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Sample records for female natal site

  1. Natal site fidelity by breeding female southern elephant seals in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Of the four types of terrestrial haulout periods undertaken by southern elephant seals Mirounga leonina, only the purpose of the winter haulout is unknown. Returning to a haulout site from distant pelagic foraging grounds bears significant costs in terms of increased energy expenditure, reduced foraging time and increased ...

  2. Natal and breeding philopatry of female Steller sea lions in southeastern Alaska.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kelly K Hastings

    Full Text Available Information on drivers of dispersal is critical for wildlife conservation but is rare for long-lived marine mammal species with large geographic ranges. We fit multi-state mark-recapture models to resighting data of 369 known-aged Steller sea lion (Eumetopias jubatus females marked as pups on their natal rookeries in southeastern Alaska from 1994-2005 and monitored from 2001-15. We estimated probabilities of females being first observed parous at their natal site (natal philopatry, and of not moving breeding sites among years (breeding philopatry at large (> 400 km, all five rookeries in southeastern Alaska and small (< 4 km, all islands within the largest rookery, Forrester Island Complex, F spatial scales. At the rookery scale, natal philopatry was moderately high (0.776-0.859 for most rookeries and breeding philopatry was nearly 1, with < 3% of females switching breeding rookeries between years. At more populous islands at F, natal philopatry was 0.500-0.684 versus 0.295-0.437 at less populous islands, and breeding philopatry was 0.919-0.926 versus 0.604-0.858. At both spatial scales, the probability of pupping at a non-natal site increased with population size of, and declined with distance from, the destination site. Natal philopatry of < 1 would increase gene flow, improve population resilience, and promote population recovery after decline in a heterogeneous environment. Very high breeding philopatry suggests that familiarity with neighboring females and knowledge of the breeding site (the topography of pupping sites and nearby foraging locations may be a critical component to reproductive strategies of sea lions.

  3. Estimating natal dispersal movement rates of female European ducks with multistate modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blums, P.; Nichols, J.D.; Hines, J.E.; Lindberg, M.S.; Mednis, A.

    2003-01-01

    1. We used up to 34 years of capture-recapture data from about 22,100 new releases of day-old female ducklings and multistate modelling to test predictions about the influence of environmental, habitat and management factors on natal dispersal probability of three species of ducks within the Engure Marsh, Latvia. 2. The mean natal dispersal distances were very similar (c . 0?6-0?7 km) for all three species and were on average 2?7 times greater than breeding dispersal distances recorded within the same study system. 3. We were unable to confirm the kinship hypothesis and found no evidence that young first-nesting females nested closer to their relatives (either mother or sister) than to the natal nest. 4. Young female northern shovelers, like adults, moved from small islands to the large island when water level was high and vice versa when water level was low before the construction of elevated small islands. Movement probabilities between the two strata were much higher for young shovelers than adults, suggesting that young birds had not yet developed strong fidelity to the natal site. Movements of young female tufted ducks, unlike those of shovelers, were not dependent on water level fluctuations and reflected substantial flexibility in choice of first nesting sites. 5. Data for young birds supported our earlier conclusion that common pochard nesting habitats in black-headed gull colonies were saturated during the entire study period. Young females, like the two adult age groups, moved into and out of colonies with similar probability. Fidelity probability of female pochards to each stratum increased with age, being the lowest (0?62) for young (DK) females, intermediate (0?78) for yearlings (SY) and the highest (0?84) for adult (ASY) females. 6. Young female tufted ducks, like adults, showed higher probabilities of moving from islands to emergent marshes when water levels were higher both before and after habitat management. The relationship between the spring

  4. Two decades of genetic profiling yields first evidence of natal philopatry and long-term fidelity to parturition sites in sharks

    KAUST Repository

    Feldheim, Kevin Andrew

    2013-12-09

    Sharks are a globally threatened group of marine fishes that often breed in their natal region of origin. There has even been speculation that female sharks return to their exact birthplace to breed (\\'natal philopatry\\'), which would have important conservation implications. Genetic profiling of lemon sharks (Negaprion brevirostris) from 20 consecutive cohorts (1993-2012) at Bimini, Bahamas, showed that certain females faithfully gave birth at this site for nearly two decades. At least six females born in the 1993-1997 cohorts returned to give birth 14-17 years later, providing the first direct evidence of natal philopatry in the chondrichthyans. Long-term fidelity to specific nursery sites coupled with natal philopatry highlights the merits of emerging spatial and local conservation efforts for these threatened predators. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  5. Spatial distribution of breeding Pied Flycatchers Ficedula hypoleuca in respect to their natal sites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sokolov, L.

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available Study of philopatry and dispersal of pied flycatchers Ficedula hypoleuca was launched on the Courish Spit (SE Baltic in 1981. Since then, ca. 9,000 nestlings were ringed at different sites in the Russian part of the Courish Spit. A total of 557 individuals ringed as pulli were recaptured in subsequent seasons in the study area. Both males and females are more often recaptured in the plots where they were ringed than in other plots. These results were interpreted in the framework of the hypothesis forwarded by Löhrl (1959 and supported by Berndt & Winkel (1979. These authors suggested that cavity nesters (pied flycatchers and collared flycatchers F. albicollis imprint their future local breeding area during the period of postfledging exploration. Birds that survive until the next spring, return to these imprinted areas to breed. A similar study done by Sokolov et al. (1984 on the Courish Spit in an open nesting species, the chaffinch Fringilla coelebs, confirmed this finding. We assumed that juvenile pied flycatchers disperse for varying distances during their postfledging movements and imprint a local area, some 1–5 kilometres in diameter. This area is the goal of their migration next spring. It is suggested that in spring, yearlings are non–randomly distributed in respect to the area they have imprinted as juveniles. Recently, Vysotsky (2000, 2001 re–analysed the same data on philopatry of pied flycatchers on the Courish Spit and forwarded an alternative hypothesis. He suggests that juveniles, both males and females, do not imprint any local area during the postfledging period, but are distributed randomly across the area of several dozens of kilometres in spring. Vysotsky was able to show that distribution of distances of natal dispersal did not differ from the random pattern the study plot which was an 8.5 km long line of nest boxes along the Courish Spit. The aim of this study was to test these two alternative hypotheses. To do so, we

  6. A Case Report of Gender Dysphoria with Morbid Jealousy in a Natal Female

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rao, G. Prasad; Aparna, B.

    2017-01-01

    Gender dysphoria is a new entity introduced in the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorder V to address the distress of the previously labeled gender identity disorder patients. It is less commonly seen in natal females, often starting in their childhood. Adults and adolescent natal females with early-onset gender dysphoria are almost always gynephilic. This case report is presented to discuss the interesting evolution of the symptoms in gender dysphoria case with difficulties in adjusting to the assigned sexual role, relationship problems, morbid jealousy, and severe depressive features with suicidal ideations. PMID:29284816

  7. Flood frequency analysis at ungauged sites in the KwaZulu-Natal ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Use of the index-flood method at ungauged sites requires methods for estimation of the index-flood parameter at these sites. This study attempts to relate the mean annual flood to site characteristics of catchments in KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa. The ordinary, weighted and generalised least square methods for estimating ...

  8. Flood frequency analysis at ungauged sites in the KwaZulu-Natal Province, South Africa

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjeldsen, Thomas Rodding; Smithers, J.C.; Schulze, R.E.

    2001-01-01

    Use of the index-flood method at ungauged sites requires methods for estimation of the index-flood parameter at these sites. This study attempts to relate the mean annual flood to site characteristics of catchments in KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa. The ordinary, weighted and generalised least square...

  9. Female parity, maternal kinship, infant age and sex influence natal attraction and infant handling in a wild colobine (Colobus vellerosus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bădescu, Iulia; Sicotte, Pascale; Ting, Nelson; Wikberg, Eva C

    2015-04-01

    Primate females often inspect, touch and groom others' infants (natal attraction) and they may hold and carry these infants in a manner resembling maternal care (infant handling). While natal attraction and infant handling occur in most wild colobines, little is known about the factors influencing the expression of these behaviors. We examined the effects of female parity, kinship, and dominance rank, as well as infant age and sex in wild Colobus vellerosus at Boabeng-Fiema Monkey Sanctuary, Ghana. We collected data via focal sampling of females in 2008 and 2009 (N = 61) and of infants in 2010 (N = 12). Accounting for the individuals who interacted with our focal subjects, this study includes 74 females and 66 infants in 8 groups. We recorded female agonistic interactions ad libitum to determine dominance ranks. We used partial pedigree information and genotypes at 17 short tandem repeat loci to determine kinship. We knew female parity, infant age and sex from demographic records. Nulliparous females showed more natal attraction and infant handling than parous females, which may suggest that interactions with infants are more adaptive for nulliparous females because they learn mothering skills through these behaviors. Compared to non-kin, maternal kin were more likely to handle infants. Maternal kin may be permitted greater access to infants because mothers are most familiar with them. Handlers may incur inclusive fitness benefits from infant handling. Dominance rank did not affect female interactions with infants. The youngest infants received the most natal attraction and infant handling, and male infants were handled more than female infants. The potential benefits of learning to mother and inclusive fitness, in combination with the relatively low costs of natal attraction and infant handling, may explain the high rates of these behaviors in many colobines. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  10. Two decades of genetic profiling yields first evidence of natal philopatry and long-term fidelity to parturition sites in sharks

    KAUST Repository

    Feldheim, Kevin Andrew; Gruber, Samuel H.; DiBattista, Joseph; Babcock, Elizabeth A.; Kessel, Steven T.; Hendry, Andrew P.; Pikitch, Ellen K.; Ashley, Mary V.; Chapman, Demian D F

    2013-01-01

    in the 1993-1997 cohorts returned to give birth 14-17 years later, providing the first direct evidence of natal philopatry in the chondrichthyans. Long-term fidelity to specific nursery sites coupled with natal philopatry highlights the merits of emerging

  11. Mercury concentrations at a historically mercury-contaminated site in KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Williams, CR

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available A mercury (Hg) processing plant previously operating in KwaZulu-Natal Province (South Africa) discharged Hg waste into a nearby river system causing widespread contamination since the 1980s. Although the processing plant ceased operation in the 1990...

  12. Temporal migration patterns between natal locations of ruby-throated hummingbirds (Archilochus colubris) and their Gulf Coast stopover site.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zenzal, Theodore J; Contina, Andrea J; Kelly, Jeffrey F; Moore, Frank R

    2018-01-01

    Autumn latitudinal migrations generally exhibit one of two different temporal migration patterns: type 1 where southern populations migrate south before northern populations, or type 2 where northern populations overtake southern populations en route . The ruby-throated hummingbird ( Archilochus colubris ) is a species with an expansive breeding range, which allows opportunities to examine variation in the timing of migration. Our objective was to determine a relationship between natal origin of ruby-throated hummingbirds and arrival at a Gulf coast stopover site; and if so, what factors, such as differences in body size across the range as well as the cost of migration, might drive such a pattern. To carry out our objectives, we captured hummingbirds at a coastal stopover site during autumn migration, at which time we collected feathers from juveniles for analysis of hydrogen stable isotopes. Using the hydrogen stable isotope gradient of precipitation across North America and published hydrogen isotope values of feathers from populations of breeding ruby-throated hummingbirds, we assigned migrants to probable natal latitudes. Our results confirm that individuals from across the range (30-50° N) stopover along the Gulf of Mexico and there is a positive relationship between arrival day and latitude, suggesting a type 1 migration pattern. We also found no relationship between fuel load (proxy for migration cost) or fat-free body mass (proxy for body size) and natal latitude. Our results, coupled with previous work on the spatial migration patterns of hummingbirds, show a type 1 chain migration pattern. While the mechanisms we tested do not seem to influence the evolution of migratory patterns, other factors such as resource availability may play a prominent role in the evolution of this migration system.

  13. Reported risky sexual practices amongst female undergraduate students in KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad E. Hoque

    2011-11-01

    Objective: This study was designed to establish risky sexual practices amongst female undergraduate students. Method: This was a descriptive cross-sectional study carried out in September 2009 amongst full-time female undergraduate students. A multi-stage sampling method was used to recruit 391 students for the study. Results: The mean age of the students was 21.4 ± 3.2 years (range 17–45 years. More than half (52.4% of the students were sexually active. The median age at first sexual intercourse was 19.0 years (range 12–24 years. Participants who had multiple sexual partners had a median of 2 (range, 2–4 sexual partners. The majority (89.3% of the students used contraceptives. Almost half (41.5%, sometimes or rarely, used contraceptives during sex. With regard to substance use, 57.5% and 6.9% respectively drank alcohol and used drugs. Sexually active students had 1.5 times (OR = 1.5, p = 0.04, (OR = Odds Ratio, more chances of consuming alcohol than those who were not sexually active. Students with multiple sexual partners were 7 times more likely to consume alcohol compared to those who did not have multiple partners (OR = 6.9, p = 0.004. Students with multiple sexual partners had 3.5 times more chances of taking drugs compared to students with one steady partner (OR = 3.5, p = 0.038. Conclusion: A large number of female university students are engaging in risky sexual practices. University Management should concentrate on developing and implementing policies to promote safer sexual practices, in particular targeting consequences of STIs and HIV and methods to minimise the risk.

  14. Breeding sites of Culicoides midges in KwaZulu-Natal | Jenkins ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Catch numbers were correlated to site properties using the generalised linear modelling procedure on untransformed data with a negative binomial distribution and a log link function. Sites with increasing ground moisture, increasing incident radiation and increasing wetness duration were found to positively increase the ...

  15. Participants as community-based peer educators: Impact on a clinical trial site in KwaZulu-Natal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarita Naidoo

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Participant recruitment, retention and product adherence are necessary to measure the efficacy or effectiveness of an intervention in a clinical trial. As part of a Phase III HIV prevention trial in a rural area in Kwazulu-Natal, South Africa, a peer educator programme was initiated to aid in recruitment and retention of trial participants from the community. Enrolled trial participants who had completed at least 6 months of trial participation and who had honoured all of their scheduled trial visits within that period were approached to be peer educators. Following additional selection criteria, 24 participants were eligible to be trained as peer educators. Training topics included HIV/AIDS, sexually transmitted infections, nutrition, antiretrovirals, clinical trials, and methods of disseminating this information to the community. The role of peer educators was to bring interested women from their community to the trial site for comprehensive education and information about the trial and possibly trial participation. A total of 1879 women were educated by peer educators between July 2004 and December 2006. Of these, 553 women visited the trial site for further education and screening for participation in the trial. Peer educators provided continuous education and support to women enrolled in the trial which also promoted retention, ultimately contributing to the site's 94% retention rate. Recruitment and retention efforts of trial participants are likely to be enhanced by involving trial participants as peer educators. Such trial participants are in a better position to understand cultural dynamics and hence capable of engaging the community with appropriate HIV prevention and trial-related messaging.

  16. First use of geological radar to assess the conservation condition of a South African rock art site: Game Pass Shelter (KwaZulu-Natal)

    OpenAIRE

    Huneau, F.; Hœrlé, S.; Denis, A.; Salomon, A.

    2008-01-01

    WE PRESENT THE RESULTS OF A SURVEY of the main panels of Game Pass Shelter, a major painted rock art site in the KwaZulu-Natal Drakensberg mountain range, using ground penetrating radar. The investigation depth in the Clarens Formation sandstones lies between four and 80 cm, adequate to determine whether the rock wall presents any potentially unstable discontinuities. By identifying such areas and determining the depth of alteration zones at the major discontinuities, the radar helps in the p...

  17. South Africa's nutritional transition: overweight, obesity, underweight and stunting in female primary school learners in rural KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tathiah, N; Moodley, I; Mubaiwa, V; Denny, L; Taylor, M

    2013-06-27

    Malnutrition substantially impacts the health outcomes of children. Globally, the childhood prevalence of overweight and obesity has increased, while underweight and stunting (though decreasing) continues to pose a major public health challenge. In low- to middle-income countries, a mixed pattern of over- and undernutrition (nutritional transition) can exist in communities. To describe the prevalence of malnutrition among female learners in the Nongoma and Ceza districts in Zululand, KwaZulu-Natal (KZN). We performed a secondary analysis of anthropometric data collected during the 2011 HPV Vaccination Demonstration Project. School health teams, comprising trained nurses, measured the height (in cm) and weight (in kg) of 963 female learners in 31 primary schools. Internationally accepted standardised measures were used as cut-offs for defining overweight, obesity, underweight and stunting. We found evidence of both under- and overnutrition. Overall, 9% of female learners were overweight, 3.8% obese, 4% underweight and 9.2% stunted (using WHO/NCHS criteria). The highest levels of stunting were in the 11 - 12-year age groups, of underweight in the 10-year age group, of overweight and obesity in the 9 - 10-year age groups. Moreover, a proportion of underweight (17.4%), overweight (11.1%) and obese (22.9%) learners were also stunted. Our study describes the prevalence of overweight and obesity, wasting and stunting of female learners in KZN and suggests the presence of a nutritional transition in these rural communities; however, further studies are needed. Our findings emphasise the need for health promotion and education programs in schools.

  18. Knowledge, practices, and attitudes of emergency contraception among female university students in KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Ehsanul Hoque

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study is to investigate the knowledge, practices, and attitudes among female university students in South Africa regarding emergency contraceptives (EC. METHODS: A cross-sectional study was conducted among 582 female university students who were selected using multi-stage sampling techniques. Multivariate logistic regression analysis was used to find significant predictors for EC awareness. RESULTS: The average age of the female students was 20.9 years (SD=3.0 and 57.2% were presently sexually active. Overall, 49.8% of the participants reported having heard about EC prior to the study. Regarding sexual activities among the female students, 53.2% reported to have sex, and 21.2% of the sexually experienced students used EC prior to the study. Regarding the effectiveness of EC, 29.5% students said it could be used up to 72 hours after unprotected sexual intercourse, and 8% said it could be used just before sex. About two-thirds (61.8% would recommend the use of EC and 63.2% would use it if they needed. The multivariate analysis indicated that students who were older (>20 years, presently sexually active, and living with their parents were more likely to be aware of EC (p<0.05. CONCLUSION: The students' knowledge and utilization of EC were low. Health education and promotion should be targeted towards these students, and the EC services should be offered on campus.

  19. Den site activity patterns of adult male and female swift foxes, Vulpes velox, in Northwestern Texas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lemons, P.R.; Ballard, W.B.; Sullivan, R.M.; Sovada, M.A.

    2003-01-01

    Activity of Swift Foxes (Vulpes velox) at den sites was studied in northwestern Texas during pup rearing seasons in 2000 and 2001 to determine role of males in parental care. Twenty-four percent of radio-collared females with a potential to breed successfully raised pups to eight weeks of age. We intensively monitored presence and absence of male and female Swift Foxes at two den sites each year. Females were present >2.6 times more at den sites than males during the pup rearing season. Female and male Swift Foxes largely stayed at dens during diurnal hours and were active away from dens during nocturnal and crepuscular hours. Females and males spent 12.4% and 3.0% more time at dens before pups emerged, than after pups emerged, respectively. Following depredation of one male parent, the female spent 29% less time at the den site. Decrease in time spent at the den by the female following loss of her mate suggested that loss of one parent might severely impact recruitment of Swift Foxes. Our observations indicated that intense Coyote (Canis latrans) depredation may severely impact pup-rearing success as well as the parental care within Swift Fox family groups.

  20. REBATIMENTOS EM NATAL, BRASIL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fábio Fonseca Figueiredo

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available El artículo presenta la gestión de los residuos sólidos en Brasil y sus implicaciones en la ciudad de Natal/ RN, analizando sus aspectos ambientales, económicos y sociales. El fracaso del programa oficial de recogi - da selectiva constatado en las bajas tasas de recuperación de materiales; la poca relevancia de la inclusión socioeconómica de los trabajadores que participan en el programa asistencialista oficial; la inexistencia de estrategias oficiales para que se disminuya la cantidad de residuos que se generan cada día y el aumento exagerado del gasto público, especialmente con el tratamiento de los residuos en el relleno sanitario, demues - tran que la gestión de residuos en Natal, que tiene como parámetro los dictámenes de la Política Brasileña para los Residuos Sólidos, tiene como objetivo el control de los residuos en la ciudad y la consolidación del modelo de tratamiento finalista de residuos mediante el envío de éstos al relleno sanitario.

  1. Sexpectations: male college students' views about displayed sexual references on females' social networking web sites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreno, Megan A; Swanson, Michael J; Royer, Heather; Roberts, Linda J

    2011-04-01

    Sexual reference display on a social networking web site (SNS) is associated with self-reported sexual intention; females are more likely to display sexually explicit content on SNSs. The purpose of this study was to investigate male college students' views towards sexual references displayed on publicly available SNSs by females. Focus groups. One large state university. Male college students age 18-23. All tape recorded discussion was fully transcribed, then discussed to determine thematic consensus. A trained male facilitator asked participants about views on sexual references displayed on SNSs by female peers and showed examples of sexual references from female's SNS profiles to facilitate discussion. A total of 28 heterosexual male participants participated in seven focus groups. Nearly all participants reported using Facebook to evaluate potential female partners. Three themes emerged from our data. First, participants reported that displays of sexual references on social networking web sites increased sexual expectations. Second, sexual reference display decreased interest in pursuing a dating relationship. Third, SNS data was acknowledged as imperfect but valuable. Females who display sexual references on publicly available SNS profiles may be influencing potential partners' sexual expectations and dating intentions. Future research should examine females' motivations and beliefs about displaying such references and educate women about the potential impact of these sexual displays. Copyright © 2011 North American Society for Pediatric and Adolescent Gynecology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. BREEDING AND NATAL DISPERSAL IN THE PUERTO RICAN VIREO

    Science.gov (United States)

    BETHANY L. WOODWORTH; JOHN FAABORG; WAYNE J. ARENDT

    1998-01-01

    Information on dispersali s critical for understandingt he population dynamicso f birds. We estimated breeding and natal dispersal in two studies of a population of the Puerto Rican Vireo (Vireo latimeri) that is in danger of local extirpation due to low reproductive success from 7.1-29% of adult males and 12.5 - 25% of adult females changed territories between...

  3. Effects of zinc and female aging on nymphal life history in a grasshopper from polluted sites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Augustyniak, Maria; Babczyńska, Agnieszka; Kozłowski, Michał; Sawczyn, Tomasz; Augustyniak, Michał

    2008-01-01

    Insect reproduction is influenced by various factors, including food quality and quantity, temperature, population density and female age. Contamination, including heavy metals, may disturb reproductive processes. The aim of this work was to assess interactions between effects of aging in female Chorthippus brunneus and environmental pollution on their reproduction measured in number of laid eggs. We also compared basic developmental parameters (number of hatchlings, body mass, embryonic developmental rate) in grasshopper nymphs additionally exposed to zinc during diapause. Aging grasshoppers from heavily polluted areas (Olkusz and Szopienice) lay significantly fewer eggs than insects from the reference site (Pilica). Zinc application caused the decrease in hatching success and duration of embryogenesis in insects from each site. This suggests a cumulative effect of female age, pollutants and additional stressing factors. The intensity of this process differed between populations. In insects from the reference site, it was shown in a moderate degree. In insects from Szopienice, an additional stressor exerted a weaker effect than in insects from Pilica. In grasshoppers from Olkusz, we found the strongest decrease of hatching percentage and increase in duration of embryogenesis after zinc intoxication. This may indicate that the population from Olkusz exists at the limit of its energetic abilities.

  4. The Influence of Kinship on Familiar Natal Migrant Rhesus Macaques (Macaca mulatta)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albers, Monika; Widdig, Anja

    2014-01-01

    In most primate species, females remain in the natal group with kin while males disperse away from kin around the time of puberty. Philopatric females bias their social behavior toward familiar maternal and paternal kin in several species, but little is known about kin bias in the dispersing sex. Male dispersal is likely to be costly because males encounter an increased risk of predation and death, which might be reduced by dispersing together with kin and/or familiar males (individuals that were born and grew up in same natal group) or into a group containing kin and/or familiar males. Here we studied the influence of kinship on familiar natal migrant rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta) on Cayo Santiago, Puerto Rico, by combining demographic, behavioral, and genetic data. Our data suggest that kinship influences spatial proximity between recent natal immigrants and males familiar to them. Immigrants were significantly nearer to more closely related familiar males than to more distantly related individuals. Within a familiar subgroup, natal migrants were significantly closer to maternal kin, followed by paternal kin, then non-kin, and finally to males related via both the maternal and paternal line. Spatial proximity between natal immigrants and familiar males did not decrease over time in the new group, suggesting that there is no decline in associations between these individuals within the first months of immigration. Overall, our results might indicate that kinship is important for the dispersing sex, at least during natal dispersal when kin are still available. PMID:24850977

  5. War rape, natality and genocide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schott, Robin May

    2011-01-01

    Feminist philosophy can make an important contribution to the field of genocide studies, and issues relating to gender and war are gaining new attention. In this article I trace legal and philosophical analyses of sexual violence against women in war. I analyze the strengths and limitations of the concept of social death—introduced into this field by Claudia Card—for understanding the genocidal features of war rape, and draw on the work of Hannah Arendt to understand the central harm of genocide as an assault on natality. The threat to natality posed by the harms of rape, forced pregnancy and forced maternity lie in the potential expulsion from the public world of certain groups—including women who are victims, members of the 'enemy' group, and children born of forced birth.

  6. Pheromonal Cues Deposited by Mated Females Convey Social Information about Egg-Laying Sites in Drosophila Melanogaster.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duménil, Claire; Woud, David; Pinto, Francesco; Alkema, Jeroen T; Jansen, Ilse; Van Der Geest, Anne M; Roessingh, Sanne; Billeter, Jean-Christophe

    2016-03-01

    Individuals can make choices based on information learned from others, a phenomenon called social learning. How observers differentiate between which individual they should or should not learn from is, however, poorly understood. Here, we showed that Drosophila melanogaster females can influence the choice of egg-laying site of other females through pheromonal marking. Mated females mark territories of high quality food by ejecting surplus male sperm containing the aggregation pheromone cis-11-vaccenyl acetate (cVA) and, in addition, deposit several sex- and species-specific cuticular hydrocarbon (CHC) pheromones. These pheromonal cues affect the choices of other females, which respond by preferentially laying eggs on the marked food. This system benefits both senders and responders, as communal egg laying increases offspring survival. Virgin females, however, do not elicit a change in the egg-laying decision of mated females, even when food has been supplemented with ejected sperm from mated females, thus indicating the necessity for additional cues. Genetic ablation of either a female's CHC pheromones or those of their mate results in loss of ability of mated females to attract other females. We conclude that mated females use a pheromonal marking system, comprising cVA acquired from male ejaculate with sex- and species-specific CHCs produced by both mates, to indicate egg-laying sites. This system ensures information reliability because mated, but not virgin, females have both the ability to generate the pheromone blend that attracts other flies to those sites and a direct interest in egg-laying site quality.

  7. Survey of September 1987 Natal floods

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Badenhorst, P

    1989-01-01

    Full Text Available During the September 1987 floods in Natal various organisations collaborated by observing the effects of the floods. The efforts of the CSIR in Stellenbosch and Durban, and the Geology Departments of the Universities of Natal and Port Elizabeth were...

  8. The ecology of sandy beaches in Natal

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The ecology of sandy beaches in Natal. A.H. Dye, A. Mclachlan and T. Wooldridge. Department of Zoology, University of Port Elizabeth, Port Elizabeth. Data from an ecological survey of four sandy beaches on the. Natal coast of South Africa are presented. Physical para· meters such as beach profile, particle size, moisture, ...

  9. The effect of colostrum on pigs pre-natally or post-natally exposed to Schistosoma japonicum

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Techau, M.E.; Johansen, M.V.; Lind, Peter

    2004-01-01

    Pre-natal infection of Schistosoma japonicum in pigs may prove to be a useful model in shedding light on human pre-natal schistosomiasis. This study describes the effects of immune colostrum on worm burdens, tissue egg counts, liver pathology and crude worm or egg antigen-specific IgG and Ig......A responses, in groups of pigs pre-natally, pre-natally + post-natally or post-natally exposed to S. japonicum. Results suggest that pre-natal exposure and immune colostrum did not affect the establishment of a post-natal challenge infection. However, immune colostrum seemed to increase the levels of septal...

  10. Acquired Smell? Mature Females of the Common Green Bottle Fly Shift Semiochemical Preferences from Feces Feeding Sites to Carrion Oviposition Sites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brodie, Bekka S; Babcock, Tamara; Gries, Regine; Benn, Arlan; Gries, Gerhard

    2016-01-01

    We investigated foraging decisions by adult females of the common green bottle fly, Lucilia sericata, in accordance with their physiological state. When we gave female flies a choice between visually occluded, fresh canine feces (feeding site) and a CO2-euthanized rat (carrion oviposition site), 3-d-old "protein-starved" females responded equally well to feces and carrion, whereas protein-fed gravid females with mature oocytes responded only to carrion, indicating resource preferences based on a fly's physiological state. Dimethyl trisulfide (DMTS) is known to attract gravid L. sericata females to carrion. Therefore, we analyzed headspace from canine feces by gas chromatographic-electroantennographic detection (GC-EAD) and GC/mass spectrometry. In bioassays, of the 17 fecal odorants that elicited GC-EAD responses from fly antennae, a blend of indole and one or more of the alcohols phenol, m-/p-cresol and 1-octen-3-ol proved as attractive to flies as canine feces. Unlike young females, gravid females need to locate carrion for oviposition and distinguish between fresh and aging carrion, the latter possibly detrimental to offspring. Gravid female L. sericata accomplish this task, in part, by responding to trace amounts of DMTS emanating from fresh carrion and by discriminating against carrion as soon it begins to produce appreciable amounts of indole, which is also the second-most abundant semiochemical in fresh canine feces, and apparently serves as an indicator of food rather than oviposition resources. Our results emphasize the importance of studying foraging choices by flies in accordance with their physiological stage.

  11. Geomagnetic imprinting: A unifying hypothesis of long-distance natal homing in salmon and sea turtles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lohmann, Kenneth J; Putman, Nathan F; Lohmann, Catherine M F

    2008-12-09

    Several marine animals, including salmon and sea turtles, disperse across vast expanses of ocean before returning as adults to their natal areas to reproduce. How animals accomplish such feats of natal homing has remained an enduring mystery. Salmon are known to use chemical cues to identify their home rivers at the end of spawning migrations. Such cues, however, do not extend far enough into the ocean to guide migratory movements that begin in open-sea locations hundreds or thousands of kilometers away. Similarly, how sea turtles reach their nesting areas from distant sites is unknown. However, both salmon and sea turtles detect the magnetic field of the Earth and use it as a directional cue. In addition, sea turtles derive positional information from two magnetic elements (inclination angle and intensity) that vary predictably across the globe and endow different geographic areas with unique magnetic signatures. Here we propose that salmon and sea turtles imprint on the magnetic field of their natal areas and later use this information to direct natal homing. This novel hypothesis provides the first plausible explanation for how marine animals can navigate to natal areas from distant oceanic locations. The hypothesis appears to be compatible with present and recent rates of field change (secular variation); one implication, however, is that unusually rapid changes in the Earth's field, as occasionally occur during geomagnetic polarity reversals, may affect ecological processes by disrupting natal homing, resulting in widespread colonization events and changes in population structure.

  12. Geomagnetic imprinting: A unifying hypothesis of long-distance natal homing in salmon and sea turtles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lohmann, Kenneth J.; Putman, Nathan F.; Lohmann, Catherine M. F.

    2008-01-01

    Several marine animals, including salmon and sea turtles, disperse across vast expanses of ocean before returning as adults to their natal areas to reproduce. How animals accomplish such feats of natal homing has remained an enduring mystery. Salmon are known to use chemical cues to identify their home rivers at the end of spawning migrations. Such cues, however, do not extend far enough into the ocean to guide migratory movements that begin in open-sea locations hundreds or thousands of kilometers away. Similarly, how sea turtles reach their nesting areas from distant sites is unknown. However, both salmon and sea turtles detect the magnetic field of the Earth and use it as a directional cue. In addition, sea turtles derive positional information from two magnetic elements (inclination angle and intensity) that vary predictably across the globe and endow different geographic areas with unique magnetic signatures. Here we propose that salmon and sea turtles imprint on the magnetic field of their natal areas and later use this information to direct natal homing. This novel hypothesis provides the first plausible explanation for how marine animals can navigate to natal areas from distant oceanic locations. The hypothesis appears to be compatible with present and recent rates of field change (secular variation); one implication, however, is that unusually rapid changes in the Earth's field, as occasionally occur during geomagnetic polarity reversals, may affect ecological processes by disrupting natal homing, resulting in widespread colonization events and changes in population structure. PMID:19060188

  13. Pharmacokinetics of antiretroviral drugs in anatomical sanctuary sites: the male and female genital tract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Else, Laura J; Taylor, Stephen; Back, David J; Khoo, Saye H

    2011-01-01

    HIV resides within anatomical 'sanctuary sites', where local drug exposure and viral dynamics may differ significantly from the systemic compartment. Suboptimal antiretroviral concentrations in the genital tract may result in compartmentalized viral replication, selection of resistant mutations and possible re-entry of wild-type/resistant virus into the systemic circulation. Therefore, achieving adequate antiretroviral exposure in the genital tract has implications for the prevention of sexual and vertical transmission of HIV. Penetration of antiretrovirals in the genital tract is expressed by accumulation ratios derived from the measurement of drug concentrations in time-matched seminal plasma/cervicovaginal fluid and plasma samples. Penetration varies by gender and may be drug (as opposed to class) specific with high interindividual variability. Concentrations in seminal plasma are highest for nucleoside analogues and lowest for protease inhibitors and efavirenz. Seminal accumulation of newer agents, raltegravir and maraviroc, is moderate (rank order of accumulation is nucleoside/nucleotide reverse transcriptase inhibitors [lamivudine/zidovudine/tenofovir/didanosine > stavudine/abacavir] > raltegravir > indinavir/maraviroc/nevirapine > efavirenz/protease inhibitors [amprenavir/atazanavir/darunavir > lopinavir/ritonavir > saquinavir] > enfuvirtide). In the female genital tract, the nucleoside analogues exhibit high accumulation ratios, whereas protease inhibitors have limited penetration; however, substantial variability exists between individuals and study centres. Second generation non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor etravirine, and maraviroc and raltegravir, demonstrate effective accumulation in cervicovaginal secretions (rank order of accumulation is nucleoside/nucleotide reverse transcriptase inhibitor [zidovudine/lamivudine/didanosine > emtricitabine/tenofovir] > indinavir > maraviroc/raltegravir/darunavir/etravirine > nevirapine

  14. Natal dispersal patterns are not associated with inbreeding avoidance in the Seychelles Warbler

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Eikenaar, C.; Komdeur, J.; Richardson, D. S.

    In this study, we test whether patterns of territory inheritance, social mate choice and female-biased natal dispersal act as inbreeding avoidance mechanisms in the cooperatively breeding Seychelles warbler. Our results show that Seychelles warblers do not reduce the likelihood of inbreeding by

  15. Therapeutic benefits of carbon dioxide (CO2) laser on single-site HPV lesions in the lower female genital tract

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urru, Giovanni; Moretti, Gianfranco

    1998-01-01

    Numerous studies have shown contradictory variable percentages of recurrent HPV lesions, after various therapies. The present study therefore evaluates the effectiveness of CO2 laser vaporization in the treatment of single-site HPV lesions of the lower female genital tract in order to confirm the conviction that physical therapy alone, in agreement with some findings reported in the literature, is capable of guaranteeing a high cure rate in selected patients. From January 1995 to June 1996, seventy- five female patients were treated with CO2 laser vaporization for single-site genital HPV lesions, some of which were associated with low-grade intra-epithelial neoplasia. The success rate after 12 months proved to be 97%. The pre-existing clinical symptoms disappeared in all the patients treated. No complication in the vaporization procedure was encountered.

  16. Vegetation change in northern KwaZulu-Natal since the Anglo-Zulu ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The quality of the landscape is declining in many grassland and savanna areas of Africa as a consequence of woody plant encroachment. We investigated the changes in vegetation at selected sites on the battlefields of the Anglo-Zulu War of 1879 in KwaZulu-Natal. We used fixed-point repeat photographs to compare the ...

  17. Application of large-scale parentage analysis for investigating natal dispersal in highly vagile vertebrates: a case study of American black bears (Ursus americanus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Jennifer A; Draheim, Hope M; Etter, Dwayne; Winterstein, Scott; Scribner, Kim T

    2014-01-01

    Understanding the factors that affect dispersal is a fundamental question in ecology and conservation biology, particularly as populations are faced with increasing anthropogenic impacts. Here we collected georeferenced genetic samples (n = 2,540) from three generations of black bears (Ursus americanus) harvested in a large (47,739 km2), geographically isolated population and used parentage analysis to identify mother-offspring dyads (n = 337). We quantified the effects of sex, age, habitat type and suitability, and local harvest density at the natal and settlement sites on the probability of natal dispersal, and on dispersal distances. Dispersal was male-biased (76% of males dispersed) but a small proportion (21%) of females also dispersed, and female dispersal distances (mean ± SE  =  48.9±7.7 km) were comparable to male dispersal distances (59.0±3.2 km). Dispersal probabilities and dispersal distances were greatest for bears in areas with high habitat suitability and low harvest density. The inverse relationship between dispersal and harvest density in black bears suggests that 1) intensive harvest promotes restricted dispersal, or 2) high black bear population density decreases the propensity to disperse. Multigenerational genetic data collected over large landscape scales can be a powerful means of characterizing dispersal patterns and causal associations with demographic and landscape features in wild populations of elusive and wide-ranging species.

  18. Application of large-scale parentage analysis for investigating natal dispersal in highly vagile vertebrates: a case study of American black bears (Ursus americanus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennifer A Moore

    Full Text Available Understanding the factors that affect dispersal is a fundamental question in ecology and conservation biology, particularly as populations are faced with increasing anthropogenic impacts. Here we collected georeferenced genetic samples (n = 2,540 from three generations of black bears (Ursus americanus harvested in a large (47,739 km2, geographically isolated population and used parentage analysis to identify mother-offspring dyads (n = 337. We quantified the effects of sex, age, habitat type and suitability, and local harvest density at the natal and settlement sites on the probability of natal dispersal, and on dispersal distances. Dispersal was male-biased (76% of males dispersed but a small proportion (21% of females also dispersed, and female dispersal distances (mean ± SE  =  48.9±7.7 km were comparable to male dispersal distances (59.0±3.2 km. Dispersal probabilities and dispersal distances were greatest for bears in areas with high habitat suitability and low harvest density. The inverse relationship between dispersal and harvest density in black bears suggests that 1 intensive harvest promotes restricted dispersal, or 2 high black bear population density decreases the propensity to disperse. Multigenerational genetic data collected over large landscape scales can be a powerful means of characterizing dispersal patterns and causal associations with demographic and landscape features in wild populations of elusive and wide-ranging species.

  19. A longitudinal study of Steller sea lion natality rates in the Gulf of Alaska with comparisons to census data.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John M Maniscalco

    Full Text Available Steller sea lion (Eumetopias jubatus numbers in the Western Distinct Population Segment are beginning to recover following the dramatic decline that began in the 1970s and ended around the turn of the century. Low female reproductive rates (natality may have contributed to the decline and remain an issue of concern for this population. During the 2000s we found high natality among Steller sea lions in the Gulf of Alaska indicating a healthy population. This study extends these previous estimates over an additional three years and tests for interannual variations and long-term trends. We further examine the proportions of pups to adult females observed on the rookery and nearby haulouts during the birthing season to assess whether census data can be used to estimate natality. Open robust design multistate models were built and tested using Program MARK to estimate survival, resighting, and state transition probabilities in addition to other parameters dependent on whether or not a female gave birth in the previous year. Natality was estimated at 70% with some evidence of interannual variation but a long-term increasing or decreasing trend was not supported by the data. Bootstrap and regression comparisons of census data with natality estimates revealed no correlation between the two methods suggesting that census data are not an appropriate proxy for natality in this species. Longitudinal studies of individual animals are an appropriate method for estimating vital rates in species with variable detection over time such as the Steller sea lion. This work indicates that natality remains high in this region and is consistent with a population in recovery.

  20. Natal Teeth, Case Report and Review

    OpenAIRE

    Fierro Monti, Claudia; Bravo Rivera, Lorena; Torres Chianale, Francisca; Álvarez Helle, Camila; Pérez Flores, Ma Antonieta

    2010-01-01

    Los dientes natales y neonatales deben valorarse con mucho cuidado; estimando su movilidad, integridad y la presencia de una úlcera (Riga Fede) en la superficie ventral de la lengua causada por su roce con el diente. Los dientes natales podrían parecerse a la dentición temporal normal en tamaño y forma, sin embargo, también pueden presentarse más pequeños, cónicos, con esmalte y dentina hipoplásicos, con poca formación o ausencia de sus raíces. La mayoría de estos dientes no son supernumerari...

  1. On-site comprehensive curriculum to teach reproductive health to female adolescents in Kenya.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaughran, Margaret; Asgary, Ramin

    2014-04-01

    Rates of sexually transmitted infections (STIs) and unplanned pregnancy are high in Kenya, and limited reproductive health education exists in schools. We designed and implemented a 6-week reproductive health curriculum in Laikipia District, Kenya, in 2011, which included didactic sessions, educational games, and open discussions. We applied a mixed quantitative and qualitative methods to evaluate this curriculum including a comprehensive 35-item survey to assess pre- and post-training knowledge, attitudes, and practices of female teenagers regarding STIs/HIV and family planning using paired t-test as well as complementary focus groups (n=42) and individual interviews (n=20). Average age for 42 female teenagers was 16.5 (± 1.31) years. Pre-test questionnaires revealed lack of knowledge about different types of STIs, specifically chlamydia, but adequate knowledge of basic contraception including abstinence and condom use. By the conclusion of the study, we observed improvement in following educational domains: general knowledge of HIV/AIDS (85% ± 7.5% to 94% ± 5.6%) (pmasturbation and its perceived consequences, and issues surrounding female circumcision. Important misconceptions and gaps in reproductive practices were identified and addressed using a mixed methods approach. Despite prior basic knowledge and positive attitudes on STI prevention and family planning, complementary teaching approaches were instrumental in improving overall knowledge of STIs other than HIV as well as family planning. The curriculum was feasible, well received, and achieved its educational goals.

  2. Tissue Mercury Concentrations and Survival of Tree Swallow Embryos, Nestlings and Young Adult Females on a Contaminated Site.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Capwell E; Cristol, Daniel A

    2015-10-01

    Tree swallows nesting on mercury-contaminated sites along the South River in Virginia, USA were monitored for reproductive success. The bodies of nestlings found deceased in their nest boxes were collected, along with blood and feather samples from the adult parents and surviving siblings. We also measured hatching and fledging success of the clutches and the annual recapture rate of adults. We found that the body feathers of deceased nestlings contained significantly higher concentrations of mercury (12.89 ± 8.42 μg/g, n = 15) than those of nestlings that survived to fledge (7.41 ± 4.79 μg/g, n = 15). However, mothers of more successful clutches (>75 % hatching) did not differ in mercury concentrations from females with less successful clutches (<50 % hatching). Additionally, adult females breeding for the first time that returned to breed the following year did not differ in blood mercury from females of the same age that bred once but never returned. Our results suggest that mercury had its greatest effect on these songbirds during the nestling stage, whereas for embryos or first-time breeding females, other factors likely played larger roles in mortality.

  3. Female Faculty Members in University Chemistry Departments: Observations and Conclusions Based on Site Visits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chapman, Sally; Dixon, Felicia F.; Foster, Natalie; Kuck, Valerie J.; McCarthy, Deborah A.; Tooney, Nancy M.; Buckner, Janine P.; Nolan, Susan A.; Marzabadi, Cecilia H.

    2011-01-01

    Oral interviews in focus groups and written surveys were conducted with 877 men and women, including administrators, faculty members, postdoctoral associates, and graduate students, during one-day site visits to chemistry and chemical engineering departments at 28 Ph.D.-granting institutions. This report is a preliminary review of the perceptions…

  4. Hilton College Farm School, Natal, South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beveridge, Sue

    1989-01-01

    The Hilton College Farm School is a primary school providing for the educational needs of children in a rural area of Natal, South Africa. Described are the school's historical development, funding sources, staffing, and development of an affiliated pre-primary school. (JDD)

  5. Natal Host Plants Can Alter Herbivore Competition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Huipeng; Preisser, Evan L; Su, Qi; Jiao, Xiaoguo; Xie, Wen; Wang, Shaoli; Wu, Qingjun; Zhang, Youjun

    2016-01-01

    Interspecific competition between herbivores is widely recognized as an important determinant of community structure. Although researchers have identified a number of factors capable of altering competitive interactions, few studies have addressed the influence of neighboring plant species. If adaptation to/ epigenetic effects of an herbivore's natal host plant alter its performance on other host plants, then interspecific herbivore interactions may play out differently in heterogeneous and homogenous plant communities. We tested wether the natal host plant of a whitefly population affected interactions between the Middle-east Asia Minor 1 (MEAM1) and Mediterranean (MED) cryptic species of the whitefly Bemisia tabaci by rearing the offspring of a cabbage-derived MEAM1 population and a poinsettia-derived MED population together on three different host plants: cotton, poinsettia, and cabbage. We found that MED dominated on poinsettia and that MEAM1 dominated on cabbage, results consistent with previous research. MED also dominated when reared with MEAM1 on cotton, however, a result at odds with multiple otherwise-similar studies that reared both species on the same natal plant. Our work provides evidence that natal plants affect competitive interactions on another plant species, and highlights the potential importance of neighboring plant species on herbivore community composition in agricultral systems.

  6. Progesterone--specific binding sites in the kidney of the female baboon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weaker, F.J.; Herbert, D.C.; Sheridan, P.J.

    1984-01-01

    The uptake and retention of a radiolabeled synthetic progestin, ORG 2058, was studied in the urinary tract of the female baboon. Four estrogen-primed baboons were injected intravenously with 2.5 micrograms./kg. body weight of 3H-ORG 2058. One animal, which served as a control, received an additional injection of 2.5 mg./kg. body weight of unlabeled progesterone. One hour after the injections, the animals were killed and the kidneys, ureters and urinary bladder were removed and processed for autoradiography. Localization of progestin was observed in the nuclei of the convoluted and straight segments of the distal tubule, the ascending thick limb of the loop of Henle and both cortical and medullary collecting tubules. Connective tissue cells were also labeled in the medulla and cortex of the kidney. An absence of silver grains was noted in the renal corpuscle, all segments of the proximal tubule and the thin loop of Henle. Concentration of the tritiated steroid was not observed in either the ureter or bladder or in any portions of the urinary tract of the control animal. This study suggests that progesterone has a direct effect via a progesterone specific receptor on the various target cells that sequestered the 3H-ORG 2058

  7. Riga-Fede Disease Associated with Natal Teeth: Two Different Approaches in the Same Case

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luiz Evaristo Ricci Volpato

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Natal teeth are those present in the oral cavity at the child’s birth. These teeth can cause ulcers on the ventral surface of the tongue, lip, and the mother’s breast characterizing the Riga-Fede Disease. The treatment depends on the tooth’s mobility and the risk of aspiration or swallowing; whether it is supernumerary or regular primary teeth; whether it is causing interference in breastfeeding; breast and oral soft tissue injuries; and the general state of child’s health. A 1-month-old female infant was diagnosed with two natal teeth and an ulcerated lesion on the ventral surface of the tongue, leading to the clinical diagnosis of Riga-Fede Disease. The treatment performed consisted of the maintenance of the natal tooth that showed no increased mobility, adding a small increment of glass ionomer cement to its incisal edge, and orientation for hygiene with saline solution. Due to the increased mobility of the other natal tooth, surgical removal was performed. There was regular monitoring of the patient and complete wound healing was observed after 15 days. The proposed treatment was successful and the patient is still in follow-up without recurrence of the lesion after one year.

  8. Chart review of acute myocardial infarction at a district hospital in KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roland Chetty

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Incidence and prevalence of non-communicable diseases, including ischaemic heart disease (IHD and associated acute myocardial infarction (AMI, are increasing in South Africa. Local studies are needed as contextual factors, such as healthcare systems, gender and ethnicity, may affect presentation and management. In AMI, reviews on time between onset of chest pain and initiation of urgent treatment are useful, as delays in initiation of thrombolytic treatment significantly increase morbidity and mortality. Aim: The aim of the study was to determine the profile and management of patients admitted with ischaemic chest pain.Setting: The study was carried out in a busy urban-based district hospital in KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa. The population served is poor, and patients are mainly Indian with associated high risk of IHD. Methods: A chart review of all patients seen at the hospital with acute ischaemic chest pain between 01 March and 31 August 2014 was undertaken. Results: More male than female patients were admitted, with a wide variation in age. Most eligible patients received required thrombolytic intervention within an acceptable time period after arrival at hospital. Conclusion: Chest pain and AMI were a relatively common presentation at the study site, and urgent diagnosis and initiation of fibrinolytic therapy are essential. The encouraging door-toneedle time may have been influenced by the availability of specialist family physicians, trained as ‘expert generalists’ to provide appropriate care in a variety of settings and consultant support to junior staff. The role of the family physician and primary healthcare doctor in primary prevention are re-emphasised through the study findings. Keywords: Acute myocardial infarction; KwaZulu-Natal; district hospital; Asian population; hospital chart review; door-to-needle-time

  9. Female site-specific transposase-induced recombination: a high-efficiency method for fine mapping mutations on the X chromosome in Drosophila.

    OpenAIRE

    Marcus, Jeffrey M

    2003-01-01

    P-element transposons in the Drosophila germline mobilize only in the presence of the appropriate transposase enzyme. Sometimes, instead of mobilizing completely, P elements will undergo site-specific recombination with the homologous chromosome. Site-specific recombination is the basis for male recombination mapping, since the male germline does not normally undergo recombination. Site-specific recombination also takes place in females, but this has been difficult to study because of the obs...

  10. New perspectives on Natal Pulses from satellite observations

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Rouault, MJ

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available that on their journey from the Natal Bight to Port Elizabeth, Natal Pulses systematically interact with the coastal topography to generate upstream perturbations. These upstream offshore meanders occur when the trailing edge of the original Natal Figure 2. SST daily... SST which have a relatively low tem- poral resolution (daily) can also prove difficult due to the extensive and persistent cloud coverage above the Agulhas Current [Rouault et al., 2000]. [5] High�frequency data acquisitions from the geostation...

  11. Syphilis among middle-aged female sex workers in China: a three-site cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Hongjie; Dumenci, Levent; Morisky, Donald E; Xu, Yongfang; Li, Xiaojing; Jiang, Baofa

    2016-05-10

    This study addresses the lack of empirical studies about the epidemic of syphilis among middle-aged female sex workers (FSWs). The objectives of this study were to investigate prevalence of syphilis, and its potential risk factors among middle-aged FSWs in China. A cross-sectional study with respondent-driven sampling (RDS). A multisite study conducted at three Chinese cites (Nanning, Hefei, and Qingdao) with different levels of sexually transmitted diseases in 2014. 1245 middle-aged female sex workers who were over 35 years old (about 400 per study site). Unprotected commercial sex, and syphilis and HIV infection were biologically tested and measured. The RDS-adjusted prevalence of active syphilis was 17.3% in Hefei, 9.9% in Qingdao, and 5.4% in Nanning. The RDS-adjusted prevalence of prevalent syphilis was between 6.8% and 33.6% in the three cities. The proportion of unprotected sex in the past 48 h verified by the prostate-specific antigen test (PSA) was between 27.8% and 42.4%. Multiple log-binomial regression analyses indicate that middle-aged FSWs who had 5 or more clients in the past week prior to interviews and engaged in unprotected sex were more likely to be active syphilitic cases. Middle-aged FSWs who had rural residency were less likely to be active syphilitic cases. In contrast with previous studies that reported low prevalence of syphilis and high prevalence of protected sex among FSWs in China, both the prevalence of syphilis and unprotected sex were high among middle-aged FSWs. Evidence-based intervention programmes should be developed and evaluated among this vulnerable population in China and other countries with similar settings. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/

  12. Ante-natal ionising radiation and cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1988-01-01

    This editorial comments on the latest reports of the Oxford Survey of Childhood Cancer (now based on Birmingham). With 14759 pairs, the latest survey is over 10-fold larger than the 1958 report and the calculation of fatal childhood cancer rate at one case in 990 ante-natal radiographic examinations is rather larger than the early estimates, in spite of the fetal radiation dose having been halved and the cure rate for childhood leukemia being much improved. Comments are made on the comparisons with bomb survivors, and on the much increased fatal cancer incidence after first trimester radiography. (UK)

  13. An ESS treatment of the pattern of female arrival at the mating site in the yellow dung fly scathophaga stercoraria (L.)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reuter; Ward; Blanckenhorn

    1998-12-07

    In most previous work on the yellow dung fly Scathophaga stercoraria (L.), as on other species, adaptive explanations have been sought for male behaviour whereas female behaviour has not been examined in similar detail. Here, the arrival of females at the mating site, fresh cattle droppings, is investigated. While almost all males are present shortly after pat deposition females arrive at a low, decreasing rate over an interval of about 5 hours. We propose that the distribution of female arrival times represents a mixed Evolutionarily Stable Strategy (ESS), formed by different trade-offs between costs and benefits of early and late arrival. Early arrival could be favoured by advantages due to better conditions for oviposition, faster egg development of reduced larval competition. Late arrival could be favoured by negative effects on females of male-male competition being weaker later after deposition. Computer simulations with distributions of arrival times deviating from the natural one were performed to "measure" the costs for females arriving at different times. These costs were compared with estimated benefits corresponding to the females' arrival times. This procedure revealed that females coming to the pat later in a population of females arriving shortly after deposition would be favoured. In a population arriving according to a uniform distribution, early females would have fitness advantages. Thus, evolution should lead to an intermediate distribution of arrival times, as in nature, i.e. female arrival behaviour is probably adaptive. The simulations also revealed that the intensity of sexual selection though male-male competition is highest with the natural pattern of female arrival. Therefore, natural selection generating this pattern amplifies the intensity of male-male interaction as a by-product. Copyright 1998 Academic Press

  14. Hyperolius argus (Anura) in Natal: taxonomy, biogeography and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A high degree of variation in the colour pattern of. Hyperolius argus Peters, including sexual dichromatism and a marked cline, has led to much taxonomic confusion. This. East African species extends down the Natal coastal lowlands as far south as Durban. It has been assigned to. H. punctlculatus (Pfeffer) in Natal.

  15. cooperation and conflict – the british army, the natal government

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    hennie

    invasion of Natal, stand on the punishment of high treason? Martial law had .... The offensive of the British Army in Natal and the immediate results thereof. On 11 May 1900, .... also to exercise its authority and independence. In addition to the ...

  16. Development of a tool for dispelling myths associated with natal ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Studies have revealed that Nigerians irrespective of social class have negative attitudes and practices towards children born with natal teeth and those who erupt teeth within the first 30 days of life. This has been associated with the strong cultural myths and beliefs that exist among the populace. Children with natal teeth ...

  17. Explaining LIGO's observations via isolated binary evolution with natal kicks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wysocki, Daniel; Gerosa, Davide; O'Shaughnessy, Richard; Belczynski, Krzysztof; Gladysz, Wojciech; Berti, Emanuele; Kesden, Michael; Holz, Daniel E.

    2018-02-01

    We compare binary evolution models with different assumptions about black-hole natal kicks to the first gravitational-wave observations performed by the LIGO detectors. Our comparisons attempt to reconcile merger rate, masses, spins, and spin-orbit misalignments of all current observations with state-of-the-art formation scenarios of binary black holes formed in isolation. We estimate that black holes (BHs) should receive natal kicks at birth of the order of σ ≃200 (50 ) km /s if tidal processes do (not) realign stellar spins. Our estimate is driven by two simple factors. The natal kick dispersion σ is bounded from above because large kicks disrupt too many binaries (reducing the merger rate below the observed value). Conversely, the natal kick distribution is bounded from below because modest kicks are needed to produce a range of spin-orbit misalignments. A distribution of misalignments increases our models' compatibility with LIGO's observations, if all BHs are likely to have natal spins. Unlike related work which adopts a concrete BH natal spin prescription, we explore a range of possible BH natal spin distributions. Within the context of our models, for all of the choices of σ used here and within the context of one simple fiducial parameterized spin distribution, observations favor low BH natal spin.

  18. Natal teeth in an infant with congenital hypothyroidism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C Venkatesh

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Teeth erupting at birth are referred to as natal teeth. It is a common and benign finding in the neonatal period. However, they may be associated with genetic syndromes like Ellis Van Creveld syndrome and Hallermann-Streiff syndrome. We report here a case of natal teeth in an infant with congenital hypothyroidism.

  19. Initiation of antiretroviral therapy at rural primary health care clinics in KwaZulu Natal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hilda Ganesen-Moothusamy

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available South Africa bears the greatest burden of HIV infection globally with the most infected people living in KwaZulu-Natal (KZN. Decentralised medical care for HIV positive patients and antiretroviral therapy (ART delivery to primary health care facilities were proposed nationally to achieve adequate ART coverage for patients in need of treatment. This study described the HIV positive patients who accessed medical care and were initiated on ART at two existing government Primary Health Care (PHC clinics with no added donor support, in Ilembe, KZN. This was an observational descriptive study of ART initiation from 01 April 2008 to 30 April 2009. Data were collected from clinical records kept on site. HIV Testing and the pre-ART programmes which consisted of medical care prior to ART initiation are briefly described. Socio-economic, demographic and clinical characteristics of patients who were initiated on ART were sampled and described. A minority (2.95% of the study population tested for HIV of which 36.0%tested positive. Majority (60.0% of patients who joined the pre-ART programme care did not return. The ART sample consisted of 375 patients of whom 65.0%were women, 85.9%were unmarried, 61.6%were unemployed and 50.4%had a secondary level of education. Tuberculosis (TB prevalence and incidence at ART initiation were 22.1%and 14.7%respectively. The prevalence of Syphilis and Hepatitis B co-infections were 13.1%and 8.6 %respectively. Two thirds of female patients (66.4% received a Pap smear result of which the majority (62.3% were abnormal. Uptake for HIV testing followed by relevant CD4 testing was poor. High TB, Hepatitis B and Syphilis co-infection was noted amongst patients initiated on ART. Cervical cancer screening must be intensified. Although ART initiation with no added external resources was successful, record keeping was suboptimal.

  20. Recovery distances of nestling Bald Eagles banded in Florida and implications for natal dispersal and philopatry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wood, Petra Bohall

    2009-01-01

    I used band recovery data to examine distances between banding and recovery locations for 154 nestling Florida Bald Eagles and discuss the implications for understanding natal dispersal and philopatry in this species. Band recoveries occurred in 23 U.S. states and five Canadian provinces between 1931–2005. Recovery distance from the natal nest averaged longer for the youngest age classes (ANOVA: F  =  3.59; df  =  5, 153; P  =  0.005), for individuals banded in earlier decades (F  =  1.94; df  =  5, 153; P  =  0.093), and for the months of May through October (F  =  3.10; df  =  12, 153;P < 0.001). Of 35 individuals classed as mature (≥3.9 yr old when recovered; range 3.9–36.5 yr), 31 were located within Florida, which suggested a strong degree of philopatry to the natal state. Among 21 mature eagles of known sex with known banding and recovery locations in Florida, females, particularly younger birds, had longer recovery distances (N  =  9, mean  =  93 km, SE  =  22.4) than did males (N  =  12, mean  =  31 km, SE  =  5.3; t  =  2.67, df  =  19, P  =  0.026). The records examined here suggest a high degree of philopatry and relatively short natal dispersal distances, particularly in male Bald Eagles.

  1. Birth-Weight, Pregnancy Term, Pre-Natal and Natal Complications Related to Child's Dental Anomalies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prokocimer, T; Amir, E; Blumer, S; Peretz, B

    2015-01-01

    This cross-sectional study was aimed at determining whether certain pre-natal and natal conditions can predict specific dental anomalies. The conditions observed were: low birth-weight, preterm birth, pre-natal & natal complications. The dental anomalies observed were: enamel defects, total number of decayed, missing and filled teeth (total DMFT), disturbances in the tooth shape and disturbances in the number of teeth. Out of more than 2000 medical files of children aged 2-17 years old which were reviewed, 300 files met the selection criteria. Information recorded from the files included: age, gender, health status (the ASA physical status classification system by the American Society of Anesthesiologists), birth week, birth weight, total DMFT, hypomineralization, abnormal tooth shape, abnormal number of teeth and hypoplasia. Twenty one children out of 300 (7%) were born after a high-risk pregnancy, 25 children (8.3%) were born after high-risk birth, 20 children (6.7%) were born preterm - before week 37, and 29 children (9.7%) were born with a low birth weight (LBW) - 2500 grams or less. A relationship between a preterm birth and LBW to hypomineralization was found. And a relationship between a preterm birth and high-risk pregnancy to abnormal number of teeth was found. No relationship was found between birth (normal/high-risk) and the other parameters inspected. Preterm birth and LBW may predict hypomineralization in both primary and permanent dentitions. Furthermore, the study demonstrated that preterm birth and high-risk pregnancy may predict abnormal number of teeth in both dentitions.

  2. Epidemiologic study of anisometropia in students of Natal, Brazil Estudo epidemiológico da anisometropia em estudantes da cidade de Natal, Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Alexandre de Amorim Garcia

    2005-02-01

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: To perform an epidemiologic study in students in Natal/Brazil, with relation to refractional anisometropia, evaluating criteria such as: gender, age, and association with strabismus and amblyopia. METHODS: A study of 1,024 students randomly selected from several districts of Natal/Brazil was undertaken by the Department of Ophthalmology of the Federal University of Rio Grande do Norte (UFRN, observing the following criteria of > 2 spherical or cylindrical diopter refractional anisometropia relating it to sex, age, association with strabismus, amblyopia and anisometropia classification. RESULTS: We found a prevalence of 2% (N=21 anisometropia in the students. The female gender predominated with 81% (N=17. In students with anisometropia, we observed an association with strabismus in 9.5% of cases (N=2, both with exotropia. The association of anisometropia with amblyopia occurred in 47.6% of the cases (N=10, with 8 cases of unilateral amblyopia and 2 cases of bilateral amblyopia. CONCLUSIONS: There was a predominance of anisometropia in females, and an increased prevalence of strabismus and amblyopia in students with anisometropia.OBJETIVO: Realizar um estudo epidemiológico em estudantes de Natal/Brasil, com relação à anisometropia refracional, avaliando os seguintes critérios: sexo, idade e associação com estrabismo e ambliopia. MÉTODOS: Foram estudados 1.024 estudantes, randomicamente selecionados, pertencentes aos diversos distritos da cidade de Natal/Brasil, pelo Departamento de Oftalmologia, da Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Norte (UFRN, observando os seguintes aspectos, quanto à anisometropia > 2 dioptrias esférica ou cilíndrica, sexo, idade, associação com estrabismo e ambliopia, e os tipos de anisometropia. RESULTADOS: Encontrou-se prevalência de anisometropia de 2% (N=21 nos estudantes. O sexo feminino predominou com 81% (N=17. Nos estudantes com anisometropia, observou-se associação com estrabismo em 9

  3. Early-Onset X-Linked Retinitis Pigmentosa in a Heterozygous Female Harboring an Intronic Donor Splice Site Mutation in the Retinitis Pigmentosa GTPase Regulator Gene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shifera, Amde Selassie; Kay, Christine Nichols

    2015-01-01

    To report a heterozygous female presenting with an early-onset and severe form of X-linked retinitis pigmentosa (XLRP). This is a case series presenting the clinical findings in a heterozygous female with XLRP and two of her family members. Fundus photography, fundus autofluorescence, ocular coherence tomography, and visual perimetry are presented. The proband reported here is a heterozygous female who presented at the age of 8 years with an early onset and aggressive form of XLRP. The patient belongs to a four-generation family with a total of three affected females and four affected males. The patient was initially diagnosed with retinitis pigmentosa (RP) at the age of 4 years. Genetic testing identified a heterozygous donor splice site mutation in intron 1 (IVS1 + 1G > A) of the retinitis pigmentosa GTPase regulator gene. The father of the proband was diagnosed with RP when he was a young child. The sister of the proband, evaluated at the age of 6 years, showed macular pigmentary changes. Although carriers of XLRP are usually asymptomatic or have a mild disease of late onset, the proband presented here exhibited an early-onset, aggressive form of the disease. It is not clear why some carrier females manifest a severe phenotype. A better understanding of the genetic processes involved in the penetrance and expressivity of XLRP in heterozygous females could assist in providing the appropriate counseling to affected families.

  4. Definition of osteoporosis by bone density criteria in men: effect of using female instead of male young reference data depends on skeletal site and densitometer manufacturer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schousboe, John T; Tanner, S Bobo; Leslie, William D

    2014-01-01

    Whether to use young male or young female reference data to calculate bone mineral density (BMD) T-scores in men remains controversial. The third National Health and Nutrition Examination and Survey (NHANES III) data show that the mean and standard deviation of femoral neck and total hip BMD is greater in young men than young women, and therefore differences in T-scores at these sites using NHANES III female vs male norms becomes less as BMD decreases. In contrast, manufacturer-specific reference databases generally assume similar standard deviations of BMD in men and women. Using NHANES III reference data for the femoral neck and total hip, respectively we found that men with T-scores of -2.5 when young male norms are used have T-scores of -2.4 and -2.3 when young female norms are used. Using manufacturer-specific reference data, we found that men with T-scores of -2.5 when young male norms are used at the femoral neck, total hip, lumbar spine, or one-third of the forearm would have T-scores ranging from -2.4 to -0.4 when young female norms are used, depending on skeletal site and densitometer manufacturer. The change of proportions of men diagnosed with osteoporosis when young female norms are used instead of young male reference data differs substantially according to skeletal site and densitometer manufacturer. Copyright © 2014 The International Society for Clinical Densitometry. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Multiple origins of charnockite in the Mesoproterozoic Natal belt, Kwazulu-Natal, South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G.H. Grantham

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Four different varieties of charnockitic rocks, with different modes of formation, from the Mesoproterozoic Natal belt are described and new C isotope data presented. Excellent coastal exposures in a number of quarries and river sections make this part of the Natal belt a good location for observing charnockitic field relationships. Whereas there has been much debate on genesis of charnockites and the use of the term charnockite, it is generally recognized that the stabilization of orthopyroxene relative to biotite in granitoid rocks is a function of low aH2O (± high CO2, high temperature, and composition (especially Fe/(Fe +Mg. From the Natal belt exposures, it is evident that syn-emplacement, magmatic crystallization of charnockite can arise from mantle-derived differentiated melts that are inherently hot and dry (as in the Oribi Gorge granites and Munster enderbite, as well as from wet granitic melts that have been affected through interaction with dry country rock to produce localized charnockitic marginal facies in plutons (as in the Portobello Granite. Two varieties of post-emplacement sub-solidus charnockites are also evident. These include charnockitic aureoles developed in leucocratic, biotite, garnet granite adjacent to cross-cutting enderbitic veins that are attributed to metamorphic-metasomatic processes (as in the Nicholson's Point granite, a part of the Margate Granite Suite, as well as nebulous, patchy charnockitic veins in the Margate Granite that are attributed to anatectic metamorphic processes under low-aH2O fluid conditions during a metamorphic event. These varieties of charnockite show that the required physical conditions of their genesis can be achieved through a number of geological processes, providing some important implications for the classification of charnockites, and for the interpretation of charnockite genesis in areas where poor exposure obscures field relationships.

