic and therapeutic abacus].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lardennois, B; Clément, T; Coulon, J M; Brandt, B

    1990-01-01

    The complexity of the mode of operation of the bladder and urinary sphincter has led to the development of a number of temporospatial physiologic models that divide the process of micturition into several stages in order to facilitate investigations. Ten years ago, the authors described a two-stage continence-micturition model intended to improve the accuracy of studies of urodynamic disorders and thus contribute to the development of more effective and more rational therapeutic solutions. A large number of diseases can affect the distal urinary tract and recent advances in neurophysiology [10] have made the selection of the appropriate therapy extremely complex. Consequently, the authors have developed a decision analysis system that simultaneously confronts diseases, urodynamic manifestations, risks for the patient, and the main therapeutic approaches available. In 1985, they increased the number of stages in their continence-micturition model from two the four. This four-stage model has provided satisfactory result when used with an abacus for modeling observed biologic phenomena. In addition to offering simulation exercises for teaching purposes, this abacus provides the means for studying the instantaneous urodynamic situation (correspondences between cycle time points, symptoms, and effects of treatments) and determining the effect of various medicosocial events on the course of the bladder and sphincter dysfunction. The authors hope this abacus will be an attractive aide to the understanding of the complex function of the distal urinary tract.

  18. The behavioral and molecular evaluation of effects of social instability stress as a model of stress-related disorders in adult female rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nowacka-Chmielewska, Marta Maria; Kasprowska-Liśkiewicz, Daniela; Barski, Jarosław Jerzy; Obuchowicz, Ewa; Małecki, Andrzej

    2017-11-01

    The study aimed to test the hypotheses that chronic social instability stress (CSIS) alters behavioral and physiological parameters and expression of selected genes important for stress response and social behaviors. Adult female Sprague-Dawley rats were subjected to the 4-week CSIS procedure, which involves unpredictable rotation between phases of isolation and overcrowding. Behavioral analyses (Experiment 1) were performed on the same rats before and after CSIS (n = 16) and physiological and biochemical measurements (Experiment 2) were made on further control (CON; n = 7) and stressed groups (CSIS; n = 8). Behaviors in the open field test (locomotor and exploratory activities) and elevated-plus maze (anxiety-related behaviors) indicated anxiety after CSIS. CSIS did not alter the physiological parameters measured, i.e. body weight gain, regularity of estrous cycles, and circulating concentrations of stress hormones and sex steroids. QRT-PCR analysis of mRNA expression levels was performed on amygdala, hippocampus, prefrontal cortex (PFC), and hypothalamus. The main finding is that CSIS alters the mRNA levels for the studied genes in a region-specific manner. Hence, expression of POMC (pro-opiomelanocortin), AVPR1a (arginine vasopressin receptor), and OXTR (oxytocin receptor) significantly increased in the amygdala following CSIS, while in PFC and/or hypothalamus, POMC, AVPR1a, AVPR1b, OXTR, and ERβ (estrogen receptor beta) expression decreased. CSIS significantly reduced expression of CRH-R1 (corticotropin-releasing hormone receptor type 1) in the hippocampus. The directions of change in gene expression and the genes and regions affected indicate a molecular basis for the behavior changes. In conclusion, CSIS may be valuable for further analyzing the neurobiology of stress-related disorders in females.

  19. Trauma exposure, posttraumatic stress, and comorbidities in female adolescent offenders: findings and implications from recent studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David W. Foy

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: While males constitute the majority, female adolescent offenders are a sizeable minority of the overall delinquent population. Further, those females who become involved in delinquent activities appear to be doing so at a younger age, and they are involved in a wide range of criminal activities, including violent offenses. Objective: The goal of this article is to consolidate an empirical base for our current knowledge about female juvenile offenders’ trauma-related mental health and rehabilitation issues. Method: We searched for studies using PILOTS, PsycLIT, PsycINFO, and EBSCOhost electronic databases. Results: Accordingly, we present a review of findings from 33 recent studies showing consistently high rates of trauma exposure, PTSD, and common comorbidities among female adolescent offenders. We also examined recent literature on risk and protective factors for female delinquency, as well as treatments for offenders, and found that there was some early representation of trauma and PTSD as important variables to be considered in etiology and treatment. Conclusion: Future plans for addressing the mental health needs of female offenders should be better informed by these recent findings about widespread trauma exposure and related psychological consequences.

  20. Trauma exposure, posttraumatic stress, and comorbidities in female adolescent offenders: findings and implications from recent studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foy, David W; Ritchie, Iya K; Conway, Alison H

    2012-01-01

    While males constitute the majority, female adolescent offenders are a sizeable minority of the overall delinquent population. Further, those females who become involved in delinquent activities appear to be doing so at a younger age, and they are involved in a wide range of criminal activities, including violent offenses. The goal of this article is to consolidate an empirical base for our current knowledge about female juvenile offenders' trauma-related mental health and rehabilitation issues. We searched for studies using PILOTS, PsycLIT, PsycINFO, and EBSCOhost electronic databases. Accordingly, we present a review of findings from 33 recent studies showing consistently high rates of trauma exposure, PTSD, and common comorbidities among female adolescent offenders. We also examined recent literature on risk and protective factors for female delinquency, as well as treatments for offenders, and found that there was some early representation of trauma and PTSD as important variables to be considered in etiology and treatment. Future plans for addressing the mental health needs of female offenders should be better informed by these recent findings about widespread trauma exposure and related psychological consequences.

  1. Influence of pudendal nerve blockade on stress relaxation in the female urethra

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thind, P; Bagi, P; Mieszczak, C

    1996-01-01

    The urethral pressure decay following a sudden and sustained dilatation corresponds to stress relaxation. Urethral stress relaxation can be described by the equation Pt = Pequ + P alpha e-t/tau alpha + P beta e-t/tau beta, where Pt is the pressure at time t, Pequ is the equilibrium pressure after...... or the connective tissue components. The method may prove useful in the further evaluation of the closure function of the urethra with special reference to the pathophysiology of stress urinary incontinence....

  2. Symptoms of Posttraumatic Stress Disorder After Ritual Female Genital Surgery Among Bedouin in Israel: Myth or Reality?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Applebaum, Julia; Cohen, Hagit; Matar, Michael; Abu Rabia, Yones; Kaplan, Zeev

    2008-01-01

    Objective: Ritual female genital surgery (RFGS), or female circumcision, is common among certain ethnic groups in Asia and Africa and describes a range of practices involving complete or partial removal of the female external genitalia for nonmedical reasons. Several studies in African populations, in which more severe forms of RFGS are performed, reported an increased prevalence of posttraumatic stress disorder and other psychiatric syndromes among circumcised women than among uncircumcised controls. Among the Bedouin population in southern Israel, RFGS has become a symbolic operation without major mutilation. However, in a study performed in 1999, Bedouin women after RFGS reported difficulties in mother-daughter relationships and trust. This pilot study assessed the mental health of Bedouin women from southern Israel after RFGS compared to age-matched controls without RFGS. Method: The psychological impact of RFGS was assessed in 19 circumcised Bedouin women compared to 18 age-matched controls. The Post Traumatic Stress Disorder Scale, Symptom Checklist, Impact of Event Scale, and a demographics and background questionnaire were used to assess traumatization and psychiatric illnesses. The study was conducted from March to July 2007. Results: No statistically significant differences were found between the 2 groups. Conclusions: The prevailing procedure of RFGS among the Bedouin population of southern Israel had no apparent effect on mental health. PMID:19287554

  3. Spatial learning of female mice: a role of the mineralocorticoid receptor during stress and the estrous cycle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Judith P Ter Horst

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Corticosterone facilitates behavioral adaptation to a novel experience in a coordinate manner via mineralocorticoid (MR and glucocorticoid receptors (GR. Initially, MR mediates corticosterone action on appraisal processes, risk assessment and behavioral flexibility and then, GR activation promotes consolidation of the new information into memory. Here, we studied on the circular holeboard (CHB the spatial performance of female mice with genetic deletion of MR from the forebrain (MRCaMKCre and their wild type littermates (MRflox/flox mice over the estrous cycle and in response to an acute stressor. The estrous cycle had no effect on the spatial performance of MRflox/flox mice and neither did the acute stressor. However, the MRCaMKCre mutants needed significantly more time to find the exit and made more hole visit errors than the MRflox/flox mice, especially when in proestrus and estrus. In addition, stressed MRCaMKCre mice in estrus had a shorter exit latency than the control estrus MRCaMKCre mice. About 70% of the female MRCaMKCre and MRflox/flox mice used a hippocampal (spatial, extra maze cues rather than the caudate nucleus (stimulate-response, S-R, intra-maze cue strategy and this preference did neither change over the estrous cycle nor after stress. However, stressed MRCaMKCre mice using the S-R strategy needed significantly more time to find the exit hole as compared to the spatial strategy using mice suggesting that the MR could be needed for the stress-induced strategy switch towards a spatial strategy. In conclusion, the results suggest that loss of MR interferes with performance of a spatial task especially when estrogen levels are high suggesting a strong interaction between stress and sex hormones.

  4. Use of Pulsing Electromagnetic Fields for the Treatment of Pelvic Stress Fractures Among Female Soldiers

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Jones, D

    1995-01-01

    .... Pulsing electromagnetic fields (PEMFs)have been shown to speed the healing of non-union fractures and we have used them successfully to treat stress fractures in the lower limbs. All women at Ft...

  5. Late urodynamic findings after treating traumatic rupture of the posterior urethra in boys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Otgün, Ibrahim; Karnak, Ibrahim; Senocak, Mehmet Emin; Tanyel, Feridun Cahit; Ciftci, Arbay Ozden; Büyükpamukçu, Nebil

    2006-02-01

    To investigate lower urinary tract (LUT) functions in a prospective study in boys treated for posterior urethral distraction (PUD), as posterior urethral stricture, erectile dysfunction and incontinence can occur after various treatments for this rare injury in children. Eleven boys were treated for PUD and resultant stricture between 1980 and 2000. Their age, the cause of trauma, extent of injury, previous treatment, and continence status were evaluated, and a urodynamic study conducted. Controls were 12 age-matched males who underwent similar cystometrography (CMG) and uroflowmetry. The mean (SD) age at injury was 8 (4) years and the cause was traffic accident in nine and crush injury in two boys. Seven boys had an isolated urethral rupture, two also had a bladder neck injury and two also had a perforated bladder. No gross neurological impairment developed after trauma. Voiding cysto-urethrograms after initial therapy showed vesico-ureteric reflux in five boys, but in only one at the time of the urodynamic studies. At the time of urodynamic study, the mean (SD) age of the patients was 15 (6) years; seven were fully continent, one had intermittent leakage, two were incontinent, and one had nocturnal enuresis. CMG-electromyography (EMG) showed a reduced maximum cystometric capacity in nine patients, reduced compliance in 10, stable detrusor in 11, synergic detrusor-sphincter activity in 11, and residual urine in one. The uroflowmetry-EMG study showed prolonged voiding time and flow time, decreased maximum flow urinary rate (Q(max)) and mean flow rate (Q(avg)). The shape of the flow curve showed an uninterrupted low-amplitude pattern. Comparing these patients with age-matched controls, CMG and uroflowmetry studies showed that the maximum cystometric bladder capacity, compliance, Q(max) and Q(avg) were all significantly lower in patients with PUD, while voiding time and flow time were significantly higher. The LUT deteriorates after treating PUD in boys. CMG and

  6. Stress during adolescence increases novelty seeking and risk taking behavior in male and female rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria eToledo

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Adolescence is a period of major physical, hormonal and psychological change. It is also characterized by a significant increase in the incidence of psychopathologies and this increase is gender-specific. Likewise, stress during adolescence is associated with the development of psychiatric disorders later in life. Previously, using a rat model of psychogenic stress (exposure to predator odor followed by placement on an elevated platform during the pre-pubertal period (postnatal days 28-30, we reported sex-specific effects on auditory and contextual fear conditioning. Here, we study the short-term impact of psychogenic stress before and during puberty (postnatal days 28-42 on behavior (novelty seeking, risk taking, anxiety and depression and hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenocortical (HPA axis activation during late adolescence (postnatal days 45-51. Peri-pubertal stress decreased anxiety-like behavior and increased risk taking and novelty seeking behaviors during late adolescence (measured with the elevated plus maze, open field and exposure to novel object tests and intake of chocopop pellets before or immediate after stress. Finally neither depressive-like behavior (measured at the forced swim test nor HPA response to stress (blood corticosterone and glucose were affected by peri-pubertal stress. Nevertheless, when controlling for the basal anxiety of the mothers, animals exposed to peri-pubertal stress showed a significant decrease in corticosterone levels immediate after an acute stressor. The results from this study suggest that exposure to mild stressors during the peri-pubertal period induces a broad spectrum of behavioral changes in late adolescence, which may exacerbate the independence-building behaviors naturally happening during this transitional period (increase in curiosity, sensation-seeking and risk taking behaviors.

  7. Adolescence and the ontogeny of the hormonal stress response in male and female rats and mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romeo, Russell D; Patel, Ravenna; Pham, Laurie; So, Veronica M

    2016-11-01

    Adolescent development is marked by many changes in neuroendocrine function, resulting in both immediate and long-term influences on an individual's physiology and behavior. Stress-induced hormonal responses are one such change, with adolescent animals often showing different patterns of hormonal reactivity following a stressor compared with adults. This review will describe the unique ways in which adolescent animals respond to a variety of stressors and how these adolescent-related changes in hormonal responsiveness can be further modified by the sex and previous experience of the individual. Potential central and peripheral mechanisms that contribute to these developmental shifts in stress reactivity are also discussed. Finally, the short- and long-term programming effects of chronic stress exposure during adolescence on later adult hormonal responsiveness are also examined. Though far from a clear understanding of the neurobehavioral consequences of these adolescent-related shifts in stress reactivity, continued study of developmental changes in stress-induced hormonal responses may shed light on the increased vulnerability to physical and psychological dysfunctions that often accompany a stressful adolescence. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Recent research on the role of urodynamic study in the diagnosis and treatment of male lower urinary tract symptoms and urinary incontinence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Yuan-Hong; Kuo, Hann-Chorng

    2017-01-01

    Although evidence shows that urodynamic study may not improve outcomes, it can be used to evaluate men with lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTSs) which have not been adequately delineated and treated. In young men with LUTS not responding to treatment based on clinical examination, or elderly men with LUTS and incontinence, a complete urodynamic evaluation is mandatory to understand the pathophysiology underlying LUTS, such as bladder outlet obstruction (BOO), detrusor overactivity, and detrusor underactivity. Preoperative urodynamic study-proven BOO is a predictor of a successful surgical outcome. An urodynamic study should be performed when patients with LUTS are planning to undergo surgical treatment for benign prostatic obstruction.

  9. Muscle oxygenation and glycolysis in females with trapezius myalgia during stress and repetitive work using microdialysis and NIRS

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sjøgaard, Gisela; Rosendal, Lars; Kristiansen, Jesper

    2010-01-01

    ) metabolite accumulation, (4) oxygenation, and (5) pain development. Among 812 female employees (age 30-60 years) at 7 companies with high prevalence of neck/shoulder complaints, clinical examination identified 43 MYA and 19 CON. At rest, during PEG, and STR the trapezius muscle was measured using (1) EMG......The aim of this investigation was to study female workers active in the labour market for differences between those with trapezius myalgia (MYA) and without (CON) during repetitive pegboard (PEG) and stress (STR) tasks regarding (1) relative muscle load, (2) trapezius muscle blood flow, (3...... and MMG, (2) microdialysis, and (3) NIRS. Further, subjective pain ratings were scored (VAS). EMGrms in %MVE (Maximal Voluntary EMG-activity), was significantly higher among MYA than CON during PEG (11.74 +/- 9.09 vs. 7.42 +/- 5.56%MVE) and STR (5.47 +/- 5.00 vs. 3.28 +/- 1.94%MVE). MANOVA showed a group...

  10. Complex regional pain syndrome in an 8-year-old female with emotional stress during deployment of a family member.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pearson, Ryan D; Bailey, Justin

    2011-08-01

    This pediatric case of complex regional pain syndrome (CRPS) illustrates the need to expand the typical age range and raise awareness of the psychological impact military deployment may have on its development. An emotional 8-year-old female, with a recently deployed father, presented with left foot pain. Over an 11-week-period, she developed symptoms, signs, and radiologic findings consistent with CRPS. Pediatric CRPS is characterized by ecchymosis, edema, allodynia, mottling, and abnormal hair growth in the region of pain after minor trauma. It occurs predominately in adolescent females, mainly affects the lower limbs, and is associated with psychological stressors. This patient with CRPS presents several years younger than what is commonly described in the literature in the stressful setting of a deployed parent. CRPS can occur in younger than expected age ranges of children who experience the unique emotional stressor of a deployed family member.

  11. Predictive factors that influence treatment outcomes of innovative single incision sling: comparing TVT-Secur to an established transobturator sling for female stress urinary incontinence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hwang, Eugene; Shin, Ju Hyun; Lim, Jae Sung; Song, Ki Hak; Sul, Chong Koo; Na, Yong Gil

    2012-07-01

    This study aims to identify independent risk factors for treatment failure of tension-free vaginal tape TVT-Secur (TVT-S) compared to that of the well-established transobturator tape. Of a total of 175 consecutive patients with urodynamically confirmed stress urinary incontinence (SUI) identified between July 2007 and March 2010, 89 patients underwent TVT-S, and 86 underwent TOT. Cure was defined using the Urogenital Distress Inventory as no urinary leakage during physical activity, coughing, or sneezing as reported by patients during a telephone survey. To identify predictors of treatment failure, multivariable logistic regression models were used, and odds ratios (ORs) were calculated using variables identified during univariate analysis. There were more patients with cystocele ≥ grade 2 in the TVT-S group (p = 0.031); otherwise the groups were well matched. After a median follow-up of 32 months (range, 12-44 months), the overall cure rate was 80.6%; it was 70.8% for those treated with TVT-S and 90.7% for those treated with TOT (p = 0.001). In a multivariate model, previous incontinence surgery (OR 27.1, p = 0.005) and a cystocele ≥ grade 2 (OR 3.0, p = 0.020) were independent risk factors influencing the outcome of TVT-S procedures. For the TOT procedures, detrusor overactivity was an independent risk factor in a multivariate model (OR 8.6, p = 0.033). TVT-S could be performed for selected patients, but conventional TOT procedures are still superior to the novel TVT-S device.

  12. The sexual preference of female rats is influenced by males' adolescent social stress history and social status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCormick, Cheryl M; Cameron, Nicole M; Thompson, Madison A; Cumming, Mark J; Hodges, Travis E; Langett, Marissa

    2017-03-01

    Ongoing development of brain systems for social behaviour renders these systems susceptible to the influence of stressors in adolescence. We previously found that adult male rats that underwent social instability stress (SS) in mid-adolescence had decreased sexual performance compared with control males (CTL). Here, we test the hypotheses that SS in adolescence decreases the "attractiveness" of male rats as sexual partners compared with CTL rats and that dominance status is a protective factor against the effects of SS. The main prediction was that females would spend more time with CTL males than SS males, and that this bias would be greater for submissive than for dominant rats. Among dominant pairs (n=16), females preferred SS males, spending more time with and visiting more often SS than CTL males (each pair tested 5×), and SS males had shorter latencies to ejaculation, shorter inter-ejaculation intervals, and made more ejaculations compared with CTL males. Among submissive pairs (n=16), females spent more time with, visited more often, and displayed more paracopulatory behaviour with CTL than with SS males, and differences in sexual performance between SS and CTL males were modest and in the opposite direction from that in dominant pairs. The heightened motivation of SS males relative to CTL males for natural rewards may have attenuated differences in sexual performance in a paced mating context. In sum, the experience of stress in adolescence leads to long-lasting changes in males that are perceptible to females, are moderated by social status, and influence sexual behaviour. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Acute Stress Eliminates Female Advantage in Detection of Ambiguous Negative Affect

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel J. DeDora

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available The human stress response evolved to maximize an individual's probability of survival when threatened. The present study addressed whether physical danger modulates perception of an unrelated ambiguous threat and, if so, to what extent this response is sex-specific. The authors utilized a first-time tandem skydive as a stressor, which had been previously validated as producing a highly-controlled, genuinely stressful environment. In a counter-balanced within-subjects design, participants wore a virtual reality helmet to complete an emotion-identification task during the plane's ascent (stress condition and in the laboratory (control condition. Participants were presented static male faces morphed between 20–80% aggression, which gradually emerged from degraded images. Using a binary forced-choice design, participants identified each ambiguous face as aggressive or neutral. Results showed that participants characterized emotion more rapidly under stress versus control conditions. Unexpectedly, the results also show that while women were more sensitive to affect ambiguity than men under control conditions, they exhibited a marked decrease in sensitivity equivalent to men while under stress.

  14. [Mass sports improves proprioception and reduces valgus stress on the female knee joint].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lippross, S; Prange, G; Oehlert, K; Katharina, O; Furkmann, O; Seekamp, A; Hassenpflug, J; Varoga, D

    2010-03-01

    ACL rupture is more common in females than in males. The injury can result in chondral and meniscal damage or chronic instability. Most often ACL rupture occurs during landing after throwing and jumping in ball sports. Many studies have reported on incidence, mechanism of injury and predisposing factors in professional athletes. In contrast, we have investigated the impact of mass sports on predisposing factors for the female ACL rupture. In an empirical analytical study leg-axis dynamics, proprioception and foot load of 44 women participating either in regular mass sports or in no sports were investigated by video analysis and on the Biodex-Stability Platform. Our study demonstrates that mass sports improves proprioception of the knee joint. Non-sportive subjects had an increased valgus leg axis during landing in comparison with mass sport participants. Here, we show to the best of our knowledge for the first time that moderate sports activity has a positive effect on predisposing factors of the female ACL rupture. We conclude that prevention programmes focussed on jumping and proprioception can lower the incidence of female ACL ruptures.

  15. Early Adversity, Elevated Stress Physiology, Accelerated Sexual Maturation, and Poor Health in Females

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belsky, Jay; Ruttle, Paula L.; Boyce, W. Thomas; Armstrong, Jeffrey M.; Essex, Marilyn J.

    2015-01-01

    Evolutionary-minded developmentalists studying predictive-adaptive-response processes linking childhood adversity with accelerated female reproductive development and health scientists investigating the developmental origins of health and disease (DOoHaD) may be tapping the same process, whereby longer-term health costs are traded off for…

  16. Exposure to social defeat stress in adolescence improves the working memory and anxiety-like behavior of adult female rats with intrauterine growth restriction, independently of hippocampal neurogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furuta, Miyako; Ninomiya-Baba, Midori; Chiba, Shuichi; Funabashi, Toshiya; Akema, Tatsuo; Kunugi, Hiroshi

    2015-04-01

    Intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR) is a risk factor for memory impairment and emotional disturbance during growth and adulthood. However, this risk might be modulated by environmental factors during development. Here we examined whether exposing adolescent male and female rats with thromboxane A2-induced IUGR to social defeat stress (SDS) affected their working memory and anxiety-like behavior in adulthood. We also used BrdU staining to investigate hippocampal cellular proliferation and BrdU and NeuN double staining to investigate neural differentiation in female IUGR rats. In the absence of adolescent stress, IUGR female rats, but not male rats, scored significantly lower in the T-maze test of working memory and exhibited higher anxiety-like behavior in the elevated-plus maze test compared with controls. Adolescent exposure to SDS abolished these behavioral impairments in IUGR females. In the absence of adolescent stress, hippocampal cellular proliferation was significantly higher in IUGR females than in non-IUGR female controls and was not influenced by adolescent exposure to SDS. Hippocampal neural differentiation was equivalent in non-stressed control and IUGR females. Neural differentiation was significantly increased by adolescent exposure to SDS in controls but not in IUGR females. There was no significant difference in the serum corticosterone concentrations between non-stressed control and IUGR females; however, adolescent exposure to SDS significantly increased serum corticosterone concentration in control females but not in IUGR females. These results demonstrate that adolescent exposure to SDS improves behavioral impairment independent of hippocampal neurogenesis in adult rats with IUGR. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Endocrine and cognitive adaptations to cope with stress in immature male and female common marmosets (Callithrix jacchus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Bernardete Cordeiro de Sousa

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Phenotypic sex differences in primates are associated with body differentiation during the early stages of life, expressed in both physiological and behavioral features. Hormones seem to play a pivotal role in creating a range of responses to meet environmental and social demands, resulting in better reactions to cope with challenges to survival and reproduction. Our studies on brain plasticity combine hormonal and behavioral approaches to investigate stress-coping mechanisms in nonhuman primates. Steroid hormones actively participate in neuroplasticity and steroids from both gonads and neurons seem to be involved in behavioral modulation in primates. Indirect evidence suggests the participation of sexual steroids in dimorphism of the stress response in common marmosets. This is an important experimental model in Psychiatry, since we found a dual profile for cortisol in the transition from infancy to puberty, with females showing higher levels that extend to adulthood. Immature males and females at 6, 9 and 12 months of age moved alone from the family group to a new cage, over a 21-day period, expressed distinct patterns of cortisol variation, depending on age, but similar in terms of range of variation between sexes. Additional evidence showed that during juvenile to sub-adult transition males buffered the HPA axis during chronic stress. However, animals under both acute and chronic stress performed poorly on spatial cognitive tests and evidence from the literature that they respond better to social tasks indicates that new approaches are necessary to take advantage of this experimental model. These findings increase the potential of also using this experimental model during development, such as in adolescence, and strengthen the importance of sex as a part of experimental protocols that study neuropsychiatric illnesses such as anxiety and mood disorders as well as associated therapeutics.

  18. Intercorrelation between immunological biomarkers and job stress indicators among female nurses: A nine-month longitudinal study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hyung-Suk eYoon

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Some immunological biomarkers have been reported to be associated with job stress. This study was conducted to explore an intercorrelation between the psychological components of job stress and various immunological biomarkers among female nurses. To assess monthly and weekly job stress, 41 nurses had repeatedly completed the questionnaires such as the GJSQ, the POMS and the CES-D. Using flow cytometry and radioimmunoassay, the number of white blood cells, lymphocytic proliferation to mitogens, and toxoid were measured. Moreover, the levels of hydrocortisol, IL-b, INF-r, and TNF-a and salivary IgA were eveluated by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. When the Pearson correlation coefficients between job stress and immunological biomarkers were estimated after adjusting for age and smoking status, Clashes: conflict at work was significantly related to the number of CD4 cells (r = 0.36, p-value < 0.05, CD4 to CD8 ratio (0.35; < 0.05, response to concanavalin A (0.42; < 0.05, and phytohemagglutinin (0.35; < 0.05. Additionally, the level of hydrocortisol was significantly related to seven psychosocial measures; i.e., role conflict (-0.47; < 0.01, role ambiguity (-0.39; < 0.05, clashes at work (-0.38; < 0.05, control & influence at work (0.53; < 0.01, task control (0.55; < 0.001, resources at work (0.35; < 0.05, and skill underutilization (0.43; < 0.05. The results indicate that 1 the psychological job stress is associated with the levels of some immunological biomarkers in nurses; and 2 especially, hydrocortisol shows a remarkable relationship with diverse job stress indicators.

