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Sample records for female reproductive cycles

  1. Female reproductive cycles of wild female felids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Janine L

    2011-04-01

    Many felid species are endangered because of destructive human activities. As a result, zoos are being tasked with sustaining genetically healthy populations in case of catastrophic extinctions. Unfortunately, with the exception of a few species, most felids do not reproduce well in captivity. The ability to track reproductive activity via hormones is key to developing successful ex situ breeding programs. Through the development of noninvasive fecal hormone monitoring techniques, a high degree of variability in estrous cycle characteristics has been found to exist across the taxon, including the type of ovulation. For example, although all felids have induced ovulations, the occurrence of spontaneous ovulations varies across species, and even between individuals within a species. Clouded leopards, fishing cats and margays frequently have spontaneous ovulations, whereas these are rarely observed in the cheetah, tigrina and ocelot. There are marked species differences in the impact of season on reproductive function, with some being exquisitely sensitive to photoperiod (e.g., Pallas' cat), some moderately affected (tiger, clouded leopard, snow leopard), and others that are not influenced at all (e.g., ocelot, tigrina, margay, lion, leopard, fishing cat). One of the greatest challenges remaining is overcoming the problems associated with highly variable ovarian responses to ovulation induction therapies used with assisted reproductive procedures, like artificial insemination (AI). Success is relatively high in the cheetah and ocelot, but few pregnancies have resulted after AI in clouded leopard, fishing cat and tiger. Current knowledge of the reproductive physiology of nondomestic felids, including aspects of the anatomy, behavior and ovarian cycles will be presented, and how the rapidly growing endocrine database is aiding ex situ management efforts. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  2. Tributyltin impairs the reproductive cycle in female rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lang Podratz, Priscila; Delgado Filho, Vicente Sathler; Lopes, Pedro Francisco Iguatemy; Cavati Sena, Gabriela; Matsumoto, Silvia Tamie; Samoto, Vivian Yochiko; Takiya, Christina Maeda; de Castro Miguel, Emilio; Silva, Ian Victor; Graceli, Jones Bernardes

    2012-01-01

    Triorganotins are environmental contaminants, commonly used in antifouling agents for boats, that bioaccumulate and thus are found in mammals and humans due to ingestion of contaminated seafood diets. The importance of triorganotins as environmental endocrine disruptors and consequent reproductive toxicity in different animal models is well known; however, the adverse effects on reproductive cycle are less well understood. The potential reproductive toxicity of tributyltin (TBT) on regular reproductive cycling of female rats was examined. Wistar female rats (12 wk old, weighing approximately 230 g) were divided into two groups: control (vehicle, ethanol 0.4%) and tributyltin (100 ng/kg/d, 7 d/wk, for 16 d by gavage). Tributyltin significantly decreased the cycle regularity (%), duration of the reproductive cycle, the proestrus and diestrus phases, and number of epithelial cell in proestrus phase. TBT also increased the duration of metestrus and the number of cornified cells in this phase. Ovary weight and serum 17β-estradiol levels decreased markedly, accompanied by a significant increase in progesterone levels. Histological analysis showed apoptotic cells in corpus luteum and granulosa cells layer, with cystic follicles after TBT exposure. Tributyltin also elevated number of atretic follicles and corpoa lutea. The micronucleus (MN) test, using Chinese hamster ovary cells, demonstrated a concentration-dependent mutagenic effect of TBT, and at 2.0 × 10(-2)ng/ml most of the cells were nonviable. The toxic potential of TBT over the reproductive cycle may be attributed to changes found in the ovarian weight, unbalanced levels of sexual female hormones, and number of ovarian follicles and corpora lutea.

  3. Reproductive cycle of Macrobrachium amazonicum females (Crustacea, Palaemonidae

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    CMS. Sampaio

    Full Text Available Macrobrachium amazonicum is considered a favorite Brazilian species of freshwater prawn for cultivation as a result of its quick development and because it is easy to maintain in captivity. The aim of this work is to describe the sexual cycle stages and determine maturation age of the female M. amazonicum, which was collected monthly from June, 2002 to May, 2003 in the Jaguaribe River, Itaiçaba, Ceará. A monthly sample of water was also collected to determine the following parameters: temperature, dissolved oxygen, pH and salinity. A monthly sample of females was selected among the individuals caught, to determine the total weight (W T, carapace length (L C and abdomen+telson length (L A+T and to register the number of non-ovigerous females (NOF and ovigerous females (OF. Determining ovarian maturation stages of M. amazonicum was done in a laboratory by observing macroscopic characters such as coloring, size, location and appearance of ovarians examined by transparent carapace. The first maturation age was determined from the relative frequency of the total length (L T of young and adult females. The environmental parameters of the Jaguaribe River did not hold any influence in the number of individuals collected. A total of 1,337 prawns were sampled, 513 males (38.4% and 824 females (61.6%. The proportion between males and females in the studied population was of 1:1.6. Among the collected females, 492 (50.7% did not carry eggs in their abdomens (NOF and 332 (40.3% carried eggs in their abdomens (OF. There was no record of intact females. Non-ovigerous females with mature ovaries were recorded throughout all the months of collection. The female ovaries were classified as immature (IM, rudimentary (RU, intermediary (IN and mature (M. M. amazonicum females reach their first sexual maturity between 4.5 and 5.5 cm of total length.

  4. Social and seasonal influences on the reproductive cycle in female mandrills (Mandrillus sphinx).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Setchell, Joanna M; Wickings, E Jean

    2004-09-01

    We present 12 years of perineal swelling data for a semifree-ranging colony of mandrills (Mandrillus sphinx), and evaluate the influence of rank, parity, and seasonality on reproductive parameters. Female sexual swellings showed a seasonal pattern, with August the median month of ovulation. Overlapping periovulatory periods did not decrease the likelihood of conception. Females showed their first genital swelling at age 3.6 years (n = 28; range, 3.2-4.6 years), and higher-ranking females experienced their first swelling earlier than low-ranking females. Median postpartum amenorrhea (PPA) duration was 208 days (n = 92; range, 74-538 days). PPA was longer in primiparous females than in multiparous females, but PPA duration was unrelated to female rank. Median follicular phase duration was 24 days for the first cycle after parturition (n = 84; range, 12-40 days), shortening to 17 days in subsequent cycles (n = 55; range, 6-39 days). The follicular phase was longer in nulliparous females than in parous females, but was unrelated to female rank. Median cycle length (from one sexual swelling breakdown to the next) was 38 days (n = 57; range, 18-108 days). Eighty-seven percent of conceptions occurred within two cycles, and half of the nulliparous females conceived during their first swelling cycle. Lower-ranking females were more likely to require more cycles to conceive than higher-ranking females. The cycling phase was significantly longer in nulliparous females than in parous females, and was also significantly longer in lower-ranking females than in higher-ranking females. We discuss the influence of provisioning on female reproductive parameters, the influence of parity and rank on the different phases of the interbirth interval, and the evolution of long and variable follicular phases in mandrills. Copyright 2004 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  5. Obsessive-compulsive disorder and female reproductive cycle events: results from the OCD and reproduction collaborative study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Guglielmi, Valeria; Vulink, Nienke C. C.; Denys, Damiaan; Wang, Ying; Samuels, Jack F.; Nestadt, Gerald

    2014-01-01

    Women with obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) often report that symptoms first appear or exacerbate during reproductive cycle events; however, little is known about these relationships. The goals of this study were to examine, in a US and a European female OCD sample, onset and exacerbation of OCD

  6. Female reproductive cycle of the Southwestern Atlantic estuarine crab Chasmagnathus granulatus (Brachyura, Grapsoidea, Varunidae

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    Romina B. Ituarte

    2004-03-01

    Full Text Available The female reproductive biology of a Chasmagnathus granulatus population inhabiting the area near the mouth of Mar Chiquita coastal lagoon, Argentina, was studied. An increase in air temperature during the spring is related to the start of the breeding period, when well defined egg-laying and hatching pulses were observed. Hatching is synchronic during the whole summer but the egg production was not, probably due to the gradual incorporation of young females to the reproductive population. Neither egg-laying nor larval release showed a clear relation to moon phase or tidal cycles, suggesting that reproduction is not rigidly programmed in this unpredictable habitat. Females moult at the beginning of autumn, after releasing the last larvae. However, a new cohort of ovocytes, which was in primary vitellogenesis before moulting, completed the secondary ovogenesis after moulting. Consequently, ovaries remained fully developed throughout the winter.

  7. Airway exposure to multi-walled carbon nanotubes disrupts the female reproductive cycle without affecting pregnancy outcomes in mice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johansson, Hanna Katarina Lilith; Hansen, J. S.; Elfving, B.

    2017-01-01

    response and inflammation in experimental animals, which may affect female reproduction. This proof-of-principle study therefore aimed to investigate if lung exposure by intratracheal instillation of the MWCNT NM-400 would affect the estrous cycle and reproductive function in female mice.Results: Estrous...... of irregular cycling after exposure. Our data indicates that MWCNT exposure may interfere with events leading to ovulation....

  8. The adverse effects of high fat induced obesity on female reproductive cycle and hormones

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    Donthireddy, Laxminarasimha Reddy

    The prevalence of obesity, an established risk and progression factor for abnormal reproductive cycle and tissue damage in female mice. It leads to earlier puberty, menarche in young females and infertility. There are extensive range of consequences of obesity which includes type-2 diabetes, cardiovascular disease and insulin resistance. Obesity is the interaction between dietary intake, genes, life style and environment. The interplay of hormones estrogen, insulin, and leptin is well known on energy homeostasis and reproduction. The aim of this study is to determine the effect of high fat induced obesity on reproductive cycles and its hormonal abnormalities on mice model. Two week, 3 month and 8 month long normal (WT) and very high fat diet (VHFD) diet course is followed. When mice are fed with very high fat diet, there is a drastic increase in weight within the first week later. There was a significant (p<0.001) increase in leptin levels in 6 month VHFD treated animals. 2 week, 3 month and 6 month time interval pap smear test results showed number of cells, length of estrous cycle and phases of the estrous cycle changes with VHFD mice(n=30) compared to normal diet mice(n=10). These results also indicate that the changes in the reproductive cycles in VHFD treated female mice could be due to the changes in hormones. Histo-pathological analyses of kidney, ovary, liver, pancreas, heart and lungs showed remarkable changes in some tissue on exposure to very high fat. Highly deposited fat packets observed surrounding the hepatocytes and nerve cells.

  9. Obsessive-compulsive disorder and female reproductive cycle events: results from the OCD and reproduction collaborative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guglielmi, Valeria; Vulink, Nienke C C; Denys, Damiaan; Wang, Ying; Samuels, Jack F; Nestadt, Gerald

    2014-12-01

    Women with obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) often report that symptoms first appear or exacerbate during reproductive cycle events; however, little is known about these relationships. The goals of this study were to examine, in a US and a European female OCD sample, onset and exacerbation of OCD in reproductive cycle events, and to investigate the likelihood of repeat exacerbation in subsequent pregnancies and postpartum periods. Five hundred forty-two women (United States, n = 352; Dutch, n = 190) who met DSM-IV criteria for OCD, completed self-report questionnaires designed to assess OCD onset and symptom exacerbation associated with reproductive events. OCD onset occurred within 12 months after menarche in 13.0%, during pregnancy in 5.1%, at postpartum in 4.7%, and at menopause in 3.7%. Worsening of pre-existing OCD was reported by 37.6% of women at premenstruum, 33.0% during pregnancy, 46.6% postpartum, and 32.7% at menopause. Exacerbation in first pregnancy was significantly associated with exacerbation in second pregnancy (OR = 10.82, 95% CI 4.48-26.16), as was exacerbation in first postpartum with exacerbation in second postpartum (OR = 6.86, 95% CI 3.27-14.36). Results were replicated in both samples. Reproductive cycle events are periods of increased risk for onset and exacerbation of OCD in women. The present study is the first to provide significant evidence that exacerbation in or after first pregnancy is a substantial risk factor for exacerbation in or after a subsequent pregnancy. Further research is needed to identify factors related to exacerbation, so that physicians may provide appropriate recommendations to women regarding clinical issues involving OCD and reproductive cycle events. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  10. Normal Female Reproductive Anatomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... historical Searches are case-insensitive Reproductive System, Female, Anatomy Add to My Pictures View /Download : Small: 720x756 ... Large: 3000x3150 View Download Title: Reproductive System, Female, Anatomy Description: Anatomy of the female reproductive system; drawing ...

  11. Interpopulational differences in the female reproductive cycle of the southwestern Atlantic estuarine crab Chasmagnathus granulatus Dana, 1851 (Brachyura: Grapsoidea: Varunidae

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    Romina B. Ituarte

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available The female reproductive biology of Chasmagnathus granulatus Dana, a semiterrestrial burrowing crab endemic to the southwestern Atlantic, was compared in two contrasting coastal habitats: San Antonio (SA, marine and Mar Chiquita (MC, estuarial. Mature females were collected monthly for 1.5 years and the ovarian cycle was described using a qualitative scale. Gonadosomatic (GSI and hepatosomatic (HSI indexes were calculated. The highest GSI and HSI occurred early in the reproductive season in SA and during the non-reproductive season in MC. The beginning and duration of the reproductive season also differed between populations: it started later and was shorter in SA. In MC, secondary vitellogenesis continued when the reproductive season had finished, and the ovaries remained fully developed throughout the non-reproductive season (winter. Therefore, females of MC were ready to lay eggs as soon as spring environmental conditions appeared. However, SA females did not attain a fully developed ovary during winter. A limited food supply would restrict the available energy to complete secondary vitellogenesis at the end of the reproductive season in SA, after the last spawning. Thus, the vitellogenic cycle should be completed in the following spring, causing a delay in the beginning of the reproductive period. In addition, the higher temperature amplitude may cause the reproductive period in SA to end early.

  12. Female reproductive disorders

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Crain, D Andrew; Janssen, Sarah J; Edwards, Thea M

    2008-01-01

    To evaluate the possible role of endocrine-disrupting compounds (EDCs) on female reproductive disorders emphasizing developmental plasticity and the complexity of endocrine-dependent ontogeny of reproductive organs. Declining conception rates and the high incidence of female reproductive...... disruptions warrant evaluation of the impact of EDCs on female reproductive health....

  13. The female reproductive cycle of the neotropical snake Atractus pantostictus (Fernandes and Puorto, 1993) from south-eastern Brazil.

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    de Resende, F C; Nascimento, L B

    2015-06-01

    Data on reproductive activity of fossorial species are limited because the specimens are difficult to be observed and captured. Here in, we present the reproductive cycle of female Atractus pantostictus, a fossorial neotropical species, and the sexual maturity of males and females in south-eastern Brazil. The female reproductive cycle of A. pantostictus is seasonal, with vitellogenic follicles being found from September to April and eggs in November, February, March and April with the number varying between two and four. Spermatozoa were found in the lumen of the glandular and non-glandular uterus in females collected during the rainy season. Sperm storage tubules were found in the posterior infundibulum of the females, where the storage of sperm occurs for a short time. The storage may occur because mating and ovulation are dissociated. © 2014 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  14. Female reproductive disorders

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Crain, D Andrew; Janssen, Sarah J; Edwards, Thea M

    2008-01-01

    To evaluate the possible role of endocrine-disrupting compounds (EDCs) on female reproductive disorders emphasizing developmental plasticity and the complexity of endocrine-dependent ontogeny of reproductive organs. Declining conception rates and the high incidence of female reproductive disrupti......To evaluate the possible role of endocrine-disrupting compounds (EDCs) on female reproductive disorders emphasizing developmental plasticity and the complexity of endocrine-dependent ontogeny of reproductive organs. Declining conception rates and the high incidence of female reproductive...... disruptions warrant evaluation of the impact of EDCs on female reproductive health....

  15. Female Reproductive System

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of the Female Reproductive System Print en español Sistema reproductor femenino About Human Reproduction All living things ... of Use Notice of Nondiscrimination Visit the Nemours Web site. Note: All information on KidsHealth® is for ...

  16. Sex steroid levels across the reproductive cycle of female leopard geckos, Eublepharis macularius, from different incubation temperatures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rhen, T; Sakata, J T; Zeller, M; Crews, D

    2000-05-01

    Incubation temperature during embryonic development determines gonadal sex in many reptiles, including the leopard gecko (Eublepharis macularius). In this study, we examined the hormonal and behavioral changes that occur during the reproductive cycle of female leopard geckos from four (i.e., 26, 30, 32.5, and 34 degrees C) incubation temperatures. Controlling for reproductive status, plasma levels of dihydrotestosterone (DHT), testosterone (T), and progesterone (P) varied with incubation temperature but estradiol 17-beta (E2) levels did not. Controlling for the effects of incubation temperature, DHT and T levels were low when females were previtellogenic, increased slightly during early vitellogenesis, increased dramatically during late vitellogenesis (i.e., prior to ovulation), and then decreased to previtellogenic levels after ovulation. In contrast, E2 levels increased gradually from the previtellogenic stage to the early vitellogenic stage, peaked during late vitellogenesis, and decreased to previtellogenic levels after ovulation. Levels of P increased from the previtellogenic stage to the early vitellogenic stage, remained elevated during late vitellogenesis, and then decreased after ovulation. Moreover, we determined that females were not sexually receptive when previtellogenic, were somewhat receptive during early vitellogenesis (approximately 20% receptive), were most receptive during late vitellogenesis (approximately 80% receptive), and were again unreceptive after ovulation. Incubation temperature did not influence receptivity. Overall, these data show that hormone levels and behavior change coordinately during the reproductive cycle. Although incubation temperature has persistent effects on endocrine physiology in adult female leopard geckos, these effects are modest compared to hormonal changes across the reproductive cycle.

  17. Impact of thyroid function abnormalities on reproductive hormones during menstrual cycle in premenopausal HIV infected females at NAUTH, Nnewi, Nigeria.

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    Nkiruka Rose Ukibe

    Full Text Available This was a prospective study designed to evaluate the impact of thyroid function abnormalities on reproductive hormones during menstrual cycle in HIV infected females at Nnamdi Azikiwe University Teaching Hospital Nnewi, South-East Nigeria.The study randomly recruited 35 Symptomatic HIV infected females and 35 Symptomatic HIV infected females on antiretroviral therapy (HAART for not less than six weeks from an HIV clinic and 40 apparently heathy control females among the hospital staff of NAUTH Nnewi. They were all premenopausal females with regular menstrual cycle and aged between 15-45 years. Blood samples were collected at follicular and luteal phases of their menstrual cycle for assay of Thyroid indices (FT3, FT4 and TSH and Reproductive indices (FSH, LH, Estrogen, Progesterone, Prolactin and Testosterone using ELISA method.The result showed significantly higher FSH and LH but significantly lower progesterone (prog and estrogen (E2 in the test females compared to control females at both phases of menstrual cycle (P<0.05. There was significantly lower FT3 but significantly higher TSH value in Symptomatic HIV females (P<0.05. FSH, LH and TSH values were significantly lowered while prog and FT3 were significantly higher in Symptomatic HIV on ART compared to Symptomatic HIV females (P<0.05. FT3, FT4, Prog and E2 were inversely correlated while FSH and LH were positively correlated with duration of HIV infection in HIV females (P<0.05 respectively. There was a direct correlation between CD4+ count and FT3 while inverse correlation was found between CD4+ count and TSH levels (P<0.05.The present study demonstrated hypothyroidism with a significant degree of primary hypogonadism in Symptomatic HIV infected females at both follicular and luteal phases of menstrual cycle which tends to normalize on treatments.

  18. Impact of thyroid function abnormalities on reproductive hormones during menstrual cycle in premenopausal HIV infected females at NAUTH, Nnewi, Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ukibe, Nkiruka Rose; Ukibe, Solomon Nwabueze; Emelumadu, Obiageli Fidelia; Onyenekwe, Chinedum Charles; Ahaneku, Joseph Eberendu; Igwegbe, Anthony Osita; Monago, Ifeoma Nwamaka; Ilika, Amobi Linus

    2017-01-01

    This was a prospective study designed to evaluate the impact of thyroid function abnormalities on reproductive hormones during menstrual cycle in HIV infected females at Nnamdi Azikiwe University Teaching Hospital Nnewi, South-East Nigeria. The study randomly recruited 35 Symptomatic HIV infected females and 35 Symptomatic HIV infected females on antiretroviral therapy (HAART) for not less than six weeks from an HIV clinic and 40 apparently heathy control females among the hospital staff of NAUTH Nnewi. They were all premenopausal females with regular menstrual cycle and aged between 15-45 years. Blood samples were collected at follicular and luteal phases of their menstrual cycle for assay of Thyroid indices (FT3, FT4 and TSH) and Reproductive indices (FSH, LH, Estrogen, Progesterone, Prolactin and Testosterone) using ELISA method. The result showed significantly higher FSH and LH but significantly lower progesterone (prog) and estrogen (E2) in the test females compared to control females at both phases of menstrual cycle (P<0.05). There was significantly lower FT3 but significantly higher TSH value in Symptomatic HIV females (P<0.05). FSH, LH and TSH values were significantly lowered while prog and FT3 were significantly higher in Symptomatic HIV on ART compared to Symptomatic HIV females (P<0.05). FT3, FT4, Prog and E2 were inversely correlated while FSH and LH were positively correlated with duration of HIV infection in HIV females (P<0.05 respectively). There was a direct correlation between CD4+ count and FT3 while inverse correlation was found between CD4+ count and TSH levels (P<0.05). The present study demonstrated hypothyroidism with a significant degree of primary hypogonadism in Symptomatic HIV infected females at both follicular and luteal phases of menstrual cycle which tends to normalize on treatments.

  19. Maturation and reproductive cycle of female Pacific cod in waters adjacent to the southern coast of Hokkaido, Japan

    OpenAIRE

    Hattori, Tsutomu; Sakurai, Yasunori; Shimazaki, Kenji

    1992-01-01

    The maturation process and reproductive cycle of female Pacific cod Gadus macrocephalus were examined in the waters adjacent to the southern and southeastern coasts of Hokkaido, Japan, by collecting fish between April 1989 and September 1990. Histological examination was made of the ovaries. During the course of ovarian maturation, a portion of the oocytes became isolated from immature oocytes at the yolk vesicle stage (less than 0.3mm in diameter) and gradually developed into a group of y...

  20. The Female Reproductive Cycle of the Bedriaga Plate-Tailed Gecko, Teratoscincus bedriagai (Sauria: Gekkonidae in Iran

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    Fatemeh Mojibi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The Bedriaga Plate-tailed Gecko, Teratoscincus bedriagai Nikolsky, 1900, is distributed in the northern and eastern desert basins of the Central Plateau of Iran, Sistan, and the desert regions of southern Afghanistan. Iranian specimens are believed to be rare in collections. In this study, the reproductive cycle of this species has been investigated through focusing on oogenesis from 5 April to 5 August, 2013. Generally, 15 adult females were collected by hand at midnight from southern parts of Damghan County, situated in Semnan Province of Iran. Ovaries were removed and processed for the purpose of histological and morphometric studies. The results revealed that oocyte growth starts in early April and terminates in late July. Moreover, mating commences in spring, especially at the beginning of May, with oviposition occurring from late May to late July. Approximately, 1 to 2 eggs are laid by females per clutch with the possibility of producing a secondary clutch later in the season. The maximum reproductive activity takes place in May and continues with a decreasing trend in June and more reduction in July and finally ends in August. No significant difference was observed between right and left side of reproductive system. Therefore, oogenesis occurs from April to July, while T. bedriagai follows an oogenic cycle typical for temperate species.

  1. Accounting for female reproductive cycles in a superpopulation capture-recapture framework

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carroll, E. L.; Childerhouse, S. J.; Fewster, R. M.

    2013-01-01

    Superpopulation capture-recapture models are useful for estimating the abundance of long-lived, migratory species because they are able to account for the fluid nature of annual residency at migratory destinations. Here we extend the superpopulation POPAN model to explicitly account...... 700 whales, sampled during two sets of winter expeditions in 1995-1998 and 2006-2009. Due to differences in recapture rates between sexes, only sex-specific models were considered. The POPAN-tau models, which explicitly account for a decrease in capture probability in non-calving years, fit the female...... estimate of 1007 males (95% CL 794, 1276) and an estimated annual increase of 7% (95% CL 5%, 9%) for 1995-2009. Combined, the total superpopulation estimate for 1995-2009 was 2169 whales (95% CL 1836, 2563). Simulations suggest that failure to account for the effect of reproductive status on the capture...

  2. Patterns of Apoptosis and Proliferation throughout the Biennial Reproductive Cycle of Viviparous Female Typhlonectes compressicauda (Amphibia, Gymnophiona

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    Michel Raquet

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Typhlonectes compressicauda is an aquatic gymnophionan amphibian living in South America. Its breeding cycle is linked to seasons, characterized by a regular alternation of rainy and dry seasons. During a complex biennial cycle, the female genital tract undergoes a series of alternations of increasing and decreasing, governed by equilibrium of proliferation and apoptotic phenomena. Immunohistochemical methods were used to visualize cell proliferation with the detection of Ki67 antibody, a protein present in proliferative cells; terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase dUTP nick end labeling (TUNEL and Apostain were performed to detect apoptotic cells on sections of ovaries and oviducts. In ovaries, both phenomena affect the germinal nests and follicles according to the cycle period. In the oviduct, the balance was in favor of proliferation during preparation for reproduction, and in favor of apoptosis when genital ducts regress. Apoptosis and proliferation are narrowly implicated in the remodeling of the genital tract and they are accompanied by the differentiation of tissues according to the phase of the breeding cycle. These variations permit the capture of oocytes at ovulation, always at the same period, and the parturition after 6–7 months of gestation, at a period in which the newborns live with their mother, protected in burrows in the mud. During the intervening year of sexual inactivity, the female reconstitutes body reserves.

  3. Trace element distribution during the reproductive cycle of female and male spiny and Pacific scallops, with implications for biomonitoring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Norum, Ulrik; Lai, Vivian W.-M.; Cullen, William R.

    2005-01-01

    Trace element concentrations and contents in gills, gonad, kidneys, mantle, muscle and remainder during the reproductive cycle of female and male spiny and Pacific scallops, from the Strait of Georgia, BC, Canada, were quantified by using ICPMS. The elements investigated were chromium, manganese, iron, cobalt, nickel, selenium, molybdenum, cadmium, tin and mercury. For all ten elements, the tissue distribution was to some extent influenced by species, sex and reproductive status. The implications of the present study in relation to the design of biomonitoring programmes are: (1) care should be taken to ensure an equal/constant sex composition when making interannual comparisons of pooled samples. Preferably the sexes should be monitored separately. (2) the practice of obtaining pooled samples in the interspawn phase is applicable only to monitoring long-term trends in contaminant levels, while the reproductive status should be heeded when studying short-term changes. (3) the present study confirms that direct temporal or spatial comparisons of absolute accumulated element concentrations are only valid intraspecifically

  4. Cessation of reproduction-related spine elongation after multiple breeding cycles in female naked mole-rats.

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    Dengler-Crish, Christine M; Catania, Kenneth C

    2009-01-01

    The breeding female or "queen" naked mole-rat has a uniquely elongated body morphology attributed to the lengthening of the lumbar vertebral column that occurs during pregnancy. It is unknown whether this vertebral growth is a continuous process, or associated only with early reproductive experience. We compared pregnancy-related bone elongation in nascent primiparous queens and established queens to determine if this vertebral expansion was a lifelong process in these females. We also investigated the impact of lactation on vertebral elongation in these mole-rats because it is known to be a time of significant bone loss in other mammals. Our data show that after eight or more pregnancies, established queens no longer experienced a net gain in lumbar spine length over the reproductive cycle, whereas the nascent breeders demonstrated significant spine lengthening over this time. Despite the lack of net spine lengthening in established breeders, our results indicated that these queens still experienced some pregnancy-specific vertebral elongation. In naked mole-rats, pregnancy-induced bone elongation may serve the dual purposes of first lengthening the spine, and then once optimal spine size is achieved, serving as a homeostatic mechanism that prepares the spine for the mineral demands of lactation. Anat Rec, 2009. (c) 2008 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  5. Melatonin and female reproduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tamura, Hiroshi; Takasaki, Akihisa; Taketani, Toshiaki; Tanabe, Manabu; Lee, Lifa; Tamura, Isao; Maekawa, Ryo; Aasada, Hiromi; Yamagata, Yoshiaki; Sugino, Norihiro

    2014-01-01

    Melatonin (N-acetyl-5-methoxytryptamine) is secreted during the dark hours at night by the pineal gland. After entering the circulation, melatonin acts as an endocrine factor and a chemical messenger of light and darkness. It regulates a variety of important central and peripheral actions related to circadian rhythms and reproduction. It also affects the brain, immune, gastrointestinal, cardiovascular, renal, bone and endocrine functions and acts as an oncostatic and anti-aging molecule. Many of melatonin's actions are mediated through interactions with specific membrane-bound receptors expressed not only in the central nervous system, but also in peripheral tissues. Melatonin also acts through non-receptor-mediated mechanisms, for example serving as a scavenger for reactive oxygen species and reactive nitrogen species. At both physiological and pharmacological concentrations, melatonin attenuates and counteracts oxidative stress and regulates cellular metabolism. Growing scientific evidence of reproductive physiology supports the role of melatonin in human reproduction. This review was conducted to investigate the effects of melatonin on female reproduction and to summarize our findings in this field. © 2013 The Authors. Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology Research © 2013 Japan Society of Obstetrics and Gynecology.

  6. Preliminary observations on the reproductive cycle of female Tegu lizards (Tupinambis teguizin)

    OpenAIRE

    Yanosky, Ángel Alberto; Mercolli, Claudia

    1991-01-01

    The black tegu lizard, Tupinambis teguixin (Linnaeus 1758) is a common element in the wild all throughout Southamerica except for Chile. This teiid lizard was outstood by earlier travellers such as Sir Charles Waterton who reported for the first time about the delicate food, resembling chicken flesh and frequently consumed by local natives. Despite its relative abundance and both the intense economical and social importance of tegus, as well as its situation in the food web, the reproductive ...

  7. REPRODUCTIVE CYCLE OF Leporinus copelandii (Pisces: Anostomidae FEMALES FROM THE LOWER PARAÍBA DO SUL RIVER BASIN, RJ – BRAZIL

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    Ana Paula Ribeiro Costa Erthal

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study were investigate the reproductive biology of the fish Leporinus copelandii, a specie at risk of extinction in the lower Paraíba do Sul River basin. During a period of 14 months, a total of 143 females of red-piau were captured, between Itaocara and Campos dos Goytacazes cities (RJ, Brazil. A histological study shows four stages of the oocyte development (I, II, III and IV and five stages of the reproductive cycle of females: rest (1, initial maturation (2A, intermediary (2B, advanced (2C and spawned (4 were identified. The pattern of L. copelandii oocyte development suggests development type synchronous in two groups, characterizing total spawning. Spawned females were captured in November, two months after the peak of frequency of competent females for reproduction. Histologically, a little occurrence of empty follicles was observed in spawned females. The medium diameter of the type IV oocyte of the spawned females (1475.1 ± 884.3mm was significantly larger (Tukey, P <0.001; VC = 41.73%; n = 259 than advanced maturation females (1202.6 ± 245.3mm, what allows suggesting that the study place probably doesn't represent the reproductive area of L. copelandii.

  8. Female Reproductive System (For Teens)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of the Female Reproductive System Print en español Sistema reproductor femenino Reproduction All living things reproduce. Reproduction — ... of Use Notice of Nondiscrimination Visit the Nemours Web site. Note: All information on TeensHealth® is for ...

  9. Reproductive cycles of deer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asher, G W

    2011-04-01

    The cervids are a complex assemblage of taxa showing extreme diversity in morphology, physiology, ecology and geographical distribution. Reproductive strategies adopted by various species are also diverse, and include a range from highly seasonal to completely aseasonal birth patterns. The recent growth in knowledge on cervid reproduction is strongly biased towards the larger-bodied, gregarious mixed grazer-browser species that have adapted well to human management and commercialisation. These species tend to represent 'K-selected' climax species characterised by very productive annual breeding success, singleton births and long breeding life (10+ years). Conversely, we know relatively little about the reproductive patterns of the 'r-selected' smaller-bodied, solitary (and often highly territorial), forest-dwelling browser species, often characterised by great fecundity (twinning) and shorter breeding life (<10 years). This group includes many of the endangered cervid taxa. This review extends earlier reviews to include more recent work on cervid reproductive cycles, particularly in relation to environmental factors influencing gestation length. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Prenatal stress modifies behavior and hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal function in female guinea pig offspring: effects of timing of prenatal stress and stage of reproductive cycle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kapoor, Amita; Matthews, Stephen G

    2008-12-01

    Prenatal stress is associated with altered behavior and hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis function postnatally. Recent studies suggest that these outcomes are dependent on the timing of the prenatal stress. The majority of these studies have been carried out in male offspring. We hypothesized that a short period of prenatal stress would result in female offspring that exhibit differences in open-field behavior and HPA axis activity, but the outcome would depend on the timing of the prenatal stress and the stage of the reproductive cycle. Pregnant guinea pigs were exposed to a strobe light during the fetal brain growth spurt [gestational d 50-52 (PS50)] or during the period of rapid brain myelination [gestational d 60-62 (PS60)]. Open-field activity was assessed in juvenile and adult female offspring. HPA axis function was tested in adult offspring. All tests in adulthood were carried out during the estrous and luteal phases of the reproductive cycle to determine the effect of stage on HPA axis programming. Tissues were collected upon completion of the study for analysis by in situ hybridization. PS60 offspring exhibited decreased activity in an open field during the estrous phase of the reproductive cycle compared with control offspring. Both PS50 and PS60 offspring exhibited a lower salivary cortisol response to a stressor, only during the estrous phase. Consistent with the behavioral and endocrine data, PS60 females exhibited lower plasma estradiol levels, reduced ovary weight, and increased glucocorticoid receptor mRNA in the paraventricular nucleus. In conclusion, we have demonstrated that there are effects of prenatal stress on behavior and HPA axis functioning in female offspring but that the outcomes are dependent on the timing of the prenatal stress together with the status of the reproductive cycle.

  11. Reproduction impairment and endocrine disruption in female zebrafish after long-term exposure to MC-LR: A life cycle assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hou, Jie; Li, Li; Wu, Ning; Su, Yujing; Lin, Wang; Li, Guangyu; Gu, Zemao

    2016-01-01

    Microcystin-LR (MC-LR) has been found to cause reproductive and developmental impairments as well as to disrupt sex hormone homeostasis of fish during acute and sub-chronic toxic experiments. However, fish in natural environments are continuously exposed to MC-LR throughout their entire life cycle as opposed to short-term exposure. Here, we tested the hypothesis that the mechanism by which MC-LR harms female fish reproduction and development within natural water bodies is through interference of the reproductive endocrine system. In the present study, zebrafish hatchlings (5 d post-fertilization) were exposed to 0, 0.3, 3 and 30 μg/L MC-LR for 90 d until reaching sexual maturity. Female zebrafish were selected, and the changes in growth and developmental indicators, ovarian ultrastructure as well as the levels of gonadal steroid hormones and vitellogenin (VTG) were examined along with the transcription of related genes in the hypothalamic–pituitary–gonadal–liver axis (HPGL-axis). The results showed for the first time, a life cycle exposure to MC-LR caused growth inhibition, decreased ovary weight and ovarian ultra-pathological lesions. Decreased ovarian testosterone levels indicated that MC-LR disrupted sex steroid hormone balance. Significantly up-regulated transcription of brain FSHβ and LHβ along with ovarian ERα, FSHR and LHR suggested positive feedback regulation in the HPGL-axis was induced as a compensatory mechanism for MC-LR damage. It was also noted that ovarian VTG content and hepatic ERα and VTG1 expression were all down-regulated, which might be responsible for reduced vitellus storage noted in our histological observations. Our findings indicate that a life cycle exposure to MC-LR impairs the development and reproduction of female zebrafish by disrupting the transcription of related HPGL-axis genes, suggesting that MC-LR has potential adverse effects on fish reproduction and thus population dynamics in MCs-contaminated aquatic

  12. Changes in androgen receptor mRNA expression in the forebrain and oviduct during the reproductive cycle of female leopard geckos, Eublepharis macularius.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rhen, Turk; Sakata, Jon T; Woolley, Sarah; Porter, Raymond; Crews, David

    2003-06-01

    Successful reproduction requires the coordination of reproductive physiology with behavior. The neural correlates of reproductive behavior have been elucidated in a variety of amphibians, mammals, and birds but relatively few studies have examined reptiles. Here we investigate differences in androgen receptor (AR) mRNA expression in the forebrain and oviduct between previtellogenic and late vitellogenic female leopard geckos, Eublepharis macularius. Plasma concentrations of testosterone (T) are low when females are previtellogenic and sexually unreceptive but increase dramatically during late vitellogenesis when females are receptive. In addition, receptivity can be induced by treatment with exogenous T. The relative abundance of AR-mRNA across various nuclei was greater in late vitellogenic than in previtellogenic females. This general pattern was observed in the medial preoptic area, anterior hypothalamus, external nucleus of the amygdala, dorsolateral aspect of the ventromedial hypothalamus, lateral septum, and periventricular hypothalamus. There were also clear differences in AR-mRNA expression among these nuclei. The pattern of gene expression observed in the brain was reversed within stromal cells of the oviduct where expression of AR-mRNA decreased from the previtellogenic stage to the late vitellogenic stage. Overall, these data demonstrate that T concentration in the plasma, abundance of AR-mRNA in the brain and oviduct, and sexual behavior change coordinately during the reproductive cycle of female leopard geckos. Although the function of AR in the female leopard gecko is not yet clear, our results are in accord with growing evidence that androgens regulate numerous aspects of female physiology and behavior in vertebrates.

  13. Gonad development and plasma steroid profiles by HRGC/HRMS during one reproductive cycle in reference and leachate-exposed female perch (Perca fluviatilis)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Noaksson, Erik; Gustavsson, Bodil; Linderoth, Maria; Zebuehr, Yngve; Broman, Dag; Balk, Lennart

    2004-01-01

    Endocrine processes were studied in reference female perch (Perca fluviatilis) from Lake Djursjoen and in leachate-exposed females from Lake Molnbyggen during one reproductive cycle. A high-resolution gas chromatography/high-resolution mass spectrometry (HRGC/HRMS) technique enabled the analysis of circulating sex steroids [progesterone (P), 17α-hydroxyprogesterone (17α-OHP), androstenedione (A), testosterone (T), estrone (E1), and 17β-estradiol (E2)], the maturation-inducing hormone (MIH) 17α,20β-dihydroxy-4-pregnen-3-one (17α,20β-P), and glucocorticoids [11-deoxycortisol (11-DC) and cortisol]. Body and organ measurements, ratio of sexually mature (SM) females, and frequencies of body lesions, were also recorded. High frequencies of body lesions and a low ratio of SM females were generally found in Molnbyggen. These females also had lower gonadosomatic index (GSI) and liver-somatic index (LSI) in the early stages of vitellogenesis, indicating either a delayed onset of oogenesis or an impaired vitellogenesis. Non-reproducing females from both lakes showed a similar LSI cycle as SM females. Increasing T and A levels in SM females from Djursjoen coincided with the GSI peak at the time of spawning. These two androgens were on several occasions lower in SM females from Molnbyggen, possibly the result of a disrupted 17,20-lyase activity of the P450 17α enzyme because only minor effects were observed on circulating P and 17α-OHP levels. E2 and E1 levels increased during vitellogenesis in females from both lakes, with E1 levels more closely resembling the peaks of A and GSI. Peak levels of 17α,20β-P at the time of spawning confirmed its function as the MIH in perch, while the simultaneous peak of 11-DC suggests that it also may be involved in final maturation of the oocytes

  14. Reproduction impairment and endocrine disruption in female zebrafish after long-term exposure to MC-LR: A life cycle assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hou, Jie; Li, Li; Wu, Ning; Su, Yujing; Lin, Wang; Li, Guangyu; Gu, Zemao

    2016-01-01

    Microcystin-LR (MC-LR) has been found to cause reproductive and developmental impairments as well as to disrupt sex hormone homeostasis of fish during acute and sub-chronic toxic experiments. However, fish in natural environments are continuously exposed to MC-LR throughout their entire life cycle as opposed to short-term exposure. Here, we tested the hypothesis that the mechanism by which MC-LR harms female fish reproduction and development within natural water bodies is through interference of the reproductive endocrine system. In the present study, zebrafish hatchlings (5 d post-fertilization) were exposed to 0, 0.3, 3 and 30 μg/L MC-LR for 90 d until reaching sexual maturity. Female zebrafish were selected, and the changes in growth and developmental indicators, ovarian ultrastructure as well as the levels of gonadal steroid hormones and vitellogenin (VTG) were examined along with the transcription of related genes in the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal-liver axis (HPGL-axis). The results showed for the first time, a life cycle exposure to MC-LR caused growth inhibition, decreased ovary weight and ovarian ultra-pathological lesions. Decreased ovarian testosterone levels indicated that MC-LR disrupted sex steroid hormone balance. Significantly up-regulated transcription of brain FSHβ and LHβ along with ovarian ERα, FSHR and LHR suggested positive feedback regulation in the HPGL-axis was induced as a compensatory mechanism for MC-LR damage. It was also noted that ovarian VTG content and hepatic ERα and VTG1 expression were all down-regulated, which might be responsible for reduced vitellus storage noted in our histological observations. Our findings indicate that a life cycle exposure to MC-LR impairs the development and reproduction of female zebrafish by disrupting the transcription of related HPGL-axis genes, suggesting that MC-LR has potential adverse effects on fish reproduction and thus population dynamics in MCs-contaminated aquatic environment

  15. Chapter 22: Female Reproductive Toxicology

    Science.gov (United States)

    The female reproductive system provides multiple targets for environmental toxicants with the hypothalamic-pituitary-ovarian axis. Moreover, the functional impact of a chemical can differ, depending on the species involved and the parameters of exposure. While cross-species compa...

  16. Role of oxidative stress in female reproduction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sharma Rakesh K

    2005-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract In a healthy body, ROS (reactive oxygen species and antioxidants remain in balance. When the balance is disrupted towards an overabundance of ROS, oxidative stress (OS occurs. OS influences the entire reproductive lifespan of a woman and even thereafter (i.e. menopause. OS results from an imbalance between prooxidants (free radical species and the body's scavenging ability (antioxidants. ROS are a double-edged sword – they serve as key signal molecules in physiological processes but also have a role in pathological processes involving the female reproductive tract. ROS affect multiple physiological processes from oocyte maturation to fertilization, embryo development and pregnancy. It has been suggested that OS modulates the age-related decline in fertility. It plays a role during pregnancy and normal parturition and in initiation of preterm labor. Most ovarian cancers appear in the surface epithelium, and repetitive ovulation has been thought to be a causative factor. Ovulation-induced oxidative base damage and damage to DNA of the ovarian epithelium can be prevented by antioxidants. There is growing literature on the effects of OS in female reproduction with involvement in the pathophsiology of preeclampsia, hydatidiform mole, free radical-induced birth defects and other situations such as abortions. Numerous studies have shown that OS plays a role in the pathoysiology of infertility and assisted fertility. There is some evidence of its role in endometriosis, tubal and peritoneal factor infertility and unexplained infertility. This article reviews the role OS plays in normal cycling ovaries, follicular development and cyclical endometrial changes. It also discusses OS-related female infertility and how it influences the outcomes of assisted reproductive techniques. The review comprehensively explores the literature for evidence of the role of oxidative stress in conditions such as abortions, preeclampsia, hydatidiform mole, fetal

  17. Marijuana, the Endocannabinoid System and the Female Reproductive System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brents, Lisa K

    2016-06-01

    Marijuana use among women is highly prevalent, but the societal conversation on marijuana rarely focuses on how marijuana affects female reproduction and endocrinology. This article reviews the current scientific literature regarding marijuana use and hypothalamic-pituitary-ovarian (HPO) axis regulation, ovarian hormone production, the menstrual cycle, and fertility. Evidence suggests that marijuana can reduce female fertility by disrupting hypothalamic release of gonadotropin releasing hormone (GnRH), leading to reduced estrogen and progesterone production and anovulatory menstrual cycles. Tolerance to these effects has been shown in rhesus monkeys, but the effects of chronic marijuana use on human female reproduction are largely unknown. Marijuana-induced analgesia, drug reinforcement properties, tolerance, and dependence are influenced by ovarian hormones, with estrogen generally increasing and progesterone decreasing sensitivity to marijuana. Carefully controlled regulation of the Endocannabinoid System (ECS) is required for successful reproduction, and the exogenous cannabinoids in marijuana may disrupt the delicate balance of the ECS in the female reproductive system.

  18. Normal development of the female reproductive system

    Science.gov (United States)

    The embryonic development of the female reproductive system involves a progression of events that is conserved across vertebrate species. The early gonad progresses from a form that is undifferentiated in both genotypic males and females. Rudimentary male (Wolffian) and female (M...

  19. Basic and applied aspects of female reproduction in farmed ostriches

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bronneberg, R.G.G.

    2008-01-01

    This thesis investigated basic and applied aspects of female reproduction in farmed ostriches throughout the 48h egg laying cycle, during the egg production season, and, the non-breeding season. The main objectives were: (1) to evaluate the use of transcutaneous ultrasound scanning to visualize

  20. Female genital mutilation: psychological and reproductive health ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study examined the reproductive health and psychological effects of female genital mutilation, in one traditional area in the Upper East region (i.e. Kayoro Traditional Area) of Ghana. The results of the study revealed that, the practice of FGM actually affects the physical (deforming the female genitalia), psychological (the ...

  1. Marijuana, the Endocannabinoid System and the Female Reproductive System

    OpenAIRE

    Brents, Lisa K.

    2016-01-01

    Marijuana use among women is highly prevalent, but the societal conversation on marijuana rarely focuses on how marijuana affects female reproduction and endocrinology. This article reviews the current scientific literature regarding marijuana use and hypothalamic-pituitary-ovarian (HPO) axis regulation, ovarian hormone production, the menstrual cycle, and fertility. Evidence suggests that marijuana can reduce female fertility by disrupting hypothalamic release of gonadotropin releasing hormo...

  2. Creatine for women: a review of the relationship between creatine and the reproductive cycle and female-specific benefits of creatine therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellery, Stacey J; Walker, David W; Dickinson, Hayley

    2016-08-01

    The creatine/phosphocreatine/creatine kinase circuit is instrumental in regulating high-energy phosphate metabolism, and the maintenance of cellular energy turnover. The mechanisms by which creatine is able to buffer and regulate cellular energy balance, maintain acid-base balance, and reduce the effects of oxidative stress have led to a large number of studies into the use of creatine supplementation in exercise performance and to treat diseases associated with cellular energy depletion. Some of these studies have identified sex-specific responses to creatine supplementation, as such; there is the perception, that females might be less receptive to the benefits of creatine supplementation and therapy, compared to males. This review will describe the differences in male and female physique and physiology that may account for such differences, and discuss the apparent endocrine modulation of creatine metabolism in females. Hormone-driven changes to endogenous creatine synthesis, creatine transport and creatine kinase expression suggest that significant changes in this cellular energy circuit occur during specific stages of a female's reproductive life, including pregnancy and menopause. Recent studies suggest that creatine supplementation may be highly beneficial for women under certain conditions, such as depression. A greater understanding of these pathways, and the consequences of alterations to creatine bioavailability in females are needed to ensure that creatine is used to full advantage as a dietary supplement to optimize and enhance health outcomes for women.

  3. Endocrinology of human female sexuality, mating, and reproductive behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Motta-Mena, Natalie V; Puts, David A

    2017-05-01

    Hormones orchestrate and coordinate human female sexual development, sexuality, and reproduction in relation to three types of phenotypic changes: life history transitions such as puberty and childbirth, responses to contextual factors such as caloric intake and stress, and cyclical patterns such as the ovulatory cycle. Here, we review the endocrinology underlying women's reproductive phenotypes, including sexual orientation and gender identity, mate preferences, competition for mates, sex drive, and maternal behavior. We highlight distinctive aspects of women's sexuality such as the possession of sexual ornaments, relatively cryptic fertile windows, extended sexual behavior across the ovulatory cycle, and a period of midlife reproductive senescence-and we focus on how hormonal mechanisms were shaped by selection to produce adaptive outcomes. We conclude with suggestions for future research to elucidate how hormonal mechanisms subserve women's reproductive phenotypes. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Mitochondrial functionality in female reproduction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Łukasz Gąsior

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In most animal species female germ cells are the source of mitochondrial genome for the whole body of individuals. As a source of mitochondrial DNA for future generations the mitochondria in the female germ line undergo dynamic quantitative and qualitative changes. In addition to maintaining the intact template of mitochondrial genome from one generation to another, mitochondrial role in oocytes is much more complex and pleiotropic. The quality of mitochondria determines the ability of meiotic divisions, fertilization ability, and activation after fertilization or sustaining development of a new embryo. The presence of normal number of functional mitochondria is also crucial for proper implantation and pregnancy maintaining. This article addresses issues of mitochondrial role and function in mammalian oocyte and presents new approaches in studies of mitochondrial function in female germ cells.

  5. Application of seminal plasma to female genital tract prior to embryo transfer in assisted reproductive technology cycles (IVF, ICSI and frozen embryo transfer).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ata, Baris; Abou-Setta, Ahmed M; Seyhan, Ayse; Buckett, William

    2018-02-28

    The female genital tract is not exposed to seminal plasma during standard assisted reproductive technology (ART) cycles. However, it is thought that the inflammatory reaction triggered by seminal plasma may be beneficial by inducing maternal tolerance to paternal antigens expressed by the products of conception, and may increase the chance of successful implantation and live birth. To assess the effectiveness and safety of application of seminal plasma to the female genital tract prior to embryo transfer in ART cycles. We searched the following databases from inception to October 2017: Cochrane Gynaecology and Fertility Group Specialised Register of Controlled Trials, Cochrane Central Register of Studies Online (CRSO), MEDLINE, Embase, CINAHL and PsycINFO. We also searched trial registers for ongoing trials, including International Clinical Trials Registry Platform (ICTRP) Search Portal and ClinicalTrials.gov. Other sources searched were; Web of Knowledge, OpenGrey, LILACS, PubMed, Google Scholar and the reference lists of relevant articles. We included randomised controlled trials (RCTs) conducted among women undergoing ART, comparing any procedure that would expose the female genital tract to seminal plasma during the period starting five days before embryo transfer and ending two days after it versus no seminal plasma application. Two review authors independently selected trials, assessed risk of bias, and extracted data. We pooled data to calculate relative risks (RRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs). We assessed statistical heterogeneity using the I 2 statistic. We assessed the overall quality of the evidence for the main outcomes using GRADE methods. Our primary outcomes were live birth rate and miscarriage rate. Secondary outcomes were live birth/ongoing pregnancy rate, clinical pregnancy rate, multiple pregnancy rate, ectopic pregnancy rate and the incidence of other adverse events. We included 11 RCTs (3215 women). The quality of the evidence ranged

  6. Reproduction in females bufalinas: artificial insemination and assisted reproduction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vale, William G.

    2011-01-01

    Reproductive behavior in females bufalinas has been studied for the detection of estrus. A system that works through radio telemetry has been developed and proposed to replace the daily visual observation to determine the estrous phase with efficiency and precision. The method used is the fixation on the back of the female with a sensor that emits radio waves every time suffer a pressure exerted by the mountain. Waves have been captured by an antenna and sent to a computer system. The knowledge that has been developed on the management and use of reproductive biotechnologies of reproduction in buffalo, have enabled the technicians and breeders evaluate and indicate which procedures can be used successfully, and increase the application of the fixed-time artificial insemination during the year [es

  7. [Protective effect of melatonin and epithalon on hypothalamic regulation of reproduction in female rats in its premature aging model and on estrous cycles in senescent animals in various lighting regimes].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korenevsky, A V; Milyutina, Yu P; Bukalyov, A V; Baranova, Yu P; Vinogradova, I A; Arutjunyan, A V

    2013-01-01

    Potential neuroprotective effects of the pineal gland hormone melatonin and peptide preparation epitalon on estrous cycles and the central regulation of reproduction in female rats exposed to unfavourable environmental factors have been studied. Estrous cycles of young, mature and aging rats exposed to light pollution were described. The diurnal dynamics and daily mean content of biogenic amines in the hypothalamic areas responsible for gonadotropin-releasing hormone synthesis and secretion in animals of different age groups were investigated. An effect of a chemical factor on the noradrenergic system of the medial preoptic area and on the dopaminergic system of the median eminence with arcuate nuclei of the hypothalamus was studied in premature aging of reproduction model. Administration of the pineal gland peptide melatonin and peptide preparation epitalon was shown to be able to correct a number of impairments of the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis that can be observed, when the experimental animals were exposed to permanent artificial lighting and a neurotoxic xenobiotic 1,2-dimethylhydrazine. The data obtained testify to an important role of the pineal gland in the circadian signal formation needed for gonadotropin-releasing hormone in order to exert its preovulatory peak secretion and to the protective effect of melatonin and epitalon, which are able to reduce unfavourable environmental influences on reproduction of young and aging female rats.

  8. Reproductive status of opisthoteuthis sp . Over an annual cycle ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The reproductive biology of deepwater cephalopods has received relatively little attention. The cirrate octopus Opisthoteuthis sp. is a regular bycatch in deep benthic trawls from 800 to 1 200 m deep west of Scotland. Specimens were sampled throughout the seasonal cycle. Mature females occurred over a broad size range ...

  9. Irregular Reproductive Cycles in the Tongaland Loggerhead Sea ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The concept of sea-turtles exhibiting regular reproductive cycles is widely accepted. In Tongaland, Natal, after 12 years of research 2 122 female loggerhead turtles have been tagged and the recovery rate of tagged animals back on the nesting beaches has reached SO %. From a sample ofthcsc recoveries it is clear that ...

  10. Reproductive performance of female Alaskan caribou

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, Layne G.; Dale, Bruce W.

    1998-01-01

    We examined the reproductive performance of female caribou (Rangifer tarandus granti) in relation to age, physical condition, and reproductive experience for 9 consecutive years (1987-95) at Denali National Park, Alaska, during a period of wide variation in winter snowfall. Caribou in Denali differed from other cervid populations where reproductive performance has been investigated, because they occur at low densities (≥0.3/km2) and experience high losses of young to predation. Females first gave birth at 2-6 years old; 56% of these females were 3 years old. Average annual natality rates increased from 27% for 2-year-olds to 100% for 7-year-olds, remained high for 7-13-year-olds (98%), and then declined for females ≥14 years old. Females ≥2 years old that failed to reproduce were primarily sexually immature (76%). Reproductive pauses of sexually mature females occurred predominantly in young (3-6 yr old) and old (≥14 yr old) females. Natality increased with body mass for 10-month-old females weighed 6 months prior to the autumn breeding season (P = 0.007), and for females >1 year old and weighed during autumn (late Sep-early Nov; P = 0.003). Natality for 2-, 3-, 4-, and 6-year-olds declined with increasing late-winter snowfall (Feb-May; P ≤ 0.039) during the winter prior to breeding. In most years, a high percentage of sexually mature females reproduced, and lactation status at the time of breeding did not influence productivity the following year. However, following particularly high snowfall during February-September 1992, productivity was reduced in 1993 for cows successfully rearing calves to autumn the previous year. High losses of calves to predators in 1992 may have increased productivity in 1993. Losses of young-of-the-year to predation prior to the annual breeding season can be an important influence on subsequent productivity for ungulate populations where productivity varies with lactation status of females at the time of breeding.

  11. Role of leptin in female reproduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez-Pérez, Antonio; Sánchez-Jiménez, Flora; Maymó, Julieta; Dueñas, José L; Varone, Cecilia; Sánchez-Margalet, Víctor

    2015-01-01

    Reproductive function is dependent on energy resources. The role of weight, body composition, fat distribution and the effect of diet have been largely investigated in experimental female animals as well as in women. Any alteration in diet and/or weight may induce abnormalities in timing of sexual maturation and fertility. However, the cellular mechanisms involved in the fine coordination of energy balance and reproduction are largely unknown. The brain and hypothalamic structures receive endocrine and/or metabolic signals providing information on the nutritional status and the degree of fat stores. Adipose tissue acts both as a store of energy and as an active endocrine organ, secreting a large number of biologically important molecules termed adipokines. Adipokines have been shown to be involved in regulation of the reproductive functions. The first adipokine described was leptin. Extensive research over the last 10 years has shown that leptin is not only an adipose tissue-derived messenger of the amount of energy stores to the brain, but also a crucial hormone/cytokine for a number of diverse physiological processes, such as inflammation, angiogenesis, hematopoiesis, immune function, and most importantly, reproduction. Leptin plays an integral role in the normal physiology of the reproductive system with complex interactions at all levels of the hypothalamic-pituitary gonadal (HPG) axis. In addition, leptin is also produced by placenta, where it plays an important autocrine function. Observational studies have demonstrated that states of leptin excess, deficiency, or resistance can be associated with abnormal reproductive function. This review focuses on the leptin action in female reproduction.

  12. An Ethnography of the Navajo Reproductive Cycle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, Anne

    1982-01-01

    Describes the reproductive cycle (menarche, menstrual cycle, fertility and contraceptive use, and menopause) as experienced by two groups of contemporary Navajo women. Eighty Navajo women, 40 traditional and 40 acculturated, participated in the 1978 research project which focused on influences of menopause. (ERB)

  13. Adipokines and the Female Reproductive Tract

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maxime Reverchon

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available It is well known that adipose tissue can influence puberty, sexual maturation, and fertility in different species. Adipose tissue secretes molecules called adipokines which most likely have an endocrine effect on reproductive function. It has been revealed over the last few years that adipokines are functionally implicated at all levels of the reproductive axis including the gonad and hypothalamic-pituitary axis. Many studies have shown the presence and the role of the adipokines and their receptors in the female reproductive tract of different species. These adipokines regulate ovarian steroidogenesis, oocyte maturation, and embryo development. They are also present in the uterus and placenta where they could create a favorable environment for embryonic implantation and play a key role in maternal-fetal metabolism communication and gestation. Reproductive functions are strongly dependent on energy balance, and thereby metabolic abnormalities can lead to the development of some pathophysiologies such as polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS. Adipokines could be a link between reproduction and energy metabolism and could partly explain some infertility related to obesity or PCOS.

  14. Leptin and its potential interest in assisted reproduction cycles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Catteau, A; Caillon, H; Barrière, P; Denis, M G; Masson, D; Fréour, T

    2016-04-01

    Leptin, an adipose hormone, has been shown to control energy homeostasis and food intake, and exert many actions on female reproductive function. Consequently, this adipokine is a pivotal factor in studies conducted on animal models and humans to decipher the mechanisms behind the infertility often observed in obese women. A systematic PubMed search was conducted on all articles, published up to January 2015 and related to leptin and its actions on energy balance and reproduction, using the following key words: leptin, reproduction, infertility, IVF and controlled ovarian stimulation. The available literature was reviewed in order to provide an overview of the current knowledge on the physiological roles of leptin, its involvement in female reproductive function and its potential interest as a prognostic marker in IVF cycles. Animal and human studies show that leptin communicates nutritional status to the central nervous system and emerging evidence has demonstrated that leptin is involved in the control of reproductive functions by acting both directly on the ovaries and indirectly on the central nervous system. With respect to the clinical use of leptin as a biomarker in IVF cycles, a systematic review of the literature suggested its potential interest as a predictor of IVF outcome, as high serum and/or follicular fluid leptin concentrations have correlated negatively with cycle outcome. However, these preliminary results remain to be confirmed. Leptin regulates energy balance and female reproductive function, mainly through its action on hypothalamic-pituitary-ovarian function, whose molecular and cellular aspects are progressively being deciphered. Preliminary studies evaluating leptin as a biomarker in human IVF seem promising but need further confirmation. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the European Society of Human Reproduction and Embryology. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  15. Luteal phase support for assisted reproduction cycles

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Linden, M. van der; Buckingham, K.; Farquhar, C.; Kremer, J.A.M.; Metwally, M.

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Progesterone prepares the endometrium for pregnancy by stimulating proliferation in response to human chorionic gonadotropin(hCG) produced by the corpus luteum. This occurs in the luteal phase of the menstrual cycle. In assisted reproduction techniques(ART), progesterone and/or hCG

  16. Luteal phase support for assisted reproduction cycles

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Linden, M. Van der; Buckingham, K.; Farquhar, C.; Kremer, J.A.M.; Metwally, M.

    2011-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Progesterone prepares the endometrium for pregnancy by stimulating proliferation in response to human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG), which is produced by the corpus luteum. This occurs in the luteal phase of the menstrual cycle. In assisted reproduction techniques (ART) the progesterone

  17. Understanding Female Receiver Psychology in Reproductive Contexts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lynch, Kathleen S

    2017-10-01

    Mate choice decision-making requires four components: sensory, cognitive, motivation, and salience. During the breeding season, the neural mechanisms underlying these components act in concert to radically transform the way a female perceives the social cues around her as well as the way in which cognitive and motivational processes influence her decision to respond to courting males. The role of each of these four components in mate choice responses will be discussed here as well as the brain regions involved in regulating each component. These components are not independent, modular systems. Instead, they are dependent on one another. This review will discuss the many ways in which these components interact and affect one another. The interaction of these components, however, ultimately leads back to a few key neuromodulators that thread motivation, sensory, salience, and cognitive components into a set of inter-dependent processes. These neuromodulators are estrogens and catecholamines. This review will highlight the need to understand estrogens in reproductive contexts not just as simply a 'sexual motivation modulator' or catecholamines as 'cognitive regulators' but as neuromodulators that work together to fully transform a non-breeding female into a completely reproductive female displaying: heightened sexual interest in courting males, greater arousal and selective attention toward courtship signals, improved signal detection and discrimination abilities, enhanced contextual signal memory, and increased motivation to respond to signals assigned incentive salience. The aim of this review is to build a foundation in which to understand the brain regions associated with cognitive, sensory, motivational, and signal salience not as independently acting systems but as a set of interacting processes that function together in a context-appropriate manner. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Integrative and Comparative

  18. Chapter 11.18 - Neuroendocrine Control of Female Reproduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    The hypothalamus and pituitary are known to play roles in reproductive function. A growing body of evidence indicates that environmental toxicants can alter female reproductive function by disrupting hypothalamic control of the pituitary and subsequently the endocrine control of ...

  19. Lifetime number of mates interacts with female age to determine reproductive success in female guppies.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonathan P Evans

    Full Text Available In many species, mating with multiple males confers benefits to females, but these benefits may be offset by the direct and indirect costs associated with elevated mating frequency. Although mating frequency (number of mating events is often positively associated with the degree of multiple mating (actual number of males mated, most studies have experimentally separated these effects when exploring their implications for female fitness. In this paper I describe an alternative approach using the guppy Poecilia reticulata, a livebearing freshwater fish in which females benefit directly and indirectly from mating with multiple males via consensual matings but incur direct and indirect costs of mating as a consequence of male sexual harassment. In the present study, females were experimentally assigned different numbers of mates throughout their lives in order to explore how elevated mating frequency and multiple mating combine to influence lifetime reproductive success (LRS and survival (i.e. direct components of female fitness. Under this mating design, survival and LRS were not significantly affected by mating treatment, but there was a significant interaction between brood size and reproductive cycle (a correlate of female age because females assigned to the high mating treatment produced significantly fewer offspring later in life compared to their low-mating counterparts. This negative effect of mating treatment later in life may be important in these relatively long-lived fishes, and this effect may be further exacerbated by the known cross-generational fitness costs of sexual harassment in guppies.

  20. The reproductive cycle of the oyster Crassostrea gasar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CHAM Gomes

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to analyze the reproductive cycle of the oyster Crassostrea gasar (= C. brasiliana in the field and the laboratory. The reproductive cycle of the animals was evaluated in the field at Sambaqui Beach, Florianópolis, SC (27° 29′18″ S and 48° 32′12″ W from May 2008 through November 2009. In July, the animals were in the resting stage. The early growth stage began in August and was followed by the late growth stage in October. In November and December, the oysters began to enter the mature stage. Females in spawning condition were predominant during these months. The stages of the reproductive cycle were positively associated with temperature (r=0.77, P<0.01 and negatively associated with salinity (r=−0.56, P=0.042. These findings demonstrated that increased temperature and reduced salinity influence the reproductive development of Crassostrea gasar. The condition index (CI of the animals was also associated with the seawater temperature. The highest values of the condition index were observed during the months when the temperature of the seawater was gradually increasing. A laboratory experiment was performed to test the effect of salinity on the reproductive cycle of the oysters. The experiment was conducted in standardized tanks. The animals were conditioned using two salinities (24‰ and 34‰. The salinity regime influenced the development of the gonadal tissue of the oysters. A salinity of 24‰ produced greater reproductive development.

  1. Reproduction in female South American domestic camelids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sumar, J B

    1999-01-01

    Alpacas and llamas are induced ovulators. They show marked reproductive seasonality in the Andean region, but under Northern Hemisphere conditions of feeding and management, they are non-seasonal breeders. Puberty is attained when they reach 50% of adult body weight. When they are not exposed to a male, females show successive waves of follicular maturation and atresia. Growth, maintenance and regression of a follicle each require an average of 4 and 6 days in alpacas and llamas, respectively. After sterile mating, progesterone concentrations in blood were increased from day 5, reached maximum concentrations on day 7-8, and declined rapidly at 9-10 days after mating. A fertile mating results in formation of a corpus luteum that remains functional throughout gestation. The duration of gestation is 340-346 days. Almost all fetuses were found to occupy the left uterine horn, even though ovulation occurs from both ovaries with equal frequency. Several methods of pregnancy diagnosis have been described. Mating is recommended within 15-20 days after parturition to obtain good fertility rates and one offspring per year. The factors that contribute to high rates of embryonic mortality are unknown. Reproductive technologies, such as AI, superovulation, embryo transfer and IVF, have not been used very extensively in these species but can be successfully applied.

  2. Adverse reproductive outcomes among female veterinarians

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schenker, M.B.; Samuels, S.J.; Green, R.S.; Wiggins, P.

    1990-01-01

    Because female veterinarians are exposed to several known reproductive hazards, the authors conducted a reproductive survey of all female graduates of a US veterinary school (n = 537) and law school (comparison group, n = 794). Analysis was confined to pregnancies completed after the second year of professional school and from 1966 to 1986. Based on one randomly chosen eligible pregnancy per woman (veterinarians, n = 176; lawyers, n = 229), spontaneous abortion rates, adjusted for elective abortions, were 13.3% for the veterinarians and 15.1% for the lawyers; these did not differ significantly. A Cox life table regression model controlling for age, smoking, alcohol use, and prior spontaneous abortion also showed no significant difference in spontaneous abortion rates between the two populations. Using all pregnancies, veterinarians who reported performing five or more radiographic examinations per week had a marginally elevated risk of spontaneous abortion, but the statistical significance disappeared when analysis was limited to one random pregnancy per woman. For one random eligible birth per woman, the mean birth weight did not differ significantly between the veterinarians and lawyers, even after controlling for possible confounders in regression analyses. A higher rate of reportable birth defects was observed among the veterinarians than among the lawyers (relative risk = 4.2, 95% confidence interval 1.2-15.1), but this unexpected result must be considered hypothesis-generating. The authors did not find an overall increased risk for spontaneous abortion or low birth weight infants among veterinarians compared with lawyers, but veterinarians who reported performing five or more radiographic examinations per week may have been at increased risk for spontaneous abortion

  3. Effects of Thyroid Dysfunction on Reproductive Hormones in Female Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Juan; Guo, Meng; Hu, Xusong; Weng, Xuechun; Tian, Ye; Xu, Kaili; Heng, Dai; Liu, Wenbo; Ding, Yu; Yang, Yanzhou; Zhang, Cheng

    2018-05-10

    Thyroid hormones (THs) play a critical role in the development of ovarian cells. Although the effects of THs on female reproduction are of great interest, the mechanism remains unclear. We investigated the effects of TH dysregulation on reproductive hormones in rats. Propylthiouracil (PTU) and L-thyroxine were administered to rats to induce hypo- and hyper-thyroidism, respectively, and the reproductive hormone profiles were analyzed by radioimmunoassay. Ovarian histology was evaluated with H&E staining, and gene protein level or mRNA content was analyzed by western blotting or RT-PCR. The serum levels of gonadotropin releasing hormone (GnRH) and follicle stimulating hormone (FSH) in both rat models were significantly decreased on day 21, although there were no significant changes at earlier time points. There were no significant differences in luteinizing hormone (LH) or progesterone levels between the treatment and the control groups. Both PTU and L-thyroxine treatments downregulated estradiol concentrations; however, the serum testosterone level was increased only in hypothyroid rats at day 21. In addition, the expression levels of FSH receptor, cholesterol side-chain cleavage enzyme (P450scc), and steroidogenic acute regulatory protein were decreased in both rat models. Moreover, the onset of puberty was significantly delayed in the hypothyroid group. These results provide evidence that TH dysregulation alters reproductive hormone profiles, and that the initiation of the estrous cycle is postponed in hypothyroidism.

  4. Shared Reproductive State Enhances Female Associations in Dolphins

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moller, L.M.; Harcourt, R.G.