  6. Experiences of childbirth in Natal Indian women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H.B. Brookes

    1991-09-01

    Full Text Available Through fifteen in-depth case studies of primipara, Natal Indian women’s experiences of childbirth have been described Common problems were identified, including lack of a family support person throughout labour, lithotomy position for delivery, episiotomies and their sequelae, breast-feeding difficulties and lack of professional support in the early puerperium at home. Preparation for common medical interventions in labour, breast-feeding and parenting appeared inadequate. Pertinent sociocultural aspects have been identified. These include continuing family support and culturally prescribed behaviour pertaining most importantly to the early puerperium and affecting the maternal-neonatal dyad. In the early adaptation to motherhood informants continued their role as daughter or daughter-in-law and would only actively continue their role as wife later or at the end of the puerperium. These traditional patterns of behaviour persist despite marked changes in educational level, language spoken and employment status. In the light of this research and founded on scientific evidence, a number of recommendations are made and areas for further research are identified

  7. National natality and fetal mortality surveys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roney, P.L.

    1980-01-01

    A project is described in which the Epidemiologic Studies Branch, DBE, is cooperating with the National Center for Health Statistics in a National Natality Survey and a National Fetal Mortality Survey of a sample of live births and of late fetal deaths (28 or more weeks gestation) in 1979. Questionnaires will be sent to a sample of mothers who had a live born infant or late fetal death in 1979, to hospitals in which the deliveries took place, to attending physicians, and all other possible sources of health care. The survey will provide quantitative information regarding use of ionizing and nonionizing radiation, including ultrasound, during pregnancy and possible associations between radiation and late fetal mortality. Specifically the study will provide information on the demographic and socioeconomic characteristics of the mothers and complications of pregnancy, labor, and delivery. The physical condition of the infant at birth is also included. This is one of many health surveys conducted routinely by the NCHS under the National Health Survey program

  8. Examining differences in types and location of recruitment venues for young males and females from urban neighborhoods: findings from a multi-site HIV prevention study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chutuape, Kate S; Ziff, Mauri; Auerswald, Colette; Castillo, Marné; McFadden, Antionette; Ellen, Jonathan

    2009-01-01

    Finding and accessing members of youth subpopulations, such as young men who have sex with men (YMSM) of color or young females of color, for behavioral or disease surveillance or study recruitment, pose particular challenges. Venue-based sampling strategies--which hinge on where individuals congregate or "hang out" rather than where they live--appear to be effective alternatives. Methods used to identify venues focus on engaging members of social networks to learn where targeted populations congregate. However, it is not always clear if and how these methods differ according to gender, whether the youth accessed at a venue are actually from neighborhoods in which the venues are found, and whether the location of venues relative to neighborhoods of residence is different for young men and young women. This study illustrates the gender differences in venue type and venue location where eligible youth study participants from high-risk neighborhoods could be accessed for HIV research across 15 research sites (sites). The findings indicate that the study's method led to identifying venues where one quarter or more of the youth were eligible study participants and from the high-risk neighborhoods. Sites targeting young women of color had a higher proportion of eligible study participants who were also from the high-risk neighborhoods than sites targeting YMSM. Clubs were most commonly identified by sites targeting YMSM as recruitment venues, whereas neighborhood-based service or commercial centers were more common venues for young women of color. This study reveals how venue-based recruitment strategies can be tailored and resources maximized by understanding the key differences in the types of venues preferred by males and females and by recognizing that female-preferred venues are more likely to be closer to home.

  9. Sex determination using humeral dimensions in a sample from KwaZulu-Natal: an osteometric study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogedengbe, Oluwatosin Olalekan; Ajayi, Sunday Adelaja; Komolafe, Omobola Aderibigbe; Zaw, Aung Khaing; Naidu, Edwin Coleridge Stephen; Okpara Azu, Onyemaechi

    2017-09-01

    The morphological characteristics of the humeral bone has been investigated in recent times with studies showing varying degrees of sexual dimorphism. Osteologists and forensic scientists have shown that sex determination methods based on skeletal measurements are population specific, and these population-specific variations are present in many body dimensions. The present study aims to establish sex identification using osteometric standards for the humerus in a contemporary KwaZulu-Natal population. A total of 11 parameters were measured in a sample of n=211 humeri (males, 113; females, 98) from the osteological collection in the Discipline of Clinical Anatomy, Nelson R. Mandela School of Medicine, University of KwaZulu-Natal, Durban, South Africa. The difference in means for nearly all variables were found to be significantly higher in males compared to females ( P <0.01) with the most effective single parameter for predicting sex being the vertical head diameter having an accuracy of 82.5%. Stepwise discriminant analysis increased the overall accuracy rate to 87.7% when all measurements were jointly applied. We conclude that the humerus is an important bone which can be reliably used for sex determination based on standard metric methods despite minor tribal or ancestral differences amongst an otherwise homogenous population.

  10. Syphilis among middle-aged female sex workers in China: a three-site cross-sectional study

    OpenAIRE

    Liu, Hongjie; Dumenci, Levent; Morisky, Donald E; Xu, Yongfang; Li, Xiaojing; Jiang, Baofa

    2016-01-01

    Objectives This study addresses the lack of empirical studies about the epidemic of syphilis among middle-aged female sex workers (FSWs). The objectives of this study were to investigate prevalence of syphilis, and its potential risk factors among middle-aged FSWs in China. Design A cross-sectional study with respondent-driven sampling (RDS). Setting A multisite study conducted at three Chinese cites (Nanning, Hefei, and Qingdao) with different levels of sexually transmitted diseases in 2014....

  11. Impact of Environment and Ontogeny on Relative Fecundity and Egg Quality of Female Oysters (Crassostrea virginica) from Four Sites in Northern Chesapeake Bay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glandon, Hillary Lane; Michaelis, Adriane K; Politano, Vincent A; Alexander, Stephanie T; Vlahovich, Emily A; Reece, Kimberly S; Koopman, Heather N; Meritt, Donald W; Paynter, Kennedy T

    2016-12-01

    Resource allocation to reproduction is a primary physiological concern for individuals, and can vary with age, environment, or a combination of both factors. In this study we quantified the impact of environment and individual age on the reproductive output of female oysters Crassostrea virginica. We determined the relative fecundity, egg total lipid content, and overall and omega-3/omega-6 (ω3/ω6) fatty acid signatures (FAS) of eggs spawned by female oysters over a 2-year period (n = 32 and n = 64). Variation was quantified spatially and ontogenetically by sampling young and old oyster populations from two rivers in Chesapeake Bay, totaling four collection sites. During Year 1, when oysters underwent oogenesis in different locations, overall and ω3/ω6 egg FAS varied significantly by river, with no significant differences observed in the FAS of oysters by age in Year 1. In Year 2, when oysters from different sites underwent oogenesis in a single location, no significant differences in the overall egg FAS or ω3/ω6 egg FAS by river or age were observed. These findings suggest that oysters integrate environment into their reproductive output, but that time spent growing at a specific location (in this case, represented by oyster age) plays a relatively minor role in the biochemical composition of oyster eggs. These results have consequences for our understanding of how resources are allocated from the female oyster to eggs and, more generally, the impact of environment and ontogeny on reproductive physiology.

  12. Multiple [3H]imipramine binding sites in brains of male and female Fawn-Hooded and Long-Evans rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ieni, J.R.; Zukin, S.R.; Praag, H.M. van; Tobach, E.; Barr, G.A.

    1985-01-01

    Comparisons of high- and low-affinity [ 3 H]imipramine binding to whole brain homogenates from adult male and female rats of the Fawn-Hooded and Long-Evans strains were performed. Most strikingly, no significant differences were observed between the two strains in any of the binding parameters, indicating that brain [ 3 H]imipramine binding sites, which may be related to the serotonergic uptake process, appear normal in a strain of rats with serotonin platelet storage pool disease. However, a significant sex difference in high- but not low-affinity whole brain [ 3 H]imipramine Bsub(max) values was observed, with females of both strains having higher densities than males. (Auth.)

  13. Scaling of Natal Dispersal Distances in Terrestrial Birds and Mammals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Glenn D. Sutherland

    2000-07-01

    Full Text Available Natal dispersal is a process that is critical in the spatial dynamics of populations, including population spread, recolonization, and gene flow. It is a central focus of conservation issues for many vertebrate species. Using data for 77 bird and 68 mammal species, we tested whether median and maximum natal dispersal distances were correlated with body mass, diet type, social system, taxonomic family, and migratory status. Body mass and diet type were found to predict both median and maximum natal dispersal distances in mammals: large species dispersed farther than small ones, and carnivorous species dispersed farther than herbivores and omnivores. Similar relationships occurred for carnivorous bird species, but not for herbivorous or omnivorous ones. Natal dispersal distances in birds or mammals were not significantly related to broad categories of social systems. Only in birds were factors such as taxonomic relatedness and migratory status correlated with natal dispersal, and then only for maximum distances. Summary properties of dispersal processes appeared to be derived from interactions among behavioral and morphological characteristics of species and from their linkages to the dynamics of resource availability in landscapes. In all the species we examined, most dispersers moved relatively short distances, and long-distance dispersal was uncommon. On the basis of these findings, we fit an empirical model based on the negative exponential distribution for calculating minimum probabilities that animals disperse particular distances from their natal areas. This model, coupled with knowledge of a species' body mass and diet type, can be used to conservatively predict dispersal distances for different species and examine possible consequences of large-scale habitat alterations on connectedness between populations. Taken together, our results can provide managers with the means to identify species vulnerable to landscape-level habitat changes

  14. Assistência pré-natal no Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elaine Fernandes Viellas

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available O estudo tem por objetivo analisar a assistência pré-natal oferecida às gestantes usuárias de serviços de saúde públicos e/ou privados utilizando dados da pesquisa Nascer no Brasil, realizada em 2011 e 2012. As informações foram obtidas por meio de entrevista com a puérpera durante a internação hospitalar e dados do cartão de pré- natal. Os resultados mostram cobertura elevada da assistência pré-natal (98,7% tendo 75,8% das mulheres iniciado o pré-natal antes da 16a semana gestacional e 73,1% compareceram a seis ou mais consultas. O pré-natal foi realizado, sobretudo, em unidades básicas (89,6%, públicas (74,6%, pelo mesmo profissional (88,4%, em sua maioria médicos (75,6%, e 96% receberam o cartão de pré-natal. Um quarto das gestantes foi considerado de risco. Do total das entrevistadas, apenas 58,7% foram orientadas sobre a maternidade de referência, e 16,2% procuraram mais de um serviço para a admissão para o parto. Desafios persistem para a melhoria da qualidade dessa assistência, com a realização de procedimentos efetivos para a redução de desfechos desfavoráveis.

  15. Natality and calf mortality of the Northern Alaska Peninsula and Southern Alaska Peninsula caribou herds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard A. Sellers

    2003-04-01

    Full Text Available We studied natality in the Northern Alaska Peninsula (NAP and Southern Alaska Peninsula (SAP caribou (Rangifer tarandus granti herds during 1996-1999, and mortality and weights of calves during 1998 and 1999- Natality was lower in the NAP than the SAP primarily because most 3-year-old females did not produce calves in the NAP Patterns of calf mortality in the NAP and SAP differed from those in Interior Alaska primarily because neonatal (i.e., during the first 2 weeks of life mortality was relatively low, but mortality continued to be significant through August in both herds, and aggregate annual mortality was extreme (86% in the NAP Predators probably killed more neonatal calves in the SAP, primarily because a wolf den (Canis lupus was located on the calving area. Despite the relatively high density of brown bears (Ursus arctos and bald eagles (Haliaeetus leucocephalus, these predators killed surprisingly few calves. Golden eagles (Aquila chrysaetos were uncommon on the Alaska Peninsula. At least 2 calves apparently died from pneu¬monia in the range of the NAP but none were suspected to have died from disease in the range of the SAP. Heavy scav¬enging by bald eagles complicated determining cause of death of calves in both the NAP and SAP.

  16. Kajian Panjang Jalan di Kabupaten Mandailing Natal dan Pengaruhnya Terhadap Perkembangan Wilayah

    OpenAIRE

    Lubis, Indra Husein

    2010-01-01

    Dengan terbitnya Undang-undang Republik Indonesia Nomor 12 tahun 1998 dan disahkan pada tanggal 23 Nopember 1998 tentang pembentukan Kabupaten Mandailing Natal maka Kabupaten Tapanuli Selatan dimekarkan menjadi 2 Kabupaten, yaitu Kabupaten Mandailing Natal (Ibukota Panyabungan) dengan jumlah daerah Administrasi 8 Kecamatan dan Kabupaten Tapanuli Selatan (Ibukotanya Padangsidimpuan) dengan jumlah daerah administrasi 16 Kecamatan. Perkembangan pembangunan kabupaten Mandailing Natal selama ± 11 ...

  17. Failure of post-natal ductus arteriosus closure in prostaglandin transporter-deficient mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Hee-Yoon; Locker, Joseph; Lu, Run; Schuster, Victor L.

    2010-01-01

    Background Prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) plays a major role both in maintaining patency of the fetal ductus arteriosus (DA) and in closure of the DA after birth. The rate- limiting step in PGE2 signal termination is PGE2 uptake by the transporter PGT. Methods and results To determine the role of PGT in DA closure, we used a gene-targeting strategy to produce mice in which PGT exon 1 was flanked by loxP sites. Successful targeting was obtained since neither mice hypomorphic at the PGT allele (PGT Neo/Neo) nor global PGT knockout mice (PGT −/−) exhibited PGT protein expression; moreover, embryonic fibroblasts isolated from targeted mice failed to exhibit carrier-mediated PGE2 uptake. Although born in a normal Mendelian ratio, no PGT −/− mice survived past post-natal day 1, and no PGT Neo/Neo mice survived past post-natal day 2. Necropsy revealed patent DA with normal intimal thickening but with dilated cardiac chambers. Both PGT Neo/Neo and PGT −/− mice could be rescued through the post-natal period by giving the mother indomethacin before birth. Rescued mice grew normally and had no abnormalities by gross and microscopic post-mortem analysis. In accord with PGT’s known role in metabolizing PGE2, rescued adult PGT −/− mice had lower plasma PGE2 metabolite levels, and higher urinary PGE2 excretion rates, than wild type mice. Conclusions PGT plays a critical role in closure of the DA after birth by ensuring a reduction in local and/or circulating PGE2 concentrations. PMID:20083684

  18. Activity rhythms and distribution of natal dens for red foxes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wenyang, Zhou; Wanhong, Wei; Biggins, Dean E.

    1995-01-01

    The red fox, Vulpes vulpes, was investigated with snow tracking, radiotracking and directive observation at the Haibei Research Station of Alpine Meadow Ecosystem, Academia Sinica, from March to September 1994. The objectives of this study were to determine the distribution and use of natal dens, activity rhythms, and home range sizes for the foxes.

  19. Magnetospheric and atmospheric physics at the University of Natal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Walker, A.D.M.

    1982-01-01

    A historical outline of geophysical work done at the University of Natal from 1938-1982 is given. Mention is also made of experimental work concerning whistlers and VLF, low-light level TV and geomagnetic pulsations. Current work on the magnetosphere, namely plasma convection in plasmasphere, auroral features, geomagnetic pulsations and the measuring of plasma properties is discussed

  20. Marine research in Natal: proceedings of a symposium and workshop

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Bowmaker, AP

    1987-01-01

    Full Text Available A two day mini-symposium and workshop held in Durban in February 1986 and attended by 70 marine scientists from Natal and KwaZulu is reported on. Summaries of 84 presentations are given, separated into relevant sections. Each section is summarized...

  1. Safety and Security in Schools in KwaZulu-Natal

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, C. J.; Gina, J. M.; Coetzee, I. E. M.

    2015-01-01

    This article is based on research conducted on the topic: "Safety and security in schools: The case of KwaZulu-Natal." For the research project a purposive sample consisting of secondary school learners, teachers, school governing body chairpersons and principals were selected from the rural and township schools used in this study to…

  2. ORIGINAL ARTICLES Severe snakebites in northern KwaZulu-Natal ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... in north-eastern KwaZulu-Natal. Ngwelezana Hospital is a 500-bed hospital situated in a semi- ... delayed by up to 7 - 12 days.5,7 Test dosing with antivenom is no longer ... highest incidence was in the summer months; 46 (18.93%) patients ...

  3. Hyperolius argus (Anura) in Natal: taxonomy, biogeography and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    There is some evidence that populations of argus intergrade with semidiscus Hewitt in Natal, and the occurrence of semidiscus on the periphery of the argusrange is discussed in relation to the 'central-marginal' model of biogeographical patterning. It has not been possible to determine the relative vulnerability to habitat ...

  4. FUNCTIONALLY UNIVENTRICULAR HEARTS: IMPACT OF PRE-NATAL DIAGNOSIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Francesco Corno

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Within the last few decades the pre-natal echocardiographic diagnosis of congenital heart defects has made substantial progresses, particularly for the identification of complex malformation. Functionally univentricular hearts categorize a huge variety of heart malformations. Since no one of the patients with these congenital heart defects can ever undergo a bi-ventricular type of repair, early recognition and decision-making from the neonatal period are required in order to allow for appropriate multiple-step diagnostic and treatment procedures, either of interventional cardiology and/or surgery, on the pathway of univentricular heart. In the literature strong disagreements exist about the potential impact of the pre-natal diagnosis on the early and late outcomes of complex congenital heart defects. This review of the recent reports has been undertaken to better understand the impact of pre-natal diagnosis in functionally univentricular hearts taking into consideration the following topics:•pre-natal screening•outcomes and survival•general morbidity•neurologic and developmental consequences•pregnancy management and delivery planning•resources utilization and costs/benefits issues•ethical implications, parents counseling, interruption of pregnancy versus treatment

  5. Educational Leadership with an Ethics of Plurality and Natality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berger, Iris

    2015-01-01

    This paper aims to impregnate the concept of educational leadership with new meanings and new possibilities. I draw on Hannah Arendt's ("The human condition." University of Chicago Press, Chicago, 1958/1998) political thought, particularly, her concepts of "plurality" and "natality" alongside the distinction she made…

  6. Natal dispersal and personalities in great tits (Parus major)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dingemanse, NJ; Both, C; van Noordwijk, AJ; Rutten, AL; Drent, PJ; Noordwijk, Arie J. van; Drent, Piet J.

    2003-01-01

    Dispersal is a major determinant of the dynamics and genetic structure of populations, and its consequences depend not only on average dispersal rates and distances, but also on the characteristics of dispersing and philopatric individuals. We investigated whether natal dispersal correlated with a

  7. Ecosystem considerations of the KwaZulu-Natal sardine run ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The annual winter sardine run along the South African east coast impacts the KwaZulu-Natal (KZN) coastal system in a variety of ways. These include ecological impacts, such as enrichment of a largely oligotrophic environment, competition between migrant sardine Sardinops sagax, other migrant and resident small ...

  8. Fertilization of Southern Tall Grassveld of Natal: effects on botanical ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The long-term effects of nitrogen, phosphate and lime on change in botanical composition and utilisation under grazing of Southern Tall Grassveld of Natal are presented. Nitrogen, phosphate, lime and type of nitrogen affected botanical composition significantly. Generally, fertilisation had the same effect on species ...

  9. Consequences of pre-natal radiation exposure for post-natal development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mole, R.H.

    1982-01-01

    A review of revised observations on Japanese bomb survivors suggests that 10-18 weeks of pregnancy is the period of greatest sensitivity for foetal brain damage leading to severe mental retardation. Severe food deficiencies suggest a cause for the apparently high frequency of severe mental retardation in the unexposed control population and may also have contributed to the dose-dependent increase in those irradiated in utero. The author concludes that there is no confirmed evidence to suggest that the pre-implantation stage of mammalian development is unusually radiosensitive. In the human, the succeeding period of major organogenesis seems to be less sensitive and important than the following 10-18 week period of pregnancy. It is suggested that malformation (teratogenesis) should be distinguished from maldevelopment. Malformations are the result of failure of embryonic organization and ionizing radiation is not an efficient teratogen in this sense. Maldevelopment after exposure to radiation is the consequence of cell depletion of sufficient degree randomly distributed throughout an irradiated tissue. It is concluded that dose thresholds for maldevelopments are to be expected after irradiation both in pre-implantation and post-implantation stages, and that somatic mutation has a possible role as a mechanism without threshold for development damage by pre-natal irradiation, but not likely to be of practical significance. (U.K.)

  10. Common acute and chronic musculoskeletal injuries among female ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective. To document the prevalence and nature of musculoskeletal injuries among female adolescent hockey players over a 12-month period (1 November 2011 - 31 October 2012). Methods. Data were collected from 148 high school players who belonged to the KwaZulu-Natal Hockey League via voluntary, ...

  11. Modern beachrock formation in Durban, KwaZulu-Natal

    OpenAIRE

    Hayley Cawthra; Ron Uken

    2012-01-01

    We explored the recent cementation of modern beachrock on the seaward margin of the Durban Bluff, central KwaZulu-Natal. The low latitude and subtropical climatic setting is a unique context compared to the more commonly documented contemporary beachrock formation in the tropics. Geological field mapping was carried out and here we present results based on sedimentary facies of a clastic shoreline and carbonate diagenesis of interstitial cements using transmitted light microscopy. The beachro...

  12. The Relationship between Social Networking Site Use and the Internalization of a Thin Ideal in Females: A Meta-Analytic Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mingoia, John; Hutchinson, Amanda D; Wilson, Carlene; Gleaves, David H

    2017-01-01

    Previous research has indicated that exposure to traditional media (i.e., television, film, and print) predicts the likelihood of internalization of a thin ideal; however, the relationship between exposure to internet-based social media on internalization of this ideal remains less understood. Social media differ from traditional forms of media by allowing users to create and upload their own content that is then subject to feedback from other users. This meta-analysis examined the association linking the use of social networking sites (SNSs) and the internalization of a thin ideal in females. Systematic searches were performed in the databases: PsychINFO, PubMed, Web of Science, Communication and Mass Media Complete, and ProQuest Dissertations and Theses Global. Six studies were included in the meta-analysis that yielded 10 independent effect sizes and a total of 1,829 female participants ranging in age from 10 to 46 years. We found a positive association between extent of use of SNSs and extent of internalization of a thin ideal with a small to moderate effect size ( r = 0.18). The positive effect indicated that more use of SNSs was associated with significantly higher internalization of a thin ideal. A comparison was also made between study outcomes measuring broad use of SNSs and outcomes measuring SNS use solely as a function of specific appearance-related features (e.g., posting or viewing photographs). The use of appearance-related features had a stronger relationship with the internalization of a thin ideal than broad use of SNSs. The finding suggests that the ability to interact with appearance-related features online and be an active participant in media creation is associated with body image disturbance. Future research should aim to explore the way SNS users interact with the media posted online and the relationship linking the use of specific appearance features and body image disturbance.

  13. The Relationship between Social Networking Site Use and the Internalization of a Thin Ideal in Females: A Meta-Analytic Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John Mingoia

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Previous research has indicated that exposure to traditional media (i.e., television, film, and print predicts the likelihood of internalization of a thin ideal; however, the relationship between exposure to internet-based social media on internalization of this ideal remains less understood. Social media differ from traditional forms of media by allowing users to create and upload their own content that is then subject to feedback from other users. This meta-analysis examined the association linking the use of social networking sites (SNSs and the internalization of a thin ideal in females. Systematic searches were performed in the databases: PsychINFO, PubMed, Web of Science, Communication and Mass Media Complete, and ProQuest Dissertations and Theses Global. Six studies were included in the meta-analysis that yielded 10 independent effect sizes and a total of 1,829 female participants ranging in age from 10 to 46 years. We found a positive association between extent of use of SNSs and extent of internalization of a thin ideal with a small to moderate effect size (r = 0.18. The positive effect indicated that more use of SNSs was associated with significantly higher internalization of a thin ideal. A comparison was also made between study outcomes measuring broad use of SNSs and outcomes measuring SNS use solely as a function of specific appearance-related features (e.g., posting or viewing photographs. The use of appearance-related features had a stronger relationship with the internalization of a thin ideal than broad use of SNSs. The finding suggests that the ability to interact with appearance-related features online and be an active participant in media creation is associated with body image disturbance. Future research should aim to explore the way SNS users interact with the media posted online and the relationship linking the use of specific appearance features and body image disturbance.

  14. PCBs in air, soil and milk in industrialized and urban areas of KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Batterman, S. [Environmental Health Sciences, University of Michigan School of Public Health, 109 Observatory Street, Ann Arbor, MI 48109-2029 (United States)], E-mail: stuartb@umich.edu; Chernyak, S. [Environmental Health Sciences, University of Michigan School of Public Health, 109 Observatory Street, Ann Arbor, MI 48109-2029 (United States); Gouden, Y. [Centre for Occupational and Environmental Health, University of KwaZulu-Natal, 719 Umbilo Road, Private Bag 7, Congella, 4013 Durban (South Africa); Hayes, J.; Robins, T. [Environmental Health Sciences, University of Michigan School of Public Health, 109 Observatory Street, Ann Arbor, MI 48109-2029 (United States); Chetty, S. [Pollution Control Support Unit, Health Department, eThekwini Municipality (South Africa)

    2009-02-15

    Information regarding polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in environmental media in Africa is limited. This paper presents results of a monitoring program conducted in KwaZulu-Natal Province, South Africa designed to characterize levels, trends and sources of airborne PCBs. Particulate and vapor samples were sampled over the 2004-2005 period at three sites. The total PCB concentration averaged 128 {+-} 47 pg m{sup -3}, and levels were highest in winter. Tri- through hexa-congeners predominated, and the vapor fraction was predominant. Several tetra- through hexa-chlorinated congeners had levels comparable to those at urban sites in the northern hemisphere, but hepta- through deca-congeners resembled levels at background sites. PCB source areas, deduced using spatial and temporal patterns, compositional information and trajectory analyses, likely included local, regional and global sources. Soils at three rural sites showed high PCB concentrations, and milk from a local dairy showed PCB concentrations comparable to USA levels in year 2000. - Airborne PCBs in KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa have similar concentrations but distinctive congener patterns compared to areas of historically high PCB use.

  15. PCBs in air, soil and milk in industrialized and urban areas of KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Batterman, S.; Chernyak, S.; Gouden, Y.; Hayes, J.; Robins, T.; Chetty, S.

    2009-01-01

    Information regarding polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in environmental media in Africa is limited. This paper presents results of a monitoring program conducted in KwaZulu-Natal Province, South Africa designed to characterize levels, trends and sources of airborne PCBs. Particulate and vapor samples were sampled over the 2004-2005 period at three sites. The total PCB concentration averaged 128 ± 47 pg m -3 , and levels were highest in winter. Tri- through hexa-congeners predominated, and the vapor fraction was predominant. Several tetra- through hexa-chlorinated congeners had levels comparable to those at urban sites in the northern hemisphere, but hepta- through deca-congeners resembled levels at background sites. PCB source areas, deduced using spatial and temporal patterns, compositional information and trajectory analyses, likely included local, regional and global sources. Soils at three rural sites showed high PCB concentrations, and milk from a local dairy showed PCB concentrations comparable to USA levels in year 2000. - Airborne PCBs in KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa have similar concentrations but distinctive congener patterns compared to areas of historically high PCB use

  16. Developmental post-natal stress can alter the effects of pre-natal stress on the adult redox balance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marasco, Valeria; Spencer, Karen A; Robinson, Jane; Herzyk, Pawel; Costantini, David

    2013-09-15

    Across diverse vertebrate taxa, stressful environmental conditions during development can shape phenotypic trajectories of developing individuals, which, while adaptive in the short-term, may impair health and survival in adulthood. Regardless, the long-lasting benefits or costs of early life stress are likely to depend on the conditions experienced across differing stages of development. Here, we used the Japanese quail (Coturnix coturnix japonica) to experimentally manipulate exposure to stress hormones in developing individuals. We tested the hypothesis that interactions occurring between pre- and post-natal developmental periods can induce long-term shifts on the adult oxidant phenotype in non-breeding sexually mature individuals. We showed that early life stress can induce long-term alterations in the basal antioxidant defences. The magnitude of these effects depended upon the timing of glucocorticoid exposure and upon interactions between the pre- and post-natal stressful stimuli. We also found differences among tissues with stronger effects in the erythrocytes than in the brain in which the long-term effects of glucocorticoids on antioxidant biomarkers appeared to be region-specific. Recent experimental work has demonstrated that early life exposure to stress hormones can markedly reduce adult survival (Monaghan et al., 2012). Our results suggest that long-term shifts in basal antioxidant defences might be one of the potential mechanisms driving such accelerated ageing processes and that post-natal interventions during development may be a potential tool to shape the effects induced by pre-natally glucococorticoid-exposed phenotypes. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Can Burt's Theory of Structural Holes be Applied to Study Social Support Among Mid-Age Female Sex Workers? A Multi-Site Egocentric Network Study in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Hongjie

    2017-12-01

    The epidemic of HIV/AIDS continues to spread among older adults and mid-age female sex workers (FSWs) over 35 years old. We used egocentric network data collected from three study sites in China to examine the applicability of Burt's Theory of Social Holes to study social support among mid-age FSWs. Using respondent-driven sampling, 1245 eligible mid-age FSWs were interviewed. Network structural holes were measured by network constraint and effective size. Three types of social networks were identified: family networks, workplace networks, and non-FSW networks. A larger effective size was significantly associated with a higher level of social support [regression coefficient (β) 5.43-10.59] across the three study samples. In contrast, a greater constraint was significantly associated with a lower level of social support (β -9.33 to -66.76). This study documents the applicability of the Theory of Structural Holes in studying network support among marginalized populations, such as FSWs.

  18. Lack of pubertal influences on female dispersal in muriqui monkeys, Brachyteles arachnoides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strier; Ziegler

    2000-04-01

    The hormonal mediation of dispersal in female mammals is poorly understood, in part because of the difficulties of detecting the onset of ovarian cycling and puberty in dispersing individuals. We used noninvasive methods of faecal steroid assays to determine the timing of dispersal relative to puberty and ovarian cycling in wild female muriqui monkeys, a species in which males are philopatric and nearly all females transfer from their natal groups. Natal females had a mean+/-SE age of 73.4+/-7.2 months (N=18) at the time of their transfers. Intergroup transfers occurred when one or more sexually active adult females were present, but did not show any seasonal patterns. Faecal progesterone and oestradiol profiles from nine natal females prior to transfer and four non-natal females that transferred into our study group demonstrate unequivocally that dispersal occurs prior to puberty in this species. All females showed baseline oestradiol levels and low progesterone levels compared with cycling adult females. Immigrants were first observed to copulate at 11.2+/-2.2 months of age (N=4), prior to the onset of normal ovarian cycles, and gave birth to their first offspring at 33.8+/-7.3 months (N=4) after transferring. Mean cortisol levels did not differ between natal emigrants or recent immigrants, and were within the range of those of adult males during the nonbreeding season in 10 of the 11 prepubertal females sampled. These results indicate that female dispersal is not triggered by activational hormones associated with puberty or escape from reproductive suppression in this species. Copyright 2000 The Association for the Study of Animal Behaviour.

  19. Thyroid Dysfunction in an Adult Female Population: A population-based study of Latin American Vertebral Osteoporosis Study (LAVOS) - Puerto Rico Site Hypothyroidism in LAVOS-Puerto Rico site

    Science.gov (United States)

    González-Rodríguez, Loida A.; Felici-Giovanini, Marcos E; Haddock, Lillian

    2013-01-01

    Objective To determine the prevalence of hypothyroidism in an adult female population in Puerto Rico and to determine the relationship between hypothyroidism, bone mineral density and vertebral and non-vertebral fractures in this population. Methods Data from the 400 subjects database of the Latin American Vertebral Osteoporosis Study (LAVOS), Puerto Rico site was reviewed. Patient’s medical history, anthropometric data, current medications, laboratories, and DXA results was extracted. Subjects with thyroid dysfunction were identified based on their previous medical history and levels of TSH. Bone Mineral Density was classified using the World Health Organization criteria. Crude prevalence of thyroid dysfunction were estimated with a confidence of 95% and weighted by the population distribution by age, according to the distribution by age group in the 2000 census. Bone mineral densities and prevalence of vertebral and non-vertebral fractures were compared among the groups. Results The weighted prevalence of hyperthyroidism in this population was 0.0043% (95% CI: −0.0021%, 0.0107%). The weighted prevalence of hypothyroidism was 24.2% (95% CI: 19.9%, 28.4%). Increased prevalence of hypothyroidism was found in participants 70 years or older. The mean BMD at spine, hip and femoral neck was similar among the groups. No difference in the proportion of participants with vertebral and non-vertebral fractures was found among the groups. Conclusion Our study found a high prevalence of hypothyroidism among adult postmenopausal females in Puerto Rico. No association between hypothyroidism and decreased bone mineral densities, vertebral or non-vertebral fractures was found in this population. PMID:23781620

  20. Lepidium meyenii (Maca increases litter size in normal adult female mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gasco Manuel

    2005-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Lepidium meyenii, known as Maca, grows exclusively in the Peruvian Andes over 4000 m altitude. It has been used traditionally to increase fertility. Previous scientific studies have demonstrated that Maca increases spermatogenesis and epididymal sperm count. The present study was aimed to investigate the effects of Maca on several fertility parameters of female mice at reproductive age. Methods Adult female Balb/C mice were divided at random into three main groups: i Reproductive indexes group, ii Implantation sites group and iii Assessment of uterine weight in ovariectomized mice. Animals received an aqueous extract of lyophilized Yellow Maca (1 g/Kg BW or vehicle orally as treatment. In the fertility indexes study, animals received the treatment before, during and after gestation. The fertility index, gestation index, post-natal viability index, weaning viability index and sex ratio were calculated. Sexual maturation was evaluated in the female pups by the vaginal opening (VO day. In the implantation study, females were checked for implantation sites at gestation day 7 and the embryos were counted. In ovariectomized mice, the uterine weight was recorded at the end of treatment. Results Implantation sites were similar in mice treated with Maca and in controls. All reproductive indexes were similar in both groups of treatment. The number of pups per dam at birth and at postnatal day 4 was significantly higher in the group treated with Maca. VO day occurred earlier as litter size was smaller. Maca did not affect VO day. In ovariectomized mice, the treatment with Maca increased significantly the uterine weights in comparison to their respective control group. Conclusion Administration of aqueous extract of Yellow Maca to adult female mice increases the litter size. Moreover, this treatment increases the uterine weight in ovariectomized animals. Our study confirms for the first time some of the traditional uses of Maca to

  1. Initiation of antiretroviral therapy at rural primary health care clinics in KwaZulu Natal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hilda Ganesen-Moothusamy

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available South Africa bears the greatest burden of HIV infection globally with the most infected people living in KwaZulu-Natal (KZN. Decentralised medical care for HIV positive patients and antiretroviral therapy (ART delivery to primary health care facilities were proposed nationally to achieve adequate ART coverage for patients in need of treatment. This study described the HIV positive patients who accessed medical care and were initiated on ART at two existing government Primary Health Care (PHC clinics with no added donor support, in Ilembe, KZN. This was an observational descriptive study of ART initiation from 01 April 2008 to 30 April 2009. Data were collected from clinical records kept on site. HIV Testing and the pre-ART programmes which consisted of medical care prior to ART initiation are briefly described. Socio-economic, demographic and clinical characteristics of patients who were initiated on ART were sampled and described. A minority (2.95% of the study population tested for HIV of which 36.0% tested positive. Majority (60.0% of patients who joined the pre-ART programme care did not return. The ART sample consisted of 375 patients of whom 65.0% were women, 85.9% were unmarried, 61.6% were unemployed and 50.4% had a secondary level of education. Tuberculosis (TB prevalence and incidence at ART initiation were 22.1% and 14.7% respectively. The prevalence of Syphilis and Hepatitis B co-infections were 13.1% and 8.6 % respectively. Two thirds of female patients (66.4% received a Pap smear result of which the majority (62.3% were abnormal. Uptake for HIV testing followed by relevant CD4 testing was poor. High TB, Hepatitis B and Syphilis co-infection was noted amongst patients initiated on ART. Cervical cancer screening must be intensified. Although ART initiation with no added external resources was successful, record keeping was suboptimal. Suid-Afrika dra die grootste las van MIV-infeksie ter wêreld met die meeste besmette mense in KwaZulu-Natal

  2. Age at first reproduction in philopatric female muriquis ( Brachyteles arachnoides hypoxanthus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martins, Waldney P; Strier, Karen B

    2004-01-01

    Female northern muriquis ( Brachyteles arachnoides hypoxanthus or B. hypoxanthus) at the Estação Biológica de Caratinga/RPPN-FMA, Minas Gerais, Brazil typically disperse from their natal groups at an average age of 6.1+/-0.6 years (median =6.0 years, range =5.3-7.8 years, n =22), prior to the onset of puberty and sexual activity. Immigrants do not conceive until at least their second mating season, and the minimum interval from immigration to first reproduction has been 2.0 years. Age at first reproduction in dispersing females, previously estimated at 8.9 years, has now been documented at 9.0 and 9.25 years for two females whose birth dates are known. This is older than the 7.5 years at which the only female previously known to have reproduced in her natal group gave birth. Here, we present new data from a second female that reproduced in her natal group. This female (BA) was first observed to copulate at 5.5 years, and gave birth to her first infant at 7.25 years of age. Her 1.75-year cycling-to-first conception delay was only slightly shorter than the minimum recorded for immigrant females, and thus was not responsible for her young age at first reproduction compared to dispersing females. Although our sample size is small, our findings suggest that early puberty may permit females to reproduce in their natal group, implying a possible link between life history trade-offs and dispersal patterns. Because the only two females that have reproduced in their natal group were maternal sisters, it is also possible that maternal effects on age at puberty can impact dispersal patterns, particularly in small populations of primates.

  3. Olfactory responses to natal stream water in sockeye salmon by BOLD fMRI.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hiroshi Bandoh

    Full Text Available Many studies have shown that juvenile salmon imprint olfactory memory of natal stream odors during downstream migration, and adults recall this stream-specific odor information to discriminate their natal stream during upstream migration for spawning. The odor information processing of the natal stream in the salmon brain, however, has not been clarified. We applied blood oxygenation level-dependent (BOLD functional magnetic resonance imaging to investigate the odor information processing of the natal stream in the olfactory bulb and telencephalon of lacustrine sockeye salmon (Oncorhynchus nerka. The strong responses to the natal stream water were mainly observed in the lateral area of dorsal telencephalon (Dl, which are homologous to the medial pallium (hippocampus in terrestrial vertebrates. Although the concentration of L-serine (1 mM in the control water was 20,000-times higher than that of total amino acid in the natal stream water (47.5 nM, the BOLD signals resulting from the natal stream water were stronger than those by L-serine in the Dl. We concluded that sockeye salmon could process the odor information of the natal stream by integrating information in the Dl area of the telencephalon.

  4. Observations of the vertical and temporal evolution of a Natal Pulse along the Eastern Agulhas Bank

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Pivan, X

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available describe the evolution of a Natal Pulse along three density surfaces referred to as the surface (satellite-observed), shallow (isopycnal 1026.8 kg m-3), and deep (isopycnal 1027.2 kg m-3) layer. Our observations show that this Natal Pulse extended to a...

  5. Water temperature affects life-cycle duration of tadpoles of Natal ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Direct and indirect effects of climate change on amphibians include range shifts and changes in community structure. The Natal cascade frog Hadromophryne natalensis has an altitudinal range of some 2 400 m in KwaZulu-Natal, and presents an opportunity to assess how increased water temperatures may impact on ...

  6. Sharks caught in the protective gill nets off KwaZulu-Natal, South ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Between 1978 and 1998, a total of 3 385 scalloped hammerhead sharks Sphyrna lewini was caught in the protective nets off KwaZulu-Natal. The mean annual catch was 166 sharks (range 60–279). There was a significant decrease in catch rate with time, but the relationship with the population size in KwaZulu-Natal waters ...

  7. Developing telepsychiatry services in KwaZulu-Natal – an action ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective: In 2009, the Departments of Psychiatry and Telehealth of the University of KwaZulu-Natal (UKZN) initiated a three year project to develop telepsychiatry services in KwaZulu-Natal. This paper describes the challenges and opportunities of this project. Method: This was a collaborative, in situ health service project ...

  8. Equity and Excellence: The Emergence, Consolidation and Internalization of Education Development at the University of Natal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Odendaal, Marie; Deacon, Roger

    2009-01-01

    Education development in South Africa emerged during the transition from apartheid to democracy, in a context especially marked by political and financial pressures. This case study of the University of Natal (now the University of KwaZulu-Natal) demonstrates how a strategy combining equity with excellence aimed to facilitate increased access to…

  9. Modern beachrock formation in Durban, KwaZulu-Natal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hayley Cawthra

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available We explored the recent cementation of modern beachrock on the seaward margin of the Durban Bluff, central KwaZulu-Natal. The low latitude and subtropical climatic setting is a unique context compared to the more commonly documented contemporary beachrock formation in the tropics. Geological field mapping was carried out and here we present results based on sedimentary facies of a clastic shoreline and carbonate diagenesis of interstitial cements using transmitted light microscopy. The beachrock was cemented by micrite and aragonite, and iron oxide infilled voids. The presence of human artefacts within the deposit showed evidence for cementation within the last century. The elevation (at Mean Low Water and correlation to rates of sea level change for the east coast of South Africa showed that the beachrock is less than 72 years in age. In contrast to older local Pleistocene deposits, beachrocks have cemented along this stretch of coast during successive sea level highstands with similar climatic regimes – the last Interglacial, the Holocene High and the present. Here we report the most southerly documentation of modern beachrock in KwaZulu-Natal, which, to our knowledge, represents the youngest deposit reported in southern Africa.

  10. Reproductive performance of female Alaskan caribou

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, Layne G.; Dale, Bruce W.

    1998-01-01

    We examined the reproductive performance of female caribou (Rangifer tarandus granti) in relation to age, physical condition, and reproductive experience for 9 consecutive years (1987-95) at Denali National Park, Alaska, during a period of wide variation in winter snowfall. Caribou in Denali differed from other cervid populations where reproductive performance has been investigated, because they occur at low densities (≥0.3/km2) and experience high losses of young to predation. Females first gave birth at 2-6 years old; 56% of these females were 3 years old. Average annual natality rates increased from 27% for 2-year-olds to 100% for 7-year-olds, remained high for 7-13-year-olds (98%), and then declined for females ≥14 years old. Females ≥2 years old that failed to reproduce were primarily sexually immature (76%). Reproductive pauses of sexually mature females occurred predominantly in young (3-6 yr old) and old (≥14 yr old) females. Natality increased with body mass for 10-month-old females weighed 6 months prior to the autumn breeding season (P = 0.007), and for females >1 year old and weighed during autumn (late Sep-early Nov; P = 0.003). Natality for 2-, 3-, 4-, and 6-year-olds declined with increasing late-winter snowfall (Feb-May; P ≤ 0.039) during the winter prior to breeding. In most years, a high percentage of sexually mature females reproduced, and lactation status at the time of breeding did not influence productivity the following year. However, following particularly high snowfall during February-September 1992, productivity was reduced in 1993 for cows successfully rearing calves to autumn the previous year. High losses of calves to predators in 1992 may have increased productivity in 1993. Losses of young-of-the-year to predation prior to the annual breeding season can be an important influence on subsequent productivity for ungulate populations where productivity varies with lactation status of females at the time of breeding.

  11. Gendered health care labour markets? A case study of anatomical pathologists and haematologists in KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suveera Singh

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This study qualitatively explored the role of gender and related factors that influence medical doctors’ decisions in selecting a specialisation within medical laboratory medicine. This study is novel in that it disaggregates doctors by specialisation. It further focuses on non-clinical medical specialists who have been ignored in the global human resources for health literature. Hakim’s preference theory as well as socialisation theory is adapted to explain some of the reasons female doctors make certain career choices regarding specialisation within the medical field. The study focused on laboratory doctors in the public and private sector in KwaZulu- Natal. A qualitative approach was adopted given the small population size and the need for an interpretive approach to the data. The research design was an exploratory case study and thematic analysis was used to discover the relevant themes. The non-probability purposeful sample comprised a total of 20 participants, of which 11 were anatomical pathologists and 9 were haematologists, all based in KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa. Data collection was performed via in-depth interviews. Trustworthiness of the data was ensured through methods of credibility and triangulation. The key finding is that although gender is a significant factor in career choice (for specific disciplines, it is one of many factors that determine self-selection into a specific medical laboratory specialisation. The conclusions, although not generalisable, have implications for human resources for health policies targeted at achieving higher levels of recruitment in laboratory medicine as a profession.

  12. The Impact of Gender, Socioeconomic Status and Home Language on Primary School Children's Reading Comprehension in KwaZulu-Natal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Völkel, Gabriela; Seabi, Joseph; Cockcroft, Kate; Goldschagg, Paul

    2016-03-15

    The current study constituted part of a larger, longitudinal, South African-based study, namely, The Road and Aircraft Noise Exposure on Children's Cognition and Health (RANCH-South Africa). In the context of a multicultural South Africa and varying demographic variables thereof, this study sought to investigate and describe the effects of gender, socioeconomic status and home language on primary school children's reading comprehension in KwaZulu-Natal. In total, 834 learners across 5 public schools in the KwaZulu-Natal province participated in the study. A biographical questionnaire was used to obtain biographical data relevant to this study, and the Suffolk Reading Scale 2 (SRS2) was used to obtain reading comprehension scores. The findings revealed that there was no statistical difference between males and females on reading comprehension scores. In terms of socioeconomic status (SES), learners from a low socioeconomic background performed significantly better than those from a high socioeconomic background. English as a First Language (EL1) speakers had a higher mean reading comprehension score than speakers who spoke English as an Additional Language (EAL). Reading comprehension is indeed affected by a variety of variables, most notably that of language proficiency. The tool to measure reading comprehension needs to be standardized and administered in more than one language, which will ensure increased reliability and validity of reading comprehension scores.

  13. NCHS - Natality Measures for Females by Race and Hispanic Origin: United States

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — This dataset includes live births, birth rates, and fertility rates by race of mother in the United States since 1960. National data on births by Hispanic origin...

  14. NCHS - Natality Measures for Females by Hispanic Origin Subgroup: United States

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — This dataset includes live births, birth rates, and fertility rates by Hispanic origin of mother in the United States since 1989. National data on births by Hispanic...

  15. Female Reproductive System

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of the Female Reproductive System Print en español Sistema reproductor femenino About Human Reproduction All living things ... of Use Notice of Nondiscrimination Visit the Nemours Web site. Note: All information on KidsHealth® is for ...

  16. Elemental distribution in seaweed, Gelidium abbottiorum along the KwaZulu-Natal Coastline, South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Misheer, Natasha; Kindness, Andrew; Jonnalagadda, Sreekanth B

    2006-01-01

    The total concentrations of 7 selected metals, namely manganese, iron, zinc, titanium, boron, arsenic and mercury, were monitored for one annual cycle covering four seasons in the seaweed, Gelidium abbottiorum, at four sampling sites at Zinkwasi, Ballito, Treasure beach and Park Rynie along the South-East coastline of KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa to assess the current status of the marine environment. Inductively Coupled Plasma Optical Emission Spectrophotometry, Mercury Cold Vapour AAS, and Hydride Generation AAS were used for the determination of metal concentrations. Mn concentrations were particularly high in the G. abbottiorum species, followed by Fe, As and B concentrations which were in the 3-8 ppm range. Ti and Zn were in the 100-400 ppb range, while Hg was low and below 100 ppb. A typical sample of G. abbottiorum at Treasure beach, a site close to Durban metropolis in winter had Mn (8.6 ppm), Fe (4.6 ppm), As (5.6 ppm), B (3.0 ppm), Ti (420 ppb), Zn (167 ppb) and Hg (7.5 ppb). All metals recorded a decrease in concentrations from winter to spring with the exception of Hg. The Hg levels increased considerably from winter to spring.

  17. Men's moralising discourses on gender and HIV risk in rural KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mindry, Deborah L; Knight, Lucia; van Rooyen, Heidi

    2015-01-01

    Various interventions have resulted in increased rates of HIV testing. However, encouraging men to acknowledge their risk for HIV, to test and link to treatment remains a challenge. In this study, we examine men's perspectives on navigating HIV risk in rural KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa. Qualitative interviews were conducted at four intervals over a three-year time period with a baseline cohort of 126 men and women. We found that men navigated HIV risk in their sexual relationships mainly by monitoring their partner's behaviour. Men expressed concerns about female respectability, invoking discourses on hlonipha rooted in Zulu cultural ideals and Christian ideals about women staying close to home. In the post-apartheid era, these concerns were inflected by anxieties over changing gender norms and the high rates and risks of infection in the region. HIV prevention discourses on behaviour intersected with men's efforts to assert their masculinity through the monitoring and controlling of women's behaviour. The potential negative impacts of this should be addressed. Prevention efforts need to focus on men's vulnerability to infection in terms of their own behaviour as well as the contexts in which they live.

  18. As origens das comemorações do Natal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Auguste Hollard

    1966-06-01

    Full Text Available A festa de Natal (1 nem sempre foi celebrada a 25 de dezembro. Na falta de qualquer documento que registrasse o dia de nascimento de Jesus, os cristãos procuraram, a princípio, as hipóteses mais fantásticas e contraditórias. Mais tarde, já no século III, as Igrejas do Oriente passaram a comemorar a Natividade no dia da Epifania (5-6 de janeiro . Somente a partir do século IV, é que a Igreja de Roma encontrou outra data, o dia 25 de dezembro, que era a data em que se celebrava a festa do Sol, e que lentamente veio a impor-se para tôda a Cristandade.

  19. Canto pré-natal: alquimias sonoras para gestantes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janaina Trasel Martins

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Este artigo irá focar no canto pré-natal; nos benefícios da música e do canto durante a gestação; na audição do feto no ventre e na escuta da gestante do seu corpo. Como metodologia para pesquisar sobre estes temas foram realizados estudos teóricos nas áreas da musicoterapia obstétrica, da terapia sonora e da medicina e também foram realizadas práticas de canto pré-natal. Arte, movimento e saúde são integrados com as alquimias sonoras para ampliar a consciência da corporeidade da mulher durante a gestação. Com cantos femininos em um círculo de mulheres, nos apoiamos e nos fortalecemos durante a gestação e enviamos vibrações sonoras harmoniosas para o bebê no ventre. ABSTRACT This article will focus on prenatal singing; on the benefits of music and singing during pregnancy; on the baby's hearing in the womb and on the listening of the pregnant woman to her body. To determine the methodology for researching these themes, theoretical studies were done in obstetrical music therapy, sound therapy, medicine and also practical research in prenatal singing classes. Art, movement and health are integrated with sound alchemy to widen the woman’s body awareness during pregnancy. With feminine chants in a circle of women, we support and strengthen ourselves during pregnancy and we send harmonious sounds vibrations to the baby in the womb. KEYWORDS Prenatal singing, prenatal music, pregnancy, listening, consciousness.

  20. Living and care arrangements of non-urban households in KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa, in the context of HIV and AIDS

    OpenAIRE

    Preez, du, C.J.

    2011-01-01

    In non-urban KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa, very few households escape the impacts of HIV and AIDS, either the direct impacts as a result of illness and death, or the indirect impacts through providing care and support to family, friends and neighbours. HIV and AIDS becomes part of the context or situation within which households arrange their lives, generate livelihoods and arrange and provide care. The differential impacts of HIV and AIDS on male and female members of different ages within ...

  1. What Is It Going to Be? Pattern and Potential Function of Natal Coat Change in Sexually Dichromatic Redfronted Lemurs (Eulemur fulvus rufus)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Barthold, Julia A; Fichtel, Claudia; Kappeler, Peter M

    2009-01-01

    with adult male coloration and female infants subsequently undergo a change in coloration. Using digital pictures and behavioral data collected on eight mother-offspring dyads from birth until the end of the coloration change, we 1) described timing and pattern of pelage development in redfronted lemur...... infants and 2) examined behavioral developmental correlates of the coloration change. The color change took place between 7 and 17 weeks of age and coincided with advanced physical independence; a pattern also found in monochromatic primate species with natal coats. No behavioral differences between male...

  2. The beach-seine fishery off Durban, KwaZulu-Natal

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    1996-07-23

    Jul 23, 1996 ... the mean weight of a crate of fish, mean lengths of fish caught .... or beyond the Natal Sharks Board protective shark nets. (approximately 300 m offshore). ..... Spotfin flathead. White karanteen ... Great barracuda. Yellow stripe ...

  3. Dente natal em recém-nascido pré-termo: relato de caso

    OpenAIRE

    ROCHA, Jenifer Garcia; SARMENTO, Lilian Citty; GOMES, Ana Maria Martins; VALLE, Marly Almeida Saleme do; DADALTO, Elâine Cristina Vargas

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT Low birth weight and prematurity may be associated with delayed dental eruption in the deciduous dentition; notwithstanding this relationship, cases of preterm newborns presenting natal or neonatal teeth have been reported in the literature, although this is a rare occurrence. The objective was to present the report of natal tooth in a preterm newborn, analyzing the uniqueness of this case in contrast to the delayed dental eruption usually observed in association with prematurity. Ca...

  4. Photo-identification, site fidelity, and movement of female gray seals (Halichoerus grypus) between haul-outs in the Baltic Sea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karlsson, Olle; Hiby, Lex; Lundberg, Torkel; Jüssi, Mart; Jüssi, Ivar; Helander, Björn

    2005-12-01

    The growing gray seal population in the Baltic Sea has led to increased conflicts with fisheries. Despite limited data on gray seal ecology, management measures, such as culling, have been implemented recently. We studied movements and site fidelity of Baltic gray seals using mark-recapture analysis based on photographic identification of individuals (photo-id). Seals were photographed at the major summer haul-out sites. Profile photographs of the head and neck were matched using purpose-written software to generate a database of capture histories from 1995-2000. The haul-outs were grouped into seven areas. Darroch's method (20) for a two-sample capture-recapture census was adapted to estimate rates of movement between the areas. The majority of seals were estimated to remain within the same area, suggesting that Baltic gray seals exhibit a high degree of site fidelity during the summer, and that fidelity to a site lasts for more than one season.

  5. Diversity among clients of female sex workers in India: comparing risk profiles and intervention impact by site of solicitation. implications for the vulnerability of less visible female sex workers.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dipak Suryawanshi

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: It seems generally accepted that targeted interventions in India have been successful in raising condom use between female sex workers (FSWs and their clients. Data from clients of FSWs have been under-utilised to analyse the risk environments and vulnerability of both partners. METHODS: The 2009 Integrated Biological and Behavioural Assessment survey sampled clients of FSWs at hotspots in Andhra Pradesh, Maharashtra and Tamil Nadu (n=5040. The risk profile of clients in terms of sexual networking and condom use are compared across usual pick-up place. We used propensity score matching (PSM to estimate the average treatment effect on treated (ATT of intervention messages on clients' consistent condom use with FSW. RESULTS: Clients of the more hidden sex workers who solicit from home or via phone or agents had more extensive sexual networks, reporting casual female partners as well as anal intercourse with male partners and FSW. Clients of brothel-based sex workers, who were the least educated, reported the fewest number/categories of partners, least anal sex, and lowest condom use (41%. Consistent condom use varied widely by state: 65% in Andhra Pradesh, 36% in Maharashtra and 29% in Tamil Nadu. Exposure to intervention messages on sexually transmitted infections was lowest among men frequenting brothels (58%, and highest among men soliciting less visible sex workers (70%. Exposure had significant impact on consistent condom use, including among clients of home-based sex workers (ATT 21%; p=0.001 and among men soliciting other more hidden FSW (ATT 17%; p=0.001. In Tamil Nadu no impact could be demonstrated. CONCLUSION: Commercial sex happens between two partners and both need to be, and can be, reached by intervention messages. Commercial sex is still largely unprotected and as the sex industry gets more diffuse a greater focus on reaching clients of sex workers seems important given their extensive sexual networks.

  6. Diversity among clients of female sex workers in India: comparing risk profiles and intervention impact by site of solicitation. implications for the vulnerability of less visible female sex workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suryawanshi, Dipak; Bhatnagar, Tarun; Deshpande, Sucheta; Zhou, Weiwei; Singh, Pankaj; Collumbien, Martine

    2013-01-01

    It seems generally accepted that targeted interventions in India have been successful in raising condom use between female sex workers (FSWs) and their clients. Data from clients of FSWs have been under-utilised to analyse the risk environments and vulnerability of both partners. The 2009 Integrated Biological and Behavioural Assessment survey sampled clients of FSWs at hotspots in Andhra Pradesh, Maharashtra and Tamil Nadu (n=5040). The risk profile of clients in terms of sexual networking and condom use are compared across usual pick-up place. We used propensity score matching (PSM) to estimate the average treatment effect on treated (ATT) of intervention messages on clients' consistent condom use with FSW. Clients of the more hidden sex workers who solicit from home or via phone or agents had more extensive sexual networks, reporting casual female partners as well as anal intercourse with male partners and FSW. Clients of brothel-based sex workers, who were the least educated, reported the fewest number/categories of partners, least anal sex, and lowest condom use (41%). Consistent condom use varied widely by state: 65% in Andhra Pradesh, 36% in Maharashtra and 29% in Tamil Nadu. Exposure to intervention messages on sexually transmitted infections was lowest among men frequenting brothels (58%), and highest among men soliciting less visible sex workers (70%). Exposure had significant impact on consistent condom use, including among clients of home-based sex workers (ATT 21%; p=0.001) and among men soliciting other more hidden FSW (ATT 17%; p=0.001). In Tamil Nadu no impact could be demonstrated. Commercial sex happens between two partners and both need to be, and can be, reached by intervention messages. Commercial sex is still largely unprotected and as the sex industry gets more diffuse a greater focus on reaching clients of sex workers seems important given their extensive sexual networks.

  7. Elena Natale ja Mikko Fritze: kultuuripealinna tiimi motivatsioon on töö ise / Elena Natale, Mikko Fritze ; intervjueerinud Tiina Saar

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Natale, Elena

    2009-01-01

    SA Tallinn 2011 tegevjuht Mikko Fritze ja administratiivjuht Elena Natale vastavad küsimustele, mis puudutavad Eesti töökultuuri, , toimiva koostöö saavutamist meeskonnas, kasutatavaid motivatsiooni- ja juhtimissüsteeme, personalivalikut, majanduskriisi mõju SA Tallinn 2011 tegevusele

  8. Biodiversity of frog haemoparasites from sub-tropical northern KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edward C. Netherlands

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Since South Africa boasts a high biodiversity of frog species, a multispecies haemoparasite survey was conducted by screening the blood from 29 species and 436 individual frogs. Frogs were collected at three localities in sub-tropical KwaZulu-Natal, a hotspot for frog diversity. Twenty per cent of the frogs were infected with at least one of five groups of parasites recorded. Intraerythrocytic parasites comprising Hepatozoon, Dactylosoma, and viral or bacterial organisms, as well as extracellular parasites including trypanosomes and microfilarid nematodes were found. A significant difference (P < 0.01 in the prevalence of parasitaemia was found across species, those semi-aquatic species demonstrating the highest, followed by semi-terrestrial frog species. None of those species described as purely terrestrial and aquatic were infected. Hepatozoon and Trypanosoma species accounted for most of the infections, the former demonstrating significant differences in intensity of infection across species, families and habitat types (P = 0.028; P = 0.006; P = 0.007 respectively. Per locality, the first, the formally protected Ndumo Game Reserve, had the highest biodiversity of haemoparasite infections, with all five groups of parasites recorded. The other two sites, that is the area bordering the reserve and the Kwa Nyamazane Conservancy, had a lower diversity with no parasite infections recorded and only Hepatozoon species recorded respectively. Such findings could be ascribed to the anthropogenic impact on the latter two sites, the first by the rural village activities, and the second by the bordering commercial sugar cane agriculture. Future studies should include both morphological and molecular descriptions of the above parasites, as well as the identification of potential vectors, possibly clarifying the effects human activities may have on frog haemoparasite life cycles and as such their biodiversity.

  9. Biodiversity of frog haemoparasites from sub-tropical northern KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Netherlands, Edward C.; Cook, Courtney A.; Kruger, Donnavan J.D.; du Preez, Louis H.; Smit, Nico J.

    2015-01-01

    Since South Africa boasts a high biodiversity of frog species, a multispecies haemoparasite survey was conducted by screening the blood from 29 species and 436 individual frogs. Frogs were collected at three localities in sub-tropical KwaZulu-Natal, a hotspot for frog diversity. Twenty per cent of the frogs were infected with at least one of five groups of parasites recorded. Intraerythrocytic parasites comprising Hepatozoon, Dactylosoma, and viral or bacterial organisms, as well as extracellular parasites including trypanosomes and microfilarid nematodes were found. A significant difference (P Hepatozoon and Trypanosoma species accounted for most of the infections, the former demonstrating significant differences in intensity of infection across species, families and habitat types (P = 0.028; P = 0.006; P = 0.007 respectively). Per locality, the first, the formally protected Ndumo Game Reserve, had the highest biodiversity of haemoparasite infections, with all five groups of parasites recorded. The other two sites, that is the area bordering the reserve and the Kwa Nyamazane Conservancy, had a lower diversity with no parasite infections recorded and only Hepatozoon species recorded respectively. Such findings could be ascribed to the anthropogenic impact on the latter two sites, the first by the rural village activities, and the second by the bordering commercial sugar cane agriculture. Future studies should include both morphological and molecular descriptions of the above parasites, as well as the identification of potential vectors, possibly clarifying the effects human activities may have on frog haemoparasite life cycles and as such their biodiversity. PMID:25830113

  10. Supervised oral HIV self-testing is accurate in rural KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez Pérez, Guillermo; Steele, Sarah J; Govender, Indira; Arellano, Gemma; Mkwamba, Alec; Hadebe, Menzi; van Cutsem, Gilles

    2016-06-01

    To achieve UNAIDS 90-90-90 targets, alternatives to conventional HIV testing models are necessary in South Africa to increase population awareness of their HIV status. One of the alternatives is oral mucosal transudates-based HIV self-testing (OralST). This study describes implementation of counsellor-introduced supervised OralST in a high HIV prevalent rural area. Cross-sectional study conducted in two government-run primary healthcare clinics and three Médecins Sans Frontières-run fixed-testing sites in uMlalazi municipality, KwaZulu-Natal. Lay counsellors sampled and recruited eligible participants, sought informed consent and demonstrated the use of the OraQuick(™) OralST. The participants used the OraQuick(™) in front of the counsellor and underwent a blood-based Determine(™) and a Unigold(™) rapid diagnostic test as gold standard for comparison. Primary outcomes were user error rates, inter-rater agreement, sensitivity, specificity and predictive values. A total of 2198 participants used the OraQuick(™) , of which 1005 were recruited at the primary healthcare clinics. Of the total, 1457 (66.3%) were women. Only two participants had to repeat their OraQuick(™) . Inter-rater agreement was 99.8% (Kappa 0.9925). Sensitivity for the OralST was 98.7% (95% CI 96.8-99.6), and specificity was 100% (95% CI 99.8-100). This study demonstrates high inter-rater agreement, and high accuracy of supervised OralST. OralST has the potential to increase uptake of HIV testing and could be offered at clinics and community testing sites in rural South Africa. Further research is necessary on the potential of unsupervised OralST to increase HIV status awareness and linkage to care. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  11. Biodiversity of frog haemoparasites from sub-tropical northern KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Netherlands, Edward C; Cook, Courtney A; Kruger, Donnavan J D; du Preez, Louis H; Smit, Nico J

    2015-04-01

    Since South Africa boasts a high biodiversity of frog species, a multispecies haemoparasite survey was conducted by screening the blood from 29 species and 436 individual frogs. Frogs were collected at three localities in sub-tropical KwaZulu-Natal, a hotspot for frog diversity. Twenty per cent of the frogs were infected with at least one of five groups of parasites recorded. Intraerythrocytic parasites comprising Hepatozoon, Dactylosoma, and viral or bacterial organisms, as well as extracellular parasites including trypanosomes and microfilarid nematodes were found. A significant difference (P frog species. None of those species described as purely terrestrial and aquatic were infected. Hepatozoon and Trypanosoma species accounted for most of the infections, the former demonstrating significant differences in intensity of infection across species, families and habitat types (P = 0.028; P = 0.006; P = 0.007 respectively). Per locality, the first, the formally protected Ndumo Game Reserve, had the highest biodiversity of haemoparasite infections, with all five groups of parasites recorded. The other two sites, that is the area bordering the reserve and the Kwa Nyamazane Conservancy, had a lower diversity with no parasite infections recorded and only Hepatozoon species recorded respectively. Such findings could be ascribed to the anthropogenic impact on the latter two sites, the first by the rural village activities, and the second by the bordering commercial sugar cane agriculture. Future studies should include both morphological and molecular descriptions of the above parasites, as well as the identification of potential vectors, possibly clarifying the effects human activities may have on frog haemoparasite life cycles and as such their biodiversity.