  19. Conservative Management of a Femoral Neck Stress Fracture in a Female Athlete. A Case Report and Review of the Literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katsougrakis, Ilias; Apostolopoulos, Alexandros P; Tross, Samantha Z

    2016-01-01

    Femoral-neck stress fractures are relatively rare and may present as sports-related injuries. The presentation is variable, and prompt diagnosis facilitates the earliest return to pre-morbid functional activity levels. Delayed detection may precipitate femoral non-union or avascular necrosis, resulting in long-term functional deficit. We describe the clinical, diagnostic and therapeutic approach of a femoral-neck stress fracture that occurred in a 28-year-old female recreational runner. The pathophysiology and practical management issues related to this unusual injury pattern are discussed. The growing interest in amateur athletic activities should raise the index of suspicion for stress fractures of the femoral neck in healthy adults with atypical hip pain. In-creased levels of patient education and physician awareness can reduce the incidence of long-term morbidity in cases of this unusual sports-related injury. Moreover, measures to avoid stress fractures of the femoral neck should include proper nutrition, suitable training techniques, training intensity and appropriate foot wear. Close follow-up of athletes with a history of deep groin pain during exercise might, together with swift examination by magnetic resonance imaging or radionuclide scanning, be essential in preventing displacement of fractures and possible avascular necrosis of the femoral head as a consequence.

  20. Vacuum-cleaner noise and acute stress responses in female C57BL/6 mice (Mus musculus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jensen, Kelly; Hahn, Nina E; Palme, Rupert; Saxton, Katherine; Francis, Darlene D

    2010-05-01

    Audiogenic stress is a well-documented phenomenon in laboratory rodents. Despite the recommendation in the Guide for the Care and Use of Laboratory Animals to consider noise a concern in the animal facility, only a small body of literature empirically addresses the effects of facility noise on laboratory rodents, particularly mice. The objective of this study was to determine whether facility noise generated by a vacuum cleaner induces an acute stress response in a commonly used strain of laboratory mouse under common housing conditions. In each of 2 experiments, 10 young adult, female C57BL/6Cr mice were exposed for 1 h to noise produced by a vacuum cleaner, and 10 control mice were not. In the first experiment, fecal samples were collected to measure concentrations of fecal corticosterone metabolites just before and 2, 4, 6, 8, 10, 14, 24, and 32 h after noise exposure. In the second experiment, stress-sensitive behavioral tests were performed 2 d before, immediately after, and 24 h after noise exposure. Physiologic and behavioral measurements indicated that vacuum cleaner noise did not cause an acute stress response in the noise-exposed mice but may have affected the diurnal variation of their corticosterone levels. These findings could contribute to the development of best practices in noise-control protocols for animal facilities.

  1. Influence of pudendal nerve blockade on stress relaxation in the female urethra

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thind, P; Bagi, P; Mieszczak, C

    1996-01-01

    dilatation, P alpha and P beta are pressure decay, and tau alpha and tau beta are time constants. The time constants have previously proved independent of the way the dilatation is performed. The urethral stress relaxation obtained in 10 healthy women before and after pudendal nerve blockade was analysed...... by the mathematical model and the pressure parameters and time constants determined. The fast time constant, tau beta, was reduced by the nerve blockade, whereas tau alpha was unaffected, however, both P alpha and P beta were reduced. No single stress relaxation parameter can therefore be related to the muscle...

  2. Stressful Life Events and the Tripartite Model: Relations to Anxiety and Depression in Adolescent Females

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fox, Jeremy K.; Halpern, Leslie F.; Ryan, Julie L.; Lowe, Kelly A.

    2010-01-01

    Although the tripartite model reliably distinguishes anxiety and depression in adolescents, it remains unclear how negative affectivity (NA) and positive affectivity (PA) influence developmental pathways to internalizing problems. Based on models which propose that affectivity shapes how youth react to stress, the present study attempted to…

  3. Early-life stress diminishes the increase in neurogenesis after exercise in adult female mice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Abbink, M.R.; Naninck, E.F.G.; Lucassen, P.J.; Korosi, A.

    Exposure to early-life stress (ES) has long-lasting consequences for later cognition and hippocampal plasticity, including adult hippocampal neurogenesis (AHN), i.e., the generation of new neurons from stem/progenitor cells in the adult hippocampal dentate gyrus. We had previously demonstrated a

  4. Early life stress shapes female reproductive strategy through eggshell pigmentation in Japanese quail

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Duval, C.; Zimmer, C.; Mikšík, Ivan; Cassey, P.; Spencer, K.A.

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 208, Nov 1 (2014), s. 146-153 ISSN 0016-6480 Institutional support: RVO:67985823 Keywords : breeding conditions * early-life stress * eggshell pigmentation * Japanese quail Subject RIV: ED - Physiology Impact factor: 2.470, year: 2014

  5. Trauma-Informed Mindfulness-Based Stress Reduction for Female Survivors of Interpersonal Violence: Results From a Stage I RCT.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, Amber; Garland, Eric L

    2016-04-01

    This pilot randomized controlled trial evaluated a novel trauma-informed model of mindfulness-based stress reduction (TI-MBSR) as a phase I trauma intervention for female survivors of interpersonal violence (IPV). A community-based sample of women (mean age = 41.5, standard deviation = 14.6) with a history of IPV was randomly assigned to an 8-week TI-MBSR intervention (n = 23) or a waitlist control group (n = 22). Symptoms of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and depression as well as anxious and avoidant attachment were assessed pre- and postintervention. Relative to the control group, participation in TI-MBSR was associated with statistically and clinically significant decreases in PTSD and depressive symptoms and significant reductions in anxious attachment. Retention in the intervention was high, with most participants completing at least 5 of the 8 sessions for the intervention. Minutes of mindfulness practice per week significantly predicted reductions in PTSD symptoms. TI-MBSR appears to be a promising and feasible phase I intervention for female survivors of interpersonal trauma. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  6. Investigating the Relationship between Job Stress and its Coping Strategies with Marital and Job Satisfaction among Female Employees of Islamic Azad University, Kazeroon Branch

    OpenAIRE

    MOTAHARI, Seyedeh Soraya; AIBAGHI ESFAHANI, Saeed

    2015-01-01

    Abstract. This study investigated the relationship between job stress and marital satisfaction of women in Islamic Azad University, Kazeroon Brach. Two job stress questionnaires of Philip L. Rice (1992) and marital satisfaction questionnaire of Enrich (1997) were completed and examined by female employees of the Islamic Azad University, Kazeroon Brach, who were selected randomly. The results showed that women have job stress. The results showed that there is a negative correlation coefficient...

  7. Transobturator tapes are preferable over transvaginal tapes for the management of female stress urinary incontinence: Against

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arun Chawla

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Midurethral placement of tension-free vaginal tapes with a transvaginal route for stress urinary incontinence achieves higher and better long-term success rates than the transobturator route. Bladder perforations are reported more in transvaginal tape (TVT but incidences of vaginal erosions, extrusion, and groin pain are exceedingly more in TOT groups. There is no clear evidence that transobturator tape (TOT is associated with less post-operative voiding problems than TVT. Major complications such as bowel injuries and significant vascular injuries with TVT are rare. TVT has been found to be superior to TOT and preferable in technically demanding conditions such as prior anti-incontinence operation failures, obese women, and very elevated and scarred lateral cul-de sac. TVT is always preferred in severe grades of stress urinary incontinence and with patients of intrinsic sphincter deficiency (ISD with little or no urethral mobility.

  8. Long-term follow-up after urethral injection with polyacrylamide hydrogel for female stress incontinence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mouritsen, Lone; Lose, Gunnar; Møller-Bek, Karl

    2014-01-01

    Urethral injection therapy for treatment of stress urinary incontinence has been in use for years, but only a few long-term follow-up studies have been published. Twenty-five women, injected with polyacrylamide hydrogel 8 years earlier, were invited for follow-up. Twenty-four could be contacted; 15...... had had no further treatment, seven had been re-operated with placement of mid-urethral slings, and two had been re-injected with polyacrylamide hydrogel. Eleven women attended for objective examination; all non-attenders were interviewed by telephone. Subjectively, in 44% the stress incontinence...... was cured or much improved, with a positive outcome according to the King's Health Questionnaire. Objectively, all patients had visible polyacrylamide hydrogel deposits on vaginal ultrasonography. No local adverse reactions were seen in the vaginal mucosa. The results of a later mid-urethral sling were...

  9. The treatment of female stress urinary incontinence: an evidenced-based review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cameron, Anne P; Haraway, Allen McNeil

    2011-06-17

    To review the literature on the surgical and nonsurgical treatment options for stress urinary incontinence in women, focusing exclusively on randomized clinical trials and high quality meta-analyses. A computer-aided and manual search for published randomized controlled trials and high quality meta-analyses investigating both conservative and surgical treatment options for stress urinary incontinence. In the case of a treatment that is not studied in these formats large case series have been used. Articles were reviewed and the results summarized on pelvic floor physical therapy, pharmacotherapy, bulking agents, and surgery (open and minimally invasive). There are numerous high quality studies in the literature. It can be difficult to make definitive conclusions on the most appropriate treatment options due to the variability in the outcomes used to define success in these articles. There is also a dire lack of studies evaluating and comparing the surgical options for patients with intrinsic sphincter deficiency.

  10. The treatment of female stress urinary incontinence: an evidenced-based review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cameron, Anne P; Haraway, Allen McNeil

    2011-01-01

    Objective To review the literature on the surgical and nonsurgical treatment options for stress urinary incontinence in women, focusing exclusively on randomized clinical trials and high quality meta-analyses. Materials and methods A computer-aided and manual search for published randomized controlled trials and high quality meta-analyses investigating both conservative and surgical treatment options for stress urinary incontinence. In the case of a treatment that is not studied in these formats large case series have been used. Results Articles were reviewed and the results summarized on pelvic floor physical therapy, pharmacotherapy, bulking agents, and surgery (open and minimally invasive). Conclusion There are numerous high quality studies in the literature. It can be difficult to make definitive conclusions on the most appropriate treatment options due to the variability in the outcomes used to define success in these articles. There is also a dire lack of studies evaluating and comparing the surgical options for patients with intrinsic sphincter deficiency. PMID:24198643

  11. Impaired contractility of the circular striated urethral sphincter muscle may contribute to stress urinary incontinence in female zucker fatty rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Yung-Chin; Lin, Guiting; Wang, Guifang; Reed-Maldonado, Amanda; Lu, Zhihua; Wang, Lin; Banie, Lia; Lue, Tom F

    2017-08-01

    Obesity has been an independent risk factor for female stress urinary incontinence (SUI), the mechanism of this association remains unknown. The aim of this study is to validate the hypothesis that urethral dysfunction is a possible contributor to SUI in obese women. Ten Zucker Fatty (ZF) (ZUC-Lepr fa 185) and 10 Zucker Lean (ZL) (ZUC-Lepr fa 186) female rats at 12-week-old were used in this experiment. The urethral sphincter rings were harvested from the bladder neck through to the most proximal 2/3 regions. In the organ bath study, single pulses of electrical field stimulation (EFS) were applied. For the fatiguing stimulation, repeated multi-pulse EFS with 70 mA were applied at frequency of 5 Hz for 5 min. Caffeine-containing Krebs' solution was administrated to contract the urethra until the contraction began to reach a plateau for 10 min. We performed immunofluorescence staining of the urethra after the experiment was finished. Compared to ZL controls, ZF rats had significantly impaired muscle contractile activity (MCA) (P female rats had significantly impaired contractile properties of striated urethral sphincter, suggesting urethral dysfunction could be an important contributor to SUI in obesity. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  12. Association of the Female Athlete Triad Risk Assessment Stratification to the Development of Bone Stress Injuries in Collegiate Athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tenforde, Adam S; Carlson, Jennifer L; Chang, Audrey; Sainani, Kristin L; Shultz, Rebecca; Kim, Jae Hyung; Cutti, Phil; Golden, Neville H; Fredericson, Michael

    2017-02-01

    The female athlete triad (referred to as the triad) contributes to adverse health outcomes, including bone stress injuries (BSIs), in female athletes. Guidelines were published in 2014 for clinical management of athletes affected by the triad. This study aimed to (1) classify athletes from a collegiate population of 16 sports into low-, moderate-, and high-risk categories using the Female Athlete Triad Cumulative Risk Assessment score and (2) evaluate the predictive value of the risk categories for subsequent BSIs. Cohort study; Level of evidence, 3. A total of 323 athletes completed both electronic preparticipation physical examination and dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry scans. Of these, 239 athletes with known oligomenorrhea/amenorrhea status were assigned to a low-, moderate-, or high-risk category. Chart review was used to identify athletes who sustained a subsequent BSI during collegiate sports participation; the injury required a physician diagnosis and imaging confirmation. Of 239 athletes, 61 (25.5%) were classified into moderate-risk and 9 (3.8%) into high-risk categories. Sports with the highest proportion of athletes assigned to the moderate- and high-risk categories included gymnastics (56.3%), lacrosse (50%), cross-country (48.9%), swimming/diving (42.9%), sailing (33%), and volleyball (33%). Twenty-five athletes (10.5%) assigned to risk categories sustained ≥1 BSI. Cross-country runners contributed the majority of BSIs (16; 64%). After adjusting for age and participation in cross-country, we found that moderate-risk athletes were twice as likely as low-risk athletes to sustain a BSI (risk ratio [RR], 2.6; 95% confidence interval [95% CI], 1.3-5.5) and high-risk athletes were nearly 4 times as likely (RR, 3.8; 95% CI, 1.8-8.0). When examining the 6 individual components of the triad risk assessment score, both the oligomenorrhea/amenorrhea score ( P = .0069) and the prior stress fracture/reaction score ( P = .0315) were identified as independent

  13. Evaluating single-incision slings in female stress urinary incontinence: the usefulness of the CONSORT statement criteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diallo, Stéphanie; Cour, Florence; Josephson, Anne; Vidart, Adrien; Botto, Henri; Lebret, Thierry; Bonan, Brigitte

    2012-09-01

    To evaluate the usefulness and applicability of the Consolidated Standards of Reporting Trials (CONSORT) for journal articles reporting randomized, controlled trials evaluating single-incision slings in the treatment of female stress urinary incontinence. Original articles reporting randomized, controlled trials assessing single-incision slings in the treatment of female stress urinary incontinence were searched for in the PubMed and Embase databases in 2011. Reporting quality was studied by 2 hospital pharmacists and 2 urologic surgeons. Primary outcome was the score out of 20 in the abstract CONSORT checklist. Secondary outcomes were the scores in the standard CONSORT checklist and the extension CONSORT additional items for trials assessing nonpharmacologic treatments. Among 135 articles retrieved, 8 met the inclusion criteria and were assessed. Abstract scores ranged from 4.7-14.1. Standard scores were >10.0 out of 20 for most articles; the extension scores did not exceed 5.0 out of 10. Four reported trials were not identified as randomized in the title. The interventions were incompletely reported. Four articles reported whether blinding was achieved but lack of blinding was never discussed as a potential source of bias. Few articles reported the operators and centers characteristics and their impact on statistical analysis. The combination of the 3 checklists was considered a useful guideline to enhance and assess the reporting quality of a surgical trial. Our results support the further use of CONSORT criteria as a basic standardized tool in all stages of clinical evaluation for any prosthetic device in female pelvic surgery. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. A Neurobehavioral Phenotype of Blast Traumatic Brain Injury and Psychological Stress in Male and Female Rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-03

    Cannon (1935), Selye (1946), Mason (1975) and others. The work of Selye (1946) on the General Adaptation Syndrome revealed the role of stress...The TBI spectrum, Washington, D.C. Cicerone, K.D., & Kalmar, K. (1995). Persistent postconcussion syndrome : the structure of subjective complaints...differentially produced by serotonergic and noradrenergic antidepressants. Psychopharmacology, 121(1), 66-72. Dixon, C.E., Clifton, G.L., Lighthall, J.W

  15. The treatment of female stress urinary incontinence: an evidenced-based review

    OpenAIRE

    Cameron, Anne P; Haraway, Allen McNeil

    2011-01-01

    Anne P Cameron, Allen McNeil HarawayDepartment of Urology, Division of Neurourology and Pelvic Floor Reconstruction, University of Michigan Health System, Ann Arbor, MI, USAObjective: To review the literature on the surgical and nonsurgical treatment options for stress urinary incontinence in women, focusing exclusively on randomized clinical trials and high quality meta-analyses.Materials and methods: A computer-aided and manual search for published randomized controlled trials and high qual...

  16. Use of Pulsing Electromagnetic Fields for the Treatment of Pelvic Stress Fractures Among Female Soldiers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1995-08-11

    activities. Pulsing electromagnetic fields ( PEMFs )have been shown to speed the healing of non-union fractures and we have used them successfully to...and then randomized into actual PEMF and placebo PEMF groups and treated for one hour per day until they return to duty. Changes in the bone scan are...musculoskeletal groups. Results to date indicate that pelvic stress fractures are being misdiagnosed. If these results are confirmed, treatments for

  17. The treatment of female stress urinary incontinence: an evidenced-based review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cameron AP

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Anne P Cameron, Allen McNeil HarawayDepartment of Urology, Division of Neurourology and Pelvic Floor Reconstruction, University of Michigan Health System, Ann Arbor, MI, USAObjective: To review the literature on the surgical and nonsurgical treatment options for stress urinary incontinence in women, focusing exclusively on randomized clinical trials and high quality meta-analyses.Materials and methods: A computer-aided and manual search for published randomized controlled trials and high quality meta-analyses investigating both conservative and surgical treatment options for stress urinary incontinence. In the case of a treatment that is not studied in these formats large case series have been used.Results: Articles were reviewed and the results summarized on pelvic floor physical therapy, pharmacotherapy, bulking agents, and surgery (open and minimally invasive.Conclusion: There are numerous high quality studies in the literature. It can be difficult to make definitive conclusions on the most appropriate treatment options due to the variability in the outcomes used to define success in these articles. There is also a dire lack of studies evaluating and comparing the surgical options for patients with intrinsic sphincter deficiency.Keywords: stress urinary incontinence, conservative and surgical treatment

  18. Estresse e função reprodutiva feminina Stress and female reproductive function

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simone da Nóbrega Tomaz Moreira

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available Este artigo discute a relação do estresse sobre a função reprodutiva, considerando que a infertilidade pode ter causas psicológicas (hipótese da psicogênese ou pode ser a origem do estresse psicológico. A presença do estresse tem o potencial de ativar o eixo hipotálamo-hipófise-adrenal, o qual, inibe o eixo hipotálamo-hipófise-ovariano, levando à paralisação temporária das menstruações. Esse processo pode resultar em infertilidade transitória para as mulheres. Os autores enfatizam a necessidade de uma abordagem psicológica nos serviços de reprodução, objetivando trabalhar as tensões e frustrações advindas da infertilidade e do seu tratamento.This article discusses the relationship between stress and reproduction considering that infertility could bear psychological causes (psychogenesis hypothesis or could be caused by psychological stress. Stress has the potential of activating the hypothalamus-hypophisis-adrenal axis inhibiting the hypothalamus-hypophisis-ovarian axis leading to temporary menstruation paralysis. This process could result in a transitory infertility of women. The authors emphasize the need of a psychological approach in reproduction services with the objective of treating tensions and frustrations derived from infertility and its treatment.

  19. Prenatal Stress Impairs Spatial Learning and Memory Associated with Lower mRNA Level of the CAMKII and CREB in the Adult Female Rat Hippocampus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Hongli; Wu, Haibin; Liu, Jianping; Wen, Jun; Zhu, Zhongliang; Li, Hui

    2017-05-01

    Prenatal stress (PS) results in various behavioral and emotional alterations observed in later life. In particular, PS impairs spatial learning and memory processes but the underlying mechanism involved in this pathogenesis still remains unknown. Here, we reported that PS lowered the body weight in offspring rats, particularly in female rats, and impaired spatial learning and memory of female offspring rats in the Morris water maze. Correspondingly, the decreased CaMKII and CREB mRNA in the hippocampus were detected in prenatally stressed female offspring, which partially explained the effect of PS on the spatial learning and memory. Our findings suggested that CaMKII and CREB may be involved in spatial learning and memory processes in the prenatally stressed adult female offspring.

  20. [Eating Disorders in Female High School Students: Educational and Migration Background, School-Related Stress and Performance-Orientated Classes].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grüttner, M

    2018-02-01

    Many adolescents and young adults, especially young females, suffer from eating disorders or problematic nutrition behavior. Children and adolescents with migration background as well as from a lower social class are more likely to have eating disorders 1. Although schools are an important context in these age groups, there is a lack of scientific inquiry concerning the relationship between schooling and eating disorders. The present study investigates the relationship between performance-related stress at school and eating disorders while controlling for personnel and familial resources. Interview data on the 7 th grade high school students from the National Educational Panel Study (NEPS)* starting cohort 3 are used. The dependent variable is based on the SCOFF questionnaire. Logistic regressions are calculated using information from students and parents. Performance-related stress at school is operationalized by the negative deviation of realistic from idealistic educational aspirations (EA) and unfulfilled social expectations (SE), performance-oriented class climate is operationalized by students' perception of the performance-orientation of the teacher (PT) and the expectations of classmates (EC). The results point towards an increased risk of suffering from an eating disorder due to performance-related school stress (EA: AME: 0.18; p<0.001; SE: AME: 0.12; p<0.05) and performance-oriented class climate (PT: AME: 0.05; p<0.1; EC: AME: 0.15, p<0.01). They partly explain the relation between both migration background and educational background and eating disorders. In order to prevent eating disorders in female high school students, attention should be paid to performance-orientation experienced at school and in the social background, and improved individual support for disadvantaged students should be made available. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  1. The effect of posture and repetition on urodynamic parameters: A prospective randomized study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ho Joon Jeon

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: To evaluate the effect of posture and repetition of filling cystometry on urodynamic parameters. Materials and Methods: Seventy-one men with benign prostatic hyperplasia participated in a urodynamic study between September 2015 and August 2016 and were randomly assigned to a supine to supine (group SS, n=16, erect to erect (group EE, n=16, supine to erect (group SE, n=19 or erect to supine (group ES, n=20 group. The patients underwent filling cystometry twice. We evaluated the effect of posture and the effect of repetition on filling cystometric parameters. We also evaluated the correlation between overactive bladder (OAB and detrusor overactivity (DO and between maximum voided volume (MVV and maximum cystometric capacity (MCC for each posture and filling cystometry time. Results: There was a decrease in bladder sensation and occurrence of DO, and an increase in bladder compliance and MCC in the supine posture group compared to that in the erect posture group. A more significant decrease in bladder sensation and occurrence of DO as well as an increase in MCC was seen during the second filling cystometry than the first one. The supine posture during first filling cystometry showed a better correlation between OAB and DO and between MVV and MCC than erect posture. Conclusions: There were clear effects of posture and filling cystometry repetition on urodynamic parameters. The supine posture and repeated filling cystometry caused the bladder to be less sensitive and less overactive. The supine posture showed a better correlation to OAB symptoms than erect posture during first filling cystometry.

  2. Nasogastric tube as abdominal pressure sensor in urodynamics-Proof of concept of a novel approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    VijayGanapathy, Sundaramoorthy; Karthikeyan, Vilvapathy Senguttuvan; Mallya, Ashwin; Poonawala, Ali; Keshavamurthy, Ramaiah

    2018-02-01

    The standard sensor for abdominal pressure (Pabd) measurement in urodynamics (UD) is a rectal sensor. In patients where the rectum is not available due to prior surgery or when external anal sphincter (EAS) tone is poor, rectal sensor may slip, making Pabd recording unreliable. Vaginal Pabd measurement and wireless vaginal sensors have been tried. We present our preliminary series of a novel nasogastric tube (NG) sensor for Pabd measurement. We identified patients undergoing UD with a NG Pabd sensor from a prospectively maintained UD database of a tertiary care urological center between July 2013 and December 2016. Out of 1325 urodynamic procedures done, 46 (3.5%) were performed using NG Pabd sensor. The median (IQR) age was 44 (12) years. Indications for UD in these patients were neurogenic bladder in 22 (47.8%), urinary retention in 17 (37%), post-meningomyelocele repair in four (8.7%), traumatic paraplegia in two (4.3%), and cervical myelopathy in one (2.2%). The indications for NG Pabd sensor were lax EAS tone (40; 86.9%), post-abdominoperineal resection (2; 4.3%), and painful thrombosed hemorrhoids (4; 8.7%). It was possible to make definitive urodynamic diagnosis in all patients using NG Pabd sensor. Initial calibration and NG Pabd excursions throughout the study were similar to that of rectal Pabd sensor. There were no problems with NG tube tolerance. Use of nasogastric sensor is feasible, accurate, cost-effective, and viable alternative for Pabd measurement in patients with poor anal tone or absent rectum due to postoperative status. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  3. Treatment of female stress urinary incontinence using suburethral slings: comparative, retrospective, observational study of two surgical techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castroviejo-Royo, F; Martinez-Sagarra-Oceja, J M; Marina-García-Tuñón, C; Conde-Redondo, C; Rodríguez-Toves, L A; González-Tejero, C

    2013-10-01

    The treatment of female stress urinary incontinence has undergone a revolution in recent years due the emergence on the market of suburethral slings. The aim of this study is to compare two surgical techniques for treating stress urinary incontinence: Monarc™ (transobturator suburethral sling) and MiniArc(®) (single-incision suburethral mini-sling). Comparative, retrospective, observational study from January 2005 to December 2011 on 317 women diagnosed with stress urinary incontinence. Of these, 214 were treated with the Monarc™ transobturator suburethral sling, and 103 were treated with the MiniArc(®) mini-sling. The results were treated with SPSS v.15 software, and the statistical significance was P≤.005. The two patients groups were homogeneous in terms of age, number of births, presence of urgency urinary incontinence and prior hysterectomy. There were significant differences in hospital stay, surgical time and early complications in favour of the MiniArc(®), technique, but overall there were no significant differences in the late complications. Some 84% of the patients treated with the Monarc™ transobturator sling were cured compared with the 72% of patients in whom we implanted a MiniArc(®), a difference that was statistically significant. We need to perform more high-quality, prospective and randomised studies with larger numbers of patients and longer follow-up times to confirm or disprove the difference that we found in the success rate for the Monarc™ transobturator suburethral sling. Copyright © 2012 AEU. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  4. Social housing and social isolation: Impact on stress indices and energy balance in male and female Syrian hamsters (Mesocricetus auratus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ross, Amy P; Norvelle, Alisa; Choi, Dennis C; Walton, James C; Albers, H Elliott; Huhman, Kim L

    2017-08-01

    Although Syrian hamsters are thought to be naturally solitary, recent evidence from our laboratory demonstrates that hamsters may actually prefer social contact. Hamsters increase their preference for a location associated with an agonistic encounter regardless of whether they have "won" or "lost". It has also been reported that social housing as well as exposure to intermittent social defeat or to a brief footshock stressor increase food intake and body mass in hamsters. By contrast, it has also been suggested that housing hamsters in social isolation causes anxiety-induced anorexia and reductions in body mass selectively in females. The purpose of this study was to determine the physiological consequences of housing hamsters in social isolation versus in social groups. Male and female hamsters were housed singly or in stable groups of 5 for 4weeks after which they were weighed and trunk blood was collected. In addition, fat pads and thymus and adrenal glands were extracted and weighed. Serum and fecal cortisol were measured using an enzyme-linked immunoassay. Housing condition had no effect on serum or fecal cortisol, but socially housed hamsters displayed modest thymus gland involution. Socially housed females weighed more than did any other group, and socially housed females and males had more fat than did socially isolated hamsters. No wounding or tissue damage occurred in grouped hamsters. Overall, these data suggest that Syrian hamsters tolerate both stable social housing and social isolation in the laboratory although social housing is associated with some alteration in stress-related and bioenergetic measures. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Estrogenic suppression of binge-like eating elicited by cyclic food restriction and frustrative-nonreward stress in female rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Micioni Di Bonaventura, Maria Vittoria; Lutz, Thomas A; Romano, Adele; Pucci, Mariangela; Geary, Nori; Asarian, Lori; Cifani, Carlo

    2017-06-01

    Because binge eating and emotional eating vary through the menstrual cycle in human females, we investigated cyclic changes in binge-like eating in female rats and their control by estrogens. Binge-like eating was elicited by three cycles of 4 days of food restriction and 4 days of free feeding followed by a single frustrative nonreward-stress episode (15 min visual and olfactory exposure to a familiar palatable food) immediately before presentation of the palatable food. Intact rats showed binge-like eating during the diestrous and proestrous phases of the ovarian cycle, but not during the estrous (periovulatory) phase. Ovariectomized (OVX) rats not treated with estradiol (E2) displayed binge-like eating, whereas E2-treated OVX rats did not. The procedure did not increase signs of anxiety in an open-field test. OVX rats not treated with E2 that were subjected to food restriction and sacrificed immediately after frustrative nonreward had increased numbers of cells expressing phosphorylated extracellular signal-regulated kinases (ERK) in the central nucleus of the amygdala (CeA), paraventricular nucleus of hypothalamus (PVN), and dorsal and ventral bed nuclei of the stria terminalis (BNST) compared with nonrestricted or E2-treated rats. These data suggest that this female rat model is appropriate for mechanistic studies of some aspects of menstrual-cycle effects on emotional and binge eating in human females, that anxiety is not a sufficient cause of binge-like eating, and that the PVN, CeA, and BNST may contribute to information processing underlying binge-like eating. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  6. The tolerability of urodynamic studies and flexible cysto-urethroscopy used in the assessment of men with lower urinary tract symptoms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kortmann, B. B.; Sonke, G. S.; D'Ancona, F. C.; Floratos, D. L.; Debruyne, F. M.; de la Rosette, J. J.