    2007-01-01

    Female bottle nose dolphins (genus Tursiops) usually associate at moderate level with other females within social clusters called bands or cliques. It has been suggested that reproductive state may play the predominant role in determining associations within female T. truncatus bands. Here, we test the hypothesis that reproductive state correlates with associations of female Indo-Pacific bottle nose dolphins (T. aduncus). We found that females in similar reproductive state, which included females from late pregnancy to the first year of their calves' life or females from early pregnancy to their calves' newborn period, had higher-association coefficients with each other than they did with females in different reproductive states (females with older calves or without calves). This was observed both within and across social clusters suggesting that reproductive state, at least for pregnant females and those with young calves, plays an important role in determining who to associate with. However, a female's most frequent associate was not always with another in similar reproductive state. We suggest that several factors, including reproductive state, may be of importance in determining associations of female bottle nose dolphins

  5. Shared Reproductive State Enhances Female Associations in Dolphins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciana M. Möller

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Female bottlenose dolphins (genus Tursiops usually associate at moderate level with other females within social clusters called bands or cliques. It has been suggested that reproductive state may play the predominant role in determining associations within female T. truncatus bands. Here, we test the hypothesis that reproductive state correlates with associations of female Indo-Pacific bottlenose dolphins (T. aduncus. We found that females in similar reproductive state, which included females from late pregnancy to the first year of their calves' life or females from early pregnancy to their calves' newborn period, had higher-association coefficients with each other than they did with females in different reproductive states (females with older calves or without calves. This was observed both within and across social clusters suggesting that reproductive state, at least for pregnant females and those with young calves, plays an important role in determining who to associate with. However, a female's most frequent associate was not always with another in similar reproductive state. We suggest that several factors, including reproductive state, may be of importance in determining associations of female bottlenose dolphins.

  6. Anatomy of the female reproductive system of Rusa deer ( Rusa ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study aims to present baseline data on the reproductive anatomy of a poorly known tropical deer species, Rusa deer (Rusa timorensis). The anatomy of female reproductive system is described using seven uniparous hinds, aged between four and eight years. The various reproductive structures were studied via ...

  7. The influence of short-time period of an adaptation to decreased ambient temperature on interleukin-6 and corticosterone levels in female Wistar strain rats in the proestrous phase of the reproductive cycle.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grazyna Wójcik

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available To date, there has been little research examining whether short-time changes of external environmental conditions exert any effects on immune responses. The activation of metabolic changes, release of hormones responsive for immunomodulation and the action of interleukins play an important role in interaction with hormones of an anterior pituitary gland in the proestrous phase of the reproductive cycle. The aim of our study was to determine the effects of a short-time change of ambient temperature (30 minutes on interleukin-6 (IL-6 and corticosterone plasma concentration of female rats in the proestrous phase of the reproductive cycle. The climatic chamber with automatically adjustable and monitored internal environmental parameters (temperature, oxygenation, humidity was used during the experiment. The estimation of the vaginal lavage using a microscope was done to determine the estrous cycle. On the day of the experiment, animals were divided into 2 groups: the control group (ambient temperature 21 degrees C +/- 1 degrees C; normoxia 21% O2 and the test group (ambient temperature 10 degrees C +/- 1 degrees C; normoxia 21% O2 stayed in the climatic chamber for 30 minutes. The blood samples were collected before the experiment and after 30, 60, 90, 150 and 210 minutes from the beginning of the experiment. The concentrations of IL-6 and corticosterone were measured in blood plasma samples using ELISA method. There was a significant elevation of IL-6 levels after staying in 10 degrees C during the first 150 minutes from the beginning of the experiment, with the highest value occurring after 60 minutes (426.6 pg/ml; SE - 146.1 with comparison to the value at first sampling (108.5 pg/ml; SE - 29.5; p<0.05 and with comparison to the control group at the same time from the beginning of the experiment (87.6 pg/ml; SE - 2.3; p<0.05. The changed level of corticosterone in the test group in comparison to control group was observed but the differences were

  8. Nutritional effects on reproductive performance of captive adult female coyotes (Canis latrans).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gese, Eric M; Roberts, Beth M; Knowlton, Frederick F

    2016-02-01

    Interactions between animals and their environment are fundamental to ecological research. Field studies of coyote (Canis latrans) reproductive performance suggest mean litter size changes in response to prey abundance. However, this relationship has been assessed primarily by using carcasses collected from trappers. The objective of this study was to assess whether nutritional manipulation prior to mating affected reproduction in adult female coyotes. We examined the effects of caloric restriction during the 7 months prior to estrus on the reproductive rates of 11 captive female coyotes and the subsequent initial survival of pups through two reproductive cycles. This was a 2-year study with a cross-over design so each female was monitored for reproductive performance on each of the two diet treatments. We assessed the number of implantation scars, number of pups born, sex ratios of pups, average pup weight at birth and 2- and 6-weeks of age, and the survival rates between implantation and 2-weeks of age for two diet treatments. We found the mean number of implantation sites and pups whelped during a reproductive cycle was influenced by food-intake prior to conception. Additionally, we found evidence suggesting the effects of nutritional stress may persist for additional breeding cycles. We also provided evidence suggesting well-fed females tended to have more male pups. Understanding how environmental factors influence reproductive output may improve model predictions of coyote population dynamics. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  9. Collection of field reproductive data from carcasses of the female Eurasian lynx (Lynx lynx).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Axnér, E; Payan-Carreira, R; Setterlind, P; Åsbrink, J; Söderberg, A

    2013-11-01

    Information about reproductive physiology in the Eurasian lynx (Lynx lynx) would generate knowledge that could be useful in the management of the Swedish lynx population based on the knowledge about their reproductive potential and population development. Age-related differences in ovulation and implantation rates would affect the reproductive output and the development of the population. The aims of this study were to evaluate a protocol for collection of reproductive data from carcasses by comparisons with published field data and to generate data about reproduction in the Swedish lynx. Reproductive organs from 120 females that were harvested between March 1 and April 9 from 2009 to 2011 were collected and evaluated macroscopically for placental scars. Females had their first estrus as yearlings but did not have their first litter until the next season. Pregnancy rates were lower in 2-year-old females than in females aged 3 to 7 years but did not differ significantly from females aged 8 to 13 years (54.5%, 95.6%, and 75.0%, respectively). CL from the present season were morphologically distinctly different from luteal bodies from previous cycles (LBPC). All females ≥3 years had macroscopically visible LBPC, whereas only 67% of 22 to 23 months old females had one to three LBPC and no females number of LBPC counted in females ≥3 years of age was 11. These data would be in agreement with only one estrus per season and LBPC from at least three previous reproductive seasons in older females. The number of LBPC was significantly correlated with the weight of the ovaries rs = 0.648, P reproductive cycle and was highest for mature females in the luteal phase of the cycle. The estrous period, defined as occurrence of ovarian follicles lasted from March 5 to April 1 in this material. In conclusion, this study confirms that useful information about lynx reproduction can be collected from reproductive organs retrieved after the death of the animals. Continuous monitoring

  10. Spontaneous reproductive pathology in female guinea pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veiga-Parga, Tamara; La Perle, Krista M D; Newman, Shelley J

    2016-11-01

    Reproductive pathology of domestic guinea pigs is underreported to date. To provide a comprehensive review of uterine disease in guinea pigs, we performed a retrospective study of the pathology archives of the University of Tennessee, College of Veterinary Medicine. By histology, 13 of 37 uterine lesions in 23 animals were neoplastic; the other 24 nonneoplastic lesions included cystic endometrial hyperplasia (16 of 24), endometrial hemorrhage (3 of 24), pyometra (2 of 24), polyp (2 of 24), and mucometra (1 of 24). The most common guinea pig uterine neoplasms were uterine leiomyomas (6 of 13), followed by adenomas (3 of 13) and leiomyosarcomas (1 of 13). Other neoplasms included anaplastic tumors of unknown origin (2 of 13) and choriocarcinoma (1 of 13). Both anaplastic tumors and the choriocarcinoma were positive for vimentin. The choriocarcinoma was positive for HSD83B1, indicating a trophoblastic origin and its final diagnosis. All were negative for cytokeratin and smooth muscle. In multiple animals, more than 1 tumor or lesion was reported. Estrogen receptor and progesterone receptor expression was nearly 100% in uterine neoplasms. Nearly all animals for which data were available had cystic rete ovarii (18 of 19); the animal with no cystic rete ovarii had paraovarian cysts. In our study, female pet guinea pigs had a tendency to develop cystic endometrial hyperplasia and uterine neoplasia. Factors for the development of these lesions could be cystic rete ovarii, hormone dysregulation, and/or age. Other factors could contribute to the development of uterine lesions. As in other species, early ovariohysterectomy could decrease the prevalence of uterine lesions. © 2016 The Author(s).

  11. Neurogenetics of female reproductive behaviors in Drosophila melanogaster.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laturney, Meghan; Billeter, Jean-Christophe

    2014-01-01

    We follow an adult Drosophila melanogaster female through the major reproductive decisions she makes during her lifetime, including habitat selection, precopulatory mate choice, postcopulatory physiological changes, polyandry, and egg-laying site selection. In the process, we review the molecular and neuronal mechanisms allowing females to integrate signals from both environmental and social sources to produce those behavioral outputs. We pay attention to how an understanding of D. melanogaster female reproductive behaviors contributes to a wider understanding of evolutionary processes such as pre- and postcopulatory sexual selection as well as sexual conflict. Within each section, we attempt to connect the theories that pertain to the evolution of female reproductive behaviors with the molecular and neurobiological data that support these theories. We draw attention to the fact that the evolutionary and mechanistic basis of female reproductive behaviors, even in a species as extensively studied as D. melanogaster, remains poorly understood. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. The microbiota continuum along the female reproductive tract and its relation to uterine-related diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Chen; Song, Xiaolei; Wei, Weixia; Zhong, Huanzi; Dai, Juanjuan; Lan, Zhou; Li, Fei; Yu, Xinlei; Feng, Qiang; Wang, Zirong; Xie, Hailiang; Chen, Xiaomin; Zeng, Chunwei; Wen, Bo; Zeng, Liping; Du, Hui; Tang, Huiru; Xu, Changlu; Xia, Yan; Xia, Huihua; Yang, Huanming; Wang, Jian; Wang, Jun; Madsen, Lise; Brix, Susanne; Kristiansen, Karsten; Xu, Xun; Li, Junhua; Wu, Ruifang; Jia, Huijue

    2017-10-17

    Reports on bacteria detected in maternal fluids during pregnancy are typically associated with adverse consequences, and whether the female reproductive tract harbours distinct microbial communities beyond the vagina has been a matter of debate. Here we systematically sample the microbiota within the female reproductive tract in 110 women of reproductive age, and examine the nature of colonisation by 16S rRNA gene amplicon sequencing and cultivation. We find distinct microbial communities in cervical canal, uterus, fallopian tubes and peritoneal fluid, differing from that of the vagina. The results reflect a microbiota continuum along the female reproductive tract, indicative of a non-sterile environment. We also identify microbial taxa and potential functions that correlate with the menstrual cycle or are over-represented in subjects with adenomyosis or infertility due to endometriosis. The study provides insight into the nature of the vagino-uterine microbiome, and suggests that surveying the vaginal or cervical microbiota might be useful for detection of common diseases in the upper reproductive tract.Whether the female reproductive tract harbours distinct microbiomes beyond the vagina has been a matter of debate. Here, the authors show a subject-specific continuity in microbial communities at six sites along the female reproductive tract, indicative of a non-sterile environment.

  13. Neurogenetics of female reproductive behaviors in Drosophila melanogaster

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Laturney, Meghan; Billeter, Jean-Christophe; Friedmann, T; Dunlap, JC; Goodwin, SF

    2014-01-01

    We follow an adult Drosophila melanogaster female through the major reproductive decisions she makes during her lifetime, including habitat selection, precopulatory mate choice, postcopulatory physiological changes, polyandry, and egg-laying site selection. In the process, we review the molecular

  14. Menstrual cycle disorders in female volleyball players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wodarska, M; Witkoś, J; Drosdzol-Cop, A; Dąbrowska, J; Dąbrowska-Galas, M; Hartman, M; Plinta, R; Skrzypulec-Plinta, V

    2013-07-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the relation between increased physical activity and menstrual disorders in adolescent female volleyball players. The study was conducted on 210 Polish female volleyball players, aged 13-17 years, the authorship questionnaire was used. The results of the study showed that irregular menstruation occurred in 19% of girls, spotting between menstrual periods in 27% and heavy menstruation was reported in 33% of girls. Out of all volleyball female players participating in the study, 94 girls (45%) declared absence of menstrual periods after regular cycles. Statistical analysis showed that the more training hours per week, the bigger probability of the occurrence of irregular menstruation. It was concluded that the number of hours of volleyball training per week affects regularity of menstrual cycles in female volleyball players. The absence of menstruation might be caused by the duration of training per week or years of training.

  15. Histología del ciclo reproductor de hembras del pejelagarto Atractosteus tropicus (Lepisosteiformes: Lepisosteidae enTabasco, México Histology of reproductive cycle of tropical gar Atractosteus tropicus females (Lepisosteiformes: Lepisosteidae in Tabasco, Mexico.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Otilio Méndez-Marin

    2012-12-01

    pueden funcionar como un gatillo ambiental, en el desarrollo de la ovogénesis y el desove.In Southeast Mexico, A. tropicus is a species with great ecological, economic, cultural and aquaculture value, however wild populations have diminished due to diverse anthropological causes. The objective of this study was to characterize the reproductive cycle of A. tropicus, with a description of complete gonad structure and the changes in germinal and somatic elements during oogenesis, for better management and use of this species. Six sexually mature females (N=72 were captured monthly with drag nets during one year cycle (October 2003-October 2004 in wild populations of Pomposu lagoon, municipality of Jalpa de Mendez, Tabasco, Mexico. Females were sacrificed by decapitation and the ovaries were processed by standard histological methods; the diameter of 10-20 oocytes taken at random was determined in different stages of development. Gonadosmatic index (GSI, gonadal volume (gV and follicule diameter (fD were determined monthly. Among results we could determine eight oogenesis developmental stages: I: chromatin nucleolus stage, II: early perinucleolus stage, III: mid perinucleolus stage, IV: advanced perinucleolus stage, V: early vitellogenesis stage, VI: mid vitellogenesis stage, VII advanced vitellogenesis stage and VIII: final maturation stage. The reproductive cycle could be divided in four phases: I: proliferative phase, II: initial maturation phase, III: late maturation phase, IV: regressing phase. Analysis of the data obtained from the IGS, gV and fD values, oogenesis stages and reproductive phases, indicate that in December previtellogenesis phase restarts, from March through July yolk deposition (vitellogenesis occurs, and from August to November the maximum reproductive activity takes place. Contrasting this pattern with local environmental factors such as temperature and precipitation, we suggested that these may serve as an environmental activator in the development

  16. Unethical Female Stereotypes in Reproductive Health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Garanina I. G.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The author considers the established stereotypes which are summarized prejudices identifying the membership of certain people in a certain group. The article reveals that women are victims of stereotyping them as housekeepers and mothers in the negative sense, which exclude them from performing other roles and functions. There are examples from the foreign legislation where they dispel the stereotype of a woman as a reproductive instrument and uphold the woman‘s right to equal dignity with men in their reproductive choice

  17. The reproductive pattern and potential of free ranging female wild boars (Sus scrofa) in Sweden.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malmsten, Anna; Jansson, Gunnar; Lundeheim, Nils; Dalin, Anne-Marie

    2017-08-01

    The number and spatial distribution of wild boars (Sus scrofa) has increased remarkably in Sweden as well as in other European countries. To understand the population dynamics of the wild boar, knowledge of its reproductive period, oestrus cycle and reproductive success is essential. The aim of this study was therefore to describe the seasonal reproductive pattern and reproductive potential of a wild boar population in Sweden. The study was based on findings from macroscopic examinations of the reproductive organs from 575 hunter-harvested female wild boars (>30 kg body weight). Samples were collected between December 2011 and December 2015 in the southern and middle parts of Sweden. The age of the sampled animals was determined and dressed weight was noted. The stage of the reproductive cycle was defined according to ovarian structures and in relation to the appearance of/and findings in the uterus. The crown-rump length (CRL) of the embryos/foetuses was used to calculate the oestrus/mating month and month for the expected farrowing. The macroscopic examination revealed a seasonal variation of reproductive stages, although cyclic and pregnant females were found in all seasons. Moreover, the estimated oestrus/mating and farrowing months based on the CRL showed that mating and farrowing may occur 'off-season'. The average litter size (no. of embryos or foetuses) per pregnant female was 5.4. Sow weight and age had significant effect on both the reproductive potential (ovulation rate and litter size) and pregnancy rate, respectively. The reproductive potential in the studied wild boar population was high compared to studies from other countries and farrowing may occur 'off-season'. This suggests that the environmental conditions in Sweden, including supplemental feeding, are favourable for wild boar reproduction.

  18. Reproductive toxicity: Male and female reproductive systems as targets for chemical injury

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mattison, D.R.; Plowchalk, D.R.; Meadows, M.J.; Al-Juburi, A.Z.; Gandy, J.; Malek, A. (Univ. of Arkansas for Medical Sciences, Little Rock (USA))

    1990-03-01

    On the basis of current knowledge of reproductive biology and toxicology, it is apparent that chemicals affecting reproduction may elicit their effects at a number of sites in both the male and the female reproductive system. This multiplicity of targets is attributable to the dynamic nature of the reproductive system, in which the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis is controlled by precise positive and negative feedback mechanisms among its components. Interference by a xenobiotic at any level in either the male or the female reproductive system may ultimately impair hypothalamic or pituitary function. Normal gonadal processes such as spermatogenesis or oogenesis, ejaculation or ovulation, hormone production by Leydig or granulosa cells, and the structure or function of the accessory reproductive structures (e.g., epididymis, fallopian tube) also appear vulnerable to xenobiotics. The reproductive system is a complex one that requires local and circulating hormones for control. This brief review illustrates a system for characterizing the mechanism of action of reproductive toxicants, as well as for defining the sites available for disruption of reproduction. Unfortunately, at present, data addressing the actual vulnerability of reproduction are sorely lacking. However, when experiments have been conducted and combined with epidemiologic data or clinical observation, it has been possible to demonstrate impairment of reproductive processes by xenobiotics. The role of environmental exposure to xenobiotics in the increase in infertility that has been observed remains to be defined. 87 references.

  19. NON-HODGKIN'S LYMPHOMAS OF FEMALE REPRODUCTIVE SYSTEM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. V. Babkina

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Non-Hodgkin's lymphomas are extremely rare among all tumors of female reproductive system. Diagnostic mistakes and inadequate therapeu- tic tactics in these diseases are results of usual absence of alertness of gynecologists. The aims are to analyze reasons of diagnostic mistakes in patients with non-Hodgkin's lymphomas of female reproductive system and to discover definitive clinical and morphological characteristics of female reproductive system lymphoid tumors. During the period between 1989 and 2006, 305 cases of primary extranodal non-Hodgkin's lym- phomas were detected; female reproductive system was affected in 7% of patients (totally 40 patients, which were included in investigated group. In the whole analyzed group of women (n=40, median age 43 yrs, range 17-84 yrs, patients with primary lesion of female reproductive system had median age of 40 yrs and with secondary involvement - 46 yrs. Most of patients were fertile (60%, n=24. Such tumors was localized in breast in 40% of cases (n=16, in ovaries - 20% (n=8, in uterine corpus - 12,5% (n=5, in uterine cervix - 15% (n=6, and in vagina - remaining 12,5% (n=5. Average time from diagnosis to beginning of the treatment was 7,5 months. As a result, the onset of specific therapy was delayed in 65% cases (n=26 and 50% (n=20 underwent unneeded surgery. Diagnostic mistakes lead to inadequate treatment. Extranodal non-Hodgkin’s lymphomas of female reproductive system, both primary and secondary, are rare pathology. Primary lesion is more typical for older women, sec- ondary is mainly affecting younger women (in reproductive period. Chemotherapy response and prognosis are better in primary cases.

  20. Reproduction in female yaks (Bos grunniens) and opportunities for improvement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zi, Xiang-Dong

    2003-03-01

    This paper reviews seasonal breeding, puberty, postpartum anestrus, embryonic loss and calf survival and their constraints in female yaks. Methods for improving fertility in postpartum yak cows are also considered. Yaks are seasonal breeders with mating and conception restricted in the warm season. Puberty generally occurs in the 2nd to the 4th warm season following birth, i.e. between 13 and 36 months of age. The cows usually have a long postpartum anestrus period; only a small proportion of the cows return to estrus in the 1st breeding season after calving, most come into estrus in the 2nd and 3rd years. Nutritional status is the most important determinant of reproduction in female yaks. Reproductive success is a direct result of the availability of pasture determined by climate, season, and management practices. Milking delays puberty by reducing milk intake (restricted suckling) and growth rate for the calf. Milking interferes with grazing and prolongs the duration of postpartum acyclicity in cows. Calves born early in the season have a longer suckling season than those born later in the season before the onset of winter. Thus, they can have their first cycle in the breeding season of the following year, while those born late in the season may not have their first estrus until 25 or 26 months of age. Cows calving early in the season are more likely to return to estrus in the year of calving because they have a longer period to recover from the demand on body reserves before the onset of winter. Inbreeding in smallholder yak farms is also discussed and minimizing inbreeding by exchanging bulls among different herds is suggested. Reproductive efficiency can be improved by nutritional supplementation during the winter, however, the most cost-effective and practical strategy for this needs to be determined. Early weaning or restricted suckling may shorten the duration of postpartum acyclicity, however, it is impractical due to reduced growth rates and increased

  1. [Infectious burdens of reproduction of female dogs].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wendt, K; Stellmacher, H

    1996-02-01

    The results of gynecological investigations in 142 bitches were evaluated and the complexity of infectious affections is discussed. High proportions of infectious cases were found in cases of limitation of fertility (67.5%), in vaginal discharge in the estrus (60.8%), in cases of mastitis/pseudopregnancy (61.5%) and in mortality of newborn puppies. St. aureus and E. coli were often isolated. There is a high etiological correlation in epidemiology of diseases of the reproductive tract in the single bitch and especially in kennel bitches.

  2. Review of hazards to female reproductive health in veterinary practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scheftel, Joni M; Elchos, Brigid L; Rubin, Carol S; Decker, John A

    2017-04-15

    OBJECTIVE To review publications that address female reproductive health hazards in veterinary practice, summarize best practices to mitigate reproductive risks, and identify current knowledge gaps. DESIGN Systematized review. SAMPLE English-language articles describing chemical, biological, and physical hazards present in the veterinary workplace and associations with adverse reproductive outcomes or recommendations for minimizing risks to female reproductive health. PROCEDURES Searches of the CAB abstracts database were performed in July 2012 and in May 2015 with the following search terms: veterinarians AND occupational hazards and vets.id AND occupational hazards.sh. Searches of the PubMed database were conducted in November 2012 and in May 2015 with the following medical subject heading terms: occupational exposure AND veterinarians; anesthetics, inhalation/adverse effects AND veterinarians; risk factors AND pregnancy AND veterinarians; pregnancy outcome AND veterinarians; and animal technicians AND occupational exposure. Two additional PubMed searches were completed in January 2016 with the terms disinfectants/toxicity AND female AND fertility/drug effects and veterinarians/psychology AND stress, psychological. No date limits were applied to searches. RESULTS 4 sources supporting demographic trends in veterinary medicine and 118 resources reporting potential hazards to female reproductive health were identified. Reported hazards included exposure to anesthetic gases, radiation, antineoplastic drugs, and reproductive hormones; physically demanding work; prolonged standing; and zoonoses. CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE Demographic information suggested that an increasing number of women of reproductive age will be exposed to chemical, biological, and physical hazards in veterinary practice. Information on reproductive health hazards and minimizing risk, with emphasis on developing a safety-focused work culture for all personnel, should be discussed starting

  3. Diagnostic radiation of potentially reproductive females

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abd El-Bagi, M E; Al-Mutairi, M S; Al-Thagafi, M A; Al-Masri, N M; Al-Sasi, O [Department of Radiology and Imaging, Armed Forces Hospital, Riyadh (Saudi Arabia)

    2001-03-01

    Objectives: To find out how consistent or variable is the understanding and practice of radiation protection procedures for women of childbearing age at a multispecialty tertiary hospital. Setting: Riyadh Military Hospital Study. Design: Non-clustered population survey. Methods: A questionnaire was distributed during grand rounds, mid-day clinics and a radiology conference. Questions included which radiation protection rule does the respondent use for females, whether he or she is familiar with those rules and what is his or her source of reference. Further questions were about the radiation dangers to the fetus. Results: Response was 95 (100%). Fifty-seven (60%) were males and 38 (40%) were females. The majority 50 (53%) were Saudis, 16 (17%) Western and 29 (30%) were other nationals. Sixty-two (65%) followed the old rule '10-day rule'; 17 (18%) followed the new '28-day rule' and 16 (17%) didn't know which rule to follow. None of those who followed the '28-day rule' indicated hospital policy as their reference. Conclusions: The understanding and practice of radiation protection guidelines for females is inconsistent. There is significant unfamiliarity with the radiation protection rules among our hospital practitioners. (author)

  4. Diagnostic radiation of potentially reproductive females

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abd El-Bagi, M.E.; Al-Mutairi, M.S.; Al-Thagafi, M.A.; Al-Masri, N.M.; Al-Sasi, O.

    2001-01-01

    Objectives: To find out how consistent or variable is the understanding and practice of radiation protection procedures for women of childbearing age at a multispecialty tertiary hospital. Setting: Riyadh Military Hospital Study. Design: Non-clustered population survey. Methods: A questionnaire was distributed during grand rounds, mid-day clinics and a radiology conference. Questions included which radiation protection rule does the respondent use for females, whether he or she is familiar with those rules and what is his or her source of reference. Further questions were about the radiation dangers to the fetus. Results: Response was 95 (100%). Fifty-seven (60%) were males and 38 (40%) were females. The majority 50 (53%) were Saudis, 16 (17%) Western and 29 (30%) were other nationals. Sixty-two (65%) followed the old rule '10-day rule'; 17 (18%) followed the new '28-day rule' and 16 (17%) didn't know which rule to follow. None of those who followed the '28-day rule' indicated hospital policy as their reference. Conclusions: The understanding and practice of radiation protection guidelines for females is inconsistent. There is significant unfamiliarity with the radiation protection rules among our hospital practitioners. (author)

  5. Roles of RFRP-3 in the daily and seasonal regulation of reproductive activity in female Syrian hamsters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henningsen, Jo B.; Ancel, Caroline; Mikkelsen, Jens D.

    2017-01-01

    In females, reproductive activity relies on proper integration of daily and environmental changes as well as cyclic sex-steroid feedback. This study sought to investigate the role of the hypothalamic Arg-Phe amide-related peptide (RFRP)-3 in the daily and seasonal control of reproductive activity...... alongside kisspeptin neurons, are essential for proper synchronization of reproductive activity with the time of the day, the stage of the estrous cycle, and the seasonal changes in photoperiod....

  6. Effects of physical exercise on the female reproductive system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orio, F; Muscogiuri, G; Ascione, A; Marciano, F; Volpe, A; La Sala, G; Savastano, S; Colao, A; Palomba, S

    2013-09-01

    The excess in physical activity could be closely linked to considerable negative consequences on the whole body. These dysfunctions called as "female athlete triad"' by the American College of Sports Medicine (ACSM) include amenorrhea, osteoporosis and disorder eating. The female athlete triad poses serious health risks, both on the short and on the long term, to the overall well-being of affected individuals. Sustained low energy availability can impair health, causing many medical complications within skeletal, endocrine, cardiovascular, reproductive and central nervous system. On the contrary, several studies have shown, that physical activity improves cardiovascular risk factors, hormonal profile and reproductive function. These improvements include a decrease in abdominal fat, blood glucose, blood lipids and insulin resistance, as well as improvements in menstrual cyclicity, ovulation and fertility, decreases in testosterone levels and Free Androgen Index (FAI) and increases in sex hormone binding globulin (SHBG). Other studies reported that physical activity improved self-esteem, depression and anxiety. Thus, the aim of this review is to elucidate the effect of physical exercise on female reproductive system and viceversa the impact of hormonal status on physical activity and metabolism. In addition this review supports the idea that physical exercise is a helpful tool for the management of obesity, prevention of cardiovascular, metabolic diseases and female reproductive organs related diseases (e.g. breast cancer). When the excess in physical activity leads up to the female athlete triad, it is imperative to treat each component of the triad by employing both pharmacological and non pharmacological treatments.

  7. Reproductive cycles in tropical intertidal gastropods are timed around tidal amplitude cycles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collin, Rachel; Kerr, Kecia; Contolini, Gina; Ochoa, Isis

    2017-08-01

    Reproduction in iteroparous marine organisms is often timed with abiotic cycles and may follow lunar, tidal amplitude, or daily cycles. Among intertidal marine invertebrates, decapods are well known to time larval release to coincide with large amplitude nighttime tides, which minimizes the risk of predation. Such bimonthly cycles have been reported for few other intertidal invertebrates. We documented the reproduction of 6 gastropod species from Panama to determine whether they demonstrate reproductive cycles, whether these cycles follow a 2-week cycle, and whether cycles are timed so that larval release occurs during large amplitude tides. Two of the species ( Crepidula cf. marginalis and Nerita scabricosta ) showed nonuniform reproduction, but without clear peaks in timing relative to tidal or lunar cycles. The other 4 species show clear peaks in reproduction occurring every 2 weeks. In 3 of these species ( Cerithideopsis carlifornica var. valida, Littoraria variegata , and Natica chemnitzi ), hatching occurred within 4 days of the maximum amplitude tides. Siphonaria palmata exhibit strong cycles, but reproduction occurred during the neap tides. Strong differences in the intensity of reproduction of Cerithideopsis carlifornica , and in particular, Littoraria variegata , between the larger and smaller spring tides of a lunar month indicate that these species time reproduction with the tidal amplitude cycle rather than the lunar cycle. For those species that reproduce during both the wet and dry seasons, we found that reproductive timing did not differ between seasons despite strong differences in temperature and precipitation. Overall, we found that most (4/6) species have strong reproductive cycles synchronized with the tidal amplitude cycle and that seasonal differences in abiotic factors do not alter these cycles.

  8. Reproductive hacking. A male seminal protein acts through intact reproductive pathways in female Drosophila.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rubinstein, C Dustin; Wolfner, Mariana F

    2014-01-01

    Seminal proteins are critical for reproductive success in all animals that have been studied. Although seminal proteins have been identified in many taxa, and female reproductive responses to receipt of these proteins have been documented in several, little is understood about the mechanisms by which seminal proteins affect female reproductive physiology. To explore this topic, we investigated how a Drosophila seminal protein, ovulin, increases ovulation rate in mated females. Ovulation is a relatively simple physiological process, with known female regulators: previous studies have shown that ovulation rate is promoted by the neuromodulator octopamine (OA) in D. melanogaster and other insects. We found that ovulin stimulates ovulation by increasing OA signaling in the female. This finding supports a model in which a male seminal protein acts through "hacking" a well-conserved, regulatory system females use to adjust reproductive output, rather than acting downstream of female mechanisms of control or in parallel pathways altogether. We also discuss similarities between 2 forms of intersexual control of behavior through chemical communication: seminal proteins and pheromones.

  9. Comparative study of reproductive tract infections of female sex ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Reproductive tract infections (RTIs) have become international public health problem. Aim: We assessed the RTIs. A community-based study was carried out among female sex workers (FSWs), gynecology clinic patients and general population in Suzhou, China to investigate the major pathogens of RTIs and ...

  10. Effects of Telfairia Occidentalis Seed Oil on Female Reproductive ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    S.T Shittu

    Summary: The effects of T. occidentalis seed oil on some female reproductive indices were investigated in Wistar rats. The study was ... analysis of fluted pumpkin seed oil showed that it is ..... Akang, E., Oremosu, A. A., Dosumo, O. O., Noronhe, ... Current diabetes reports. ... reducing fat mass: a meta-analysis in humans.

  11. The effects of oxidative stress on female reproduction: a review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agarwal Ashok

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Oxidative stress (OS, a state characterized by an imbalance between pro-oxidant molecules including reactive oxygen and nitrogen species, and antioxidant defenses, has been identified to play a key role in the pathogenesis of subfertility in both males and females. The adverse effects of OS on sperm quality and functions have been well documented. In females, on the other hand, the impact of OS on oocytes and reproductive functions remains unclear. This imbalance between pro-oxidants and antioxidants can lead to a number of reproductive diseases such as endometriosis, polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS, and unexplained infertility. Pregnancy complications such as spontaneous abortion, recurrent pregnancy loss, and preeclampsia, can also develop in response to OS. Studies have shown that extremes of body weight and lifestyle factors such as cigarette smoking, alcohol use, and recreational drug use can promote excess free radical production, which could affect fertility. Exposures to environmental pollutants are of increasing concern, as they too have been found to trigger oxidative states, possibly contributing to female infertility. This article will review the currently available literature on the roles of reactive species and OS in both normal and abnormal reproductive physiological processes. Antioxidant supplementation may be effective in controlling the production of ROS and continues to be explored as a potential strategy to overcome reproductive disorders associated with infertility. However, investigations conducted to date have been through animal or in vitro studies, which have produced largely conflicting results. The impact of OS on assisted reproductive techniques (ART will be addressed, in addition to the possible benefits of antioxidant supplementation of ART culture media to increase the likelihood for ART success. Future randomized controlled clinical trials on humans are necessary to elucidate the precise mechanisms

  12. Non-invasive assessment of the reproductive cycle in free-ranging female African elephants (Loxodonta africana treated with a gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH vaccine for inducing anoestrus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benavides Valades Gabriela

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In southern Africa, various options to manage elephant populations are being considered. Immunocontraception is considered to be the most ethically acceptable and logistically feasible method for control of smaller and confined populations. In this regard, the use of gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH vaccine has not been investigated in female elephants, although it has been reported to be safe and effective in several domestic and wildlife species. The aims of this study were to monitor the oestrous cycles of free-ranging African elephant cows using faecal progestagen metabolites and to evaluate the efficacy of a GnRH vaccine to induce anoestrus in treated cows. Methods Between May 2009 - June 2010, luteal activity of 12 elephant cows was monitored non-invasively using an enzyme immunoassay detecting faecal 5alpha-reduced pregnanes (faecal progestagen metabolites, FPM on a private game reserve in South Africa. No bulls of breeding age were present on the reserve prior to and for the duration of the study. After a 3-month control period, 8 randomly-selected females were treated twice with 600 micrograms of GnRH vaccine (Improvac®, Pfizer Animal Health, Sandton, South Africa 5-7 weeks apart. Four of these females had been treated previously with the porcine zona pellucida (pZP vaccine for four years (2004-2007. Results All 12 monitored females (8 treated and 4 controls showed signs of luteal activity as evidenced by FPM concentrations exceeding individual baseline values more than once. A total of 16 oestrous cycles could be identified in 8 cows with four of these within the 13 to 17 weeks range previously reported for captive African elephants. According to the FPM concentrations the GnRH vaccine was unable to induce anoestrus in the treated cows. Overall FPM levels in samples collected during the wet season (mean 4.03 micrograms/gram dry faeces were significantly higher (P Conclusions The GnRH vaccination protocol failed

  13. Life-history tradeoffs and reproductive cycles in Spotted Owls

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoelting, Ricka E.; Gutierrez, R.J.; Kendall, William L.; Peery, M. Zachariah

    2015-01-01

    The study of tradeoffs among life-history traits has long been key to understanding the evolution of life-history strategies. However, more recently, evolutionary ecologists have realized that reproductive costs have the potential to influence population dynamics. Here, we tested for costs of reproduction in the California Spotted Owl (Strix occidentalis occidentalis), and assessed whether costs of reproduction in year t − 1 on reproduction in year t could be responsible for regionally synchronized biennial cycles in reproductive output. Logistic regression analysis and multistate mark–recapture models with state uncertainty revealed that breeding reduced the likelihood of reproducing in the subsequent year by 16% to 38%, but had no influence on subsequent survival. We also found that costs of reproduction in year t − 1 were correlated with climatic conditions in year t, with evidence of higher costs during the dry phase of the El Niño–Southern Oscillation. Using a simulation-based population model, we showed that strong reproductive costs had the potential to create biennial cycles in population-level reproductive output; however, estimated costs of reproduction appeared to be too small to explain patterns observed in Spotted Owls. In the absence of strong reproductive costs, we hypothesize that observed natural cycles in the reproductive output of Spotted Owls are related to as-yet-unmeasured, regionally concordant fluctuations in environmental conditions or prey resources. Despite theoretical evidence for demographic effects, our analyses illustrate that linking tradeoffs to actual changes in population processes will be challenging because of the potential confounding effects of individual and environmental variation.

  14. Non-invasive assessment of the reproductive cycle in free-ranging female African elephants (Loxodonta africana) treated with a gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) vaccine for inducing anoestrus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benavides Valades, Gabriela; Ganswindt, Andre; Annandale, Henry; Schulman, Martin L; Bertschinger, Henk J

    2012-08-25

    In southern Africa, various options to manage elephant populations are being considered. Immunocontraception is considered to be the most ethically acceptable and logistically feasible method for control of smaller and confined populations. In this regard, the use of gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) vaccine has not been investigated in female elephants, although it has been reported to be safe and effective in several domestic and wildlife species. The aims of this study were to monitor the oestrous cycles of free-ranging African elephant cows using faecal progestagen metabolites and to evaluate the efficacy of a GnRH vaccine to induce anoestrus in treated cows. Between May 2009-June 2010, luteal activity of 12 elephant cows was monitored non-invasively using an enzyme immunoassay detecting faecal 5alpha-reduced pregnanes (faecal progestagen metabolites, FPM) on a private game reserve in South Africa. No bulls of breeding age were present on the reserve prior to and for the duration of the study. After a 3-month control period, 8 randomly-selected females were treated twice with 600 micrograms of GnRH vaccine (Improvac®, Pfizer Animal Health, Sandton, South Africa) 5-7 weeks apart. Four of these females had been treated previously with the porcine zona pellucida (pZP) vaccine for four years (2004-2007). All 12 monitored females (8 treated and 4 controls) showed signs of luteal activity as evidenced by FPM concentrations exceeding individual baseline values more than once. A total of 16 oestrous cycles could be identified in 8 cows with four of these within the 13 to 17 weeks range previously reported for captive African elephants. According to the FPM concentrations the GnRH vaccine was unable to induce anoestrus in the treated cows. Overall FPM levels in samples collected during the wet season (mean 4.03 micrograms/gram dry faeces) were significantly higher (Pelephants. These results indicate that irregular oestrous cycles occur amongst free

  15. Behavioral and endocrine characteristics of the reproductive cycle in wild muriqui monkeys, Brachyteles arachnoides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strier, K B; Ziegler, T E

    1997-01-01

    The analysis of fecal ovarian steroids provides a powerful noninvasive method to obtain insights into ovulatory cycles, gestation length, and the timing of sexual interactions relative to the periovulatory period in wild primates. Techniques developed to collect and assay feces from free-ranging muriqui monkeys (Brachyteles arachnoides) for estradiol and progesterone yield the first explicit reproductive data on this species, and provide the first opportunity to evaluate the timing of observed copulations with muriqui ovarian cycles. Hormonal profiles from seven females indicate average cycle lengths of 21.0 +/- 5.4 days (n = 20). Females conceived after 3-6 ovulatory cycles. Gestation length averaged 216.4 +/- 1.5 days for the five females for which conception cycles were sampled. Discrete copulation periods spanned an average of 2.1 +/- 1.2 days (n = 29), with intervals between these concentrated periods of copulations averaging 15.6 +/- 6.7 days (n = 20). There were no significant differences among females in cycle lengths, copulation period lengths, or copulation interval lengths. Ejaculation was visible following 71.8 +/- 26.7% of copulations during the females preovulatory periods. All females copulated outside the periovulatory period. The proportion of copulation days outside the periovulatory period was slightly greater (p = 0.08) for primiparous females (64.8 +/- 28.3%) than for multiparous females (28.7 +/- 19.7%).

  16. Reporting multiple cycles in trials on medically assisted reproduction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Scholten, Irma; Braakhekke, Miriam; Limpens, Jacqueline; Hompes, Peter G. A.; van der Veen, Fulco; Mol, Ben W. J.; Gianotten, Judith

    2016-01-01

    Trials assessing effectiveness in medically assisted reproduction (MAR) should aim to study the desired effect over multiple cycles, as this reflects clinical practice and captures the relevant perspective for the couple. The aim of this study was to assess the extent to which multiple cycles are

  17. Reproductive cycle of the Namib giant ground gecko ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The reproductive cycle of the Namib giant ground gecko, Chondrodactylus angulifer, from southern Africa was described from a histological examination of gonadal material from museum specimens. Males followed a seasonal testicular cycle in which (based on available specimens) the major period of spermiogenesis ...

  18. Vitamin E as an Antioxidant in Female Reproductive Health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siti Syairah Mohd Mutalip

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Vitamin E was first discovered in 1922 as a substance necessary for reproduction. Following this discovery, vitamin E was extensively studied, and it has become widely known as a powerful lipid-soluble antioxidant. There has been increasing interest in the role of vitamin E as an antioxidant, as it has been discovered to lower body cholesterol levels and act as an anticancer agent. Numerous studies have reported that vitamin E exhibits anti-proliferative, anti-survival, pro-apoptotic, and anti-angiogenic effects in cancer, as well as anti-inflammatory activities. There are various reports on the benefits of vitamin E on health in general. However, despite it being initially discovered as a vitamin necessary for reproduction, to date, studies relating to its effects in this area are lacking. Hence, this paper was written with the intention of providing a review of the known roles of vitamin E as an antioxidant in female reproductive health.

  19. Late injury of cancer therapy on the female reproductive tract

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grigsby, Perry W.; Russell, Anthony; Bruner, Deborah; Eifel, Patricia; Koh, Wui-Jin; Spanos, William; Stetz, Joann; Stitt, Judith Anne; Sullivan, Jessie

    1995-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to review the late effects of cancer therapy on the female reproductive tract. The anatomic sites detailed are the vulva, vagina, cervix, uterus, fallopian tubes, and ovaries. The available pathophysiology is discussed. Clinical syndromes are presented. Tolerance doses of irradiation for late effects are rarely presented in the literature and are reviewed where available. Management strategies for surgical, radiotherapeutic, and chemotherapeutic late effects are discussed. Endpoints for evaluation of therapeutic late effects have been formulated utilizing the symptoms, objective, management, and analytic (SOMA) format. Late effects on the female reproductive tract from cancer therapy should be recognized and managed appropriately. A grading system for these effects is presented. Endpoints for late effects and tolls for the evaluation need to be further developed

  20. Reproductive Late Effects in Female Survivors of Childhood Cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Gnaneswaran, Shivany; Deans, Rebecca; Cohn, Richard J.

    2012-01-01

    Childhood cancer treatments can cause female reproductive late effects. Radiation to the hypothalamic-pituitary-ovarian axis is associated with altered menarche, miscarriage, and implantation failure. Patients who receive chemotherapy and/or ovarian radiation are at risk of premature ovarian failure; the risk increases with increasing radiation dose, alkylating agent score, combination therapy, and older age at treatment. Ovarian reserve may be assessed using antimullerian hormone assay and u...

  1. Long-term effects of prenatal exposure to perfluoroalkyl substances on female reproduction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, Susanne Lund; Ramlau-Hansen, Cecilia; Ernst, Erik

    2013-01-01

    Does prenatal exposure to perfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) have long-term effects on female reproductive function?.......Does prenatal exposure to perfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) have long-term effects on female reproductive function?....

  2. Age at first reproduction in philopatric female muriquis ( Brachyteles arachnoides hypoxanthus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martins, Waldney P; Strier, Karen B

    2004-01-01

    Female northern muriquis ( Brachyteles arachnoides hypoxanthus or B. hypoxanthus) at the Estação Biológica de Caratinga/RPPN-FMA, Minas Gerais, Brazil typically disperse from their natal groups at an average age of 6.1+/-0.6 years (median =6.0 years, range =5.3-7.8 years, n =22), prior to the onset of puberty and sexual activity. Immigrants do not conceive until at least their second mating season, and the minimum interval from immigration to first reproduction has been 2.0 years. Age at first reproduction in dispersing females, previously estimated at 8.9 years, has now been documented at 9.0 and 9.25 years for two females whose birth dates are known. This is older than the 7.5 years at which the only female previously known to have reproduced in her natal group gave birth. Here, we present new data from a second female that reproduced in her natal group. This female (BA) was first observed to copulate at 5.5 years, and gave birth to her first infant at 7.25 years of age. Her 1.75-year cycling-to-first conception delay was only slightly shorter than the minimum recorded for immigrant females, and thus was not responsible for her young age at first reproduction compared to dispersing females. Although our sample size is small, our findings suggest that early puberty may permit females to reproduce in their natal group, implying a possible link between life history trade-offs and dispersal patterns. Because the only two females that have reproduced in their natal group were maternal sisters, it is also possible that maternal effects on age at puberty can impact dispersal patterns, particularly in small populations of primates.

  3. The ecology and evolutionary endocrinology of reproduction in the human female.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vitzthum, Virginia J

    2009-01-01

    Human reproductive ecology (HRE) is the study of the mechanisms that link variation in reproductive traits with variation in local habitats. Empirical and theoretical contributions from biological anthropology, physiology, and demography have established the foundation necessary for developing a comprehensive understanding, grounded in life history theory (LHT), of temporal, individual, and populational variation in women's reproductive functioning. LHT posits that natural selection leads to the evolution of mechanisms that tend to allocate resources to the competing demands of growth, reproduction, and survival such that fitness is locally maximized. (That is, among alternative allocation patterns exhibited in a population, those having the highest inclusive fitness will become more common over generational time.) Hence, strategic modulation of reproductive effort is potentially adaptive because investment in a new conception may risk one's own survival, future reproductive opportunities, and/or current offspring survival. The hypothalamic-pituitary-ovarian (HPO) axis is the principal neuroendocrine pathway by which the human female modulates reproductive functioning according to the changing conditions in her habitat. Adjustments of reproductive investment in a potential conception are manifested in temporal and individual variation in ovarian cycle length, ovulation, hormone levels, and the probability of conception. Understanding the extent and causes of adaptive and non-adaptive variation in ovarian functioning is fundamental to ascertaining the proximate and remote determinants of human reproductive patterns. In this review I consider what is known and what still needs to be learned of the ecology of women's reproductive biology, beginning with a discussion of the principal explanatory frameworks in HRE and the biometry of ovarian functioning. Turning next to empirical studies, it is evident that marked variation between cycles, women, and populations is the

  4. Female gonadal hormones and reproductive behaviors as key determinants of successful reproductive output of breeding whooping cranes (Grus americana).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Megan E; Converse, Sarah J; Chandler, Jane N; Shafer, Charles; Brown, Janine L; Keefer, Carol L; Songsasen, Nucharin

    2016-05-01

    Reproductive success of endangered whooping cranes (Grus americana) maintained ex situ is poor. As part of an effort to identify potential causes of poor reproductive success in a captive colony, we used non-invasive endocrine monitoring to assess gonadal and adrenal steroids of bird pairs with various reproductive outcomes and evaluated the relationships of hormones and behaviors to reproductive performance. Overall, reproductively successful (i.e., egg laying) females had significantly higher mean estrogen levels but lower mean progestogen concentrations than did unsuccessful females. Other hormones, including glucocorticoids and androgens, were not significantly different between successful and unsuccessful individuals. Observations of specific behaviors such as unison calling, marching, and the number of copulation attempts, along with overall time spent performing reproductive behaviors, were significantly higher in successful pairs. Our findings indicate that overall reproductive performance of whooping crane pairs is linked to female gonadal hormone excretion and reproductive behaviors, but not to altered adrenal hormone production. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  5. Female gonadal hormones and reproductive behaviors as key determinants of successful reproductive output of breeding whooping cranes (Grus americana)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Megan E; Converse, Sarah J.; Chandler, Jane N.; Shafer, Charles; Brown, Janine L; Keefer, Carol L; Songsasen, Nucharin

    2016-01-01

    Reproductive success of endangered whooping cranes (Grus americana) maintained ex situ is poor. As part of an effort to identify potential causes of poor reproductive success in a captive colony, we used non-invasive endocrine monitoring to assess gonadal and adrenal steroids of bird pairs with various reproductive outcomes and evaluated the relationships of hormones and behaviors to reproductive performance. Overall, reproductively successful (i.e., egg laying) females had significantly higher mean estrogen levels but lower mean progestogen concentrations than did unsuccessful females. Other hormones, including glucocorticoids and androgens, were not significantly different between successful and unsuccessful individuals. Observations of specific behaviors such as unison calling, marching, and the number of copulation attempts, along with overall time spent performing reproductive behaviors, were significantly higher in successful pairs. Our findings indicate that overall reproductive performance of whooping crane pairs is linked to female gonadal hormone excretion and reproductive behaviors, but not to altered adrenal hormone production.

  6. Gross morphology and ultrastructure of the female reproductive system of Diaphorina citri (Hemiptera: Liviidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabio Cleisto Alda Dossi

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The morphological traits of the female reproductive system of Diaphorina citri were examined in detail. Diaphorina citri has telotrophic ovaries with ovarioles organized as a "bouquet", displaying a rudimentary terminal filament and a syncytial tropharium. The vitellarium carries a single growing oocyte at each maturation cycle, which is connected with the tropharium by a nutritive cord. Morpho-functional changes occur during oocyte development, mainly during mid to late vitellogenesis. Morphological events such as the patency of the follicular cells and the intense traffic of vesicles through para- or intracellular processes, suggest a possible route for endosymbiont invasion of D. citri reproductive tissues. Similar events have been demonstrated to be involved in the process of ovariole invasion by endosymbionts in other sternorrhynchans that share reproductive traits with psyllids.

  7. Impact of heavy metals on the female reproductive system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Piotr Rzymski

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. It has been recognized that environmental pollution can affect the quality of health of the human population. Heavy metals are among the group of highly emitted contaminants and their adverse effect of living organisms has been widely studied in recent decades. Lifestyle and quality of the ambient environment are among these factors which can mainly contribute to the heavy metals exposure in humans. Objective. A review of literature linking heavy metals and the female reproductive system and description of the possible associations with emission and exposure of heavy metals and impairments of female reproductive system according to current knowledge. Results. The potential health disorders caused by chronic or acute heavy metals toxicity include immunodeficiency, osteoporosis, neurodegeneration and organ failures. Potential linkages of heavy metals concentration found in different human organs and blood with oestrogen-dependent diseases such as breast cancer, endometrial cancer, endometriosis and spontaneous abortions, as well as pre-term deliveries, stillbirths and hypotrophy, have also been reported. Conclusions. Environmental deterioration can lead to the elevated risk of human exposure to heavy metals, and consequently, health implications including disturbances in reproduction. It is therefore important to continue the investigations on metal-induced mechanisms of fertility impairment on the genetic, epigenetic and biochemical level.

  8. Premature reproductive aging in female rats after developmental exposure to mixtures of endocrine disrupters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jacobsen, Pernille Rosenskjold; Petersen, Marta Axelstad; Christiansen, Sofie

    2013-01-01

    of 13 estrogenic and anti-androgenic chemicals, including phthalates, pesticides, UV-filters, bisphenol A, butylparaben and paracetamol, and the mixture ratio was chosen to reflect high-end human intakes. Groups received combined exposures of 0,100, 150, 200 or 450 times high-end human intake levels......Long-lasting and delayed reproductive effects of developmental exposure to mixtures of environmental chemicals were investigated in female rats. Wistar rats were dosed during gestation and lactation to mixtures of endocrine disrupters, and effects in offspring were studied. The mixtures consisted....... Additionally, groups received mixtures including only the anti-androgens or estrogens at 200 or 450 times human intake. Female offspring exposed to the high dose mixture of all 13 chemicals showed earlier reproductive aging measured as early onset of irregular estrous cycle as compared to controls...

  9. Prenatal exposure to persistent organochlorine pollutants and female reproductive function in young adulthood

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, Susanne Lund; Ramlau-Hansen, Cecilia Høst; Ernst, Erik

    2016-01-01

    . OBJECTIVES: To investigate effects on female reproduction following intrauterine exposure to selected biopersistent organochlorines. METHODS: We used data from a Danish pregnancy cohort with follow-up on 436 eligible daughters at approximately 20years of age. Information on age of menarche (n=335), menstrual...... cycle length (n=230) and serum concentrations of reproductive hormones (n=243) was obtained. Number of antral follicles was counted by vaginal ultrasound (n=147). Of 244 daughters who attended clinical examination, 170 used hormonal contraceptives and 74 were non-users. Concentrations of p,p'-DDE, HCB...... and six PCB congeners were analysed in maternal serum samples obtained in pregnancy week 30. RESULTS: Age of menarche and menstrual cycle length were found not to be statistically significant associated with prenatal organochlorine exposure. Among non-users of hormonal contraceptives with information...

  10. Macroscopic anatomy of the reproductive tract of the reproductively quiescent female emu (Dromaius novaehollandiae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reed, Robert B; Cope, Lee A; Blackford, James T

    2011-04-01

    Three reproductively quiescent female emus (Dromaius novaehollandiae) were embalmed with 10% formalin solution. The reproductive tract was dissected and described. The reproductive tract consists of an ovary and oviduct situated on the left side of the abdominal cavity. The left ovary is dark brown to black in colour with follicles covering the ventral surface. The ovary is located medial to the spleen and closely associated with the ventral surface of the cranial and middle lobes of the left kidney. The oviduct is a relatively straight tube that extends from the level of the cranial extent of the left ilium to the caudal border of the left pubic bone. The oviduct is grossly divided into the infundibulum, magnum, isthmus, uterus and vagina using variations in the mucosal fold pattern. © 2010 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  11. Tributyltin impaired reproductive success in female zebrafish through disrupting oogenesis, reproductive behaviors and serotonin synthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Wei-Yang; Li, Ying-Wen; Chen, Qi-Liang; Liu, Zhi-Hao

    2018-07-01

    Tributyltin (TBT), an organotin acting as aromatase (Cyp19a1) inhibitor, has been found to disrupt gametogenesis and reproductive behaviors in several fish species. However, few studies addressing the mechanisms underlying the impaired gametogenesis and reproduction have been reported. In this study, female adults of zebrafish (Danio rerio) were continuously exposed to two nominal concentrations of TBT (100 and 500 ng/L, actual concentrations: 90.8 ± 1.3 ng/L and 470.3 ± 2.7 ng/L, respectively) for 28 days. After exposures, TBT decreased the total egg number, reduced the hatchability and elevated the mortality of the larvae. Decreased gonadosomatic index (GSI) and altered percentages of follicles in different developmental stages (increased early-stage follicles and reduced mid/late-stage follicles) were also observed in the ovary of TBT-treated fish. TBT also lowered the plasma level of 17β-estradiol and suppressed the expressions of cyp19a1a in the ovary. In treated fish, up-regulated expressions of aldhla2, sycp3 and dmc1 were present in the ovary, indicating an enhanced level of meiosis. The mRNA level of vtg1 was dramatically suppressed in the liver of TBT-treated fish, suggesting an insufficient synthesis of Vtg protein, consistent with the decreased percentage of mid/late-stage follicles in the ovaries. Moreover, TBT significantly suppressed the reproductive behaviors of the female fish (duration of both sexes simultaneously in spawning area, the frequency of meeting and the visit in spawning area) and down-regulated the mRNA levels of genes involved in the regulation of reproductive behaviors (cyp19a1b, gnrh-3 and kiss 2) in the brain. In addition, TBT significantly suppressed the expressions of serotonin-related genes, such as tph2 (encoding serotonin synthase), pet1 (marker of serotonin neuron) and kiss 1 (the modulator of serotonin synthesis), suggesting that TBT might disrupt the non-reproductive behaviors of zebrafish. The present

  12. The reproductive cycle of the intertidal gastropod Turbo coronatus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Histological methods were used to determine the reproductive cycle of Turbo coronatus. Ovarian development was assessed from the relative proportions of mature and immature oocytes in sectioned material. Testicular tissues ware subjectively given a maturity index based on the relative proportions of the various ...

  13. Osteoporosis: knowledge and practices among females of reproductive age group

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Idrees, Z.; Zakir, U.; Khushdil, A.; Shehzadi, H.

    2017-01-01

    To assess the knowledge of osteoporosis and evaluation of the practice of osteoporosis preventive measures, among females of reproductive age group. Methodology: A cross-sectional questionnaire based study was undertaken from September 2015 to February 2016 on 174 females (age range 15-49 years) from Military Hospital and Combined Military Hospital, Rawalpindi, Pakistan through non- probability convenient sampling. Females with any metabolic, muscular or diagnosed bone disease were excluded from the study. The self -administered questionnaire consisted of questions regarding basic demographics, knowledge and practice of preventive factors related to osteoporosis. Result: Majority (86.8%) females knew about osteoporosis. 80% considered major risk factor to be low calcium intake. Regarding practices, 44.3% of women practiced daily intake of milk in their diet, 69.5 % females practiced physical activity like walking on daily basis and 65.5% have direct exposure of sunlight but only 12.1% of women used calcium supplements. Conclusion: The study revealed that majority of the women knew about osteoporosis and its risk factors but many of them were not practicing appropriate lifestyle and dietary habits to decrease their risk of osteoporosis. Thus, there is a need of standardized approach to promote healthy behaviors to decrease the risk of osteoporosis before menopause. (author)

  14. Macroscopic and microscopic evaluation of Eurasian lynx (Lynx lynx) female tubular reproductive organs in relation to ovarian structures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Axnér, E; Holm, D; Gavier-Widén, D; Söderberg, A; Bergqvist, A S

    2015-09-15

    Although monitoring wild animals in the field is essential for estimations of population size and development, there are pitfalls associated with field monitoring. In addition, some detailed data about reproductive physiology can be difficult to obtain in wild live animals. Studying reproductive organs from the Eurasian lynx killed at hunting or found dead could be used as a valuable addition to other field data. We evaluated reproductive organs from 39 Eurasian lynx females (Lynx lynx) killed in Sweden during the hunting seasons in 2009, 2010, and 2011. According to notes on ovarian structures, the animals were categorized as being in one of four different reproductive stages: juvenile (n = 10), follicular stage (n = 8), luteal stage (n = 11), and anestrus (n = 10). Corpora lutea were classified as fresh CL from the present season or as luteal bodies from previous cycles. Microscopic evaluations were blindly coded while the outer measurements of the vagina and uterus were taken at the time of organ retrieval. The width of the endometrium, myometrium, outer width of the uterine horns, and the diameter of the vagina differed significantly with the reproductive stage (P number of endometrial glands evaluated blindly coded on a subjective scale was significantly associated with the reproductive stage (P reproductive stages (P reproductive stage when evaluating reproductive organs in the Eurasian lynx killed during the hunting season. Routine evaluation of reproductive organs has a potential to be a useful additional tool to field studies of live lynx to monitor their reproduction. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. The Annual Reproductive Cycle of Silurus microdorsalis, a Korean Endemic Species

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ki, Se-Un; Lee, Won-Kyo

    2018-01-01

    ABSTRACT The annual reproductive cycle of the Korean endemic slender catfish, Silurus microdorsalis, was examined histologically regarding water temperature and day length of habitat, gonadosomatic index (GSI), and development characteristics of female and male gonads. The maximum GSI value was found in May, 1.23±0.33 and 11.77±3.23 for male and female respectively (habitat water temperature 21.5°C/13.59hr day length). On the other hand, the minimal level was 0.63±0.10 in July (26.5°C/14.17) for male and 1.36±0.08 in October (20°C/11.2hr) for female. We compared and calculated the stages of testis and ovary development process in order to determine the germ cell development characteristics and the reproductive cycle. According to results, we classified the annual reproductive cycle of the slender catfish into five stages: Growing phase (December-February), Mature phase (March-April), Ripe and spawning phase / Releasing phase in male (May-June), Degenerative phase (July-August), and Resting phase (September-November).

  16. The reproductive performance in female Damascus goats using progesterone radioimmunoassay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zarkawi, M.; Al-Masri, M. R.

    1998-12-01

    An experiment was conducted on Damascus goats' female kids and does to study the reproductive performance by identifying some reproductive parameters such as age and weight at puberty, start of the breeding season, duration of pregnancy and other related parameters. The above objectives were met by means of the measurement of progesterone levels in blood sera using radioimmunoassay. The results could be summarized as follows: 1- Average weight of female kids at age of 7-8 months was 30.2 kg, at puberty was 35.6 ky and at mating was 41.6 kg. 2- There were individual differences in the age at puberty ranging from 266 to 653 days. 3- At age of 7-8 months, progesterone level was 0 n mol/1 in 8, and 0.1 and 0.2 n mol/1 in the 2 remaining female kids. This level increased to an average of 6.81 n mol/1 at puberty. 4- Average duration of pregnancy was 149.0 days, overall kids' birth weight was 3.73 kg, for singles was 4.43 kg, whereas for twins was 3.21 kg, for the kids produced by the female kids. Average kids' birth weight produced by the does was: overall 4.63 kg, singles 4.02 kg and for twins was. 4.18 kg. 5- Average progesterone e level on day 21 post-mating was 23.02 n mol/1. Therefore, the accuracy of early pregnancy diagnosis was 100%. 6- The breeding season for the experimental does started in September. (author)

  17. Infertility in reproductive-age female cancer survivors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levine, Jennifer M; Kelvin, Joanne Frankel; Quinn, Gwendolyn P; Gracia, Clarisa R

    2015-05-15

    Improved survival rates among reproductive-age females diagnosed with cancer have increased the focus on long-term quality of life, including maintenance of the ability to conceive biological children. Cancer-directed therapies such as high-dose alkylating agents and radiation to the pelvis, which deplete ovarian reserve, radiation to the brain, which affects the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis, and surgical resection of reproductive structures can decrease the likelihood of having biological children. Standard fertility preservation strategies such as embryo and oocyte cryopreservation before the onset of therapy offer the opportunity to conserve fertility, but they may not be feasible because of the urgency to start cancer therapy, financial limitations, and a lack of access to reproductive endocrinologists. Ovarian tissue freezing is considered experimental, with limited data related to pregnancies, but it minimizes treatment delay. Studies evaluating gonadotropin-releasing hormone analogues have had mixed results, although a recent randomized, prospective study in women with breast cancer demonstrated a protective effect. Fertility preservation programs are increasingly being developed within cancer programs. In this article, we describe risks to infertility and options for preservation, raise psychosocial and ethical issues, and propose elements for establishing an effective fertility preservation program. © 2015 American Cancer Society.

  18. Facial, Olfactory, and Vocal Cues to Female Reproductive Value

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susanne Röder

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Facial, olfactory, and vocal cues may advertise women's fertility. However, most of the evidence for this proposal has come from studies of changes in young adult women's attractiveness over the menstrual cycle. By contrast with this emphasis on changes in attractiveness over the menstrual cycle, possible changes in women's attractiveness over their lifespan have received little attention. The present study investigated men's ratings of young girls' (11–15 years old, adult women's (19–30 years old and circum-menopausal women's (50–65 years old facial, body odor, and vocal attractiveness and femininity. Faces and voices, but not body odors, of young girls and adult women were perceived to be significantly more attractive and feminine than those of circum-menopausal women. These data suggest that facial and vocal cues may be cues to women's reproductive value, but that body odor cues do not necessarily advertise this information.

  19. Socioeconomic and Reproductive Health Outcomes of Female Genital Mutilation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Refaei, Mansoureh; Aghababaei, Soodabeh; Pourreza, Abolghasem; Masoumi, Seyedeh Zahra

    2016-11-01

    Female genital mutilation (FGM) is one of the important aspects of reproductive health. The economic, social and health consequences of FGM threaten the achievement of sustainable development goals. The purpose of this study was to assess the economic, social and reproductive health consequences of FGM from the perspective of individual, family, community and health system. In this study, we reviewed 1536 articles from 1979 to 2015. Fifty-one studies were directly related to our goal. Research papers, review articles, case studies and books on the research topic were used. The results of this review showed that most studies on FGM, have investigated health complications of FGM, and few studies have addressed its socioeconomic aspects. The complications from the FGM can impose a significant economic burden on individuals, society and health system. Social consequences of FGM are more irritating than health consequences, so to tackle this practice; its social aspects should be more emphasized. Significant short and long term consequences of FGM threaten women's reproductive health; Reproductive health is one of the essential prerequisites of sustainable development. Sustainable development will be achieved if women are healthy. This practice can threaten achieving sustainable development. In Iran, FGM is performed in some areas, but there are no official statistics about it and there has yet been no plan to deal with FGM. FGM is a form of social injustice which women suffer. Ending FGM requires a deep and long-term commitment. Knowing its consequences and its effects on individual, families, the health system and community will help supporters to continue fighting this practice. Any money spent on eliminating this harmful practice, compared with the costs of complications, would not be wasteful.  It seems that further studies are needed to assess socioeconomic effects of FGM and the relationship between type of FGM and induced complications. Such studies will help

  20. Reproductive health education and sexual risk among high-risk female adolescents and young adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ancheta, Rosedelia; Hynes, Colin; Shrier, Lydia A

    2005-04-01

    The objective of this study was to explore the associations of sources, content, and timing of reproductive health education with cognitive and behavioral sexual risk in a sample of high-risk female adolescents and young adults. Female adolescents and young adults (n=113, median age 17 years) receiving treatment for a sexually transmitted disease (STD) reported sources of reproductive health education, topics covered, and when first formal education occurred. Dependent variables included sexual risk knowledge; condom attitudes, negotiation skills, and use (consistent and at last sex); and number of sexual partners. Most participants reported receiving reproductive health education from both parental (80%) and formal sources (92%). Parents discussed the menstrual cycle (94%) more frequently than other sex education topics, while formal sources focused most on teaching about STDs (91%). Although median age of first formal instruction was 12 years, 26% of girls received their first formal education during or after the year they initiated coitus. Girls with a parental source of education and those receiving formal instruction on pregnancy reported greater ability to negotiate condom use. Girls who received education later in relation to the onset of sexual activity and those with a parental source of education reported more sexual partners. Early reproductive health education and education from both parental and formal sources is associated with reduced sexual risk among high-risk adolescent girls. Interestingly, receiving parental education is also associated with more sexual partners, suggesting that parental educational efforts may be reactive to their daughters' increasing sexual risk behavior. Future research should examine multiple sources of reproductive health education and the timing of education from these sources to enhance understanding the dynamic interactions between reproductive health education and adolescent sexual risk.

  1. Effects of Male on Reproductive Behavior of Markhoz Female Goats in Breeding Season

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Daghigh Kia

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available In order to study the effect of male on reproductive behavior of female goats, 88 Markhoz breed goats with initial body weight of 42±2kg, 3.5 year old, and 10 male goats were used for 6 weeks. This study was conducted in two phases. In the first experiment 48 female goats were allocated in three groups, each group included eight animals with 2 replicate on both sides of male goats, respectively, at intervals of 0-5, 10-15 and 25-30 meters. In the second experiment, 24 female goats having CIDR were used in an order similar to that of first group. However, the goats were located only in one side of the males. The third group was the control group which was treated in a separate saloon in two groups, each of them having eight animals in it. Results showed a significant effect of male animal in estrus synchronization, the earlier beginning of the reproductive cycle and fertility in the early reproductive season. The first group showed better results in creation and synchronization of estrus in comparison to CIDR received animals (respectively 116.7 vs. 91.6%.

  2. Gap junction connexins in female reproductive organs: implications for women's reproductive health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winterhager, Elke; Kidder, Gerald M

    2015-01-01

    Connexins comprise a family of ~20 proteins that form intercellular membrane channels (gap junction channels) providing a direct route for metabolites and signalling molecules to pass between cells. This review provides a critical analysis of the evidence for essential roles of individual connexins in female reproductive function, highlighting implications for women's reproductive health. No systematic review has been carried out. Published literature from the past 35 years was surveyed for research related to connexin involvement in development and function of the female reproductive system. Because of the demonstrated utility of genetic manipulation for elucidating connexin functions in various organs, much of the cited information comes from research with genetically modified mice. In some cases, a distinction is drawn between connexin functions clearly related to the formation of gap junction channels and those possibly linked to non-channel roles. Based on work with mice, several connexins are known to be required for female reproductive functions. Loss of connexin43 (CX43) causes an oocyte deficiency, and follicles lacking or expressing less CX43 in granulosa cells exhibit reduced growth, impairing fertility. CX43 is also expressed in human cumulus cells and, in the context of IVF, has been correlated with pregnancy outcome, suggesting that this connexin may be a determinant of oocyte and embryo quality in women. Loss of CX37, which exclusively connects oocytes with granulosa cells in the mouse, caused oocytes to cease growing without acquiring meiotic competence. Blocking of CX26 channels in the uterine epithelium disrupted implantation whereas loss or reduction of CX43 expression in the uterine stroma impaired decidualization and vascularization in mouse and human. Several connexins are important in placentation and, in the human, CX43 is a key regulator of the fusogenic pathway from the cytotrophoblast to the syncytiotrophoblast, ensuring placental growth

  3. Reproductive intentions and use of reproductive health care among female survivors of childhood cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Dijk, M; van den Berg, M H; Overbeek, A; Lambalk, C B; van den Heuvel-Eibrink, M M; Tissing, W J; Kremer, L C; van der Pal, H J; Loonen, J J; Versluys, B; Bresters, D; Kaspers, G J L; van Leeuwen, F E; van Dulmen-den Broeder, E

    2018-06-01

    Do female childhood cancer survivors (CCSs) express a decreased desire to have children and do they use reproductive health care more often compared to women without a history of cancer? Overall, no difference was found in the desire to have children between CCSs and controls, whereas CCSs consult a fertility specialist more often, at a younger age, and sooner after their first attempt at conceiving. Female CCSs may face a shorter than anticipated reproductive window as a result of their cancer treatment. Little is known about their desire to have children and use of reproductive health care, especially in relation to their former cancer treatment. This study is part of the DCOG LATER-VEVO study, a nationwide retrospective cohort study on female fertility in Dutch CCSs. In total, 1749 CCSs and 1673 controls were invited for the study. Data collection took place between January 2008 and May 2014. Data on the desire to have children and use of reproductive health care were collected by questionnaire. The control group consisted of sisters from CCSs and females from the general population. In total, 1106 (63%) CCSs and 818 (49%) controls completed the questionnaire. Overall, no difference was found in the desire to have children between CCSs and controls (86% and 89%, respectively). However, survivors of a CNS tumour were less likely to desire children and CCSs without biological children at time of study were more likely to report that their desire to have children was unfulfilled because of medical reasons (9%), compared to controls (1%). In total, 12% of CCSs ever consulted a fertility specialist compared to 10% of controls (OR = 1.7, 95% CI: 1.3-2.4). Mean (SD) age at time of their first visit was 27.7 (4.4) years for CCSs and 29.9 (3.9) years for controls (P self-report and may therefore be subject to recall bias. Decisions about parenthood affect all CCSs. It's important to evaluate reproductive intentions and function timely after cancer treatment, so CCSs can

  4. Reproductive ability of pubertal male and female rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Zemunik

    2003-07-01

    Full Text Available Ten Fisher rats 50 to 55 days of age made up the pubertal group, and ten rats 90 to 95 days of age served as the controls. The testicular and epididymal weights and volumes of the pubertal males were lower than those of the controls (P0.05. At the beginning of gestation, the pubertal dams weighed less than the controls (P<0.001 but following uterectomy the body weights were equal. Pubertal dams delivered fewer pups than the controls (8.1 ± 2.5 vs 10.4 ± 1.3, P<0.05. There was no difference in the body weights of their offspring or in the weights of their placentas. The results suggest that, in contrast to their female counterparts, pubertal male rats are not fully mature and have not reached complete reproductive capacity at 50-55 days of age.