  12. A multi-site controlled trial of the R&R2MHP cognitive skills program for mentally disordered female offenders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jotangia, Amit; Rees-Jones, Angharad; Gudjonsson, Gisli H; Young, Susan

    2015-05-01

    This study aimed to evaluate the acceptability and efficacy of delivering the Reasoning and Rehabilitation Mental Health Program (R&R2MHP) to female mentally disordered offenders detained in medium and low secure hospital settings. Group treatment participants (N = 18) and control participants receiving treatment as usual (N = 20) completed self-report measures pre- and post-group. An informant measure of ward behavior was also completed by staff. Violent attitudes and locus of control were assessed at 3-month follow-up. Program completion was excellent (89%). A conservative intention-to-treat analysis found significant treatment effects post-group for positive problem-solving orientation, rational problem-solving style, and locus of control (medium-large effect), but no treatment effect for violent attitudes, anger, and ward behavior. At follow-up, a large treatment effect was found for locus of control. Ad hoc per protocol analyses found a large treatment effect for ward behavior. The findings provide preliminary support for the feasibility and utility of delivering R&R2MHP to females in secure psychiatric settings. © The Author(s) 2013.

  13. Site-dependent modulating effects of conjugated fatty acids from safflower oil in a rat two-stage carcinogenesis model in female Sprague-Dawley rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kimoto, N; Hirose, M; Futakuchi, M; Iwata, T; Kasai, M; Shirai, T

    2001-07-10

    Modifying effects of dietary administration of conjugated fatty acids from safflower oil (CFA-S), rich in conjugated linoleic acid, on major organs were examined in the post-initiation stage of a two-stage carcinogenesis model in female rats. Groups of 21 or 22 F344 female rats were treated sequentially with 2,2'-dihydroxy-di-n-propylnitosamine (intragastrically, i.g.), 7,12-dimethylbenz[a]anthracene (i.g.), 1,2-dimethylhydrazine (subcutaneously) and N-butyl-N-(4-hydroxybutyl)nitrosamine (in drinking water) during the first 3 weeks for initiation, and then administered diet containing 1 or 0.1% CFA-S for 33 weeks. Further groups of animals were treated with carcinogens or 1% CFA-S alone, or maintained as non-treated controls. All surviving animals were killed at week 36, and major organs were examined histopathologically for development of pre-neoplastic and neoplastic lesions. The 1 and 0.1% CFA-S treatment significantly decreased the incidence and multiplicity of mammary carcinomas, though a clear dose response was not observed. In the urinary bladder, the incidence of papillary or nodular hyperplasia but not tumors was significantly increased in the 1% CFA-S-treated group. The results indicate that low dose CFA-S may find application as a potent chemopreventor of mammary carcinogenesis.

  14. A festa de Natal para o cineasta amador: como a Kodak Movie News incentivou a produção e o consumo de imagens familiares

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Clara Campos dos Santos

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available A narrativa da Kodak Movie News, revista editada nos Estados Unidos, nas décadas de 50 e 60. Na primeira parte teórica, falamos das reuniões e registros familiares, na segunda, definimos o cinema amador doméstico e, na terceira, falamos da influência da Kodak na produção de registros amadores. A última parte do trabalho consta de análise do imaginário encontrado nas matérias sobre o Natal nas revistas Kodak Movie News, acessadas através do site mcnygenealogy.com.

  15. The ties that bind: Maternal kin bias in a multilevel primate society despite natal dispersal by both sexes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Städele, Veronika; Pines, Mathew; Swedell, Larissa; Vigilant, Linda

    2016-07-01

    In many social animals, individuals derive fitness benefits from close social bonds, which are often formed among kin of the philopatric sex. Hamadryas baboons, however, exhibit a hierarchical, multilevel social system where both sexes disperse from their natal one-male-unit (OMU). Although this would seem to hinder maintenance of kin ties, both sexes appear largely philopatric at the higher order band and clan levels, possibly allowing for bonds with same sex kin by both males and females. In order to investigate the possibility of kin bonds in hamadryas baboons, we identified kin dyads in a band without known pedigree information using a large panel of genetic markers: 1 Y-linked, 4 X-linked, and 23 autosomal microsatellites and part of the mitochondrial hypervariable region I. With these data, we performed a kinship analysis while accounting for misclassification rates through simulations and determined kinship among two types of dyads: leader and follower males and female dyads within OMUs. Leader and follower males were maternal relatives more often than expected by chance, suggesting that kinship plays a role in the formation of these relationships. Moreover, maternal female relatives were found in the same OMU more often than expected by chance, indicating that females may be motivated to maintain post-dispersal contact with maternal female kin. Our results suggest that hamadryas baboons can recognize maternal kin and that kin selection has contributed to shaping their complex social system. This implies that an ancestral maternal kin bias has been retained in hamadryas society. Am. J. Primatol. 78:731-744, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  16. Optometric practices and practitioners in KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa*

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. P. Mashige

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents findings of a survey of optometric practices and practitioners in the KwaZulu-Natal (KZN province. Questions on demographics of practitioners, equipment, clinical practice andbusiness profile were included in the questionnaire. Also, issues that have the potential to impact on optometric practices were contained in the questionnaire and these include medical aid, advertising, continuous professional development (CPD and emigration. Of the 117 completed questionnaires, 55% were from females and 45% were from male practitioners. The respondents included 55% Indians, 27% Whites, 17% Blacks and 1% Coloureds. The majority of practices were located in urban areas (90% and rural areas (10%, and were mostly independent (67% and franchises (33%. Only a minority of the practices had major diagnostic equipment such as visual field analysers (33% and corneal topographers (7%. A significant proportion of the practitioners reported not routinely performing non-contact tonometry (45% and slit lamp examination (41% respectively. The majority (95% rated patient’s needs as a very important factor in their decision to prescribe an optical device. A significant proportion (38% of the practices had annual patient bases of above 33 000, with 35% having an average of 51-100 new patients per month. A few (5% practices reported gross monthly turnovers of above R400 000, and 27% reported turnovers of less than R60 000. Many (89% derived 41% and above of their total revenue from spectacle lens sales and 11% derived 41% and above from contact lens sales. The majority (92% of practices were contracted to over 60% of the medical aid schemes. Many (68% reported that they were not negatively affected by medical aid fraud committed by their colleagues, however, a significant proportion (32% reported the converse. More than half (54% of the practitioners reported that they used the print media

  17. Assessing entrepreneurship perceptions of high school learners in Pietermaritzburg, KwaZulu-Natal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Darma Mahadea

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Although South Africa achieved positive economic growth rates since the advent of democracy in 1994, the formal sector has not been able to absorb the annual increasing number of job-seekers on the market and solve the unemployment problem. The exercise of entrepreneurship, through business formations and expansions, is regarded as a vehicle for job creation and output expansion. According the Global Entrepreneurship Monitor (GEM reports, South Africa’s level of early stage total entrepreneurial activity (TEA is rather low relative to other countries at a similar level of development. This is partly owing to skills and resource limitations. If more individuals could realistically be exposed to practical entrepreneurship education at the secondary school level, South Africa’s base for entrepreneurial capacity can be enhanced. This study uses quasi logistic regression to examine the probability of secondary school learners, in Pietermaritzburg, the capital of Kwazulu-Natal province in South Africa, to start their own business in the future. It also probes the association between the socio-economic attributes of these learners and entrepreneurship. On the basis of a survey of 275 senior school learners from 5 schools, the regression results indicate that gender, ethnic background and having a role model as well as acquiring personal skills to run one’s own business are significant factors influencing an individual’s propensity to venture into small firm self-employment in the future. Black learners are perceived to have a significantly greater disposition to enter into business than other groups, and male scholars are found to have a greater probability of starting their own business than female. As potential entrepreneurs do not necessarily come exclusively from a business family background, the supply of effective entrepreneurship can be augmented, if more young individuals with the relevant skills endowment can start opportunity firms

  18. E.G. Jansen se rol in belang van die Afrikaners in Natal / P.J.J. Prinsloo

    OpenAIRE

    Prinsloo PJJ

    1987-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to analyse the extensive services delivered to the people in Natal by E.G. Jansen. This analysis also presents an image regarding the most important cultural achievements obtained by the Afrikaners in Natal, during the first half of the century. The necessity of this study lies in the fact that it analyses the fundamentals of the cultural awakening of the Afrikaners in Natal, during the first half of the century. The dominant British character of Natal is another ...

  19. Maternal anxiety, risk factors and parenting in the first post-natal year.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seymour, M; Giallo, R; Cooklin, A; Dunning, M

    2015-03-01

    The antecedents and consequences of maternal post-natal anxiety have received comparatively less attention than depression despite being one of the most frequently reported mental health difficulties experienced by parents following childbirth. The aim of this study was to extend emerging literature on post-natal anxiety by investigating the prevalence of maternal anxiety symptoms, and its relationship with parenting behaviours (i.e. warmth, hostility) and experiences (i.e. parenting efficacy and satisfaction) within the first post-natal year. The psychosocial risk factors for post-natal anxiety symptoms were also explored. A community sample of 224 Australian mothers of infants (aged 0-12 months) completed a self-report questionnaire. Mothers in the current sample reported significantly more symptoms of anxiety compared with a normative sample. Approximately 18% of mothers reported mild to extremely severe symptoms of anxiety, with a high proportion experiencing co-morbid depressive symptoms. Maternal anxiety was associated with low parenting warmth, involvement, efficacy and satisfaction, and high parenting hostility. Yet, co-morbid depression and anxiety was more strongly associated with these parenting behaviours and experiences than anxiety alone. A range of psychosocial risk factors (e.g. education, sleep, relationship quality) were associated with maternal post-natal anxiety symptoms, providing opportunities for early identification and targeted early intervention. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  20. Declining Inconsistent Condom Use but Increasing HIV and Syphilis Prevalence Among Older Male Clients of Female Sex Workers: Analysis From Sentinel Surveillance Sites (2010-2015), Guangxi, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yi; Abraham Bussell, Scottie; Shen, Zhiyong; Tang, Zhenzhu; Lan, Guanghua; Zhu, Qiuying; Liu, Wei; Tang, Shuai; Li, Rongjian; Huang, Wenbo; Huang, Yuman; Liang, Fuxiong; Wang, Lu; Shao, Yiming; Ruan, Yuhua

    2016-05-01

    Clients of female sex workers (CFSWs) are a bridge population for the spread of HIV and syphilis to low or average risk heterosexuals. Most studies have examined the point prevalence of these infections in CFSWs. Limited evidence suggests that older age CFSWs are at a higher risk of acquiring sexually transmitted diseases compared with younger clients. Thus, we sought to describe long-term trends in HIV, syphilis, and hepatitis C (HCV) to better understand how these infections differ by sex worker classification and client age. We also examined trends in HIV, syphilis, and HCV among categories of female sex workers (FSWs).We conducted serial cross-sectional studies from 2010 to 2015 in Guangxi autonomous region, China. We collected demographic and behavior variables. FSWs and their clients were tested for HIV, syphilis, and HCV antibodies. Positive HIV and syphilis serologies were confirmed by Western blot and rapid plasma regain, respectively. Clients were categorized as middle age (40-49 years) and older clients (≥50 years). FSWs were categorized as high-tier, middle-tier, or low-tier based on the payment amount charged for sex and their work venue. Chi-square test for trends was used for testing changes in prevalence over time.By 2015, low-tier FSWs (LTFSWs) accounted for almost half of all FSWs; and they had the highest HIV prevalence at 1.4%. HIV prevalence declined significantly for FSWs (high-tier FSW, P = 0.003; middle-tier FSWs; P = 0.021; LTFSWs, P HIV prevalence increased for older age clients (1.3%-2.0%, P = 0.159) while syphilis prevalence remained stable. HCV infections were halved among older clients in 3 years (1.7%-0.8%, P sex with men or intravenous drug use. Clients preferred LTFSWs, especially older clients (81.9%).Our results suggest that HIV and syphilis infections are increasing in older clients who prefer LTFSWs. HIV and syphilis are likely increasing in Guangxi Province through heterosexual transmission.

  1. An investigation into the level of empowerment of rural women in the Zululand district of KwaZulu-Natal province of South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhengu, B R

    2010-06-01

    The aim of the study was to evaluate the outcome of the empowerment of rural women in relation to gender issues, power, and communication within the Zululand District of KwaZulu-Natal in SouthAfrica after implementation of a four-year Primary Health Care project in partnership with the Provincial Department of Health, and two Schools of Nursing at the University of KwaZulu-Natal and McMaster University in Canada. This project is based on substantial evidence which reveals that rural women are being neglected to the extent that these women have missed out on opportunities for development. The reasons for this disempowerment of women, particularly rural women, are thought to be due to the feminisation of poverty, as well as female submission, educational deprivation, privacy of domestic violence, exploitation, domination by men and cultural oppression (patriarchy). A qualitative research approach was used. Focus group discussion was utilised as the data collection technique, and this was also applied during the collection of baseline data. An interview guide covered issues of concern in the communities and households, including what the women would, or had done about these, how they engaged in decision-making in their families, how they handled situations when there was a difference of opinion, and their awareness of, and ability to claim their rights, including control of their lives. The data was collected from six clinics, from groups of six to ten women in the predominantly rural Zululand District of KwaZulu-Natal. The project has revealed improvement in the women's realisation of their rights, albeit limited, in communication, self-confidence, and reliance, including partnerships between Primary Health Care Nurses and women's groups. The formation of women's groups facilitated community development and participation in their own health, socio-economic and emotional development. The project suggests that such groups be encouraged and allowed to network for

  2. Pre-natal and post-natal exposure to respiratory infection and atopic diseases development: a historical cohort study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gehring Ulrike

    2006-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background According to the hygiene hypothesis, infections in early life protect from allergic diseases. However, in earlier studies surrogate measures of infection rather than clinical infections were associated with decreased frequencies of atopic diseases. Exposure to infection indicating sub-clinical infection rather than clinical infection might protect from atopic diseases. Objective: to investigate whether exposure to acute respiratory infections within pregnancy and the first year of life is associated with atopic conditions at age 5–14 years and to explore when within pregnancy and the first year of life this exposure is most likely to be protective. Methods Historical cohort study: Population level data on acute respiratory infections from the routine reporting system of the former German Democratic Republic were linked with individual data from consecutive surveys on atopic diseases in the same region (n = 4672. Statistical analyses included multivariate logistic regression analysis and polynomial distributed lag models. Results High exposure to acute respiratory infection between pregnancy and age one year was associated with overall reduced odds of asthma, eczema, hay fever, atopic sensitization and total IgE. Exposure in the first 9 months of life showed the most pronounced effect. Adjusted odds ratio's for asthma, hay fever, inhalant sensitization and total IgE were statistical significantly reduced up to around half. Conclusion Exposure to respiratory infection (most likely indicating sub-clinical infection within pregnancy and the first year of life may be protective in atopic diseases development. The post-natal period thereby seems to be particularly important.

  3. Proclamation No. R. 151, Natal Code of Zulu Law, 3 September 1987.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1988-01-01

    This document contains major provisions of the 1987 South African Proclamation amending the Natal Code of Zulu Law. Chapter 4 of these provisions covers personal status, property rights, the age of majority, and houses or families of which children become members. Chapter 5 deals with family heads in general, the earnings of minor children, the ownership and control of family property, the control of family members, and the responsibilities and privileges of family heads. The seventh chapter regulates customary marriages in general, the investigation of complaints about unreasonable withholding of consent on the part of a father or guardian, reporting of the arranged marriage date and payment of fees, the appointment and duties of official witnesses, the payment of "lobolo," the registration of customary marriages, issuance of the certificate of customary marriage, grounds for divorce, grounds for a declaration of nullity, duties of the party seeking the divorce, return of lobolo, child custody, and "ukungena" unions. The provisions of the eight chapter include the date of payment and delivery of lobolo and death of the lobolo cattle, the women who may receive lobolo, the constitution of lobolo, the amount of lobolo paid for women of varying social ranks, claims relative to lobolo payments, and the claiming of a ngquthu beast. Chapter 9 details the family system in terms of the establishment of senior or affiliated houses, the status of the first wife, the status of wives taken by a commoner subsequent to the first wife, a formal declaration of intention to divide a family home into sections, the declaration of the status of a second and subsequent wives, the declaration of the status of a third wife as a qade wife, junior houses affiliated with senior houses, the status of wives of the hereditary chief, the circumstances when members may leave a family home, and the property of a girl entering a customary marriage. The tenth chapter contains the laws of

  4. Sex-biased natal dispersal and inbreeding avoidance in American black bears as revealed by spatial genetic analyses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costello, Cecily M; Creel, Scott R; Kalinowski, Steven T; Vu, Ninh V; Quigley, Howard B

    2008-11-01

    We tested the hypothesis that sex-biased natal dispersal reduces close inbreeding in American black bears, a solitary species that exhibits nearly complete male dispersal and female philopatry. Using microsatellite DNA and spatial data from reproductively mature bears (>or= 4 years old), we examined the spatial genetic structure of two distinct populations in New Mexico from 1993 to 2000. As predicted, relatedness (r) and the frequency of close relationships (parent-offspring or full siblings) decreased with distance among female dyads, but little change was observed among male or opposite-sex dyads. Neighbouring females were more closely related than neighbouring males. The potential for inbreeding was low. Most opposite-sex pairs that lived sufficiently close to facilitate mating were unrelated, and few were close relatives. We found no evidence that bears actively avoided inbreeding in their selection of mates from this nearby pool, as mean r and relationship frequencies did not differ between potential and actual mating pairs (determined by parentage analysis). These basic patterns were apparent in both study areas despite a nearly two-fold difference in density. However, the sex bias in dispersal was less pronounced in the lower-density area, based on proportions of bears with male and female relatives residing nearby. This result suggests that male bears may respond to reduced competition by decreasing their rate or distance of dispersal. Evidence supports the hypothesis that inbreeding avoidance is achieved by means of male-biased dispersal but also indicates that competition (for mates or resources) modifies dispersal patterns.

  5. Genetic structure and natal origins of immature hawksbill turtles (Eretmochelys imbricata in Brazilian waters.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maira C Proietti

    Full Text Available Understanding the connections between sea turtle populations is fundamental for their effective conservation. Brazil hosts important hawksbill feeding areas, but few studies have focused on how they connect with nesting populations in the Atlantic. Here, we (1 characterized mitochondrial DNA control region haplotypes of immature hawksbills feeding along the coast of Brazil (five areas ranging from equatorial to temperate latitudes, 157 skin samples, (2 analyzed genetic structure among Atlantic hawksbill feeding populations, and (3 inferred natal origins of hawksbills in Brazilian waters using genetic, oceanographic, and population size information. We report ten haplotypes for the sampled Brazilian sites, most of which were previously observed at other Atlantic feeding grounds and rookeries. Genetic profiles of Brazilian feeding areas were significantly different from those in other regions (Caribbean and Africa, and a significant structure was observed between Brazilian feeding grounds grouped into areas influenced by the South Equatorial/North Brazil Current and those influenced by the Brazil Current. Our genetic analysis estimates that the studied Brazilian feeding aggregations are mostly composed of animals originating from the domestic rookeries Bahia and Pipa, but some contributions from African and Caribbean rookeries were also observed. Oceanographic data corroborated the local origins, but showed higher connection with West Africa and none with the Caribbean. High correlation was observed between origins estimated through genetics/rookery size and oceanographic/rookery size data, demonstrating that ocean currents and population sizes influence haplotype distribution of Brazil's hawksbill populations. The information presented here highlights the importance of national conservation strategies and international cooperation for the recovery of endangered hawksbill turtle populations.

  6. Subordinate females in the cooperatively breeding Seychelles warbler obtain direct benefits by joining unrelated groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Groenewoud, Frank; Kingma, Sjouke A; Hammers, Martijn; Dugdale, Hannah L; Burke, Terry; Richardson, David S; Komdeur, Jan

    2018-05-11

    1.In many cooperatively breeding animals, a combination of ecological constraints and benefits of philopatry favours offspring taking a subordinate position on the natal territory instead of dispersing to breed independently. However, in many species individuals disperse to a subordinate position in a non-natal group ("subordinate between-group" dispersal), despite losing the kin-selected and nepotistic benefits of remaining in the natal group. It is unclear which social, genetic and ecological factors drive between-group dispersal. 2.We aim to elucidate the adaptive significance of subordinate between-group dispersal by examining which factors promote such dispersal, whether subordinates gain improved ecological and social conditions by joining a non-natal group, and whether between-group dispersal results in increased lifetime reproductive success and survival. 3.Using a long-term dataset on the cooperatively-breeding Seychelles warbler (Acrocephalus sechellensis), we investigated 4.how a suite of proximate factors (food availability, group composition, age and sex of focal individuals, population density) promote subordinate between-group dispersal by comparing such dispersers with subordinates that dispersed to a dominant position or became floaters. We then analysed whether subordinates that moved to a dominant or non-natal subordinate position, or became floaters, gained improved conditions relative to the natal territory, and compared fitness components between the three dispersal strategies. 5.We show that individuals that joined another group as non-natal subordinates were mainly female and that, similar to floating, between-group dispersal was associated with social and demographic factors that constrained dispersal to an independent breeding position. Between-group dispersal was not driven by improved ecological or social conditions in the new territory and did not result in higher survival. Instead, between-group dispersing females often became co

  7. A experiência do homem como acompanhante no cuidado pré-natal

    OpenAIRE

    Miriam Aparecida de Abreu Cavalcante

    2007-01-01

    A presença de acompanhante no pré-natal é uma prática adotada e estimulada em alguns serviços de saúde. Este estudo teve como objetivo compreender a experiência do parceiro, como acompanhante de sua esposa/companheira nas consultas de pré-natal em uma instituição filantrópica da cidade de São Paulo. Trata-se de uma pesquisa qualitativa, cujos dados foram coletados por meio de entrevistas semi-estruturadas, organizados pelo método do discurso do sujeito coletivo e analisados pela ótica da Teor...

  8. Information, motivation, and behavioral skills for early pre-ART engagement in HIV care among patients entering clinical care in KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Laramie R; Amico, K Rivet; Shuper, Paul A; Christie, Sarah; Fisher, William A; Cornman, Deborah H; Doshi, Monika; MacDonald, Susan; Pillay, Sandy; Fisher, Jeffrey D

    2013-01-01

    Little is known regarding factors implicated in early engagement and retention in HIV care among individuals not yet eligible for antiretroviral therapy (pre-ART) in sub-Saharan Africa. Identifying such factors is critical for supporting retention in pre-ART clinical care to ensure timely ART initiation and optimize long-term health outcomes. We assessed patients' pre-ART HIV care-related information, motivation, and behavioral skills among newly diagnosed ART-ineligible patients, initiating care in KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa. The survey was interviewer-administered to eligible patients, who were aged 18 years or older, newly entering care (diagnosed within the last six-months), and ineligible for ART (CD4 count > 200 cells/mm(3)) in one of four primary care clinical sites. Self-reported information, motivation, and behavioral skills specific to retention in pre-ART HIV-care were characterized by categorizing responses into those reflecting potential strengths and those reflective of potential deficits. Information, motivation, and behavioral skills deficits sufficiently prevalent in the overall sample (i.e.,≥30% prevalent) were identified as areas in need of specific attention through intervention efforts adapted to the clinic level. Gender-based differences were also evaluated. A total of 288 patients (75% female) completed structured interviews. Across the sample, eight information, eight motivation, and eight behavioral skills deficit areas were identified as sufficiently prevalent to warrant specific targeted attention. Gender differences did not emerge. The deficits in pre-ART HIV care-related information, motivation, and behavioral skills that were identified suggest that efforts to improve accurate information on immune function and HIV disease are needed, as is accurate information regarding HIV treatment and transmission risk prior to ART initiation. Additional efforts to facilitate the development of social support, including positive interactions

  9. The role of routine post-natal abdominal ultrasound for newborns in a resource-poor setting: a longitudinal study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Omokhodion Samuel I

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background- Neonatal abdominal ultrasound is usually performed in Nigeria to investigate neonatal symptoms rather than as a follow up to evaluate fetal abnormalities which were detected on prenatal ultrasound. The role of routine obstetric ultrasonography in the monitoring of pregnancy and identification of fetal malformations has partly contributed to lowering of fetal mortality rates. In Nigeria which has a high maternal and fetal mortality rate, many pregnant women do not have ante-natal care and not infrequently, women also deliver their babies at home and only bring the newborns to the clinics for immunization. Even when performed, most routine obstetric scans are not targeted towards the detection of fetal abnormalities. The aim of the present study is to evaluate the benefit of routinely performing abdominal scans on newborns with a view to detecting possible abnormalities which may have been missed ante-natally. Methods- This was a longitudinal study of 202 consecutive, apparently normal newborns. Routine clinical examination and abdominal ultrasound scans were performed on the babies by their mother's bedside, before discharge. Neonates with abnormal initial scans had follow-up scans. Results- There were 108 males and 94 females. There were 12 (5.9% abnormal scans seen in five male and seven female neonates. Eleven of the twelve abnormalities were in the kidneys, six on the left and five on the right. Three of the four major renal anomalies- absent kidney, ectopic/pelvic kidney and two cases of severe hydronephrosis were however on the left side. There was one suprarenal abnormality on the right suspected to be a possible infected adrenal haemorrage. Nine of the abnormal cases reported for follow- up and of these, two cases had persistent severe abnormalities. Conclusions- This study demonstrated a 5.9% incidence of genito urinary anomalies on routine neonatal abdominal ultrasound in this small population. Routine obstetric USS

  10. Pre‐natal undernutrition and post‐natal overnutrition are associated with permanent changes in hepatic metabolism markers and fatty acid composition in sheep

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hou, L.; Hellgren, Lars; Kongsted, A. H.

    2014-01-01

    was associated with increased hepatic triglyceride, ceramide and free fatty acid content in adulthood (not observed in lambs), which was accompanied by up‐regulated early‐stage insulin signalling as reflected by increased INSRβ and PI3K‐p110 protein expression. The HCHF diet increased hepatic triglyceride...... content in lambs, associated with down‐regulated expressions of energy‐metabolism‐related genes (GLUT1, PPARα, SREBP1c, PEPCK). These post‐natal effects were not observed in adult HCHF sheep, after they had received a moderate (body‐fat correcting) diet for 1.5 years. Interestingly, pre‐natal LOW...... nutrition induced permanent alterations in hepatic phospholipids’ fatty acid composition. Thus, the amount of linoleic acid (C18 : 2 ∆9,12) was significantly increased and composition of rumen‐derived fatty acids were altered, indicating changed composition of rumenal microbiota. Hepatic insulin signalling...

  11. Worry Is Good for Breast Cancer Screening: A Study of Female Relatives from the Ontario Site of the Breast Cancer Family Registry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, L.; Knight, J. A.; Andrulis, I. L.; Chiarelli, A. M.; Glendon, G.; Ritvo, P.

    2012-01-01

    Few prospective studies have examined associations between breast cancer worry and screening behaviours in women with elevated breast cancer risks based on family history. Methods. This study included 901 high familial risk women, aged 23-71 years, from the Ontario site of the Breast Cancer Family Registry. Self-reported breast screening behaviours at year-one followup were compared between women at low (N=305), medium ( N=433), and high (N=163) levels of baseline breast cancer worry using logistic regression. Nonlinear relationships were assessed using likelihood ratio tests. Results. A significant non-linear inverted “U” relationship was observed between breast cancer worry and mammography screening (π=0. 034) for all women, where women at either low or high worry levels were less likely than those at medium to have a screening mammogram. A similar significant non-linear inverted “U” relationship was also found among all women and women at low familial risk for worry and screening clinical breast examinations (CBEs). Conclusions. Medium levels of cancer worries predicted higher rates of screening mammography and CBE among high-risk women

  12. Economic Activities, Illness Pattern and Utilisation of Health Care Facilities in the Rural Population of Kwazulu-Natal, South Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-01-01

    ABSTRACT Background The study was undertaken among the rural and black communities of the Uthungulu health district of the KwaZulu-Natal province, South Africa. Method A cross-sectional community-based descriptive study was conducted. A multi-stage sampling strategy was adopted to obtain a representative sample of the communities. Results The mean age of the population was 27 years and majority was female (54%). Among the adult population only 30% were educated, 19% were engaged in some form of economic activities while 9% were in the formal employment sector. The average monthly income per household was R1 301 (95% CI, R1 283; R1 308). The illnesses were reported by 27% of the total population over a period of one month. Notably higher rates of female individuals (29%) were sick compared to males (24%, p < 0.001). The rates of illnesses among adult females (39%) were also significantly higher than among males (31%, p < 0.009). Most of them (69%) attended primary health care (PHC) clinics for medical services, while 67% reported chronic conditions. Age (OR = 1.4), gender (OR = 0.711), education (OR = 0.64) and economic activities (OR = 1.9) were found to be associated with being ill or not. Conclusion The rural black communities are underdeveloped and deprived, which results in higher prevalence of illnesses; however, the utilisation of PHC facilities is comparatively higher than in the rest of the province and other parts of the country. Interventions to improve community health care services among the deprived population should be focused through public health strategies such as all-encompassing PHC that includes health promotion, education and basic essential amenities.

  13. Neither philopatric nor panmictic: microsatellite and mtDNA evidence suggests lack of natal homing but limits to dispersal in Pacific lamprey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spice, Erin K; Goodman, Damon H; Reid, Stewart B; Docker, Margaret F

    2012-06-01

    Most species with lengthy migrations display some degree of natal homing; some (e.g. migratory birds and anadromous salmonids) show spectacular feats of homing. However, studies of the sea lamprey (Petromyzon marinus) indicate that this anadromous species locates spawning habitat based on pheromonal cues from larvae rather than through philopatry. Previous genetic studies in the anadromous Pacific lamprey (Entosphenus tridentatus) have both supported and rejected the hypothesis of natal homing. To resolve this, we used nine microsatellite loci to examine the population structure in 965 Pacific lamprey from 20 locations from central British Columbia to southern California and supplemented this analysis with mitochondrial DNA restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis on a subset of 530 lamprey. Microsatellite analysis revealed (i) relatively low but often statistically significant genetic differentiation among locations (97% pairwise F(ST) values were <0.04 but 73.7% were significant); and (ii) weak but significant isolation by distance (r(2) = 0.0565, P = 0.0450) but no geographic clustering of samples. The few moderate F(ST) values involved comparisons with sites that were geographically distant or far upstream. The mtDNA analysis--although providing less resolution among sites (only 4.7%F(ST) values were significant)--was broadly consistent with the microsatellite results: (i) the southernmost site and some sites tributary to the Salish Sea were genetically distinct; and (ii) southern sites showed higher haplotype and private haplotype richness. These results are inconsistent with philopatry, suggesting that anadromous lampreys are unusual among species with long migrations, but suggest that limited dispersal at sea precludes panmixia in this species. © 2012 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  14. Mopeia Virus-related Arenavirus in Natal Multimammate Mice, Morogoro, Tanzania

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Günther, Stephan; Hoofd, Guy; Charrel, Remi

    2009-01-01

    A serosurvey involving 2,520 small mammals from Tanzania identified a hot spot of arenavirus circulation in Morogoro. Molecular screening detected a new arenavirus in Natal multimammate mice (Mastomys natalensis), Morogoro virus, related to Mopeia virus. Only a small percentage of mice carry Moro...

  15. Before harbour construction, Richards Bay on the Kwa- Zulu-Natal ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    spamer

    Zulu-Natal coast (28°47´S, 32°05´E) was a shallow, subtropical estuary of approximately 30 km2 (3 000 ha) surface area (Begg 1978), consisting of a large basin. (lagoon) connected to the Indian Ocean through a narrow mouth north of the basin. The shallow, con- stricted mouth substantially reduced the tidal range.

  16. On the occurrence of Stenopus tenui- rostris De Man, 1888 in Natal ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Department of Biology, Texas A & M University, College. Station, Texas 77843, USA. S. Koslowski c/o Durban Corporation, Durban. Received 8 JQlluary 1990; accepted 5 March 1990. The stenopodidean shrimp Slenopus lenuiroslris De Man,. 1888 is reported from Natal waters for the first time. This record represents a ...

  17. HIV/AIDS Stigma Attitudes among Educators in KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chao, Li-Wei; Gow, Jeff; Akintola, Goke; Pauly, Mark

    2010-01-01

    Background: One hundred and twenty educators from KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa, underwent HIV/AIDS training. The educators were surveyed about their attitudes toward people with HIV. Methods: The educators completed self-administered survey questionnaires both before and after 2 interventions. Measures included demographic characteristics,…

  18. A study of feeding in some inshore reef fish of the Natal Coast, South ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A detailed quantitative investigation of the feeding habits of seven important Natal inshore ... limits of influence of the surf zone or shore break. The physical features of .... There is a tendency for juvenile N. JithophiJus to form larger shoals than ...

  19. Fire scar mapping for disaster response in KwaZulu-Natal South ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study assessed the potential of the new Landsat 8 multispectral imagery in rapidly mapping fire scars to aid disaster management response teams in emergency efforts. Maximum likelihood and iso cluster algorithms where used to classify burnt and unburnt areas in KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa. The Landsat 8 sensor ...

  20. Civilisation and Colonial Education: Natal and Western Australia in the 1860s in Comparative Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swartz, Rebecca

    2018-01-01

    This paper examines how two Britons, working in Western Australia and Natal, respectively, engaged with ideas about the civilisation and education of Indigenous people. It is argued that concepts of civilisation were debated by missionaries, researchers and members of the public. Using the correspondence, publications and private journals of two…

  1. Stomach contents of some shore-caught teleosts of Natal, South Mrica

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    1985-09-25

    Sep 25, 1985 ... Natal nearshore substratum were visually analysed for percentage composition. Commonly caught fish, namely. Rhabdosargus sarba, R. holubi, Pomadasys commersonni,. Trachinotus african us and T. bot/a, were opportunistic omnivorous predators and fed largely on sand mussels and benthic crustacea.

  2. Timing of natal nests is an important factor affecting return rates of juvenile Great Reed Warblers

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Sosnovcová, Kateřina; Koleček, Jaroslav; Požgayová, Milica; Jelínek, Václav; Šulc, Michal; Steidlová, Petra; Honza, Marcel; Procházka, Petr

    2018-01-01

    Roč. 159, č. 1 (2018), s. 183-190 ISSN 0021-8375 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA13-06451S Institutional support: RVO:68081766 Keywords : Acrocephalus arundinaceus * Juvenile condition * Juvenile survival * Local dispersal distances * Natal philopatry Subject RIV: EG - Zoology OBOR OECD: Ornithology Impact factor: 1.468, year: 2016

  3. Hunger for Knowledge: Food Insecurity among Students at the University of KwaZulu-Natal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munro, Nicholas; Quayle, Michael; Simpson, Heather; Barnsley, Shelley

    2013-01-01

    The experience of food insecurity in the South African university student population is not well documented or researched. Data to assess vulnerability to food insecurity in a sample of 1.083 students from the University of KwaZulu-Natal (Pietermaritzburg Campus) was collected between 2007 and 2010 via a questionnaire developed specifically for…

  4. The rabbit as an animal model for post-natal vitreous matrix differentiation and degeneration

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Los, L. I.

    2008-01-01

    Purpose This study evaluates whether rabbits are a suitable animal model to study post-natal vitreous differentiation and degeneration. Methods Human and rabbit eyes of various ages were studied by complementary anatomical techniques, light microscopy, and transmission electron microscopy. Results

  5. Structure and precursors of the 1992 / 93 drought in KwaZulu-Natal ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The historical context and potential causes and structure of the 1992/93 drought in KwaZulu-Natal are analysed using NCEP reanalysis data. The analysis indicates that increased westerly winds with surface marine lows and continental highs prevailed over Southern Africa. Anomalous divergence and subsidence occur ...

  6. Sharks caught in the protective gill nets off KwaZulu-Natal, South ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Between 1980 and 2001, a total of 661 African angel sharks Squatina africana was caught in the protective nets off KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa. The mean annual catch was 30 sharks (range = 11–69, SD = 12.4), with no trend in catch rate over the study period. Individuals were caught throughout the year and through ...

  7. Sharks caught in the protective gill nets off KwaZulu-Natal, South ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Between 1978 and 1999, a total of 5 626 dusky sharks Carcharhinus obscurus, constituting 20% of the total shark catch, was caught in the protective nets off KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa. The mean annual catch was 256 sharks (SD = 107.5, range 129–571). There was no significant linear trend in catch rate with time.

  8. Sharks caught in the KwaZulu-Natal bather protection programme ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The current study provides long-term catch rate and biological data for tiger sharks Galeocerdo cuvier caught in the KwaZulu-Natal bather protection programme. Between 1978 and 2014, 1 760 G. cuvier were caught in nets and between 2007 and 2014, 108 G. cuvier were caught on drumlines. Standardised catch rates ...

  9. The Post-Natal Development of the Reproductive Tract of the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The Post-Natal Development of the Reproductive Tract of the Springbok Ram Lamb Antidorcas Marsupialis Marsupialis Zimmermann. JD Skinner, J. H. M. Van Zyl. Abstract. A search of the literature has not revealed any reference to the development of the reproductive tract of the male springbok or any quantitative studies ...

  10. Assessment of the state of the estuaries of the Cape and Natal in 1985/86

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Heydorn, AEF

    1986-08-01

    Full Text Available During a meeting of the South African National Committee for Oceanographic Research (SANCOR) Estuaries Programme Committee held on 12 and 13 October 1983 at San Lameer, Natal, consideration was given to a working paper on the freshwater requirements...

  11. Identifying regional landscapes for conservation planning: a case study from KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Fairbanks, DHK

    2000-08-30

    Full Text Available , and the landscape structure and processes that maintain patterns of biodiversity. The authors have developed a method of classifying landscapes for the KwaZulu-Natal province of South Africa. The process entailed the use of 1 km grid data from climate and terrain...

  12. Invasive alien plants in the terrestrial ecosystems of Natal, South Africa

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Macdonald, IAW

    1985-01-01

    Full Text Available This report consists of two types of chapters. Most of the chapters are short syntheses of particular aspects of the alien plant problem in Natal, written by groups of participants during the workshop meeting. They are brief accounts of the state...

  13. HIV Incidence Remains High in KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa: Evidence from Three Districts

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nel, Annaléne; Mabude, Zonke; Smit, Jenni; Kotze, Philip; Arbuckle, Derek; Wu, Jian; van Niekerk, Neliëtte; van de Wijgert, Janneke

    2012-01-01

    Background: HIV prevalence and incidence among sexually active women in peri-urban areas of Ladysmith, Edendale, and Pinetown, KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa, were assessed between October 2007 and February 2010 in preparation for vaginal microbicide trials. Methodology/Principal Findings: Sexually

  14. Circulation of shelf waters in the KwaZulu-Natal Bight, South Africa ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Ship-based acoustic Doppler current profiler (S-ADCP) technology, used in survey mode, has enabled nearsynoptic views of the in situ 3-D current field in the KwaZulu-Natal (KZN) Bight to be elucidated for the first time. Data acquired by the research vessels RS Africana and RS Algoa in June 2005, September 2007, March ...

  15. Non-School Influences and Educational Disadvantage: Pre and Post-natal Nutritional Deprivation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doll, Russell C.

    1973-01-01

    Deals with pre and post-natal malnutrition and its possible influence on the child, focusing on these points: How wide-spread and severe is the malnutrition? What might be the effects of the malnutrition at certain critical points in development? (Author/JM)

  16. Training teacher-librarians in KwaZulu Natal | Hoskins | Innovation

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The Advanced Certificate in Education School Library Development and Management at the University of KwaZulu-Natal was started in 2004 to train teacher-librarians. A preliminary study was done to investigate the status of school libraries in the schools from which the educators came and the use of information and ...

  17. Exploring Teachers' Practices in Teaching Mathematics and Statistics in Kwazulu-Natal Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Umugiraneza, Odette; Bansilal, Sarah; North, Delia

    2017-01-01

    Teaching approaches and assessment practices are key factors that contribute to the improvement of learner outcomes. The study on which this article is based, explored the methods used by KwaZulu-Natal (KZN) teachers in teaching and assessing mathematics and statistics. An instrument containing closed and open-ended questions was distributed to…

  18. Overview of the KwaZulu-Natal sardine run | van der Lingen | African ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper provides an introduction to, and overview of, the natural phenomenon known as the KwaZulu-Natal sardine run. Previous literature on this topic and hypotheses about the reasons why, and the mechanisms how, the run occurs are briefly synthesised and described. Papers contributing to this suite that detail more ...

  19. Socio-economic implications of the KwaZulu-Natal sardine run for ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The economic and social effects of the annual sardine run on the indigenous community on the south coast of KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa, were assessed using data gathered from questionnaires and personal interviews with 329 members of the community. Their knowledge, perceptions and attitudes about the sardine run ...

  20. Pre-natal effects of ethanol and folic acid supplements on the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Pre-natal effects of ethanol and folic acid supplements on the mineralisation of bones in ... folic acid deficiency, in particular at pregnancy; thus inflicting severe skeletal ... or 'catch-up' growth was displayed in the ethanol plus folate treated rats.

  1. Female offenders

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vivienne de Vogel; Marijke Louppen

    2017-01-01

    Although girls and women represent only a minority of the forensic mental health and prison populations, studies worldwide suggest that there has been a steady increase in the number of females being convicted for committing offenses, especially violent offenses. In this chapter, an overview will

  2. Pre- and Post-Natal Maternal Depressive Symptoms in Relation with Infant Frontal Function, Connectivity, and Behaviors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soe, Ni Ni; Wen, Daniel J.; Poh, Joann S.; Li, Yue; Broekman, Birit F. P.; Chen, Helen; Chong, Yap Seng; Kwek, Kenneth; Saw, Seang-Mei; Gluckman, Peter D.; Meaney, Michael J.; Rifkin-Graboi, Anne; Qiu, Anqi

    2016-01-01

    This study investigated the relationships between pre- and early post-natal maternal depression and their changes with frontal electroencephalogram (EEG) activity and functional connectivity in 6- and 18-month olds, as well as externalizing and internalizing behaviors in 24-month olds (n = 258). Neither prenatal nor postnatal maternal depressive symptoms independently predicted neither the frontal EEG activity nor functional connectivity in 6- and 18-month infants. However, increasing maternal depressive symptoms from the prenatal to postnatal period predicted greater right frontal activity and relative right frontal asymmetry amongst 6-month infants but these finding were not observed amongst 18-month infants after adjusted for post-conceptual age on the EEG visit day. Subsequently increasing maternal depressive symptoms from the prenatal to postnatal period predicted lower right frontal connectivity within 18-month infants but not among 6-month infants after controlling for post-conceptual age on the EEG visit day. These findings were observed in the full sample and the female sample but not in the male sample. Moreover, both prenatal and early postnatal maternal depressive symptoms independently predicted children’s externalizing and internalizing behaviors at 24 months of age. This suggests that the altered frontal functional connectivity in infants born to mothers whose depressive symptomatology increases in the early postnatal period compared to that during pregnancy may reflect a neural basis for the familial transmission of phenotypes associated with mood disorders, particularly in girls. PMID:27073881

  3. Female infertility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hall, D.A.; Yoder, I.

    1984-01-01

    Infertility, defined as 1 year of unprotected intercourse without conception, is becoming of increasingly important medical concern. Fertility in both the male and the female is at its peak in the twenties. Many couples today have postponed marriage and/or childbearing into their 30s until careers are established, but at that point fertility may be diminished. The current epidemic of venereal disease has been associated with an increasing incidence of tubal scarring. In addition, the use of intrauterine devices (IUDs) and birth control pills for contraception have let to later problems with pelvic inflammatory disease (PID) and ovulation disturbances. The problem of infertility intensifies as the number of babies available for adoption decreases. Therefore, it is estimated that approximately 10-20% of couples will eventually seek medical attention for an infertility-related problem. Fortunately, marked improvements in the results of tubal surgery are concurrently occurring secondary to refinements in microsurgical techniques, and many medical alternatives to induce ovulation are being developed. The male factor causes infertility in 30-40 % of couples, and the female factor is responsible in approximately 50% of couples. No cause is found in 10-20% of couples. This chapter discusses the role of coordinated imaging in the diagnosis and therapy of infertility in the female

  4. Some morphometric and radio-isotopic studies of the early post-natal development of the hypothalamus of the normal and androgenized rat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martyn, C.N.

    1979-01-01

    Female rats given a single injection of testosterone propionate (TP) in the first few days of post-natal life exhibit post-pubertally, persistent vaginal oestrous, sterility, disordered secretion of gonadotrophins and modified patterns of sexual behaviour. The effects of TP on the incorporation of 14 C-uridine in the CNS of 5 and 61/2 day old litter mate triads consisting of male, female and TP treated female rats were investigated. Low resolution autoradiographs of serial sections of brain were prepared and analysed. A sexual dimorphism in cell nuclear size was found in the suprachiasmatic, arcuate and paraventricular nuclei of the hypothalamus. TP treatment resulted in an increase in nuclear size towards the male pattern in the latter two areas. A decrease in cell nuclear size was found in the ventromedial and suprachiasmatic nuclei. Neither sex differences nor changes following TP injection were detected in rate of incorporation of 14 C-uridine in any areas of the brain, although a significant (p<0.02) reduction in uridine incorporation in the adrenal of the female animal 24 hours after TP injection was demonstrated. The results suggested an immediate direct action of TP on the hypothalamus and peripheral tissues of the neonatal rat. (author)

  5. Cell lineage analysis of the mammalian female germline.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yitzhak Reizel

    Full Text Available Fundamental aspects of embryonic and post-natal development, including maintenance of the mammalian female germline, are largely unknown. Here we employ a retrospective, phylogenetic-based method for reconstructing cell lineage trees utilizing somatic mutations accumulated in microsatellites, to study female germline dynamics in mice. Reconstructed cell lineage trees can be used to estimate lineage relationships between different cell types, as well as cell depth (number of cell divisions since the zygote. We show that, in the reconstructed mouse cell lineage trees, oocytes form clusters that are separate from hematopoietic and mesenchymal stem cells, both in young and old mice, indicating that these populations belong to distinct lineages. Furthermore, while cumulus cells sampled from different ovarian follicles are distinctly clustered on the reconstructed trees, oocytes from the left and right ovaries are not, suggesting a mixing of their progenitor pools. We also observed an increase in oocyte depth with mouse age, which can be explained either by depth-guided selection of oocytes for ovulation or by post-natal renewal. Overall, our study sheds light on substantial novel aspects of female germline preservation and development.

  6. Female condoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bounds, W

    1997-06-01

    Early versions of a female condom were available in the 1920s and 1960s, but they were little used and soon forgotten. It took the arrival of AIDS, and the urgent need for a wider range of female-controlled barrier techniques, to rekindle scientific interest in this method. In the 1980s, three groups in Europe and the USA began development of new female condom designs, comprising 'Femidom (Reality)', the 'Bikini Condom', and 'Women's Choice'. Apart from differences in their physical design, Femidom differs from the others in that it is made of a polyurethane membrane, which has several advantages over latex. Of the three, Femidom is the most advanced in terms of development and clinical testing, and it is the only one to have reached the marketing stage. Laboratory studies and clinical trials suggest that its contraceptive efficacy is similar to that documented for the male condom, though a direct comparison is not possible because no comparative clinical trials have, as yet, been undertaken. Reported 'typical-use' pregnancy rates range from 12.4 to 22.2% at 6 months of use in the USA and Latin America, respectively, while a study in the UK observed a rate of 15% at 12 months. As with all barrier methods, most failures appear to be associated with poor compliance or incorrect use. 'Perfect-use' pregnancy rates were substantially lower, indicating that Femidom can be very effective, if used consistently and correctly. Evidence for Femidom's effectiveness to protect against transmission of sexual disease-causing organisms, including HIV, is still very limited and based largely on laboratory studies. Whilst, in theory, the condom should confer reliable protection, its efficacy in clinical use will depend upon correct and consistent use and upon the product's ability to maintain an effective physical barrier throughout penetrative intercourse. In this respect, the results of recent and ongoing clinical studies are expected with much interest. How valuable Femidom will

  7. O cuidado pré-natal em hospital universitário: uma avaliação de processo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elizabeth Eriko Ishida Nagahama

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo do estudo foi avaliar o processo de atenção pré-natal referente à utilização do cuidado pré-natal do Programa Assistência Pré-natal às Gestantes de Baixo Risco do Hospital Universitário de Maringá, Paraná, Brasil. Compreendeu a seleção de critérios de qualidade que avaliaram a precocidade no ingresso e a adequação do número de consultas de pré-natal, mensuradas conforme o Programa de Humanização do Pré-natal e Nascimento do Ministério da Saúde e Índice de Adequação da Utilização do Cuidado Pré-natal. O estudo demonstrou que 44,5% gestantes iniciaram tardiamente o pré-natal, o que pode sugerir uma oferta limitada de vagas e a busca por melhor qualidade na atenção, demonstrada pela transferência espontânea de gestantes de outros serviços para o programa. As consultas de pré-natal foram garantidas, sendo o número médio ­ 9,8 consultas por gestante ­ superior aos parâmetros nacionais recomendados. Os indicadores utilizados e desenvolvidos para a avaliação de processo identificaram que o serviço ainda apresenta obstáculos ao acesso organizacional, necessitando, assim, da definição de estratégias que garantam essa diretriz fundamental do SUS.

  8. O cuidado pré-natal em hospital universitário: uma avaliação de processo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nagahama Elizabeth Eriko Ishida

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo do estudo foi avaliar o processo de atenção pré-natal referente à utilização do cuidado pré-natal do Programa Assistência Pré-natal às Gestantes de Baixo Risco do Hospital Universitário de Maringá, Paraná, Brasil. Compreendeu a seleção de critérios de qualidade que avaliaram a precocidade no ingresso e a adequação do número de consultas de pré-natal, mensuradas conforme o Programa de Humanização do Pré-natal e Nascimento do Ministério da Saúde e Índice de Adequação da Utilização do Cuidado Pré-natal. O estudo demonstrou que 44,5% gestantes iniciaram tardiamente o pré-natal, o que pode sugerir uma oferta limitada de vagas e a busca por melhor qualidade na atenção, demonstrada pela transferência espontânea de gestantes de outros serviços para o programa. As consultas de pré-natal foram garantidas, sendo o número médio - 9,8 consultas por gestante - superior aos parâmetros nacionais recomendados. Os indicadores utilizados e desenvolvidos para a avaliação de processo identificaram que o serviço ainda apresenta obstáculos ao acesso organizacional, necessitando, assim, da definição de estratégias que garantam essa diretriz fundamental do SUS.

  9. Autonomy, natality and freedom: a liberal re-examination of Habermas in the enhancement debate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pugh, Jonathan

    2015-03-01

    Jurgen Habermas has argued that carrying out pre-natal germline enhancements would be inimical to the future child's autonomy. In this article, I suggest that many of the objections that have been made against Habermas' arguments by liberals in the enhancement debate misconstrue his claims. To explain why, I begin by explaining how Habermas' view of personal autonomy confers particular importance to the agent's embodiment and social environment. In view of this, I explain that it is possible to draw two arguments against germline enhancements from Habermas' thought. I call these arguments 'the argument from negative freedom' and 'the argument from natality'. Although I argue that many of the common liberal objections to Habermas are not applicable when his arguments are properly understood, I go on to suggest ways in which supporters of enhancement might appropriately respond to Habermas' arguments. © 2014 The Author. Bioethics published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  10. Statistical processing of natality data for the Czech Republic before and after the Chernobyl accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klepetkova, Hana; Thinova, Lenka

    2010-01-01

    All available data regarding natality in Czechoslovakia (or the Czech Republic) before and after the Chernobyl accident are summarized. Data from the databases of the Czech Statistical Office and of the State Office for Nuclear Safety were used to analyze natality and mortality of children in the Czech Republic and to evaluate the relationship between the level of contamination and the change in the sex ratio at time of birth that was observed in some areas in November of 1986. Although the change in the ratio of newborn boys-to-girls ratio was statistically significant, no direct relationship between that ratio and the level of contamination was found. Statistically significant changes in the sex ratio also occurred in Czechoslovakia (or in the Czech Republic) in the past, both before and after the accident. Furthermore, no statistically significant changes in the rate of stillbirths and multiple pregnancies were observed after the Chernobyl accident

  11. visões sobre o espaço urbano de Natal/RN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edna Maria Furtado

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed at developing a Natal-city spatial "reading", capital of the state of Rio Grande do Norte, and its reconfiguration from the intensification of tourist activity, going through by geography, social sciences and economy, in a matrix approach that ignores the traditional limitations of science and recognizes the complexity around the world today. In light of this understanding, they have been analyzed the socio-economic connections that reform the landscape of Natal under the aegis of the new service-sector economy, led by tourism, in an intense process of city reconfiguration, focusing on three major areas and their irrigating arteries. These changes occur due to the public-private relationship __ via public policies __in the formation of new areas and the reform of old ones of the city, which contributed so that the tourist activity seize it, making it a socio-economic pattern that has obvious effects in its urban mapping.

  12. Enfermagem obstétrica no acompanhamento pré - natal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucia Helena Garcia Penna

    1999-09-01

    Full Text Available Consiste em um relato de experiência acerca de um projeto de pesquisa iniciado em agosto de 1997, envolvendo docentes do Departamento Materno-infantil da Faculdade de Enfermagem da UERJ e profissionais do Centro Municipal de Saúde do Rio de Janeiro da S.M.S./RJ. Tem por objetivo, descrever o processo de inserção da Consulta de Enfermagem de Pré-natal no conteúdo da graduação, bem como sua estruturação e implantação no referido Centro Municipal de Saúde. Esse trabalho propõe rever também, o modelo biomédico das consultas, a fim de proporcionar reflexões e rupturas de paradigmas, e com isso auxiliar no aprendizado e na ampliação do acompanhamento de pré-natal no Rio de Janeiro.

  13. A Profile of KwaZulu-Natal: Demographics, Poverty, Inequality and Unemployment

    OpenAIRE

    Pauw, Kalie

    2005-01-01

    This paper forms part of a series of papers that present profiles of South Africa's provinces, with a specific focus on key demographic statistics, poverty and inequality estimates, and estimates of unemployment. In this volume comparative statistics are presented for agricultural and non-agricultural households, as well as households from different racial groups, locations (metropolitan, urban and rural areas) and district municipalities of KwaZulu-Natal. Most of the data presented are drawn...

  14. Muslim women’s identities in South Africa: A Zanzibari perspective in KwaZulu-Natal.

    OpenAIRE

    Vahed, Goolam

    2014-01-01

    This article examines how Zanzibari women in KwaZulu-Natal are negotiating their identities within the context of local and global realities. In South Africa, while the post-apartheid period gave birth to non-racial democracy, South Africa is haunted by high unemployment, widespread poverty and poor service delivery. Globally, this period has witnessed increased conflict since the 9/11 attacks on the Twin Towers in New York and the subsequent War on Terror which has led some...

  15. Efficacy of collateral types used by financial intermediaries in KwaZulu-Natal

    OpenAIRE

    Kuhn, M.E.; Darroch, Mark A.G.; Ortmann, Gerald F.

    1997-01-01

    Collateral is an important incentive device used by lenders to encourage loan repayment. However, collateral must have secure and transferable title, it must be marketable, have low lender liquidation costs and lenders must be able to attach the collateral. Study results for rural and micro-enterprise finance institutions in KwaZulu-Natal showed that assets such as vehicles and equipment were not effective as collateral due to high costs in attaching the asset. Cessions on crops were often co...

  16. Natal Dispersal in the North Island Robin (Petroica longipes: the Importance of Connectivity in Fragmented Habitats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Askia K. Wittern

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Natal dispersal is an important component in bird population dynamics and can influence the persistence of local and metapopulations. We examined natal dispersal in the North Island robin (Petroica longipes, a sedentary bird species distributed in a fragmented forest habitat on Tiritiri Matangi Island, New Zealand. Earlier studies have shown that the only dispersal phase in this species takes place when juveniles leave their natal patch, and that juveniles who fail to find suitable habitat do not survive their first winter. These findings suggest that natal dispersal behavior in this species is important for population viability. We found that juveniles were highly affected by the fragmentation of the forest habitat, with patch occupancy being positively correlated with degree of connectivity of the landscape. Most juvenile movements (52.1% were observed between patches that were separated by less than 20 m. Juvenile North Island robins were found in all forest habitat types, including young and open stands. This suggests that the juveniles are not dependent on old forest stands during their dispersal phase. Based on these findings, we suggest that management of this regionally-threatened species should focus not only on maintaining populations in occupied patches and increasing the habitat quality of these patches, but also on protecting existing forest patches acting as corridors and creating new forest habitat among patches. This would greatly increase the viability of the species' metapopulations by increasing dispersal success between both unoccupied patches and subpopulations. Additionally, increased connectivity between forest patches could also be expected to increase the probability of successful dispersal of other threatened native species, many of which are also sensitive to the high degree of fragmentation of their habitats.

  17. Biodiversity of frog haemoparasites from sub-tropical northern KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa

    OpenAIRE

    Edward C. Netherlands; Courtney A. Cook; Donnavan J.D. Kruger; Louis H. du Preez; Nico J. Smit

    2015-01-01

    Since South Africa boasts a high biodiversity of frog species, a multispecies haemoparasite survey was conducted by screening the blood from 29 species and 436 individual frogs. Frogs were collected at three localities in sub-tropical KwaZulu-Natal, a hotspot for frog diversity. Twenty per cent of the frogs were infected with at least one of five groups of parasites recorded. Intraerythrocytic parasites comprising Hepatozoon, Dactylosoma, and viral or bacterial organisms, as well as extracell...

  18. Challenges in the prenatal and post-natal diagnosis of mediastinal cystic hygroma: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nazir Sarfraz

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction Cystic hygroma is a benign congenital neoplasm that mostly presents as a soft-tissue mass in the posterior triangle of the neck. Pure mediastinal lesions are uncommon; the vast majority are asymptomatic and are an incidental finding in adulthood. The diagnosis is often made intra- or postoperatively. Prenatal identification is exceptional and post-natal diagnosis also proves challenging. Case presentation We report one such case that was mistaken for other entities in both the prenatal and immediate post-natal period. Initial and follow-up antenatal ultrasound scans demonstrated a multicystic lesion in the left chest, and the mother was counselled about the possibility of her baby having a congenital diaphragmatic hernia. Initial post-natal chest radiographs were reported as normal. An echocardiogram and thoracic computed tomography scan confirmed a complex multiloculated cystic mediastinal mass. The working diagnoses were of a mediastinal teratoma or congenital cystic adenomatous malformation. At operation, the lesion was compressed by the left lung and was found to be close to the left phrenic nerve, which was carefully identified and preserved. After excision, histopathological examination of the mass confirmed the diagnosis of cystic hygroma. Postoperative dyspnoea was observed secondary to paradoxical movement of the left hemidiaphragm and probable left phrenic neuropraxia. This settled conservatively with excellent recovery. Conclusion Despite the fact that isolated intrathoracic cystic hygroma is a rare entity, it needs to be considered in the differential diagnosis of foetal and neonatal mediastinal masses, particularly for juxtadiaphragmatic lesions. The phrenic nerve is not identifiable on prenatal ultrasound imaging, and it is therefore understandable that a mass close to the diaphragm may be mistaken for a congenital diaphragmatic hernia because of the location, morphology and potential phrenic nerve compression

  19. EMERGÊNCIA DOS "CONDOMÍNIOS-CLUBE" NA ZONA SUL DE NATAL/RN, BRASIL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Felipe Fernandes de Araújo

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Este documento tiene como objetivo discutir el surgimiento de una nueva tipología residencial que se ha extendido en el sur de Natal / RN, los condominios llamado Club. Su principal característica es la apelación a los artículos de ocio más diversos, que son utilizados por los empresarios urbanos como una forma de crear un nuevo estilo de vida y un nuevo producto que se vende. La base teórica de este trabajo se basa en el enfoque heterodoxo de la coordinación espacial realizada por Pedro Abramo. Esta perspectiva considera el espacio urbano como un conjunto de inventario de viviendas que son ofrecidas por los empresarios urbanos. En general, el orden urbano y el ambiente residencial es incierto, porque sufren cambios derivados de la aparición de las innovaciones de espacio causadas por empresarios urbanos en busca de beneficios extraordinarios. En el caso de la zona sur de Natal, la construcción de carreteras principales que conectan esta zona de la ciudad al vecino municipio de Parnamirim, que ha sido el blanco de la abundancia del mercado inmobiliario de Natal. El ciclo de vida de los inventarios residenciales de la Zona Sur de Natal ha cambiado con el tiempo, desde el principio de la vivienda en grandes alojamientos para la producción de proyectos verticais. En la actualidad, un fenómeno nuevo que se plantea es la propagación de una nueva clasificación, los condominios club. Al ser un caso reciente en que los proyectos se encuentran todavía en fase de lanzamiento o de la construcción, el estudio se llevará a cabo mediante el análisis de marketing utilizadas por los empresarios urbanos para atraer a los consumidores a través de panfletos y folletos.

  20. The search for the youngest granites in the southern part of the Natal Metamorphic Province

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thomas, R.J.; Eglington, B.M.

    1990-01-01

    It is clear that the Belmont Pluton and the dykes are geochemically, isotopically and therefore, genetically distinct. The Belmont pluton is probably related to the garnet leucogranite phase of the Margate Complex. It is suggested that the dykes (∼ 965 Ma) are younger than the Belmont pluton (∼1055 Ma). The relatively low initial 87 Sr/ 86 Sr are typical of the granites intruded at ∼1000 Ma. The age of the dykes is comparable with the 951 ± 16 Ma (R o =.70320 ± 13) given for the Sezela pluton. The high R o (∼0.715) of the dykes is similar to other, minor granite sheets from southern Natal, and is compatible with an origin by late-stage melting of pre-existing radiogenic material. Both the dykes and the Sezela pluton are unequivocally younger than the D 3 deformation, whereas the young dates from the Oribi Gorge Suite are controversial. Thus, although it is possible that some of the minor, intrusive granitic sheets could yet be shown to be of Pan-African age, it is evident that no significant Pan-African magmatism or thermal overprinting has affected the Natal sector of the Namaqua-Natal-Maudheim belt. 1 fig., 7 refs

  1. Conceptions of Contraceptive Use in Rural KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa: Lessons for Programming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ndinda, Catherine; Ndhlovu, Tidings; Khalema, Nene Ernest

    2017-01-01

    Community family planning programmes in South Africa arose from the controversial apartheid history of controlling the African population while encouraging the growth of European migrant population. Post-apartheid population policies shifted away from population control to aligning policies to the global agenda that placed emphasis on the link between population and development. The focus on population and development polices in post-apartheid South Africa is on social equality, justice and peace rather than controlling sections of the population. Given the shift, this paper interrogates the conceptions of contraceptive use among rural communities in KwaZulu-Natal. Our primary objective is to understand the dynamics surrounding access to and use of family planning services in peri-urban and rural areas of KwaZulu-Natal. Using focus group data, the findings of the study suggest that different social categories interact with the family planning programmes differently. How teenagers and married women perceive the value of family planning differs. Gender differences regarding the use of condoms are also evident. The paper attempts to grapple with the non-use of condoms despite the knowledge that these prevent pregnancy and provide protection from sexually-transmitted diseases. The contribution of this paper lies in its identification of socio-cultural factors and the political economy underlying the different attitudes towards contraceptive use in rural KwaZulu-Natal. PMID:28350334

  2. UNDERSTANDING COMPACT OBJECT FORMATION AND NATAL KICKS. II. THE CASE OF XTE J1118 + 480

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fragos, T.; Willems, B.; Kalogera, V.; Ivanova, N.; Rockefeller, G.; Fryer, C. L.; Young, P. A.

    2009-01-01

    In recent years, an increasing number of proper motions have been measured for Galactic X-ray binaries. When supplemented with accurate determinations of the component masses, orbital period, and donor effective temperature, these kinematical constraints harbor a wealth of information on the system's past evolution. Here, we consider all this available information to reconstruct the full evolutionary history of the black hole X-ray binary XTE J1118 + 480, assuming that the system originated in the Galactic disk and the donor has solar metallicity. This analysis accounts for four evolutionary phases: mass transfer through the ongoing X-ray phase, tidal evolution before the onset of Roche lobe overflow, motion through the Galactic potential after the formation of the black hole, and binary orbital dynamics due to explosive mass loss and possibly a black hole natal kick at the time of core collapse. We find that right after black hole formation, the system consists of a ≅6.0-10.0 M sun black hole and a ≅1.0-1.6 M sun main-sequence star. We also find that that an asymmetric natal kick is not only plausible but required for the formation of this system, and derive a lower and upper limit on the black hole natal kick velocity magnitude of 80 km s -1 and 310 km s -1 , respectively.

  3. Conceptions of Contraceptive Use in Rural KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa: Lessons for Programming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ndinda, Catherine; Ndhlovu, Tidings; Khalema, Nene Ernest

    2017-03-28

    Community family planning programmes in South Africa arose from the controversial apartheid history of controlling the African population while encouraging the growth of European migrant population. Post-apartheid population policies shifted away from population control to aligning policies to the global agenda that placed emphasis on the link between population and development. The focus on population and development polices in post-apartheid South Africa is on social equality, justice and peace rather than controlling sections of the population. Given the shift, this paper interrogates the conceptions of contraceptive use among rural communities in KwaZulu-Natal. Our primary objective is to understand the dynamics surrounding access to and use of family planning services in peri-urban and rural areas of KwaZulu-Natal. Using focus group data, the findings of the study suggest that different social categories interact with the family planning programmes differently. How teenagers and married women perceive the value of family planning differs. Gender differences regarding the use of condoms are also evident. The paper attempts to grapple with the non-use of condoms despite the knowledge that these prevent pregnancy and provide protection from sexually-transmitted diseases. The contribution of this paper lies in its identification of socio-cultural factors and the political economy underlying the different attitudes towards contraceptive use in rural KwaZulu-Natal.