    1999-01-01

    To determine the overall tolerability of urodynamic studies used in the assessment of men with lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS), by assessing the objective and subjective morbidity experienced during and after urodynamic studies, and to assess the voiding complaints caused by the combination of

  7. When should video be added to conventional urodynamics in adults and is it justified by the evidence? ICI-RS 2014

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Anding, Ralf; Rosier, Peter; Smith, Phillip; Gammie, Andrew; Giarenis, Ilias; Rantell, Angela; Thiruchelvam, Nikesh; Arlandis, Salvador; Cardozo, Linda

    AIMS: To debate and evaluate the evidence base regarding the added value of video to urodynamics in adults and to define research questions. METHODS: In the ICI-RS Meeting 2014 a Think Tank analyzed the current guidelines recommending video urodynamics (VUD) and performed a literature search to

  8. Trends in Urodynamic Procedures, Surgical Procedures, and Overall Health Resource Utilization in the Adult Taiwanese Population With Urinary Incontinence: A Secondary Data Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsu, Lan-Fang; Chang, Ling-Yin; Liao, Yuan-Mei; Yeh, Shauh-Der; Tsai, Pei-Shan

    2017-12-04

    The prevalence and incidence of the main risk factors for urinary incontinence (UI) have both increased over time. In addition, official statistics indicate that Taiwan is on course to evolve from an aging society into an aged society within the next decade. However, most of the studies in the literature that address the natural history of UI target Western and other non-Asian populations. Taiwan lacks knowledge of the natural history of UI. The aims of this research were to study the trends in the use of urodynamic and surgical procedures for various subtypes of UI and to investigate the relationship between UI and healthcare resource utilization. The data on 1 million, randomly selected people who were enrolled in the Taiwan National Health Insurance program between 2000 and 2008 were extracted from the Longitudinal Health Insurance Database. The population and all procedures were identified based on the International Classification of Disease, Ninth Revision, Clinical Modification codes. Annual incidence of UI was calculated on an annual basis, and trend analysis was performed using logistic regression models. The association between UI and healthcare utilization was examined using generalized linear models in a gamma distribution with a log link function. Overall, the trend in the annual incidence for all types of UI increased significantly (p use of urodynamic procedures over time were observed for mixed and other types of UI (p < .01). In addition, a significantly increasing trend was observed in the annual rates of surgical procedures that were received by patients with urge or stress UI (p < .05). Patients with UI showed significantly higher healthcare resource utilization, including number of ambulatory visits, number of hospitalizations, average ambulatory care expenditures, and average days of hospitalization, than those without UI. However, limited information is available on the conservative treatment of UI in the database. UI symptoms may lead to

  9. The value of urethro-cystography in the diagnosis of female urinary stress incontinence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goeller, W.; Koeller, M.; Tremmel, K.; Barth, V.; Staedtische Krankenanstalten Esslingen am Neckar

    1986-01-01

    Urethrocystography was performed in 72 women with stress urinary incontinence (SUI). The radiological findings were compared with the clinical diagnosis. 8 Patients with a normal radiological study had SUI grade I by clinical criteria. Explanations of this discrepancy are discussed. In 4 cases the interpretation interfered with a large cystocele. In 60 patients (83.5%) the radiological study confirmed the clinical diagnosis and supported the gynaecologist in the indication for operation on SUI. However this indication cannot be based on the radiological study by itself; it must in fact take into account all the other aspects of the disease. (orig.)

  10. [TVT and TOT for surgical correction of female stress urinary incontinence. Comparison between techniques].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torres Zambrano, G; Lujan Galán, M; Martín García, C; García Tello, A; Rodríguez García, N; Berenguer Sánchez, A

    2008-10-01

    Retrospective analysis of a series of patients with stress urinary incontinence that underwent surgery in our department, by means of the TVT and TOT techniques. We evaluate post operative continence, considering "cured" the patient with complete continence and "failure" any type of involuntary stress urine leak, independently of its severity registering the time of its appearance. For this purpose we used the Kaplan-Meier analysis comparing both techniques with the Breslow test. Additionally, postoperative complications were evaluated. 128 patients who underwent surgery by TVT (69 patients, 53.9%) and TOT (59 patients, 46.1%). Mean age was 54.4 years for TVT (95% CI 52.0-56.8) and 59 years for TOT (95% CI 55.9-62.1). Mean follow-up time was 18.7 months for TVT (95% CI 15.6-21.9) and 7.4 months for TOT (95% CI 5.8-8.9). Overall continence rate was 86.7%, 88.4% for TVT and 84.7% for TOT The probability of being continent six months after surgery was 89.1% for TVT and 78.2% for TOT (no significant differences, p = 0.31), with almost all failures within the first six months after surgery. TVT was more frecuently associated with urgency symptoms (33.3%, p = 0.001) and urge incontinence (18.8%,p = 0.16), urinary retention (11.6%, p = 0.38), and prevesical hematoma requiring mesh retrieval. Greater post operative pain was observed with TOT (20.3%, p = 0.005). Our results evidence a similar efficacy with both techniques, with the failures appearing over the first months after surgery. Complications of the voiding urgency type are significantly more frequent with TVT.

  11. Early transfer of mated females into the maternity unit reduces stress and increases maternal care in farm mink

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Malmkvist, Jens; Palme, Rupert

    2015-01-01

    Mated mammals on farms are typically transferred to another housing environment prior to delivery. We investigated whether the timing of this transfer – EARLY (Day −36), INTERMEDIATE (Day −18), or LATE (Day −3) relative to the expected day of birth (Day 0) – affects maternal stress, maternal care...... sized groups (n = 60): (i) ‘EARLY’, transfer to maternity unit immediately after the end of the mating period, March 23; (ii) ‘INTERMEDIATE’, transfer in the middle of the period, April 10; (iii) ‘LATE’, transfer late in the pregnancy period, April 25. Data collection included weekly determination...... of faecal cortisol metabolites (FCM) and evaluation of maternal care: nest building, in-nest temperature, plus kit-retrieval behaviour, kit mortality and growth day 0–7 postpartum. We document that mated mink females build and maintain a nest at least 1 month prior to delivery when transferred...

  12. Urodynamic assessment of bladder and urethral sphincter function before and after robot-assisted radical prostatectomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnoiu, O S; Vozmediano-Chicharro, R; García-Galisteo, E; Soler-Martinez, J; del Rosa-Samaniego, J M; Machuca-Santacruz, J; Baena-Gonzalez, V

    2014-03-01

    Affectation of the bladder after open prostatectomy is demonstrated. Decrease in bladder capacity and bladder compliance, detrusor hyper-or hypo-activity and voiding dysfunction are observed. We propose to investigate the effects of robotic surgery on bladder and sphincter function through the comparative study of preoperative and postoperative urodynamic values 3 months after prostatectomy. Prospective study of 32 consecutive patients undergoing robotic prostatectomy. They all underwent urodynamic study one month before the intervention and 3 months after the radical prostatectomy. Twenty five percent of patients undergoing robotic prostatectomy showed detrusor hyperactivity accompanied by a decrease in bladder compliance of 30.2 to 21.8 ml/cmH2O. Urethral profile showed diminished functional length of 67 to 44 mm and decreased maximum urethral pressure of 48.5 to 29.3 cmH2O. After robotic prostatectomy 21.8% of patients had detrusor hypoactivity, obstruction decreased between 28.1% to 12.5%. Decreased bladder compliance, detrusor hypo- or hyperactivity and obstruction improvement observed in the study of the flow pressure have been associated with sphincter involvement. It is part of the complex of lower urinary tract dysfunction that occurs after robotic prostatectomy. Copyright © 2013 AEU. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  13. Comparison of MR imaging and urodynamic findings in benign prostatic hyperplasia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alam, A.M.; Ishida, Jun; Igawa, Mikio [Shimane Medical Univ., Izumo (Japan); Sugimura, Kazuro; Okizuka, Hiromi

    2000-04-01

    In benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH), it is uncertain whether the size of the prostate is related to the degree of urodynamically demonstrated bladder outlet obstruction. We compared MR imaging findings and urodynamic data in patients with surgically confirmed BPH. We prospectively studied 43 benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) patients in whom transurethral resection of the prostate (TURP) was planned. We obtained T1- and T2-weighted images in the transverse and sagittal planes with a 1.5 Tesla superconducting unit. The predicted volume of the inner gland and the peripheral zone were obtained on T2-weighted transverse images. Prostatic protrusion into the urinary bladder (IB protrusion) and the inner gland ratio (IG ratio: inner gland volume/total prostatic volume) were determined. IB protrusion and inner IG ratio were significantly greater in patients with severe stenosis than in those without. A surgical capsule (SC) was seen in 20 of 25 patients (80%) with severe stenosis and 8 of 18 (44%) of those without it. The accuracy of IB protrusion + IG ratio, IB protrusion + surgical capsule, and IB protrusion + IG ratio + surgical capsule was 89%, and that of IG ratio + surgical capsule was 86%. The inner gland ratio, protrusion into the bladder, and presence of surgical capsule were the most important factors in bladder outlet obstruction. The probability of outlet stenosis increases in patients with more than two of these criteria. (author)

  14. Perceived stress, external locus of control, and social support as predictors of psychological adjustment among female inmates with or without a history of sexual abuse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asberg, Kia; Renk, Kimberly

    2014-01-01

    Given the growing number of women who are incarcerated across the United States, the current study investigated the relationships among female inmates' perceptions of their own stress, external locus of control (LOC), social support adequacy, and various aspects of psychological functioning. Generally, female inmates with a self-reported history of childhood sexual abuse did not differ from their nonabused counterparts on the variables of interest. Results suggested that female inmates' perceptions of higher stress, a higher degree of external LOC, and inadequate social support correlated with greater symptoms of depression and hopelessness as well as lower self-esteem. In regression analyses, stress and social support were significant predictors for depression and anxiety. In contrast, stress was the only significant predictor of hopelessness and self-esteem. Finally, none of the predictors examined here was significant in the prediction of traumatic stress. Overall, findings suggested the importance of stress and social support in the prediction of female inmates' adjustment, specifically their symptoms of depression and anxiety.

  15. Beta-Thalassemia Major and Female Fertility: The Role of Iron and Iron-Induced Oxidative Stress

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roussou, Paraskevi; Tsagarakis, Nikolaos J.; Diamanti-Kandarakis, Evanthia

    2013-01-01

    Endocrine complications due to haemosiderosis are present in a significant number of patients with beta-thalassemia major (BTM) worldwide and often become barriers in their desire for parenthood. Thus, although spontaneous fertility can occur, the majority of females with BTM is infertile due to hypogonadotropic hypogonadism (HH) and need assisted reproductive techniques. Infertility in these women seems to be attributed to iron deposition and iron-induced oxidative stress (OS) in various endocrine organs, such as hypothalamus, pituitary, and female reproductive system, but also through the iron effect on other organs, such as liver and pancreas, contributing to the impaired metabolism of hormones and serum antioxidants. Nevertheless, the gonadal function of these patients is usually intact and fertility is usually retrievable. Meanwhile, a significant prooxidants/antioxidants imbalance with subsequent increased (OS) exists in patients with BTM, which is mainly caused by tissue injury due to overproduction of free radicals by secondary iron overload, but also due to alteration in serum trace elements and antioxidant enzymes. Not only using the appropriate antioxidants, essential trace elements, and minerals, but also regulating the advanced glycation end products, could probably reduce the extent of oxidative damage and related complications and retrieve BTM women's infertility. PMID:24396593

  16. Beta-Thalassemia Major and Female Fertility: The Role of Iron and Iron-Induced Oxidative Stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paraskevi Roussou

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Endocrine complications due to haemosiderosis are present in a significant number of patients with beta-thalassemia major (BTM worldwide and often become barriers in their desire for parenthood. Thus, although spontaneous fertility can occur, the majority of females with BTM is infertile due to hypogonadotropic hypogonadism (HH and need assisted reproductive techniques. Infertility in these women seems to be attributed to iron deposition and iron-induced oxidative stress (OS in various endocrine organs, such as hypothalamus, pituitary, and female reproductive system, but also through the iron effect on other organs, such as liver and pancreas, contributing to the impaired metabolism of hormones and serum antioxidants. Nevertheless, the gonadal function of these patients is usually intact and fertility is usually retrievable. Meanwhile, a significant prooxidants/antioxidants imbalance with subsequent increased (OS exists in patients with BTM, which is mainly caused by tissue injury due to overproduction of free radicals by secondary iron overload, but also due to alteration in serum trace elements and antioxidant enzymes. Not only using the appropriate antioxidants, essential trace elements, and minerals, but also regulating the advanced glycation end products, could probably reduce the extent of oxidative damage and related complications and retrieve BTM women’s infertility.

  17. Passive Response to Stress in Adolescent Female and Adult Male Mice after Intermittent Nicotine Exposure in Adolescence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thanos, Panayotis; Delis, Foteini; Rosko, Lauren; Volkow, Nora D

    2013-01-01

    Smoking is frequently co-morbid with depression. Although it is recognized that depression increases the risk for smoking, it is unclear if early smoking exposure may increase the risk for depression. To test this possibility we assessed the effects of adolescent nicotine exposure on the Forced Swim Test (FST), which is used as a measure of passive coping, and depressive-like behavior in rodents, and on the open field test (OFT), which is used as a measure of locomotion and exploratory behavior. Male and female mice received daily saline or nicotine (0.3 or 0.6 mg/kg) injections from postnatal day (PD) 30 to PD 44. FST and OFT were performed either 1 or 30 days after the last injection (PD 45 and PD 74, respectively). In females, treatment with 0.3 mg/kg nicotine lead to increased FST immobility (64%) and decreased OFT locomotor activity (12%) one day following the last nicotine injection (PD 45); while no effects were observed in adulthood (PD 74). In contrast, on PD45, nicotine treatment did not change the male FST immobility but lead to lower OFT locomotor activity (0.6 mg/kg, 10%). In adulthood (PD 74), both nicotine doses lead to higher FST immobility (87%) in males while 0.6 mg/kg nicotine to lower OFT locomotor activity (13%). The results (i) identify females as more vulnerable to the immediate withdrawal that follows nicotine discontinuation in adolescence and (ii) suggest that adolescent nicotine exposure may enhance the risk for passive response towards unavoidable stress in adult males. PMID:24619539

  18. Comparison of TOT and TVT in Treatment of Female Stress Urinary Incontinence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taylan Mit

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Aim: To compare the continence results and complications of the tension-free vaginal tape (TVT and transobturator tape (TOT procedures. Material and Method: Sixty two urinary incontinence patients; (37 were stress urinary incontinence and 25 were mixed incontinence underwent TVT or TOT. The clinic-pathologic parameters of the patients, perioperative and postoperative complications and outcome in terms of continence and quality of life were compared. Results: TOT and TVT were performed on % 50 of the patients respectively. An objective cure rate in patients who underwent TOT was observed in 74% of cases, an objective improvement in 26% of cases. 11 of the patients had dysuria, 10 of them had suprapubic pain. An objective cure rate in patients who underwent TVT was observed in 90% of cases, an objective improvement in 8% of cases. A de novo urge incontinence presented in 2 patients. The quality of life improved in 93,5% of cases. In terms of continence results and quality of life, there was no significant difference between the procedures. The complication rate was higher with the TVT procedure when compared to that of the TOT procedure. Discussion: TOT procedure in short terms, performs similar operational success with the TVT procedure. Operational time; in consideration of the cystoscopy time, can be an advantage compared to the TVT procedure. If the operation includes anterior colporrhaphy, the success of both procedures reduces.

  19. Treating Posttraumatic Stress Disorder in Female Victims of Trafficking Using Narrative Exposure Therapy: A Retrospective Audit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katy Robjant

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available BackgroundHuman trafficking is a form of modern slavery that involves the forced movement of people internally within countries, or externally across borders. Victims who are trafficked for sexual exploitation are subject to repeated, multiple trauma, and high rates of mental health problems including posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD have been found. Narrative exposure therapy (NET is an evidence-based treatment for PTSD.MethodsIn this retrospective audit, we record the results of NET to treat 10 women who had been trafficked for sexual exploitation who were diagnosed with PTSD.ResultsAll 10 women completed the therapy and experienced a reduction in PTSD severity scores at posttreatment, with improvements that were maintained or further improved at 3-month follow-up. General distress was also significantly reduced following treatment.ConclusionAlthough limited by sample size and retrospective design, this audit demonstrates that NET is a feasible treatment for PTSD in this population and warrants further evaluation in a randomized controlled trial. Further adjunctive interventions may also be necessary to treat the additional psychological problems experienced by this population.

  20. Treating Posttraumatic Stress Disorder in Female Victims of Trafficking Using Narrative Exposure Therapy: A Retrospective Audit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robjant, Katy; Roberts, Jackie; Katona, Cornelius

    2017-01-01

    Human trafficking is a form of modern slavery that involves the forced movement of people internally within countries, or externally across borders. Victims who are trafficked for sexual exploitation are subject to repeated, multiple trauma, and high rates of mental health problems including posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) have been found. Narrative exposure therapy (NET) is an evidence-based treatment for PTSD. In this retrospective audit, we record the results of NET to treat 10 women who had been trafficked for sexual exploitation who were diagnosed with PTSD. All 10 women completed the therapy and experienced a reduction in PTSD severity scores at posttreatment, with improvements that were maintained or further improved at 3-month follow-up. General distress was also significantly reduced following treatment. Although limited by sample size and retrospective design, this audit demonstrates that NET is a feasible treatment for PTSD in this population and warrants further evaluation in a randomized controlled trial. Further adjunctive interventions may also be necessary to treat the additional psychological problems experienced by this population.

  1. Diagnosis and management of acute medial tibial stress syndrome in a 15 year old female surf life-saving competitor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pietrzak, Max

    2014-08-01

    As the profound health and cost benefits of physical activity to society are established and participation guidelines implemented, health practitioners are increasingly expected to utilize efficacious and justified injury management and prevention strategies. The complex and multifactorial nature of sports injury makes elucidation of multiple risk factors and how they may subtly and variably interact, difficult. The purpose of this case report is to discuss the differential diagnosis, acute management and rehabilitation of a case of medial tibial stress syndrome (MTSS) in a surf life-saving athlete, in the context of sports injury prevention. The subject of this case study, a 15 year old female surf life-saving competitor, presented to the physiotherapist (PT) with recent onset, first episode, bilateral, diffuse posteromedial shin pain. Differential diagnosis, acute management, rehabilitation and preventative strategies for the subject are presented. Emerging injury surveillance research in surf life-saving suggests minor and major trauma as primary causative factors, however, the significance of high training volumes is likely underestimated. The influence of biomechanical, and subtle arthrokinematic dysfunctions on established risk factors for MTSS injury and prevention of re-injury for this subject, are also discussed. Furthermore, the concept of preventing tibial stress fracture (TSF) by successfully managing acute MTSS, is presented. Lastly, a critical analysis of reliability of clinical assessment methodologies utilised with the subject is provided. Level 5; Single case report.

  2. Early fasting is long lasting: differences in early nutritional conditions reappear under stressful conditions in adult female zebra finches.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E Tobias Krause

    Full Text Available Conditions experienced during early life can have profound effects on individual development and condition in adulthood. Differences in nutritional provisioning in birds during the first month of life can lead to differences in growth, reproductive success and survival. Yet, under natural conditions shorter periods of nutritional stress will be more prevalent. Individuals may respond differently, depending on the period of development during which nutritional stress was experienced. Such differences may surface specifically when poor environmental conditions challenge individuals again as adults. Here, we investigated long term consequences of differences in nutritional conditions experienced during different periods of early development by female zebra finches (Taeniopygia guttata on measures of management and acquisition of body reserves. As nestlings or fledglings, subjects were raised under different nutritional conditions, a low or high quality diet. After subjects reached sexual maturity, we measured their sensitivity to periods of food restriction, their exploration and foraging behaviour as well as adult resting metabolic rate (RMR. During a short period of food restriction, subjects from the poor nutritional conditions had a higher body mass loss than those raised under qualitatively superior nutritional conditions. Moreover, subjects that were raised under poor nutritional conditions were faster to engage in exploratory and foraging behaviour. But RMR did not differ among treatments. These results reveal that early nutritional conditions affect adult exploratory behaviour, a representative personality trait, foraging and adult's physiological condition. As early nutritional conditions are reflected in adult phenotypic plasticity specifically when stressful situations reappear, the results suggest that costs for poor developmental conditions are paid when environmental conditions deteriorate.

  3. Ethanol preference is impacted by estrus stage but not housing or stress in female C57BL/6J mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kimberly N. Williams

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Vulnerability to maladaptive patterns of alcohol use, including dependence and relapse, is influenced by a combination of biological and environmental factors. A better understanding of how individual factors influence alcohol use is needed to help reduce alcohol dependence and relapse rates in the general population. This study explored how environmental enrichment (EE, stress and estrus cycle stage affect ethanol (ETOH preference in female mice. Mice were housed in enriched or standard environments and exposed chronically to ETOH for two hours a day for twelve days, before entering a brief ETOH-free abstinence period. At the end of this abstinence period, mice were exposed to a series of mild stressors (forced swim tests and anxiety was assessed via an elevated plus-maze. Preference was measured using a two-bottle choice test prior to ETOH exposure (baseline, after chronic ETOH exposure, and immediately following the abstinence period and stressor. Results revealed that mice preferred ETOH more strongly after chronic ETOH exposure, but that this increase was not affected by environment. ETOH preference was further increased after a brief abstinence period, but preference was not affected by environment or mild stress. However, mice in the proestrus/estrus stage of the estrus cycle preferred ETOH more strongly after a brief abstinence period than did mice in the metestrus/diestrus stage, suggesting that circulating levels of gonadal hormones may contribute to the incubation of drug preference. Anxiety- and despair-like behaviors were not impacted by estrus cycle stage. These findings suggest that estrus stage may affect ETOH preference, even after relatively short drug-free periods. Further research is needed to rectify the role of EE and stress in individual vulnerability or resilience to substance abuse. These findings also highlight a need for increased research into how gonadal hormones may influence ETOH preference in both mice and humans.

  4. The effect of early-life stress and chronic high-sucrose diet on metabolic outcomes in female rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maniam, Jayanthi; Antoniadis, Christopher P; Morris, Margaret J

    2015-01-01

    Early-life stress affects metabolic outcomes and choice of diet influences the development of metabolic disease. Here we tested the hypothesis that chronic sugar intake exacerbates metabolic deficits induced by early-life stress. Early-life stress was induced in Sprague-Dawley rats using limited nesting material in early lactation (LN, postnatal days 2-9), and siblings were given chow alone or with additional sucrose post weaning (n = 9-17 per group). Female control and LN siblings had unlimited access to either chow plus water, or chow and water plus 25% sucrose solution (Sucrose), from 3-15 weeks of age. Weekly body weight and food intake were measured. Glucose and insulin tolerance were tested at 13 and 14 weeks of age, respectively. Rats were killed at 15 weeks. Hepatic triglyceride and markers of lipid synthesis - fatty acid synthase, acetyl-CoA carboxylase alpha and oxidation - and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma coactivator 1-alpha (Pgc-1α) were examined. Mediators of hepatic glucocorticoid metabolism, specifically 11-beta hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase-1 (11βHSD-1), 5-α reductase, and glucocorticoid and mineralocorticoid receptor mRNAs were also measured. Sucrose increased caloric intake in both groups, but overall energy intake was not altered by LN exposure. LN exposure had no further impact on sucrose-induced glucose intolerance and increased plasma and liver triglycerides. Hepatic markers of fat synthesis and oxidation were concomitantly activated and 11βHSD-1 mRNA expression was increased by 53% in LN-Sucrose versus Con-Sucrose rats. Adiposity was increased by 26% in LN-Sucrose versus Con-Sucrose rats. Thus, LN exposure had minimal adverse metabolic effects despite high-sugar diet postweaning.

  5. Workload, work stress, and sickness absence in Swedish male and female white-collar employees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krantz, Gunilla; Lundberg, Ulf

    2006-01-01

    This study aimed to analyse, in a homogeneous population of highly educated men and women, gender differences in self-reported sickness absence as related to paid and unpaid work and combinations of these (double exposure), as well as to perceived work stress and work-home conflict, i.e. conflict between demands from the home and work environment. A total of 743 women and 596 men, full-time working white-collar employees randomly selected from the general Swedish population aged 32-58, were assessed by a Swedish total workload instrument. The influence of conditions in paid and unpaid work and combinations of these on self-reported sickness absence was investigated by multivariate regression analyses. Analysis of variance (ANOVA) was used to assess differences between men and women. Overtime was associated with lower sickness absence, not only for men but also for women, and a double-exposure situation did not increase the risk of sick leave. Contrary to what is normally seen, conflict between demands did not emerge as a risk factor for sickness absence for women, but for men. Our assumption that sickness absence patterns would be more similar for white-collar men and women than for the general population was not confirmed. However, the women working most hours were also the least sick-listed and assumed less responsibility for household chores. These women were mainly in top-level positions and therefore we conclude that men and women in these high-level positions seem to share household burdens more evenly, but they can also afford to employ someone to assist in the household.