  5. Female reproductive tract pain: targets, challenges, and outcomes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Phillip eJobling

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Pain from the female reproductive tract (FRT is a significant clinical problem for which there are few effective therapies. The complex neuroantomy of pelvic organs not only makes diagnosis of pelvic pain disorders difficult but represents a challenge to development of targeted therapies. A number of potential therapeutic targets have been identified on sensory neurons supplying the FRT but our knowledge on the basic neurophysiology of these neurons is limited compared with other viscera. Until this is addressed we can only guess if the new experimental therapies proposed for somatic, gastrointestinal or bladder pain will translate to the FRT. Once suitable therapeutic targets become clear, the next challenge is drug delivery. The FRT represents a promising system for topical drug delivery that could be tailored to act locally or systemically depending on formulation. Development of these therapies and their delivery systems will need to be done in concert with more robust in vivo and in vitro models of FRT pain.

  6. Female reproductive disorders: the roles of endocrine-disrupting compounds and developmental timing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Crain, D.A.; Janssen, S.J.; Edwards, T.M.

    2008-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the possible role of endocrine-disrupting compounds (EDCs) on female reproductive disorders emphasizing developmental plasticity and the complexity of endocrine-dependent ontogeny of reproductive organs. Declining conception rates and the high incidence of female reproducti...... reproductive dysfunction together with tools to assess the specific exposures and methods to block their effects. This review of the EDC literature as it relates to female health provides an important platform on which women's health can be improved Udgivelsesdato: 2008/10...

  7. Polychlorinated biphenyls and reproductive hormones in female polar bears at Svalbard.

    OpenAIRE

    Haave, Marte; Ropstad, Erik; Derocher, Andrew E; Lie, Elisabeth; Dahl, Ellen; Wiig, Øystein; Skaare, Janneche U; Jenssen, Bjørn Munro

    2003-01-01

    High concentrations of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in polar bears from Svalbard have increased concern for that population's reproductive health. We examined whether there were associations between the plasma concentrations of PCBs and reproductive hormones [progesterone (P4)] and 17 beta-estradiol (E2)] in free-living female polar bears from Svalbard. Concentrations of P4 depended on reproductive status, and concentrations were lowest in females with offspring--females with cubs and fem...

  8. Neural Mechanisms of Reproduction in Females as a Predisposing Factor for Drug Addiction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hedges, Valerie L.; Staffend, Nancy A.; Meisel, Robert L.

    2010-01-01

    There is an increasing awareness that adolescent females differ from males in their response to drugs of abuse and consequently in their vulnerability to addiction. One possible component of this vulnerability to drug addiction is the neurobiological impact that reproductive physiology and behaviors have on the mesolimbic dopamine system, a key neural pathway mediating drug addiction. In this review, we examine animal models that address the impact of ovarian cyclicity, sexual affiliation, sexual behavior, and maternal care on the long-term plasticity of the mesolimbic dopamine system. The thesis is that this plasticity in synaptic neurotransmission stemming from an individual’s normal life history contributes to the pathological impact of drugs of abuse on the neurobiology of this system. Hormones released during reproductive cycles have only transient effects on these dopamine systems, whereas reproductive behaviors produce a persistent sensitization of dopamine release and postsynaptic neuronal responsiveness. Puberty itself may not represent a neurobiological risk factor for drug abuse, but attendant behavioral experiences may have a negative impact on females engaging in drug use. PMID:20176045

  9. Characterization of plasma vitellogenin and sex hormone concentrations during the annual reproductive cycle of the endangered razorback sucker

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hinck, Jo Ellen; Papoulias, Diana M.; Annis, Mandy L.; Tillitt, Donald E.; Marr, Carrie; Denslow, Nancy D.; Kroll, Kevin J.; Nachtmann, Jason

    2011-01-01

    Population declines of the endangered razorback sucker Xyrauchen texanus in the Colorado River basin have been attributed to predation by and competition with nonnative fishes, habitat alteration, and dam construction. The reproductive health and seasonal variation of the reproductive end points of razorback sucker populations are currently unknown. Using nonlethal methods, we characterized the plasma hormonal fluctuations of reproductively mature female and male razorback suckers over a 12-month period in a hatchery by measuring their vitellogenin (VTG) and three sex hormones: 17β-estradiol (E2), testosterone (T), and 11-ketotestosterone (KT). Fish were identified as reproductive or nonreproductive based on their body weight, VTG, and sex hormone profiles. In reproductive females, the E2 concentration increased in the fall and winter, and increases in T and VTG concentrations were generally associated with the spawning period. Mean T concentrations were consistently greater in reproductive females than in nonreproductive females, but this pattern was even more pronounced during the spawning period (spring). Consistently low T concentrations (the spawning period may indicate reproductive impairment. In reproductive males, spring increases in KT and T concentrations were associated with spawning; concentrations of E2 (the study. In addition, the E2 : KT ratio and T were the best metrics by which to distinguish female from male adult razorback suckers throughout the year. These metrics of reproductive health and condition may be particularly important to recovery efforts of razorback suckers given that the few remaining wild populations are located in a river where water quality and quantity issues are well documented. In addition to the size, age, and recruitment information currently considered in the recovery goals of this endangered species, reproductive end points could be included as recovery metrics with which to monitor seasonal trends and determine whether

  10. Is bigger better? The relationship between size and reproduction in female Asian elephants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crawley, J A H; Mumby, H S; Chapman, S N; Lahdenperä, M; Mar, K U; Htut, W; Thura Soe, A; Aung, H H; Lummaa, V

    2017-10-01

    The limited availability of resources is predicted to impose trade-offs between growth, reproduction and self-maintenance in animals. However, although some studies have shown that early reproduction suppresses growth, reproduction positively correlates with size in others. We use detailed records from a large population of semi-captive elephants in Myanmar to assess the relationships between size (height and weight), reproduction and survival in female Asian elephants, a species characterized by slow, costly life history. Although female height gain during the growth period overlapped little with reproductive onset in the population, there was large variation in age at first reproduction and only 81% of final weight had been reached by peak age of reproduction at the population level (19 years). Those females beginning reproduction early tended to be taller and lighter later in life, although these trends were not significant. We found that taller females were more likely to have reproduced by a given age, but such effects diminished with age, suggesting there may be a size threshold to reproduction which is especially important in young females. Because size was not linked with female survival during reproductive ages, the diminishing effect of height on reproduction with age is unlikely to be due to biased survival of larger females. We conclude that although reproduction may not always impose significant costs on growth, height may be a limiting factor to reproduction in young female Asian elephants, which could have important implications considering their birth rates are low and peak reproduction is young - 19 years in this population. © 2017 European Society For Evolutionary Biology. Journal of Evolutionary Biology © 2017 European Society For Evolutionary Biology.

  11. Reproductive health in Irish female renal transplant recipients.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Kennedy, C

    2012-02-01

    OBJECTIVE: To report the pregnancy outcomes in Irish female renal transplant recipients on modern maintenance immunosuppression. METHODS: The Republic of Ireland transplant database was accessed to identify the patient cohort in question. All female renal transplant recipients whose transplantation was in Ireland before or during their reproductive years were included. A questionnaire was sent to the identified women. A chart review was performed for those women who reported a pregnancy following renal transplantation. RESULTS: Two hundred and ten women met the inclusion criteria. There was a response rate of 70% (n = 148). Eighteen women reported 29 pregnancies. The live birth rate was 76%. The mean gestation of the live births was 36.2 weeks with a mean birth weight of 3.0 kg. There were six cases of pre-eclampsia. Twin pregnancies and those entering pregnancy with a creatinine greater than 135 micromol\\/l had particularly complicated clinical courses. Four women had not conceived post transplant despite actively trying for over 1 year. Two women utilised assisted fertility methods (in vitro fertilisation), one of whom became pregnant. CONCLUSIONS: A significant proportion of women who attempt to conceive following renal transplantation are successful, without the use of assisted fertility. Pregnancy in this setting warrants meticulous multidisciplinary care.

  12. Immunotoxic destruction of distinct catecholaminergic neuron populations disrupts the reproductive response to glucoprivation in female rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    I'Anson, Helen; Sundling, Lois A; Roland, Shannon M; Ritter, Sue

    2003-10-01

    We tested the hypothesis that hindbrain catecholamine (norepinephrine or epinephrine) neurons, in addition to their essential role in glucoprivic feeding, are responsible for suppressing estrous cycles during chronic glucoprivation. Normally cycling female rats were given bilateral injections of the retrogradely transported ribosomal toxin, saporin, conjugated to monoclonal dopamine beta-hydroxylase antibody (DSAP) into the paraventricular nucleus (PVN) of the hypothalamus to selectively destroy norepinephrine and epinephrine neurons projecting to the PVN. Controls were injected with unconjugated saporin. After recovery, we assessed the lesion effects on estrous cyclicity under basal conditions and found that DSAP did not alter estrous cycle length. Subsequently, we examined effects of chronic 2-deoxy-d-glucose-induced glucoprivation on cycle length. After two normal 4- to 5-d cycles, rats were injected with 2-deoxy-d-glucose (200 mg/kg every 6 h for 72 h) beginning 24 h after detection of estrus. Chronic glucoprivation increased cycle length in seven of eight unconjugated saporin rats but in only one of eight DSAP rats. Immunohistochemical results confirmed loss of dopamine beta-hydroxylase immunoreactivity in PVN. Thus, hindbrain catecholamine neurons with projections to the PVN are required for inhibition of reproductive function during chronic glucose deficit but are not required for normal estrous cyclicity when metabolic fuels are in abundance.

  13. The relationship between plasma steroid hormone concentrations and the reproductive cycle in the Northern Pacific rattlesnake, Crotalus oreganus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lind, Craig M; Husak, Jerry F; Eikenaar, Cas; Moore, Ignacio T; Taylor, Emily N

    2010-05-01

    We describe the reproductive cycle of Northern Pacific rattlesnakes (Crotalus oreganus) by quantifying steroid hormone concentrations and observing reproductive behaviors in free-ranging individuals. Additionally, we examined reproductive tissues from museum specimens. Plasma steroid hormone concentrations were quantified for both male and female snakes throughout the active season (March-October). We measured testosterone (T), 5alpha-dihydrotestosterone (DHT), and corticosterone (B) concentrations in both sexes and 17beta-estradiol (E2) and progesterone (P) in females only. We observed reproductive behaviors (e.g., consortship, courtship, and copulation) in the field and measured testis and follicle size in male and female snakes from museum collections to relate steroid hormone concentrations to the timing of reproductive events. Our study revealed that C. oreganus in central California exhibits a bimodal pattern of breeding, with most mating behavior occurring in the spring and some incidences of mating behavior observed in late summer/fall. Each breeding period corresponded with elevated androgen (T or DHT) levels in males. Testes were regressed in the spring when the majority of reproductive behavior was observed in this population, and they reached peak volume in August and September during spermatogenesis. Although we did not detect seasonal variation in female hormone concentrations, some females had high E2 in the spring and fall, coincident with mating and with increased follicle size (indicating vitellogenesis) in museum specimens. Females with high E2 concentrations also had high T and DHT concentrations. Corticosterone concentrations in males and females were not related either to time of year or to concentrations of any other hormones quantified. Progesterone concentrations in females also did not vary seasonally, but this likely reflected sampling bias as females tended to be underground, and thus unobtainable, in summer months when P would be

  14. Ovarian cycling and reproductive state shape the vaginal microbiota in wild baboons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Elizabeth A; Livermore, Joshua A; Alberts, Susan C; Tung, Jenny; Archie, Elizabeth A

    2017-01-19

    The vaginal microbiome is an important site of bacterial-mammalian symbiosis. This symbiosis is currently best characterized for humans, where lactobacilli dominate the microbial community and may help defend women against infectious disease. However, lactobacilli do not dominate the vaginal microbiota of any other mammal studied to date, raising key questions about the forces that shape the vaginal microbiome in non-human mammals. We used Illumina sequencing of the bacterial 16S rRNA gene to investigate variation in the taxonomic composition of the vaginal microbiota in 48 baboons (Papio cynocephalus), members of a well-studied wild population in Kenya. Similar to prior studies, we found that the baboon vaginal microbiota was not dominated by lactobacilli. Despite this difference, and similar to humans, reproductive state was the dominant predictor of baboon vaginal microbiota, with pregnancy, postpartum amenorrhea, and ovarian cycling explaining 18% of the variance in community composition. Furthermore, among cycling females, a striking 39% of variance in community composition was explained by ovarian cycle phase, with an especially distinctive microbial community around ovulation. Periovulatory females exhibited the highest relative abundance of lactic acid-producing bacteria compared to any other phase, with a mean relative abundance of 44%. To a lesser extent, sexual behavior, especially a history of shared sexual partners, also predicted vaginal microbial similarity between baboons. Despite striking differences in their dominant microbes, both human and baboon vaginal microbiota exhibit profound changes in composition in response to reproductive state, ovarian cycle phase, and sexual behavior. We found major shifts in composition during ovulation, which may have implications for disease risk and conception success. These findings highlight the need for future studies to account for fine-scale differences in reproductive state, particularly differences between

  15. Immunocontraception in wild horses (Equus caballus extends reproductive cycling beyond the normal breeding season.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cassandra M V Nuñez

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Although the physiological effects of immunocontraceptive treatment with porcine zona pellucida (PZP have been well studied, little is known about PZP's effects on the scheduling of reproductive cycling. Recent behavioral research has suggested that recipients of PZP extend the receptive breeding period into what is normally the non-breeding season. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: To determine if this is the case, we compiled foaling data from wild horses (Equus caballus living on Shackleford Banks, North Carolina for 4 years pre- and 8 years post-contraception management with PZP (pre-contraception, n = 65 births from 45 mares; post-contraception, n = 97 births from 46 mares. Gestation lasts approximately 11-12 months in wild horses, placing conception at approximately 11.5 months prior to birth. Since the contraception program began in January 2000, foaling has occurred over a significantly broader range than it had before the contraception program. Foaling in PZP recipients (n = 45 births from 27 mares has consistently occurred over a broader range than has foaling in non-recipients (n = 52 births from 19 mares. In addition, current recipients of PZP foaled later in the year than did prior recipient and non-recipient mares. Females receiving more consecutive PZP applications gave birth later in the season than did females receiving fewer applications. Finally, the efficacy of PZP declined with increasing consecutive applications before reaching 100% after five consecutive applications. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: For a gregarious species such as the horse, the extension of reproductive cycling into the fall months has important social consequences, including decreased group stability and the extension of male reproductive behavior. In addition, reproductive cycling into the fall months could have long-term effects on foal survivorship. Managers should consider these factors before enacting immunocontraceptive programs in new

  16. International Spinal Cord Injury Female Sexual and Reproductive Function Basic Data Set

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Alexander, M S; Biering-Sørensen, F; Elliott, S

    2011-01-01

    To create the International Spinal Cord Injury (SCI) Female Sexual and Reproductive Function Basic Data Set within the International SCI Data Sets.......To create the International Spinal Cord Injury (SCI) Female Sexual and Reproductive Function Basic Data Set within the International SCI Data Sets....

  17. Human exposure to endocrine disrupting chemicals: effects on the male and female reproductive systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sifakis, Stavros; Androutsopoulos, Vasilis P; Tsatsakis, Aristeidis M; Spandidos, Demetrios A

    2017-04-01

    Endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs) comprise a group of chemical compounds that have been examined extensively due to the potential harmful effects in the health of human populations. During the past decades, particular focus has been given to the harmful effects of EDCs to the reproductive system. The estimation of human exposure to EDCs can be broadly categorized into occupational and environmental exposure, and has been a major challenge due to the structural diversity of the chemicals that are derived by many different sources at doses below the limit of detection used by conventional methodologies. Animal and in vitro studies have supported the conclusion that endocrine disrupting chemicals affect the hormone dependent pathways responsible for male and female gonadal development, either through direct interaction with hormone receptors or via epigenetic and cell-cycle regulatory modes of action. In human populations, the majority of the studies point towards an association between exposure to EDCs and male and/or female reproduction system disorders, such as infertility, endometriosis, breast cancer, testicular cancer, poor sperm quality and/or function. Despite promising discoveries, a causal relationship between the reproductive disorders and exposure to specific toxicants is yet to be established, due to the complexity of the clinical protocols used, the degree of occupational or environmental exposure, the determination of the variables measured and the sample size of the subjects examined. Future studies should focus on a uniform system of examining human populations with regard to the exposure to specific EDCs and the direct effect on the reproductive system. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Freeze-all cycle in reproductive medicine: current perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roque, Matheus; Valle, Marcello; Kostolias, Alessandra; Sampaio, Marcos; Geber, Selmo

    2017-02-01

    The freeze-all strategy has emerged as an alternative to fresh embryo transfer (ET) during in vitro fertilization (IVF) cycles. Although fresh ET is the norm during assisted reproductive therapies (ART), there are many concerns about the possible adverse effects of controlled ovarian stimulation (COS) over the endometrium. The supra-physiologic hormonal levels that occur during a conventional COS are associated with modifications in the peri-implantation endometrium, which may be related to a decrease in pregnancy rates and poorer obstetric and perinatal outcomes when comparing fresh to frozen-thawed embryo transfers. The main objective of this study was to assess the available literature regarding the freeze-all strategy in IVF cycles, in regards to effectiveness and safety. Although there are many potential advantages in performing a freeze-all cycle over a fresh ET, it seems that the freeze-all strategy is not designed for all IVF patients. There is a need to develop a non-invasive clinical tool to evaluate the endometrial receptivity during a fresh cycle, which enables the selection of patients that would benefit from this strategy. Today, it is reasonable to perform elective cryopreservation of all oocytes/embryos in cases with a risk of OHSS development, and in patients with supra-physiologic hormonal levels during the follicular phase of COS. It is not clear if all normal responders and poor responders may benefit from this strategy.

  19. Gene duplication and adaptive evolution of digestive proteases in Drosophila arizonae female reproductive tracts.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erin S Kelleher

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available It frequently has been postulated that intersexual coevolution between the male ejaculate and the female reproductive tract is a driving force in the rapid evolution of reproductive proteins. The dearth of research on female tracts, however, presents a major obstacle to empirical tests of this hypothesis. Here, we employ a comparative EST approach to identify 241 candidate female reproductive proteins in Drosophila arizonae, a repleta group species in which physiological ejaculate-female coevolution has been documented. Thirty-one of these proteins exhibit elevated amino acid substitution rates, making them candidates for molecular coevolution with the male ejaculate. Strikingly, we also discovered 12 unique digestive proteases whose expression is specific to the D. arizonae lower female reproductive tract. These enzymes belong to classes most commonly found in the gastrointestinal tracts of a diverse array of organisms. We show that these proteases are associated with recent, lineage-specific gene duplications in the Drosophila repleta species group, and exhibit strong signatures of positive selection. Observation of adaptive evolution in several female reproductive tract proteins indicates they are active players in the evolution of reproductive tract interactions. Additionally, pervasive gene duplication, adaptive evolution, and rapid acquisition of a novel digestive function by the female reproductive tract points to a novel coevolutionary mechanism of ejaculate-female interaction.

  20. Increase in male reproductive success and female reproductive investment in invasive populations of the harlequin ladybird Harmonia axyridis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guillaume J M Laugier

    Full Text Available Reproductive strategy affects population dynamics and genetic parameters that can, in turn, affect evolutionary processes during the course of biological invasion. Life-history traits associated with reproductive strategy are therefore potentially good candidates for rapid evolutionary shifts during invasions. In a series of mating trials, we examined mixed groups of four males from invasive and native populations of the harlequin ladybird Harmonia axyridis mating freely during 48 hours with one female of either type. We recorded the identity of the first male to copulate and after the 48 h-period, we examined female fecundity and share of paternity, using molecular markers. We found that invasive populations have a different profile of male and female reproductive output. Males from invasive populations are more likely to mate first and gain a higher proportion of offspring with both invasive and native females. Females from invasive populations reproduce sooner, lay more eggs, and have offspring sired by a larger number of fathers than females from native populations. We found no evidence of direct inbreeding avoidance behaviour in both invasive and native females. This study highlights the importance of investigating evolutionary changes in reproductive strategy and associated traits during biological invasions.

  1. Characterization of certain reproductive parameters in Syrian female awassi sheep during different stages

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zarkawi, M.

    2003-01-01

    Two experiment were conducted on Syria female Awassi sheep to characterize some reproductive parameters during different reproductive stages. In the first experiment, 18 ewe lambs at 5 months of age were tested for a period extending for 16 months. The overall average age at puberty, as indicated by the sharp increase in progesterone concentration followed by regular oestrous cycles, was 18.0 ± 1.1 months (15.7-19.9 months), occurring between May and August (during the normal breeding season). There were no significant differences in the time to attain puberty among the ewe lambs in terms of their months of lambing, type of birth (singles or twins) of weaning weight. The average live weight of ewe lambs at the age of 5 months was 24.6±4.6 kg, and at the attainment of puberty 53.7±7.2 kg, while the average serum progesterone concentration at the age of 5 months was 0.27 ±0.26 nmol l -1 , and at the attainment of puberty 6.32±3.69 nmol l -1 . In the second experiment, 16 of the ewe lambs utilised in the first experiment were used at an age of 21 months for a period lasting for an additional 8 months. Female animals were divided, during the breeding season, into 2 equal groups, experimental (P) and control (C). All animals in both groups were treated with intravaginal sponges containing 40 mg of flugestone acetate (FGA) for a period of 14 days. However, only females in the P group were injected intramuscularly, at the sponge withdrawal, with 500 I of pregnant mare serum gonadotropin (PMSG). Three fertile Awassi rams were introduced into both groups after 24 hours of sponge withdrawal for oestrus detection and mating. All the females exhibited oestrus and were mated within 3 days after sponge withdrawal. The twinning percentage was 37.5% in the females that were injected with PMSG as compared to 12.5% in the females that were not injected. It was concluded that Syrian Awassi ewe lams attain puberty during the second breeding season of their life at an age of about

  2. Characterization of certain reproductive parameters in Syrian female awassi sheep during different stages

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zarkawi, M.

    2002-08-01

    Two experiment were conducted on Syria female Awassi sheep to characterize some reproductive parameters during different reproductive stages. In the first experiment, 18 ewe lambs at 5 months of age were tested for a period extending for 16 months. The overall average age at puberty, as indicated by the sharp increase in progesterone concentration followed by regular oestrous cycles, was 18.0 ± 1.1 months (15.7-19.9 months), occurring between May and August (during the normal breeding season). There were no significant differences in the time to attain puberty among the ewe lambs in terms of their months of lambing, type of birth (singles or twins) of weaning weight. The average live weight of ewe lambs at the age of 5 months was 24.6 ± 4.6 kg, and at the attainment of puberty 53.7 ± 7.2 kg, while the average serum progesterone concentration at the age of 5 months was 0.27 ± 0.26 nmol l -1 , and at the attainment of puberty 6.32 ± 3.69 nmol l -1 . In the second experiment, 16 of the ewe lambs utilised in the first experiment were used at an age of 21 months for a period lasting for an additional 8 months. Female animals were divided, during the breeding season, into 2 equal groups, experimental (P) and control (C). All animals in both groups were treated with intravaginal sponges containing 40 mg of flugestone acetate (FGA) for a period of 14 days. However, only females in the P group were injected intramuscularly, at the sponge withdrawal, with 500 I of pregnant mare serum gonadotropin (PMSG). Three fertile Awassi rams were introduced into both groups after 24 hours of sponge withdrawal for oestrus detection and mating. All the females exhibited oestrus and were mated within 3 days after sponge withdrawal. The twinning percentage was 37.5% in the females that were injected with PMSG as compared to 12.5% in the females that were not injected. It was concluded that Syrian Awassi ewe lams attain puberty during the second breeding season of their life at an age

  3. Integrative Control of Energy Balance and Reproduction in Females

    OpenAIRE

    Garcia-Garcia, R. M.

    2012-01-01

    There is a strong association between nutrition and reproduction. Chronic dietary energy deficits as well as energy surpluses can impair reproductive capacity. Metabolic status impacts reproductive function at systemic level, modulating the hypothalamic GnRH neuronal network and/or the pituitary gonadotropin secretion through several hormones and neuropeptides, and at the ovarian level, acting through the regulation of follicle growth and steroidogenesis by means of the growth hormone-IGF-ins...

  4. Ultrasonographic and laparoscopic evaluation of the reproductive tract of the captive female African lion (Panthera leo).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirberger, Robert M; Schulman, Martin L; Hartman, Marthinus J

    2011-09-15

    The use of transabdominal ultrasonography to assess the oestrous cycle has not been previously described in the African lion (Panthera leo). Twelve sexually mature lionesses and five female cubs had their reproductive organs assessed by transabdominal ultrasound. Ovarian findings were compared to laparoscopic findings while performing laparoscopic ovariectomy or salpingectomy. Vaginal cytology was performed and serum progesterone levels were determined. By combining all data the oestrous cycle stage of each lion was determined. One lion was far pregnant and was not operated on. In adults a uterine body could be seen ultrasonographically in 67% of lions while mural structures could be distinguished in 44% of lions. Five uterine horns could be seen in 3 lions. In 12 adults 10 ovaries were found of which eight had discernable follicles or luteal structures. During laparoscopy 12 active ovaries were seen with luteal structures seen in 11 ovaries and follicles in 2 ovaries. Using laparoscopy as the gold standard, ultrasonography had a sensitivity of 66% and specificity of 83% to detect ovarian reproductive activity. Two uterine cysts and a cluster of periovarian cysts were seen in three different lions. Three lions were pregnant, two were in oestrus, three in a luteal phase (dioestrus), and four were in anoestrus. Transabdominal ultrasound in combination with serum progesterone levels and vaginal cytology can be used to assess ovarian cyclical activity with reasonable accuracy in captive bred lions. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Expression of progesterone receptor membrane component-1 in bovine reproductive system during estrous cycle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.M. Luciano

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Several reports suggest the participation of progesterone receptor membrane component 1 (PGRMC1 in progesterone signaling in the reproductive system. This study aimed at investigating the presence and localization of PGRMC1 in bovine ovary, oviduct and uterus, during the follicular and luteal phases of the estrous cycle. In the ovary, PGRMC1 has been detected in surface germinal epithelium, granulosa cells, theca cells and in the germinal vesicle of the oocytesat all stages of folliculogenesis. In the corpus luteum the expression of PGRMC1 was influenced by the stage of the estrous cycle. In the oviducts and in the uterus horns, PGRMC1 was immunolocalized in the luminal epithelium, in the muscle layer cells and in the endothelial cells. In the uterus, PGRMC1 was intensely localized also in the glandular endometrium. However, in the oviducts and in the uterus horns, the localization of PGRMC1 was independent on the stage of the estrous cycle and on whether evaluating the ipsilateral or the contralateral organ. In conclusion, the present immunohistochemical study showed that PGRMC1 is located in various compartments of the bovine female reproductive organs. With the exception of the corpora lutea, PGRMC1 localization showed similar pattern during different stage of the estrous cycle.

  6. Influence of age, reproductive cycling status, and menstruation on the vaginal microbiome in baboons (Papio anubis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uchihashi, M; Bergin, I L; Bassis, C M; Hashway, S A; Chai, D; Bell, J D

    2015-05-01

    The vaginal microbiome is believed to influence host health by providing protection from pathogens and influencing reproductive outcomes such as fertility and gestational length. In humans, age-associated declines in diversity of the vaginal microbiome occur in puberty and persist into adulthood. Additionally, menstruation has been associated with decreased microbial community stability. Adult female baboons, like other non-human primates (NHPs), have a different and highly diverse vaginal microbiome compared to that of humans, which is most commonly dominated by Lactobacillus spp. We evaluated the influence of age, reproductive cycling status (cycling vs. non-cycling) and menstruation on the vaginal microbiome of 38 wild-caught, captive female olive baboons (Papio anubis) by culture-independent sequencing of the V3-V5 region of the bacterial 16S rRNA gene. All baboons had highly diverse vaginal microbial communities. Adult baboons had significantly lower microbial diversity in comparison to subadult baboons, which was attributable to decreased relative abundance of minor taxa. No significant differences were detected based on cycling state or menstruation. Predictive metagenomic analysis showed uniformity in relative abundance of metabolic pathways regardless of age, cycle stage, or menstruation, indicating conservation of microbial community functions. This study suggests that selection of an optimal vaginal microbial community occurs at puberty. Since decreased diversity occurs in both baboons and humans at puberty, this may reflect a general strategy for selection of adult vaginal microbial communities. Comparative evaluation of vaginal microbial community development and composition may elucidate mechanisms of community formation and function that are conserved across host species or across microbial community types. These findings have implications for host health, evolutionary biology, and microbe-host ecosystems. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  7. Scientific and regulatory policy committee (SRPC) paper: Assessment of Circulating Hormones in Nonclinical Toxicity Studies. III Female Reproductive Hormones

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hormonally mediated effects on the female reproductive system may manifest in pathologic changes of endocrine-responsive organs and altered reproductive function. Identification of these effects requires proper assessment, which may include investigative studies of female reprod...

  8. Characterization of reproductive, metabolic, and endocrine features of polycystic ovary syndrome in female hyperandrogenic mouse models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caldwell, A S L; Middleton, L J; Jimenez, M; Desai, R; McMahon, A C; Allan, C M; Handelsman, D J; Walters, K A

    2014-08-01

    Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) affects 5-10% of women of reproductive age, causing a range of reproductive, metabolic and endocrine defects including anovulation, infertility, hyperandrogenism, obesity, hyperinsulinism, and an increased risk of type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease. Hyperandrogenism is the most consistent feature of PCOS, but its etiology remains unknown, and ethical and logistic constraints limit definitive experimentation in humans to determine mechanisms involved. In this study, we provide the first comprehensive characterization of reproductive, endocrine, and metabolic PCOS traits in 4 distinct murine models of hyperandrogenism, comprising prenatal dihydrotestosterone (DHT, potent nonaromatizable androgen) treatment during days 16-18 of gestation, or long-term treatment (90 days from 21 days of age) with DHT, dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA), or letrozole (aromatase inhibitor). Prenatal DHT-treated mature mice exhibited irregular estrous cycles, oligo-ovulation, reduced preantral follicle health, hepatic steatosis, and adipocyte hypertrophy, but lacked overall changes in body-fat composition. Long-term DHT treatment induced polycystic ovaries displaying unhealthy antral follicles (degenerate oocyte and/or > 10% pyknotic granulosa cells), as well as anovulation and acyclicity in mature (16-week-old) females. Long-term DHT also increased body and fat pad weights and induced adipocyte hypertrophy and hypercholesterolemia. Long-term letrozole-treated mice exhibited absent or irregular cycles, oligo-ovulation, polycystic ovaries containing hemorrhagic cysts atypical of PCOS, and displayed no metabolic features of PCOS. Long-term dehydroepiandrosterone treatment produced no PCOS features in mature mice. Our findings reveal that long-term DHT treatment replicated a breadth of ovarian, endocrine, and metabolic features of human PCOS and provides the best mouse model for experimental studies of PCOS pathogenesis.

  9. Exceptional longevity in female Rottweiler dogs is not encumbered by investment in reproduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kengeri, S S; Maras, A H; Suckow, C L; Chiang, E C; Waters, D J

    2013-12-01

    To better understand the potential trade-off between female reproductive investment and longevity in an emerging model of human healthspan, we studied pet dogs to determine whether intensity of reproduction (total number of offspring) encumbered the likelihood of exceptional longevity. This hypothesis was tested by collecting and analyzing lifetime medical histories, including complete reproductive histories, for a cohort of canine "centenarians"--exceptionally long-lived Rottweiler dogs that lived more than 30% longer than the breed's average life expectancy. Reproductive intensity (number of litters, total number of pups) and tempo of reproductive effort (age at first reproduction, mean interbirth interval, age at last reproduction) in 78 exceptionally long-lived female Rottweilers (>13 years old) were compared to a cohort of 97 female Rottweilers that had usual longevity (age at death 8.0-10.75 years). We found no evidence that a mother's physiological investment in offspring was associated with disadvantaged longevity. Instead, similar to some studies in women, our data showed an inverted U-shaped trend, suggesting that moderate investment in reproduction may promote longevity. Late reproductive success, a much-studied surrogate of maternal fitness in women, was not a strong predictor of longevity in this canine cohort. Instead, independent of reproductive investment, the duration of lifetime ovary exposure was significantly associated with highly successful aging. Our results from exceptionally long-lived pet dogs provide rationale for further investigative efforts to understand the ovary-sensitive biological factors that promote healthy longevity in women and pet dogs.

  10. [Influencing factors for reproductive health of female workers in petrochemical industry].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kou, Z X; Wang, S L; Chen, Z L; He, Y H; Yu, W L; Mei, L Y; Zhang, H D

    2018-02-20

    Objective: To investigate the reproductive health status of female workers in petrochemical industry, and to provide a reference for improving reproductive health status and developing preventive and control measures for female workers in petrochemical industry. Methods: A face-to-face questionnaire survey was performed from January to October, 2016. The Questionnaire on Women's Reproductive Health was used to investigate the reproductive health of female workers in petrochemical industry. The multivariate logistic regression model was used to identify the influencing factors for reproductive health of female workers in petrochemical industry. Results: Among the 7485 female workers, 1 268 (40.9%) had abnormal menstrual period, 1 437 (46.4%) had abnormal menstrual volume, 177 (28.5%) had hyperplasia of mammary glands, and 1 807 (24.6%) had gynecological inflammation. The reproductive system diseases in female workers in petrochemical industry were associated with the factors including age, marital status, education level, unhealthy living habits, abortion, overtime work, work shift, workload, video operation, occupational exposure, positive events, and negative events, and among these factors, negative events (odds ratio[ OR ]= 1.856) , unhealthy living habits ( OR =1.542) , and positive events ( OR =1.516) had greater impact on reproductive system diseases. Conclusion: Many chemical substances in the occupational environment of petrochemical industry can cause damage to the reproductive system, which not only affects the health of the female workers, but also poses potential threats to the health of their offspring. Occupational exposure, unhealthy living habits, overtime work, and work shift have great influence on reproductive system diseases in female workers.

  11. Endocrine disruptors in female reproductive tract development and carcinogenesis

    OpenAIRE

    Ma, Liang

    2009-01-01

    Growing concerns over endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs) and their effects on human fetal development and adult health have promoted research into the underlying molecular mechanisms of endocrine disruption. Gene targeting technology has allowed insight into the genetic pathways governing reproductive tract development and how exposure to EDCs during a critical developmental window can alter reproductive tract development, potentially forming the basis for adult diseases. This review prima...

  12. Reproductive variability of the Amazon River prawn, Macrobrachium amazonicum (Caridea, Palaemonidae: influence of life cycle on egg production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea L Meireles

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Diverse reproductive strategies may be adopted by different species of Macrobrachium prawns, and even among different populations of the same species. The present study evaluated the influence of differences in the reproductive strategies of two geographically isolated populations of Macrobachium amazonicum, upon female fecundity, reproductive output and the chemical content of prawns and eggs. One prawn population from Pará only completes its life cycle in brackish water, whereas another from Mato Grosso do Sul only inhabits freshwater. Pará female prawns exhibited a larger average size and weight and produced more eggs than females from Mato Grosso do Sul. However, the Mato Grosso do Sul population produced eggs that were larger in volume than those of females from the other population. Furthermore, eggs produced by Pará prawns were composed primarily of water (56%, whereas those produced in Mato Grosso do Sul were composed mostly of organic matter (80%. This difference in the eggs' chemical compositions did not apply to the chemical compositions of the females, as individuals from both sites were composed primarily of water. Mato Grosso do Sul females invested a higher amount of energy in brood formation (14% of their wet weight than individuals from Pará (only 10%. It is possible that M. amazonicum populations show a higher degree of plasticity in their reproductive activity due to habitat conditions and genetic differences. Although the brackish population produces larger individuals, and exhibits higher fecundity, the freshwater population exhibited a higher reproductive investment. These results suggest a high reproductive capacity to adapt to different environmental conditions for this species, which should be considered in the context of aquaculture activities.

  13. Macroscopic anatomy, irrigation and venous drainage of female reproductive apparatus of llama (Lama glama)

    OpenAIRE

    León M., Eric; Sato S., Alberto; Navarrete Z., Miluska; Cisneros S., Jannet

    2011-01-01

    The anatomical description of the reproductive tract of the female llama was studied in four animals. Macroscopically, the reproductive system is morphologically similar to the cow. However, the difference is the absence of intercornual ligament and cotyledons, and the presence of an intercornual septum, as in the alpaca. The distribution of the arteries and veins that irrigated and drained the blood to and from the pelvic cavity and reproductive system presented a vascular distribution almos...

  14. Increased reproductive output of Danish red fox females following an outbreak of canine distemper

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pagh, Sussie; Chriél, Mariann; Madsen, Aksel Bo

    2018-01-01

    A decline in the Danish population of red foxes Vulpes vulpes due to an outbreak of canine distemper (CDV) in 2012 gave us the opportunity to test the hypothesis that the reproductive performance of foxes increases when the population density declines. The reproductive performance of 280 female...

  15. Environmental chemicals and their effects on female reproductive health: Searching for molecular mechanisms and effect biomarkers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johansson, Hanna Katarina Lilith

    Incorrect developmental programming of the female reproductive tract can lead to compromised reproductive fitness later in life. It has been suggested that exposure to endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs) in utero can disrupt ovarian programming in humans, which is supported by several animal st...

  16. Genetic parameters for reproductive traits in female Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus): II. Fecundity and fertility

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Trong, T.Q.; Arendonk, van J.A.M.; Komen, J.

    2013-01-01

    Harvest weight is the main trait in Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) breeding programmes. The effects of selection for harvest weight on female reproductive traits are unknown. In this paper we estimate genetic parameters for reproductive traits and their correlation with harvest weight using

  17. Male and female alcohol consumption and live birth after assisted reproductive technology treatment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vittrup, Ida; Petersen, Gitte Lindved; Kamper-Jørgensen, Mads

    2017-01-01

    The objective was to assess the potential association between female and male alcohol consumption and probability of achieving a live birth after assisted reproductive treatment. From a nationwide Danish register-based cohort information on alcohol consumption at assisted reproductive treatment i...

  18. Plant Reproduction and the Pollen Tube Journey--How the Females Lure the Males

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lorbiecke, Rene

    2012-01-01

    The growth of pollen tubes is one of the most characteristic events in angiosperm reproduction. This article describes an activity for visualizing the journey and guidance of pollen tubes in the reproductive structures of a flowering plant. The activity uses a semi-in vivo system with rapid-cycling "Brassica rapa," also known as Fast Plants.…

  19. Metabolic fuel and clinical implications for female reproduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mircea, Carmen N; Lujan, Marla E; Pierson, Roger A

    2007-11-01

    Reproduction is a physiologically costly process that consumes significant amounts of energy. The physiological mechanisms controlling energy balance are closely linked to fertility. This close relationship ensures that pregnancy and lactation occur only in favourable conditions with respect to energy. The primary metabolic cue that modulates reproduction is the availability of oxidizable fuel. An organism's metabolic status is transmitted to the brain through metabolic fuel detectors. There are many of these detectors at both the peripheral (e.g., leptin, insulin, ghrelin) and central (e.g., neuropeptide Y, melanocortin, orexins) levels. When oxidizable fuel is scarce, the detectors function to inhibit the release of gonadotropin-releasing hormone and luteinizing hormone, thereby altering steroidogenesis, reproductive cyclicity, and sexual behaviour. Infertility can also result when resources are abundant but food intake fails to compensate for increased energy demands. Examples of these conditions in women include anorexia nervosa and exercise-induced amenorrhea. Infertility associated with obesity appears to be less related to an effect of oxidizable fuel on the hypothalamic-pituitary-ovarian axis. Impaired insulin sensitivity may play a role in the etiology of these conditions, but their specific etiology remains unresolved. Research into the metabolic regulation of reproductive function has implications for elucidating mechanisms of impaired pubertal development, nutritional amenorrhea, and obesity-related infertility. A better understanding of these etiologies has far-reaching implications for the prevention and management of reproductive dysfunction and its associated comorbidities.

  20. The female reproductive cycle of the lizard, Cordylus polyzonus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    1987-11-13

    Nov 13, 1987 ... mass of the embryos versus newly ovulated eggs indica- ted that a loss of 15,9% ... Figure 4 Summary of follicular (dark shaded) and luteal activity (light shaded) during gestation in the lizard, C. p. polyzonus. AIl values are .... inadequate energy intake to meet the increased metabo- lic demand during this ...

  1. Reproductive steroids and ADHD symptoms across the menstrual cycle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, Bethan; Eisenlohr-Moul, Tory; Martel, Michelle M

    2018-02-01

    Although Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder shows (ADHD) male predominance, females are significantly impaired and exhibit additional comorbid disorders during adolescence. However, no empirical work has examined the influence of cyclical fluctuating steroids on ADHD symptoms in women. The present study examined estradiol (E2), progesterone (P4), and testosterone (T) associations with ADHD symptoms across the menstrual cycle in regularly-cycling young women (N=32), examining trait impulsivity as a moderator. Women completed a baseline measure of trait impulsivity, provided saliva samples each morning, and completed an ADHD symptom checklist every evening for 35days. Results indicated decreased levels of E2 in the context of increased levels of either P4 or T was associated with higher ADHD symptoms on the following day, particularly for those with high trait impulsivity. Phase analyses suggested both an early follicular and early luteal, or post-ovulatory, increase in ADHD symptoms. Therefore, ADHD symptoms may change across the menstrual cycle in response to endogenous steroid changes. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Correct coding for laboratory procedures during assisted reproductive technology cycles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-04-01

    This document provides updated coding information for services related to assisted reproductive technology procedures. This document replaces the 2012 ASRM document of the same name. Copyright © 2016 American Society for Reproductive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Mimicking physiological O2 tension in the female reproductive tract improves Assisted Reproduction outcomes in pig.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Martínez, S; Sánchez-Hurtado, M A; Gutiérrez, H; Sánchez-Margallo, F M; Romar, R; Latorre, R; Coy, P; López-Albors, O

    2018-02-27

    Is O2 tension in the pig oviduct and uterus affected by the estrous cycle stage and the animal's age, and can the outcome of in vitro embryo development be improved by mimicking these physiological values? O2 tension within the pig reproductive organs is affected by the animal's age, and values close to those measured in vivo have a positive impact on embryo development and quality when used during IVF and embryo culture (EC). To obtain a healthy embryo in vitro, it is necessary to adopt a culture microenvironment that approximates physiological conditions. Despite advances in surgical procedures and sensitive probes that allow accurate assessment of in vivo O2 tension, few such studies have been conducted recently in mammals. In addition, no reference values of physiological O2 tension in the reproductive tract exist for large animal models such as pig, and the effect of O2 tension on ART outcomes is unknown. This study was conducted in pigs. We measured oviductal and uterine O2 tension (n = 29 and 13 respectively) and then examined how the use of the physiological values in pig IVF and EC affected pig ART output (n = 1447 oocytes). The oviductal and uterine O2 tension at the different stages of the estrous cycle was monitored using a laparo-endoscopic single-site surgery (LESS) assisted approach along with a flexible and thin miniaturized luminescent probe. Two groups of pigs, Large-white x Landrace breed, were used: for the first group, 16 pre-pubertal gilts (5 months old and 95 kg) were induced to ovulate with equine chorionic gonadotropin (eCG) and human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG); in the second group 13 mature sows (24-48 months and 185 kg) were used. IVF and EC were performed at two different O2 tensions: Atmospheric O2 (20%) and the mean in vivo value measured (7%). At 18-20 hours post-insemination (hpi), a small sample of presumptive zygotes were fixed, stained, and examined under epifluorescence microscopy to assess the fertilization rates. At

  4. The microbiota continuum along the female reproductive tract and its relation to uterine-related diseases

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chen, Chen; Song, Xiaolei; Wei, Weixia

    2017-01-01

    Reports on bacteria detected in maternal fluids during pregnancy are typically associated with adverse consequences, and whether the female reproductive tract harbours distinct microbial communities beyond the vagina has been a matter of debate. Here we systematically sample the microbiota within...... the female reproductive tract in 110 women of reproductive age, and examine the nature of colonisation by 16S rRNA gene amplicon sequencing and cultivation. We find distinct microbial communities in cervical canal, uterus, fallopian tubes and peritoneal fluid, differing from that of the vagina. The results...

  5. Examining Neosho madtom reproductive biology using ultrasound and artificial photothermal cycles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bryan, J.L.; Wildhaber, M.L.; Noltie, Douglas B.

    2005-01-01

    We examined whether extended laboratory simulation of natural photothermal conditions could stimulate reproduction in the Neosho madtom Noturus placidus, a federally threatened species. For 3 years, a captive population of Neosho madtoms was maintained under simulated natural conditions and monitored routinely with ultrasound for reproductive condition. Female Neosho madtoms cycled in and out of spawning condition, producing and absorbing oocytes annually. Internal measurements made by means of ultrasound indicated the summer mean oocyte size remained consistent over the years, although estimated fecundity increased with increasing fish length. In the summer of 2001, after 3 years in the simulated natural environment, 13 out of 41 fish participated in 10 spawnings. Simulation of the natural photothermal environment, coupled with within-day temperature fluctuations during the spring rise, seemed important for the spawning of captive Neosho madtoms. The use of ultrasound to assess the reproductive status in Neosho madtoms was effective and resulted in negligible stress or injury to the fish. These procedures may facilitate future culture of this species and other madtoms Noturus spp., especially when species are rare, threatened, or endangered. ?? Copyright by the American Fisheries Society 2005.

  6. Reproductive and hormonal factors in male and female colon cancer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kampman, E.; Bijl, A.J.; Kok, C.; Veer, P. van 't

    1994-01-01

    We analysed data from a case-control study in the Netherlands in order to investigate whether reproductive events and hormonal factors are similarly related to colon cancer risk in men and women after adjustment for dietary factors. In total, 232 colon cancer cases (102 women, 130 men) and 259

  7. Impact of heavy metals on the female reproductive system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Piotr Rzymski

    2015-05-01

    Environmental deterioration can lead to the elevated risk of human exposure to heavy metals, and consequently, health implications including disturbances in reproduction. It is therefore important to continue the investigations on metal-induced mechanisms of fertility impairment on the genetic, epigenetic and biochemical level.

  8. Reproductive performance of female goats fed life-enzyme ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Direct-fed-microbes (DFM) (life-enzyme) was prepared in a traditional setting using Zymomonas mobilis (bacteria from palm sap) to ferment sawdust. The result revealed an improvement in the nutrient content of the sawdust and its feed values (protein, fibre etc.), and the feed usage efficiency. The reproductive ...

  9. Ultrasonographic and laparoscopic evaluation of the reproductive tract in older captive female cheetahs (Acinonyx jubatus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schulman, M L; Kirberger, R M; Tordiffe, A S W; Marker, L L; Schmidt-Küntzel, A; Hartman, M J

    2015-12-01

    The study uniquely described the clinical value of transabdominal ultrasonography for monitoring features characterizing the estrous cycle in female cheetahs (Acinonyx jubatus). The reproductive tracts of 21 female, nulliparous, and relatively aged (median: 11 and interquartile range: 9.25-14 years) captive cheetahs resident on two sites in Namibia were assessed by transabdominal ultrasound. Subsequently, the ovarian findings on ultrasound were compared with direct visualization while performing laparoscopic sterilization. A combination of these observations supported by concurrent sampling for vaginal cytology and serum progesterone concentrations defined the estrous status of individual animals. At one site, six cheetahs had been implanted with the GnRH agonist, deslorelin as a contraceptive at least once within the preceding 11 years. On ultrasound, 31 uterine horns and 35 ovaries with discernible structures on 28 (86%) were visualized in the 21 cheetahs. The uterine body was difficult to visualize because of its intrapelvic location. Eleven of 19 uteri (58%) visualized showed endometrial edema suggestive of estrogenization. The uteri of four cheetahs (19%) showed evidence of mild cystic endometrial hyperplasia. Paraovarian cysts were seen on ultrasound (n = 21) and laparoscopy (n = 26) in 16 (76.2%) and 18 (85.7%) cheetahs, respectively. Ovarian volumes obtained from ultrasonographically determined dimensions predicted cyclic activity. Laparoscopy showed that 19 ovaries had discernible follicular structures. In the study population, 10 (47.6%) cheetahs were in proestrus or estrus; none in the luteal phase; and 11 (52.4%) in anestrus. Transabdominal ultrasound, in combination with serum progesterone concentrations and vaginal cytology, was used with acceptable accuracy to assess cyclic ovarian activity in captive cheetahs. A considerable proportion of this aged population showed ovarian activity and the prevalence of paraovarian cysts was notable. A

  10. Reproductive behaviour of female rosy bitterling Rhodeus ocellatus in response to a female-biased operational sex ratio

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Liao, C.; Yu, D.; Chen, Y.; Reichard, Martin; Liu, H.

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 151, č. 6 (2014), s. 755-768 ISSN 0005-7959 R&D Projects: GA ČR GBP505/12/G112 Institutional support: RVO:68081766 Keywords : alternative reproductive behaviour * female aggression * operational sex ratio * bitterling Subject RIV: EG - Zoology Impact factor: 1.230, year: 2014

  11. Understanding of Parents and Adults on the Down Syndrome Female Sexual Reproductive Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhagan, Madhya

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to determine the understanding of reproductive health among parents and female adolescents with Down syndrome. This cross-sectional study involved 22 parents and 22 female adolescents with Down syndrome in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia. The parents were required to fill up the socio-demographic information in questionnaire…

  12. Social stress and reproductive success in the female Syrian hamster: endocrine and behavioral correlates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chelini, Marie Odile Monier; Palme, Rupert; Otta, Emma

    2011-10-24

    In many mammal species, reproduction is not shared equally among the members of a social unit. Even though reproductive skew seems unlikely in females of solitary species, this phenomenon could result from environmental factors. Although solitary in the wild, captive Syrian hamsters (Mesocricetus auratus) are generally housed in groups. We investigated whether social stress produces some degree of reproductive skew in this solitary species and whether female reproductive success varies as a function of social rank. To assess the physiological relationship between social stress and fertility, we monitored reproductive hormones and glucocorticoids of solitary and pair-housed females during pregnancy by means of recently established non-invasive methods for measuring hormone metabolites in the feces. The patterns of fecal progesterone, estrogen and glucocorticoid metabolites were similar to those found in blood and reported in the literature for pregnant hamsters. As expected, dominant females had higher breeding success than subordinate females. However the rate of reproductive failure was also very high among the singly housed females of our control group. The number of pups per litter, the average sex-ratio in each group, and the mean weight of pups did not differ significantly among groups. Glucocorticoid concentrations were unaffected by housing and social rank and the few differences between the endocrine profiles of singly- and pair-housed females are not sufficient to explain the observed difference in breeding success. It is likely that social isolation impairs reproduction in the same manner as subordination. Our findings suggest that social isolation of animals accustomed to group living was equally as disturbing as cohabitation with an unknown conspecific. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Effects of taping on knee joint position sense of female athletes across the menstrual cycle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rose fouladi

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The rate of anterior cruciate ligament (ACL tearing is more common in female athletes and one of thereasons is the effect of sex hormones. It was illustrated that knee joint position sense (JPS isaltered across the menstrual cycle and its lowest level is at menses. Therefore, it’s important to find a method to reduce injury risk at menses. Thus, the purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of taping as a stimulator of skin, on the knee JPS in healthy female athletes across the menstrual cycle with different levels of estrogen and progesterone. Materials and Methods: In this semi-experimental study, 16 healthy female athletes with regular menstrual cycle voluntarily participated. Knee JPS was measured at 3 menstrual cycle phases, before and after patellataping. JPS was evaluated by reproduction of the target angle (30° flexion in standing position, from full extension. Serum estrogen and progesterone levels were collected in these 3 phases. Knee angles were measured by using a system comprised of skin markers, digital photography, and autoCAD software. Absolute error was considered as a dependent variable.Results: There was a significant difference between the knee JPS in 3 phases of measurement before taping (P=0.025, while no significant difference was found between knee JPS in 3 phases after taping (P=0.965. Conclusion: Findings of this study suggest that healthy female athletes have different levels of knee JPS across a menstrual cycle and its accuracy decreasesat menses. This differencecan be reduced by skin stimulatingmethods, such as taping. Therefore, kinesio taping would improve the knee JPSdeficiency at menses.

  14. Antimicrobial peptides in the female reproductive tract: a critical component of the mucosal immune barrier with physiological and clinical implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yarbrough, Victoria L; Winkle, Sean; Herbst-Kralovetz, Melissa M

    2015-01-01

    At the interface of the external environment and the mucosal surface of the female reproductive tract (FRT) lies a first-line defense against pathogen invasion that includes antimicrobial peptides (AMP). Comprised of a unique class of multifunctional, amphipathic molecules, AMP employ a wide range of functions to limit microbial invasion and replication within host cells as well as independently modulate the immune system, dampen inflammation and maintain tissue homeostasis. The role of AMP in barrier defense at the level of the skin and gut has received much attention as of late. Given the far reaching implications for women's health, maternal and fetal morbidity and mortality, and sexually transmissible and polymicrobial diseases, we herein review the distribution and function of key AMP throughout the female reproductive mucosa and assess their role as an essential immunological barrier to microbial invasion throughout the reproductive cycle of a woman's lifetime. A comprehensive search in PubMed/Medline was conducted related to AMP general structure, function, signaling, expression, distribution and barrier function of AMP in the FRT, hormone regulation of AMP, the microbiome of the FRT, and AMP in relation to implantation, pregnancy, fertility, pelvic inflammatory disease, complications of pregnancy and assisted reproductive technology. AMP are amphipathic peptides that target microbes for destruction and have been conserved throughout all living organisms. In the FRT, several major classes of AMP are expressed constitutively and others are inducible at the mucosal epithelium and by immune cells. AMP expression is also under the influence of sex hormones, varying throughout the menstrual cycle, and dependent on the vaginal microbiome. AMP can prevent infection with sexually transmissible and opportunistic pathogens of the female reproductive tissues, although emerging understanding of vaginal dysbiosis suggests induction of a unique AMP profile with increased

  15. Experiencing reproductive concerns as a female cancer survivor is associated with depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorman, Jessica R; Su, H Irene; Roberts, Samantha C; Dominick, Sally A; Malcarne, Vanessa L

    2015-03-15

    Young adult female cancer survivors have unmet reproductive concerns and informational needs that are associated with poorer quality of life. The purpose of this study was to examine the association between current reproductive concerns and moderate to severe depression among young survivors. This cross-sectional study included 200 female cancer survivors between the ages of 18 and 35 years who completed a Web-based survey measuring reproductive history, parenthood desires, reproductive concerns after cancer, and quality-of-life indicators. The mean age of the participants was 28 years (standard deviation, 4.4 years), and almost two-thirds were diagnosed within 5 years of survey completion. A multivariate logistic regression analysis controlling for education, duration of survivorship, and social support revealed an association between experiencing reproductive concerns and moderate to severe depression (odds ratio for each 5-unit increase in the Reproductive Concerns After Cancer [RCAC] score, 1.30; 95% confidence interval, 1.06-1.60). Among those with moderate to severe depression, 23% had high RCAC scores, whereas 6% of those with minimal to mild depression did (P reproductive concerns was associated with greater odds of experiencing moderate to severe depression. Almost a quarter of survivors in this sample reported moderate to severe depression, and addressing reproductive concerns represents one potential area of intervention for improving the psychosocial health of young survivors. © 2014 American Cancer Society.

  16. Condition-dependent female preference for male genitalia length is based on male reproductive tactics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernandez-Jimenez, Armando; Rios-Cardenas, Oscar

    2017-12-06

    There is extensive morphological variation of male genitalia across animals with internal fertilization, even among closely related species. Most studies attempting to explain this extraordinary diversity have focused on processes that occur post-copula (e.g. sperm competition, cryptic female choice). Only a few studies have focused on the pre-copula process of female preference. In addition, the extent to which this variation could be associated with the use of different reproductive tactics has yet to be explored. Here, we show that female preference for male genitalia length in two livebearing fishes depends on the type of reproductive tactic of the males being evaluated as well as the body condition of the female. In a species where all males coax females to acquire matings (courters), females preferred males with short genitalia. In a species with genetically influenced alternative reproductive tactics (courter males that only court and produce courter sons, sneaker males that use the coercive tactic of sneak chase and produce sneaker sons), female preference depended on an interaction between male tactic and female condition: females in good condition preferred courter males with short genitalia, and sneaker males with long genitalia. Our results suggest that female preference for male traits favourable to their sons may be an important factor contributing to the diversification of male genitalia. Despite the contrasting selection for genitalia length that our female preference tests suggest, we found no significant differences in genitalia length between coaxing (courters) and coercive (sneakers) males. Our study represents a starting point to more clearly understand the role of alternative reproductive tactics and variation in female mate preference in the evolution of male genitalia. © 2017 The Author(s).

  17. Contraceptive Practices Among Female Cancer Survivors of Reproductive Age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dominick, Sally A; McLean, Mamie R; Whitcomb, Brian W; Gorman, Jessica R; Mersereau, Jennifer E; Bouknight, Janet M; Su, H Irene

    2015-09-01

    To compare rates of contraception between reproductive-aged cancer survivors and women in the general U.S. Among survivors, the study examined factors associated with use of contraception and emergency contraception. This study analyzed enrollment data from an ongoing national prospective cohort study on reproductive health after cancer entitled the Fertility Information Research Study. We compared current contraceptive use in survivors with that of the general population ascertained by the 2006-2010 National Survey for Family Growth. Log-binomial regression models estimated relative risks for characteristics associated with use of contraception, World Health Organization tiers I-II (sterilization and hormonal) contraceptive methods, and emergency contraception in survivors. Data from 295 survivors (mean age 31.6±5.7 years, range 20-44 years) enrolled in this prospective study (85% response rate) were examined. Age-adjusted rates of using tiers I-II contraceptive methods were lower in survivors than the general population (34% [28.8-40.0] compared with 53% [51.5-54.5], Pfamily planning services (counseling, prescription or procedure related to birth control) since cancer diagnosis. In adjusted analysis, receipt of family planning services was associated with both increased use of tiers I-II contraceptive methods (relative risk 1.3, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.1-1.5) and accessing emergency contraception (relative risk 5.0, 95% CI 1.6-16.3) in survivors. Lower rates of using tiers I-II contraceptive methods were found in reproductive-aged cancer survivors compared with the general population of U.S. women. Exposure to family planning services across the cancer-care continuum may improve contraception use among these women. ClinicalTrials.gov, www.clinicaltrials.gov, NCT01843140. II.

  18. The fluctuating female vote: politics, religion, and the ovulatory cycle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durante, Kristina M; Rae, Ashley; Griskevicius, Vladas

    2013-06-01

    Each month, many women experience an ovulatory cycle that regulates fertility. Although research has found that this cycle influences women's mating preferences, we proposed that it might also change women's political and religious views. Building on theory suggesting that political and religious orientation are linked to reproductive goals, we tested how fertility influenced women's politics, religiosity, and voting in the 2012 U.S. presidential election. In two studies with large and diverse samples, ovulation had drastically different effects on single women and women in committed relationships. Ovulation led single women to become more liberal, less religious, and more likely to vote for Barack Obama. In contrast, ovulation led women in committed relationships to become more conservative, more religious, and more likely to vote for Mitt Romney. In addition, ovulation-induced changes in political orientation mediated women's voting behavior. Overall, the ovulatory cycle not only influences women's politics but also appears to do so differently for single women than for women in relationships.

  19. Is the role of human female reproductive tract microbiota underestimated?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamińska, D; Gajecka, M

    2017-05-30

    An issue that is currently undergoing extensive study is the influence of human vaginal microbiota (VMB) on the health status of women and their neonates. Healthy women are mainly colonised with lactobacilli such as Lactobacillus crispatus, Lactobacillus jensenii, and Lactobacillus iners; however, other bacteria may be elements of the VMB, particularly in women with bacterial vaginosis. The implementation of culture-independent molecular methods in VMB characterisation, especially next-generation sequencing, have provided new information regarding bacterial diversity in the vagina, revealing a large number of novel, fastidious, and/or uncultivated bacterial species. These molecular studies have contributed new insights regarding the role of bacterial community composition. In this study, we discuss recent findings regarding the reproductive tract microbiome. Not only bacteria but also viruses and fungi constitute important components of the reproductive tract microbiome. We focus on aspects related to the impact of the maternal microbiome on foetal development, as well as the establishment of the neonatal microbiomes, including the placenta microbiome, and the haematogenous source of intrauterine infection. We also discuss whether the role of the vaginal microbiome is currently understood and appreciated.

  20. Recreating the female reproductive tract in vitro using iPSC technology in a linked microfluidics environment

    OpenAIRE

    Laronda, Monica M; Burdette, Joanna E; Kim, J Julie; Woodruff, Teresa K

    2013-01-01

    The female reproductive tract produces hormones for reproductive function and cardiovascular, bone and sexual health; the tract supplies a finite number of gametes, and it supports fetal development. Diseases that affect each of the female reproductive tract organs, along with treatments that have direct, deleterious effects on the reproductive tract (for example, chemotherapeutics), are understudied due to the lack of model systems that phenocopy in vivo function. This review describes a pat...

  1. The Reproductive Morphology and Physiological Age Grading of the Female Salvinia Weevil, Calder and Sands

    OpenAIRE

    Lee Eisenberg; Seth Johnson; Michael J Grodowitz

    2018-01-01

    The morphology of the female Cyrtobagous salviniae Calder and Sands reproductive system is similar to other weevil species being meroistic and telotrophic. The reproductive system is composed of 2 ovaries each containing 2 ovarioles where the follicles mature. A physiological age grading system was developed where the continuum of ovarium development was divided into 2 nulliparous and 3 parous classes. This was based on the differentiation of the ovarioles, presence, and appearance of follicu...

  2. Plant Reproduction: AMOR Enables Males to Respond to Female Signals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dresselhaus, Thomas; Coimbra, Silvia

    2016-04-25

    The pollen tube of flowering plants undertakes a long journey to transport two sperm cells for double fertilization. New work on pollen tube guidance has identified an arabinogalactan-derived ovular factor that primes tubes to respond to female gametophyte-secreted attraction signals. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. The role of oxytocin in male and female reproductive behavior

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Veening, J.G.; Jong, T.R. de; Waldinger, M.D.; Korte, S.M.; Olivier, B.

    2015-01-01

    Oxytocin (OT) is a nonapeptide with an impressive variety of physiological functions. Among them, the 'prosocial' effects have been discussed in several recent reviews, but the direct effects on male and female sexual behavior did receive much less attention so far. As our contribution to honor the

  4. Understanding the Broader Sexual and Reproductive Health Needs of Female Sex Workers in Dhaka, Bangladesh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katz, Karen R; McDowell, Misti; Green, Mackenzie; Jahan, Shamim; Johnson, Laura; Chen, Mario

    2015-12-01

    Little is known about the sexual and reproductive health care needs of female sex workers in Dhaka, Bangladesh. Survey data were collected from 354 hotel-based and 323 street-based female sex workers using a venue-based stratified cluster sampling approach. In addition, in-depth interviews were conducted with 20 female sex workers recruited from drop-in centers. We calculated unmet need for family planning and examined fertility desires, use of condoms and other contraceptive methods, experiences with gender-based violence, sexual and reproductive health service needs, and preferences on where to receive services. The prevalence of unmet need was 25% among hotel-based female sex workers and 36% among street-based female sex workers. Almost all participants reported having used condoms in the past 30 days, and 44% of hotel-based sex workers and 30% of street-based sex workers reported dual method use during that period. Condom use was inconsistent, however, and condom breakage and nonuse for extra money were common. Many women reported experiencing gender-based violence. Sexual and reproductive health services had been obtained by 64% of hotel-based and 89% of street-based sex workers in the past six months; drop-in centers were their preferred site for receiving health services. Female sex workers in Dhaka need family planning and other sexual and reproductive health services and prefer receiving them from drop-in centers.

  5. Reproductive hormones disorders of Sudanese females using immunoradiometric assay (IRMA)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ali, N. I.; Almahi, W. A. A.; Abdalla, O. M.; Bafarag, S. M. I.; Abdelgadir, O. M.; Eltayeb, M. A. H.; Hassan, A. M. E.; Hassan, A. M. E.

    2004-12-01

    In this study fertility hormones were measured for 587 infertile Sudanese female referred from gynecological clinics. The ages of these female ranges from 16-50 years divided into seven groups. Eighty seven percent of them are in the age range between 21 and 40 year which correlate with the female's fertile period and 5.6% of them under 20 years. Sensitive (IRMA) method was used for measuring the hormone concentration. The objective of this study was to found out the percentage of hormonal disorders and its relation to the age in infertile Sudanese females. The age group (21-25) was the most affected group by the Poly Cystic Ovary Syndrome (PCOS) and represented 5.1% of the total number of patients. The least group was the age group (41-45) with a percentage of 0.4. The LH and the FSH in the age group of (31-35) was found to be higher than the other groups and represented 11.4% and 7.8% from the total number of patients respectively. The least percent of high level of LH and FSH was found to be in the most fertile age group (15-20) and it was 1.7% and 1.0% from the total number of studied patient, respectively. Those who were in the age range (26-30) with hyperprolactinaemia represented 10.4% of patients, while those with age rang (46-50) with hyperprolactinaemia represented the lowest percentage (1.2%). The percentage of patients having high LH and high FSH was 44.5% and 29.1% respectively, while the hyperprolactinaemia among the infertile Sudanese female was found to 38.2%.(Author)

  6. Reproductive cycles of largemouth bass (Micropterus salmoides) in a cooling reservoir

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bennett, D.H.; Gibbons, J.W.

    1975-01-01

    Annual reproductive cycles of largemouth bass (Micropterus salmoides) collected in the heated area of a 1120-hectare reservoir receiving thermal effluent from the Savannah River Plant were similar to cycles from bass collected in unheated waters during 1969 and 1970. Average maximum monthly temperatures at the heated area exceeded those in unheated waters by greater than 10 0 C for the 2 years. Few monthly differences in gonosomatic indices were found between heated and unheated areas. Earlier attainment of maximum gonadal size and the presence of significantly larger juvenile bass at the heated area suggested that reproduction might be accelerated by thermal discharge. However, gonadal condition indicated that the reproductive period started in March and continued through April in both areas. Reproduction may have been advanced in some heated-area bass, although this was not obvious from overall changes in the reproductive cycles of bass from unheated areas. (auth)

  7. Growth and development of the reproductive organs of female ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The variation in the weight of the ovary probably reflects differences in the laying pattern of individuals, and this lends itself to simulating the ovulatory cycle and consequently gaining a better understanding of the process, which would in turn aid in determining the requirement for the nutrients responsible for the growth of ...

  8. Female reproductive potential after treatment for Hodgkin's disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Horning, S.J.; Hoppe, R.T.; Kaplan, H.S.; Rosenberg, S.A.