  4. Substance use and duration of untreated psychosis in KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Glen P. Davis

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: Substance use and psychiatric disorders cause significant burden of disease in low- and middle-income countries. Co-morbid psychopathology and longer duration of untreated psychosis (DUP can negatively affect treatment outcomes. Objectives: The study assessed substance use amongst adults with severe mental illness receiving services at a regional psychiatric hospital in KwaZulu-Natal (South Africa. We describe the prevalence and correlates of lifetime substance use and examine the association between substance use and DUP. Methods: A cross-sectional survey recruited adults diagnosed with severe mental illness and assessed lifetime and past 3-month substance use using the World Health Organization Alcohol, Smoking and Substance Involvement Screening Test. Regression analyses were conducted to determine associations between lifetime substance use (other than alcohol and tobacco and DUP as measured by the World Health Organization Encounter Form. Results: Amongst 87 participants, alcohol (81.6%, tobacco (75.6% and cannabis (49.4% were the most common substances reported for lifetime use. Risk of health-related problems (health, social, financial, legal and relationship of cannabis use was associated with younger age, single marital status and lower education. Adjusted regression analyses indicated that use of amphetamines and methaqualone is associated with longer DUP. Conclusions: Substance use is prevalent amongst psychiatric patients in KwaZulu-Natal and may contribute to longer DUP. Mental health services in this region should address co-morbid substance use and psychiatric disorders. Keywords: Substance Use; Psychosis; KwaZulu-Natal

  5. An investigation into the level of empowerment of rural women in the Zululand district of KwaZulu-Natal province of South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B.R. Bhengu

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study was to evaluate the outcome of the empowerment of rural women in relation to gender issues, power, and communication within the Zululand District of KwaZulu-Natal in South Africa after implementation of a four-year Primary Health Care project in partnership with the Provincial Department of Health, and two Schools of Nursing at the University of KwaZulu-Natal and McMaster University in Canada. This project is based on substantial evidence which reveals that rural women are being neglected to the extent that these women have missed out on opportunities for development. The reasons for this disempowerment of women, particularly rural women, are thought to be due to the feminisation of poverty, as well as female submission, educational deprivation, privacy of domestic violence, exploitation, domination by men and cultural oppression (patriarchy. A qualitative research approach was used. Focus group discussion was utilised as the data collection technique, and this was also applied during the collection of baseline data. An interview guide covered issues of concern in the communities and households, including what the women would, or had done about these, how they engaged in decision-making in their families, how they handled situations when there was a difference of opinion, and their awareness of, and ability to claim their rights, including control of their lives. The data was collected from six clinics, from groups of six to ten women in the predominantly rural Zululand District of KwaZulu-Natal. The project has revealed improvement in the women’s realisation of their rights, albeit limited, in communication, self-confidence, and reliance, including partnerships between Primary Health Care Nurses and women’s groups. The formation of women’s groups facilitated community development and participation in their own health, socio-economic and emotional development. The project suggests that such groups be encouraged and

  6. Sífilis Congênita como Indicador de Assistência Pré-natal

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    De Lorenzi Dino Roberto Soares

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Objetivos: estudar a prevalência de sífilis congênita (SC em um hospital universitário da região sul do Brasil, destacando seu papel como indicador de qualidade da assistência pré-natal. Método: estudo descritivo dos casos de SC ocorridos no HG-UCS, no período de 1 de junho de 2000 a 31 de maio de 2001, com base nos critérios diagnósticos propostos pelo Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC, 1998. Resultados: a prevalência de sífilis congênita observada foi de 1,5% (27 casos em 1739 nascimentos. O coeficiente de SC encontrado foi de 15,5 casos por 1000 nascidos vivos. Das 23 gestantes (85,2% que relataram acompanhamento pré-natal prévio, em apenas 16 (69,6% casos o diagnóstico de sífilis materna foi realizado antes do parto. Somente 4 gestantes (17,4% foram adequadamente tratadas durante o pré-natal, de modo a prevenir a transmissão vertical da doença. Em 8 casos (29,6% constatou-se a associação da sífilis materna com outras doenças sexualmente transmissíveis. O coeficiente de mortalidade perinatal por SC foi de 1,15 por 1000 nascidos vivos (2 mortes perinatais. Conclusões: os autores reafirmam a importância da SC como indicador de saúde perinatal, visto ser uma doença totalmente passível de prevenção durante o pré-natal. A elevada prevalência de SC observada permite questionar a qualidade da atenção pré-natal disponível à população estudada.

  7. Perspective for Female Medical Physicists

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Naqvi, Syed Mansoor; Hasnain, Aziz Fatima

    2009-01-01

    Due to cultural and religious reasons, Pakistani women can be reluctant to seek medical attention for disorders affecting their genitals or breasts. As a result, in the case of cervical and breast cancers, oncological treatment is often not received until the diseases are in the late stages. Once a cancer is classified and the tumor marked, the role of the medical physicist begins. Medical physicists' responsibilities include treatment planning, supervising treatment through radiation, dosimetry, contouring, training, equipment selection, education, research, and supervising radiotherapy facilities. In brachytherapy, isotopes are placed at the tumor site in the form of wires or seeds. There are very few female medical physicists in Pakistan. This leads to further hesitation on the part of many women to seek treatment. To help female patients obtain needed medical care, female physics students should be encouraged to pursue the emerging field of medical physics. This would provide a new professional opportunity for female physics students and give comfort to female patients.

  8. First Direct Evidence for Natal Wintering Ground Fidelity and Estimate of Juvenile Survival in the New Zealand Southern Right Whale Eubalaena australis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carroll, E L; Fewster, R M; Childerhouse, S J; Patenaude, N J; Boren, L; Baker, C S

    2016-01-01

    Juvenile survival and recruitment can be more sensitive to environmental, ecological and anthropogenic factors than adult survival, influencing population-level processes like recruitment and growth rate in long-lived, iteroparous species such as southern right whales. Conventionally, Southern right whales are individually identified using callosity patterns, which do not stabilise until 6-12 months, by which time the whale has left its natal wintering grounds. Here we use DNA profiling of skin biopsy samples to identify individual Southern right whales from year of birth and document their return to the species' primary wintering ground in New Zealand waters, the Subantarctic Auckland Islands. We find evidence of natal fidelity to the New Zealand wintering ground by the recapture of 15 of 57 whales, first sampled in year of birth and available for subsequent recapture, during winter surveys to the Auckland Islands in 1995-1998 and 2006-2009. Four individuals were recaptured at the ages of 9 to 11, including two females first sampled as calves in 1998 and subsequently resampled as cows with calves in 2007. Using these capture-recapture records of known-age individuals, we estimate changes in survival with age using Cormack-Jolly-Seber models. Survival is modelled using discrete age classes and as a continuous function of age. Using a bootstrap method to account for uncertainty in model selection and fitting, we provide the first direct estimate of juvenile survival for this population. Our analyses indicate a high annual apparent survival for juveniles at between 0.87 (standard error (SE) 0.17, to age 1) and 0.95 (SE 0.05: ages 2-8). Individual identification by DNA profiling is an effective method for long-term demographic and genetic monitoring, particularly in animals that change identifiable features as they develop or experience tag loss over time.

  9. The reproductive success of black rhinoceroses in the Hluhluwe–iMfolozi Park, KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa

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    Zoliswa N. Nhleko

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Black rhinoceroses (Diceros bicornis are endangered and the southern-central sub-species (Diceros bicornis minor is considered critically endangered. We assessed the reproductive lifehistories of black rhinoceroses in Hluhluwe–iMfolozi Park (HiP, KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa, to determine whether this historically important donor sub-population was meeting regional reproductive targets. Detailed life-history information for known individuals (n = 79–120 was used to investigate reproductive parameters between 1998 and 2013. Mean age at sexual maturity was 12 years, which exceeded a target period of 7 years and 5 months. The mean inter-calving interval was 3 years and 8 months – 8 months longer than the recommended 3 years. The poor population performance of the HiP black rhinoceroses could be a result of poor habitat quality, poor animal condition, females losing their first calves, predation of calves or a negative social effect of annual live-harvesting of the population. However, we believe that the estimated ecological carrying capacity of black rhinoceroses at HiP (a figure used to ascertain whether the population can be harvested at all may be incorrect, leading to the poor reproductive performance. We recommend that the accuracy of the ecological carrying capacity estimate be assessed as a matter of urgency and that a moratorium be placed on the live-harvesting of individuals until the estimate has been refined. Conservation implications: Our results provide key data which can be used to refine black rhinoceros breeding targets in South Africa and the region more broadly

  10. Toward Electoral Security: Experiences from KwaZulu-Natal Höhere Sicherheit bei Wahlen: Erfahrungen aus KwaZulu-Natal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kristine Höglund

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available There is a growing recognition of the dangers of electoral violence. Yet, the theoretical foundation for systematic research and for adequate policy is still underdeveloped. This article aims to develop the theoretical understandings of strategies to manage and prevent electoral violence. This is accomplished by integrating research conducted within the two academic discourses on democratization and conflict management and also by drawing on the experiences from the conflict-ridden province KwaZulu-Natal in South Africa. The five strategies identified are monitoring, mediation, legal measures, law enforcement and self-regulating practices. In the article, the functions and mechanisms of the strategies are discussed. In addition, we analyse the limitations and usefulness of each of the strategies in turn and also provide suggestions on how to improve electoral security.Gewaltsame Auseinandersetzungen bei Wahlen werden zunehmend als Gefahr erkannt. Dennoch sind die theoretischen Grundlagen systematischer Forschungen zu diesem Phänomen, die zu angemessenen politischen Handlungsweisen beitragen könnten, immer noch ungenügend entwickelt. Dieser Beitrag zielt darauf ab, einen theoretischen Hintergrund für Strategien zum Umgang mit Gewalt bei Wahlen und zur Prävention zu entwickeln. Zu diesem Zweck kombinieren die Autorinnen Ergebnisse zweier Forschungsbereiche – der Demokratisierungsforschung und der Forschung zum Konfliktmanagement – und ziehen außerdem Erfahrungen aus der konfliktbeladenen südafrikanischen Provinz KwaZulu-Natal heran. Sie identifizieren fünf Strategien: Monitoring, Mediation, gesetzliche Maßnahmen, Sanktionierung und Selbsthilfepraktiken. Die Autorinnen diskutieren die Wirkungsweisen und Erfolgsaussichten, aber auch die Grenzen dieser Strategien und machen einige konkrete Vorschläge zur Erhöhung der Sicherheit bei Wahlen.

  11. Nem bandidos nem trabalhadores baratos: Trajetórias de jovens da periferia de Natal

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    Livia de Tommasi

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available O artigo analisa a trajetória de jovens de um grupo de hip-hop na periferia de Natal, utilizando como ferramenta o conceito de ‘governamentalidade’ tal como tratado por Foucault. A narrativa dos jovens revela como eles se movimentam entre múltiplas experiências urbanas, procurando fugir do destino de grupo ‘de risco’ (tornar-se ‘mão de obra barata’ ou criminosos fazendo arte como forma de resistência. A análise propõe uma abordagem da juventude não como uma categoria analítica, um sujeito ou ator social, mas como um campo de intervenção que tem despertado interesse e recebido investimentos públicos e privados.  Neither Cheap Workforce nor Outlaws: Trajectories of Youngsters in the Outskirts of Natal examines the story of the young members of a hip-hop group in the Northeastern Brazil according to Foucault’s concept of ‘governmentality’. Their narrative reveals the way they move between multiple urban experiences trying to escape from their fate as “risk group” (that is, to become “cheap workforce” or criminals, using art as a form of resistance. We approach youth less as an analytical category, a subject or a social actor and rather as a field of intervention that has attracted attention and received public and private investments. Key words: governmentality, youth, hip-hop, periphery, Natal

  12. The Association of Molecular Gas and Natal Super Star Clusters in Henize 2–10

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Kelsey E.; Brogan, Crystal L.; Indebetouw, Remy; Testi, Leonardo; Wilner, David J.; Reines, Amy E.; Chen, C.-H. Rosie; Vanzi, Leonardo

    2018-02-01

    We present ALMA observations of the dwarf starburst galaxy He 2–10 in combination with previous SMA CO observations to probe the molecular environments of natal super star clusters (SSCs). These observations include the HCO+(1-0), HCN(1-0), HNC(1-0), and CCH(1-0) molecular lines, as well as 88 GHz continuum with a spatial resolution of 1\\buildrel{\\prime\\prime}\\over{.} 7× 1\\buildrel{\\prime\\prime}\\over{.} 6. After correcting for the contribution from free–free emission to the 88 GHz continuum flux density (∼60% of the 88 GHz emission), we derive a total gas mass for He 2–10 of {M}{gas}=4{--}6× {10}8 M ⊙, roughly 5%–20% of the dynamical mass. Based on a principle component analysis, HCO+ is found to be the best “general” tracer of molecular emission. The line widths and luminosities of the CO emission suggests that the molecular clouds could either be as small as ∼8 pc, or alternately have enhanced line widths. The CO emission and 88 GHz continuum are anti-correlated, suggesting that either the dust and molecular gas are not cospatial, which could reflect that the 88 GHz continuum is dominated by free–free emission. The CO and CCH emission are also relatively anti-correlated, which is consistent with the CCH being photo-enhanced, and/or the CO being dissociated in the regions near the natal SSCs. The molecular line ratios of regions containing the natal star clusters are different from the line ratios observed for regions elsewhere in the galaxy. In particular, the regions with thermal radio emission all have {CO}(2{--}1)/{{HCO}}+(1-0)correlated with the evolutionary stage of the clusters.

  13. Female Reproductive System (For Teens)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of the Female Reproductive System Print en español Sistema reproductor femenino Reproduction All living things reproduce. Reproduction — ... of Use Notice of Nondiscrimination Visit the Nemours Web site. Note: All information on TeensHealth® is for ...

  14. Pre- and post-natal melatonin administration partially regulates brain oxidative stress but does not improve cognitive or histological alterations in the Ts65Dn mouse model of Down syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corrales, Andrea; Parisotto, Eduardo B; Vidal, Verónica; García-Cerro, Susana; Lantigua, Sara; Diego, Marian; Wilhem Filho, Danilo; Sanchez-Barceló, Emilio J; Martínez-Cué, Carmen; Rueda, Noemí

    2017-09-15

    Melatonin administered during adulthood induces beneficial effects on cognition and neuroprotection in the Ts65Dn (TS) mouse model of Down syndrome. Here, we investigated the effects of pre- and post-natal melatonin treatment on behavioral and cognitive abnormalities and on several neuromorphological alterations (hypocellularity, neurogenesis impairment and increased oxidative stress) that appear during the early developmental stages in TS mice. Pregnant TS females were orally treated with melatonin or vehicle from the time of conception until the weaning of the offspring, and the pups continued to receive the treatment from weaning until the age of 5 months. Melatonin administered during the pre- and post-natal periods did not improve the cognitive impairment of TS mice as measured by the Morris Water maze or fear conditioning tests. Histological alterations, such as decreased proliferation (Ki67+ cells) and hippocampal hypocellularity (DAPI+ cells), which are typical in TS mice, were not prevented by melatonin. However, melatonin partially regulated brain oxidative stress by modulating the activity of the primary antioxidant enzymes (superoxide dismutase in the cortex and catalase in the cortex and hippocampus) and slightly decreasing the levels of lipid peroxidation in the hippocampus of TS mice. These results show the inability of melatonin to prevent cognitive impairment in TS mice when it is administered at pre- and post-natal stages. Additionally, our findings suggest that to induce pro-cognitive effects in TS mice during the early stages of development, in addition to attenuating oxidative stress, therapies should aim to improve other altered processes, such as hippocampal neurogenesis and/or hypocellularity. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Implementation of a micro hydropower supply scheme in the Kwazulu-Natal Drakensberg

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dooge, G.R.

    1997-01-01

    Eskom has implemented a 5 kW micro hydropower supply scheme in the Kwazulu-Natal Drakensberg. The scheme supplies electrical power to five schools using a Single Wire Earth Return (SWER) transmission line. This paper describes the implementation of the scheme and covers the social aspects, the mechanical, civil and electrical works, and also scheme economics. The main aim of this project was to obtain experience in the design and implementation of a micro hydro system, both technically and socially, so that the technology could be used with confidence in Eskom's non-grid electrification programme. 5 refs., 3 figs

  16. Rare association of hyper IgE syndrome with cervical rib and natal teeth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roshan Anupama

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Hyper IgE syndrome (HIES is a rare immunodeficiency syndrome characterized by a triad of cutaneous abscesses, mostly caused by Staphylococus aureus; pneumonia; and raised IgE levels. Nonimmunological associations include course facial features, multiple bone fractures, joint hyperextensibility, and retained primary dentition. Patients require long-term antibiotic therapy. We report here a classical case of HIES with rare associations of natal teeth, bilateral cervical ribs, and conductive deafness. The patient was being treated with monteleukast and dapsone.

  17. An investigation into techniques for reducing doses from neo-natal radiographic examinations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wraith, C.M.; Martin, C.J. [Aberdeen Royal Hospitals NHS Trust (United Kingdom). Dept. of Bio-Medical Physics and Bio-Engineering; Stockdale, E.J.N.; McDonald, S.; Farquhar, B. [Royal Aberdeen Children`s Hospital (United Kingdom)

    1995-10-01

    A survey of radiation doses received by infants having radiography in a neo-natal unit was undertaken at Aberdeen Maternity Hospital. Options for dose reduction recommended by the CEC Lake Starnberg Group were investigated. Techniques were implemented for clinical evaluation after assessments of image quality with test objects and phantoms. Clinical image quality of radiographs was evaluated by paediatric radiologists using CEC criteria. Results revealed a clear relationship between entrance dose and patient weight, indicating that reference doses for infants could be linked to weight. (author).

  18. A Rb-Sr isotope study of a young granite sheet at Marble Delta, southern Natal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Naidoo, D.D.; Eglington, B.M.; Harmer, R.E.

    1989-01-01

    Rb-Sr isotope data are presented for two apophyses of a granite sheet intrusive into marble at Marble Delta, southern Natal. Granite samples collected near the margins of these apophyses contain calcite and are thought to have been contaminated by the marble during intrusion of the granite magma. In contrast, those further away from contacts lack calcite. The 'uncontaminated' granite samples define an isochron date of 899 ± 11 Ma. This data is thought to represent the intrusive age of the granite sheet. 11 refs., 5 figs., 2 tabs

  19. Villes et structures spatiales élémentaires du KwaZulu-Natal

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    Fabrice Folio

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available However significant the legacy of former segregational policies in the spatial organisation of South African cities, it is important to include other basic spatial structures that have often been minimised. That is the aim of this paper. The towns in KwaZulu-Natal province provide a strong illustration of this point. The urban entities in the province can be differentiated by several criteria – either historical or contemporary – that are not always related to apartheid policy. The towns are underpinned by basic structures that organise the province. These structures are determined not only by racial discrimination, but also by economics. Recent developments seem to reinforce this trend.

  20. Le Dépistage Prénatal Non Invasif de la Trisomie 21 : le DPNI

    OpenAIRE

    Fabre Belloin, Clémence

    2015-01-01

    Background: NIPT, Non-Invasive Pre-natal Testing, is a technological advance in the detection of fetal chromosomal aneuploidies, the most common of which is Down Syndrome. NIPT analyses cell-free fetal DNA in the blood of a pregnant woman. Its high sensitivity (99.1%) and specificity (99.9%) make that test a performance to the actual screening (Sensitivity = 85%, Specificity = 1/30). Fetal karyotyping is obtained by invasive procedure but nevertheless carries a risk of miscarriage of about 0....

  1. KwaZulu-Natal coastal erosion events of 2006/2007 and 2011: A predictive tool?

    OpenAIRE

    Alan Smith; Lisa A. Guastella; Andrew A. Mather; Simon C. Bundy; Ivan D. Haigh

    2013-01-01

    Severe coastal erosion occurred along the KwaZulu-Natal coastline between mid-May and November 2011. Analysis of this erosion event and comparison with previous coastal erosion events in 2006/2007 offered the opportunity to extend the understanding of the time and place of coastal erosion strikes. The swells that drove the erosion hotspots of the 2011 erosion season were relatively low (significant wave heights were between 2 m and 4.5 m) but of long duration. Although swell height was import...

  2. Development through rural advancement, with special reference to Kwazulu-Natal

    OpenAIRE

    2012-01-01

    M.Comm. The aim of this study was to analyse and discuss the importance of rural advancement in the development of developing regions or countries, and KwaZulu-Natal was used as a case study. The literature focused on the backwardness of the rural areas and the importance of rural advancement for the development of less developed regions or countries. Development cannot be said to have taken place unless people's lives in general have improved. Large parts of developing regions or countrie...

  3. Black rhinoceros Diceros bicomis capture, transportation and boma management by the Natal Parks Board

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R.R. Henwood

    1989-10-01

    Full Text Available Selected Papers from the Rhinoceros Conservation Workshop, Skukuza, Kruger National Park,31 August – 4 September 1988 The procedure used by the Natal Parks Board in the capture of black rhinoceros Diceros bicomis minor (Drummond, 1876 is outlined. It is emphasised that a successful capture operation requires careful planning and should not be attempted by the uninitiated or by parties who have little or no experience. Dosages of drugs are given, the darting and actual capture procedures highlighted, and aspects of transport and practical boma management are described.

  4. High risk of suicide among highschool learners in uMgungundlovu District KwaZuluNatal Province South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N Khuzwayo

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Background. Worldwide, suicide affects the most vulnerable populations, including adolescents and young adults. It is estimated that suicide will contribute more than 2% to the global burden of disease by 2020. Information about the prevalence of suicidal behaviour and the sociodemographic characteristics and risk factors associated with suicide in the South African (SA rural context is important for local and national policy and contributes to global understanding of the phenomenon.Objective. To investigate key demographic factors and behaviours associated with planning and attempting suicide among high-school learners.Methods. In a cross-sectional study, we used stratified random sampling to select 16 schools in uMgungundlovu District, KwaZulu-Natal Province, SA. All grade 10 learners (N=1 759 at these schools completed a self-administered questionnaire (Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC Youth Risk Behavior Surveillance System. Data analysis was carried out with Stata 13 statistical software using generalised estimating equations.Results. In total, 222 learners (12.6% of the 1 759 had made plans to attempt suicide during the previous 12 months, 261 (14.8% had actually attempted suicide, and 218 attempts had resulted in the learner being treated by a doctor or nurse (12.4%. The risk of planning suicide increased with age. For male learners, being threatened with a weapon on school property (adjusted odds ratio (AOR 3.7, 95% confidence interval (CI 1.9 - 7.1; p<0.01 or bullied through Facebook or WhatsApp (AOR 3.1, 95% CI 1.5 - 7.1; p<0.01 significantly increased the likelihood of making a suicide attempt that resulted in treatment by a doctor or nurse. For female learners, engaging in risk behaviours increased this likelihood, risk factors including being physically hurt by someone they were dating (1 - 3 times AOR 3.3, 95% CI 1.9 - 5.7; p<0.01, ≥4 times AOR 10.0, 95% CI 2.5 - 40.2 (p<0.01 and number of drinks consumed

  5. Prevalence of HIV, HSV-2 and pregnancy among high school students in rural KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa: a bio-behavioural cross-sectional survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdool Karim, Quarraisha; Kharsany, Ayesha B M; Leask, Kerry; Ntombela, Fanelisibonge; Humphries, Hilton; Frohlich, Janet A; Samsunder, Natasha; Grobler, Anneke; Dellar, Rachael; Abdool Karim, Salim S

    2014-12-01

    Adolescents in southern African high schools are a key population for HIV prevention interventions. We report on the prevalence of HIV, HSV-2 and pregnancy as indicators of high-risk sexual behaviour among high school students in rural KwaZulu-Natal. Bio-behavioural cross-sectional survey. Students completed a self-administered structured, standardised demographic and sexual behavioural questionnaire. Dried blood spot specimens were collected for HIV and HSV-2 testing. Urine specimens were used for pregnancy testing in female students. A total of 2675 (1423 females, 1252 males) consenting students were enrolled from 14 high schools between September and November 2010. The median age of students was 16 years (IQR 15-18). HIV prevalence was 1.4% (95% CI 0.9 to 1.9) in males and 6.4% (95% CI 4.6 to 8.3) in females (pPregnancy prevalence was 3.6% (95% CI 2.6 to 4.5). Risk factors for prevalent HIV infection in female students included being over 18 years of age (adjusted OR (aOR)=2.67, 95% CI 1.67 to 4.27; ppregnancy (aOR=1.66, 95% CI 1.10 to 2.51; p=0.016) and experience of two or more deaths in the household in the previous year (aOR=1.97, 95% CI 1.13 to 3.44; p=0.016). The high prevalence of HIV, HSV-2 and pregnancy underscore the need for school-based sexual and reproductive health services, and provide further impetus for the inclusion of adolescents in behavioural and biomedical trials with HIV incidence endpoints. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  6. Analysis of forecasting malaria case with climatic factors as predictor in Mandailing Natal Regency: a time series study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aulia, D.; Ayu, S. F.; Matondang, A.

    2018-01-01

    Malaria is the most contagious global concern. As a public health problem with outbreaks, affect the quality of life and economy, also could lead to death. Therefore, this research is to forecast malaria cases with climatic factors as predictors in Mandailing Natal Regency. The total number of positive malaria cases on January 2008 to December 2016 were taken from health department of Mandailing Natal Regency. Climates data such as rainfall, humidity, and temperature were taken from Center of Statistic Department of Mandailing Natal Regency. E-views ver. 9 is used to analyze this study. Autoregressive integrated average, ARIMA (0,1,1) (1,0,0)12 is the best model to explain the 67,2% variability data in time series study. Rainfall (P value = 0.0005), temperature (P value = 0,0029) and humidity (P value = 0.0001) are significant predictors for malaria transmission. Seasonal adjusted factor (SAF) in November and March shows peak for malaria cases.

  7. The promotion of oral health within Health Promoting Schools in KwaZulu-Natal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Reddy

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Background. Oral health promotion is a cost-effective strategy that can be implemented at schools for the prevention of oral diseases. Theimportance and value of school-based interventions in children has been identified in South Africa (SA. Although oral health strategiesinclude integrated school-based interventions, there is a lack of published evidence on whether these strategies have been translated intopractice and whether these programmes have been evaluated.Objective. To assess the efficiency and sustainability of the toothbrushing programme implemented at health-promoting schools inKwaZulu-Natal Province, SA.Methods. A mixed-methods approach was used for this study, conducted at 23 health-promoting schools in KwaZulu-Natal using focusgroup discussions. Triangulation was used for evaluation.Results. The intervention implemented had created awareness of oral health for learners, educators and parents. Findings in this studyindicate that although there were benefits obtained from this school-based intervention, many challenges, such as time constraints, largeclasses and a lack of adequate resources and funding, affected the sustainability of the programme.Conclusion.The school setting has the potential to deliver integrated preventive and promotive programmes provided they are supportedby adequate funding and resources.

  8. Predictive modelling of wetland occurrence in KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jens Hiestermann

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The global trend of transformation and loss of wetlands through conversion to other land uses has deleterious effects on surrounding ecosystems, and there is a resultant increasing need for the conservation and preservation of wetlands. Improved mapping of wetland locations is critical to achieving objective regional conservation goals, which depends on accurate spatial knowledge. Current approaches to mapping wetlands through the classification of satellite imagery typically under-represents actual wetland area; the importance of ancillary data in improving accuracy in mapping wetlands is therefore recognised. In this study, we compared two approaches Bayesian networks and logistic regression to predict the likelihood of wetland occurrence in KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa. Both approaches were developed using the same data set of environmental surrogate predictors. We compared and verified model outputs using an independent test data set, with analyses including receiver operating characteristic curves and area under the curve (AUC. Both models performed similarly (AUC>0.84, indicating the suitability of a likelihood approach for ancillary data for wetland mapping. Results indicated that high wetland probability areas in the final model outputs correlated well with known wetland systems and wetland-rich areas in KwaZulu-Natal. We conclude that predictive models have the potential to improve the accuracy of wetland mapping in South Africa by serving as valuable ancillary data.

  9. Robert Plant (1818–1858: A Victorian plant hunter in Natal, Zululand, Mauritius and the Seychelles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Donal P. McCracken

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available In the 1850s Robert William Plant collected plants and other natural specimens in what is now KwaZulu-Natal. This one-time Englishman compiled a dictionary for gardeners before emigrating to Natal in 1850. There he worked as the agent for Samuel Stevens, the London dealer in ‘curiosities of natural history’. Though Plant collected mainly plants, he also sent consignments of beetles, butterflies, bird skins and shells back to Britain. He published the first scientific paper on Zululand and was requested by the Royal Botanic Gardens at Kew to write the first Flora natalensis. It was while collecting for this never-to-be-completed treatise that Plant contracted malaria in Maputaland. He died in St Lucia in 1858 and in doing so became South Africa’s martyr to botany. What emerges from this study is a picture of the difficulties faced by plant hunters in mid-19th-century South Africa, the sort of plants they collected and the necessity for them sometimes to diversify into other natural history products to survive.

  10. Number One Reef: An overstepped segmented lagoon complex on the KwaZulu-Natal continental shelf

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Godfrey Vella

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available This study of the bathymetry of the mid-shelf of the Durban Bight, KwaZulu-Natal revealed a series of previously undocumented seafloor features. These features were mapped using a high-resolution multibeam bathymetric echosounder and a detailed map of the seafloor topography was produced. We recognised several features that closely resemble features of contemporary segmented lagoon and lake systems: semicircular seafloor depressions, arcuate ridges, cuspate spits and prograding submerged barriers. Based on the striking similarity in morphology to Kosi Bay – a segmented lagoon system from the sandy northern KwaZulu-Natal coastal plain – a similar evolutionary model is proposed. This model is of an incised valley formed following a sea level lowering to the Last Glacial Maximum at about 18 000 BP. Thereafter, continued transgressive infilling occurred to a point where an extensive lagoon and back-barrier system was established. At this point, sea levels remained static, causing the net segmentation of the system and the slow closure of the tidal basins or circular depressions. This type of seafloor topography is rarely preserved and is the result of fortuitous cementation after deposition and the later removal of sediment that would ordinarily bury such features.

  11. The contribution of public capital towards economic growth: A KwaZulu-Natal case study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clive E. Coetzee

    2017-04-01

    Aim: The way provincial or regional growth depends on infrastructure is investigated in this article and it is applied to data from KwaZulu-Natal province, as an illustration. Setting: This study investigates the extent to which infrastructure in KwaZulu-Natal province in South Africa leads towards economic growth of the province. Methods: From a theoretical framework, this article develops an endogenous growth model, which investigates the association between provincial public capital stock expenditure and economic growth. Data series for public capital formation are first developed to apply in this study and others to follow. Econometric techniques are then employed, using quarterly data between 2001 and 2015, to assess the set hypothesis that growth in expenditure on public capital leads to national economic growth. Results: The empirical results support the argument of a positive relationship between provincial capital stock and economic growth in the long-term. The findings also suggests that the long-term causality or effect fades over time, albeit slowly. Conclusion: The nature and statistical significance of the long-term equilibrium relationship seems to be ambiguous at best. Some evidence of an equilibrium relationship in the short-term was, however, also observed. In conclusion, there also seems to be some causality between provincial capital stock and provincial gross domestic product in the short-run.

  12. KEANEKARAGAMAN JENIS IKAN DI SUNGAI BATANG GADIS MANDAILING NATAL SUMATERA UTARA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yusni Atifah

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Batang Gadis River, located in Mandailing Natal, faces a severe threat by the increase of human activities along the river. The fish community, as well as other biotas, is exposed to reducing environmental condition. Therefore, the study of fish community in this river is essential to get the most recent condition as a baseline data. The purpose of this research was to determine the species diversity of fish in Batang Gadis River of Mandailing Natal. This research used a descriptive exploratory method by surveying with purposive sampling method to collect samples at four specified stations. This study used a fishing net with a zig-zag pattern of sampling covered the river bank for about 200–300m at each observation station. The collected fish samples were identified at the Biology Laboratory of the University of Muhammadiyah Tapanuli Selatan. This study found ten species of fish from five families. The family with the most significant members was Cyprinidae (6 species, and the other families, Bagridae, Clariidae, Nemachelidae, and Loricariidae, were found with only one species. The species diversity comprised of Rasbora lateristriata, Nemacheilus fasciatus, Mystacoleucus marginatus, Tor tambra, Cyprinus carpio, Clarias bathracus, Rasbora argyrotaenia , Barbonymus gonionotus, Puntius binotatus, Bagrus nemurus, and Pterygoplichthys pardalis. The fish population of Batang Gadis River has diversity index (H’ of 1.77 and similarity index (E of 0.77.

  13. Natal teeth

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... that influence the process. In: Dean JA, ed. McDonald and Avery's Dentistry for the Child and Adolescent . ... M. is also a founding member of Hi-Ethics and subscribes to the principles of the Health ...

  14. Health workers’ perspectives on implementation of an integrated medical male circumcision strategy in KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rogerio Phili

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: KwaZulu-Natal province began implementation of voluntary medical male circumcision (VMMC as an integral part of its HIV infection prevention strategy that includes other programmes such as HIV counselling and testing (HCT, screening and treatment of sexually transmitted infections and tuberculosis, and other sexual and reproductive health services. This followed randomised controlled trials that showed up to 60% HIV infection risk reduction amongst circumcised men. Implementation of the strategy occurred despite absence of knowledge of operational barriers and its acceptability to health care workers (HCWs. Objectives: The study aimed to explore HCWs’ perspectives of and barriers to strategy implementation at public sector health facilities to inform implementation policy. Method: A purposive quota sampling method was used to select HCWs for focus group discussions at three study sites. Participants were asked open-ended questions using an interview schedule based on a literature review to explore acceptability of and perceptions regarding provision of the strategy. Thematic analysis was conducted. Results: Acceptability of the strategy was high amongst the participants; however, there was limited knowledge of some key concepts of the strategy, personnel role confusion, missed opportunities for client recruitment, and infrastructural constraints. Negative perceptions included beliefs that VMMC would discourage condom use and cause stigma associated with non-circumcision of HIV-positive males, with perceptions of sexual behavioural disinhibition in circumcised men. Conclusion: There is a need to engage further with stakeholders if implementation of VMMC is to be successful. More training and support needs to be provided to HCWs at public sector facilities. Agtergrond: Die implementering van vrywillige mediese manlike besnyding (VMMC is ’n integrale deel van KwaZulu-Natal provinsie se MIV-voorkomingstrategie, wat

  15. Normal Female Reproductive Anatomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... historical Searches are case-insensitive Reproductive System, Female, Anatomy Add to My Pictures View /Download : Small: 720x756 ... Large: 3000x3150 View Download Title: Reproductive System, Female, Anatomy Description: Anatomy of the female reproductive system; drawing ...

  16. Exploration potential of Paraiba and Natal platform basins, NE Brazil; Potencial exploratorio das bacias da Paraiba e da plataforma de Natal, NE do Brazil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barbosa, Jose A. [Universidade Federal de Pernambuco (UFPE), Recife, PE (Brazil); Lima Filho, Mario; Neumann, Virginio H. [Universidade Federal de Pernambuco (UFPE), Recife, PE (Brazil). Dept. de Geologia; Maranhao Neto, Jose Carneiro; Araujo, Joao A.A. [Universidade Federal de Pernambuco (UFPE), Recife, PE (Brazil). Programa de Pos Graduacao em Geociencias

    2008-07-01

    The portion of Brazilian continental margin located between the Pernambuco Shear Zone (ZCPE) and Touros High, enclosing Natal Platform and Paraiba basin, NE Brazil, presents a thin sedimentary cover represented by Neo- Cretaceous deposits, over an elevated basement. In this zone the narrow platform ends abruptly against the ocean plate, forming a scarped slope. This area corresponds to the Transverse zone of Northeast Brazil (TZN) limited by two extensive transcurrent E-W shear zones that acted as accommodation zones for the strain produced by the advance of the southern and northern rift branches. During the Aptian, the rift suffered a NE deflection and contoured the Borborema Province and the TZN. The resistance of this block to the rift advance generated a prominent and elevated region into the Atlantic gulf which resulted in the absence of rift deposition over the Brazilian margin and its deviation to the African side. The model suggested by this paper denominates this area as the 'exception zone' of the Brazilian margin, which possess a poor petroliferous potential and need to be separated from the sector corresponding to the Pernambuco basin, located to south of ZCPE, representing the last piece of margin before the rift deflection and possessing an important petroliferous potential. (author)

  17. Reproductive and some peri-natal variables in a mixed breed beef cattle herd.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ponzoni, R W; Gifford, D R

    1994-01-12

    Calving success (CS), days to calving (DC), birth weight (BW) and calving ease (CE) were studied in a mixed breed (Hereford, Jersey × Hereford and Simmental × Hereford) beef cattle herd. DC was not normally distributed and a number of transformations failed in normalising it. Repeatabilities were estimated by analysis of variance. Inclusion (or exclusion) of non calvers and the transformations studied had little effect on the repeatability of DC, which ranged from 0.10 to 0.12. The repeatabilities for CS, BW and CE were 0.08, 0.26 and 0.03, respectively. The residual correlations of CS with DC and functions of DC were high (-0.68 or greater), whereas the correlations among DC and functions of DC were close to one. The correlations of DC with BW and CE varied little with the transformation applied to DC, ranging from 0.26 to 0.28 and 0.10 to 0.12, respectively. The correlation between BW and CE was 0.06. The study points to a number of problems associated with the use of DC as a reproductive variable in beef cattle. It is concluded that although DC is currently a useful field reproductive variable, the search for appropriate female reproductive traits should continue. ZUSAMMENFASSUNG: Reproduktions- und Perinatal-Variable in einer gemischtrassigen Fleisch-Rinderherde Abkalbeerfolg (CS), Tage bis Abkalbung (DC), Geburtsgewicht (BW) und Kalbeleichtigkeit (CE) wurden in einer gemischtrassigen (Hereford, Jersey × Hereford und Simmental × Hereford) Mutterkuhherde untersucht. DC waren nicht normalverteilt und konnte auch durch eine Reihe von Transformationen nicht normalisiert werden. Wiederholbarkeiten wurden mit Varianzanalyse geschätzt. Berücksichtigung (oder Nichtberücksichtigung) von Nichtkalbungen und die Transformationen hatten wenig Wirkung auf Wiederholbarkeit von DC, die zwischen 0,10 und 0,12 war. Wiederholbarkeiten für CS, BW und CE waren 0,08, 0,26 und 0,03. Die Restkorrelation von CS mit DC und Funktionen von DC waren hoch (- 0,68 oder stärker), w

  18. An investigation into the use of 3G mobile communications to provide telehealth services in rural KwaZulu-Natal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clarke, Malcolm; Mars, Maurice

    2015-02-01

    We investigated the use of third-generation (3G) mobile communications to provide telehealth services in remote health clinics in rural KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa. We specified a minimal set of services as our use case that would be representative of typical activity and to provide a baseline for analysis of network performance. Services included database access to manage chronic disease, local support and management of patients (to reduce unnecessary travel to the hospital), emergency care (up to 8 h for an ambulance to arrive), e-mail, access to up-to-date information (Web), and teleclinics. We made site measurements at a representative set of health clinics to determine the type of coverage (general packet radio service [GPRS]/3G), its capabilities to support videoconferencing (H323 and Skype™ [Microsoft, Redmond, WA]) and audio (Skype), and throughput for transmission control protocol (TCP) to gain a measure of application performance. We found that none of the remote health clinics had 3G service. The GPRS service provided typical upload speed of 44 kilobits per second (Kbps) and download speed of 64 Kbps. This was not sufficient to support any form of videoconferencing. We also observed that GPRS had significant round trip time (RTT), in some cases in excess of 750 ms, and this led to slow start-up for TCP applications. We found audio was always so broken as to be unusable and further observed that many applications such as Web access would fail under conditions of very high RTT. We found some health clinics were so remote that they had no mobile service. 3G, where available, had measured upload speed of 331 Kbps and download speed of 446 Kbps and supported videoconferencing and audio at all sites, but we frequently experienced 3G changing to GPRS. We conclude that mobile communications currently provide insufficient coverage and capability to provide reliable clinical services and would advocate dedicated wireless services where reliable

  19. A literature review of tele-dermatology programs in the South African public health sector: Kwazulu-Natal perspective

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Walters, Laticha EM

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available South Africa’s HIV/AIDS prevalence rate is 17,9%, the highest being in KwaZulu-Natal. Dermatological diseases are linked to HIV/AIDS. Tele-dermatology was not part of the 1998 National Telemedicine Project. Only phase I (of three) was implemented...

  20. Climate controls on late Pleistocene landscape evolution of the Okhombe valley, KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Temme, A.J.A.M.; Baartman, J.E.M.; Botha, G.A.; Veldkamp, A.; Jongmans, A.G.; Wallinga, J.

    2008-01-01

    Hillslopes in central and western parts of KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa are often mantled by colluvial sediments of the Masotcheni Formation. These sediments have accreted in response to several cycles of deposition, pedogenesis and incomplete erosion. Climatic controls on these cycles are

  1. Dynamics of some forests in Kwa Zulu-Natal, South Africa, based on ordinations and size-class distributions

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Everard, DA

    1995-12-01

    Full Text Available Indigenous forest in Kwa Zulu-Natal has been fairly well described, however, very little has been published on its dynamics. There is, to our knowledge, nothing published on disturbances regimes, dendrology and life histories of constituent species...

  2. Building a Future without Gender Violence: Rural Teachers and Youth in Rural Kwazulu-Natal, South Africa, Leading Community Dialogue

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Lange, Naydene; Mitchell, Claudia

    2014-01-01

    This article advances the idea that rural youth and teachers are the key in leading community dialogue towards addressing gender-based violence (GBV) in their community through their film making. The youth voices on the realities of GBV in their school and community, in rural KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa, captured through the process of…

  3. Innovative look at dairy heifer rearing: Effect of prenatal and post-natal environment on later performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Eetvelde, M; Opsomer, G

    2017-08-01

    As heifer rearing is a costly investment, dairy farmers have been stimulated to maximize early growth of their calves, mainly by enhanced liquid feeding. However, the long-term effects of this "accelerated growth" are largely unknown. Studies recently performed at Ghent University indicate that in dairy cattle, certain maternal factors (such as young age and high milk yield) and environmental factors (such as high ambient temperatures) create a suboptimal environment for the developing foetus, altering the phenotype of the newborn calf. According to the "thrifty phenotype hypothesis," these metabolic alterations prepare the newborn for similar ("matching") conditions after birth, enhancing its survival during periods of limited feeding. Yet, when an abundance of nutrients is available in post-natal life (e.g., during periods of enhanced feeding), the "mismatch" between pre- and post-natal environment results in an early catch-up growth, with potential negative consequences. The aim of the article was to discuss this mismatch between pre- and post-natal environment in dairy calves. Previous studies, especially in human medicine, have shown catch-up growth to be associated with obesity, fertility problems, metabolic diseases and a reduced lifespan. Hence, we hypothesize that, by applying programs of accelerated growth, our current management system accentuates the mismatch between the pre- and post-natal environment in dairy calves. We can conclude that, although more research is necessary, the current findings point towards a more individual approach when rearing dairy heifers. © 2017 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  4. IVF culture medium affects post-natal weight in humans during the first 2 years of life

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kleijkers, Sander H. M.; van Montfoort, Aafke P. A.; Smits, Luc J. M.; Viechtbauer, Wolfgang; Roseboom, Tessa J.; Nelissen, Ewka C. M.; Coonen, Edith; Derhaag, Josien G.; Bastings, Lobke; Schreurs, Inge E. L.; Evers, Johannes L. H.; Dumoulin, John C. M.

    2014-01-01

    Is post-natal growth during the first 2 years of life in IVF singletons affected by type of medium used for culturing human embryos during an IVF treatment? The in vitro culture of human embryos in medium from Cook resulted in singletons with a lower weight during the first 2 years of life compared

  5. Creating a commodified wilderness: Tourism, private game farming, and 'third nature' landscapes in KwaZulu-Natal

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brooks, S.; Spierenburg, M.J.; Brakel, L.; Kolk, A.; Lukhozi, K.B.

    2011-01-01

    This article explores contemporary cultural geographies and underlying histories of change on private land in post-apartheid South Africa. Its focus is the expansion of wildlife-based tourism and related forms of commodified wilderness consumption in KwaZulu-Natal province. The article explores the

  6. Estimating the cost of the mass treatment campaign for schistosomiasis in Ugu District, KwaZulu-Natal, 2012

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Maphumulo, Andile A; Gagai, Silindile; Lothe, Andrea

    2013-01-01

    , from a provider perspective. Costs were classified by cost inputs and activity. Financial records were reviewed for all 60 randomly selected schools participating in the MTC in Ugu District, KwaZulu-Natal. An Excel database was used for data analysis. Preliminary Findings: Forty five percent (16 239...

  7. Regional flood frequency analysis in the KwaZulu-Natal province, South Africa, using the index-flood method

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjeldsen, Thomas Rødding; Smithers, J.C.; Schulze, R.E.

    2002-01-01

    A regional frequency analysis of annual maximum series (AMS) of flood flows from relatively unregulated rivers in the KwaZulu-Natal province of South Africa has been conducted, including identification of homogeneous regions and suitable regional frequency distributions for the regions. The study...

  8. Ecosystem change during MIS4 and early MIS 3: Evidence from Middle Stone Age sites in South Africa

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Hall, G

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Several Middle Stone Age (MSA) site in southern Africa present evidence of environmental changes during Marine Isotope Stages (MIS) 4 and 3 between 70ka and 50ka. Of these, Sibudu Cave, KwaZulu-Natal, has yielded a detailed record of how globalscale...

  9. Rate and Time Trend of Perinatal, Infant, Maternal Mortality, Natality and Natural Population Growth in Kosovo

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azemi, Mehmedali; Gashi, Sanije; Berisha, Majlinda; Kolgeci, Selim; Ismaili-Jaha, Vlora

    2012-01-01

    Aim: The aim of work has been the presentation of the rate and time trends of some indicators of the heath condition of mothers and children in Kosovo: fetal mortality, early neonatal mortality, perinatal mortality, infant mortality, natality, natural growth of population etc. The treated patients were the newborn and infants in the post neonatal period, women during their pregnancy and those 42 days before and after the delivery. Methods: The data were taken from: register of the patients treated in the Pediatric Clinic of Prishtina, World Health Organization, Mother and Child Health Care, Reproductive Health Care, Ministry of Health of the Republic of Kosovo, Statistical Department of Kosovo, the National Institute of Public Health and several academic texts in the field of pediatrics. Some indicators were analyzed in a period between year 1945-2010 and 1950-2010, whereas some others were analyzed in a time period between year 2000 and 2011. Results: The perinatal mortality rate in 2000 was 29.1‰, whereas in 2011 it was 18.7‰. The fetal mortality rate was 14.5‰ during the year 2000, whereas in 2011 it was 11.0‰, in 2000 the early neonatal mortality was 14.8‰, in 2011 it was 7.5‰. The infant mortality in Kosovo was 164‰ in 1950, whereas in 2010 it was 20.5‰. The most frequent causes of infant mortality have been: lower respiratory tract infections, acute infective diarrhea, perinatal causes, congenital malformations and unclassified conditions. Maternal death rate varied during this time period. Maternal death in 2000 was 23 whereas in 2010 only two cases were reported. Regarding the natality, in 1950 it reached 46.1 ‰, whereas in 2010 it reached 14‰, natural growth of population rate in Kosovo was 29.1‰ in 1950, whereas in 2011 it was 11.0‰. Conclusion: Perinatal mortality rate in Kosovo is still high in comparison with other European countries (Turkey and Kyrgyzstan have the highest perinatal mortality rate), even though it is in a

  10. Risk factors associated with nonvaccination rabies status of dogs in KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hergert M

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Melinda Hergert,1 Kevin le Roux,2 Louis H Nel3,4 1Department of Paraclinical Sciences, Faculty of Veterinary Science, University of Pretoria, Onderstepoort, Pretoria, 2KwaZulu-Natal Department of Environment, Agriculture and Rural Development, Government Veterinary Services, Pietermaritzburg, 3Department of Microbiology and Plant Pathology, Faculty of Natural and Agricultural Sciences, University of Pretoria, Pretoria, South Africa; 4Global Alliance for Rabies Control, Manhattan, KS, USA Abstract: Canine rabies has been enzootic in the dog population of the KwaZulu-Natal ­province of South Africa since the mid-1970s and has been associated with high rates of human exposures and frequent transmissions to other domestic animal species. Several decades of control efforts, consisting primarily of mass vaccination programs, failed to sufficiently curb rabies in this province. For meaningful progression toward better control and elimination, the factors contributing to the persistence of this disease need to be elucidated and addressed. This paper reports evaluated observations from survey records captured through a cross-sectional observational study regarding owned canine populations in this South African province. We used logistic regression modeling to predict variables associated with risk of nonvaccination of rabies in owned dogs. The study indicated that husbandry practices, rabies knowledge, geographical area/location, and the ages of dogs were important factors associated with the risk of nonvaccination. High population turnover, together with large free roaming dog populations, compromised the levels of vaccination achieved and contributed to the persistence of dog rabies in the province. Dog owners in this study also reported that they were more likely to present their dogs for vaccination when the vaccines were free of charge (52% and less than a kilometer from their homes (91%. It has been suggested that effective dog rabies control

  11. Retinal nerve fibre layer thickness of black and Indian myopic students at the University of KwaZulu-Natal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chanel Murugan

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Aim: To compare retinal nerve fibre layer (RNFL thickness in black and Indian myopic students at the University of KwaZulu-Natal. Method: Eighty (40 black and 40 Indian participants of both genders and aged between 19 and 24 years (mean and standard deviation: 21 ± 1.7 years were included in the study. Refractive errors were assessed with the Nidek AR-310A auto-refractor and via subjective refraction. RNFL thicknesses were then measured using the iVue-100 optical coherence tomography device. Axial lengths were measured with the Nidek US-500 A-scan ultrasound device. Data were analysed by descriptive statistics, t-tests, Pearson’s correlation coefficients and regression analysis. Results: The mean myopic spherical equivalent was significantly more negative amongst the Indian (-2.42 D ± 2.22 D than amongst the black (-1.48 D ± 1.13 D (p = 0.02 participants.The mean axial length was greater amongst the black (23.35 mm ± 0.74 mm than amongst the Indian (23.18 mm ± 0.87 mm participants but the difference was not significant. In the total sample (n = 80, the average global RNFL thickness ranged from 87 μm to 123 μm (105 μm ±9 μm. Mean global RNFL thickness was slightly greater amongst black (108 μm ± 7 μm than amongst Indian (102 μm ± 9 μm (p = 0.00 participants. Mean global RNFL thickness was similar for male (106 μm ± 7 μm and female (105 μm ± 10 μm (p = 0.79 participants.A positive and significant association between myopic spherical equivalent and global RNFL thickness was found for the total sample (r = 0.36, p = 0.00 and for Indians (r = 0.33, p = 0.04but not for the black (r = 0.25, p = 0.13 participants. There was a negative and significant correlation between axial length and global RNFL thickness amongst the Indian participants (r = -0.34, p = 0.03 but not amongst the total sample (r = -0.12, p = 0.30 or the black (r = 0.06, p = 0.73 participants. Conclusion: The findings suggest that racial differences in RNFL

  12. Prediction of supratidal Zones as turtle nesting sites using remote sensing and geographic information system, a case study in Pacitan, Southern Java Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darmawan, A.; Saputra, D. K.; Wiadnya, D. G. R.; Gusmida, A. M.

    2018-04-01

    Turtles, the most threatened coastal-marine fauna, are protected through both national and global regulations. However, many of their nesting sites have been degraded in the past years. Completing natal homing, adult females emerged at night to lay-down eggs in the upper intertidal and supra-tidal zone of sandy beach from where they hatched. This study explained coastal topology of beaches usually used for nesting sites, covering 117 km coastline at Pacitan Regency, Southern Java Sea. The shift in beach morphology through times was figured out based on Landsat 8 and Sentinel 2a satellite imagery and remote sensing (GIS methods). This was combined with in-situ data on current coastline features, slope, and tide variations. Results showed a typical sandy beach, called Taman Ria Beach, a long time identified as nesting site for Lepidochelys olivacea, locally named as Penyu Lekang. Also, there was approximatelly 3.49 ha of supratidal area predicted in Taman Ria Beach according this study

  13. Coping with heat: function of the natal coat of cape fur seal (Arctocephalus Pusillus Pusillus pups in maintaining core body temperature.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicola Erdsack

    Full Text Available Cape fur seal (Arctocephalus pusillus pups spend the first weeks of life exclusively or mainly ashore. They are exposed to intense solar radiation and high temperatures for long time periods, which results in temperatures up to at least 80°C on their black natal coat. To test the hypothesis that the natal coat has a crucial function in coping with these extreme conditions, we investigated the insulating properties of the natal coat in six captive newborn Cape fur seals during the first 50 days after birth. The natal fur differs from the adult fur not only in colour, but also in density, structure, and water repellence. We measured temperature on the fur surface and within the fur, as well as skin and rectal temperature under varying environmental conditions, comparable to the species' habitat. Experiments were designed to not influence the spontaneous behaviour of the pups. Rectal temperature was constant as long as the pups stayed dry, even during long-lasting intense solar radiation for up to 3 h. Skin temperature remained close to rectal temperature as long as the fur was dry, while with wet fur, skin temperature was significantly reduced as well. Our results show that the natal coat provides an effective insulation against overheating. The severely reduced insulation of wet natal fur against cold supports the assumption that the natal fur is an adaptation to the pups' terrestrial phase of life.

  14. Food and Nutrition Insecurity in Selected Rural Communities of KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa—Linking Human Nutrition and Agriculture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Govender, Laurencia; Pillay, Kirthee; Siwela, Muthulisi; Modi, Albert; Mabhaudhi, Tafadzwanashe

    2016-01-01

    Lack of access to nutritious and balanced diets remains a major impediment to the health and well-being of people living in rural areas. The study utilizes a qualitative systematic approach to conduct an environmental scan and review of scientific literature of studies conducted in South Africa, specifically KwaZulu-Natal (KZN). Availability and access to nutritious, diverse and balanced diets were identified as key constraints for achieving food and nutrition security as well as for human health and well-being. This has led to both under- and over-nutrition, with the former, in particular stunting, affecting children under 5 years. A high incidence of over-nutrition, both overweight and obesity, was observed among black African females. In South Africa, poor people rely mostly on social grants and cannot afford a balanced diet. Under these circumstances, agriculture could be used to increase availability and access to diverse and nutritious foods for the attainment of a balanced diet. The wider use of traditional vegetable crops and pulses could improve availability and access to healthy and locally available alternatives. The promotion of household and community food gardens, and the use of nutrient dense crops with low levels of water use, i.e., high nutritional water productivity, offers prospects for addressing malnutrition in poor rural areas. PMID:28036008

  15. Food and Nutrition Insecurity in Selected Rural Communities of KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa—Linking Human Nutrition and Agriculture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laurencia Govender

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Lack of access to nutritious and balanced diets remains a major impediment to the health and well-being of people living in rural areas. The study utilizes a qualitative systematic approach to conduct an environmental scan and review of scientific literature of studies conducted in South Africa, specifically KwaZulu-Natal (KZN. Availability and access to nutritious, diverse and balanced diets were identified as key constraints for achieving food and nutrition security as well as for human health and well-being. This has led to both under- and over-nutrition, with the former, in particular stunting, affecting children under 5 years. A high incidence of over-nutrition, both overweight and obesity, was observed among black African females. In South Africa, poor people rely mostly on social grants and cannot afford a balanced diet. Under these circumstances, agriculture could be used to increase availability and access to diverse and nutritious foods for the attainment of a balanced diet. The wider use of traditional vegetable crops and pulses could improve availability and access to healthy and locally available alternatives. The promotion of household and community food gardens, and the use of nutrient dense crops with low levels of water use, i.e., high nutritional water productivity, offers prospects for addressing malnutrition in poor rural areas.

  16. Food and Nutrition Insecurity in Selected Rural Communities of KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa-Linking Human Nutrition and Agriculture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Govender, Laurencia; Pillay, Kirthee; Siwela, Muthulisi; Modi, Albert; Mabhaudhi, Tafadzwanashe

    2016-12-27

    Lack of access to nutritious and balanced diets remains a major impediment to the health and well-being of people living in rural areas. The study utilizes a qualitative systematic approach to conduct an environmental scan and review of scientific literature of studies conducted in South Africa, specifically KwaZulu-Natal (KZN). Availability and access to nutritious, diverse and balanced diets were identified as key constraints for achieving food and nutrition security as well as for human health and well-being. This has led to both under- and over-nutrition, with the former, in particular stunting, affecting children under 5 years. A high incidence of over-nutrition, both overweight and obesity, was observed among black African females. In South Africa, poor people rely mostly on social grants and cannot afford a balanced diet. Under these circumstances, agriculture could be used to increase availability and access to diverse and nutritious foods for the attainment of a balanced diet. The wider use of traditional vegetable crops and pulses could improve availability and access to healthy and locally available alternatives. The promotion of household and community food gardens, and the use of nutrient dense crops with low levels of water use, i.e., high nutritional water productivity, offers prospects for addressing malnutrition in poor rural areas.

  17. Effects of a teenage pregnancy prevention program in KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Myra; Jinabhai, Champak; Dlamini, Siyabonga; Sathiparsad, Reshma; Eggers, Matthijs S; De Vries, Hein

    2014-01-01

    Researchers aimed to determine the effects of a teenage pregnancy (TP) prevention program for 816 high school students attending 16 KwaZulu-Natal, South African schools through a randomized control trial. Data were collected at baseline and at the 8-month follow-up in 2009. Results were calculated using multivariate analyses of program effects employing Mplus 6, and indicated significantly healthier attitudes, including intentions to abstain from sex whilst at school, plans to communicate with partners about teenage pregnancy, and increased reports of condom use. Researchers thus provide some support for the effectiveness of a TP prevention program that should be further strengthened in a comprehensive approach that includes schools and families.

  18. Neutron star natal kicks and the long-term survival of star clusters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Contenta, Filippo; Varri, Anna Lisa; Heggie, Douglas C.

    2015-04-01

    We investigate the dynamical evolution of a star cluster in an external tidal field by using N-body simulations, with focus on the effects of the presence or absence of neutron star natal velocity kicks. We show that, even if neutron stars typically represent less than 2 per cent of the total bound mass of a star cluster, their primordial kinematic properties may affect the lifetime of the system by up to almost a factor of 4. We interpret this result in the light of two known modes of star cluster dissolution, dominated by either early stellar evolution mass-loss or two-body relaxation. The competition between these effects shapes the mass-loss profile of star clusters, which may either dissolve abruptly (`jumping'), in the pre-core-collapse phase, or gradually (`skiing'), after having reached core collapse.

  19. Alkaline / peralkaline gneisses near the northern margin of the Natal structural and metamorphic province

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scogings, A.J.

    1990-01-01

    Alkaline / peralkaline gneisses occur within three granitoid complexes at Ngoye, Bull's Run and Wangu, near the northern margin of the Natal Structural and Metamorphic Province. A wide range of rock types is present, from nepheline syenite gneisses through to peralkaline granite gneisses, with minor carbonatite and monzodiorite gneiss intrusive phases noted within two of the bodies. It is suggested that the three alkaline gneiss occurences so far mapped constitute the remnants of a metamorphosed alkaline magmatic province, and that such magmatism occured either in a post-collisional or anorogenic post-D1, pre-D2 tectonic setting. The three complexes are described with respect to mineralogy and chemistry, followed by a brief overview of the possible tectonic setting at the time of their intrusion. 1 tab., 3 refs

  20. TRANSPORTE PÚBLICO DO MUNICÍPIO DE NATAL: aspectos de parafiscalidade do caso SETURN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manoel Damião Machado da Silva

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available A proposta deste trabalho é compreender como os aspectos da gestão parafiscal do Sindicato das Empresas de Transporte Urbano de Passageiros do Município do Natal – SETURN contribuem para a eficiência do transporte público e para a melhoria a mobilidade urbana, visando contribuir na qualidade de vida da população local. A pesquisa foi desenvolvida no Sindicato, baseada no estudo de caso, por meio de entrevista semiestruturada, onde foram feitas análises, com o objetivo de descrever a situação do transporte coletivo relativo à eficiência que, na visão da pesquisa, fica comprometida, uma vez que os automóveis particulares disputam o mesmo espaço nas vias, juntamente com os transportes coletivos, impedindo assim, agilidade nas viagens.

  1. Towards a successful centralization of municipal procurement: A case of KwaZulu-Natal province

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zwelihle Wiseman Nzuza

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Centralization of municipal procurement in the KwaZulu-Natal Province is faced with several challenges. There were two aims for this study: to identify factors influencing municipal procurement and to design a model of the factors influencing municipal procurement, in an attempt to improve the understanding of municipal procurement. The proposed model is based on sound theoretical frameworks like knowledge management theory and the application of theory and practice ethics as well as the secondary data. The study found that the biographic factors as well as internal and external factors have strong influences on the success or failure of municipal procurement. The significance of these factors formed the basis for a proposed model and is subject to further experiments by other scholars.

  2. Natality Decline and Miscarriages Associated With the 1918 Influenza Pandemic: The Scandinavian and United States Experiences

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bloom-Feshbach, Kimberly; Simonsen, Lone; Viboud, Cecile

    2011-01-01

    Background. Although pregnancy is a recognized risk factor for severe influenza infection, the effect of influenza on miscarriages and births remains unclear. We examined the relationship between influenza and birth rates during the 1918 pandemic in the United States, Denmark, Sweden, and Norway...... of peak pandemic exposure and depressions in birth rates, and identified pregnancy stages at risk of influenza-related miscarriage. Results. Birth rates declined in all study populations in spring 1919 by a mean of 2.2 births per 1000 persons, representing a 5%–15% drop below baseline levels (P ...). The 1919 natality depression reached its trough 6.1–6.8 months after the autumn pandemic peak, suggesting that missing births were attributable to excess first trimester miscarriages in ∼1 in 10 women who were pregnant during the peak of the pandemic. Pandemic-related mortality was insufficient to explain...

  3. Radiation effects on pre-natal development and their radiological significance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mole, R.H.

    1979-01-01

    The evidence relating to pre-natal radiation exposure and the subsequent occurrence of malformations and cancer suggests that the overall risk lies in the range 0 to 1 cases per 1000 irradiated by one rad in utero in the first four months of pregnancy. The natural level of occurrence of serious handicaps in average pregnancies is at least 30 times higher. Is the much lower probability of radiation-induced harm sufficiently high to justify (a) concern when a woman who has been irradiated is found to have been pregnant at that time, or (b) the maintenance of restrictions on medical uses of ionizing radiation in women in the reproductive age, such as the ten day rule. (author)

  4. Unusual loss of chymosin in mammalian lineages parallels neo-natal immune transfer strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopes-Marques, Mónica; Ruivo, Raquel; Fonseca, Elza; Teixeira, Ana; Castro, L Filipe C

    2017-11-01

    Gene duplication and loss are powerful drivers of evolutionary change. The role of loss in phenotypic diversification is notably illustrated by the variable enzymatic repertoire involved in vertebrate protein digestion. Among these we find the pepsin family of aspartic proteinases, including chymosin (Cmy). Previous studies demonstrated that Cmy, a neo-natal digestive pepsin, is inactivated in some primates, including humans. This pseudogenization event was hypothesized to result from the acquisition of maternal immune immunoglobulin G (IgG) transfer. By investigating 94 mammalian subgenomes we reveal an unprecedented level of Cmy erosion in placental mammals, with numerous independent events of gene loss taking place in Primates, Dermoptera, Rodentia, Cetacea and Perissodactyla. Our findings strongly suggest that the recurrent inactivation of Cmy correlates with the evolution of the passive transfer of IgG and uncovers a noteworthy case of evolutionary cross-talk between the digestive and the immune system, modulated by gene loss. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Diagnostic prénatal: quelles sont les techniques actuelles et futures ? (flyer)

    CERN Multimedia

    2002-01-01

    La majorité des bébés qui viennent au monde ne présentent pas d'anomalies particulières. Cependant, il faut savoir qu'environ 1 foetus 170 présente une anomalie chromosomique (défaut de la structure ou du nombre de chromosomes) qui va peser plus ou moins lourdement sur sa vie future et 1 foetus sur 100 présente une maladie génique due à un changement dans un gène. Le diagnostic prénatal a connu et connaît une formidable expansion grâce aux progrès technologiques en génétique et imagerie foetale.

  6. Dietary adequacies among South African adults in rural KwaZulu-Natal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolahdooz, Fariba; Spearing, Kerry; Sharma, Sangita

    2013-01-01

    Food quality, determined by micronutrient content, is a stronger determinant of nutritional status than food quantity. Health concerns resulting from the co-existence of over-nutrition and under-nutrition in low income populations in South Africa have been fully recognized in the last two decades. This study aimed to further investigate dietary adequacy amongst adults in rural KwaZulu-Natal, by determining daily energy and nutrient intakes, and identifying the degree of satisfaction of dietary requirements. Cross-sectional study assessing dietary adequacy from 24-hour dietary recalls of randomly selected 136 adults in Empangeni, KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa. Results are presented for men (n = 52) and women (n = 84) 19-50 and >50 years old. Mean energy intake was greatest in women >50 years (2852 kcal/day) and exceeded Dietary Reference Intake's for both men and women, regardless of age. Mean daily energy intake from carbohydrates was 69% for men and 67% for women, above the Dietary Reference Intake range of 45-65%. Sodium was also consumed in excess, and the Dietary Reference Intakes of vitamins A, B12, C, D, and E, calcium, zinc and pantothenic acid were not met by the majority of the population. Despite mandatory fortification of staple South African foods, micronutrient inadequacies are evident among adults in rural South African communities. Given the excess caloric intake and the rising prevalence of obesity and other non-communicable diseases in South Africa, a focus on diet quality may be a more effective approach to influence micronutrient status than a focus on diet quantity.