  6. Simultaneous perineal ultrasound and vaginal pressure measurement prove the action of electrical pudendal nerve stimulation in treating female stress incontinence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Siyou; Zhang, Shujing

    2012-11-01

    Study Type - Diagnostic (case series) Level of Evidence 4. What's known on the subject? and What does the study add? Pelvic floor muscle training (PFMT) and transvaginal electrical stimulation (TES) are two commonly used forms of conservative treatment for stress urinary incontinence (SUI). PFMT may build up the structural support of the pelvis, but many SUI patients are unable to perform PFMT effectively and its primary disadvantage is lack of long-term patient compliance. TES is a passive treatment that produces PFM contraction and patient compliance with it is good; however, its effect is not as good as that of PFMT when performed correctly. Electrical pudendal nerve stimulation (EPNS) combines the advantages of PFMT and TES and incorporates the technique of deep insertion of long needles. In this study, simultaneous perineal ultrasound and vaginal pressure measurement prove that EPNS can contract the PFM and simulate PFMT. It is shown that EPNS is an alternative therapy for female SUI patients who fail PFMT and TES and the therapy can also be used for severe SUI. • To prove that electrical pudendal nerve stimulation (EPNS) can contract the pelvic floor muscles (PFM) and simulate pelvic floor muscle training (PFMT). • To show that EPNS is an alternative therapy for female stress urinary incontinence (SUI) that does not respond effectively to PFMT and transvaginal electrical stimulation (TES). • Thirty-five female patients with SUI who did not respond effectively to PFMT and TES (group I) were enrolled and 60 other female patients with SUI were allocated to group II (30 patients) and group III (30 patients). • Long needles were deeply inserted into four sacral points and electrified to stimulate the pudendal nerves. Group I and group II were treated by a doctor skilled in performing EPNS and group III, by a doctor unskilled in performing EPNS. • When EPNS was performed in group I, perineal ultrasonographic PFM movements, vaginal pressure (VP) and PFM

  7. TVT-ABBREVO: efficacy and two years follow-up for the treatment of stress urinary incontinence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Capobianco, G; Dessole, M; Lutzoni, R; Surico, D; Ambrosini, G; Dessole, S

    2014-01-01

    To assess the effectiveness of inside-out TVT-ABBREVO in the surgical treatment of female stress urinary incontinence (SUI) with mean two-year follow-up. Fifty-six women underwent surgery for moderate-severe SUI. The technology used was the TVT-ABBREVO inside-out. Each woman at 12 and 24 months underwent postoperative evaluation by means of urodynamics, Q-tip test, CST, transperineal ultrasonography, and administration of "King's Health Questionnaire" (KHQ). The mean age of the women was 57.03 +/- 11.1 years (range 42-75). Postoperative urodynamics (12 months follow-up) resulted to be normal in 43/56 patients (76.79%), in 10/56 (17.86%) cases resulted in a considerable improvement of the symptomatology, and only 1/56 (1.78%) case had de novo overactive bladder (OAB), in 2/56 (3.57%) symptomatology unchanged. After administration of the KHQ 43/56 cases (76.79%) had resolution of the symptomatology, 10/56 cases (17.86%) improvement of the symptomatology, and no change in 3/56 cases (5.36%). In the authors' experience, the TVT-ABBREVO resulted technically simple. The TVT-ABBREVO procedure provides high objective and subjective long-term efficacy, a clinically meaningful improvement in patient quality of life, and an excellent safety profile.

  8. Non-invasive diagnosis of stress urinary incontinence sub types using wavelet analysis, shannon entropy and principal component analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tufan, Kadir; Kara, Sadık; Latifoğlu, Fatma; Aydın, Sinem; Kırış, Adem; Ozkuvancı, Unsal

    2012-08-01

    Urinary incontinence is a common female disorder. Although generally not a serious condition, it negatively affects the lifestyle and daily activity of subjects. Stress urinary incontinence (SUI) is the most versatile of several incontinence types and is distinguished by physical degeneration of the continence-providing mechanism. Some surgical treatment methods exist, but the success of the surgery mainly depends upon a correct diagnosis. Diagnosis has two major steps: subjects who are suffering from true SUI must be identified, and the SUI sub-type must be determined, because each sub-type is treated with a different surgery. The first step is straightforward and uses standard identification methods. The second step, however, requires invasive, uncomfortable urodynamic studies that are difficult to apply. Many subjects try to cope with the disorder rather than seek treatment from health care providers, in part because of the invasive diagnostic methods. In this study, a diagnostic method with a success rate comparable to that of urodynamic studies is presented. This new method has some advantages over the current one. First, it is noninvasive; data are collected using Doppler ultrasound recording. Second, it requires no special tools and is easy to apply, relatively inexpensive, faster and more hygienic.

  9. Responses of the autonomic nervous system during periods of perceived high and low work stress in younger and older female teachers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ritvanen, Tiina; Louhevaara, Veikko; Helin, Pertti; Väisänen, Sari; Hänninen, Osmo

    2006-05-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the response of the autonomic nervous system in younger (mean age 31 yrs, n=14) and older (mean age 54 yrs, n=14) healthy female teachers during work periods of perceived high and low stress. In the younger participants, heart rate, cortisol excretion rate and psychosomatic symptoms were significantly higher during the high work stress period. The older participants experienced no decrease in their heart rate and cortisol excretion during the low stress period and they exhibited no significant decrease in blood pressure after the work in the evening during both periods. It may be concluded that the recovery from the stress in the older teachers was insufficient particularly in view of their elevated diastolic blood pressure during the low work stress period. Ergonomic and individually tailored measures in terms of work time control, specific relaxation techniques, and a part-time retirement may improve the stress management of older teachers.

  10. Perugia urodynamic method of analysis (PUMA): a new advanced method of urodynamic analysis applied clinically and compared with other advanced methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porena, Massimo; Biscotto, Sauro; Costantini, Elisabetta; Mearini, Ettore; Verdini, Livio

    2003-01-01

    The aim of this study is to compare PUMA curves with different pathologic conditions causing bladder dysfunction in 158 men and 83 women. PUMA results in terms of bladder outlet obstruction and detrusor contractility were compared in 92 men with benign prostatic hypertrophy (BPH) and p(ves) congruent with p(det) (i.e., p(abd) congruent with 0) with the results of the urodynamics operator's opinion, the provisional International Continence Society method, Abrams and Griffith's diagram, urethral resistence factor (URA), Schäfer's diagram, and Watt factor. PUMA curves correlated reliably with different pathologic conditions such as obstructive BPH, orthotopic bladder, cystocele, the neurological bladder, and bladder diverticulum. Statistical analysis indicated excellent agreement between PUMA and URA; agreement with other methods was good in cases of obstruction and nonobstruction. In doubtful cases, as diagnosed by standard methods, PUMA agreed only with the Abrams and Griffith's diagram. PUMA and Wmax were in good agreement on detrusor con traction force. Agreement between PUMA and Schäfer's diagram was excellent for patients with detrusor hypercontractility and good for patients with detrusor hypocontractility and normocontractility. PUMA is the only method applicable to women. It is easy to perform. When integrated with other diagnostic tests, it provides realistic data for diagnosis, medical or surgical therapy, and outcome. Copyright 2003 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  11. Prophylactic antibiotics to reduce the risk of urinary tract infections after urodynamic studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foon, Richard; Toozs-Hobson, Philip; Latthe, Pallavi

    2012-10-17

    There is a risk that people who have invasive urodynamic studies (cystometry) will develop urinary tract infections or bacteria in the urine or blood. However, the use of prophylactic antibiotics before or immediately after invasive cystometry or urodynamic studies is not without risks of adverse effects and emergence of resistant microbes. To assess the effectiveness and safety of administering prophylactic antibiotics in reducing the risk of urinary tract infections after urodynamic studies. The hypothesis was that administering prophylactic antibiotics reduces urinary tract infections after urodynamic studies. We searched the Cochrane Incontinence Group Specialised Trial Register, MEDLINE (January 1966 to January 2009), CINAHL (January 1982 to January 2009), EMBASE (January 1966 to January 2009), PubMed (1 January 1980 to January 2009), LILACS (up to January 2009), TRIP database (up to January 2009), and the UK NHS Evidence Health Information Resources (searched 10 December 2009). We searched the reference lists of relevant articles, the primary trials and the proceedings of the International Urogynaecological Association International Continence Society and the American Urological Association for the years 1999 to 2009 to identify articles not captured by electronic searches. There were no language restrictions. All randomized controlled trials and quasi-randomized trials comparing the use of prophylactic antibiotics versus a placebo or no treatment in patients having urodynamic studies were selected. Two authors (PL and RF) independently performed the selection of trials for inclusion and any disagreements were resolved by discussion. All assessments of the quality of trials and data extraction were performed independently by two authors of the review (PL and RF) using forms designed according to Cochrane guidelines. We attempted to contact authors of the included trials for any missing data. Data were extracted on characteristics of the study participants

  12. Victim-Offender Relationship Status Moderates the Relationships of Peritraumatic Emotional Responses, Active Resistance, and Posttraumatic Stress Symptomatology in Female Rape Survivors

    OpenAIRE

    Feinstein, Brian A.; Humphreys, Kathryn L.; Bovin, Michelle J.; Marx, Brian P.; Resick, Patricia A.

    2011-01-01

    This study examined whether the level of victim-offender relationship (VOR) moderated the relationship between peritraumatic fear and active resistance as well as the relationship between peritraumatic fear and posttraumatic stress symptom severity in a community sample of female rape survivors. One hundred thirty-five participants were interviewed about their emotional and behavioral responses during the rape and assessed for posttraumatic stress symptomatology within one month of the assaul...

  13. The influence of melatonin and agomelatine on urodynamic parameters in experimental overactive bladder model – preliminary results

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Łukasz Dobrek

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Introduction:Overactive bladder (OAB is a common disease entity with complex pathogenesis that involves neurogenic, myogenic and abnormal paracrine urothelial activity mechanisms. Our objective was to estimate bladder functioning in urodynamic studies in experimental, both acute (AOAB and chronic (COAB cyclophosphamide (CYP-evoked OAB model in response to melatonin (MLT; antioxidant and MT receptor agonist or agomelatine (AMT; MT receptor agonist and 5HT2C receptor antagonist.Material/Methods:Seven groups were studied: 1 – control, 2–4 – MLT treated AOAB and COAB rats, 5–7 – AMT treated AOAB and COAB rats. AOAB model was evoked by single CYP administration (IP 200 mg/kg body weight, while COAB one was induced by a four-time administration of CYP (IP 75 mg/kg body weight. Each group underwent urethane anesthesia to perform urodynamic recordings in resting conditions and after administration 50 (group 2 or 5, 75 (group 3 or 6 or 100 mg/kg (group 4 or 7 of melatonin (groups 2–4 or agomelatine (groups 5–7, followed by classical urodynamic parameters assessment.Results:Neither melatonin nor agomelatine did not affect urodynamic parameters in the AOAB rats. In COAB model, after 75 and 100 mg/kg of MLT we revealed an improvement in urodynamic parameters. AMT (75 and 100 mg/kg administration caused deterioration of urodynamic findings suggesting bladder overactivity exacerbation.Disscussion:In summary, melatonin ameliorates bladder overactivity in cyclophosphamide-induced COAB. Agomelatine, contrary to melatonin, aggravates bladder dysfunction in this group. These findings suggest that the improvement in urodynamic parameters after melatonin administration may be due to its antioxidative profile and is not related to MT receptors activation. However, agomelatine’s unfavorable action on the bladder, resulting in its overactivity in COAB group, may not only be the result of MT receptor activation without the concomitant antioxidative

  14. Urodynamic changes at 18 months post-therapy in patients treated with external beam radiotherapy for prostate carcinoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choo, Richard; Do, Viet; Herschorn, Sender; DeBoer, Gerrit; Danjoux, Cyril; Morton, Gerard; Cheng, Chun Hung; Barak, Inna; Preiner, John

    2002-01-01

    Purpose: To quantify the effect of radiotherapy (RT) on urodynamics at 18 months post-therapy, using urodynamic study, in prostate cancer patients undergoing definitive external beam RT. Methods and Materials: A total of 17 patients with clinically localized prostate cancer were accrued into a single-arm prospective study. Fifteen of 17 patients completed scheduled multichannel video-urodynamic study at baseline as well as 3 and 18 months after RT. Baseline quantitative urodynamic parameters were compared with those at 18 months post-RT to assess the nature and extent of urodynamic change brought about by RT. These quantitative changes were further correlated to the change in self-assessed qualitative urinary function measured by International Prostate Symptom Score (IPSS), Quality of Life assessment index (QoL), and urinary functional inquiry. Results: The statistically significant quantitative changes detected by the urodynamic study at 18 months post-RT were decrease in bladder capacity and bladder volume at first sensation in both the supine and upright position, and reduction in bladder volume at desire to void in the supine position. In our cohort, the mean reduction in bladder capacity was 100 mL in the supine position and 54 mL in the upright position. No statistically significant change was observed with regard to pressure, maximum flow rate, voided volume, or postvoid residual volume. Furthermore, there was no statistically significant change in bladder compliance, bladder instability, or bladder outlet obstruction. No statistically significant change in self-assessed qualitative urological function was observed between baseline and 18 months post-RT, measured by the 3 parameters (IPSS, QoL, and urinary frequency over 24 h). Conclusions: This is the first quantitative study that prospectively evaluated the effect of RT on urodynamics in prostate cancer patients receiving definitive RT. The statistically significant changes at 18 months post-RT were

  15. A cost-effectiveness analysis of retropubic midurethral sling versus transobturator midurethral sling for female stress urinary incontinence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seklehner, Stephan; Laudano, Melissa A; Te, Alexis E; Kaplan, Steven A; Chughtai, Bilal; Lee, Richard K

    2014-11-01

    To compare the cost-effectiveness (CE) of retropubic midurethral sling (RMS) versus transobturator midurethral sling (TMS) for the treatment of female stress urinary incontinence (SUI). A Markov chain decision model was created to simulate treatment of SUI with RMS versus TMS. Costing data were obtained from the Medicare RBRVS. Data regarding the efficacy and complications associated with RMS versus TMS was compiled from a literature review of 21 randomized RCTs with a minimum of 12 months follow-up, as were corresponding utilities for different continence states. Deterministic and probabilistic estimates of cost-effectiveness (CE) for each procedure were calculated and compared, and sensitivity analyses were performed. In the base-case deterministic analysis, the efficacy of RMS was 6.275 versus 6.272 QALYs for TMS. QALYs represent a measure of disease burden accounting for both quantity and quality of life lived and are used to assess the monetary value of a medical intervention. The average cost for treatment with RMS however was higher at $9,579 versus $9,017 with TMS. TMS was therefore overall more cost-effective than RMS (CE = $1,438/QALY vs. $1,527/QALY). Sensitivity analysis demonstrated that physician and sling characteristics such as device cost, surgeon fee, efficacy of treatment, operative time, and duration of hospitalization could all affect the relative CE of the therapies. Our study demonstrated that TMS was more cost-effective than RMS as a treatment for female SUI. The efficacy of the two treatments could be affected by physician and sling characteristic factors. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  16. Urodynamics in the anatomical work of Leonardo da Vinci (1452-1519).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schultheiss, D; Grünewald, V; Jonas, U

    1999-06-01

    Leonardo da Vinci (1452-1519) incorporates the symbiosis of art and medicine and can be addressed as the founder of medical illustration in the time of the Renaissance. His anatomy studies were not published in his time, which explains why Leonardo's outstanding knowledge of anatomy, physiology, and medicine had no impact on his scientific contemporaries and is therefore primarily of retrospective importance in the history of medicine. The collection of anatomical illustrations remained unknown until their rediscovery in the eighteenth century and their wide publication at the beginning of our century. This article systematically reviews Leonardo's genitourinary drawings with regard to urodynamic aspects of the upper and lower urinary tract, highlighting topics such as vesicoureteral reflux and urinary sphincter mechanisms.

  17. Stress induces equivalent remodeling of hippocampal spine synapses in a simulated postpartum environment and in a female rat model of major depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baka, Judith; Csakvari, Eszter; Huzian, Orsolya; Dobos, Nikoletta; Siklos, Laszlo; Leranth, Csaba; MacLusky, Neil J; Duman, Ronald S; Hajszan, Tibor

    2017-02-20

    Stress and withdrawal of female reproductive hormones are known risk factors of postpartum depression. Although both of these factors are capable of powerfully modulating neuronal plasticity, there is no direct electron microscopic evidence of hippocampal spine synapse remodeling in postpartum depression. To address this issue, hormonal conditions of pregnancy and postpartum period were simulated in ovariectomized adult female Sprague-Dawley rats (n=76). The number of hippocampal spine synapses and the depressive behavior of rats in an active escape task were investigated in untreated control, hormone-withdrawn 'postpartum', simulated proestrus, and hormone-treated 'postpartum' animals. After 'postpartum' withdrawal of gonadal steroids, inescapable stress caused a loss of hippocampal spine synapses, which was related to poor escape performance in hormone-withdrawn 'postpartum' females. These responses were equivalent with the changes observed in untreated controls that is an established animal model of major depression. Maintaining proestrus levels of ovarian hormones during 'postpartum' stress exposure did not affect synaptic and behavioral responses to inescapable stress in simulated proestrus animals. By contrast, maintaining pregnancy levels of estradiol and progesterone during 'postpartum' stress exposure completely prevented the stress-induced loss of hippocampal spine synapses, which was associated with improved escape performance in hormone-treated 'postpartum' females. This protective effect appears to be mediated by a muted stress response as measured by serum corticosterone concentrations. In line with our emerging 'synaptogenic hypothesis' of depression, the loss of hippocampal spine synapses may be a novel perspective both in the pathomechanism and in the clinical management of postpartum affective illness. Copyright © 2016 IBRO. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Phasic or terminal detrusor overactivity in women: age, urodynamic findings and sphincter behavior relationships

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Françoise A. Valentini

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: To search for relationships between phasic (P and terminal (T DO with age, urodynamic findings and sphincter behavior during involuntary detrusor contraction in woman. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Urodynamic studies (triple lumen catheter 7F, seated position of 164 successive women referred for LUTS with diagnosis of DO were reviewed. Patients were stratified in 4 sub-groups: pre- (18-44y, peri- (45-54 y, post-menopause (55-74 y and oldest old (≥ 75 y. The urethral sensor was positioned at the level of the maximum urethral closure pressure for sphincter behavior analysis. A variation of at least 5 cmH2O in pressure (detrusor or urethra was chosen to assert DO or sphincter response. Sphincter response was classified as relaxation (re before or during DO, or steady (st. RESULTS: Occurrence of P and TDO was similar: 77 P and 87 T. The PDO group was significantly younger (p = 0.0003. TDO was more frequent in patients with a history of neurological disease. The percentage of PDO remained almost constant in age groups, while that of TDO increased with age from 6.7% to 23.2% (p = 0.0013. Uninhibited contraction occurred at a smaller bladder volume in the P group: 149 ± 95 vs. 221 ± 113 mL (p < 0.0001. Steady sphincter predominated in the TDO subgroup: 45.9% vs. 32.1% and increased significantly in each DO sub-group of ³ 75y. CONCLUSION: Steady sphincter during both P and TDO, and occurrence of TDO appear as specific of aging. The last result could be related to structural changes in the detrusor muscle with aging.

  19. A randomized, controlled trial comparing an innovative single incision sling with an established transobturator sling to treat female stress urinary incontinence

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hinoul, Piet; Vervest, Harry A. M.; den Boon, Jan; Venema, Pieter L.; Lakeman, Marielle M.; Milani, Alfredo L.; Roovers, Jan-Paul W. R.

    2011-01-01

    Mid urethral sling procedures have become the surgical treatment of choice for female stress urinary incontinence. Innovative modifications of mid urethral sling procedures were recently introduced with the claim of offering similar efficacy and decreased morbidity. We compared the efficacy and

  20. The severity of childhood abuse and neglect in relationship to Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder among female sex workers in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Daalder, A.L.; Bogaerts, S.; Bijleveld, C.

    2013-01-01

    In this article, the relationship between childhood abuse and neglect and post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) in adulthood is examined in a sample of 123 female indoor sex workers in the Netherlands. It was hypothesized that the severity of childhood abuse and neglect is associated with the

  1. Reproduction is associated with a tissue-dependent reduction of oxidative stress in eusocial female Damaraland mole-rats (Fukomys damarensis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christina M Schmidt

    Full Text Available Oxidative stress has been implicated as both a physiological cost of reproduction and a driving force on an animal's lifespan. Since increased reproductive effort is generally linked with a reduction in survival, it has been proposed that oxidative stress may influence this relationship. Support for this hypothesis is inconsistent, but this may, in part, be due to the type of tissues that have been analyzed. In Damaraland mole-rats the sole reproducing female in the colony is also the longest lived. Therefore, if oxidative stress does impact the trade-off between reproduction and survival in general, this species may possess some form of enhanced defense. We assessed this relationship by comparing markers of oxidative damage (malondialdehyde, MDA; protein carbonyls, PC and antioxidants (total antioxidant capacity, TAC; superoxide dismutase, SOD in various tissues including plasma, erythrocytes, heart, liver, kidney and skeletal muscle between wild-caught reproductive and non-reproductive female Damaraland mole-rats. Reproductive females exhibited significantly lower levels of PC across all tissues, and lower levels of MDA in heart, kidney and liver relative to non-reproductive females. Levels of TAC and SOD did not differ significantly according to reproductive state. The reduction in oxidative damage in breeding females may be attributable to the unusual social structure of this species, as similar relationships have been observed between reproductive and non-reproductive eusocial insects.

  2. Beneficial Effects of Highly Palatable Food on the Behavioral and Neural Adversities induced by Early Life Stress Experience in Female Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jin Young; Lee, Jong-Ho; Kim, Doyun; Kim, Soung-Min; Koo, JaeHyung; Jahng, Jeong Won

    2015-01-01

    This study examined the effects of highly palatable food during adolescence on the psycho-emotional and neural disturbances caused by early life stress experience in female rats. Female Sprague-Dawley pups were separated from dam for 3 h daily during the first two weeks of birth (MS) or left undisturbed (NH). Half of MS females received free access to chocolate cookies in addition to ad libitum chow from postnatal day 28. Pups were subjected to the behavioral tests during young adulthood. The plasma corticosterone response to acute stress, ΔFosB and brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) levels in the brain regions were analyzed. Total caloric intake and body weight gain during the whole experimental period did not differ among the experimental groups. Cookie access during adolescence and youth improved anxiety-/depression-like behaviors by MS experience. ΔFosB expression was decreased, but BDNF was increased in the nucleus accumbens of MS females, and ΔFosB expression was normalized and BDNF was further increased following cookie access. Corticosterone response to acute stress was blunted by MS experience and cookie access did not improve it. Results suggest that cookie access during adolescence improves the psycho-emotional disturbances of MS females, and ΔFosB and/or BDNF expression in the nucleus accumbens may play a role in its underlying neural mechanisms.

  3. Lower susceptibility of female mice to acetaminophen hepatotoxicity: Role of mitochondrial glutathione, oxidant stress and c-jun N-terminal kinase

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Du, Kuo; Williams, C. David; McGill, Mitchell R.; Jaeschke, Hartmut

    2014-01-01

    Acetaminophen (APAP) overdose causes severe hepatotoxicity in animals and humans. However, the mechanisms underlying the gender differences in susceptibility to APAP overdose in mice have not been clarified. In our study, APAP (300 mg/kg) caused severe liver injury in male mice but 69–77% lower injury in females. No gender difference in metabolic activation of APAP was found. Hepatic glutathione (GSH) was rapidly depleted in both genders, while GSH recovery in female mice was 2.6 fold higher in the mitochondria at 4 h, and 2.5 and 3.3 fold higher in the total liver at 4 h and 6 h, respectively. This faster recovery of GSH, which correlated with greater induction of glutamate-cysteine ligase, attenuated mitochondrial oxidative stress in female mice, as suggested by a lower GSSG/GSH ratio at 6 h (3.8% in males vs. 1.4% in females) and minimal centrilobular nitrotyrosine staining. While c-jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) activation was similar at 2 and 4 h post-APAP, it was 3.1 fold lower at 6 h in female mice. However, female mice were still protected by the JNK inhibitor SP600125. 17β-Estradiol pretreatment moderately decreased liver injury and oxidative stress in male mice without affecting GSH recovery. Conclusion: The lower susceptibility of female mice is achieved by the improved detoxification of reactive oxygen due to accelerated recovery of mitochondrial GSH levels, which attenuates late JNK activation and liver injury. However, even the reduced injury in female mice was still dependent on JNK. While 17β-estradiol partially protects male mice, it does not affect hepatic GSH recovery. - Highlights: • Female mice are less susceptible to acetaminophen overdose than males. • GSH depletion and protein adduct formation are similar in both genders. • Recovery of hepatic GSH levels is faster in females and correlates with Gclc. • Reduced oxidant stress in females leads to reduced JNK activation. • JNK activation and mitochondrial translocation are critical

  4. Lower susceptibility of female mice to acetaminophen hepatotoxicity: Role of mitochondrial glutathione, oxidant stress and c-jun N-terminal kinase

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Du, Kuo; Williams, C. David; McGill, Mitchell R.; Jaeschke, Hartmut, E-mail: hjaeschke@kumc.edu

    2014-11-15

    Acetaminophen (APAP) overdose causes severe hepatotoxicity in animals and humans. However, the mechanisms underlying the gender differences in susceptibility to APAP overdose in mice have not been clarified. In our study, APAP (300 mg/kg) caused severe liver injury in male mice but 69–77% lower injury in females. No gender difference in metabolic activation of APAP was found. Hepatic glutathione (GSH) was rapidly depleted in both genders, while GSH recovery in female mice was 2.6 fold higher in the mitochondria at 4 h, and 2.5 and 3.3 fold higher in the total liver at 4 h and 6 h, respectively. This faster recovery of GSH, which correlated with greater induction of glutamate-cysteine ligase, attenuated mitochondrial oxidative stress in female mice, as suggested by a lower GSSG/GSH ratio at 6 h (3.8% in males vs. 1.4% in females) and minimal centrilobular nitrotyrosine staining. While c-jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) activation was similar at 2 and 4 h post-APAP, it was 3.1 fold lower at 6 h in female mice. However, female mice were still protected by the JNK inhibitor SP600125. 17β-Estradiol pretreatment moderately decreased liver injury and oxidative stress in male mice without affecting GSH recovery. Conclusion: The lower susceptibility of female mice is achieved by the improved detoxification of reactive oxygen due to accelerated recovery of mitochondrial GSH levels, which attenuates late JNK activation and liver injury. However, even the reduced injury in female mice was still dependent on JNK. While 17β-estradiol partially protects male mice, it does not affect hepatic GSH recovery. - Highlights: • Female mice are less susceptible to acetaminophen overdose than males. • GSH depletion and protein adduct formation are similar in both genders. • Recovery of hepatic GSH levels is faster in females and correlates with Gclc. • Reduced oxidant stress in females leads to reduced JNK activation. • JNK activation and mitochondrial translocation are critical

  5. Effects of parental effort on blood stress protein HSP60 and immunoglobulins in female blue tits: a brood size manipulation experiment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merino, Santiago; Moreno, Juan; Tomás, Gustavo; Martínez, Javier; Morales, Judith; Martínez-de la Puente, Josué; Osorno, José Luis

    2006-09-01

    1. Physiological stress in animals may impose a limit for investment in current reproduction in the wild. A brood manipulation experiment was conducted in a population of blue tits Cyanistes caeruleus to study the effect of parental effort on changes in two types of proteins related with stress: the blood stress protein HSP60 and the plasma immunoglobulins. 2. Levels of HSP60 were reduced across the experiment for females attending reduced broods, and females attending enlarged broods experienced a reduction of immunoglobulin levels. Moreover, the overall changes in the levels of both proteins were positively related. 3. By controlling for the change in immunoglobulin levels we found an increase in HSP60 for females in the enlarged treatment, presumably to offset deleterious effects derived from increased effort. 4. Maternal effort was able to partially compensate for the effect of treatment as nestlings did not differ in mass and levels of immunoglobulins and HSP60 among treatments. 5. Physiological stress as reflected in stress and immunoglobulin proteins may limit maternal effort in breeding blue tits.