    1981-01-01

    The probability of maintaining ovarian function, becoming pregnant, and delivering a normal child is important to young women anticipating successful therapy for Hodgkin's disease. In this study, reproductive function was retrospectively examined in 103 women 40 years old or younger who had undergone treatment for Hodgkin's disease with total-lymphoid irradiation (TLI) alone, combination chemotherapy, or combined TLI and chemotherapy. Infertility was directly related to gonadal exposure to therapy and to age at treatment. Twenty women became pregnant after receiving total-nodal irradiation or combination chemotherapy or both. No fetal wastage occurred, and no birth defects were seen in the 24 infants born to these women. Even after intensive treatment programs, women successfully treated for Hodgkin's disease have become pregnant and delivered phenotypically normal children

  9. Endometrial thickness as a predictor of the reproductive outcomes in fresh and frozen embryo transfer cycles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Tao; Li, Zhou; Ren, Xinling; Huang, Bo; Zhu, Guijin; Yang, Wei; Jin, Lei

    2018-01-01

    Abstract To evaluate the relationship between endometrial thickness during fresh in vitro fertilization (IVF) cycles and the clinical outcomes of subsequent frozen embryo transfer (FET) cycles. FET cycles using at least one morphological good-quality blastocyst conducted between 2012 and 2013 at a university-based reproductive center were reviewed retrospectively. Endometrial ultrasonographic characteristics were recorded both on the oocyte retrieval day and on the day of progesterone supplementation in FET cycles. Clinical pregnancy rate, spontaneous abortion rate, and live birth rate were analyzed. One thousand five hundred twelve FET cycles was included. The results showed that significant difference in endometrial thickness on day of oocyte retrieval (P = .03) was observed between the live birth group (n = 844) and no live birth group (n = 668), while no significant difference in FET endometrial thickness was found (P = .261) between the live birth group and no live birth group. For endometrial thickness on oocyte retrieval day, clinical pregnancy rate ranged from 50.0% among patients with an endometrial thickness of ≤6 mm to 84.2% among patients with an endometrial thickness of >16 mm, with live birth rate from 33.3% to 63.2%. Multiple logistic regression analysis of factors related to live birth indicated endometrial thickness on oocyte retrieval day was associated with improved live birth rate (OR was 1.069, 95% CI: 1.011–1.130, P = .019), while FET endometrial thickness did not contribute significantly to pregnancy outcomes following FET cycles. The ROC curves revealed the cut-off points of endometrial thickness on oocyte retrieval day was 8.75 mm for live birth. Endometrial thickness during fresh IVF cycles was a better predictor of endometrial receptivity in subsequent FET cycles than FET cycle endometrial thickness. For those females with thin endometrium in fresh cycles, additional estradiol stimulation might be helpful for

  10. The effect of female quality on male ejaculatory expenditure and reproductive success in a praying mantid.

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    Anuradhi Jayaweera

    Full Text Available Strategic ejaculation is a behavioural strategy shown by many animals as a response to sperm competition and/or as a potential mechanism of cryptic male choice. Males invest more mating resources when the risk of sperm competition increases or they invest more in high quality females to maximize their reproductive output. We tested this hypothesis in the false garden mantid Pseudomantis albofimbriata, where females are capable of multiply mating and body condition is an indicator of potential reproductive fitness. We predicted male mantids would ejaculate strategically by allocating more sperm to high quality females. To determine if and how males alter their ejaculate in response to mate quality, we manipulated female food quantity so that females were either in good condition with many eggs (i.e. high quality or poor condition with few eggs (i.e. low quality. Half of the females from each treatment were used in mating trials in which transferred sperm was counted before fertilisation occurred and the other half of females were used in mating trials where fertilisation occurred and ootheca mass and total eggs in the ootheca were recorded. Opposed to our predictions, the total number of sperm and the proportion of viable sperm transferred did not vary significantly between female treatments. Male reproductive success was entirely dependent on female quality/fecundity, rather than on the number of sperm transferred. These results suggest that female quality is not a major factor influencing postcopulatory male mating strategies in P. albofimbriata, and that sperm number has little effect on male reproductive success in a single mating scenario.

  11. Experiencing reproductive concerns as a female cancer survivor is associated with depression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorman, Jessica R.; Su, H. Irene; Roberts, Samantha C.; Dominick, Sally A.; Malcarne, Vanessa L.

    2014-01-01

    Background Young adult female cancer survivors have unmet reproductive concerns and informational needs that are associated with poorer quality of life. The purpose of this study was to examine the association between current reproductive concerns and moderate to severe depression among young survivors. Methods This cross-sectional study includes 200 female cancer survivors between the ages of 18 and 35 years who completed a web-based survey measuring reproductive history, parenthood desires, reproductive concerns after cancer, and quality of life indicators. Results The mean age of participants was 28 years (SD = 4.4) and almost two-thirds were diagnosed within 5 years of completing the survey. Multivariable logistic regression analysis controlling for education, duration of survivorship, and social support revealed an association between experiencing reproductive concerns and moderate to severe depression (OR = 1.30, 95% CI = 1.06–1.60 for each 5 unit increase in RCAC score). Of those with moderate to severe depression, 23% had high RCAC scores as compared to 6% of those with minimal to mild depression (p < 0.001). Conclusion A higher level of reproductive concerns was associated with greater odds of experiencing moderate to severe depression. Almost a quarter of survivors in this sample reported moderate to severe depression, and addressing reproductive concerns represents one potential area of intervention to improve the psychosocial health of young survivors. PMID:25377593

  12. BMI, diet and female reproductive factors as risks for thyroid cancer: a systematic review.

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    Emily Peterson

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Thyroid cancer incidence rates have been increasing worldwide but the reason behind this is unclear. Both the increasing use of diagnostic technologies allowing the detection of thyroid cancer and a true increase in thyroid cancer incidence have been proposed. This review assesses the role of body mass index (BMI, diet, and reproductive factors on the thyroid cancer trend. METHODS: Epidemiologic studies of the selected risk factors up to June 2010 were reviewed and critically assessed. RESULTS: Among the thirty-seven studies reviewed and despite variation in the risk estimates, most papers supported a small but positive association for BMI (risk estimate range: 1.1-2.3 in males and 1.0-7.4 in females.. Among specific dietary components, there was no consistent association of thyroid cancer risk with iodine intake through fortification (risk estimate range: 0.49-1.6 or fish consumption (risk estimate range 0.6-2.2, nor with diets high in cruciferous vegetables (risk estimate range 0.6-1.9. A small number of studies showed a consistent protective effect of diets high in non-cruciferous vegetable (risk estimate range: 0.71-0.92. Among reproductive factors (pregnancy, parity, number of live births, use of prescription hormones, menstrual cycle regularity, and menopausal status, none were consistently associated with higher thyroid cancer risk. CONCLUSIONS: BMI had the strongest link to thyroid cancer risk among those examined. Detailed examinations of population-level risk factors can help identify and support prevention efforts to reduce the burden of thyroid cancer.

  13. THE MODERN TRENDS IN REPRODUCTIVE HEALTH AND REPRODUCTIVE BEHAVIOR OF THE FEMALE POPULATION IN RUSSIA

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    Валентина Сергеевна Гладкая

    2017-02-01

    It puts forward the proposal to establish regional centers provide comprehensive preventive, rehabilitative, recreational, informational and educational work and social-legal counseling of the female population.

  14. Herbs of interest to the Brazilian Federal Government: female reproductive and developmental toxicity studies

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    Luiz Fernando Verissimo

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available In 2009 the Brazilian Ministry of Health published a document named RENISUS that lists 71 herbs traditionally used in Brazil that could result in phytomedicines to be dispensed by the governmental health care program. This manuscript reviews female reproductive and/or developmental toxicity information of these herbs. More than half (35 of the herbs lack information regarding female reproductive and/or developmental effects. From the fourteen herbs used traditionally to disturb female reproduction, five present experimental data corroborating their actions as abortifacients (Maytenus ilicifolia, Momordica charantia, Plectranthus barbatus, Ruta graveolens or labour facilitator (Bidens pilosa. For 23 of the herbs evaluated experimentally for any type of female reproductive endpoint, only a single study was retrieved and at least twelve of these studies were conducted with a single dose. This scenario suggests that the scientific power of the published information is very low and that a scientifically-based risk/benefit analysis about the use of these herbs during pregnancy is not possible. Considering the appeal that phytomedicines have for pregnant women, usually aware and afraid of the risks that synthetic drugs may have in their pregnancy and progeny, well designed studies evaluating reproductive and/or developmental toxicity of these herbs urge.

  15. Herbs of interest to the Brazilian Federal Government: female reproductive and developmental toxicity studies

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    Luiz Fernando Verissimo

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available In 2009 the Brazilian Ministry of Health published a document named RENISUS that lists 71 herbs traditionally used in Brazil that could result in phytomedicines to be dispensed by the governmental health care program. This manuscript reviews female reproductive and/or developmental toxicity information of these herbs. More than half (35 of the herbs lack information regarding female reproductive and/or developmental effects. From the fourteen herbs used traditionally to disturb female reproduction, five present experimental data corroborating their actions as abortifacients (Maytenus ilicifolia, Momordica charantia, Plectranthus barbatus, Ruta graveolens or labour facilitator (Bidens pilosa. For 23 of the herbs evaluated experimentally for any type of female reproductive endpoint, only a single study was retrieved and at least twelve of these studies were conducted with a single dose. This scenario suggests that the scientific power of the published information is very low and that a scientifically-based risk/benefit analysis about the use of these herbs during pregnancy is not possible. Considering the appeal that phytomedicines have for pregnant women, usually aware and afraid of the risks that synthetic drugs may have in their pregnancy and progeny, well designed studies evaluating reproductive and/or developmental toxicity of these herbs urge.

  16. Female cancer survivors exposed to alkylating-agent chemotherapy have unique reproductive hormone profiles.

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    Johnson, Lauren; Sammel, Mary D; Schanne, Allison; Lechtenberg, Lara; Prewitt, Maureen; Gracia, Clarisa

    2016-12-01

    To evaluate reproductive hormone patterns in women exposed to alkylating-agent chemotherapy. Prospective cohort. University hospital. Normally menstruating mid-reproductive-age women (20-35 years old) who had previously been exposed to alkylating-agent chemotherapy for cancer treatment were compared with two healthy control populations: similarly-aged women and late-reproductive-age women (43-50 years old). Subjects collected daily urine samples for one cycle. Integrated urinary pregnanediol glucuronide (PDG) and estrone conjugate (E1c) and urinary excretion of gonadotropins (FSH and LH). Thirty-eight women (13 survivors, 11 same-age control subjects, 14 late-reproductive-age control subjects) provided 1,082 urine samples. Cycle length, luteal phase length, and evidence of luteal activity were similar among the groups. As expected, ovarian reserve was impaired in cancer survivors compared with same-age control subjects but similar between survivors and late-reproductive-age control subjects. In contrast, survivors had total and peak PDG levels that were similar to same-age control subjects and higher than those observed in late-reproductive-age control subjects. Survivors had higher E1c levels than both same-age and late-reproductive-age control subjects. There was no difference in urinary gonadotropins among the groups. Women exposed to alkylating agents have a unique reproductive hormone milieu that is not solely explained by age or ovarian reserve. The urinary hormone profile observed in survivors appears more similar to same-age control subjects than to late-reproductive-age women with similar ovarian reserve, which may suggest that age plays a more important role than ovarian reserve in the follicular dynamics of survivors. Copyright © 2016 American Society for Reproductive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Reproductive efficiency of captive Chinese- and Indian-origin rhesus macaque (Macaca mulatta) females

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    Kubisch, H. Michael; Falkenstein, Kathrine P.; Deroche, Chelsea B.; Franke, Donald E.

    2011-01-01

    Reproductive and survival records (n = 2,913) from 313 Chinese-origin and 365 Indian-derived rhesus macaques at the Tulane National Primate Research Center spanning 3 generations were studied. Least-squares analysis of variance procedures were used to compare reproductive and infant survival traits while proportional hazards regression procedures were used to study female age at death, number of infants born per female and time from last birth to death. Chinese females were older at first parturition than Indian-females because they were older when placed with males, but the two subspecies had similar first and lifetime post-partum birth intervals. Females that gave birth to stillborn infants had shorter first post-partum birth intervals than females giving birth to live infants. Post-partum birth intervals decreased in females from 3 to 12 years of age but then increased again with advancing age. Chinese infants had a greater survival rate than Indian infants at 30 d, 6 mo and 1yr of age. Five hundred and forty-three females (80.01 %) had uncensored, or true records for age at death, number of infants born per female, and time from the birth until death whereas 135 females (19.91 %) had censored records for these traits. Low and high uncensored observations for age at death were 3 and 26 years of age for Chinese and 3 and 23 years of age for Indian females. Uncensored number of infants born per female ranged from 1 to 15 for Chinese females and 1 to 18 for Indian females. Each of these traits was significantly influenced by the origin × generation interaction in the proportional hazards regression analyses, indicating that probabilities associated with age at death, number of infants born per female and time from last birth to death for Chinese and Indian females did not rank the same across generations. PMID:22512021

  18. Nasal cycle dominance and hallucinations in an adult schizophrenic female.

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    Shannahoff-Khalsa, David; Golshan, Shahrokh

    2015-03-30

    Nasal dominance, at the onset of hallucinations, was studied as a marker of both the lateralized ultradian rhythm of the autonomic nervous system and the tightly coupled ultradian rhythm of alternating cerebral hemispheric dominance in a single case study of a schizophrenic female. Over 1086 days, 145 hallucination episodes occurred with left nostril dominance significantly greater than the right nostril dominant phase of the nasal cycle. A right nostril breathing exercise, that primarily stimulates the left hemisphere, reduces symptoms more quickly for hallucinations. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Reproductive cycles of Mugil cephalus, Liza ramada and Liza aurata (Teleostei: Mugilidae).

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    Bartulović, V; Dulčić, J; Matić-Skoko, S; Glamuzina, B

    2011-06-01

    The reproductive cycles of three mullet species from the Eastern Adriatic coast were described using several biological parameters (gonado-somatic index, oocyte diameter and sex ratio) to improve knowledge about their reproduction. © 2011 The Authors. Journal of Fish Biology © 2011 The Fisheries Society of the British Isles.

  20. Proteomes of the Female Genital Tract During the Oestrous Cycle.

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    Soleilhavoup, Clement; Riou, Cindy; Tsikis, Guillaume; Labas, Valerie; Harichaux, Gregoire; Kohnke, Philippa; Reynaud, Karine; de Graaf, Simon P; Gerard, Nadine; Druart, Xavier

    2016-01-01

    The female genital tract includes several anatomical regions whose luminal fluids successively interact with gametes and embryos and are involved in the fertilisation and development processes. The luminal fluids from the inner cervix, the uterus and the oviduct were collected along the oestrous cycle at oestrus (Day 0 of the cycle) and during the luteal phase (Day 10) from adult cyclic ewes. The proteomes were assessed by GeLC-MS/MS and quantified by spectral counting. A set of 940 proteins were identified including 291 proteins differentially present along the cycle in one or several regions. The global analysis of the fluid proteomes revealed a general pattern of endocrine regulation of the tract, with the cervix and the oviduct showing an increased differential proteins abundance mainly at oestrus while the uterus showed an increased abundance mainly during the luteal phase. The proteins more abundant at oestrus included several families such as the heat shock proteins (HSP), the mucins, the complement cascade proteins and several redox enzymes. Other proteins known for their interaction with gametes such as oviductin (OVGP), osteopontin, HSPA8, and the spermadhesin AWN were also overexpressed at oestrus. The proteins more abundant during the luteal phase were associated with the immune system such as ceruloplasmin, lactoferrin, DMBT1, or PIGR, and also with tissue remodeling such as galectin 3 binding protein, alkaline phosphatase, CD9, or fibulin. Several proteins differentially abundant between estrus and the luteal phase, such as myosin 9 and fibronectin, were also validated by immunohistochemistry. The potential roles in sperm transit and uterine receptivity of the proteins differentially regulated along the cycle in the female genital tract are discussed. © 2016 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  1. Reproductive potential and nesting effects of Osmia rufa (syn. bicornis female (Hymenoptera: Megachilidae

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    Giejdasz Karol

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The red mason bee Osmia rufa is a solitary bee belonging to the family Megachilidae, and is prone to nest in aggregations. Each female builds a nest separately in pre-existing cavities such as holes in wood and walls or empty plant stems. This is done by successively setting the cells in a linear series. In this study, we elucidate the nesting behavior and the reproductive potential of a single O. rufa female. The reproductive potential of nesting females was evaluated after the offspring finished development. We observed that an individual female may colonize up to five nest tubes and build 5-34 cells in them (16 on an average. During the nesting time the number of cells decreased with the sequence of nest tubes colonized by one female, which built a maximum of 11 cells in the first occupied nest and 5 cells in the last (fifth nest. Our observations indicated that 40% of nesting females colonized one nest tube as compared to 7% colonizing five nest tubes. Furthermore, in subsequent nest tubes the number of cells with freshly emerged females gradually decreased which was the reverse with males. Thus, the sex ratio (proportion of male and female offspring may change during the nesting period. The female offspring predominated in the first two nesting tubes, while in the subsequent three tubes male offspring dominated. We also cataloged different causes of reduction in abundance of offspring in O. rufa females such as parasitization or problem associated with moulting.

  2. Intake of Erythrocytes Required for Reproductive Development of Female Schistosoma japonicum

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    Wang, Jipeng; Wang, Shuqi; Liu, Xiufeng; Xu, Bin; Chai, Riyi; Zhou, Pan; Ju, Chuan; Sun, Jun; Brindley, Paul J.; Hu, Wei

    2015-01-01

    The reproductive development and maturation of female schistosomes are crucial since their released eggs are responsible for the host immunopathology and transmission of schistosomiasis. However, little is known about the nutrients required by female Schistosoma japonicum during its sexual maturation. We evaluated the promoting effect of several nutrients (calf serum, red blood cells (RBCs), ATP and hypoxanthine) on the reproductive development of pre-adult females at 18 days post infection (dpi) from mixed infections and at 50 dpi from unisexual infections of laboratory mice in basic medium RPMI-1640. We found RBCs, rather than other nutrients, promoted the female sexual maturation and egg production with significant morphological changes. In 27% of females (18 dpi) from mixed infections that paired with males in vitro on day 14, vitelline glands could be positively stained by Fast Blue B; and in 35% of females (50 dpi) from unisexual infections on day 21, mature vitelline cells were observed. Infertile eggs were detected among both groups. To analyze which component of mouse RBCs possesses the stimulating effect, RBCs were fractionated and included in media. However, the RBC fractions failed to stimulate development of the female reproductive organs. In addition, bovine hemoglobin hydrolysate, digested by neutral protease, was found to exhibit the promoting activity instead of untreated bovine hemoglobin. The other protein hydrolysate, lactalbumin hydrolysate, exhibited a similar effect with bovine hemoglobin hydrolysate. Using quantitative RT-PCR, we found the expression levels of four reproduction-related genes were significantly stimulated by RBCs. These data indicate that RBCs provide essential nutrients for the sexual maturation of female S. japonicum and that the protein component of RBCs appeared to constitute the key nutrient. These findings would improve laboratory culture of pre-adult schistosomes to adult worms in medium with well-defined components

  3. Polychlorinated biphenyls and reproductive hormones in female polar bears at Svalbard.

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    Haave, Marte; Ropstad, Erik; Derocher, Andrew E; Lie, Elisabeth; Dahl, Ellen; Wiig, Øystein; Skaare, Janneche U; Jenssen, Bjørn Munro

    2003-04-01

    High concentrations of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in polar bears from Svalbard have increased concern for that population's reproductive health. We examined whether there were associations between the plasma concentrations of PCBs and reproductive hormones [progesterone (P4)] and 17 beta-estradiol (E2)] in free-living female polar bears from Svalbard. Concentrations of P4 depended on reproductive status, and concentrations were lowest in females with offspring--females with cubs and females with yearlings. In these females, the P4 concentrations were positively correlated with plasma sigma PCBs (sum of all analyzed polychlorinated biphenyl congeners) concentrations. The sigma PCBs concentrations explained 27% of the variation in the P4 concentrations. There were no correlations between sigma PCBs and E2 and cortisol in any of the groups of polar bears, or between sigma PCBs and P4 in single polar bears. Although the sigma PCBs-P4 relationship in female polar bears with offspring is not evidence per se of a direct cause-effect association, the results indicate that PCBs may affect levels of P4 in polar bear females. There is a clear need to further assess the hormone balance and population health of polar bears at Svalbard.

  4. The adaptive value of morphological, behavioural and life-history traits in reproductive female wolves.

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    Stahler, Daniel R; MacNulty, Daniel R; Wayne, Robert K; vonHoldt, Bridgett; Smith, Douglas W

    2013-01-01

    Reproduction in social organisms is shaped by numerous morphological, behavioural and life-history traits such as body size, cooperative breeding and age of reproduction, respectively. Little is known, however, about the relative influence of these different types of traits on reproduction, particularly in the context of environmental conditions that determine their adaptive value. Here, we use 14 years of data from a long-term study of wolves (Canis lupus) in Yellowstone National Park, USA, to evaluate the relative effects of different traits and ecological factors on the reproductive performance (litter size and survival) of breeding females. At the individual level, litter size and survival improved with body mass and declined with age (c. 4-5 years). Grey-coloured females had more surviving pups than black females, which likely contributed to the maintenance of coat colour polymorphism in this system. The effect of pack size on reproductive performance was nonlinear as litter size peaked at eight wolves and then declined, and litter survival increased rapidly up to three wolves, beyond which it increased more gradually. At the population level, litter size and survival decreased with increasing wolf population size and canine distemper outbreaks. The relative influence of these different-level factors on wolf reproductive success followed individual > group > population. Body mass was the primary determinant of litter size, followed by pack size and population size. Body mass was also the main driver of litter survival, followed by pack size and disease. Reproductive gains because of larger body size and cooperative breeding may mitigate reproductive losses because of negative density dependence and disease. These findings highlight the adaptive value of large body size and sociality in promoting individual fitness in stochastic and competitive environments. © 2012 The Authors. Journal of Animal Ecology © 2012 British Ecological Society.

  5. Early Menarche as an Alternative Reproductive Tactic in Human Females: An Evolutionary Approach to Reproductive Health Issues

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    Meghan T. Gillette

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The age at which a female reaches sexual maturity is critical in determining her future reproductive health and success. Thus, a worldwide decline in menarcheal age (timing of first menstrual period may have serious long-term consequences. Early menarcheal timing (first menstrual period before age 12 can have a negative effect on fecundity, as well as the quality and quantity of offspring, and may consequently influence population growth or decline. In this paper, we apply an evolutionary framework to modern human health, and assess both proximate and ultimate consequences of declining menarcheal age. Examination of human reproductive health within an evolutionary framework is innovative and essential, because it illuminates the ultimate consequences of a declining age of menarche and facilitates new ways of thinking about the long-term and intergenerational transmission of health and disease; thus, an evolutionary framework lends itself to innovative public health and policy programs. In this paper, we examine whether or not early menarche is an alternative reproductive tactic that modern human females employ in response to a stressful environment, and whether or not early menarche is ultimately beneficial.

  6. Reproductive Health Assessment of Female Elephants in North American Zoos and Association of Husbandry Practices with Reproductive Dysfunction in African Elephants (Loxodonta africana.

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    Janine L Brown

    Full Text Available As part of a multi-institutional study of zoo elephant welfare, we evaluated female elephants managed by zoos accredited by the Association of Zoos and Aquariums and applied epidemiological methods to determine what factors in the zoo environment are associated with reproductive problems, including ovarian acyclicity and hyperprolactinemia. Bi-weekly blood samples were collected from 95 African (Loxodonta africana and 75 Asian (Elephas maximus (8-55 years of age elephants over a 12-month period for analysis of serum progestogens and prolactin. Females were categorized as normal cycling (regular 13- to 17-week cycles, irregular cycling (cycles longer or shorter than normal or acyclic (baseline progestogens, <0.1 ng/ml throughout, and having Low/Normal (<14 or 18 ng/ml or High (≥14 or 18 ng/ml prolactin for Asian and African elephants, respectively. Rates of normal cycling, acyclicity and irregular cycling were 73.2, 22.5 and 4.2% for Asian, and 48.4, 37.9 and 13.7% for African elephants, respectively, all of which differed between species (P < 0.05. For African elephants, univariate assessment found that social isolation decreased and higher enrichment diversity increased the chance a female would cycle normally. The strongest multi-variable models included Age (positive and Enrichment Diversity (negative as important factors of acyclicity among African elephants. The Asian elephant data set was not robust enough to support multi-variable analyses of cyclicity status. Additionally, only 3% of Asian elephants were found to be hyperprolactinemic as compared to 28% of Africans, so predictive analyses of prolactin status were conducted on African elephants only. The strongest multi-variable model included Age (positive, Enrichment Diversity (negative, Alternate Feeding Methods (negative and Social Group Contact (positive as predictors of hyperprolactinemia. In summary, the incidence of ovarian cycle problems and hyperprolactinemia predominantly

  7. Early postnatal treatment with clomipramine induces female sexual behavior and estrous cycle impairment.

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    Molina-Jiménez, Tania; Limón-Morales, Ofelia; Bonilla-Jaime, Herlinda

    2018-03-01

    Administration of clomipramine (CMI), a tricyclic antidepressant, in early stages of development in rats, is considered an animal model for the study of depression. This pharmacological manipulation has induced behavioral and physiological alterations, i.e., less pleasure-seeking behaviors, despair, hyperactivity, cognitive dysfunction, alterations in neurotransmitter systems and in HPA axis. These abnormalities in adult male rats are similar to the symptoms observed in major depressive disorders. One of the main pleasure-seeking behaviors affected in male rats treated with CMI is sexual behavior. However, to date, no effects of early postnatal CMI treatment have been reported on female reproductive cyclicity and sexual behavior. Therefore, we explored CMI administration in early life (8-21 PN) on the estrous cycle and sexual behavior of adult female rats. Compared to the rats in the early postnatal saline treatment (CTRL group), the CMI rats had fewer estrous cycles, fewer days in the estrous stage, and longer cycles during a 20-day period of vaginal cytology analysis. On the behavioral test, the CMI rats displayed fewer proceptive behaviors (hopping, darting) and had lower lordosis quotients. Also, they usually failed to display lordosis and only rarely manifested marginal or normal lordosis. In contrast, the CTRL rats tended to display normal lordosis. These results suggest that early postnatal CMI treatment caused long-term disruptions of the estrous cycle and female sexual behavior, perhaps by alteration in the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal (HPG) axes and in neuronal circuits involved in the regulation of the performance and motivational of sexual behavior as the noradrenergic and serotonergic systems. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Impact of stress on female reproductive health disorders: Possible beneficial effects of shatavari (Asparagus racemosus).

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    Pandey, Ajai K; Gupta, Anumegha; Tiwari, Meenakshi; Prasad, Shilpa; Pandey, Ashutosh N; Yadav, Pramod K; Sharma, Alka; Sahu, Kankshi; Asrafuzzaman, Syed; Vengayil, Doyil T; Shrivastav, Tulsidas G; Chaube, Shail K

    2018-07-01

    Stress is deeply rooted in the society and women are frequently exposed to psychological, physical and physiological stressors. Psychological stress disturbs reproductive health by inducing generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and thereby oxidative stress (OS). The increased OS may affect physiology of ovary, oocyte quality and cause female reproductive health disorders. To overcome stress-mediated reproductive health disorders in women, shatavari (Asparagus racemosus) is frequently recommended in Ayurvedic system of medicine. Although shatavari is one of the major health tonics and most popular rasayana drugs to treat reproductive ailments of women, underlying mechanism of shatavari action at the level of ovary remains poorly understood. Based on the existing studies, we propose that shatavari may improve female reproductive health complications including hormonal imbalance, polycystic ovarian syndrome (PCOS), follicular growth and development, oocyte quality and infertility possibly by reducing OS level and increasing antioxidants level in the body. Further studies are required to elucidate the mechanism of shatavari actions at the level of ovary and oocyte that directly impacts the reproductive health of women. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  9. Zika virus preferentially replicates in the female reproductive tract after vaginal inoculation of rhesus macaques.

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    Timothy Carroll

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Zika virus (ZIKV is a mosquito-transmitted virus that can cause severe defects in an infected fetus. ZIKV is also transmitted by sexual contact, although the relative importance of sexual transmission is unclear. To better understand the role of sexual transmission in ZIKV pathogenesis, a nonhuman primate (NHP model of vaginal transmission was developed. ZIKV was readily transmitted to mature cycling female rhesus macaque (RM by vaginal inoculation with 104-106 plaque-forming units (PFU. However, there was variability in susceptibility between the individual RM with 1->8 vaginal inoculations required to establish infection. After treatment with Depoprovera, a widely used contraceptive progestin, two RM that initially resisted 8 vaginal ZIKV inoculations became infected after one ZIKV inoculation. Thus, Depoprovera seemed to enhance susceptibility to vaginal ZIKV transmission. Unexpectedly, the kinetics of virus replication and dissemination after intravaginal ZIKV inoculation were markedly different from RM infected with ZIKV by subcutaneous (SQ virus inoculation. Several groups have reported that after SQ ZIKV inoculation vRNA is rapidly detected in blood plasma with vRNA less common in urine and saliva and only rarely detected in female reproductive tract (FRT secretions. In contrast, in vaginally inoculated RM, plasma vRNA is delayed for several days and ZIKV replication in, and vRNA shedding from, the FRT was found in all 6 animals. Further, after intravaginal transmission ZIKV RNA shedding from FRT secretions was detected before or simultaneously with plasma vRNA, and persisted for at least as long. Thus, ZIKV replication in the FRT was independent of, and often preceded virus replication in the tissues contributing to plasma vRNA. These results support the conclusion that ZIKV preferentially replicates in the FRT after vaginal transmission, but not after SQ transmission, and raise the possibility that there is enhanced fetal infection and

  10. Zika virus preferentially replicates in the female reproductive tract after vaginal inoculation of rhesus macaques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carroll, Timothy; Lo, Ming; Lanteri, Marion; Dutra, Joseph; Zarbock, Katie; Silveira, Paola; Rourke, Tracy; Ma, Zhong-Min; Fritts, Linda; O'Connor, Shelby; Busch, Michael; Miller, Christopher J

    2017-07-01

    Zika virus (ZIKV) is a mosquito-transmitted virus that can cause severe defects in an infected fetus. ZIKV is also transmitted by sexual contact, although the relative importance of sexual transmission is unclear. To better understand the role of sexual transmission in ZIKV pathogenesis, a nonhuman primate (NHP) model of vaginal transmission was developed. ZIKV was readily transmitted to mature cycling female rhesus macaque (RM) by vaginal inoculation with 104-106 plaque-forming units (PFU). However, there was variability in susceptibility between the individual RM with 1->8 vaginal inoculations required to establish infection. After treatment with Depoprovera, a widely used contraceptive progestin, two RM that initially resisted 8 vaginal ZIKV inoculations became infected after one ZIKV inoculation. Thus, Depoprovera seemed to enhance susceptibility to vaginal ZIKV transmission. Unexpectedly, the kinetics of virus replication and dissemination after intravaginal ZIKV inoculation were markedly different from RM infected with ZIKV by subcutaneous (SQ) virus inoculation. Several groups have reported that after SQ ZIKV inoculation vRNA is rapidly detected in blood plasma with vRNA less common in urine and saliva and only rarely detected in female reproductive tract (FRT) secretions. In contrast, in vaginally inoculated RM, plasma vRNA is delayed for several days and ZIKV replication in, and vRNA shedding from, the FRT was found in all 6 animals. Further, after intravaginal transmission ZIKV RNA shedding from FRT secretions was detected before or simultaneously with plasma vRNA, and persisted for at least as long. Thus, ZIKV replication in the FRT was independent of, and often preceded virus replication in the tissues contributing to plasma vRNA. These results support the conclusion that ZIKV preferentially replicates in the FRT after vaginal transmission, but not after SQ transmission, and raise the possibility that there is enhanced fetal infection and pathology

  11. Energy Availability and Reproductive Function in Female Endurance Athletes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Melin, Anna Katarina

    and reduced EA, as well as those with oligomenorrhea/FHA, had lower RMR compared to those with either current optimal EA or eumenorrheic athletes. Furthermore, athletes with secondary FHA had increased work efficiency compared to eumenorrheic subjects, indicating a more profound metabolic adaptation in female...... athletes with clinical menstrual dysfunction. All three Triad conditions were common in this group of athletes, despite a normal BMI range and body composition. Furthermore, issues and physiological symptoms related to current low and reduced EA and oligomenorrhea/FHA were not limited to impaired bone...... health, but also included hypoglycaemia, hypercholesterolemia, and hypotension. The results indicated that diets lower in energy density, fat content, compact carbohydrate-rich foods and energy-containing drinks, together with higher fibre content, were associated with current low and reduced EA...

  12. Female genital mutilation: A tragedy for women's reproductive health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamid Rushwan

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Female genital mutilation/cutting (FGM/FGC constitutes a tragic health and human rights issue of girls and women in a number of countries, mainly in Africa. The practice has serious health consequences, both physical and psychological. Attempts to eradicate the practice have not been successful over the past few decades. Medicalisation of the practice has added to its propagation, and this is not valid from ethical and professional standpoints. Further efforts need to be exerted to eliminate the practice and alleviate the sufferings that millions of girls and women worldwide are unnecessarily subjected to. This article reviews the problem and discusses the consequences to health for women and girls, and suggests ways to eradicate the practice.

  13. Effects of Reproductive Health Education on Knowledge and Attitudes Among Female Adolescents in Saudi Arabia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tork, Hanan Mohamed Mohamed; Al Hosis, Khalid Fahad

    2015-09-01

    For many girls, the onset of puberty that occurs during adolescence marks a time of heightened vulnerability to early pregnancy, with its attendant complications and heightened risk of maternal mortality. National and international forums have recognized the need to address these problems through reproductive health education. This article assesses the reproductive-health-related knowledge and attitudes of female adolescents aged between 14 and 19 years. In addition, the authors assess the effectiveness of a reproductive health education program in improving the related knowledge of female adolescents. The study was conducted on female students in three secondary schools and in the preparatory year at Qassim University (N = 309). A 59-item structured questionnaire was used to test the knowledge and attitudes of all participants regarding reproductive health before and after the intervention program. Data collection was carried out between September and November 2012. A significant increase for the total sample in knowledge regarding puberty and menstruation was observed (p education program improves knowledge among adolescent girls regarding reproductive health.

  14. Identification of quiescent, stem-like cells in the distal female reproductive tract.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yongyi Wang

    Full Text Available In fertile women, the endometrium undergoes regular cycles of tissue build-up and regression. It is likely that uterine stem cells are involved in this remarkable turn over. The main goal of our current investigations was to identify slow-cycling (quiescent endometrial stem cells by means of a pulse-chase approach to selectively earmark, prospectively isolate, and characterize label-retaining cells (LRCs. To this aim, transgenic mice expressing histone2B-GFP (H2B-GFP in a Tet-inducible fashion were administered doxycycline (pulse which was thereafter withdrawn from the drinking water (chase. Over time, dividing cells progressively loose GFP signal whereas infrequently dividing cells retain H2B-GFP expression. We evaluated H2B-GFP retaining cells at different chase time points and identified long-term (LT; >12 weeks LRCs. The LT-LRCs are negative for estrogen receptor-α and express low levels of progesterone receptors. LRCs sorted by FACS are able to form spheroids capable of self-renewal and differentiation. Upon serum stimulation spheroid cells are induced to differentiate and form glandular structures which express markers of mature műllerian epithelial cells. Overall, the results indicate that quiescent cells located in the distal oviduct have stem-like properties and can differentiate into distinct cell lineages specific of endometrium, proximal and distal oviduct. Future lineage-tracing studies will elucidate the role played by these cells in homeostasis, tissue injury and cancer of the female reproductive tract in the mouse and eventually in man.

  15. The microbiota continuum along the female reproductive tract and its relation to uterine-related diseases

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chen, Chen; Song, Xiaolei; Wei, Weixia

    2017-01-01

    Reports on bacteria detected in maternal fluids during pregnancy are typically associated with adverse consequences, and whether the female reproductive tract harbours distinct microbial communities beyond the vagina has been a matter of debate. Here we systematically sample the microbiota within...

  16. Study on sexual and reproductive health behaviors of unmarried female migrants in China

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    He, D.; Zhou, Y.; Ji, N.; Wu, S.; Wang, Z.; Decat, P.; Moyer, E.; Minkauskiene, M.; Pang, C.; Cheng, Y.

    2012-01-01

    Aim: The purpose of this study was to broadly assess the level of knowledge, attitude and behaviors related to sexual and reproductive health (SRH) among unmarried female migrants in China. Material and Methods: This cross-sectional study was conducted and a self-administered questionnaire was

  17. Annual reproductive synchronization in ovary and pineal gland function of female short-nosed fruit bat, Cynopterus sphinx.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haldar, Chandana; Yadav, Rajesh; Alipreeta

    2006-08-01

    We studied the annual correlation of ovarian activity and pineal gland in relation with seasonal variation and gestation of a tropical zone short-nosed fruit bat Cynopterus sphinx. Female bats showed bimodal polyestry (February/March and September/October) in their reproductive cycle. Plasma estradiol concentration ran parallel with ovarian activity and had an inverse relation with pineal mass and peripheral melatonin concentration. Due to the delayed embryonic development in the uterus (October-March) of female bats, interestingly, the uterine activity did not show a parallel relation with ovarian activity and estradiol level. Further, compared with normal non-pregnant females, melatonin level was high during gestation and delayed embryonic development phase. This suggests that the reproductive synchrony and annual variation in ovarian activity of this nocturnal flying mammal differ from other common tropical mammals. The delayed embryonic development in bats might be an adaptive strategy for the unfavorable conditions of the seasons and might be regulated by high peripheral estradiol and melatonin concentration.

  18. Assessment of female reproductive endpoints in Sprague-Dawley rats developmentally exposed to Diuron: potential ovary toxicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grassi, Tony Fernando; Guerra, Marina Trevisan; Perobelli, Juliana Elaine; de Toledo, Fabíola Choqueta; da Silva, Denise Salioni; De Grava Kempinas, Wilma; Barbisan, Luís Fernando

    2011-10-01

    Diuron is widely used in agriculture but its deleterious effects on the reproductive system and mammary gland are still poorly understood. This study evaluated whether early-life-stage exposure to Diuron alters puberty onset or susceptibility to mammary carcinogenesis in female Sprague-Dawley rats. Pregnant rats received basal diet or diet containing Diuron at 500, 750, and 1,250 ppm, from gestational day 12 to the end of lactation (postnatal day 21 [PND21]). After weaning, female offspring continued receiving basal diet or diet containing Diuron until PND 51. At PND 51, female Sprague-Dawley offspring received a single dose of 50 mg/kg b.w. of 7,12-dimethylbenz(a)anthracene (DMBA) for initiation of mammary carcinogenesis. The animals were sacrificed on PND 51, 75, and 226 to 233 (week 25) for mammary gland morphology, reproductive organs and tumor analysis, respectively. There were no significant differences among groups on vaginal opening, estrous cycle, mammary morphology, or carcinogenesis. However, reductions in ovary weight and corpora lutea were observed at PND 75 in the group treated with Diuron at 1,250 ppm. The findings suggesting that Diuron exposure (1,250 ppm) may have been potentially toxic to the ovaries. © 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  19. [Investigation and Analysis on shift work female workers' and the impact on reproductive health].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, C Y; Yu, W L; Xu, M; Xing, Z L

    2018-02-20

    Objective: To investigate the distribution of shift work of female workers in different industries and the relationship between shift work and reproductive health, then provide reference for the female workers' labor protection. Methods: From June to September 2016, cluster sampling questionnaire survey was performed among female workers from 11 industries including electronics, medicine and health, pharmacy. To investigate the general information, shift - work information, reproductive health and childbearing history of these female workers. Results: A total of 63 711 usable questionnaires were collected, resulting in a response rate of 96.94%.A total of 13 546 workers worked in shifts, accounting for 21.26%, the highest proportion was in the medical industry 30.61%, metallurgy 30.81%, petrochemical engineerin 26.78% respectively. Compared with the workers who did not work in shifts, those who worked in shifts had significantly higher rate of abnormal menstruation, rate of reproductive system infection in married workers, the rate of infertility (χ(2)=19.108、10.673、21.510, P <0.05) ; Compared with the workers who did not work in nightshifts, those who worked in nightshifts had significantly higher rate of abnormal menstruation, rate of reproductive system infection among married workers and rate of infertility (χ(2)=140.043、71.901、29.024, P <0.01) . Conclusion: The highest rate of shift work was in the medical industry, metallurgy, petrochemical engineering industry. Workers who worked in shifts have serious reproductive health issues, the occurrence of abnormal menstruation, reproductive system infection and infertility may associated with shift work.

  20. Neurokinin B is critical for normal timing of sexual maturation but dispensable for adult reproductive function in female mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    True, Cadence; Nasrin Alam, Sayeda; Cox, Kimberly; Chan, Yee-Ming; Seminara, Stephanie B

    2015-04-01

    Humans carrying mutations in neurokinin B (NKB) or the NKB receptor fail to undergo puberty due to decreased secretion of GnRH. Despite this pubertal delay, many of these patients go on to achieve activation of their hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis in adulthood, a phenomenon termed reversal, indicating that NKB signaling may play a more critical role for the timing of pubertal development than adult reproductive function. NKB receptor-deficient mice are hypogonadotropic but have no defects in the timing of sexual maturation. The current study has performed the first phenotypic evaluation of mice bearing mutations in Tac2, the gene encoding the NKB ligand, to determine whether they have impaired sexual development similar to their human counterparts. Male Tac2-/- mice showed no difference in the timing of sexual maturation or fertility compared with wild-type littermates and were fertile. In contrast, Tac2-/- females had profound delays in sexual maturation, with time to vaginal opening and first estrus occurring significantly later than controls, and initial abnormalities in estrous cycles. However, cycling recovered in adulthood and Tac2-/- females were fertile, although they produced fewer pups per litter. Thus, female Tac2-/- mice parallel humans harboring NKB pathway mutations, with delayed sexual maturation and activation of the reproductive cascade later in life. Moreover, direct comparison of NKB ligand and receptor-deficient females confirmed that only NKB ligand-deficient animals have delayed sexual maturation, suggesting that in the absence of the NKB receptor, NKB may regulate the timing of sexual maturation through other tachykinin receptors.

  1. Ultrasonographic anatomy of reproductive female leopard geckos (Eublepharis macularius).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cojean, Ophélie; Vergneau-Grosset, Claire; Masseau, Isabelle

    2018-02-19

    Captive leopard geckos (Eublepharis macularius) often present to the exotic clinic for gastrointestinal impactions, follicular stasis, or dystocia. To our knowledge, normal ultrasonographic anatomy of these lizards has not been described. The objectives of this prospective, anatomic, analytical study were to develop ultrasound techniques for this species and to describe the normal sonographic anatomy of the head, coelomic cavity, and tail. Eleven, healthy, female leopard geckos were included. A linear array 13-18 MHz transducer was used. Geckos were sedated and restrained in dorsal recumbency for coelomic structure examination and in ventral recumbency for head and tail examinations. Sagittal and transverse images were acquired and authors recorded qualitative and quantitative ultrasonographic characteristics of anatomic structures. The ventral surface of the lungs, liver, gallbladder, caudal vena cava, portal vein, ventral abdominal vein, aorta, ovarian follicles, fat bodies, tail, and brain were visualized in 10 of 11 individuals. In one individual, molt precluded ultrasonographic examination. The heart, kidneys, urinary bladder, spleen, and pancreas were not visualized. The digestive tract was observed in 10 individuals but was too small to be measured. Findings from the current study could be used as a reference for future studies of leopard geckos. © 2018 American College of Veterinary Radiology.

  2. Reproductive Status of Females in the Eusocial Wasp Polistes ferreri Saussure (Hymenoptera: Vespidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soares, E R P; Torres, V O; Antonialli-Junior, W F

    2014-12-01

    In the subfamily Polistinae, caste dimorphism is not pronounced and differences among females are primarily physiological and behavioral. We investigated factors that indicate the reproductive status in females of Polistes ferreri Saussure. We analyzed females from nine colonies and evaluated morphometric parameters, ovarian development, occurrence of insemination, relative age, and cuticular chemical profile. The colony females showed three kinds of ovarian development: type A, filamentous ovarioles; type B, ovarioles containing partially developed oocytes; and type C, long and well-developed ovarioles containing two or more mature oocytes. The stepwise discriminant analysis of the cuticular chemical profile showed that it was possible to distinguish the three groups of females: workers 1, workers 2, and queens. However, the stepwise discriminant analysis of the morphological differences did not show significant differences among these groups. The queens were among the older females in the colony and were always inseminated, while the age of the workers varied according to the stage of colony development.

  3. Reproductive cycle of the salmon-bellied racer, Mastigodryas melanolomus (Serpentes, Colubridae, from Costa Rica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephen R. Goldberg

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is to present new information on the reproductive cycle of M. melanolomus from Costa Rica based onhistological examination of gonadal material from museum specimens. The first information on the timing of the testicular cycle is alsopresented.

  4. Reproductive Cycle of Hard Clam, Meretrix lyrata Sowerby, 1851 (Bivalvia: Veneridae) from Sarawak, Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamli, Hadi; Idris, Mohd Hanafi; Rajaee, Amy Halimah; Kamal, Abu Hena Mustafa

    2015-12-01

    A study of the reproductive cycle of the hard clam, Meretrix lyrata, was documented based on histological observation and Gonad Index (GI). Samples were taken from estuarine waters of the Buntal River in Sarawak, Malaysia. The gonad of M. lyrata started to develop in September 2013. Gametogenesis continued to develop until the maturation and spawning stage from February to April 2014. The GI pattern for a one-year cycle showed a significant correlation with chlorophyll a. The corresponding GI with chlorophyll a suggested that the development of the reproductive cycle of M. lyrata required a high amount of food to increase gametogenesis.

  5. Effects of nanotoxicity on female reproductivity and fetal development in animal models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Jianling; Zhang, Qiu; Wang, Zhiping; Yan, Bing

    2013-04-29

    The extensive application of nanomaterials in industry, medicine and consumer products has raised concerns about their potential toxicity. The female population is particularly vulnerable and deserves special attention because toxicity in this group may impact both female reproductivity and fetal development. Mouse and zebrafish models each have their own unique features and studies using these models to examine the potential toxicity of various nanoparticles are compared and summarized in this review. Several nanoparticles exhibit detrimental effects on female reproductivity as well as fetal development, and these adverse effects are related to nanoparticle composition, surface modification, dose, exposure route and animal species. Limited studies on the mechanisms of nanotoxicity are also documented and reviewed herein.

  6. Effects of Nanotoxicity on Female Reproductivity and Fetal Development in Animal Models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jianling Sun

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The extensive application of nanomaterials in industry, medicine and consumer products has raised concerns about their potential toxicity. The female population is particularly vulnerable and deserves special attention because toxicity in this group may impact both female reproductivity and fetal development. Mouse and zebrafish models each have their own unique features and studies using these models to examine the potential toxicity of various nanoparticles are compared and summarized in this review. Several nanoparticles exhibit detrimental effects on female reproductivity as well as fetal development, and these adverse effects are related to nanoparticle composition, surface modification, dose, exposure route and animal species. Limited studies on the mechanisms of nanotoxicity are also documented and reviewed herein.

  7. Natural history of Ctenus medius Keyserling, 1891 (Aranae, Ctenidae) II: life cycle and aspects of reproductive behavior under laboratory conditions

    OpenAIRE

    FOLLY-RAMOS E.; ALMEIDA C. E.; CARMO-SILVA M.; COSTA J.

    2002-01-01

    Ctenus medius Keyserling, 1891 is a wandering spider common in the Brazilian Atlantic Forest. It has been the subject of few studies. Thus, this work aims to elucidate aspects of its natural history, such as the life cycle and reproductive behavior of this species, through laboratory and field observations. Two females with egg sacs were observed in the laboratory and one was observed in field (Barra Mansa, 22º32'S and 44º10'W) until the emergence of the spiderlings. For observation of the im...

  8. Developmental exposure to ethinylestradiol affects reproductive physiology, the GnRH neuroendocrine network and behaviors in female mouse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lyes eDerouiche

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available During development, environmental estrogens are able to induce an estrogen mimetic action that may interfere with endocrine and neuroendocrine systems. The present study investigated the effects on the reproductive function in female mice following developmental exposure to pharmaceutical ethinylestradiol (EE2, the most widespread and potent synthetic steroid present in aquatic environments. EE2 was administrated in drinking water at environmentally relevant (ENVIR or pharmacological (PHARMACO doses (0.1 and 1 µg/kg (body weight/day respectively, from embryonic day 10 until postnatal day 40. Our results show that both groups of EE2-exposed females had advanced vaginal opening and shorter estrus cycles, but a normal fertility rate compared to CONTROL females. The hypothalamic population of GnRH neurons was affected by EE2 exposure with a significant increase in the number of perikarya in the preoptic area of the PHARMACO group and a modification in their distribution in the ENVIR group, both associated with a marked decrease in GnRH fibers immunoreactivity in the median eminence. In EE2-exposed females, behavioral tests highlighted a disturbed maternal behavior, a higher lordosis response, a lack of discrimination between gonad-intact and castrated males in sexually experienced females, and an increased anxiety-related behavior. Altogether, these results put emphasis on the high sensitivity of sexually dimorphic behaviors and neuroendocrine circuits to disruptive effects of EDCs.

  9. Costs of Reproduction in Breeding Female Mallards: Predation Risk during Incubation Drives Annual Mortality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Todd W. Arnold

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The effort expended on reproduction may entail future costs, such as reduced survival or fecundity, and these costs can have an important influence on life-history optimization. For birds with precocial offspring, hypothesized costs of reproduction have typically emphasized nutritional and energetic investments in egg formation and incubation. We measured seasonal survival of 3856 radio-marked female Mallards (Anas platyrhynchos from arrival on the breeding grounds through brood-rearing or cessation of breeding. There was a 2.5-fold direct increase in mortality risk associated with incubating nests in terrestrial habitats, whereas during brood-rearing when breeding females occupy aquatic habitats, mortality risk reached seasonal lows. Mortality risk also varied with calendar date and was highest during periods when large numbers of Mallards were nesting, suggesting that prey-switching behaviors by common predators may exacerbate risks to adults in all breeding stages. Although prior investments in egg laying and incubation affected mortality risk, most relationships were not consistent with the cost of reproduction hypothesis; birds with extensive prior investments in egg production or incubation typically survived better, suggesting that variation in individual quality drove both relationships. We conclude that for breeding female Mallards, the primary cost of reproduction is a fixed cost associated with placing oneself at risk to predators while incubating nests in terrestrial habitats.

  10. A non-invasive identification of hormone metabolites, gonadal event and reproductive status of captive female tigers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    HERI DWI PUTRANTO

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Putranto HD (2011 A non-invasive identification of hormone metabolites, gonadal event and reproductive status of captive female tigers. Biodiversitas 12: 131-135. As a non-invasive method, fecal sample provides some advantage for animal and collector. The purpose of the present study were to monitor the reproductive status of female Siberian tigers (Panthera tigris altaica by assessing changes in fecal during natural ovarian activity and pregnancy and to identify whether progesterone (P4 exists and what kinds of P4 metabolites excreted into the feces. Two female tigers were fed a diet consisting of meat. Drinking water was available ad libitum. Feces were collected ones to twice a week. The fecal contents of P4 and estradiol-17β (E2 were determined by EIA and P4 metabolites were separated by a modified HPLC. The EIA results shown that during its natural ovarian activitythe E2 contents showed cyclic changes at the average of 27.0 d interval, however, no distinct cycles were shown in fecal P4 contents of non-pregnant tiger. In contrary, the fecal P4 contents in pregnant tiger increased remarkably after copulation approximately 2- to 6-fold higher than the mean value. The HPLC results indicated that two peaks were primarily detected fraction 63- 64 min (identified metabolites and fraction 85 min (not identified metabolite in feces of pregnant tiger. However, P4 detected only small amount in feces. It is possible to assess non-invasively gonadal events such as luteal or follicular activity or ovulation of Siberian tigers by endocrine monitoring based on fecal P4 and E2 to understand reproductive status.

  11. Age-dependent trade-offs between immunity and male, but not female, reproduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McNamara, Kathryn B; van Lieshout, Emile; Jones, Therésa M; Simmons, Leigh W

    2013-01-01

    Immune function is costly and must be traded off against other life-history traits, such as gamete production. Studies of immune trade-offs typically focus on adult individuals, yet the juvenile stage can be a highly protracted period when reproductive resources are acquired and immune challenges are ubiquitous. Trade-offs during development are likely to be important, yet no studies have considered changes in adult responses to immune challenges imposed at different stages of juvenile development. By manipulating the timing of a bacterial immune challenge to the larvae of the cotton bollworm moth, we examined potential trade-offs between investment into immunity at different stages of juvenile development (early or late) and subsequent adult reproductive investment into sperm or egg production. Our data reveal an age-dependent trade-off between juvenile immune function and adult male reproductive investment. Activation of the immune response during late development resulted in a reduced allocation of resources to eupyrene (fertilizing) sperm production. Immune activation from the injection procedure itself (irrespective of whether individuals were injected with an immune elicitor or a control solution) also caused reproductive trade-offs; males injected early in development produced fewer apyrene (nonfertilizing) sperm. Contrary to many other studies, our study demonstrates these immune trade-offs under ad libitum nutritional conditions. No trade-offs were observed between female immune activation and adult reproductive investment. We suggest the differences in trade-offs observed between male sperm types and the absence of reproductive trade-offs in females may be the result of ontogenetic differences in gamete production in this species. Our data reveal developmental windows when trade-offs between immune function and gametic investment are made, and highlight the importance of considering multiple developmental periods when making inferences regarding the

  12. THE FATTY ACIDS OF DIET AFFECT THE REPRODUCTIVE PHYSIOLOGY IN BOVINE FEMALE: A REVIEW

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Luis Espinoza Villavicencio

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Reproduction is the basis of bovine meat and milk production: As a direct result of reproduction, the cycles of calf and milk production are renewed. However, there are many limiting steps in this process as: low pregnancy rates and long open days that result in increasing parturition intervals. Reproductive efficiency in dairy and beef cattle is multifactorial. Nutrition is one of the most important factors affecting this efficiency, and some results have shown that feeding diverse sources of lipids and specifically, fatty acids (FA can result in a better reproductive efficiency. As a nutrition strategy to improve reproductive efficiency, FA of the omega 3 (n-3 and omega 6 (n-6 families have been studied, and it has been shown that these FA can control follicular development, production of progesterone in the corpus luteum, and secretion of PGF2α from the endometrium, increasing embryonic survival and pregnancy rates. The purpose of this revision is to analyze the possible mechanisms by which FA in the diet improve reproductive efficiency of cows, with especial emphasis on FA n-3 and n-6.

  13. The effects of menstrual cycle phase on physical performance in female soccer players

    Science.gov (United States)

    Julian, Ross; Hecksteden, Anne; Fullagar, Hugh H. K.; Meyer, Tim

    2017-01-01

    Background Female soccer has grown extensively in recent years, however differences in gender-specific physiology have rarely been considered. The female reproductive hormones which rise and fall throughout the menstrual cycle, are known to affect numerous cardiovascular, respiratory, thermoregulatory and metabolic parameters, which in turn, may have implications on exercise physiology and soccer performance. Therefore, the main aim of the present study was to investigate potential effects of menstrual cycle phase on performance in soccer specific tests. Methods Nine sub elite female soccer players, all of whom have menstrual cycles of physiological length; performed a series of physical performance tests (Yo-Yo Intermittent endurance test (Yo-Yo IET), counter movement jump (CMJ) and 3x30 m sprints). These were conducted at distinct time points during two main phases of the menstrual cycle (early follicular phase (FP) and mid luteal phase (LP)) where hormones contrasted at their greatest magnitude. Results Yo-Yo IET performance was considerably lower during the mid LP (2833±896 m) as compared to the early FP (3288±800 m). A trend towards significance was observed (p = 0.07) and the magnitude based inferences suggested probabilities of 0/61/39 for superiority/equality/inferiority of performance during the mid LP, leading to the inference of a possibly harmful effect. For CMJ (early FP, 20.0±3.9 cm; mid LP 29.6±3.0 cm, p = 0.33) and sprint (early FP, 4.7±0.1 s; mid LP, 4.7±0.1 s, p = 0.96) performances the results were unclear (8/24/68, 48/0/52, respectively). Conclusion The results of this study are in support of a reduction in maximal endurance performance during the mid LP of the menstrual cycle. However, the same effect was not observed for jumping and sprint performance. Therefore, consideration of cycle phase when monitoring a player’s endurance capacity may be worthwhile. PMID:28288203

  14. Effect of ethanolic seed extract of Caesalpinia bonducella on female reproductive system of albino rat: a focus on antifertility efficacy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lilaram

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To evaluate the effect of oral administration of the ethanolic seed extract of Caesalpinia bonducella on the reproductive system in Wistar female albino rat. Methods: The study was divided into four groups. The group I received distilled water and served as vehicle treated control. Groups II, III and IV were orally administered 100, 200 and 300 mg/kg body weight dose of seed extract respectively, for 10 consecutive days and subsequently euthanized twenty four hours after the last dose. Results: The treatment prolonged the length of estrous cycle with significant increase in the duration of diestrus stage. The analysis of the principal hormones viz. LH, FSH, estradiol and progesterone showed significantly decreased levels in dose-dependant manner. Ovarian and uterine weight was significantly reduced as compared to that of the control group. Histoarchitectural observations revealed follicular atresia and degeneration of corpora lutea in ovary. Oviduct showed degeneration of mucosal folds and epithelium cells. Uterus showed evidence of degeneration of endometrial epithelium and endometrial glands. Lamina propria and muscularis layer of vagina were found slightly disorganized. Conclusions: It can be concluded that significant decrease in the hormone levels, reproductive organs weight and alterations in histoarchitecture of reproductive organs might be due to antiestrogenic nature of seed extract.

  15. Reproductive tradeoffs and yolk steroids in female leopard geckos, Eublepharis macularius.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rhen, T; Crews, D; Fivizzani, A; Elf, P

    2006-11-01

    Life history theory predicts tradeoffs among reproductive traits, but the physiological mechanisms underlying such tradeoffs remain unclear. Here we examine reproductive tradeoffs and their association with yolk steroids in an oviparous lizard. Female leopard geckos lay two eggs in a clutch, produce multiple clutches in a breeding season, and reproduce for several years. We detected a significant tradeoff between egg size and the number of clutches laid by females during their first two breeding seasons. Total reproductive effort was strongly condition-dependent in the first season, but much less so in the second season. Although these and other tradeoffs were unmistakable, they were not associated with levels of androstenedione, oestradiol, or testosterone in egg yolk. Female condition and egg size, however, were inversely related to dihydrotestosterone (DHT) levels in egg yolk. Finally, steroid levels in egg yolk were not directly related to steroid levels in the maternal circulation when follicles were developing, indicating that steroid transfer to eggs is regulated. These findings suggest that maternal allocation of DHT could mitigate tradeoffs that lead to poor offspring quality (i.e. poor female condition) and small offspring size (i.e. small egg size).

  16. The effect of elevated reproductive effort onhumoral immune function in collared flycatcher females

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cichoń, Mariusz; Dubiec, Anna; Chadzińska, Magdalena

    2001-02-01

    In order to test whether high reproductive investments impair immune function in naturally breeding collared flycatchers, we performed a brood manipulation experiment and simultaneously induced an immune response by challenging birds with a non-pathogenic antigen - sheep red blood cells (SRBC). Females rearing experimentally enlarged number of nestlings showed significantly lower level of specific anti-SRBC antibodies than control females attending unaltered broods, but only in one of the two study years. The haemoconcentration of leukocytes did not differ between the two groups in both study years. The significant difference in immunological responsiveness between control and enlarged group coincided with differences in survival probability to the next breeding season: females attending enlarged broods showed lower probability of survival than control females, but there was no relationship between the level of immune response and survival probability. Our results indicate that reproduction may indeed trade for resources with immune functions at least in terms of specific antibody production. However, as in the other studies on reproductive costs, these costs seem not always to be pronounced.

  17. Two-generation reproductive toxicity study of tributyltin chloride in female rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogata, R; Omura, M; Shimasaki, Y; Kubo, K; Oshima, Y; Aou, S; Inoue, N

    2001-05-25

    A two-generation reproductive toxicity study of the effects of tributyltin chloride (TBTCl) was conducted in female rats using dietary concentrations of 5, 25, and 125 ppm TBTCl. Reproductive outcomes of dams (number and body weight of pups and the percentage of live pups) and the growth of female pups (the day of eye opening and body weight gain) were significantly decreased in the 125 ppm TBTCl group. A delay in vaginal opening and impaired estrous cyclicity were also observed in the 125 ppm TBTCl group. However, an increase in anogenital distance was found in all TBTCl groups on postnatal d 1. A dose-effect relationship was observed in TBTCl-induced changes in anogenital distance. These results indicate that the whole-life exposure to TBTCl affects the sexual development and reproductive function of female rats. In addition, the TBTCl-induced increase in anogenital distance seems to suggest it may exert a masculinizing effect on female neonates. However, the concentrations of TBTCl used in this study are not environmentally relevant.

  18. A potential mate influences reproductive development in female, but not male, pine siskins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watts, Heather E; Edley, Bruce; Hahn, Thomas P

    2016-04-01

    The role of photoperiod in avian reproductive timing has been well studied, and we are increasingly recognizing the roles of other environmental cues such as social cues. However, few studies have evaluated the extent to which males and females of the same species respond similarly to the same type of cue. Moreover, previous studies have rarely examined how variation in the quality or nature of a given social cue might modulate its effect. Here, we examine the sensitivity of male and female pine siskins (Spinus pinus) to a potential mate as a stimulatory cue for gonadal recrudescence, and we investigate whether variation in the relationship between a bird and its potential mate modulates the effect of that potential mate. Birds were initially housed without opposite sex birds on a 12L:12D photoperiod with ad libitum food. After gonadal recrudescence had begun males and females were randomly paired with an opposite sex bird or housed alone. An additional group of males was paired with estradiol-implanted females. In males, these social treatments had no effect on testis length, cloacal protuberance length, luteinizing hormone (LH) levels, or testosterone levels. In females, presence of a potential mate had a significant and positive effect on ovary score, defeathering of the brood patch, and LH levels. Among paired birds, the degree of affiliation within a pair corresponded to the extent of reproductive development in females, but not males. Thus, reproductive timing in females appears to be sensitive to both the presence of a potential mate and her relationship with him. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Alternative reproductive tactics in female striped mice: Solitary breeders have lower corticosterone levels than communal breeders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, Davina L; Pillay, Neville; Schradin, Carsten

    2015-05-01

    Alternative reproductive tactics (ARTs), where members of the same sex and population show distinct reproductive phenotypes governed by decision-rules, have been well-documented in males of many species, but are less well understood in females. The relative plasticity hypothesis (RPH) predicts that switches between plastic ARTs are mediated by changes in steroid hormones. This has received much support in males, but little is known about the endocrine control of female ARTs. Here, using a free-living population of African striped mice (Rhabdomys pumilio) over five breeding seasons, we tested whether females following different tactics differed in corticosterone and testosterone levels, as reported for male striped mice using ARTs, and in progesterone and oestrogen, which are important in female reproduction. Female striped mice employ three ARTs: communal breeders give birth in a shared nest and provide alloparental care, returners leave the group temporarily to give birth, and solitary breeders leave to give birth and do not return. We expected communal breeders and returners to have higher corticosterone, owing to the social stress of group-living, and lower testosterone than solitary breeders, which must defend territories alone. Solitary breeders had lower corticosterone than returners and communal breeders, as predicted, but testosterone and progesterone did not differ between ARTs. Oestrogen levels were higher in returners (measured before leaving the group) than in communal and solitary breeders, consistent with a modulatory role. Our study demonstrates hormonal differences between females following (or about to follow) different tactics, and provides the first support for the RPH in females. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Sex-role reversal of a monogamous pipefish without higher potential reproductive rate in females.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sogabe, Atsushi; Yanagisawa, Yasunobu

    2007-12-07

    In monogamous animals, males are usually the predominant competitors for mates. However, a strictly monogamous pipefish Corythoichthys haematopterus exceptionally exhibits a reversed sex role. To understand why its sex role is reversed, we measured the adult sex ratio and the potential reproductive rate (PRR), two principal factors influencing the operational sex ratio (OSR), in a natural population of southern Japan. The adult sex ratio was biased towards females throughout the breeding season, but the PRR, which increased with water temperature, did not show sexual difference. We found that an alternative index of the OSR (Sf/Sm: sex ratio of 'time in') calculated from the monthly data was consistently biased towards females. The female-biased OSR associated with sex-role reversal has been reported in some polyandrous or promiscuous pipefish, but factors biasing the OSR differed between these pipefish and C. haematopterus. We concluded that the similar PRR between the sexes in C. haematopterus does not confer reproductive benefit of polygamous mating on either sex, resulting in strict monogamous mating, and its female-biased adult sex ratio promotes female-female competition for a mate, resulting in sex-role reversal.

  1. Female song rate and structure predict reproductive success in a socially monogamous bird.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dianne Heather Brunton

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Bird song is commonly regarded as a male trait that has evolved through sexual selection. However, recent research has prompted a re-evaluation of this view by demonstrating that female song is an ancestral and phylogenetically widespread trait. Species with female song provide opportunities to study selective pressures and mechanisms specific to females within the wider context of social competition. We investigated the relationship between reproductive success and female song performance in the New Zealand bellbird (Anthornis melanura, a passerine resident year round in New Zealand temperate forests. We monitored breeding behavior and song over three years on Tiritiri Matangi Island. Female bellbirds contributed significantly more towards parental care than males (solely incubating young and provisioning chicks at more than twice the rate of males. Female song rate in the vicinity of the nest was higher than that of males during incubation and chick-rearing stages but similar during early-nesting and post-breeding stages. Using GLMs, we found that female song rates during both incubation and chick-rearing stages strongly predicted the number of fledged chicks. However, male song rate and male and female chick provisioning rates had no effect on fledging success. Two measures of female song complexity (number of syllable types and the number of transitions between different syllable types were also good predictors of breeding success (GLM on PC scores. In contrast, song duration, the total number of syllables, and the number of ‘stutter’ syllables per song were not correlated with fledging success. It is unclear why male song rate was not associated with reproductive success and we speculate that extra-pair paternity might play a role. While we have previously demonstrated that female bellbird song is important in intrasexual interactions, we clearly demonstrate here that female song predicts reproductive success. These results, with others

  2. Characterization of Ovarian Steroid Patterns in Female African Lions (Panthera leo), and the Effects of Contraception on Reproductive Function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Putman, Sarah B; Brown, Janine L; Franklin, Ashley D; Schneider, Emily C; Boisseau, Nicole P; Asa, Cheryl S; Pukazhenthi, Budhan S

    2015-01-01

    Because of poor reproduction after the lifting of an 8-year breeding moratorium, a biomedical survey of female lions in U.S. zoos was initiated in 2007. Fecal estrogen (FEM), progestagen (FPM) and glucocorticoid (FGM) metabolites were analyzed in samples collected 3-4 times per wk from 28 lions at 17 facilities (0.9-13.8 yr of age) for 4 mo-3.5 yr and body weights were obtained ~monthly from 17 animals at eight facilities (0.0-3.0 yr of age). Based on FEM, estrous cycle length averaged 17.5 ± 0.4 d in duration, with estrus lasting 4.4 ± 0.2 d. All but one female exhibited waves of estrogenic activity indicative of follicular activity; however, not all females expressed estrous behaviors (73%), suggesting silent estrus was common. Female lions experienced puberty earlier than expected; waves of estrogenic activity were observed as young as 1.1 yr of age, which may be related to a faster growth rate of captive vs. wild lions. Mean gestation length was 109.5 ± 1.0 d, whereas the non-pregnant luteal phase was less than half (46.0 ± 1.2 d). Non-mating induced increases in FPM were observed in 33% of females housed without a male, consistent with spontaneous ovulation. A number of study animals had been contracepted, and the return to cyclicity after treatment withdrawal, while variable, was ~4.0 yr and longer than the 1-yr expected efficacy, especially for those implanted with Suprelorin. For FGM, there were no differences in overall, baseline or peak mean concentrations among the age groups or across seasons, nor were there any relationships between reproductive parameters and FGM concentrations. Overall, results suggest that poor reproduction in lions after the breeding moratorium was not related to altered adrenal or ovarian steroid activity, but for some females may have been a consequence of individual institutions' management decisions.

  3. Characterization of Ovarian Steroid Patterns in Female African Lions (Panthera leo), and the Effects of Contraception on Reproductive Function

    Science.gov (United States)

    Putman, Sarah B.; Brown, Janine L.; Franklin, Ashley D.; Schneider, Emily C.; Boisseau, Nicole P.; Asa, Cheryl S.; Pukazhenthi, Budhan S.

    2015-01-01

    Because of poor reproduction after the lifting of an 8-year breeding moratorium, a biomedical survey of female lions in U.S. zoos was initiated in 2007. Fecal estrogen (FEM), progestagen (FPM) and glucocorticoid (FGM) metabolites were analyzed in samples collected 3–4 times per wk from 28 lions at 17 facilities (0.9–13.8 yr of age) for 4 mo—3.5 yr and body weights were obtained ~monthly from 17 animals at eight facilities (0.0–3.0 yr of age). Based on FEM, estrous cycle length averaged 17.5 ± 0.4 d in duration, with estrus lasting 4.4 ± 0.2 d. All but one female exhibited waves of estrogenic activity indicative of follicular activity; however, not all females expressed estrous behaviors (73%), suggesting silent estrus was common. Female lions experienced puberty earlier than expected; waves of estrogenic activity were observed as young as 1.1 yr of age, which may be related to a faster growth rate of captive vs. wild lions. Mean gestation length was 109.5 ± 1.0 d, whereas the non-pregnant luteal phase was less than half (46.0 ± 1.2 d). Non-mating induced increases in FPM were observed in 33% of females housed without a male, consistent with spontaneous ovulation. A number of study animals had been contracepted, and the return to cyclicity after treatment withdrawal, while variable, was ~4.0 yr and longer than the 1-yr expected efficacy, especially for those implanted with Suprelorin. For FGM, there were no differences in overall, baseline or peak mean concentrations among the age groups or across seasons, nor were there any relationships between reproductive parameters and FGM concentrations. Overall, results suggest that poor reproduction in lions after the breeding moratorium was not related to altered adrenal or ovarian steroid activity, but for some females may have been a consequence of individual institutions’ management decisions. PMID:26460849

  4. The Reproductive Morphology and Physiological Age Grading of the Female Salvinia Weevil, Calder and Sands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lee Eisenberg

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The morphology of the female Cyrtobagous salviniae Calder and Sands reproductive system is similar to other weevil species being meroistic and telotrophic. The reproductive system is composed of 2 ovaries each containing 2 ovarioles where the follicles mature. A physiological age grading system was developed where the continuum of ovarium development was divided into 2 nulliparous and 3 parous classes. This was based on the differentiation of the ovarioles, presence, and appearance of follicular relics, cuticle hardness/coloration, and fat body quantity/appearance. High correlation occurred between the parous classes and number of eggs produced where the P3 class had over 9-fold higher number of eggs in comparison with the P1 class. Mean number of eggs produced for each parous class was significantly different, however, overlap occurred. Such a system enables a determination of the past, present, and future reproductive status of field populations and mass-rearing colonies.