  7. Sector switching among histopathologists in KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa: a qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruggunan, Shaun D; Singh, Suveera

    2013-05-30

    The mobility of health care professionals from the public to private sector is prevalent in South Africa. However, literature on sector switching of clinical doctors remains limited. It is against this background that this study aims to make the labour market visible for histopathologists and identify the reasons for sector switching. This study is exploratory and descriptive. It uses qualitative methods, such as in-depth interviews, with 70% (n = 16/23) of the population of histopathologists in KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa. Lee's (1966) push-pull theory is adapted to explain the pull sector switching behaviours of histopathologists. Interviews were recorded and independently transcribed. The narratives of the participants were coded to reflect the main themes that contributed to their sector switching behaviours. Five key themes emerged as reasons for the mobility of histopathologists from the public to private sector in KwaZulu-Natal. The findings indicate that remuneration, working conditions, work flexibility, career pathing and autonomy of labour processes are the key drivers of this mobility. Histopathologists provide a core function in the health care chain. However, their invisibility in academic discourse in both public health and human resources for health indicates the paucity of research undertaken on the importance of these specialists in the health care chain. This is especially significant in developing countries like South Africa, where there is a dearth of these specialists. This study, while exploratory, aims to open a dialogue to better understand their reasons for sector switching and, hopefully, inform policies on training, recruitment and retention of these specialists.

  8. Perceptions of newly-qualified nurses performing compulsory community service in KwaZulu-Natal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Govender, Selverani; Brysiewicz, Petra; Bhengu, Busisiwe

    2015-07-08

    Compulsory community service (CCS) for nurses commenced in South African January 2008 after it was legislated in the new Nursing Act (Act No. 33 of 2005). Nurses completing their registered nurse programme are registered as community nurse practitioners (CNPs) during the CCS period and make up the largest number of health professionals serving CCS. Whilst health institutions have welcomed CNPs as additional resources for the shortage of nursing staff, no structured guidelines have been provided at a regional level as to how these nurses should be utilised or managed during the CCS year. To date, no large-scale study has been conducted on nurses carrying out CCS in order to generalise the findings. To establish the perceptions of newly-qualified nurses carrying out CCS in KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa. A quantitative survey design was used to obtain data from a randomly selected sample of the 2012 cohort of nurses carrying out CCS in KwaZulu-Natal. CNPs have a positive attitude toward CCS and perceive themselves as being well prepared for the year of community service in terms of knowledge, skills and ability to administer nursing care. They identified positive benefits of the year of community service.The concerns raised were limited orientation and support; and a few CNPs experienced problems of acceptance by the nurses with whom they work. It is recommended that all health institutions who receive CNPs develop structured orientation and support for these nurses in order to promote their development, thereby enhancing their benefit to the communities they serve.

  9. O discurso do risco e o aconselhamento genético pré-natal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marilena C. D. V. Corrêa

    Full Text Available A medicalização é um fenômeno social difuso nas sociedades ocidentais que se expressa segundo um diferencial de gênero. A gravidez é um momento fortemente medicalizado, no qual as mulheres se vêem cercadas de uma rede de vigilância de seu corpo, sendo responsabilizadas não só pela própria saúde, mas também pela produção de um feto saudável. O controle dos riscos no pré-natal é proposto, entretanto, em um contexto no qual as possibilidades diagnósticas são amplamente majoritárias comparativamente às possibilidades terapêuticas. Essa defasagem é agravada pelo fato de, no Brasil, o abortamento ser ilegal. Este artigo é fruto de pesquisa empírica realizada em um ambulatório público de genética pré-natal, que constou de: observação das práticas de atendimento, revisão de prontuários e realização de entrevistas com profissionais de saúde. Discutem-se o contexto fortemente medicalizado do aconselhamento genético no Brasil e a percepção dos médicos sobre suas práticas neste contexto. É discutido também o possível impacto sobre a tomada de decisão das mulheres atendidas em relação a riscos, técnicas, exames e seus desdobramentos.

  10. The medicinal animal markets in the metropolitan region of Natal City, northeastern Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveira, Eduardo S; Torres, Denise F; Brooks, Sharon E; Alves, Rômulo R N

    2010-07-06

    This study investigates the trade of animals for medicinal purposes in Natal metropolitan area, northeastern Brazil, to document which animal species are used, how and for what purposes. This study also discusses the implications of the use of zootherapeutics for wildlife conservation. Based on interviews with merchants of medicinal animals in all open fairs of the metropolitan region of Natal City, we calculated the informant consensus factor (ICF) to determine the consensus over which species are effective for particular ailments, as well as the species relative importance to determine the extent of potential utilization of each species. We describe the therapeutic effects of 23 animal species used medicinally. The zootherapeutical products sold commercially are used to treat 34 health problems that were classified into 14 broad categories. We also highlight those species valued for their effectiveness against a range of ailments. The highest ICF value (1.0) was cited for diseases of the circulatory system, which include relief of symptoms such as stroke, hemorrhage, varicose veins and edema. Our study indicated that the local population holds a great deal of ethnomedical knowledge about their local animal resources, and highlights the need for clinical investigations of these traditional remedies to test the safety and efficacy. The animal species identified in this study not only hold high medicinal value for local populations, but could potentially be a source of healing compounds that could aid pharmaceutical research. While the impact of these practices on animal populations is unknown, the high extractive value of these animal populations and the associated medicinal traditional knowledge, needs to be considered in any conservation strategy aimed at the faunistic resources of this area. Copyright (c) 2010 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Mobilidade e rendimento escolar dos estudantes de ensino médio em Natal (RN, Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    William de Mendonça Lima

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Resumo Pouco explorado pela literatura, os deslocamentos diários casa-escola refletem uma incoerência espacial entre a distribuição da população em idade escolar e os estabelecimentos de ensino de educação básica (nível médio em Natal, RN. Neste trabalho exploraremos o perfil dos comutadores (estudantes a partir de um recorte político-administrativo intramunicipal. Dessa forma foi possível captar os fluxos diários de estudantes entre os bairros do município de Natal. Para isso, utilizamos o conceito de espaço de vida como embasamento teórico e o banco de dados do Censo Escolar 2012. Assim, relacionando as informações referentes à localidade de residência e de estudos dos alunos, verificou-se a relação entre o deslocamento para estudo e o desempenho escolar medido através do indicador de distorção idade-série em um modelo de regressão logística. Entre os resultados encontrados identificou-se que a chance de um aluno ter um bom rendimento escolar não está relacionada com a proximidade de sua residência da escola. Nesse sentido, a dinâmica da população em termos de distribuição escolar e de alunos pode representar aspectos importantes para a gestão urbana e a oferta de serviços educacionais, sobretudo em um contexto no qual as tendências demográficas apontam para uma redução expressiva da população em idade escolar nos próximos anos.

  12. Dietary adequacies among South African adults in rural KwaZulu-Natal.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fariba Kolahdooz

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Food quality, determined by micronutrient content, is a stronger determinant of nutritional status than food quantity. Health concerns resulting from the co-existence of over-nutrition and under-nutrition in low income populations in South Africa have been fully recognized in the last two decades. This study aimed to further investigate dietary adequacy amongst adults in rural KwaZulu-Natal, by determining daily energy and nutrient intakes, and identifying the degree of satisfaction of dietary requirements. METHODS: Cross-sectional study assessing dietary adequacy from 24-hour dietary recalls of randomly selected 136 adults in Empangeni, KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa. RESULTS: Results are presented for men (n = 52 and women (n = 84 19-50 and >50 years old. Mean energy intake was greatest in women >50 years (2852 kcal/day and exceeded Dietary Reference Intake's for both men and women, regardless of age. Mean daily energy intake from carbohydrates was 69% for men and 67% for women, above the Dietary Reference Intake range of 45-65%. Sodium was also consumed in excess, and the Dietary Reference Intakes of vitamins A, B12, C, D, and E, calcium, zinc and pantothenic acid were not met by the majority of the population. CONCLUSION: Despite mandatory fortification of staple South African foods, micronutrient inadequacies are evident among adults in rural South African communities. Given the excess caloric intake and the rising prevalence of obesity and other non-communicable diseases in South Africa, a focus on diet quality may be a more effective approach to influence micronutrient status than a focus on diet quantity.

  13. Natality and infant mortality in Roma children in the Prešov region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ján Koval

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Due to the lack of exact data on natality and infant mortality rates of the Roma living in Slovakia we aim to look closer into these parameters, analyze them and in this respect compare two ethnic groups: Roma and non-Roma Slovak children. Material and methods: In the time period from 1997 to 2011, we collected data in selected parameters (birth rate, infant mortality rate, the number of newborns with low birth weight, the number of children abandoned by their mothers after birth in the Prešov region, and we evaluated them. Findings: A declining natality rate was observed in non-Roma children, as opposed to an upward trend in Roma children. In 1997, every fourth child was born to a Roma woman; in 2011, it was every third child. A declining infant mortality rate was observed in all groups studied. In the Roma children, the decline in the infant mortality rate was the biggest, yet the mere infant mortality rate, in this group of children, was the highest – in 1997 and in 2011 approximately 3-times higher than in the children born to non-Roma mothers. Conclusion: In our study, the infant mortality rate of Roma children is on decline, yet still it is high when compared to the non-Roma population. This may be caused by low interest of the Roma in providing health care to their children and their low responsibility or their inability to take responsibility for health and health care education of their children.

  14. DATING AND SEXUAL CHALLENGES FACED BY HIV-POSITIVE PEOPLE IN KWAZULU-NATAL, SOUTH AFRICA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mulqueeny, Delarise

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available According to the 2010 UNAIDS Report, an estimated 320 000 (or 20% fewer people died of AIDS-related causes in 2009 when compared to figures in 2004 in sub-Saharan Africa, when antiretroviral therapy was markedly expanded (UNAIDS, 2010. This decreased mortality rate offers hope for HIV-infected people to plan a future, part of which will include dating and sexual relationships. The Report cites KwaZulu-Natal in South Africa as being at the heart of the HIV/AIDS epidemic; this article is based on research on dating and sexuality among HIV-positive people in KwaZulu-Natal. Dating and sexuality are an integral part of living. Yet HIV-positive persons are denied intimacy at a time when this is most needed (Kasiram in Kasiram, Partab & Dano, 2006. Little is known about the full range of sexual adaptations that HIV-infected individuals choose (Schiltz & Sandfort, 2000. Kasiram, Partab, Dano and Van Greunen (2003:9 cite interaction and intimacy among HIV-positive persons as a neglected research focus, while Painter (2001 adds that insufficient attention is afforded to couple relationships for infected people. An important reason that motivated this study on dating and sexual challenges faced by HIV-positive people was the first author’s (the main researcher’s personal experience of being HIV positive and counselling and life coaching HIV-positive people. She is confronted regularly with variations of the question “Will I be normal?”, which often translates to: “Will I be able to date and have sex.

  15. Fatores associados à assistência pré-natal entre mulheres de baixa renda no Estado de São Paulo, Brasil Factors associated with pre-natal care among low income women, State of S.Paulo, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria José Duarte Osis

    1993-02-01

    Full Text Available São apresentados resultados de pesquisa que avaliou o Programa de Assistência Integral à Saúde da Mulher (PAISM, realizada em 1988, no Estado de São Paulo, Brasil. Foram entrevistadas 3.703 mulheres de baixa renda que tinham entre 15 e 49 anos de idade, utilizando um questionário estruturado e pré-testado. Os resultados referem-se às 669 mulheres grávidas durante 1987 ou 1988 que responderam às questões sobre assistência pré-natal, parto e puerpério. Foi analisada a associação entre algumas de suas características sociodemográficas e comparecimento às consultas pré-natais, a idade gestacional em que foi feita a primeira consulta e o número total de consultas. Os resultados mostraram associação entre características sociodemográficas e comparecimento ao pré-natal. A maior percentagem de grávidas que fizeram pré-natal tinham mais que o primeiro grau de escolaridade. Foi maior a proporção de mulheres que começaram o pré-natal até o terceiro mês de gravidez entre aquelas que não tinham filho vivo (74%, que viviam com um companheiro (70%, que tinham mais que o primeiro grau de escolaridade (88% e as que moravam no interior do Estado (71%.This paper presents the results of a study carried out in 1988 in the State of S. Paulo, with the purpose of evaluating the Program for Women's Integral Health Care. A total of 3.703 low income women of 15-49 years of age were interviewed using a structured, pre-tested form. The data in this paper relate to 669 women who had been pregnant during 1987 or 1988 and who were asked about pre-natal, delivery and post-partum care. The association between some of their socio-demographic characteristics and the pre-natal care received, months pregnant at the time of first visit and total number of visits, were analysed. Results showed an association between socio-economic characteristics and pre-natal care received. The greatest percentage of pregnant women who had had pre-natal care was

  16. Diving Behaviors and Habitat Use of Adult Female Steller Sea Lion (Eumetopias jubatus), A Top Predator of the Bering Sea and North Pacific Ocean Ecosystems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lander, M. E.; Fadely, B.; Gelatt, T.; Sterling, J.; Johnson, D.; Haulena, M.; McDermott, S.

    2016-02-01

    Decreased natality resulting from nutritional stress is one hypothesized mechanism for declines of Steller sea lions (SSLs; Eumetopias jubatus) in western Alaska, but little is known of the winter foraging habitats or behavior of adult females. To address this critical data need, adult female Steller sea lions were chemically immobilized and tagged with Fastloc® GPS satellite transmitters during the fall at Southeast Alaska (SEAK) during 2010 (n=3), and the central and western Aleutian Islands (AI) from 2011-2014 (n=9). To identify habitat features of biological importance to these animals, location data were processed with a continuous-time correlated random walk model and kernel density estimates of predicted locations were used to compute individual-based utilization distributions. Kernel density estimates and diving behaviors (i.e. mean, maximum, and frequency of dive depths) were examined with respect to a series of static and dynamic environmental variables using linear mixed-effects models. Habitat use varied within and among individuals, but overall, all response variables were significantly related to a combination of the predictor variables season, distance to nearest SSL site, bathymetric slope, on/off shelf, sea surface temperature, sea surface height, proportion of daylight, and some interaction effects (P≤0.05). The habitat use of SSL from SEAK was consistent with previous reports and reflected the seasonal distribution of predictable forage fish, whereas SSL from the AI used a variety of marine ecosystems and habitat use was more variable, likely reflecting specific prey behaviors encountered in different areas. These results have improved our understanding of the habitat features necessary for the conservation of adult female SSL and have been useful for reviewing designated critical habitat for Steller sea lions throughout the U.S. range.

  17. Cross-generational impact of a male murine pheromone 2-sec-butyl-4,5-dihydrothiazole in female mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koyama, Sachiko; Soini, Helena A.; Wager-Miller, James; Alley, William R.; Pizzo, Matthew J.; Rodda, Cathleen; Alberts, Jeffrey; Crystal, Jonathon D.; Lai, Cary; Foley, John; Novotny, Milos V.

    2015-01-01

    The current understanding of the activity of mammalian pheromones is that endocrine and behavioural effects are limited to the exposed individuals. Here, we demonstrate that the nasal exposure of female mice to a male murine pheromone stimulates expansion of mammary glands, leading to prolonged nursing of pups. Subsequent behavioural testing of the pups from pheromone-exposed dams exhibited enhanced learning. Sialic acid components in the milk are known to be involved in brain development. We hypothesized that the offspring might have received more of this key nutrient that promotes brain development. The mRNA for polysialyltransferase, which produces polysialylated neural cell adhesion molecules related to brain development, was increased in the brain of offspring of pheromone-exposed dams at post-natal day 10, while it was not different at embryonic stages, indicating possible differential brain development during early post-natal life. PMID:26136453

  18. What Is It Going to Be? Pattern and Potential Function of Natal Coat Change in Sexually Dichromatic Redfronted Lemurs (Eulemur fulvus rufus)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Barthold, Julia A; Fichtel, Claudia; Kappeler, Peter M

    2009-01-01

    In some primate species, pelage colorations at birth contrast with adult colorations. The intensity of natal coats and their phylogenetic distribution is highly variable within primates. Natal coat coloration seems to change to adult coloration in most species when infants become independent from...... their mothers, but an accepted functional explanation for natal coats is not available. Here we describe pelage coloration change in sexually dichromatic redfronted lemurs (Eulemur fulvus rufus) in Kirindy Forest, and propose a new functional hypothesis for this phenomenon. In this species, infants are born...... infants and 2) examined behavioral developmental correlates of the coloration change. The color change took place between 7 and 17 weeks of age and coincided with advanced physical independence; a pattern also found in monochromatic primate species with natal coats. No behavioral differences between male...

  19. Outgrower timber schemes in KwaZulu-Natal – Do they build sustainable rural livelihoods and what interventions should be made?

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Cairns, RI

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available Small-scale timber growers access commercial timber markets in KwaZulu-Natal through three mechanisms. These are; highly structured contractual arrangements (SAPPI, Lima and Mondi); membership in commercial forest-owners associations or timber...

  20. Self catheterization - female

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... female Images Bladder catheterization, female References Davis JE, Silverman MA. Urologic procedures. In: Roberts JR, ed. Roberts ... provided by VeriMed Healthcare Network. Also reviewed by David Zieve, MD, MHA, Medical Director, Brenda Conaway, Editorial ...

  1. HIV/AIDS, STIs and condom use beliefs among male prison inmates in two South African provinces: Mpumalanga and KwaZulu-Natal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stephens, T; Conerly, R; Braithwaite, R L; Sifunda, S; Ogbuawa, N; Bhengu, S; Reddy, P

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to describe the characteristics of a random sample of prison inmates from two provinces in South Africa with respect to correct knowledge regarding HIV/AIDS and sexual transmitted infection (STI) risk and beliefs about condom use. This cross-sectional descriptive study of 357 prison inmates formed part of a larger longitudinal investigation designed to implement a health education intervention for prison inmates in the KwaZulu-Natal (KZN) and Mpumalanga (MP) provinces of South Africa. Mean differences for groups were compared across sites using Analysis of Variance (ANOVA). Inmates from KZN were less likely to agree that 'It is important to use condoms every time you have sex' F (1355) = 25.8, pCondoms work well to prevent the spread of HIV' F (1355) = 11.7, pCondoms also prevent pregnancy' F (1355) = 5.1, pcondom use behaviour suggested that future prevention efforts focus on the importance of using condoms to prevent the spread of HIV/AIDS and other STIs.

  2. The potential for reducing youth unemployment through informal business development in the eThekwini municipality, KwaZulu-Natal province, South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pfano Mashau

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Youth unemployment is a problem that requires different diagnoses from different stakeholders, and informal business is important for local economic development. However, the youth are not much involved in the informal sector. Youth involvement in the informal sector will help address youth unemployment. This article aims to evaluate the impact of informal business development on reducing youth unemployment in the eThekwini Municipality, KwaZulu-Natal Province, South Africa. Through in-depth interviews with eThekwini Municipality officials, business support organisations and unemployed youth, assessment of supporting documents and site visits, enough data were collected to support the notion that informal business development can work to address unemployment in the municipality. The findings showed that the informal economy does not have a significant impact on completely mitigating the unemployment problem in the municipality. However, the sector is very important for economic growth and development, as well as job creation, which will begin to alleviate the unemployment problem. Thus both the formal and informal sectors of the economy need to be examined as potentially providing the first steps to achieving the long-term employment goals for the eThekwini Municipality.

  3. Diagnóstico pré-natal das genodermatoses Prenatal diagnosis of genodermatoses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Carolina de Abreu Sampaio

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available O diagnóstico pré-natal está indicado para algumas genodermatoses graves, como a epidermólise bolhosa distrófica recessiva e a epidermólise bolhosa juncional. A biópsia de pele fetal foi introduzida em 1980, mas não pode ser realizada antes da 15a semana de gestação. A análise do DNA fetal é método preciso e pode ser realizado mais precocemente na gestação. No entanto, deve-se conhecer a base molecular da genodermatose, e é essencial determinar a mutação e/ou marcadores informativos nas famílias com criança previamente afetada. O DNA fetal pode ser obtido pela biópsia da vilosidade coriônica ou amniocentese. O diagnóstico genético pré-implantação tem surgido como alternativa que dispensa a interrupção da gestação. Essa técnica, que envolve fertilização in vitro e teste genético do embrião. vem sendo realizada para genodermatoses em poucos centros de referência. A ultra-sonografia é exame não invasivo, mas tem uso limitado no diagnóstico pré-natal de genodermatoses. A ultrasonografia tridimensional geralmente estabelece o diagnóstico tardiamente na gestação, e há apenas relatos anedóticos de diagnóstico pré-natal de genodermatoses usando esse método.Prenatal diagnostic testing is indicated for some severe genodermatoses, such as recessive dystrophic epidermolysis bullosa and junctional epidermolysis bullosa. Fetal skin biopsy was introduced in 1980, but it cannot be performed before 15th gestational week. Fetal DNA analysis is a precise method and can be performed earlier in pregnancy. However, the molecular basis of the genodermatoses must be known and it is essential to determine the gene mutations and/or informative markers in the families with a previously affected child. Fetal DNA can be obtained by chorionic villus sampling or amniocentesis. Preimplantation genetic diagnosis is an alternative approach obviating the need for termination of pregnancy. It involves in vitro fertilization and

  4. Female reproductive disorders

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Crain, D Andrew; Janssen, Sarah J; Edwards, Thea M

    2008-01-01

    To evaluate the possible role of endocrine-disrupting compounds (EDCs) on female reproductive disorders emphasizing developmental plasticity and the complexity of endocrine-dependent ontogeny of reproductive organs. Declining conception rates and the high incidence of female reproductive...... disruptions warrant evaluation of the impact of EDCs on female reproductive health....

  5. Sífilis congênita: evento sentinela da qualidade da assistência pré-natal

    OpenAIRE

    Domingues, Rosa Maria Soares Madeira; Saracen, Valeria; Hartz, Zulmira Maria De Araújo; Leal, Maria Do Carmo

    2013-01-01

    OBJETIVO: Analisar a assistência pré-natal na prevenção da transmissão vertical da sífilis. MÉTODOS: Estudo transversal representativo para as gestantes de baixo risco atendidas em unidades de saúde do município do Rio de Janeiro, RJ, período de 2007 a 2008. A identificação de gestantes com diagnóstico de sífilis na gestação foi feita por meio de entrevistas, verificação do cartão de pré-natal e busca de casos notificados em sistemas públicos de informação em saúde. Os casos de sífilis congên...

  6. Pre-natal exposure to paracetamol and risk of wheezing and asthma in children: A birth cohort study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rebordosa, Cristina; Kogevinas, Manolis; Sørensen, Henrik T

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Paracetamol use has been associated with increased prevalence of asthma in children and adults, and one study reported an association between pre-natal exposure to paracetamol and asthma in early childhood. METHODS: To examine if pre-natal exposure to paracetamol is associated...... with the risk of asthma or wheezing in early childhood, we selected 66 445 women from the Danish National Birth Cohort for whom we had information on paracetamol use during pregnancy and who participated in an interview when their children were 18-months-old and 12 733 women whose children had reached the age...... of 7 and estimated the prevalence of physician-diagnosed asthma and wheezing at the ages of 18 months and 7 years. We also linked our population to the Danish National Hospital Registry to record all hospitalizations due to asthma up to age of 18 months. RESULTS: Paracetamol use during any time...

  7. Percepção da gestante sobre a integralidade da atenção pré-natal

    OpenAIRE

    Bezerra, Melina de Paiva

    2008-01-01

    Os principais problemas discutidos sobre a atenção pré-natal na literatura referem-se ao não cumprimento das atividades preconizadas pelo MS por parte dos profissionais durante as consultas pré-natais, ocasionando uma baixa qualidade da atenção pré-natal e a óbitos materno-infantis. A avaliação na percepção da gestante e do pesquisador constitui um método para identificar os conflitos existentes na organização do serviço de saúde e nas práticas profissionais, sendo relevante a decodificação d...

  8. Evaluating quality management systems for HIV rapid testing services in primary healthcare clinics in rural KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ziningi Jaya

    Full Text Available Rapid HIV tests have improved access to HIV diagnosis and treatment by providing quick and convenient testing in rural clinics and resource-limited settings. In this study, we evaluated the quality management system for voluntary and provider-initiated point-of-care HIV testing in primary healthcare (PHC clinics in rural KwaZulu-Natal (KZN, South Africa.We conducted a quality assessment audit in eleven PHC clinics that offer voluntary HIV testing and counselling in rural KZN, South Africa from August 2015 to October 2016. All the participating clinics were purposively selected from the province-wide survey of diagnostic services. We completed an on-site monitoring checklist, adopted from the WHO guidelines for assuring accuracy and reliability of HIV rapid tests, to assess the quality management system for HIV rapid testing at each clinic. To determine clinic's compliance to WHO quality standards for HIV rapid testing the following quality measure was used, a 3-point scale (high, moderate and poor. A high score was defined as a percentage rating of 90 to 100%, moderate was defined as a percentage rating of 70 to 90%, and poor was defined as a percentage rating of less than 70%. Clinic audit scores were summarized and compared. We employed Pearson pair wise correlation coefficient to determine correlations between clinics audit scores and clinic and clinics characteristics. Linear regression model was computed to estimate statistical significance of the correlates. Correlations were reported as significant at p ≤0.05.Nine out of 11 audited rural PHC clinics are located outside 20Km of the nearest town and hospital. Majority (18.2% of the audited rural PHC clinics reported that HIV rapid test was performed by HIV lay counsellors. Overall, ten clinics were rated moderate, in terms of their compliance to the stipulated WHO guidelines. Audit results showed that rural PHC clinics' average rating score for compliance to the WHO guidelines ranged

  9. Evaluating quality management systems for HIV rapid testing services in primary healthcare clinics in rural KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaya, Ziningi; Drain, Paul K; Mashamba-Thompson, Tivani P

    2017-01-01

    Rapid HIV tests have improved access to HIV diagnosis and treatment by providing quick and convenient testing in rural clinics and resource-limited settings. In this study, we evaluated the quality management system for voluntary and provider-initiated point-of-care HIV testing in primary healthcare (PHC) clinics in rural KwaZulu-Natal (KZN), South Africa. We conducted a quality assessment audit in eleven PHC clinics that offer voluntary HIV testing and counselling in rural KZN, South Africa from August 2015 to October 2016. All the participating clinics were purposively selected from the province-wide survey of diagnostic services. We completed an on-site monitoring checklist, adopted from the WHO guidelines for assuring accuracy and reliability of HIV rapid tests, to assess the quality management system for HIV rapid testing at each clinic. To determine clinic's compliance to WHO quality standards for HIV rapid testing the following quality measure was used, a 3-point scale (high, moderate and poor). A high score was defined as a percentage rating of 90 to 100%, moderate was defined as a percentage rating of 70 to 90%, and poor was defined as a percentage rating of less than 70%. Clinic audit scores were summarized and compared. We employed Pearson pair wise correlation coefficient to determine correlations between clinics audit scores and clinic and clinics characteristics. Linear regression model was computed to estimate statistical significance of the correlates. Correlations were reported as significant at p ≤0.05. Nine out of 11 audited rural PHC clinics are located outside 20Km of the nearest town and hospital. Majority (18.2%) of the audited rural PHC clinics reported that HIV rapid test was performed by HIV lay counsellors. Overall, ten clinics were rated moderate, in terms of their compliance to the stipulated WHO guidelines. Audit results showed that rural PHC clinics' average rating score for compliance to the WHO guidelines ranged between 64.4% (CI

  10. Stress management and its impact on work performance of educators in public schools in KwaZulu–Natal / Kiveshni Naidoo

    OpenAIRE

    Naidoo, Kiveshni

    2011-01-01

    This study focuses on stress management of educators, and specifically in the KwaZulu–Natal geographical region. The study consists of four focus areas (which are presented in article format), namely: * The first article identifies the role–players and their functions in delivering quality education to all South Africans. The article identifies the role–players from literature research and discusses their influences on the South African educational environment. A biographical profile of th...

  11. An investigation into the use of 3G mobile communications to provide telehealth services in rural KwaZulu-Natal

    OpenAIRE

    Clarke, M; Mars, M

    2014-01-01

    This article has been made available through the Brunel Open Access Publishing Fund. Abstract Background: We investigated the use of third-generation (3G) mobile communications to provide telehealth services in remote health clinics in rural KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa. Materials and Methods: We specified a minimal set of services as our use case that would be representative of typical activity and to provide a baseline for analysis of network performance. Services included database access...

  12. Evaluasi Sifat Biologi Tanah Tanaman Kopi Arabika (Coffea arabica L.) di Beberapa Kecamatan di Kabupaten Mandailing Natal

    OpenAIRE

    Matondang, Daniel

    2016-01-01

    Coffee is one of the agricultural commodities that has a sufficiently high economic value. Mandailaing Natal is the one of the coffee-producing areas in Indonesia. This study aimed to evaluate the biological properties of the soil, among others organic carbon, total nitrogen, total soil respiration and total soil microorganisms to the production of coffee. This study conducted using survey method. Samples were taken at random method deliberately based on deployment coffee plants from various ...

  13. Stress exposure in early post-natal life reduces telomere length: an experimental demonstration in a long-lived seabird

    OpenAIRE

    Herborn, Katherine A.; Heidinger, Britt J.; Boner, Winnie; Noguera, Jose C.; Adam, Aileen; Daunt, Francis; Monaghan, Pat

    2014-01-01

    Exposure to stressors early in life is associated with faster ageing and reduced longevity. One important mechanism that could underlie these late life effects is increased telomere loss. Telomere length in early post-natal life is an important predictor of subsequent lifespan, but the factors underpinning its variability are poorly understood. Recent human studies have linked stress exposure to increased telomere loss. These studies have of necessity been non-experimental and are consequentl...

  14. Perspectiva das mulheres na avaliação do Programa de Humanização do Pré-Natal e Nascimento Perspectiva de las mujeres en la evaluación del Programa de Humanización del Pre-natal y Nacimiento Women's perspective in the evaluation of the Program for the Humanization of Antenatal Care and Childbirth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristiane Andréa Locatelli de Almeida

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Analisar a importância da inclusão da perspectiva das mulheres na avaliação do Programa de Humanização do Pré-Natal e Nascimento. PROCEDIMENTOS METODOLÓGICOS: Estudo qualitativo realizado em base a dados primários coletados para a avaliação do Programa de Humanização do Pré-Natal e Nascimento, do Ministério da Saúde, em 2003, em sete municípios das cinco regiões do Brasil, selecionados a partir de dados extraídos de sistemas de bancos de dados oficiais já existentes. Um dos atores considerado fundamental para a coleta de informações foi a mulher atendida pelo Programa, abordada por meio de dezesseis grupos focais realizados em unidades de saúde. Para o tratamento dos dados empíricos foi utilizado o método do Discurso do Sujeito Coletivo. A análise e discussão foram realizadas com o apoio dos conceitos em saúde pública de acessibilidade e Saúde Paidéia. ANÁLISE DOS RESULTADOS: O Programa estudado normatiza para todos os serviços de saúde do país os procedimentos para a atenção ao pré-natal e o parto e os fluxos a serem observados. A análise do discurso das gestantes, nos grupos focais realizados, trouxe clareza quanto à dissonância existente entre muitas dessas recomendações e os desejos e necessidades da mulher, o que faz com que ela procure traçar para si um outro fluxo de atendimentos. Esta ocorrência traz prejuízos ao vínculo que estabelece com o serviço de saúde, além de dificuldades de controle pelo serviço do seguimento real que está sendo oferecido. CONCLUSÕES: A reflexão realizada do Programa, tomando por base a perspectiva das mulheres atendidas, identificou aspectos cuja consideração no momento da avaliação poderia resultar em maior efetividade e humanização do controle pré-natal oferecido.OBJETIVO: Analizar la importancia de la inclusión de la perspectiva de las mujeres en la evaluación del Programa de Humanización del Pre-natal y Nacimiento. PROCEDIMIENTOS

  15. Female reproductive disorders

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Crain, D Andrew; Janssen, Sarah J; Edwards, Thea M

    2008-01-01

    To evaluate the possible role of endocrine-disrupting compounds (EDCs) on female reproductive disorders emphasizing developmental plasticity and the complexity of endocrine-dependent ontogeny of reproductive organs. Declining conception rates and the high incidence of female reproductive disrupti......To evaluate the possible role of endocrine-disrupting compounds (EDCs) on female reproductive disorders emphasizing developmental plasticity and the complexity of endocrine-dependent ontogeny of reproductive organs. Declining conception rates and the high incidence of female reproductive...... disruptions warrant evaluation of the impact of EDCs on female reproductive health....

  16. Prescription of anorectic and benzodiazepine drugs through notification B prescriptions in Natal, Rio Grande do Norte, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Solange Aparecida Nappo

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available A study was conducted on 22,158 special B prescriptions (notificações B containing amphetamine-type anorectic drugs or benzodiazepines, obtained from compounding pharmacies or drugstores located in the city of Natal, RN, Brazil. The data obtained were compared with those from other Brazilian cities. Results showed that compounding pharmacies dispensed 85.4% of the prescriptions, indicating that these pharmacies filled out nearly 10 times more of these prescriptions than did the drugstores. The majority (83.5% of B prescriptions issued for the compounding pharmacies were for women, where the female/male patient ratio ranged from 7.1/1.0 for mazindol to 10.3/1.0 for amfepramone. Similar results were obtained for the benzodiazepines with ratios of 1.9/1.0 for clonazepam to 15.6/1.0 for oxazepam. Omissions and mistakes were present in the B prescriptions, including missing information about the patient (in 49.6% of the documents or about the pharmacies or drugstores (50.4%. There were cases where the name and/or CRM of the physician was lacking. It was noted that one medical doctor made out 1855 B prescriptions within one year. The same patient's name appeared on 138 prescriptions, and the same RG (identification card number was present in 125 others. Comparison of Natal's data with those of several other Brazilian cities disclosed a striking similarity throughout Brazil, from Pelotas - Rio Grande do Sul State to Belem-Para State, revealing a practically identical medical/pharmaceutical behavior. This pattern of prescription/dispensation of amphetamine-type substances mostly to women for weight loss is therefore for cosmetic reasons. Consequently, there is an urgent need for an ethical review of this behavior.Foram examinadas 22.158 notificações B contendo substâncias anoréticas tipo-anfetamina ou de benzodiazepínicos, obtidas de drogarias e de farmácias de manipulação. Os dados foram comparados com os de outras cidades do Brasil, obtendo

  17. RESOLUSI KONFLIK ANTARA MASYARAKAT LOKAL DENGAN PERUSAHAAN PERTAMBANGAN (STUDI KASUS: KECAMATAN NAGA JUANG, KABUPATEN MANDAILING NATAL, PROVINSI SUMATERA UTARA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dian Taufik Ramadhan

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Konflik antara PT. SMM, masyarakat Kecamatan Naga Juang, dan Pemerintah Kabupaten Mandailing Natal, berakar pada hubungan ekonomi yang menyangkut pengelolaan dan pemanfaatan komoditi emas. Penelitian ini berupaya melihat relasi di antara ketiga stakeholder tersebut. Melihat hal-hal yang menjadi sebab konflik, mengurai struktur dan dinamika konfik serta merumuskan strategi resolusi konflik. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan, dimensi sebab konflik disebabkan oleh dimensi ekonomi atas pengelolaan dan pemanfaatan komoditi emas, dimensi struktur dan dinamika sangat dipengaruhi oleh peran aktor yang mendorong peningkatan ketegangan dan eskalasi konfik. Resolusi konflik yang dirumuskan yaitu strategi akomodatif. Strategi akomodatif adalah strategi yang mengakomodir kepentingan dan espektasi dari dua stakeholder kunci yaitu, Pemkab Madina dan masyarakat Kecamatan Naga Juang. Conflict between PT. SMM, Naga Juang district community, and the government of Mandailing Natal Regency, rooted in economic relations that concern to the management and utilization of gold’s commodity.  This research attempt to see the relationship between the three stakeholders, see the causes of conflict, analyze the structure and dynamics of conflict, and also formulate strategies of conflict resolution. The results showed, the economic dimension of the conflict caused by the management and utilization of gold commodity, structural and dynamics dimensions are strongly influenced by the role of actors which encouraged tension escalation and conflicts. The formulation of conflict resolution is an accommodative strategic which is a strategy that accommodates the interests and expectations of two key stakeholders, namely Mandailing Natal regencial government, and Naga Juang district community.

  18. Negative phenotypic and genetic correlation between natal dispersal propensity and nest-defence behaviour in a wild bird.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bize, Pierre; Daniel, Grégory; Viblanc, Vincent A; Martin, Julien G A; Doligez, Blandine

    2017-07-01

    Natural selection is expected to favour the integration of dispersal and phenotypic traits allowing individuals to reduce dispersal costs. Accordingly, associations have been found between dispersal and personality traits such as aggressiveness and exploration, which may facilitate settlement in a novel environment. However, the determinism of these associations has only rarely been explored. Here, we highlight the functional integration of individual personality in nest-defence behaviour and natal dispersal propensity in a long-lived colonial bird, the Alpine swift ( Apus melba ), providing insights into genetic constraints shaping the coevolution of these two traits. We report a negative association between natal dispersal and nest-defence (i.e. risk taking) behaviour at both the phenotypic and genetic level. This negative association may result from direct selection if risk-averseness benefits natal dispersers by reducing the costs of settlement in an unfamiliar environment, or from indirect selection if individuals with lower levels of nest defence also show lower levels of aggressiveness, reducing costs of settlement among unfamiliar neighbours in a colony. In both cases, these results highlight that risk taking is an important behavioural trait to consider in the study of dispersal evolution. © 2017 The Author(s).

  19. Interleukin-6 Regulates Adult Neural Stem Cell Numbers during Normal and Abnormal Post-natal Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mekayla A. Storer

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Summary: Circulating systemic factors can regulate adult neural stem cell (NSC biology, but the identity of these circulating cues is still being defined. Here, we have focused on the cytokine interleukin-6 (IL-6, since increased circulating levels of IL-6 are associated with neural pathologies such as autism and bipolar disorder. We show that IL-6 promotes proliferation of post-natal murine forebrain NSCs and that, when the IL-6 receptor is inducibly knocked out in post-natal or adult neural precursors, this causes a long-term decrease in forebrain NSCs. Moreover, a transient circulating surge of IL-6 in perinatal or adult mice causes an acute increase in neural precursor proliferation followed by long-term depletion of adult NSC pools. Thus, IL-6 signaling is both necessary and sufficient for adult NSC self-renewal, and acute perturbations in circulating IL-6, as observed in many pathological situations, have long-lasting effects on the size of adult NSC pools. : In this report, Storer and colleagues demonstrate that the circulating cytokine IL-6, which is elevated in humans in different pathological situations, can perturb neural stem cell biology after birth. They show that IL-6 signaling is essential for self-renewal and maintenance of post-natal and adult NSCs in the murine forebrain under normal homeostatic conditions. Keywords: interleukin-6, neural stem cell, adult neurogenesis, CNS cytokines, postnatal brain development, stem cell depletion, neural stem cell niche, circulating stem cell factors, olfactory bulb

  20. Passages of ink: Decoding the Natal indentured records into the Digital Age

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thembisa Waetjen

    Full Text Available In every British colony that received indentured workers from India, officials recorded personal and social details for identifying the arriving migrants. In Natal, 152,184 migrants were inscribed into such lists between 1860 and 1911. This article traces the history of this set of documents from their mid-nineteenth-century origins as registers of imperial labour control to their twenty-first century digitisation by an amateur historian in a relational database, available online. Against the backdrop of transforming informational technologies, the story of the shipping lists is the story of their changing social and political meanings in relation to the circumstances of the Indian diaspora in South Africa over one hundred and fifty years. Now held at the Durban Archives Repository, these records are regularly drawn upon by South Africans of indentured ancestry to establish family origins for the purposes of applying for the status of 'Person of Indian Origin' or 'Overseas Citizen of India', offered by the Indian government to individuals who can prove Indian ancestry within a number of generations. Thus, the ships' lists are bracketed by very different periods in which the creation of an 'exceptional' political status was legislated to serve economic interests by harnessing linkages of the Global South.

  1. Factors affecting graduation and student dropout rates at the University of KwaZulu-Natal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mike Murray

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims to introduce into the literature a competing risks methodology that can be used to help identify some student-specific and/or institutional factors which may be influencing the type of outcome experienced by a student when they leave the university system. Focusing on the length of time that it takes students to graduate or drop out from their studies, this new methodology was applied to a database comprising all students enrolled for a degree at the University of KwaZulu-Natal between the years 2004 and 2012. Financial aid and residence-based accommodation were found to help students who will eventually graduate to do so quicker in terms of the number of credit points that they have to repeat. These same factors, however, also cause someone who will eventually be excluded on academic grounds to linger longer in the system. By focusing on the number of extra credit points that it takes to reach a particular exit point, this paper introduces into the literature a new measure whose use will help to overcome some of the more obvious problems that can occur when one uses calendar time to measure the length of time that it takes to reach a particular exit point.

  2. A survey of cultural competence of critical care nurses in KwaZuluNatal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennifer de Beer

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Background. Nurses are primary caregivers and have a key role in providing care in a culturally diverse healthcare system, such as in South Africa (SA. Nurses need cultural competence in the management of patients within this cultural context. A healthcare system staffed by a culturally competent workforce can provide high-quality care to diverse population groups, contributing to the elimination of health disparities.Objective. To describe the self-rated levels of cultural competence of nurses working in critical care settings in a selected public hospital in SA.Methods. A quantitative descriptive survey was conducted with nurses from eight critical care units in a selected public hospital in KwaZulu-Natal, using the Inventory to Access the Process of Cultural Competency - Revised (IAPCC-R cultural competence questionnaire. Results. The overall cultural competence score for the respondents was 70.2 (standard deviation 7.2 out of a possible 100, with 77 (74% of the respondents scoring in the awareness range, 26 (25% in the competent range, and only 1 in the proficient range. Nurses from non-English-speaking backgrounds scored significantly higher in cultural competence than English-speaking nurses.Conclusion. In addressing the many faces of cultural diversity, healthcare professionals must realise that these faces share a common vision: to obtain quality healthcare services that are culturally responsive and culturally relevant to the specific cultural group.

  3. Experiences of homosexual patients' access to primary health care services in Umlazi, KwaZulu-Natal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cele, Nokulunga H; Sibiya, Maureen N; Sokhela, Dudu G

    2015-09-28

    Homosexual patients are affected by social factors in their environment, and as a result may not have easy access to existing health care services. Prejudice against homosexuality and homosexual patients remains a barrier to them seeking appropriate healthcare. The concern is that lesbians and gays might delay or avoid seeking health care when they need it because of past discrimination or perceived homophobia within the health care thereby putting their health at risk. The aim of the study was to explore and describe the experiences of homosexual patients utilising primary health care (PHC) services in Umlazi in the province ofKwaZulu-Natal (KZN). A qualitative, exploratory, descriptive study was conducted which was contextual innature. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with 12 participants. The findings of this study were analysed using content analysis. Two major themes emerged from the data analysis, namely, prejudice against homosexual patients by health care providers and other patients at the primary health care facilities, and, homophobic behaviour from primary health care personnel. Participants experienced prejudice and homophobic behaviour in the course of utilising PHC clinics in Umlazi, which created a barrier to their utilisation of health services located there. Nursing education institutions, in collaboration with the National Department of Health, should introduce homosexuality and anti-homophobia education programmes during the pre-service and in-service education period. Such programmes will help to familiarise health care providers with the health care needs of homosexual patients and may decrease homophobic attitudes.

  4. Effect of Irradiation Maternal Diets on the Post-natal Development of Brain Rat Pups

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hasan, S.S.

    2005-09-01

    Full text: Effect of Protein-calorie malnutrition was studied on the pups born to mothers receiving either irradiated normal diet (consisted equal parts of gram and wheat) or irradiation low protein diet (consisted one part of normal diet and three parts of heat). Level of DNA, RNA and protein content were found markedly reduced in the brain of irradiated low protein diet fed pups than in the pups fed on the irradiated normal diet. Glucose 6-phosphate dehydrogenase activity was found lower while catalase and lipid peroxidation activity were higher in the pups given irradiated low protein diet, compared whit the pups fed irradiated normal diet. On the whole both the irradiated low protein diet as well as irradiated normal diet fed pups showed higher index of biochemical changes than in the unirradiated low protein diet fed pups. Post-natal mortality was 60% in the pups given irradiated low protein diet, whereas the pups fed on the irradiated normal diet and unirradiated low protein diet did not show any death. The study given evidence that feeding of the irradiated low protein diet interferes more with the development of brain compared with the pups fed on irradiated normal diet

  5. Media framing of natural disasters in Kwazulu-Natal province: Impact of contigency plans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bethuel Sibongiseni Ngcamu

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available This study explores how the media frame disaster contingency plans which include preparedness, mitigation, response and recovery of the KwaZulu-Natal province before, during and in the aftermath of natural disasters. The province has been stricken by natural disasters. Although newspapers report the disasters they fail to give details of disaster contingency plans that should be available to those who are susceptible to, and the victims of disasters. Based on a content analysis of 114 online newspaper articles between 2000 and 2013 to examine how the media framed the KZN government’s disaster contingency plans. This study concludes that the highest occurrence of disasters (71% was from 2011 onwards as compared to previous years, and most of these were associated with areas that are susceptible to floods (34%. The findings of the study highlight that the media placed an emphasis on disaster response (41% over preparedness (24% and mitigation (7%. The outcomes suggest that newspaper organisations need to appoint a designated reporter responsible for disaster management issues. This is relevant because this study conveys findings that have the potential to persuade government and newspaper organisations to collaborate and to ensure that their officials are multi-skilled and able to cover all phases of disaster management in their articles, in order for these to be understood at all levels of society. This study further adds to the growing body of knowledge regarding quality journalism that meets its objectives.

  6. Síndrome de burnout no setor de transporte de Natal

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    Luciana Bezerra de Souza Gianasi

    Full Text Available Reconhecendo-se a importância que o ambiente de trabalho tem para a saúde mental, o objetivo desse estudo foi investigar a relação entre a síndrome de burnout e as fontes de desgaste físico e emocional no setor de transporte coletivo urbano da cidade de Natal. A pesquisa foi realizada com 412 motoristas e cobradores de duas empresas. Para coleta dos dados, aplicaram-se dois questionários e uma ficha sociodemográfica. O primeiro, construído e validado durante a pesquisa, investigou as fontes e o segundo, a síndrome. Entre os resultados, confirmou-se a prevalência da síndrome e que a principal fonte de desgaste físico e emocional que a prediz é o fator referente a conflitos de valores e ausência de equidade no ambiente de trabalho.

  7. Antibiotic resistance of Vibrio parahaemolyticus isolated from pond-reared Litopenaeus vannamei marketed in Natal, Brazil

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    Ligia Maria Rodrigues de Melo

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Ten out of fifty fresh and refrigerated samples of shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei collected from retailers in Natal (Rio Grande do Norte, Northeastern Brazil tested positive for Vibrio parahaemolyticus. The Kanagawa test and multiplex PCR assays were used to detect TDH and TRH hemolysins and the tdh, trh and tlh genes, respectively. All strains were Kanagawa-negative and tlh-positive. Antibiotic susceptibility testing was done for seven antibiotics by the agar diffusion technique. Five strains (50% presented multiple antibiotic resistance to ampicillin (90% and amikacin (60%, while two strains (20% displayed intermediate-level resistance to amikacin. All strains were sensitive to chloramphenicol. Intermediate-level susceptibility and/or resistance to other antibiotics ranged from 10 to 90%, with emphasis on the observed growing intermediate-level resistance to ciprofloxacin. Half our isolates yielded a multiple antibiotic resistance index above 0.2 (range: 0.14-0.29, indicating a considerable risk of propagation of antibiotic resistance throughout the food chain.

  8. RADIOATIVIDADE DAS AREIAS UTILIZADAS NA CONSTRUÇÃO CIVIL DA CIDADE DO NATAL/RN

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    Luiz Henrique Lira de Oliveria

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available O presente trabalho tem por desígnio identificar os minerais pesados encontrados nos aluviões que abastecem o mercado da construção civil da grande Natal, bem como medir a radioatividade provinda dessas areias, nas quais as pessoas estão em constante contato, a fim de alertá-las aos possíveis perigos. Para tal, escolheu-se a localidade de Jacobina, no município de Macaíba/RN pelo fato da existência de exploração de areia nas margens do rio Potengi, onde foram realizadas medições gamaespectométricas no solo e em afloramentos com o Cintilômetro RS-125 Super-SPEC, adquirido pelo CNPq (Processo nº 550307/2010-9. A partir dos resultados obtidos, foram criadas superfícies modeladas (em meio digital através de mapas temáticos que proporcionaram uma simples interpretação das doses radioativas absorvidas.

  9. Women Tourism Entrepreneurs in KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa: Any Way Forward?

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    Sibongile Princess Tshabalala

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available This study, done in KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa, sheds light into the challenges facing women entrepreneurs involved in tourism businesses and the opportunities they can harness in the tourism industry, with particular reference to some gender nuances. The study collected qualitative and quantitative data from respondents, and the data were analysed using content and descriptive analyses respectively. The challenges facing these women entrepreneurs, identified by this study, include lack of financial capital, low business capability, problem of size and scope, racial issues and traditional perceptions, and imperfect business location. Some opportunities for growth identified are local municipality support, internet marketing, and formation of business network for self-support and training. This study recommends business skills training for the women entrepreneurs in the areas of sourcing business funding, creating unique value proposition, product excellence, marketing capability, operational excellence and customer service. Although this study was conducted in a South African province, it has implications for women entrepreneurs in sub-Saharan Africa, and beyond.

  10. Use of non-natal estuaries by migratory striped bass (Morone saxatilis) in summer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mather, M. E.; Finn, John T.; Ferry, K.H.; Deegan, Linda A.; Nelson, G.A.

    2009-01-01

    For most migratory fish, little is known about the location and size of foraging areas or how long individuals remain in foraging areas, even though these attributes may affect their growth, survival, and impact on local prey. We tested whether striped bass (Morone saxatilis Walbaum), found in Massachusetts in summer, were migratory, how long they stayed in non-natal estuaries, whether observed spatial patterns differed from random model predictions, whether fish returned to the same area across multiple years, and whether fishing effort could explain recapture patterns. Anchor tags were attached to striped bass that were caught and released in Massachusetts in 1999 and 2000, and recaptured between 1999 and 2007. In fall, tagged striped bass were caught south of where they were released in summer, confirming that fish were coastal migrants. In the first summer, 77% and 100% of the recaptured fish in the Great Marsh and along the Massachusetts coast, respectively, were caught in the same place where they were released. About two thirds of all fish recaptured near where they were released were caught 2-7 years after tagging. Our study shows that smaller (400-500 mm total length) striped bass migrate hundreds of kilometers along the Atlantic Ocean coast, cease their mobile lifestyle in summer when they use a relatively localized area for foraging (<20 km2), and return to these same foraging areas in subsequent years.

  11. Effects of pre-natal X-ray exposure on learning behaviour of mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frank, P.; Faber, U.; Budny, T.

    1983-01-01

    The authors investigated whether prenatal X-raying affects the learning behaviour of mice. For this purpose they irradiated mice of strain C57BL/6Ffm with 130 r at different points of the fetal phase. Unirradiated mice served as controls. The animals underwent two learning test series of 14 days each teaching them optical signs. The results of the test series show a distinctly inferior learning ability in the animals exposed to pre-natal irradiation as compared to unirradiated controls. The extent of the reduction of the learning ability depends on the stage of the pregnancy at the time of X-ray exposure. The greatest difference as compared to non-irradiated mice occurred in the animals irradiated at the earliest stage (13th/14th day of pregnancy). The results of the other test groups (15th/16th and 17th/18th day of pregnancy) exhibited less distinct, but still significant differences to the controls. Exposure at the latest period (17th/18th day) coincided with the smallest difference. (orig./MG) [de

  12. Determinants of farmers' participation in collective maintenance of irrigation infrastructure in KwaZulu-Natal

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    Sharaunga, S.; Mudhara, M.

    2018-06-01

    The decentralization framework and the Dublin Principles on Integrated Water Resource Management (IWRM) emphasize the need for a participatory approach to irrigation water management. This study identifies the factors influencing farmers' decision to, and extent of participation in the maintenance of irrigation infrastructure in KwaZulu-Natal province, South Africa based on cross-section data collected from 320 randomly selected smallholder irrigating farmers. A two-step Heckman regression model was applied in the analysis. It was established that households whose heads were older, block committee members, with larger irrigation plots, good soil quality and experiencing severe irrigation water shortages are more likely to participate in maintenance of irrigation infrastructure. On the other hand, farmers with insecure land tenure and with no access to irrigation water were less likely to make the decision to participate. Farmers who were members of the farming cooperative as well as block committee members and those paying irrigation water costs were likely to intensively participate in maintaining irrigation infrastructure. Therefore, decentralization alone cannot lead to improved irrigation outcomes. Several factors are necessary for households to participate intensively in the maintenance of irrigation infrastructure. Governments should address these challenges before handing irrigation schemes to their beneficiaries.

  13. Predicting scientific research output at the University of KwaZulu-Natal

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    Mike Murray

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Academic members of staff at the University of KwaZulu-Natal (UKZN are expected to publish in research journals that have been accredited by the South African based Department of Higher Education and Training. However, some members of staff have chosen to focus solely on the teaching aspect of their careers and as a result they have no publication record. In this study, a set of per annum productivity unit counts was calculated for every academic at UKZN. Because it is possible for a publishing academic to also record a zero count for a given year, it is necessary to develop an appropriate methodology that can distinguish this zero count from one that will always be recorded by a non-publishing academic. By fitting a zero-inflated Poisson model to the data, specific factors can be identified that separately drive the non-publishing and publishing processes at UKZN. In particular, having a PhD and working in a large school has a significant impact on improving the research output of a publishing academic. If UKZN wants to become a research-focused university, non-publishing academics should be encouraged to undertake a PhD degree.

  14. The evolution of female sex pheromones

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    Ally R. HARARI, Hadass STEINITZ

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available The role of female sex pheromones in natural selection, particularly as a means for species recognition to avoid the generation of hybrid offspring with low fitness, has been widely explored and is generally accepted by scholars. However, the significance of sex pheromones in shaping mate choice (sexual selection and in competition over breeding resources (social selection has been largely ignored. The effect of sexual selection on sex pheromones as a sexually dimorphic signaling trait has been discounted because the amount of pheromone released by females is typically minute, while the role of sex pheromones in competition over breeding resources (other than mates has not yet been considered. As a result of natural selection, variation in sex pheromones among females is expected to be low, and males are not expected to choose their mates among pheromone-releasing conspecific females. Sexual selection, on the other hand, should drive the increase in pheromone variance among females, and males are expected to choose females based on this variation. Moreover, social selection resulting from more general social interactions, for example competition among females for breeding sites and food, should also promote variance among female sex pheromones. Here, we review the current evidence for each of the three selection processes acting on sex pheromones of female moths as an advertising trait. We suggest that the three selection types are not mutually exclusive but rather act together to promote different fitness components in diverse ecological situations [Current Zoology 59 (4: 569–578, 2013].

  15. Spatial distribution of extensively drug-resistant tuberculosis (XDR TB patients in KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa.

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    Thandi Kapwata

    Full Text Available KwaZulu-Natal province, South Africa, has among the highest burden of XDR TB worldwide with the majority of cases occurring due to transmission. Poor access to health facilities can be a barrier to timely diagnosis and treatment of TB, which can contribute to ongoing transmission. We sought to determine the geographic distribution of XDR TB patients and proximity to health facilities in KwaZulu-Natal.We recruited adults and children with XDR TB diagnosed in KwaZulu-Natal. We calculated distance and time from participants' home to the closest hospital or clinic, as well as to the actual facility that diagnosed XDR TB, using tools within ArcGIS Network analyst. Speed of travel was assigned to road classes based on Department of Transport regulations. Results were compared to guidelines for the provision of social facilities in South Africa: 5km to a clinic and 30km to a hospital.During 2011-2014, 1027 new XDR TB cases were diagnosed throughout all 11 districts of KwaZulu-Natal, of whom 404 (39% were enrolled and had geospatial data collected. Participants would have had to travel a mean distance of 2.9 km (CI 95%: 1.8-4.1 to the nearest clinic and 17.6 km (CI 95%: 11.4-23.8 to the nearest hospital. Actual distances that participants travelled to the health facility that diagnosed XDR TB ranged from 50 km (n = 109, 27%, with a mean of 69 km. The majority (77% of participants travelled farther than the recommended distance to a clinic (5 km and 39% travelled farther than the recommended distance to a hospital (30 km. Nearly half (46% of participants were diagnosed at a health facility in eThekwini district, of whom, 36% resided outside the Durban metropolitan area.XDR TB cases are widely distributed throughout KwaZulu-Natal province with a denser focus in eThekwini district. Patients travelled long distances to the health facility where they were diagnosed with XDR TB, suggesting a potential role for migration or transportation in the XDR TB

  16. Fatores associados à inadequação do uso da assistência pré-natal

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    Coimbra Liberata C

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Identificar fatores associados à inadequação do uso da assistência pré-natal em comunidade urbana. MÉTODOS: Foi realizado estudo transversal em amostra sistemática, estratificada por maternidades, de todos os nascimentos hospitalares do município de São Luís, MA, no período de março de 1997 a fevereiro de 1998. Foram avaliados indicadores socioeconômicos e demográficos, de saúde reprodutiva, morbidade na gravidez e utilização de serviços pré-natais. Utilizou-se questionário padronizado respondido pelas puérperas antes da alta hospitalar. A adequação do uso da assistência pré-natal foi analisada pelo índice "Adequacy of Prenatal Care Utilization" (APNCU e por um novo índice proposto, baseado nas recomendações do Ministério da Saúde, Brasil. RESULTADOS: Foram entrevistadas 2.831 puérperas, atendidas em dez unidades de saúde pública e privada. A inadequação do uso da assistência pré-natal foi de 49,2% pelo índice APNCU, e de 24,5% pelo novo índice proposto. Mulheres atendidas em serviços públicos de saúde, de baixa escolaridade e baixa renda familiar, sem companheiro ou com doença durante a gravidez, tiveram maiores percentuais de inadequação do uso do atendimento pré-natal, pelos dois índices analisados. Pelo novo índice proposto, maiores percentuais de inadequação foram associados à alta paridade e idade materna, enquanto baixa idade materna (<20 anos, ocorrência de doença durante a gravidez e primiparidade sugerem proteção contra a inadequação. CONCLUSÕES: O atendimento pré-natal em São Luís do Maranhão apresentou baixa cobertura. A inadequação do uso da assistência esteve associada a vários fatores indicativos da persistência de desigualdade social.

  17. Female feticide in India.

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    Ahmad, Nehaluddin

    2010-01-01

    Women are murdered all over the world. But in India a most brutal form of killing females takes place regularly, even before they have the opportunity to be born. Female feticide--the selective abortion of female fetuses--is killing upwards of one million females in India annually with far-ranging and tragic consequences. In some areas, the sex ratio of females to males has dropped to less than 8000:1000. Females not only face inequality in this culture, they are even denied the right to be born. Why do so many families selectively abort baby daughters? In a word: economics. Aborting female fetuses is both practical and socially acceptable in India. Female feticide is driven by many factors, but primarily by the prospect of having to pay a dowry to the future bridegroom of a daughter. While sons offer security to their families in old age and can perform the rites for the souls of deceased parents and ancestors, daughters are perceived as a social and economic burden. Prenatal sex detection technologies have been misused, allowing the selective abortions of female offspring to proliferate. Legally, however, female feticide is a penal offence. Although female infanticide has long been committed in India, feticide is a relatively new practice, emerging concurrently with the advent of technological advancements in prenatal sex determination on a large scale in the 1990s. While abortion is legal in India, it is a crime to abort a pregnancy solely because the fetus is female. Strict laws and penalties are in place for violators. These laws, however, have not stemmed the tide of this abhorrent practice. This article will discuss the socio-legal conundrum female feticide presents, as well as the consequences of having too few women in Indian society.

  18. Experiences in conducting multiple community-based HIV prevention trials among women in KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa

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    Moodley Jothi

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background South Africa, with its scientific capacity, good infrastructure and high HIV incidence rates, is ideally positioned to conduct large-scale HIV prevention trials. The HIV Prevention Research Unit of the South African Medical Research Council conducted four phase III and one phase IIb trials of women-initiated HIV prevention options in KwaZulu-Natal between 2003 and 2009. A total of 7046 women participated, with HIV prevalence between 25% and 45% and HIV incidence ranging from 4.5-9.1% per year. Unfortunately none of the interventions tested had any impact on reducing the risk of HIV acquisition; however, extremely valuable experience was gained, lessons learned and capacity built, while the communities gained associated benefits. Experience Our experience in conducting these trials ranged from setting up community partnerships to developing clinical research sites and dissemination of trial results. Community engagement included setting up community-based research sites with approval from both political and traditional leaders, and developing community advisory groups to assist with the research process. Community-wide education on HIV/sexually transmitted infection prevention, treatment and care was provided to over 90 000 individuals. Myths and misconceptions were addressed through methods such as anonymous suggestion boxes in clinic waiting areas and intensive education and counselling. Attempts were made to involve male partners to foster support and facilitate recruitment of women. Peer educator programmes were initiated to provide ongoing education and also to facilitate recruitment of women to the trials. Recruitment strategies such as door-to-door recruitment and community group meetings were initiated. Over 90% of women enrolled were retained. Community benefits from the trial included education on HIV prevention, treatment and care and provision of ancillary care (such as Pap smears, reproductive health care and

  19. Estudo comparativo de indicadores bioquímicos de concentração de ferro, em duas populações de gestantes, com e sem atendimento pré-natal A comparative study of biochemical indicators of iron concentration in two groups of pregnant women, with and without pre-natal care

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    Sophia Cornbluth Szarfarc

    1982-02-01

    Full Text Available Foi avaliada a influência da quantidade do atendimento pré-natal na deficiência de ferro entre gestantes com 36 e mais semanas de gravidez, em comparação com um grupo padrão. A amostra foi distribuída em 3 grupos: GP - com pré-natal de "acreditação" satisfatória (grupo padrão; CPN com pré-natal, de diferentes qualidades; SPN - sem pré-natal. Os resultados obtidos para hemoglobina mostraram que no grupo padrão (GP a prevalência e severidade de anemia são significativamente menores do que no grupo com pré-natal (CPN e este do que no sem pré-natal (SPN. Os resultados obtidos na relação hemoglobina/hematócrito, ferro sérico e capacidade total de ligação de ferro apresentaram o GP em situação significativamente melhor do que os grupos CPN e SPN que não foram estatisticamente diferentes entre si. Chamou-se a atenção para a necessidade de aumento de cobertura e uniformização na qualidade dos serviços de pré-natal, com o objetivo de diminuir a prevalência de deficiência de ferro entre gestantes.The influence of the amount of pre-natal care on the prevalence of iron-deficiency among women, 36 weeks or more pregnant, was assessed. The sample population was divided into three groups: the Standard Group (GP - with adequate assistance of the pre-natal care services from the first trimester of pregnancy onwards; those who received pre-natal assistance, but of varying adequacy and begun at different gestational ages (CPN; and those who received no pre-natal assistance at all (SPN. The results obtained from hemoglobin analysis showed that prevalence and severity of anemia increases significantly from the GP to the SPN. The analysis of the mean corpuscular hemoglobin concentration, serum iron and transferrin saturation showed no statistically significant differences between groups CPN and SPN; the GP showed better results when compared to the other two. Attention is called to the necessity of pre-natal care and the

  20. Knowledge, attitudes and perceptions of pharmacy and nursing students towards male circumcision and HIV in a KwaZulu-Natal University, South Africa

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    Panjasaram V. Naidoo

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: Male circumcision is currently being promoted in South Africa as a HumanImmunodeficiency Virus (HIV prevention method. Effective implementation requires thathealthcare providers should believe in the procedure’s efficacy and should possess a positiveattitude. A study was undertaken amongst pharmacy and nursing students with differentobjectives.Objectives: To ascertain students’ knowledge, attitudes and perceptions regarding malecircumcision and (HIV prevention.Method: A descriptive cross-sectional study using anonymous questionnaires was undertakenamongst 4th year pharmacy and nursing students studying at a university in KwaZulu-Natal,after obtaining their consent. Data were captured and analysed using SPSS version 15.Results: A response rate of 83.18% and a mean knowledge score of 66.43% with relativelypositive attitudes (62.7 were obtained; 85.4% of the respondents felt that promoting malecircumcision is appropriate, with all Muslim students (n < 11 supporting the promotion ofmale circumcision. Even though all Muslim students supported male circumcision, only 3students were willing to perform the procedure if adequately trained (p < 0.03. The majorityof the female students were unwilling to perform the procedure (p < 0.005. A third of therespondents indicated that male circumcision would both undermine existing protectivebehaviours and strategies as well as increase riskier sexual behaviour. Over 54% of therespondents believed that the South African Health System would be able to cope with themassive male circumcision drive. The majority of the respondents favoured the procedure tobe done at birth. Pain was cited as the most important reason for not wanting to be circumcised.Conclusion: Pharmacy and nursing students have a moderate knowledge of male circumcisionand HIV prevention with relatively positive attitudes. The majority felt that promoting malecircumcision is appropriate and should be encouraged.