  6. The TVT-obturator surgical procedure for the treatment of female stress urinary incontinence: a clinical update.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waltregny, David; de Leval, Jean

    2009-03-01

    Six years ago, the inside-out transobturator tape TVT-O procedure was developed for the surgical treatment of female stress urinary incontinence (SUI) with the aim of minimizing the risk of urethra and bladder injuries and ensuring minimal tissue dissection. Initial feasibility and efficacy studies suggested that the TVT-O procedure is associated with high SUI cure rates and low morbidity at short term. A recent analysis of medium-term results indicated that the TVT-O procedure is efficient, with maintenance, after a 3-year minimum follow-up, of cure rates comparing favorably with those reported for TVT. No late complications were observed. As of July 2008, more than 35 clinical papers, including ten randomized trials and two national registries, have been published on the outcome of the TVT-O surgery. Results from these studies have confirmed that the TVT-O procedure is safe and as efficient as the TVT procedure, at least in the short/medium term.

  7. [A comparative study on treating femal stress urinary incontinence with TVT-Abbrevo and TVT-Obturator].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, W L; Lu, Z W; Li, F P; Yu, H Y

    2016-07-26

    To compare the effectiveness and complications of TVT-Abbrevo (tension-free vaginal tape-Abbrevo) and TVT-Obturator (tension-free vaginal tape-obturator) for the treatment of female stress urinary incontinence (SUI). From Nov.2012 to Nov.2013, 117 patients suffering from SUI were treated with TVT-Abbrebo (n=79) or TVT-Obturator (n=38) procedure, the clinical efficacy and operation-correlated complications were observed. A total of 117 cases, 107 cases of urinary incontinence symptoms disappeared completely, 10 cases were improved. 72 cases (91.1%) were cured and 7 cases (8.9%) were improved in TVT-Abbrevo group; 35 cases (92.1%) were cured and 3 cases (7.9%) were improved in TVT-Obturator group. No significant differences could be found for the curing rates between two groups (P>0.05). Compared with the TVT-Obturator group, the TVT-Abbrevo group had less patients complaining of inner thigh pain at 24 h and 1 w after surgery (PTVT-Abbrevo and TVT-Obturator group (P>0.05). No intraoperative complications such as blood vessel, nerve, bladder damage were recorded and no postoperative retropubic hematoma, tape adjustment and other complications occurred in two goups. No recurrence after 1 year follow-up. The study shows that TVT-Abbrevo procedure is safe and efficacy in treatment of SUI, and associated with low incidence of recent postoperative inner thigh pain.

  8. Optical clearing of vaginal tissues, ex vivo, for minimally invasive laser treatment of female stress urinary incontinence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Chun-Hung; Myers, Erinn M.; Kennelly, Michael J.; Fried, Nathaniel M.

    2017-01-01

    Near-infrared laser energy in conjunction with applied tissue cooling is being investigated for thermal remodeling of the endopelvic fascia during minimally invasive treatment of female stress urinary incontinence. Previous computer simulations of light transport, heat transfer, and tissue thermal damage have shown that a transvaginal approach is more feasible than a transurethral approach. However, results were suboptimal, and some undesirable thermal insult to the vaginal wall was still predicted. This study uses experiments and computer simulations to explore whether application of an optical clearing agent (OCA) can further improve optical penetration depth and completely preserve the vaginal wall during subsurface treatment of the endopelvic fascia. Several different mixtures of OCA's were tested, and 100% glycerol was found to be the optimal agent. Optical transmission studies, optical coherence tomography, reflection spectroscopy, and computer simulations [including Monte Carlo (MC) light transport, heat transfer, and Arrhenius integral model of thermal damage] using glycerol were performed. The OCA produced a 61% increase in optical transmission through porcine vaginal wall at 37°C after 30 min. The MC model showed improved energy deposition in endopelvic fascia using glycerol. Without OCA, 62%, 37%, and 1% of energy was deposited in vaginal wall, endopelvic fascia, and urethral wall, respectively, compared with 50%, 49%, and 1% using OCA. Use of OCA also resulted in 0.5-mm increase in treatment depth, allowing potential thermal tissue remodeling at a depth of 3 mm with complete preservation of the vaginal wall.

  9. [Mild and moderate female stress urinary incontinence treated with transcutaneous acupoint electrical stimulation: a randomized controlled trial].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lian, Aixia; Zhang, Wei; Wang, Song

    2015-04-01

    To compare the difference in the clinical efficacy on mild and moderate female stress urinary incontinence (FSUI) between transcutaneous acupoint electrical stimulation and oral administration of midodrine hydrochloride tablets. Ninety cases of mild and moderate FSUI were randomized into an observation group and a control group, 45 cases in each one. In the observation group, the transcutaneous acupoint electrical stimulation was applied to Ciliao (BL 32), Shenshu (BL 23), Zigong (EX-CA 1), Guanyuan (CV 4) and Qihai (CV 6), once a day. In the control group, midodrine hydrochloride tablets were prescribed for oral administration, 2. 5 mg per treatment, three times each day. The duration of treatment was 4 weeks. The score of international consultation on incontinence questionnaire-urinary incontinence short form (ICI-Q-SF) and leakage of urine in 1 h urinal pad test were observed before and after treatment in the patients of the two groups, and the efficacy was compared between the two groups. The score of ICI-Q-SF and leakage of urine in urinal pad test after treatment were all improved apparently as compared with those before treatment in the two groups (all Pelectrical stimulation achieves the better efficacy on FSUI as compared with the oral administration of midodrine hydrochloride tablets. This therapy effectively improves the patient's urine control ability and reduces leakage of urine.

  10. Comparison between three mini-sling surgical procedures and the traditional transobturator vaginal tape technique for female stress urinary incontinence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leanza, V; Intagliata, E; Leanza, A; Ferla, F; Leanza, G; Vecchio, R

    2014-01-01

    To compare mini-sling and traditional tension-free operations for female stress urinary incontinence. A systematic review of articles in the Literature published between 2002 and 2012, was conducted. A Pubmed search was performed. Primary outcomes were subjective and objective cure rates at 12 months comparing the three single-incision mini-slings techniques (TVT-Secur, MiniArc and Monarc systems) with the standard midurethral sling procedure TOT (Transobturator Vaginal Tape). Secondary outcomes included peri-operative (vaginal and/or bladder perforation, urine retention, urinary tract infection, bleeding, pain) and post-operative (mesh exposure, de novo urgency, and dyspareunia) complications. In term of objective cure rate at 12 month after surgery, it is evident that TOT at first, and MiniArc are the most effective procedures. The incidence of post-operative urgency and UTI was lower in TOT technique, while vaginal perforation was described in equal frequency both in TOT and in MiniArc procedures. The advantages of the three above described mini-invasive techniques seem to consist into lower cases of urinary retention, pain and bleeding. Furthermore, bladder perforation and bleeding are not described in the Literature for TVT-Secur and Monarc systems. Some single-incision slings look promising and as effective as conventional sub-urethral slings at short term evaluation. However, at this moment a clear statement in favor of the widespread use of single-incision slings cannot be made. More studies must define the efficacy of these techniques.

  11. Comparison of Effectiveness between Tension-Free Vaginal Tape (TVT and Trans-Obturator Tape (TOT in Patients with Stress Urinary Incontinence and Intrinsic Sphincter Deficiency.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hyeong Gon Kim

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to compare the two types of mid-urethral slings for stress urinary incontinence (SUI with intrinsic sphincter deficiency (ISD.This retrospective study included patients who underwent tension-free vaginal tape (TVT procedure or transobturator tape (TOT procedure by a single surgeon for SUI with ISD, defined as Valsalva leak point pressure (VLPP < 60 cmH2O in a urodynamic study. Cases of neurogenic bladder, previous SUI surgery, and concomitant cystocele repair were excluded. The primary outcome was treatment success at 12 months, defined by self-reported absence of symptoms, no leakage episodes recorded, and no retreatment.Among the 157 women who were included in the final analysis, 105 patients received TVT and 52 patients received TOT. Age, underlying diseases, Stamey grade, cystocele grade, and presence of urge incontinence were not significantly different between the two groups. Urodynamic parameters including maximal urethral closing pressure, detrusor overactivity, VLPP, urethral hypermobility (Q-tip ≥ 30°, were also comparable between the two groups. Success rate was significantly higher in the TVT group than in the TOT group (95.2% vs. 82.7%, p = 0.009. On multivariate analysis, only TOT surgery (OR = 3.922, 95%CI = 1.223-12.582, p = 0.022 was a risk factor for failure following surgical treatment.TVT is more effective than TOT in treatment of female SUI with ISD.

  12. Academic Stress and Prevalence of Stress-Related Self-Medication among Undergraduate Female Students of Health and Non-Health Cluster Colleges of a Public Sector University in Dammam, Saudi Arabia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al Rasheed, Fatima; Naqvi, Atta Abbas; Ahmad, Rizwan; Ahmad, Niyaz

    2017-01-01

    The objective was to report academic stress and prevalence of stress-related self-medication among undergraduate female students of health and nonhealth cluster colleges at a public sector university in Dammam, Saudi Arabia. A 5-month cross-sectional survey was conducted in the university. The survey included the English version of 10-item Perceived Stress Scale (PSS) to report self-perceived stress. Student responses were analyzed by SPSS version 22 software. The majority of students (85%) perceived examinations as a stressor. Most of the students (64%) had perceived moderate stress that increased as students progressed from preparatory year to 4 th year. It declined in students of 5 th and 6 th year. The prevalence of stress related was reported at 39.58%. Highest prevalence of stress-induced self-medication was reported from College of Nursing (59.09%) and lowest (29.69%) from clinical pharmacy. Most common drug used to self-medicate during stress was caffeine (49.5%). The PSS score was significantly associated with colleges and study levels. Students studying in health cluster colleges reported high academic stress and self-medication practice. The major stressors identified were examination and course load. Student counseling sessions and counseling by pharmacists regarding self-care may help in the reduction of such stressors and may promote responsible self-medication. Self-evaluation and quality assurance process of curriculum may highlight areas for improvement in the courses. This may help in lowering academic stress among students.

  13. [Comparison of the efficacy and safety between TVT-O and TVT-O with biofeedback pelvic floor electrical stimulation on female stress urinary incontinence].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Min, Ling; Zhao, Xia

    2015-01-01

    To compare the efficacy and safety between tension-free vaginal tape obturator technique (TVT-O) and TVT-O with biofeedback pelvic floor electrical stimulation on the therapy of female stress urinary incontinence. In this prospective study, 120 female patients of female stress urinary incontinence were enrolled from January 2012 to December 2013. The patients were randomly assigned to two groups, 60 in group A received TVT-O alone, while 60 in group B not only received TVT-O but also received biofeedback pelvic floor electrical stimulation. All the patients were followed up for 12 months to assess the efficacy and safety of the two procedures. Subjective indices [total volume of urine (TV), the total frequency of urination (TOV), the total leakage of urine events (TL), urinary incontinence related quality of life questionnaire (I-QOL), International Advisory Committee on urinary incontinence urinary incontinence questionnaire short form scale (ICI-Q-SF)] and objective indices [Valsalva leak point pressure (VLPP), maximum flow rate (MFR), residual urine volume (RUV),pad test] were analyzed. Overall, the cure rate was 75% at 1 year follow-up for group A and 88.33% for group B (Pelectrical stimulation biofeedback therapy could improve the curative effects of TVT-O on the treatment of female stress urinary incontinence.

  14. Use of free uroflowmetry vs pressure-flow studies in the diagnosis of overactive bladder syndrome in females.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nowakowski, Ł; Futyma, K; Ziętek, A; Bogusiewicz, M; Gałczyński, K; Rechberger, T

    2016-12-01

    To determine if pressure-flow study (PFS) parameters, including flow index (FI) calculated by dividing average urethral flow by maximal urethral flow, increase the accuracy of urodynamic studies in the diagnosis of overactive bladder (OAB). Retrospective study to evaluate the medical history and urodynamic examination results of female patients diagnosed with lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS) between January 2014 and December 2015. Patients were stratified into four groups depending on the type of LUTS: OAB; stress urinary incontinence (SUI); mixed urinary incontinence with predominant SUI symptoms (MUI-SUI); and mixed urinary incontinence with predominant OAB symptoms (MUI-OAB). OAB was diagnosed in 26 (15%) patients, SUI was diagnosed in 93 (52%) patients, MUI-OAB was diagnosed in 43 (24%) patients, and MUI-SUI was diagnosed in 17 (9%) patients. FI calculated using free uroflowmetry (FI-free) was significantly lower in the OAB group compared with the other groups (p<0.01). Analysis revealed no difference in FI-free between the SUI, MUI-SUI and MUI-OAB groups. Significant differences were found between the study groups for most free uroflowmetric parameters, including maximal urethral flow, average urethral flow and micturition volume (p<0.05). Similar differences were not found in PFS parameters. The decrease in the urethral lumen due to the presence of a transurethral catheter in patients with OAB, in contrast to women with SUI and MUI, was not found to influence FI calculated using free uroflowmetry or PFS. FI may serve as an important objective diagnostic tool for OAB, but only when calculated from free uroflowmetry parameters when assessing patients with LUTS. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Health-related quality of life association with work-related stress and social support among female and male disabled employees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsai, Su-Ying

    2016-01-01

    Few studies have focused on adverse relations of job strain to health in disabled employees by gender. In this study, the author explores gender differences in work-related stress, social support, and health-related quality of life (HRQoL) among 106 disabled employees in an electronics manufacturing plant during 2012-2013, using questionnaire data on demographics, perceived work-related stress, the Beck Depression Inventory, the Chinese version of the Job Content Questionnaire (C-JCQ), and HRQoL. The prevalence of stress related to workload, colleagues, and supervisor were 26.4%, 14.1%, and 8.5%, respectively. Disabled females had higher scores for psychological job demand than male disabled employees (p = .0219). Increasing psychological job demand scores were adversely related to physical function scores (β = -1.6) in males, whereas increasing decision latitude scores were positively related to role-limitation due to physical function (β = 2.3), general health (β = 1.2), vitality (β = 1.3), role-limitation due to emotional health (β = 2.6), and mental health (β = 0.9) scores in females. These results provide a better understanding of the HRQoL in female and male disabled workers, allowing for the development of stress-prevention programs specific for gender in disabled laborers.

  16. Multi-Level Risk Factors for Suicidal Ideation Among at-Risk Adolescent Females: The Role of Hypothalamic-Pituitary-Adrenal Axis Responses to Stress

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calhoun, Casey D.; Hastings, Paul D.; Rudolph, Karen D.; Nock, Matthew K.; Prinstein, Mitchell J.

    2014-01-01

    Adopting a multi-level approach, this study examined risk factors for adolescent suicidal ideation, with specific attention to (a) hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis stress responses and (b) the interplay between HPA-axis and other risk factors from multiple domains (i.e., psychological, interpersonal and biological). Participants were 138 adolescent females (Mage=14.13 years, SD=1.40) at risk for suicidal behaviors. At baseline, lifetime suicidal ideation and a number of risk factors were assessed (i.e., depressive symptoms, impulsiveness, pubertal status and peer stress). Participants were exposed to a psychosocial stress task and HPA-axis responses were assessed by measuring cortisol levels pre- and post-stressor. At 3 months post-baseline, suicidal ideation again was assessed. Using group-based trajectory modeling, three groups of cortisol stress-response patterns were identified (i.e., hyporesponsive, normative, and hyperresponsive). As compared to females in the normative and hyporesponsive group, females in the hyperresponsive group were more likely to report a lifetime history of suicidal ideation at baseline, above and beyond the effects of the other predictors. Moreover, as compared to females in the normative group, females in the hyperresponsive group were at increased risk for reporting suicidal ideation 3 months later, after controlling for prior ideation. No interactions between cortisol group and the other risk factors were significant, with the exception of a non-significant trend between impulsiveness and cortisol group on lifetime suicidal ideation. Findings highlight the importance of HPA-axis responses to acute stressors as a risk factor for suicidal ideation among adolescents. PMID:24958308

  17. Comparison of movement-to-music, rhythm activities, and competitive games on depression, stress, anxiety, and anger of females in substance abuse rehabilitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cevasco, Andrea M; Kennedy, Roy; Generally, Natalie Ruth

    2005-01-01

    Over the past several decades the number of females using addictive substances has continuously increased. Females have different reasons for initiating substance abuse and specific treatment needs that differ from males. Researchers suggested gender specific drug rehabilitation treatment, in which female clients developed or improved functional behaviors. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of 3 different types of music therapy interventions on levels of depression, stress, anxiety, and anger of female clients in substance abuse rehabilitation. Ten females in an outpatient substance abuse rehabilitation program participated twice a week for 6 weeks in a music therapy program, participating in movement-to-music activities, rhythm activities, and competitive games for 2 weeks, 4 sessions each. After each intervention state-trait anxiety and levels of anger were measured. A repeated-measures ANOVA indicated no significant differences for the three types of music therapy interventions; however, data collected on daily scores, immediately before and after each session, indicated that individuals reported a decrease in depression, stress, anxiety, and anger immediately following the music therapy sessions.

  18. Victim-Offender Relationship Status Moderates the Relationships of Peritraumatic Emotional Responses, Active Resistance, and Posttraumatic Stress Symptomatology in Female Rape Survivors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feinstein, Brian A; Humphreys, Kathryn L; Bovin, Michelle J; Marx, Brian P; Resick, Patricia A

    2011-06-01

    This study examined whether the level of victim-offender relationship (VOR) moderated the relationship between peritraumatic fear and active resistance as well as the relationship between peritraumatic fear and posttraumatic stress symptom severity in a community sample of female rape survivors. One hundred thirty-five participants were interviewed about their emotional and behavioral responses during the rape and assessed for posttraumatic stress symptomatology within one month of the assault. Results indicated that peritraumatic fear was positively associated with active resistance, but only among survivors of acquaintance rape. Additionally, peritraumatic fear was positively associated with posttraumatic stress symptom severity, but only among survivors of intimate partner rape. These results suggest that VOR may be an important contextual factor that influences emotional and behavioral responses during rape as well as posttraumatic stress symptomatology in its aftermath.

  19. Two-year follow-up of an open-label multicenter study of polyacrylamide hydrogel (Bulkamid®) for female stress and stress-predominant mixed incontinence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Toozs-Hobson, Philip; Al-Singary, Waleed; Fynes, Michelle

    2012-01-01

    Polyacrylamide hydrogel (PAHG, Bulkamid®) is a promising urethral bulking agent. This article presents the 2-year follow-up results of a multicenter study of PAHG injections for treating stress and stress-predominant mixed urinary incontinence.......Polyacrylamide hydrogel (PAHG, Bulkamid®) is a promising urethral bulking agent. This article presents the 2-year follow-up results of a multicenter study of PAHG injections for treating stress and stress-predominant mixed urinary incontinence....

  20. Does vaginal estriol make urodynamic changes in women with overactive bladder syndrome and genitourinary syndrome of menopause?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matarazzo, Maria Grazia; Caruso, Salvatore; Giunta, Giuliana; Valenti, Gaetano; Sarpietro, Giuseppe; Cianci, Antonio

    2018-03-01

    OAB is a common finding in postmenopausal women. Hypoestrogenism is the root cause of many signs and symptoms of Genitourinary Syndrome of Menopause (vaginal dryness, atrophy, dyspareunia, urinary disorders, etc.). As such the aim of this study was to evaluate the urodynamic effects of ultralowdose estriol vaginal gel formulation to treat women with Genitourinary Syndrome of Menopause and Overactive Bladder Syndrome. This open-labeled, single center, prospective study involved 37 women with OAB recruited in our Urogynecological Unit between January and July 2016. They received estriol 50 mcg/g vaginal gel, one applicator-dose per day for 3 weeks followed by one dose twice a week for 12 weeks. Objective and subjective parameters were evaluated before and after treatment through the urodynamic examination, Overactive Bladder symptom score and Short Form Health Survey-36 questionnaires. Vaginal atrophy symptoms and signs as well as the overactive bladder subjective symptom parameter improved significantly. Urodynamic evaluation showed significant improvement in first desire to void and maximum cystometric capacity after estriol usage. Patients who had detrusor overactivity did not show any improvement for this parameter after treatment. The voiding function parameters did not significantly change. Short form-36 showed a better quality of life after treatment especially for the emotional role, as well as mental and general health. A local ultra-low dose concentration of estriol could be effective in women with vaginal atrophy and Overactive Bladder Syndrome for improving both subjective symptoms and urodynamic parameters of storage function not affecting voiding function. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Effect of tamsulosin versus prazosin on clinical and urodynamic parameters in women with voiding difficulty: a randomized clinical trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sakineh Hajebrahimi

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Sakineh Hajebrahimi1, Yadollah Ahmadi Asrbadr1, Arash Azaripour1, Homayoun Sadeghi-Bazargani2,31Urology Department, Imam Reza University Hospital, Tabriz, Iran; 2Neuroscience Research Center and RDCC, Tabriz University of Medical Sciences, Tabriz, Iran; 3Karolinska Institute, Stockholm, SwedenObjective: To compare the effects of tamsulosin and prazosin on clinical and urodynamic parameters in women with voiding dysfunction.Methods: Forty women aged 20–65 years with a clinical diagnosis of voiding dysfunction were blindly randomized to two equal groups for treatment with tamsulosin 0.4 mg or 1–2 mg of prazosin daily. Symptom assessment with the American Urological Association Symptom Score (AUASS and urodynamic evaluation was performed initially and after three months of treatment. Patient satisfaction was evaluated and severe adverse drug effects recorded. Statistical analysis was carried out using the Student’s t-test and Mann–Whitney U test.Results: Although AUASS improved in both groups, the rate of improvement was larger in the tamsulosin group. Urodynamic parameters improved but did not normalize in both groups. Adverse side effects from medication in the prazosin group were more common than in the tamsulosin group. Most of the patients in the tamsulosin group (80% were satisfied with their treatment compared with those in the prazosin group (45%.Conclusion: Tamsulosin and prazosin are both effective in palliating symptoms of women with voiding dysfunction and improving their urodynamic parameters. Tamsulosin may be the preferred drug to prescribe because of its more amenable side effect profile and greater patient satisfaction.Keywords: tamsulosin, prazosin, voiding dysfunction 

  2. A combined approach to heat stress effect on male fertility in Nasonia vitripennis: from the physiological consequences on spermatogenesis to the reproductive adjustment of females mated with stressed males.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chirault, Marlène; Lucas, Christophe; Goubault, Marlène; Chevrier, Claude; Bressac, Christophe; Lécureuil, Charlotte

    2015-01-01

    In recent years, several studies have shown a decline in reproductive success in males in both humans and wildlife. Research on male fertility has largely focused on vertebrates, although invertebrates constitute the vast majority of terrestrial biodiversity. The reduction of their reproductive capacities due to environmental stresses can have strong negative ecological impacts, and also dramatic consequences on world food production if it affects the reproductive success of biological control agents, such as parasitic wasps used to control crop pests. Here Nasonia vitripennis, a parasitic wasp of various fly species, was studied to test the effects of 24h-heat stress applied during the first pupal stage on male fertility. Results showed that only primary spermatocytes were present at the first pupal stage in all cysts of the testes. Heat stress caused a delay in spermatogenesis during development and a significant decrease in sperm stock at emergence. Females mated with these heat-stressed males showed a reduce sperm count stored in their spermatheca. Females did not appear to distinguish heat-stressed from control males and did not remate more frequently to compensate for the lack of sperm transferred. As a result, females mated with heat-stressed males produced a suboptimal lifetime offspring sex ratio compared to those mated with control males. This could further impact the population dynamics of this species. N. vitripennis appears to be an interesting biological model to study the mechanisms of subfertility and its consequence on female reproductive strategies and provides new research perspectives in both invertebrates and vertebrates.

  3. A longitudinal investigation of the mediating role of self-esteem and body importance in the relationship between stress and body dissatisfaction in adolescent females and males.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murray, Kristen; Rieger, Elizabeth; Byrne, Don

    2013-09-01

    Body dissatisfaction is particularly prevalent during adolescence and has recently been linked to stress in females and males. However, prospective studies are needed to better understand the relationship between stress and body dissatisfaction. The present study investigates the direction of this association and the mediating role of self-esteem and body image importance. A sample of 298 adolescent females and males in Grades 7 to 10 (ages 12 to 17 years) were surveyed at two time points over a one-year period. Hierarchical regression analyses revealed that stress significantly predicted body dissatisfaction one year later. Furthermore, a multiple mediation analysis controlling for gender revealed a significant indirect effect in both cross-sectional and longitudinal models, indicating that stress predicts reductions in self-esteem and increases in body importance, which in turn predict body dissatisfaction. These findings suggest that stress, self-esteem, and body importance should be included in programmes aimed at improving body dissatisfaction. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Effects of Long-Term Stress and Recovery on the Prefrontal Cortex and Dentate Gyrus in Male and Female Rats

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lin, Yanhua; Westenbroek, Christel; Bakker, Petra; Termeer, Joan; Liu, Aihua; Li, Xuejun; Ter Horst, Gert J.

    2008-01-01

    Women show a higher prevalence for depression than men. However, the biological basis of gender differences in stress response and recovery still remain poorly understood. Therefore, the aim of the study was to assess the gender differences in response to acute stress, chronic stress and recovery in

  5. Dietary taurine intake, nutrients intake, dietary habits and life stress by depression in Korean female college students: a case-control study

    OpenAIRE

    Park, Ji-Yeon; You, Jeong-Soon; Chang, Kyung-Ja

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Background The purpose of this study was to investigate the dietary taurine intake, nutrients intake, dietary habits and life stress by depression in Korean female college students. Methods In this study, research data were collected in March 2009 and 65 patients with depression and 65 controls without depression participated. The CES-D (Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression) scale was used for depression measure and controls were matched for age. A 3-day recall method was used...

  6. Female Genital Mutilation

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... problems (depression, anxiety, post-traumatic stress disorder, low self-esteem, etc.). Health complications of female genital mutilation Who ... female genital mutilation You are here: Media centre Fact sheets Quick Links Sitemap Home Health topics Data ...

  7. A putatively functional polymorphism in the HTR2C gene is associated with depressive symptoms in white females reporting significant life stress.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beverly H Brummett

    Full Text Available Psychosocial stress is well known to be positively associated with subsequent depressive symptoms. Cortisol response to stress may be one of a number of biological mechanisms that links psychological stress to depressive symptoms, although the precise causal pathway remains unclear. Activity of the x-linked serotonin 5-HTR2C receptor has also been shown to be associated with depression and with clinical response to antidepressant medications. We recently demonstrated that variation in a single nucleotide polymorphism on the HTR2C gene, rs6318 (Ser23Cys, is associated with different cortisol release and short-term changes in affect in response to a series of stress tasks in the laboratory. Based on this observation, we decided to examine whether rs6318 might moderate the association between psychosocial stress and subsequent depressive symptoms. In the present study we use cross-sectional data from a large population-based sample of young adult White men (N = 2,366 and White women (N = 2,712 in the United States to test this moderation hypothesis. Specifically, we hypothesized that the association between self-reported stressful life events and depressive symptoms would be stronger among homozygous Ser23 C females and hemizygous Ser23 C males than among Cys23 G carriers. In separate within-sex analyses a genotype-by-life stress interaction was observed for women (p = .022 but not for men (p = .471. Homozygous Ser23 C women who reported high levels of life stress had depressive symptom scores that were about 0.3 standard deviations higher than female Cys23 G carriers with similarly high stress levels. In contrast, no appreciable difference in depressive symptoms was observed between genotypes at lower levels of stress. Our findings support prior work that suggests a functional SNP on the HTR2C gene may confer an increased risk for depressive symptoms in White women with a history of significant life stress.