  5. Variations upon a theme: Australian lizards provide insights into the endocrine control of vertebrate reproductive cycles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Susan M

    2017-04-01

    Australian lizards exhibit a broad array of different reproductive strategies and provide an extraordinary diversity and range of models with which to address fundamental problems in reproductive biology. Studies on lizards have frequently led to new insights into hormonal regulatory pathways or mechanisms of control, but we have detailed knowledge of the reproductive cycle in only a small percentage of known species. This review provides an overview and synthesis of current knowledge of the hormonal control of reproductive cycles in Australian lizards. Agamid lizards have provided useful models with which to test hypotheses about the hormonal regulation of the expression of reproductive behaviors, while research on viviparous skinks is providing insights into the evolution of the endocrine control of gestation. However, in order to better understand the potential risks that environmental factors such as climate change and endocrine disrupting chemicals pose to our fauna, better knowledge is required of the fundamental characteristics of the reproductive cycle in a broader range of lizard species. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Reproductive behaviour of Crocidosema (=Epinotia) aporema (Walsingham) (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae): temporal pattern of female calling and mating

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Altesor, Paula; Arcia, Maria P.; Rossini, Carmen; Gonzalez, Andres; Horas, Vanusa R; Zarbin, Paulo H.G.

    2010-01-01

    Crocidosema aporema (Walsingham) is a major pest of legumes in the southern cone of Latin America. The mating behaviour of two allopatric populations (Uruguay and Brazil) of C. aporema kept in captivity was studied by observing the posture of calling females, the temporal pattern of pheromone emission and mating, and the response of males to calling females in olfactometer tests. Female calling and mating was observed during the scotophase, from the fi rst to the seventh night after adult emergence. Male response was evaluated at night using a single calling female in a Y-shaped olfactometer. Females adopted a characteristic calling posture, extruding the pheromone gland from the tip of the abdomen. Most females started calling during the second scotophase, and all females called from the third, between the fifth and seventh hours after the onset of the scotophase. Most of the couples mated once throughout the experiment, between the third and sixth night and during the middle of the dark phase. Males preferentially chose the female arm in olfactometer tests, considering both the fi rst arm chosen and the number of visits during the observation period. Our results describe for the fi rst time the temporal pattern associated to the reproductive behaviour of C. aporema. We also provide evidence that this tortricid is monoandrous, and that pheromones are used in intersexual communication for mate finding. Our data will be used to optimize the collection of female sex pheromones for chemical characterization in order to develop a monitoring tool for this pest. (author)

  7. Reproductive behaviour of Crocidosema (=Epinotia) aporema (Walsingham) (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae): temporal pattern of female calling and mating

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Altesor, Paula; Arcia, Maria P.; Rossini, Carmen; Gonzalez, Andres, E-mail: paltesor@fq.edu.u, E-mail: mparcia@fq.edu.u, E-mail: crossini@fq.edu.u, E-mail: agonzal@fq.edu.u [Universidad de la Republica, Montevideo (Uruguay). Fac. de Quimica. Lab. de Ecologia Quimica; Horas, Vanusa R; Zarbin, Paulo H.G., E-mail: vanusa@quimica.ufpr.b, E-mail: pzarbin@quimica.ufpr.b [Universidade Federal do Parana (UFPR), Curitiba, PR (Brazil). Dept. de Quimica. Lab. de Semioquimicos

    2010-06-15

    Crocidosema aporema (Walsingham) is a major pest of legumes in the southern cone of Latin America. The mating behaviour of two allopatric populations (Uruguay and Brazil) of C. aporema kept in captivity was studied by observing the posture of calling females, the temporal pattern of pheromone emission and mating, and the response of males to calling females in olfactometer tests. Female calling and mating was observed during the scotophase, from the fi rst to the seventh night after adult emergence. Male response was evaluated at night using a single calling female in a Y-shaped olfactometer. Females adopted a characteristic calling posture, extruding the pheromone gland from the tip of the abdomen. Most females started calling during the second scotophase, and all females called from the third, between the fifth and seventh hours after the onset of the scotophase. Most of the couples mated once throughout the experiment, between the third and sixth night and during the middle of the dark phase. Males preferentially chose the female arm in olfactometer tests, considering both the fi rst arm chosen and the number of visits during the observation period. Our results describe for the fi rst time the temporal pattern associated to the reproductive behaviour of C. aporema. We also provide evidence that this tortricid is monoandrous, and that pheromones are used in intersexual communication for mate finding. Our data will be used to optimize the collection of female sex pheromones for chemical characterization in order to develop a monitoring tool for this pest. (author)

  8. Protective Effects of Female Reproductive Factors on Lauren Intestinal-Type Gastric Adenocarcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Su Mi; Min, Byung Hoon; Lee, Jeeyun; An, Ji Yeong; Lee, Jun Ho; Sohn, Tae Sung; Bae, Jae Moon; Kim, Jae J; Kang, Won Ki; Kim, Sung; Choi, Min Gew

    2018-01-01

    Gastric cancer shows a male predominance that might be explained by protective effects from estrogens in females. Two Lauren classification histological subtypes, intestinal and diffuse, have distinct carcinogeneses. The purpose of this study was to estimate the effects of sex hormone on female gastric cancer according to Lauren classification. We reviewed medical records for and administered questionnaires, surveying reproductive and hormonal factors, to 758 patients who underwent gastrectomy for gastric cancer at Samsung Medical Center from May 2012 to November 2014. Clinicopathological characteristics were compared between females and males. The incidence of intestinal-type gastric cancer was compared between females subgroups, consist of premenopausal women and three groups of postmenopausal women (five-year intervals after menopause), and males. The association between reproductive factors and intestinal-type gastric cancer was analyzed by multivariate models for the female group. In total, 227 females (29.9%) and 531 males (70.9%) were included in the analysis. Undifferentiated adenocarcinoma and diffuse-type histology were more frequent in female patients than male patients. While 221 (41.6%) male patients had intestinal-type gastric cancer, no premenopausal female patient had this type of gastric cancer. The incidence of intestinal-type gastric cancer increased with time after menopause, and was similar to males after 10 years from menopause. Parity was associated with an increased risk of intestinal-type gastric cancer in menopausal women. These findings support that female sex hormones might be protective against intestinal-type gastric cancer. © Copyright: Yonsei University College of Medicine 2018

  9. Estrous cycle influences the expression of neuronal nitric oxide synthase in the hypothalamus and limbic system of female mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Viglietti-Panzica Carla

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Nitric oxide plays an important role in the regulation of male and female sexual behavior in rodents, and the expression of the nitric oxide synthase (NOS is influenced by testosterone in the male rat, and by estrogens in the female. We have here quantitatively investigated the distribution of nNOS immunoreactive (ir neurons in the limbic hypothalamic region of intact female mice sacrificed during different phases of estrous cycle. Results Changes were observed in the medial preoptic area (MPA (significantly higher number in estrus and in the arcuate nucleus (Arc (significantly higher number in proestrus. In the ventrolateral part of the ventromedial nucleus (VMHvl and in the bed nucleus of the stria terminalis (BST no significant changes have been observed. In addition, by comparing males and females, we observed a stable sex dimorphism (males have a higher number of nNOS-ir cells in comparison to almost all the different phases of the estrous cycle in the VMHvl and in the BST (when considering only the less intensely stained elements. In the MPA and in the Arc sex differences were detected only comparing some phases of the cycle. Conclusion These data demonstrate that, in mice, the expression of nNOS in some hypothalamic regions involved in the control of reproduction and characterized by a large number of estrogen receptors is under the control of gonadal hormones and may vary according to the rapid variations of hormonal levels that take place during the estrous cycle.

  10. Distribution and female reproductive state differences in orexigenic and anorexigenic neurons in the brain of the mouth brooding African cichlid fish, Astatotilapia burtoni.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porter, Danielle T; Roberts, David A; Maruska, Karen P

    2017-10-01

    Integration of reproduction and metabolism is necessary for species survival. While the neural circuits controlling energy homeostasis are well-characterized, the signals controlling the relay of nutritional information to the reproductive axis are less understood. The cichlid fish Astatotilapia burtoni is ideal for studying the neural regulation of feeding and reproduction because females cycle between a feeding gravid state and a period of forced starvation while they brood developing young inside their mouths. To test the hypothesis that candidate neuropeptide-containing neurons known to be involved in feeding and energy homeostasis in mammals show conserved distribution patterns, we performed immunohistochemistry and in situ hybridization to localize appetite-stimulating (neuropeptide Y, NPY; agouti-related protein, AGRP) and appetite-inhibiting (cocaine and amphetamine-regulated transcript, CART; pro-opiomelanocortin, pomc1a) neurons in the brain. NPY, AGRP, CART, and pomc1a somata showed distribution patterns similar to other teleosts, which included localization to the lateral tuberal nucleus (NLT), the putative homolog of the mammalian arcuate nucleus. Gravid females also had larger NPY and AGRP neurons in the NLT compared to brooding females, but brooding females had larger pomc1a neurons compared to gravid females. Hypothalamic agrp mRNA levels were also higher in gravid compared to brooding females. Thus, larger appetite-stimulating neurons (NPY, AGRP) likely promote feeding while females are gravid, while larger pomc1a neurons may act as a signal to inhibit food intake during mouth brooding. Collectively, our data suggest a potential role for NPY, AGRP, POMC, and CART in regulating energetic status in A. burtoni females during varying metabolic and reproductive demands. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  11. Diminished lifetime reproductive capacity in the female after early radiation exposure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dobson, R.L.; Kwan, T.C.; Brunckhorst, B.F.; Straume, T.

    1986-01-01

    To measure effects of early tritium-induced oocyte loss on lifetime reproduction, we determined total reproductive capacity (RC) of female mice in which known oocyte deficiencies had been produced in early life by chronic exposure to 3 HOH administered to their mothers in drinking water from the day of conception to 14 days postpartum. At that time 3 HOH administration was stopped, and oocytes were enumerated in the suckling young. Over the subsequent two years, RC was determined in these young by counting the litters and offspring they produced during continuous breeding over their entire reproductive life spans. Offspring were removed at birth to avoid interrupting the breeding process. Tritium-induced diminution of RC was found to be done dependent but less than - and, interestingly, different from - diminution of oocyte number. Oocyte loss was stochastic; RC reduction, nonstochastic. Also, despite oocyte deficiencies, productivity of exposed females tended to be normal during early reproductive life but failed prematurely as oocytes ran out. 15 refs., 4 figs., 3 tabs

  12. The value of eutherian-marsupial comparisons for understanding the function of glucocorticoids in female mammal reproduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fanson, Kerry V; Parrott, Marissa L

    2015-11-01

    This article is part of a Special Issue "SBN 2014". Chronic stress is known to inhibit female reproductive function. Consequently, it is often assumed that glucocorticoid (GC) concentrations should be negatively correlated with reproductive success because of the role they play in stress physiology. In contrast, a growing body of evidence indicates that GCs play an active role in promoting reproductive function. It is precisely because GCs are so integral to the entire process that disruptions to adrenal activity have negative consequences for reproduction. The goal of this paper is to draw attention to the increasing evidence showing that increases in adrenal activity are important for healthy female reproduction. Furthermore, we outline several hypotheses about the functional role(s) that GCs may play in mediating reproduction and argue that comparative studies between eutherian and marsupial mammals, which exhibit some pronounced differences in reproductive physiology, may be particularly useful for testing different hypotheses about the functional role of GCs in reproduction. Much of our current thinking about GCs and reproduction comes from research involving stress-induced levels of GCs and has led to broad assumptions about the effects of GCs on reproduction. Unfortunately, this has left a gaping hole in our knowledge about basal GC levels and how they may influence reproductive function, thereby preventing a broader understanding of adrenal physiology and obscuring potential solutions for reproductive dysfunction. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Death before Birth : Negotiating Reproduction, Female Infanticide and Sex Selective Abortion in Tamil Nadu, South India

    OpenAIRE

    Perwez, Mohammad Shahid.

    2009-01-01

    This thesis deals with the cultural and political underpinnings of female infanticide and sex selective abortion in contemporary South India. Based on a fifteen months' ethnographic fieldwork in western parts of Salem district in Tamil Nadu, I explore the ideas and practices around deaths of (un)born children - particularly in the context of issues of gender-selective child survival, use and control over new reproductive technologies for sex selection, fertility and reproductio...

  14. The volitional travel speed varies with reproductive state in mature female brown trout Salmo trutta

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svendsen, Jon Christian; Aarestrup, Kim; Dolby, Jes

    2009-01-01

    This study tested the effect of reproduction on the volitional travel speed of mature female brown trout Salmo trutta L. The downstream travel speed in the pre-spawning state was 0·25 m s−1 (95% CI : 0·19, 0·34) while it increased significantly to 0·65 m s−1 (95% CI: 0·49, 0·87) in the post...

  15. Fulicin regulates the female reproductive organs of the snail, Achatina fulica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujisawa, Y; Masuda, K; Minakata, H

    2000-08-01

    Fulicin is a D-amino acid-containing neuropeptide that has been thought to control male copulatory behavior in the land snail, Achatina fulica. In the present study, we demonstrated that the vagina and the oviduct of Achatina were densely innervated by fulicin-like immunoreactive neuronal fibers. We confirmed that fulicin was actually present in the vagina by mass spectrometry. Furthermore, fulicin showed a profound excitatory effect on contractions of the vagina and the oviduct. These results suggest that fulicin controls female egg-laying behavior as an excitatory neuropeptide regulating the female reproductive organs of the snail.

  16. Voice and Handgrip Strength Predict Reproductive Success in a Group of Indigenous African Females

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sorokowska, Agnieszka; Sorokowski, Piotr; Mberira, Mara; Bartels, Astrid; Gallup, Gordon G.

    2012-01-01

    Evolutionary accounts of human traits are often based on proxies for genetic fitness (e.g., number of sex partners, facial attractiveness). Instead of using proxies, actual differences in reproductive success is a more direct measure of Darwinian fitness. Certain voice acoustics such as fundamental frequency and measures of health such as handgrip strength correlate with proxies of fitness, yet there are few studies showing the relation of these traits to reproduction. Here, we explore whether the fundamental frequency of the voice and handgrip strength account for differences in actual reproduction among a population of natural fertility humans. Our results show that both fundamental frequency and handgrip strength predict several measures of reproductive success among a group of indigenous Namibian females, particularly amongst the elderly, with weight also predicting reproductive outcomes among males. These findings demonstrate that both hormonally regulated and phenotypic quality markers can be used as measures of Darwinian fitness among humans living under conditions that resemble the evolutionary environment of Homo sapiens. We also argue that these findings provide support for the Grandmother Hypothesis. PMID:22870251

  17. Inhibition of the reproductive system by deslorelin in male and female pigeons (Columba livia).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cowan, Melinda Lee; Martin, Graeme Bruce; Monks, Deborah Jane; Johnston, Stephen Douglas; Doneley, Robert James Tyson; Blackberry, Margaret Anne

    2014-06-01

    Veterinary practitioners frequently encounter disorders of the reproductive system in avian patients. Management of these disorders relies on manipulating reproduction by modifying the environment, diet, and social interactions, and by the use of pharmacologic agents and surgery, with varying levels of success and side effects. An alternative is to use the gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) agonist deslorelin to suppress the pituitary-gonadal axis. To determine the efficacy of deslorelin in domestic pigeons (Columba livia), male (n = 10) and female (n = 10) birds each were implanted intramuscularly with a single long-acting implant containing 4.7 mg deslorelin. Untreated males (n = 11) and females (n = 10) were used as controls. The baseline serum concentration of luteinizing hormone (LH) was assayed at 7, 28, 56, and 84 days after treatment, and egg production was recorded weekly. In females, deslorelin administration significantly reduced serum LH concentrations compared to pretreatment levels at 7, 28, 56, and 84 days (P < .05). In males, deslorelin significantly reduced LH concentrations at 7, 28, and 56 days (P < .05). Female birds treated with deslorelin laid significantly fewer eggs over the course of the study (mean = 1.46, SEM = 0.84) compared with controls (mean = 5.54, SEM = 0.88). Deslorelin treatment had no discernible effect on body weight. Deslorelin is effective for controlling egg laying in female pigeons for at least 49 days, but further research is required to determine the effects on male fertility and the duration of action in both sexes.

  18. An X chromosome effect responsible for asymmetric reproductive isolation between male Drosophila virilis and heterospecific females.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nickel, Desirée; Civetta, Alberto

    2009-01-01

    Reproductive isolation between closely related species is expressed through uncoordinated courtship, failed fertilization, and (or) postzygotic barriers. Behavioural components of mating often form an initial barrier to hybridization between species. In many animals, females are responsible for mating discrimination in both intra- and interspecific crosses; males of Drosophila virilis group represent an exception to this trend. Using overall productivity tests, we show that a lower proportion of D. virilis males sire progeny when paired with a heterospecific female (Drosophila novamexicana or Drosophila americana texana) for 2 weeks. This suggests male mate discrimination or some other kind of asymmetrical incompatibility in courtship and mating or early zygote mortality. We used males from D. virilis-D. novamexicana and from D. virilis-D. a. texana backcross populations to map chromosome effects responsible for male reproductive isolation. Results from the analysis of both backcross male populations indicate a major X chromosome effect. Further, we conduct a male behavioural analysis to show that D. virilis males significantly fail to continue courtship after the first step of courtship, when they tap heterospecific females. The combined results of a major X chromosome effect and the observation that D. virilis males walk away from females after tapping suggest that future studies should concentrate on the identification of X-linked genes affecting the ability of males to recognize conspecific females.

  19. Life cycle and reproductive patterns of Triatoma rubrofasciata (De Geer, 1773) (Hemiptera: Reduviidae), under laboratory conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braga, M V; Pinto, Z T; Lima, M M

    1998-01-01

    The life cycle and reproductive patterns of Triatoma rubrofasciata were studied along with laboratory conditions for the establishment of a prolific colony. The insects were divided into four groups: two of them were maintained at room temperature (20.5 degrees C to 33 degrees C and 85% +/- 5% of relative humidity), the other two in a climatic chamber (CC) (temperature: 29 degrees C, humidity: 80% +/- 5%). The groups were fed weekly or fortnightly on Swiss mice. The females from the group kept in the CC and fed weekly had longer life span, as well as a higher number of eggs, fertile eggs and hatchings; the group kept in the CC and fed fortnightly had a shorter life span for the 1st, 2nd and 3rd instars and a lower mortality rate for all instars. It was concluded that a constant high temperature (CC at 29 degrees C) is the most suitable condition for the maintenance of a colony of T. rubrofasciata regardless of the interval between repasts.

  20. Associations between Bisphenol A Exposure and Reproductive Hormones among Female Workers

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    Maohua Miao

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The associations between Bisphenol-A (BPA exposure and reproductive hormone levels among women are unclear. A cross-sectional study was conducted among female workers from BPA-exposed and unexposed factories in China. Women’s blood samples were collected for assay of follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH, luteinizing hormone (LH, 17β-Estradiol (E2, prolactin (PRL, and progesterone (PROG. Their urine samples were collected for BPA measurement. In the exposed group, time weighted average exposure to BPA for an 8-h shift (TWA8, a measure incorporating historic exposure level, was generated based on personal air sampling. Multiple linear regression analyses were used to examine linear associations between urine BPA concentration and reproductive hormones after controlling for potential confounders. A total of 106 exposed and 250 unexposed female workers were included in this study. A significant positive association between increased urine BPA concentration and higher PRL and PROG levels were observed. Similar associations were observed after the analysis was carried out separately among the exposed and unexposed workers. In addition, a positive association between urine BPA and E2 was observed among exposed workers with borderline significance, while a statistically significant inverse association between urine BPA and FSH was observed among unexposed group. The results suggest that BPA exposure may lead to alterations in female reproductive hormone levels.

  1. Associations between Bisphenol A Exposure and Reproductive Hormones among Female Workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miao, Maohua; Yuan, Wei; Yang, Fen; Liang, Hong; Zhou, Zhijun; Li, Runsheng; Gao, Ersheng; Li, De-Kun

    2015-10-22

    The associations between Bisphenol-A (BPA) exposure and reproductive hormone levels among women are unclear. A cross-sectional study was conducted among female workers from BPA-exposed and unexposed factories in China. Women's blood samples were collected for assay of follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH), luteinizing hormone (LH), 17β-Estradiol (E2), prolactin (PRL), and progesterone (PROG). Their urine samples were collected for BPA measurement. In the exposed group, time weighted average exposure to BPA for an 8-h shift (TWA8), a measure incorporating historic exposure level, was generated based on personal air sampling. Multiple linear regression analyses were used to examine linear associations between urine BPA concentration and reproductive hormones after controlling for potential confounders. A total of 106 exposed and 250 unexposed female workers were included in this study. A significant positive association between increased urine BPA concentration and higher PRL and PROG levels were observed. Similar associations were observed after the analysis was carried out separately among the exposed and unexposed workers. In addition, a positive association between urine BPA and E2 was observed among exposed workers with borderline significance, while a statistically significant inverse association between urine BPA and FSH was observed among unexposed group. The results suggest that BPA exposure may lead to alterations in female reproductive hormone levels.

  2. Aspects of the reproductive ecology of female turtles in New Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lovich, Jeffrey E.; Agha, Mickey; Painter, Charlie; Cole, Levi; Fitzgerald, Austin; Narum, Kevin; Jennings, Randy

    2016-01-01

    Data on reproductive ecology of turtles in New Mexico are limited, and some species living there are among the least studied in the United States. We trapped 4 native species of turtles (Apalone spinifera, Chrysemys picta, Pseudemys gorzugi, and Trachemys gaigeae gaigeae) in the Rio Grande and Black River (Pecos River drainage) of New Mexico in June 2012 and 2013 to collect data on female reproductive ecology, including clutch size, egg size, timing of egg production, and percentage of gravid females. During our sampling, we found shelled eggs via X-radiography in only 3 native species: C. picta, P. gorzugi, and T. g. gaigeae. Clutch and egg sizes were within the range of previously reported values, although clutch size for P. gorzugi (10 eggs) is only the second published record for that data-deficient species. Clutch size increased with body size in T. g. gaigeae. We observed few differences between reproductive parameters for turtles in New Mexico and their conspecifics and congeners elsewhere in the United States, other than the observation that female C. picta may mature at smaller body sizes in New Mexico relative to other western populations elsewhere in its vast, primarily eastern North American range.

  3. On-site comprehensive curriculum to teach reproductive health to female adolescents in Kenya.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaughran, Margaret; Asgary, Ramin

    2014-04-01

    Rates of sexually transmitted infections (STIs) and unplanned pregnancy are high in Kenya, and limited reproductive health education exists in schools. We designed and implemented a 6-week reproductive health curriculum in Laikipia District, Kenya, in 2011, which included didactic sessions, educational games, and open discussions. We applied a mixed quantitative and qualitative methods to evaluate this curriculum including a comprehensive 35-item survey to assess pre- and post-training knowledge, attitudes, and practices of female teenagers regarding STIs/HIV and family planning using paired t-test as well as complementary focus groups (n=42) and individual interviews (n=20). Average age for 42 female teenagers was 16.5 (± 1.31) years. Pre-test questionnaires revealed lack of knowledge about different types of STIs, specifically chlamydia, but adequate knowledge of basic contraception including abstinence and condom use. By the conclusion of the study, we observed improvement in following educational domains: general knowledge of HIV/AIDS (85% ± 7.5% to 94% ± 5.6%) (pmasturbation and its perceived consequences, and issues surrounding female circumcision. Important misconceptions and gaps in reproductive practices were identified and addressed using a mixed methods approach. Despite prior basic knowledge and positive attitudes on STI prevention and family planning, complementary teaching approaches were instrumental in improving overall knowledge of STIs other than HIV as well as family planning. The curriculum was feasible, well received, and achieved its educational goals.

  4. Lightweight males of Podisus nigrispinus (Heteroptera: Pentatomidae neglect lightweight females due low reproductive fitness

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    A. I. A. Pereira

    Full Text Available Abstract Sexual choice by male stink bugs is important because females that experience food shortages lay fewer eggs with lower viability compared with well-fed females. In this study, we investigated whether Podisus nigrispinus (Dallas (Heteroptera: Pentatomidae males fed with a low-quality diet during its nymphal stage show selectivity for sexual partners resulting in high-quality progeny. Lightweight males and females were obtained from nymphs fed weekly with Tenebrio molitor L. (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae pupae. By contrast, heavyweight males and females were fed three times a week and received an extra nutritional source: cotton leaves, Gossypium hirsutum L. (Malvaceae. Lightweight males preferred to mate with heavy females (77.78 ± 14.69%, whereas heavyweight males did not discriminated between light or heavyweight females. Females mated with lightweight males showed similar levels of reproduction to those mated with heavyweight males. The results provide an indication of the importance of male and female body weight for sexual selection in Asopinae stink bugs.

  5. Sex steroid hormones during the ovarian cycle of an all-female, parthenogenetic lizard and their correlation with pseudosexual behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, M C; Whittier, J M; Crews, D

    1985-11-01

    Cnemidophorus uniparens is a unisexual lizard that reproduces by parthenogenesis. Individuals of this species display male-like and female-like copulatory behaviors during different phases of the ovarian cycle suggesting that these pseudocopulatory behaviors are hormonally activated. To learn more about both the endocrinology of parthenogenesis and the possible hormonal activation of male-like copulatory behavior in female individuals, we (1) characterized changes in plasma levels of the sex steroid hormones progesterone, 5 alpha-dihydrotestosterone, testosterone, and 17 beta-estradiol during the ovarian cycle in both free-living and captive individuals, and (2) measured sex steroid hormones in plasma collected from captive individuals immediately after they expressed male-like or female-like copulatory behavior. In general, the pattern of secretion of ovarian hormones in C. uniparens appears to be similar to that of other oviparous vertebrates with similar reproductive cycles. Estradiol is elevated only during the preovulatory phase, whereas progesterone increases slightly during vitellogenesis and then increases dramatically following ovulation. Circulating levels of androgen are very low and are generally below the sensitivity of our radioimmunoassay at all stages of the ovarian cycle. The hormonal correlates of female-like copulatory behavior suggest that, as in other vertebrates, female receptivity is activated by a synergism of estradiol and progesterone. There is no evidence that the hormonal cycle has been altered to produce elevated levels of androgens during the phase of the cycle when male-like behavior is expressed. Rather it seems more likely that the central nervous system has evolved a novel response to a typical pattern of ovarian steroid hormone secretion. At present, the best hormonal correlate of male-like behavior is that changes in plasma levels of progesterone closely parallel changes in probability of expressing male-like behavior.

  6. The VIP/VPACR system in the reproductive cycle of male lizard Podarcis sicula.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agnese, Marisa; Rosati, Luigi; Prisco, Marina; Coraggio, Francesca; Valiante, Salvatore; Scudiero, Rosaria; Laforgia, Vincenza; Andreuccetti, Piero

    2014-09-01

    Starting from the knowledge that in the reproductive period the Vasoactive Intestinal Peptide (VIP) is widely distributed in Podarcis sicula testis, we studied VIP expression and the localization of the neuropeptide and its receptors in the testis of the Italian wall lizard P. sicula in the other phases of its reproductive cycle (summer stasis, autumnal resumption, winter stasis, spring resumption). By Real Time-PCR, we demonstrated that testicular VIP mRNA levels change during the reproductive cycle, showing a cyclic trend with two peaks, one in the mid-autumnal resumption and the other in the reproductive period. By in situ hybridization and immunohistochemistry, we demonstrated that both VIP mRNA and protein were widely distributed in the testis in almost all the phases of the cycle, except in the early autumnal resumption. As regards the receptors, the VPAC1R was localized mainly in Leydig cells, while the VPAC2R showed the same distribution of VIP. Our results demonstrate that, differently from mammals, where VIP is present only in nerve fibres innerving the testis, an endotesticular synthesis takes place in the lizard and the VIP synthesis changes throughout the reproductive cycle. Moreover, the VIP/VPAC receptor system distribution observed in germ and somatic cells in various phases of the cycle, and particularly in the autumnal resumption and the reproductive period, strongly suggests its involvement in both spermatogenesis and steroidogenesis. Finally, the wider distribution of VIP in lizards with respect to mammals leads us to hypothesize that during the evolution the synthesis sites have been transferred from the testis to other districts, such as the brain. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Resuscitation outcomes of reproductive-age females who experienced out-of-hospital cardiac arrest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hagihara, Akihito; Onozuka, Daisuke; Hasegawa, Manabu; Nagata, Takashi; Abe, Takeru; Nabeshima, Yoshihiro

    2017-03-01

    Although some studies have shown that women in their reproductive years have better resuscitation outcomes of out-of-hospital cardiac arrest (OHCA), conflicting results and methodological problems have also been noted. Thus, we evaluated the resuscitation outcomes of OHCA of females by age. This was a prospective observational study using registry data from all OHCA cases between 2005 and 2012 in Japan. The subjects were females aged 18-110 years who suffered an out-of-hospital cardiac arrest. Logistic regression analyses were performed using total and propensity-matched patients. There were 381,123 OHCA cases that met the inclusion criteria. Among propensity-matched patients, females aged 18-49 and 50-60 years of age had similar rates of return of spontaneous circulation before hospital arrival and 1-month survival (all p>0.60). In contrast, females aged 18-49 years of age had significantly lower rates of 1-month survival with minimal neurological impairment than did females aged 50-60 years of age (after adjusting for selected variables: Cerebral Performance Category scale 1 or 2 (CPC (1, 2)), OR=0.45, p=0.020; Overall Performance Category scale 1 or 2 (OPC (1, 2)): OR=0.42, p= 0.014; after adjustment for all variables: CPC (1, 2), OR=0.27, p= 0.008; OPC (1, 2), OR=0.29, p=0.009). Women of reproductive age did not show improved resuscitation outcomes in OHCA. Additionally, women in their reproductive years showed worse neurological outcomes one month after the event, which may be explained by the negative effects of estrogen. These findings need to be verified in further studies.

  8. The cost of reproduction: differential resource specialization in female and male California sea otters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Emma A Elliott; Newsome, Seth D; Estes, James A; Tinker, M Tim

    2015-05-01

    Intraspecific variation in behavior and diet can have important consequences for population and ecosystem dynamics. Here, we examine how differences in reproductive investment and spatial ecology influence individual diet specialization in male and female southern sea otters (Enhydra lutris nereis). We hypothesize that greater reproductive constraints and smaller home ranges of females lead to more pronounced intraspecific competition and increased specialization. We integrate stable carbon (δ(13)C) and nitrogen (δ(15)N) isotope analysis of sea otter vibrissae with long-term observational studies of five subpopulations in California. We define individual diet specialization as low ratios of within-individual variation (WIC) to total population niche width (TNW). We compare isotopic and observational based metrics of WIC/TNW for males and females to data on population densities, and movement patterns using both general linear and linear mixed-effects models. Consistent with our hypothesis, increasing population density is associated with increased individual diet specialization by females but not by males. Additionally, we find the amount of coastline in a sea otter's home range positively related with individual dietary variability, with increased range span resulting in weaker specialization for both males and females. We attribute our results to sex-based differences in movement, with females needing to specialize in their small ranges to maximize energy gain, and posit that the paradigm of individual prey specialization in sea otters with increased intraspecific competition may be a pattern driven largely by females. Our work highlights a potentially broader role of sex in the mechanistic pressures promoting and maintaining diet specialization.

  9. Female song rates in response to simulated intruder are positively related to reproductive success.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kristal E Cain

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Bird song is well studied in males as a sexually selected behavior. However, although song is also common among females, it is infrequently examined and poorly understood. Research suggests that song is often used as a resource defense behavior and is important in female-female competition for limited resources, e.g. mates and territories. If so, song should be positively related to fitness and related to other resource defense behaviors, but this possibility has rarely been explored. Here we examine fitness estimates in relation to spontaneous song rates and song rates in response to a simulated intruder (playback, in the superb fairy-wren (Malurus cyaneus, a cooperatively breeding songbird. We also determine how song rates relate to other territorial defense behaviors. Song rate in response to playback, but not spontaneous song rate, was positively related to nest success and the number of fledglings produced by successful females. Further, response song rate was also correlated with other territorial defense behaviors (latency to respond and flights. This evidence supports the hypothesis that female song may be used in the context of female-female competition to improve access to limited reproductive resources, and suggests that song may provide direct fitness benefits.

  10. Bill redness is positively associated with reproduction and survival in male and female zebra finches.

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    Mirre J P Simons

    Full Text Available Sexual traits can serve as honest indicators of phenotypic quality when they are costly. Brightly coloured yellow to red traits, which are pigmented by carotenoids, are relatively common in birds, and feature in sexual selection. Carotenoids have been linked to immune and antioxidant function, and the trade-off between ornamentation and these physiological functions provides a potential mechanism rendering carotenoid based signals costly. Mutual ornamentation is also common in birds and can be maintained by mutual mate choice for this ornament or by a correlated response in one sex to selection on the other sex. When selection pressures differ between the sexes this can cause intralocus sexual conflict. Sexually antagonistic selection pressures have been demonstrated for few sexual traits, and for carotenoid-dependent traits there is a single example: bill redness was found to be positively associated with survival and reproductive output in male zebra finches, but negatively so in females. We retested these associations in our captive zebra finch population without two possible limitations of this earlier study. Contrary to the earlier findings, we found no evidence for sexually antagonistic selection. In both sexes, individuals with redder bills showed higher survival. This association disappeared among the females with the reddest bills. Furthermore, females with redder bills achieved higher reproductive output. We conclude that bill redness of male and female zebra finches honestly signals phenotypic quality, and discuss the possible causes of the differences between our results and earlier findings.

  11. Gametogenesis and reproductive cycle of Melanorivulus aff. punctatus (Boulenger, 1895 (Cyprinodontiformes, Rivulidae in Chapada dos Guimarães, Mato Grosso, Brazil

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    Monica Cassel

    Full Text Available The comprehension of the reproductive cycle allows to understand which are the morphological changes that develop in the gonad during this interval. Thus, many studies have been undertaken in order to describe and classify the stages of gonadal development and reproductive status of Neotropical fishes. For this purpose, specimens of Melanorivulus aff. punctatus were collected in a permanent dam in Chapada dos Guimarães, Mato Grosso, Brazil. The gonads were prepared for analysis by light microscopy. The oogenesis and spermatogenesis have been described, characterizing the stages of gonadal development, together with assessments of the gonadosomatic ratio, germ cell count and verification of variation of mature oocytes in females. Throughout the year the male gonads presented themselves as capable of reproducing, characterized by the presence of undifferentiated and differentiated spermatogonia, spermatocytes organized into cysts, spermatids in cysts whose wall was thicker and the spermatozoa was free in the lumen and the duct. This can indicate a continuous reproductive cycle with split spermiation. The females had gonads in the development stage from May to September with undifferentiated and differentiated oogonias and early oocytes always facing the lumen, abundant pre-vitellogenic and vitellogenic oocytes and some atresias. In the phase capable of spawning, observed from October to March, the mature oocytes are abundant, there are many post-ovulatory complexes and some atresia in advanced stage. The regression, observed in some individuals from February to April, is characterized by ovaries with many atresias and post-ovulatory complexes. The same results were found in the quantitative assessments. Therefore, it may be characterized as discontinuous cycle with split spawning. Thus, the reproductive cycle of this species can be characterized as continuous for males and discontinuous for females, which have a most intense phase of reproduction

  12. Comparison between two forms of vaginally administered progesterone for luteal phase support in assisted reproduction cycles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geber, Selmo; Moreira, Ana Carolina Ferreira; de Paula, Sálua Oliveira Calil; Sampaio, Marcos

    2007-02-01

    The use of progesterone for luteal phase support has been demonstrated to be beneficial in assisted reproduction cycles using gonadotrophin-releasing hormone analogues (GnRHa). Two micronized progesterone preparations are available for vaginal administration: capsules and gel. The objective of this study was to compare the efficacy of these two forms for luteal phase support in assisted reproduction cycles. A total of 244 couples undergoing IVF/intracytoplasmic sperm injection cycles were included in the study and were randomly allocated (sealed envelopes) into two groups: group 1 (122) received vaginal capsules of 200 mg of micronized progesterone (Utrogestan), 3 times daily, and group 2 (122) received micronized progesterone in gel (Crinone 8%), once daily. Both groups received progesterone for 13 days beginning day 1 after oocyte retrieval, continuing until the pregnancy test was performed and until 12 weeks of pregnancy. Groups were compared by clinical data and assisted reproduction results and had similar ages and causes of infertility. Although the pregnancy rate was higher for those receiving progesterone gel than capsules (44.26 and 36.06% respectively), this difference was not statistically significant. The study showed that vaginal progesterone gel and capsules used for luteal phase support in assisted reproduction cycles with long protocol GnRHa result in similar pregnancy rates.

  13. Community empowerment and involvement of female sex workers in targeted sexual and reproductive health interventions in Africa: A systematic review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    L. Moore (Laurence); M. Chersich (Matthew); R. Steen (Richard); S. Reza-Paul (Sushena); A. Dhana (Ashar); B. Vuylsteke (Bea); Y. Lafort (Yves); F. Scorgie (Fiona)

    2014-01-01

    textabstractBackground: Female sex workers (FSWs) experience high levels of sexual and reproductive health (SRH) morbidity, violence and discrimination. Successful SRH interventions for FSWs in India and elsewhere have long prioritised community mobilisation and structural interventions, yet little

  14. Mathematical modelling of decline in follicle pool during female reproductive ageing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thilagam, Alagu

    2016-03-01

    The factors which govern the subtle links between follicle loss and mammalian female reproductive ageing remain unclear despite extensive studies undertaken to understand the critical physiological and biochemical mechanisms that underly the accelerated decline in follicle numbers in women older than 37 years. It is not certain whether there is a sole control by the ovary or whether other factors which affect ageing also intersect with the ovarian effect. There is convincing experimental evidence for an interplay of several processes that seem to influence the follicle loss-female reproductive ageing links, with specific hormones (follicle-stimulating hormone, anti-Müllerian hormone, dehydroepiandrosterone) noted to play important roles in follicular dynamics and ovarian ageing. In this work, we examine the subtle links between the rate of follicular decline with ageing and the role of hormones via a series of non-autonomous equations. Simulation results based on the time evolution of the number of ovarian follicles and biochemical changes in the ovarian environment influenced by hormone levels is compared with empirical data based on follicle loss-reproductive ageing correlation studies. © Crown copyright 2015.

  15. Female reproductive tract of the lesser anteater (Tamandua tetradactyla, myrmecophagidae, Xenarthra). Anatomy and histology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rossi, L F; Luaces, J P; Marcos, H J Aldana; Cetica, P D; Gachen, G; Jimeno, G Pérez; Merani, M S

    2011-11-01

    The morphological and histological features of the unusual reproductive tract of the female lesser anteater, Tamandua tetradactyla (Myrmecophagidae, Xenarthra), are described for the first time. The present study aimed to establish the main similarities and differences between this species and other xenarthrans. The populations of this species are declining rapidly for a number of reasons and our study is relevant to diverse programs related to its conservation. Studies were carried out on five female genital tracts of adult specimens. Ovaries were ovoid, presenting a medulla completely surrounded by the cortex, differently from that described in other xenarthans. Like in Dasypus but different from all other armadillos studied, single oocyte follicles were observed and a simple the uterus. The uterovaginal canal connects the uterus with the urogenital sinus. The simple columnar epithelium of the uterovaginal canal ends abruptly at a septum which resembles a hymen, where the transitional epithelium of the urogenital sinus appears. This ancestral feature is shared with that of other armadillos, except Tolypeutes matacus, which has a true vagina. Characteristics of the reproductive tract and sperm morphology of other Xenarthra are comparatively discussed. These observations suggest that important reproductive features are shared between the family Myrmecophagidae and the genus Dasypus, a basal group in the phylogeny of Xenarthra. Copyright © 2011 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  16. Effects of nectar robbing on male and female reproductive success of a pollinator-dependent plant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rojas-Nossa, Sandra V; Sánchez, José María; Navarro, Luis

    2016-02-01

    Nectar robbers affect host fitness in different ways and by different magnitudes, both directly and indirectly, and potentially constitute an important part of pollination interactions. The aim of this study was to assess the effect of nectar robbing on several variables that characterize the reproductive success of Lonicera etrusca, a pollinator-dependent plant with long, tubular flowers that produce abundant nectar. Using fluorescent powder dye as a proxy for pollen, the distance of pollen dispersal was compared for robbed and non-robbed flowers. Artificial nectar robbing treatments were applied to test its effects on four additional measures of reproductive success, namely the quantity of pollen exported, fruit set, seed/ovule ratio and seed weight. Nectar robbing was not found to have any significant negative consequences on female and male components of reproductive success as determined through the five variables that were measured. Although L. etrusca exhibits high levels of nectar robbing and nectar robbers are common floral visitors, no evidence was found of detrimental changes in the components of reproductive success. A combination of morphological and ecological mechanisms is proposed to explain how plants may compensate for the energetic loss caused by the nectar robbers. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Annals of Botany Company. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  17. Morphology of female reproductive tract of the predator Podisus nigrispinus (Dallas) (Heteroptera: Pentatomidae) fed on different diets

    OpenAIRE

    Lemos,Walkymário de Paulo; Ramalho,Francisco de Souza; Serrão,José Eduardo; Zanuncio,José Cola

    2005-01-01

    The morphology of the reproductive tract of Podisus nigrispinus (Dallas) females fed with Alabama argillacea (Hübner) larvae, artificial diet, Tenebrio molitor L. larvae or Musca domestica L. larvae were studied. The reproductive tract of females of this species presented yellow coloration and independent of the diet, each ovary had seven ovarioles joined through terminal filaments and forming a bunch shape structure. The histological data revealed that the ovary of P. nigrispinus was of mero...

  18. Effect of feeding a high-fat diet independently of caloric intake on reproductive function in diet-induced obese female rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hussain, Mona A.; Abogresha, Noha M.; Tamany, Dalia A.; Lotfy, Mariam

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Globally, the prevalence of overweight and obesity is increasing, predisposing females to health hazards including compromised reproductive capacity. Our objective was to investigate the effect of ad libitum, isocalorically and hypocalorically restricted high-fat diet (HFD) feeding on reproductive function in diet-induced obese female rats. Material and methods Twenty female albino Sprague Dawley rats were used; 5 rats were kept on a standard pellet animal diet to serve as a control group (A) and 15 rats were fed a HFD for 9 weeks to induce obesity. The HFD fed animals were equally divided into three groups: an ad libitum HFD group (B), an isocalorically restricted HFD group (C), and a hypocalorically restricted HFD group (D). Estrous cyclicity, hormonal levels, ovarian histopathology and caspase-3 immunoreactivity were evaluated. Results The HFD-fed rats in groups B, C and D had significant irregularity in estrous cyclicity Vs group A (p = 0.001, 0.003 and 0.034 respectively). Groups C and D had significant reduction in serum progesterone level (p = 0.006 and 0.018 Vs A). Isocaloric restriction of HFD feeding significantly increased serum LH. Groups B and C had a significant increase in caspase-3 expression in the ovary (p < 0.001). Conclusions Ad libitum HFD interfered with the normal estrous cycle and enhanced apoptosis of luteal cells in obese female rats. The HFD restriction interfered with the normal estrous cycle and caused functional insufficiency of the corpus luteum in obese female rats. These results suggest that HFD feeding determinately affects female reproductive function independently of caloric intake. PMID:27478474

  19. An androgenic agricultural contaminant impairs female reproductive behaviour in a freshwater fish.

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    Minna Saaristo

    Full Text Available Endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs are a large group of environmental pollutants that can interfere with the endocrine system function of organisms at very low levels. One compound of great concern is trenbolone, which is widely used as a growth promoter in the cattle industry in many parts of the world. The aim of this study was to test how short-term (21-day exposure to an environmentally relevant concentration of 17β-trenbolone (measured concentration 6 ng/L affects reproductive behaviour and fin morphology in the eastern mosquitofish (Gambusia holbrooki. The mosquitofish is a sexually dimorphic livebearer with males inseminating females using their modified anal fin, the gonopodium, as an intromittent organ. Although the species has a coercive mating system, females are able to exert some control over the success of male mating attempts by selectively associating with, or avoiding, certain males over others. We found that females exposed to trenbolone approached males less and spent more time swimming away from males than non-exposed (control females. By contrast, we found no difference in the behaviour of exposed and non-exposed males. Furthermore, exposure did not affect the anal fin morphology of males or females. This is the first study to demonstrate that exposure to an androgenic EDC can impair female (but not male behaviour. Our study illustrates how anthropogenic contaminants can have sex-specific effects, and highlights the need to examine the behavioural responses of environmental contaminants in both sexes.

  20. Fat is sexy for females but not males: the influence of body reserves on reproduction in snakes (Vipera aspis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aubret, Fabien; Bonnet, Xavier; Shine, Richard; Lourdais, Olivier

    2002-09-01

    Reproduction is energetically expensive for both sexes, but the magnitude of expenditure and its relationship to reproductive success differ fundamentally between males and females. Males allocate relatively little to gamete production and, thus, can reproduce successfully with only minor energy investment. In contrast, females of many species experience high fecundity-independent costs of reproduction (such as migration to nesting sites), so they need to amass substantial energy reserves before initiating reproductive activity. Thus, we expect that the relationship between energy reserves and the intensity of reproductive behavior involves a threshold effect in females, but a gradual (or no) effect in males. We tested this prediction using captive vipers (Vipera aspis), dividing both males and females into groups of high versus low body condition. Snakes from each group were placed together and observed for reproductive behavior; sex-steroid levels were also measured. As predicted, females in below-average body condition had very low estradiol levels and did not show sexual receptivity, whereas males of all body condition indices had significant testosterone levels and displayed active courtship. Testosterone levels and courtship intensity increased gradually (i.e., no step function) with body condition in males, but high estradiol levels and sexual receptivity were seen only in females with body reserves above a critical threshold. Copyright 2002 Elsevier Science (USA)

  1. Investigating Health Belief model component about sexual and reproductive health in college female students

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    Akram Aslani

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Background and objective: One of the critical steps in providing social and family health by concentrating on women's health is expanding sexual and reproductive health and addressing it in various aspects of the national and international level. Therefore in this study the goal is analyzing the components of the health belief model about sexual and reproductive health of female students of University of Medical Sciences of Shahroud. Methods: The present study is a cross-sectional analysis which conducted by participation of 397 female students of University of Medical Sciences of Shahroud in 2014. The data collecting tool was a questionnaire that was consisted of demographic information, knowledge and structures of health belief model. The data was analyzed by SPSS software and t-test and chi-square test. Results: The results showed that students had high self-efficacy (17.7 ± 2 in reproductive health care but the rate of their perceived barriers (3.02± 1.37 that was reported was almost high. Also there was a direct relation between demographic variable of age and the knowledge of students. The average score of students' awareness of sexually transmitted disease that was obtained was 9.97 ± 2.62. There was no significant relationship between age, marital status and their study major with structures of health belief model about sexually transmitted diseases and AIDS and its preventive behaviors. Conclusion: The findings of this study show that the self-efficacy of students about preventive behaviors of unwanted pregnancy and sexually transmitted diseases and AIDS is high. In other hand the average of perceived barriers in students is relatively high. Considering the findings it is recommended that sexual and reproductive health programs should be applied in order to reduce the barriers and to further increase the ability of young people. Paper Type: Research Article.

  2. A preliminary study of reproductive outcomes of female maquiladora workers in Tijuana, Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eskenazi, B; Guendelman, S; Elkin, E P; Jasis, M

    1993-12-01

    Maquiladoras are plants on the Mexican side of the United States-Mexico border which are used largely by U.S. manufacturers to assemble premanufactured parts. We examined reproductive outcomes of women employed in electronics (N = 120) and garment (N = 121) maquiladora work compared to women employed in the service sector (N = 119) in Tijuana, Mexico. Women recruited by community health workers were interviewed about their reproductive history, sociodemographic characteristics, health behaviors, and characteristics of their current job. Length of regular menstrual cycle in the past year as well as time of conception and rates of fetal loss in the most recent pregnancy were similar across occupational groups. However, infants of garment maquiladora workers were 653 g lighter (95% confidence interval [CI]: -1,041 g, -265 g) and infants of electronic maquiladora workers were 337 g lighter (95% CI: -682 g, 9 g) than infants of service workers after adjusting for potential confounders. The cause of these differences remains unclear.

  3. Female genotype influences the behavioral performance of mice selected for reproductive traits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weisker, S M; Barkley, M

    1991-10-01

    The behavioral performance of mice that differ in regularity of the estrous cycle and litter size was studied after female exposure to a male of the same or a different strain. Emotional reactivity was measured using the pole, straightaway and open field tests. Factor interpretations of emotionality included motor discharge, autonomic imbalance and acrophobia. Mice characterized by regular estrous cycles and large litters (line E) were more explorative and emotionally reactive with respect to motor discharge and autonomic imbalance. In contrast, mice with less regular estrous cycles and small litter size (line CN-) were more acrophobic. These strain differences in behavioral performance were influenced by the genotype of the female rather than the cohabitating male.

  4. Longitudinal fecal hormone analysis for monitoring reproductive activity in the female polar bear (Ursus maritimus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoops, M A; MacKinnon, K M; Roth, T L

    2012-12-01

    The objective was to identify suitable enzyme immunoassays to monitor gonadal and placental function in the female polar bear. Immunoreactive progesterone, progesterone metabolite (PdG), estrogen, and androgen metabolite (T) concentrations were measured in fecal samples collected over 24 mo from captive female bears (N = 20). Whereas fecal extracts produced displacement curves parallel to the standard curve for each respective steroid, T and PdG more accurately reflected reproductive events. Concentrations of fecal T increased (P bears excreted higher PdG concentrations (P bears also had a PdG rise in the Fall, suggesting they experienced either pregnancy loss or a pseudopregnancy. Differentiating pregnant and pseudopregnant states was not achieved using fecal PdG alone, but when combined with fecal T, comprehensive diagnoses could be made. Nonparturient bears demonstrated elevated (P bears did not. In summary, noninvasive hormone monitoring techniques were established for the female polar bear. Although this study was directed at facilitating management and breeding efforts of captive polar bears, the methods could be applied to studies of reproductive function in wild populations. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Female Genital Mutilation Is a Violation of Reproductive Rights of Women: Implications for Health Workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jungari, Suresh Banayya

    2016-02-01

    Female genital mutilation (FGM) comprises all procedures that involve partial or total removal of the external female genitalia or other injury to the female genital organs for nonmedical reasons. This coercive practice is still prevalent in many parts of the world, in both developed and developing countries. However, FGM is more prevalent in African countries and some Asian countries. In this study, an attempt has been made to understand the prevalence and practice of FGM worldwide and its adverse effects on women's reproductive health. To fulfill the study objectives, the author collected evidence from various studies conducted by international agencies. Many studies found that FGM has no health benefits; is mostly carried out on girls before they reach the age of 15 years; can cause severe bleeding, infections, psychological illness, and infertility; and, most important, can have serious consequences during childbirth. The practice is mainly governed by the traditions and cultures of the communities without having any scientific or medical benefit. In conclusion, FGM is a practice that violates the human and reproductive rights of women.

  6. Cycle 1 as predictor of assisted reproductive technology treatment outcome over multiple cycles: an analysis of linked cycles from the Society for Assisted Reproductive Technology Clinic Outcomes Reporting System online database.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stern, Judy E; Brown, Morton B; Luke, Barbara; Wantman, Ethan; Lederman, Avi; Hornstein, Mark D

    2011-02-01

    To determine whether the first cycle of assisted reproductive technology (ART) predicts treatment course and outcome. Retrospective study of linked cycles. Society for Assisted Reproductive Technology Clinic Outcome Reporting System database. A total of 6,352 ART patients residing or treated in Massachusetts with first treatment cycle in 2004-2005 using fresh, autologous oocytes and no prior ART. Women were categorized by first cycle as follows: Group I, no retrieval; Group II, retrieval, no transfer; Group III, transfer, no embryo cryopreservation; Group IV, transfer plus cryopreservation; and Group V, all embryos cryopreserved. None. Cumulative live-birth delivery per woman, use of donor eggs, intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI), or frozen embryo transfers (FET). Groups differed in age, baseline FSH level, prior gravidity, diagnosis, and failure to return for Cycle 2. Live-birth delivery per woman for groups I through V for women with no delivery in Cycle I were 32.1%, 35.9%, 40.1%, 53.4%, and 51.3%, respectively. Groups I and II were more likely to subsequently use donor eggs (14.5% and 10.9%). Group II had the highest use of ICSI (73.3%); Group III had the lowest use of FET (8.9%). Course of treatment in the first ART cycle is related to different cumulative live-birth delivery rates and eventual use of donor egg, ICSI, and FET. Copyright © 2011 American Society for Reproductive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Flexibility in the duration of parental care: Female leopards prioritise cub survival over reproductive output.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balme, Guy A; Robinson, Hugh S; Pitman, Ross T; Hunter, Luke T B

    2017-09-01

    Deciding when to terminate care of offspring is a key consideration for parents. Prolonging care may increase fitness of current offspring, but it can also reduce opportunities for future reproduction. Despite its evolutionary importance, few studies have explored the optimal duration of parental care, particularly among large carnivores. We used a 40-year dataset to assess the trade-offs associated with the length of maternal care in leopards in the Sabi Sand Game Reserve, South Africa. We compared the costs imposed by care on the survival and residual reproductive value of leopard mothers against the benefits derived from maternal care in terms of increased offspring survival, recruitment and reproduction. We also examined the demographic and ecological factors affecting the duration of care in the light of five explanatory hypotheses: litter size, sex allocation, resource limitation, timing of independence and terminal investment. Duration of care exhibited by female leopards varied markedly, from 9 to 35 months. Mothers did not appear to suffer any short- or long-term survival costs from caring for cubs, but extending care reduced the number of litters that mothers could produce during their lifetimes. Interestingly, the duration of care did not appear to affect the post-independence survival or reproductive success of offspring (although it may have indirectly affected offspring survival by influencing dispersal distance). However, results from generalised linear mixed models showed that mothers prolonged care during periods of prey scarcity, supporting the resource limitation hypothesis. Female leopards also cared for sons longer than daughters, in line with the sex-allocation hypothesis. Cub survival is an important determinant of the lifetime reproductive success in leopards. By buffering offspring against environmental perturbation without jeopardising their own survivorship, female leopards apparently "hedge their bets" with current offspring rather than

  8. Presence and distribution of yeasts in the reproductive tract in healthy female horses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azarvandi, A; Khosravi, A R; Shokri, H; Talebkhan Garoussi, M; Gharahgouzlou, F; Vahedi, G; Sharifzadeh, A

    2017-09-01

    Yeasts are commensal organisms found in the reproductive and gastrointestinal tracts, and on the skin and other mucosa in mammals. The purpose of this study was to isolate and identify yeast flora in the caudal reproductive tract in healthy female horses. Longitudinal study. A total of 453 samples were collected using double-guarded swabs from the vestibule, clitoral fossa and vagina in 151 horses. All samples were cultured on Sabouraud 4% dextrose agar and incubated at 35°C for 7-10 days. Isolates were identified according to their morphological characteristics and biochemical profiles. Yeast colonies were isolated from 60 (39.7%) of the 151 horses. The isolated yeasts belonged to nine genera, and included Candida spp. (53.2%), Cryptococcus spp. (12.2%), Saccharomyces spp. (10.5%), Geotrichum spp. (8.0%), Rhodotorula spp. (7.1%), Malassezia spp. (3.7%), Trichosporon spp. (2.6%), Kluyveromyces spp. (2.6%) and Sporothrix spp. (0.2%). Candida krusei (43.1%) was the most frequent Candida species isolated. There was a significant difference in prevalence between C. krusei and other Candida species (Pyeast isolates (48.0%) than the vagina (18.3%). The isolation of yeast colonies from multiparous females (76.8%) was significantly higher than from maiden mares (P<0.05). The study was limited by the difficulty of distinguishing between normal flora and potential pathogens. Candida spp., in particular C. krusei, represent important flora resident in the caudal reproductive tract in healthy female horses. This is particularly important in contexts that require the initiation of empirical treatment prior to the completion of culture results. © 2016 EVJ Ltd.

  9. Low Lactobacilli abundance and polymicrobial diversity in the lower reproductive tract of female rhesus monkeys do not compromise their reproductive success.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amaral, Wellington Z; Lubach, Gabriele R; Kapoor, Amita; Proctor, Alexandra; Phillips, Gregory J; Lyte, Mark; Coe, Christopher L

    2017-10-01

    The lower reproductive tract of nonhuman primates is colonized with a diverse microbiota, resembling bacterial vaginosis (BV), a gynecological condition associated with negative reproductive outcomes in women. Our 4 aims were to: (i) assess the prevalence of low Lactobacilli and a BV-like profile in female rhesus monkeys; (ii) quantify cytokines in their cervicovaginal fluid (CVF); (iii) examine the composition and structure of their mucosal microbiota with culture-independent sequencing methods; and (iv) evaluate the potential influence on reproductive success. CVF specimens were obtained from 27 female rhesus monkeys for Gram's staining, and to determine acidity (pH), and quantify proinflammatory cytokines. Based on Nugent's classification, 40% had a score of 7 or higher, which would be indicative of BV in women. Nugent scores were significantly correlated with the pH of the CVF. Interleukin-1ß was present at high concentrations, but not further elevated by high Nugent scores. Vaginal swabs were obtained from eight additional females to determine microbial diversity by rRNA gene amplicon sequencing. At the phylum level, the Firmicutes/Bacteroidetes ratio was low. The relative abundance of Lactobacilli was also low (between 3% and 17%), and 11 other genera were present at >1%. However, neither the microbial diversity in the community structure, nor high Nugent scores, was associated with reduced fecundity. Female monkeys provide an opportunity to understand how reproductive success can be sustained in the presence of a diverse polymicrobial community in the reproductive tract. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  10. Reduced costs of reproduction in females mediate a shift from a male-biased to a female-biased lifespan in humans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bolund, Elisabeth; Lummaa, Virpi; Smith, Ken R.; Hanson, Heidi A.; Maklakov, Alexei A.

    2016-01-01

    The causes underlying sex differences in lifespan are strongly debated. While females commonly outlive males in humans, this is generally less pronounced in societies before the demographic transition to low mortality and fertility rates. Life-history theory suggests that reduced reproduction should benefit female lifespan when females pay higher costs of reproduction than males. Using unique longitudinal demographic records on 140,600 reproducing individuals from the Utah Population Database, we demonstrate a shift from male-biased to female-biased adult lifespans in individuals born before versus during the demographic transition. Only women paid a cost of reproduction in terms of shortened post-reproductive lifespan at high parities. Therefore, as fertility decreased over time, female lifespan increased, while male lifespan remained largely stable, supporting the theory that differential costs of reproduction in the two sexes result in the shifting patterns of sex differences in lifespan across human populations. Further, our results have important implications for demographic forecasts in human populations and advance our understanding of lifespan evolution. PMID:27087670

  11. Morphology and Histology of the Female Reproductive System of Abedus ovatus Stal (Belostomatidae: Hemiptera: Insecta

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lalitha TG

    1997-01-01

    Full Text Available In Abedus ovatus Stal, the female reproductive system consists of a pair of ovaries leading to oviduct and opens out by genital aperture. Each ovary is composed of five telotrophic ovarioles, with four different regions, terminal filament, germarium, vitellarium and pedicel. Germarium and vitellarium are the germ tubes in which the development of oocyte occurs. In the germarium, the differentiation of trophocytes into young oocytes was observed in three zones, ZI, ZII and ZIII. Further development of oocytes in the vitellarium could be divided into seven stages, STI STVII. The developed eggs are lodged in the pedicel

  12. Protection of the female reproductive system from natural and artificial insults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tilly, Jonathan L.; Kolesnick, Richard N.

    2010-12-14

    Described are methods for protecting the female reproductive system against natural and artificial insults by administering to women a composition comprising an agent that antagonizes one or more acid sphingomyelinase (ASMase) gene products. Specifically, methods disclosed herein serve to protect women's germline from damage resulting from cancer therapy regimens including chemotherapy or radiotherapy. In one aspect, the method preserves, enhances, or revives ovarian function in women, by administering to women a composition containing sphingosine-1-phosphate, or an analog thereof. Also disclosed are methods to prevent or ameliorate menopausal syndromes and to improve in vitro fertilization techniques.

  13. Female-Specific Glucose Sensitivity of GnRH1 Neurons Leads to Sexually Dimorphic Inhibition of Reproduction in Medaka.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasebe, Masaharu; Kanda, Shinji; Oka, Yoshitaka

    2016-11-01

    Close interaction exists between energy-consuming reproduction and nutritional status. However, there are differences in costs and priority for reproduction among species and even between sexes, which leads to diversification of interactions between reproduction and nutritional status. Despite such diversified interactions among species and sexes, most of the analysis of the nutritional status-dependent regulation of reproduction has been limited to an endothermic vertebrate, mammalian species of either sex. Therefore, the mechanisms underlying the diversified interactions remain elusive. In the present study, we demonstrated the effects of malnutritional status on reproduction at both organismal and cellular levels in an ectothermic vertebrate, a teleost medaka of both sexes. First, we analyzed the effects of malnutrition by fasting on gonadosomatic index, number of spawned/fertilized eggs, and courtship behavior. Fasting strongly suppressed reproduction in females but, surprisingly, not in males. Next, we analyzed the effects of fasting on firing activity of hypothalamic GnRH1 neurons, which form the final common pathway for the control of reproduction. An electrophysiological analysis showed that low glucose, which is induced by fasting, directly suppresses the firing activity of GnRH1 neurons specifically in females through intracellular ATP-sensitive potassium channels and AMP-activated protein kinase pathways. Based on the fact that such suppressions occurred only in females, we conclude that nutritional status-dependent, glucose-sensing in GnRH1 neurons may contribute to the most fitted reproductive regulation for each sex.

  14. Menstrual Cycle Effects on Anaerobic Power, Muscular Strength, and Muscular Endurance in Trained and Untrained Females.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenburg, Beth S.; And Others

    A study determined if anaerobic power, isometric strength, and isometric endurance are affected by the menstrual cycle and if endurance trained females and untrained females are affected in the same manner on these performance parameters. Subjects were healthy, normally menstruating females, ages 18-34 years who were classified as either trained…

  15. Impact of Triclosan on Female Reproduction through Reducing Thyroid Hormones to Suppress Hypothalamic Kisspeptin Neurons in Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xin-Yuan Cao

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Triclosan (TCS, a broad-spectrum antimicrobial agent, is widely used in clinical settings and various personal care products. The aim of this study was to evaluate the influence of TCS on reproductive endocrine and function. Here, we show that the exposure of adult female mice to 10 or 100 mg/kg/day TCS caused prolongation of diestrus, and decreases in antral follicles and corpora lutea within 2 weeks. TCS mice showed decreases in the levels of serum luteinizing hormone (LH, follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH and progesterone, and gonadotrophin-releasing hormone (GnRH mRNA with the lack of LH surge and elevation of prolactin (PRL. TCS mice had lower kisspeptin immunoreactivity and kiss1 mRNA in anteroventral periventricular nucleus (AVPV and arcuate nucleus (ARC. Moreover, the estrogen (E2-enhanced AVPV-kisspeptin expression was reduced in TCS mice. In addition, the serum thyroid hormones (triiodothyronine (T3 and thyroxine (T4 in TCS mice were reduced with increases in levels of thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH and thyroid releasing hormone (TRH. In TCS mice, the treatment with Levothyroxine (L-T4 corrected the increases in PRL, TSH and TRH; the administration of L-T4 or type-2 dopamine receptors agonist quinpirole inhibiting PRL release could rescue the decline of kisspeptin expression in AVPV and ARC; the treatment with L-T4, quinpirole or the GPR45 agonist kisspeptin-10 recovered the levels of serum LH and FSH and progesterone, and GnRH mRNA. Furthermore, TCS mice treated with L-T4 or quinpirole resumed regular estrous cycling, follicular development and ovulation. Together, these results indicate that exposing adult female mice to TCS (≥10 mg/kg reduces thyroid hormones causing hyperprolactinemia that then suppresses hypothalamic kisspeptin expression, leading to deficits in reproductive endocrine and function.

  16. Morphological and functional alterations of female reproduction after regular exposure of bamboo shoots of North East India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deotima Sarkar

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To evaluate the effect of daily consumption of bamboo shoots (BS on the morphological features and functional status of the female reproductive system in adult with respect to thyroid.Methods: Adult female rats were divided into control and experimental groups of six each. Control group was given normal diet while experimental group was fed BS by 1/3rd replacement of 180 g of their food i.e. 60 g of BS containing 35 g of goitrogens of cyanogenic origin such that each rat likely consumed 6 mg/100 g of body weight per day for a period of 45 d. Morphological features like changes in body weight and organ weight were noted. Key steroidogenic enzyme levels viz Δ5 3 β hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase (HSD and 17 β HSD along with serum estradiol, estriol and progesterone levels were measured. Estrous cyclicity of the animals monitored regularly followed by histological analysis of thyroid, ovary and uterus at the end of experimentation.Results: Increase in body weight, thyroid gland weight and thyroid stimulating hormone, decrease in serum triiodothyronine and thyroxine, a decrease in ovarian as well as uterine weight and the activity of steroidogenic enzymes Δ5 3 β HSD and β 17 β HSD along with diminished serum estradiol, estriol and progesterone levels were noted; while histological plates showed prominent degenerative changes in both the ovary and uterus. Estrous cyclicity of the treated animals were irregular and almost stopped at diestrous stage of the cycle in the latter stage of the treatment as compared to control.Conclusions: Overall results indicates that BS rich in cyanogenic constituents induces biochemical hypothyroidism in the experimental animals that acts in corroboration to cause morphological and functional alteration of reproductive organs indicating its likely impact in fertility on continued use.

  17. Morphological and functional alterations of female reproduction after regular exposure of bamboo shoots of North East India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deotima Sarkar

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To evaluate the effect of daily consumption of bamboo shoots (BS on the morphological features and functional status of the female reproductive system in adult with respect to thyroid. Methods: Adult female rats were divided into control and experimental groups of six each. Control group was given normal diet while experimental group was fed BS by 1/3rd replacement of 180 g of their food i.e. 60 g of BS containing 35 g of goitrogens of cyanogenic origin such that each rat likely consumed 6 mg/100 g of body weight per day for a period of 45 d. Morphological features like changes in body weight and organ weight were noted. Key steroidogenic enzyme levels viz Δ5 3β hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase (HSD and 17β HSD along with serum estradiol, estriol and progesterone levels were measured. Estrous cyclicity of the animals monitored regularly followed by histological analysis of thyroid, ovary and uterus at the end of experimentation. Results: Increase in body weight, thyroid gland weight and thyroid stimulating hormone, decrease in serum triiodothyronine and thyroxine, a decrease in ovarian as well as uterine weight and the activity of steroidogenic enzymes Δ5 3β HSD and 17β HSD along with diminished serum estradiol, estriol and progesterone levels were noted; while histological plates showed prominent degenerative changes in both the ovary and uterus. Estrous cyclicity of the treated animals were irregular and almost stopped at diestrous stage of the cycle in the latter stage of the treatment as compared to control. Conclusions: Overall results indicates that BS rich in cyanogenic constituents induces biochemical hypothyroidism in the experimental animals that acts in corroboration to cause morphological and functional alteration of reproductive organs indicating its likely impact in fertility on continued use.

  18. Energy-containing beverages: reproductive hormones and ovarian function in the BioCycle Study123

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schliep, Karen C; Mumford, Sunni L; Pollack, Anna Z; Perkins, Neil J; Ye, Aijun; Zhang, Cuilin J; Stanford, Joseph B; Porucznik, Christina A; Hammoud, Ahmad O; Wactawski-Wende, Jean

    2013-01-01

    Background: Energy-containing beverages are widely consumed among premenopausal women, but their association with reproductive hormones is not well understood. Objective: The objective was to assess the association of energy-containing beverages, added sugars, and total fructose intake with reproductive hormones among ovulatory cycles and sporadic anovulation in healthy premenopausal women. Design: Women (n = 259) in the BioCycle Study were followed for up to 2 menstrual cycles; they provided fasting blood specimens during up to 8 visits/cycle and four 24-h dietary recalls/cycle. Results: Women who consumed ≥1 cup (1 cup = 237 mL) sweetened soda/d had 16.3% higher estradiol concentrations compared with women who consumed less sweetened soda (86.5 pg/mL compared with 74.4 pg/mL, P = 0.01) after adjustment for age, BMI, race, dietary factors, and physical activity. Similarly elevated estradiol concentrations were found for ≥1 cup cola/d and noncola soda intake. Neither artificially sweetened soda nor fruit juice intake ≥1 cup/d was significantly associated with reproductive hormones. Added sugar above the average US woman's intake (≥73.2 g/d) or above the 66th percentile in total fructose intake (≥41.5 g/d) was associated with significantly elevated estradiol but not consistently across all models. No associations were found between beverages, added sugars, or total fructose intake and anovulation after multivariate adjustment. Conclusions: Even at moderate consumption amounts, sweetened soda is associated with elevated follicular estradiol concentrations among premenopausal women but does not appear to affect ovulatory function. Further research into the mechanism driving the association between energy-containing beverages and reproductive hormones, and its potential implications for women's health, is warranted. PMID:23364018

  19. Energy-containing beverages: reproductive hormones and ovarian function in the BioCycle Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schliep, Karen C; Schisterman, Enrique F; Mumford, Sunni L; Pollack, Anna Z; Perkins, Neil J; Ye, Aijun; Zhang, Cuilin J; Stanford, Joseph B; Porucznik, Christina A; Hammoud, Ahmad O; Wactawski-Wende, Jean

    2013-03-01

    Energy-containing beverages are widely consumed among premenopausal women, but their association with reproductive hormones is not well understood. The objective was to assess the association of energy-containing beverages, added sugars, and total fructose intake with reproductive hormones among ovulatory cycles and sporadic anovulation in healthy premenopausal women. Women (n = 259) in the BioCycle Study were followed for up to 2 menstrual cycles; they provided fasting blood specimens during up to 8 visits/cycle and four 24-h dietary recalls/cycle. Women who consumed ≥1 cup (1 cup = 237 mL) sweetened soda/d had 16.3% higher estradiol concentrations compared with women who consumed less sweetened soda (86.5 pg/mL compared with 74.4 pg/mL, P = 0.01) after adjustment for age, BMI, race, dietary factors, and physical activity. Similarly elevated estradiol concentrations were found for ≥1 cup cola/d and noncola soda intake. Neither artificially sweetened soda nor fruit juice intake ≥1 cup/d was significantly associated with reproductive hormones. Added sugar above the average US woman's intake (≥73.2 g/d) or above the 66th percentile in total fructose intake (≥41.5 g/d) was associated with significantly elevated estradiol but not consistently across all models. No associations were found between beverages, added sugars, or total fructose intake and anovulation after multivariate adjustment. Even at moderate consumption amounts, sweetened soda is associated with elevated follicular estradiol concentrations among premenopausal women but does not appear to affect ovulatory function. Further research into the mechanism driving the association between energy-containing beverages and reproductive hormones, and its potential implications for women's health, is warranted.