  1. HIV-related symptoms and management in HIV and antiretroviral therapy patients in KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa: A longitudinal study

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    Peltzer, Karl

    2014-01-01

    Aim The study aimed to determine the prevalence, predictors, and self-reported management of HIV- or ARV-related symptoms among HIV patients prior to antiretroviral therapy (ART) and over three time points while receiving ART in KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa. Method A total of 735 consecutive patients (29.8% male and 70.2% female) who attended three HIV clinics completed assessments prior to ARV initiation, 519 after 6 months, 557 after 12 months, and 499 after 20 months on ART. Results The HIV patients reported an average of 7.5 symptoms (prior to ART), 1.2 symptoms after 6 months on ART, 0.3 symptoms after 12 months on ART, and 0.2 symptoms after 20 months on ART on the day of the interview, with a higher symptom frequency amongst patients who were not employed, had lower CD4 cell counts, experienced internalised stigma, and used alcohol. The most common symptoms or conditions identified by the self-report included tuberculosis, diarrhoea, headaches, rash, nausea and vomiting, pain, neuropathy, lack of appetite, cough, and chills. Overall, the participants reported medications as the most frequently occurring management strategy, with the second being spiritual, and the third being complementary or traditional treatments. The use of all other management strategies decreased over the four different assessment periods from prior to ART to 20 months on ART. Conclusion This study found a high symptom burden among HIV patients, which significantly decreased with progression on antiretroviral treatment. Several symptoms that persisted over time and several sociodemographic factors were identified that can guide symptom management. The utilisation of different symptom management strategies (medical, spiritual, complementary, and traditional) should be taken into consideration in HIV treatment. PMID:24405285

  2. The labour market for histopathologists in KwaZulu- Natal: Emerging issues

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    Shaun Ruggunan

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this article was to assess the factors that shape the labour market for histopathologists in KwaZulu-Natal (KZN, South Africa. The literature on the labour market and labour processes of histopathologists is dominated by North American and European literature. This gap is most acutely felt on the African continent. This article attempts to fill this gap by shifting the focus towards understanding the factors that shape the professional milieu and labour market for histopathologists in South Africa. This study through a qualitative, descriptive and contextual design engaged in in-depth interviews with 70% of the population of histopathologists in KZN. The interviews were analysed thematically. These interviews were triangulated against labour market statistics for histopathologists in South Africa as well as a range of documentary evidence. The outcome of the study has demonstrated four key challenges facing the labour market for histopathologists: racial inequities persist in the labour market, gender inequities also persist, there is unfettered public-private sector mobility, and poor curriculum design at medical school level accounts for a limited input of registrars into the profession. The article concludes that there needs to be a shift from only studying the labour market and work organisation of clinical doctors to empirical research on the role of medical laboratory specialists in the healthcare chain, which will render South African histopathologists and their work visible. A set of labour market interventions is also suggested. Die artikel bestudeer die faktore wat die arbeidsmark vir histopatoloë in KwaZulu-Natal (KZN, Suid-Afrika beïnvloed. Die literatuur oor die arbeidsmark en arbeidsprosesse van histopatoloë word gedomineer deur Noord-Amerikaanse en Europese literatuur. Hierdie gaping is veral akuut op die Afrika kontinent. Die artikel poog om hierdie gaping te vul deur die fokus te verksuif na die faktore wat die

  3. The labour market for histopathologists in KwaZulu- Natal: Emerging issues

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    S. Ruggunan

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this article was to assess the factors that shape the labour market for histopathologists in KwaZulu-Natal (KZN, South Africa. The literature on the labour market and labour processes of histopathologists is dominated by North American and European literature. This gap is most acutely felt on the African continent. This article attempts to fill this gap by shifting the focus towards understanding the factors that shape the professional milieu and labour market for histopathologists in South Africa. This study through a qualitative, descriptive and contextual design engaged in in-depth interviews with 70% of the population of histopathologists in KZN. The interviews were analysed thematically. These interviews were triangulated against labour market statistics for histopathologists in South Africa as well as a range of documentary evidence. The outcome of the study has demonstrated four key challenges facing the labour market for histopathologists: racial inequities persist in the labour market, gender inequities also persist, there is unfettered public-private sector mobility, and poor curriculum design at medical school level accounts for a limited input of registrars into the profession. The article concludes that there needs to be a shift from only studying the labour market and work organisation of clinical doctors to empirical research on the role of medical laboratory specialists in the healthcare chain, which will render South African histopathologists and their work visible. A set of labour market interventions is also suggested.Die artikel bestudeer die faktore wat die arbeidsmark vir histopatoloë in KwaZulu-Natal (KZN, Suid-Afrika beïnvloed. Die literatuur oor die arbeidsmark en arbeidsprosesse van histopatoloë word gedomineer deur Noord-Amerikaanse en Europese literatuur. Hierdie gaping is veral akuut op die Afrika kontinent. Die artikel poog om hierdie gaping te vul deur die fokus te verksuif na die faktore wat die

  4. Spirituality, depression and quality of life in medical students in KwaZulu-Natal

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    Narushni Pillay

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: The majority of studies on spirituality demonstrate its positive association with mental health. Despite the increasing number of studies, there remains a dearth of studies emanating from African countries looking at the relationship between mental illness, quality of life and measures of spirituality. The present study evaluates the role of spirituality in relation to current depression and quality of life in medical students, who are known to be at high risk for depression. Objectives: The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of moderate and severe depressive symptoms in this population and explore potential correlations between spirituality, depression and quality of life. Methods: 230 medical students were surveyed at the University of KwaZulu-Natal Medical School, using the Zung Self-Rating Depression Scale (Zung SDS, Spiritual Involvement and Beliefs Scale (SIBS, WHO Quality of Life Scale (WHOQOL and a demographic data sheet. Results: There was a high prevalence of depressive symptoms in the medical students, with a significant proportion (15.6% showing evidence of severe depressive symptoms (indicating likely depressive illness. Those with a history of mental illness or of having attended traditional, complementary or alternate medical practitioners showed higher levels of depression. Lower spirituality was associated with non-adherence to a major religion and a history of mental illness. Quality of life was better in second and fifth year students and poorer in those with a history of mental illness. Conclusion: Medical students’ experiences of depression (most probably due to stress and its relationship with spirituality and quality of life merit further investigation with a view to establishing policy guidelines for dealing with this issue.

  5. Experiences of homosexual patients’ access to primary health care services in Umlazi, KwaZulu-Natal

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    Nokulunga H. Cele

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Homosexual patients are affected by social factors in their environment, and as a result may not have easy access to existing health care services. Prejudice against homosexuality and homosexual patients remains a barrier to them seeking appropriate healthcare. The concern is that lesbians and gays might delay or avoid seeking health care when they need it because of past discrimination or perceived homophobia within the health care thereby putting their health at risk. Aim of the study: The aim of the study was to explore and describe the experiences of homosexual patients utilising primary health care (PHC services in Umlazi in the province ofKwaZulu-Natal (KZN. Method: A qualitative, exploratory, descriptive study was conducted which was contextual innature. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with 12 participants. The findings of this study were analysed using content analysis. Results: Two major themes emerged from the data analysis, namely, prejudice against homosexual patients by health care providers and other patients at the primary health care facilities, and, homophobic behaviour from primary health care personnel. Conclusion: Participants experienced prejudice and homophobic behaviour in the course of utilising PHC clinics in Umlazi, which created a barrier to their utilisation of health services located there. Nursing education institutions, in collaboration with the National Department of Health, should introduce homosexuality and anti-homophobia education programmes during the pre-service and in-service education period. Such programmes will help to familiarise health care providers with the health care needs of homosexual patients and may decrease homophobic attitudes.

  6. Matching watershed and otolith chemistry to establish natal origin of an endangered desert lake sucker

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strohm, Deanna D.; Budy, Phaedra; Crowl, Todd A.

    2017-01-01

    Stream habitat restoration and supplemental stocking of hatchery-reared fish have increasingly become key components of recovery plans for imperiled freshwater fish; however, determining when to discontinue stocking efforts, prioritizing restoration areas, and evaluating restoration success present a conservation challenge. In this study, we demonstrate that otolith microchemistry is an effective tool for establishing natal origin of the June Sucker Chasmistes liorus, an imperiled potamodromous fish. This approach allows us to determine whether a fish is of wild or hatchery origin in order to assess whether habitat restoration enhances recruitment and to further identify areas of critical habitat. Our specific objectives were to (1) quantify and characterize chemical variation among three main spawning tributaries; (2) understand the relationship between otolith microchemistry and tributary chemistry; and (3) develop and validate a classification model to identify stream origin using otolith microchemistry data. We quantified molar ratios of Sr:Ca, Ba:Ca, and Mg:Ca for water and otolith chemistry from three main tributaries to Utah Lake, Utah, during the summer of 2013. Water chemistry (loge transformed Sr:Ca, Ba:Ca, and Mg:Ca ratios) differed significantly across all three spawning tributaries. We determined that Ba:Ca and Sr:Ca ratios were the most important variables driving our classification models, and we observed a strong linear relationship between water and otolith values for Sr:Ca and Ba:Ca but not for Mg:Ca. Classification models derived from otolith element : Ca signatures accurately sorted individuals to their experimental tributary of origin (classification tree: 89% accuracy; random forest model: 91% accuracy) and determined wild versus hatchery origin with 100% accuracy. Overall, this study aids in evaluating the effectiveness of restoration, tracking progress toward recovery, and prioritizing future restoration plans for fishes of conservation

  7. Characterisation of microRNA expression in post-natal mouse mammary gland development

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    Karagavriilidou Konstantina

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The differential expression pattern of microRNAs (miRNAs during mammary gland development might provide insights into their role in regulating the homeostasis of the mammary epithelium. Our aim was to analyse these regulatory functions by deriving a comprehensive tissue-specific combined miRNA and mRNA expression profile of post-natal mouse mammary gland development. We measured the expression of 318 individual murine miRNAs by bead-based flow-cytometric profiling of whole mouse mammary glands throughout a 16-point developmental time course, including juvenile, puberty, mature virgin, gestation, lactation, and involution stages. In parallel whole-genome mRNA expression data were obtained. Results One third (n = 102 of all murine miRNAs analysed were detected during mammary gland development. MicroRNAs were represented in seven temporally co-expressed clusters, which were enriched for both miRNAs belonging to the same family and breast cancer-associated miRNAs. Global miRNA and mRNA expression was significantly reduced during lactation and the early stages of involution after weaning. For most detected miRNA families we did not observe systematic changes in the expression of predicted targets. For miRNA families whose targets did show changes, we observed inverse patterns of miRNA and target expression. The data sets are made publicly available and the combined expression profiles represent an important community resource for mammary gland biology research. Conclusion MicroRNAs were expressed in likely co-regulated clusters during mammary gland development. Breast cancer-associated miRNAs were significantly enriched in these clusters. The mechanism and functional consequences of this miRNA co-regulation provide new avenues for research into mammary gland biology and generate candidates for functional validation.

  8. Evaluation of the Edinburgh Post Natal Depression Scale using Rasch analysis

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    Tennant Alan

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale (EPDS is a 10 item self-rating post-natal depression scale which has seen widespread use in epidemiological and clinical studies. Concern has been raised over the validity of the EPDS as a single summed scale, with suggestions that it measures two separate aspects, one of depressive feelings, the other of anxiety. Methods As part of a larger cross-sectional study conducted in Melbourne, Australia, a community sample (324 women, ranging in age from 18 to 44 years: mean = 32 yrs, SD = 4.6, was obtained by inviting primiparous women to participate voluntarily in this study. Data from the EPDS were fitted to the Rasch measurement model and tested for appropriate category ordering, for item bias through Differential Item Functioning (DIF analysis, and for unidimensionality through tests of the assumption of local independence. Results Rasch analysis of the data from the ten item scale initially demonstrated a lack of fit to the model with a significant Item-Trait Interaction total chi-square (chi Square = 82.8, df = 40; p Conclusion The results of this study suggest that EPDS, in its original 10 item form, is not a viable scale for the unidimensional measurement of depression. Rasch analysis suggests that a revised eight item version (EPDS-8 would provide a more psychometrically robust scale. The revised cut points of 7/8 and 9/10 for the EPDS-8 show high levels of agreement with the original case identification for the EPDS-10.

  9. COMPORTAMENTO AMBIENTAL EM CENTROS URBANOS: UM ESTUDO COM ESTUDANTES DE ENSINO SUPERIOR DE NATAL /RN

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    Gilsenberg Gurgel Pinheiro

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Este artigo estuda a percepção ambiental como elemento necessário para desenvolver na população a consciência da necessidade de preservar o meio natural. Para isso, foi analisada a conduta da comunidade, representada por alunos de uma Instituição de Ensino Superior (IES de Natal/RN, para que sejam traçadas estratégias e ações que minimizem a degradação do meio. Para tanto, a metodologia consistiu de uma pesquisa exploratória e descritiva, cuja coleta de dados se deu por meio da aplicação de um questionário com escalas likert, contendo variáveis que compõem os aspectos comportamentais, além de uma escala sociodemográfica. Nesse contexto, os resultados apontam que a instituição acadêmica é oportuna para tratar desse assunto, tendo em vista que a conscientização ambiental perpassa por todos os conteúdos do currículo e que os alunos de hoje poderão, no futuro, em suas áreas de atuação, planejar ações para salvaguardar o desenvolvimento sustentável. Concluiu-se que as estratégias para gerir esse termo passam pela conscientização do estudante/cidadão, levando-o a uma mudança, pois, quando ele é educado para o devido tratamento dessas questões, sua maneira de proceder é de responsabilidade, uma vez que o cuidado com as questões naturais também está presente no ensino superior. Palavras-chave: Comportamento ambiental. Universitários. Centros urbanos.

  10. A PEGADA DE CARBONO DA UNIDADE SEDE DA PETROBRAS EM NATAL-RN

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    Ricardo Teixeira Gregório Andrade

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Face ao contexto contemporâneo das alterações climáticas, os setores industriais e empresariais têm buscado medidas para minimizar os impactos das suas emissões de Gases Efeito Estufa. Contudo, a maioria das ações de Responsabilidade SocioAmbiental Empresarial quanto à temática referem-se apenas às emissões diretas dos principais processos produtivos empresariais, sem considerar as emissões upstream e downstream, que originam a maior parte das emissões derivadas da existência de uma empresa. A consideração das emissões de todo o ciclo de vida produtivo de produtos e processos, desde a extração da matéria-prima até a distribuição do produto final e descarte, constitui a Pegada de Carbono. O objetivo desse estudo foi a mensuração, e estudo de formas de minoração, de parte da Pegada de Carbono da Unidade Sede da Petrobras em Natal-RN. Trata-se de um levantamento, em que os dados foram submetidos à metodologia apropriada e laborados com uso do software GEMIS 4.6. Os itens avaliados foram os veículos automotivos (emissões diretas, energia elétrica, papel e copos plásticos descartáveis (emissões indiretas, totalizando emissões de 3.811,94 tCO2eq em 2009. Dado o porte da Petrobras, sua atenção quanto à redução de sua Pegada de Carbono serve de exemplo a outras empresas, instruindo lições de gestão e melhores práticas ambientais.

  11. Business ethics of private general practitioners in KwaDuKuza, Kwazulu-Natal

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    Indiran Govendor

    2010-03-01

    Objective: To detect whether private GPs in KwaDukuza perceive their colleagues to be practising ethically. Method: The study entailed a cross-sectional descriptive study design, in which all 30 private GPs based in KwaDukuza, KwaZulu-Natal, were asked to complete a self-administered questionnaire during 2003. The survey was done on a voluntary basis and anonymity and confidentiality was maintained. Results: Twenty-five doctors returned completed questionnaires (an 83.3% response rate. Seventy per cent perceived their peers to be practicing ethically, while 48% (12/25 reported that they did not observe any medical misconduct by their colleagues. The majority of the respondents (76% reported that they did not know of any colleague who supplemented his or her income through the over-servicing of patients. The majority of the respondents (84% also reported that their colleagues never accepted cash payments that were not declared for income tax purposes. Medically unnecessary tests are a form of unethical behaviour pertaining to over-servicing, and 64% of the respondents reported that medically unnecessary tests to satisfy patient requests were not an important reason for performing these tests. The doctors expressed high stress levels from multiple stressors in their occupation. Conclusion: GPs in KwaDukuza indicated that they were under stress, but still practised ethically. The GPs emphasised the need for more training in medical ethics at all levels of the medical career. The majority of GPs of KwaDukuza perceive their colleagues to be practising ethically.

  12. Don't bet against the natal homing abilities of marine fishes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bentzen, Paul; Bradbury, Ian R

    2016-06-01

    Whether marine fishes are capable of homing to their natal areas has long been something of an enigma. For some estuarine species or sharks (which have extended nondispersal juvenile stages or are born as relatively large, fully formed juveniles), the answer is clearly 'yes' (Thorrold et al. ; Feldheim et al. ), but for most marine fishes, the issue is much more mysterious. Many species have free-floating eggs, and most have pelagic, passively dispersing larvae. It is challenging to imagine how adult fish might navigate to a region of the ocean they experienced only as eggs or larvae, and easier to assume that such dispersal leads inexorably to high gene flow, and even panmixia. One way to resolve the conundrum would be to track fish from hatching to reproduction, but for marine fishes with tiny eggs and drifting larvae, this is notoriously difficult to do (Bradbury & Laurel ). In this issue of Molecular Ecology, Bonanomi et al. () use a creative approach to solve this challenge for Atlantic cod (Gadus morhua) populations that mingle in the vicinity of Greenland. They show that cod that disperse more than a 1000 km away from Iceland as eggs and larvae, then spend years growing on the far side of Greenland, while mixing with two local populations, return as adults to spawning areas near Iceland - and further, that this behaviour has remained stable over more than six decades. They manage this feat with a clever use of historical cod tracking data, modern genomic data and genetic analysis of decades-old DNA obtained from archived materials. Their results have important implications for our view of the biocomplexity of marine fish populations, and how we should manage them. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  13. FERRAMENTAS DE BENCHMARKING COMO DIFERENCIAL COMPETITIVO EM EMPRESAS DE FASTFOOD NA CIDADE DE NATAL-RN

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    Ricardo Pires de Souza

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available É notório, na contemporaneidade, o aumento da procura pelos produtos disponibilizados pelas redes de fastfood, gerando consequentemente o crescimento econômico das organizações do setor. Logo esse trabalho objetiva demonstrar o sistema de monitoramento de arranjos produtivos – SIMAP as empresas estudadas para que estas possam vislumbrar novas atividades de gestão com o intuito de ter um diferencial competitivo. Para alcançar esse objetivo utilizou-se a metodologia exploratoria explicativa, com estudo de caso nas empresas Pittsburg e McDonald´s na cidade de Natal-RN, obtendo-se as informações através de questionário semi-estruturado. Analisando-se os dados, percebeu-se que as empresas estudadas, encontram-se acima da média das empresas dos setor cadastradas no SIMAP. Em comparação cruzada entre as empresas estudadas, observou-se que a empresa Pittsburg possui pontos a aperfeiçoar, nos diversos indicadores de gestão, em especial no indicador sistema de gestão integrada, no qual essa empresa ficou abaixo de 25%. Observou-se também que em relação a gestão financeira, a empresa Pittsburg esta melhor qualificada perante sua concorrente McDonald´s. Ficou evidenciado que as empresas estudadas estão em conformidade com os requisitos mínimos exigidos pelos seus clientes.

  14. Female terrorism : a review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jacques, Karen; Taylor, Paul J.

    2009-01-01

    The sharp growth in the number of publications examining female involvement in terrorism has produced a valuable but un-integrated body of knowledge spread across many disciplines. In this paper, we bring together 54 publications on female terrorism and use qualitative and quantitative analyses to

  15. Female Labor Supply

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Maassen-van den Brink, te Henriet

    1994-01-01

    To gain insight on factors that impede economic independence of women, this book concentrates on female labor supply in relation to child care, male-female wage differentials, the division of unpaid labor, and marital conflicts between women and men. It may very well be that restrictions on the

  16. A comparative study of central corneal thickness (CCT and intraocular pressure (IOP in University of KwaZulu-Natal students of Black and Indian ethnicity*

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    Z. Sardiwalla

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Thisstudy compared central corneal thickness (CCT and intraocular pressure (IOP of Black and Indian students from the University of Kwa-Zulu-Natal. Two hundred (100 Black and 100 Indi- an participants of both genders aged 18-25 years (mean and standard deviation; 20.1±1.6 years participated in this study. CCT and IOP were measured for the right eye of each participant using a Tono-Pachymeter (NT530P and a Goldmann applanation tonometer (GAT respectively. Data was analyzed with descriptive, t-test and Pearson’s cor-relation statistics. In the total sample (N = 200, the mean CCT value was 519.5 ± 38.6 μm and CCT was higher in the Indians (526.5 ± 37.2 µm than in the Blacks (512.4 ± 38.9 µm (p = 0.01.  Also, it was higher in the females (522.3 µm than in males (516.7 µm, but the difference was insignificant (p = 0.07. The mean CCT was higher in the Indian males (520.1 µm than in the Black males (513.2 µm, but the difference was insignificant (p=0.39.  However, it was significantly higher in the Indian females (533 µm than in the Black females (511.6 µm (p = 0.003. In the total sample, the mean IOP was 14.6 mmHg and IOP was greater in Indiansthan Blacks (mean = 15.3 ± 2.9 mmHg and 13.8 ± 2.6 mmHg respectively (p = 0.01. Also, the mean IOP (N = 200 value was slightly higher in the females (14.7 mmHg than in males (14.5 mmHg (p = 0.51. The mean IOP was higher in the Indian males (15.0 mmHg than in the Black males (14.0 mmHg (p = 0.07 and the mean IOP value was higher in the Indian females (15.7 mmHg than in the Black females (13.6 mmHg (p < 0.001. The higher mean IOP value in the Indian than Black participants was attributed to the higher mean CCT values. A positive, but inconsistent association between CCT and IOP was found in this study, the coefficient in the total sample (r = 0.382, p = 0.000, in the Blacks (r = 0.196, p = 0.05 and in Indians (r = 0.498, p = 0.000. A national population study comparing CCT and IOP in the various

  17. Intra-regional transportation of a tugboat fouling community between the ports of recife and natal, northeast Brazil

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    Cristiane Maria Rocha Farrapeira

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to identify the incrusting and sedentary animals associated with the hull of a tugboat active in the ports of Pernambuco and later loaned to the port of Natal, Rio Grande do Norte. Thus, areas with dense biofouling were scraped and the species then classified in terms of their bioinvasive status for the Brazilian coast. Six were native to Brazil, two were cryptogenic and 16 nonindigenous; nine of the latter were classified as established (Musculus lateralis, Sphenia fragilis, Balanus trigonus, Biflustra savartii, Botrylloides nigrum, Didemnum psammatodes, Herdmania pallida, Microscosmus exasperatus, and Symplegma rubra and three as invasive (Mytilopsis leucophaeta, Amphibalanus reticulatus, and Striatobalanus amaryllis. The presence of M. leucophaeata, Amphibalanus eburneus and A. reticulatus on the boat's hull propitiated their introduction onto the Natal coast. The occurrence of a great number of tunicate species in Natal reflected the port area's benthic diversity and facilitated the inclusion of two bivalves - Musculus lateralis and Sphenia fragilis - found in their siphons and in the interstices between colonies or individuals, respectively. The results show the role of biofouling on boat hulls in the introduction of nonindigenous species and that the port of Recife acts as a source of some species.Este trabalho objetivou identificar os animais incrustantes e sedentários associados ao casco de um rebocador que atuava nos Portos de Pernambuco e foi cedido para o Porto de Natal, Rio Grande do Norte. Áreas com densa bioincrustação foram raspadas e as espécies foram posteriormente classificadas em relação ao status de bioinvasão no litoral brasileiro. Dentre as espécies identificadas, seis eram nativas do Brasil, duas criptogênicas e 16 exóticas. Destas, oito foram classificadas como estabelecidas (Musculus lateralis, Sphenia fragilis, Balanus trigonus, Biflustra savartii, Botrylloides nigrum, Didemnum psammatodes

  18. Knowledge, attitudes and practices on malaria transmission in Mamfene, KwaZulu-Natal Province, South Africa 2015.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manana, Pinky N; Kuonza, Lazarus; Musekiwa, Alfred; Mpangane, Hluphi D; Koekemoer, Lizette L

    2017-07-20

    In South Africa malaria is endemic in Mpumalanga, Limpopo and the north-eastern areas of KwaZulu-Natal provinces. South Africa has set targets to eliminate malaria by 2018 and research into complementary vector control tools such as the Sterile Insect Technique (SIT) is ongoing. It is important to understand community perceptions regarding malaria transmission and control interventions to enable development of community awareness campaign messages appropriate to the needs of the community. We aimed to assess knowledge, attitudes, and practices regarding malaria transmission to inform a public awareness campaign for SIT in Jozini Local Municipality, Mamfene in KwaZulu-Natal province. We conducted a cross-sectional survey in three communities in Mamfene, KwaZulu-Natal during 2015. A structured field piloted questionnaire was administered to 400 randomly selected heads of households. Descriptive statistics were used to summarize data. Of the 400 participants interviewed, 99% had heard about malaria and correctly associated it with mosquito bites. The sources of malaria information were the local health facility (53%), radio (16%) and community meetings (7%). Approximately 63% of the participants were able to identify three or four symptoms of malaria. The majority (76%) were confident that indoor residual spraying (IRS) kills mosquitoes and prevents infection. Bed nets were used by 2% of the participants. SIT knowledge was poor (9%), however 63% of the participants were supportive of mosquito releases for research purposes. The remaining 37% raised concerns and fears, including fear of the unknown and lack of information on the SIT. Appropriate knowledge, positive attitude and acceptable treatment-seeking behaviour for malaria were demonstrated by members of the community. Community involvement will be crucial in achieving success of the SIT and future studies should further investigate concerns raised by the community. The existing communication channels used by the

  19. Vector competence of Glossina austeni and Glossina brevipalpis for Trypanosoma congolense in KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa

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    Makhosazana Motloang

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Tsetse-transmitted trypanosomosis (nagana has been the cause of stock losses in the recent past and still presents a major problem to livestock owners in certain areas of KwaZulu- Natal, South Africa. Over 10 000 cattle mortalities were reported in the 1990 nagana outbreak. Although information on the distribution and abundance of the tsetse flies Glossina brevipalpis and Glossina austeni in KwaZulu-Natal exists, data on their vector competence are lacking. This study aimed to determine the rate of natural Trypanosoma congolense infection by field-collected as well as colony-reared flies of these species. A total of 442 field-collected G. brevipalpis and 40 G. austeni flies were dissected immediately after collection to determine their infection rates, whilst 699 G. brevipalpis and 49 G. austeni flies were fed on susceptible animals in 10 and four batches, respectively, for use in xenodiagnosis experiments. Teneral colony flies were fed on infected animals and dissected 21 days post infection to confirm their infectivity testing. Glossina austeni harboured 8% immature and mature infections. In G. brevipalpis, the infection with the immature stages was lower (1% and no mature infections were observed. Although all four batches of G. austeni transmitted T. congolense to four susceptible animals, no transmission resulted from 10 batches of G. brevipalpis fed on susceptible cattle. Colony-derived G. austeni (534 and G. brevipalpis (882 were fed on four bovines infected with different T. congolense isolates. Both G. austeni and G. brevipalpis acquired trypanosome infection from the bovines, with immature infection ranges of 20% – 33% and 1% – 4%, respectively. Parasites, however, only matured in G. austeni (average = 4%. Glossina austeni plays a larger role in the epidemiology of animal trypanosomosis in KwaZulu-Natal than G. brevipalpis and therefore more focus should be aimed at the former when control measures are implemented.

  20. The Impact of Entrepreneurial Competencies on Household Food Security Among Smallholder Farmers in KwaZulu Natal, South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinyolo, Sikhulumile; Mudhara, Maxwell

    2018-01-01

    This paper investigates the impact of entrepreneurial competencies on food security among rural farming households in KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa (SA). A total of 513 rural households were randomly selected, and the descriptive results indicated that 51% of these households were food insecure, and they were somewhat negative about their entrepreneurial competencies. The estimated results indicated that entrepreneurship had a positive impact on food security. The study findings suggest that stimulating entrepreneurship through developing entrepreneurial competencies among the farming households is important for improved food security among rural households in SA.

  1. Sífilis congênita: evento sentinela da qualidade da assistência pré-natal

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    Rosa Maria Soares Madeira Domingues

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Analisar a assistência pré-natal na prevenção da transmissão vertical da sífilis. MÉTODOS: Estudo transversal representativo para as gestantes de baixo risco atendidas em unidades de saúde do município do Rio de Janeiro, RJ, período de 2007 a 2008. A identificação de gestantes com diagnóstico de sífilis na gestação foi feita por meio de entrevistas, verificação do cartão de pré-natal e busca de casos notificados em sistemas públicos de informação em saúde. Os casos de sífilis congênita foram identificados por meio de busca nos sistemas de informação em saúde: Sistema de Informação de Agravos de Notificação (Sinan, Sistema de Informação sobre Mortalidade (SIM e Sistema de Informações Hospitalares (SIH do SUS. RESULTADOS: Foram identificados 46 casos de sífilis na gestação e 16 casos de sífilis congênita com uma prevalência estimada de 1,9% (IC95% 1,3;2,6 de sífilis na gestação e de 6/1.000 (IC95% 3;12/1.000 de sífilis congênita. A taxa de transmissão vertical foi de 34,8% e três casos foram fatais, um abortamento, um óbito fetal e um óbito neonatal, com proporções elevadas de baixo peso e prematuridade. A trajetória assistencial das gestantes mostrou falhas na assistência, como início tardio do pré-natal, ausência de diagnóstico na gravidez e ausência de tratamento dos parceiros. CONCLUSÕES: Estratégias inovadoras, que incorporem melhorias na rede de apoio diagnóstico, são necessárias para enfrentamento da sífilis na gestação, no manejo clínico da doença na gestante e seus parceiros e na investigação dos casos como evento sentinela da qualidade da assistência pré-natal.

  2. Two new species of Erica (Ericaceae; one from Western Cape and one from KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa

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    E. G. H. Oliver

    2004-09-01

    Full Text Available Two new species of Erica L. from South Africa are described. E. jananthus E.G.H.Oliv. & I.M .Oliv. is confined to a single peak in the eastern Groot Swartberg Range in Western Cape and usually forms a small, gnarled, woody, shrublet growing in rock crevices with sticky white flowers and black subexserted anthers that have obtrullate decurrent appendages.E. psittacina E.G.H.Oliv. & I.M.Oliv. is from KwaZulu-Natal. It forms large woodv shrubs with numerous bright pinkflowers and occurs as a single population on a mountain near Creighton. Both descriptions are accompanied by line drawings and distribution maps

  3. Computedtomographic findings in natal encephalopathies and their significance for the prognosis for the near future and long-term development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kotlarek, F.

    1981-01-01

    190 premature babies and newborn with a hypoxic or traumatic natal encephalopathy were examined in the newborn period with cranial computed tomography. 10 other neonatals with cyanotic vitia even without neurologic syndromes were included into this study. 73 of these infants were intubated for a while and supplied with air. The CT findings were compared with those of a ''control group'' of neonatals who provided externally visible malformations but no burdening perinatal anamnesis. 82 premature and neonatal babies showed abnormal morphologic basic findings. Due to kind, localisation and size of the lesion, different morphologic patterns - depending on the birth weight - can be delineated. (orig./MG) [de

  4. Chimpanzee females queue but males compete for social status

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foerster, Steffen; Franz, Mathias; Murray, Carson M.; Gilby, Ian C.; Feldblum, Joseph T.; Walker, Kara K.; Pusey, Anne E.

    2016-01-01

    Dominance hierarchies are widespread in animal social groups and often have measureable effects on individual health and reproductive success. Dominance ranks are not static individual attributes, however, but instead are influenced by two independent processes: 1) changes in hierarchy membership and 2) successful challenges of higher-ranking individuals. Understanding which of these processes dominates the dynamics of rank trajectories can provide insights into fitness benefits of within-sex competition. This question has yet to be examined systematically in a wide range of taxa due to the scarcity of long-term data and a lack of appropriate methodologies for distinguishing between alternative causes of rank changes over time. Here, we expand on recent work and develop a new likelihood-based Elo rating method that facilitates the systematic assessment of rank dynamics in animal social groups, even when interaction data are sparse. We apply this method to characterize long-term rank trajectories in wild eastern chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes schweinfurthii) and find remarkable sex differences in rank dynamics, indicating that females queue for social status while males actively challenge each other to rise in rank. Further, our results suggest that natal females obtain a head start in the rank queue if they avoid dispersal, with potential fitness benefits. PMID:27739527

  5. Population Dynamics and Plasmodium falciparum (Haemosporida: Plasmodiidae) Infectivity Rates for the Malaria Vector Anopheles arabiensis (Diptera: Culicidae) at Mamfene, KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dandalo, Leonard C; Brooke, Basil D; Munhenga, Givemore; Lobb, Leanne N; Zikhali, Jabulani; Ngxongo, Sifiso P; Zikhali, Phineas M; Msimang, Sipho; Wood, Oliver R; Mofokeng, Mohlominyana; Misiani, Eunice; Chirwa, Tobias; Koekemoer, Lizette L

    2017-11-07

    Anopheles arabiensis (Patton; Diptera: Culicidae) is a major malaria vector in the southern African region. In South Africa, effective control of this species using indoor-based interventions is reduced owing to its tendency to rest outdoors. As South Africa moves towards malaria elimination there is a need for complementary vector control strategies. One of the methods under consideration is the use of the sterile insect technique (SIT). Key to the successful implementation of an SIT programme is prior knowledge of the size and spatial distribution of the target population. Understanding mosquito population dynamics for both males and females is critical for efficient programme implementation. It is thus necessary to use outdoor-based population monitoring tools capable of sampling both sexes of the target population. In this project mosquito surveillance and evaluation of tools capable of collecting both genders were carried out at Mamfene in northern KwaZulu-Natal Province, South Africa, during the period January 2014 to December 2015. Outdoor- and indoor-resting Anopheles mosquitoes were sampled in three sections of Mamfene over the 2-yr sampling period using modified plastic buckets, clay pots and window exit traps. Morphological and molecular techniques were used for species identifications of all samples. Wild-caught adult females were tested for Plasmodium falciparum (Welch; Haemosporida: Plasmodiidae) infectivity. Out of 1,705 mosquitoes collected, 1,259 (73.8%) and 255 (15%) were identified as members of either the Anopheles gambiae complex or Anopheles funestus group respectively. An. arabiensis was the most abundant species contributing 78.8% of identified specimens. Mosquito density was highest in summer and lowest during winter. Clay pots yielded 16.3 mosquitoes per trap compared to 10.5 for modified plastic buckets over the 2-yr sampling period. P. falciparum infection rates for An. arabiensis were 0.7% and 0.5% for 2014 and 2015, respectively

  6. DISTRIBUIÇÃO DE RESPOSTAS DOS PRATICANTES DE ATIVIDADE FÍSICA COM RELAÇÃO À UTILIZAÇÃO DE SUPLEMENTOS ALIMENTARES E O ACOMPANHAMENTO NUTRICIONAL NUMA ACADEMIA DE NATAL/RN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Damares Bernardino Corrêa

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Dietary supplements have been around for decades, for people who could not meet their nutritional needs only in the food. In Brazil, there was a misuse of dietary supplements and drugs that have grown up in environments of physical exercise, and the trend is in the gyms and sports associations. Objective: We evaluated the use of supplements and anabolic substances in 51 physically active in a fitness Natal-RN. Materials and methods: In structured questionnaire used in most protein supplements, energy accelerators, multivitamins, frequency of use, indication, and other substances used, who indicated the type and location of sales of supplements. Results: Only 51 of the participants were male (n 11 (21.57% used the protein supplement BCAA and female (n 5 (9.80% Whey protein consumed. The use of the energy consumed the same supplement, but different numbers males consumed coffee (n 11 (21.57% and female (n 8 (15.69%. With multivitamins, males consumed around (n 9 (17.65% and female, (n 6 (11.76% of omega. With accelerators males used linseed oil (n 3 (5.88% and the female thermogenic liquid (n 5 (9.80%. Of these, 58.82% respondents had nutritional counseling against 39.22% were followed from other sources not recommended. Of the total, the annual frequency of physical activity for men was (n 16 (31.37% and women (n 17 (33.33%. Discussion: The data also indicate concern about the frequency of physical activity and the adoption of practices in the consumption of dietary supplementation. Conclusion: And certain attitude should be applied by professionals who are qualified to conduct nutrition education.

  7. Inferences about Supernova Physics from Gravitational-Wave Measurements: GW151226 Spin Misalignment as an Indicator of Strong Black-Hole Natal Kicks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Shaughnessy, Richard; Gerosa, Davide; Wysocki, Daniel

    2017-07-07

    The inferred parameters of the binary black hole GW151226 are consistent with nonzero spin for the most massive black hole, misaligned from the binary's orbital angular momentum. If the black holes formed through isolated binary evolution from an initially aligned binary star, this misalignment would then arise from a natal kick imparted to the first-born black hole at its birth during stellar collapse. We use simple kinematic arguments to constrain the characteristic magnitude of this kick, and find that a natal kick v_{k}≳50  km/s must be imparted to the black hole at birth to produce misalignments consistent with GW151226. Such large natal kicks exceed those adopted by default in most of the current supernova and binary evolution models.

  8. Unbiased cell quantification reveals a continued increase in the number of neocortical neurones during early post-natal development in mice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lyck, Lise; Krøigård, Thomas; Finsen, Bente

    2007-01-01

    The post-natal growth spurt of the mammalian neocortex has been attributed to maturation of dendritic arborizations, growth and myelination of axons, and addition of glia. It is unclear whether this growth may also involve recruitment of additional neurones. Using stereological methods, we analysed...... the number of neurones and glia in the neocortex during post-natal development in two separate strains of mice. Cell counting by the optical fractionator revealed that the number of neurones increased 80-100% from the time of birth to post-natal day (P)16, followed by a reduction by approximately 25...... was delayed until P16. The number of glia reached its maximum at P16, whereas the number of oligodendroglia, identified using a transgenic marker, increased until P55, the latest time of observation. Neurones continued to accumulate in the developing neocortex during the first 2 weeks of post...

  9. Endoscopy services in KwaZulu-Natal Province, South Africa, are insufficient for the burden of disease: Is patient care compromised?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loots, E; Clarke, D L; Newton, K; Mulder, C J

    2017-10-31

    Endoscopy services are central to the diagnosis and management of many gastrointestinal (GI) diseases. To evaluate the adequacy of endoscopy services in the public sector hospitals of KwaZulu-Natal (KZN) Province, South Africa, in 2016. A cross-sectional study was performed using a questionnaire completed by the clinical heads of endoscopy units in the public hospitals in KZN. The heads of 11 of the 12 endoscopy units responded. Two units were in tertiary-level hospitals and nine in regional hospitals. A total of 22 353 endoscopic procedures were performed annually, averaging 2 032 cases per annum per centre; they were performed by 89 endoscopists, of whom 72 (80.1%) were general surgeons. There were 0.06 registered gastroenterologists (GEs) per 100 000 population. Each endoscopist performed an average of 263 endoscopies per annum. There were 1.18 endoscopy rooms available per unit, and two units had on-site fluoroscopy available. The average waiting period for an upper endoscopy was 27 (range 7 - 60) days, for colonoscopy 29 (range 7 - 90) days and for duodenoscopy/endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography 13 (range 4 - 20) days. This included patients with alarm symptoms for GI cancers. Equipment breakages interrupted most services, except for one hospital that had a service contract. Unit heads cited lack of equipment, trained staff and maintenance contracts as major shortcomings. Endoscopy units in KZN are not adequately equipped to deal with the endoscopy workload and services are plagued by frequent disruptions, which impact negatively on service delivery. There is a need to train more GEs. Patient care is compromised in these public hospitals.

  10. Population genetic structure of the freshwater snail, Bulinus globosus, (Gastropoda: Planorbidae) from selected habitats of KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mkize, Lwamkelekile Sitshilelo; Mukaratirwa, Samson; Zishiri, Oliver Tendayi

    2016-09-01

    The freshwater snail Bulinus globosus is an important intermediate host of Schistosoma haematobium, the causative agent of urinary schistosomiasis. This disease is of major health concern, especially in Africa where the majority of cases have been reported. In this study the inter- and intra-genetic diversity and population genetic structure of B. globosus from nine locations in the KwaZulu-Natal province of South Africa was studied using four polymorphic microsatellite loci (BgZ1-BgZ4). Moderate genetic diversity was detected within populations with a mean diversity (HE) of 0.49±0.09. The majority of populations significantly deviated from Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium (p<0.05), due to a deficit of heterozygotes. Such deviations may be due to founder events that were caused by bottlenecks that occurred as a result of frequent droughts and flooding that these snails' habitats are exposed to. Overall, the populations studied seem to be partially inbreeders/selfers with mean estimates of 0.24/0.38. A discernable genetic structure was elucidated among populations as evident by the mean pairwise FST of 0.58±0.13. There was no significant association between genetic and geographical distance among populations, an indication of limited gene flow. This increases the chances of populations losing alleles due to genetic drift. Populations in close proximity demonstrated high genetic differentiation (58.77% total variation) due to allelic differences between them. The sample populations fell into 12 clusters, however, the populations from uMkhanyakude and uThungulu exhibited no discernable genetic structure. Genetically, the Bhobhoyi site found within the uGu district was equidistant to the two main sampling regions. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Determining the efficacy of national strategies aimed at addressing the challenges facing health personnel working in rural areas in KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mburu, Grace; George, Gavin

    2017-07-31

    Shortages of Human Resources for Health (HRH) in rural areas are often driven by poor working and living conditions, inadequate salaries and benefits, lack of training and career development opportunities amongst others. The South African government has adopted a human resource strategy for the health sector in 2011 aimed at addressing these challenges. This study reviews the challenges faced by health personnel against government strategies aimed at attracting and retaining health personnel in these underserved areas. The study was conducted in six primary health care service sites in the Hlabisa sub-district of Umkhanyakude, located in northern KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa. The study population comprised 25 health workers including 11 professional nurses, 4 staff nurses and 10 doctors (4 medical doctors, 3 foreign medical doctors and 3 doctors undertaking community service). Qualitative data were collected from semi-structured interviews and analysed using thematic analysis. Government initiatives including the rural allowance, deployment of foreign medical doctors and the presence of health personnel undertaking their community service in rural areas are positively viewed by health personnel working in rural health facilities. However, poor living and working conditions, together with inadequate personal development opportunities, remain unresolved challenges. It is these challenges that will continue to dissuade experienced health personnel from remaining in these underserved areas. South Africa's HRH strategy for the Health Sector 2012/13-2015/16 had highlighted the key challenges raised by respondents and identified strategies aimed at addressing these challenges. Implementation of these strategies is key to improving both living and working conditions, and providing health personnel with opportunities for further development will require inter-ministerial collaboration if the HRH 2030 objectives are to be realised.

  12. Female urethral carcinoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saitoh, Masahiko; Kondo, Atsuo; Sakakibara, Toshihumi

    1988-01-01

    Urethral carcinoma in 2 females has been treated with irradiation together with adjunct chemotherapy. In case 1, a 73-year-old female with squamous cell carcinoma was successfully treated with irradiation of 4,000 rad and peplomycin of 60 mg intravenously given. She has been free from the disease for the past 43 months. In case 2, a 61-year-old female with transitional cell carcinoma was initially treated with irradiation of 5,000 rad together with peplomycin 90 mg, which was followed by another 5,000 rad irradiation. The tumor recurred and the patient was operated on for cystourethrectomy and partial resection of the vagina. A further chemotherapy of cisplatin, peplomycin, and mitomycin C was instituted. She died of the tumor recurrence 23 months after the first visit to our clinic. Diagnosis and treatment modalities on the female urethral carcinoma are briefly discussed. (author)

  13. Female pattern baldness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alopecia in women; Baldness - female; Hair loss in women; Androgenetic alopecia in women; Hereditary balding or thinning in women ... in the skin called a follicle. In general, baldness occurs when the hair follicle shrinks over time, ...

  14. Female Athlete Triad

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... for some competitive female athletes, problems such as low self-esteem, a tendency toward perfectionism, and family stress place ... depression, pressure from coaches or family members, or low self-esteem and can help her find ways to deal ...

  15. Female Sex Tourism

    OpenAIRE

    Mc Intyre, Maria Kleivan

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT This project explores the phenomenon of North American and Western European women, who travel to the Global South and engage in sexual encounters with the local men. This project has positioned itself as a postcolonial critique, arguing that female sex tourism is a form of neocolonialism. It has also investigated the term romance tourism, where it has found that as a result of essentialist gender stereotyping, the female version of sex tourism has been titled ‘romance tourism’. The p...

  16. Female physicist doctoral experiences

    OpenAIRE

    Katherine P. Dabney; Robert H. Tai

    2013-01-01

    The underrepresentation of women in physics doctorate programs and in tenured academic positions indicates a need to evaluate what may influence their career choice and persistence. This qualitative paper examines eleven females in physics doctoral programs and professional science positions in order to provide a more thorough understanding of why and how women make career choices based on aspects both inside and outside of school and their subsequent interaction. Results indicate that female...

  17. The lonely female partner

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bruun, Poul; Pedersen, Birthe D; Osther, Palle J

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this qualitative study was to investigate the experiences of female partners to men with prostate cancer. The women found the capacity to manage their lives through mutual love in the family and through their faith.......The aim of this qualitative study was to investigate the experiences of female partners to men with prostate cancer. The women found the capacity to manage their lives through mutual love in the family and through their faith....

  18. Female pattern hair loss

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    İdil Ünal

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Female androgenetic alopecia is the commonest cause of hair loss in women. It is characterized by a diffuse reduction in hair density over the crown and frontal scalp with retention of the frontal hairline and a characteristic pattern distribution in genetically predisposed women. Because of the uncertain relationship with the androgens Female Pattern Hair Loss (FPHL is the most preferred definition of the condition. This review has been focused on the clinical features, diagnosis and treatment alternatives of FPHL.

  19. Site Features

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — This dataset consists of various site features from multiple Superfund sites in U.S. EPA Region 8. These data were acquired from multiple sources at different times...

  20. Online Female Escort Advertisements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James D. Griffith

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Female escorts represent an occupational group that charges a fee for sex, which can be regarded as an extreme form of short-term mating. The present study examined if the fees charged by escorts are related to traits typically associated with female short-term mate value. A total of 2,925 advertisements for female escorts offering sexual services in the United States were examined, as a customized software program was used to download all the advertisements from an online escort directory. The advertisement content was coded, and relationships between advertised physical characteristics and the hourly rate charged by female escorts were examined. The analyses showed that higher fees were associated with female escorts who advertised a waist-to-hip ratio near 0.7, lower weight and body mass index, younger age, and photographic displays of breast and buttocks nudity. The findings provide evidence that evolutionarily relevant traits associated with female short-term mate value are systematically related to fees charged for sexual services.

  1. Helminth control as an entry point for health-promoting schools in KwaZulu-Natal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, M; Coovadia, H M; Kvalsvig, J D; Jinabhai, C C; Reddy, P

    1999-03-01

    To use a health promotion model to investigate the risk factors (predisposing, enabling and reinforcing) for geohelminth and schistosomiasis infections, in order to develop and implement effective intervention strategies. Phase 1: Qualitative study using focus group discussions (FGDs) with parents, pupils and teachers; and interviews with health workers. Phase 2: Quantitative study using a semi-structured questionnaire to investigate whether the determinants identified in phase 1 were generalisable. Rural primary schools in Vulamehlo magisterial district, southern KwaZulu-Natal. Qualitative study: 9 schools with 179 pupils, 93 parents and 82 teachers; and local clinics (4 fixed, 1 mobile), with 7 professional nurses. Quantitative study: 2 other schools, with 730 pupils. Predisposing factors: Respondents were familiar with symptoms, but did not know the cause or mode of transmission of helminth infections. Many respondents perceived food to be the cause of geohelminth infection and swimming in the river to be the cause of schistosomiasis. Although 649 (88.9%) pupils had toilets at home and at school, only 218 (29.9%) were motivated to 'always' use the toilet for faecal disposal (rural communities previously did not have toilets). Six hundred and seventy-eight pupils (92.9%) understood that it was necessary to wash their hands after using the toilet, but many schools lacked water. Personal cleanliness was a problem despite the emphasis on hygiene by health workers and teachers. Few pupils admitted to eating soil, but it was agreed that geophagia affected young children between the ages of 8 months and 6 years. Enabling factors (positive/negative): Barriers to health promotion frequently included inadequate toilet facilities at school and home, and river-water contact resulting from a lack of clean water. A dearth of recreational facilities resulted in children swimming and playing in the river. Positive factors were the health-seeking behaviour of the majority of the

  2. Scaling-up exclusive breastfeeding support programmes: the example of KwaZulu-Natal.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chris Desmond

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Exclusive breastfeeding (EBF for six months is the mainstay of global child health and the preferred feeding option for HIV-infected mothers for whom replacement feeding is inappropriate. Promotion of community-level EBF requires effective personnel and management to ensure quality counselling and support for women. We present a costing and cost effectiveness analysis of a successful intervention to promote EBF in high HIV prevalence area in South Africa, and implications for scale-up in the province of KwaZulu-Natal.The costing of the intervention as implemented was calculated, in addition to the modelling of the costs and outcomes associated with running the intervention at provincial level under three different scenarios: full intervention (per protocol, simplified version (half the number of visits compared to the full intervention; more clinic compared to home visits and basic version (one third the number of visits compared to the full intervention; all clinic and no home visits. Implementation of the full scenario costs R95 million ($14 million per annum; the simplified version R47 million ($7 million and the basic version R4 million ($2 million. Although the cost of the basic scenario is less than one tenth of the cost of the simplified scenario, modelled effectiveness of the full and simplified versions suggest they would be 10 times more effective compared to the basic intervention. A further analysis modelled the costs per increased month of EBF due to each intervention: R337 ($48, R206 ($29, and R616 ($88 for the full, simplified and basic scenarios respectively. In addition to the average cost effectiveness the incremental cost effectiveness ratios associated with moving from the less effective scenarios to the more effective scenarios were calculated and reported: Nothing-Basic R616 ($88, Basic-Simplified R162 ($23 and Simplified-Full R879 ($126.The simplified scenario, with a combination of clinic and home visits, is the most

  3. Carbon Value Analysis of Batang Gadis National Park, Mandailing Natal Regency, North Sumatera Province, Indonesia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daulay, Dini Novalanty Ohara; Hidayat, Jafron Wasiq

    2018-02-01

    Global warming is an important issue in the world which it gives a negative effect on human life. One indicator of global warming is increasing greenhouse gas i.e. carbondioxide from human activities. Deforestation and forest degradation are the second largest contributor of carbon into the atmosphere, after the use of fossil fuels by industry and transportation. As lungs of the world, forest is enable to produce renewable energy sources i.e. biomass. Forest carbon stock in above ground biomass (AGB) is the greatest effect source on deforestation and forest degradation. Therefore, it is necessary to perform a study the potential of carbon in forest. The purpose of this research is to determine carbon stock value in Batang Gadis National Park, Mandailing Natal Regency, North Sumatera Province, Indonesia. The carbon potential stored in this forest vegetation is calculated using AGB allometric equation by using data in diameter at breast height (dbh = 1.3 m), height, and density of the wood for trees. Data obtained from secondary data is Asset Assessment Report which State Controlled Forest Natural Resources Batang Gadis National Park, 2016. Study locations were Pagar Gunung and Sopo Tinjak Villages. Carbon stock values were calculated and analyzed with assumption that a half of biomass part is carbon stock which using Australian carbon price about AUD 11.82 Australia (Australian dollars) and EU € 5 (US 6). The results showed that the total biomass in Pagar Gunung and Sopo Tinjak Villages amounted to 259.83 tonnes and 160.89 tonnes. From the results of the total biomass, the total carbon stocks (C) and CO2 stocks in both villages are 210.36 tonnes (129.92 tonnes in Pagar Gunung Village and 80.45 tonnes in Sopo Tinjak Village) and 772.03 tonnes (476.79 tonnes in Pagar Gunung Village and 295.24 tonnes in Sopo Tinjak Village). By using the carbon price prevailing in the market place Australia Emission Trading System (ETS) and the EU ETS (AUD 11.82/t CO2e and € 5 (US

  4. Carbon Value Analysis of Batang Gadis National Park, Mandailing Natal Regency, North Sumatera Province, Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Novalanty Ohara Daulay Dini

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Global warming is an important issue in the world which it gives a negative effect on human life. One indicator of global warming is increasing greenhouse gas i.e. carbondioxide from human activities. Deforestation and forest degradation are the second largest contributor of carbon into the atmosphere, after the use of fossil fuels by industry and transportation. As lungs of the world, forest is enable to produce renewable energy sources i.e. biomass. Forest carbon stock in above ground biomass (AGB is the greatest effect source on deforestation and forest degradation. Therefore, it is necessary to perform a study the potential of carbon in forest. The purpose of this research is to determine carbon stock value in Batang Gadis National Park, Mandailing Natal Regency, North Sumatera Province, Indonesia. The carbon potential stored in this forest vegetation is calculated using AGB allometric equation by using data in diameter at breast height (dbh = 1.3 m, height, and density of the wood for trees. Data obtained from secondary data is Asset Assessment Report which State Controlled Forest Natural Resources Batang Gadis National Park, 2016. Study locations were Pagar Gunung and Sopo Tinjak Villages. Carbon stock values were calculated and analyzed with assumption that a half of biomass part is carbon stock which using Australian carbon price about AUD $ 11.82 Australia (Australian dollars and EU € 5 (US $ 6. The results showed that the total biomass in Pagar Gunung and Sopo Tinjak Villages amounted to 259.83 tonnes and 160.89 tonnes. From the results of the total biomass, the total carbon stocks (C and CO2 stocks in both villages are 210.36 tonnes (129.92 tonnes in Pagar Gunung Village and 80.45 tonnes in Sopo Tinjak Village and 772.03 tonnes (476.79 tonnes in Pagar Gunung Village and 295.24 tonnes in Sopo Tinjak Village. By using the carbon price prevailing in the market place Australia Emission Trading System (ETS and the EU ETS (AUD $ 11.82/t

  5. Evaluation of the Edinburgh Post Natal Depression Scale using Rasch analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pallant, Julie F; Miller, Renée L; Tennant, Alan

    2006-01-01

    Background The Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale (EPDS) is a 10 item self-rating post-natal depression scale which has seen widespread use in epidemiological and clinical studies. Concern has been raised over the validity of the EPDS as a single summed scale, with suggestions that it measures two separate aspects, one of depressive feelings, the other of anxiety. Methods As part of a larger cross-sectional study conducted in Melbourne, Australia, a community sample (324 women, ranging in age from 18 to 44 years: mean = 32 yrs, SD = 4.6), was obtained by inviting primiparous women to participate voluntarily in this study. Data from the EPDS were fitted to the Rasch measurement model and tested for appropriate category ordering, for item bias through Differential Item Functioning (DIF) analysis, and for unidimensionality through tests of the assumption of local independence. Results Rasch analysis of the data from the ten item scale initially demonstrated a lack of fit to the model with a significant Item-Trait Interaction total chi-square (chi Square = 82.8, df = 40; p < .001). Removal of two items (items 7 and 8) resulted in a non-significant Item-Trait Interaction total chi-square with a residual mean value for items of -0.467 with a standard deviation of 0.850, showing fit to the model. No DIF existed in the final 8-item scale (EPDS-8) and all items showed fit to model expectations. Principal Components Analysis of the residuals supported the local independence assumption, and unidimensionality of the revised EPDS-8 scale. Revised cut points were identified for EPDS-8 to maintain the case identification of the original scale. Conclusion The results of this study suggest that EPDS, in its original 10 item form, is not a viable scale for the unidimensional measurement of depression. Rasch analysis suggests that a revised eight item version (EPDS-8) would provide a more psychometrically robust scale. The revised cut points of 7/8 and 9/10 for the EPDS-8 show high

  6. Recruitment and retention strategies for public sector optometrists in KwaZulu-Natal Province, South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prasidh Ramson

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: In South Africa, there is a paucity of optometrists serving the needs of the larger public sector. KwaZulu-Natal is one of the most densely populated provinces and home to several of the poorest districts. Despite an optometry school in the province, and with a lack of compulsory community service for new graduates, more optometrists are needed to serve the public sector. While studies on the recruitment and retention of medical and allied health professionals have been conducted, limited evidence exists on work trends of public sector optometrists. Methods: A cross-sectional study design using both quantitative and qualitative data collection methods was used. All public sector optometrists and local district health co-ordinators in the province were contacted, with an 80% (41 out of 51 and 75% (9 out of 12 response rate, respectively. Questionnaires containing demographic, recruitment, retention and open-ended questions were distributed by post, fax and email and via an online survey to both groups. Telephonic interviews were also conducted using semi-structured techniques. Frequency distributions, Fisher’s exact test and odds ratios were used to statistically describe the demographic data, while qualitative responses were recorded and analysed for commonly occurring themes. Results: The present public sector optometry workforce comprises mainly young (73%, black (70%, women (66%. They chose to work in the public sector to ‘make a difference’ and were attracted by ‘good working hours’ and ‘job security’. Fifty-three percent of optometrists work in the public sector due to a study bursary, for which there was a statistically significant association for race (p = 0.01, gender (p = 0.05 and background origin (p = 0.05. To aid their retention in public service, improved salaries, career progression, recognition, improved management relations and improved instrumentation were ranked highest by these optometrists

  7. Business ethics of private general practitioners in KwaDukuza, KwaZulu-Natal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morris, Gary

    2010-01-01

    ABSTRACT Background Private general practitioners (GPs) have been criticised by the lay press citing unethical practice and the acceptance of kickbacks. In 2003, the Ethics Institute of South Africa conducted a national study of all doctors and also accused private GPs of unethical practice. In countries such as South Africa, with a practice of fee-for-service payments, there may be a temptation to put material interests above the best interests of patients. Private GPs, on the other hand, are of the opinion that the press and the Ethics Institute publication have unfairly singled them out. Objective To detect whether private GPs in KwaDukuza perceive their colleagues to be practising ethically. Method The study entailed a cross-sectional descriptive study design, in which all 30 private GPs based in KwaDukuza, KwaZulu-Natal, were asked to complete a self-administered questionnaire during 2003. The survey was done on a voluntary basis and anonymity and confidentiality was maintained. Results Twenty-five doctors returned completed questionnaires (an 83.3% response rate). Seventy per cent perceived their peers to be practicing ethically, while 48% (12/25) reported that they did not observe any medical misconduct by their colleagues. The majority of the respondents (76%) reported that they did not know of any colleague who supplemented his or her income through the over-servicing of patients. The majority of the respondents (84%) also reported that their colleagues never accepted cash payments that were not declared for income tax purposes. Medically unnecessary tests are a form of unethical behaviour pertaining to over-servicing, and 64% of the respondents reported that medically unnecessary tests to satisfy patient requests were not an important reason for performing these tests. The doctors expressed high stress levels from multiple stressors in their occupation. Conclusion GPs in KwaDukuza indicated that they were under stress, but still practised ethically. The

  8. Burns in rural Kwa-Zulu Natal: epidemiology and the need for community health education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scheven, D; Barker, P; Govindasamy, J

    2012-12-01

    Burns are one of the leading causes of accidental deaths in South Africa. The northern Kwa-Zulu Natal (KZN) area, in which this study was conducted, has a population at high risk of burn. A large proportion of the population of KZN live in rural settlements and use traditional methods of cooking and heating. Children are often unsupervised or looked after by only slightly older children. This study investigates the need and potential focus of a health education programme within the setting of rural KZN. Examination of epidemiological data collected on 423 cases admitted to the Ngwelezana Hospital Burns Unit from 2008 to 2010. Children under the age of 12 were most at risk, making up 69.5% of all admissions. Most burns were caused in the home by incidents involving hot water and food (69.5%). Direct flame burns accounted for 19.6% of injuries and were more common with increasing age. Of the direct flame burns, 20.5% occurred during an epileptic seizure. Non-accidental injury accounted for 8.7% of burns. Public health awareness was assessed by investigating the use of first aid treatments, and the time delay between burn and presentation to hospital. First aid provision was attempted in 53.1% of cases. Only 1.1% of burn victims were treated with running water for 10 min or more. Other products commonly applied to the burn wound (31.7% of cases) included oil, ice or eggs, some of which are known to be harmful. The time from burn to presentation at hospital varied greatly. The median time of presentation for local residents was only 6h; however, the median referral delay from a district hospital was 6 days. These factors have important consequences on the outcome of burns. The implementation of a community health education programme which focuses on adults as well as children, has the potential to decrease both the incidence and morbidity associated with burns in rural KZN. The pattern of burns is similar to that seen in urban areas (mostly children, and mostly around

  9. Female genital cutting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perron, Liette; Senikas, Vyta; Burnett, Margaret; Davis, Victoria

    2013-11-01

    To strengthen the national framework for care of adolescents and women affected by female genital cutting (FGC) in Canada by providing health care professionals with: (1) information intended to strengthen their knowledge and understanding of the practice; (2) directions with regard to the legal issues related to the practice; (3) clinical guidelines for the management of obstetric and gynaecological care, including FGC related complications; and (4) guidance on the provision of culturally competent care to adolescents and women with FGC. Published literature was retrieved through searches of PubMed, CINAHL, and The Cochrane Library in September 2010 using appropriate controlled vocabulary (e.g., Circumcision, Female) and keywords (e.g., female genital mutilation, clitoridectomy, infibulation). We also searched Social Science Abstracts, Sociological Abstracts, Gender Studies Database, and ProQuest Dissertations and Theses in 2010 and 2011. There were no date or language restrictions. Searches were updated on a regular basis and incorporated in the guideline to December 2011. Grey (unpublished) literature was identified through searching the websites of health technology assessment and health technology-related agencies, clinical practice guideline collections, clinical trial registries, and national and international medical specialty societies. The quality of evidence in this document was rated using the criteria described in the Report of the Canadian Task Force on Preventive Health Care (Table 1). Summary Statements 1. Female genital cutting is internationally recognized as a harmful practice and a violation of girls' and women's rights to life, physical integrity, and health. (II-3) 2. The immediate and long-term health risks and complications of female genital cutting can be serious and life threatening. (II-3) 3. Female genital cutting continues to be practised in many countries, particularly in sub-Saharan Africa, Egypt, and Sudan. (II-3) 4. Global migration

  10. Ocorrência da depressão pós-natal em pais de primogénitos com idade compreendida ente 3 a 6 meses

    OpenAIRE

    Gonçalves, Câmia de Jesus Lema Faztudo

    2012-01-01

    Neste trabalho pretendemos compreender a importancia da ocorrência de depressão no pós-natal no homem, bem como este percepciona as alterações que ocorrem na sua vida resultantes do facto de ter sido pai pela primeira vez. O estudo é transversal tendo sido administrada num único momento a Edinburgh Posnatal Depression Scale (EPDS) e o Questionário de avaliação de percepção parental, para detectar respectivamente a depressão pós-natal no homem, bem como as suas percepções rel...

  11. Male sexual harassment alters female social behaviour towards other females.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darden, Safi K; Watts, Lauren

    2012-04-23

    Male harassment of females to gain mating opportunities is a consequence of an evolutionary conflict of interest between the sexes over reproduction and is common among sexually reproducing species. Male Trinidadian guppies Poecilia reticulata spend a large proportion of their time harassing females for copulations and their presence in female social groups has been shown to disrupt female-female social networks and the propensity for females to develop social recognition based on familiarity. In this study, we investigate the behavioural mechanisms that may lead to this disruption of female sociality. Using two experiments, we test the hypothesis that male presence will directly affect social behaviours expressed by females towards other females in the population. In experiment one, we tested for an effect of male presence on female shoaling behaviour and found that, in the presence of a free-swimming male guppy, females spent shorter amounts of time with other females than when in the presence of a free-swimming female guppy. In experiment two, we tested for an effect of male presence on the incidence of aggressive behaviour among female guppies. When males were present in a shoal, females exhibited increased levels of overall aggression towards other females compared with female only shoals. Our work provides direct evidence that the presence of sexually harassing males alters female-female social behaviour, an effect that we expect will be recurrent across taxonomic groups.

  12. Fast food ou comida regional? as preferências gastronômicas dos turistas que visitam Natal (RN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruna Alves de Araújo

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Este artigo apresenta os resultados de uma pesquisa realizada por meio de um trabalho de conclusão do curso de Turismo, na Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Norte, que teve como principal objetivo analisar as preferências gastronômicas, fast food ou pratos típicos locais, dos turistas que visitam Natal/RN. A pesquisa consistiu, além da pesquisa bibliográfica, da aplicação de 100 (cem questionários com turistas que visitaram a cidade nos meses de abril e maio de 2015. A partir dos dados coletados, verificou-se que a maior parte dos turistas que visitam Natal, opta pela comida típica regional, sendo importante destacar que a aproximação com a realidade local, é o principal elemento que justifica a escolha dos turistas por pratos típicos. Mesmo em menor quantidade, uma parte dos turistas opta pelo consumo de fast food, justificando-se tal escolha, por se tratar de pratos conhecidos e terem preços acessíveis. Identificaram-se ainda, outros aspectos na pesquisa, como a necessidade de existir um marketing turístico voltado para a gastronomia local e a imagem gastronômica da cidade ser vinculada aos frutos do mar, sendo este, um elemento diferenciador da cidade, em comparação a outros destinos.

  13. FATORES QUE INFLUENCIAL NA DECISÃO DE COMPRA DE LEITE DE CONSUMIDORES NA CIDADE DE NATAL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MAYARA LEILANE DE JESUS BARRETO

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper aimed to investigate the factors of influencing milk consumers of Natal city, state of Rio Grande do Norte, in their buying decision. The methodology was a descriptive and exploratory type Survey, with 385 questionnaires applied on the four geographical areas of Natal city. Sample size was found according to the county inhabitant number, and survey was applied through questionnaire applied at randomized suburbs, streets and houses from four geographical city zones. The statistical analyses were: descriptive analysis, comparison test of means and Cluster analysis. Results were that milk quality had high average, in contrast with the price and brand which had the lowest ones. Milk quality and image of the store were the factors most stable for the consumer make its purchase decision, while price and brand were those of least importance. Comparisons among variables showed significance (P<0,05 except for price importance, visual appearance, no product on the market shelves, easy of buying and product status. As conclusion, milk quality is the main factor for consumers to make a decision to purchase milk, whereas price and brand were of least importance.

  14. Accounting firms’ managers’ and trainees’ perceptions of managerial competencies required to manage diversity in KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Msizi V. Mkhize

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: In South Africa, there is a shortage of black chartered accountants, with some progress being made in transforming the industry. Accounting firms’ managers must be prepared to effectively manage the increasing diversity of the profession. Aim: The purpose of the study was to identify the managerial competencies required by accounting firms managers to effectively manage diversity in KwaZulu-Natal. Setting: The setting for this study is accounting firms in KwaZulu-Natal. Methods: A prospective, descriptive and analytical, cross-sectional design using systematic sampling was employed. The responses of 45 accounting firms’ managers and 114 trainees were analysed. Results: Both managers and trainees perceived the six managerial competencies important in managing diversity, but the ranking order of perceived importance indicated that there are variations in ratings. Teamwork and self-management competencies were highly rated by managers, while communication and teamwork competencies were highly rated by trainees. Conclusion: The managerial competencies are vital for the accounting firms’ managers. The study suggests that the accounting firms’ managers should consider the importance given by trainees and by themselves in prioritising the most important competencies they require in managing diversity. Accounting firms are encouraged to incorporate the six managerial competencies into the job descriptions or job advertisements and in the firms’ management development programme or training and development programme as the managerial competencies will assist managers in managing the diverse workforce effectively.