  8. The role of video-urodynamic studies in managing non-neurogenic voiding dysfunction in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soygür, T; Arikan, N; Tokatli, Z; Karaboga, R

    2004-04-01

    To retrospectively evaluate the role of video-urodynamics (VUD) in the diagnosis and management of voiding dysfunction in children. The records of the 128 children with dysfunctional voiding symptoms were retrospectively evaluated. All patients had a noninvasive screening assessment consisting of a detailed voiding history, ultrasonography and uroflowmetry, and measurement of residual urine. All the patients had also undergone VUD with no selection criteria. The results of VUD were compared retrospectively with the noninvasive screening assessment results. In 84 patients with urge syndrome VUD showed detrusor overactivity in 72 (86%); the bladder configuration and voiding-phase results were normal. Three (3.5%) patients had low-grade reflux. In 38 patients with voiding dysfunction VUD showed an intermittent flow pattern and/or increased electromyographic activity with a "spinning top" deformity of the bladder neck and increased detrusor pressure during voiding. Five (13%) of these children had low-grade reflux. In six infrequent voiders VUD revealed increased bladder capacity with fractionated flow patterns, with concomitantly increased abdominal pressures. There was decreased detrusor pressure during voiding with significant residual urine volume in only two patients; there was no reflux in any of the patients in this group. We do not recommend routine VUD in children with non-neurogenic voiding dysfunction, as it does not generally change the management and treatment. A detailed voiding history and physical examination is usually sufficient for a correct diagnosis.

  9. Are patients with bladder oversensitivity different from those with urodynamically proven detrusor overactivity in female overactive bladder syndrome?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sung-Lang Chen

    2017-10-01

    Conclusion: Patients with BO seemed to be on a different spectrum compared to those with DO and also had different symptom-specific and associative factors. It was also found that FDV could be good predictive indicator for detecting DO at a low filling rate.

  10. Blood thiamine, zinc, selenium, lead and oxidative stress in a population of male and female alcoholics: clinical evidence and gender differences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosanna Mancinelli

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION. Long term alcohol abuse is associated with deficiencies in essential nutrients and minerals that can cause a variety of medical consequences including accumulation of toxic metals. Aim. The aim of this research is to get evidence-based data to evaluate alcohol damage and to optimize treatment. Thiamine and thiamine diphosphate (T/TDP, zinc (Zn, selenium (Se, lead (Pb and oxidative stress in terms of reactive oxygen metabolites (ROMs were examined in blood samples from 58 alcohol dependent patients (17 females and 41 males. RESULTS. T/TDP concentration in alcoholics resulted significantly lower than controls (p < 0.005 for both sexes. Serum Zn and Se did not significantly differ from reference values. Levels of blood Pb in alcoholics resulted significantly higher (p < 0.0001 than Italian reference values and were higher in females than in males. ROMs concentration was significantly higher than healthy population only in female abusers (p = 0.005. CONCLUSION. Alcoholics show a significant increase in blood oxidative stress and Pb and decrease in thiamine. Impairment occurs mainly in female abusers confirming a gender specific vulnerability.

  11. Recent reports of Wi-Fi and mobile phone-induced radiation on oxidative stress and reproductive signaling pathways in females and males.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nazıroğlu, Mustafa; Yüksel, Murat; Köse, Seyit Ali; Özkaya, Mehmet Okan

    2013-12-01

    Environmental exposure to electromagnetic radiation (EMR) has been increasing with the increasing demand for communication devices. The aim of the study was to discuss the mechanisms and risk factors of EMR changes on reproductive functions and membrane oxidative biology in females and males. It was reported that even chronic exposure to EMR did not increase the risk of reproductive functions such as increased levels of neoantigens abort. However, the results of some studies indicate that EMR induced endometriosis and inflammation and decreased the number of follicles in the ovarium or uterus of rats. In studies with male rats, exposure caused degeneration in the seminiferous tubules, reduction in the number of Leydig cells and testosterone production as well as increases in luteinizing hormone levels and apoptotic cells. In some cases of male and female infertility, increased levels of oxidative stress and lipid peroxidation and decreased values of antioxidants such as melatonin, vitamin E and glutathione peroxidase were reported in animals exposed to EMR. In conclusion, the results of current studies indicate that oxidative stress from exposure to Wi-Fi and mobile phone-induced EMR is a significant mechanism affecting female and male reproductive systems. However, there is no evidence to this date to support an increased risk of female and male infertility related to EMR exposure.

  12. Impacto da reeducação postural global no tratamento da incontinência urinária de esforço feminina Impact of global postural reeducation for treatment of female stress urinary incontinence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Celina Martins Fozzatti

    2008-02-01

    global postural reeducation (GPR on stress urinary incontinence (SUI and quality of life in SUI female patients METHODS: The study design was a prospective non-randomized clinical trial. Twenty-six patients with symptoms of SUI were selected from the Urogynecology Outpatient Clinics of the State University of Campinas (Unicamp, state of São Paulo, Brazil. Age ranged from 23 to 72 years old (mean 50.8. All women were submitted to anamnesis, physical exam, postural evaluation and urodynamic testing. Patients were treated by the GPR in individual 50 minute sessions weekly for three months and twice a month for the next three months. All patients were re-evaluated at the end of treatment and six months later by means of General Impression of Improvement, Incontinence Impact, General Perception of Health, Functional Evaluation of the Pelvic Floor, Number of Leaking Episodes and Pad Use. RESULTS: At the end of treatment 4 (16% of the patients were cured, 18 (72% had improved significantly and 3 (12% failed. At 6 months, 6 (24% were cured, 16 (64% improved and 3 (12% failed (p<0.001. Quality of Life questionnaires presented significant improvement (p<0.05 in all domains, with emphasis on General Perception of Health, Incontinence Impact and number of leaking episodes. The Functional Evaluation of the Pelvic Floor and Pad Use also presented significant (p<0.001 improvement. CONCLUSION: These results may demonstrate that GPR is an efficient alternative for treatment of stress urinary incontinence.

  13. Relaxing music prevents stress-induced increases in subjective anxiety, systolic blood pressure, and heart rate in healthy males and females.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knight, W E; Rickard PhD, N S

    2001-01-01

    Previous research suggests that while subjective anxiety is reduced by relaxing music, the effect of music on physiological stress indices is less consistent. In the current study, the effect of relaxing music on participants' subjective and physiological response to stress was explored, with attention paid to methodological factors and mediating variables that might have contributed to inconsistencies in previous studies. Undergraduate students (43 females & 44 males) were exposed to a cognitive stressor task involving preparation for an oral presentation either in the presence of Pachelbel's Canon in D major, or in silence. Measures of subjective anxiety, heart rate, blood pressure, cortisol, and salivary IgA were obtained during rest and after presentation of the stressor. The stressor caused significant increases in subjective anxiety, heart rate, and systolic blood pressure in male and female controls. These stress-induced increases were each prevented by exposure to music, and this effect was independent of gender. Music also enhanced baseline salivary IgA levels in the absence of any stress-induced effects. These findings provide experimental support for claims that music is an effective anxiolytic treatment, the robustness of which is demonstrated by retention of the effect in the presence of a range of potentially mediating variables.

  14. Retrospective clinic and urodynamic study in the neurogenic bladder dysfunction caused by human T cell lymphotrophic virus type 1 associated myelopathy/tropical spastic paraparesis (HAM/TSP).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Troisgros, Odile; Barnay, Jose-Luis; Darbon-Naghibzadeh, Farideh; Olive, Pascale; René-Corail, Patrick

    2017-02-01

    HTLV-I associated tropical spastic paraparesis (TSP) and HTLV-I associated myelopathy (HAM) is an endemic disease in Caribbean Island. Bladder-sphincter dysfunctions are almost present. The objectives of the study are to describe clinic and urodynamic characteristics of voiding disorders in Martiniquan population, evaluate if there is a relationship between motor and urinary handicap, and evaluate prognosis factors of urologic complications. Retrospective study of 60 patients suffering from HAM/TSP. Clinical, urodynamic datas, scale of urinary and motor handicap (Urinary Symptom Profile [USP] questionnaire and Osame Score) were collected. Storage symptoms were the most frequent (75%) whatever type of detrusor activity. Detrusor overactivity was the most frequent disorder (68.3%). Bladder compliance was normal in half percent of the cases. Urethral activity was increased in 47% of the cases. Detrusor sphincter dysynergia was found in 78% of the cases, post-void residual in 58% of cases. Sixty five percent of the patients present at least one urologic complication (morphologic and/or infectious) but there was no correlation with motor enablement (P = 0.3097), neither urodynamic study (P = 0.432 for detrusor overactivity, P = 0.107 for detrusor underactivity, P = 0.058 for high urethral activity, P = 0.893 for detrusor sphincter dysynergia, P = 0.850 for post-void residual volume), neither with evolution duration of HAM/TSP (P = 0.348). USP score was not in correlation with Osame score (P = 0.07). Urologic symptoms are not always in relationship with urodynamic study: a systematic urodynamic study is necessary to evaluate HAM/TSP neurogenic bladder. No clinic or urodynamic criterias are predictive of urologic complications. These patients need a close follow up. Neurourol. Urodynam. 36:449-452, 2017. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  15. Urodynamic studies for management of urinary incontinence in children and adults: A short version Cochrane systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clement, Keiran David; Lapitan, Marie Carmela M; Omar, Muhammad Imran; Glazener, Cathryn Margaret Anne

    2015-06-01

    Urodynamic tests are used to investigate people who have urinary incontinence or other urinary symptoms in order to make an objective diagnosis. The investigations are invasive and time consuming. To determine if treatment according to a urodynamic-based diagnosis, compared to treatment based on history and examination, leads to more effective clinical care and better clinical outcomes. Cochrane Incontinence Group Specialized Register (searched February 19, 2013); reference lists of relevant articles. Randomized and quasi-randomized trials in people who were and were not investigated using urodynamics, or comparing one type of urodynamic test against another. At least two independent review authors carried out trial assessment, selection, and data abstraction. We found eight trials but data were available for only 1,036 women in seven trials. Women undergoing urodynamics were more likely to have their management changed (17% vs. 3%, risk ratio [RR] 5.07, 95% CI 1.87-13.74). Two trials suggested that women were more likely to receive drugs (RR 2.09, 95% CI 1.32-3.31), but, in five trials, women were not more likely to undergo surgery (RR 0.99, 95% CI 0.88-1.12). There was no statistically significant difference in urinary incontinence in women who had urodynamics (37%) compared with those undergoing history and clinical examination alone (36%) (RR 1.02, 95% CI 0.86-1.21). While urodynamics did change clinical decision-making, there was some high-quality evidence that this did not result in lower urinary incontinence rates after treatment. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  16. The impact of academic stress on the dietary behaviour of female undergraduates in Kingdom of Saudi Arabia

    OpenAIRE

    Mansoury, Manal

    2016-01-01

    There is a paucity of research into the effect of stress on the dietary behaviour of undergraduate students in non-western societies, particularly middle-eastern countries. This is in spite of the seeming importance of culture and ethnicity as potential moderating factors of the stress- diet relationship. Consequently, there is limited knowledge and understanding of the factors that influence the stress-diet relationship in these societies. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect ...

  17. Paradoxical effects of injection stress and nicotine exposure experienced during adolescence on learning in a serial multiple choice (SMC) task in adult female rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Renaud, Samantha M; Pickens, Laura R G; Fountain, Stephen B

    2015-01-01

    Nicotine exposure in adolescent rats has been shown to cause learning impairments that persist into adulthood long after nicotine exposure has ended. This study was designed to assess the extent to which the effects of adolescent nicotine exposure on learning in adulthood can be accounted for by adolescent injection stress experienced concurrently with adolescent nicotine exposure. Female rats received either 0.033 mg/h nicotine (expressed as the weight of the free base) or bacteriostatic water vehicle by osmotic pump infusion on postnatal days 25-53 (P25-53). Half of the nicotine-exposed rats and half of the vehicle rats also received twice-daily injection stress consisting of intraperitoneal saline injections on P26-53. Together these procedures produced 4 groups: No Nicotine/No Stress, Nicotine/No Stress, No Nicotine/Stress, and Nicotine/Stress. On P65-99, rats were trained to perform a structurally complex 24-element serial pattern of responses in the serial multiple choice (SMC) task. Four general results were obtained in the current study. First, learning for within-chunk elements was not affected by either adolescent nicotine exposure, consistent with past work (Pickens, Rowan, Bevins, and Fountain, 2013), or adolescent injection stress. Thus, there were no effects of adolescent nicotine exposure or injection stress on adult within-chunk learning typically attributed to rule learning in the SMC task. Second, adolescent injection stress alone (i.e., without concurrent nicotine exposure) caused transient but significant facilitation of adult learning restricted to a single element of the 24-element pattern, namely, the "violation element," that was the only element of the pattern that was inconsistent with pattern structure. Thus, adolescent injection stress alone facilitated violation element acquisition in adulthood. Third, also consistent with past work (Pickens et al., 2013), adolescent nicotine exposure, in this case both with and without adolescent

  18. Comparison of the efficacy of tension-free vaginal tape obturator (TVT-O) and single-incision tension-free vaginal tape (Ajust™) in the treatment of female stress urinary incontinence: a 1-year follow-up randomized trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masata, Jaromir; Svabik, Kamil; Zvara, Karel; Hubka, Petr; Toman, Ales; Martan, Alois

    2016-10-01

    The aim of this study was to compare the efficacy of the tension-free vaginal tape obturator (TVT-O) and single-incision tension-free vaginal tape (Ajust™) in the treatment of stress urinary incontinence in a randomized two-arm study with a 1-year follow-up. This single-centre randomized trial compared the objective and subjective cure rates of TVT-O and Ajust using objective criteria (cough test) and subjective criteria (International Consultation on Incontinence Questionnaire short form, ICIQ-UI SF). The objective cure rate was defined as the number of patients with a negative cough stress test. Subjective cure was defined as no stress leakage of urine after surgery based on the ICIQ-UI SF. The primary outcome was to establish differences in objective and subjective cure rates between the TVT-O and Ajust groups. We also compared postoperative pain profiles using a visual analogue scale (VAS), improvement in quality of life using the ICIQ- UI SF and the Incontinence Quality of Life questionnaire, and overall satisfaction with the surgical procedure using a VAS and a five-item Likert scale. Inclusion criteria were age over 18 years, signed informed consent, and urodynamic stress urinary incontinence. Following a power calculation, 50 patients were enrolled into each group (Ajust and TVT-O). The mean follow-up after surgery was 445 days (SD 157.6 days) in the TVT-O group and 451.8 days (SD 127.6 days) in the Ajust group (p = 76.6 %). At 1 year, 47 patients were evaluated in the TVT-O group and 49 in the Ajust group. No differences in subjective cure rates or objective cure rates were observed. In the Ajust and TVT-O groups, the rates for no subjective stress leakage were 89.8 % and 91.5 %, respectively (p = 1.0, OR 1.22, 95 % CI 0.24 - 6.58), and the rates for a negative stress test were 89.8 % and 87.2 %, respectively (p = 0.76, OR 0.77, 95 % CI 0.17 - 3.32). In the Ajust group two patients reported de novo pain during sexual

  19. Academic stress and prevalence of stress-related self-medication among undergraduate female students of health and non-health cluster colleges of a public sector University in Dammam, Saudi Arabia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fatima Al Rasheed

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The objective was to report academic stress and prevalence of stress-related self-medication among undergraduate female students of health and nonhealth cluster colleges at a public sector university in Dammam, Saudi Arabia. Materials and Methods: A 5-month cross-sectional survey was conducted in the university. The survey included the English version of 10-item Perceived Stress Scale (PSS to report self-perceived stress. Student responses were analyzed by SPSS version 22 software. Results: The majority of students (85% perceived examinations as a stressor. Most of the students (64% had perceived moderate stress that increased as students progressed from preparatory year to 4th year. It declined in students of 5th and 6th year. The prevalence of stress related was reported at 39.58%. Highest prevalence of stress-induced self-medication was reported from College of Nursing (59.09% and lowest (29.69% from clinical pharmacy. Most common drug used to self-medicate during stress was caffeine (49.5%. The PSS score was significantly associated with colleges and study levels. Conclusion: Students studying in health cluster colleges reported high academic stress and self-medication practice. The major stressors identified were examination and course load. Student counseling sessions and counseling by pharmacists regarding self-care may help in the reduction of such stressors and may promote responsible self-medication. Self-evaluation and quality assurance process of curriculum may highlight areas for improvement in the courses. This may help in lowering academic stress among students.

  20. Patient Characteristics Impacting Health State Index Scores, Measured by the EQ-5D of Females with Stress Urinary Incontinence Symptoms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tincello, Douglas; Sculpher, Mark; Tunn, Ralf; Quail, Deborah; van der Vaart, Huub; Falconer, Christian; Manning, Martina; Timlin, Louise

    2010-01-01

    Objective: To describe the characteristics of women seeking treatment for symptoms of stress urinary incontinence (SUI) and to investigate the association of SUI symptoms with generic health-related quality of life (HRQoL) as measured by the EuroQol (EQ-5D) instrument. Methods: The Stress Urinary

  1. Transcutaneous mechanical nerve stimulation using perineal vibration: a novel method for the treatment of female stress urinary incontinence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sønksen, Jens; Ohl, Dana A; Bonde, Birthe

    2007-01-01

    We defined basic guidelines for transcutaneous mechanical nerve stimulation in modifying pelvic floor responses in women and determined the efficacy of transcutaneous mechanical nerve stimulation in treating stress urinary incontinence.......We defined basic guidelines for transcutaneous mechanical nerve stimulation in modifying pelvic floor responses in women and determined the efficacy of transcutaneous mechanical nerve stimulation in treating stress urinary incontinence....

  2. Comparison of urodynamics between ischemic and hemorrhagic stroke patients; can we suggest the category of urinary dysfunction in patients with cerebrovascular accident according to type of stroke?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Kyung-Sik; Heo, Sung Hyuk; Lee, Sun-Ju; Jeon, Seung Hyun; Yoo, Koo Han

    2010-03-01

    The aim of this study is to compare the urodynamic parameters in ischemic and hemorrhagic stroke patients with bladder dysfunction. We retrospectively reviewed medical records such as computed tomography (CT) or magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and urodynamic study and identified 84 cases among 150 stroke patients underwent urodynamic test due to lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS) from June 2003 to May 2008. Exclusion criteria are diabetes mellitus (DM) cystopathy, previous pelvic surgery, spinal cord injury, benign prostate hyperplasia (BPH), and other neurologic etiology. Among analyzed variables of urodynamic study, total bladder capacity, postvoid residual urine volume and bladder compliance have a significant value between ischemic and hemorrhagic stroke group (P = 0.004, P = 0.017, P = 0.007). Ischemic group have detrusor overactivity (DO) (70.7%), detrusor underactivity (DU) (29.3%), and hemorrhagic group have DO (34.6%), DU (65.4%). (P = 0.003). Evaluation of the stroke type may be helpful in the determination of the type of urinary dysfunction and in deciding the appropriate bladder management. The urodynamic study, however, is essential to manage LUTS in stroke patients. (c) 2009 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  3. Evidence of a Non-Linear Dose-Response Relationship between Training Load and Stress Markers in Elite Female Futsal Players

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vinicius F. Milanez

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was: to describe typical training load (TL carried out by a professional female futsal team for a period of 5 weeks; and to verify the relationship between TL, stress symptoms, salivary secretory immunoglobulin A (SIgA levels, and symptoms of upper respiratory infections (URI. Over 45 sessions, the TL of the athletes was monitored daily by means of session-RPE method during the in-season period prior to the main national competition. Stress symptoms were measured weekly by means of the “Daily Analysis of Life Demands in Athletes Questionnaire” (DALDA, SIgA levels, and by symptoms of URI by the “Wisconsin Upper Respiratory Symptom Survey-21” (WURSS. There was a significant increase in TL, monotony, and training strain in week 3, with a concomitant and significant reduction in percentage variation (Δ% of SIgA concentration and secretion rate (p < 0.05. Additionally, a second order regression model showed a high goodness of fit (R2 = 0.64 - 0.89 between TL and strain with SIgA concentration, secretion rate, and “worse than normal” responses of stress symptoms from the questionnaire. In conclusion, a link between TL and SIgA levels, and stress symptoms in female futsal players was evident in a non linear fashion. There appears to be an optimal range of values of daily TL between ~343 and ~419 AU and strain between ~2639 and 3060 AU, because at levels below and above these values there was an increase in stress symptoms and above ~435 and ~3160 AU to TL and strain there were a decrease in SIgA levels. In contrast, symptoms of URI failed to demonstrate relationship with the variables studied.

  4. Monitoring training load, recovery-stress state, immune-endocrine responses, and physical performance in elite female basketball players during a periodized training program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nunes, João A; Moreira, Alexandre; Crewther, Blair T; Nosaka, Ken; Viveiros, Luis; Aoki, Marcelo S

    2014-10-01

    This study investigated the effect of a periodized training program on internal training load (ITL), recovery-stress state, immune-endocrine responses, and physical performance in 19 elite female basketball players. The participants were monitored across a 12-week period before an international championship, which included 2 overloading and tapering phases. The first overloading phase (fourth to sixth week) was followed by a 1-week tapering, and the second overloading phase (eighth to 10th week) was followed by a 2-week tapering. ITL (session rating of perceived exertion method) and recovery-stress state (RESTQ-76 Sport questionnaire) were assessed weekly and bi-weekly, respectively. Pretraining and posttraining assessments included measures of salivary IgA, testosterone and cortisol concentrations, strength, jumping power, running endurance, and agility. Internal training load increased across all weeks from 2 to 11 (p ≤ 0.05). After the first tapering period (week 7), a further increase in ITL was observed during the second overloading phase (p ≤ 0.05). After the second tapering period, a decrease in ITL was detected (p ≤ 0.05). A disturbance in athlete stress-recovery state was noted during the second overloading period (p ≤ 0.05), before returning to baseline level in end of the second tapering period. The training program led to significant improvements in the physical performance parameters evaluated. The salivary measures did not change despite the fluctuations in ITL. In conclusion, a periodized training program evoked changes in ITL in elite female basketball players, which appeared to influence their recovery-stress state. The training plan was effective in preparing participants for competition, as indicated by improvements in recovery-stress state and physical performance after tapering.

  5. Ambulatory urodynamic studies (UDS) in children using a Bluetooth-enabled device.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deshpande, Aniruddh V; Craig, Jonathan C; Caldwell, Patrina H Y; Smith, Grahame H H

    2012-12-01

    • To report the early observations of using ambulatory urodynamic studies (UDS) using a Bluetooth-enabled device in children • To evaluate the incremental value of ambulatory over conventional UDS. • Ambulatory UDS were performed in selected children with voiding dysfunction between August 2009 and October 2010. • Conventional UDS were concurrently performed wherever possible. • The test results and treatment consequences of the two tests were compared. • In all, 12 ambulatory and seven conventional UDS were performed on 10 children (five boys, median [range] age 7 [4-16] years). • Six of the seven children had a normal conventional UDS. Ambulatory UDS detected phasic detrusor overactivity (DO) in five children and generalised DO in one. • Direct correlation of symptoms to DO was possible in two children during ambulatory UDS. Pressure rise during filling, seen in two children on conventional UDS, was not seen during ambulatory UDS. • Five children showed clinical improvement when therapy was guided by ambulatory UDS results. • Ambulatory UDS was generally well tolerated in eight children, with two complaining of discomfort. Inadequate information was obtained in two children who underwent ambulatory UDS due to technical problems in one and distress induced by the UDS in the other. • Ambulatory UDS provides useful additional information over conventional UDS and can be used to guide further therapy in selected children with voiding dysfunction. • It is safe and well tolerated in children. • There is a need for explicit guidance for the technical delivery and interpretation of ambulatory UDS in children. © 2012 THE AUTHORS. BJU INTERNATIONAL © 2012 BJU INTERNATIONAL.

  6. G-6-PD level and surface nanoscopy: a novel approach in ergonomic stress management of female labours in Bengal suburbs performing manual material handling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghosh, Subrata; Acharyya, Muktish; Bagchi, Anandi

    2009-12-01

    Strenous physical exercise like professional load bearing often produces oxidative stress, increasing post exercise Malondialdehyde (MDA) levels. To quantify the cellular dimension/profile of the said stress, nanoscopic observation of the erythrocyte surface was made by Atomic Forced Microscopy (AFM)/Lateral Forced Microscopy (LFM) and correspondingly the average roughness of the surface was measured. An attempt has been made to correlate the antioxidant vitamin mixture supplementation, endurance capacity, allied physiological parameters and blood glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G-6-PD) level and roughness-MDA correlation and thereby the deduced regression equation as crucial markers of performance related oxidative stress management in professional female load bearers. Three experimental groups A, B and placebo, each consisting of ten female workers (18-21 years old), were chosen. Group A was given 400 mg of vitamin E supplementation daily, while Group B was given a clinical mixture of vitamin E, vitamin C and beta-carotene daily in capsular form for a period of 28 days. The exercise- induced hike in the status of serum MDA was found to rise less significantly with vitamin supplementation. Further study showed that the supplementation was instrumental in reducing the basal MDA level. Endurance capacity, determined by bicycle ergometric method, was increased more significantly (p material handling.

  7. The Effectiveness of Cognitive- behavioral Techniques Training on Procrastination, Stress, Anxiety and Depression of High School Female Students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    sA hasar

    2015-03-01

    Conclusions: training of cognitive-behavioral techniques reduced procrastination, anxiety and stress in experimental group in comparison with control group but it did not have meaningful effect on control group depression

  8. Adrenal-dependent and -independent stress-induced Per1 mRNA in hypothalamic paraventricular nucleus and prefrontal cortex of male and female rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chun, Lauren E; Christensen, Jenny; Woodruff, Elizabeth R; Morton, Sarah J; Hinds, Laura R; Spencer, Robert L

    2018-01-01

    Oscillating clock gene expression gives rise to a molecular clock that is present not only in the body's master circadian pacemaker, the hypothalamic suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN), but also in extra-SCN brain regions. These extra-SCN molecular clocks depend on the SCN for entrainment to a light:dark cycle. The SCN has limited neural efferents, so it may entrain extra-SCN molecular clocks through its well-established circadian control of glucocorticoid hormone secretion. Glucocorticoids can regulate the normal rhythmic expression of clock genes in some extra-SCN tissues. Untimely stress-induced glucocorticoid secretion may compromise extra-SCN molecular clock function. We examined whether acute restraint stress during the rat's inactive phase can rapidly (within 30 min) alter clock gene (Per1, Per2, Bmal1) and cFos mRNA (in situ hybridization) in the SCN, hypothalamic paraventricular nucleus (PVN), and prefrontal cortex (PFC) of male and female rats (6 rats per treatment group). Restraint stress increased Per1 and cFos mRNA in the PVN and PFC of both sexes. Stress also increased cFos mRNA in the SCN of male rats, but not when subsequently tested during their active phase. We also examined in male rats whether endogenous glucocorticoids are necessary for stress-induced Per1 mRNA (6-7 rats per treatment group). Adrenalectomy attenuated stress-induced Per1 mRNA in the PVN and ventral orbital cortex, but not in the medial PFC. These data indicate that increased Per1 mRNA may be a means by which extra-SCN molecular clocks adapt to environmental stimuli (e.g. stress), and in the PFC this effect is largely independent of glucocorticoids.