  20. LIFE CYCLE, DISTRIBUTION AND ABUNDANCE OF CARCINONEMERTES EPIALTI, A NEMERTEAN EGG PREDATOR OF THE SHORE CRAB, HEMIGRAPSUS OREGONENSIS, IN RELATION TO HOST SIZE, REPRODUCTION AND MOLT CYCLE.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuris, Armand M

    1978-02-01

    1. The geographic range of Carcinonemertes epialti has been greatly extended. The worms are found from Bahia San Quintin, Baja California, Mexico, to Page's Lagoon, Vancouver Island, British Columbia, Canada. 2. New host records for C. epialti include H. oregonensis, and H. nudus. It is rare on its type host Pugettia producta. Specimens of Carcinonemertes of uncertain affinities are also found on Cancer antennarius, C. anthonyi and C. productus. 3. Carcinonemertes epialti adults are egg predators on ovigerous hosts. Growth, demography and abundance are described in relation to the embryogenic stage of the host brood at Bodega Harbor, California. 4. Nonfeeding juveniles are ensheathed on individuals of both host sexes over 8.0 mm carapace width. 5. Transmission experiments show that contact transfer of juvenile nemerteans from males to other hosts may occur. 6. The percentage of infestation and mean density peak in autumn on H. oregonensis at Bodega Harbor. 7. Ovigerous female hosts are more frequently infested with C. epialti, particularly at small host sizes, than are male or nonovigerous female hosts at Bodega Harbor. However, average worm density on ovigerous females is low. 8. Mean density of C. epialti rises through late postmolt, declines during intermolt and rebuilds to a high level in late premolt H. oregonensisfrom Bodega Harbor. 9. Large crabs have a higher percentage of infestations and mean densities per infection than do small crabs. Nemerteans are more frequently found in the sternal-abdominal furrow and less frequently in the limb axillae on large crabs. 10. A model of C. epialti transmission and site occupancy is proposed, incorporating the influence of host size, sex, reproductive state, embryogenesis, molt cycle stage and molt cycle duration of H. oregonensis at Bodega Harbor. Site availability increases with host size. At higher densities the juvenile nemerteans increasingly occupy less preferred sites. Transferral of juvenile nemerteans occurs

  1. Effect of Air Pollution on Menstrual Cycle Length-A Prognostic Factor of Women's Reproductive Health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merklinger-Gruchala, Anna; Jasienska, Grazyna; Kapiszewska, Maria

    2017-07-20

    Air pollution can influence women's reproductive health, specifically menstrual cycle characteristics, oocyte quality, and risk of miscarriage. The aim of the study was to assess whether air pollution can affect the length of the overall menstrual cycle and the length of its phases (follicular and luteal). Municipal ecological monitoring data was used to assess the air pollution exposure during the monitored menstrual cycle of each of 133 woman of reproductive age. Principal component analyses were used to group pollutants (PM 10 , SO₂, CO, and NO x ) to represent a source-related mixture. PM 10 and SO₂ assessed separately negatively affected the length of the luteal phase after standardization (b = -0.02; p = 0.03; b = -0.06; p = 0.02, respectively). Representing a fossil fuel combustion emission, they were also associated with luteal phase shortening (b = -0.32; p = 0.02). These pollutants did not affect the follicular phase length and overall cycle length, neither in single- nor in multi-pollutant models. CO and NO x assessed either separately or together as a traffic emission were not associated with overall cycle length or the length of cycle phases. Luteal phase shortening, a possible manifestation of luteal phase deficiency, can result from fossil fuel combustion. This suggests that air pollution may contribute to fertility problems in women.

  2. Prenatal exposure to an environmentally relevant phthalate mixture disrupts reproduction in F1 female mice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhou, Changqing; Gao, Liying; Flaws, Jodi A., E-mail: jflaws@illinois.edu

    2017-03-01

    Phthalates are used in a large variety of products, such as building materials, medical devices, and personal care products. Most previous studies on the toxicity of phthalates have focused on single phthalates, but it is also important to study the effects of phthalate mixtures because humans are exposed to phthalate mixtures. Thus, we tested the hypothesis that prenatal exposure to an environmentally relevant phthalate mixture adversely affects female reproduction in mice. To test this hypothesis, pregnant CD-1 dams were orally dosed with vehicle (tocopherol-stripped corn oil) or a phthalate mixture (20 and 200 μg/kg/day, 200 and 500 mg/kg/day) daily from gestational day 10 to birth. The mixture was based on the composition of phthalates detected in urine samples from pregnant women in Illinois. The mixture included 35% diethyl phthalate, 21% di(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate, 15% dibutyl phthalate, 15% diisononyl phthalate, 8% diisobutyl phthalate, and 5% benzylbutyl phthalate. Female mice born to the exposed dams were subjected to tissue collections and fertility tests at different ages. Our results indicate that prenatal exposure to the phthalate mixture significantly increased uterine weight and decreased anogenital distance on postnatal days 8 and 60, induced cystic ovaries at 13 months, disrupted estrous cyclicity, reduced fertility-related indices, and caused some breeding complications at 3, 6, and 9 months of age. Collectively, our data suggest that prenatal exposure to an environmentally relevant phthalate mixture disrupts aspects of female reproduction in mice. - Highlights: • Prenatal exposure to a phthalate mixture disrupts F1 estrous cyclicity. • Prenatal exposure to a phthalate mixture induces F1 ovarian cysts. • Prenatal exposure to a phthalate mixture decreases F1 female fertility-related indices. • Prenatal exposure to a phthalate mixture induces F1 breeding complications.

  3. Female reproductive factors are associated with objectively measured physical activity in middle-aged women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kulmala, Janne; Aukee, Pauliina; Hakonen, Harto; Kujala, Urho M.; Lowe, Dawn A.; Kovanen, Vuokko; Tammelin, Tuija; Sipilä, Sarianna

    2017-01-01

    Physical activity improves health and may delay the onset of several chronic diseases. For women in particular, the rate of these diseases accelerates at middle age; therefore it is important to identify the determinants of health-enhancing physical activity during midlife in this population. In this study, we focused on determinants that are unique to the female sex, such as childbearing and menopause. The main objective was to characterize the level of physical activity and differences between active and inactive middle-aged Finnish women. In addition, we examined the association of physical activity with female reproductive factors at midlife. The study population consisted of 647 women aged 48 to 55 years who participated in our Estrogenic Regulation of Muscle Apoptosis (ERMA) study during the period from 2015 to 2016. Physical activity was measured objectively using hip-worn accelerometers for seven consecutive days. The outcome measures included the amounts of light intensity physical activity and moderate to vigorous intensity physical activity accumulated in bouts of at least 10 minutes (MVPA10). MVPA10 was used to determine whether women were placed in the active (≥150 min/week) or inactive (physical activity measures as dependent variables and cumulative reproductive history index, menopausal symptoms, and pelvic floor dysfunction as independent variables. We found that a large portion (61%) of Finnish middle-aged women did not meet the physical activity recommendations of 150 minutes of MVPA10 per week. In the studied cohort, 78% of women experienced menopausal symptoms, and 54% exhibited pelvic floor dysfunction. Perceived menopausal symptoms were associated with greater light physical activity. Perceived pelvic floor dysfunction was associated with lower MVPA10. According to the fully adjusted multiple linear regression models, reproductive factors explained 6.0% of the variation of MVPA10 and 7.5% of the variation of light physical activity. The

  4. Seminal Fluid-Mediated Inflammation in Physiology and Pathology of the Female Reproductive Tract

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anthonio O. Adefuye

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Inflammation is a multifaceted process involving a host of resident and recruited immune cells that eliminate the insult or injury and initiate tissue repair. In the female reproductive tract (FMRT, inflammation-mediated alterations in epithelial, vascular, and immune functions are important components of complex physiological processes and many local and systemic pathologies. It is well established that intracoital and postcoital function of seminal fluid (SF goes beyond nutritive support for the spermatozoa cells. SF, in particular, the inflammatory bioactive lipids, and prostaglandins present in vast quantities in SF, have a role in localized immune modulation and regulation of pathways that can exacerbate inflammation in the FMRT. In sexually active women SF-mediated inflammation has been implicated in physiologic processes such as ovulation, implantation, and parturition while also enhancing tumorigenesis and susceptibility to infection. This review highlights the molecular mechanism by which SF regulates inflammatory pathways in the FMRT and how alterations in these pathways contribute to physiology and pathology of the female reproductive function. In addition, based on findings from TaqMan® 96-Well Plate Arrays, on neoplastic cervical cells treated with SF, we discuss new findings on the role of SF as a potent driver of inflammatory and tumorigenic pathways in the cervix.

  5. Possible Involvement of Photoperiodic Regulation in Reproductive Endocrine System of Female Olive Flounder Paralichthys olivaceus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hyun Chul; Lee, Chi Hoon; Hur, Sung Pyu; Kim, Byeong Hoon; Park, Jun Young; Lee, Young Don

    2015-03-01

    This study investigated possible involvement of photoperiodic regulation in reproductive endocrine system of female olive flounder. To investigate the influence on brain-pituitary axis in endocrine system by regulating photoperiod, compared expression level of Kisspeptin and sbGnRH mRNA in brain and FSH-β, LH-β and GH mRNA in pituitary before and after spawning. Photoperiod was treated natural photoperiod and long photoperiod (15L:9D) conditions from Aug. 2013 to Jun. 2014. Continuous long photoperiod treatment from Aug. (post-spawning phase) was inhibited gonadal development of female olive flounder. In natural photoperiod group, the Kiss2 expression level a significant declined in Mar. (spawning period). And also, FSH-β, LH-β and GH mRNA expression levels were increasing at this period. However, in long photoperiod group, hypothalamic Kiss2, FSH-β, LH-β and GH mRNA expression levels did not show any significant fluctuation. These results suggest that expression of hypothalamic Kiss2, GtH and GH in the pituitary would change in response to photoperiod and their possible involvement of photoperiodic regulation in reproductive endocrine system of the BPG axis.

  6. [Effects of magnesium valproate on endocrine system and reproductive functions of female epileptics].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiang, Li; Ding, Jun-Qing; Huang, Xi-Shun

    2011-08-09

    To explore the effects of valproate (VPA) on endocrine system in adolescent and reproductive female patients with epilepsy. A total of 30 adolescent and reproductive female patients with a diagnosis of epilepsy at our hospital during July 2009 to March 2010 were recruited. All cases with magnesium VPA alone were included. The levels of follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH), luteinizing hormone (LH), prolactin (PRL), estradiol (E2), progesterone (P) and testosterone (T) were detected respectively at pre-therapy and 3, 6 and 12 months post-therapy. And the changes of menstruation and ovaries were recorded. The serum concentration of PRL was lower at 3 and 6 months post-therapy than that at pre-therapy. There was significant difference (P = 0.010 and 0.014). The serum concentration of E2 significantly decreased after a 3-month therapy of valproate (P endocrine system and hormonal levels, but also induce such endocrine dysfunction syndromes as menstrual suspension and polycystic ovary. It eventually causes polycystic ovary syndrome.

  7. Brain Transcriptional Profiles of Male Alternative Reproductive Tactics and Females in Bluegill Sunfish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Partridge, Charlyn G; MacManes, Matthew D; Knapp, Rosemary; Neff, Bryan D

    2016-01-01

    Bluegill sunfish (Lepomis macrochirus) are one of the classic systems for studying male alternative reproductive tactics (ARTs) in teleost fishes. In this species, there are two distinct life histories: parental and cuckolder, encompassing three reproductive tactics, parental, satellite, and sneaker. The parental life history is fixed, whereas individuals who enter the cuckolder life history transition from sneaker to satellite tactic as they grow. For this study, we used RNAseq to characterize the brain transcriptome of the three male tactics and females during spawning to identify gene ontology (GO) categories and potential candidate genes associated with each tactic. We found that sneaker males had higher levels of gene expression differentiation compared to the other two male tactics. Sneaker males also had higher expression in ionotropic glutamate receptor genes, specifically AMPA receptors, compared to other males, which may be important for increased spatial working memory while attempting to cuckold parental males at their nests. Larger differences in gene expression also occurred among male tactics than between males and females. We found significant expression differences in several candidate genes that were previously identified in other species with ARTs and suggest a previously undescribed role for cAMP-responsive element modulator (crem) in influencing parental male behaviors during spawning.

  8. Changes in gene expression associated with reproductive maturation in wild female baboons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babbitt, Courtney C; Tung, Jenny; Wray, Gregory A; Alberts, Susan C

    2012-01-01

    Changes in gene expression during development play an important role in shaping morphological and behavioral differences, including between humans and nonhuman primates. Although many of the most striking developmental changes occur during early development, reproductive maturation represents another critical window in primate life history. However, this process is difficult to study at the molecular level in natural primate populations. Here, we took advantage of ovarian samples made available through an unusual episode of human-wildlife conflict to identify genes that are important in this process. Specifically, we used RNA sequencing (RNA-Seq) to compare genome-wide gene expression patterns in the ovarian tissue of juvenile and adult female baboons from Amboseli National Park, Kenya. We combined this information with prior evidence of selection occurring on two primate lineages (human and chimpanzee). We found that in cases in which genes were both differentially expressed over the course of ovarian maturation and also linked to lineage-specific selection this selective signature was much more likely to occur in regulatory regions than in coding regions. These results suggest that adaptive change in the development of the primate ovary may be largely driven at the mechanistic level by selection on gene regulation, potentially in relationship to the physiology or timing of female reproductive maturation.

  9. Long-term effects of prenatal x-ray of human females: reproductive experience

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meyer, M.B.; Tonascia, J.

    1981-01-01

    A cohort of singleton black human females exposed to diagnostic x-ray in utero and controls matched by parity, hospital of birth and birthdate have been followed to ages 25 to 30 years in Baltimore, Maryland. The search for possible effects of prenatal irradiation has focused on health, growth, development, and reproductive experience of exposed and control women. This paper reports findings related to reproductive experience. From an original data set of 1458 matched exposed-control pairs of women, questionnaire responses were received from 1109 exposed and 1124 control women including 852 each from pairs in which both the exposed and control woman responded. After careful search for alternative explanations of the findings, the authors concluded that females exposed in utero to low doses of x-ray (probably 1 to 5 rads) had significant increases in their rates of early onset of menses, births at age 15 years or less, numbers of living children, stillbirths, and sterilizing operations by their mid-twenties. These findings are compatible with animal studies in which prenatal irradiation kills many oocytes, but accelerates the development of remaining cells to stages more closely correlated with fertility. Although these animals subsequently became sterile, this cannot be tested in the current study because significantly more of the irradiated women have had surgical sterilizations

  10. The endocrine-brain-aging triad where many paths meet: female reproductive hormone changes at midlife and their influence on circuits important for learning and memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koebele, Stephanie V; Bimonte-Nelson, Heather A

    2017-08-01

    Female mammals undergo natural fluctuations in sex steroid hormone levels throughout life. These fluctuations span from early development, to cyclic changes associated with the menstrual or estrous cycle and pregnancy, to marked hormone flux during perimenopause, and a final decline at reproductive senescence. While the transition to reproductive senescence is not yet fully understood, the vast majority of mammals experience this spontaneous, natural phenomenon with age, which has broad implications for long-lived species. Indeed, this post-reproductive life stage, and its transition, involves significant and enduring physiological changes, including considerably altered sex steroid hormone and gonadotropin profiles that impact multiple body systems, including the brain. The endocrine-brain-aging triad is especially noteworthy, as many paths meet and interact. Many of the brain regions affected by aging are also sensitive to changes in ovarian hormone levels, and aging and reproductive senescence are both associated with changes in memory performance. This review explores how menopause is related to cognitive aging, and discusses some of the key neural systems and molecular factors altered with age and reproductive hormone level changes, with an emphasis on brain regions important for learning and memory. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  11. Female Reproductive Disorders, Diseases, and Costs of Exposure to Endocrine Disrupting Chemicals in the European Union.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunt, Patricia A; Sathyanarayana, Sheela; Fowler, Paul A; Trasande, Leonardo

    2016-04-01

    A growing body of evidence suggests that endocrine-disrupting chemicals (EDCs) contribute to female reproductive disorders. To calculate the associated combined health care and economic costs attributable to specific EDC exposures within the European Union (EU). An expert panel evaluated evidence for probability of causation using the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change weight-of-evidence characterization. Exposure-response relationships and reference levels were evaluated, and biomarker data were organized from carefully identified studies from the peer-reviewed literature to represent European exposure and approximate burden of disease as it occurred in 2010. Cost-of-illness estimation used multiple peer-reviewed sources. Cost estimation was carried out from a societal perspective, ie, including direct costs (eg, treatment costs) and indirect costs such as productivity loss. The most robust EDC-related data for female reproductive disorders exist for 1) diphenyldichloroethene-attributable fibroids and 2) phthalate-attributable endometriosis in Europe. In both cases, the strength of epidemiological evidence was rated as low and the toxicological evidence as moderate, with an assigned probability of causation of 20%–39%. Across the EU, attributable cases were estimated to be 56 700 and 145 000 women, respectively, with total combined economic and health care costs potentially reaching €163 million and €1.25 billion. EDCs (diphenyldichloroethene and phthalates) may contribute substantially to the most common reproductive disorders in women, endometriosis and fibroids, costing nearly €1.5 billion annually. These estimates represent only EDCs for which there were sufficient epidemiologic studies and those with the highest probability of causation. These public health costs should be considered as the EU contemplates regulatory action on EDCs.

  12. Female reproductive factors, menopausal hormone use, and Parkinson’s disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Rui; Baird, Donna; Park, Yikyung; Freedman, Neal D.; Huang, Xuemei; Hollenbeck, Albert; Blair, Aaron; Chen, Honglei

    2014-01-01

    Objective To examine the associations of reproductive factors and exogenous hormone use with risk of Parkinson’s disease (PD) among postmenopausal women. Methods The study comprised 119,166 postmenopausal women ages 50–71 years in the NIH-AARP Diet and Health Study, who completed a baseline questionnaire in 1995–1996 and a follow-up survey in 2004–2006. A total of 410 self-reported PD diagnoses were identified between 1995 and 2006. Multivariate odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) were derived from logistic regression models. Results PD risk was not significantly associated with female reproductive factors including age at menarche, age at first live birth, parity, and age at menopause. For example, compared with women with natural menopause at ages 50–54 years, the ORs were 1.18, (95% CI 0.78–1.79) for women with natural menopause at ages <45, 1.19 (0.88–1.61) for ages 45–49, and 1.33 (0.91–1.93) for ages 55 or later. We found that oral contraceptive use for ≥10 years (vs. never use) was associated with lower PD risk (OR=0.59; 0.38–0.92) but shorter use showed no association. Use of menopausal hormone therapy showed inconsistent results. Compared with non-hormone users at baseline, current hormone users of <5 years showed a higher risk of PD (OR=1.52; 1.11–2.08). However, no associations were observed for past hormone users or current users of ≥5 years. Conclusions Overall, this large prospective study provides little support for an association between female reproductive factors and PD risk. Our findings on long-term oral contraceptive use and current hormone therapy warrant further investigations. PMID:24352877

  13. The Use of Telehealth to Teach Reproductive Health to Female Rural High School Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoost, Jennie Lee; Starcher, Rachael Whitley; King-Mallory, Rebecca Ann; Hussain, Nafeeza; Hensley, Christina Ann; Gress, Todd William

    2017-04-01

    To evaluate the use of telehealth to teach reproductive health to rural areas with high rates of teen pregnancy. Prospective cohort study. Two high schools in rural West Virginia. High school female students who attended telehealth sessions. Teleconferencing equipment connected rural high schools to a distal academic institution. Telehealth sessions included reproductive health and life skills topics. Demographic information, session pre- and post-tests, and 6- month assessment was obtained. Reproductive health knowledge, behavior, and self-efficacy were assessed at intervention and at 6 months, along with Likert scale evaluation of telehealth as an educational tool. Fifty-five students participated in the program with an average age of 16.14 (SD 1.24) years. Only 20% (10/50) of subjects' mothers and 12% (6/50) of subjects' fathers had achieved education beyond high school, and 20% (10/50) of subject's mothers had experienced teen pregnancies (age 18 or younger). Sexual activity was reported among 52% (26/50) of subjects, 4/50 (8%) reported desire to become pregnant within the next year, and 4/50 (8%) reported already pregnant. Thirty-seven students completed the 6-month follow-up survey. Reported condom use increased from 20% (10/50) at baseline to 40% (15/37) at 6 months (P = .04) and hormonal contraception use increased from 22% (11/50) to 38% (14/37) (P = .12). Report of human papillomavirus vaccination increased from 38% (10/26) to 70% (26/37) (P = .001) among all subjects. At 6 months, 91.8% (34/37) reported the use of telehealth was "very effective" as a means to teach the material. Telehealth is an effective tool to teach reproductive health to rural areas. Copyright © 2016 North American Society for Pediatric and Adolescent Gynecology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Home range size variation in female arctic grizzly bears relative to reproductive status and resource availability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwards, Mark A; Derocher, Andrew E; Nagy, John A

    2013-01-01

    The area traversed in pursuit of resources defines the size of an animal's home range. For females, the home range is presumed to be a function of forage availability. However, the presence of offspring may also influence home range size due to reduced mobility, increased nutritional need, and behavioral adaptations of mothers to increase offspring survival. Here, we examine the relationship between resource use and variation in home range size for female barren-ground grizzly bears (Ursus arctos) of the Mackenzie Delta region in Arctic Canada. We develop methods to test hypotheses of home range size that address selection of cover where cover heterogeneity is low, using generalized linear mixed-effects models and an information-theoretic approach. We found that the reproductive status of female grizzlies affected home range size but individually-based spatial availability of highly selected cover in spring and early summer was a stronger correlate. If these preferred covers in spring and early summer, a period of low resource availability for grizzly bears following den-emergence, were patchy and highly dispersed, females travelled farther regardless of the presence or absence of offspring. Increased movement to preferred covers, however, may result in greater risk to the individual or family.

  15. Home range size variation in female arctic grizzly bears relative to reproductive status and resource availability.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark A Edwards

    Full Text Available The area traversed in pursuit of resources defines the size of an animal's home range. For females, the home range is presumed to be a function of forage availability. However, the presence of offspring may also influence home range size due to reduced mobility, increased nutritional need, and behavioral adaptations of mothers to increase offspring survival. Here, we examine the relationship between resource use and variation in home range size for female barren-ground grizzly bears (Ursus arctos of the Mackenzie Delta region in Arctic Canada. We develop methods to test hypotheses of home range size that address selection of cover where cover heterogeneity is low, using generalized linear mixed-effects models and an information-theoretic approach. We found that the reproductive status of female grizzlies affected home range size but individually-based spatial availability of highly selected cover in spring and early summer was a stronger correlate. If these preferred covers in spring and early summer, a period of low resource availability for grizzly bears following den-emergence, were patchy and highly dispersed, females travelled farther regardless of the presence or absence of offspring. Increased movement to preferred covers, however, may result in greater risk to the individual or family.

  16. Androgen excess fetal programming of female reproduction: a developmental aetiology for polycystic ovary syndrome?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abbott, D H; Barnett, D K; Bruns, C M; Dumesic, D A

    2005-01-01

    The aetiology of polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) remains unknown. This familial syndrome is prevalent among reproductive-aged women and its inheritance indicates a dominant regulatory gene with incomplete penetrance. However, promising candidate genes have proven unreliable as markers for the PCOS phenotype. This lack of genetic linkage may represent both extreme heterogeneity of PCOS and difficulty in establishing a universally accepted PCOS diagnosis. Nevertheless, hyperandrogenism is one of the most consistently expressed PCOS traits. Animal models that mimic fetal androgen excess may thus provide unique insight into the origins of the PCOS syndrome. Many female mammals exposed to androgen excess in utero or during early post-natal life typically show masculinized and defeminized behaviour, ovulatory dysfunction and virilized genitalia, although behavioural and ovulatory dysfunction can coexist without virilized genitalia based upon the timing of androgen excess. One animal model shows particular relevance to PCOS: the prenatally androgenized female rhesus monkey. Females exposed to androgen excess early in gestation exhibit hyperandrogenism, oligomenorrhoea and enlarged, polyfollicular ovaries, in addition to LH hypersecretion, impaired embryo development, insulin resistance accompanying abdominal obesity, impaired insulin response to glucose and hyperlipidaemia. Female monkeys exposed to androgen excess late in gestation mimic these programmed changes, except for LH and insulin secretion defects. In utero androgen excess may thus variably perturb multiple organ system programming and thereby provide a single, fetal origin for a heterogeneous adult syndrome.

  17. Genetic differentiation for size at first reproduction through male versus female functions in the widespread Mediterranean tree Pinus pinaster.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos-del-Blanco, L; Climent, J; González-Martínez, S C; Pannell, J R

    2012-11-01

    The study of local adaptation in plant reproductive traits has received substantial attention in short-lived species, but studies conducted on forest trees are scarce. This lack of research on long-lived species represents an important gap in our knowledge, because inferences about selection on the reproduction and life history of short-lived species cannot necessarily be extrapolated to trees. This study considers whether the size for first reproduction is locally adapted across a broad geographical range of the Mediterranean conifer species Pinus pinaster. In particular, the study investigates whether this monoecious species varies genetically among populations in terms of whether individuals start to reproduce through their male function, their female function or both sexual functions simultaneously. Whether differences among populations could be attributed to local adaptation across a climatic gradient is then considered. Male and female reproduction and growth were measured during early stages of sexual maturity of a P. pinaster common garden comprising 23 populations sampled across the species range. Generalized linear mixed models were used to assess genetic variability of early reproductive life-history traits. Environmental correlations with reproductive life-history traits were tested after controlling for neutral genetic structure provided by 12 nuclear simple sequence repeat markers. Trees tended to reproduce first through their male function, at a size (height) that varied little among source populations. The transition to female reproduction was slower, showed higher levels of variability and was negatively correlated with vegetative growth traits. Several female reproductive traits were correlated with a gradient of growth conditions, even after accounting for neutral genetic structure, with populations from more unfavourable sites tending to commence female reproduction at a lower individual size. The study represents the first report of genetic

  18. Responsiveness of pituitary to galanin throughout the reproductive cycle of male European sea bass (Dicentrarchus labrax).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinto, P; Velez, Z; Sousa, C; Santos, S; Andrade, A; Alvarado, M V; Felip, A; Zanuy, S; Canário, A V M

    2017-09-01

    The neuropeptide galanin (Gal) is a putative factor regulating puberty onset and reproduction through its actions on the pituitary. The present study investigated the pituitary responsiveness to galanin and the patterns of galanin receptors (Galrs) expression throughout the reproductive cycle of two years old male European sea bass (Dicentrarchus labrax), an important aquaculture species. Quantitative analysis of pituitary and hypothalamus transcript expression of four galr subtypes revealed differential regulation according to the testicular developmental stage, with an overall decrease in expression from the immature stage to the mid-recrudescence stage. Incubation of pituitary cells with mammalian 1-29Gal peptide induced significant changes in cAMP concentration, with sensitivities that varied according to the testicular development stages. Furthermore 1-29Gal was able to stimulate both follicle stimulating hormone (Fsh) and luteinizing hormone (Lh) release from pituitary cell suspensions. The magnitude of the effects and effective concentrations varied according to reproductive stage, with generalized induction of Fsh and Lh release in animals sampled in January (full spermiation). The differential expression of galrs in pituitary and hypothalamus across the reproductive season, together with the differential effects of Gal on gonadotropins release in vitro strongly suggests the involvement of the galaninergic system in the regulation the hypothalamus-pituitary-gonad axis of male sea bass. This is to our knowledge the first clear evidence for the involvement of galanin in the regulation of reproduction in non-mammalian vertebrates. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Female labour participation rates in Norway - trends and cycles

    OpenAIRE

    Svendsen, Ingvild

    1999-01-01

    Norwegian female labour participation rates have increased steadily since the beginning of the seventies. This paper address several issues concerning female labour participation series for the period 1972-1997. The main purpose is to identify factors that explain the trend-like increase during the last 25 years and a possible cyclical component that is due to labour market conditions. The resulting relations for women in the age-groups 25-39 years and 40-59 years include long-run effects fro...

  20. The effects of an "El Niño" southern oscillation event on reproduction in male and female blue-footed boobies, Sula nebouxii.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wingfield, J C; Ramos-Fernandez, G; Nuñez-de la Mora, A; Drummond, H

    1999-05-01

    This study attempted to determine endocrine correlates of reproductive success in relation to major deleterious environmental conditions. In 1992, an El Niño southern oscillation event resulted in complete reproductive failure in a colony of blue-footed boobies, Sula nebouxi, on Isla Isabel in the Pacific Ocean off San Blas, Nayarit, Mexico (21.5 degrees N, 105.5 degrees W). In 1993, the El Niño event had waned and reproductive success was high. The mean sea surface temperature in 1992 was 26.69 degrees, the warmest year for 11 years of data (mean, 25.63 degrees ). In 1993, mean sea surface temperature was 25.75 degrees. Plasma levels of testosterone were highest during the egg-laying period in 1993 and declined markedly during incubation. There were no differences between males and females. Comparisons of testosterone levels between 1992 and 1993 (egg-laying time point removed for 1993) showed no significant differences. Thus reproductive failure during an El Niño year was not related to testosterone levels. Baseline plasma levels of corticosterone did not change over the nesting cycle in either sex. There was a trend for plasma levels of corticosterone to be higher in males and females during the earlier stages of breeding in 1992 compared with 1993, and if all levels were combined within years then females showed significantly higher plasma levels of corticosterone in the El Niño year. Plasma levels of corticosterone showed marked increases following capture and handling in both sexes and at every stage of the breeding cycle in each year. There was no variation in the adrenocortical responses to stress with year or stage of nesting in males. However, in females, maximum corticosterone levels were greatest during the parental phase of 1992, the El Niño year, when all nests ultimately failed. Comparisons of the dynamics of corticosterone changes during the capture stress protocol revealed no correlations with body mass in 1992 or 1993. These data suggest that

  1. Serum uric acid in relation to endogenous reproductive hormones during the menstrual cycle: findings from the BioCycle study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mumford, Sunni L.; Dasharathy, Sonya S.; Pollack, Anna Z.; Perkins, Neil J.; Mattison, Donald R.; Cole, Stephen R.; Wactawski-Wende, Jean; Schisterman, Enrique F.

    2013-01-01

    STUDY QUESTION Do uric acid levels across the menstrual cycle show associations with endogenous estradiol (E2) and reproductive hormone concentrations in regularly menstruating women? SUMMARY ANSWER Mean uric acid concentrations were highest during the follicular phase, and were inversely associated with E2 and progesterone, and positively associated with FSH. WHAT IS KNOWN ALREADY E2 may decrease serum levels of uric acid in post-menopausal women; however, the interplay between endogenous reproductive hormones and uric acid levels among regularly menstruating women has not been elucidated. STUDY DESIGN, SIZE, DURATION The BioCycle study was a prospective cohort study conducted at the University at Buffalo research centre from 2005 to 2007, which followed healthy women for one (n = 9) or 2 (n = 250) menstrual cycle(s). PARTICIPANTS/MATERIALS, SETTING, METHODS Participants were healthy women aged 18–44 years. Hormones and uric acid were measured in serum eight times each cycle for up to two cycles. Marginal structural models with inverse probability of exposure weights were used to evaluate the associations between endogenous hormones and uric acid concentrations. MAIN RESULTS AND THE ROLE OF CHANCE Uric acid levels were observed to vary across the menstrual cycle, with the lowest levels observed during the luteal phase. Every log-unit increase in E2 was associated with a decrease in uric acid of 1.1% (β = −0.011; 95% confidence interval (CI): −0.019, −0.004; persistent-effects model), and for every log-unit increase in progesterone, uric acid decreased by ∼0.8% (β = −0.008; 95% CI: −0.012, −0.004; persistent-effects model). FSH was positively associated with uric acid concentrations, such that each log-unit increase was associated with a 1.6% increase in uric acid (β = 0.016; 95% CI: 0.005, 0.026; persistent-effects model). Progesterone and FSH were also associated with uric acid levels in acute-effects models. Of 509 cycles, 42 were anovulatory

  2. Annual reproductive cycle in two free living populations of three-spined stickleback (Gasterosteus aculeatus L.: patterns of ovarian and testicular development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ewa Sokołowska

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available The annual reproductive cycle in two wild populations of three-spinedstickleback was studied. Sticklebacks from the Dead Vistula River(Martwa Wisła (brackish water and the Oliva Stream (Potok Oliwski(freshwater were exposed to annual environmental changes in their naturalhabitats. Ovaries and livers (females, and testes and kidneys (males werecollected during 1-2 years. The gonadosomatic IG, hepatosomaticIH, nephrosomatic IN indices, kidney epithelium height(KEH and size of oocytes were calculated.The number of mature oocytes andpercentage of ovulating females were determined during the spawning season.Histological changes in the ovaries and testes were described throughouta year. Annual reproductive cycles were similar in both populations ofsticklebacks. This is the first histological and morphological study carriedout throughout a year, simultaneously in two wild populations of three-spinedsticklebacks inhabiting different environments. An improved scale of gonadaldevelopment in conjunction with the determined indices and fecundity givea comprehensive description of the reproductive cycle. These new observations,in combination with previously reported features, provide a universal scalethat can be successfully used to distinguish all phases of gametogenesis insticklebacks in different habitats.

  3. Experimental study on the long-term effect of cadmium in mice fed cadmium-polluted rice with special reference to the effect of repeated reproductive cycles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Watanabe, M.; Shiroishi, K.; Nishino, H.; Shinmura, T.; Murase, H.; Shoji, T.; Naruse, Y.; Kagamimori, S.

    1986-01-01

    Long-term biological effects of cadmium-polluted rice and effect of repeated reproductive cycles on them were examined. Female SLC-B6D2F mice (female C57BL/6, male DBA/2) were fed a rice diet containing 65% unpolished rice for about 2 years from 7 weeks of age. The unpolished rice preparations used were commercially available rice (non-Cd-polluted) and Cd-polluted rice (over 1.0 ppm). Average Cd contents in each diet class were 0.12, 0.48, 1.78, 1.75, and 47.1 ppm (50 ppm Cd as CdCl 2 added). Some experimental mice were subjected to repeated reproductive cycles (parity group). Hematological, biochemical, and pathological examinations of urine, blood, and tissues, including Cd measurement, were carried out. Results after statistical analysis indicate Cd toxicities such as anemia and disturbances of Ca metabolism. These Cd effects were found to be enhanced by the reproductive cycles. Soft X-ray radiograms showed osteoporosis in the parity groups, especially in the groups with diets of higher Cd content. However, we could not find any sign of disturbance of renal function under our experimental conditions

  4. Vulnerability and Knowledge of Sexually Transmitted Infections Among Female Traders of Reproductive Age in Enugu, Nigeria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ikeako, LC; Ekwueme, OC; Ezegwui, HU; Okeke, TOC

    2014-01-01

    Background: Sexually transmitted infections (STIs) constitute major public health concern and enigma. A comprehensive knowledge of the modes of transmission is necessary to evolve an effective preventive strategy. Aim: The aim of the study is to assess the vulnerability, knowledge and prevention of STIs among female traders of reproductive age in Enugu, Southeast Nigeria. Subjects and Methods: This was a cross-sectional descriptive study carried out on female traders aged 15-49 years at Ogbete Main Market, Enugu, Southeast Nigeria. Data was analyzed using Epi-Info 2000 version 3.3.1 Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Atlanta USA) was used to analyze the data and results were presented in tabular form. Results: A total of 200 female traders of reproductive age participated in the study. The mean (standard deviation) age was 26 (7.4) years. 16% (32/200) were adolescents. Knowledge of specific STIs was highest for human immunodeficiency virus/acquired immune deficiency syndrome 90% (130/200). Parents were poor sources of information as only 28.5% (57/200) respondents heard about STIs from their parents compared with 46% (92/200) from friends and peers. Risk factors identified were multiple sexual partners 75.5% (151/200), non-use of condoms 62% (124/200) and early debut 58% (116/200). Majority 67.5% (135/200) were aware that STIs could be treated by a visit to the doctor while 21.5% (43/200) preferred traditional/herbal healers. Conclusion: The inclusion of health education in schools’ curricula to ensure that adolescents are adequately aware of STIs, their modes of transmission, prevention and treatment before embarking on any vocation out-of-school is advocated. PMID:24669343

  5. Disruption of the glutamate-glutamine cycle involving astrocytes in an animal model of depression for males and females

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Virginie Rappeneau

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Women are twice as likely as men to develop major depression (MD. The brain mechanisms underlying this sex disparity are not clear. Disruption of the glutamate-glutamine cycle has been implicated in psychiatric disturbances. This study identifies sex-based impairments in the glutamate-glutamine cycle involving astrocytes using an animal model of depression. Methods: Male and female adult Long-Evans rats were exposed to chronic social defeat stress (CSDS for 21 days, using a modified resident-intruder paradigm. Territorial aggression was used for males and maternal aggression was used for females to induce depressive-like deficits for intruders. The depressive-like phenotype was assessed with intake for saccharin solution, weight gain, estrous cycle, and corticosterone (CORT. Behaviors displayed by the intruders during daily encounters with residents were characterized. Rats with daily handling were used as controls for each sex. Ten days after the last encounter, both the intruders and controls were subjected to a no-net-flux in vivo microdialysis to assess glutamate accumulation and extracellular glutamine in the nucleus accumbens (NAc. The contralateral hemispheres were used for determining changes in astrocytic markers, including glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP and glutamate transporter-1 (GLT-1. Results: Both male and female intruders reduced saccharin intake over the course of CSDS, compared to their pre-stress period and to their respective controls. Male intruders exhibited submissive/defensive behaviors to territorial aggression by receiving sideways threats and bites. These males showed reductions in striatal GLT-1 and spontaneous glutamine in the NAc, compared to controls. Female intruders exhibited isolated behaviors to maternal aggression, including immobility, rearing, and self-grooming. Their non-reproductive days were extended. Also, they showed reductions in prefrontal and accumbal GFAP+ cells and prefrontal GLT

  6. Disruption of the Glutamate–Glutamine Cycle Involving Astrocytes in an Animal Model of Depression for Males and Females

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rappeneau, Virginie; Blaker, Amanda; Petro, Jeff R.; Yamamoto, Bryan K.; Shimamoto, Akiko

    2016-01-01

    Background: Women are twice as likely as men to develop major depression. The brain mechanisms underlying this sex disparity are not clear. Disruption of the glutamate–glutamine cycle has been implicated in psychiatric disturbances. This study identifies sex-based impairments in the glutamate–glutamine cycle involving astrocytes using an animal model of depression. Methods: Male and female adult Long-Evans rats were exposed to chronic social defeat stress (CSDS) for 21 days, using a modified resident-intruder paradigm. Territorial aggression was used for males and maternal aggression was used for females to induce depressive-like deficits for intruders. The depressive-like phenotype was assessed with intake for saccharin solution, weight gain, estrous cycle, and corticosterone (CORT). Behaviors displayed by the intruders during daily encounters with residents were characterized. Rats with daily handling were used as controls for each sex. Ten days after the last encounter, both the intruders and controls were subjected to a no-net-flux in vivo microdialysis to assess glutamate accumulation and extracellular glutamine in the nucleus accumbens (NAc). The contralateral hemispheres were used for determining changes in astrocytic markers, including glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) and glutamate transporter-1 (GLT-1). Results: Both male and female intruders reduced saccharin intake over the course of CSDS, compared to their pre-stress period and to their respective controls. Male intruders exhibited submissive/defensive behaviors to territorial aggression by receiving sideways threats and bites. These males showed reductions in striatal GLT-1 and spontaneous glutamine in the NAc, compared to controls. Female intruders exhibited isolated behaviors to maternal aggression, including immobility, rearing, and selfgrooming. Their non-reproductive days were extended. Also, they showed reductions in prefrontal and accumbal GFAP+ cells and prefrontal GLT-1, compared to

  7. Tracking males and females: investigating protandry throughout the annual cycle in a small migratory songbird

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Lykke; Tøttrup, Anders P.; Thorup, Kasper

    Protandry, the phenomenon of males arriving earlier at the breeding grounds than females, has been demonstrated in several migratory bird species. The pattern is linked to reproductive success and often ascribed to selection for securing the highest quality territories or mates. Protandry can...

  8. Reproductive ecology of Commerson's leaf-nosed bats ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Reproductive ecology of Commerson's leaf-nosed bats Hipposideros commersoni ... Reproductive females dispersed twice during the annual cycle, while in ... Synchronized parturitions within maternity roosts (in late October) created a hot, ...

  9. JH III production, titers and degradation in relation to reproduction in male and female Anthonomus grandis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taub-Montemayor, Tina E; Min, Kyung-Jin; Chen, Zhaorigetu; Bartlett, Terri; Rankin, Mary Ann

    2005-04-01

    Juvenile hormone (JH) is necessary for the production of vitellogenin (Vg) in the boll weevil, Anthonomus grandis. Occurrence of Vg in this species is typically restricted to reproductively competent females, and is not detected in untreated males. However, the JH analog, methoprene stimulates Vg production in intact males and in the isolated abdomens of both male and female boll weevils (where in each case no Vg is detected without treatment), suggesting that males are competent to produce Vg but are normally not stimulated to do so. Preliminary work indicating that male boll weevil corpora allata (CA) produced little or no JH in vitro suggested that failure of males to produce Vg might be due to very low JH levels compared to females. This study re-examines the question of JH in male boll weevils by determining in vitro production of JH III by male CA during the first 10 days after adult emergence, determining hemolymph JH esterase activity during this same time period and hemolymph JH III titers in adults of both sexes. We also re-examine the ability of isolated male abdomens to produce Vg in response to hormonal stimulation, analyzing the effect of a wide range of methoprene and JH III dosages. Results indicate that male A. grandis have circulating JH titers and JH production similar to females. JH esterase activity is slightly but significantly higher in males than females. Vg production by isolated abdomens of both sexes after stimulation with methoprene or JH III was confirmed. Dose response studies indicated that high levels of methoprene were less effective than intermediate doses in stimulating Vg synthesis in both sexes. We conclude that the sexually dimorphic effect of JH on Vg synthesis is not due to differences in JH production or differences in JH titer between the sexes.

  10. Annual cycle of plasma luteinizing hormone and sex hormones in male and female mallards (Anas platyrhynchos)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donham, R.S.

    1979-01-01

    Comparisons between 'wild'and 'game farm' mallards (Anas platyrhynchos) were made to assess the differences in the temporal changes of plasma hormones. Seasonal variation in the levels of immunoreactive luteinizing hormone (LH), testosterone, 5 -dihydrotestosterone (DHT), estrone, estradiol-17i?? and progesterone were measured in male and female mallards. In all birds there was a vernal increase in the concentrations of LH and testosterone in plasma which were correlated with the development of the testes and ovaries prior to and during the nesting season. The concentrations of estrogens in the plasma of the females were, in general, slightly higher during the nesting season but were much lower than the levels of testosterone. The highest levels of LH and testosterone in the females coincided precisely with the period of egg laying which occurred approximately one month earlier in game farm females than in wild females. The concentrations of LH and testosterone in the plasma of females decreased rapidly during incubation. In wild males, the decline in levels of these hormones temporally coincided with that of females. In contrast, plasma levels of LH and testosterone of males of the game farm stock remained elevated after the beginning of incubation in females to which they were paired. On the basis of these results and an examination of the literature, it appears that domestication results in: 1) increased reproductive potential through earlier initiation of nesting and by delay of the termination of reproduction until later in the summer; and 2) a decrease in the synchronization of the hormonal events supporting reproduction between the male and female of a pair. Testicular weights and plasma levels of testosterone become higher in game farm and domestic males than in the wild stock but levels of LH are similar.

  11. Caffeinated beverage intake and reproductive hormones among premenopausal women in the BioCycle Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schliep, Karen C; Schisterman, Enrique F; Mumford, Sunni L; Pollack, Anna Z; Zhang, Cuilin; Ye, Aijun; Stanford, Joseph B; Hammoud, Ahmad O; Porucznik, Christina A; Wactawski-Wende, Jean

    2012-02-01

    Caffeinated beverages are widely consumed among women of reproductive age, but their association with reproductive hormones, and whether race modifies any such associations, is not well understood. We assessed the relation between caffeine and caffeinated beverage intake and reproductive hormones in healthy premenopausal women and evaluated the potential effect modification by race. Participants (n = 259) were followed for up to 2 menstrual cycles and provided fasting blood specimens for hormonal assessment at up to 8 visits per cycle and four 24-h dietary recalls per cycle. Weighted linear mixed models and nonlinear mixed models with harmonic terms were used to estimate associations between caffeine and hormone concentrations, adjusted for age, adiposity, physical activity, energy and alcohol intakes, and perceived stress. On the basis of a priori assumptions, an interaction between race and caffeine was tested, and stratified results are presented. Caffeine intake ≥200 mg/d was inversely associated with free estradiol concentrations among white women (β = -0.15; 95% CI: -0.26, -0.05) and positively associated among Asian women (β = 0.61; 95% CI: 0.31, 0.92). Caffeinated soda intake and green tea intake ≥1 cup/d (1 cup = 240 mL) were positively associated with free estradiol concentrations among all races: β = 0.14 (95% CI: 0.06, 0.22) and β = 0.26 (95% CI: 0.07, 0.45), respectively. Moderate consumption of caffeine was associated with reduced estradiol concentrations among white women, whereas caffeinated soda and green tea intakes were associated with increased estradiol concentrations among all races. Further research is warranted on the association between caffeine and caffeinated beverages and reproductive hormones and whether these relations differ by race.

  12. Caffeinated beverage intake and reproductive hormones among premenopausal women in the BioCycle Study123

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schisterman, Enrique F; Mumford, Sunni L; Pollack, Anna Z; Zhang, Cuilin; Ye, Aijun; Stanford, Joseph B; Hammoud, Ahmad O; Porucznik, Christina A; Wactawski-Wende, Jean

    2012-01-01

    Background: Caffeinated beverages are widely consumed among women of reproductive age, but their association with reproductive hormones, and whether race modifies any such associations, is not well understood. Objective: We assessed the relation between caffeine and caffeinated beverage intake and reproductive hormones in healthy premenopausal women and evaluated the potential effect modification by race. Design: Participants (n = 259) were followed for up to 2 menstrual cycles and provided fasting blood specimens for hormonal assessment at up to 8 visits per cycle and four 24-h dietary recalls per cycle. Weighted linear mixed models and nonlinear mixed models with harmonic terms were used to estimate associations between caffeine and hormone concentrations, adjusted for age, adiposity, physical activity, energy and alcohol intakes, and perceived stress. On the basis of a priori assumptions, an interaction between race and caffeine was tested, and stratified results are presented. Results: Caffeine intake ≥200 mg/d was inversely associated with free estradiol concentrations among white women (β = −0.15; 95% CI: −0.26, −0.05) and positively associated among Asian women (β = 0.61; 95% CI: 0.31, 0.92). Caffeinated soda intake and green tea intake ≥1 cup/d (1 cup = 240 mL) were positively associated with free estradiol concentrations among all races: β = 0.14 (95% CI: 0.06, 0.22) and β = 0.26 (95% CI: 0.07, 0.45), respectively. Conclusions: Moderate consumption of caffeine was associated with reduced estradiol concentrations among white women, whereas caffeinated soda and green tea intakes were associated with increased estradiol concentrations among all races. Further research is warranted on the association between caffeine and caffeinated beverages and reproductive hormones and whether these relations differ by race. PMID:22237060

  13. Occupational factors and reproductive outcomes among a cohort of female veterinarians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilkins, J R; Steele, L L

    1998-07-01

    To estimate absolute and relative risks of preterm delivery (PTD) and small-for-gestational-age (SGA) births among a cohort of female veterinarians in relation to selected occupational factors, including clinical practice type (CPT). Retrospective cohort survey. 2,997 female graduates from US veterinary colleges between 1970 and 1980. Relevant health and occupational data were collected through a self-administered mail questionnaire with telephone follow-up of nonrespondents. Absolute and relative risks of PTD and SGA births were estimated in relation to maternal CPT at the time of conception and exposure to 13 occupational factors. Attempts were made to control confounding by use of multiple logistic regression analyses. Absolute and relative risks of PTD were highest for veterinarians employed in exclusively equine clinical practice. Although several increased, none of the CPT-specific relative risk estimates were significantly different from the null value of 1. Exposure-specific analyses indicated that occupational involvement with solvents among exclusively small animal practitioners was associated with the highest relative risk of PTD. A small number of SGA births limited information that could be obtained from these analyses. Overall absolute risks of PTD and SGA births among cohort members were much lower in comparison with the general female population. Given the large number of women currently practicing and entering the profession of veterinary medicine, clinical tasks associated with potential reproductive hazards should be approached with heightened awareness and increased caution, especially activities that may involve exposure to solvents.

  14. Determination of zinc concentration in female reproductive system by instrumental neutron activation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carvalho, Fernando Ramos de

    2009-01-01

    Non-surgical female sterilization through the transcervical insertion of quinacrine pellets was considered a definitive, low-cost, safe and effective contraceptive method. The zinc, present in both uterus and Fallopian tubes, inhibit the quinacrine efficiency. The addition of copper increases the efficacy of quinacrine, reducing the risk of pregnancy due to the failure to obstruct the Fallopian tubes. The copper neutralized the deleterious effect of the zinc and so the treatment efficacy is increased. In order to obtain a mapping to study the zinc content in the female reproductive system, samples of both uterus and Fallopian tubes were analyzed by instrumental neutron activation. The results show that, on average, the obtained zinc concentrations in tubes (89 μg-g -1 ) is lower than in the uterus (118 μg-g -1 ), confirming results obtained by other authors. These results will support a research project about non-surgical female sterilization of the 'Faculdade de Medicina da Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais' (Medical School of Federal University of Minas Gerais). The used methodology and obtained results are here reported. (author)

  15. Determination of zinc concentration in female reproductive system by instrumental neutron activation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carvalho, Fernando Ramos de, E-mail: framosc@oi.com.b [Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais (UFMG), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil). Dept. de Engenharia Nuclear; Oliveira, Arno Heeren de, E-mail: heeren@nuclear.ufmg.b [Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais (UFMG), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil). Faculdade de Medicina. Dept. de Ginecologia e Obstetricia; Ferreira, Claudia R.C.; Ferreira, Ricardo Alberto Neto; Menezes, Maria Angela de B.C., E-mail: claudia@medicina.ufmg.b, E-mail: ranf@cdtn.b, E-mail: menezes@cdtn.b [Centro de Desenvolvimento da Tecnologia Nuclear (CDTN/CNEN-MG), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil)

    2009-07-01

    Non-surgical female sterilization through the transcervical insertion of quinacrine pellets was considered a definitive, low-cost, safe and effective contraceptive method. The zinc, present in both uterus and Fallopian tubes, inhibit the quinacrine efficiency. The addition of copper increases the efficacy of quinacrine, reducing the risk of pregnancy due to the failure to obstruct the Fallopian tubes. The copper neutralized the deleterious effect of the zinc and so the treatment efficacy is increased. In order to obtain a mapping to study the zinc content in the female reproductive system, samples of both uterus and Fallopian tubes were analyzed by instrumental neutron activation. The results show that, on average, the obtained zinc concentrations in tubes (89 mug-g{sup -1}) is lower than in the uterus (118 mug-g{sup -1}), confirming results obtained by other authors. These results will support a research project about non-surgical female sterilization of the 'Faculdade de Medicina da Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais' (Medical School of Federal University of Minas Gerais). The used methodology and obtained results are here reported. (author)

  16. A test of bone mobilization relative to reproductive demand: skeletal quality is improved in cannibalistic females with large litters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hood, Wendy R

    2012-01-01

    In species with repeated bouts of reproduction, a female's ability to retain sufficient tissue for self-maintenance is essential to her survival and capacity for future reproduction. Loss of bone mineral content results in bone fragility and the possibility of reduced survival, so females should guard against the overuse of their bone mineral during reproduction. Given these constraints, I predicted that bone mobilization would increase with litter size in mice but plateau before maximum litter size was reached. To test this idea, I manipulated the litter sizes of house mice on the day of parturition to 3, 8, 13, and 18 offspring. At weaning, I euthanized the females and calculated whole-body and bone mineral composition. The total mineral content of females' femurs dropped as litter size increased to the average litter size for this strain of mouse (13) but surprisingly, femoral mineral content was higher for females assigned the largest litter sizes (18). Seven of the nine females assigned 18 young cannibalized some of their offspring. For females assigned to these larger litters, femoral ash content was not correlated with number of young consumed, suggesting that mineral recycling had little effect on final bone mineral content. However, nursing effort (accounting for young lost to cannibalism) was correlated with maternal femoral ash at weaning. These finding suggest that the high bone mineral content of females assigned the largest litters was associated with a reduction in endogenous mineral allocated to the litter.

  17. [Benefits of nursing care service in the assisted reproduction clinic to self-cycle-management and self-efficiency of infertility patients].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xiao-Qin; Sun, Chao-Feng; Guo, Mei

    2017-06-01

    To investigate the benefits of nursing care service in the assisted reproduction clinic to self-cycle-management and self-efficiency of the outpatients with infertility. We randomly divided 600 females preliminarily diagnosed with infertility into a control and an experimental group, 288 in the former and 285 in the latter group excluding those whose husbands had azoospermia. For the women patients of the experimental group, we conducted nursing care intervention concerning related knowledge, skills, diet, excise, medication, and psychology, by one-to-one consultation, individualized or group communication, establishing files, telephone follow-up, and wechat guidance. After 3 months of intervention, we compared the compliance of medical visits, effectiveness of cycle management, sense of self-efficiency, satisfaction, and anxiety score between the two groups of patients. In comparison with the controls, the patients of the experimental group showed significantly better knowledge about assisted reproduction and higher effectiveness of self-cycle-management, self-efficiency, and satisfaction (P <0.05), but a markedly lower degree of anxiety (P <0.05). Nursing care service in the assisted reproduction clinic can improve the compliance of medical visits, effectiveness of self-cycle-management, self-efficiency, and satisfaction and reduce the anxiety of the patients.

  18. Natural history of Ctenus medius Keyserling, 1891 (Aranae, Ctenidae II: life cycle and aspects of reproductive behavior under laboratory conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. FOLLY-RAMOS

    Full Text Available Ctenus medius Keyserling, 1891 is a wandering spider common in the Brazilian Atlantic Forest. It has been the subject of few studies. Thus, this work aims to elucidate aspects of its natural history, such as the life cycle and reproductive behavior of this species, through laboratory and field observations. Two females with egg sacs were observed in the laboratory and one was observed in field (Barra Mansa, 22º32'S and 44º10'W until the emergence of the spiderlings. For observation of the immature stage development, a portion of the spiderlings from the same hatch were taken to the laboratory and watched until sexual maturity. In the field, the period between the oviposition and the emergence of spiderlings was of 36 days. The female selects a site for egg sac deposition and stays there until the spiderlings emerge. Seven days after the emergence, the female abandoned the site where the egg sac was made, concomitant to the spiderlings dispersion from observation's place and until the moment that the spiderlings started to eat. For the spiderlings kept under laboratory conditions, cannibalism was not observed in the first instars (1-4th when sufficient food was offered. Sexual maturity happened in the 14th or 15th instars, with an average of 309.2 to 344.5 days until the last/sexual molt, respectively. Until the date of sexual maturity, there was a mortality rate of 85%. This species is very fragile in captivity. This hampered deductions concerning longevity. Both females and males collected in the field were induced to mate in the laboratory. Courtship movements of males were registered, but the females did not permit the mating. These data may assist in initial biological studies of Ctenus genus and offer comparative parameters for studies of other related species.

  19. Natural history of Ctenus medius Keyserling, 1891 (Aranae, Ctenidae II: life cycle and aspects of reproductive behavior under laboratory conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    FOLLY-RAMOS E.

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Ctenus medius Keyserling, 1891 is a wandering spider common in the Brazilian Atlantic Forest. It has been the subject of few studies. Thus, this work aims to elucidate aspects of its natural history, such as the life cycle and reproductive behavior of this species, through laboratory and field observations. Two females with egg sacs were observed in the laboratory and one was observed in field (Barra Mansa, 22º32'S and 44º10'W until the emergence of the spiderlings. For observation of the immature stage development, a portion of the spiderlings from the same hatch were taken to the laboratory and watched until sexual maturity. In the field, the period between the oviposition and the emergence of spiderlings was of 36 days. The female selects a site for egg sac deposition and stays there until the spiderlings emerge. Seven days after the emergence, the female abandoned the site where the egg sac was made, concomitant to the spiderlings dispersion from observation's place and until the moment that the spiderlings started to eat. For the spiderlings kept under laboratory conditions, cannibalism was not observed in the first instars (1-4th when sufficient food was offered. Sexual maturity happened in the 14th or 15th instars, with an average of 309.2 to 344.5 days until the last/sexual molt, respectively. Until the date of sexual maturity, there was a mortality rate of 85%. This species is very fragile in captivity. This hampered deductions concerning longevity. Both females and males collected in the field were induced to mate in the laboratory. Courtship movements of males were registered, but the females did not permit the mating. These data may assist in initial biological studies of Ctenus genus and offer comparative parameters for studies of other related species.

  20. Ovarian changes during the reproductive cycle of the Tupinambis merianae lizard raised in a temperate environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manes, Mario E.

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available El ciclo reproductor de hembras de Tupinambis merianae criadas en ambiente templado consiste de tres fases gonadales: previtelogénica, vitelogénica y postovulatoria o lútea. Durante la fase previtelogénica, que ocupa gran parte del verano, el otoño e invierno, los ovarios son pequeños, pesan menos de 4 g y contienen solamente folículos no vitelogénicos, los cuales se desarrollan lentamente a partir de los nidos germinales, alcanzando unos 5 mm de diámetro. Debido a una maduración gonadal asincrónica entre ambos sexos, las cópulas acontecen cuando los ovarios son aún previtelogénicos. Luego sobreviene una corta e intensa vitelogénesis, durante la cual los folículos crecen uniformemente incrementando unas 6 veces su diámetro (cerca de 30 mm, mientras que la masa ovárica total alcanza unos 400 g. El proceso culmina entre los 15 y 20 días, con una ovulación generalizada y la subsiguiente oviposición. Como consecuencia, los ovarios postovulatorios aparecen reducidos a unos 5 g, con una superficie casi enteramente cubierta de cicatrices foliculares, las cuales pronto desarrollan cuerpos lúteos. La detención del ciclo ovárico, con atresia folicular previtelogénica masiva, como resultado del aislamiento de las hembras, permite concluir sobre la existencia de estímulos sexuales promotores de la vitelogénesis. The reproductive cycle of Tupinambis merianae females raised in a temperate environment consists of three gonadal phases: previtellogenic, vitellogenic and postovulatory or luteal phases. During the previtellogenic phase, which takes great part of the summer, autumn and winter, the ovaries are small, weigh less than 4 g, and contain only nonvitellogenic follicles, which develop slowly from germinal beds, until they are almost 5 mm diameter. Due to an asynchronous gonadal maturation in both sexes, matings occur when ovaries are still previtellogenic. Then comes a short and intense vitellogenesis, during which follicles grow

  1. Effects of temperament and acclimation to handling on reproductive performance of Bos taurus beef females.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooke, R F; Bohnert, D W; Cappellozza, B I; Mueller, C J; Delcurto, T

    2012-10-01

    Two experiments evaluated the effects of temperament and acclimation to handling on reproductive performance of Bos taurus beef females. In Exp. 1, 433 multiparous, lactating Angus × Hereford cows were sampled for blood and evaluated for temperament before the breeding season. Cow temperament was assessed by chute score and exit velocity. Chute score was assessed on a 5-point scale according to behavioral responses during chute restraining. Exit score was calculated by dividing exit velocity into quintiles and assigning cows with a score from 1 to 5 (1 = slowest, 5 = fastest cows). Temperament score was calculated by averaging chute and exit scores. Cows were classified for temperament type according to temperament score (≤ 3 = adequate, > 3 = aggressive). Plasma cortisol concentrations were greater (P score (d 10). On d 11, heifers were ranked by these variables and assigned to receive or not (control) an acclimation treatment. Acclimated heifers were processed through a handling facility 3 times weekly for 4 wk (d 11 to 39; Mondays, Wednesdays, and Fridays), whereas control heifers remained undisturbed on pasture. Heifer puberty status, evaluated via plasma progesterone concentrations, was assessed on d 0 and 10, d 40 and 50, 70 and 80, 100 and 110, 130 and 140, 160 and 170, and 190 and 200. Blood samples collected on d 10 and 40 were also analyzed for plasma concentrations of cortisol and haptoglobin. Temperament score was assessed again on d 40 and d 200. Acclimated heifers had reduced (P = 0.01) concentrations of cortisol and haptoglobin on d 40 and reduced (P = 0.02) exit velocity on d 200 compared with control heifers. Puberty was hastened in acclimated heifers compared with control (P = 0.01). Results from this study indicate that B. taurus beef cows with aggressive temperament have impaired reproductive performance compared with cohorts with adequate temperament, whereas acclimation to human handling after weaning hastens reproductive development of

  2. Nectar alkaloids decrease pollination and female reproduction in a native plant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adler, Lynn S; Irwin, Rebecca E

    2012-04-01

    The evolution of floral traits may be shaped by a community of floral visitors that affect plant fitness, including pollinators and floral antagonists. The role of nectar in attracting pollinators has been extensively studied, but its effects on floral antagonists are less understood. Furthermore, the composition of non-sugar nectar components, such as secondary compounds, may affect plant reproduction via changes in both pollinator and floral antagonist behavior. We manipulated the nectar alkaloid gelsemine in wild plants of the native perennial vine Gelsemium sempervirens. We crossed nectar gelsemine manipulations with a hand-pollination treatment, allowing us to determine the effect of both the trait and the interaction on plant female reproduction. We measured pollen deposition, pollen removal, and nectar robbing to assess whether gelsemine altered the behavior of mutualists and antagonists. High nectar gelsemine reduced conspecific pollen receipt by nearly half and also reduced the proportion of conspecific pollen grains received, but had no effect on nectar robbing. Although high nectar gelsemine reduced pollen removal, an estimate of male reproduction, by one-third, this effect was not statistically significant. Fruit set was limited by pollen receipt. However, this effect varied across sites such that the sites that were most pollen-limited were also the sites where nectar alkaloids had the least effect on pollen receipt, resulting in no significant effect of nectar alkaloids on fruit set. Finally, high nectar gelsemine significantly reduced seed weight; however, this effect was mediated by a mechanism other than pollen limitation. Taken together, our work suggests that nectar alkaloids are more costly than beneficial in our system, and that relatively small-scale spatial variation in trait effects and interactions could determine the selective impacts of traits such as nectar composition.

  3. Venous thromboembolism in assisted reproductive technologies: comparison between unsuccessful versus successful cycles in an Italian cohort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villani, Michela; Favuzzi, Giovanni; Totaro, Pasquale; Chinni, Elena; Vecchione, Gennaro; Vergura, Patrizia; Fischetti, Lucia; Margaglione, Maurizio; Grandone, Elvira

    2018-02-01

    Pregnancies after assisted reproductive technologies (ART) have been associated with an increased risk of venous thromboembolism (VTE). On the contrary, the magnitude of this risk in unsuccessful ART cycles (not resulting in a clinical pregnancy) has not yet been clearly defined. In this study, we evaluated the incidence of VTE in unsuccessful cycles and compared it with that recorded in successful cycles in the same study population. From a cohort of 998 women consecutively referred by local Fertility Clinics to our Atherosclerosis and Thrombosis Unit (April 2002-July 2011), we identified and included women with at least one cycle of ovarian stimulation and a negative history for VTE. Overall, 661 women undergone 1518 unsuccessful and 318 successful cycles of ovarian stimulation, respectively, were analysed. VTE events occurred in 2/1518 (1.3‰) unsuccessful cycles compared with 3/318 (9.4‰) successful cycles, (Two-tailed Fisher exact test, p = 0.04, OR 0.14, 95% CI 0.02-1.02). Both cases observed in unsuccessful cycles were isolated pulmonary embolism occurred after OHSS; no antithrombotic prophylaxis had been prescribed. At logistic regression analysis, the occurrence of successful cycle and BMI were significantly and independently associated with the occurrence of VTE with an OR of 13.94 (95% CI 1.41-137.45) and 1.23 (95% CI 1.01-1.49), respectively. VTE incidence is significantly lower in unsuccessful cycles as compared to that of successful ones. However, although rare, thrombotic risk during ovarian stimulation cannot be excluded and, when it occurs, can be life-threatening. Therefore, particular attention should be paid to these women, independently of ART outcome.

  4. Mental disorders in patients with female reproductive system malignancies: a review of literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. A. Samushia

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The problem of mental disorders in oncological practice is discussed in many publications. To study the prevalence and spectrum of men- tal health disorders in patients with cancer of the female reproductive system (CFRS is one of the most urgent issues of psycho-oncology. This paper gives an excursus into the problem of mental disorders in patients with CFRS and points out a diversity of the psychopathologi- cal phenomena that have been described in the literature and are encountered in this category of patients, as ascribed by a number of investigators to the presence of somatogenic conditions that complicate the pattern of the stress factors that are traditionally identified in oncological practice, the most important factors of them are hormonal derangements resulting from damaging operations (mastectomy, hysterectomy, etc. and hormone therapy performed in CFRS patients with preserved menstrual function.

  5. How the FMR1 gene became relevant to female fertility and reproductive medicine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Norbert eGleicher

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available This manuscript describes the 6-year evolution of our center’s research into ovarian functions of the FMR1 gene, which led to the identification of a new normal CGGn range of 26-34. This new normal range, in turn, led to definitions of different alleles (haplotypes based on whether no, one or both alleles are within range. Specific alleles then were demonstrated to represent distinct ovarian aging patterns, suggesting an important FMR1 function in follicle recruitment and ovarian depletion of follicles. So called low alleles, characterized by CGGn34 alleles. Because low FMR1 alleles present in approximately 25% of all females, FMR1 testing at young ages may offer an opportunity for earlier diagnosis of OPOI than current practice allows. Earlier diagnosis of OPOI, in turn, would give young women the options of reassessing their reproductive schedules and/or pursue fertility preservation via oocyte cryopreservation when most effective.

  6. Reproductive outcomes of female patients with congenital adrenal hyperplasia due to 21-hydroxylase defi ciency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mouna Feki Mnif

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Fertility in women with congenital adrenal hyperplasia (CAH due to 21-hydroxylase deficiency (21-OHD appears to be reduced, especially in women with the classic salt-wasting type. Several factors have been suggested to contribute to this subfertility such as androgen excess, adrenal progesterone hypersecretion, consequences of genital reconstructive surgery, secondary polycystic ovaries syndrome, and psychosexual factors. In contrast to this subfertility, pregnancies are commonly normal and uneventful. Adequate glucocorticoid therapy and improvement of surgical and psychological management could contribute to optimize fertility in CAH female patients, even among women with the classic variant. This review provides current information regarding the reproductive outcomes of women with CAH due to 21-OHD and the fertility and pregnancy issues in this population.

  7. The impact of female reproductive function on outcomes after traumatic brain injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ripley, David L; Harrison-Felix, Cindy; Sendroy-Terrill, Melissa; Cusick, Christopher P; Dannels-McClure, Amy; Morey, Clare

    2008-06-01

    To determine the impact of traumatic brain injury (TBI) on female menstrual and reproductive functioning and to examine the relationships between severity of injury, duration of amenorrhea, and TBI outcomes. Retrospective cohort survey. Telephone interview. Women (N=30; age range, 18-45y), between 1 and 3 years postinjury, who had completed inpatient rehabilitation for TBI. Not applicable. Data collected included menstrual and reproductive functioning pre- and postinjury, demographic, and injury characteristics. Outcome measures included the Glasgow Outcome Scale-Extended (GOS-E), the Mayo-Portland Adaptability Inventory-4 (MPAI-4), and the Medical Outcome Study 12-Item Short-Form Health Survey, Version 2 (SF-12v2). The median duration of amenorrhea was 61 days (range, 20-344d). Many subjects' menstrual function changed after TBI, reporting a significant increase in skipped menses postinjury (PMPAI-4 participation subscale (P=.05) after controlling for age, injury severity, and time postinjury. The severity of TBI was predictive of duration of amenorrhea and a shorter duration of amenorrhea was predictive of better ratings of global outcome, community participation, and health-related quality of life postinjury.