  15. The Monument as Ruin: Natality, Spectrality, and the History of the Image in the Tirana Independence Monument

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raino Isto

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available This article examines the Tirana Independence Monument, first inaugurated in November of 2012 on the hundredth anniversary of Albanian independence from the Ottoman Empire. The monument, designed by Visar Obrija and Kai Roman Kiklas, swiftly fell into disrepair until it was recently renovated in November of 2015. The article analyzes the monument’s function in terms of its doubled existence as a sign of perpetual natality (the possibility of the rebirth of national consciousness and as a ruin with a spectral pseudo-presence (as an object that continually reminds us of the disjunctures that divorce the present from its historicity. It considers the way the monument’s inauguration relates to the politics of monumentality in contemporary Albania, and argues that the monument’s gradual ruination between 2012 and 2015 can be read as a particular manifestation of the history of the image in late capitalist society.Keywords: spectrality, natality, monumentality, Albania, Tirana, independence, national identity, grid, public sculpture

  16. The geochemistry and geochronology of some proterozoic granitoid rocks from the Natal structural and metamorphic province, Southeastern Africa

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kerr, A.; Milne, G.C.; Eglington, B.M.

    1987-01-01

    The Natal Structural and Metamorphic Province is thought to be an eastern extension of the Namaqua Metamorphic Province. Until recently few geochemical and isotopic data have been available on many of the rocks of this mobile belt. This paper presentes initial geochemical and geochronological information on the granitoids and associated rocks from three areas NSMP. Together, these areas provide a traverse through central and southern parts of the Mapumulo Group. Supracrustal gneisses, of uncertain age, are the oldest rocks in all areas, while the granitic intrusives range from 1,200-850 Ma, with a tendency for younger dates towards dates towards the south. Low initial 87 Sr/ 86 Sr ratios for these plutonic units suggest that the rocks were the products of partial melting of a relatively juvenile (circa 1,400 Ma) protolith. A type granites are common within the NSMP and give a range of ages, indicating that conditions suitable for their formation persited in this part of the African continent for an extended period of time. Economic deposits are lacking in eastern (Natal) sector of the mobile belt. Reconnaissance studies, however indicate that syn-tolate-Kinematic granitoids, intruded circa 1,000 Ma, are enriched in uranium and thorium irrespective of bulk chemistry, textural nature,mineralogy,structural setting, and isotopic characteristics. (author) [pt

  17. The levels of Community Involvement in Health (CIH: a case of rural and urban communities in KwaZulu-Natal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G.G. Mchunu

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available The study aimed to describe the practice of community involvement in health programmes.The study therefore explored the nature and practice of community involvementin health programmes in the two communities in KwaZulu Natal. Thestudy was guided by the conceptual framework adapted from Amstein’s,( 1969 Ladderof Citizen Participation. This framework shows different levels and steps in communityparticipation. A case study method was used to conduct the study. The twocases were one urban based and one rural based community health centers in theIlembe health district, in Kwa Zulu Natal. A sample of 31 persons participated in thestudy. The sample comprised 8 registered nurses, 2 enrolled nurses 13 communitymembers and 8 community health workers. Data was collected using structured individualinterviews and focus group interviews, and was guided by the case protocol.Community involvement in health largely depended on the type of community, withrural community members being in charge of their health projects and urban communitymembers helping each other as neighbours in times of need.

  18. Scaphitid ammonites from the Upper Cretaceous of KwaZulu-Natal and Eastern Cape Province, South Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kennedy, William James; Klinger, Herbert Christian

    2013-12-01

    Kennedy, W.J. and Klinger, H.C. 2013. Scaphitid ammonites from the Upper Cretaceous of KwaZulu-Natal and Eastern Cape Province, South Africa. Acta Geologica Polonica, 63 (4), 527-543. Warszawa. Scaphitid ammonites are described and illustrated from the Upper Cretaceous of the coastal region of north-eastern South Africa. Scaphites kieslingswaldensis Langenhan and Grundey, 1891, Scaphites manasoaensis Collignon, 1965, and Yezoites concinna sp. nov. occur in the Coniacian part of the St Lucia Formation in northern KwaZulu-Natal. A further Yezoites sp. may also be from this level. Argentoscaphites corrugatus sp. nov. occurs in the Santonian to Lower Campanian Mzamba Formation on the northernmost coast of Eastern Cape Province. Yezoites australis sp. nov. occurs in the Upper Santonian part of the St Lucia and Mzamba formations of these areas, and Scaphites reesidei Collignon, 1969, is recorded from the Lower Campanian part of the Mzamba Formation. The scaphitid assemblage includes species previously described from Western Europe and Madagascar, together with Argentoscaphites, previously known only from Patagonia (and possibly South India). Dimorphism is recognised in Scaphites reesidei, Yezoites concinna sp. nov. and Y. australis sp. nov. Argentoscaphites corrugatus sp. nov. and Yezoites sp. are represented by microconchs only. Dimorphism has not been recognised in Scaphites kieslingswaldensis.

  19. Site decontamination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bicker, A.E.

    1981-01-01

    Among the several DOE sites that have been radiologically decontaminated under the auspices of the Nevada Operations Office are three whose physical characteristics are unique. These are the Tatum Dome Test Site (TDTS) near Hattiesburg, Mississippi; a location of mountainous terrain (Pahute Mesa) on the Nevada Test Site; and the GNOME site near Carlsbad, New Mexico. In each case the contamination, the terrain, and the climate conditions were different. This presentation includes a brief description of each site, the methods used to perform radiological surveys, the logistics required to support the decontamination (including health physics and sample analysis), and the specific techniques used to reduce or remove the contamination

  20. Neurogenetics of female reproductive behaviors in Drosophila melanogaster

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Laturney, Meghan; Billeter, Jean-Christophe; Friedmann, T; Dunlap, JC; Goodwin, SF

    2014-01-01

    We follow an adult Drosophila melanogaster female through the major reproductive decisions she makes during her lifetime, including habitat selection, precopulatory mate choice, postcopulatory physiological changes, polyandry, and egg-laying site selection. In the process, we review the molecular

  1. Female physicist doctoral experiences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katherine P. Dabney

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The underrepresentation of women in physics doctorate programs and in tenured academic positions indicates a need to evaluate what may influence their career choice and persistence. This qualitative paper examines eleven females in physics doctoral programs and professional science positions in order to provide a more thorough understanding of why and how women make career choices based on aspects both inside and outside of school and their subsequent interaction. Results indicate that female physicists experience conflict in achieving balance within their graduate school experiences and personal lives and that this then influences their view of their future careers and possible career choices. Female physicists report both early and long-term support outside of school by family, and later departmental support, as being essential to their persistence within the field. A greater focus on informal and out-of-school science activities for females, especially those that involve family members, early in life may help influence their entrance into a physics career later in life. Departmental support, through advisers, mentors, peers, and women’s support groups, with a focus on work-life balance can help females to complete graduate school and persist into an academic career.

  2. Female physicist doctoral experiences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dabney, Katherine P.; Tai, Robert H.

    2013-06-01

    The underrepresentation of women in physics doctorate programs and in tenured academic positions indicates a need to evaluate what may influence their career choice and persistence. This qualitative paper examines eleven females in physics doctoral programs and professional science positions in order to provide a more thorough understanding of why and how women make career choices based on aspects both inside and outside of school and their subsequent interaction. Results indicate that female physicists experience conflict in achieving balance within their graduate school experiences and personal lives and that this then influences their view of their future careers and possible career choices. Female physicists report both early and long-term support outside of school by family, and later departmental support, as being essential to their persistence within the field. A greater focus on informal and out-of-school science activities for females, especially those that involve family members, early in life may help influence their entrance into a physics career later in life. Departmental support, through advisers, mentors, peers, and women’s support groups, with a focus on work-life balance can help females to complete graduate school and persist into an academic career.

  3. Female genital mutilation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ladjali, M; Rattray, T W; Walder, R J

    1993-08-21

    Female genital mutilation, also misleadingly known as female circumcision, is usually performed on girls ranging in from 1 week to puberty. Immediate physical complications include severe pain, shock, infection, bleeding, acute urinary infection, tetanus, and death. Longterm problems include chronic pain, difficulties with micturition and menstruation, pelvic infection leading to infertility, and prolonged and obstructed labor during childbirth. An estimated 80 million girls and women have undergone female genital mutilation. In Britain alone an estimated 10,000 girls are currently at risk. Religious, cultural, medical, and moral grounds rationalize the custom which is practiced primarily in sub-Saharan Africa, the Arab world, Malaysia, Indonesia, and among migrant populations in Western countries. According to WHO it is correlated with poverty, illiteracy, and the low status of women. Women who escape mutilation are not sought in marriage. WHO, the UN Population Fund, the UN Children's Fund, the International Planned Parenthood Federation, and the UN Convention on the Rights of the Child have issued declarations on the eradication of female genital mutilation. In Britain, local authorities have intervened to prevent parents from mutilating their daughters. In 1984, the Inter-African Committee Against Harmful Traditional Practices Affecting Women and Children was established to work toward eliminating female genital mutilation and other damaging customs. National committees in 26 African countries coordinate projects run by local people using theater, dance, music, and storytelling for communication. In Australia, Canada, Europe, and the US women have organized to prevent the practice among vulnerable migrants and refugees.

  4. Does female education explain the disparity in the use of antenatal and natal services in Nigeria? Evidence from demographic and health survey data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Umar, Abubakar Sadiq

    2017-06-01

    Nigeria is among the countries with a high number of annual maternal deaths partly due to low utilization of maternal health services (MHS). This study aimed to explore whether there is an association between women's level of education and the appropriate use of antenatal and delivery services. A quantitative cross-sectional study was used to analyze the Nigerian Demographic and Health Survey (NDHS) data. Information from 33,385 women aged 15 - 49 years was analyzed using Bivariate Pearson Chi square test and multiple logistic regressions. Education is statistically associated with the number of antenatal clinic visits made (AOR = 3.208; CI 2.875 - 3.578; p education will improve income, interaction with health care providers, level of autonomy to seek and pay for appropriate MHS and ultimately use of MHS and positive pregnancy outcomes.

  5. Site organization and site arrangement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boissonnet, B.; Macqueron, J.F.

    1976-01-01

    The present paper deals with criteria for the choice of a production unit or power plant site, the organization and development of a site in terms of its particular characteristics and takes into account personnel considerations in site organizations as well as the problem of integrating the architecture into the environment. (RW) [de

  6. Desert bighorn sheep lambing habitat: Parturition, nursery, and predation sites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karsch, Rebekah C.; Cain, James W.; Rominger, Eric M.; Goldstein, Elise J.

    2016-01-01

    Fitness of female ungulates is determined by neonate survival and lifetime reproductive success. Therefore, adult female ungulates should adopt behaviors and habitat selection patterns that enhance survival of neonates during parturition and lactation. Parturition site location may play an important role in neonatal mortality of desert bighorn sheep (Ovis canadensis mexicana) when lambs are especially vulnerable to predation, but parturition sites are rarely documented for this species. Our objectives were to assess environmental characteristics at desert bighorn parturition, lamb nursery, and predation sites and to assess differences in habitat characteristics between parturition sites and nursery group sites, and predation sites and nursery group sites. We used vaginal implant transmitters (VITs) to identify parturition sites and capture neonates. We then compared elevation, slope, terrain ruggedness, and visibility at parturition, nursery, and lamb predation sites with paired random sites and compared characteristics of parturition sites and lamb predation sites to those of nursery sites. When compared to random sites, odds of a site being a parturition site were highest at intermediate slopes and decreased with increasing female visibility. Odds of a site being a predation site increased with decreasing visibility. When compared to nursery group sites, odds of a site being a parturition site had a quadratic relationship with elevation and slope, with odds being highest at intermediate elevations and intermediate slopes. When we compared predation sites to nursery sites, odds of a site being a predation were highest at low elevation areas with high visibility and high elevation areas with low visibility likely because of differences in hunting strategies of coyote (Canis latrans) and puma (Puma concolor). Parturition sites were lower in elevation and slope than nursery sites. Understanding selection of parturition sites by adult females and how habitat

  7. Female athlete triad update.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beals, Katherine A; Meyer, Nanna L

    2007-01-01

    The passage of Title IX legislation in 1972 provided enormous opportunities for women to reap the benefits of sports participation. For most female athletes, sports participation is a positive experience, providing improved physical fitness, enhanced self-esteem, and better physical and mental health. Nonetheless, for a few female athletes, the desire for athletic success combined with the pressure to achieve a prescribed body weight may lead to the development of a triad of medical disorders including disordered eating, menstrual dysfunction, and low bone mineral density (BMD)--known collectively as the female athlete triad. Alone or in combination, the disorders of the triad can have a negative impact on health and impair athletic performance.

  8. Male depression in females?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Möller-Leimkühler, Anne Maria; Yücel, Mete

    2010-02-01

    Scientific evidence for a male-typed depression ("male depression") is still limited, but mainly supports this concept with respect to single externalizing symptoms or symptom clusters. In particular, studies on non-clinical populations including males and females are lacking. The present study aims at assessing general well-being, the risk and the symptoms of male depression dependent on biological sex and gender-role orientation on instrumental (masculine) and expressive (feminine) personality traits in an unselected community sample of males and females. Students (518 males, 500 females) of the Ludwig-Maximilians-University of Munich, Germany, were asked to participate in a "stress study" and complete the following self-report questionnaires: the WHO-5 Well-being Index [Bech, P., 1998. Quality of Life in the Psychiatric Patient. Mosby-Wolfe, London], the Gotland Scale for Male Depression [Walinder, J., Rutz, W., 2001. Male depression and suicide. International Clinical Psychopharmacology 16 (suppl 2), 21-24] and the German Extended Personal Attribute Questionnaire [Runge, T.E., Frey, D., Gollwitzer, P.M., et al., 1981. Masculine (instrumental) and feminine (expressive) traits. A comparison between students in the United States and West Germany. Journal of Cross-Cultural Psychology 12, 142-162]. General well-being of the students was significantly lower compared to population norms. Contrary to expectations, female students had a greater risk of male depression than male students (28.9% vs. 22.4%; p<0.05). Overall, prototypic depressive symptoms as well as externalizing symptoms were more pronounced in females. In the subgroup of those at risk for male depression, biological sex and kind of symptoms were unrelated. Principal component analyses revealed a similar symptom structure for males and females. Low scores on masculinity/instrumentality significantly predicted higher risk of male depression, independent of biological sex. The study sample is not

  9. Site operations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    House, W.B.; Ebenhack, D.G.

    1989-01-01

    This chapter is a discussion of the management and operations practices used at the Barnwell Waste Management Facility in Barnwell, SC. The following topics are discussed: (1) Waste receiving and inspection, including manifest and certificates of compliance, radiological surveys, disposition of nonconforming items, and decontamination and disposition of secondary waste streams; (2) Waste disposal, including Title 10 CFR 61 requirements, disposal area evaluations, shipment offloading, container emplacement, and radiation protection; (3) Trench closure, including trench backfilling, trench capping, and permanent markers; (4) Site maintenance and stabilization, including trench maintenance, surface water management, and site closure activities; (5) Site monitoring programs, including operational monitoring, and environmental monitoring program; (6) Personnel training and qualifications, including basic training program, safety training program, special skills training, and physical qualifications; (7) Records management, including waste records, personnel training records, personnel dosimetry records, site monitoring records, trench qualification and construction records, and site drawings and stabilization records; (8) Site security; (9) Emergency response plans; and (10) Quality assurance

  10. Do (Female) Founders Influence (Female) Joiners to Become Founders too?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rocha, Vera; Van Praag, Mirjam

    -founder (gender) homophily affects the likelihood of female and male joiners to become founders themselves. We find a relatively large and robust positive effect among female joiners that can be attributed to the role modeling function of female founders. Female entrepreneurs hiring personnel may thus have...

  11. Understanding landscape dynamics over thousand years : combining field and model work : with case study in the Drakensberg foothill, KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Temme, A.J.A.M.

    2008-01-01

    The title of this thesis is “Understanding landscape dynamics over thousands of years : combining field and model work, with a case study in the Drakensberg Foothills, KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa”. As the title clearly states, the overall objective is an increased knowledge of landscape dynamics

  12. Integrating remote sensing and ancillary data for regional ecosystem assessment: eucalyptus grandis agro-system in kwazulu-Natal, South Africa

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Cho, Moses A

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available The study demonstrates that the integration of remote sensing and in situ data could be important in providing more accurate estimates of E. grandis state in KwaZulu Natal, South Africa compared to remote sensing models. Such modelling effort would...

  13. Atenção pré-natal na rede básica: uma avaliação da estrutura e do processo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silveira Denise Silva da

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Realizou-se estudo transversal descritivo e auditoria de registros médicos para avaliar a estrutura e o processo de atendimento pré-natal nas unidades de atenção primária à saúde em Pelotas, Sul do Brasil. Para a investigação da estrutura, foram incluídas todas as 31 unidades da zona urbana. No estudo do processo revisou-se os registros de pré-natal das mães com data provável de parto nos 6 meses anteriores ao início do trabalho de campo, num total de 839 formulários. A estrutura foi considerada precária (70% da ideal, principalmente devido a deficiências da planta física. Quanto ao processo, observaram-se uma baixa cobertura (53% e média de consultas de 5,3. O pré-natal foi adequado em somente 37% dos registros (Índice de Kessner. Adicionando-se exames laboratoriais e procedimentos da consulta como critérios complementares, 31% e 5% dos registros foram considerados adequados, respectivamente. De um modo geral, a qualidade do cuidado pré-natal oferecido foi precária. Mecanismos que aumentem a aderência das equipes de saúde aos procedimentos e à lógica do programa, necessitam ser desenvolvidos.

  14. On Medium of Instruction and African Scholarship: The Case of isiZulu at the University of Kwazulu-Natal in South Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamwendo, Gregory; Hlongwa, Nobuhle; Mkhize, Nhlanhla

    2014-01-01

    After the demise of apartheid in South Africa in 1994, 11 languages (English, Afrikaans and 9 indigenous African languages) were given official status. In the higher education landscape, English remains the dominant language of scholarship. At the University of KwaZulu-Natal, English is the main medium of instruction but the institution's language…

  15. The perceptions of nurses in a district health system in KwaZulu-Natal of their supervision, self-esteem and job satisfaction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L.R. Uys

    2004-09-01

    Full Text Available Supervision has been identified as a major issue in quality of care. Although increasing attention is being given to supervision in the District Health System, there have been no studies describing the current situation. This article describes a survey done in two health districts in KwaZulu-Natal involving 319 nurses from all types of government health care settings.

  16. Living and care arrangements of non-urban households in KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa, in the context of HIV and AIDS

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Preez, du C.J.

    2011-01-01

    In non-urban KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa, very few households escape the impacts of HIV and AIDS, either the direct impacts as a result of illness and death, or the indirect impacts through providing care and support to family, friends and neighbours. HIV and AIDS becomes part of the

  17. The assessment of optimal MERIS ocean colour products in the shelf waters of the KwaZulu-Natal Bight, South Africa

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Smith, ME

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available The KwaZulu-Natal Bight is a highly variable bio-optical environment, where waters over the shelf can change from the oligotrophic case 1 conditions of the Agulhas Current to the case 2 inshore environment influenced by upwelling and riverine influx...

  18. AVALIAÇÃO DA INFLUÊNCIA DO ABANDONO DA ASSISTÊNCIA PRÉ-NATAL NA MORTALIDADE FETAL E NEONATAL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raimundo Nonato Silva Gomes

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Objetivo: Avaliar a influência do abandono da assistência pré-natal na mortalidade fetal e neonatal. Métodos: Estudo avaliativo, descritivo–exploratório, de cunho documental, com abordagem quantitativa, realizado de outubro a novembro de 2014. Utilizou-se como fonte de dados, 400 declarações de óbitos e 400 fichas de investigação de óbitos fetais e neonatais, ocorridos e notificados nos anos de 2010 a 2013. Foram analisados por meio do Statistical Package for the Social Sciences, para obtenção das frequências absolutas e relativas, variáveis nominais e numéricas e Qui-quadrado de Person. A pesquisa foi aprovada pelo Comitê de Ética em Pesquisa da Universidade Estadual do Maranhão (CAAE 26463814.2.0000.5554. Resultados: Quando avaliado a correlação entre o abandono do pré-natal e a mortalidade fetal e neonatal, observou-se que a mortalidade de fetos/neonatos de genitoras que abandonaram o pré-natal foi um evento crescente. Conclusão: Pôde-se confirmar a influência direta do abandono do pré-natal na mortalidade fetal e neonatal.

  19. The (Dis)ownership of English: Language and Identity Construction among Zulu Students at the University of KwaZulu-Natal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parmegiani, Andrea

    2014-01-01

    This paper explores the role English and isiZulu play in the identity construction of a group of black South African university students from disadvantaged backgrounds enrolled in a bridge programme at the University of KwaZulu-Natal. I will discuss how, in post-apartheid South Africa, language practices continue to foster inequality, despite a…

  20. Efficacy of physical activity interventions in post-natal populations: systematic review, meta-analysis and content coding of behaviour change techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilinsky, Alyssa Sara; Dale, Hannah; Robinson, Clare; Hughes, Adrienne R; McInnes, Rhona; Lavallee, David

    2015-01-01

    This systematic review and meta-analysis reports the efficacy of post-natal physical activity change interventions with content coding of behaviour change techniques (BCTs). Electronic databases (MEDLINE, CINAHL and PsychINFO) were searched for interventions published from January 1980 to July 2013. Inclusion criteria were: (i) interventions including ≥1 BCT designed to change physical activity behaviour, (ii) studies reporting ≥1 physical activity outcome, (iii) interventions commencing later than four weeks after childbirth and (iv) studies including participants who had given birth within the last year. Controlled trials were included in the meta-analysis. Interventions were coded using the 40-item Coventry, Aberdeen & London - Refined (CALO-RE) taxonomy of BCTs and study quality assessment was conducted using Cochrane criteria. Twenty studies were included in the review (meta-analysis: n = 14). Seven were interventions conducted with healthy inactive post-natal women. Nine were post-natal weight management studies. Two studies included women with post-natal depression. Two studies focused on improving general well-being. Studies in healthy populations but not for weight management successfully changed physical activity. Interventions increased frequency but not volume of physical activity or walking behaviour. Efficacious interventions always included the BCTs 'goal setting (behaviour)' and 'prompt self-monitoring of behaviour'.

  1. Females and Toxic Leadership

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-14

    labeled as toxic, can he or she be rehabilitated?; Are there leadership styles that can be promoted to combat toxic leadership?; and Are the senior...examines leadership styles that are favorable for female leaders, and offers Transformational/Adaptive leadership as a style promising rehabilitative tools

  2. Perspectives on Female Entrepreneurs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kuada, John Ernest; Janulevièienë, Rûta

    2003-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to compare the contents of the academic evidence and debate on female entrepreneurship in the West with the current stream of research and thinking in the Central and Eastern European Countries with a view to identifying similarities and differences in thoughts and findin...

  3. Female sexual dysfunction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Giraldi, Annamaria; Wåhlin-Jacobsen, Sarah

    2016-01-01

    Female sexual dysfunction (FSD) is a controversial condition, which has prompted much debate regarding its aetiology, components, and even its existence. Our inability to work together as clinicians, psychologists, patients, and advocates hinders our understanding of FSD, and we will only improve...

  4. Female sexual arousal disorders

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Giraldi, Annamaria; Rellini, Alessandra H.; Pfaus, James; Laan, Ellen

    2013-01-01

    Definitions and terminology for female sexual arousal disorder (FSAD) are currently being debated. While some authors have suggested that FSAD is more a subjective response rather than a genital response, others have suggested that desire and arousal disorders should be combined in one entity.

  5. Female Pattern Hair Loss

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herskovitz, Ingrid; Tosti, Antonella

    2013-01-01

    Context: Female pattern hair loss (FPHL) also known as female androgenetic alopecia is a common condition afflicting millions of women that can be cosmetically disrupting. Prompt diagnosis and treatment are essential for obtaining optimal outcome. This review addresses the clinical presentation of female pattern hair loss, its differential diagnosis and treatment modalities. Evidence Acquisition: A) Diffuse thinning of the crown region with preservation of the frontal hairline (Ludwig’s type) B) The “Christmas tree pattern” where the thinning is wider in the frontal scalp giving the alopecic area a triangular shaped figure resembling a christmas tree. C) Thinning associated with bitemporal recession (Hamilton type). Generally, FPHL is not associated with elevated androgens. Less commonly females with FPHL may have other skin or general signs of hyperandrogenism such as hirsutism, acne, irregular menses, infertility, galactorrhea and insulin resistance. The most common endocrinological abnormality associated with FPHL is polycystic ovarian syndrome (PCOS). Results: The most important diseases to consider in the differential diagnosis of FPHL include Chronic Telogen Effluvium (CTE), Permanent Alopecia after Chemotherapy (PAC), Alopecia Areata Incognito (AAI) and Frontal Fibrosing Alopecia (FFA). This review describes criteria for distinguishing these conditions from FPHL. Conclusions: The only approved treatment for FPHL, which is 2% topical Minoxidil, should be applied at the dosage of 1ml twice day for a minimum period of 12 months. This review will discuss off-label alternative modalities of treatment including 5-alfa reductase inhibitors, antiandrogens, estrogens, prostaglandin analogs, lasers, light treatments and hair transplantation. PMID:24719635

  6. The female athlete triad.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kazis, Keren; Iglesias, Elba

    2003-02-01

    The female athlete triad is a syndrome consisting of disordered eating, amenorrhea, and osteoporosis. The syndrome is increasing in prevalence as more women are participating in sports at a competitive level. Behaviors such as intense exercise or disordered eating patterns can lead to dysregulation of the hypothalamic-pituitarian-ovarian (HPO) axis, resulting in amenorrhea. Hypothalamic amenorrhea can lead to osteoporosis and increased fracture risk. Adolescents may particularly be at risk because it is during this crucial time that females attain their peak bone mass. Prevention of the female athlete triad through education and identification of athletes at risk may decrease the incidence of long-term deleterious consequences. Treatment of the female athlete triad is initially aimed at increasing caloric intake and decreasing physical activity until there is resumption of normal menses. Treatment of decreased bone mineral density and osteoporosis in the adolescent population, however, is controversial, with new treatment modalities currently being investigated in order to aid in the management of this disorder.

  7. Female pattern hair loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herskovitz, Ingrid; Tosti, Antonella

    2013-10-01

    Female pattern hair loss (FPHL) also known as female androgenetic alopecia is a common condition afflicting millions of women that can be cosmetically disrupting. Prompt diagnosis and treatment are essential for obtaining optimal outcome. This review addresses the clinical presentation of female pattern hair loss, its differential diagnosis and treatment modalities. A) Diffuse thinning of the crown region with preservation of the frontal hairline (Ludwig's type) B) The "Christmas tree pattern" where the thinning is wider in the frontal scalp giving the alopecic area a triangular shaped figure resembling a christmas tree. C) Thinning associated with bitemporal recession (Hamilton type). Generally, FPHL is not associated with elevated androgens. Less commonly females with FPHL may have other skin or general signs of hyperandrogenism such as hirsutism, acne, irregular menses, infertility, galactorrhea and insulin resistance. The most common endocrinological abnormality associated with FPHL is polycystic ovarian syndrome (PCOS). The most important diseases to consider in the differential diagnosis of FPHL include Chronic Telogen Effluvium (CTE), Permanent Alopecia after Chemotherapy (PAC), Alopecia Areata Incognito (AAI) and Frontal Fibrosing Alopecia (FFA). This review describes criteria for distinguishing these conditions from FPHL. The only approved treatment for FPHL, which is 2% topical Minoxidil, should be applied at the dosage of 1ml twice day for a minimum period of 12 months. This review will discuss off-label alternative modalities of treatment including 5-alfa reductase inhibitors, antiandrogens, estrogens, prostaglandin analogs, lasers, light treatments and hair transplantation.

  8. Information literacy: uma análise nas bibliotecas escolares da rede privada em Natal/RN Information literacy: an analysis of the school library of the private schools network in Natal/RN p. 110-133

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriela Farias

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Apresenta a information literacy, como competência em informação, relata, de forma geral, seu surgimento, desenvolvimento e importância de sua prática na biblioteca escolar. Aborda-se os principais focos da competência em informação: tecnologia da informação, processos cognitivos, e aprendizado ao longo da vida. Relata-se a análise dos dados dos questionários aplicados nas bibliotecas escolares da rede de escolas privadas da cidade de Natal RN com fins de identificar e analisar a competência em informação neste ambiente. Apresenta-se a necessidade de integração entre escola-biblioteca, e a inserção do bibliotecário na comunidade educacional para criação de programas educacionais voltados para a competência em informação. Palavras-chave Competência em informação; Habilidades informativas; Biblioteca escolar; Educação e aprendizagem Abstract It presents information literacy as information competence, as well as reporting, in a general way its appearance, development and the importance of its practice in the school library. Focuses on the main information competences: information technology, cognitive processes and life long learning. It reports on the analysis of data obtained from the questionnaire applied in school libraries of the private schools network in the city of Natal RN, as a means to identify and analyze information competence in this environment. The need for school-library integration is presented, as is the need for the insertion of the librarian in the educational community for the creation of educational programs directed towards information competence. Key words Information competence; Informative skills; School library; Education and learning

  9. PLIGHT OF FEMALE CONSTRUCTION WORKERS OF SURAT CITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B L Chawada

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: With the rapid increase in construction sector, the number of female construction workers is increased. The problems of women worker is still not addressed adequately by health sector. Aims and objective: The present study is aimed to explore problems of female workers at construction sites in working environment and to document issues like gender bias, living conditions, vulnerability and slackness of health among female working in construction field. Methodology: This was a Cross sectional study conducted in May 2011in which all females working at the randomly selected construction site were enrolled. The pre-designed semi-structured questionnaire was prepared to study the participant’s response. In-depth interview technique was also used to strengthen the findings. Results: Total of 118 female construction workers participated in the study with mean age found to be 22 years with SD of 6 years. Mean daily wages of female was 120 Rs while for male it was 245 Rs which is double than what female getting. Major health complaints were fatigue/weakness (61 %, backache (30 %, cough (17.5 %, fever (17 %, skin itching (10.5 % and diarrhoea (7 %. They were not even using the government medical facility due to lack of awareness and knowledge about this. No safety measures provided to female as compare to male except at 2 sites where female were provided ‘gloves’. Some (6% of the working females has abuse of chewing tobacco daily or smoking ‘bidi’. The living condition was merely enough to provide any privacy for female. Conclusion: As migratory and floating population, female working in construction field needs attention. Lack of social security and family support make them a vulnerable group for addiction and violence. Alternate way for providing healthcare for these women should be sort out early.

  10. Monitoring the health of transgender and other gender minority populations: validity of natal sex and gender identity survey items in a U.S. national cohort of young adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reisner, Sari L; Conron, Kerith J; Tardiff, Laura Anatale; Jarvi, Stephanie; Gordon, Allegra R; Austin, S Bryn

    2014-11-26

    A barrier to monitoring the health of gender minority (transgender) populations is the lack of brief, validated tools with which to identify participants in surveillance systems. We used the Growing Up Today Study (GUTS), a prospective cohort study of U.S. young adults (mean age = 20.7 years in 2005), to assess the validity of self-report measures and implement a two-step method to measure gender minority status (step 1: assigned sex at birth, step 2: current gender identity). A mixed-methods study was conducted in 2013. Construct validity was evaluated in secondary data analysis of the 2010 wave (n = 7,831). Cognitive testing interviews of close-ended measures were conducted with a subsample of participants (n = 39). Compared to cisgender (non-transgender) participants, transgender participants had higher levels of recalled childhood gender nonconformity age gender nonconformity and were more likely to have ever identified as not completely heterosexual (p gender minority participants. Assigned sex at birth was interpreted as sex designated on a birth certificate; transgender was understood to be a difference between a person's natal sex and gender identity. Participants were correctly classified as male, female, or transgender. The survey items performed well in this sample and are recommended for further evaluation in languages other than English and with diverse samples in terms of age, race/ethnicity, and socioeconomic status.

  11. Gender-specific risk factors for virologic failure in KwaZulu-Natal: automobile ownership and financial insecurity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hare, Anna Q; Ordóñez, Claudia E; Johnson, Brent A; Del Rio, Carlos; Kearns, Rachel A; Wu, Baohua; Hampton, Jane; Wu, Peng; Sunpath, Henry; Marconi, Vincent C

    2014-11-01

    We sought to examine which socioeconomic indicators are risk factors for virologic failure among HIV-1 infected patients receiving antiretroviral therapy (ART) in KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa. A case-control study of virologic failure was conducted among patients recruited from the outpatient clinic at McCord Hospital in Durban, South Africa between October 1, 2010 and June 30, 2012. Cases were those failing first-line ART, defined as viral load >1,000 copies/mL. Univariate logistic regression was performed on sociodemographic data for the outcome of virologic failure. Variables found significant (p ownership was a risk factor among males, while variables of financial insecurity (unemployment, non-spouse family paying for care, staying with family) were risk factors for women. In this cohort, financial insecurity among women and automobile ownership among men were risk factors for virologic failure. Risk factor differences between genders demonstrate limitations of generalized risk factor analysis.

  12. Soroepidemiologia da leptospirose canina na região metropolitana de Natal, estado do Rio Grande do Norte

    OpenAIRE

    Annielle Regina da Fonseca Fernandes; Ademilde Gomes Fernandes; Vinicius José Apropriano Araújo; Severino Silvano dos Santos Higino; Maria Luana Cristiny Rodrigues Silva; Clebert José Alves; Sérgio Santos de Azevedo

    2013-01-01

    Objetivou-se com este estudo determinar a frequência de cães soropositivos para anticorpos anti-Leptospira spp. no município de Natal e região metropolitana, estado do Rio Grande do Norte, e identificar fatores de risco associados à infecção. Foram examinadas 365 amostras de soro sanguíneo de cães atendidos na rotina de diversas clínicas veterinárias durante o período de março a novembro de 2011. O diagnóstico sorológico da leptospirose foi realizado pela técnica de soroaglutinação microscópi...

  13. Factors associated with the take-up of voluntary medical male circumcision amongst learners in rural KwaZulu-Natal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    George, Gavin; Govender, Kaymarlin; Beckett, Sean; Montague, Carl; Frohlich, Janet

    2017-09-01

    Voluntary medical male circumcision (VMMC) is an integral part of South Africa's HIV prevention programme. School-going males, in particular, are considered a cost-effective target population. However, ambitious policy targets have not been achieved due to the plateau in demand for VMMC. This study documents the factors influencing demand for VMMC amongst school-going males. Data were collected from 750 learners (251 circumcised and 499 uncircumcised) from 42 secondary schools in KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa. There was a positive association between the perceived benefit of VMMC and the likelihood of undergoing circumcision (AOR: 1.41, p = 0.01). There was a negative association between self-efficacy to use condoms and likelihood of undergoing VMMC (AOR: 0.75, p concern, learners who were confident in their ability to access condoms and t use a condom with their partner were less likely to undergo VMMC.

  14. The quality of integrated reproductive health services: perspectives of clients in KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P Maharaj

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available The focus of family planning programmes has shifted away from an emphasis on controlling fertility towards helping individuals achieve their reproductive goals. This article seeks to expand knowledge about the quality of integrated services from the perspective of clients at health facilities in KwaZulu-Natal. The results from 300 structured interviews with clients visiting health facilities found that overall quality of services was relatively high. However, the quality of services varied somewhat between rural and urban areas. Clients visiting urban health facilities reported greater satisfaction with services than clients visiting rural health facilities. The interviews with clients suggests that existing efforts to integrate services has had limited success. Clients were rarely offered an expanded range of services during their visit. In most cases, clients only received services for which they presented at the health facility.

  15. Two years of gender identity service for minors: overrepresentation of natal girls with severe problems in adolescent development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaltiala-Heino, Riittakerttu; Sumia, Maria; Työläjärvi, Marja; Lindberg, Nina

    2015-01-01

    Increasing numbers of adolescents present in adolescent gender identity services, desiring sex reassignment (SR). The aim of this study is to describe the adolescent applicants for legal and medical sex reassignment during the first two years of adolescent gender identity team in Finland, in terms of sociodemographic, psychiatric and gender identity related factors and adolescent development. Structured quantitative retrospective chart review and qualitative analysis of case files of all adolescent SR applicants who entered the assessment by the end of 2013. The number of referrals exceeded expectations in light of epidemiological knowledge. Natal girls were markedly overrepresented among applicants. Severe psychopathology preceding onset of gender dysphoria was common. Autism spectrum problems were very common. The findings do not fit the commonly accepted image of a gender dysphoric minor. Treatment guidelines need to consider gender dysphoria in minors in the context of severe psychopathology and developmental difficulties.

  16. Utilization of Spirituality and Spiritual Care in Nursing Practice in Public Hospitals in KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandhya Chandramohan

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available This study explored the views of professional nurses in KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa regarding the role of spirituality and spiritual care in nursing practice and investigated whether professional nurses utilize spiritually based care in nursing practice. A cross-sectional descriptive design using multistage random sampling was utilized. Five hundred and fifty questionnaires were distributed to professional nurses between December 2012 and February 2013. A total of 385 participants completed the survey questionnaire, resulting in a 77% response rate. Data was analyzed using SSPS 0.20. The data revealed that nurses see spirituality and spiritual care as an important dimension of nursing practice but need greater preparedness. Nurses need to be effectively prepared to deal with the complexity of providing ethically based personalized spiritual care in an increasingly diverse society.

  17. Effects of natal departure and water level on survival of juvenile snail kites (Rostrhamus sociabilis) in Florida

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dreitz, V.J.; Kitchens, W.M.; DeAngelis, D.L.

    2004-01-01

    Survival rate from fledging to breeding, or juvenile survival, is an important source of variation in lifetime reproductive success in birds. Therefore, determining the relationship between juvenile survival and environmental factors is essential to understanding fitness consequences of reproduction in many populations. With increases in density of individuals and depletion of food resources, quality of most habitats deteriorates during the breeding season. Individuals respond by dispersing in search of food resources. Therefore, to understand the influence of environmental factors on juvenile survival, it is also necessary to know how natal dispersal influences survival of juveniles. We examined effects of various environmental factors and natal dispersal behavior on juvenile survival of endangered Snail Kites (Rostrhamus sociabilis) in central and southern Florida, using a generalized estimating equations (GEEs) approach and model selection criteria. Our results suggested yearly effects and an influence of age and monthly minimum hydrologic levels on juvenile Snail Kite survival. Yearly variation in juvenile survival has been reported by other studies, and other reproductive components of Snail Kites also exhibit such variation. Age differences in juvenile survival have also been seen in other species during the juvenile period. Our results demonstrate a positive relationship between water levels and juvenile survival. We suggest that this is not a direct linear relationship, such that higher water means higher juvenile survival. The juvenile period is concurrent with onset of the wet season in the ecosystem we studied, and rainfall increases as juveniles age. For management purposes, we believe that inferences suggesting increasing water levels during the fledging period will increase juvenile survival may have short-term benefits but lead to long-term declines in prey abundance and possibly wetland vegetation structure.

  18. Soroepidemiologia da leptospirose canina na região metropolitana de Natal, estado do Rio Grande do Norte

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Annielle Regina da Fonseca Fernandes

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Objetivou-se com este estudo determinar a frequência de cães soropositivos para anticorpos anti-Leptospira spp. no município de Natal e região metropolitana, estado do Rio Grande do Norte, e identificar fatores de risco associados à infecção. Foram examinadas 365 amostras de soro sanguíneo de cães atendidos na rotina de diversas clínicas veterinárias durante o período de março a novembro de 2011. O diagnóstico sorológico da leptospirose foi realizado pela técnica de soroaglutinação microscópica (SAM, utilizando-se 24 sorovares de Leptospira spp. como antígenos. Dos 365 cães, 25 foram soropositivos para pelo menos um dos sorovares de Leptospira spp., com frequência de 6,8%. Os sorovares com reações sorológicas mais frequentes foram Shermani (40%, Sentot (36% e Copenhageni (20%. O perfil epidemiológico da leptospirose canina na região metropolitana de Natal, estado do Rio Grande do Norte, indica que a infecção ocorre com frequência baixa em comparação com outras regiões, provavelmente devido ao grande percentual de animais vacinados, bem como, sugere-se distribuição homogênea de animais soropositivos na região. Por outro lado, a presença de roedores pode ser um importante fator de risco, uma vez que sorovares mantidos por estes animais foram identificados entre os mais frequentes.

  19. Is BMR repeatable in deer mice? Organ mass correlates and the effects of cold acclimation and natal altitude.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russell, G A; Chappell, M A

    2007-01-01

    Basal metabolic rate (BMR) is probably the most studied aspect of energy metabolism in vertebrate endotherms. Numerous papers have explored its mass allometry, phylogenetic and ecological relationships, and ontogeny. Implicit in many of these studies (and explicit in some) is the view that BMR responds to selection, which requires repeatability and heritability. However, BMR is highly plastic in response to numerous behavioral and environmental factors and there are surprisingly few data on its repeatability. Moreover, the mechanistic underpinnings of variation in BMR are unclear, despite considerable research. We studied BMR repeatability in deer mice (Peromyscus maniculatus) across intervals of 30-60 days, and also examined the influence of birth altitude (3,800 m versus 340 m) and temperature acclimation (to approximately 5 or approximately 20 degrees C) on BMR, and the relationship between BMR and organ size. Neither acclimation temperature nor natal altitude alone influenced BMR, but the combination of birth at high altitude and cold acclimation significantly increased BMR. Few visceral organ masses were correlated to BMR and most were inconsistent across natal altitudes and acclimation temperatures, indicating that no single organ 'controls' variation in BMR. In several treatment groups, the mass of the 'running motor' (combined musculoskeletal mass) was negatively correlated to BMR and the summed mass of visceral organs was positively correlated to BMR. We found no repeatability of BMR in any treatment group. That finding-in sharp contrast to high repeatability of BMR in several other small endotherms-suggests little potential for direct selection to drive BMR evolution in deer mice.

  20. Severidade clínica e funcionalidade de pacientes hemiplégicos pós-AVC agudo atendidos nos serviços públicos de fisioterapia de Natal (RN Clinical severity and functionality of acute stroke patients attended at the physiotherapy public services of Natal, Rio Grande do Norte State, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabrícia Azevêdo da Costa

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available O acidente vascular cerebral (AVC representa a terceira causa de morte em vários países do mundo e principal causa de incapacidade física. O objetivo deste estudo foi investigar por meio de uma equipe multidisciplinar a severidade clínica e a independência funcional de pacientes hemiplégicos pós-AVC. Trata-se de estudo descritivo composto por quarenta hemiplégicos atendidos nos quatro maiores serviços públicos de fisioterapia da cidade de Natal (RN. Foram utilizados uma ficha de avaliação, a medida de independência funcional e o NIHSS. A amostra é predominantemente feminina(55%, AVC isquêmico(90%, hemisfério cerebral direito(52,5% e fator de risco hipertensão(90%. A média da severidade clínica é 13,32±4,7 e da independência funcional, 54,6±17,15. Não houve diferença significativa entre as médias funcionais dos pacientes quanto ao lado do AVC (pvalor=0,66. Existiu relação significativa entre severidade clínica e independência funcional (r=-0,45 pvalor=0,003. A severidade clínica e a dependência funcional de pacientes com AVC, ao darem entrada na fisioterapia, são significativas e evidenciam a necessidade de, além do tratamento clássico, serem incentivadas condutas educacionais que visem à conscientização da população.This article investigates the severity and functional independence of hemiplegics patients' post-acute stroke by means of a multidisciplinary clinical staff. It is a descriptive study composed by 40 hemiplegics attended at the four largest physiotherapy public services in Natal, Rio Grande do Norte State. The methods used were an evaluation form, Functional Independence Measure and NIHSS. The results showed a sample predominantly female (55%, stroke ischemic (90%, right brain hemisphere (52.5% and Hypertension Risk Factor (90%. The mean of clinical severity and functional independence was 13.32±4.7 and 54.6±17.15 respectively. There was no significant difference between the mean of

  1. Female Sexual Arousal Disorders

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Giraldi, Annamaria; Rellini, Alessandra H; Pfaus, James

    2012-01-01

    Introduction.  Definitions and terminology for female sexual arousal disorder (FSAD) are currently being debated. While some authors have suggested that FSAD is more a subjective response rather than a genital response, others have suggested that desire and arousal disorders should be combined...... and psychological disorders, as well as to discuss different medical and psychological assessment and treatment modalities. Methods.  The experts of the International Society for Sexual Medicine's Standard Committee convened to provide a survey using relevant databases, journal articles, and own clinical experience....... Results.  Female Arousal Disorders have been defined in several ways with focus on the genital or subjective response or a combination of both. The prevalence varies and increases with increasing age, especially at the time of menopause, while distress decreases with age. Arousal disorders are often...

  2. [Hypertension in females].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cífková, Renata

    2015-05-01

    Hypertension is the most common cardiovascular disorder affecting more males in younger age groups; in the age group of 45-64, it is equally frequent in both genders, it is more common in elderly females. Blood pressure increases more in females around the menopause. Use of hormonal replacement therapy is not associated with an BP increase but, because of increased risk of coronary events, stroke, and thromboembolic events, HRT is not re-commended in CVD prevention. There is a similar decrease in BP by antihypertensive drugs in both genders as well as benefit from antihypertensive treatment. Women report about a double rate of adverse events of antihypertensive drugs. Oral contraception use is associated with a mild BP increase in most women and development of overt hypertension in about 5 %. Pre-eclampsia is associated with increased risk of developing CVD later in life (more frequent development of hypertension, myocardial infarction, and stroke).

  3. female collegiate athletes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    JL Ayers

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Olympic weightlifting movements and their variations are believed to be among the most effective ways to improve power, strength, and speed in athletes. This study investigated the effects of two Olympic weightlifting variations (hang cleans and hang snatches, on power (vertical jump height, strength (1RM back squat, and speed (40-yard sprint in female collegiate athletes. 23 NCAA Division I female athletes were randomly assigned to either a hang clean group or hang snatch group. Athletes participated in two workout sessions a week for six weeks, performing either hang cleans or hang snatches for five sets of three repetitions with a load of 80-85% 1RM, concurrent with their existing, season-specific, resistance training program. Vertical jump height, 1RM back squat, and 40-yard sprint all had a significant, positive improvement from pre-training to post-training in both groups (p≤0.01. However, when comparing the gain scores between groups, there was no significant difference between the hang clean and hang snatch groups for any of the three dependent variables (i.e., vertical jump height, p=0.46; 1RM back squat, p=0.20; and 40-yard sprint, p=0.46. Short-term training emphasizing hang cleans or hang snatches produced similar improvements in power, strength, and speed in female collegiate athletes. This provides strength and conditioning professionals with two viable programmatic options in athletic-based exercises to improve power, strength, and speed.

  4. Superfund Sites

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This layer represents active Superfund Sites published by the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). These data were extracted from the Superfund Enterprise...

  5. Site development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Noack, J.

    1975-01-01

    The subject of this paper is a general view over all necessary considerations to develop the site after it has been chosen and before starting with the construction of a nuclear power plant. (orig./RW) [de

  6. Site selection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Olsen, C.W.

    1983-07-01

    The conditions and criteria for selecting a site for a nuclear weapons test at the Nevada Test Site are summarized. Factors considered are: (1) scheduling of drill rigs, (2) scheduling of site preparation (dirt work, auger hole, surface casing, cementing), (3) schedule of event (when are drill hole data needed), (4) depth range of proposed W.P., (5) geologic structure (faults, Pz contact, etc.), (6) stratigraphy (alluvium, location of Grouse Canyon Tuff, etc.), (7) material properties (particularly montmorillonite and CO 2 content), (8) water table depth, (9) potential drilling problems (caving), (10) adjacent collapse craters and chimneys, (11) adjacent expended but uncollapsed sites, (12) adjacent post-shot or other small diameter holes, (13) adjacent stockpile emplacement holes, (14) adjacent planned events (including LANL), (15) projected needs of Test Program for various DOB's and operational separations, and (16) optimal use of NTS real estate

  7. Discounting and Digit Ratio: Low 2D:4D Predicts Patience for a Sample of Females

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diego Aycinena

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Inter-temporal trade-offs are ubiquitous in human decision making. We study the relationship between preferences over such trade-offs and the ratio of the second digit to that of the forth (2D:4D, a marker for pre-natal exposure to sex hormones. Specifically, we study whether 2D:4D affects discounting. Our sample consists of 419 female participants of a Guatemalan conditional cash transfer program who take part in an experiment. Their choices in the convex time budget (CTB experimental task allow us to make inferences regarding their patience (discounting, while controlling for present-biasedness and preference for smoothing consumption (utility curvature. We find that women with lower digit ratios tend to be more patient.

  8. Avaliação dos dados do cartão de pré-natal e registro da rotina prevista na assistência pré-natal de baixo risco em uma coorte de gestantes em Belo Horizonte

    OpenAIRE

    Juliana Moraes Carrilho

    2014-01-01

    A adequação da atenção pré-natal é relevante para redução das taxas de mortalidade materna e perinatal, sendo fundamental a integração das informações nos diferentes níveis de atenção à gestante. Este estudo teve como objetivo principal avaliar a completude dos dados dos cartões de pré-natal apresentados por uma coorte de gestantes admitidas em dois hospitais universitários de Belo Horizonte, conforme rotina prevista pelo MS e o protocolo da Prefeitura Municipal de Belo Horizonte (PBH), para ...

  9. Androgen excess fetal programming of female reproduction: a developmental aetiology for polycystic ovary syndrome?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abbott, D H; Barnett, D K; Bruns, C M; Dumesic, D A

    2005-01-01

    The aetiology of polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) remains unknown. This familial syndrome is prevalent among reproductive-aged women and its inheritance indicates a dominant regulatory gene with incomplete penetrance. However, promising candidate genes have proven unreliable as markers for the PCOS phenotype. This lack of genetic linkage may represent both extreme heterogeneity of PCOS and difficulty in establishing a universally accepted PCOS diagnosis. Nevertheless, hyperandrogenism is one of the most consistently expressed PCOS traits. Animal models that mimic fetal androgen excess may thus provide unique insight into the origins of the PCOS syndrome. Many female mammals exposed to androgen excess in utero or during early post-natal life typically show masculinized and defeminized behaviour, ovulatory dysfunction and virilized genitalia, although behavioural and ovulatory dysfunction can coexist without virilized genitalia based upon the timing of androgen excess. One animal model shows particular relevance to PCOS: the prenatally androgenized female rhesus monkey. Females exposed to androgen excess early in gestation exhibit hyperandrogenism, oligomenorrhoea and enlarged, polyfollicular ovaries, in addition to LH hypersecretion, impaired embryo development, insulin resistance accompanying abdominal obesity, impaired insulin response to glucose and hyperlipidaemia. Female monkeys exposed to androgen excess late in gestation mimic these programmed changes, except for LH and insulin secretion defects. In utero androgen excess may thus variably perturb multiple organ system programming and thereby provide a single, fetal origin for a heterogeneous adult syndrome.

  10. Are female children more vulnerable to the long-term effects of maternal depression during pregnancy?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quarini, Catherine; Pearson, Rebecca M; Stein, Alan; Ramchandani, Paul G; Lewis, Glyn; Evans, Jonathan

    2016-01-01

    Female fetuses are more vulnerable to high levels of maternal glucocorticoids. We examined whether exposure to prenatal maternal depression, a condition associated with high glucocorticoids, carries greater risk for depression at 12 and 18 years in girls. Our sample comprised 7959 mothers and children from the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children following imputation for missing data. Maternal depression was assessed pre-and post-natally, and offspring depression at ages 12 and 18. We used logistic regression models to examine the relationship between exposure to prenatal and postnatal depression and offspring depression at 18 and 12 and interactions with gender. There was an interaction between prenatal depression and gender (P=0.027) and between postnatal depression and gender (P=0.027) for offspring depression at 18. Following adjustment in pre-natally depressed mothers, the odds ratio for offspring depression at 18 was 1.55 (95% c.i. 1.03-2.34) for girls and 0.54 (0.23-1.26) for boys. In post-natally depressed mothers, the odds ratio for offspring depression at 18 was 1.15 (0.70-1.89) in girls and 3.13 (1.52-6.45) in boys. However there was no evidence for interaction between prenatal or postnatal depression and gender (P=0.559 and 0.780 respectively) for offspring depression at 12. As expected with this large cohort spanning over 18 years, there was loss-to-follow-up. This is the first evidence in humans that increased vulnerability of female fetuses to maternal stress responses during pregnancy persists into adolescence. One explanation for gender differences emerging later is more depressive symptomatology is attributed to heritable risk at 12, whereas biological processes involved in brain development at 18 may be influenced by foetal programming. If replicated, this study has potential to help understand intergenerational transmission of depression, a leading cause of morbidity worldwide. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B

  11. Endoscopy services in KwaZulu-Natal Province, South Africa, are ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    There were 0.06 registered gastroenterologists (GEs) per 100 000 population. Each endoscopist performed an average of 263 endoscopies per annum. There were 1.18 endoscopy rooms available per unit, and two units had on-site fluoroscopy available. The average waiting period for an upper endoscopy was 27 (range 7 ...

  12. Who died of what in rural KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa: a cause of death analysis using InterVA-4

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joël Mossong

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: For public health purposes, it is important to see whether men and women in different age groups die of the same causes in South Africa. Objective: We explored sex- and age-specific patterns of causes of deaths in a rural demographic surveillance site in northern KwaZulu-Natal in South Africa over the period 2000–2011. Design: Deaths reported through the demographic surveillance were followed up by a verbal autopsy (VA interview using a standardised questionnaire. Causes of death were assigned likelihoods using the publicly available tool InterVA-4. Cause-specific mortality fractions were determined by age and sex. Results: Over the study period, a total of 5,416 (47% and 6,081 (53% deaths were recorded in men and women, respectively. Major causes of death proportionally affecting more women than men were (all p<0.0001: human immunodeficiency virus/acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (HIV/AIDS (20.1% vs. 13.6%, other and unspecified cardiac disease (5.9% vs. 3.2%, stroke (4.5% vs. 2.7%, reproductive neoplasms (1.7% vs. 0.4%, diabetes (2.4% vs. 1.2%, and breast neoplasms (0.4% vs. 0%. Major causes of deaths proportionally affecting more men than women were (all p<0.0001 assault (6.1% vs. 1.7%, pulmonary tuberculosis (34.5% vs. 30.2%, road traffic accidents (3.0% vs. 1.0%, intentional self-harm (1.3% vs. 0.3%, and respiratory neoplasms (2.5% vs. 1.5%. Causes of death due to communicable diseases predominated in all age groups except in older persons. Conclusions: While mortality during the 2000s was dominated by tuberculosis and HIV/AIDS, we found substantial sex-specific differences both for communicable and non-communicable causes of death, some which can be explained by a differing sex-specific age structure. InterVA-4 is likely to be a valuable tool for investigating causes of death patterns in other similar Southern African settings.

  13. Female Athletes Facing Discrimination: Curriculum Regarding Female Athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palis, Regina

    There continues to be oppression among female athletes, even after the enactment of Title IX in 1972. Female athletes in secondary schools deal with low self-esteem, eating disorders such as anorexia and bulimia, and depression. Female athletes struggle with societal pressures to maintain a model-like figure, while trying to train and perform for…

  14. Baixo peso ao nascer e condições maternas no pré-natal Bajo peso al nacer y condiciones maternas en el período prenatal Low birth weight and maternal conditions in pre-natal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Áurea Tamami Minagawa

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Para verificar como o peso ao nascer se relaciona às condições maternas de trabalho, pré-natal, nutricionais (altura, peso inicial, final e ganho na gestação e sócio-econômico-demográficas (idade, situação conjugal, escolaridade, renda familiar, o presente estudo foi realizado na área de abrangência do Hospital Universitário da Universidade de São Paulo e a amostra foi constituída por 101 crianças. A ocorrência de baixo peso ao nascer (BPN foi de 5,1% e não se associou com o trabalho materno, nem com o pré-natal, porém mostrou associação significativa com as seguintes variáveis maternas: ganho de peso na gestação inferior a 7 kg, idade menor que 20 anos e não ter companheiro. Apesar da baixa ocorrência de BPN, os resultados evidenciaram a importância do pré-natal para reduzir a ocorrência de BPN, especialmente por meio do controle do ganho de peso na gestação, controle da gestação na adolescência e também priorizando a atenção das mulheres sem companheiro.El presente estudio realizado en la jurisdicción del Hospital Universitario de la Universidad de Sao Paulo tuvo como objetivo verificar cómo el peso al nacer se relaciona a las condiciones maternas de trabajo, el período prenatal, nutricionales (altura, peso inicial, final y ganancia en la gestación y socio-económico-demográficas (edad, situación conyugal, escolaridad, ingreso familiar. La muestra estuvo constituida por 101 niños. La ocurrencia de bajo peso al nacer (BPN fue del 5,1% y no se asoció con el trabajo materno, ni con el prenatal, sin embargo mostró asociación significativa con las siguientes variables maternas: ganancia de peso en la gestación inferior a 7 kg, edad menor a 20 años y no tener compañero. A pesar de la baja ocurrencia de BPN, los resultados evidenciaron la importancia del control prenatal para reducir la ocurrencia de BPN, especialmente por medio del control de ganancia de peso en la gestación, control de la gestaci

  15. Site development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gaynor, R.K.

    1989-01-01

    Development of a low-level radioactive waste land disposal facility is little different than any industrial development of similar scope. Consideration must be made for normal business and operations management, security, facility maintenance, traffic control and necessary amenities for personnel. The item specific to the low-level waste site is the handling of radioactive waste materials and the regulatory and environmental protection procedures that must be planned for and accomodated in the site design and development. Each of these elements and the facility as a whole must be designed to be compatible with local land use plans, available transportation and support services, and the social and economic goals of the local community. Plans should also be made for quality control and orderly construction. This chapter deals with those aspects of the facility, its design and construction which are integral parts to the overall performance of the site

  16. Site Practice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wahedi, Haseebullah

    2016-01-01

    different practices in the construction phase. The research is based on an ethnographic study of a case in Denmark. The empirical data were collected through direct observations and semi-structured interviews with site managers, contract managers, foremen and craftsmen. Findings revealed...... that the construction phase comprises several communities and practices, leading to various uses of the drawings. The results indicated that the craftsmen used drawings to position themselves in the correct location, and that the site managers and contract managers used them as management tools and legal documents...

  17. Patterns of injury in penetrating sharp trauma in a Provincial KwaZulu-Natal Hospital

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew Lockyer

    2013-06-01

    Discussion: Most patients suffered multiple wounds over multiple sites but these did not frequently require admission to hospital and caused no deaths. As long as clinicians remain vigilant for more severe injuries, these patients can generally be treated in low resourced environments. The majority of patients were discharged directly from the Emergency Centre making it the best place for these people to receive health education to prevent further injuries.

  18. Patterns of injury in penetrating sharp trauma in a Provincial KwaZulu-Natal Hospital

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Lockyer*

    2013-12-01

    Discussion: Most patients suffered multiple wounds over multiple sites but these did not frequently require admission to hospital and caused no deaths. As long as clinicians remain vigilant for more severe injuries, these patients can generally be treated in low resourced environments. The majority of patients were discharged directly from the Emergency Centre making it the best place for these people to receive health education to prevent further injuries.

  19. Saúde da família: mudando práticas? Estudo de caso no município de Natal (RN Family health: changing practices? A case study in the city of Natal (RN, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marize Barros de Souza Araújo

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho, representa um estudo de caso qualitativo, cuja unidade de análise é a equipe de Saúde do Programa Saúde da Família do município de Natal (RN. Tem como objetivos analisar as concepções dos profissionais sobre a prática do trabalho em equipe e reconhecer nessas práticas elementos que contribuam para a efetiva mudança do modelo de saúde hegemônico. Partiu-se da definição e tipologia de equipe de saúde elaborada por Peduzzi (1998, como principal fundamentação teórica. O estudo foi realizado em seis unidades de saúde da família, nos distritos sanitários Norte e Oeste. Esses serviços foram selecionados de acordo com critérios preestabelecidos. Foi utilizada como método para coleta dos dados empíricos a entrevista semi-estruturada com as equipes de saúde da família. Para análise do material empírico, utilizou-se o discurso do sujeito coletivo proposto por Lefèvre e Lefèvre (2003. Os resultados apontam para um predomínio da equipe do tipo integração. O trabalho em equipe surge como elemento essencial para o desenvolvimento da Estratégia de Saúde da Família.This article presents a qualitative case study where the unit of analysis was the Family Health Program team of Natal city, Rio Grande do Norte State, Brazil. The objectives were to analyze the conceptualizations of the professionals regarding teamwork as well as to identify in these practices the elements that contribute to an effective change in the hegemonic health model. The study was based on the Peduzzi (1998 typology and definition of health team and was conducted in six family health units in the North and East health districts selected by a pre-established criteria. Data were collected using a semi-structured interview applied in family health teams, which were analyzed using the Collective Subject Discourse proposed by Lefèvre and Lefèvre (2003. The results indicate a predominance of an integrated team type, and also that teamwork is an

  20. Prevalência de hemoglobinas anormais em recém-nascidos da cidade de Natal, Rio Grande do Norte, Brasil Prevalence of abnormal hemoglobins in newborns in Natal, Rio Grande do Norte, Brazil

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    Maria Cristina Pignataro Emerenciano de Araújo

    2004-02-01

    Full Text Available As hemoglobinopatias estão incluídas dentre as doenças hereditárias mais freqüentes nas populações humanas. Estudos realizados em diferentes regiões do Brasil têm demonstrado que as hemoglobinas anormais S e C são as mais prevalentes. Com o objetivo de investigar a prevalência de hemoglobinas anormais no período neonatal, foram analisadas 1.940 amostras de sangue de cordão umbilical provenientes de recém-nascidos de três maternidades da cidade de Natal, Rio Grande do Norte. Todas as amostras foram submetidas à eletroforese de hemoglobina em acetato de celulose utilizando tampão Tris-EDTA-Borato pH 8,5. As amostras que apresentaram hemoglobinas anormais foram submetidas à eletroforese em gel de ágar pH 6,2 para confirmação. Foram identificadas 37 (1,91% amostras com hemoglobinas anormais, das quais 29 (1,50% com traço falciforme (Hb FAS, 06 (0,31 % com Hb C, uma (0,05 % com anemia falciforme (Hb FS e uma (0,05 % apresentou Hb Bart's, sugerindo alfa talassemia. Os resultados encontrados evidenciam a necessidade de implantação da triagem de hemoglobinopatias em recém-nascidos na nossa população.Hemoglobinopathies are among the most prevalent hereditary diseases in humans. Studies in different areas of Brazil have identified the prevalence of S and C abnormal hemoglobins. The study analyzed 1,940 cord blood samples of newborns from maternity hospitals in Natal, Rio Grande do Norte State, to investigate the prevalence of abnormal hemoglobins. All samples were submitted to cellulose acetate electrophoresis using a Tris-EDTA-borate buffer at pH 8.5. Electrophoresis in agar gel pH 6.2 was performed on samples presenting abnormal hemoglobin. Some 37 (1.91% of the newborns presented hemoglobinopathies, as follows: 29 (1.50% sickle cell trait (Hb FAS, 6 (0.31% heterozygous Hb C (Hb FAC, one (0.05% homozygous Hb S (Hb FS, and one (0.05% Hb Barts suggestive of alpha thalassemia. The results show the need to implement screening for

  1. Site selection

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN PhotoLab

    1968-01-01

    To help resolve the problem of site selection for the proposed 300 GeV machine, the Council selected "three wise men" (left to right, J H Bannier of the Netherlands, A Chavanne of Switzerland and L K Boggild of Denmark).

  2. Site Restoration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Noynaert, L.; Bruggeman, A.; Cornelissen, R.; Massaut, V.; Rahier, A

    2001-04-01

    The objectives, the programme, and the achievements of the Site Restoration Department of SCK-CEN in 2000 are summarised. Main activities include the decommissioning of the BR3 PWR-reactor as well as other clean-up activities, projects on waste minimisation and activities related to the management of decommissioning projects. The department provides consultancy and services to external organisations.

  3. Site Restoration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Noynaert, L.; Bruggeman, A.; Cornelissen, R.; Massaut, V.; Rahier, A.

    2001-01-01

    The objectives, the programme, and the achievements of the Site Restoration Department of SCK-CEN in 2000 are summarised. Main activities include the decommissioning of the BR3 PWR-reactor as well as other clean-up activities, projects on waste minimisation and activities related to the management of decommissioning projects. The department provides consultancy and services to external organisations

  4. Assessment of the therapeutic efficacy of artemether-lumefantrine in the treatment of uncomplicated Plasmodium falciparum malaria in northern KwaZulu-Natal: an observational cohort study

    OpenAIRE

    Vaughan-Williams Charles H; Raman Jaishree; Raswiswi Eric; Immelman Etienne; Reichel Holger; Gate Kelly; Knight Steve

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Background Recent malaria epidemics in KwaZulu-Natal indicate that effective anti-malarial therapy is essential for malaria control. Although artemether-lumefantrine has been used as first-line treatment for uncomplicated Plasmodium falciparum malaria in northern KwaZulu-Natal since 2001, its efficacy has not been assessed since 2002. The objectives of this study were to quantify the proportion of patients treated for uncomplicated P. falciparum malaria with artemether-lumefantrine w...