  9. The Stress Granule RNA-Binding Protein TIAR-1 Protects Female Germ Cells from Heat Shock in Caenorhabditis elegans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriela Huelgas-Morales

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available In response to stressful conditions, eukaryotic cells launch an arsenal of regulatory programs to protect the proteome. One major protective response involves the arrest of protein translation and the formation of stress granules, cytoplasmic ribonucleoprotein complexes containing the conserved RNA-binding proteins TIA-1 and TIAR. The stress granule response is thought to preserve mRNA for translation when conditions improve. For cells of the germline—the immortal cell lineage required for sexual reproduction—protection from stress is critically important for perpetuation of the species, yet how stress granule regulatory mechanisms are deployed in animal reproduction is incompletely understood. Here, we show that the stress granule protein TIAR-1 protects the Caenorhabditis elegans germline from the adverse effects of heat shock. Animals containing strong loss-of-function mutations in tiar-1 exhibit significantly reduced fertility compared to the wild type following heat shock. Analysis of a heat-shock protein promoter indicates that tiar-1 mutants display an impaired heat-shock response. We observed that TIAR-1 was associated with granules in the gonad core and oocytes during several stressful conditions. Both gonad core and oocyte granules are dynamic structures that depend on translation; protein synthesis inhibitors altered their formation. Nonetheless, tiar-1 was required for the formation of gonad core granules only. Interestingly, the gonad core granules did not seem to be needed for the germ cells to develop viable embryos after heat shock. This suggests that TIAR-1 is able to protect the germline from heat stress independently of these structures.

  10. Non-invasive clinical parameters for the prediction of urodynamic bladder outlet obstruction: analysis using causal Bayesian networks.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Myong Kim

    Full Text Available To identify non-invasive clinical parameters to predict urodynamic bladder outlet obstruction (BOO in patients with benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH using causal Bayesian networks (CBN.From October 2004 to August 2013, 1,381 eligible BPH patients with complete data were selected for analysis. The following clinical variables were considered: age, total prostate volume (TPV, transition zone volume (TZV, prostate specific antigen (PSA, maximum flow rate (Qmax, and post-void residual volume (PVR on uroflowmetry, and International Prostate Symptom Score (IPSS. Among these variables, the independent predictors of BOO were selected using the CBN model. The predictive performance of the CBN model using the selected variables was verified through a logistic regression (LR model with the same dataset.Mean age, TPV, and IPSS were 6.2 (±7.3, SD years, 48.5 (±25.9 ml, and 17.9 (±7.9, respectively. The mean BOO index was 35.1 (±25.2 and 477 patients (34.5% had urodynamic BOO (BOO index ≥40. By using the CBN model, we identified TPV, Qmax, and PVR as independent predictors of BOO. With these three variables, the BOO prediction accuracy was 73.5%. The LR model showed a similar accuracy (77.0%. However, the area under the receiver operating characteristic curve of the CBN model was statistically smaller than that of the LR model (0.772 vs. 0.798, p = 0.020.Our study demonstrated that TPV, Qmax, and PVR are independent predictors of urodynamic BOO.

  11. Is there any association between urodynamic variables and severity of overactive bladder in women with idiopathic detrusor overactivity?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giarenis, Ilias; Zacchè, Martino; Robinson, Dudley; Cardozo, Linda

    2017-03-01

    The lack of a validated detrusor overactivity (DO) severity tool limits the clinical value of urodynamics in the management of patients with overactive bladder syndrome (OAB). The aim of this study, was to identify urodynamic variables that correlate with validated OAB severity measures. This was a cross-sectional study enrolling consecutive women with idiopathic DO. The 24 hr urgency episodes and the score of the Incontinence Impact (II) domain of the King's Health Questionnaire (KHQ) were used to assess the severity of OAB. The study enrolled 299 women with idiopathic DO. The cystometric capacity, compliance, and the threshold volume for the first involuntary detrusor contraction (IDC) showed a statistically significant negative correlation with the II domain of the KHQ and the 24 hr urgency episodes. There was a statistically significant positive correlation between the amplitude of first IDC and the OAB severity measures, but only borderline for the amplitude of the highest IDC. There were no statistically significant differences between women with and without leakage per urethram during a detrusor contraction. Cystometric capacity, compliance (measured in ml/cm H 2 O), threshold volume, and amplitude of the first IDC could be routinely documented in everyday clinical practice. The measures more commonly used for describing the severity of DO, such as leakage per urethram during a detrusor contraction and amplitude of the highest detrusor contraction, have a limited role confirming the complicated interaction between the detrusor muscle, the urethral sphincter, and the pelvic floor in women. Neurourol. Urodynam. 36:780-783, 2017. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  12. Combined treatment with a β3 -adrenergic receptor agonist and a muscarinic receptor antagonist inhibits detrusor overactivity induced by cold stress in spontaneously hypertensive rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imamura, Tetsuya; Ogawa, Teruyuki; Minagawa, Tomonori; Nagai, Takashi; Suzuki, Toshiro; Saito, Tetsuichi; Yokoyama, Hitoshi; Nakazawa, Masaki; Ishizuka, Osamu

    2017-04-01

    This study determined if combined treatment with the muscarinic receptor (MR) antagonist solifenacin and the β 3 -adrenergic receptor (AR) agonist mirabegron could inhibit detrusor overactivity induced by cold stress in spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHRs). Thirty-two female 10-week-old SHRs were fed an 8% NaCl-supplemented diet for 4 weeks. Cystometric measurements of the unanesthetized, unrestricted rats were performed at room temperature (RT, 27 ± 2°C) for 20 min. The rats were then intravenously administered vehicle, 0.1 mg/kg solifenacin alone, 0.1 mg/kg mirabegron alone, or the combination of 0.1 mg/kg mirabegron and 0.1 mg/kg solifenacin (n = 8 each group). Five minutes later, the treated rats were exposed to low temperature (LT, 4 ± 2°C) for 40 min. Finally, the rats were returned to RT. After the cystometric investigations, the β 3 -ARs and M 3 -MRs expressed within the urinary bladders were analyzed. Just after transfer from RT to LT, vehicle-, solifenacin-, and mirabegron-treated SHRs exhibited detrusor overactivity that significantly decreased voiding interval and bladder capacity. However, treatment with the combination of solifenacin and mirabegron partially inhibited the cold stress-induced detrusor overactivity patterns. The decreases of voiding interval and bladder capacity in the combination-treated rats were significantly inhibited compared to other groups. Within the urinary bladders, there were no differences between expression levels of M 3 -MR and β 3 -AR mRNA. The tissue distribution of M 3 -MRs was similar to that of the β 3 -ARs. This study suggested that the combination of solifenacin and mirabegron act synergistically to inhibit the cold stress-induced detrusor overactivity in SHRs. Neurourol. Urodynam. 36:1026-1033, 2017. © 2016 The Authors. Neurourology and Urodynamics Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 The Authors. Neurourology and Urodynamics Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  13. Surgeon-tailored polypropylene mesh as a needleless single-incision sling versus TVT-O for the treatment of female stress urinary incontinence: a comparative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    ElSheemy, Mohammed S; Fathy, Hesham; Hussein, Hussein A; Hussein, Eman A; Hassan, Sarah Mohamed

    2015-06-01

    To compare safety and efficacy of surgeon-tailored polypropylene mesh through needleless single-incision technique (STM) versus tension-free vaginal tape-obturator (TVT-O) aiming to decrease cost of treatment of stress urinary incontinence (SUI). This is important in developing countries due to limited healthcare resources. A retrospective cohort study was done at Urology and Gynecology Departments (dual-center), Cairo University, from January 2011 to August 2013. STM was inserted in 72 females, while TVT-O was inserted in 48 females. Females evaluated by cough stress test, stress and urge incontinence quality of life questionnaire (SUIQQ), Q max and abdominal leak point pressure (ALPP) were included. Different factors were compared between both groups using paired t, Wilcoxon's signed rank, McNemar, Chi-square, Fisher's exact, independent t or Mann-Whitney tests. Age, parity, previous surgeries, ALPP, intrinsic sphincter deficiency (ISD), associated prolapse and associated prolapse repair were comparable in both groups. No significant difference was found between both groups in postoperative complications (except groin pain), cure, SUIQQ indices improvement and Q max decline. In total, 65 (90 %) cured, 6 (8 %) improved while failure was detected in one (1 %) patient in STM group, while 42 (87 %) cured, 4 (8 %) improved and failure was detected in two (4 %) patients in TVT-O group. Presence of ISD (p = 0.565), urgency (p = 0.496), UUI (p = 0.531), previous surgeries (p = 0.345), associated urogenital prolapse (p = 0.218) or associated prolapse repair (p = 0.592) did not lead to any significant difference in outcome between both groups. Cost of mesh decreased from US$500 (TVT-O) to US$10 (STM). Outcome of STM is comparable to TVT-O. Furthermore, STM is more economic.

  14. Higher incidence of bone stress injuries with increasing female athlete triad-related risk factors: a prospective multisite study of exercising girls and women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrack, Michelle T; Gibbs, Jenna C; De Souza, Mary Jane; Williams, Nancy I; Nichols, Jeanne F; Rauh, Mitchell J; Nattiv, Aurelia

    2014-04-01

    Identifying the risk factors associated with a bone stress injury (BSI), including stress reactions and stress fractures, may aid in targeting those at increased risk and in formulating prevention guidelines for exercising girls and women. To evaluate the effect of single or combined risk factors as defined by the female athlete triad-a syndrome involving 3 interrelated spectrums consisting of energy availability, menstrual function, and bone mass-with the incidence of BSIs in a multicenter prospective sample of 4 cohorts of physically active girls and women. Cohort study; Level of evidence, 3. At baseline, participants' (N = 259; mean age, 18.1 ± 0.3 years) anthropometric characteristics, eating attitudes and behaviors, menstrual function, sports participation or exercise activity, and pathological weight control behaviors were assessed. Dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry (DXA) measured the bone mass of the whole body, total hip, femoral neck, lumbar spine, and body composition. Participants were followed prospectively for the occurrence of injuries; those injuries confirmed by a physician were recorded. Twenty-eight participants (10.8%) incurred a BSI. Forty-six percent of those who had ≥12 h/wk of purposeful exercise, a bone mineral density (BMD) Z score sport exercise/activity at baseline, incurred a BSI during the prospective study period. Single factors significantly (P sport/activity + dietary restraint, with 46.2% incurring a BSI (OR, 8.7; 95% CI, 2.7-28.3). In the sample, which included female adolescents and young adults participating in competitive or recreational exercise activities, the risk of BSIs increased from approximately 15% to 20% for significant single risk factors to 30% to 50% for significant combined female athlete triad-related risk factor variables. These data support the notion that the cumulative risk for BSIs increases as the number of Triad-related risk factors accumulates.

  15. A Comparison of Objective and Subjective Stress in Homogeneous Male and Female Teams in a Mars Simulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bishop, S.; Sundaresan, A.

    Introduction The role of stress and its impact on coping performance motivation behavior cognitive functioning and psychological well-being has become a key focus for long duration missions Since all extreme environments are characterized by significant physical demands e g skiing climbing EVAs as well as inescapable environmental characteristics e g imminent danger noise isolation confinement loss of normal sensory stimuli an examination of the impact of prolong stress in analogue environments should provide insight into developing effective support and countermeasures for long duration space crews The presence of even low levels of chronic stressors if not met with functional adaptation and or countermeasures has been shown to produce subjective symptoms of stress persistent performance incompetence accelerated fatiguability altered mood states increased rate of infections and decrements in attention and cognitive Gender has been shown to cut across both individual factors and group factors including response to stress and ways of coping Generally men and women differ in many arenas such as interaction and communication styles need for affiliation responses to crowding privacy and confined spaces Men and women in homogeneous groups interact in significantly different ways than those in mixed groups Therefore differences between genders on subjective and objective responses to stress are of interest The Mars Society Utah Desert Simulation MDRS facility provides a unique opportunity to examine the interaction of

  16. Adolescent female rats are more resistant than males to the effects of early stress on prefrontal cortex and impulsive behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spivey, Jaclyn M.; Shumake, Jason; Colorado, Rene A.; Conejo-Jimenez, Nelida; Gonzalez-Pardo, Hector; Gonzalez-Lima, F.

    2009-01-01

    We tested the hypothesis that adolescent Sprague-Dawley females may be more resistant than males to display impulsive behavior and lower prefrontal cortex thickness after mother–infant separation (MS). Starting at postnatal day 2 (P2), the MS group was separated 6 hours/day and the early handled (EH) group 15 min/day for 10 days, and another group was standard facility reared (SFR). Subjects were examined for novel open-field activity (P28), light–dark apparatus (P29), familiar open-field (P30) and frontal cortical thickness. This protocol resulted in impulsive behavior in MS rats relative to EH and SFR, but this effect was less pronounced in females than males. MS affected the two sexes differently in terms of decreased prefrontal cortex dorsoventral thickness, with this effect being significant in males but not females. Neuroanatomical and behavioral documentation that adolescent females are more resistant than males to ADHD-like effects of maternal separation have not been previously reported. PMID:19125421

  17. Urodynamic Features and Significant Predictors of Bladder Outlet Obstruction in Patients With Lower Urinary Tract Symptoms/Benign Prostatic Hyperplasia and Small Prostate Volume.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Minyong; Kim, Myong; Choo, Min Soo; Paick, Jae-Seung; Oh, Seung-June

    2016-03-01

    To investigate the clinical and urodynamic features of patients with lower urinary tract symptoms/benign prostatic hyperplasia (LUTS/BPH) according to their prostate size. We analyzed 2039 LUTS/BPH patients who underwent urodynamic study between October 2004 and August 2013. We divided the patients into three groups according to their prostate size: small (≤30 mL), moderately enlarged (31-80 mL), and large prostate (≥81 mL) groups. We compared the groups regarding age, International Prostatic Symptom Score, maximal flow rate (Qmax), postvoided residual (PVR), serum prostate-specific antigen, prostate volume measured by ultrasonography, and urodynamic findings. Patients with a small prostate had better urodynamic outcomes than those with larger prostates in overall population. Although the total prostate volume significantly correlated with the bladder outlet obstruction (BOO) index (r  =  0.51), BOO patients with a small prostate had similar Qmax, higher PVR, and lower voiding efficiency, compared to those with larger prostates. Moreover, urodynamic parameters indicating bladder abnormalities, including low compliance and involuntary detrusor contraction positivity, were similar among the groups in BOO patients. A higher proportion of detrusor underactivity was also observed in the small prostate group in BOO patients. Finally, when adjusting for potential confounding variables, we identified serum prostate-specific antigen levels (odds ratio, 1.34) and Qmax (odds ratio, 0.77) as significant predictors for BOO in LUTS/BPH patients with a small prostate. BOO patients with a small prostate showed higher PVR and poor voiding efficiency, as well as similar urodynamic bladder abnormalities, compared to those with moderately enlarged and large prostates. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Impact of aging on cardiac function in a female rat model of menopause: role of autonomic control, inflammation, and oxidative stress

    Science.gov (United States)

    Machi, Jacqueline Freire; Dias, Danielle da Silva; Freitas, Sarah Cristina; de Moraes, Oscar Albuquerque; da Silva, Maikon Barbosa; Cruz, Paula Lázara; Mostarda, Cristiano; Salemi, Vera M C; Morris, Mariana; De Angelis, Kátia; Irigoyen, Maria-Cláudia

    2016-01-01

    Objective The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of aging on metabolic, cardiovascular, autonomic, inflammatory, and oxidative stress parameters after ovarian hormone deprivation (OVX). Methods Female Wistar rats (3 or 22 months old) were divided into: young controls, young ovariectomized, old controls, and old ovariectomized (bilateral ovaries removal). After a 9-week follow-up, physical capacity, metabolic parameters, and morphometric and cardiac functions were assessed. Subsequently, arterial pressure was recorded and cardiac autonomic control was evaluated. Oxidative stress was measured on the cardiac tissue, while inflammatory profile was assessed in the plasma. Results Aging or OVX caused an increase in body and fat weight and triglyceride concentration and a decrease in both insulin sensitivity and aerobic exercise capacity. Left ventricular diastolic dysfunction and increased cardiac overload (myocardial performance index) were reported in old groups when compared with young groups. Aging and OVX led to an increased sympathetic tonus, and vagal tonus was lower only for the old groups. Tumor necrosis factor-α and interleukin-6 were increased in old groups when compared with young groups. Glutathione redox balance (GSH/GSSG) was reduced in young ovariectomized, old controls, and old ovariectomized groups when compared with young controls, indicating an increased oxidative stress. A negative correlation was found between GSH/GSSG and tumor necrosis factor-α (r=−0.6, P<0.003). Correlations were found between interleukin-6 with adipose tissue (r=0.5, P<0.009) and vagal tonus (r=−0.7, P<0.0002); and among myocardial performance index with interleukin-6 (r=0.65, P<0.0002), sympathetic tonus (r=0.55, P<0.006), and physical capacity (r=−0.55, P<0.003). The findings in this trial showed that ovariectomy aggravated the impairment of cardiac and functional effects of aging in female rats, probably associated with exacerbated autonomic dysfunction

  19. Differences in behavior associated to anxiety in male and Female rats exposed to a chronic stress protocol: Early maternal separation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Duenas Gómez, Zulma Janeth

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available During the first stages of life, the environment and maternal interactions are essential for normal mammalian neuronal maturity and behavior. In fact, it has been demonstrated that disruption of mother-pup interaction during early life exert long-lasting effects on the development of central nervous, endocrine, and immune systems and behavioral responses. The principal aim of our work was to study the consequences of early maternal separation (EMS on adult male and female anxiety. The behaviors was evaluated using the Elavated Plus-Maze (EPM. Separation procedure was carried out in postnatal days 1 to 21 twice daily: three hours in the morning and three hours in the afternoon. As a control group we used animals that stayed with the mother but were manipulated daily for one minute in the morning and in the afternoon. In postnatal day 22, animals were distributed by sex and then kept in standard lab conditions. Behavioral testing in the EPM was performed at 90/95 days of age. All subjects were videotaped. Records included number of entries, time spent in each arm, and the frequency and time stretching, deeping, rearing, and grooming. Our results showed that separated females have more open arm entries and spent more time there, and exhibit more deeping and less grooming compared to females in the control group and males of the experimental and control group. Thus, based on the anxiolytic profile that female rat shows in the EPM, these data suggest that EMS affects differentially male and female adult rats

  20. Long-Term Outcomes of Cognitive-Behavioral Treatments for Posttraumatic Stress Disorder among Female Rape Survivors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Resick, Patricia A.; Williams, Lauren F.; Suvak, Michael K.; Monson, Candice M.; Gradus, Jaimie L.

    2012-01-01

    Objective: We conducted a long-term follow-up (LTFU) assessment of participants from a randomized controlled trial comparing cognitive processing therapy (CPT) with prolonged exposure (PE) for posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Competing hypotheses for positive outcomes (i.e., additional therapy, medication) were examined. Method:…

  1. Transurethral Radiofrequency Collagen Denaturation for Treatment of Female Stress Urinary Incontinence: A Review of the Literature and Clinical Recommendations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James Chivian Lukban

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Stress urinary incontinence is a prevalent condition in women with a significant negative effect on quality of life. Intervention includes behavioral modification, intravaginal devices, pelvic floor muscle exercises, biofeedback, functional electrical stimulation, and surgical procedures. We will review a new in-office procedure for the treatment of SUI that may serve as a viable nonsurgical option.

  2. Transurethral Radiofrequency Collagen Denaturation for Treatment of Female Stress Urinary Incontinence: A Review of the Literature and Clinical Recommendations

    OpenAIRE

    Lukban, James Chivian

    2011-01-01

    Stress urinary incontinence is a prevalent condition in women with a significant negative effect on quality of life. Intervention includes behavioral modification, intravaginal devices, pelvic floor muscle exercises, biofeedback, functional electrical stimulation, and surgical procedures. We will review a new in-office procedure for the treatment of SUI that may serve as a viable nonsurgical option.

  3. Prevalence of spina bifida occulta in patients with functional disorders of the lower urinary tract and its relation to urodynamic and neurophysiological measurements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fidas, A.; MacDonald, H. L.; Elton, R. A.; McInnes, A.; Wild, S. R.; Chisholm, G. D.

    1989-01-01

    OBJECTIVE--To determine the relation between neurophysiological abnormalities and the radiological detection of spina bifida occulta in patients with dysfunction of the lower urinary tract. DESIGN--Blind assessment and subsequent decoding of mixed batch of abdominal radiographs from patients with and without urological symptoms for evidence of spina bifida occulta and comparison of results with those of previous control series. SETTING--Review study among tertiary referrals to an incontinence clinic of a city hospital. PATIENTS--One hundred and thirty eight adults with proved urodynamic abnormalities in whom neurophysiological measurements were available. INTERVENTIONS--None. END POINT--Correlation of neurophysiological abnormalities in lower urinary tract dysfunction with presence and type of spina bifida occulta and level of opening of posterior sacral arcs. MEASUREMENTS AND MAIN RESULTS--On decoding radiographs those from patients without urological symptoms showed a similar prevalence of spina bifida occulta to that in the control series (631/2707 controls; 23%). By contrast, patients with urological symptoms had a significantly increased prevalence of spina bifida occulta at S1 and S2 and a higher level of opening of posterior sacral arcs. The increased prevalence of the bony defect was particularly striking in men with urgency and instability and in women with stress incontinence. No significant correlation was found between any particular neurophysiological abnormality and the presence of spina bifida. CONCLUSIONS--In patients with dysfunction of the lower urinary tract neurophysiological abnormalities may be associated with congenital dysraphic lesions in the lower lumbar spine and sacrum. There appears to be no direct causal relation between the radiological and neurophysiological abnormalities but the findings suggest a common aetiological factor. PMID:2493933

  4. Performance analysis of the T-DOC® air-charged catheters: An alternate technology for urodynamics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Couri, Bruna M; Bitzos, Stephanie; Bhardwaj, Deepak; Lockhart, Emily; Yue, Andy; Goping, Ing

    2018-02-01

    Urodynamics (UDS) is widely used for the diagnosis of lower urinary tract dysfunction. Air-Charged catheters (ACC), one of the newer technologies for UDS pressure recording, has been adopted in growing numbers around the world for the past 15 years. Currently, there is a lack of published studies characterizing specific performance of the ACC. Since linearity, hysteresis, pressure drift, and frequency response are important components in characterizing accuracy for catheter-manometer systems; this study aimed to assess these four aspects in ACC. A total of 180 T-DOC® ACC were used in three different laboratory settings to assess pressure linearity and hysteresis (15 dual-sensor vesical and urethral and 30 single-sensor abdominal), pressure drift over 2 h (115 single-sensor), and frequency response (20 single-sensor). Data are presented as mean ± standard deviation. ACC showed linearity of 0.99 ± 0.01, 0.99 ± 0.01, and 1.01 ± 0.01; and hysteresis of 0.57 ± 0.3%, 0.76 ± 0.48%, and 1 ± 0.89% for the abdominal, vesical, and urethral sensors, respectively. A pressure drift of 2.2 ± 1.4% at 1 h and 4.4 ± 2.5% at 2 h were observed when compared to baseline pressures. The catheters did not show any amplification factor during the sweep from 1 to 30 Hz, and recorded signals up to 5 Hz attenuating higher frequency signals. In this study the T-DOC® ACC showed a linear performance with minimal hysteresis associated with acceptable pressure drift, and adequate frequency response to capture clinically relevant pressures. The accurate results observed in this study suggest that these catheters are technically suitable to be used as a measuring instrument for UDS. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  5. Inflammatory Cell Findings in the Female Rabbit Heart and Stress-associated Exacerbation with Handling and Procedures Used in Nonclinical Studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sellers, Rani S; Pardo, Ingrid; Hu, George; Khan, K Nasir; Perry, Richard; Markiewicz, Victoria; Rohde, Cynthia; Colangelo, Jennifer; Reagan, William; Clarke, David

    2017-04-01

    Despite the use of rabbits in biomedical research, including regulatory toxicology and cardiovascular studies, little data exist on heart findings in this species. This study was designed to document myocardial findings in female rabbits and the impact of study-related procedures typical for vaccine toxicology studies. One hundred and forty 6- to 8-month-old female New Zealand White rabbits were divided equally into 2 groups, high and low study procedure groups (group 1 and group 2, respectively). All animals received intramuscular (IM) injections of sterile saline every 2 weeks for 5 times and were necropsied 2 days after the final IM injection. Clinical chemistry, hematology, and urinalysis were evaluated. Blood for stress biomarkers (norepinephrine, epinephrine, cortisol, and corticosterone), C-reactive protein, cardiac troponin I, and creatine kinase were collected at time 0 (just before dose administration) and then at 4, 24, and 48 hr after dose administration in group 1 only. Hearts were assessed histologically. Focal to multifocal minimal inflammatory cell infiltrates were common (∼80%), particularly in the left ventricle and interventricular septum, and were similar to the types of infiltrates identified in other laboratory animal species. Additionally, study-related procedures elevated serum stress biomarkers and exacerbated the frequency and severity of myocardial inflammatory cell infiltrates.

  6. The role of postdeployment social factors in linking deployment experiences and current posttraumatic stress disorder symptomatology among male and female veterans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Brian N; Wang, Joyce M; Vaughn-Coaxum, Rachel A; Di Leone, Brooke A L; Vogt, Dawne

    2017-01-01

    The postdeployment social context is likely highly salient in explaining mental health symptoms following deployment. The aim of this study was to examine the role of postdeployment social factors (social support and social reintegration difficulty) in linking deployment-related experiences (warfare exposure, sexual harassment, concerns about relationship disruptions, and deployment social support) and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptomatology in male and female veterans. A survey was administered to 998 potential participants (after accounting for undeliverable mail) who had returned from deployment to Afghanistan or Iraq. Completed surveys were received from 469 veterans, yielding a response rate of 47%. Hypotheses were examined using structural equation modeling. For male and female veterans, deployment factors predicted later PTSD symptoms through postdeployment social support and social reintegration, with lower support and higher social reintegration difficulty both associated with higher PTSD symptomatology. While the final models for women and men indicated similar risk mechanisms, some differences in pathways were observed. Sexual harassment presented more of a risk for women, whereas lower social support was a greater risk factor for men. Postdeployment social factors appear to represent potentially important targets for interventions aiming to reduce the potential impact of stressful deployment experiences.