  8. Effect of 17β-trenbolone on male and female reproduction in Japanese quail (Coturnix japonica)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henry, Paula F.P.; Akuffo, Valorie G.; Chen, Yu; Karouna-Renier, Natalie K.; Sprague, Daniel T.; Bakst, Murray R.

    2012-01-01

    The anabolic steroid 17β trenbolone (17β-TB), a known endocrine disrupting chemical, may influence reproductive functions in avian wildlife. We evaluated the effects of dietary exposure to 17β-TB at 5 and 20 ppm on reproductive functional endpoints in Japanese quail during and after sexual maturation. In the male, 5 and 20 ppm treatments revealed no differences in body and testes weight, testes histology, plasma testosterone concentrations, or size and weight of the foam glands. However, the onset of foam production was significantly earlier (days of age) in the 20 ppm males. In females, dietary 17β-TB at 20 ppm caused a reduction in the number of maturing yellow yolk follicles and overall egg production. Plasma testosterone concentrations were reduced compared to controls. Histology of the oviductal sperm storage tubules was normal in all treatments. The number of sperm holes, sites on the perivitelline layer (PVL) where sperm bound and hydrolyzed a path through the PVL, was significantly greater in the 10th egg laid compared to the 1st egg laid in the 20 ppm treatment. Potential effects, albeit transient, on endpoints associated with male maturation warrant further investigation into the sensitivity of these measures in the event of embryonic and/or trans-generational exposure to 17β-TB.

  9. Use of radioimmunoassay to measure progesterone levels during different reproductive stages in female Damascus goats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zarkawi, M.; Al-masri, M. R.

    2002-01-01

    Jugular serum progesterone concentrations were measured in female Damascus goats using radioimmunoassay (RIA) during prepubertal, puberty, pregnancy and parturition stages, to monitor the reproductive performance. Age at puberty ranged between 266 - 653 days with an average of 475 days, while average weight at puberty was 35.6 kg. Progesterone level rose from around zero ng/ml at prepubertal stage to 2.14 ng/ml at the onset of puberty ranging from 1.12 to 5.38 ng/ml. Average maximum progesterone concentration during pregnancy was 13.84 ng/ml, occurring on day 115 post-mating, and dropped sharply to 0.29 ng/ml soon after kidding. Average overall duration of pregnancy was 149 days. The accuracy of pregnancy diagnosis on day 21 post-mating using RIA was 100%. The results also indicate that the breeding season of the experimental Damascus goats started in September. It could be concluded that the assessment of progesterone levels in serum is considered to be a vital tool in monitoring the reproductive performance in the indigenous Damascus goat breed. (author)

  10. Anatomy and histology of the reproductive tract of the female Babirusa (Babyrousa celebensis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ziehmer, B; Ogle, S; Signorella, A; Knorr, C; Macdonald, A A

    2010-07-15

    The anatomy and histology of the female reproductive tract of the Indonesian wild pig Babyrousa celebensis was studied by means of reproductive tracts obtained from seven animals aged between two and 22 years of age. The ovary appeared to have the ability to ovulate up to four ova at one time. However, the combined ovarian output seemed to average 1.86 ova. Ovulation can take place at any time from puberty to old age (22 years). The opening to the uterine tube was indicated by a 'flower-like' array of tall, broad epithelial 'petals' arising from the luminal surface of the funnel. The mucosal surfaces of these structures were covered in a mixture of prominent ciliated cells and bulbous secretory cells. The uterine tube followed a tightly convoluted path to the tip of the uterine horn. The uterus was proportionately short. The anatomical construction of the uterus was similar to those of other suids in that the columnar endometrium was heavily folded, there was a rich supply of uterine glands in the lamina propria, and the uterus was provided with a good blood supply. The cervix was thick walled and had a spiral lumen. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Role of ecdysteroids in the molting and reproductive cycles of the white shrimp, Penaeus vannamei

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chan, S.M.

    1989-01-01

    The molt cycle was characterized in the white shrimp Penaeus vannamei based upon changes in the morphology of pleopod setae. These characters were used subsequently to determine changes in ecdysteroids and related biosynthetic events during the stages of the molting cycle and in relation to reproduction. Ecdysteroid titers were measured during the molting cycle. They increased during the premolt, decreased at ecdysis and remained minimal through the intermolt. 20-hydroxyecdysone (20-OHE) was the major ecdysteroid present during the premolt. Injection of [ 3 H]ecdysone resulted in label accumulation in the epidermis and hepatopancreas in the form of 20-OHE which was subsequently hydroxylated further to a polar metabolite. [ 3 H]ecdysone was not metabolized by the Y-organ, hemolymph, muscle or intestine. Eyestalk ablation elevated hemolymph ecdysteroid titers and reduced the duration of all molt stages. However, 20-OHE injection into intact animals caused a disproportionate reduction in the durations of only the intermolt and early premolt stages

  12. Monitoring Perceived Stress and Recovery in Relation to Cycling Performance in Female Athletes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Otter, R. T. A.; Brink, M. S.; van der Does, H. T. D.; Lemmink, K. A. P. M.

    The purpose was to investigate perceived stress and recovery related to cycling performance of female athletes over one full year. 20 female athletes ( age, 27 +/- 8 years; VO2max, 50.3 +/- 4.6 mL center dot kg(-1) center dot min(-1)) were measured 8 times in one year to determine perceived stress

  13. Menstrual cycle characteristics and reproductive hormone levels in women exposed to atrazine in drinking water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cragin, Lori A; Kesner, James S; Bachand, Annette M; Barr, Dana Boyd; Meadows, Juliana W; Krieg, Edward F; Reif, John S

    2011-11-01

    Atrazine is the most commonly used herbicide in the U.S. and a wide-spread groundwater contaminant. Epidemiologic and laboratory evidence exists that atrazine disrupts reproductive health and hormone secretion. We examined the relationship between exposure to atrazine in drinking water and menstrual cycle function including reproductive hormone levels. Women 18-40 years old residing in agricultural communities where atrazine is used extensively (Illinois) and sparingly (Vermont) answered a questionnaire (n=102), maintained menstrual cycle diaries (n=67), and provided daily urine samples for analyses of luteinizing hormone (LH), and estradiol and progesterone metabolites (n=35). Markers of exposures included state of residence, atrazine and chlorotriazine concentrations in tap water, municipal water and urine, and estimated dose from water consumption. Women who lived in Illinois were more likely to report menstrual cycle length irregularity (odds ratio (OR)=4.69; 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.58-13.95) and more than 6 weeks between periods (OR=6.16; 95% CI: 1.29-29.38) than those who lived in Vermont. Consumption of >2 cups of unfiltered Illinois water daily was associated with increased risk of irregular periods (OR=5.73; 95% CI: 1.58-20.77). Estimated "dose" of atrazine and chlorotriazine from tap water was inversely related to mean mid-luteal estradiol metabolite. Atrazine "dose" from municipal concentrations was directly related to follicular phase length and inversely related to mean mid-luteal progesterone metabolite levels. We present preliminary evidence that atrazine exposure, at levels below the US EPA MCL, is associated with increased menstrual cycle irregularity, longer follicular phases, and decreased levels of menstrual cycle endocrine biomarkers of infertile ovulatory cycles. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. The Effect of Menstrual Cycle on Nasal Resonance Characteristics in Females

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Suman; Basu, Shriya; Sinha, Anisha; Chatterjee, Indranil

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to analyze resonance characteristics (nasality and nasalance values) during the menstrual cycle. Previous studies indicate changes in voice quality and nasal mucosa due to temporary falling estrogen levels in human females during their menstrual cycle. The present study compared the nasality and "nasalance scores"…

  15. Endocrine-reproductive-immune interactions in female and male Galápagos marine iguanas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neuman-Lee, Lorin A; French, Susannah S

    2017-02-01

    Endocrine-immune interactions are variable across species and contexts making it difficult to discern consistent patterns. There is a paucity of data in non-model systems making these relationships even more nebulous, particularly in reptiles. In the present study, we have completed a more comprehensive test of the relationship among steroid hormones and ecologically relevant immune measures. We tested the relationship between baseline and stress-induced levels of sex and adrenal steroid hormones and standard ecoimmunological metrics in both female and male Galápagos marine iguanas (Amblyrhynchus cristatus). We found significant associations between adrenal activity and immunity, whereby females that mounted greater corticosterone responses to stress had lower basal and stress-induced immunity (i.e., bactericidal ability). Males showed the opposite relationship, suggesting sex-specific immunomodulatory actions of corticosterone. In both sexes, we observed a stress-induced increase in corticosterone, and in females a stress-induced increase in bactericidal ability. Consistent with other taxa, we also found that baseline corticosterone and testosterone in males was inversely related to baseline bactericidal ability. However, in females, we found a positive relationship between both testosterone and progesterone and bactericidal ability. Multivariate analysis did not discern any further endocrine-immune relationships, suggesting that interactions between adrenal, sex steroid hormones, and the immune system may not be direct and instead may be responding to other common stimuli, (i.e., reproductive status, energy). Taken together, these data illustrate significant endocrine-immune interactions that are highly dependent on sex and the stress state of the animal. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Changes in skin blood flow during the menstrual cycle: the influence of the menstrual cycle on the peripheral circulation in healthy female volunteers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartelink, M L; Wollersheim, H; Theeuwes, A; van Duren, D; Thien, T

    1990-05-01

    1. It is known that females have a lower skin perfusion than males. In women there are also differences in blood flow at different reproductive stages of their lives. As an initial investigation of the possible contribution of sex hormones to these differences, we studied skin and forearm blood flow during the natural changes in hormone levels which occur during the menstrual cycle. 2. Thirty-one healthy female volunteers were studied. The effect of a standardized finger cooling test (immersion of a gloved hand in a 16 degrees C water bath) on finger skin temperature and on laser Doppler flux in the finger, and forearm blood flow (strain gauge venous occlusion plethysmography) was assessed at four different times during one cycle: during menstruation, 1 day before ovulation, 2 days after ovulation and at the mid-luteal phase. Test days were determined by daily measurements of basal body temperature and were confirmed afterwards by determinations of serum luteinizing hormone, follicle-stimulating hormone, 17 beta-oestradiol and progesterone. 3. Peripheral skin circulation varied significantly within one menstrual cycle. The extremes were a mean finger skin temperature of 25.9 +/- 3.0 degrees C in the luteal phase compared with 28.4 +/- 3.7 degrees C in the pre-ovulatory phase (P = 0.002). The respective values for the mean laser Doppler flux were 18.4 +/- 10.9 compared with 29.2 +/- 16.4 arbitrary units (P = 0.003). 4. Baseline forearm muscle blood flow also varied significantly (P = 0.04) within one menstrual cycle, with low values in the menstrual phase compared with the other phases.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  17. Impact of male condition on his spermatophore and consequences for female reproductive performance in the Glanville fritillary butterfly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duplouy, Anne; Woestmann, Luisa; Gallego Zamorano, Juan; Saastamoinen, Marjo

    2018-04-01

    In butterflies, male reproductive success is highly related to the quality and the size of the spermatophore transferred to the female. The spermatophore is a capsule produced by the male during copulation, which in many species contains sperm in addition to a nuptial gift, and which is digested by the female after copulation. The nuptial gift may contribute to egg production and offspring quality, and in some cases also to female body maintenance. The production of the spermatophore, however, represents a cost for the male and, in polyandrous species, ejaculates are sometimes allocated adaptively across matings. Nonetheless, although the ecological factors affecting the reproductive success of female butterflies have been the topic of numerous studies, little information exists on the factors affecting males' contribution to reproduction, and the indirect impacts on female fecundity and fitness. We used the Glanville fritillary butterfly, Melitaea cinxia (Linnaeus, 1758) (Nymphalidae), in order to assess variation in male allocation to matings. In this species, smaller males produce smaller spermatophores, but variation in spermatophore size is not correlated with female reproductive success. We show that spermatophore size increases with male age at first mating, decreases with mating frequency and adult food-deprivation, and is not influenced by developmental food-limitation. The length of copulation period does not influence the spermatophore size nor influences the polyandrous mating behavior in this species. Male contribution to his spermatophore size is clearly influenced by his condition and adult-resource at the time of mating. Despite this variation, spermatophore size does not seem to have a direct impact on female reproductive output or mating behavior. © 2016 The Authors Insect Science published by Wiley Publishing Asia Pty Ltd on behalf of Institute of Zoology, Chinese Academy of Sciences.

  18. Effects of dietary protein level on nutrients digestibility and reproductive performance of female mink (Neovison vison during gestation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qingkui Jiang

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to determine whether nutrient digestibility and reproductive performance of pregnant mink (Neovison vison were affected by different dietary protein levels. One hundred and twenty female mink were randomly assigned to four groups, receiving diets of fresh material with different protein levels. The dietary protein levels, expressed as percentage of dry matter (DM, were 32, 36, 40 and 44% respectively. These values corresponded to average 320, 360, 400 and 440 g protein/kg DM, respectively. Results were as follows. All of crude protein digestibility, nitrogen (N intake, N retention increased along with dietary protein level increasing. Low protein level (32% significantly reduced the above indicators (P < 0.05. DM digestibility and ether extract digestibility were not affected by dietary protein level. Results of mated females, barren females, kids per litter, live born kids per mated female, birth survival rate, and birth weight showed that mink achieved optimal reproductive performance when dietary protein level was 36%. In conclusion, dietary protein was anticipated to significantly influence some nutrients' utilization. Adopting the appropriate dietary protein level allow better reproduction performance. The most preferable reproductive performance was achieved when diet contained 275.5 g digestible protein per kg DM for female mink in gestation.

  19. The influence of menstrual cycle and androstadienone on female stress reactions: an fMRI study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ka Chun eChung

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Communicating threats and stress via biological signaling is common in animals. In humans, androstadienone (ANDR, a synthetic male steroid, is a socially relevant chemosignal exhibited to increase positive mood and cortisol levels specifically in (periovulatory females in positively arousing contexts. In a negative context, we expected that such effects of ANDR could amplify social evaluative threat depending on the stress sensitivity, which differs between menstrual cycle phases. Therefore, this fMRI study aimed to examine psychosocial stress reactions on behavioral, hormonal and neural levels in 31 naturally cycling females, between 15 early follicular (EF and 16 mid-luteal (ML females tested with ANDR and placebo treatment in a repeated-measures design.Regardless of odor stimulation, psychosocial stress (i.e. mental arithmetic task with social evaluative threat led to elevated negative mood and anxiety in all females. A negative association of social threat related amygdala activation and competence ratings appeared in ML-females, indicating enhanced threat processing by ANDR, particularly in ML-females who felt less competent early in the stress experience. Further, ML-females showed reduced performance and stronger stress-related hippocampus activation compared to EF-females under ANDR. Hippocampal activation in ML-females also correlated positively with post-stress subjective stress. Contrarily, such patterns were not observed in EF-females or under placebo in either group. Strikingly, unlike passive emotional processing, ANDR in a stressful context decreased cortisol concentration in all females. This points to a more complex interaction of ovarian/gonadal hormones in social threat processing and stress reactivity.Our findings suggest that ANDR enhanced initial evaluation of self-related social threat in ML-females. Female stress reactions are related to stress sensitivity through enhanced awareness and processing of social cues in a

  20. Toxoplasma gondii influences aversive behaviors of female rats in an estrus cycle dependent manner.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golcu, Doruk; Gebre, Rahiwa Z; Sapolsky, Robert M

    2014-08-01

    The protozoan Toxoplasma gondii (T. gondii) manipulates the behavior of its rodent intermediate host to facilitate its passage to its feline definitive host. This is accomplished by a reduction of the aversive response that rodents show towards cat odors, which likely increases the predation risk. Females on average show similar changes as males. However, behaviors that relate to aversion and attraction are usually strongly influenced by the estrus cycle. In this study, we replicated behavioral effects of T. gondii in female rats, as well as expanded it to two novel behavioral paradigms. We also characterized the role of the estrus cycle in the behavioral effects of T. gondii on female rats. Uninfected females preferred to spend more time in proximity to rabbit rather than bobcat urine, and in a dark chamber rather than a lit chamber. Infected females lost both of these preferences, and also spent more time investigating social novelty (foreign bedding in their environment). Taken together, these data suggest that infection makes females less risk averse and more exploratory. Furthermore, this effect was influenced by the estrus cycle. Uninfected rats preferred rabbit urine to bobcat urine throughout the cycle except at estrus and metestrus. In contrast, infected rats lost this preference at every stage of the cycle except estrus. Commensurate with the possibility that this was a hormone-dependent effect, infected rats had elevated levels of circulating progesterone, a known anxiolytic. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Steroid hormones in bluegill, a species with male alternative reproductive tactics including female mimicry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knapp, Rosemary; Neff, Bryan D

    2007-12-22

    The proximate mechanisms underlying the evolution and maintenance of within-sex variation in mating behaviour are still poorly understood. Species characterized by alternative reproductive tactics provide ideal opportunities to investigate such mechanisms. Bluegill (Lepomis macrochirus) are noteworthy in this regard because they exhibit two distinct cuckolder (parasitic) morphs (called sneaker and satellite) in addition to the parental males that court females. Here we confirm previous findings that spawning cuckolder and parental males have significantly different levels of testosterone and 11-ketotestosterone. We also report, for the first time, that oestradiol and cortisol levels are higher in cuckolders than in parental males. The two cuckolder morphs did not differ in average levels of any of the four hormones. However, among satellite males which mimic females in appearance and behaviour, there was a strong negative relationship between oestradiol levels and body length, a surrogate for age. This finding suggests that for satellite males, oestradiol dependency of mating behaviour decreases with increasing mating experience. Although such decreased hormone dependence of mating behaviour has been reported in other taxa, our data represent the first suggestion of the relationship in fishes.

  2. Reproductive performance of female Nile tilapia ( Oreochromis niloticus fed diets with different digestible energy levels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tamira Maria Orlando

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT This study aimed to evaluate the reproductive performance of female Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus fed diets containing different levels of digestible energy (DE. The fish were housed in 15 fiberglass tanks (500 L in a recirculating system at an average temperature of 27.5 °C. The treatments consisted of five diets with increasing levels of DE (3,200; 3,400; 3,600; 3,800; and 4,000 kcal/kg. The levels of DE did not significantly influence the final weight or the hepatosomatic, gonadosomatic, and visceral fat indices. The absolute fecundity was influenced by the treatments, for which the highest values were observed from the 3,600 kcal/kg DE level and upward. The proximate composition of the fish also had a significant effect on the variables crude protein, ether extract, and ash; the fish fed diets with higher levels of DE exhibited the lowest body protein content, while the accumulation of ether extract exhibited the opposite response. A level of 3,600 kcal/kg of digestible energy should be used in diets with 380 g/kg crude protein and a starch/lipid ratio of 1.33 for female Nile tilapia.

  3. Dietary minerals, reproductive hormone levels and sporadic anovulation: associations in healthy women with regular menstrual cycles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Keewan; Wactawski-Wende, Jean; Michels, Kara A; Schliep, Karen C; Plowden, Torie C; Chaljub, Ellen N; Mumford, Sunni L

    2018-04-20

    Although minerals are linked to several reproductive outcomes, it is unknown whether dietary minerals are associated with ovulatory function. We hypothesised that low intakes of minerals would be associated with an increased risk of anovulation. We investigated associations between dietary mineral intake and both reproductive hormones and anovulation in healthy women in the BioCycle Study, which prospectively followed up 259 regularly menstruating women aged 18-44 years who were not taking mineral supplements for two menstrual cycles. Intakes of ten selected minerals were assessed through 24-h dietary recalls at up to four times per cycle in each participant. Oestradiol, progesterone, luteinising hormone (LH), follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH), sex-hormone-binding globulin and testosterone were measured in serum up to eight times per cycle. We used weighted linear mixed models to evaluate associations between minerals and hormones and generalised linear models for risk of anovulation. Compared with Na intake ≥1500 mg, Na intake <1500 mg was associated with higher levels of FSH (21·3 %; 95 % CI 7·5, 36·9) and LH (36·8 %; 95 % CI 16·5, 60·5) and lower levels of progesterone (-36·9 %; 95 % CI -56·5, -8·5). Na intake <1500 mg (risk ratio (RR) 2·70; 95 % CI 1·00, 7·31) and Mn intake <1·8 mg (RR 2·00; 95 % CI 1·02, 3·94) were associated with an increased risk of anovulation, compared with higher intakes, respectively. Other measured dietary minerals were not associated with ovulatory function. As essential minerals are mostly obtained via diet, our results comparing insufficient levels with sufficient levels highlight the need for future research on dietary nutrients and their associations with ovulatory cycles.

  4. Effects of Portulaca oleracea ethanolic extract on reproductive system of aging female mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahangarpour, Akram; Lamoochi, Zohreh; Fathi Moghaddam, Hadi; Mansouri, Seyed Mohamad Taghi

    2016-01-01

    Background: Aging contains morphological and functional deterioration in biological systems. D-galactose (D-gal) generates free radicals and accelerates aging. Portulaca oleracea (Purslane) may have protective effect against oxidative stress. Objective: Purslane ethanolic extract effects were evaluated on antioxidant indices and sex hormone in D-gal aging female mice. Materials and Methods: 48 female NMRI mice (25-35 gr) were randomly divided into, 6 groups: 1- control (normal saline for 45 days), 2- Purslane (200 mg/kg for last 3 weeks), 3-D-gal (500 mg/kg for 45 days), 4-D-gal+Purslane, 5- Aging, 6-Aging+Purslane. Sex hormones, antioxidants and malondialdehyde (MDA) level of ovary and uterus were measured. Histological assessment was also done. Results: In D-gal treated and aging animals, LH and FSH levels were significantly increased (p<0.001) while estrogen and progesterone levels were significantly reduced (p<0.001) in comparison with control group. MDA contents were significantly increased in ovaries and uterus of D-gal and aging groups (p<0.01). Superoxide dismutase (SOD) (p<0.001) and catalase (p<0.01) activities were significantly decreased in both aging and D-gal treated animals. Ovarian follicles were degenerated and atrophy on uterine wall and endometrial glands was observed in D-gal and aging groups. Alteration in hormone levels, MDA contents and antioxidant activity were significantly reversed by Purslane (p<0.05). Purslane could also improve histological changes such as atrophy of endometrium. Conclusion: These findings indicate that Purslane can attenuate aging alternations induced by D-gal and aging in female reproductive system. PMID:27294220

  5. Effects of Portulaca oleracea ethanolic extract on reproductive system of aging female mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akram Ahangarpour

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Aging contains morphological and functional deterioration in biological systems. D-galactose (D-gal generates free radicals and accelerates aging. Portulaca oleracea (Purslane may have protective effect against oxidative stress. Objective: Purslane ethanolic extract effects were evaluated on antioxidant indices and sex hormone in D-gal aging female mice. Materials and Methods: 48 female NMRI mice (25-35 gr were randomly divided into, 6 groups: 1- control (normal saline for 45 days, 2- Purslane (200 mg/kg for last 3 weeks, 3-D-gal (500 mg/kg for 45 days, 4-D-gal+Purslane, 5- Aging, 6-Aging+Purslane. Sex hormones, antioxidants and malondialdehyde (MDA level of ovary and uterus were measured. Histological assessment was also done. Results: In D-gal treated and aging animals, LH and FSH levels were significantly increased (p<0.001 while estrogen and progesterone levels were significantly reduced (p<0.001 in comparison with control group. MDA contents were significantly increased in ovaries and uterus of D-gal and aging groups (p<0.01. Superoxide dismutase (SOD (p<0.001 and catalase (p<0.01 activities were significantly decreased in both aging and D-gal treated animals. Ovarian follicles were degenerated and atrophy on uterine wall and endometrial glands was observed in D-gal and aging groups. Alteration in hormone levels, MDA contents and antioxidant activity were significantly reversed by Purslane (p<0.05. Purslane could also improve histological changes such as atrophy of endometrium. Conclusion: These findings indicate that Purslane can attenuate aging alternations induced by D-gal and aging in female reproductive system.

  6. Mars is close to venus--female reproductive proteins are expressed in the fat body and reproductive tract of honey bee (Apis mellifera L.) drones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colonello-Frattini, Nínive Aguiar; Guidugli-Lazzarini, Karina Rosa; Simões, Zilá Luz Paulino; Hartfelder, Klaus

    2010-11-01

    Vitellogenin (Vg) and lipophorin (Lp) are lipoproteins which play important roles in female reproductive physiology of insects. Both are actively taken up by growing oocytes and especially Vg and its receptor are considered as female-specifically expressed. The finding that the fat body of in honey bee (Apis mellifera) drones synthesizes Vg and is present in hemolymph has long been viewed as a curiosity. The recent paradigm change concerning the role played by Vg in honey bee life history, especially social division of labor, has now led us to investigate whether a physiological constellation similar to that seen in female reproduction may also be represented in the male sex. By means of Western blot analysis we could show that both Vg and Lp are present in the reproductive tract of adult drones, including the accessory (mucus) glands, but apparently are not secreted. Furthermore, we analyzed the transcript levels of the genes encoding these proteins (vg and lp), as well as their putative receptors (Amvgr and Amlpr) in fat body and accessory glands. Whereas lp, vg and Amlpr transcript levels decreased with age in both tissues, Amvgr mRNA levels increased with age in fat body. To our knowledge this is the first report that vitellogenin and its receptor are co-expressed in the reproductive system of a male insect. We interpret these findings as a cross-sexual transfer of a social physiological trait, associated with the rewiring of the juvenile hormone/vitellogenin circuitry that occurred in the female sex of honey bees. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Perinatal exposure to mixtures of endocrine disrupting chemicals reduces female rat follicle reserves and accelerates reproductive aging

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johansson, Hanna Katarina Lilith; Jacobsen, Pernille Rosenskjold; Hass, Ulla

    2016-01-01

    Exposure to endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs) during development can have negative consequences later in life. In this study we investigated the effect of perinatal exposure to mixtures of human relevant EDCs on the female reproductive system. Rat dams were exposed to a mixture of phthalates,...

  8. Uncovering and responding to needs for sexual and reproductive health care among poor urban female adolescents in Nicaragua.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meuwissen, L.E.; Gorter, A.C.; Segura, Z.; Kester, A.D.M.; Knottnerus, J.A.

    2006-01-01

    BACKGROUND: To meet the needs of female adolescents from low-income urban areas for sexual and reproductive health (SRH) care, vouchers providing free-of-charge access to SRH care at 19 primary care clinics were distributed in Managua, Nicaragua. These vouchers substantially increased the use of

  9. Sexual conflict over care : antagonistic effects of clutch desertion on reproductive success of male and female penduline tits

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Szentirmai, I.; Szekely, T.; Komdeur, J.

    A fundamental tenet of sexual conflict theory is that one sex may increase its reproductive success (RS) even if this harms the other sex. Several studies supported this principle by showing that males benefit from reduced paternal care whereas females suffer from it. By investigating penduline tits

  10. Dopamine inhibits reproduction in female zebrafish (Danio rerio) via three pituitary D2 receptor subtypes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fontaine, Romain; Affaticati, Pierre; Yamamoto, Kei; Jolly, Cécile; Bureau, Charlotte; Baloche, Sylvie; Gonnet, Françoise; Vernier, Philippe; Dufour, Sylvie; Pasqualini, Catherine

    2013-02-01

    In many teleosts, the stimulatory control of gonadotrope axis by GnRH is opposed by an inhibitory control by dopamine (DA). The functional importance of this inhibitory pathway differs widely from one teleostean species to another. The zebrafish (Danio rerio) is a teleost fish that has become increasingly popular as an experimental vertebrate model. However, the role of DA in the neuroendocrine control of its reproduction has never been studied. Here the authors evaluated in sexually regressed female zebrafish the effects of in vivo treatments with a DA D2 receptor (D2-R) antagonist domperidone, or a GnRH agonist, alone and in combination, on the pituitary level of FSHβ and LHβ transcripts, the gonadosomatic index, and the ovarian histology. Only the double treatment with GnRH agonist and domperidone could induce an increase in the expression of LHβ, in the gonadosomatic index, and a stimulation of ovarian vitellogenesis, indicating that removal of dopaminergic inhibition is required for the stimulatory action of GnRH and reactivation of ovarian function to occur. Using double immunofluorescent staining on pituitary, the authors showed in this species the innervation of LH cells by tyrosine-hydroxylase immunoreactive fibers. Finally, using in situ hybridization and immunofluorescence, the authors showed that the three subtypes of zebrafish DA D2-R (D2a, D2b, and D2c) were expressed in LH-producing cells, suggesting that they all may be involved in mediating this inhibition. These results show for the first time that, in zebrafish, DA has a direct and potent inhibitory action capable of opposing the stimulatory effect of GnRH in the neuroendocrine control of reproduction.

  11. Skin lipids of the striped plateau lizard ( Sceloporus virgatus) correlate with female receptivity and reproductive quality alongside visual ornaments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldberg, Jay K.; Wallace, Alisa K.; Weiss, Stacey L.

    2017-10-01

    Sex pheromones can perform a variety of functions ranging from revealing the location of suitable mates to being honest signals of mate quality, and they are used in the mate selection process by many species of reptile. In this study, we determined whether the skin lipids of female striped plateau lizards ( Sceloporus virgatus) can predict the reproductive quality of females, thereby having the potential to serve as pheromones. Using gas chromatography/mass spectrometry, we identified 17 compounds present in skin lipids of female lizards. Using principal component analysis to compare the skin lipid profile of receptive and non-receptive females, we determined that an uncharacterized compound may allow for chemical identification of receptive mates. We also compared extracted principal components to measures of female fitness and reproductive qualities and found that the level of two 18 carbon fatty acids present in a female's skin lipids may indicate her clutch size. Finally, we compared the information content of the skin lipids to that of female-specific color ornaments to assess whether chemical and visual cues transmit different information or not. We found that the chroma of a female's orange throat patch is also related to her clutch size, suggesting that chemical signals may reinforce the information communicated by visual ornamentation in this species which would support the "backup signals" hypothesis for multiple signals.

  12. Indonesia. Adolescent reproductive health forms part of 5th country programme cycle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1995-01-01

    Indonesia is now entering the Fifth Country Program Cycle of Population. The reproductive health and family well-being of the youth forms part of the country program. In order to translate this component into concrete action program, a project document in its first draft was developed for UNFPA (UN Population Fund) funding by the government and with the assistance of UNFPA CST, Bangkok and UNFPA Field Office in Jakarta. The project aims to raise the level of commitment and degree of participation of families, particularly parents, for developing among their pre-adolescent and adolescent children a better understanding of the concepts/process of adolescent reproductive health and desirable attitudes and values dealing with family well-being. This is to be achieved through family-centered learning approaches that will contribute to the adoption of the small, happy, and prosperous family norm. To achieve this goal, the project will develop national capacity by creating management teams, developing sets of training and counseling materials, delivering key messages through the media, upgrading skills in adolescent counseling and developing better understanding of adolescent reproductive health and family well-being issues among the facilitators. The strategy to be used is to set up small groups of 20-30 families which will regularly meet to discuss adolescent problems and issues with the help of cadres. They will be supported by provincial reproductive health and family well-being counseling centers which will also be set up to handle serious cases difficult for parents to handle. These centers, to be run by NGOs, will provide counseling services to parents and youth, evolve innovative and culturally acceptable counseling techniques, and at the same time serve as material and information collection, development and dissemination centers. The project will be launched in collaboration with seven NGOs in seven selected provinces. It is currently under review by UNFPA and

  13. Aspects of female reproductive biology of the orange-back squid, Sthenoteuthis pteropus (Steenstup (Oegopsina: Ommastrephidae in the eastern tropical Atlantic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vladimir V. Laptikhovsky

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available Orange-back squid females, Sthenoteuthis pteropus, were found to mature at two different sizes: 230-270 mm and 380-450 mm mantle length (ML. The systematic status of these groups remains unknown. The ML of mature females varied from 155 to 558 mm (body weight 150-5900 g, respectively. Protoplasmic oocytes of 0.1 mm predominated in the ovaries during the entire life cycle providing a resource for further yolk accumulation. The number of yolk oocytes present at any one time represented only a small part of the Potential Fecundity (PF. Ripe eggs were 0.73-0.87 mm, and egg weight was 0.19-0.26 mg. The PF was 0.6 million to 15.8 million in mature animals and 1.2 million to 17.9 million in immature and maturing females, respectively. In mature females, the total number of yolk oocytes was 20 000 to 1.9 million, including 10 000 to 1 million ripe eggs. Spawning was intermittent. Large females presumably released at least 30-50% of the total oocyte stock. Results indicate that S. pteropus is a typical representative of the epipelagic oceanic cephalopod reproductive strategy characterised by small eggs, high fecundity, long intermittent spawning, active feeding, and somatic growth during spawning.

  14. Reporting in vitro fertilization cycles to the Society for Assisted Reproductive Technology database: where have all the cycles gone?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kulak, David; Jindal, Sangita K; Oh, Cheongeun; Morelli, Sara S; Kratka, Scott; McGovern, Peter G

    2016-04-01

    To assess the relationship between live birth rates (LBRs) and the incidence of under-reported cycles by IVF clinics. Cohort study. Not applicable. All patients undergoing IVF cycles in the aforementioned clinics. Not applicable. The reporting percentage (RP), defined as number of cycles with reported pregnancy rates divided by total cycles performed. Results from cryopreservation cycles are only presented by SART if an embryo transfer occurs. Thus, RP decreases as incidence of embryo or oocyte banking cycles increases. The LBRs in women aged cycles than the median. In clinics with very low RP, the cycles that are reported have higher success rates. Regardless of intent, the reduction of reported data to SART makes it increasingly difficult for clinicians and patients to accurately assess a clinic's success rates. Copyright © 2016 American Society for Reproductive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Reproduction is associated with a tissue-dependent reduction of oxidative stress in eusocial female Damaraland mole-rats (Fukomys damarensis.

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    Christina M Schmidt

    Full Text Available Oxidative stress has been implicated as both a physiological cost of reproduction and a driving force on an animal's lifespan. Since increased reproductive effort is generally linked with a reduction in survival, it has been proposed that oxidative stress may influence this relationship. Support for this hypothesis is inconsistent, but this may, in part, be due to the type of tissues that have been analyzed. In Damaraland mole-rats the sole reproducing female in the colony is also the longest lived. Therefore, if oxidative stress does impact the trade-off between reproduction and survival in general, this species may possess some form of enhanced defense. We assessed this relationship by comparing markers of oxidative damage (malondialdehyde, MDA; protein carbonyls, PC and antioxidants (total antioxidant capacity, TAC; superoxide dismutase, SOD in various tissues including plasma, erythrocytes, heart, liver, kidney and skeletal muscle between wild-caught reproductive and non-reproductive female Damaraland mole-rats. Reproductive females exhibited significantly lower levels of PC across all tissues, and lower levels of MDA in heart, kidney and liver relative to non-reproductive females. Levels of TAC and SOD did not differ significantly according to reproductive state. The reduction in oxidative damage in breeding females may be attributable to the unusual social structure of this species, as similar relationships have been observed between reproductive and non-reproductive eusocial insects.

  16. Staphylococcus epidermidis is involved in a mechanism for female reproduction in mice

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    Chihiro Ono

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Both external and internal surfaces of organs (e.g., skin, mouth, gut, and intestine are covered with bacteria, which often contribute to physiological events in host animals. Despite externally opened organs, the presence of bacteria in the mammalian female reproductive tract is uncertain. Here we assessed this problem using wild-type strains of mice, C57BL/6N and ICR. We first demonstrated that bacterial colonies were formed from the oviductal fluid in the C57BL/6N mice with birth experience (“parous”, but not in the mice without birth experience (“non-parous”. Sequence analysis of 16S ribosomal RNA (rRNA revealed that Staphylococcus epidermidis existed in the oviductal fluid of the parous mice, confirmed by immunohistochemical analysis. Furthermore, extinction of bacterial population with intraperitoneal injection of antibiotics, penicillin G and streptomycin, disturbed the regularly implanted pattern of embryos in ICR mice. Our results indicate that symbiotic S. epidermidis plays a role in interaction between embryo and uterus upon implantation in mice.

  17. Effects of Artemisia lanata Extract on Reproductive Parameters of Female Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ainehchi Nava

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Until date, there is no report on safety of Artemisia lanata. This study aimed to determine the possible undesirable effects of A. lanata on reproduction of female rats. Materials and Methods: The pregnant rats were treated (i.p. with vehicle or 200 and 400mg/kg of A. lanata hydroalcoholic extract from the 2-8 day of pregnancy. Then, number and weight of neonates, duration of pregnancy, and percent of dead fetuses were determined. Furthermore, cytotoxicity of this plant was tested using fibroblast (L929 and Chinese hamster ovary (Cho cell lines. Results: The A. lanata had no significant effect on duration of pregnancy, average number of neonates, and weight of neonates. However, administration of 200 and 400 mg/kg of the extract led to 30 and 44% abortion in animals, respectively. The extract at concentrations ≥ 200 μg/ml significantly (P < 0.001 inhibited the proliferation of L929 fibroblast cells. Regarding the Cho cells, the extract induced toxicity only at concentration of 800 μg/ml (P < 0.010. Conclusion: Our results showed that continuous consumption of A. lanata in pregnancy may increase the risk of abortion and also may have toxic effect on some cells.

  18. Chronic Stress and Limbic-Hypothalamopituitary-Adrenal Axis (LHPA Response in Female Reproductive system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farideh Zafari Zangeneh

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available The hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenocortical (HPA axis is a critical adaptive system that maximizes survival potential in the face of physical or psychological challenge. The principal end products of the HPA axis, glucocorticoid hormones, act on multiple organ systems, including the brain, to maintain homeostatic balance. The brain is a target of stress, and the hippocampus is the first brain region, besides the hypothalamus, to be recognized as a target of glucocorticoids. These anatomical areas in brain are limbic system, and in particular the hippocampus, medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC and amigdal that have multiple control points in regulation of the hypothalamic–pituitary–adrenal (HPA axis. The studies show the prefrontal cortex (PFC plays an important role in the regulation of stress-induced hypothalamic–pituitary–adrenal (HPA activity and regulation of gonadal function in men and women is under the control of the HPA. This regulation is complex and sex steroids are important regulators of GnRH and gonadotropin release through classic feedback mechanisms in the hypothalamus and pituitary gland. Chronic stress can have a deleterious effect on the reproductive axis that, for females, is manifested in reduced pulsatile gonadotropin secretion and increased incidence of ovulatory abnormalities and infertility. The limbic–hypothalamic–pituitary–adrenal (LHPA axis suggests a functional role for gonadal steroids in the regulation of a female’s response to stress.

  19. Friend or Foe: Innate Sensing of HIV in the Female Reproductive Tract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roan, Nadia R; Jakobsen, Martin R

    2016-02-01

    The female reproductive tract (FRT) is a major site for human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection. There currently exists a poor understanding of how the innate immune system is activated upon HIV transmission and how this activation may affect systemic spread of HIV from the FRT. However, multiple mechanisms for how HIV is sensed have been deciphered using model systems with cell lines and peripheral blood-derived cells. The aim of this review is to summarize recent progress in the field of HIV innate immune sensing and place this in the context of the FRT. Because HIV is somewhat unique as an STD that thrives under inflammatory conditions, the response of cells upon sensing HIV gene products can either promote or limit HIV infection depending on the context. Future studies should include investigations into how FRT-derived primary cells sense and respond to HIV to confirm conclusions drawn from non-mucosal cells. Understanding how cells of the FRT participate in and effect innate immune sensing of HIV will provide a clearer picture of what parameters during the early stages of HIV exposure determine transmission success. Such knowledge could pave the way for novel approaches for preventing HIV acquisition in women.

  20. Defining the Interaction of HIV-1 with the Mucosal Barriers of the Female Reproductive Tract

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carias, Ann M.; McCoombe, Scott; McRaven, Michael; Anderson, Meegan; Galloway, Nicole; Vandergrift, Nathan; Fought, Angela J.; Lurain, John; Duplantis, Maurice; Veazey, Ronald S.

    2013-01-01

    Worldwide, HIV-1 infects millions of people annually, the majority of whom are women. To establish infection in the female reproductive tract (FRT), HIV-1 in male ejaculate must overcome numerous innate and adaptive immune factors, traverse the genital epithelium, and establish infection in underlying CD4+ target cells. How the virus achieves this remains poorly defined. By utilizing a new technique, we define how HIV-1 interacts with different tissues of the FRT using human cervical explants and in vivo exposure in the rhesus macaque vaginal transmission model. Despite previous claims of the squamous epithelium being an efficient barrier to virus entry, we reveal that HIV-1 can penetrate both intact columnar and squamous epithelial barriers to depths where the virus can encounter potential target cells. In the squamous epithelium, we identify virus entry occurring through diffusive percolation, penetrating areas where cell junctions are absent. In the columnar epithelium, we illustrate that virus does not transverse barriers as well as previously thought due to mucus impediment. We also show a statistically significant correlation between the viral load of inocula and the ability of HIV-1 to pervade the squamous barrier. Overall, our results suggest a diffusive percolation mechanism for the initial events of HIV-1 entry. With these data, we also mathematically extrapolate the number of HIV-1 particles that penetrate the mucosa per coital act, providing a biological description of the mechanism for HIV-1 transmission during the acute and chronic stages of infection. PMID:23966398

  1. [Migrants' female partners: social image and the search for sexual and reproductive health services].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ochoa-Marín, Sandra C; Cristancho-Marulanda, Sergio; González-López, José Rafael

    2011-04-01

    Analysing the self-image and social image of migrants' female partners (MFP) and their relationship with the search for sexual and reproductive health services (SRHS) in communities having a high US migratory intensity index. 60 MFP were subjected to in-depth interviews between October 2004 and May 2005 and 19 semi-structured interviews were held with members of their families, 14 representatives from social organisations, 10 health service representatives and 31 men and women residing in the community. MFP self-image and social image regards women as being "vulnerable", "alone", "lacking sexual partner" and thus being sexually inactive. Consequently, "they must not contract sexually-transmitted diseases (STD), use contraceptives or become pregnant" when their partners are in the USA. The search for SRHS services was found to be related to self-image, social image and the notion of family or social control predominated in the behaviour expected for these women which, in turn, was related to conditions regarding their coexistence (or not) with their families. MFP living with their family or their partner's family were subject to greater "family" control in their search for SRHS services. On the contrary, MFP living alone were subjected to greater "social" control over such process. Sexuallyinactive women's self-image and social image seems to have a bearing on such women's social behaviour and could become an obstacle to the timely search for SRHS services in communities having high migratory intensity.

  2. Effects of thyroid status on NEI concentration in specific brain areas related to reproduction during the estrous cycle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayala, Carolina; Pennacchio, Gisela Erika; Soaje, Marta; Carreño, Norma Beatriz; Bittencourt, Jakson Cioni; Jahn, Graciela Alma; Celis, María Ester; Valdez, Susana Ruth

    2013-11-01

    We previously showed that short-term hypo- and hyperthyroidism induce changes in neuropeptide glutamic-acid-isoleucine-amide (NEI) concentrations in discrete brain areas in male rats. To investigate the possible effects of hypo- and hyperthyroidism on NEI concentrations mainly in hypothalamic areas related to reproduction and behavior, female rats were sacrificed at different days of the estrous cycle. Circulating luteinizing hormone (LH), estradiol and progesterone concentrations were measured in control, hypothyroid (hypoT, treated with PTU during 7-9 days) and hyperthyroid (hyperT, l-T4 during 4-7 days) animals. Both treatments blunted the LH surge. Hypo- and hyperthyroidism increased estradiol concentrations during proestrus afternoon (P-PM), although hypoT rats showed lower values compared to control during proestrus morning (P-AM). Progesterone levels were higher in all groups at P-PM and in the hyperT during diestrus morning (D2). NEI concentrations were lower in hypoT rats during the estrous cycle except in estrus (E) in the peduncular part of the lateral hypothalamus (PLH). They were also reduced by both treatments in the perifornical part of the lateral hypothalamus (PeFLH) during P-PM. Hypothyroidism led to higher NEI concentrations during P-PM in the organum vasculosum of the lamina terminalis and anteroventral periventricular nucleus (OVLT+AVPV). The present results indicate that NEI concentration is regulated in a complex manner by hypo- and hyperthyroidism in the different areas studied, suggesting a correlation between NEI values and the variations of gonadal steroid levels during estrous cycle. These changes could be, in part, responsible for the alterations observed in the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis in these pathologies. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Prolonged menstrual cycles in female workers exposed to ethylene glycol ethers in the semiconductor manufacturing industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsieh, G-Y; Wang, J-D; Cheng, T-J; Chen, P-C

    2005-08-01

    It has been shown that female workers exposed to ethylene glycol ethers (EGEs) in the semiconductor industry have higher risks of spontaneous abortion, subfertility, and menstrual disturbances, and prolonged waiting time to pregnancy. To examine whether EGEs or other chemicals are associated with long menstrual cycles in female workers in the semiconductor manufacturing industry. Cross-sectional questionnaire survey during the annual health examination at a wafer manufacturing company in Taiwan in 1997. A three tiered exposure-assessment strategy was used to analyse the risk. A short menstrual cycle was defined to be a cycle less than 24 days and a long cycle to be more than 35 days. There were 606 valid questionnaires from 473 workers in fabrication jobs and 133 in non-fabrication areas. Long menstrual cycles were associated with workers in fabrication areas compared to those in non-fabrication areas. Using workers in non-fabrication areas as referents, workers in photolithography and diffusion areas had higher risks for long menstrual cycles. Workers exposed to EGEs and isopropanol, and hydrofluoric acid, isopropanol, and phosphorous compounds also showed increased risks of a long menstrual cycle. Exposure to multiple chemicals, including EGEs in photolithography, might be associated with long menstrual cycles, and may play an important role in a prolonged time to pregnancy in the wafer manufacturing industry; however, the prevalence in the design, possible exposure misclassification, and chance should be considered.

  4. Reproductive cycle of Mytella guyanensis (Lamarck, 1819 in a Marine Reserve (RESEX Bay of Iguape, Bahia, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. M. A. Camilo

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Mytella guyanensis, consumed and commercialized in coastal regions of Brazil, is one of several bivalve species of socioeconomic interest for coastal communities. Besides serving as a source of income and subsistence for these communities, it also contributes to their food security as it is a source of proteins and micronutrients. Thus, the reproductive cycle of this species was studied aiming to contribute to food security and its preservation. Samples were collected monthly, between March 2014 and March 2015, in a natural stock (12°38'50”S; 38°51'43”W in a Marine Reserve (RESEX Bay of Iguape (community Engenho da Ponte, Bahia, Brazil. Mytella guyanensis is collected by women on site, where the artisanal fishing of this resource is performed without following any specific handling procedure. Also, empirical evidence indicates overexploitation. The specimens collected were measured along the anterior-posterior axis (length, and after macroscopic analysis they were fixed in Davidson solution, processed by routine histology techniques and stained with Harris haematoxylin and eosin (H&E. The macroscopic analysis showed sexual dimorphism, with the male and female gonads presenting a milky-white and orange colour, respectively. A 1:1 sex ratio (M: F was observed and reproduction of the species was continuous all year round. March, April, July and August were the months with highest values of gamete elimination. We suggest that a M. guyanensis management plan should restrict capture during these months, in order to sustainably regulate exploitation of this food resource in this reserve.

  5. Unexpected Inflammatory Effects of Intravaginal Gels (Universal Placebo Gel and Nonoxynol-9 on the Upper Female Reproductive Tract: A Randomized Crossover Study.

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    Karen Smith-McCune

    Full Text Available Intravaginal anti-HIV microbicides could provide women with a self-controlled means for HIV prevention, but results from clinical trials have been largely disappointing. We postulated that unrecognized effects of intravaginal gels on the upper female reproductive tract might contribute to the lower-than-expected efficacy of HIV microbicides. Our objective was to study the effects of intravaginal gels on the immune microenvironment of the cervix and uterus. In this randomized crossover study, 27 healthy female volunteers used a nightly application of intravaginal nonoxynol-9 (N9 gel as a "failed" microbicide or the universal placebo gel (UPG as a "safe" gel (intervention cycles, or nothing (control cycle from the end of menses to the mid-luteal phase. At a specific time-point following ovulation, all participants underwent sample collection for measurements of T-cell phenotypes, gene expression, and cytokine/chemokine protein concentrations from 3 anatomic sites above the vagina: the cervical transformation zone, the endocervix and the endometrium. We used hierarchical statistical models to estimate mean (95% CI intervention effects, for N9 and UPG relative to control. Exposure to N9 gel and UPG generated a common "harm signal" that included transcriptional up-regulation of inflammatory genes chemokine (C-C motif ligand 20 (macrophage inflammatory factor-3alpha and interleukin 8 in the cervix, decreased protein concentrations of secretory leukocyte protease inhibitor, and transcriptional up-regulation of inflammatory mediators glycodelin-A and osteopontin in the endometrium. These results need to be replicated with a larger sample, but underscore the need to consider the effects of microbicide agents and gel excipients on the upper female reproductive tract in studies of vaginal microbicides.

  6. Fecal steroid hormones reveal reproductive state in female blue whales sampled in the Gulf of California, Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valenzuela-Molina, Marcia; Atkinson, Shannon; Mashburn, Kendall; Gendron, Diane; Brownell, Robert L

    2018-05-15

    Steroid hormone assessment using non-invasive sample collection techniques can reveal the reproductive status of aquatic mammals and the physiological mechanisms by which they respond to changes in their environment. A portion of the eastern North Pacific blue whale (Balaenoptera musculus) population that seasonally visits the Gulf of California, Mexico has been monitored using photo-identified individuals for over 30 years. The whales use the area in winter-early spring for nursing their calves and feeding and it therefore is well suited for fecal sample collection. Using radioimmunoassays in 25 fecal samples collected between 2009 and 2012 to determine reproductive state and stress, we validated three steroid hormones (progesterone, corticosterone and cortisol) in adult female blue whales. Females that were categorized as pregnant had higher mean fecal progesterone metabolite concentrations (1292.6 ± 415.6 ng·g -1 ) than resting and lactating females (14.0 ± 3.7 ng·g -1 ; 23.0 ± 5.4 ng·g -1 , respectively). Females classified as pregnant also had higher concentrations of corticosterone metabolites (37.5 ± 9.9 ng·g -1 ) than resting and lactating females (17.4 ± 2.0 ng·g -1 ; 16.8 ± 2.8 ng·g -1 , respectively). In contrast, cortisol metabolite concentrations showed high variability between groups and no significant relationship to reproductive state. We successfully determined preliminary baseline parameters of key steroid hormones by reproductive state in adult female blue whales. The presence of pregnant or with luteal activity and known lactating females confirms that the Gulf of California is an important winter-spring area for the reproductive phase of these blue whales. The baseline corticosterone levels we are developing will be useful for assessing the impact of the increasing coastal development and whale-watching activities on the whales in the Gulf of California. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All

  7. Close pathological correlations between chronic kidney disease and reproductive organ-associated abnormalities in female cotton rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ichii, Osamu; Nakamura, Teppei; Irie, Takao; Kouguchi, Hirokazu; Sotozaki, Kozue; Horino, Taro; Sunden, Yuji; Elewa, Yaser Hosny Ali; Kon, Yasuhiro

    2018-03-01

    Cotton rat ( Sigmodon hispidus) is a useful experimental rodent for the study of human infectious diseases. We previously clarified that cotton rats, particularly females, developed chronic kidney disease characterized by cystic lesions, inflammation, and fibrosis. The present study investigated female-associated factors for chronic kidney disease development in cotton rats. Notably, female cotton rats developed separation of the pelvic symphysis and hypertrophy in the vaginal parts of the cervix with age, which strongly associated with pyometra. The development of pyometra closely associated with the deterioration of renal dysfunction or immunological abnormalities was indicated by blood urea nitrogen and serum creatinine or spleen weight and serum albumin/globulin ratio, respectively. These parameters for renal dysfunction and immunological abnormalities were statistically correlated. These phenotypes found in the female reproductive organs were completely inhibited by ovariectomy. Further, the female cotton rats with pyometra tended to show more severe chronic kidney disease phenotypes and immunological abnormalities than those without pyometra; these changes were inhibited in ovariectomized cotton rats. With regard to renal histopathology, cystic lesions, inflammation, and fibrosis were ameliorated by ovariectomy. Notably, the immunostaining intensity of estrogen receptor α and estrogen receptor β were weak in the healthy kidneys, but both estrogen receptors were strongly induced in the renal tubules showing cystic changes. In conclusion, the close correlations among female reproductive organ-associated abnormalities, immunological abnormalities, and renal dysfunction characterize the chronic kidney disease features of female cotton rats. Thus, the cotton rat is a unique rodent model to elucidate the pathological crosstalk between chronic kidney disease and sex-related factors. Impact statement The increasing number of elderly individuals in the overall

  8. Comparing Sexual Function in Females of Reproductive Age Referred to Rural and Urban Healthcare Centers in Ahvaz, Iran

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    Javadifar

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Background Healthy sexual function can be considered as an important element to improve personal and public hygiene. The sexual desire plays an important role in mental health and improving the quality of life. Objectives The current study aimed to compare sexual function of females in urban and rural areas. Methods The current descriptive study adopted 800 females of reproductive age (range 15 - 45 years referred to rural and urban healthcare centers in Ahvaz, Iran, in 2015. Samples were randomly selected. Applied instruments in the study were demographic information and female sexual dysfunction questionnaires (FSFI. Independent T-test, Chi-square and logistic regression were employed to analyze data by SPSS ver. 22. Results The result showed a significant statistical difference between females in urban and rural areas in terms of sexual desire, vaginal lubrication, intercourse pain and sexual function (P 0.05. Frequency of sexual dysfunction was 59.9% in females in rural and36.5% in urban areas and the difference between the groups was statistically significant (0.000. In both groups, the highest sexual disorder frequency was related to intercourse pain. Conclusions According to the obtained results, females in the rural areas had lower sexual function than the ones in the urban areas. It is suggested to establish female sexual health units in healthcare centers to give female sexual function consultation adjusted with awareness and culture of females and consider the existing problems.

  9. Investigations on the metabolism of metals in decapod crustaceas in relation with moulting cycles and reproduction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martin, J.-L.M.

    1975-07-01

    A study of the metabolism of metals was carried out in decapod crustaceas; it showed that it was subject to cyclic variations during the life of the animals, closely correlated with growth moults. The metabolism of metals was also considered in its relations with reproduction, especially oogenesis and spermatogenesis, and embryonic development. In relation with moult, various factors playing a role on metal metabolism were investigated: role of metals in the organism, fasting and nutrition cycles and biochemical reserves, physico-chemical form of the metal and ultrastructure of uptake surfaces. The histological and histochemical aspects of the uptake of a number of metals were studied as well as inter-metallic and inter-organic relationships [fr

  10. The stress of being contaminated? Adrenocortical function and reproduction in relation to persistent organic pollutants in female black legged kittiwakes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tartu, Sabrina; Angelier, Frédéric; Herzke, Dorte; Moe, Børge; Bech, Claus; Gabrielsen, Geir W; Bustnes, Jan Ove; Chastel, Olivier

    2014-04-01

    High levels of environmental pollutants such as persistent organic pollutants (POPs) including PCB and DDT have been found in the Arctic and many of those pollutants may impair reproduction through endocrine disruption. Nevertheless, their effects on stress hormones remain poorly understood, especially in free-ranging birds. Corticosterone, the principal glucocorticoid in birds, can indirectly impair reproduction. The aim of the present study was to examine the relationships between POPs and reproduction through their potential consequences on different reproductive traits (breeding decision, egg-laying date, breeding success) and corticosterone secretion (baseline and stress-induced levels). We addressed those questions in an Arctic population of female black-legged kittiwakes during the pre-breeding stage and measured several legacy POPs (PCBs and pesticides: HCB, p,p'-DDE, CHL) in whole blood. POP levels were not related to breeding decision neither to breeding success, whereas females with high levels of pesticides laid their eggs earlier in the season. We found a negative relationship between POP levels and body condition index in non-breeding females. Black-legged kittiwakes with higher levels of PCB showed stronger adrenocortical response when subjected to a capture-handling stress protocol. We suggest that PCBs may disrupt corticosterone secretion whereas the positive relationship between pesticides and egg-laying date could either originate from a direct effect of pesticides or may be related to other confounding factors such as age or individual's quality. Although no direct negative reproduction output of POPs was found in this study, it is possible that the most contaminated individuals would be more sensitive to environmental stress and would be less able to maintain parental investment than less polluted individuals. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Dynamics of ovarian maturation during the reproductive cycle of Metynnis maculatus, a reservoir invasive fish species (Teleostei: Characiformes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thiago Scremin Boscolo Pereira

    Full Text Available In this study, we evaluated the dynamics of ovarian maturation and the spawning processes during the reproductive cycle of Metynnis maculatus. Adult females (n = 36 were collected bimonthly between April 2010 and March 2011. The mean gonadosomatic index (GSI was determined, ovarian and blood samples were submitted for morphometric evaluation and the steroid plasma concentration was determined by ELISA. This species demonstrated asynchronous ovarian development with multiple spawns. This study revealed that, although defined as a multiple spawning species, the ovaries of M. maculatus have a pattern of development with a predominance of vitellogenesis between April and August and have an intensification in spawning in September; in October, a drop in the mean GSI values occurred, and the highest frequencies of post-ovulatory follicles (POFs were observed. We observed a positive correlation between the POF and the levels of 17α-hydroxyprogesterone. Metynnis maculatus has the potential to be used as a source of pituitary tissue for the preparation of crude extracts for hormonal induction; the theoretical period for use is from September to December, but specific studies to determine the feasibility of this approach must be conducted.

  12. Effect of hormonal contraceptives on serum serotonin in females of reproductive age group

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Faryal, U.; Hajra, B.; Saqib, J.; Rashid, S.; Hassan, M.; Ali, M.A.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Many types of hormonal contraceptives are in use nowadays for example oral pills, emergency contraceptive pills, vaginal rings, implantable rods and injectable contraceptives (combined and progestogens only). The purpose of this study was to determine and compare serum serotonin levels in married fertile females of reproductive age group using hormonal contraceptives with non-contraceptive users. Methods: A total of 300 women were selected in the study. This cross sectional study included three groups; Group-1 (control), group-2 (combined oral contraceptive users) and group-3 (injectable contraceptive users). History and examination of subjects were recorded on proforma. Levels of serum serotonin were measured using standard ELISA kits. Results were analysed by one way anova and a p-value 0.05 percentage was taken as significant, using SPSS 16.0. Results: The mean age of the patients in group-1 was 30.4±6.1 years, group-2 was 28.9±4.9 and in group-3 was 2.5±6.8 years. For subjects in group-1, group-2 and group 3 the mean±SD concentration of serum serotonin was 160.68±53.27 ng/dl, 227.3±63.98 ng/dl and 118.19±31.32 ng/dl. A significant (p=0.00) difference was seen among three groups, i.e., group-1, group-2 and group-3. After applying Post HOC Tukey HSD, there was statistically no significant difference between group-1 and group-2 (p=0.956). Difference was seen between group-2 and group-3 (p=0.00), it was also significant between group-3 and group-1 (p=0.00). Conclusion: It was concluded that hormonal contraceptives affect the levels of serum serotonin.Background: Many types of hormonal contraceptives are in use nowadays for example oral pills, emergency contraceptive pills, vaginal rings, implantable rods and injectable contraceptives (combined and progestogens only). The purpose of this study was to determine and compare serum serotonin levels in married fertile females of reproductive age group using hormonal contraceptives with non

  13. EFFECT OF HORMONAL CONTRACEPTIVES ON SERUM SEROTONIN IN FEMALES OF REPRODUCTIVE AGE GROUP.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faryal, Uzma; Rashid, Shazia; Hajra, Bibi; Hassan, Mukhtiar; Saqib, Javeria; Ali, Muhammad Afaq

    2016-01-01

    Many types of hormonal contraceptives are in use nowadays for example oral pills, emergency contraceptive pills, vaginal rings, implantable rods and injectable contraceptives (combined and progestogens only). The purpose of this study was to determine and compare serum serotonin levels in married fertile females of reproductive age group using hormonal contraceptives with non-contraceptive users. A total of 300 women were selected in the study. This cross sectional study included three groups; Group-1 (control), group-2 (combined oral contraceptive users) and group-3 (injectable contraceptive users). History and examination of subjects were recorded on pro forma. Levels of serum serotonin were measured using standard ELISA kits. Results were analysed by one way ANOVA and a p-value 0.05% was taken as significant, using SPSS 16.0. The mean age of the patients in group-1 was 30.4 ± 6.1 years, group-2 was 28.9 ± 4.9 and in group-3 was 2.5 ± 6.8 years. For subjects in group-1, group-2 and group 3 the mean ± SD concentration of serum serotonin was 160.68 ± 53.27 ng/dl, 227.3 ± 63.98 ng/dl and 118.19 ± 31.32 ng/dl. A significant (p = 0.00) difference was seen among three groups, i.e., group-1, group-2 and group-3. After applying Post HOC Tukey's HSD, there was statistically no significant difference between group-1 and group-2 (p = 0.956). Difference was seen between group-2 and group-3 (p = 0.00), it was also significant between group-3 and group-1 (p = 0.00). It was concluded that hormonal contraceptives affect the levels of serum serotonin.

  14. Vitex agnus-castus extracts for female reproductive disorders: a systematic review of clinical trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Die, M Diana; Burger, Henry G; Teede, Helena J; Bone, Kerry M

    2013-05-01

    Vitex agnus-castus L. (chaste tree; chasteberry) is a popular herbal treatment, predominantly used for a range of female reproductive conditions in Anglo-American and European practice. The objective of this systematic review was to evaluate the evidence for the efficacy and safety of Vitex extracts from randomised, controlled trials investigating women's health.Eight databases were searched using Latin and common names for Vitex and phytotherapeutic preparations of the herb as a sole agent, together with filters for randomised, controlled trials or clinical trials. Methodological quality was assessed according to the Cochrane risk of bias and Jadad scales, as well as the proposed elaboration of CONSORT for reporting trials on herbal interventions.Thirteen randomised, controlled trials were identified and twelve are included in this review, of which eight investigated premenstrual syndrome, two premenstrual dysphoric disorder, and two latent hyperprolactinaemia. For premenstrual syndrome, seven of eight trials found Vitex extracts to be superior to placebo (5 of 6 studies), pyridoxine (1), and magnesium oxide (1). In premenstrual dysphoric disorder, one study reported Vitex to be equivalent to fluoxetine, while in the other, fluoxetine outperformed Vitex. In latent hyperprolactinaemia, one trial reported it to be superior to placebo for reducing TRH-stimulated prolactin secretion, normalising a shortened luteal phase, increasing mid-luteal progesterone and 17β-oestradiol levels, while the other found Vitex comparable to bromocriptine for reducing serum prolactin levels and ameliorating cyclic mastalgia. Adverse events with Vitex were mild and generally infrequent. The methodological quality of the included studies varied, but was generally moderate-to-high. Limitations include small sample sizes in some studies, heterogeneity of conditions being treated, and a range of reference treatments.Despite some methodological limitations, the results from randomised

  15. Sexual and reproductive health behaviors of female sex workers in Dhaka, Bangladesh.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tasnuva Wahed

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to document sexual and reproductive health (SRH practices among female sex workers (FSWs including abortion, pregnancy, use of maternal healthcare services and sexually transmitted infections (STIs with the aim of developing recommendations for action.A total of 731 FSWs aged between 15 and 49 years were surveyed using a stratified sampling in Dhaka, Bangladesh. A workshop with 23 participants consisted of policy makers, researchers, program implementers was conducted to formulate recommendations.About 61.3% of 731 FSWs reported SRH-related experiences in the past one year, including abortion (15.5%, ongoing pregnancy (9.0%, childbirth (8.3% or any symptoms of STIs (41.6%. Among FSWs who had an abortion (n = 113, the most common methods included menstrual regulation through manual vacuum aspiration (47.8%, followed by Dilation and Curettage procedure (31% and oral medicine from pharmacies (35.4%. About 57.5% of 113 cases reported post abortion complications. Among FSWs with delivery in the past year (n = 61, 27.7% attended the recommended four or more antenatal care visits and more than half did not have any postnatal visit. Adopting sustainable and effective strategies to provide accessible and adequate SRH services for FSWs was prioritized by workshop participants.There was substantial unmet need for SRH care among FSWs in urban areas in Dhaka, Bangladesh. Therefore, it is important to integrate SRH services for FSWs in the formal healthcare system or integration of abortion and maternal healthcare services within existing HIV prevention services.

  16. Localization of the angiopoietin receptors Tie-1 and Tie-2 on the primary cilia in the female reproductive organs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Teilmann, Stefan C; Christensen, Søren T

    2005-01-01

    Blood vessel homeostasis and endothelial cell survival depend on proper signalling through angiopoietin receptors such as the receptor tyrosine kinases Tie-1 and Tie-2. We have studied the presence and subcellular localization of these receptors in murine female reproductive organs using confocal...... organs play a novel and important sensory role in relaying physiochemical changes from the extracellular environment to epithelial cells of the oviduct, the ovary and extra-ovarian tissues.......Blood vessel homeostasis and endothelial cell survival depend on proper signalling through angiopoietin receptors such as the receptor tyrosine kinases Tie-1 and Tie-2. We have studied the presence and subcellular localization of these receptors in murine female reproductive organs using confocal...

  17. A Disorder of Menstrual Function Regularization and its Influence on a Female Reproductive Potential

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oksana Makarchuk

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Obstetric complications in women of reproductive age are often the result of puberty disorders which remain underestimated and not taken into account in pregnancy monitoring programs in such patients, leading to an increase of habitual non-carrying of pregnancy and negative obstetric effects. The objective of the research is to carry out a comprehensive multivariate assessment of the disturbances of the body adaptive processes in teenage girls, taking into account the data of anamnesis regarding the specifics of menstrual function regularization during puberty, and to determine the main factors of complicated pregnancy in this category of patients. Materials and methods. To carry out the task, 110 pregnant women with a disorder of menstrual function regularizationhave been prospectively examined (the main group; the examination was performed at the preconception stage and in the periods of 6-12, 22-24 and 32-36 weeks of pregnancy. The comparison group consisted of 30 patients with a normal menstrual cycle. In order to identify risk factors and predict complications, the odds ratio (OR and its 95% confidence interval were used. Results. Extragenital pathology plays a significant role in the formation of pathological course of puberty and obstetric complications; 87.27% ofsuch cases were demonstrated in our study. Among the disorders of the ovarian-menstrual cycle, the structural significance is characteristic to the failure of the luteal phase and anovulatory disorders (78.18% of cases. Gynaecologic pathology includes inflammatory diseases of the pelvic organs (35.45%, cervical background processes (41.66%, ovarian tumour lesions (21.81, and primary infertility(14.54%. The obtained results of the structure of pregnancy complications in patients of the main group show reproductive losses in early pregnancy (11.8%, subchorionic hematoma (28.18% and the threat of late spontaneous abortion; these data are notedthree times more often than in the

  18. Reproductive hormone profiles and gametogenesis in female of giant gouramy (Osphronemus gouramy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gratiana E. Wijayanti

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Giant gouramy is one of freshwater aquaculture fish species that has high economic value so that various efforts had been performed to continuous increase its production levels.  The successful of giant gouramy culture requires good understanding on its reproductive biology, however limited information is available.  Therefore, this study was conducted to determine reproductive hormone profiles and gametogenesis of giant gouramy for a cycle of reproduction.  Eighteen broodstocks were naturally spawned; the day of spawning was referred as the first day (zero weeks of post spawning. Nine (Group A of those broodstocks were used to evaluate gonadotropin, estradiol, and progesterone profiles.  The remained broodstocks (group B were used to evaluate gametogenesis.  Blood sample from fish group A were taken on 0, 1, 2, 3 and 4 weeks post spawning for measurement of hormone levels.  Hormone levels were measured by using ELISA method with kit of REF30-407 for gonadotropin, REF30-431 for estradiol and REF30-406 for progesterone, respectively.  On the same time, ovarian were taken from fish group B. Ovarian were weighted to examine gonado somatic index (GSI, and they were then be fixative by NBF solution, processed to histology using paraffin, and stained with haematoxyline-eosin.   Histology of ovarian was observed using a light microscope.  The results of hormone analysis showed that the level of gonadotropin was relatively high during the spawning (0.17±0.021 mIU/ml, decrease to 0.13±0.017 mIU/ml at the first week and then relatively stable until the fourth week.  Estradiol-17 concentration was relatively high during the spawning (2,222.32±68.19 pg/ml, decrease until the third week and then increase at the fourth week (1,989.66±103.11pg/ml.  Progesterone level from fish spawning to the first week was 0.403±0.02ng/ml, increase to 0.514±0.02 ng/ml at the second week and then decrease at the fourth week (0.260±0.0 ng/ml.  GSI values

  19. Female reproductive health in two lamp factories: effects of exposure to inorganic mercury vapour and stress factors.

    OpenAIRE

    De Rosis, F; Anastasio, S P; Selvaggi, L; Beltrame, A; Moriani, G

    1985-01-01

    To evaluate the possible influence of mercury vapour on female reproduction, 153 women working in a mercury vapour lamp factory have been compared with 193 women employed in another factory of the same company, where mercury was not used. Both groups of subjects were exposed to stress factors (noise, rhythms of production, and shift work). The production process has been analysed by inspection of the plants and by collective discussions with "homogeneous groups" of workers; a retrospective in...