  5. IVF culture medium affects post-natal weight in humans during the first 2 years of life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kleijkers, Sander H M; van Montfoort, Aafke P A; Smits, Luc J M; Viechtbauer, Wolfgang; Roseboom, Tessa J; Nelissen, Ewka C M; Coonen, Edith; Derhaag, Josien G; Bastings, Lobke; Schreurs, Inge E L; Evers, Johannes L H; Dumoulin, John C M

    2014-04-01

    Is post-natal growth during the first 2 years of life in IVF singletons affected by type of medium used for culturing human embryos during an IVF treatment? The in vitro culture of human embryos in medium from Cook resulted in singletons with a lower weight during the first 2 years of life compared with singletons born after embryo culture in medium from Vitrolife. In a previous study, we reported that type of medium used for culturing human IVF embryos during the first few days after fertilization until fresh embryo transfer significantly affects fetal growth and consequently birthweight of the resulting singletons. From July 2003 to December 2006, a total of 1432 IVF treatment cycles with fresh embryo transfer were randomly allocated to have all embryos cultured in medium from Vitrolife AB (n = 715) or from Cook (n = 717). Two years after delivery, questionnaires were sent to the parents of all children requesting data about weight, height and head circumference around 1, 2, 3, 4, 6, 7.5, 9, 11, 14, 18 and 24 months of age. These measurements were collected as part of the children's health programme at municipal infant welfare centres in the Netherlands by health professionals unaware of this study. Patients requiring donor oocytes or applying for PGD were excluded from the study. From the 294 live born singletons that fulfilled our inclusion criteria, 29 were lost to follow-up. The remaining 265 singletons (Cook group: 117, Vitrolife group: 148) were included in the analysis. Data analysis included linear regression, to compare cross-sectionally weight standard deviation score (SDS), height SDS and head circumference, and the first order Berkey-Reed model for a longitudinal analysis of the growth data. Singletons in the Vitrolife group were heavier during the first 2 years of life compared with singletons in the Cook group. Cross-sectional analyses showed that adjusted weight SDS differed between groups at 1 (0.35 ± 0.14, P = 0.010), 2 (0.39 ± 0.14, P = 0

  6. Differences in Mating Propensity Between Immature Female Color Morphs in the Damselfly Ischnura elegans (Insecta : Odonata)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hammers, Martijn; Ana Sanchez-Guillen, Rosa; Van Gossum, Hans

    Female-limited color polymorphisms occur in a variety of animal taxa where excessive male sexual harassment may explain the coexistence of multiple female color morphs. In the color polymorphic damselfly Ischnura elegans, mature and immature female color morphs coexist at the mating site where males

  7. LAS OSCILACIONES CLIMÁTICAS EN LA ATMOSFERA URBANA DE LA CIUDAD DE NATAL, BRASIL ATRAVÉS DE LAS SERIES LARGAS DE TEMPERATURAS DEL AIRE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Malco Jeiel de Oliveira Alexandre

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Este estudio tiene como objetivo el análisis de la isla de calor urbana (ICU y de la isla de frescor urbana (IFU en la ciudad de Natal (Brasil, mediante la comparación de las series largas de temperatura del aire máximas y mínimas diarias en dos estaciones meteorológicas convencionales representativas una en la área urbana y la otra en el entorno, durante el quinquenio 1995-2010. Los resultados muestran la presencia de de oscilaciones térmicas a partir del contraste entre las temperaturas del área urbana y su entorno y la caracterización de las islas de calor y frescor urbano en la ciudad de Natal.

  8. Análise do acolhimento com as gestantes na atenção pré-natal em Crato-Ceará

    OpenAIRE

    Santana, Maria Do Socorro de Oliveira

    2011-01-01

    Este estudo teve o objetivo de analisar o acolhimento no cuidado à gestante, no contexto da estratégia de saúde da família, no município do Crato (CE). Estudo descritivo, seccional de abordagem quantitativa. Os dados foram coletados através de um questionário padronizado aplicado a 191 gestantes após a consulta pré-natal, entre os meses de março a julho de 2011. A adequação do acesso à assistência pré-natal foi analisada pelo indicador de processo do Ministério da Saúde e para a análise da ad...

  9. Nutritional composition of commonly consumed composite dishes from rural villages in Empangeni, KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spearing, K; Kolahdooz, F; Lukasewich, M; Mathe, N; Khamis, T; Sharma, S

    2013-06-01

    Accurate nutrient composition data for composite dishes unique to a population is essential for the development of a nutrient database and the calculation of dietary intake. The present study aimed to provide the nutritional composition of composite dishes frequently consumed in rural KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa. Commonly consumed composite dishes were identified using 24-h recalls collected from 79 randomly selected community members. Multiple recipes were collected for each reported dish. The mean nutritional composition of each dish was calculated per 100 g using the nutribase clinical nutrition manager (Cybersoft Inc., Phoenix, AZ, USA). A total of 79 recipes were collected for 16 commonly consumed dishes (seven meat-based, five starch-based and four legume/vegetable-based). 'Fried chicken' contained the most energy [1469 kJ (351 kcal)], protein (29.7 g), fat (23.7 g), cholesterol (123 mg) and niacin (8.4 mg). 'Fried beef' contained the most potassium (495 mg) and zinc (6.4 mg), whereas 'fish stew' had the most vitamin D (4.2 μg) and calcium (215 mg). 'Fried cabbage' and 'fried spinach' contained the largest percent energies from fat, at 79% and 76%, respectively. A traditional sweet bread, 'jeqe', made with fortified flour contributed significantly to iron (4.6 mg), niacin (4.5 μg) and folate (129 μg). The sodium content of dishes ranged from 88 to 679 mg per 100 g. The nutritional composition data for commonly consumed dishes in rural KwaZulu-Natal is presented. Although the dishes are good sources of protein, vitamins and minerals, they also contain substantial amounts of fat. This culturally appropriate information will enable the calculation of dietary intake and can be used to encourage the consumption of recipes rich in key nutrients. © 2012 The Authors Journal of Human Nutrition and Dietetics © 2012 The British Dietetic Association Ltd.

  10. SATISFAÇÃO E MOTIVAÇÃO DOS FUNCIONÁRIOS NO IFRN – CAMPUS NATAL CENTRAL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marli de Fátima Ferraz da Silva Tacconi

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho é identificar os aspectos da satisfação e motivação dos funcionários técnicos administrativos do IFRN Campus Natal Central. Pois se considerando a importância social do setor publico no país, deve-se promover estudos que visem avaliar os aspectos motivacionais que reforçem a satisfação do funcionário, visto que a qualidade no atendimento ao público externo tende a estar ligado à satisfação desse publico para com a organização. Dessa forma, foi realizado um estudo de caráter exploratório e descritivo, do tipo estudo de caso e abordagem quantitativa. A população desta pesquisa foi formada pelos servidores técnico-administrativos do IFRN Campus Natal-Central, no qual se coletaram 136 questionários, atendendo ao critério de amostra probabilística. Os resultados apresentaram que as pessoas se sentem fortemente motivadas, evidenciando que a maioria deve gostar do trabalho que desenvolve. Esse mesmo resultado se confirma no nível de satisfação com o trabalho Isso demostra que a maioria dos servidores trabalham com o que gostam, promovendo uma forte relação e sentindo-se satisfeitos como o seu trabalho. A analise de Cluster demonstrou que pode ser possível diferenciar dois agrupamentos, que apresentam nível de satisfação e motivação diferenciados. Conclui-se que os funcionários menos motivados são os que possuem mais tempo de serviço e que percebem o seu trabalho com menor nível de importância. Essa informação sugere uma urgência em destacar a importância do sentido do trabalho para esses profissionais.

  11. The adaptive capacity of smallholder mixed-farming systems to the impact of climate change: The case of KwaZulu-Natal in South Africa

    OpenAIRE

    Nonhlanzeko N. Mthembu; Elliot M. Zwane

    2017-01-01

    Climate change poses a serious threat to efforts by developing countries to ensure food security and poverty reduction. The National Development goals of South Africa envisage the agricultural sector as a key driver for job creation and economic growth. This article seeks to investigate the adaptive capacity of the Ncunjane farming community in Msinga, KwaZulu-Natal in response to drought spells of 2010 and 2014. This article draws on data collected using both qualitative and quantitative met...

  12. The effects of pre-natal-, early-life- and indirectly-initiated exposures to maximum adversities on the course of schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levine, Stephen Z; Levav, Itzhak; Yoffe, Rinat; Pugachova, Inna

    2014-09-01

    The effects of pre-natal-, early-life- and indirectly-initiated exposures to protracted maximum adversity on the course of schizophrenia are unknown. To compare the aforementioned Holocaust directly exposed subgroups with an indirectly exposed subgroup on the course of schizophrenia. The study population were: Israeli Jews in-uterus or born in Nazi-occupied or dominated European nations by the end of the persecution of the Jews, who were alive in 1950, and who had a last discharge diagnosis of schizophrenia in the Israel National Psychiatric Case Registry by 2013 (N=4933). The population was disaggregated into subgroups who (1) migrated after WWII and who had (1a) pre-natal (n=584, 11.8%) and (1b) early-life (n=3709, 75.2%) initiated exposures to the maximum adversities of the Holocaust, and (2) indirectly exposed individuals to the Holocaust who migrated before the Nazi-era persecution begun (n=640, 13%). Recurrent event survival analyses were computed to examine the psychiatric re-hospitalization risk of the study subgroups, unadjusted and adjusted for age of onset of the disorder and sex. The pre-natal initiated exposure subgroup had a significantly (pPoland-born individuals, the years 1922 and 1935; and followed at least 10 years and to the year 2000. Pre-natal initiated exposure to the maximal adversity of the holocaust constitutes a consistent risk factor for a worse course of schizophrenia, a possible byproduct of neurodevelopment disruptions induced by maternal stress and/or famine and/or infections. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Auditoria médica: programa de pré-natal em posto de saúde na região Sul do Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juvenal Soares Dias-da-Costa

    2000-08-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Descreve-se a auditoria médica realizada entre as mulheres que se inscreveram em programa de pré-natal com o objetivo de verificar as características da assistência à gestação e de estabelecer diretrizes de atenção. MÉTODOS: Realizou-se levantamento epidemiológico dos cartões das gestantes inscritas no Programa de Pré-natal do Posto de Saúde da Vila Municipal, Pelotas, RS, com data provável de parto durante 1997 e no primeiro semestre de 1998. Foram incluídas as mulheres ingressadas no Programa até o quarto mês de gestação e que tiveram cinco consultas no mínimo. Foi utilizada a análise bivariada para detectar as condições marcadoras da assistência médica. RESULTADOS: Em 1997, 73 mulheres se inscreveram no Programa de Pré-natal e, em 1998, 75. A média de consultas durante o pré-natal foi de 5,2 em 1997 e 6,2 em 1998. Essa diferença foi significativa (p<0,05. Analisaram-se diversos indicadores de processo médico que traduzem a qualidade da atenção. CONCLUSÃO: Discutiu-se a utilidade do instrumental epidemiológico na organização de um serviço de saúde. Ressaltou-se que esse tipo de estudo é rápido, barato e fornece informações para o direcionamento das atividades dos serviços.

  14. Auditoria médica: programa de pré-natal em posto de saúde na região Sul do Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dias-da-Costa Juvenal Soares

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Descreve-se a auditoria médica realizada entre as mulheres que se inscreveram em programa de pré-natal com o objetivo de verificar as características da assistência à gestação e de estabelecer diretrizes de atenção. MÉTODOS: Realizou-se levantamento epidemiológico dos cartões das gestantes inscritas no Programa de Pré-natal do Posto de Saúde da Vila Municipal, Pelotas, RS, com data provável de parto durante 1997 e no primeiro semestre de 1998. Foram incluídas as mulheres ingressadas no Programa até o quarto mês de gestação e que tiveram cinco consultas no mínimo. Foi utilizada a análise bivariada para detectar as condições marcadoras da assistência médica. RESULTADOS: Em 1997, 73 mulheres se inscreveram no Programa de Pré-natal e, em 1998, 75. A média de consultas durante o pré-natal foi de 5,2 em 1997 e 6,2 em 1998. Essa diferença foi significativa (p<0,05. Analisaram-se diversos indicadores de processo médico que traduzem a qualidade da atenção. CONCLUSÃO: Discutiu-se a utilidade do instrumental epidemiológico na organização de um serviço de saúde. Ressaltou-se que esse tipo de estudo é rápido, barato e fornece informações para o direcionamento das atividades dos serviços.

  15. A description of village chicken production systems and prevalence of gastrointestinal parasites: Case studies in Limpopo and KwaZulu-Natal provinces of South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dikeledi P. Malatji

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The majority of rural households in developing countries own village chickens that are reared under traditional scavenging systems with few inputs and exposure to various parasitic infestations. Understanding of the village chicken farming system and its influence on helminth infestation is a prerequisite for optimal prevention and control strategies. This study investigated the village chicken production system and associated gastrointestinal parasites in 87 households from Limpopo (n = 39 and KwaZulu-Natal (n = 48 provinces of South Africa. A total of 191 village chicken faecal samples and 145 intestines were collected to determine the prevalence of gastrointestinal parasites in villages of Limpopo and KwaZulu-Natal provinces, respectively. The faecal floatation analysis of samples from Limpopo and KwaZulu-Natal provinces indicated infestations by Ascaridia galli (18.77%, Heterakis gallinarum (15.56% and Capillaria spp. (4.00%; tapeworms Choanotaenia infundibulum (2.10% and Raillietina cesticillus (6.00% and Eimeria spp. (29.46%. Mixed infestations were observed in five (4.90% samples from Limpopo province and in only four (4.49% from KwaZulu-Natal province, of which 1.12% were a mixture of C. infundibulum and Eimeria spp. and 3.37% a combination of H. gallinarum and Eimeria spp. In Limpopo, 2.94% of the chickens were positive for H. gallinarum and Eimeria spp., whilst 0.98% had A. galli and Capillaria spp. infestations. Further investigation is needed to understand the impact of gastrointestinal parasites on village chicken health and production and develop appropriate intervention and control strategies feasible for smallholder farmers. Keywords: Helminthes; Village chickens; Smallholder farming systems; Faecal samples

  16. Possible causes of poverty within a group of land reform beneficiaries in the midlands of KwaZulu-Natal: Analysis and policy recommendations

    OpenAIRE

    Shinns, L.H.; Lyne, Michael C.

    2005-01-01

    This study investigates possible causes of poverty afflicting a community of land reform beneficiaries in the Midlands of KwaZulu-Natal. The 38 beneficiary households had previously been clustered into four groups displaying different symptoms of poverty. Linear Discriminant Analysis was used first to distinguish households that were relatively income and asset "rich" from those that were relatively income and asset "poor", and second to distinguish households that were relatively income poor...

  17. South Africa: Durban’s ante-natal clinic environment and its impact on a woman’s choice to test for HIV during pregnancy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Groves, Allison K.; Eyakuze, Cynthia

    2015-01-01

    Informed consent, counselling and confidentiality are key tenets of a human rights approach to HIV testing. In this article, based on an oral poster presentation at AIDS 2010, Allison K. Groves and Cynthia Eyakuze discuss the results of a study on HIV testing of women in ante-natal clinics in Durban, South Africa and how communication about testing may undermine the practice of obtaining informed consent. PMID:21413627

  18. Evaluating quality management systems for HIV rapid testing services in primary healthcare clinics in rural KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa

    OpenAIRE

    Jaya, Ziningi; Drain, Paul K.; Mashamba-Thompson, Tivani P.

    2017-01-01

    Introduction Rapid HIV tests have improved access to HIV diagnosis and treatment by providing quick and convenient testing in rural clinics and resource-limited settings. In this study, we evaluated the quality management system for voluntary and provider-initiated point-of-care HIV testing in primary healthcare (PHC) clinics in rural KwaZulu-Natal (KZN), South Africa. Material and methods We conducted a quality assessment audit in eleven PHC clinics that offer voluntary HIV testing and couns...

  19. Trends in HIV & syphilis prevalence and correlates of HIV infection: results from cross-sectional surveys among women attending ante-natal clinics in Northern Tanzania

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    Kumogola Yusufu

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Sentinel surveillance for HIV in ante-natal clinics (ANC remains the primary method for collecting timely trend data on HIV prevalence in most of sub-Saharan Africa. We describe prevalence of HIV and syphilis infection and trends over time in HIV prevalence among women attending ante-natal clinics (ANC in Magu district and Mwanza city, part of Mwanza region in Northern Tanzania. HIV prevalence from ANC surveys in 2000 and 2002 was 10.5% and 10.8% respectively. In previous rounds urban residence, residential mobility, the length of time sexually active before marriage, time since marriage and age of the partner were associated with HIV infection. Methods A third round of HIV sentinel surveillance was conducted at ante-natal clinics in Mwanza region, Tanzania during 2006. We interviewed women attending 27 ante-natal clinics. In 15 clinics we also anonymously tested women for syphilis and HIV infection and linked these results to the questionnaire data. Results HIV prevalence was 7.6% overall in 2006 and 7.4% at the 11 clinics used in previous rounds. Geographical variations in HIV prevalence, apparent in previous rounds, have largely disappeared but syphilis prevalence is still higher in rural clinics. HIV prevalence has declined in urban clinics and is stable in rural clinics. The correlates of HIV infection have changed over time. In this round older age, lower gravidity, remarriage, duration of marriage, sexual activity before marriage, long interval between last birth and pregnancy and child death were all associated with infection. Conclusions HIV prevalence trends concur with results from a community-based cohort in the region. Correlates of HIV infection have also changed and more proximate, individual level factors are now more important, in line with the changing epidemiology of infection in this population.

  20. Regional climate on the breeding grounds predicts variation in the natal origin of monarch butterflies overwintering in Mexico over 38 years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flockhart, D T Tyler; Brower, Lincoln P; Ramirez, M Isabel; Hobson, Keith A; Wassenaar, Leonard I; Altizer, Sonia; Norris, D Ryan

    2017-07-01

    Addressing population declines of migratory insects requires linking populations across different portions of the annual cycle and understanding the effects of variation in weather and climate on productivity, recruitment, and patterns of long-distance movement. We used stable H and C isotopes and geospatial modeling to estimate the natal origin of monarch butterflies (Danaus plexippus) in eastern North America using over 1000 monarchs collected over almost four decades at Mexican overwintering colonies. Multinomial regression was used to ascertain which climate-related factors best-predicted temporal variation in natal origin across six breeding regions. The region producing the largest proportion of overwintering monarchs was the US Midwest (mean annual proportion = 0.38; 95% CI: 0.36-0.41) followed by the north-central (0.17; 0.14-0.18), northeast (0.15; 0.11-0.16), northwest (0.12; 0.12-0.16), southwest (0.11; 0.08-0.12), and southeast (0.08; 0.07-0.11) regions. There was no evidence of directional shifts in the relative contributions of different natal regions over time, which suggests these regions are comprising the same relative proportion of the overwintering population in recent years as in the mid-1970s. Instead, interannual variation in the proportion of monarchs from each region covaried with climate, as measured by the Southern Oscillation Index and regional-specific daily maximum temperature and precipitation, which together likely dictate larval development rates and food plant condition. Our results provide the first robust long-term analysis of predictors of the natal origins of monarchs overwintering in Mexico. Conservation efforts on the breeding grounds focused on the Midwest region will likely have the greatest benefit to eastern North American migratory monarchs, but the population will likely remain sensitive to regional and stochastic weather patterns. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  1. O programa de assistência pré-natal nos Cuidados de Saúde Primários em Portugal – uma reflexão

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    Maria de Fátima da Silva Vieira Martins

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available A melhoria da qualidade dos cuidados prestados à grávida e ao recém-nascido é uma das áreas de intervenção prioritária do Plano Nacional de Saúde. Embora se reconheça que as medidas introduzidas nos últimos anos têm contribuído para diminuir os valores da mortalidade materna e perinatal, é necessário referir, também, que continuam a ocorrer gravidezes não planeadas que, não raras vezes, resultam do início tardio, ou mesmo da ausência, da assistência pré-natal. Neste artigo, procuramos refletir sobre a assistência pré-natal no contexto de saúde reprodutiva, de forma a constituir um contributo para os enfermeiros que prestam uma assistência integral e humanizada às grávidas e às suas famílias. Concluímos que a assistência pré-natal engloba um conjunto de cuidados específicos dirigidos a um grupo vulnerável, constituindo uma área muito importante na avaliação dos cuidados de saúde primários.

  2. Long-Term Supplementation with Beta Serum Concentrate (BSC, a Complex of Milk Lipids, during Post-Natal Brain Development Improves Memory in Rats

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    Jian Guan

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available We have previously reported that the supplementation of ganglioside-enriched complex-milk-lipids improves cognitive function and that a phospholipid-enriched complex-milk-lipid prevents age-related cognitive decline in rats. This current study evaluated the effects of post-natal supplementation of ganglioside- and phospholipid-enriched complex-milk-lipids beta serum concentrate (BSC on cognitive function in young rats. The diet of male rats was supplemented with either gels formulated BSC (n = 16 or blank gels (n = 16 from post-natal day 10 to day 70. Memory and anxiety-like behaviors were evaluated using the Morris water maze, dark–light boxes, and elevated plus maze tests. Neuroplasticity and white matter were measured using immunohistochemical staining. The overall performance in seven-day acquisition trials was similar between the groups. Compared with the control group, BSC supplementation reduced the latency to the platform during day one of the acquisition tests. Supplementation improved memory by showing reduced latency and improved path efficiency to the platform quadrant, and smaller initial heading error from the platform zone. Supplemented rats showed an increase in striatal dopamine terminals and hippocampal glutamate receptors. Thus BSC supplementation during post-natal brain development improved learning and memory, independent from anxiety. The moderately enhanced neuroplasticity in dopamine and glutamate may be biological changes underlying the improved cognitive function.

  3. Gestação e HIV: Preditores da Adesão ao Tratamento no Contexto do Pré-natal

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    Evelise Rigoni Faria

    Full Text Available Este estudo avaliou adesão ao tratamento em gestantes vivendo com HIV. Foram entrevistadas 89 gestantes com HIV, no último trimestre gestacional, que forneceram informações sobre dados sociodemográficos, apoio social, pré-natal e tratamento, além de exames laboratoriais. Constatou-se que 51,7% das gestantes aderiam à medicação. Essas gestantes eram mais escolarizadas, começaram o pré-natal antes, realizaram mais consultas e referiram maior apoio emocional. No modelo de regressão logística, o número de consultas realizadas e a presença de maior apoio emocional foram preditores da adesão. Adesão em gestantes vivendo com HIV ainda é um desafio, mesmo quando há acesso e disponibilidade de tratamento. Início precoce do pré-natal e fortalecimento da rede de apoio social são cruciais para a promoção da adesão em gestantes.

  4. "Flashes" de como as gestantes percebem a assistência pré-natal em um hospital universitário "Flashes" de cómo las embarazadas perciben la asistencia pre-natal en un hospital universitario Flashes of how pregnants perceive pre-natal care in a university hospital

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    Sonia Silva Marcon

    1997-10-01

    Full Text Available Este artigo foi extraído de um estudo desenvolvido com o objetivo de compreender e caracterizar a assistência pré-natal prestada à gestante no ambulatório de um hospital universitário (MARCON, 1990. Trata-se de um estudo qualitativo que adotou como linha metodológica básica a etnografia, mais especificamente a minietnografia, e como método de coleta de dados a observação-participante. Os resultados demonstraram que, ao se relacionarem com profissionais de saúde, as gestantes filtram informações ao mesmo tempo em que se apresentam como clientes não-participativas, uma vez que não questionam a assistência que lhes é prestada, mesmo quando esta não atende às suas expectativas. Além disso, apesar de as mulheres considerarem que a assistência prestada no serviço em estudo é melhor do que a prestada em outros serviços, ela não consegue, segundo as próprias gestantes, atender às suas expectativas e necessidades reais. De forma geral, elas gostariam de receber mais orientações e uma assistência menos impessoal. Os motivos que as levam a não gostar muito da assistência estão relacionados principalmente com a rotatividade dos alunos.Este artículo fue extraído de un estudio desarrollado con el objetivo de comprender y caracterizar la asistencia pre-natal dada a la embarazada en el ambulatório de un hospital universitário (MARCON, 1990. Se trata de un estudio cualitativo que adoptó como línea metodológica básica la Etnografía, más específicamente, la Minietnografía y como método de colecta de datos la Observación-Participante. Los resultados demuenstran que, cuando se relacionan con profesionales de la salud, las embarazadas filtran informaciones, al mismo tiempo que se presentan como una cliente no participativa, una vez que no cuestionan la asistencia que le es dada, inclusive cuando ésta no atiende sus expectativas. Por otro lado, apesar que las mujeres consideran que la asitencia recibida en el local de

  5. Conhecimento de mulheres de uma Unidade Básica de Saúde da cidade de Natal/RN sobre o exame de Papanicolau Conocimiento de mujeres de una Unidad Básica de Salud de la ciudad de Natal/RN sobre el examen de Papanicolau Knowledge of women about the Paptest in a Basica Unit of Health in Natal

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    Rejane Marie Barbosa Davim

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available Trata-se de uma pesquisa descritiva quantitativa, desenvolvida em uma Unidade Básica de Saúde em Natal/RN, objetivando identificar o conhecimento de mulheres quanto à importância, à freqüência do exame de Papanicolau, bem como seus cuidados antes de realizá-lo e causas que levam mulheres a não se submeterem a tal exame. Utilizou-se uma entrevista estruturada na coleta de dados antes da consulta ginecológica, com uma amostra intencional de 120 mulheres. Os resultados mostram que as pesquisadas conhecem a importância do exame, a maioria realiza-o anualmente e, no geral, apresentam conhecimento satisfatório sobre os cuidados antes do exame. A vergonha de fazer o exame de Papanicolau e o medo do seu resultado são as principais causas atribuídas para a sua não realização. Conclui-se que os projetos educativos sejam direcionados para a importância, a freqüência e os cuidados necessários antes do exame de Papanicolau, como também, para a interação profissional-cliente durante a consulta ginecológica, visando a reduzir a vergonha e o medo dessas mulheres.Se trata de una investigación descriptiva cuantitativa, desarrollada en una Unidad Básica de Salud en Natal/RN, con el objetivo de identificar el conocimiento de las mujeres en cuanto a la importancia y frecuencia del examen de Papanicolau, así como sus cuidados antes de realizárselo y causas que las llevan a no someterse a tal examen. Se utilizó una entrevista estructurada en la recolección de datos antes de la consulta ginecológica, con una muestra intencional de 120 mujeres. Los resultados muestran que las investigadas conocen la importancia del examen, la mayoría lo realiza anualmente y, en general, presentan conocimiento satisfactorio sobre los cuidados antes del examen. La vergüenza de hacerse el examen de Papanicolau y el miedo de su resultado son las principales causas atribuídas para su no realización. Se concluye que los proyectos educativos est

  6. Sistema Único de Saúde: uma avaliação realizada em Natal, Rio Grande do Norte, Brasil Sistema Único de Salud: una evaluación realizada en Natal, RN-Brasil Unique Health System: an assessment performed in Natal, Rio Grande do Norte, Brazil

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    Cynthia de Freitas Melo

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available O Sistema Único de Saúde (SUS traduz-se em um conjunto de ações de saúde que deve ser constantemente avaliado. Assim, esta pesquisa objetivou avaliar o SUS em Natal (RN a partir das crenças de seus gestores, usando uma amostra de nove gestores dos cinco distritos sanitários, que responderam a um roteiro de entrevista semiestruturado, analisados no ALCESTE. Os resultados mostraram que os gestores percebem a importância do SUS na busca da universalização da saúde, reconhecendo, entretanto, que na prática existem barreiras, na atenção básica e no sistema de referência, dificultando o acesso. Problemas que devem-se à má administração dos recursos e ao despreparo dos gestores, indicados por alianças políticas e ausência da comunidade nos Conselhos Municipais de Saúde. Conclui-se que há necessidade de modificar a cultura vigente de que a classe média deve usar planos de saúde, enquanto o SUS destina-se aos pobres.El Sistema Único de Salud (SUS se traduce en un conjunto de acciones de salud que debe ser constantemente evaluado. Así, esta investigación objetivó evaluar el SUS en Natal (RN-Brasil partiendo de las creencias de sus gestores, usando una muestra de nueve gestores de los cinco distritos sanitarios, que respondieron un rutero de entrevista semiestructurada, analizados en el ALCESTE. Los resultados mostraron que los gestores perciben la importancia del SUS en la búsqueda de la universalización de la salud, reconociendo, sin embargo, que en la práctica existen barreras, en la atención básica y en el sistema de referencia, dificultando el acceso. Problemas que se deben a la mala administración de los recursos y desarreglo de los gestores, indicados por alianzas políticas, ausencia de la comunidad en los Consejos Municipales de Salud. Se concluye que se necesita modificar la cultura vigente de que la clase media debe usar seguros de salud, mientras el SUS se destina a los pobres.The Brazilian Unique Health

  7. Rural households’ social capital and welfare: A case study of Msinga, KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa

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    Lloyd James Segun Baiyegunhi

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available In a household or nations production system, social capital has been recognized as an input having major implications for project design as well as policy development. Using a structured questionnaire, household level data was obtained from a representative sample of 300 rural households in Msinga, KwaZulu-Natal. This study employed the conventional household economic behaviour model under constrained utility maximisation to examine the effect of social capital on the welfare of household, testing the hypothesis that the possession of social capital improves household welfare. The result shows that social capital endowments have a statistically significant positive effect on household welfare, in addition to the some household’s demographic and socio-economic characteristics. The study concluded that, access to social capital among other factors, is very crucial for improved rural household welfare and poverty reduction. It is therefore important for government to have knowledge of existing social groups and networks as this will improve the effectiveness of the present strategies aimed at reducing poverty.

  8. Language as Symbolic Action: A Burkean Analysis of Césaire’s Cahier d’un retour au pays natal

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    Chelsea R. Binnie

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available This paper sets out to put Kenneth Burke’s thought on language as representative of symbolic action into conversation with Aimé Césaire’s epic poem, Cahier d’un retour au pays natal. The paper is divided into three main sections that set the stage for Burke and Césaire’s work to converse. The first section lays out an overview of Kenneth Burke’s thought on language paying particular attention to his definition of man, understanding of symbolism and symbolic action, and thoughts on poetry and poetics. The second section provides a working history of African philosophy, the Négritude movement, Césaire as a philosopher, politician, and poet, and provides an overview of main themes and intentions present in Cahier. The third section works to put Burke and Césaire into conversation by using Burke’s understanding of symbolic action and his notion of order and identification to examine key passages from Césaire’s Cahier. The paper works to present an informative and textured engagement between the work of Kenneth Burke and Aimé Césaire.

  9. Plant nematodes in South Africa. 11. Checklist of plant nematodes of the protected areas of KwaZulu-Natal

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    Mariette Marais

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Nematodes are some of the most abundant soil organisms and are an essential part of soil ecology. These organisms are used as indicator organisms and can be linked to soil health. Biological collections contain vast amounts of data, with the National Collection of Nematodes housed at the Plant Protection Research Institute, Agricultural Research Council being no different. During the digitising of the collection a number of unpublished records of plant nematodes reported from protected areas in KwaZulu-Natal were found in the South African Plant-Parasitic Nematode Survey database. A total of 222 plant nematode species belonging to 39 genera were reported from the province, with only 94 of these species reported from the protected areas and 172 and 159 species reported from uncultivated (outside the protected areas and cultivated areas, respectively. Only nine species, Criconema silvum, Criconema talanum, Helicotylenchus marethae, Ogma dracomontanum, Ogma louisi, Ogma ueckermanni, Paralongidorus deborae, Trichodorus rinae and Xiphinemella marindae were described from protected areas, whilst O. dracomontanum, P. deborae and T. rinae were subsequently also reported from other provinces. Conservation implications: A higher degree of diversity of nematodes was observed in the unprotected areas of the province. The observation suggests that nematode fauna, and by implication also other invertebrates, are not adequately protected.

  10. Plant nematodes in South Africa. 11. Checklist of plant nematodes of the protected areas of KwaZulu-Natal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariette Marais

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Nematodes are some of the most abundant soil organisms and are an essential part of soil ecology. These organisms are used as indicator organisms and can be linked to soil health. Biological collections contain vast amounts of data, with the National Collection of Nematodes housed at the Plant Protection Research Institute, Agricultural Research Council being no different. During the digitising of the collection a number of unpublished records of plant nematodes reported from protected areas in KwaZulu-Natal were found in the South African Plant-Parasitic Nematode Survey database. A total of 222 plant nematode species belonging to 39 genera were reported from the province, with only 94 of these species reported from the protected areas and 172 and 159 species reported from uncultivated (outside the protected areas and cultivated areas, respectively. Only nine species, Criconema silvum, Criconema talanum, Helicotylenchus marethae, Ogma dracomontanum, Ogma louisi, Ogma ueckermanni, Paralongidorus deborae, Trichodorus rinae and Xiphinemella marindae were described from protected areas, whilst O. dracomontanum, P. deborae and T. rinae were subsequently also reported from other provinces. Conservation implications: A higher degree of diversity of nematodes was observed in the unprotected areas of the province. The observation suggests that nematode fauna, and by implication also other invertebrates, are not adequately protected.

  11. The economic impact of a rural land tax on selected commercial farms in Kwazulu-Natal, South Africa

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    MAG Darroch

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available This study investigates the economic impact of a land tax implemented under the Local Government Municipal Property Rates Act No. 6 of 2004 on commercial farms using five case studies with five-year data sets in the Mtonjaneni and Umgeni municipal districts of KwaZulu-Natal. The case farms’ ability to pay annual rates between 0.25 per cent and 1 per cent of the value of improved land using real annual economic profit with and without rebates of up to 70 per cent proposed by the Department: Provincial and Local Government ranged from zero to five out of five years, with a mean of two out of five years. A 2 per cent land tax rate with such rebates could also be financed only in two out of five years on average. These results suggest that proposed annual land tax rates of 1.5 per cent (Mtonjaneni or 1 per cent (Umgeni on these specific farms would markedly reduce the incentive to invest in farm improvements

  12. Assessing Local Risk of Rifampicin-Resistant Tuberculosis in KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa Using Lot Quality Assurance Sampling.

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    Christine L Heidebrecht

    Full Text Available KwaZulu-Natal (KZN has the highest burden of notified multidrug-resistant tuberculosis (MDR TB and extensively drug-resistant (XDR TB cases in South Africa. A better understanding of spatial heterogeneity in the risk of drug-resistance may help to prioritize local responses.Between July 2012 and June 2013, we conducted a two-way Lot Quality Assurance Sampling (LQAS study to classify the burden of rifampicin (RIF-resistant TB among incident TB cases notified within the catchment areas of seven laboratories in two northern and one southern district of KZN. Decision rules for classification of areas as having either a high- or low-risk of RIF resistant TB (based on proportion of RIF resistance among all TB cases were based on consultation with local policy makers.We classified five areas as high-risk and two as low-risk. High-risk areas were identified in both Southern and Northern districts, with the greatest proportion of RIF resistance observed in the northernmost area, the Manguzi community situated on the Mozambique border.Our study revealed heterogeneity in the risk of RIF resistant disease among incident TB cases in KZN. This study demonstrates the potential for LQAS to detect geographic heterogeneity in areas where access to drug susceptibility testing is limited.

  13. Ante natal care services utilization, delivery practices and factors affecting them in tribal area of North Maharashtra

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    Sachin S Mumbare

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Utilization of Ante natal care (ANC services is poor in the tribal areas, causing increased maternal morbidity and mortality. Objective: This study was carried out to find out ANC services utilization, delivery practices and factors affecting them in a tribal area of North Maharashtra in Nashik district. Design: Cross-sectional study. Materials and Methods: The study was carried out in two tribal blocks of Nashik district. Cluster sampling technique was used. 210 mothers in the selected clusters, who had delivered within last 1 year, were interviewed. Information about the ANC services utilization and place of delivery was recorded. Relevant socio-demographic data were also collected. Results: Adequate ANC services utilization was found to be 64.76%. Home deliveries were 34.29% and home deliveries conducted by untrained persons were 15.24%. Conclusion: The utilization of ANC services and deliveries at health centers were significantly associated with education of the women and their spouses, and the socioeconomic status of the family. Main reasons for inadequate utilization of ANC services were financial, unawareness about ANC services, etc. Place of delivery was associated with the type of the family. Traditional practices were the most common reason for conducting the deliveries at home.

  14. Ethical considerations of mobile phone use by patients in KwaZulu-Natal: Obstacles for mHealth?

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    Caron L. Jack

    2014-08-01

    Aim: We examined the habits and practices of mobile phone use by patients in KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa. Methods: We conducted a descriptive survey of two patient populations: 137 urban patients attending private practitioners and 139 patients in remote rural areas attending outpatient departments in Government-funded hospitals. The questionnaire covered several domains: demographics, mobile phone use, privacy and confidentiality and future use for health-related matters. Results: Two hundred and seventy-six patients completed the questionnaire. We found that a third of our participants shared their mobile phone with others, 24% lent their phone to others and more than half received health-related messages for other people. Mobile phone theft was common, as was number changing. Thirty-eight percent of the people were not able to afford airtime for more than a week in the past year and 22% of rural patients were unable to keep their phone charged. Mobile phone signal coverage was significantly worse in the rural areas than in urban areas. Conclusion: This study highlights the legal and ethical ramifications that these practices and findings will have on mHealth programmes in our setting. Healthcare providers and regulators will need to consider how patients use and manage their mobile phones when developing services and regulations.

  15. Ethical considerations of mobile phone use by patients in KwaZulu-Natal: Obstacles for mHealth?

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    Mars, Maurice

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Background mHealth has the potential to facilitate telemedicine services, particularly in the developing world. Concern has been expressed about the confidentiality of health information that is relayed by mobile phone. Aim We examined the habits and practices of mobile phone use by patients in KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa. Methods We conducted a descriptive survey of two patient populations: 137 urban patients attending private practitioners and 139 patients in remote rural areas attending outpatient departments in Government-funded hospitals. The questionnaire covered several domains: demographics, mobile phone use, privacy and confidentiality and future use for health-related matters. Results Two hundred and seventy-six patients completed the questionnaire. We found that a third of our participants shared their mobile phone with others, 24% lent their phone to others and more than half received health-related messages for other people. Mobile phone theft was common, as was number changing. Thirty-eight percent of the people were not able to afford airtime for more than a week in the past year and 22% of rural patients were unable to keep their phone charged. Mobile phone signal coverage was significantly worse in the rural areas than in urban areas. Conclusion This study highlights the legal and ethical ramifications that these practices and findings will have on mHealth programmes in our setting. Healthcare providers and regulators will need to consider how patients use and manage their mobile phones when developing services and regulations. PMID:26245406

  16. The use of marketing strategies by Small, Medium and Micro Enterprises in rural KwaZulu-Natal

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    Lawrence Mpele Lekhanya

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper examines the use of marketing strategies by Small, Micro and Medium Enterprises (SMMEs in rural areas and identifies how they are limited by various internal and external factors. The study aimed to determine whether rural SMMEs have formal marketing strategies, the factors that constrain their marketing activities, their understanding of what marketing entails and the marketing communications techniques that they use. The study was conducted in rural KwaZulu-Natal (KZN, using a survey method. The sample consisted of 374 SMME owners/managers, selected using quota sampling, with respondents completing a questionnaire with the assistance of an interviewer. The results of the research revealed that marketing knowledge and expertise is lacking, with limited use of marketing strategies by the rural SMMEs. The paper will benefit SMME marketers by assisting them to better understand the marketing tactics to use, dependent on the nature of their environment. Most work on SMME marketing has concentrated on urban entrepreneurial marketing, with little emphasis on marketing strategies used in rural areas. Findings were limited by the study’s exploratory nature and the small sample. Further research with larger samples and the consideration of other provinces is recommended. Keywords – Marketing strategy, Rural, Marketing tactics, South Africa, SMME, KZN

  17. Testicular steroidogenesis is not altered by 137 cesium Chernobyl fallout, following in utero or post-natal chronic exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grignard, Elise; Guéguen, Yann; Grison, Stéphane; Dublineau, Isabelle; Gourmelon, Patrick; Souidi, Maâmar

    2010-05-01

    The testis is especially sensitive to pollutants, including radionuclides. Following the Chernobyl nuclear power plant accident, several of these radionuclides were emitted and spread in the environment. Subsequently, children presented some disruptions of the endocrine system. To determine whether these disruptions were due to 137 cesium ((137)Cs) exposure, the effects of chronic contamination with low doses of (137)Cs in utero or from birth on testicular steroidogenesis in rats were studied. Contamination was continued for 9 months. No modification was observed in circulating level of hormones (17beta-estradiol, testosterone, follicle-stimulating hormone, luteinizing hormone) following in utero or post-natal contamination. Expression of several genes involved in testicular steroidogenesis was affected (cyp19a1, fxr, sf-1), without modification of protein expression or activity. Our results suggest that growing organisms may be affected at the molecular level by (137)Cs contamination at this post-accidental dose. Copyright 2010 Académie des sciences. Published by Elsevier SAS. All rights reserved.

  18. COMPOSIÇÃO CENTESIMAL E DE MINERAIS DE MARISCOS CRUS E COZIDOS DA CIDADE DE NATAL/RN

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    PEDROSA Lucia de Fátima Campos

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Este estudo teve como objetivo analisar a composição centesimal e os teores de zinco, cobre e ferro de cinco tipos de mariscos crus e cozidos: Camarão (Penaeus brasiliensis, Caranguejo (Ucides cordatus, Lagosta (Panulirus argus, Ostra (Crassostrea rhizophorae e Mexilhão (Anomalocardia brasiliana, crus e cozidos, provenientes da cidade de Natal/RN. As amostras da parte comestível de cada alimento foram adquiridas em peixaria do cais do porto. Os mariscos foram considerados fontes expressivas de proteínas e minerais, enquanto as quantidades de lipídeos e calorias foram baixas. Observou-se na maioria das amostras teores de proteínas e de cinzas aumentados após a cocção. A concentração de zinco foi variada, apresentando-se a ostra como a maior fonte dentre as espécies estudadas. Os maiores teores de ferro e cobre foram verificados no mexilhão e na ostra. A cocção provocou perdas de 50% de cobre no mexilhão e praticamente não alterou as concentrações do referido nutriente no caranguejo. Esperamos que estes resultados contribuam para bancos de dados que auxiliarão na melhor estimativa de consumo de nutrientes em inquéritos dietéticos.

  19. Gatekeeping and its impact on father involvement among Black South Africans in rural KwaZulu-Natal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makusha, Tawanda; Richter, Linda

    2016-01-01

    Involved and caring fatherhood contributes to the health and wellbeing of children, women and men. The corollary is also true - men, women and children are affected when fathers are not involved or supportive of their children. Many factors affect fathers' involvement, including women's attitudes, the history and nature of the relationship between mother and father, and the cultural context. This study explores gatekeeping and its impact on father involvement among Black South Africans in rural KwaZulu-Natal. Among married couples, gatekeeping occurs with respect to childcare and housework through women's attempts to validate their maternal identity according to socially and culturally constructed gender roles. Among unmarried, non-resident parents, women control father-child contact and involvement, with mothers and/or their families either facilitating or inhibiting father involvement. In this context, we found that cultural gatekeeping had a huge impact on father involvement, with the non-payment of inhlawulo or lobola regulating father-child involvement. In a country like South Africa, where there is high non-marital fertility and father-child non-residence, future research, parenting and family programmes should focus on strategies that encourage positive paternal involvement as well as maternal and cultural support for father involvement, regardless of parental relationship and residence status.

  20. Die rol van die Saamwerk-Unie in die beslaggewing van Afrikaanse taaleksamens in Natal, 1917-1928

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    P. J.J. Prinsloo

    1995-05-01

    This article deals with the role of Afrikaner Nationalists who had striven to develop the selfassertiveness of their compatriots by means of promoting Afrikaans. Their attempt was aimed at obtaining an equal position to the deeply-rooted British tradition in Natal. The Co-operative Union (“Saamwerk-Unie" consequently had taken up position in the midst of the language problems. The Union made a deliberate attempt at promoting the development of Afrikaans by means of establishing the first language examinations in Afrikaans. This examination system evoked greater interest with every passing year and resulted in a clash between the Co-operative Union and the South African Language Union. The Language Union, with its Dutch language examinations, was the embodiment of the Dutch influence, while the Co-operative Union promoted Afrikaans at grass roots level. A compromise between the two organisations thus had to be made. A joint Examination Commission was therefore established in 1928. Consequently, the new cultural pattern which had been launched by the Co-operative Union was acknowledged in the ranks of the Afrikaner.

  1. Horizontal and vertical winds and temperatures in the equatorial thermosphere: measurements from Natal, Brazil during August-September 1982

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Biondi, M.A.

    1985-01-01

    Fabry-Perot interferometer measurements of Doppler shifts and widths of the 630.0 nm nightglow line have been used to determine the neutral winds and temperatures in the equatorial thermosphere over Natal, Brazil during August-September 1982. During this period, in the early night (2130 U.T.) the average value of the horizontal wind vector was 95 m s -1 at 100 0 azimuth, and the temperature varied from a low of 950 K during geomagnetically quiet conditions to a high of approx. 1400 K during a storm (6 September). The meridional winds were small, -1 , and the eastward zonal winds reached a maximum value 1-3 h after sunset, in qualitative agreement with TGCM predictions. On 26 August, an observed persistent convergence in the horizontal meridional flow was accompanied by a downward vertical velocity and an increase in the thermospheric temperature measured overhead. Oscillations with periods of 40-45 min in both the zonal and vertical wind velocities were observed during the geomagnetic storm of 6 September, suggesting gravity wave modulation of the equatorial thermospheric flow. (author)

  2. Minibus taxi drivers’ sexual beliefs and practices associated with HIV infection and AIDS in KwaZulu- Natal, South Africa

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    Busisiwe Ncama

    2013-01-01

    The objectives of this study were to assess the level of knowledge, beliefs and practices regarding HIV infection and AIDS amongst minibus taxi drivers. An exploratory descriptive study was conducted using a pre-tested questionnaire to explore and describe sexual beliefs and practices associated with HIV infection and AIDS in a convenience sample of 175 minibus taxi drivers. Permission to undertake the study was obtained from the KwaZulu-Natal Taxi Alliance and individuals who participated in the study. Data analysis were analysed using the Statistical Package for Social Sciences 13.0. The study revealed that minibus taxi drivers are one of the high- risk groups in the spread of HIV infection and AIDS; they lack necessary education and need attention in relation to control and prevention of the spread of HIV and AIDS. Multiple sexual partners are relatively common amongst the minibus taxi drivers. Violence against women and even forceful sexual intercourse in the belief that women should tolerate it to keep the family together was reported. There is a need for intervention programmes with a focus on minibus taxi drivers and similar high-risk groups. Prevention activities should incorporate the distribution of condoms amongst this group and HIV prevention educational programmes, as well as creating mechanisms for accessing circumcision by the minibus taxi drivers.

  3. Distribution of benthic invertebrates at different depths in a shallow reservoir in the KwaZulu-Natal Midlands

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    M.J. Samways

    1996-08-01

    Full Text Available The bottom of a freshwater reservoir in the KwaZulu-Natal Midlands was sampled for macro-invertebrates and macrophytes at depths of 0.5 m, 1 m, 2 m, and 3 m. The water plants Elodea spp. which did not occur much beyond 1 m appeared to be a major deter-minant for the presence of invertebrates. At 2 m and 3 m, when temperature and light decreased greatly, it was replaced by the algae Chara spp. Over 98 of the macroinvertebrate individuals in 21 species and 14 families occurred in water 1 m or less in depth. At 2 m and deeper, there was a rapid decline of species, with only one, a snail, occurring at 3 m. Odonata species occurred only in water 1 m or less in depth. Among the Ephemeroptera, Caenis sp. was abundant at 0.5 m and the most dominant species of all. At 1 m, the most dominant species was Cleon palidulosum of the Baetidae. Both in terms of food for waterfowl and trout, and as a reserve for aquatic macroin vertebrates, the shallow fringe of the reservoir was playing by far the major role compared with the deeper, open water. It is recommended both for biotic conservation and fishing that reservoirs have a shallow rim and constant water levels.

  4. Modeling malaria control intervention effect in KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa using intervention time series analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ebhuoma, Osadolor; Gebreslasie, Michael; Magubane, Lethumusa

    The change of the malaria control intervention policy in South Africa (SA), re-introduction of dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT), may be responsible for the low and sustained malaria transmission in KwaZulu-Natal (KZN). We evaluated the effect of the re-introduction of DDT on malaria in KZN and suggested practical ways the province can strengthen her already existing malaria control and elimination efforts, to achieve zero malaria transmission. We obtained confirmed monthly malaria cases in KZN from the malaria control program of KZN from 1998 to 2014. The seasonal autoregressive integrated moving average (SARIMA) intervention time series analysis (ITSA) was employed to model the effect of the re-introduction of DDT on confirmed monthly malaria cases. The result is an abrupt and permanent decline of monthly malaria cases (w 0 =-1174.781, p-value=0.003) following the implementation of the intervention policy. The sustained low malaria cases observed over a long period suggests that the continued usage of DDT did not result in insecticide resistance as earlier anticipated. It may be due to exophagic malaria vectors, which renders the indoor residual spraying not totally effective. Therefore, the feasibility of reducing malaria transmission to zero in KZN requires other reliable and complementary intervention resources to optimize the existing ones. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  5. The perception of pre- and post-natal marijuana exposure on health outcomes: A content analysis of twitter messages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dakkak, H; Brown, R; Twynstra, J; Charbonneau, K; Seabrook, J A

    2018-05-23

    The prevalence of marijuana use during pregnancy ranges from 3- 30% , and most of this is for recreational purposes. Marijuana exposure during pregnancy has been linked with low birth weight babies and other adverse child health outcomes. Twitter is a popular news and social networking outlet, and is frequently used to access information about population health and behavior. The primary objective of this study was to investigate the types of messages disseminated on Twitter about marijuana use and infant and maternal health. The secondary objective was to describe the reported health outcomes associated with prenatal and postnatal marijuana use. Tweets were collected from the inception of Twitter (2006) until April 2017. If tweets included links, these links were examined to investigate the source of the message and to clarify the user's intent. In total, 550 tweets were captured, with most tweets (77.6%) having a neutral tweet tone, suggesting uncertainty about the health effects associated with pre- and post-natal marijuana exposure. The sources attached to the original tweets, however, were more likely to report on negative health outcomes. The most common health outcomes associated with prenatal marijuana exposure were: poor brain development (27.3%), inadequate development of the nervous system (23.6%), low birth weight (23.3%), poor behavioral outcomes (21.0%), and infant memory issues (19.3%). The inverse association between marijuana use and the quality and quantity of milk produced by the mother was the most commonly reported tweet for the lactation period.

  6. Ergonomics and environmental sustainability: a case study of raft fisherman activity at Ponta Negra Beach, Natal-RN.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Celestino, Joyce Elanne Mateus; Bispo, Cristina de Souza; Saldanha, Maria Christine Werba; Mattos, Karen Maria da Costa

    2012-01-01

    This paper aims to present the significance of methods used by the Ergonomic Analysis of Work for the construction of the scenario of craft fishing with rafts, held by 42 fishermen on the beach of Ponta Negra, Natal - RN; and relate the knowledge in ergonomics to environmental aspects / impacts, aiming the sustainability in this activity. This research is characterized as a case study, of the descriptive and exploratory type and of applied nature. To collect data, we used observational methods, in order to expand information about the activity, and interaction, as conversational action and photographic/videos records to clarify points not covered by observation. It was observed problematic as the reduction of fishing productivity, alterations of the sea, difficulty in docking the rafts, and inadequate waste disposal, noting that this activity needs care regarding the use of the environment. The obtained results contributed to the organization of environmental education workshops, seeking to enhance good individual / collective environmental practices focused on the sustainability of the environment in which they live. Add the need for proposals aimed for managing the activity, involving fishermen, institutions and society, to ensure the improvement of the environment, hence the quality of life of the population.

  7. Women on top: the relative influence of wives and husbands on contraceptive use in KwaZulu-Natal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maharaj, Pranitha; Cleland, John

    2005-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to examine the relative influence of husband and wife on contraceptive practice. A cross-sectional survey was conducted among adult men and women in KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa. A matched file for 238 married or cohabiting couples was created. Knowledge of methods of contraception was virtually universal and attitudes to contraception were favorable both in men and women. A substantial proportion of men and women reported using a method of contraception. The wife's desire to stop childbearing was the most powerful predictor of contraceptive use among couples, after adjustment for possible confounders. The husband's approval (or not) of family planning and his preference for future childbearing were not significantly related to contraceptive use. Contraceptive use within marital and cohabiting unions is high and the wife's fertility preference was found to be a key determinant of use. This conclusion challenges conventional wisdom that men are the dominant decision-makers in fertility and family planning decisions.

  8. Mortality incidence estimation using federal death certificate and natality data with an application to Tay-Sachs disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jalal, Kabir; Carter, Randy L

    2015-09-01

    For confidentiality reasons, US federal death certificate data are incomplete with regards to the dates of birth and death for the decedents, making calculation of total lifetime of a decedent impossible and thus estimation of mortality incidence difficult. This paper proposes the use of natality data and an imputation-based method to estimate age-specific mortality incidence rates in the face of this missing information. By utilizing previously determined probabilities of birth, a birth date and death date are imputed for every decedent in the dataset. Thus, the birth cohort of each individual is imputed, and the total on-study time can be calculated. This idea is implemented in two approaches for estimation of mortality incidence rates. The first is an extension of a person-time approach, while the second is an extension of a life table approach. Monte Carlo simulations showed that both approaches perform well in comparison to the ideal complete data methods, but that the person-time method is preferred. An application to Tay-Sachs disease is demonstrated. It is concluded that the imputation methods proposed provide valid estimates of the incidence of death from death certificate data without the need for additional assumptions under which usual mortality rates provide valid estimates. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  9. Ethical considerations of mobile phone use by patients in KwaZulu-Natal: Obstacles for mHealth?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jack, Caron L; Mars, Maurice

    2014-08-13

    mHealth has the potential to facilitate telemedicine services, particularly in the developing world. Concern has been expressed about the confidentiality of health information that is relayed by mobile phone. We examined the habits and practices of mobile phone use by patients in KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa. We conducted a descriptive survey of two patient populations: 137 urban patients attending private practitioners and 139 patients in remote rural areas attending outpatient departments in Government-funded hospitals. The questionnaire covered several domains: demographics, mobile phone use, privacy and confidentiality and future use for health-related matters. Two hundred and seventy-six patients completed the questionnaire. We found that a third of our participants shared their mobile phone with others, 24% lent their phone to others and more than half received health-related messages for other people. Mobile phone theft was common, as was number changing. Thirty-eight percent of the people were not able to afford airtime for more than a week in the past year and 22% of rural patients were unable to keep their phone charged. Mobile phone signal coverage was significantly worse in the rural areas than in urban areas. This study highlights the legal and ethical ramifications that these practices and findings will have on mHealth programmes in our setting. Healthcare providers and regulators will need to consider how patients use and manage their mobile phones when developing services and regulations.

  10. Impact of Inadequate Experience and Skill on the Construction Sector in KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Ntuli

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Civil engineering contractors encounter serious challenges in order to sustain their businesses, especially in a weak economic climate. A certain level of construction experience, expertise and training are required to manage a sustainable construction company. The Construction Industry Development Board (CIDB was established in 2000 as a statutory body to provide leadership to stakeholders and stimulate sustainable growth, reform and improvement of the construction sector for effective infrastructure delivery and improvement of construction skills. The objectives of this research were to investigate challenges faced by civil engineering contractors whilst making their enterprises sustainable. Contractors’ views were presented at “Construction Indaba 2011” held on 1–2 June 2011 and hosted by eThekwini Municipality’s Business Support, Tourism and Markets in Durban KwaZulu-Natal. Discussion and findings revealed to a skills’ shortage in the construction section and underlined the need for continuous training of the contractors’ employees. The South African government in conjunction with all stakeholders should develop and implement contractor programs to address the lack of technical and management skills in the construction sector.

  11. IDENTIFICAÇÃO DE ÁREAS VULNERÁVEIS AO ALAGAMENTO PLUVIAL NA CIDADE DE NATAL/RN

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    Matheus Lisboa Nobre da Silva

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Em Natal, capital do estado do Rio Grande do Norte, a impermeabilização do solo e a falta de drenagem em diversos setores da cidade, têm se mostrado como um fator importante para a geração de caos urbano devido aos alagamentos com conseqüências socioeconômicas. Este trabalho se propõe a indicar áreas vulneráveis ao alagamento das águas pluviais baseados principalmente nas relações topográficas plani-altimétricas e nos fluxos de drenagem urbana. Os resultados foram analisados na perspectiva de proposições que busquem a mitigação deste problema na capital potiguar. Nessa primeira fase foi selecionada uma área no entorno do Campus Central do IFRN. Na continuação, e na dependência de financiamentos, esse estudo será estendido para as demais áreas da cidade.

  12. Effect of farming activities on seasonal variation of water quality of Bonsma Dam, KwaZulu-Natal

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    Ayanda N. Shabalala

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Agriculture has both direct and indirect effects on the quality of surface water and groundwater and is among the leading causes of water quality degradation, mainly as a result of the excessive use of agrochemicals. Water samples were collected in a selected catchment area (Bonsma Dam in KwaZulu-Natal and analysed for physicochemical variables. The concentrations of most of the elements and total dissolved solids, as well as the pH and electrical conductivity values, met the water quality requirements for domestic, agricultural, livestock and aquatic ecosystem uses. However, the inlet streams feeding the dam were found to be eutrophic during the wet season. Analysis of nitrate in the water body of the study area indicated that agricultural applications of manure and fertilisers may be a potential source of nitrate contamination. Most elements were more concentrated in the dam during the wet season. The overall ionic conductivity values were also higher in the wet season, while the pH was lower. The outcome of this work links the concentrations of physicochemical variables to land use, agricultural practice and local geomorphology. Seasonal patterns in the concentration of physicochemical variables occur, as land use, rainfall and farming activities change seasonally, and these concentrations should therefore be determined periodically.

  13. The time to degree or dropout amongst full-time master's students at University of KwaZulu-Natal

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    Temesgen Zewotir

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Universities around the world are grappling with strategies to increase throughput and minimise dropout rates of postgraduate students. This study focuses on students at the University of KwaZulu-Natal and we attempt to estimate the time that it takes for these students to successfully complete or drop out from a master's programme. We used survival analysis to identify the factors which affect this. The results of this analysis showed that having some form of financial aid and/or being a student in the Faculties of Humanities or Management, all significantly shortened the length of time that it took to eventually drop out from a master's programme. For students who successfully completed a master's degree, having some form of financial aid, being of international origin and/or being registered in the Faculties of Health, Humanities, Law or Management, all helped to significantly shorten the length of time it took to successfully complete a master's programme. Students in the Faculty of Medicine, however, took longer to successfully complete their studies. Black Africans took less time to complete their master's degrees when compared with otherwise identical students from the other race groups.

  14. Assessing Local Risk of Rifampicin-Resistant Tuberculosis in KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa Using Lot Quality Assurance Sampling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heidebrecht, Christine L; Podewils, Laura J; Pym, Alexander; Mthiyane, Thuli; Cohen, Ted

    2016-01-01

    KwaZulu-Natal (KZN) has the highest burden of notified multidrug-resistant tuberculosis (MDR TB) and extensively drug-resistant (XDR) TB cases in South Africa. A better understanding of spatial heterogeneity in the risk of drug-resistance may help to prioritize local responses. Between July 2012 and June 2013, we conducted a two-way Lot Quality Assurance Sampling (LQAS) study to classify the burden of rifampicin (RIF)-resistant TB among incident TB cases notified within the catchment areas of seven laboratories in two northern and one southern district of KZN. Decision rules for classification of areas as having either a high- or low-risk of RIF resistant TB (based on proportion of RIF resistance among all TB cases) were based on consultation with local policy makers. We classified five areas as high-risk and two as low-risk. High-risk areas were identified in both Southern and Northern districts, with the greatest proportion of RIF resistance observed in the northernmost area, the Manguzi community situated on the Mozambique border. Our study revealed heterogeneity in the risk of RIF resistant disease among incident TB cases in KZN. This study demonstrates the potential for LQAS to detect geographic heterogeneity in areas where access to drug susceptibility testing is limited.

  15. Ethical considerations of mobile phone use by patients in KwaZulu-Natal: Obstacles for mHealth?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caron L. Jack

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: mHealth has the potential to facilitate telemedicine services, particularly in the developing world. Concern has been expressed about the confidentiality of health information that is relayed by mobile phone.Aim: We examined the habits and practices of mobile phone use by patients in KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa.Methods: We conducted a descriptive survey of two patient populations: 137 urban patients attending private practitioners and 139 patients in remote rural areas attending outpatient departments in Government-funded hospitals. The questionnaire covered several domains: demographics, mobile phone use, privacy and confidentiality and future use for health-related matters.Results: Two hundred and seventy-six patients completed the questionnaire. We found that a third of our participants shared their mobile phone with others, 24% lent their phone to others and more than half received health-related messages for other people. Mobile phone theft was common, as was number changing. Thirty-eight percent of the people were not able to afford airtime for more than a week in the past year and 22% of rural patients were unable to keep their phone charged. Mobile phone signal coverage was significantly worse in the rural areas than in urban areas.Conclusion: This study highlights the legal and ethical ramifications that these practices and findings will have on mHealth programmes in our setting. Healthcare providers and regulators will need to consider how patients use and manage their mobile phones when developing services and regulations.

  16. Associação entre realização de pré-natal e morbidade neonatal

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    Chariani Gugelmim Basso

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Este estudio objetivó caracterizar la mortalidad de los recién nacidos hospitalizados en la unidad de cuidados intensivos neonatales de un hospital universitario en el sur de Brasil y la asociación de variables: la terminación de complicaciones en el parto pre-natal, y la duración de la hospitalización. Investigación cuantitativa, retrospectiva que examinó las historias clínicas de los niños ingresados en la unidad de cuidados intensivos neonatales en el 2006. Los datos fueron analizados estadísticamente. La tasa de mortalidad de la población fue de 14,16%, las principales causas de muerte fueron paro cardiorrespiratorio y prematuridad. Las causas para la hospitalización, fueron respiratorias y bajo peso al nacer. Se concluyó que, aunque la mayoría de las madres recibieron atención prenatal, al cruzar esta variable con un parto sin complicaciones no tiene significancia estadística. Mientras que la duración de la estancia en la unidad fue estadísticamente significativa cuando se asoció con la atención prenatal.

  17. Reflecting on law, morality and communal mores (with particular reference to the protection of pre-natal life

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    Lourens M. du Plessis

    1991-03-01

    Full Text Available This article deals with the relationship between law, morality and communal mores with particular reference to the protection of pre-natal life in South Africa. It is argued that personal, moral choice influences communal mores and that these mores can, in turn, be transformed into legal norms, thus becoming part of the legal system. It is pointed out that South African law lends insufficient protection tofoetal life - especially in situations where it stands to be destroyed as a result of abortion. It is then suggested that the legal subjectivity of the foetus should be recognized and that every application for an abortion should be heard by a court of law or, alternatively, a specialist tribunal. The foetus should be represented at these proceedings by a curator ad litem. It is finally argued that the proposed arrangement will not unduly encroach on the moral freedom of the individual and that personal, moral choice and communal mores will still be of decisive significance in regulating 'bio-ethical' morality.

  18. Size-defined morphotypes in Zoanthus (Hexacorallia: Zoantharia) populations on shores in KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryland, John S

    2015-07-17

    Colonial zoanthids are a conspicuous feature of the subtropical rocky intertidal in KwaZulu-Natal but those of the genus Zoanthus have a confused taxonomy with 10, difficult to separate, nominal species described from the region. This paper presents an analysis of polyp size, measured as mean diameter determined photographically from the number of polyps occupying an area of 6 × 4 cm(2). The results, based on diameter frequency of 127 samples from five shores, indicate three populations (morphotypes) with means of 4.3 (SD ±0.53), 5.7 (SD ±0.70) and 8.4 (SD ±0.58) mm occurring in the approximate abundance ratios of 10:5:1, possibly corresponding to Zoanthus sansibaricus, Z. natalensis and Z. lawrencei. The underlying assumptions with regard to population structure (the number, size and degree of fragmentation of clones) and the normality of data are discussed, as are trans-oceanic larval dispersal, recruitment, and genetic connectivity. The essential, traditional species description in Zoanthus, using internal morphology, on its own may be an inadequate discriminator of species. The status of the few possibly valid species is discussed in relation to the present results and recent studies based on the application of molecular genetics. Thorough studies of the population structure (genets and ramets) and a taxonomic approach based on the combined use of morphology, genetic methods and statistically robust, quantitative morphometrics are proposed as a potential way forward.

  19. Coleta seletiva em Natal/RN: cenário das cooperativas de materiais recicláveis

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    Cristina Bispo

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Este artigo tem como objetivo apresentar o sistema de coleta seletiva em Natal/RN, bem como caracterizar os recursos físicos e humanos das duas cooperativas de materiais recicláveis da cidade, nos anos de 2012 e 2013. Tal caracterização ocorreu por meio de uma investigação da realidade. A pesquisa consistiu em um estudo de caso aplicado, de natureza exploratória e descritiva, tendo como ferramentas metodológicas as visitas técnicas e entrevistas semi-estruturadas; a partir das quais foi possível obter dados sobre a história da coleta seletiva, mas também sobre vários aspectos das cooperativas. Com base na investigação, percebeu-se que as cooperativas têm uma estrutura precária que afeta diretamente o desenvolvimento da atividade e a qualidade de vida dos catadores na cadeia de reciclagem.

  20. Sub-unit Specific Regulation of Type-A GABAergic Receptors during Post-Natal Development of the Auditory Cortex

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    Liisa A. Tremere

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The GABA-A receptor has been strongly implicated in the organization and function of cortical sensory circuits in the adult mammal. In the present work, changes in the expression patterns of select GABA-A subunits were examined as a function of development. The RNA expression profiles for three subunit types were studied, α1, β2/3 and δ at four developmental time points, (p0, p15, p30 and p90. The o1, β2/3 subunits were present at birth and following a modest increase early in life; mRNA expression for these subunits were found at stable levels throughout life. The expression pattern for the δ subunit showed the most dramatic changes in the number of positive cells as a function of age. In early life, p0 through p15 expression of mRNA for the δ subunit was quite low but increased in later life, p30 and p90. Together these data suggest that much of the potential for inhibitory connectivity is laid down in the pre and early post-natal periods.