  7. Design of the study: How can health care help female breast cancer patients reduce their stress symptoms? A randomized intervention study with stepped-care

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nordin Karin

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background A life threatening illness such as breast cancer can lead to a secondary diagnosis of PTSD (post traumatic stress disorder with intrusive thoughts and avoidance as major symptoms. In a former study by the research group, 80% of the patients with breast cancer reported a high level of stress symptoms close to the diagnosis, such as intrusive thoughts and avoidance behavior. These symptoms remained high throughout the study. The present paper presents the design of a randomized study evaluating the effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of a stress management intervention using a stepped-care design. Method Female patients over the age of 18, with a recent diagnosis of breast cancer and scheduled for adjuvant treatment in the form of chemotherapy, radiation therapy and/or hormonal therapy are eligible and will consecutively be included in the study. The study is a prospective longitudinal intervention study with a stepped-care approach, where patients will be randomised to one of two interventions in the final stage of treatment. The first step is a low intensity stress-management intervention that is given to all patients. Patients who do not respond to this level are thereafter given more intensive treatment at later steps in the program and will be randomized to more intensive stress-management intervention in a group setting or individually. The primary out-come is subjective distress (intrusion and avoidance assessed by the Impact of Event Scale (IES. According to the power-analyses, 300 patients are planned to be included in the study and will be followed for one year. Other outcomes are anxiety, depression, quality of life, fatigue, stress in daily living and utilization of hospital services. This will be assessed with well-known psychometric tested questionnaires. Also, the cost-effectiveness of the intervention given in group or individually will be evaluated. Discussion This randomized clinical trial will provide

  8. Baseline and stress-induced blood properties of male and female Darwin's small ground finch (Geospiza fuliginosa) of the Galapagos Islands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Timothy D; Kleindorfer, Sonia; Dudaniec, Rachael Y

    2018-04-01

    Birds are renowned for exhibiting marked sex-specific differences in activity levels and reproductive investment during the breeding season, potentially impacting circulating blood parameters associated with stress and energetics. Males of many passerines often do not incubate, but they experience direct exposure to intruder threat and exhibit aggressive behaviour during the nesting phase in order to defend territories against competing males and predators. Nesting females often have long bouts of inactivity during incubation, but they must remain vigilant of the risks posed by predators and conspecific intruders approaching the nest. Here, we use 33 free-living male (n = 16) and female (n = 17) Darwin's small ground finches (Geospiza fuliginosa) on Floreana Island (Galapagos Archipelago) to better understand how sex-specific roles during the reproductive period impact baseline and stress-induced levels of plasma corticosterone (CORT), blood glucose and haematocrit. Specifically, we hypothesise that males are characterised by higher baseline values given their direct and relatively frequent exposure to intruder threat, but that a standardised stress event (capture and holding) overrides any sex-specific differences. In contrast with expectations, baseline levels of all blood parameters were similar between sexes (13.4 ± 1.9 ng ml -1 for CORT, 13.7 ± 0.4 mmol l -1 for glucose, 58.3 ± 0.8% for haematocrit). Interestingly, females with higher body condition had lower baseline haematocrit. All blood parameters changed with time since capture (range 1.2-41.3 min) in both sexes, whereby CORT increased linearly, haematocrit decreased linearly, and glucose increased to a peak at ∼20 min post-capture and declined to baseline levels thereafter. Our results do not support the hypothesis that sex-specific roles during the reproductive period translate to differences in blood parameters associated with stress and energetics, but we found

  9. Posttraumatic Stress, Coping Flexibility, and Risky Drinking Among Trauma-Exposed Male and Female College Students: The Mediating Effect of Delay of Gratification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyraz, Güler; Cherry, Megan L; Cherry, Marcus A; Aarstad-Martin, Samantha; Cloud, Cody; Shamp, Lindsey M

    2018-02-23

    The co-occurence of posttraumatic stress (PTS) and risky drinking has been demonstrated in diverse populations, including college students. However, the mechanisms underlying this co-occurrence, as well as the protective factors that may reduce risky drinking among trauma-exposed college students have yet to be fully understood in the literature. The present study builds upon self-regulation theories and previous empirical work to determine whether the effects of PTS and coping flexibility on risky drinking were mediated by delay of gratification among trauma-exposed college students. In addition, the potential moderating effect of gender on these relationships was examined. Participants included 624 trauma-exposed college students (68.4% female) attending a public university in the southeast region of the United States. Data were collected through an online survey. The hypothesized model was examined using a multigroup structural equation modeling approach. As hypothesized, PTS had a significant, positive indirect effect on risky drinking through delay of gratification; however, the effect of PTS on delay of gratification was stronger for males than for females. Results also indicated that the indirect effect of coping flexibility on risky drinking through delay of gratification was significant and negative for males and females. Conclusions/Importance: The findings of this study suggest that delay of gratification might be an important mechanism underlying the co-occurrence of PTS and risky drinking. In addition, our results highlight the potential benefits of coping flexibility for college students coping with PTS.

  10. Childhood sexual abuse, post-traumatic stress disorder, and use of heroin among female clients in Israeli methadone maintenance treatment programs (MMTPS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schiff, Miriam; Levit, Shabtay; Cohen-Moreno, Rinat

    2010-01-01

    This study investigated association between post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and a 1-year follow-up heroin use among female clients in methadone clinics in Israel. Participants were 104 Israeli female clients from four methadone clinics (Mean age = 39.09, SD = 8.61) who reported victimization to childhood sexual abuse. We tested traces in urine of these female clients for heroin a year preceding and a year following the assessment of their PTSD. Results show that 54.2% reported symptoms that accedes the DSM-IV criteria for PTSD. We found that among childhood victimized women PTSD is associated with more frequent use of heroin at a 1-year follow-up even after controlling for duration of the stay at the clinic, background, other traumatic experiences and heroin use a year prior the assessment of their PTSD. This study shows the potential long-run negative consequences of childhood sexual abuse. Not only are these sexually abused women trapped into drug dependence and addiction, they cannot break the vicious cycle of continuing the use of illicit drugs even when treated for their addiction. One major practice implication is that treatment for PTSD proven efficacious will be provided in the methadone and other drug treatment services.

  11. Exposures to war-related traumatic events and post-traumatic stress disorder symptoms among displaced Darfuri female university students: an exploratory study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Badri, Alia; Crutzen, Rik; Van den Borne, H W

    2012-08-03

    With the deaths of hundreds of thousands and the displacement of up to three million Darfuris, the increasingly complex and on-going war in Darfur has warranted the need to investigate war-related severity and current mental health levels amongst its civilian population. The purpose of this study is to explore the association between war-related exposures and assess post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms amongst a sample of Darfuri female university students at Ahfad University for Women (AUW) in Omdurman city. An exploratory cross-sectional study among a representative sample of Darfuri female university students at AUW (N = 123) was conducted in February 2010. Using an adapted version of the Harvard Trauma Questionnaire (HTQ), war-related exposures and post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms were assessed. Means and standard deviations illustrated the experiential severity of war exposure dimensions and PTSD symptom sub-scales, while Pearson correlations tested for the strength of association between dimensions of war exposures and PTSD symptom sub-scales. Approximately 42 % of the Darfuri participants reported being displaced and 54 % have experienced war-related traumatic exposures either as victims or as witnesses (M = 28, SD = 14.24, range 0 - 40 events). Also, there was a strong association between the experiential dimension of war-related trauma exposures and the full symptom of PTSD. Moreover, the refugee-specific self-perception of functioning sub-scale within the PTSD measurement scored a mean of 3.2 (SD = .56), well above the 2.0 cut-off. This study provides evidence for a relationship between traumatic war-related exposures and symptom rates of PTSD among AUW Darfuri female students. Findings are discussed in terms of AUW counseling service improvement.

  12. The effect of pelvic muscle exercises on urinary incontinency and self-esteem of elderly females with stress urinary incontinency, 2013.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kargar Jahromi, Marzieh; Talebizadeh, Malihe; Mirzaei, Maryam

    2014-09-28

    Millions of women are afflicted with stress urinary incontinence. Urinary incontinence is mentioned as one of the geriatric syndromes, together with pressure ulcers, functional decline, falls, and low self-esteem. The aim of the present study was to determine the effect of pelvic muscle exercises on urinary incontinency and self- esteem of elderly females with stress urinary incontinency in Shiraz, Iran, 2013. In this interventional study, 50 old females aged 60-74 years were chosen among the members of Jahandidegan center, and they were asked to sign the informed consent form and complete the demographic questionnaire. Then, Quid questionnaire was used for choosing the type of incontinence in the elderly females. Next, the participants completed the ICIQ and self-esteem questionnaires. Then, they were randomly assigned to case and control groups. Each participant took part in 8 training classes. Finally, the subjects filled the ICIQ and self-esteem questionnaires before and 2 months after the intervention. The results is shown that after the intervention, ICIQ score has a significant difference between the two groups (P=0.001). Also, after the treatment, self-esteem average scores of studied unit indicated a significant statistical difference in experimental group. In other words, the training sessions improved the score of self-esteem in the experimental group (Pexercises were an empowerment mechanism for incontinent women in improving their quality of life and self-esteem, so recommended that such these exercising programs be used in elderly health care centers as a factor to improve health promotion of elderlies 'that are suffering from urinary incontinence.

  13. The Effect of Pelvic Muscle Exercises on Urinary Incontinency and Self-Esteem of Elderly Females With Stress Urinary Incontinency, 2013

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jahromi, Marzieh Kargar; Talebizadeh, Malihe; Mirzaei, Maryam

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: Millions of women are afflicted with stress urinary incontinence. Urinary incontinence is mentioned as one of the geriatric syndromes, together with pressure ulcers, functional decline, falls, and low self-esteem. The aim of the present study was to determine the effect of pelvic muscle exercises on urinary incontinency and self- esteem of elderly females with stress urinary incontinency in Shiraz, Iran, 2013. Material and Method: In this interventional study, 50 old females aged 60-74 years were chosen among the members of Jahandidegan center, and they were asked to sign the informed consent form and complete the demographic questionnaire. Then, Quid questionnaire was used for choosing the type of incontinence in the elderly females. Next, the participants completed the ICIQ and self-esteem questionnaires. Then, they were randomly assigned to case and control groups. Each participant took part in 8 training classes. Finally, the subjects filled the ICIQ and self-esteem questionnaires before and 2 months after the intervention. Result: The results is shown that after the intervention, ICIQ score has a significant difference between the two groups (P=0.001). Also, after the treatment, self-esteem average scores of studied unit indicated a significant statistical difference in experimental group. In other words, the training sessions improved the score of self-esteem in the experimental group (Pself-esteem, so recommended that such these exercising programs be used in elderly health care centers as a factor to improve health promotion of elderlies ’that are suffering from urinary incontinence. PMID:25716389

  14. Estrogen receptor β and oxytocin interact to modulate anxiety-like behavior and neuroendocrine stress reactivity in adult male and female rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kudwa, Andrea E; McGivern, Robert F; Handa, Robert J

    2014-04-22

    The hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis is activated in response to stressors and is controlled by neurons residing in the paraventricular nucleus of the hypothalamus (PVN). Although gonadal steroid hormones can influence HPA reactivity to stressors, the exact mechanism of action is not fully understood. It is known, however, that estrogen receptor β (ERβ) inhibits HPA reactivity and decreases anxiety-like behavior in rodents. Since ERβ is co-expressed with oxytocin (OT) in neurons of the PVN, an ERβ-selective agonist was utilized to test the whether ERβ decreases stress-induced HPA reactivity and anxiety-like behaviors via an OTergic pathway. Adult gonadectomized male and female rats were administered diarylpropionitrile, or vehicle, peripherally for 5days. When tested for anxiety-like behavior on the elevated plus maze (EPM), diarylpropionitrile-treated males and females significantly increased time on the open arm of the EPM compared to vehicle controls indicating that ERβ reduces anxiety-like behaviors. One week after behavioral evaluation, rats were subjected to a 20minute restraint stress. Treatment with diarylpropionitrile reduced CORT and ACTH responses in both males and females. Subsequently, another group of animals was implanted with cannulae directed at the lateral ventricle. One week later, rats underwent the same protocol as above but with the additional treatment of intracerebroventricular infusion with an OT antagonist (des Gly-NH2 d(CH2)5 [Tyr(Me)(2), Thr(4)] OVT) or VEH, 20min prior to behavioral evaluation. OT antagonist treatment blocked the effects of diarylpropionitrile on the display of anxiety-like behaviors and plasma CORT levels. These data indicate that ERβ and OT interact to modulate the HPA reactivity and the display of anxiety-like behaviors. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Perception of stress level, trunk appearance, body function and mental health in females with adolescent idiopathic scoliosis treated conservatively: a longitudinal analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Misterska, Ewa; Glowacki, Maciej; Latuszewska, Joanna; Adamczyk, Katarzyna

    2013-09-01

    In the presented study, we aimed to assess changes over time in the perception of trunk deformity, body function, stress level and mental health in females with adolescent idiopathic scoliosis (AIS) who were treated conservatively with a Cheneau brace, taking the Trunk Appearance Perception Scale (TAPS), Scoliosis Research Society-22 (SRS-22) and Bad Sobberheim Stress Questionnaires (BSSQ) criteria of evaluation into consideration. The study design was comprised of three questionnaire assessments, with the second and the third evaluation taking place 6 and 12 months after the beginning of the study, respectively. Thirty-six females treated conservatively were asked to fill in the TAPS, SRS-22 and BSSQ forms. In regards to TAPS, the results differed between the 1st and the 2nd assessment in Figure 2 only (p = 0.013). The difference between the 1st and the 3rd evaluation concerned Figure 3 and the total score (p = 0.011 and p = 0.005, respectively). The SRS-22 and BSSQ results of study participants did not differ significantly between the 1st and the 2nd, between the 2nd and the 3rd and between the 1st and the 3rd evaluations. The study indicated that the assessment of girls with AIS concerning body function and mental health did not deteriorate in the course of orthosis treatment. Furthermore, they showed improvement in perceptions particularly in regards to trunk shape. We pointed out that the negative perceptions of mental health, self-image and low level of activity held by females with AIS coexisted with severe emotional distress. Moreover, factors that improved functioning or subjective physical appearance ratings in particular, such as level of activity, were indicated.

  16. Symptoms of Posttraumatic Stress, Depression and Body Image Distress in Female Victims of Physical and Sexual Assault: Exploring Integrated Responses

    OpenAIRE

    Weaver, Terri L.; Griffin, Michael G.; Mitchell, Elisha R.

    2014-01-01

    While body image concerns and interpersonal violence exposure are significant issues for women, their interrelationship has been rarely explored. We examined the associations between severity of acute injuries, symptoms of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), depression and body image distress within a sample of predominantly African-American victims of interpersonal violence (N = 73). Severity of body image distress was significantly associated with each outcome. Moreover, body image distre...

  17. Comparison between two different neuromuscular electrical stimulation protocols for the treatment of female stress urinary incontinence: a randomized controlled trial

    OpenAIRE

    Alves,Priscila G. J. M.; Nunes,Fabiana R.; Guirro,Elaine C. O.

    2011-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Neuromuscular electrical stimulation (NMES) is widely treatment for stress urinary incontinence (SUI) but there is no consensus in literature regarding the most effective treatment parameters. OBJECTIVE: To compare two NMESintra-vaginal protocols for the treatment of SUI in women. METHODS: The study included 20 volunteers with an average age of 55.55±6.51 years and with the clinical diagnosis of SUI. Volunteers were randomly divided into two groups: group 1 (G1) received NMES with...

  18. Pomegranate peel extract attenuates oxidative stress by decreasing coronary angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) activity in hypertensive female rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dos Santos, Roger L; Dellacqua, Lais O; Delgado, Nathalie T B; Rouver, Wender N; Podratz, Priscila L; Lima, Leandro C F; Piccin, Mariela P C; Meyrelles, Silvana S; Mauad, Helder; Graceli, Jones B; Moyses, Margareth R

    2016-01-01

    Based on the antioxidant properties of pomegranate, this study was designed to investigate the effects of pomegranate peel extract on damage associated with hypertension and aging in a spontaneously hypertensive rat (SHR) model. The influence of pomegranate consumption was examined on systolic blood pressure (SBP), angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) coronary activity, oxidative stress, and vascular morphology. Four- or 28-wk-old SHR model rats were treated for 30 d, with terminal experimental animal age being 8 and 32 wk, respectively, with either pomegranate extract (SHR-PG) or filtered water (SHR). Data showed significant reduction in SBP and coronary ACE activity in both age groups. The levels of superoxide anion, a measure of oxidative stress, were significantly lower in animals in the SHR-PG group compared to SHR alone. Coronary morphology demonstrated total increases in vascular wall areas were in the SHR group, and pomegranate peel extract diminished this effect. Pomegranate peel extract consumption conferred protection against hypertension in the SHR model. This finding was demonstrated by marked reduction in coronary ACE activity, oxidative stress, and vascular remodelling. In addition, treatment was able to reduce SBP in both groups. Evidence indicates that the use of pomegranate peel extract may prove beneficial in alleviating coronary heart disease.

  19. Nonsurgical Outpatient Therapies for the Management of Female Stress Urinary Incontinence: Long-Term Effectiveness and Durability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Willy Davila

    2011-01-01

    Results. Thirty-two clinical trial reports were included. Prospective long-term studies of pelvic floor rehabilitation were limited but indicated significant improvements with treatment adherence for at least 12 months. Poor initial tolerability with duloxetine resulted in substantial discontinuation. Most patients receiving transurethral radiofrequency collagen denaturation or urethral bulking agents reported significant long-term improvements, generally good tolerability, and safety. Conclusions. Conservative therapy is an appropriate initial approach for female SUI, but if therapy fails, radiofrequency collagen denaturation or bulking agents may be an attractive intermediate management step or alternative to surgery.

  20. Effectiveness of Retropubic Tension-Free Vaginal Tape and Transobturator Inside-Out Tape Procedures in Women With Overactive Bladder and Stress Urinary Incontinence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Ji-Yeon; Choo, Myung-Soo; Lee, Young-Suk; Seo, Ju Tae; Kim, Jang Hwan; Kim, Young Ho

    2013-01-01

    Purpose We compared the effectiveness of the retropubic tension-free vaginal tape (TVT) and the transobturator inside-out tape (TVT-O) in treating symptoms of overactive bladder (OAB) in women with stress urinary incontinence (SUI). Methods Women with urodynamic SUI and OAB (mean urgency episodes ≥1 and frequency ≥8/24 hours on a 3-day voiding diary) were assigned to the TVT or TVT-O group. Preoperative measures were based on a urodynamic study, 3-day voiding diary, the Bristol Female Lower Urinary Tract Symptoms questionnaire (BFLUTSSF), and the urgency perception scale (UPS). At 12 postoperative months, the 3-day voiding diary, symptoms questionnaire, patient satisfaction, and standing stress test were assessed. The primary endpoint was change in the number of urgency episodes/24 hours from baseline to 12 months. Results In this group of 132 women, 42 received TVT and 90 received TVT-O. The mean urgency episodes/24 hours decreased from 6.3±5.5 to 1.6±3.2 in the TVT group and from 5.1±4.4 to 1.8±3.0 in the TVT-O group. The mean percent change was significantly greater after TVT than after TVT-O (73% vs. 60%, P=0.049). All subscales of BFLUTSSF and UPS were significantly improved using either method, with significantly greater improvement seen in the quality of life (QoL) domain after TVT (P=0.002). There were no significant differences in the cure and satisfaction rates between the two groups. Conclusions Intervention with the TVT or the TVT-O significantly improved symptoms of OAB in women with SUI and OAB. Urgency and QoL significantly improved after TVT compared with that after TVT-O. PMID:24143294

  1. Patterns of stress responses shift during seasonal life-history transitions: An analysis comparing baseline, maximal and integrated corticosterone in female red-sided garter snakes (Thamnophis sirtalis parietalis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dayger, Catherine A; Lutterschmidt, Deborah I

    2017-05-15

    Glucocorticoids often rise and fall with a variety of external and internal cues and frequently vary among life-history stages. This suggests that changing glucocorticoids may coordinate life-history transitions. To explore this hypothesis, we asked if the time-course of stress-induced glucocorticoid levels differ between two life-history transitions (i.e., spring and fall migration) in female red-sided garter snakes (Thamnophis sirtalis parietalis). We collected non-migratory females from a communal den and migratory females from a road along the migration route and treated them with 4h of capture stress; plasma corticosterone was measured before, during and after capture stress. During the spring, den-collected females exhibited a stress-induced peak in corticosterone at an earlier sampling time than migrating, road-collected females. Because the pattern of corticosterone responses varied with migratory state, negative feedback on and/or sensitivity of the hypothalamus-pituitaryadrenal (HPA) axis may be linked to spring migration. During the fall, capture stress elicited an increase in corticosterone in den-collected females but not in migrating, road-collected females. Baseline corticosterone was higher and both maximal and integrated corticosterone responses were lower during the fall compared to spring, indicating that stress responses are smaller when baseline corticosterone is elevated, perhaps due to a "ceiling effect". These data suggest that HPA axis regulation changes during seasonal migration, possibly via altering negative feedback, HPA axis sensitivity, or some other mechanism. This study supports the hypothesis that glucocorticoids coordinate life-history events and suggests that examining a suite of stress response characteristics is most informative for understanding the function of HPA modulation. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Stress Hormone and Reproductive System in Response to Honey Supplementation Combined with Different Jumping Exercise Intensities in Female Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maryam Mosavat

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This study was performed to determine the effects of 8-week honey supplementation combined with different jumping exercise intensities on serum cortisol, progesterone, estradiol, and reproductive organs. Eighty-four 9-week-old female rats were divided into 7 groups: baseline controls (C0, sedentary group (C, 20 and 80 jumps per day (Ex20J, Ex80J, honey (H, and combined honey with 20 and 80 jumps per day (HEx20J, HEx80J groups. Jumping exercise was performed at 5 days/week and honey was given at a dosage of 1 g/kg body weight/day for 7 days/week. The level of serum cortisol was higher in Ex20J and Ex80J compared to C. There was significantly lower value of serum cortisol in HEx20J compared to Ex80J. Serum progesterone levels were significantly lower in Ex20J and Ex80J compared to C. However, serum progesterone levels were significantly higher in HEx20J and HEx80J compared to Ex20J and Ex80J. Relative uterine weights were significantly greater in HEx20J compared to C and HEx80J, respectively. There was no significant difference in estradiol level and relative ovarian weights among all the groups. Therefore, honey elicited beneficial effects in reducing the increase of cortisol and in increasing the reduce of progesterone levels induced by different intensities jumping exercise in female rats.

  3. Oxidative stress in mouse sperm impairs embryo development, fetal growth and alters adiposity and glucose regulation in female offspring.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michelle Lane

    Full Text Available Paternal health cues are able to program the health of the next generation however the mechanism for this transmission is unknown. Reactive oxygen species (ROS are increased in many paternal pathologies, some of which program offspring health, and are known to induce DNA damage and alter the methylation pattern of chromatin. We therefore investigated whether a chemically induced increase of ROS in sperm impairs embryo, pregnancy and offspring health. Mouse sperm was exposed to 1500 µM of hydrogen peroxide (H2O2, which induced oxidative damage, however did not affect sperm motility or the ability to bind and fertilize an oocyte. Sperm treated with H2O2 delayed on-time development of subsequent embryos, decreased the ratio of inner cell mass cells (ICM in the resulting blastocyst and reduced implantation rates. Crown-rump length at day 18 of gestation was also reduced in offspring produced by H2O2 treated sperm. Female offspring from H2O2 treated sperm were smaller, became glucose intolerant and accumulated increased levels of adipose tissue compared to control female offspring. Interestingly male offspring phenotype was less severe with increases in fat depots only seen at 4 weeks of age, which was restored to that of control offspring later in life, demonstrating sex-specific impacts on offspring. This study implicates elevated sperm ROS concentrations, which are common to many paternal health pathologies, as a mediator of programming offspring for metabolic syndrome and obesity.

  4. Symptoms of posttraumatic stress, depression, and body image distress in female victims of physical and sexual assault: exploring integrated responses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weaver, Terri L; Griffin, Michael G; Mitchell, Elisha R

    2014-01-01

    While body image concerns and interpersonal violence exposure are significant issues for women, their interrelationship has rarely been explored. We examined the associations between severity of acute injuries, symptoms of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), depression, and body image distress within a sample of predominantly African American victims of interpersonal violence (N = 73). Severity of body image distress was significantly associated with each outcome. Moreover, body image distress was a significant, unique predictor of depression but not PTSD severity. We recommend continued exploration of body image concerns to further integrated research on violence against women.

  5. Should Complete and Incomplete Spinal Cord Injury Patients Receive the Same Attention in Urodynamic Evaluations and Ultrasonography Examinations of the Upper Urinary Tract?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akkoc, Yesim; Cinar, Yasemin; Kismali, Erkan

    2012-01-01

    The aim of the study was to compare urodynamic findings and upper urinary tract (UUT) abnormalities detected by ultrasonography in complete and incomplete suprasacral spinal cord injury (SCI) patients with neurogenic detrusor overactivity. Thirty-eight suprasacral SCI patients who underwent ultrasonography evaluation of the UUT and urodynamic…

  6. Intranasal oxytocin reduces provoked symptoms in female patients with posttraumatic stress disorder despite exerting sympathomimetic and positive chronotropic effects in a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sack, M; Spieler, D; Wizelman, L; Epple, G; Stich, J; Zaba, M; Schmidt, U

    2017-02-17

    Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is a severe psychiatric disease accompanied by neuroendocrine changes such as adrenergic overdrive and hence an elevated cardiovascular morbidity. Current pharmacotherapeutic options for PTSD are less than suboptimal, necessitating the development of PTSD-specific drugs. Although the neuropeptide oxytocin has been repeatedly suggested to be effective in PTSD treatment, there are, to our knowledge, only three studies that have assessed its efficacy on the intensity of PTSD symptoms in PTSD patients - among them one symptom provocation study in male veterans. To evaluate for the first time how oxytocin influences the intensity of provoked PTSD symptoms and, furthermore, cardiac control in female PTSD patients, we assessed their psychic and cardiac response to trauma-script exposure with and without oxytocin pretreatment in a double-blind randomized placebo-controlled study. We used a within-subject design to study 35 female PTSD patients who received oxytocin and placebo in a 2-week interval. Furthermore, we performed a small pilot study to get an idea of the relation of the stress-modulated endogenous oxytocin levels and heart rate - we correlated oxytocin serum levels with the heart rate of 10 healthy individuals before and after exposure to the Trier Social Stress Test (TSST). Intranasal oxytocin treatment was followed by a reduction of provoked total PTSD symptoms, in particular of avoidance, and by an elevation in baseline and maximum heart rate together with a drop in the pre-ejection period, a marker for sympathetic cardiac control. Furthermore, we found a positive correlation between endogenous oxytocin levels and heart rate both before and after TSST challenge in healthy control subjects. This study provides the first evidence that oxytocin treatment reduces the intensity of provoked PTSD symptoms in female PTSD patients. The small size of both samples and the heterogeneity of the patient sample restrict the

  7. Medial prefrontal cortex neuronal activation and synaptic alterations after stress-induced reinstatement of palatable food seeking: a study using c-fos-GFP transgenic female rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cifani, Carlo; Koya, Eisuke; Navarre, Brittany M; Calu, Donna J; Baumann, Michael H; Marchant, Nathan J; Liu, Qing-Rong; Khuc, Thi; Pickel, James; Lupica, Carl R; Shaham, Yavin; Hope, Bruce T

    2012-06-20

    Relapse to maladaptive eating habits during dieting is often provoked by stress and there is evidence for a role of ovarian hormones in stress responses and feeding. We studied the role of these hormones in stress-induced reinstatement of food seeking and medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) neuronal activation in c-fos-GFP transgenic female rats, which express GFP in strongly activated neurons. Food-restricted ovariectomized or sham-operated c-fos-GFP rats were trained to lever-press for palatable food pellets. Subsequently, lever-pressing was extinguished and reinstatement of food seeking and mPFC neuronal activation was assessed after injections of the pharmacological stressor yohimbine (0.5-2 mg/kg) or pellet priming (1-4 noncontingent pellets). Estrous cycle effects on reinstatement were also assessed in wild-type rats. Yohimbine- and pellet-priming-induced reinstatement was associated with Fos and GFP induction in mPFC; both reinstatement and neuronal activation were minimally affected by ovarian hormones in both c-fos-GFP and wild-type rats. c-fos-GFP transgenic rats were then used to assess glutamatergic synaptic alteration