  20. Knowledge and perceptions of sexually transmitted diseases, HIV/AIDS, and reproductive health among female students in Dhaka, Bangladesh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sabrina Zaman Mou

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Young people are most vulnerable to sexually transmitted diseases (STDs and human immunodeficiency virus/acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (HIV/AIDS in Bangladesh. Lack of knowledge about reproductive health issues is also common in this group. Aims: This study aimed to assess the knowledge and perceptions of STDs, HIV/AIDS, and reproductive health of young female university students (19-27 years in Dhaka, Bangladesh. Methods: A cross-sectional study was carried out among 402 female students from seven universities in Dhaka, Bangladesh. Data were collected through face-to-face interviews using a structured questionnaire on sociodemographic information, knowledge, and perceptions of STDs, HIV/AIDS, and reproductive health. Descriptive analysis was used, and data were presented as frequencies and percentages. Results: The majority of the participants were young, unmarried, undergraduate students. Most of the participants reported that they knew about STDs (79% and HIV/AIDS (66%. However, knowledge about the modes of transmission and prevention of the diseases was poor. HIV/AIDS was considered by 90% participants as a public health threat to Bangladesh, mostly due to illiteracy (76%, increased mortality (20%, existence of risky sexual behavior (18%, and aggression of Western culture (31%. About 65% of the participants mentioned that AIDS can be prevented by safe sexual practice, 55% mentioned prevention through upholding religious values and moral education, and 59% mentioned that education about AIDS would help prevent transmission. Conclusions: Although a majority of young Bangladeshi female students reported knowing about HIV/AIDS, their knowledge regarding transmission and prevention of the diseases was poor. Strategies for creating reproductive health education targeted at young female students are essential for the prevention of STDs and HIV/AIDS.

  1. Individual, local and subspecific variation in female Hermann’s tortoise (Testudo hermanni) reproductive characters

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Longepierre, S.; Grenot, C.; Hailey, A.

    2003-01-01

    We studied reproductive characters of a population of the tortoise Testudo h. hermanni in the Plaine des Maures (Var), and compared these to another population in southern France and to T. h. boettgeri in Greece. Clutch characters, which are measures of total reproductive investment, showed no

  2. Studies on the localization of Trypanosoma brucei in the female reproductive tract of bka mice and hooded lister rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chipepa, J.A.S.; Brown, H.; Holmes, P.

    1991-01-01

    A study was conducted to establish whether Trypanosoma brucei migrated preferentially to the reproductive tracts of female BKA mice, or Hooded Lister rats and lodged there as the site of choice compared to other organs. Blood flow to the reproductive tracts, the liver and spleen was measured using red blood cells labelled with chromium- 51. The distribution of trypanosomes labelled with 75 Se-methionine. The average percentage of the blood flow to the reproductive tract was 0.21Plus or minus0.08 in mice, while the mean concentration of trypanosomes there was 0.30% in both mice and rats. Blood flow to the liver was lower than the percentage distribution of Se-labelled T.Brucei(5.17Plus or minus1.34 versus 8.1Plus or Minus1.2). There were, on the contrary, less labelled trypanosomes as compared to the mean blood flow to the spleen (0.54% plus or minus0.18 versus 2.10%pPlus or minus0.88). After 24 hours there were adequate numbers of T. brucei in the reproductive tract to cause parasitaemia in recipient mice. From these preliminary data it was concluded that T. brucei did not lodge in the reproductive organ system a site of choice. (author). 9 refs., 3 tabs

  3. Antibody response in the female rabbit reproductive tract to influenza haemagglutinin encoded by a recombinant myxoma virus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gu Wenyi; Holland, Michael; Janssens, Peter; Kerr, Peter

    2003-01-01

    The antibody response in serum and the reproductive tract of female rabbits to a model antigen, influenza virus haemagglutinin (HA), encoded by a recombinant myxoma virus was investigated. Strong and lasting IgG antibody responses to HA were induced in serum following intradermal, intranasal, and intravaginal immunisations. HA IgG was also detected in reproductive tract fluids but was only about 1% the titer of that in serum. HA IgA was not detected in serum of any infected groups and was occasionally detected in reproductive tract fluids at a low titer only after infections through mucosal sites. HA IgM was also detected only in some of the reproductive tract fluids at very low levels. Induction of ovulation did not change these patterns and B cell homing to the reproductive tract was not profound. In contrast, HA IgG and IgM titers in ovarian follicular fluids were comparable to that in serum. These data suggest that if this virus is used to deliver an immunocontraceptive vaccine that requires a high-level antibody response, the target antigen needs to be accessible to serum antibody or in the ovary

  4. Pex11α in brown trout (Salmo trutta f. fario): Expression dynamics during the reproductive cycle reveals sex-specific seasonal patterns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castro, L Filipe C; Lobo-da-Cunha, Alexandre; Rocha, Maria J; Urbatzka, Ralph; Rocha, Eduardo

    2013-01-01

    A negative correlation between female gonadal maturation kinetics and size variations of hepatic peroxisomes was earlier documented in brown trout, as a probable impact of serum estrogen changes during the reproductive cycle. Herein, we investigated whether the organelle volume/surface dynamics seen in female brown trout liver peroxisomes - without numerical changes within each hepatocyte - is followed by variations in the expression of the membrane peroxisome protein Pex11α gene. For comparison, we also studied males. We find in females a seasonal variation with the highest Pex11α expression in February, which was statistically different from all other tested periods. Overall, the expression of PEX11α had over a fivefold decrease from February to September. This period coincides with the reproductive transition between the earlier post-spawning gonadal remodeling and preparatory staging and the pre-spawning period. Males did not show changes. Our approach allowed the first characterization of a peroxin gene in a teleost, the Pex11α, while offering a correlation scenario were, as we hypothesized, the peroxisomal size kinetics is paralleled by membrane-related gene alterations (measured herein as proxy of Pex11α gene expression). Our data support and expand previous results on the regulation, function and morphology of peroxisome dynamics in brown trout, with a broader interest. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Reproductive health problems and health seeking behavior of female sex workers in Sabon Gari Local Government Area, Zaria, Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L O Omokanye

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The sexual and reproductive health needs of sex workers have been neglected both in research and public health interventions. Among the reasons for this are the condemnation, stigma and ambiguous legal status of sex work in Nigeria. This study was aimed at determining the reproductive health problems and health-seeking behavior of brothel-based female sex workers (FSW. Materials and Methods: This cross-sectional study was conducted among brothel-based FSW in Sabon-Gari Local Government in Zaria, Nigeria between 1 st January 2011 and 31 st June 2011. A total of 208 FSW were randomly selected and information was obtained with the use of the semi-structured questionnaire. Data entry was done with the help of structured codes in Microsoft Excel. Descriptive analysis was carried out using the statistical package (SSPS 16-University of Bristol. Results: Majority 90.7% of the respondents had experienced reproductive morbidity in the last 3 months. Frequently experienced symptoms were vaginal discharge (63.8%, acute lower abdominal pain (57.5%, menstrual irregularities (37% and genital ulcer (32.3%. Genital tear occurred in only 25 (9.8% respondents. Furthermore, 178 (63.6% had a termination of unwanted pregnancies. Most (32.3% sought care for their reproductive health problems from chemist shops; followed by the private hospitals in 23.6% of respondents. Others took self-medication for their ailments. Post-treatment success was the most frequently mentioned reason for the choice of place of treatment, followed by finance. Conclusion: The most commonly reported reproductive health problem among FSW was vaginal discharge and many of them have poor health seeking behavior. Health promotion and client sensitive health care services specifically targeting FSW should be developed, packaged and delivered to improve reproductive health of FSW. There should be concerted efforts by the government and other stakeholders in reproductive health to

  6. Scale Dependence of Female Ungulate Reproductive Success in Relation to Nutritional Condition, Resource Selection and Multi-Predator Avoidance.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jared F Duquette

    Full Text Available Female ungulate reproductive success is dependent on the survival of their young, and affected by maternal resource selection, predator avoidance, and nutritional condition. However, potential hierarchical effects of these factors on reproductive success are largely unknown, especially in multi-predator landscapes. We expanded on previous research of neonatal white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus daily survival within home ranges to assess if resource use, integrated risk of 4 mammalian predators, maternal nutrition, winter severity, hiding cover, or interactions among these variables best explained landscape scale variation in daily or seasonal survival during the post-partum period. We hypothesized that reproductive success would be limited greater by predation risk at coarser spatiotemporal scales, but habitat use at finer scales. An additive model of daily non-ideal resource use and maternal nutrition explained the most (69% variation in survival; though 65% of this variation was related to maternal nutrition. Strong support of maternal nutrition across spatiotemporal scales did not fully support our hypothesis, but suggested reproductive success was related to dam behaviors directed at increasing nutritional condition. These behaviors were especially important following severe winters, when dams produced smaller fawns with less probability of survival. To increase nutritional condition and decrease wolf (Canis lupus predation risk, dams appeared to place fawns in isolated deciduous forest patches near roads. However, this resource selection represented non-ideal resources for fawns, which had greater predation risk that led to additive mortalities beyond those related to resources alone. Although the reproductive strategy of dams resulted in greater predation of fawns from alternative predators, it likely improved the life-long reproductive success of dams, as many were late-aged (>10 years old and could have produced multiple litters

  7. Fundamental roles of reactive oxygen species and protective mechanisms in the female reproductive system

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    Okada Futoshi

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Controlled oxidation, such as disulfide bond formation in sperm nuclei and during ovulation, plays a fundamental role in mammalian reproduction. Excess oxidation, however, causes oxidative stress, resulting in the dysfunction of the reproductive process. Antioxidation reactions that reduce the levels of reactive oxygen species are of prime importance in reproductive systems in maintaining the quality of gametes and support reproduction. While anti-oxidative enzymes, such as superoxide dismutase and peroxidase, play a central role in eliminating oxidative stress, reduction-oxidation (redox systems, comprised of mainly glutathione and thioredoxin, function to reduce the levels of oxidized molecules. Aldo-keto reductase, using NADPH as an electron donor, detoxifies carbonyl compounds resulting from the oxidation of lipids and proteins. Thus, many antioxidative and redox enzyme genes are expressed and aggressively protect gametes and embryos in reproductive systems.

  8. An exposure study with polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) in female European starlings (Sturnus vulgaris): Toxicokinetics and reproductive effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Steen, Evi van den; Eens, Marcel; Covaci, Adrian; Dirtu, Alin C.; Jaspers, Veerle L.B.; Neels, Hugo; Pinxten, Rianne

    2009-01-01

    We exposed female European starlings to a pentabromodiphenyl ether (Penta-BDE) mixture through subcutaneous implants, and examined levels and profiles of polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) together with reproductive effects. Sum PBDE levels increased significantly in the serum of the exposed females from 218 ± 43 to 23,400 ± 2035 pg/ml. Sum PBDE concentrations in the eggs of the exposed group ranged from 130 ± 12 to 220 ± 37 ng/g wet weight (ww). The profile in serum after egg laying was very similar to that in eggs. There were no detectable levels of HO-PBDEs in both serum and eggs. Fewer females of the exposed group initiated egg laying compared to the control group, although the difference was not significant. In addition, egg weight and volume were significantly higher in the exposed group. These results suggest that, at the investigated exposure levels (150 μg sum PBDEs/bird), PBDEs may have a negative effect on reproductive performance. - Exposure to an environmentally relevant concentration of PBDEs may result in adverse reproductive effects in a terrestrial songbird species, the European starling

  9. Endometrial thickness as a predictor of the reproductive outcomes in fresh and frozen embryo transfer cycles: A retrospective cohort study of 1512 IVF cycles with morphologically good-quality blastocyst.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Tao; Li, Zhou; Ren, Xinling; Huang, Bo; Zhu, Guijin; Yang, Wei; Jin, Lei

    2018-01-01

    To evaluate the relationship between endometrial thickness during fresh in vitro fertilization (IVF) cycles and the clinical outcomes of subsequent frozen embryo transfer (FET) cycles.FET cycles using at least one morphological good-quality blastocyst conducted between 2012 and 2013 at a university-based reproductive center were reviewed retrospectively. Endometrial ultrasonographic characteristics were recorded both on the oocyte retrieval day and on the day of progesterone supplementation in FET cycles. Clinical pregnancy rate, spontaneous abortion rate, and live birth rate were analyzed.One thousand five hundred twelve FET cycles was included. The results showed that significant difference in endometrial thickness on day of oocyte retrieval (P = .03) was observed between the live birth group (n = 844) and no live birth group (n = 668), while no significant difference in FET endometrial thickness was found (P = .261) between the live birth group and no live birth group. For endometrial thickness on oocyte retrieval day, clinical pregnancy rate ranged from 50.0% among patients with an endometrial thickness of ≤6 mm to 84.2% among patients with an endometrial thickness of >16 mm, with live birth rate from 33.3% to 63.2%. Multiple logistic regression analysis of factors related to live birth indicated endometrial thickness on oocyte retrieval day was associated with improved live birth rate (OR was 1.069, 95% CI: 1.011-1.130, P = .019), while FET endometrial thickness did not contribute significantly to pregnancy outcomes following FET cycles. The ROC curves revealed the cut-off points of endometrial thickness on oocyte retrieval day was 8.75 mm for live birth.Endometrial thickness during fresh IVF cycles was a better predictor of endometrial receptivity in subsequent FET cycles than FET cycle endometrial thickness. For those females with thin endometrium in fresh cycles, additional estradiol stimulation might be helpful for adequate

  10. Reproductive Performance of Female Braconids Compared after (A) Brief and (B) Protracted Exposures to Ionizing Radiations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grosch, D. S. [Genetics Department, North Carolina State University, Raleigh, NC (United States)

    1968-06-15

    -rays and {sup 32}P {beta}-rays, has now been demonstrated for {gamma}-rays from the Raleigh {sup 60}CO Gammacell and the Woods Hole {sup 137}Cs source, although 1.4 times the X-ray dose is required to produce the same amount of damage. When the gamma exposure was spread over three days the valley did not appear until the eighth day. Females tested simultaneously and treated identically except that their X-ray exposure was brief provided the usual 7th-day low. Previously valley deferment was observed only when studying ingested radioisotopes where a necessary prestarvation obscured the significance. Another unpredicted response to the protracted gamma dose was a control level productivity of eggs derived from exposed oogonia. Recovery mechanisms were evidently able to keep pace with radiation damage. On the other hand, embryonic lethality was related to dose during all periods studied and dose rate was not important except for the most mature ooecytes. As scored by von Borstel categories, stage I deaths decreased and stage III types increased with age of the mothers until the latter predominated. This change is age-related and not dose-dependent. Biochemically, predominance of stage III death can be induced, even in eggs from young mothers, by feeding either RNA or protein inhibitors, but not by interfering with DNA synthesis. We postulate physiological involvement of nurse cells and fat body or their interrelations. Mean life span ranged from 19.52 {+-}1.34 days after 4320 R to 22.35 {+-}0.91 for controls. Biosatellite B, the second effort, was recovered successfully. After two days in orbit the reproductive performance of females differed strikingly from that repeated in ground controls. Most significant was egg deposit in a nearly contourless pattern reminiscent of a compensatory response to mitotic inhibition. (author)

  11. Assisted reproduction professionals' awareness and attitudes towards their own IVF cycles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonetti, T C S; Melamed, R M M; Braga, D P A F; Madaschi, C; Iaconelli, A; Pasqualotto, F F; Borges, E

    2008-12-01

    Professionals involved in assisted reproductive technologies (ART) have in-depth awareness and knowledge of the risks of multiple pregnancies at the conclusion of in vitro fertilization (IVF) treatment. The aim of the study was to investigate ART professionals' attitudes towards the awareness of the risk of infertility, as well as the decision-making process in IVF issues. Seventy ART professionals answered a questionnaire covering demographic data, infertility awareness and attitudes towards IVF. Approximately half (50.8%) of the participants thought that they were not at risk of infertility. However, if they received a diagnosis of infertility, none would accept childlessness and almost all would undergo IVF. In an IVF cycle, the number of high-quality embryos transferred would be around three, but if treatment was extended to a third cycle, a higher percentage of participants would elect to transfer four or more embryos. All participants would prefer to undergo IVF and accept the risk of multiple pregnancy than remaining childless. It was found that less than a third of ART professionals considered triplets to be an unacceptable complication of IVF. Diagnosis of infertility affects all participants psychosocially, supporting the idea that the emotional aspects of wanting a biological child, and decision making about whether to undertake ART, outweigh the medical position regarding the risks and benefits of IVF.

  12. The total pregnancy potential per oocyte aspiration after assisted reproduction-in how many cycles are biologically competent oocytes available?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lemmen, J G; Rodríguez, N M; Andreasen, L D

    2016-01-01

    PURPOSE: While stimulation of women prior to assisted reproduction is associated with increased success rates, the total biological pregnancy potential per stimulation cycle is rarely assessed. METHODS: Retrospective sequential cohort study of the cumulative live birth rate in 1148 first IVF/ICSI...

  13. Reproductive factors and serum uric acid levels in females from the general population: the KORA F4 study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Doris Stöckl

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: Hyperuricemia is associated with an increased risk of metabolic and cardiovascular diseases. There are pronounced sex differences in the levels of uric acid. It is largely unknown whether or not reproductive parameters which induce hormonal changes are responsible for this. We examined if there are associations between reproductive parameters and uric acid levels in a female population-based sample. METHODS: In this cross-sectional analysis, data of 1530 women aged 32 to 81 years participating in the KORA F4 study, conducted between 2006 and 2008 in Southern Germany were used. Reproductive parameters were obtained by standardized interviews. Uric acid levels were tested by the uricase method. The whole study sample and stratified in pre- and postmenopausal women was analyzed. RESULTS: Menopausal status and earlier age at menarche were associated with higher serum uric acid levels (age-adjusted: p-values 0.003, <0.001 respectively; after multivariable adjustment, including BMI: p-values 0.002, 0.036. A history of oral contraceptive use showed an association with uric acid levels only after multivariable adjustment (p-value 0.009. Hot flushes showed an association with uric acid levels only after age-adjustment (p-value 0.038, but lost significance after adding other confounders. Other reproductive factors, including parity, current or ever use of hormone replacement therapy, current use of oral contraceptives, hysterectomy, bilateral oophorectomy, or depressive mood related to menopausal transition were not associated with uric acid levels. CONCLUSIONS: Postmenopausal status, earlier age at menarche and a history of oral contraceptive use were independently associated with higher serum uric acid concentrations in women from the general population. Further studies, especially longitudinal population-based studies investigating the relationship of female reproductive parameters with uric acid levels are necessary to confirm our findings.

  14. The reproductive cycle, condition index, and glycogen reserves of the cockles Cerastoderma glaucum from the Gulf of Gabès (Tunisia).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karray, Sahar; Smaoui-Damak, Wafa; Rebai, Tarek; Hamza-Chaffai, Amel

    2015-11-01

    The gametogenic cycle of the Cerastoderma glaucum was analyzed using both qualitative and semi-quantitative methods. The condition index and glycogen concentrations were determined in order to provide information on energy storage. The cockles were collected monthly from a Bayyadha site located 15 km south of Sfax City (Gulf of Gabès) between January 2007 and January 2008. From histological point of view, we applied two approaches: (i) the qualitative method describing the various stages of gamete development for males and females during a cycle of 13 months, and (ii) the semi-quantitative method concerning the estimation of different tissue surfaces. The results showed that there is evidence of three periods of reproduction in this population. A comparison between the surfaces occupied by the three organs showed that the foot and the gonad surfaces are higher than the surface of the adductor muscle. This could suggest that these two organs are more involved in the process of glycogen reserve storage. The results of the glycogen concentrations in the different tissues (gonad, adductor muscle, and "remainders") show that during the second and third periods of reproduction, glycogen was stored in the adductor muscle and in the remainder during sexual rest, and in the gonad during the gametogenesis phases in order to supply the reproductive effort. On the contrary, in the first period of reproduction, the low concentrations of glycogen recorded in the gonad coincided with its high degree of development. This fact could be related to environmental conditions (low temperature and food) recorded during this period.

  15. ARSH 3: Reproductive and sexual health knowledge: a comparison among married male and female young adults (15-24 y).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nair, M K C; Thankachi, Yamini; Leena, M L; George, Babu; Russell, Paul Swamidhas Sudhakar

    2013-11-01

    To examine reproductive and sexual knowledge of young married men and women between (15-24 y) in Kerala and to compare the reproductive health knowledge and sexual health knowledge among young married men and women of 20-24 y. This cross sectional community survey was conducted in three districts in Kerala. The married young adults were stratified into age groups of 15-19 y and 20-24 y. Data was collected using separate pretested structured interview schedule. There were no married males below the age of 20 y and only 24 females below the age of 20 y. More proportion of males had statistically significant knowledge about masturbation (72.3%), night emission in boys as an indicator of adolescence (92.6%), the fact that there is no relation between size of penis and sexual performance (78.8%) and condom prevents pregnancy and HIV/AIDS. Among the married 20-24 y group higher proportion of males had knowledge on safe period (47.9%) and condom use (97.9%) whereas higher proportion of females had knowledge on copper-T. With regard to sexual health higher percentage females talked about satisfactory sexual life (83.5%) and good sexual hygiene practices (81.5%). This study on reproductive sexual health knowledge of married men and women between 15 and 24 y, conducted in three districts of Kerala suggests a gap in knowledge level of reproductive health between married men and women. However, with regard to sexual health the opinion expressed are more open in content but not necessarily healthy, suggesting the need for both premarital and newlywed counseling.

  16. Method of evaluation of wild common tench, Tinca tinca (L., female suitability for artificial reproduction during the spawning season

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dariusz Kucharczyk

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate the suitability of females for artificial reproduction of common tench based on an analysis of the size and percentage share of oocytes sampled in vivo. The females were collected from natural waters (lakes during the spawning season, After catching, the selected fish were transported to the hatchery, where the fish were kept under controlled conditions and oocytes were collected from all females. It was found that sampled oocytes were different in size and developmental stages. Oocytes were classified into 3 groups: small, medium and large. The diameter intervals for each group were 0.18-0.22 mm, 0.48-0.57 mm and 0.95-1.01 mm, respectively. Analysis of the percentage of the largest oocytes showed that their numbers decreased in time from over 40% on Day 1 to slightly over 10% on Day 10. A positive correlation was found between the percentage of the largest oocytes in the cathetered egg sample and the weight of the stripped eggs during artificial reproduction. The percentage of the largest oocytes (diameter 0.95-1.01 mm might be used as an indicator of the possibility of reproducing wild tench. No statistical differences were observed in latency time and embryo survival of females showing different quantities of the largest oocytes.

  17. Experimental defoliation affects male but not female reproductive performance of the tropical monoecious plant Croton suberosus (Euphorbiaceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narbona, Eduardo; Dirzo, Rodolfo

    2010-08-01

    Monoecious plants have the capacity to allocate resources separately to male and female functions more easily than hermaphrodites. This can be advantageous against environmental stresses such as leaf herbivory. However, studies showing effects of herbivory on male and female functions and on the interaction with the plant's pollinators are limited, particularly in tropical plants. Here, the effects of experimental defoliation were examined in the monoecious shrub Croton suberosus (Euphorbiaceae), a wasp-pollinated species from a Mexican tropical dry forest. Three defoliation treatments were applied: 0 % (control), 25 % (low) or 75 % (high) of plant leaf area removed. Vegetative (production of new leaves) and reproductive (pistillate and staminate flower production, pollen viability, nectar production, fruit set, and seed set) performance variables, and the abundance and activity of floral visitors were examined. Defoliated plants overcompensated for tissue loss by producing more new leaves than control plants. Production of staminate flowers gradually decreased with increasing defoliation and the floral sex ratio (staminate : pistillate flowers) was drastically reduced in high-defoliation plants. In contrast, female reproductive performance (pistillate flower production, fruit set and seed set) and pollinator visitation and abundance were not impacted by defoliation. The asymmetrical effects of defoliation on male and female traits of C. suberosus may be due to the temporal and spatial flexibility in the allocation of resources deployed by monoecious plants. We posit that this helps to maintain the plant's pollination success in the face of leaf herbivory stress.

  18. Variation in the resumption of cycling and conception by fecal androgen and estradiol levels in female Northern Muriquis (Brachyteles hypoxanthus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strier, Karen B; Ziegler, Toni E

    2005-09-01

    We measured fecal androgen (T+DHT) and estradiol (E2) levels in female northern muriquis (Brachyteles hypoxanthus) at the Estação Biológica de Caratinga/RPPN Feliciano Miguel Abdala, Minas Gerais, Brazil, to evaluate the hormonal bases underlying individual variation in the resumption of cycling and conception. We found that androgen levels were significantly lower in females than in males, and that there were no consistent patterns in female androgen levels across precycling or cycling conditions. Females that resumed cycling earlier in the study (weeks 4-8) had higher precycling E2 levels and correspondingly lower precycling androgen/E2 ratios than females that resumed cycling later (weeks 12-16). There were no differences in female precycling androgen levels, but cycling females that conceived during or immediately after the study period had lower androgen levels and threefold higher E2 peaks than the one cycling female that failed to conceive. These results suggest that minimum E2 thresholds are necessary for both the resumption of ovarian cycling and conception. Individual variation in these components of fertility may be regulated by differences in E2 levels, which affect androgen/E2 ratios, rather than by androgen levels per se. Further research into the relative concentrations of T vs. DHT will be necessary to fully evaluate whether androgens affect cycling and conception in this species.

  19. Identifikasi Gangguan Reproduksi Sapi Betina di Peternakan Rakyat (IDENTIFICATION OF REPRODUCTIVE DISORDERS IN FEMALE CATTLE AT LOCAL FARMS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sutiyono Sutiyono

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this research was to determine the female reproductive disorders in cattle reared by local farmers in the Distric of Kaliori, Rembang Regency, Central Java Province. A total of 94 cattle were used, in which had minimal one of each incisors had been replaced. The study used survey methods, and data were collected by interviewing with ranchers, rectal palpation, identification of the incisors, and body condition score of the cattle. In the implementation of the study, cattle were taken to a place determined by the chairman of the group of farmers (field or home page. The parameters of study were unheard of oestrus or not, the amount of artificial insemination, the number of incisors changed, body condition score of each cattle, the feed given, and their maintenance. The data were analyzed using statistical descriptive analysis on the mode, range, and percentage. The results showed that of the 94 cattle, which have disorders of reproductive activity as much as 80. Samples with impaired reproductive activity were divided into three groups. The first group was the old heifers that had no oestrus 25.00%, the second group was cattle that were more than three times applied artificial insemination and had not been pregnant 45.00%, and the third group was cattle that more than three months after the last giving birth had no oestrus 30.00%. The other reproductive disorders that occured in individual of the cattle was inactive ovaries (follicle undeveloped 2.50%, 6.25% ovary hypofunction, ovarian cystic 1.25%, endometritis 2.50% and 2.50% abnormal uterus. In conclusion, the largest reproductive disorders in cattle caused by nutritional factors that provided by the farmers, and small disturbances due to some diseases and abnormal reproductive organs.

  20. Drosophila sperm swim backwards in the female reproductive tract and are activated via TRPP2 ion channels.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Köttgen

    Full Text Available Sperm have but one purpose, to fertilize an egg. In various species including Drosophila melanogaster female sperm storage is a necessary step in the reproductive process. Amo is a homolog of the human transient receptor potential channel TRPP2 (also known as PKD2, which is mutated in autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease. In flies Amo is required for sperm storage. Drosophila males with Amo mutations produce motile sperm that are transferred to the uterus but they do not reach the female storage organs. Therefore Amo appears to be a mediator of directed sperm motility in the female reproductive tract but the underlying mechanism is unknown.Amo exhibits a unique expression pattern during spermatogenesis. In spermatocytes, Amo is restricted to the endoplasmic reticulum (ER whereas in mature sperm, Amo clusters at the distal tip of the sperm tail. Here we show that flagellar localization of Amo is required for sperm storage. This raised the question of how Amo at the rear end of sperm regulates forward movement into the storage organs. In order to address this question, we used in vivo imaging of dual labelled sperm to demonstrate that Drosophila sperm navigate backwards in the female reproductive tract. In addition, we show that sperm exhibit hyperactivation upon transfer to the uterus. Amo mutant sperm remain capable of reverse motility but fail to display hyperactivation and directed movement, suggesting that these functions are required for sperm storage in flies.Amo is part of a signalling complex at the leading edge of the sperm tail that modulates flagellar beating and that guides a backwards path into the storage organs. Our data support an evolutionarily conserved role for TRPP2 channels in cilia.

  1. Hypothalamic expression of KiSS-1 system and gonadotropin-releasing effects of kisspeptin in different reproductive states of the female Rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roa, J; Vigo, E; Castellano, J M; Navarro, V M; Fernández-Fernández, R; Casanueva, F F; Dieguez, C; Aguilar, E; Pinilla, L; Tena-Sempere, M

    2006-06-01

    Kisspeptins, products of the KiSS-1 gene with ability to bind G protein-coupled receptor 54 (GPR54), have been recently identified as major gatekeepers of reproductive function with ability to potently activate the GnRH/LH axis. Yet, despite the diversity of functional states of the female gonadotropic axis, pharmacological characterization of this effect has been mostly conducted in pubertal animals or adult male rodents, whereas similar studies have not been thoroughly conducted in the adult female. In this work, we evaluated maximal LH and FSH secretory responses to kisspeptin-10, as well as changes in sensitivity and hypothalamic expression of KiSS-1 and GPR54 genes, in different physiological and experimental models in the adult female rat. Kisspeptin-10 (1 nmol, intracerebroventricular) was able to elicit robust LH bursts at all phases of the estrous cycle, with maximal responses at estrus; yet, in diestrus LH, responses to kisspeptin were detected at doses as low as 0.1 pmol. In contrast, high doses of kisspeptin only stimulated FSH secretion at diestrus. Removal of ovarian sex steroids did not blunt the ability of kisspeptin to further elicit stimulated LH and FSH secretion, but restoration of maximal responses required replacement with estradiol and progesterone. Finally, despite suppressed basal levels, LH and FSH secretory responses to kisspeptin were preserved in pregnant and lactating females, although the magnitude of LH bursts and the sensitivity to kisspeptin were much higher in pregnant dams. Interestingly, hypothalamic KiSS-1 gene expression significantly increased during pregnancy, whereas GPR54 mRNA levels remained unaltered. In summary, our current data document for the first time the changes in hypothalamic expression of KiSS-1 system and the gonadotropic effects (maximal responses and sensitivity) of kisspeptin in different functional states of the female reproductive axis. The present data may pose interesting implications in light of the

  2. The total pregnancy potential per oocyte aspiration after assisted reproduction-in how many cycles are biologically competent oocytes available?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lemmen, J G; Rodríguez, N M; Andreasen, L D; Loft, A; Ziebe, S

    2016-07-01

    While stimulation of women prior to assisted reproduction is associated with increased success rates, the total biological pregnancy potential per stimulation cycle is rarely assessed. Retrospective sequential cohort study of the cumulative live birth rate in 1148 first IVF/ICSI-cycles and 5-year follow up of frozen embryo replacement (FER) cycles were used. Oocyte number, number of embryos transferred, and cryopreserved/thawed and transferred embryos in a FER cycle were registered for all patients. Children per oocyte and per transferred embryo and percentage of cycles with births were calculated. We obtained 9529 oocytes. Embryos (2507) were transferred in either fresh or FER cycles, resulting in 422 births and 474 live born children. Median age of the women was 32.5 years (range 20-41.5 years). In total, 34.3 % of all cycles ended with a live birth while in 65.7 % of the cycles, no oocytes were capable of developing into a child. The average number of oocytes needed per live born child after transfer of fresh and thawed embryos was 20 as only 5.0 % of oocytes aspirated in the first IVF/ICSI cycle had the competence to develop into a child. In our setting, overall 5.0 % of the oocytes in a first cycle were biologically competent and in around 2/3 of all cycles, none of the oocytes had the potential to result in the birth of a child.

  3. cis-Canthaxanthins: unusual carotenoids in the eggs and the reproductive system of female brine shrimp Artemia

    OpenAIRE

    Nelis, H.J.C.F.; Lavens, P.; Moens, L.; Sorgeloos, P.; Jonckheere, J.A.; Criel, G.R.J.; De Leenheer, A.P.

    1984-01-01

    The significance of carotenoid accumulation in crustacean eggs remains obscure, particularly because neither eggs nor female animals have been found to display specific pigment patterns in relation to reproduction. We report here the first example of carotenoids found exclusively in the ovaries, the eggs, and the hemolymph, but not in the carcass of a female, reproductively active crustacean, i.e. the brine shrimp Artemia . These pigments are virtually absent in males and in immature animals ...

  4. Effect of Gamma Irradiation on Sex Pheromone Gland and Reproduction of Female Cotton Leaf Worm Spodoptera littoralis (Boisd.)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abd-El Rahman, H.A.; Sallam, H.; El-Shall, S.S.A.; Hazaa, M.A.E.

    1999-01-01

    Female pupae of the cotton leaf worm were gamma irradiated at different ages with different doses to study the histology of the female sex pheromone gland in normal and irradiated produced moths. Reproduction of adult produced from irradiated full grown pupae was also investigated. The gland of normal female moth is found in the ninth abdominal segment, which is usually invaginated in the 8 th segment. It is formed of enlarged glandular epithelial cells under the cuticle. These epithelial cells are deeply invaginated in side the body cavity to form paired pouches and a sac-like structure. From each glandular cell there grows one long hair. in females emerging from 3 day-old pupae irradiated with 60 Gy, the glandular epithelial cells, became loose and were separated from each other, their nuclei were not clear. The pouches were randomly distributed. Gamma radiation effects were also noticed in case of 6 day-old pupae irradiated with 120 Gy. In addition, the glandular epithelial cells lost their peculiar shape, with the appearance of some vacuoles between them. When full grown pupae were irradiated with 200 or 350 Gy the glands of emerged adult showed increasing vacuoles, cytoplasm deterioration and more destruction of pouches. Irradiating full-grown female pupae with 200 and 350 Gy decreased significantly the fecundity and egg hatch ability of the emerging adult females. The effect was dose dependent and the dose of 350 Gy almost prevented egg hatching

  5. Latitudinal variation in the reproductive cycle of two bivalves with contrasting biogeographical origin along the Humboldt Current Upwelling Ecosystem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberto A. Uribe

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Argopecten purpuratus (Lamarck, 1819 and Mesodesma donacium (Lamarck, 1818 are bivalves that inhabit the Humboldt Current Upwelling Ecosystem. They have contrasting biogeographical origins, suggesting that their responses to exogenous factors should differ. Using circular statistics, we examine synchrony/asynchrony in the reproductive cycle between populations of each species. The results indicate that there is reproductive asynchrony in both species along their distributional range. However, there was synchrony for A. purpuratus in several location-pairs, including Paita-Chimbote, Chimbote-Callao, Callao-Pisco and Pisco-Antofagasta. For M. donacium, there were only two synchronic groups: Camaná-Capellanía-Mehuín and Hornitos-Peñuelas-Longotoma-La Ligua-Cucao-Quilanlar. A. purpuratus showed gametogenenic activity throughout the year. In contrast, M. donacium showed strong seasonality, with gametogenesis in winter and spawning in spring/summer. In conclusion, the patterns observed for these sympatric species suggest that on a large scale the reproductive cycles follow the expected patterns for the contrasting biogeographic origin of each species, so it could be argued that they are modulated by endogenous factors. However, at a local scale, the reproductive cycles of these species show variation, likely determined by local oceanographic or hydrographic processes.

  6. Reproductive ability of female dogs (beagles) surviving a single, midlethal, whole-body x-ray exposure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andersen, A.C.; Rosenblatt, L.S.

    1976-01-01

    The ability of 82 irradiated and sham-treated female beagles to whelp and wean pups was tested over a major portion of their reproductive life span. The dogs were exposed to 290 or 300 R of x rays (250 kVp) either as young pups, prior to puberty, or at puberty. Although all of the irradiated dogs were fertile and produced approximately the same number of litters as controls, litters of the pup irradiated and prepubertal irradiated dams surviving throughout the study were smaller than those of controls by 17 and 9 percent, respectively. Pup survival was also reduced relative to controls; the number of pups weaned was 38 percent lower in the pup irradiated group and 18 percent lower in the prepubertal irradiated group, as compared with controls. The overall reproductive ability of dogs irradiated at puberty was similar to that of sham-treated controls

  7. Rearing conditions and life history influence the progress of gametogenesis and reproduction performances in pikeperch males and females.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khendek, A; Chakraborty, A; Roche, J; Ledoré, Y; Personne, A; Policar, T; Żarski, D; Mandiki, R; Kestemont, P; Milla, S; Fontaine, P

    2018-02-08

    Pikeperch (Sander lucioperca) is a highly valuable fish in Europe. However, development of aquaculture of pikeperch is highly limited due to seasonality of production. This can be overcome by the controlled reproduction of domesticated fish. The first steps of domestication process may induce changes at anatomical, physiological and molecular levels, thereby affecting a variety of biological functions. While there is abundant literature on their effects on stress and growth for example, these effects on reproduction received limited attention notably in pikeperch, a promising candidate for the development of aquaculture. To answer the question of this life-history effect on pikeperch's reproduction, we compared two groups (weight: 1 kg) originated from Czech Republic and with the same domestication level (F0). The first group was a recirculating aquatic system cultured one (2 years, previously fed with artificial diet, never exposed to natural changes in temperature/photoperiod conditions) and the second one was a pond cultured group (3 to 4 years, bred under natural feeding and temperature/photoperiod). The wild group successfully spawned, while the farmed one did not spawn at all. During the program, gonadosomatic indexes of both males and females were significantly higher for the wild fish, as well as the sexual steroids. Gene expression analysis revealed significantly lower LH transcript levels at the pituitary level for the farmed females and lower FSH transcript levels at the pituitary level for the males. In conclusion this study showed that the previous rearing conditions (e.g. culture system, age, diet, etc.) alter the further progress of gametogenesis and the reproductive performances in response to controlled photothermal program for both sexes in pikeperch.

  8. Correlated evolution of male and female reproductive traits drive a cascading effect of reinforcement in Drosophila yakuba

    Science.gov (United States)

    Comeault, Aaron A.; Venkat, Aarti; Matute, Daniel R.

    2016-01-01

    Selection against maladaptive hybridization can drive the evolution of reproductive isolation in a process called reinforcement. While the importance of reinforcement in evolution has been historically debated, many examples now exist. Despite these examples, we typically lack a detailed understanding of the mechanisms limiting the spread of reinforced phenotypes throughout a species' range. Here we address this issue in the fruit fly Drosophila yakuba, a species that hybridizes with its sister species D. santomea and is undergoing reinforcement in a well-defined hybrid zone on the island of São Tomé. Within this region, female D. yakuba show increased postmating-prezygotic (gametic) isolation towards D. santomea when compared with females from allopatric populations. We use a combination of natural collections, fertility assays, and experimental evolution to understand why reinforced gametic isolation in D. yakuba is confined to this hybrid zone. We show that, among other traits, D. yakuba males from sympatric populations sire fewer progeny than allopatric males when mated to allopatric D. yakuba females. Our results provide a novel example of reinforcement acting on a postmating-prezygotic trait in males, resulting in a cascade of reproductive isolation among conspecific populations. PMID:27440664

  9. Study of sexual cycle, reproductive seasonality and control of oestrus in Criollo goats in Chile

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Santa Maria, A.; Cox, J.; Munoz, E.; Rodriguez, R.; Caldera, L.

    1990-01-01

    The study addresses the traditional system of goat production practised by peasant farmers in the marginal areas of Chile. As a significant proportion of peasant families depend exclusively on this animal for their livelihood, an improvement in the efficiency of goat production would have economic and social benefits for this sector of the Chilean community. In order to achieve this improvement experiments were conducted to provide basic knowledge on the reproductive indices of local (Criollo) goats under traditional management conditions. These showed that the mean duration of the oestrous cycle was 20.65±1.38 days (n=95) and that of oestrus was 29.66±7.30 hours (n=89). Sexual activity was concentrated between the months of March and August, with a peak of activity in June-July (corresponding to the months with shortest day length) and a cessation of activity between October and January. Other trials were conducted to evaluate the possibility of introducing artificial insemination as a means of improving the genetic merit of local goats. Thus, the efficacy of locally made sponges impregnated with progesterone or fluorogestone acetate (FGA) (with or without PMSG or prostaglandins) prior to artificial insemination showed that the FGA-PMSG combination was the most reliable in inducing oestrus in local goats. However, in terms of cost effectiveness a progesterone-prostaglandin combination was best. (author). 60 refs, 7 figs, 7 tabs

  10. The Effect of Intercourse around Embryo Transfer on Pregnancy Rate in Assisted Reproductive Technology Cycles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nasim Tabibnejad

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Implantation failure is the most important cause of recurrent in vitro fertilization/intracytoplasmic sperm injection (IVF/ICSI failure. Several reports suggest that intercourse during theperitransfer period might improve pregnancy rates. This study is designed to determine whetherintercourse during the peritransfer period will improve pregnancy and implantation rates in patientsundergoing IVF or ICSI.Materials and Methods: In a randomized control trial study, 390 women with at least five yearsinfertility were evaluated. In the study group, 195 patients had intercourse at least once 12 hours afterembryo transfer. Implantation and clinical pregnancy rates were compared with 195 patients in thecontrol group who had no intercourse for the entire assisted reproductive technology (ART cycle.Results: Implantation rate in the study group was 6.5% in comparison with 5.5% for the controlgroup. Clinical pregnancy rates were not significantly higher in study patients when compared tothe control group (14.2% and 11.7% respectively.Conclusion: The results showed that intercourse during the peritransfer period can not increasepregnancy outcome.

  11. Omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid docosahexaenoic acid and its role in exhaustive-exercise-induced changes in female rat ovulatory cycle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mostafa, Abeer F; Samir, Shereen M; Nagib, R M

    2018-04-01

    Exhaustive exercises can cause delayed menarche or menstrual cycle irregularities in females. Omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (ω-3 PUFAs) are incorporated into a wide range of benefits in many physiological systems. Our work aimed to assess the role of ω-3 PUFA docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) on the deleterious effects of exhaustive exercise on the female reproductive system in rats. Virgin female rats were randomly divided into 4 groups (12 rats in each): control group, omega-3 group treated with DHA, exhaustive exercise group, and exhaustive exercised rats treated with DHA. Omega-3 was given orally to the rats once daily for 4 estrous cycles. Exhaustive exercises revealed lower levels in progesterone and gonadotropins together with histopathological decrease in number of growing follicles and corpora lutea. Moreover, the exercised rats showed low levels of ovarian antioxidants with high level of caspase-3 and plasma cortisol level that lead to disruption of hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis. ω-3 PUFA DHA has beneficial effects on the number of newly growing follicles in both sedentary and exercised rats with decreasing the level of caspase-3 and increasing the antioxidant activity in ovaries. Exhaustive exercises can cause ovulatory problems in female rats that can be improved by ω-3 supplementation.

  12. Maternal exposure to di(2-ethylhexyl)phthalate (DEHP) promotes the transgenerational inheritance of adult-onset reproductive dysfunctions through the female germline in mice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pocar, Paola, E-mail: paola.pocar@unimi.it; Fiandanese, Nadia; Berrini, Anna; Secchi, Camillo; Borromeo, Vitaliano

    2017-05-01

    Endocrine disruptors (EDs) are compounds known to promote transgenerational inheritance of adult-onset disease in subsequent generations after maternal exposure during fetal gonadal development. This study was designed to establish whether gestational and lactational exposure to the plasticizer di(2-ethylhexyl)phthalate (DEHP) at environmental doses promotes transgenerational effects on reproductive health in female offspring, as adults, over three generations in the mouse. Gestating F0 mouse dams were exposed to 0, 0.05, 5 mg/kg/day DEHP in the diet from gestational day 0.5 until the end of lactation. The incidence of adult-onset disease in reproductive function was recorded in F1, F2 and F3 female offspring. In adult F1 females, DEHP exposure induced reproductive adverse effects with: i) altered ovarian follicular dynamics with reduced primordial follicular reserve and a larger growing pre-antral follicle population, suggesting accelerated follicular recruitment; ii) reduced oocyte quality and embryonic developmental competence; iii) dysregulation of the expression profile of a panel of selected ovarian and pre-implantation embryonic genes. F2 and F3 female offspring displayed the same altered reproductive morphological phenotype and gene expression profiles as F1, thus showing transgenerational transmission of reproductive adverse effects along the female lineage. These findings indicate that in mice exposure to DEHP at doses relevant to human exposure during gonadal sex determination significantly perturbs the reproductive indices of female adult offspring and subsequent generations. Evidence of transgenerational transmission has important implications for the reproductive health and fertility of animals and humans, significantly increasing the potential biohazards of this toxicant. - Highlights: • Maternal exposure to DEHP transgenerationally affects female reproductive health. • DEHP reduced ovarian follicular reserve up to the third generation. • DEHP

  13. Maternal exposure to di(2-ethylhexyl)phthalate (DEHP) promotes the transgenerational inheritance of adult-onset reproductive dysfunctions through the female germline in mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pocar, Paola; Fiandanese, Nadia; Berrini, Anna; Secchi, Camillo; Borromeo, Vitaliano

    2017-01-01

    Endocrine disruptors (EDs) are compounds known to promote transgenerational inheritance of adult-onset disease in subsequent generations after maternal exposure during fetal gonadal development. This study was designed to establish whether gestational and lactational exposure to the plasticizer di(2-ethylhexyl)phthalate (DEHP) at environmental doses promotes transgenerational effects on reproductive health in female offspring, as adults, over three generations in the mouse. Gestating F0 mouse dams were exposed to 0, 0.05, 5 mg/kg/day DEHP in the diet from gestational day 0.5 until the end of lactation. The incidence of adult-onset disease in reproductive function was recorded in F1, F2 and F3 female offspring. In adult F1 females, DEHP exposure induced reproductive adverse effects with: i) altered ovarian follicular dynamics with reduced primordial follicular reserve and a larger growing pre-antral follicle population, suggesting accelerated follicular recruitment; ii) reduced oocyte quality and embryonic developmental competence; iii) dysregulation of the expression profile of a panel of selected ovarian and pre-implantation embryonic genes. F2 and F3 female offspring displayed the same altered reproductive morphological phenotype and gene expression profiles as F1, thus showing transgenerational transmission of reproductive adverse effects along the female lineage. These findings indicate that in mice exposure to DEHP at doses relevant to human exposure during gonadal sex determination significantly perturbs the reproductive indices of female adult offspring and subsequent generations. Evidence of transgenerational transmission has important implications for the reproductive health and fertility of animals and humans, significantly increasing the potential biohazards of this toxicant. - Highlights: • Maternal exposure to DEHP transgenerationally affects female reproductive health. • DEHP reduced ovarian follicular reserve up to the third generation. • DEHP

  14. Hormonal changes over the spawning cycle in the female three-spined stickleback, Gasterosteus aculeatus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roufidou, Chrysoula; Schmitz, Monika; Mayer, Ian; Sebire, Marion; Katsiadaki, Ioanna; Shao, Yi Ta; Borg, Bertil

    2018-02-01

    Female three-spined sticklebacks are batch spawners laying eggs in a nest built by the male. We sampled female sticklebacks at different time points, when they were ready to spawn and 6, 24, 48 and 72h post-spawning (hps) with a male. Following spawning, almost all females (15 out of 19) had ovulated eggs again at Day 3 post-spawning (72hps). At sampling, plasma, brain and pituitaries were collected, and the ovary and liver were weighed. Testosterone (T) and estradiol (E2) were measured by radioimmunoassay. Moreover, the mRNA levels of follicle-stimulating hormone (fsh-β) and luteinizing hormone (lh-β) in the pituitary, and of the gonadotropin-releasing hormones (GnRHs: gnrh2, gnrh3) and kisspeptin (kiss2) and its G protein-coupled receptor (gpr54) in the brain were measured by real-time qPCR. Ovarian weights peaked in "ready to spawn" females, dropped after spawning, before again progressively increasing from 6 to 72hps. Plasma T levels showed peaks at 24 and 48hps and decreased at 72hps, while E2 levels increased already at 6hps and remained at high levels up to 48hps. There was a strong positive correlation between T and E2 levels over the spawning cycle. Pituitary lh-β mRNA levels showed a peak at 48hps, while fsh-β did not change. The neuropeptides and gpr54 did not show any changes. The changes in T and E2 over the stickleback spawning cycle were largely consistent with those found in other multiple-spawning fishes whereas the marked correlation between T and E2 does not support T having other major roles over the cycle than being a precursor for E2. Crown Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Reproductive traits and number of matings in males and females of Cerambyx welensii (Coleoptera: Cerambycidae) an emergent pest of oaks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torres-Vila, L M; Mendiola-Diaz, F J; Conejo-Rodríguez, Y; Sánchez-González, Á

    2016-06-01

    The longhorn beetle Cerambyx welensii is an emerging pest involved in oak decline episodes, whose damage is increasingly reported in dehesa open woodlands. Knowledge of the reproductive biology of C. welensii is a crucial goal due to its new pest status. In this study, we assess the reproductive traits of both sexes in the laboratory (25°C and 60% relative humidity ). In females, body length was 44.9 ± 0.9 mm (mean ± SE), fecundity 132 ± 12 eggs, fertility 70 ± 1 %, longevity 70 ± 3 days, preoviposition period 2 ± 0.2 days, oviposition period 44 ± 3 days and postoviposition period 19 ± 3 days. Fecundity was positively correlated with female size, longevity and oviposition period. Daily fecundity was 3.0 ± 0.2 eggs/day and showed a fluctuating synovigenic pattern with a slight decreasing trend over time. Egg length was 4.24 ± 0.01 mm and egg volume 8.14 ± 0.04 mm3. Egg size was correlated with female size but the relative size of eggs was larger in smaller females. Incubation time was 13.9 ± 0.1 days and hatching did not depend on egg size. Neonate size was positively correlated with egg length. Females were polyandrous (more than 20 lifetime matings) but multiple mating did not increase fecundity, fertility or longevity. In males, body length was 43.7 ± 0.6 mm and longevity 52 ± 3 days. Unlike with females, longevity was positively correlated with male size. Males were polygynous (up to 30 lifetime matings) but mating history did not affect male longevity. Rather to the contrary, long-lived males mated more times because they had more mating chances. Lastly, C. welensii reproductive traits were compared with those other Cerambycidae species and discussed from an adaptive perspective. Our data will be useful to improve management of C. welensii in order to prevent or mitigate its impact in dehesa woodlands and other oak forests.

  16. Effect of a postnatal high-fat diet exposure on puberty onset, estrous cycle regularity, and kisspeptin expression in female rats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lie, Maria Elena Klibo; Overgaard, Agnete; Mikkelsen, Jens D

    2013-01-01

    Kisspeptin, encoded by Kiss1, plays a key role in pubertal maturation and reproduction as a positive upstream regulator of the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal (HPG) axis. To examine the role of high-fat diet (HFD) on puberty onset, estrous cycle regularity, and kisspeptin expression, female rats...... were exposed to HFD in distinct postnatal periods. Three groups of rats were exposed to HFD containing 60% energy from fat during the pre-weaning period (postnatal day (PND) 1-16, HFD PND 1-16), post-weaning period (HFD PND 21-34), or during both periods (HFD PND 1-34). Puberty onset, evaluated...... that postnatal HFD exposure induced irregular estrous cycles, but had no effect on puberty onset or kisspeptin....

  17. Female social and sexual interest across the menstrual cycle: the roles of pain, sleep and hormones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guillermo, Chrisalbeth J; Manlove, Heidi A; Gray, Peter B; Zava, David T; Marrs, Chandler R

    2010-05-27

    with attraction scores at T1 and invert at T3. Data from this study show no change across the cycle in socio-sexual interest among healthy, reproductive age women but higher social and physical attraction among OC users. Furthermore, a broader range of hormones may be associated with attraction than previously thought. Such relationships differ by use of oral contraceptives, and may either reflect endogenous hormone modulation by OCs and/or self-selection of sexually active women to practice contraceptive techniques.

  18. Female social and sexual interest across the menstrual cycle: the roles of pain, sleep and hormones

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gray Peter B

    2010-05-01

    and progesterone exhibit opposing relationships with attraction scores at T1 and invert at T3. Conclusions Data from this study show no change across the cycle in socio-sexual interest among healthy, reproductive age women but higher social and physical attraction among OC users. Furthermore, a broader range of hormones may be associated with attraction than previously thought. Such relationships differ by use of oral contraceptives, and may either reflect endogenous hormone modulation by OCs and/or self-selection of sexually active women to practice contraceptive techniques.

  19. Fine structure of the female reproductive ducts of Cyathocephalus truncatus (Pallas, 1781) (Cestoda: Spathebothriidea), from salmonid fish

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Poddubnaya, L. G.; Mackiewicz, J. S.; Bruňanská, Magdaléna; Scholz, Tomáš

    2005-01-01

    Roč. 52, č. 4 (2005), s. 323-338 ISSN 0015-5683 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA206/03/1317; GA ČR GA524/04/0342 Grant - others:Grantová agentura SR(SK) VEGA2/4177/04; Russian Foundation of Fundamental Research(RU) 05-04-48250 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60220518 Keywords : Cestoda * ultrastructure * female reproductive system Subject RIV: GJ - Animal Vermins ; Diseases, Veterinary Medicine Impact factor: 1.138, year: 2005

  20. Female reproductive tract and placentation in sucker-footed bats (chiroptera: myzopodidae) endemic to madagascar

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carter, A M; Goodman, S M; Enders, A C

    2008-01-01

    The reproductive tract was examined in four non-pregnant and two gravid specimens of Myzopoda. The ovaries had little interstitial tissue. The uterus was bicornuate and the lenticular placental disk was situated mesometrially in one horn. The interhaemal barrier of the placental labyrinth was of ...

  1. Nest crypsis, reproductive value of a clutch and escape decisions in incubating female mallards Anas platyrhynchos

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Albrecht, Tomáš; Klvaňa, P.

    2004-01-01

    Roč. 110, č. 8 (2004), s. 603-613 ISSN 0179-1613 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA6093403; GA AV ČR IAB6130001 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z6093917 Keywords : ducks * behavior * reproduction Subject RIV: EG - Zoology Impact factor: 1.474, year: 2004

  2. Reproductive potential and nesting effects of Osmia rufa (Syn. Bicornis) female (Hymenoptera: Megachilidae)

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Giejdasz, K.; Fliszkiewicz, M.; Bednářová, Andrea; Krishnan, N.

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 60, č. 1 (2016), s. 75-85 ISSN 1643-4439 Institutional support: RVO:60077344 Keywords : megachilidae * reproduction * nest Subject RIV: ED - Physiology Impact factor: 0.722, year: 2016 https://www.degruyter.com/view/j/jas.2016.60.issue-1/jas-2016-0003/jas-2016-0003.xml

  3. Sensory response system of social behavior tied to female reproductive traits.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennifer M Tsuruda

    Full Text Available Honey bees display a complex set of anatomical, physiological, and behavioral traits that correlate with the colony storage of surplus pollen (pollen hoarding. We hypothesize that the association of these traits is a result of pleiotropy in a gene signaling network that was co-opted by natural selection to function in worker division of labor and foraging specialization. By acting on the gene network, selection can change a suite of traits, including stimulus/response relationships that affect individual foraging behavior and alter the colony level trait of pollen hoarding. The 'pollen-hoarding syndrome' of honey bees is the best documented syndrome of insect social organization. It can be exemplified as a link between reproductive anatomy (ovary size, physiology (yolk protein level, and foraging behavior in honey bee strains selected for pollen hoarding, a colony level trait. The syndrome gave rise to the forager-Reproductive Ground Plan Hypothesis (RGPH, which proposes that the regulatory control of foraging onset and foraging preference toward nectar or pollen was derived from a reproductive signaling network. This view was recently challenged. To resolve the controversy, we tested the associations between reproductive anatomy, physiology, and stimulus/response relationships of behavior in wild-type honey bees.Central to the stimulus/response relationships of honey bee foraging behavior and pollen hoarding is the behavioral trait of sensory sensitivity to sucrose (an important sugar in nectar. To test the linkage of reproductive traits and sensory response systems of social behavior, we measured sucrose responsiveness with the proboscis extension response (PER assay and quantified ovary size and vitellogenin (yolk precursor gene expression in 6-7-day-old bees by counting ovarioles (ovary filaments and by using semiquantitative real time RT-PCR. We show that bees with larger ovaries (more ovarioles are characterized by higher levels of

  4. Reproductive biology of the endangered percid Zingel asper in captivity: a histological description of the male reproductive cycle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christine Chevalier

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available The endemic Rhodanian percid Zingel asper (Linnaeus, 1758, is usually found throughout the Rhônebasin, but this fish is now in sharp decline. Understanding its reproductive physiology is important so as to be ableto artificially control its reproduction with a view to re-introducing it. This study was carried out on a populationobtained by artificial fertilization and bred in external tanks. Fishes were observed from the juvenile stages throughto adulthood. Patterns of testicular development were defined from histological observations. Testes of Z. asperwere paired, elongated and fusiform dorsocaudal organs. The two lobes of each gonad joined together to forma duct that extended to the urogenital papillae. They showed a lobular structure. The testicular lobules were of theunrestricted spermatogonial type. Up to 10 months-old, most of the males were immature: their testes showed onlytype A spermatogonia. The appearance of type B spermatogonia in the lobules of a testis indicated the beginningof spermatogenesis in 10 months-old fish. Spermiogenesis occurred 24 months after the fertilization and, in 26months-old fish, the cyst opened and released spermatozoa into the lumen of lobules. The spermiation belonged toa cystic type. During the third year, histological observations pointed to the same evolution of adult gonads asduring the second year. Sexual maturity was reached in captive Z. asper after two years. The spawning occurred inMay in the breeding conditions. (Folia Histochemica et Cytobiologica 2011, Vol. 49, No. 3, 486–496

  5. Reproductive biology of the endangered percid Zingel asper in captivity: a histological description of the male reproductive cycle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chevalier, Christine; de Conto, Christine; Exbrayat, Jean-Marie

    2011-01-01

    The endemic Rhodanian percid Zingel asper (Linnaeus, 1758), is usually found throughout the Rhône basin, but this fish is now in sharp decline. Understanding its reproductive physiology is important so as to be able to artificially control its reproduction with a view to re-introducing it. This study was carried out on a population obtained by artificial fertilization and bred in external tanks. Fishes were observed from the juvenile stages through to adulthood. Patterns of testicular development were defined from histological observations. Testes of Z. asper were paired, elongated and fusiform dorsocaudal organs. The two lobes of each gonad joined together to form a duct that extended to the urogenital papillae. They showed a lobular structure. The testicular lobules were of the unrestricted spermatogonial type. Up to 10 months-old, most of the males were immature: their testes showed only type A spermatogonia. The appearance of type B spermatogonia in the lobules of a testis indicated the beginning of spermatogenesis in 10 months-old fish. Spermiogenesis occurred 24 months after the fertilization and, in 26 months-old fish, the cyst opened and released spermatozoa into the lumen of lobules. The spermiation belonged to a cystic type. During the third year, histological observations pointed to the same evolution of adult gonads as during the second year. Sexual maturity was reached in captive Z. asper after two years. The spawning occurred in May in the breeding conditions.

  6. Knowledge and attitudes of female university students on menstrual cycle and contraception.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szűcs, Márta; Bitó, Tamás; Csíkos, Csaba; Párducz Szöllősi, Andrea; Furau, Cristian; Blidaru, Iolanda; Kapamadzija, Aleksandra; Sedlecky, Katarina; Bártfai, György

    2017-02-01

    Socioeconomic changes, as well as the development of new contraceptive modalities may influence women's preferences in the selection of a method of contraception. The aim of this study was to evaluate the knowledge, opinions and attitudes of female university students regarding the menstrual cycle, sexual health and contraception. A questionnaire-based survey was conducted among 2572 female university students in Hungary, Romania and Serbia, between November 2009 and January 2011. A higher proportion of students of health sciences than students of other faculties had appropriate knowledge of the fertile period within a menstrual cycle: 86.0%, 71.5% (p = .02) and 61.1% vs. 71.9% (p students believed in the need for monthly menstruation in order to be healthy; however, merely 30 to 40% of them wished to have monthly bleeding. In general, the respondents were aware of the importance of menstruation in relation to sexual health; however, they wished to suppress the menstruation-related symptoms. Differences in the knowledge and attitudes of female university students of the three assessed countries may be explained in part by cultural differences, and in part by the nature of their studies.

  7. Female Gender and Reproductive Factors Affecting Risk, Relapses and Progression in Multiple Sclerosis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    D'hooghe, M. B.; D'Hooghe, T.; De Keyser, J.

    2013-01-01

    Multiple sclerosis (MS), a chronic inflammatory demyelinating and degenerative disease of the central nervous system, is a frequent cause of neurological disability in young adults. Female predominance has increased over the last decades. Although female gender carries a higher risk of developing

  8. Fertility and sexual function in female Hodgkin lymphoma survivors of reproductive age

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Eeltink, C.M.; Incrocci, L.; Witte, B.I.; Meurs, S.; Visser, O.; Huijgens, P.C.; de Leeuw, I.M.

    2013-01-01

    Aims and objectives: To assess the perceived fertility status and to determine the association between perceived fertility status and sexual function, as reported by young female Hodgkin lymphoma survivors. Background: Young female Hodgkin lymphoma survivors are at risk of infertility and impaired

  9. Adaptations in the Microarchitecture and Load Distribution of Maternal Cortical and Trabecular Bone in Response to Multiple Reproductive Cycles in Rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Bakker, Chantal M. J.; Altman-Singles, Allison R.; Li, Yihan; Tseng, Wei-Ju; Li, Connie; Liu, X. Sherry

    2017-01-01

    Pregnancy, lactation, and weaning result in dramatic changes in maternal calcium metabolism. In particular, the increased calcium demand during lactation causes a substantial degree of maternal bone loss. This reproductive bone loss has been suggested to be largely reversible, as multiple clinical studies have found that parity and lactation history have no adverse effect on post-menopausal fracture risk. However, the precise effects of pregnancy, lactation, and post-weaning recovery on maternal bone structure are not well understood. Our study aimed to address this question by longitudinally tracking changes in trabecular and cortical bone microarchitecture at the proximal tibia in rats throughout three cycles of pregnancy, lactation, and post-weaning using in vivo μCT. We found that the trabecular thickness underwent a reversible deterioration during pregnancy and lactation, which was fully recovered after weaning, while other parameters of trabecular microarchitecture (including trabecular number, spacing, connectivity density, and structure model index) underwent a more permanent deterioration which recovered minimally. Thus, pregnancy and lactation resulted in both transient and long-lasting alterations in trabecular microstructure. In the meantime, multiple reproductive cycles appeared to improve the robustness of cortical bone (resulting in an elevated cortical area and polar moment of inertia), as well as increase the proportion of the total load carried by the cortical bone at the proximal tibia. Taken together, changes in the cortical and trabecular compartments suggest that while rat tibial trabecular bone appears to be highly involved in maintaining calcium homeostasis during female reproduction, cortical bone adapts to increase its load-bearing capacity, allowing the overall mechanical function of the tibia to be maintained. PMID:28109138

  10. Functional morphology of the female reproductive system of a crab with highly extensible seminal receptacles and extreme sperm storage capacity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farias, Nahuel E; Spivak, Eduardo D; Luppi, Tomas A

    2017-07-01

    We studied the functional morphology of the female reproductive system of the purple stone crab Danielethus crenulatus. The most remarkable feature is the relative storage capacity and extensibility of the seminal receptacles. These receptacles are a pair of simple sacs that lack internal structures dividing the internal lumen. Differences in seminal receptacle size and contents are accompanied by conspicuous changes in receptacle lining at a tissue level. Full seminal receptacles contain discrete sperm masses formed by hardened fluid and densely packed spermatophores. Different sperm masses are likely from different mates and their stratified disposition within the seminal receptacles is compatible with rival sperm displacement and last sperm precedence. Additionally, the anatomical structure of the vulva and vagina suggest active female control over copula. We discuss our results in the general context of sperm storage in brachyurans and the implications for the mating system of this species. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  11. Histological description of the reproductive system of male and female hatchlings of the Magdalena River turtle (Podocnemis lewyana)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sanchez Ospina, Andres C; Rodriguez, Berardo; Ceballos, Claudia P

    2014-01-01

    In this study we described the macroscopic and microscopic histology of the reproductive system of male and female podocnemis lewyana neonates (3.5 months old). We found macroscopic differences in the morphology of the gonads between the sexes, with ovaries being twice as long as testes, and testes being twice as wide as ovaries. Microscopically, we identified several immature elements, such as the lack of a muscle layer in the oviduct of females, and simple epithelia instead of pseudostratified epithelia in the oviduct and epididymis described in reptile adults. We also found a black pigment observed macroscopically in the mesovarium, and macroscopically and histologically in the epididymis. This pigment is consistent with the center of melano-macrophages described in other vertebrates. Finally we described a supporting mesenchymal structure, the appendage of the oviduct, which was much longer than what has been described in other podocnemis species.

  12. A Novel Letrozole Model Recapitulates Both the Reproductive and Metabolic Phenotypes of Polycystic Ovary Syndrome in Female Mice1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kauffman, Alexander S.; Thackray, Varykina G.; Ryan, Genevieve E.; Tolson, Kristen P.; Glidewell-Kenney, Christine A.; Semaan, Sheila J.; Poling, Matthew C.; Iwata, Nahoko; Breen, Kellie M.; Duleba, Antoni J.; Stener-Victorin, Elisabet; Shimasaki, Shunichi; Webster, Nicholas J.; Mellon, Pamela L.

    2015-01-01

    Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) pathophysiology is poorly understood, due partly to lack of PCOS animal models fully recapitulating this complex disorder. Recently, a PCOS rat model using letrozole (LET), a nonsteroidal aromatase inhibitor, mimicked multiple PCOS phenotypes, including metabolic features absent in other models. Given the advantages of using genetic and transgenic mouse models, we investigated whether LET produces a similar PCOS phenotype in mice. Pubertal female C57BL/6N mice were treated for 5 wk with LET, which resulted in increased serum testosterone and normal diestrus levels of estradiol, similar to the hyperandrogenemia and follicular phase estrogen levels of PCOS women. As in PCOS, ovaries from LET mice were larger, polycystic, and lacked corpora lutea versus controls. Most LET females were acyclic, and all were infertile. LET females displayed elevated serum LH levels and higher Lhb mRNA in the pituitary. In contrast, serum FSH and Fshb were significantly reduced in LET females, demonstrating differential effects on gonadotropins, as in PCOS. Within the ovary, LET females had higher Cyp17, Cyp19, and Fsh receptor mRNA expression. In the hypothalamus, LET females had higher kisspeptin receptor mRNA expression but lower progesterone receptor mRNA levels. LET females also gained more weight than controls, had increased abdominal adiposity and adipocyte size, elevated adipose inflammatory mRNA levels, and impaired glucose tolerance, mirroring the metabolic phenotype in PCOS women. This is the first report of a LET paradigm in mice that recapitulates both reproductive and metabolic PCOS phenotypes and will be useful to genetically probe the PCOS condition. PMID:26203175

  13. Role of temperature in the reproductive cycle of Thais chocolata (Gastropoda, Muricidae in Chanavaya, Tarapacá, Chile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcela Cantillanez

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available The reproductive condition of Thais chocolata (copulative aggregation establishment, clutch laying in capsules and specimen density, was studied monthly between February 2009 and January 2010, in the locality of Chanavaya (Tarapacá, Chile. Results showed that the specimens are mainly distributed in aggregations, and that their gonad development is asynchronous with the presence of mature females being registered during the entire year. Reproductive aggregations were found in the shallow stratus from late January to August 2009 and reappearing in January 2010. However, the larger ones (which sustained extraction occurred during June-July and January. An increase in specimen density in the 5 to 17 m stratum was registered in May-August and December-January, coinciding with the periods previous to, during and after the highest aggregation magnitudes registered. The aggregation periods coincided with temperatures over 15°C, with a lower reproductive activity associated to a decrease in temperature. We state that abrupt temperature changes occurring in short time periods could cause mature specimen to move, increasing their density in shallow waters for reproductive purposes. We suggest increasing protection for the resource during the reproductive aggregation processes given that extraction leaves the clutches unprotected and prone to predation from other organisms.

  14. Chitosan-nanoconjugated hormone nanoparticles for sustained surge of gonadotropins and enhanced reproductive output in female fish.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohd Ashraf Rather

    Full Text Available A controlled release delivery system helps to overcome the problem of short life of the leutinizing hormone releasing hormone (LHRH in blood and avoids use of multiple injections to enhance reproductive efficacy. Chitosan- and chitosan-gold nanoconjugates of salmon LHRH of desired size, dispersity and zeta potential were synthesized and evaluated at half the dose rate against full dose of bare LHRH for their reproductive efficacy in the female fish, Cyprinus carpio. Whereas injections of both the nanoconjugates induced controlled and sustained surge of the hormones with peak (P<0.01 at 24 hrs, surge due to bare LHRH reached its peak at 7 hrs and either remained at plateau or sharply declined thereafter. While the percentage of relative total eggs produced by fish were 130 and 67 per cent higher, that of fertilised eggs were 171 and 88 per cent higher on chitosan- and chitosan-gold nanoconjugates than bare LHRH. Chitosan nanoconjugates had a 13 per cent higher and chitosan gold preparation had a 9 per cent higher fertilization rate than bare LHRH. Histology of the ovaries also attested the pronounced effect of nanoparticles on reproductive output. This is the first report on use of chitosan-conjugated nanodelivery of gonadotropic hormone in fish.

  15. Examining negative effe